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Sample records for single-use syringes sterilization

  1. Comparison of SDR presumed by AAMI and the radio-resistance distribution of the microbiological populations exist on the Turkish made single use syringes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konac, T.; Siyakus, G.; Basguel, M.; Uenal, Z.

    2001-01-01

    The concept of radiation sterilization of medical devices was introduced in Turkey 10 years ago through the irradiation facilities in Ankara and Istanbul. It has been preferred by international community due to technological advantages,such as freedom from chemical residues, safer sterility assurance, etc.. This technology is regulated by ISO 11137 (1), EN 552 (2) standards and their references. The scope of this study was to compare the radio-resistance distribution of the microbial population on the Turkish single use syringes and SDR

  2. Barriers to Access to Sterile Syringes as Perceived by Pharmacists and Injecting Drug Users: Implications for Harm Reduction in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaddar, Ali; Nassar, Karine; Elsoury, Ghadier

    2017-09-19

    Access to sterile syringes to injecting drug users (IDU) reduces sharing behavior and prevents the transmission of HIV. To describe the barriers to access to sterile syringes for IDUs in Lebanon from the perspectives of pharmacists and IDUs. in this qualitative study conducted in Lebanon, data were collected from 72 syringe purchase tests at pharmacies, 64 interviewees with pharmacists and 2 focus groups with injecting drug users. Two independent researchers analyzed the verbatim transcripts. Results revealed that pharmacists often deny access to sterile syringes to IDUs who are frequently stigmatized and intimidated at pharmacies. While no large gender differences in pharmacists' attitudes and practices were observed, inequalities in syringe access were noticed with men IDUs more often denied purchase. Pharmacists had several barriers to sell syringes to IDUs including fear of disease spread, increased drug use, inappropriately discarded syringes, staff and customer safety, and business concerns. IDUs had several challenges to purchase syringes including stigmatization, intimidation, physical harassment, concern to reveal identity, fear of arrest and syringe price abuse. Identifying the barriers to and facilitators of access to sterile syringes to IDUs is important to guide the development of efficient policies. Findings implicate the importance of empowering IDUs to purchase syringes at pharmacies through reducing the negative attitude towards IDUs and strengthening pharmacists' role in the promotion of health of IDUs. Findings also suggest that the habit of syringe sharing would decrease if the legal and cultural barriers to access are reduced.

  3. Emission characteristics of plastic syringes sterilized with ethylene oxide--a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Yeh-Chung; Su, Po-Chi; Lee, Lien-Hsiung; Chen, Chang-Yuh

    2009-11-01

    This study examined the emission characteristics of ethylene oxide (EO)-sterilized syringes under various environmental conditions, aiming to develop control strategies to minimize worker exposure. Experiments were performed in a facility in which temperature, relative humidity (RH), and air change rate (ACR) were controlled. Analytical results indicate that the main effects of the four test variables on kinetic parameters were statistically significant (p Plastic content, temperature, RH, and ACR affected EO emissions. ACR is an achievable means of control; however, the aeration area/system should be isolated to ensure adequate ventilation is achieved.

  4. Country status of application, manufacturing and sterilization of single-use medical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norimah Yusof

    1986-01-01

    The paper reviews the current status of application of single-use medical products in Malaysia. The status of their manufacturing and sterilization is also discussed. The increasing production of such items calls for a more reliable and efficient sterilization technique in particular, radiation sterilization. In line with the demand and the effort to increase local production of medical products, UTN would be providing irradiation service together with research and development in this particular field by 1988. (author)

  5. Touch sensitivity with sterile standard surgical gloves and single-use protective gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiefenthaler, W; Gimpl, S; Wechselberger, G; Benzer, A

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate touch sensitivity and static two-point discrimination of the dominant index and middle finger in 20 anaesthetists wearing no gloves, single-use protective gloves or sterile standard surgical gloves. Semmes-Weinstein filaments were used to measure cutaneous pressure thresholds, and a Two-Point-Discriminator to estimate static two-point discrimination. Wearing gloves significantly reduced touch sensitivity (p gloves. The results of our study suggest that the additional cost of sterile standard surgical gloves can not be justified in terms of touch sensitivity.

  6. Single patient doses of {sup 99m}Tc-HDP: Assessment of radiochemical purity, sterility and extractables from a polypropylene syringe over six hours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkes, S.L.; Varelis, P. [St George Hospital, Kogarah, NSW (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine

    1997-12-01

    Full text: The purpose of this investigation was to determine the radiochemical purity (RCP), sterility and extractables for {sup 99m}Tc oxidronate ({sup 99m}Tc-HDP) stored in polypropylene syringes over < six-hour period. The radiochemical purity was determined using a two-strip ITLC procedure, performed at time 0, 1, 2, 4, 6 hours. The sterility and endotoxin levels were tested by a NATA accredited laboratory, after allowing the radiopharmaceutical to stand at room temperature for six hours in the syringes. Plasticisers and other likely compounds that could be extracted from the syringes into the aqueous solution were determined by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) diode array detection. This analysis involved shaking normal saline in a syringe over night and then injecting an aliquot of this solution onto a C18 analytical column and monitoring the effluent at 200 and 253 nm. The radiochemical purity of {sup 99m}Tc-HDP did not significantly change over the course of the study and remained above the recommended RCP for this radiopharmaceutical. Furthermore, at six hours the RCP of {sup 99m}Tc-HDP stored in both the manufacturer`s vial and a syringe were identical. Sterility testing of {sup 99m}Tc-HDP stored in syringes showed no microbial growth and less than 10 endotoxin units/mL (pass). The HPLC analysis did not show the presence of any extraneous compounds in the aqueous solution. Single patient doses of {sup 99m}Tc-HDP stored in polypropylene syringes over a six-hour period fulfill all the quality control requirements for administration to humans.

  7. Multiple access to sterile syringes for injection drug users: vending machines, needle exchange programs and legal pharmacy sales in Marseille, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moatti, J P; Vlahov, D; Feroni, I; Perrin, V; Obadia, Y

    2001-03-01

    In Marseille, southeastern France, HIV prevention programs for injection drug users (IDUs) simultaneously include access to sterile syringes through needle exchange programs (NEPs), legal pharmacy sales and, since 1996, vending machines that mechanically exchange new syringes for used ones. The purpose of this study was to compare the characteristics of IDUs according to the site where they last obtained new syringes. During 3 days in September 1997, all IDUs who obtained syringes from 32 pharmacies, four NEPs and three vending machines were offered the opportunity to complete a self-administered questionnaire on demographics, drug use characteristics and program utilization. Of 485 individuals approached, the number who completed the questionnaire was 141 in pharmacies, 114 in NEPs and 88 at vending machines (response rate = 70.7%). Compared to NEP users, vending machine users were younger and less likely to be enrolled in a methadone program or to report being HIV infected, but more likely to misuse buprenorphine. They also had lower financial resources and were less likely to be heroin injectors than both pharmacy and NEP users. Our results suggest that vending machines attract a very different group of IDUs than NEPs, and that both programs are useful adjuncts to legal pharmacy sales for covering the needs of IDUs for sterile syringes in a single city. Assessment of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of combining such programs for the prevention of HIV and other infectious diseases among IDUs requires further comparative research. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  8. Sterilization of single-use helical stone baskets: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cely Barreto da Silva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To experimentally evaluate the efficacy of a standard sterilization protocol employed during reuse of disposable helical stone baskets. Methods: Study performed on 20 helical stone baskets: 10 were used in the initial validation process, contaminated with Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and imprinted on Müeller-Hinton media; 10 catheters were contaminated with Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 7953, processed, inoculated in TSB and incubated in a water bath at a temperature of 55ºC. Bacterial growth was evaluated after 1, 3, 5 and 7 days. After sterilization, stone baskets were also opened and closed 40 times to check for functional problems. All plastic and basket parts were carefully checked for damages. Results: After the 72-hour incubation period, there was growth of E. coli ATCC 25922 in 100% of imprints. After the sterilization process and up to 7 days incubation period on a blood agar plate, there was no growth of G. stearothermophilus ATCC 7953 or any other bacteria. There were no functional problems or damage to baskets after the sterilization process. Conclusion: The ethylene oxide system is efficacious and safe for sterilization of disposable helical stone baskets. However, further clinical studies are required and should provide more safety information.

  9. An open-label, multicenter study to evaluate the safe and effective use of the single-use autoinjector with an Avonex® prefilled syringe in multiple sclerosis subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuccillo Dianne

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to self-inject in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS has been associated with a reduced risk of missed injections and drug discontinuation, and a beneficial effect on patients' independence. However, injection anxiety, needle phobia and disease-related disability are major barriers to a patient's ability to self-administer treatment. Use of an autoinjector may improve patients' ability to self-inject. This study evaluated the safe and effective use of Avonex Pen™ (prefilled pen, a single use autoinjector, for intramuscular delivery of interferon beta-1a (IM IFNβ-1a, Avonex in MS patients. Methods This was a Phase IIIb, open-label, single-country, multicenter trial in MS patients currently using IM IFNβ-1a prefilled syringes. Patients received weekly 30 mcg IM IFNβ-1a treatment over 4 weeks. On Day 1, patients self-administered IM IFNβ-1a using a prefilled syringe at the clinic. On Day 8, patients received training on the prefilled pen and self-administered IM IFNβ-1a using the device. On Day 15, patients self-administered IM IFNβ-1a at home using the prefilled pen. A final injection occurred at the clinic on Day 22 when patients self-administered IM IFNβ-1a using the prefilled pen while clinic staff observed and completed a detailed questionnaire documenting patients' ability to self-inject with the device. Serum neopterin levels were evaluated pre and post-injection on Days 1 and 8. Adverse events were monitored throughout. Results Seventy-one (96% patients completed the study. The overall success rate in safely and effectively using the prefilled pen was 89%. No device malfunctions occurred. One unsuccessful administration occurred at Day 22 due to patient error; no patient injury resulted. Patients gave the prefilled pen high ratings (8.7-9.3 on a 10-point scale for ease of use (0 = extremely difficult, 10 = extremely easy. Ninety-four percent of patients preferred the prefilled pen over the

  10. Stability of 10 mg/mL cefuroxime solution for intracameral injection in commonly used polypropylene syringes and new ready-to-use cyclic olefin copolymer sterile vials using the LC-UV stability-indicating method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feutry, Frédéric; Simon, Nicolas; Genay, Stéphanie; Lannoy, Damien; Barthélémy, Christine; Décaudin, Bertrand; Labalette, Pierre; Odou, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Injecting intracameral cefuroxime has been found beneficial in reducing the risk of postoperative endophthalmitis but its use has been limited through a lack of approved marketing and of ready-to-use single-units as well as the problem of aseptic compounding. Our aim was to assess a new automated primary packaging system which should ensure a higher level of sterility, thanks to its closed, sterile, ready-to-use polymer vial called "Crystal® vial". The chemical stability of a 10 mg/mL cefuroxime solution was compared in 1 mL Crystal® vials and 1 mL Luer-lock polypropylene syringes (actual reference) to eliminate any potential and specific interactions with its cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) body and elastomer stopper. Cefuroxime solution was introduced into vials and syringes and stored at -20 °C, +5 °C and +25°C/60% Relative Humidity. Cefuroxime concentration and the relative amount of the main degradation product (descarbamoyl-cefuroxime) were both determined by an HPLC/UV method indicating stability. Solutions were considered steady if the concentration remained at over 90% of the initial value. In the adapted storage conditions, the evolution of osmolality, pH and sterility was assessed. Stability profiles were identical between vials and syringes in all storage and temperature conditions. The solution was stable (cefuroxime concentration, pH and osmolality) and still sterile for 365 days at -20°C. The concentration fell below 90% after 21 days at +5 °C and after 16 h at +25°C/60%s relative humidity. The COC and thermoplastic elastomer of the vials had no impact on the degradation process confirming its possible use for a ready-to-use cefuroxime solution single-unit dose.

  11. Randomized, community-based pharmacy intervention to expand services beyond sale of sterile syringes to injection drug users in pharmacies in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Natalie D; Amesty, Silvia; Rivera, Alexis V; Harripersaud, Katherine; Turner, Alezandria; Fuller, Crystal M

    2013-09-01

    Structural interventions may help reduce racial/ethnic disparities in HIV. In 2009 to 2011, we randomized pharmacies participating in a nonprescription syringe access program in minority communities to intervention (pharmacy enrolled and delivered HIV risk reduction information to injection drug users [IDUs]), primary control (pharmacy only enrolled IDUs), and secondary control (pharmacy did not engage IDUs). Intervention pharmacy staff reported more support for syringe sales than did control staff. An expanded pharmacy role in HIV risk reduction may be helpful.

  12. Syringe sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitellone, Nicole

    2015-06-01

    In this article I consider the impact of social epistemologies for understanding the object of the syringe. My aim is to examine the process through which the syringe transforms from an injecting device to a tool of social and political inquiry. Paying particular attention to the uses of Foucault, Becker, Bourdieu, Freud and Latour in empirical studies of injecting heroin use, I examine the sociology of the syringe through the lens of habit and habitus, discourse and deviance, mourning and melancholia, attachment and agencement. In pursuing the theory behind the object my goal is to address a sociological object in the making. In so doing I show how the syringe has been significant for social research, social theory, and sociology. It is the difference the object makes that this article seeks to describe. In tracing the epistemology of the syringe I show how the object is important not just for knowledge of addiction but sociology itself. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2015.

  13. The association of syringe type and syringe cleaning with HCV infection among IDUs in Budapest, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Neaigus, Alan; Mitchell, Mary M.; Ujhelyi, Eszter

    2008-01-01

    We assessed whether syringe type, syringe cleaning and distributive syringe sharing were associated with self-reported and laboratory confirmed HCV infection among Hungarian IDUs. Injecting drug users (N=215) were recruited from non-treatment settings in Budapest, Hungary between October 2005 and December 2006. Multivariate logistic regression models identified correlates of self-report of being HCV infected and testing positive for HCV. While 37% tested positive for HCV, 14% of the total (39% of those who tested positive) self-reported being HCV infected. Using any two piece syringes was significantly associated with self-reported HCV infection, while distributive syringe sharing was not associated with self-report of being HCV infected. Engaging in receptive sharing of only one-piece syringes but always cleaning before reuse was not associated with testing HCV positive, while any receptive sharing of only one-piece syringes and not always cleaning before reuse was significantly associated with testing HCV positive. Sharing cookers and squirting drugs from one syringe into another syringe were not associated with testing HCV positive. The high percent of those HCV infected who did not know they were infected highlights the need to provide better access to confidential testing and counseling services. Counseling should emphasize secondary prevention of HCV among HCV infected IDUs. Our findings also indicate that syringe type and syringe cleaning practices may play a role in HCV transmission. Ethnographic research should identify the reasons why IDUs may use two-piece syringes and suggest means to reduce their use. Thorough cleaning of one-piece syringes when sterile syringes are unavailable may be an efficient way to reduce the risk of HCV infection. PMID:19058925

  14. Over-the-counter but out of reach: a pharmacy-based survey of OTC syringe sales in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollini, Robin A; Gallardo, Manuel; Ruiz, Serena; Case, Patricia; Zaller, Nickolas; Lozada, Remedios

    2014-05-01

    Sterile syringe access is critical to HIV prevention efforts targeting injection drug users (IDUs) but some pharmacies do not sell syringes over-the-counter (OTC) even where such sales are legal. We conducted a pharmacy survey in Tijuana, Mexico (where OTC sales are legal) to characterize attitudes toward syringe sales and to explore support for expanding pharmacy-based HIV prevention efforts. Of 203 respondents, 28% supported OTC syringe sales to IDUs and 74% said their pharmacy required a prescription for at least some syringe sales. Support for OTC syringe sales was independently associated with selling OTC syringes, understanding the role of sterile syringes in HIV prevention, and recognizing pharmacies as an important health resource for IDUs. Most respondents supported an expanded role for pharmacies in HIV prevention, exclusive of OTC syringe sales. Our study provides information for developing interventions to promote OTC syringe sales and expanding pharmacy-based distribution of HIV-related information and resources.

  15. The effectiveness and safety of syringe vending machines as a component of needle syringe programmes in community settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mofizul; Wodak, Alex; Conigrave, Katherine M

    2008-12-01

    Syringe vending machines (SVMs) have been introduced in Europe and Australasia as part of the effort to increase the availability of sterile needles and syringes to injecting drug users (IDUs). This qualitative review of 14 published and grey literature studies examines whether community-based SVMs as a component of a comprehensive needle syringe programme (NSP) assist to reduce the spread of HIV and other blood-borne viruses amongst IDUs. The available evidence suggests that SVMs increase access to sterile injecting equipment, reduce needle and syringe sharing, and are likely to be cost efficient. SVMs also complement other modes of NSP delivery as they are used by IDUs who are less likely to attend staffed NSPs or pharmacies. If installed and properly maintained in a well-chosen location and with the local community well prepared, SVMs can enhance the temporal and geographical availability of sterile injecting equipment.

  16. Radiation sterilization of some pharmaceutical preparations and medical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashmetov, M.Yu.; Makhkamov, Sh.M.; Urinov, Sh.S.; Turaev, A.S.; Sultanov, M.S.; Inagomov, Kh.S.

    2006-01-01

    sterilization; a low power spectrum of radiation (1.25 MeV); radiating activity is completely excluded; low temperature at radiating processing; medical properties, quality and functional purpose of a preparation and a product are kept. Mechanical and structural infringements of processed production are excluded, high accuracy of the control of a phase of irradiation, adaptability to manufacture and profitability of the method of processing are provided. By present time the technology of radiation sterilization of many kinds of pharmaceutical preparations and medical products is developed, however the sterilizing doze for each material - product in various different countries. It is connected with quality of materials and components from which pharmaceutical preparations and medical products are prepared, technologies of their manufacture, packing materials, and climatic conditions in each country. Experimental works on development of technology of sterilization of pharmaceutical preparations and medical products is carried out in the two research channels gamma facility of the INP AS RU, designed for radiating processing of various products, substances and production. As experimental objects for radiation sterilization: injection syringes for unitary application; surgical threads (catgut); hygienic packages, tampons, surgical cotton wool; the medical product 'Glipil' are chosen. Various dose and temperature regimes for sterilization of single use syringes, made in Uzbekistan are studied, and certain optimal doze of sterilization is reached providing the highest degree of sterility, as well as functionalities and initial optical parameters. By the radiating of surgical threads (catgut, silk) in two gamma channels with various capacities at temperatures up to 25 deg C a certain optimal doze of sterilization with preservation of their initial durability qualities was determined. Medical product 'Glipil' which demanding the special conditions of sterilization, connected not only

  17. Do your syringes count?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewster, K.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: This study was designed to investigate anecdotal evidence that residual Sestamibi (MIBI) activity vaned in certain situations. For rest studies different brands of syringes were tested to see if the residuals varied. The period of time MIBI doses remained in the syringe between dispensing and injection was also considered as a possible source of increased residual counts. Stress Mibi syringe residual activities were measured to assess if the method of stress test affected residual activity. MIBI was reconstituted using 13 Gbq of Technetium in 3mls of normal saline then boiled for 10 minutes. Doses were dispensed according to department protocol and injected via cannula. Residual syringes were collected for three syringe types. In each case the barrel and plunger were measured separately. As the syringe is flushed during the exercise stress test and not the pharmacological stress test the chosen method was recorded. No relationship was demonstrated between the time MIBI remained in a syringe prior to injection and residual activity. Residual activity was not affected by method of stress test used. Actual injected activity can be calculated if the amount of activity remaining in the syringe post injection is known. Imaging time can be adjusted for residual activity to optimise count statistics. Preliminary results in this study indicate there is no difference in residual activity between syringe brands.Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  18. Syringe access for the prevention of blood borne infections among injection drug users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rich Josiah D

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately one-third of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome cases in the United States are associated with the practice of sharing of injection equipment and are preventable through the once-only use of syringes, needles and other injection equipment. Discussion Sterile syringes may be obtained legally by 4 methods depending on the state. They may be purchased over the counter, prescribed, obtained at syringe exchange programs or furnished by authorized agencies. Each of these avenues has advantages and disadvantages; therefore, legal access through all means is the most likely way to promote the use of sterile syringes. Summary By assisting illicit drug injectors to obtain sterile syringes the primary care provider is able to reduce the incidence of blood borne infections, and educate patients about safe syringe disposal. The provider is also able to initiate discussion about drug use in a nonjudgmental manner and to offer care to patients who are not yet ready to consider drug treatment.

  19. Not sold here: limited access to legally available syringes at pharmacies in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollini, Robin A; Rosen, Perth C; Gallardo, Manuel; Robles, Brenda; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Macalino, Grace E; Lozada, Remedios

    2011-05-24

    Sterile syringe access is a critical component of HIV prevention programs. Although retail pharmacies provide convenient outlets for syringe access, injection drug users (IDUs) may encounter barriers to syringe purchase even where purchase without a prescription is legal. We sought to obtain an objective measure of syringe access in Tijuana, Mexico, where IDUs report being denied or overcharged for syringes at pharmacies. Trained "mystery shoppers" attempted to buy a 1 cc insulin syringe according to a predetermined script at all retail pharmacies in three Tijuana neighborhoods. The same pharmacies were surveyed by telephone regarding their syringe sales policies. Data on purchase attempts were analyzed using basic statistics to obtain an objective measure of syringe access and compared with data on stated sales policies to ascertain consistency. Only 46 (28.4%) of 162 syringe purchase attempts were successful. Leading reasons for unsuccessful attempts were being told that the pharmacy didn't sell syringes (35.3%), there were no syringes in stock (31.0%), or a prescription was required (20.7%). Of 136 pharmacies also surveyed by telephone, a majority (88.2%) reported selling syringes but only one-third (32.5%) had a successful mystery shopper purchase; the majority of unsuccessful purchases were attributed to being told the pharmacy didn't sell syringes. There was similar discordance regarding prescription policies: 74 pharmacies said in the telephone survey that they did not require a prescription for syringes, yet 10 of these pharmacies asked the mystery shopper for a prescription. IDUs in Tijuana have limited access to syringes through retail pharmacies and policies and practices regarding syringe sales are inconsistent. Reasons for these restrictive and inconsistent practices must be identified and addressed to expand syringe access, reduce syringe sharing and prevent HIV transmission.

  20. Postpartum Sterilization

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    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ052 CONTRACEPTION Postpartum Sterilization • What is sterilization? • What is postpartum sterilization? • How is postpartum sterilization performed? • What kind of anesthesia is used for postpartum sterilization? • How ...

  1. Nonprescription naloxone and syringe sales in the midst of opioid overdose and hepatitis C virus epidemics: Massachusetts, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopka, Thomas J; Donahue, Ashley; Hutcheson, Marguerite; Green, Traci C

    To determine the prevalence of nonprescription naloxone and sterile syringe sales, factors associated with nonprescription sales, geospatial access to nonprescription naloxone and syringe-selling pharmacies, and targets for potential interventions. Cross-sectional study. Massachusetts has experienced steep increases in reported opioid overdoses and hepatitis C virus cases in the past decade. Pharmacists have the potential to play a substantial role in increasing access to nonprescription naloxone and sterile syringes, which can reverse opioid overdoses and decrease hepatitis C virus transmission, respectively. We completed brief telephone surveys with 809 of 1042 retail pharmacies across Massachusetts (response rate = 77.6%) during 2015 to assess experience with nonprescription sales of naloxone and sterile syringes. Our primary outcomes were the stocking and selling of naloxone in the pharmacy (yes or no) for nonprescription sales and nonprescription syringe sales (yes or no). We conducted multivariable regression analyses and created maps using a geographic information system to identify factors associated with nonprescription sales of naloxone and sterile syringes, and to improve our understanding of geospatial access to pharmacy-based naloxone and syringe sales. More than 97% of pharmacies reported selling sterile syringes without requiring a prescription, and 45% of pharmacies reported stocking and selling naloxone. Factors associated with nonprescription sales included hours of operation, experience with and interest in harm reduction activities, and presence in an opioid overdose hotspot. Geographic access to nonprescription sale of sterile syringes is widespread, whereas geospatial access to naloxone is limited. Training to understand the benefits, applications, and distribution needs of naloxone is of interest to surveyed pharmacists. Access to sterile syringes through nonprescription sales is strong across Massachusetts, and although more than 350

  2. Radiation sterilization of medical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurshid, S.J.; Hussain, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation sterilization is the best method of sterilization, essentially for single use medical and surgical products. Pakistan has established a commercial gamma irradiation plant for this purpose. This article overviews the advantages and benefits of radiation sterilization to stimulate the interest of industrialists and the users in this technology. This technology can give a better medical care in the country and the growing demand can only be met by bulk sterilization. The radiation sterilized medical products can also compete well with the products sterilized by other methods in the international market, gamma sterilization is accepted internationally and if adopted it can boost our export of medical products. (author)

  3. Syringe injectable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Seamless and minimally-invasive three-dimensional (3D) interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating syringe injection and subsequent unfolding of submicrometer-thick, centimeter-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 micrometers. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with > 90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with 3D structures, including (i) monitoring of internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (ii) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (iii) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, delivery of large volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics. PMID:26053995

  4. Syringe-injectable electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  5. Aquagenic syringeal acrokeratoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkiz Uyar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquagenic syringeal acrokeratoderma is a rare, transient, and usually bilaterally symmetric, palmoplantar keratoderma. Patients complain of tingling and pain in the hands starting a few minutes after exposure to water and lasting for 20-30 minutes after removal. Clinically, there is marked wrinkling with edematous white papules on the palms or, less often, the soles. We present the case of a 21-year-old woman who used spironolactone for polycystic ovary syndrome and had similar clinical features 2 weeks later, after withdrawing the drug.

  6. Hysteroscopic Sterilization

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    ... sterilization? Sterilization is a permanent form of birth control. What is tubal sterilization? Sterilization procedures for women are ... is quicker than from other types of sterilization. What are the risks of ... on for birth control. • There is a risk of injury to the ...

  7. Gas ampoule-syringe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, D.D.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes disposable gas ampoule holding or containing a gas such as a radioactive gas, comprising: (a) a cylindrical glass tube which is adapted to hold the gas; (b) a layer of absorbent material which circumscribes and which contacts cylindrical glass tube (a) which absorbs the gas; (c) a plastic tube, which circumscribes and contacts absorbent material layer (b) and which is externally threaded on each of its end portions; (d) a cap, which is threaded onto a first end of plastic tube (c); (e) a cylindrical block, which is positioned in the first end of cylindrical glass tube (a) adjacent to cap (d), which contacts cylindrical glass tube (a), which is composed of a foamed material and which is impregnated with a gas adsorbent material; (f) a cylindrical plunger tip, which is located in the first end of cylindrical glass tube (a) in a gas-tight manner adjacent to cylindrical block (e); (g) an end stopper, which has a central cylindrical shaft that is positioned in the second end of cylindrical glass tube (a); and (h) a cap, which is threaded onto the second end of plastic tube (e). A combination of the disposable gas ampoule and syringe adapted to operably interface with the gas ampoule is also described

  8. A Comparison of Protein Stability in Prefillable Syringes Made of Glass and Plastic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Lloyd; Vilivalam, Vinod D

    2017-01-01

    The development of protein therapeutics requires stabilization of these labile molecules during shipment and storage. Biologics, particularly monoclonal antibodies, are frequently packaged at high concentration in prefillable syringes traditionally made of glass. However, some biologics are unstable in glass due to sensitivity to silicone oil, tungsten, glue, or metal ions. Syringes made from the plastic cyclic olefin polymer, Daikyo Crystal Zenith® (CZ), with a Flurotec-laminated piston, have none of these issues. This study compared the stability of several proteins including biotherapeutics when stored up to 14 months at 5 °C and 25 °C in prefillable siliconized syringes made of glass or silicone oil-free CZ syringes, and when subjected to mild agitation by end-over-end rotation at room temperature. At each time point, proteins were analyzed by several techniques including turbidity, size exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography, reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography, electrophoresis, and light scattering to monitor changes in aggregation and degradation. The results show that proteins have comparable stability when stored in glass syringes or in syringes made of CZ sterilized by E-beam or autoclave. In addition, proteins stressed by agitation were generally more stable and aggregated less in syringes made of CZ than in ones made of glass. LAY ABSTRACT: Biotherapeutic protein drugs such as monoclonal antibodies are frequently packaged at high concentration in prefillable syringes, which allows the drug to be directly administered by the patient or caregiver. Protein drugs, or biologics, can be unstable, and may aggregate, particularly when shaken. These aggregates can be immunogenic, stimulating the body's immune system to produce antibodies that can reduce the drug's efficacy. Although prefillable syringes are traditionally made of glass, some biologics are unstable in glass syringes due to the presence of

  9. Syringe vending machines for injection drug users: an experiment in Marseille, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obadia, Y; Feroni, I; Perrin, V; Vlahov, D; Moatti, J P

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the usefulness of vending machines in providing injection drug users with access to sterile syringes in Marseille, France. METHODS: Self-administered questionnaires were offered to 485 injection drug users obtaining syringes from 32 pharmacies, 4 needle exchange programs, and 3 vending machines. RESULTS: Of the 343 respondents (response rate = 70.7%), 21.3% used the vending machines as their primary source of syringes. Primary users of vending machines were more likely than primary users of other sources to be younger than 30 years, to report no history of drug maintenance treatment, and to report no sharing of needles or injection paraphernalia. CONCLUSIONS: Vending machines may be an appropriate strategy for providing access to syringes for younger injection drug users, who have typically avoided needle exchange programs and pharmacies. PMID:10589315

  10. Commentary on Vorobjov et al., "Comparison of injection drug users who obtain syringes from pharmacies and syringe exchange programs in Tallinn, Estonia"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werb Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent data suggest that globally, between 5% and 10% of all new HIV cases are the result of unsafe injecting practices, and experts agree that reducing these practices is key to tackling the spread of HIV. And yet, despite the overwhelming evidence that providing sterile syringes to injection drug users (IDU through syringe exchange programs (SEPs or other means is an effective way of reducing HIV transmission among high-risk subpopulations, IDU in most settings still do not have access to sterile injecting equipment or if they do, access remains too restricted to effectively reduce the risk of HIV transmission. Vorobjov and colleagues have presented in this journal an interesting and timely study from Estonia comparing individuals who obtain syringes from SEPs and those who obtain syringes from pharmacies. As the authors point out, Estonia faces an unacceptably high HIV incidence rate of 50 new HIV cases per 100,000, this rate driven primarily by injection drug use. As such, the authors argue that Estonia's SEP network does not have the capacity to serve a growing IDU population at risk of transmitting HIV and pharmacy dispensation of clean syringes may be one potential approach to decreasing syringe sharing among high-risk injectors. It may be overly optimistic to consider the impact of higher threshold interventions such as pharmacy-based SEPs, given that IDU populations that engage in HIV risk behaviours such as syringe sharing are often hidden or hard to reach. Despite the need for a cautious approach, however, the findings presented by Vorobjov et al. may chart one potential course towards a more comprehensive societal response to reducing the health harms associated with injection drug use.

  11. Decreased Odds of Injection Risk Behavior Associated With Direct Versus Indirect Use of Syringe Exchange: Evidence From Two California Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrends, Czarina N; Li, Chin-Shang; Gibson, David R

    2017-07-29

    While there is substantial evidence that syringe exchange programs (SEPs) are effective in preventing HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID), nearly all the evidence comes from PWID who obtain syringes from an SEP directly. Much less is known about the benefits of secondary exchange to PWID who get syringes indirectly from friends or acquaintances who visit an SEP for them. We evaluated the effectiveness of direct versus indirect syringe exchange in reducing HIV-related high-risk injecting behavior among PWID in two separate studies conducted in Sacramento and San Jose, California, cities with quite different syringe exchange models. In both studies associations between direct and indirect syringe exchange and self-reported risk behavior were examined with multivariable logistic regression models. Study 1 assessed effects of a "satellite" home-delivery syringe exchange in Sacramento, while Study 2 evaluated a conventional fixed-site exchange in San Jose. Multivariable analyses revealed 95% and 69% reductions, respectively, in high-risk injection associated with direct use of the SEPs in Sacramento and San Jose, and a 46% reduction associated with indirect use of the SEP in Sacramento. Conclusions/Importance: The very large effect of direct SEP use in Sacramento was likely due in part to home delivery of sterile syringes. While more modest effects were associated with indirect use, such use nevertheless is valuable in reducing the risk of HIV transmission of PWID who are unable or unwilling to visit a syringe exchange.

  12. The evaluation of a trial of syringe vending machines in Canberra, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, David

    2009-07-01

    Syringe vending machines (SVMs) have been trialled in Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia, as an intervention aiming to increase the availability of sterile injecting equipment for use by IDUs. This study evaluated the 12-month trial. A utilisation-focused evaluation model, with both formative and summative components, was employed. Four SVMs were installed, each dispensing packs containing four 1 mL syringes and associated injecting paraphernalia. The trial participants were the clients of the SVMs and other key informants. The core measurements used were the number of syringes dispensed in Canberra by SVMs and other outlets, SVM clients' demographics and experiences of and attitudes towards SVMs, perceived impacts of SVMs on needle sharing, unsafe disposal of used syringes in the vicinity of SVMs, and community and stakeholder attitudes. The trial was implemented successfully, with no adverse consequences identified. The SVMs appear to be serving both the usual clients of the other outlets for sterile injecting equipment (community pharmacies and the Needle Syringe Program outlets) and others who are reluctant to use such outlets or find them inconvenient. The out-of-business-hours provision of syringes through the SVMs was particularly welcomed by both SVM clients and other stakeholders. The continuing operation of the initial four SVMs is widely supported, and additional machines are requested by clients and others. Owing to the success of the trial in terms of feasibility and outcomes for both IDUs and for the broader community, it is desirable that providing sterile injecting equipment through SVMs continues and be expanded as an integral component of harm reduction strategies.

  13. Radiation sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, G.P.

    1989-01-01

    In view of the application of ionizing radiation to sterilize pharmaceutical products, and the particular advantages of using this mode of sterilization for powders for injection, which cannot be sterilized by more conventional methods, it is important to recognise the possibility of modification of radiation response of bacteria when in close contact with various drug powders. For this study, bacterial spores, which lend themselves to dessication, and which can be dried onto an inert powder matrix, were chosen as the test system. The results of this work indicate that the additives tested have a modest protective effect on the spores. However, when considering a bacterial inactivation for sterilization purposes of between six and ten orders of magnitude, that is, a desired sterility assurance level of an expected maximum probability of a product item being non-sterile of 10 -6 , then the slight protective effect observed in this study approaches insignificance

  14. Sterile neutrino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    Paper deals with the information on the occurrence of the fields of the sterile neutrinos (the righthanded ones) mixed with the normal neutrinos (the lefthanded ones). Both the Max Plank Radioastronomy Institute and the Los Angeles University assumes that the occurrence of the keV mass sterile neutrinos may explain the dark matter nature, the fast rotation of the observed pulsars and the reionization processes. The issues associated with the possibility to record the sterile neutrinos were analyzed in the course of the Sterile Neutrinos in Astrophysics and Cosmology Workshop (Crans Montana, March 2006 [ru

  15. Legal syringe purchases by injection drug users, Brooklyn and Queens, New York City, 2000-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Jarlais, Don C; McKnight, Courtney; Friedmann, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    To assess preliminary results of the Expanded Syringe Access Demonstration Program (ESAP) in New York City. Temporal trends of pharmacy use among injection drug users (IDUs) in Brooklyn and Queens were analyzed from December 2000 through December 2001. Brooklyn and Queens, New York City. PARTIPANTS: IDUs. Attempts to purchase syringes from pharmacies and success in doing so. Of the 1,072 IDUs interviewed from December 2000 through December 2001, the majority were daily heroin injectors, but there was also substantial speedball and cocaine injection. There was a clear increase over time in both the percentage of subjects who attempted to purchase syringes in pharmacies and in the percentage who successfully purchased syringes. Among IDUs interviewed 4 or more months after ESAP began, large majorities of those who attempted to purchase syringes were successful in doing so. No differences in use of ESAP by IDUs were identified in Brooklyn versus Queens: 27% of IDUs interviewed in Queens reported that they had attempted to purchase syringes in pharmacies versus 28% in Brooklyn. Persons who reported injecting on a daily or more frequent basis were more likely to have attempted pharmacy purchases than persons who reported injecting less frequently, 32% versus 21%. The ESAP program has led to an increase in the use of pharmacies as sources of sterile injection equipment among IDUs in New York City. The extent to which pharmacies become an important source of sterile injection equipment and the effect of legal pharmacy sales on risk behaviors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remain to be determined.

  16. Negotiating access: social barriers to purchasing syringes at pharmacies in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Peter J; Lozada, Remedios; Rosen, Perth C; Macias, Armando; Gallardo, Manuel; Pollini, Robin A

    2012-07-01

    One common public health response to the emergence of HIV has been the provision of sterile syringes to people who inject drugs. In Mexico specialized syringe exchanges are rare, and the sale of needles through pharmacies is often the only way people who inject drugs can obtain sterile syringes. However, people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico report considerable social barriers to successfully purchasing syringes at pharmacies. Between October 2008 and March 2009 we conducted seven in-depth focus groups with 47 people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico. Focus group transcripts were analysed using a descriptive and thematic approach rooted in grounded theory. We found that injectors offered a number of explanations for why pharmacies were reluctant to sell them syringes, including fear of police; attitudes toward drug use; fear of stereotypical drug user behaviour such as petty theft, violence, or distressing behaviour; and related fears that an obvious drug using clientèle would drive away other customers. Injectors described a range of ways of attempting to re-frame or negotiate interactions with pharmacy staff so that these and related concerns were ameliorated. These included tactics as simple as borrowing cleaner clothing, through to strategies for becoming 'known' to pharmacy staff as an individual rather than as a member of a stigmatized group. Increasing the ability of pharmacy staff and people who inject drugs to successfully negotiate syringe sales are highly desirable. Interventions designed to improve this likelihood need to capitalize on existing solutions developed ad hoc by people who inject drugs and pharmacy staff, and should focus on broadening the range of 'identities' which pharmacy staff are able to accept as legitimate customers. Approaches to achieve this end might include sensitizing pharmacy staff to the needs of people who inject drugs; facilitating individual drug users meeting individual pharmacy staff; and working with drug users

  17. Extractables and leachables considerations for prefilled syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenke, Dennis R

    2014-10-01

    Use of pre-filled syringes as both a packaging and delivery system for pharmaceutical drug products is accelerating. Pre-filled syringes must meet the quality and suitability for use requirements for both systems, including compatibility with the drug product. Relevant incompatibilities between pre-filled syringes and drug products include the safety of syringe-based leachables that accumulate in drug products and the ability of leachables to interact with the drug product's ingredients as such interactions can affect safety, efficacy, stability and physical viability. Relevant suitability considerations for pre-filled syringes are discussed herein and specific examples of suitability for use issues for pre-filled syringes are cited, focusing on extractables associated with pre-filled syringes and leachables derived from such syringes. Aspects considered include the toxicological impact of leachables, their ability to alter the efficacy of drug products and to produce other undesirable outcomes such as aggregation and immunogenic responses. Materials used in pre-filled syringes and the conditions of use minimize the traditional safety risk associated with leachables. However, drug products that use pre-filled syringes are prone to non-traditional interactions such as disruption of protein conformation, leading to potential efficacy, safety and quality issues. In order to qualify pre-filled syringes for use, the traditional approach of measuring extractables and leachables and inferring their effect must be augmented by rigorous compatibility testing. Research into the fundamental relationship between leachables and drug substances will be necessary so the more time- and cost-efficient 'measure and infer' approach can be widely implemented.

  18. Evaluation of single-use reprocessed laparoscopic instrument sterilization Evaluación de la esterilidad del instrumental laparoscópico descartable reprocesado Avaliação da esterilidade do instrumental laparoscópico de uso único reprocessado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane de Lion Botero Couto Lopes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This experimental, comparative, laboratory study evaluated the effectiveness of the sterilization of single-use laparoscopic instruments - SULIs (grasper, dissector, scissors, Veress needle and electrosurgical probe system, after contamination-challenge with bacterial spores and sheep blood, and compared the results of the sterilization tests with those of the equivalent reusable instruments. The cleaning methods used were; ultrasonic washer with pulsatile water jet and enzymatic detergent, manual cleaning, cleaning with pressurized water and rinsing. The SULIs were sterilized with ethylene oxide and the reusable instruments in an autoclave. Sterility tests showed 100% negative results for recovery of contaminate microorganisms in both groups. It was concluded that, regarding the sterilization, that it is possible to reprocess SULIs.Se trata de un estudio, experimental, de laboratorio y comparativo, que evaluó la eficacia de la esterilidad de los instrumentos laparoscópicos de uso único(ILUU: grasper, disector, tijera, aguja de Veres y el sistema de sonda electroquirúrgica, después de "contaminación desafío" con esporas bacterianas y sangre de carnero; los resultados de las pruebas de esterilidad fueron comparados con los de los instrumentos equivalentes "permanentes". Para efectuar la limpieza se utilizó: lavadora ultrasónica con chorro pulsante y detergente enzimático, limpieza manual, agua bajo presión y enjuague. Los ILUU fueron esterilizados con óxido de etileno, los instrumentos "permanentes" en autoclave. Las pruebas de esterilidad mostraron resultados 100% negativos para la recuperación de los microorganismos contaminantes en los dos grupos. Se concluye que, en relación al alcance de la esterilidad, es posible reprocesar los ILUU.O presente estudo, experimental, laboratorial e comparativo, teve como objetivo avaliar a eficácia da esterilidade dos instrumentos laparoscópicos de uso único (ILUU: grasper, dissector, tesoura

  19. Is parotid saliva sterile on entry to the oral cavity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Stine A; Bardow, Allan; Eickhardt-Dalbøge, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    CONCLUSION: The present study indicates that parotid saliva is sterile on entry to the oral cavity. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to investigate if parotid saliva is sterile on entry to the oral cavity and, thus, prior to contamination by oral bacteria. METHOD: Forty healthy volunteers were...... included in sterile parotid saliva collection. Parotid saliva was collected using a sterile Lashley cup, placed over the papilla of the Stensen´s duct, as well as sterile tubes and syringes for collection. All collections were followed by collection of a positive control sample where some of the sterile...... obtained parotid saliva had been exposed to the contralateral mucosal membranes. All samples parotid saliva, as well as the positive controls, were cultivated, and 10 randomly selected parotid saliva samples underwent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses. RESULTS: In 33 of 40 parotid saliva samples...

  20. Reutilização simulada de produtos médico-hospitalares de uso único, submetidos à esterilização com óxido de etileno Simulated reuse of single use medical devices submitted to ethylene oxide sterilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Valero da Silva

    2005-06-01

    bacterial endotoxin (200 EU/device. The B. subtilis contaminated specimen samples had been washed, rinsed, dried and sterilized with ETO/CFC 12:88. Those contaminated with bacterial endotoxin had been submitted to drying, repacking and sterilization. After each cycle, ten units, contaminated with B. subtilis, had been evaluated by microbial counting test, sterility test, in vitro cytotoxicity and scanning electron microscopy. Those contaminated with bacterial endotoxin, three units of each specimen sample, had been submitted to the turbidimetric test, after each cycle. Amongst the units challenged with B. subtilis, viable load of 10³cfu was verified, surface damages were noticed on the specimen samples after tenth reprocessing cycles, but no toxicity was observed. In the other challenge, a gradual increase in recovered percentage of bacterial endotoxin was verified. Taking into consideration the obtained results, we do not recommend reprocessing of single use medical devices.

  1. Indications and the requirements for single-use medical gloves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Axel; Assadian, Ojan

    2016-01-01

    Aim: While the requirements for single-use gloves for staff protection are clearly defined, the conventional medical differentiation between “sterile surgical gloves” used during surgical procedures and “single-use medical gloves” used in non-sterile medical areas does not adequately define the different requirements in these two areas of use. Sterilization of single-use medical gloves is not performed if sterility is not required; thus, another terminology must be found to identify the safety quality of non-sterile single-use medical gloves. Therefore, the labeling of such gloves should reflect this situation, by introducing the term “pathogen-free” single-use glove. The hygienic safety of such a glove would be attainable by ensuring aseptic manufacturing conditions during manufacturing and control of pathogen load of batch controls after fabrication. Proposed recommendation: Because single-use gloves employed in non-sterile areas come into contact not only with intact skin but also with mucous membranes, no potential pathogens should be detectable in 100 mL of rinse sample. In order to declare such gloves as pathogen-free we suggest absence of the indicator species S. aureus and E. coli. In addition, the total CFU count should be evaluated, since a high load indicates lack of optimal hygiene during the manufacturing process. Based on the requirements for potable water and findings obtained from investigations of the bacterial load of such gloves after manufacturing, the here suggested limit for the total bacterial count of glove seems realistic. PMID:26816673

  2. [The effect of colored syringes and a colored sheet on the incidence of syringe swaps during anesthetic management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Yoshihiro; Kawakami, Takayuki; Suzuki, Hideo; Igarashi, Takashi; Saitoh, Kazuhiko; Seo, Norimasa

    2005-09-01

    Syringe swap is an important problem in anesthetic care, causing harm to patients. We examined the effect of colored syringe and a colored sheet on the incidence of syringe swaps during anesthetic management. We determined the color code. The blue-syringe contains local anesthetics; yellow-syringe, sympathomimetic drugs; and white-syringe with a red label fixed opposite the scale, muscle relaxants. The colored sheet displays the photographs of the syringe with drug name, dose and volume. The colored syringe and colored sheet were supplied for use from February 2004. We compared the incidence of syringe swaps during the period from February 2004 to January 2005 with that from February 2003 to January 2004. Although five syringe swaps were recorded from February 2003 to January 2004, in 5901 procedures, we encountered no syringe swaps from February 2004 to January 2005, in 6078 procedures. The colored syringe and colored sheet significantly decreased the incidence of syringe swaps during anesthetic management (P sheet together with colored syringes can prevent syringe swaps during anesthesia.

  3. Feasibility of Using Fluorescence Spectrophotometry to Develop a Sensitive Dye Immersion Method for Container Closure Integrity Testing of Prefilled Syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xujin; Lloyd, David K; Klohr, Steven E

    2016-01-01

    A feasibility study was conducted for a sensitive and robust dye immersion method for the measurement of container closure integrity of unopened prefilled syringes using fluorescence spectrophotometry as the detection method. A Varian Cary Eclipse spectrofluorometer was used with a custom-made sample holder to position the intact syringe in the sample compartment for fluorescence measurements. Methylene blue solution was initially evaluated as the fluorophore in a syringe with excitation at 607 nm and emission at 682 nm, which generated a limit of detection of 0.05 μg/mL. Further studies were conducted using rhodamine 123, a dye with stronger fluorescence. Using 480 nm excitation and 525 nm emission, the dye in the syringe could be easily detected at levels as low as 0.001 μg/mL. The relative standard deviation for 10 measurements of a sample of 0.005 μg/mL (with repositioning of the syringe after each measurement) was less than 1.1%. A number of operational parameters were optimized, including the photomultiplier tube voltage, excitation, and emission slit widths. The specificity of the testing was challenged by using marketed drug products and a protein sample, which showed no interference to the rhodamine detection. Results obtained from this study demonstrated that using rhodamine 123 for container closure integrity testing with in-situ (in-syringe) fluorescence measurements significantly enhanced the sensitivity and robustness of the testing and effectively overcame limitations of the traditional methylene blue method with visual or UV-visible absorption detection. Ensuring container closure integrity of injectable pharmaceutical products is necessary to maintain quality throughout the shelf life of a sterile drug product. Container closure integrity testing has routinely been used to evaluate closure integrity during product development and production line qualification of prefilled syringes, vials, and devices. However, container closure integrity testing

  4. Safety syringes and anti-needlestick devices in orthopaedic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbitt, Wilmer L; Band, Philip A; Kettwich, Lawrence G; Sibbitt, Cristina R; Sibbitt, Lori J; Bankhurst, Arthur D

    2011-09-07

    The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgery (AAOS), The Joint Commission, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and the Needlestick Safety and Prevention Act encourage the integration of safety-engineered devices to prevent needlestick injuries to health-care workers and patients. We hypothesized that safety syringes and needles could be used in outpatient orthopaedic injection and aspiration procedures. The study investigated the orthopaedic uses and procedural idiosyncrasies of safety-engineered devices, including (1) four safety needles (Eclipse, SafetyGlide, SurGuard, and Magellan), (2) a mechanical safety syringe (RPD), (3) two automatic retractable syringes (Integra, VanishPoint), (4) three manual retractable syringes (Procedur-SF, Baksnap, Invirosnap), and (5) three shielded syringes (Safety-Lok, Monoject, and Digitally Activated Shielded [DAS] Syringe). The devices were first tested ex vivo, and then 1300 devices were used for 425 subjects undergoing outpatient arthrocentesis, intra-articular injections, local anesthesia, aspiration biopsy, and ultrasound-guided procedures. During the clinical observation, there were no accidental needlesticks (0 needlesticks per 1300 devices). Safety needles could be successfully used on a Luer syringe but were limited to ≤1.5 in (≤3.81 cm) in length and the shield could interfere with sonography. The mechanical safety syringes functioned well in all orthopaedic procedures. Automatic retractable syringes were too small for arthrocentesis of the knee, and the plunger blew out and prematurely collapsed with high-pressure injections. The manual retractable syringes and shielded syringes could be used with conventional needles for most orthopaedic procedures. The most effective and reliable safety devices for orthopaedic syringe procedures are shielded safety needles, mechanical syringes, manual retractable syringes, and shielded syringes, but not automatic retractable syringes. Even when adopting

  5. Combination syringe provides air-free blood samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, S. L.

    1970-01-01

    Standard syringe and spinal needle are combined in unique manner to secure air-free blood samples. Combination syringe obtains air free samples because air bubbles become insignificant when samples greater than 1 cc are drawn.

  6. Aspects of syringeal mechanics in avian phonation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, O.N.; Goller, F.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2006-01-01

    The vocal organ of birds, the syrinx, is formed by modified cartilages of the trachea and bronchi. Recently, the use of thin, flexible endoscopes has made direct observation of the syrinx possible in situ. The effects of direct muscle stimulation on the syringeal aperture identified adductor and

  7. Syringe irrigation: blending endodontics and fluid dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutsioukis, C.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.; Basrani, B.

    2015-01-01

    Syringe irrigation remains a widely used irrigant delivery method during root canal treatment. An interdisciplinary approach involving well-established methods from the field of fluid dynamics can provide new insights into the mechanisms involved in cleaning and disinfection of the root canal system

  8. Open-Source Syringe Pump Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, Bas; Hunt, Emily J.; Anzalone, Gerald C.; Pearce, Joshua M.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores a new open-source method for developing and manufacturing high-quality scientific equipment suitable for use in virtually any laboratory. A syringe pump was designed using freely available open-source computer aided design (CAD) software and manufactured using an open-source RepRap 3-D printer and readily available parts. The design, bill of materials and assembly instructions are globally available to anyone wishing to use them. Details are provided covering the use of the CAD software and the RepRap 3-D printer. The use of an open-source Rasberry Pi computer as a wireless control device is also illustrated. Performance of the syringe pump was assessed and the methods used for assessment are detailed. The cost of the entire system, including the controller and web-based control interface, is on the order of 5% or less than one would expect to pay for a commercial syringe pump having similar performance. The design should suit the needs of a given research activity requiring a syringe pump including carefully controlled dosing of reagents, pharmaceuticals, and delivery of viscous 3-D printer media among other applications. PMID:25229451

  9. Social-structural contexts of needle and syringe sharing behaviours of HIV-positive injecting drug users in Manipur, India: a mixed methods investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunmugam Murali

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few investigations have assessed risk behaviours and social-structural contexts of risk among injecting drug users (IDUs in Northeast India, where injecting drug use is the major route of HIV transmission. Investigations of risk environments are needed to inform development of effective risk reduction interventions. Methods This mixed methods study of HIV-positive IDUs in Manipur included a structured survey (n = 75, two focus groups (n = 17, seven in-depth interviews, and two key informant interviews. Results One-third of survey participants reported having shared a needle/syringe in the past 30 days; among these, all the men and about one-third of the women did so with persons of unknown HIV serostatus. A variety of social-structural contextual factors influenced individual risk behaviours: barriers to carrying sterile needles/syringes due to fear of harassment by police and "anti-drug" organizations; lack of sterile needles/syringes in drug dealers' locales; limited access to pharmacy-sold needles/syringes; inadequate coverage by needle and syringe programmes (NSPs; non-availability of sterile needles/syringes in prisons; and withdrawal symptoms superseding concern for health. Some HIV-positive IDUs who shared needles/syringes reported adopting risk reduction strategies: being the 'last receiver' of needles/syringes and not a 'giver;' sharing only with other IDUs they knew to be HIV-positive; and, when a 'giver,' asking other IDUs to wash used needles/syringes with bleach before using. Conclusions Effective HIV prevention and care programmes for IDUs in Northeast India may hinge on several enabling contexts: supportive government policy on harm reduction programmes, including in prisons; an end to harassment by the police, army, and anti-drug groups, with education of these entities regarding harm reduction, creation of partnerships with the public health sector, and accountability to government policies that protect IDUs

  10. Radiation sterilization of medical products- current trends and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, G.

    1997-01-01

    In medical practice use of sterile pharmaceuticals and single use disposable medical devices is steadily increasing. Sterile pharmaceuticals like injections and ophthalmic ointments are required for therapy. Medical devices are employed for diagnostic, drug administration or corrective purposes, and as implants for temporary, short term or long term residence in the human system. All these products are made available in sterile form by treating them to a suitable process of sterilization i.e. dry/wet heat, ethylene oxide (EtO) gas or ionizing radiation. In this paper current trends and future prospects of radiation sterilization of medical products are given in detail. 9 refs., 7 tabs

  11. Sterilization validation for medical compresses at IRASM multipurpose irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandru, Mioara; Ene, Mihaela

    2007-01-01

    In Romania, IRASM Radiation Processing Center is the unique supplier of radiation sterilization services-industrial scale (ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 13485:2003 certified). Its Laboratory of Microbiological Testing is the sole third party competent laboratory (GLPractice License, ISO 17025 certification in progress) for pharmaceutics and medical devices as well. We here refer to medical compresses as a distinct category of sterile products, made from different kind of hydrophilic materials (cotton, non-woven, polyurethane foam) with or without an impregnated ointment base (paraffin, plant extracts). These products are included in the class of medical devices, but for the sterilization validation, from microbiological point of view, there are important differences in testing method compared to the common medical devices (syringes, catheters, etc). In this paper, we present some results and practical solutions chosen to perform a sterilization validation, compliant with ISO 11137: 2006

  12. Health Care: Reprocessed Medical Single-Use Devices in DoD

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ... for decontamination and resterilization. The emergence of new materials and sterilization methods, and the increasing costs of health care, resulted in the development of medical single-use devices and the practice of reprocessing the devices...

  13. Development of Syringe/Bottle Hybrids for Sampling Slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    A convenient and effective sample bottle system based on simple modifications of disposable plastic syringes and bottles has been devised and tested for slurry samples. Syringe/ bottle hybrids (hereafter referred to as syringe bottles) have the convenience of regular flat-bottom bottles with screw cap closures. In addition, the syringe imparts a sliding and adjustable bottom to the bottle that forces the entire contents from the bottle. The system was designed especially to collect samples for high temperature work-ups of DWPF slurry samples. The syringe bottles together with fixed-bottom sample vial inserts would provide the DWPF with convenient and reliable methods for dealing with slurry samples

  14. Study on the radiation effect of plastic syringe materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, H.C.; Yun, B.M.; Kim, K.Y.; Kong, Y.K.; Park, H.Y.

    1983-01-01

    From the viewpoint of gammasterilization, the defects of domestic polypropylene as the syringe material are to get worse the mechanical properties and discoloration by irradiation. Therefore, the domestic polystyrene (GPPS 150) were inspected to use as substitute for the polypropylene. The gel point of the polystyrene was about 100Mrad and none momentous change of the mechanical properties were appeared until the dose reached to the point. Above the point, as the crosslinking reaction proceed both strength of tensile and impact were increased with discoloration. No significant problem was also found in the water extract test and chemical resistance test. In addition to the pure polystyrene, the copolymer of butadiene (HIPS 425) and the blend material of polypropylene were also inspected for the purpose and almost same results were obtained in the radiation irradiation. From the above result, it is considered that polystyrene and the copolymer and the blend mentioned above are available for the medical plastics which would be sterilized by gamma-radiation. (Author)

  15. Comparative evaluation of endodontic pressure syringe, insulin syringe, jiffy tube, and local anesthetic syringe in obturation of primary teeth: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Hiremath, Mallayya C.; Srivastava, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare four methods of root canal obturation in primary teeth using conventional radiography. Materials and Methods: A total of 96 root canals of primary molars were prepared and obturated with zinc oxide eugenol. Obturation methods compared were endodontic pressure syringe, insulin syringe, jiffy tube, and local anesthetic syringe. The root canal obturations were evaluated by conventional radiography for the length of obturation and presenc...

  16. Social network-related risk factors for bloodborne virus infections among injection drug users receiving syringes through secondary exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Prithwish; Cox, Joseph; Boivin, Jean-François; Platt, Robert W; Jolly, Ann M

    2008-01-01

    Secondary syringe exchange (SSE) refers to the exchange of sterile syringes between injection drug users (IDUs). To date there has been limited examination of SSE in relation to the social networks of IDUs. This study aimed to identify characteristics of drug injecting networks associated with the receipt of syringes through SSE. Active IDUs were recruited from syringe exchange and methadone treatment programs in Montreal, Canada, between April 2004 and January 2005. Information on each participant and on their drug-injecting networks was elicited using a structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. Subjects' network characteristics were examined in relation to SSE using regression models with generalized estimating equations. Of 218 participants, 126 were SSE recipients with 186 IDUs in their injecting networks. The 92 non-recipients reported 188 network IDUs. Networks of SSE recipients and non-recipients were similar with regard to network size and demographics of network members. In multivariate analyses adjusted for age and gender, SSE recipients were more likely than non-recipients to self-report being HIV-positive (OR=3.56 [1.54-8.23]); require or provide help with injecting (OR=3.74 [2.01-6.95]); have a social network member who is a sexual partner (OR=1.90 [1.11-3.24]), who currently attends a syringe exchange or methadone program (OR=2.33 [1.16-4.70]), injects daily (OR=1.77 [1.11-2.84]), and shares syringes with the subject (OR=2.24 [1.13-4.46]). SSE is associated with several injection-related risk factors that could be used to help focus public health interventions for risk reduction. Since SSE offers an opportunity for the dissemination of important prevention messages, SSE-based networks should be used to improve public health interventions. This approach can optimize the benefits of SSE while minimizing the potential risks associated with the practice of secondary exchange.

  17. Autologous fat grafting: use of closed syringe microcannula system for enhanced autologous structural grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander RW

    2013-04-01

    available as safe, sterile, disposable, compact systems for acquiring high-quality AFG. Presented is a detailed, step-by-step, proven protocol for performing quality autologous structural adipose transplantation. Keywords: autologous fat grafting, closed syringe lipoaspiration, adipose-derived adult stem-stromal cell, bioscaffolds, lipoaspiration/liposuction, stromal vascular fraction (SVF

  18. Community syringe collection and disposal policies in 16 states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnberg, Wayne L; Jones, T Stephen

    2002-01-01

    To review laws, regulations, and guidelines that affect the collection and disposal of hypodermic needles, syringes, and lancets used outside of professional health care settings (hereafter referred to as "community syringes"). Law and policy analysis. Alabama, California, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Washington, and Wisconsin. Information on syringe collection and disposal in the community was gathered from federal and state records and state agency personnel. Legally permissible means of syringe collection and disposal available to persons in the community injecting medical treatments and injection drug users. Laws, regulations, or guidelines in 13 states allowed community syringes to be legally discarded in household trash; guidelines for in-trash disposal varied among the states. Only 6 states had laws or regulations that specifically addressed community syringe collection. In 10 states, infectious waste laws and regulations that apply to medical facilities such as clinics would also apply to community syringe collection sites. In the 16 states studied, laws, regulations, and guidelines relating to community syringe collection and disposal were somewhat inconsistent and confusing and presented potential barriers to safe disposal. States should consider amending laws, regulations, and guidelines to promote community syringe collection programs. A national effort is needed to achieve consistent community syringe collection and disposal laws and guidelines for all states. Pharmacists can aid in safe syringe disposal by counseling their patients about safe disposal, providing or selling sharps containers, and accepting used syringes for safe disposal. Pharmacists can join other interested groups in advocating clarification of disposal laws and regulations that favor community programs designed to keep syringes out of the trash so that they can be disposed of as

  19. Comparative evaluation of endodontic pressure syringe, insulin syringe, jiffy tube, and local anesthetic syringe in obturation of primary teeth: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiremath, Mallayya C; Srivastava, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare four methods of root canal obturation in primary teeth using conventional radiography. A total of 96 root canals of primary molars were prepared and obturated with zinc oxide eugenol. Obturation methods compared were endodontic pressure syringe, insulin syringe, jiffy tube, and local anesthetic syringe. The root canal obturations were evaluated by conventional radiography for the length of obturation and presence of voids. The obtained data were analyzed using Chi-square test. The results showed significant differences between the four groups for the length of obturation (P tube showed the poor results (37.5% optimal fillings) for the length of obturation. The insulin syringe (79.2% optimal fillings) and local anesthetic syringe (66.7% optimal fillings) showed acceptable results for the length of root canal obturation. However, minor voids were present in all the four techniques used. Endodontic pressure syringe produced the best results in terms of length of obturation and controlling paste extrusion from the apical foramen. However, insulin syringe and local anesthetic syringe can be used as effective alternative methods.

  20. A study of gross morphological and histological syringeal features of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of gross morphological and histological syringeal features of true francolins (Galliformes: Francolinus, Scleroptila, Peliperdix and Dendroperdix spp.) and spurfowls ( Pternistis spp.) in a phylogenetic context.

  1. Gamma-sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, E.

    1974-01-01

    The author makes a survey of his experience in sterilization and sterility control of medical products. At present three different methods are used, steamsterilization, gassterilizing and gammasterilizing. The investments and costs for gamma radiation is presented and a comparison of the costs for gamma- and gassterilization including sterility control is made. (M.S.)

  2. ISO radiation sterilization standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Byron J.; Hansen, Joyce M.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the current status of the ISO radiation sterilization standards. The ISO standards are voluntary standards which detail both the validation and routine control of the sterilization process. ISO 11137 was approved in 1994 and published in 1995. When reviewing the standard you will note that less than 20% of the standard is devoted to requirements and the remainder is guidance on how to comply with the requirements. Future standards developments in radiation sterilization are being focused on providing additional guidance. The guidance that is currently provided in informative annexes of ISO 11137 includes: device/packaging materials, dose setting methods, and dosimeters and dose measurement, currently, there are four Technical Reports being developed to provide additional guidance: 1. AAMI Draft TIR, 'Radiation Sterilization Material Qualification' 2. ISO TR 13409-1996, 'Sterilization of health care products - Radiation sterilization - Substantiation of 25 kGy as a sterilization dose for small or infrequent production batches' 3. ISO Draft TR, 'Sterilization of health care products - Radiation sterilization Selection of a sterilization dose for a single production batch' 4. ISO Draft TR, 'Sterilization of health care products - Radiation sterilization-Product Families, Plans for Sampling and Frequency of Dose Audits'

  3. Container Closure Integrity Testing of Prefilled Syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez, Sarah S; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Matter, Anja; Koulov, Atanas; Singh, Satish K; Germershaus, Oliver; Mathaes, Roman

    2018-04-04

    Prefilled syringes (PFSs) are increasingly preferred over vials as container closure systems (CCSs) for injectable drug products when facilitated or self-administration is required. However, PFSs are more complex compared to CCSs consisting of vial, rubber stopper and crimp cap. Container closure integrity (CCI) assurance and verification has been a specific challenge for PFSs as they feature several sealing areas. A comprehensive understanding of the CCS is necessary for an appropriate CCI assessment as well as for packaging development and qualification. A comprehensive CCI assessment of six different PFSs from three different manufacturers (including one polymeric PFS) was conducted using helium leak testing. PFS components were manipulated to systematically assess the contribution of the different sealing areas to CCI, namely rigid needle shield (RNS)/needle, RNS/tip cone and the individual ribs of a syringe plunger. The polymeric PFS required an equilibrium measurement for accurate CCIT. The different sealing areas and a single plunger rib were shown to provide adequate CCI. Acceptable tip cap movement until the point of CCI failure was estimated. The assessment of acceptable tip cap movement demonstrated the importance of considering the RNS/tip cone seal design to ensure CCI of the PFS upon post assembly possesses and shipment. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Electron sterilization validation techniques using the controlled depth of sterilization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleghorn, D.A.; Nablo, S.V.

    1990-01-01

    Many pharmaceutical products, especially parenteral drugs, cannot be sterilized with gamma rays or high energy electrons due to the concomitant product degradation. In view of the well-controlled electron energy spectrum available in modern electron processors, it is practical to deliver sterilizing doses over depths considerably less than those defining the thickness of blister-pack constructions or pharmaceutical containers. Because bremsstrahlung and X-ray production are minimized at these low electron energies and in these low Z materials, very high electron: penetrating X-ray dose ratios are possible for the application of the technique. Thin film dosimetric techniques have been developed utilizing radiochromic film in the 10-60 g/m 2 range for determining the surface dose distribution in occluded surface areas where direct electron illumination is not possible. Procedures for validation of the process using dried spore inoculum on the product as well as in good geometry are employed to determine the process lethality and its dependence on product surface geometry. Applications of the process to labile pharmaceuticals in glass and polystyrene syringes are reviewed. It has been applied to the sterilization of commercial sterile products since 1987, and the advantages and the natural limitations of the technique are discussed. (author)

  5. 21 CFR 870.1670 - Syringe actuator for an injector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Syringe actuator for an injector. 870.1670 Section 870.1670 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... actuator for an injector. (a) Identification. A syringe actuator for an injector is an electrical device...

  6. Stability of sodium bicarbonate injection 8.4% in syringes over a six-week period in refrigerated temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Jack T; Wang, Tian Q; Yip, Paul M; Mazzulli, Tony; Minden, Mark D

    2018-04-01

    Background Dysfunctional central venous catheter prohibits the administration of potential life-saving chemotherapy and the delivery of essential supportive care needs to patients. Sodium bicarbonate injection has been shown to impede against fibrin clot formation and prolong prothrombin time and thrombin clotting time. Sodium bicarbonate injection has been tried as a second-line agent with good results in a small number of patients (internal data not published) when alteplase failed. We assessed whether the pre-filled sodium bicarbonate injection in 5 mL syringes would not only preserve sterility and retain its pH and concentration but also amount to the potential cost savings for future use when stored in a refrigerated environment. Methodology Twelve pre-filled 5 mL syringes were prepared aseptically, of which four each were tested for pH, sodium bicarbonate injection concentration and sterility when stored in refrigerated temperature over a six-week period. A standard pH meter, enzymatic carbon dioxide analyzer, and a 14-day incubation for microbial detection were employed for this study. Results Sodium bicarbonate concentration measured in the form of carbon dioxide ranged from 923 mmol/L or (1846 mosol/L) to 1006 mmol/L or (2012 mosmol/L), and pH ranged from (7.88 to 8.05) were reported over the duration of the study period. The 14-day incubation period resulted in no microbial growth. Conclusion Our study results have indicated that the pH and sodium bicarbonate injection concentration values were stable and within range, comparable to those reported by the manufacturer within the study period. The contents of the subdivided sodium bicarbonate injection 5 mL syringes retained sterility over a 14-day incubation period.

  7. Radiosterilization and gas sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, H.A.; Gruenewald, T.

    1987-01-01

    The book presents a survey of the principles of cold sterilization by radiation or gas, and also of the problems involved. The reader who has to do with sterilization of some kind or other, as e.g. sterilization of medicaments, medical supplies, medical device, drugs, grafts, or food, will find comprehensive information on the various available methods and their effects, as well as on monitoring procedures and techniques, together with proposals for efficient documentation and validation of partial sterilization processes. The introduction summarizes the potentials of sterilization by radiation, and the subsequent by radiation, and the subsequent chapters explain the specific applicabilities of radiosterilization along with the most important criteria for evaluating the sterilizing efficiency. The information on the legal situation and requirements takes into account the second amendment of the Medical Preparations Act. With 38 figs., 14 tabs [de

  8. Non-destructive vacuum decay method for pre-filled syringe closure integrity testing compared with dye ingress testing and high-voltage leak detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, Andrea; Amari, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    In reaction to the limitations of the traditional sterility test methods, in 2008, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration issued the guidance "Container and Closure System Integrity Testing in Lieu of Sterility Testing as a Component of the Stability Protocol for Sterile Products" encouraging sterile drug manufacturers to use properly validated physical methods, apart from conventional microbial challenge testing, to confirm container closure integrity as part of the stability protocol. The case study presented in this article investigated the capability of four container closure integrity testing methods to detect simulated defects of different sizes and types on glass syringes, prefilled both with drug product intended for parenteral administration and sterile water. The drug product was a flu vaccine (Agrippal, Novartis Vaccines, Siena, Italy). Vacuum decay, pharmacopoeial dye ingress test, Novartis specific dye ingress test, and high-voltage leak detection were, in succession, the methods involved in the comparative studies. The case study execution was preceded by the preparation of two independent sets of reference prefilled syringes, classified, respectively, as examples of conforming to closure integrity requirements (negative controls) and as defective (positive controls). Positive controls were, in turn, split in six groups, three of with holes laser-drilled through the prefilled syringe glass barrel, while the other three with capillary tubes embedded in the prefilled syringe plunger. These reference populations were then investigated by means of validated equipment used for container closure integrity testing of prefilled syringe commercial production; data were collected and analyzed to determine the detection rate and the percentage of false results. Results showed that the vacuum decay method had the highest performance in terms of detection sensitivity and also ensured the best reliability and repeatability of measurements. An innovative technical

  9. Inherited sterility in insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, J.E.; Marec, F.; Bloem, S.

    2005-01-01

    The unique genetic phenomena responsible for inherited sterility (IS) in Lepidoptera and some other arthropods, as compared with full sterility, provide advantages for pest control. Lepidopteran females are usually more sensitive to radiation than males of the same species. This allows the radiation dose to be adjusted to suit programme requirements. When partially sterile males mate with wild females, the radiation-induced deleterious effects are inherited by the F 1 generation. As a result, egg hatch is reduced and the resulting offspring are both highly sterile and predominately male. Compared with the high radiation required to achieve full sterility in Lepidoptera, the lower dose of radiation used to induce F 1 sterility increases the quality and competitiveness of the released insects as measured by improved dispersal after release, increased mating ability, and superior sperm competition. F 1 sterile progeny produced in the field enhance the efficacy of released partially sterile males, and improve compatibility with other pest control strategies. In addition, F 1 sterile progeny can be used to increase the production of natural enemies, and to study the potential host and geographical ranges of exotic lepidopteran pests. (author)

  10. Reversibility of female sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, A M; Hulka, J; Peretz, A

    1985-04-01

    The discussion considers the current status of reversibility of sterilization in the US and describes clinical and experimental efforts for developing techniques designed for reversibility. It focuses on regret following sterilization, reversal potential of current sterilization techniques, patient selection, current reversal techniques, results of sterilization procedures, experimental approaches to reversal of current techniques of sterilization, and sterilization procedures devised for reversibility, in humans and in animals. Request is the 1st stage of reversal, but a request for sterilization reversal (SR) does not always mean regret for a decision made at the time. Frequently it is a wish to restore fertility because life circumstances have changed after a sterilization that was ppropriate at the time it was performed. Schwyhart and Kutner reviewed 22 studies published between 1949-69 in which they found that the percentage of patients regretting the procedure ranged from 1.3-15%. Requests for reversal remain low in most countries, but if sterilization becomes a more popular method of contraception, requests will also increase. The ideal operation considered as a reversaible method of sterilization should include an easy, reliable outpatient method of tubal occlusion with miniml risk or patient discomfort that subsequently could be reversed without the need for a major surgical intervention. Endoscopic methods have progressed toward the 1st objective. A recent search of the literature uncovered few series of SR of more than 50 cases. The 767 operations found were analyzed with regard to pregnancy outcome. The precent of live births varied from 74-78.8%, and the occurance of tubal pregnancies ranged from 1.7-6.5%. All of the confounding variables in patient selection and small numbers of reported procedures preclude any conclusion about the different techniques or the number of operations that give a surgeon a level of expertise. Few authors classify their

  11. Modular ionizing sterilizer (MIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freijo, Jose L.

    1999-01-01

    A transportable device designed to sterilize medical material and wastes by gamma irradiation is described. The sterilizer is formed by three modules: one of the modules contains the gamma source and can be removed to transport and transfer the source, the other modules are designed to introduce and draw out the materials to be irradiated

  12. Predicting pharmacy syringe sales to people who inject drugs: Policy, practice and perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerson, Beth E; Davis, Alissa; Agley, Jon D; Shannon, David J; Lawrence, Carrie A; Ryder, Priscilla T; Ritchie, Karleen; Gassman, Ruth

    2018-06-01

    Pharmacies have much to contribute to the health of people who inject drugs (PWID) and to community efforts in HIV and hepatitis C (HCV) prevention through syringe access. However, little is known about what predicts pharmacy syringe sales without a prescription. To identify factors predicting pharmacy syringes sales to PWID. A hybrid staggered online survey of 298 Indiana community pharmacists occurred from July-September 2016 measuring pharmacy policy, practice, and pharmacist perceptions about syringe sales to PWID. Separate bivariate logistical regressions were followed by multivariable logistic regression to predict pharmacy syringe sales and pharmacist comfort dispensing syringes to PWID. Half (50.5%) of Indiana pharmacies sold syringes without a prescription to PWID. Pharmacy syringe sales was strongly associated with pharmacist supportive beliefs about syringe access by PWID and their comfort level selling syringes to PWID. Notably, pharmacies located in communities with high rates of opioid overdose mortality were 56% less likely to sell syringes without a prescription than those in communities with lower rates. Pharmacist comfort dispensing syringes was associated with being male, working at a pharmacy that sold syringes to PWID and one that stocked naloxone, having been asked about syringe access by medical providers, and agreement that PWID should be able to buy syringes without a prescription. As communities with high rates of opioid overdose mortality were less likely to have pharmacies that dispensed syringes to PWID, a concerted effort with these communities and their pharmacies should be made to understand opportunities to increase syringe access. Future studies should explore nuances between theoretical support for syringe access by PWID without a prescription and actual dispensing behaviors. Addressing potential policy conflicts and offering continuing education on non-prescription syringe distribution for pharmacists may improve comfort

  13. Drug residues in used syringes in Switzerland: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrançois, Elodie; Augsburger, Marc; Esseiva, Pierre

    2018-05-01

    Harm reduction services, including needle-exchange programmes, have been implemented in Switzerland for over 20 years. Their main aim is to lessen the negative social and/or physical consequences associated with illicit drug consumption and, therefore, improve prevention messages. To this end, knowledge of illicit drug consumption practices is necessary. Periodic self-report surveys are the primary source of data for monitoring drug users' behaviour. Analysis of residual content of used syringes can bring further and objective knowledge about consumed products through analytically confirmed data. Used syringes were sampled in 2 syringe-exchange facilities in Lausanne. These structures are a bus where the users bring back their syringes (ABS) and an automatic injecting kit dispenser (AIKD). Once syringes were collected, a validated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was implemented in order to detect drugs (licit or illicit) contained in the residual content of used syringes. Cocaine was the most common drug detected alone (39% in ABS and 31% in AIKD), followed by the simultaneous detection of heroin and cocaine (12% and 17%) and heroin and midazolam (12% and 17%). The differences between the illicit drugs distribution of used syringes collected in AIKD and ABS were not statistically significant. Analysis of residual content of used syringes as a monitoring tool is an original approach that has already led to a better understanding of the habits of drug-injection users. Over the long term, this approach is a powerful tool to track and detect new consumption practices in a quasi-real-time. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. [Morphine self-administration by rats using a pneumatic syringe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Y; Takayama, S

    1988-06-01

    An apparatus for drug self-administration by rats using a pneumatic syringe was developed by Weeks. A microliter syringe operated by a pneumatic cylinder supplies an accurate volume of drug solution within one second. When coefficient of variation of infusion volume was compared among pneumatic syringe, infusion pump, and peristaltic pump, pneumatic syringe showed higher accuracy in infusion volume than the other two pumps. Since the infusion speed by a pneumatic syringe is very rapid (less than one second per infusion), the effect of infusion speed on reinforcing property of morphine was investigated. When rats self-administered 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 mg/kg/infusion of morphine by pneumatic syringes, the patterns of self-infusion were more stable, the number of self-infusions and the amount self-administered were larger, and a dose-response relationship was clearer in comparison with those self-infused the same doses of morphine for 5.6 seconds by infusion pumps or peristaltic pumps.

  15. Stability of Hydromorphone-Ketamine Solutions in Glass Bottles, Plastic Syringes, and IV Bags for Pediatric Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensom, Mary H H; Decarie, Diane; Leung, Karen; Montgomery, Carolyne

    2009-03-01

    To evaluate the stability of mixtures of hydromorphone and ketamine in 0.9% sodium chloride (normal saline [NS]) after storage for up to 7 days at room temperature (25°C). The stability of 3 standard mixtures of hydromorphone and ketamine (hydromorphone 0.2 mg/mL + ketamine 0.2 mg/mL, hydromorphone 0.2 mg/mL + ketamine 0.6 mg/mL, and hydromorphone 0.2 mg/mL + ketamine 1.0 mg/mL) in NS was studied. Portions of each mixture were transferred to 3 brown glass bottles (100 mL), 3 plastic syringes (50 mL), and 3 IV bags (50 mL), which were then stored at room temperature (25°C). Physical characteristics, including pH, colour, and precipitation, were evaluated daily. Three 1.5-mL samples were collected from each bottle, syringe, and IV bag at baseline, at 24, 48, and 72 hours, and on day 7. Samples were analyzed in triplicate by a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. Solutions were considered stable if they maintained 90% of the initial concentration of each drug. Samples from syringes and IV bags were subjected to standard sterility testing by incubation for 5 days in an enriched culture media. No notable changes in pH or colour were observed, and no precipitation occurred in any of the solutions. All formulations maintained more than 90% of the initial concentration of each drug on day 7. No bacterial growth was observed in any of the samples tested. Mixtures of hydromorphone and ketamine were stable for up 7 days at 25°C, and the sterility of the preparations was maintained. Because stability alone does not guarantee efficacy, it is recommended that clinical studies be conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of these formulations.

  16. [Sterilization and eugenics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shasha, Shaul M

    2011-04-01

    The term "eugenics" was coined by Francis Galton in 1883 and was defined as the science of the improvement of the human race by better breeding. "Positive eugenics" referred to methods of encouraging the "most fit" to reproduce more often, while "negative eugenics" was related to ways of discouraging or preventing the "less fit" from reproducing by birth control and sterilization. Many western countries adopted eugenics programs including Britain, Canada, Norway, Australia, Switzerland and others. In Sweden more then 62,000 "unfits" were forcibly sterilized. Many states in the U.S.A. had adopted marriage laws with eugenics criteria including forced sterilization. Approximately 64,000 individuals were sterilized. Eugenics considerations also lay behind the adoption of the Immigration Restriction Act of 1924. The Largest plan on eugenics was adopted by the Nazi regime in Germany. Hundreds of thousands of people, who were viewed as being "unfit", were forcibly sterilized by different methods: Surgical sterilization or castration with severe complications and high mortality rates. X-ray irradiation. The method was suggested by Brack, and tested by Schuman using prisoners in Block No. 10 in Auschwitz and Birkenau. Experiments were also performed by Brack on prisoners using the "window method". "Klauberg method"--injection of irritating materials into the uterus. Experiments were conducted using the plant Caladium Seguinum which was believed to have sterilization and castration properties.

  17. Better health care: Ghana uses radiation technology to sterilize medical items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Aabha

    2015-01-01

    Infections acquired from improperly sterilized equipment are recognized as a major impediment to safe health care delivery, with consequences that are often deadly for patients. Radiation technology plays a major role in many countries in making medical equipment safer. “The use of nuclear applications, such as exposing medical items to gamma radiation, helps Ghana protect its people from avoidable sicknesses that can occur if items like syringes are not properly sterilized,” said Abraham Adu-Gyamfi, Manager of the Radiation Technology Centre of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission’s Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute in Accra.

  18. [Legal statutes on sterilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, K

    1980-01-01

    Sterilization in Yugoslavia is no population policy measure. Decision about the birth of children is free, a private problem of any individual, a basic right guaranteed by the Constitution. However, according to certain laws in Slovenia and Croatia, sterilization is allowed as a family planning method in persons over 35 year old. Only exceptionally can sterilization be applied in persons younger than 35 years: according to the Slovenian law, in cases when a person lacks the capacity of reasoning and also when there are medical indications, and according to the Croatian law, when there are medical and eugenic reasons (if the child is supposed to be born with negative congenital properties).

  19. Materials Surfaces and sterility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, R.

    2001-04-01

    A question of great interest in sterile and clean room technology is how can we devise a standard for the guarantee of sterility? Sterility is of widespread importance: it gives the life-time of our daily milk or yogurt, dominates the nature of food packing, and determines the feasibility of the miniaturization of biotechnology plants. All these phenomena are based on the principle of bioadhesion. Bioadhesion is also the basis of the biomimetic material technologies, like the attachment of selected protein layers that can be used for nanomasking. (orig.)

  20. Attitudes of North Carolina law enforcement officers toward syringe decriminalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Corey S.; Johnston, Jill; Zerden, Lisa de Saxe; Clark, Katie; Castillo, Tessie; Childs, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Background North Carolina, like much of the U.S. South, is disproportionately affected by HIV and hepatitis. This persistently high disease burden may be driven in part by laws that criminalize the possession and distribution of syringes for illicit drug use. Legal change to decriminalize syringes may reduce infection rates in the state, but is unlikely absent support from law enforcement actors. Methods We analyzed the responses of 350 North Carolina law enforcement officers to a confidential, anonymous survey. The survey instrument collected data regarding self-reported needle-stick injury (NSI), blood borne disease risk perception and attitudes toward syringe decriminalization. Results 82% of respondents reported that contracting HIV was a “big concern” for them. 3.8% of respondents reported ever receiving a job-related NSI, a rate of 36 NSI per 10,000 officer-years. Majorities of respondents reported positive views regarding syringe decriminalization, with approximately 63% agreeing that it would be “good for the community” and 60% agreeing that it would be “good for law enforcement.” Black and female officers were significantly less likely to agree that on-the-job NSI was a “big concern” and significantly more likely to agree that it would be good for law enforcement. Conclusions These findings suggest that many North Carolina LEOs understand the public health benefits of syringe access programs and may be inclined to support syringe decriminalization legislation. Further research is indicated to determine the causes of observed differences in perceptions of bloodborne disease risk and attitudes toward syringe decriminalization by race and sex. PMID:25193720

  1. Sterilization of space hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflug, I. J.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of various techniques of sterilization of space flight hardware using either destructive heating or the action of chemicals. Factors considered in the dry-heat destruction of microorganisms include the effects of microbial water content, temperature, the physicochemical properties of the microorganism and adjacent support, and nature of the surrounding gas atmosphere. Dry-heat destruction rates of microorganisms on the surface, between mated surface areas, or buried in the solid material of space vehicle hardware are reviewed, along with alternative dry-heat sterilization cycles, thermodynamic considerations, and considerations of final sterilization-process design. Discussed sterilization chemicals include ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, methyl bromide, dimethyl sulfoxide, peracetic acid, and beta-propiolactone.

  2. Sterilization by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes Frias, L.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1980 the National Institute of Nuclear Research counts with an Industrial Gamma Irradiator, for the sterilization of raw materials and finished products. Through several means has been promoted the use of this technology as alternative to conventional methods of sterilization as well as steam treatment and ethylene oxide. As a result of the made promotion this irradiator has come to its saturation limit being the sterilization irradiation one of the main services that National Institute of Nuclear Research offers to producer enterprises of disposable materials of medical use also of raw materials for the elaboration of cosmetic products and pharmaceuticals as well as dehydrated foods. It is presented the trend to the sterilization service by irradiation showed by the compilation data in a survey made by potential customers. (Author)

  3. Radiation sterilization of medical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaluska, I.; Stuglik, Z.

    1996-01-01

    Overview of sterilization methods of medical devices has been given, with the special stress put on radiation sterilization. A typical validation program for radiation sterilization has been shown and also a comparison of European and ISO standards concerning radiation sterilization has been discussed. (author). 13 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  4. Auditing radiation sterilization facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jeffrey A.

    The diversity of radiation sterilization systems available today places renewed emphasis on the need for thorough Quality Assurance audits of these facilities. Evaluating compliance with Good Manufacturing Practices is an obvious requirement, but an effective audit must also evaluate installation and performance qualification programs (validation_, and process control and monitoring procedures in detail. The present paper describes general standards that radiation sterilization operations should meet in each of these key areas, and provides basic guidance for conducting QA audits of these facilities.

  5. Trends in sterilization since the introduction of Essure hysteroscopic sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavell, Valerie I; Abdallah, Mazen E; Shade, George H; Diamond, Michael P; Berman, Jay M

    2009-01-01

    To investigate trends in sterilization in women at the Detroit Medical Center, Michigan (DMC), since the introduction of Essure hysteroscopic sterilization. Retrospective study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Outpatient surgery center and university teaching hospitals. Women who underwent interval sterilization procedures at the DMC (Hutzel Women's Hospital, Sinai-Grace Hospital, and the Berry Center) and postpartum sterilization procedures at Hutzel Women's Hospital between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2007. Permanent sterilization procedures including minilaparotomy tubal ligation, laparoscopic sterilization, Essure hysteroscopic sterilization, and postpartum tubal ligation performed at the time of cesarean section or after vaginal delivery. In all, 5509 permanent sterilization procedures were performed in the 6 years between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2007, at the DMC facilities analyzed: 2484 interval sterilization procedures at Hutzel Women's Hospital, Sinai-Grace Hospital, and the Berry Center, and 3025 postpartum tubal ligations at Hutzel Women's Hospital. From 2002 through 2007, the decrease in laparoscopic sterilizations from 97.9% to 48.5% of all interval sterilization procedures corresponded significantly with the increase in Essure hysteroscopic sterilizations from 0.0% to 51.3% (p Essure hysteroscopic sterilizations increased significantly from 0.0% to 51.3% of all procedures. Since the approval of Essure hysteroscopic sterilization in November 2002, this minimally invasive method of hysteroscopic sterilization has increased in popularity at the DMC.

  6. Radiation sterilization of livestock feeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Koji

    1984-01-01

    The radiation sterilization of livestock feeds is not much used presently because the process is not known well, and the cost is relatively high. However, its effect of sterilization is absolute, the radiation-sterilized feeds are safe in both nutrition and toxicity, and do not affect the appetite of livestocks, and the radiation energy required is small. In the future, as in the sterilization of medical supplies, feed radiation sterilization plants should be established, to stabilize livestock industry and to contribute to the health control of experimental animals. The following matters are described: radiation, comparison between radiation sterilization and other sterilization methods, the practice of feed radiation sterilization, the adverse effects of radiation sterilization, economic aspect, and the situation of feed radiation sterilization in various countries. (Mori, K.)

  7. Avaliação da intensidade de contaminação de pontas de seringa tríplice Evaluation of the bacterial contamination of air/water syringes tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Maria Agueda RUSSO

    2000-09-01

    transported to the laboratory and, under aseptic condition, rolled and compressed on a Tryptic Soy Agar surface with 5% of defibrillated sheep blood. After a 96-hour incubation, the reading was carried out with the help of a lens. According to the manufacture’s information, the disposable tips were sterilized. In all of the tips used in patients, an uncountable amount of cfu (colony formation units was found, revealing great contamination. In the disposable tips disinfected after being used, there was small bacterial growth, but that was incompatible with cross-contamination prevention. Therefore, we conclude that disposable air/water syringes tips must have a single use.

  8. Retention and variability of hydrogen (H2) samples stored in plastic syringes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1987-01-01

    The utility of two brands of 20 ml plastic syringes for storage of hydrogen (H2) samples as obtained in H2 breath tests were studied. Plastipak syringes were found to be significantly better with regard to the stability of the H2 concentration and the variability between the H2 samples. Storage...... of the H2 samples in Plastipak syringes at 5 degrees C significantly improved the H2 retention, whereas refrigeration of H2 samples stored in Once syringes did not reduce H2 loss. Storage of H2 samples in refrigerated plastic syringes is efficient and reliable for several days if syringes with minimal...... sample variation are used....

  9. Reprocessamento e reutilização de material odonto-médico-hospitalar de uso único: busca de evidências pela revisão sistemática de literatura científica Reprocesamiento y reutilización de material odontológico- médico y hospitalario de uso único. Búsqueda de evidencias por la revisión sistemática de literatura científica Re-sterilization and re-utilization of single use of dental and medical devices: a systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Patrícia Amaral Carvalho Denser

    2006-09-01

    reprocesamiento y reutilización basados en conocimiento científico con niveles de evidencia bien establecidos.OBJECTIVE: to search for scientific evidence to support the re-sterilization and re-utilization of dental and medical single use devices. METHODS: twenty basic research publications and one review article were used to conduct a systematic review of the literature. RESULTS: in spite of the majority of studies being classified as experimental, only 3 studies used randomization. There were mixed results regarding evidence to support the re-sterilization and re-utilization of single use devices, which might be in part due to non-standardized method re-sterilization and quality control. CONCLUSION: re-sterilization and re-utilization of single use devices cannot be applied to general practice. It is crucial to consider case by case based on validation of scientific protocol and evidence of quality control.

  10. Male sterility in chestnuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omura, Mitsuo; Akihama, Tomoya

    1982-01-01

    A tentative plan was proposed for chestnuts based on their pollination system, male sterility and restoration. The studies on the male sterility of 1,063 cultivars and clones suggested that there were three types of male sterility. The first type (S-1) was characterized by antherless florets. In the second type (S-2), the catkins fell before anthesis, and the third type (S-3) appeared to develop normally in gross floral morphology, but the pollen grains were abnormal in shape and did not have germinating power. In an interspecific hybrid clone CS which belonged to S-1, fertility was restored in an open pollinated progeny. The use of CS and CSO-3 with its restored fertility, permitted the planning of breeding the chestnut hybrid cultivars propagated by seeds. The inbred clones with either male sterility or restorer genes are first bred mainly by back crossing with parents with favorable pollen. The clones are selected individually for early bearing, wasp and disease resistance, and restoration. Then, the hybrid seedling lines between male sterile and restorer inbreds are evaluated for homogenity in nut characters and tree habits. Next, the hybrid seedling lines selected will be examined for crop yield, vigor and cross compatibility. The superior seedling lines are finally selected, and the parental inbreds are grafted to be propagated for seed production orchards. (Kaihara, S.)

  11. Spring-loaded syringe for multiple rapid injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C R Srinivas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesotherapy refers to multiple injections of small quantity of the drug over a large area. The mesoguns available are expensive and the motor-driven models tends to waste the expensive material to be injected since the plunger stops after injecting without recoil. We searched for a less expensive device which would inject like the mesogun and still not waste the solution. On searching the web, we identified a spring-loaded syringe. We describe the assembly and use of this inexpensive syringe for delivering multiple injections with minimal wastage.

  12. Spring-loaded Syringe for Multiple Rapid Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, CR; Somani, Anirudh; Shashidharan Nair, CK; Mylswamy, Thirumurthy

    2017-01-01

    Mesotherapy refers to multiple injections of small quantity of the drug over a large area. The mesoguns available are expensive and the motor-driven models tends to waste the expensive material to be injected since the plunger stops after injecting without recoil. We searched for a less expensive device which would inject like the mesogun and still not waste the solution. On searching the web, we identified a spring-loaded syringe. We describe the assembly and use of this inexpensive syringe for delivering multiple injections with minimal wastage. PMID:28529423

  13. Options for reducing HIV transmission related to the dead space in needles and syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zule, William A; Pande, Poonam G; Otiashvili, David; Bobashev, Georgiy V; Friedman, Samuel R; Gyarmathy, V Anna; Des Jarlais, Don C

    2018-01-15

    When shared by people who inject drugs, needles and syringes with different dead space may affect the probability of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission differently. We measured dead space in 56 needle and syringe combinations obtained from needle and syringe programs across 17 countries in Europe and Asia. We also calculated the amounts of blood and HIV that would remain in different combinations following injection and rinsing. Syringe barrel capacities ranged from 0.5 to 20 mL. Needles ranged in length from 8 to 38 mm. The average dead space was 3 μL in low dead space syringes with permanently attached needles, 13 μL in high dead space syringes with low dead space needles, 45 μL in low dead space syringes with high dead space needles, and 99 μL in high dead space syringes with high dead space needles. Among low dead space designs, calculated volumes of blood and HIV viral burden were lowest for low dead space syringes with permanently attached needles and highest for low dead space syringes with high dead space needles. The dead space in different low dead space needle and syringe combinations varied substantially. To reduce HIV transmission related to syringe sharing, needle and syringe programs need to combine this knowledge with the needs of their clients.

  14. Audits of radiation sterilization facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelkar, Prabhakar M.

    2001-01-01

    Johnson and Johnson is the world leader in sterilization science and technology. A special group of scientists and technologists are engaged in the development of new methods of sterilization, worldwide monitoring of sterilization processes, equipment and approvals for all types of sterilization processes. Kilmer Conference in the alternate year for the benefit of all those involved in improvement in sterilization science is held. Cobalt-60 gamma radiation for sterilization of medical products on commercial scale is used. This kind of mammoth task can only be achieved through systematic method of planning, auditing, expert review and approval of facilities

  15. Sterility induction in tsetse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C F [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (UK); Langley, P A [Bristol Univ. (UK)

    1982-01-01

    The first laboratory and field experiments on genetic control were with tsetse flies, and they made use of the sterility in crosses and hybrids between closely related species of the Glossina morsitans complex. Backcrosses indicate that there are two separate sterility mechanisms involved: (a) genetic incompatibility between a mother and the products of alien genes in the embryo or larva in the uterus; (b) inability of hybrid males to inseminate due to incompatibility of their X-chromosomes with an alien Y or autosomes. The two largest sterile male release programmes have been in Tanzania and Upper Volta, and have used irradiation at the pupal or adult stage, respectively, for the production of sterility. Male tsetse are remarkably resistant to radiosterilization and, with the doses required to induce dominant lethals in more than 95% of sperms, premature senescence and lethargic behaviour of the males tends to result. With G. morsitans irradiated at the puparial stage these effects can be alleviated by the use of a nitrogen atmosphere during irradiation. If the puparia are then transferred to air at 11/sup 0/C for transport to the release site, immediate emergence occurs on re-warming after arrival. This advantageous procedure was used for the releases in Tanzania. In addition to dominant lethals, irradiation also produces chromosome translocations which cause inherited partial sterility. A homozygous translocation line was selected but this example did not have sufficient fitness to be used in a mass rearing programme. Chemosterilants can be applied by pupal dipping, adult contact with deposits or in aerosols. Studies are now in progress on their use in association with odour-baited traps or pheromone-baited decoys as a means of sterilizing the wild population and thus avoiding the costly and difficult process of mass rearing tsetse.

  16. Extractables analysis of single-use flexible plastic biocontainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marghitoiu, Liliana; Liu, Jian; Lee, Hans; Perez, Lourdes; Fujimori, Kiyoshi; Ronk, Michael; Hammond, Matthew R; Nunn, Heather; Lower, Asher; Rogers, Gary; Nashed-Samuel, Yasser

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the extractable profiles of bioprocessing components have become an integral part of drug development efforts to minimize possible compromise in process performance, decrease in drug product quality, and potential safety risk to patients due to the possibility of small molecules leaching out from the components. In this study, an effective extraction solvent system was developed to evaluate the organic extractable profiles of single-use bioprocess equipment, which has been gaining increasing popularity in the biopharmaceutical industry because of the many advantages over the traditional stainless steel-based bioreactors and other fluid mixing and storage vessels. The chosen extraction conditions were intended to represent aggressive conditions relative to the application of single-use bags in biopharmaceutical manufacture, in which aqueous based systems are largely utilized. Those extraction conditions, along with a non-targeted analytical strategy, allowed for the generation and identification of an array of extractable compounds; a total of 53 organic compounds were identified from four types of commercially available single-use bags, the majority of which are degradation products of polymer additives. The success of this overall extractables analysis strategy was reflected partially by the effectiveness in the extraction and identification of a compound that was later found to be highly detrimental to mammalian cell growth. The usage of single-use bioreactors has been increasing in biopharmaceutical industry because of the appealing advantages that it promises regarding to the cleaning, sterilization, operational flexibility, and so on, during manufacturing of biologics. However, compared to its conventional counterparts based mainly on stainless steel, single-use bioreactors are more susceptible to potential problems associated with compound leaching into the bioprocessing fluid. As a result, extractable profiling of the single-use system has become

  17. Determining serum bicarbonate; a simple syringe titrator and colorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BOONE, C W; FIELD, J B

    1953-12-01

    The use of a tuberculin syringe as a burette has made possible an easy bedside technique for the determination of serum bicarbonate. By combining it with the use of a simple colorimeter, a relatively untrained person can do numerous bicarbonate determinations with a high degree of accuracy. The same technique also lends itself to other colorimetric clinical procedures such as determination of gastric acidity.

  18. Large volume syringe pump extruder for desktop 3D printers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kira Pusch

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Syringe pump extruders are required for a wide range of 3D printing applications, including bioprinting, embedded printing, and food printing. However, the mass of the syringe becomes a major challenge for most printing platforms, requiring compromises in speed, resolution and/or volume. To address these issues, we have designed a syringe pump large volume extruder (LVE that is compatible with low-cost, open source 3D printers, and herein demonstrate its performance on a PrintrBot Simple Metal. Key aspects of the LVE include: (1 it is open source and compatible with open source hardware and software, making it inexpensive and widely accessible to the 3D printing community, (2 it utilizes a standard 60 mL syringe as its ink reservoir, effectively increasing print volume of the average bioprinter, (3 it is capable of retraction and high speed movements, and (4 it can print fluids using nozzle diameters as small as 100 μm, enabling the printing of complex shapes/objects when used in conjunction with the freeform reversible embedding of suspended hydrogels (FRESH 3D printing method. Printing performance of the LVE is demonstrated by utilizing alginate as a model biomaterial ink to fabricate parametric CAD models and standard calibration objects. Keywords: Additive manufacturing, 3D bioprinting, Embedded printing, FRESH, Soft materials extrusion

  19. The benefits and drawbacks of syringe drivers in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, John; Nyatanga, Brian; Mula, Carole; Hull, Jenny

    2008-03-01

    This article will outline the use of continuous subcutaneous infusion pumps, known as syringe drivers, including their benefits and drawbacks in a palliative care context. There have been over 5000 articles published globally describing syringe drivers in the medical and nursing literature within the last decade. Many provide guidance on their use, although much of the data are repetitious, disease or age-group specific, and focused on pragmatic issues to do with clinical application. Several trusts and hospices across the UK are carrying out trials of the recently launched McKinley T34 syringe driver. Therefore, it seems timely to consider their wider use internationally. Globally, practitioners in palliative care are very familiar with their use, although the literature lacks specific guidance and, at times, the information is ambiguous. Having briefly reviewed their benefits, the article considers the limitations of using syringe drivers and comments on some of the lesser known/reported practical and patient-focused drawbacks associated with their use. We conclude by considering why, when so much education and training exists to help practitioners use these devices effectively, so many human errors occur.

  20. Heat sterilization of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang

    2010-01-01

    Two important questions should be considered in heat sterilizing solid wood materials: First, what temperature–time regime is required to kill a particular pest? Second, how much time is required to heat the center of any wood configuration to the kill temperature? The entomology research on the first question has facilitated the development of international standards...

  1. MINOS Sterile Neutrino Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koskinen, David Jason [Univ. College London, Bloomsbury (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment designed to measure properties of neutrino oscillation. Using a high intensity muon neutrino beam, produced by the Neutrinos at Main Injector (NuMI) complex at Fermilab, MINOS makes two measurements of neutrino interactions. The first measurement is made using the Near Detector situated at Fermilab and the second is made using the Far Detector located in the Soudan Underground laboratory in northern Minnesota. The primary goal of MINOS is to verify, and measure the properties of, neutrino oscillation between the two detectors using the v μ→ Vτ transition. A complementary measurement can be made to search for the existence of sterile neutrinos; an oft theorized, but experimentally unvalidated particle. The following thesis will show the results of a sterile neutrino search using MINOS RunI and RunII data totaling ~2.5 x 1020 protons on target. Due to the theoretical nature of sterile neutrinos, complete formalism that covers transition probabilities for the three known active states with the addition of a sterile state is also presented.

  2. Sterilization by ionizing radiation comparative evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tata, A.; Giuliani, S.

    1996-01-01

    Sterilization of surgical and medical devices by ionizing radiation (gamma or accelerated electron beams) is currently regarded as one of the main industrial-scale applications of radiation technology processes. Considering the most widely utilized chemical-physical methods (i.e. ethylene oxide (EtO) fumigation and radiation treatment), about 10-12 millions m(3) of surgical and medical devices are estimated to be processed yearly all around the world, of which 7 on beams. Due to the increasing demand for reusable and single-use devices, and the need of assuring their sterility in order to prevent, as much as possible, the diffusion of serious infective diseases (among which for instance Aids), the market of sterilization of these items is considerably expanding. In the general depicted scenario, radiation technologies are expected to gain a leading role, even a part from their economic attractiveness, as an alternative to EtO treatment, which is more and more considered as responsible for increasing environmental, social and public health problems

  3. Reuse prevention syringes for reconstitution of lyophilized vaccines: Operational study and UNICEF plans for expanding introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Jessica A; Hoekstra, Edward John; Moniaga, Vanda; Widjaya, Anton; Soepardi, Jane; Supartha, Nyoman; Salovaara, Annika; Khamassi, Selma; Nelson, Carib

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1990s, the United Nation's Children's Fund has encouraged injection safety for immunizations through bundling vaccines with appropriate amounts of supporting equipment and by supplying autodisable (AD) syringes for injections. However, poor vaccine reconstitution practices continue to be reported worldwide. By 2009, UNICEF will begin to phase out the distribution of standard disposable syringes for vaccine reconstitution and replace them with reuse prevention (RUP) syringes, with a full transition expected by the end of 2010. A field evaluation in Indonesia was conducted to identify introduction requirements, issues with healthcare worker training and acceptance, and RUP syringe performance and safety. Managers and health workers felt that RUP syringes improved injection safety and fit easily into country logistical systems. Healthcare workers felt they were intuitive to use, but recommended special training. The integration of RUP reconstitution syringes by UNICEF could increase injection safety by preventing the reuse of syringes and reducing vaccine contamination.

  4. Genetically conditioned male sterility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, W.

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given of two different types of genetically controlled male sterility in higher plants. 'Functional' male sterility is due to the action of mutated genes causing a misdifferentiation of the growing points in different specific ways. Under the influence of the genes of this group either the stamens or the archespore tissues are not differentiated. In other mutants functionable male germ cells are produced but cannot be used for fertilizing the egg cells because the anthers remain closed or anthers and stigma become spatially separated from each other. Other genes of the group are responsible for the transformation of stamens into carpels, i.e. for a change of the hermaphrodite flower into a unisexually female one. A second type of male sterility is due to the action of ms genes influencing the course of micro-sporogenesis directly. They cause the breakdown of this process in a specific meiotic stage characteristic for each gene of the group. This breakdown is introduced by the degeneration of PMCs, microspores, or pollen grains preventing the production of male germ cells. The female sex organs remain uninfluenced. (author)

  5. Sterilization by oxygen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Adir Jose; Mansano, Ronaldo Domingues; Andreoli Pinto, Terezinha de Jesus; Ruas, Ronaldo; Silva Zambon, Luis da; Silva, Monica Valero da; Verdonck, Patrick Bernard

    2004-07-31

    The use of polymeric medical devices has stimulated the development of new sterilization methods. The traditional techniques rely on ethylene oxide, but there are many questions concerning the carcinogenic properties of the ethylene oxide residues adsorbed on the materials after processing. Another common technique is the gamma irradiation process, but it is costly, its safe operation requires an isolated site and it also affects the bulk properties of the polymers. The use of a gas plasma is an elegant alternative sterilization technique. The plasma promotes an efficient inactivation of the micro-organisms, minimises the damage to the materials and presents very little danger for personnel and the environment. Pure oxygen reactive ion etching type of plasmas were applied to inactivate a biologic indicator, the Bacillus stearothermophilus, to confirm the efficiency of this process. The sterilization processes took a short time, in a few minutes the mortality was complete. In situ analysis of the micro-organisms' inactivating time was possible using emission spectrophotometry. The increase in the intensity of the 777.5 nm oxygen line shows the end of the oxidation of the biologic materials. The results were also observed and corroborated by scanning electron microscopy.

  6. Prefilled syringes for intravitreal injection reduce preparation time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subhi, Yousif; Kjer, Birgit; Munch, Inger Christine

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The demand for intravitreal therapy has increased dramatically with the introduction of vascular endo-thelial growth factor inhibitors. Improved utilisation of existing resources is crucial to meeting the increased future demand. We investigated time spent preparing intravitreal inj...... had no influence on the design of the study, analysis of the data, preparation of the manuscript or the decision to publish. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant.......INTRODUCTION: The demand for intravitreal therapy has increased dramatically with the introduction of vascular endo-thelial growth factor inhibitors. Improved utilisation of existing resources is crucial to meeting the increased future demand. We investigated time spent preparing intravitreal...... injection treatment using either prefilled syringes or vials in routine clinical practice. METHODS: We video-recorded preparations of intravitreal injections (n = 172) for each preparation type (ranibizumab prefilled syringe (n = 56), ranibizumab vial (n = 56) and aflibercept vial (n = 60)) in a multi...

  7. DETERMINING SERUM BICARBONATE—A Simple Syringe Titrator and Colorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Charles W.; Field, John B.

    1953-01-01

    The use of a tuberculin syringe as a burette has made possible an easy bedside technique for the determination of serum bicarbonate. By combining it with the use of a simple colorimeter, a relatively untrained person can do numerous bicarbonate determinations with a high degree of accuracy. The same technique also lends itself to other colorimetric clinical procedures such as determination of gastric acidity. PMID:13106724

  8. Intrathecal catheter-syringe adaptor for short-term intrathecal analgesia with an externalized pump: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Denise; Cook, Michael; Solanki, Daneshvari

    2010-01-01

    In most patients, cancer pain is effectively treated with conservative medical management consisting of oral and/or transdermal analgesics. Cancer patients tend to fail conservative medical management near the end of their life expectancy, thus requiring alternative routes of analgesia such as intravenous, epidural, or intrathecal. The intrathecal route provides the most effective analgesia due to the close proximity of the opioid receptors in the spinal cord. Though there are many techniques that exist for intrathecal drug delivery, complications can limit effectiveness such as infection, bleeding, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks, post-dural puncture headaches (PDPH), pump and/or catheter malfunctions, or limitations of technical expertise. Therefore, an important goal in palliative cancer pain therapy is to use equipment that is going to have the fewest number of complications and will be the most familiar to the health care providers. We describe the combination of the Medtronic Indura 1P catheter, which has the least catheter-related complications and can be used with any external drug infusion pump. These are regular infusion pumps that the health care workers are familiar with so they can provide excellent and efficient service to the patient. In an operating room, the intrathecal catheter was placed using sterile technique under fluoroscopic guidance. The epidural space was identified with loss of resistance technique. Then the introducer needle (supplied in the Indura 1P catheter kit) was advanced until free-flowing CSF was obtained. The spinal catheter was advanced into the intrathecal space through the introducer needle to lumbar 2-3 level. The catheter was tunneled subcutaneously 10 cm lateral to the catheter exit site. A syringe filling device was inserted into the catheter opening and was secured with silk suture. A luer lock syringe was attached to the syringe filling device and CSF was aspirated. The syringe filling device was capped and later

  9. Stability of erythropoietin repackaging in polypropylene syringes for clinical use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Marsili

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Epoetin alfa (Eprex® is a subcutaneous, injectable formulation of short half-life recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO. To current knowledge there are no published studies regarding the stability of rHuEPO once repackaging occurs (r-EPO for clinical trial purposes. Materials and methods: We assessed EPO concentration in Eprex® and r-EPO syringes at 0, 60, 90, and 120 days after repackaging in polypropylene syringes. R-EPO was administered to 56 patients taking part in a clinical trial in Friedreich Ataxia. Serum EPO levels were measured at baseline and 48 h after r-EPO administration. Results: No differences were found between r-EPO and Eprex® syringes, but both globally decreased in total EPO content during storage at 4 °C. Patients receiving r-EPO had similar levels in EPO content as expected from previous trials in Friedreich Ataxia and from pharmacokinetics studies in healthy volunteers. Discussion: We demonstrate that repackaging of EPO does not alter its concentration if compared to the original product (Eprex®. This is true both for repackaging procedures and for the stability in polypropylene tubes. The expiration date of r-EPO can be extended from 1 to 4 months after repackaging, in accordance with pharmacopeia rules.

  10. Adrenaline in cardiac arrest: Prefilled syringes are faster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Claire; Gillett, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Standard ampoules and prefilled syringes of adrenaline are widely available in Australasian EDs for use in cardiac arrest. We hypothesise that prefilled syringes can be administered more rapidly and accurately when compared with the two available standard ampoules. This is a triple arm superiority study comparing the time to i.v. administration and accuracy of dosing of three currently available preparations of adrenaline. In their standard packaging, prefilled syringes were on average more than 12 s faster to administer than the 1 mL 1:1000 ampoules and more than 16 s faster than the 10 mL 1:10,000 ampoules (P adrenaline utilising a Minijet (CSL Limited, Parkville, Victoria, Australia) is faster than using adrenaline in glass ampoules presented in their plastic packaging. Removing the plastic packaging from the 1 mL (1 mg) ampoule might result in more rapid administration similar to the Minijet. Resuscitation personnel requiring rapid access to adrenaline should consider storing it as either Minijets or ampoules devoid of packaging. These results might be extrapolatable to other clinical scenarios, including pre-hospital and anaesthesia, where other drugs are required for rapid use. © 2015 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  11. Survival of Hepatitis C Virus in Syringes: Implication for Transmission among Injection Drug Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paintsil, Elijah; He, Huijie; Peters, Christopher; Lindenbach, Brett D.; Heimer, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Background We hypothesized that the high prevalence of HCV among injection drug users (IDUs) might be due to prolonged virus survival in contaminated syringes. Methods We developed a microculture assay to examine the viability of HCV. Syringes were loaded with blood spiked with HCV reporter virus (Jc1/GLuc2A) to simulate two scenarios of residual volumes; low (2 μl) void volume for 1-ml insulin syringes, and high (32 μl) void volume for 1-ml tuberculin syringes. Syringes were stored at 4°C, 22°C, and 37°C for up to 63 days before testing for HCV infectivity using luciferase activity. Results The virus decay rate was biphasic (t½ α = 0.4h and t½β = 28h). Insulin syringes failed to yield viable HCV beyond day one at all storage temperatures except for 4o in which 5% of syringes yielded viable virus on day 7. Tuberculin syringes yielded viable virus from 96%, 71%, and 52% of syringes following storage at 4o, 22° and 37o for 7 days, respectively, and yielded viable virus up to day 63. Conclusions The high prevalence of HCV among IDUs may be partly due to the resilience of the virus and the syringe type. Our findings may be used to guide prevention strategies. PMID:20726768

  12. Validation of radiation sterilization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaluska, I.

    2007-01-01

    The standards for quality management systems recognize that, for certain processes used in manufacturing, the effectiveness of the process cannot be fully verified by subsequent inspection and testing of the product. Sterilization is an example of such a process. For this reason, sterilization processes are validated for use, the performance of sterilization process is monitored routinely and the equipment is maintained according to ISO 13 485. Different aspects of this norm are presented

  13. Radiation dose setting for sterilization of health care items in relation to product microbiological quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norimah Yusof; Nagi Marsit; Asnah Hassan

    1997-01-01

    Radiation dose of 25 k gray is no longer a generally accepted dose for sterilization. ISO document no. 11137 stated that a manufacturer can decide the dose to sterilize his product depending on the product's microbiological quality (number and type of the contaminants) and the sterility assurance level (SAL) should attain in relation to its usage. Five health care products were selected for the microbiological studies including bio burden counts, identification of most commonly found microorganisms and the radioresistance (D sub 10 value) of the selected isolates. Radiation dose was then determined by two methods, namely Method for Dose Validation of ISO 11137, and calculation based on log survival or population cycle reduction. At a given SAL of 10 sup -6 the radiation sterilization dose obtained by both methods was influenced by microbiological quality of the product. Sterilization dose set by the ISO Method I (Cotton Ball 19.4 kGy, Syringe 20.4 kGy, Suture 15. 0 kGy, Surgical Glove 24.9 kGy and Amnion 17.8 kGy) was higher than the dose calculated according to the log cycle reduction concept in all the products (Cotton Ball 14. 0 kGy, Syringe 15.5 kGy, Suture 11. 6 kGy, Surgical Glove 18. 0 kGy and Amnion 12.6 kGy). The ISO method has limitation on bio products such as amnion and other high valued products which are produced in small number with low bio burden and microorganism spectrum different from those commonly found on medical items

  14. Sterilizing insects with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakri, A.; Mehta, K.; Lance, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is currently the method of choice for rendering insects reproductively sterile for area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT). Gamma radiation from isotopic sources (cobalt-60 or caesium-137) is most often used, but high-energy electrons and X-rays are other practical options. Insect irradiation is safe and reliable when established safety and quality-assurance guidelines are followed. The key processing parameter is absorbed dose, which must be tightly controlled to ensure that treated insects are sufficiently sterile in their reproductive cells and yet able to compete for mates with wild insects. To that end, accurate dosimetry (measurement of absorbed dose) is critical. Irradiation data generated since the 1950s, covering over 300 arthropod species, indicate that the dose needed for sterilization of arthropods varies from less than 5 Gy for blaberid cockroaches to 300 Gy or more for some arctiid and pyralid moths. Factors such as oxygen level, and insect age and stage during irradiation, and many others, influence both the absorbed dose required for sterilization and the viability of irradiated insects. Consideration of these factors in the design of irradiation protocols can help to find a balance between the sterility and competitiveness of insects produced for programmes that release sterile insects. Many programmes apply 'precautionary' radiation doses to increase the security margin of sterilization, but this overdosing often lowers competitiveness to the point where the overall induced sterility in the wild population is reduced significantly. (author)

  15. Laparoscopic female sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filshie, G M

    1989-09-01

    An overview of laparoscopic sterilization techniques from a historical and practical viewpoint includes instrumentation, operative techniques, mechanical occlusive devices, anesthesia, failure rates, morbidity and mortality. Laparoscope was first reported in 1893, but was developed simultaneously in France, Great Britain, Canada and the US in the 1960s. There are smaller laparoscopes for double-puncture procedures, and larger, single-puncture laparoscopes. To use a ring or clip, a much larger operating channel, up to 8 mm is needed. Insufflating gas may be CO2, which does not support combustion, but is more uncomfortable, NO2, which is also an anesthetic, and room air often used in developing countries. Unipolar electrocautery is now rarely used, in fact most third party payers do not allow it. Bipolar cautery, thermal coagulation and laser photocoagulation are safer methods. Falope rings, Hulka-Clemens, Filshie, Bleier, Weck and Tupla clips are described and illustrated. General anesthesia, usually a short acting agent with a muscle relaxant, causes 33% of the mortality of laparoscope, often due to cardiac arrest and arrhythmias, preventable with atropine. Local anesthesia is safer and cheaper and often used in developing countries. Failure rates of the various laparoscopic tubal sterilization methods are reviewed: most result from fistula formation. Mortality and morbidity can be caused by bowel damage, injury or infection, pre- existing pelvic infection, hemorrhage, gas embolism (avoidable by the saline drip test), and other rare events.

  16. Racial differences in acquisition of syringes from pharmacies under conditions of legal but restricted sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costenbader, Elizabeth C; Zule, William A; Coomes, Curtis C

    2010-09-01

    Injecting drug users (IDUs) are at increased risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV and other bloodborne pathogens through the multi-person use of syringes. Although research has shown that increased access to syringes through syringe exchange programs (SEPs) is an effective strategy to reduce risky injection practices many areas of the United States still do not have SEPs. In the absence of SEPs, legislation allowing pharmacies over-the-counter sales of syringes has also been shown to reduce syringe sharing. The success of pharmacy sales however is limited by other legal stipulations, such as drug paraphernalia laws, which in turn may contribute to fear among IDUs about being caught purchasing and carrying syringes. Between 2003 and 2006, 851 out-of-treatment IDUs were recruited using street outreach in the Raleigh-Durham (North Carolina) area. Data were collected using audio-computer assisted interview (ACASI) technology. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to assess factors associated with purchasing syringes from pharmacies. In our study sample, African-American IDUs were one-fifth as likely as white IDUs to report pharmacies as their primary source of syringes. Given the absence of syringe exchange programs and the relatively high prevalence of HCV and HIV among IDUs in the Raleigh-Durham area, the limited use of pharmacies as a source of syringes among African-American IDUs in this study sample is problematic. The study findings support the need for effective multilevel interventions to increase access to clean needles in this population, as well as for policy interventions, such as legalization of SEPs and elimination of penalties for carrying syringes, to reduce harm and eliminate the health threats posed by receptive syringe sharing. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Low-Cost Touchscreen Driven Programmable Dual Syringe Pump for Life Science Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jamin; Garcia, Valentina; Derisi, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    Syringe pumps are powerful tools able to automate routine laboratory practices that otherwise consume large amounts of manual labor time. Commercially available syringe pumps are expensive, difficult to customize, and often preset for a narrow range of operations. Here, we show how to build a programmable dual syringe pump (PDSP) that overcomes these limitations. The PDSP is driven by a Raspberry Pi paired with a stepper motor controller to allow maximal customization via Python scripting. Th...

  18. Embedded nanomicro syringe on chip for molecular therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil MA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Muhammad Arif Jalil1, Nathaporn Suwanpayak2,3, Kathawut Kulsirirat3, Saisudawan Suttirak3, Jalil Ali4, Preecha P Yupapin31Ibnu Sina Institute of Fundamental Science Studies, Nanotechnology Research Alliance, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Malaysia; 2King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Chumphon Campus, Chumphon, Thailand; 3Nanoscale Science and Engineering Research Alliance, Advanced Research Center for Photonics, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok, Thailand; 4Institute of Advanced Photonics Science, Nanotechnology Research Alliance, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, MalaysiaBackground: A novel nanomicro syringe system was proposed for drug storage and delivery using a PANDA ring resonator and atomic buffer. A PANDA ring is a modified optical add/drop filter, named after the well known Chinese bear. In principle, the molecule/drug is trapped by the force generated by different combinations of gradient fields and scattering photons within the PANDA ring. A nanomicro needle system can be formed by optical vortices in the liquid core waveguide which can be embedded on a chip, and can be used for long-term treatment. By using intense optical vortices, the required genes/molecules can be trapped and transported dynamically to the intended destinations via the nanomicro syringe, which is available for drug delivery to target tissues, in particular tumors. The advantage of the proposed system is that by confining the treatment area, the effect can be decreased. The use of different optical vortices for therapeutic efficiency is also discussed.Keywords: nanomicro syringe, nanomicro needle, molecular therapy, therapeutic efficiency, cancer

  19. Single-use autoinjector for once-weekly intramuscular injection of IFNβ-1a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmroth, Volker; Gerbershagen, Kathrin

    2014-12-01

    IFNβ products and glatiramer acetate are established treatment first-line options in long-term disease-modifying therapy of multiple sclerosis (MS). These self-injectable medications are used once weekly to once daily. Injection-related issues are common patient-cited reasons for nonadherence. Autoinjectors have been shown to support long-term adherence to injectable medications. The ability to self-inject in MS patients has been associated with a reduced risk of missed injections and drug discontinuation, and a beneficial effect on patient independence. The recently introduced easy-to-use prefilled once-weekly pen is a safe and effective device for intramuscular (IM) IFNβ-1a application and provides a convenient method for self-injection. We reviewed the available published evidence on the characteristics of this device. The once-weekly pen facilitates self-injection and was preferred over prefilled syringes by patients in a prospective open-label, multicenter Phase IIIb trial in MS patients who had been using IM IFNβ-1a in prefilled syringes. The simple and safe handling, shielded short needle, single-use disposable design and virtually painless injection by the device may contribute to adherence, quality of life and independence in patients using IM IFNβ-1a.

  20. Electrolytic silver ion cell sterilizes water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, C. F.; Gillerman, J. B.

    1968-01-01

    Electrolytic water sterilizer controls microbial contamination in manned spacecraft. Individual sterilizer cells are self-contained and require no external power or control. The sterilizer generates silver ions which do not impart an unpleasant taste to water.

  1. Thermalizing Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Rasmus S L; Vogl, Stefan

    2017-12-22

    Sterile neutrinos produced through oscillations are a well motivated dark matter candidate, but recent constraints from observations have ruled out most of the parameter space. We analyze the impact of new interactions on the evolution of keV sterile neutrino dark matter in the early Universe. Based on general considerations we find a mechanism which thermalizes the sterile neutrinos after an initial production by oscillations. The thermalization of sterile neutrinos is accompanied by dark entropy production which increases the yield of dark matter and leads to a lower characteristic momentum. This resolves the growing tensions with structure formation and x-ray observations and even revives simple nonresonant production as a viable way to produce sterile neutrino dark matter. We investigate the parameters required for the realization of the thermalization mechanism in a representative model and find that a simple estimate based on energy and entropy conservation describes the mechanism well.

  2. Thermalizing Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Rasmus S. L.; Vogl, Stefan

    2017-12-01

    Sterile neutrinos produced through oscillations are a well motivated dark matter candidate, but recent constraints from observations have ruled out most of the parameter space. We analyze the impact of new interactions on the evolution of keV sterile neutrino dark matter in the early Universe. Based on general considerations we find a mechanism which thermalizes the sterile neutrinos after an initial production by oscillations. The thermalization of sterile neutrinos is accompanied by dark entropy production which increases the yield of dark matter and leads to a lower characteristic momentum. This resolves the growing tensions with structure formation and x-ray observations and even revives simple nonresonant production as a viable way to produce sterile neutrino dark matter. We investigate the parameters required for the realization of the thermalization mechanism in a representative model and find that a simple estimate based on energy and entropy conservation describes the mechanism well.

  3. Sterile Endophthalmitis after Intravitreal Injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Marticorena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sterile endophthalmitis appears as an infrequent complication of intravitreal injections and seems to develop mainly in the context of the off-label use of drugs that have not been conceived for intravitreous administration. The aetiology of sterile endophthalmitis, independently of the administered drug, remains uncertain and a multifactorial origin cannot be discarded. Sterile inflammation secondary both to intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide and to intravitreal bevacizumab share many characteristics such as the acute and painless vision loss present in the big majority of the cases. Dense vitreous opacity is a common factor, while anterior segment inflammation appears to be mild to moderate. In eyes with sterile endophthalmitis, visual acuity improves progressively as the intraocular inflammation reduces without any specific treatment. If by any chance the ophthalmologist is not convinced by the sterile origin of the inflammation, this complication must be treated as an acute endophthalmitis because of the devastating visual prognosis of this intraocular infection in the absence of therapy.

  4. Conditional sterility in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Richard B.; McKinney, Elizabeth; Kim, Tehryung

    2010-02-23

    The present disclosure provides methods, recombinant DNA molecules, recombinant host cells containing the DNA molecules, and transgenic plant cells, plant tissue and plants which contain and express at least one antisense or interference RNA specific for a thiamine biosynthetic coding sequence or a thiamine binding protein or a thiamine-degrading protein, wherein the RNA or thiamine binding protein is expressed under the regulatory control of a transcription regulatory sequence which directs expression in male and/or female reproductive tissue. These transgenic plants are conditionally sterile; i.e., they are fertile only in the presence of exogenous thiamine. Such plants are especially appropriate for use in the seed industry or in the environment, for example, for use in revegetation of contaminated soils or phytoremediation, especially when those transgenic plants also contain and express one or more chimeric genes which confer resistance to contaminants.

  5. The Sterile Insect Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiragu, J.

    2006-01-01

    Insect pests have caused an increasing problem in agriculture and human health through crop losses and disease transmission to man and livestock. Intervention to ensure food security and human health has relied on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies to keep the pests population below economic injury levels. IPM integrate a variety of methods, but there has been over-reliance on chemical control following the discovery of insecticidal properties of DDT. It is now realized that, maintaining pest populations at controlled levels is unsustainable and eradication options is now being considered. Although the Sterile Insect Technique(SIT) could be used for insect suppression, it is gaining favour in the elimination (eradication) of the target pest population through Areawide-based IPM (Author)

  6. Sterile neutrino dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Merle, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    This book is a new look at one of the hottest topics in contemporary science, Dark Matter. It is the pioneering text dedicated to sterile neutrinos as candidate particles for Dark Matter, challenging some of the standard assumptions which may be true for some Dark Matter candidates but not for all. So, this can be seen either as an introduction to a specialized topic or an out-of-the-box introduction to the field of Dark Matter in general. No matter if you are a theoretical particle physicist, an observational astronomer, or a ground based experimentalist, no matter if you are a grad student or an active researcher, you can benefit from this text, for a simple reason: a non-standard candidate for Dark Matter can teach you a lot about what we truly know about our standard picture of how the Universe works.

  7. Botulinum Toxin Therapy: Is Syringe Type Related to Cost-Effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foglietti, Mark Anthony; Wright, Lauren; Foglietti-Fostyk, Alanna

    2018-03-01

    Clostridium botulinum toxin is effective through cleaving presynaptic proteins at the neuromuscular junction, which prevents the release of acetylcholine and inhibits muscle contraction. Several serotypes of botulinum toxin (BT) exist; however, only 2 types have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for commercial and medical use, A and B. Both types of BT must be administered intramuscularly with a syringe, but the type of syringe is the injector's preference. Which syringe type is most efficient in minimizing product waste and most cost-effective for the patient and provider? We performed a single-center, open-label, analytical study using BT therapy and 2 types of syringes for analytics of cost-effectiveness. OnabotulinumtoxinA was the neuromodulator used in this report. Vials (100 U) of BT A were each reconstituted with 2.5 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride, for a final concentration of 4 U/0.1 mL. High-dead-space syringes are compared with low-dead-space syringes: 1-mL tuberculin (TB) luer slip syringe with detachable 25-gauge needle and 1-mL ultrafine insulin syringe with an attached 31-gauge needle, respectively. After each syringe was evacuated, the TB syringe was noted to contain 0.05 mL of the remaining product in the hub. Providers are discarding approximately 2 U of BT per TB syringe product injection. If the physician uses 30 syringes per day, 3 days a week, for 1 year, it equals to a lost revenue of approximately $155,500 per year. To individualize the cost-effective analysis, average quantity of syringes used per patient and overall patient volume must be considered, with corresponding adjustment of cost and units discarded. The American Society of Plastic Surgeons reported that the use of neuromodulators has increased by approximately 797% from 2000 to 2016. During that period, the price of neuromodulators has also increased by approximately 85%. Considering these statistics, the type of syringe used for BT neuromodular injection is a

  8. Pain Associated With Hysteroscopic Sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jenna; Childers, Meredith E.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The safety and efficacy of female hysteroscopic sterilization using the Essure system has been well documented. Given the marked differences in the execution of hysteroscopic and laparoscopic sterilization, the objective of this study was to assess the experience of pain postprocedure between the 2. Secondary end-points included postoperative pain medication, time to return to normal activities, postprocedure bleeding, and patient satisfaction. Methods: Twenty cases each of laparoscopic sterilization (LS) and hysteroscopic sterilization (HS) were performed. Patients were surveyed regarding their experience of pain immediately postoperatively, 1 week, and 4 weeks post-procedure. Results: The average pain score immediately postprocedure was significantly lower among HS patients than among LS patients (t=−8.17, P<.0001). One-week post-procedure, none of the patients in the HS group reported any pain, while the average pain score among the LS patients was 2.65 (t =−9.67, P<.0001). Four weeks post-procedure, women in the HS group continued to report no pain, 35% of the LS group continued to report some pain (t=−3.04, P=.004). Conclusions: Hysteroscopic sterilization offers a minimally invasive, less painful, equally efficacious modality for sterilization than laparoscopic sterilization and should be available to all women seeking permanent birth control. PMID:17651558

  9. Sterile neutrinos as dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodelson, S.; Widrow, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    The simplest model that can accommodate a viable nonbaryonic dark matter candidate is the standard electroweak theory with the addition of right-handed (sterile) neutrinos. We consider a single generation of neutrinos with a Dirac mass μ and a Majorana mass M for the right-handed component. If M much-gt μ (standard hot dark matter corresponds to M=0), then sterile neutrinos are produced via oscillations in the early Universe with energy density independent of M. However, M is crucial in determining the large scale structure of the Universe; for M∼100 eV, sterile neutrinos make an excellent warm dark matter candidate

  10. Male gametophytic sterility. 1 - Gametic sterilities and deletions in petunia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornu, A.; Maizonnier, D. (Station d' Amelioration des Plantes de l' I.N.R.A., Dijon (France))

    1982-01-01

    Terminal deletions induced by ionizing radiations in Petunia are not sexually transmitted. Cytogenetic study of plants with a heterozygous deletion and their progenies shows that this lack of transmission is accompanied by a gametic semi-sterility due to the fact that gametes carrying the deleted chromosome are not viable. The interest of such a male sterility with a gametophytic determinism for the study of sporophyte-gametophyte relationships is underlined.

  11. The measurement of activity in vials and syringes using a radionuclide assay calibrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, S.A.; Davies, I.H.

    1993-01-01

    To enable accurate measurements of the activity in both vials and syringes, a series of measurements was undertaken to ascertain the changes in response with geometry in nine isotope assay calibrators. From these measurements, two jigs were made for each calibrator to enable (a) optimal measurement of activity in vials and (b) optimal measurement of activity in a variety of syringe sizes. (Author)

  12. The pneumatic syringe: a simple apparatus for self-administration of drugs by rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, J R

    1977-12-01

    Drug solution is delivered by a syringe operated by a pneumatic cylinder. Recommended delivery volumes are from 10 to 200 microliter. A solid-state control unit is described which can operate two syringes (drug injection and flush), has outputs for recording responses and injections, and can be programmed to provide several schedules of reinforcement. All components are readily commercially available.

  13. The Washington Needle Depot: fitting healthcare to injection drug users rather than injection drug users to healthcare: moving from a syringe exchange to syringe distribution model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glickman Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Needle exchange programs chase political as well as epidemiological dragons, carrying within them both implicit moral and political goals. In the exchange model of syringe distribution, injection drug users (IDUs must provide used needles in order to receive new needles. Distribution and retrieval are co-existent in the exchange model. Likewise, limitations on how many needles can be received at a time compel addicts to have multiple points of contact with professionals where the virtues of treatment and detox are impressed upon them. The centre of gravity for syringe distribution programs needs to shift from needle exchange to needle distribution, which provides unlimited access to syringes. This paper provides a case study of the Washington Needle Depot, a program operating under the syringe distribution model, showing that the distribution and retrieval of syringes can be separated with effective results. Further, the experience of IDUs is utilized, through paid employment, to provide a vulnerable population of people with clean syringes to prevent HIV and HCV.

  14. Food irradiation and sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Edward S.

    Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25-70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning is achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70-80°C (bacon to 53°C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-40°C to -20°C). Radappertozed foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for "wholesomeness" (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effecys of radappertization on the "wholesomeness" characteristics of these foods.

  15. Food irradiation and sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josephson, E.S.

    1981-01-01

    Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25 to 70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning in achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70 to 80 0 C (bacon to 53 0 C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurrence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-40 0 C to -20 0 C). Radappertized foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for 'wholesomeness' (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effects of radappertization on the 'wholesomeness' characteristics of these foods. (author)

  16. Syringe calibration factors and volume correction factors for the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator

    CERN Document Server

    Tyler, D K

    2002-01-01

    The activity assay of a radiopharmaceutical administration to a patient is normally achieved via the use of a radionuclide calibrator. Because of the different geometries and elemental compositions between plastic syringes and glass vials, the calibration factors for syringes may well be significantly different from those for the glass containers. The magnitude of these differences depends on the energies of the emitted photons. For some radionuclides variations have been observed of 70 %, it is therefore important to recalibrate for syringes or use syringe calibration factors. Calibration factors and volume correction factors have been derived for the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator, for a variety of commonly used syringes and needles, for the most commonly used medical radionuclide.

  17. Methods To Determine the Silicone Oil Layer Thickness in Sprayed-On Siliconized Syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosli, Viviane; Germershaus, Oliver; Steinberg, Henrik; Dreher, Sascha; Grauschopf, Ulla; Funke, Stefanie

    2018-01-01

    The silicone lubricant layer in prefilled syringes has been investigated with regards to siliconization process performance, prefilled syringe functionality, and drug product attributes, such as subvisible particle levels, in several studies in the past. However, adequate methods to characterize the silicone oil layer thickness and distribution are limited, and systematic evaluation is missing. In this study, white light interferometry was evaluated to close this gap in method understanding. White light interferometry demonstrated a good accuracy of 93-99% for MgF 2 coated, curved standards covering a thickness range of 115-473 nm. Thickness measurements for sprayed-on siliconized prefilled syringes with different representative silicone oil distribution patterns (homogeneous, pronounced siliconization at flange or needle side, respectively) showed high instrument (0.5%) and analyst precision (4.1%). Different white light interferometry instrument parameters (autofocus, protective shield, syringe barrel dimensions input, type of non-siliconized syringe used as base reference) had no significant impact on the measured average layer thickness. The obtained values from white light interferometry applying a fully developed method (12 radial lines, 50 mm measurement distance, 50 measurements points) were in agreement with orthogonal results from combined white and laser interferometry and 3D-laser scanning microscopy. The investigated syringe batches (lot A and B) exhibited comparable longitudinal silicone oil layer thicknesses ranging from 170-190 nm to 90-100 nm from flange to tip and homogeneously distributed silicone layers over the syringe barrel circumference (110- 135 nm). Empty break-loose (4-4.5 N) and gliding forces (2-2.5 N) were comparably low for both analyzed syringe lots. A silicone oil layer thickness of 100-200 nm was thus sufficient for adequate functionality in this particular study. Filling the syringe with a surrogate solution including short

  18. Portable Decontamination and Sterilization System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, William; Smerjac, Suzanne; Smith, Bryan

    2004-01-01

    TDA Research, Inc., (TDA) is developing a portable system to generate chlorine dioxide, which can be used for biodecontamination of small items and to sterilize medical and dental instruments in austere environments...

  19. Documentation requirements for radiation sterilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1995-01-01

    Several standards are recently approved or are under development by the standard organizations ISO and CEN in the field of radiation sterilization. Particularly in Europe these standards define new requirements on some issues and on other issues they emphasize the necessary documentation for appr......Several standards are recently approved or are under development by the standard organizations ISO and CEN in the field of radiation sterilization. Particularly in Europe these standards define new requirements on some issues and on other issues they emphasize the necessary documentation...... for approval of radiation sterilized products. The impact of these standards on the radiation sterilization is discussed, with special attention given to a few special issues, mainly traceability and uncertainty of measurement results....

  20. Steam sterilization does not require saturated steam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doornmalen Gomez Hoyos, J. P.C.M.; Paunovic, A.; Kopinga, K.

    2017-01-01

    The most commonly applied method to sterilize re-usable medical devices in hospitals is steam sterilization. The essential conditions for steam sterilization are derived from sterilization in water. Microbiological experiments in aqueous solutions have been used to calculate various time–temperature

  1. Food packaging and radiation sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Yoko

    1998-01-01

    Radiation sterilization has several merits that it is a positively effective sterilization method, it can be used to sterilize low heat-resistant containers and high gas barrier films, and there is no possibility of residual chemicals being left in the packages. It has been commercially used in 'Bag in a Box' and some food containers. The γ ray and an electron beam are commonly used in radiation sterilization. The γ ray can sterilize large size containers and containers with complex shapes or sealed containers due to its strong transmission capability. However, since the equipment tends to be large and expensive, it is generally used in off production lines. On the other hand, it is possible to install and electron beam system on food production lines since the food can be processed in a short time due to its high beam coefficient and its ease of maintenance, even though an electron beam has limited usage such as sterilizing relatively thin materials and surface sterilization due to the weak transmission. A typical sterilization dose is approximately 10-30 kGy. Direct effects impacting packaging materials, particularly plastics, include scission of polymer links, cross-linkage between polymers, and generating radiolysis products such as hydrogen, methane, aliphatic hydrocarbons, etc. Furthermore, under the existence of oxygen, the oxygen radicals generated by the radiation will oxidize and peroxidize polymer chains and will generate alcohol and carbonyl groups, which shear polymer links, and generate oxygen containing low molecular compounds. As a result, degradation of physical strength such as elongation and seal strength, generating foreign odor, and an increase in global migration values shown in an elution test are sometimes evident. The food packages have different shapes, materials, additives, number of microorganisms and purpose. Therefor the effects of radiation, the optimum dose and so on must be investigated on the individual package. (J.P.N.)

  2. [Trial manufacture of a plunger shield for a disposable plastic syringe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Shigeki; Emoto, Takashi; Mori, Hiroshige; Fujita, Katsuhisa; Kubo, Naoki

    2008-08-20

    A syringe-type radiopharmaceutical being supplied by a manufacturer has a syringe shield and a plunger shield, whereas an in-hospital labeling radiopharmaceutical is administered by a disposable plastic syringe without the plunger shield. In cooperation with Nihon Medi-Physics Co. Ltd., we have produced a new experimental plunger shield for the disposable plastic syringe. In order to evaluate this shielding effect, we compared the leaked radiation doses of our plunger shield with those of the syringe-type radiopharmaceutical (Medi shield type). Our plunger shield has a lead plate of 21 mm in diameter and 3 mm thick. This shield is equipped with the plunger-end of a disposal plastic syringe. We sealed 99mTc solution into a plastic syringe (Terumo Co.) of 5 ml with our plunger shield and Medi shield type of 2 ml. We measured leaked radiation doses around syringes using fluorescent glass dosimeters (Dose Ace). The number of measure points was 18. The measured doses were converted to 70 microm dose equivalent at 740 MBq of radioactivity. The results of our plunger shield and the Medi shield type were as follows: 4-13 microSv/h and 3-14 microSv/h at shielding areas, 3-545 microSv/h and 6-97 microSv/h at non-shielding areas, 42-116 microSv/h and 88-165 microSv/h in the vicinity of the syringe shield, and 1071 microSv/h and 1243 microSv/h at the front of the needle. For dose rates of shielding areas around the syringe, the shielding effects were approximately the same as those of the Medi shield type. In conclusion, our plunger shield may be useful for reducing finger exposure during the injection of an in-hospital labeled radiopharmaceutical.

  3. Radiation sterilization of skin allograft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairiyama, E.; Horak, C.; Spinosa, M.; Pachado, J.; Schwint, O.

    2009-07-01

    In the treatment of burns or accidental loss of skin, cadaveric skin allografts provide an alternative to temporarily cover a wounded area. The skin bank facility is indispensable for burn care. The first human skin bank was established in Argentina in 1989; later, 3 more banks were established. A careful donor selection is carried out according to the national regulation in order to prevent transmissible diseases. As cadaveric human skin is naturally highly contaminated, a final sterilization is necessary to reach a sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10 -6. The sterilization dose for 106 batches of processed human skin was determined on the basis of the Code of Practice for the Radiation Sterilization of Tissue Allografts: Requirements for Validation and Routine Control (2004) and ISO 11137-2 (2006). They ranged from 17.6 to 33.4 kGy for bioburdens of >10-162.700 CFU/100 cm 2. The presence of Gram negative bacteria was checked for each produced batch. From the analysis of the experimental results, it was observed that the bioburden range was very wide and consequently the estimated sterilization doses too. If this is the case, the determination of a tissue-specific dose per production batch is necessary to achieve a specified requirement of SAL. Otherwise if the dose of 25 kGy is preselected, a standardized method for substantiation of this dose should be done to confirm the radiation sterilization process.

  4. Radiation sterilization of skin allograft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kairiyama, E.; Horak, C.; Spinosa, M.; Pachado, J.; Schwint, O.

    2009-01-01

    In the treatment of burns or accidental loss of skin, cadaveric skin allografts provide an alternative to temporarily cover a wounded area. The skin bank facility is indispensable for burn care. The first human skin bank was established in Argentina in 1989; later, 3 more banks were established. A careful donor selection is carried out according to the national regulation in order to prevent transmissible diseases. As cadaveric human skin is naturally highly contaminated, a final sterilization is necessary to reach a sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10 -6 . The sterilization dose for 106 batches of processed human skin was determined on the basis of the Code of Practice for the Radiation Sterilization of Tissue Allografts: Requirements for Validation and Routine Control (2004) and ISO 11137-2 (2006). They ranged from 17.6 to 33.4 kGy for bioburdens of >10-162.700 CFU/100 cm 2 . The presence of Gram negative bacteria was checked for each produced batch. From the analysis of the experimental results, it was observed that the bioburden range was very wide and consequently the estimated sterilization doses too. If this is the case, the determination of a tissue-specific dose per production batch is necessary to achieve a specified requirement of SAL. Otherwise if the dose of 25 kGy is preselected, a standardized method for substantiation of this dose should be done to confirm the radiation sterilization process.

  5. Genomic networks of hybrid sterility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie M Turner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid dysfunction, a common feature of reproductive barriers between species, is often caused by negative epistasis between loci ("Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities". The nature and complexity of hybrid incompatibilities remain poorly understood because identifying interacting loci that affect complex phenotypes is difficult. With subspecies in the early stages of speciation, an array of genetic tools, and detailed knowledge of reproductive biology, house mice (Mus musculus provide a model system for dissecting hybrid incompatibilities. Male hybrids between M. musculus subspecies often show reduced fertility. Previous studies identified loci and several X chromosome-autosome interactions that contribute to sterility. To characterize the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in detail, we used a systems genetics approach, integrating mapping of gene expression traits with sterility phenotypes and QTL. We measured genome-wide testis expression in 305 male F2s from a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. We identified several thousand cis- and trans-acting QTL contributing to expression variation (eQTL. Many trans eQTL cluster into eleven 'hotspots,' seven of which co-localize with QTL for sterility phenotypes identified in the cross. The number and clustering of trans eQTL-but not cis eQTL-were substantially lower when mapping was restricted to a 'fertile' subset of mice, providing evidence that trans eQTL hotspots are related to sterility. Functional annotation of transcripts with eQTL provides insights into the biological processes disrupted by sterility loci and guides prioritization of candidate genes. Using a conditional mapping approach, we identified eQTL dependent on interactions between loci, revealing a complex system of epistasis. Our results illuminate established patterns, including the role of the X chromosome in hybrid sterility. The integrated mapping approach we employed is

  6. Genomic networks of hybrid sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Leslie M; White, Michael A; Tautz, Diethard; Payseur, Bret A

    2014-02-01

    Hybrid dysfunction, a common feature of reproductive barriers between species, is often caused by negative epistasis between loci ("Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities"). The nature and complexity of hybrid incompatibilities remain poorly understood because identifying interacting loci that affect complex phenotypes is difficult. With subspecies in the early stages of speciation, an array of genetic tools, and detailed knowledge of reproductive biology, house mice (Mus musculus) provide a model system for dissecting hybrid incompatibilities. Male hybrids between M. musculus subspecies often show reduced fertility. Previous studies identified loci and several X chromosome-autosome interactions that contribute to sterility. To characterize the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in detail, we used a systems genetics approach, integrating mapping of gene expression traits with sterility phenotypes and QTL. We measured genome-wide testis expression in 305 male F2s from a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. We identified several thousand cis- and trans-acting QTL contributing to expression variation (eQTL). Many trans eQTL cluster into eleven 'hotspots,' seven of which co-localize with QTL for sterility phenotypes identified in the cross. The number and clustering of trans eQTL-but not cis eQTL-were substantially lower when mapping was restricted to a 'fertile' subset of mice, providing evidence that trans eQTL hotspots are related to sterility. Functional annotation of transcripts with eQTL provides insights into the biological processes disrupted by sterility loci and guides prioritization of candidate genes. Using a conditional mapping approach, we identified eQTL dependent on interactions between loci, revealing a complex system of epistasis. Our results illuminate established patterns, including the role of the X chromosome in hybrid sterility. The integrated mapping approach we employed is applicable in a broad

  7. Sterilization in Finland: from eugenics to contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminki, E; Rasimus, A; Forssas, E

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe the transition of sterilization in Finland from an eugenic tool to a contraceptive. Historical data were drawn from earlier reports in Finnish. Numbers of and reasons for sterilizations since 1950 were collected from nationwide sterilization statistics. Prevalence, characteristics of sterilized women, and women's satisfaction with sterilizations were studied from a 1994 nationwide survey (74% response rate). Logistic regression was used for adjustments. In the first half of the 20th century, eugenic ideology had influence in Finland as in other parts of Europe, and the 1935 and 1950 sterilization laws had an eugenic spirit. Regardless of this, the numbers of eugenic sterilizations remained low, and in practice, family planning was the main reason for sterilization. Nonetheless, prior to 1970 not all sterilizations were freely chosen, because sterilizations were sometimes used as a precondition for abortion. Female sterilizations showed remarkable fluctuation over time. Male sterilizations have been rare. The reasons stipulated by the law did not explain the numbers of sterilizations. In a 1994 survey, 9% of Finnish women reported they were using sterilization as their current contraceptive method (n = 189). Compared to women using other contraceptive methods, sterilized women were older, had had more births and pregnancies, and came from lower social classes. Sterilized women were satisfied with their sterilization, but there were women (8.5%) who regretted it. In conclusion, sterilizations have been and are likely to continue to be an important family planning method in Finland. The extreme gender ratio suggests a need for promoting male sterilizations, and women's expressed regrets suggest consideration of a higher age limit.

  8. Syringe Sharing Among a Prospective Cohort of Street-Involved Youth: Implications for Needle Distribution Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozinoff, Nikki; Wood, Evan; Dong, Huiru; Richardson, Lindsey; Kerr, Thomas; DeBeck, Kora

    2017-09-01

    The sharing of previously used syringes is associated with the transmission of Hepatitis C and HIV. This longitudinal study examines syringe borrowing and syringe lending within a prospective cohort of street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada. From September 2005 to May 2014, data were collected from the At-Risk Youth Study, a cohort of street-involved youth age 14-26 at enrollment, and analyzed using generalized estimating equations. Among 505 participants, 142 (28.1%) reported syringe borrowing and 132 (26.1%) reported syringe lending during the study period. In separate multivariable analyses, having difficulty finding clean needles and homelessness were significantly associated with syringe borrowing (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 2.28, 95% CI 1.66-3.12 and AOR = 1.52, CI 1.05-2.21, respectively) and syringe lending (AOR = 1.89, 95% CI 1.32-2.71 and AOR = 1.65, 95% CI 1.11-2.44, respectively) (all p values people is warranted.

  9. Epinephrine syringe exchange events in a paediatric cardiovascular ICU: analysing the storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achuff, Barbara-Jo; Achuff, Jameson C; Park, Hwan H; Moffett, Brady; Acosta, Sebastian; Rusin, Craig G; Checchia, Paul A

    2018-03-01

    Introduction Haemodynamically unstable patients can experience potentially hazardous changes in vital signs related to the exchange of depleted syringes of epinephrine to full syringes. The purpose was to determine the measured effects of epinephrine syringe exchanges on the magnitude, duration, and frequency of haemodynamic disturbances in the hour after an exchange event (study) relative to the hours before (control). Materials and methods Beat-to-beat vital signs recorded every 2 seconds from bedside monitors for patients admitted to the paediatric cardiovascular ICU of Texas Children's Hospital were collected between 1 January, 2013 and 30 June, 2015. Epinephrine syringe exchanges without dose/flow change were obtained from electronic records. Time, magnitude, and duration of changes in systolic blood pressure and heart rate were characterised using Matlab. Significant haemodynamic events were identified and compared with control data. In all, 1042 syringe exchange events were found and 850 (81.6%) had uncorrupted data for analysis. A total of 744 (87.5%) exchanges had at least 1 associated haemodynamic perturbation including 2958 systolic blood pressure and 1747 heart-rate changes. Heart-rate perturbations occurred 37% before exchange and 63% after exchange, and 37% of systolic blood pressure perturbations happened before syringe exchange, whereas 63% occurred after syringe exchange with significant differences found in systolic blood pressure frequency (pexchange events.

  10. Efficacy trial of Camouflage Syringe to reduce dental fear and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujaoney, S; Mamtani, M; Thakre, T; Tote, J; Hazarey, V; Hazarey, P; Kulkarni, H

    2013-12-01

    Dental fear and anxiety in early childhood are widely prevalent and contribute to dental problems and behaviour in adulthood. Novel ways to reduce dental fear and anxiety in children are needed. Our aim was to conduct an efficacy trial of a novel Camouflage Syringe to reduce dental fear and anxiety in children. randomised controlled trial of efficacy of the Camouflage Syringe. We designed a Camouflage Syringe with a toy-like appearance that veils the conventional syringe to permit topical application and injection of local anaesthesia and ensure more involvement of the patient in the treatment process. We conducted a concurrent parallel, randomised controlled trial (NCT01398007) on the efficacy of this Camouflage Syringe to reduce the dental fear and anxiety in children seeking dental treatment who required the use of local anaesthesia. Using Venham's clinical rating scale, Venham's picture test, parental stress questionnaire and recall questionnaire, the efficacy of the Camouflage Syringe to reduce dental fear and anxiety ranged from 82% to 97% for various outcomes and from 60% to 100% for prevention of related adverse outcomes. For all outcomes, the number needed to treat was close to unity. Our results strongly favour the use of Camouflage Syringe to reduce dental fear and anxiety in children.

  11. The provision of non-needle/syringe drug injecting paraphernalia in the primary prevention of HCV among IDU: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Syed

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sharing drug injecting paraphernalia other than needles and syringes (N/S has been implicated in the transmission of Hepatitis C virus (HCV among injecting drug users (IDU. We aimed to determine whether the provision of sterile non-N/S injecting paraphernalia reduces injecting risk behaviours or HCV transmission among IDU. Methods A systematic search of seven databases and the grey literature for articles published January 1989-February 2010 was undertaken. Thirteen studies (twelve observational and one non-randomized uncontrolled pilot intervention were identified and appraised for study design and quality by two investigators. Results No studies examined the association between the provision of non-N/S injecting paraphernalia and incident HCV infection. One cross-sectional study found that individuals who frequently, compared to those who infrequently, used sterile cookers and water, were less likely to report prevalent HCV infection. Another found no association between the uptake of sterile non-N/S injecting paraphernalia and self-reported sharing of this paraphernalia. The remaining observational studies used attendance at needle and syringe exchange programmes (NSP or safer injection facilities (SIF that provided non-N/S injecting paraphernalia as a proxy measure. Eight studies presented adjusted odds ratios, ranging from 0.3 to 0.9, suggesting a reduced likelihood of self-reported sharing of non-N/S injecting paraphernalia associated with use of NSP or SIF. There was substantial uncertainty associated with these estimates however. Three unadjusted studies reported a reduction in the prevalence of sharing of non-N/S injecting paraphernalia over time among NSP users. Only one study reported an adjusted temporal trend in the prevalence of sharing non-N/S injecting paraphernalia, finding higher rates among non-NSP users than NSP users at each time point, and a greater reduction in sharing among non-NSP than NSP users over

  12. Sewage sterilization through gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, D.V.; Teixeira, W.M.S.; Silva, F.C.A. da

    2017-01-01

    Lack of sewage treatment and adequate sanitation conditions can contribute to the proliferation of numerous parasitic and infectious diseases in addition to water degradation. Approximately fifty types of infections can be transmitted from a sick to a healthy person through different pathways involving human excreta. Untreated sewage can contaminate water, food, hands, soil, etc. Epidemics of certain diseases such as typhoid, cholera, dysenteries, etc., and countless cases of worms are responsible for high mortality rates in third world countries. In the work the different techniques of sewage treatment by disinfestation and sterilization were analyzed, highlighting the use and the advantages of the gamma radiation as well as the aspects of the radiological protection involved. The technique of sewage sterilization using gamma radiation is a method of controlling bacteria and microorganisms. It is estimated that more than 200 large irradiators are in operation worldwide, of which 5 are in Brazil, for general sterilization use. These facilities use a large amount of radioactive material, in the order of millions of Becquerel, for sterilization with high doses of radiation, which can generate lethal doses in a few minutes. These industrial facilities use Cobalt-60, being classified by the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA as Category 1 of high risk, and must possess a high level of radiological protection to carry out the sterilization, standing out the defense in depth. Specific legislation on radiological protection should be drafted for safe work and avoid future radiation accidents

  13. Radiation: A means of sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, R N [International Atomic Energy Agency, Division of Life Sciences, Radiation Biology Section, Vienna (Austria)

    1975-12-15

    The sterilization of medical products by ionizing radiation is a well-established industrial process in a number of technologically advanced countries. It is indeed encouraging to note the rate of growth experienced during the past fifteen years. Starting with the first commercial plant in the early sixties in the USA there are to date more than sixty large facilities of this kind located in USA, Canada, Australia and the countries of Europe including USSR. The geographical distribution of these sterilization plants is rather unbalanced. In this respect Europe is far ahead of the other continents of the world, with about 65% of all sterilization plants, followed by North and South America with 17%, Asia with 8%, Australia and New Zealand with 9% and Africa with only 1%. During the last 10 years the IAEA has actively contributed to the development of radiation sterilization practices and technology in the Member States, with particular emphasis on the developing countries. Such promotional efforts have been made by (a) supporting co-ordinated research to accumulate relevant technical information, (b) organizing scientific meetings and training courses, (c) providing technical expertise in the form of fellowships and expert services, (d) providing technical assistance to conduct market surveys and economic feasibility assessment, (e) scientific publications, including technical manuals and proceedings reports, and (f) assistance in the formulation of an international 'Code of Practice' for standardization of the manufacturing practices for radiation sterilized medical products to meet the specified requirements of the various national Pharmacopoeias and of the international consumer market.

  14. Prospects of radiation sterilization of medical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosobuchi, Kazunari

    1992-01-01

    Since radiation sterilization was first introduced in the United States in 1956 in the field of disposable medical devices, it has become an indispensable technique for sterilization because of the following reasons: (1) introduction into dialyzers, (2) introduction in medical device makers, (3) development of disposable medical devices associated with developing both high molecular chemistry and cool sterilization, (4) rationality of sterilization process, and (5) problems of sterilization with ethylene oxide gas. To promote the further development of radiation sterilization, the following items are considered necessary: (1) an increase in the number of facilities for radiation sterilization, (2) recommendation of the international standardization of sterilization method, (3) decrease in radiation doses associated with sterilization, (4) development of electron accelerators and bremsstrahlung equipments for radiation sources, and (5) simplification of sterilization process management. Factors precluding the development of radiation sterilization are: (1) development of other methods than radiation sterilization, (2) development of technique for sterile products, (3) high facility cost, (4) high irradiation cost, (5) benefits and limits of sterilization markets, and (6) influences of materials. (N.K.)

  15. Radiation sterilization of hydrocortisone acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charef, A.; Boussaha, A.

    1989-09-01

    The feasibility of using high energy ionizing radiation for the sterilization of hydrocortisone acetate was investigated. Hydrocortisone acetate in the form of powder was exposed to different dose levels of gamma radiation using a Cobalt-60 source. The irradiated samples were examined by various physico-chemical techniques in order to detect possible radiolysis products. It was of interest to know if one could insure sterility and retain biological properties of the drug by suitable choice of radiation dose. The results showed that a 10 KGy radiation dose causes no change in the physico-chemical properties of the drug and is sufficient to obtain contaminant-free product

  16. Plasma Sterilizer with Ultrasonic Cavitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnyj, V.V.; Klosovsky, A.V.; Panasko, T.A.; Shvets, O.M.; Semenova, O.T.; Taran, V.S.; Tereshin, V.I.

    2006-01-01

    A sterilizer consists of ozone generator based on a barrier glow discharge with the flat electrodes covered with dielectric with a high-voltage pulsed power supply of up to 250 W (1). The sterilization camera is equipped with ultrasonic source with the power of 100 W. The experiments on the inactivation of bacteria of the Bacillus Cereus type were carried out in the distilled water saturated by ozone. Ozone concentration in the aqueous solution was 6 mg/liter with ozone concentration at the output of ozone generator 30 mg/liter. The complete inactivation of spores took 15 min

  17. Evaluation of syringe shield effectiveness in handling radiopharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Yong-In

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the radiation shield of radionuclide syringes and the personal dose equivalent by performing a simulation of radionuclides used in nuclear medicine diagnosis. In order to evaluate the dose depending on the distance between the radiation source and the ICRU sphere against the thickness of the shielding device, the distance at which a nuclear medicine worker may inadvertently come into contact with radiation from the radiation source was set at 0 cm to 30 cm according to the thickness of the shield, thus fixing the ICRU sphere. For a dose evaluation, Hp(10, Hp(3, and Hp(0.07 measurable in specific depth of the ICRU were evaluated. It was found that a dose measured on skin surface of nuclear medicine workers was relatively higher, that the dose varied in relation to the thickness of the radiation shield, and that the shielding effect decreased for some radiation sources such as 67Ga and 111In. It proved necessary to increase thickness of shielding device to the radiation sources such as 67Ga and 111In. It is also considered that a study of proper shielding thickness will be needed in future.

  18. Mechanized syringe homogenization of human and animal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Biji T; Porter, Andrew C; Patel, Nisha C; Kurono, Sadamu; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Scofield, R Hal

    2004-06-01

    Tissue homogenization is a prerequisite to any fractionation schedule. A plethora of hands-on methods are available to homogenize tissues. Here we report a mechanized method for homogenizing animal and human tissues rapidly and easily. The Bio-Mixer 1200 (manufactured by Innovative Products, Inc., Oklahoma City, OK) utilizes the back-and-forth movement of two motor-driven disposable syringes, connected to each other through a three-way stopcock, to homogenize animal or human tissue. Using this method, we were able to homogenize human or mouse tissues (brain, liver, heart, and salivary glands) in 5 min. From sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric enzyme assay for prolidase, we have found that the homogenates obtained were as good or even better than that obtained used a manual glass-on-Teflon (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) homogenization protocol (all-glass tube and Teflon pestle). Use of the Bio-Mixer 1200 to homogenize animal or human tissue precludes the need to stay in the cold room as is the case with the other hands-on homogenization methods available, in addition to freeing up time for other experiments.

  19. Male and female sterility in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athena Pantazis

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Population measures of sterility are traditionally constructed for women, despite fertility and sterility being conditions of the couple. Estimates of male sterility provide insight into population-level sterility, and complement estimates based solely on women. Objective: This study seeks to estimate male sterility for the Gwembe Tonga of Zambia using male birth histories collected by the Gwembe Tonga Research Project from 1957 to 1995, while providing context by estimating female sterility for the Gwembe Tonga, as well as female sterility in all of Zambia, from Zambian DHS data (1992, 1997, 2001-02, and 2007. Methods: Sterility is measured using the Larson-Menken subsequently infertile indicator. Estimates are produced using discrete time event history analysis. Results: The odds of sterility were higher for women than men, though women's odds of sterility were only 1.5 times that of men's in the middle reproductive years. The odds of sterility increased steadily with age for both men and women, and across all datasets. However, women's sterility increased much more sharply with age than men's did, and women's odds of sterility were higher than men's at all reproductive ages.

  20. Syringe Decriminalization Advocacy in Red States: Lessons from the North Carolina Harm Reduction Coalition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloud, David H; Castillo, Tessie; Brinkley-Rubinstein, Lauren; Dubey, Manisha; Childs, Robert

    2018-05-08

    Syringe access programs (SAPs) are cornerstone harm reduction interventions for combatting the national opioid epidemic. The goal of this paper is to describe effective advocacy strategies for enacting syringe decriminalization legislation to foster the expansion of SAPs in high-need areas amidst political opposition. Decades or research shows that SAPs prevent the transmission of HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID) and are a cost-effective tool for linking PWID to medical care, health education, and social services. In the USA, state laws criminalizing distribution and possession of syringes impede the expansion of SAPs into areas where they are sorely needed. In 2016, North Carolina became the first state to legalize SAPs with a Republican super majority. This paper distills strategies for community organizations seeking to advance syringe decriminalization legislation in politically conservative states with histories of prioritizing punitive sanctions over public health responses to drug use.

  1. Direct observation of syringeal muscle function in songbirds and a parrot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Goller, Franz

    2002-01-01

    on the syrinx. Contraction of m. tracheobronchialis ventralis enlarges the syringeal lumen and thus increases airflow by abducting the LL but does not affect the ML. The largest syringeal muscle, m. syringealis ventralis, plays a minor role, if any, in direct aperture control and thus in gating airflow...... the LTMs further into the tracheal lumen but does not close the syringeal aperture fully. The intrinsic deep muscle, m. syringealis profundus, abducts the LTMs through cranio-laterad movement of a paired, protruding half-ring. The weakly developed extrinsic m. sternotrachealis seems to increase tension......The role of syringeal muscles in controlling the aperture of the avian vocal organ, the syrinx, was evaluated directly for the first time by observing and filming through an endoscope while electrically stimulating different muscle groups of anaesthetised birds. In songbirds (brown thrashers...

  2. Variability in syringe components and its impact on functionality of delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Nitin; Pranay, Pratik; Eu, Bruce; Ji, Wenchang; Walls, Ed

    2011-01-01

    Prefilled syringes and autoinjectors are becoming increasingly common for parenteral drug administration primarily due to the convenience they offer to the patients. Successful commercialization of such delivery systems requires thorough characterization of individual components. Complete understanding of various sources of variability and their ranking is essential for robust device design. In this work, we studied the impact of variability in various primary container and device components on the delivery forces associated with syringe injection. More specifically, the effects of barrel size, needle size, autoinjector spring force, and frictional forces have been evaluated. An analytical model based on underlying physics is developed that can be used to fully characterize the design space for a product delivery system. Use of prefilled syringes (syringes prefilled with active drug) is becoming increasingly common for injectable drugs. Compared to vials, prefilled syringes offer higher dose accuracy and ease of use due to fewer steps required for dosage. Convenience to end users can be further enhanced through the use of prefilled syringes in combination with delivery devices such as autoinjectors. These devices allow patients to self-administer the drug by following simple steps such as pressing a button. These autoinjectors are often spring-loaded and are designed to keep the needle tip shielded prior to injection. Because the needle is not visible to the user, such autoinjectors are perceived to be less invasive than syringes and help the patient overcome the hesitation associated with self-administration. In order to successfully develop and market such delivery devices, we need to perform an in-depth analysis of the components that come into play during the activation of the device and dose delivery. Typically, an autoinjector is activated by the press of a button that releases a compressed spring; the spring relaxes and provides the driving force to push the

  3. Establishment of a sterilization dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaluska, I.

    2007-01-01

    Factors that impact on product bioburden (population of diable microorganisms on or in product and/or sterile barrier system) are: Raw materials, components, product design and size, manufacturing process, manufacturing equipment, manufacturing environment and manufacturing location. Presented lecture describes all these factors in details

  4. Sterile neutrino constraints from cosmology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, Georg G.

    2012-01-01

    The presence of light particles beyond the standard model's three neutrino species can profoundly impact the physics of decoupling and primordial nucleosynthesis. I review the observational signatures of extra light species, present constraints from recent data, and discuss the implications of po...... of possible sterile neutrinos with O(eV)-masses for cosmology....

  5. Sterile Neutrino Search with MINOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devan, Alena V.

    2015-01-01

    MINOS, Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in the NuMI muon neutrino beam at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, IL. It consists of two detectors, a near detector positioned 1 km from the source of the beam and a far detector 734 km away in Minnesota. MINOS is primarily designed to observe muon neutrino disappearance resulting from three flavor oscillations. The Standard Model of Particle Physics predicts that neutrinos oscillate between three active flavors as they propagate through space. This means that a muon-type neutrino has a certain probability to later interact as a different type of neutrino. In the standard picture, the neutrino oscillation probabilities depend only on three neutrino flavors and two mass splittings, Δm 2 . An anomaly was observed by the LSND and MiniBooNE experiments that suggests the existence of a fourth, sterile neutrino flavor that does not interact through any of the known Standard Model interactions. Oscillations into a theoretical sterile flavor may be observed by a deficit in neutral current interactions in the MINOS detectors. A distortion in the charged current energy spectrum might also be visible if oscillations into the sterile flavor are driven by a large mass-squared difference, Δm s 2 ~ 1 eV 2 . The results of the 2013 sterile neutrino search are presented here.

  6. Sterility test by radiometric technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faruq, Muhammad

    1980-01-01

    Sterility test of pharmaceuticals can be carried out by the application of pharmacopoeia and radiometric technique. In Indonesia the application of pharmacopoeia technique is carried out through liquid germination for aerobacteria and for fungus and yeast. Radiometric technique is applied to autotrop and heterotrop bacteria. (SMN)

  7. Sterile Neutrino Search with MINOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devan, Alena V. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    MINOS, Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in the NuMI muon neutrino beam at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, IL. It consists of two detectors, a near detector positioned 1 km from the source of the beam and a far detector 734 km away in Minnesota. MINOS is primarily designed to observe muon neutrino disappearance resulting from three flavor oscillations. The Standard Model of Particle Physics predicts that neutrinos oscillate between three active flavors as they propagate through space. This means that a muon-type neutrino has a certain probability to later interact as a different type of neutrino. In the standard picture, the neutrino oscillation probabilities depend only on three neutrino flavors and two mass splittings, Δm2. An anomaly was observed by the LSND and MiniBooNE experiments that suggests the existence of a fourth, sterile neutrino flavor that does not interact through any of the known Standard Model interactions. Oscillations into a theoretical sterile flavor may be observed by a deficit in neutral current interactions in the MINOS detectors. A distortion in the charged current energy spectrum might also be visible if oscillations into the sterile flavor are driven by a large mass-squared difference, ms2 ~ 1 eV2. The results of the 2013 sterile neutrino search are presented here.

  8. Retraction of the Plunger on a Syringe of Hyaluronic Acid Before Injection: Are We Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Wayne; Weinkle, Susan

    2015-12-01

    Controversy exists concerning the need for aspiration before injection with hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers. The authors undertook a study of HA products to determine if blood could be aspirated back into a syringe of HA when the needle has been primed or filled with HA. Two studies were set up to determine if or when blood could be withdrawn from a heparinized fresh tube of blood into the HA syringe. Two different techniques were tested; one using a slow-pull retraction of the plunger and up to a 5-second waiting time before release versus a rapid pullback and quick release. Review of these data demonstrates that the usual clinical method, which involves quick withdrawal and instant release of the syringe plunger does not allow for sufficient removal of the filler found intraluminal in the needle and may give rise to false negative results in vitro and likely in vivo with the exception being the Galderma/Medicis products. In summary, withdrawal of the syringe plunger with no visible blood in the syringe does not eliminate the possibility of intravascular placement of the syringe needle.

  9. Adsorption of technetium-99m tetrofosmin and technetium-99m furifosmin on plastic syringes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartosch, R.; Granegger, S.; Sinzinger, H.

    1998-01-01

    Some groups have reported that adsorption of radiopharmaceuticals on disposable plastic syringes can reach levels of almost 50%. This high loss of radioactivity stimulated us to carry out similar studies. Our measurements were done in combination with patient studies. Therefore, we used 2-ml syringes, all of the same brand. The radioactivity in the syringe was measured immediately before and after injection. a total of 500-600 MBq technetium-99m labelled tetrofosmin or technetium-99m furifosmin was administered to 48 patients using four different injection techniques (n = 6 for each technique with each tracer): with needles, 1 min blood incubation at 22 C, 10 or 30 min after preparation of the tracer; with butterflies, 1 min blood incubation at 22 C, 10 or 30 min after preparation of the tracer. Neither in syringes nor in needles or butterflies did more than 7% of the initial radioactivity remain. The entire residual activity in syringe plus needle or syringe plus butterfly together never exceeded the 9% limit. Furthermore, in a pilot study we measured the remaining radioactivity in the vial; here, too, we found no more than 14% of total radioactivity. These findings indicate that total retention of radioactivity during elution and application of 99m Tc-tetrofosmin and 99m Tc-furifosmin with material used in our setting does not approach relevant amounts. (orig.)

  10. Adsorption of technetium-99m tetrofosmin and technetium-99m furifosmin on plastic syringes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartosch, R.; Granegger, S.; Sinzinger, H. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Vienna (Austria)

    1998-09-01

    Some groups have reported that adsorption of radiopharmaceuticals on disposable plastic syringes can reach levels of almost 50%. This high loss of radioactivity stimulated us to carry out similar studies. Our measurements were done in combination with patient studies. Therefore, we used 2-ml syringes, all of the same brand. The radioactivity in the syringe was measured immediately before and after injection. a total of 500-600 MBq technetium-99m labelled tetrofosmin or technetium-99m furifosmin was administered to 48 patients using four different injection techniques (n = 6 for each technique with each tracer): with needles, 1 min blood incubation at 22 C, 10 or 30 min after preparation of the tracer; with butterflies, 1 min blood incubation at 22 C, 10 or 30 min after preparation of the tracer. Neither in syringes nor in needles or butterflies did more than 7% of the initial radioactivity remain. The entire residual activity in syringe plus needle or syringe plus butterfly together never exceeded the 9% limit. Furthermore, in a pilot study we measured the remaining radioactivity in the vial; here, too, we found no more than 14% of total radioactivity. These findings indicate that total retention of radioactivity during elution and application of {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin and {sup 99m}Tc-furifosmin with material used in our setting does not approach relevant amounts. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs.

  11. Sterilization can change properties of bioceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willmann, G.

    2003-01-01

    Bioceramics made of bioinert alumina or zirconia and bioactive hydroxyapatite are well established implant materials. Implants have to be cleaned and sterilized. When sterilized some bioceramics change their color. This may effect their properties. No decrease of mechanical strength is observed when sterilizing alumina and the novel ceramic biocomposite AMC (Alumina Matrix Composite) with steam or Co 60 Gamma irradiation. When sterilizing Y-TZP zirconia with steam a decrease of strength is observed. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [de

  12. Radiation sterilization: an industrial process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley, F.J.

    1975-01-01

    A new dimension has been added to the use of radiation in the medical field with the introduction of radiation as a sterilizing agent. Its use in diagnosis through radioactive tracers or X-rays and in therapy administered with the most sophisticated of electrical machines or radioisotope units, is familiar in the hospital world, being well established therein. In contrast, the application of radiation sterilization is in industry where the installation of large radiation sources is already commonplace in many countries. The beginnings in the early 1950's centered on the Van de Graaff machine and linear accelerators and the pioneering efforts of Ethicon Inc. here in the United States must be recognized. However, although sterilization with electron beams is still current practice in a number of plants, the use of gamma rays from cobalt-60 is preferred. The first steps in this direction were taken by the U.K.A.E.A. which, in common with similar organizations elsewhere, was attempting to exploit the tremendous potential for cobalt-60 production arising through the rapid construction of nuclear reactors. The first full-scale commercial gamma plant was commissioned in the U.K. in 1960. It reached a loading of 500,000 curies before its demolition after twelve years of operation. The process gained rapid acceptance within industry and approval by health authorities because it provided a ''cold'' sterilization method combining the property of lethal effect with penetration. Its immediate impact occurred in the introduction of disposable products making it possible, for example, to use heat-labile plastics and new packaging materials and package designs. Certainly, the technique has proved complementary to sterilization methods based on heat and to the use of chemical agents, in particular ethylene oxide gas

  13. Sterile Neutrinos in Cold Climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Benjamin J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of neutrino oscillations at short baselines contain an intriguing set of experimental anomalies that may be suggestive of new physics such as the existence of sterile neutrinos. This three-part thesis presents research directed towards understanding these anomalies and searching for sterile neutrino oscillations. Part I contains a theoretical discussion of neutrino coherence properties. The open-quantum-system picture of neutrino beams, which allows a rigorous prediction of coherence distances for accelerator neutrinos, is presented. Validity of the standard treatment of active and sterile neutrino oscillations at short baselines is verified, and non-standard coherence loss effects at longer baselines are predicted. Part II concerns liquid argon detector development for the MicroBooNE experiment, which will search for short-baseline oscillations in the Booster Neutrino Beam at Fermilab. Topics include characterization and installation of the MicroBooNE optical system; test-stand measurements of liquid argon optical properties with dissolved impurities; optimization of wavelength-shifting coatings for liquid argon scintillation light detection; testing and deployment of high-voltage surge arrestors to protect TPC field cages; and software development for optical and TPC simulation and reconstruction. Part III presents a search for sterile neutrinos using the IceCube neutrino telescope, which has collected a large sample of atmospheric-neutrino-induced events in the 1-10 TeV energy range. Sterile neutrinos would modify the detected neutrino flux shape via MSW-resonant oscillations. Following a careful treatment of systematic uncertainties in the sample, no evidence for MSW-resonant oscillations is observed, and exclusion limits on 3+1 model parameter space are derived. Under the mixing assumptions made, the 90% confidence level exclusion limit extends to sin 2 2θ 24 ≤ 0.02 at m 2 ~ 0.3 eV 2 , and the LSND and MiniBooNE allowed regions are excluded at

  14. Reionization in sterile neutrino cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Sownak; Frenk, Carlos S.; Hou, Jun; Lacey, Cedric G.; Lovell, Mark R.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the process of reionization in a model in which the dark matter is a warm elementary particle such as a sterile neutrino. We focus on models that are consistent with the dark matter decay interpretation of the recently detected line at 3.5 keV in the X-ray spectra of galaxies and clusters. In warm dark matter models, the primordial spectrum of density perturbations has a cut-off on the scale of dwarf galaxies. Structure formation therefore begins later than in the standard cold dark matter (CDM) model and very few objects form below the cut-off mass scale. To calculate the number of ionizing photons, we use the Durham semi-analytic model of galaxy formation, GALFORM. We find that even the most extreme 7 keV sterile neutrino we consider is able to reionize the Universe early enough to be compatible with the bounds on the epoch of reionization from Planck. This, perhaps surprising, result arises from the rapid build-up of high redshift galaxies in the sterile neutrino models which is also reflected in a faster evolution of their far-UV luminosity function between 10 > z > 7 than in CDM. The dominant sources of ionizing photons are systematically more massive in the sterile neutrino models than in CDM. As a consistency check on the models, we calculate the present-day luminosity function of satellites of Milky Way-like galaxies. When the satellites recently discovered in the Dark Energy Survey are taken into account, strong constraints are placed on viable sterile neutrino models.

  15. Compodock, a new device for sterile docking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, P. F.; Biekart, F. T.; Pietersz, R. N.; Rebers, S. P.; Reesink, H. W.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A new device for sterile docking, the Compodock (Fresenius NPBI Transfusion Technology), was developed for connecting PVC tubing for medical use while maintaining sterility. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Sterility of the connections was assessed by welding tubing with a heavy exterior

  16. Radiosterilization or sterilization by steam. Procedures for sterilization of spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warmbold, J.

    1994-01-01

    The article compares two different methods for the sterilization of spices, namely radiosterilization and sterilization with steam. The first method applies ionizing radiation which can alter the chemical composition of the products. Tests have shown, however, that radiation doses up to 10 kGy will not induce the formation of carcinogenic agents in the foodstuffs, or of toxic substances, and thus are a wholesome method of preservation. Any modifications of taste, color or smell, or loss of vitamins, can be avoided by proper dose control and standard irradiation conditions. Sterilization by steam is a method achieving substantial suppression of the formation of germs, aerobic spores, yeasts, mould, and gramnegative germs, while preserving in most cases the essential oils. It may result in sensoric alterations, i.e affect the color, smell or taste, but in general the spices thus treated preserved their characteristic properties. The method is a good alternative to radiosterilization. The article adds some concluding information on mandatory labelling of irradiated food imported from third countries

  17. Possibilities of radiation sterilization for re-usage of medical devices in the medical management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabei, Masae; Kudo, Hisaaki; Katsumura, Yosuke

    2004-01-01

    The rule for re-usage of medical single-use devices was established in US in 2000 based on the concept of Managed Care (total management of medicare on cost, quality and patients' satisfaction) and 20-30% of those devices are re-used at present. The re-usage is conducted in not only US but also Canada, Denmark, UK, India, China etc. Standing on the viewpoint, this paper described and discussed the possibility of re-usage of the single-use devices now prohibited in Japan, possible re-sterilization, possible re-usage of hollow fiber-type hemodialyzer following γ-ray sterilization with consideration for D-values against bacteria and viruses, cost estimation of electron beam sterilization for re-usage, and radiation sterilization of waste water and plastic materials. Radiation sterilization for re-usage of medical devices was concluded possible if their materials and records for their usage processes are proper, and should be conducted in a large scale after sufficient examinations by industries/government/academia. (N.I.)

  18. High dead-space syringe use among people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafful, Claudia; Zule, William; González-Zúñiga, Patricia E; Werb, Dan; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2015-05-01

    High dead-space syringes (HDSS) are believed to confer an elevated risk of acquiring HIV and other blood-borne infections. We identified prevalence and correlates of HDSS use among injection drug users (IDU) in Tijuana, Mexico, where syringe purchase and possession is legal without a prescription. Beginning in 2011, IDU who reported being 18 years or older and injected drugs within the last month were recruited into a prospective study. At baseline and semi-annually, 557 IDU underwent HIV-testing and interviewer-administered surveys. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of using HDSS. Of 557 IDU, 40% had ever used HDSS, mostly because no other syringe type was available (72%), or because they were easier to get (20%). Controlling for sex and age at first injection, use of HDSS was associated with cocaine as the first drug injected (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]: 2.68; Confidence Interval 95% [CI]: 1.15-6.22), having been stopped or arrested by police (AOR: 1.84; 95% CI: 1.11-3.07), being deported from the US (AOR: 1.64; 95% CI:1.06-2.53), and believing it is illegal to carry syringes (AOR:1.78; 95% CI: 1.01-3.15). Use of HDSS is surprisingly common among IDU in Tijuana. Efforts are needed to expand coverage of low-dead space syringes through existing syringe exchange programs. Education is required to increase awareness of the harms associated with HDSS, and to inform IDU that syringe possession is legal across Mexico.

  19. Needle syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy for preventing hepatitis C transmission in people who inject drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Lucy; Minozzi, Silvia; Reed, Jennifer; Vickerman, Peter; Hagan, Holly; French, Clare; Jordan, Ashly; Degenhardt, Louisa; Hope, Vivian; Hutchinson, Sharon; Maher, Lisa; Palmateer, Norah; Taylor, Avril; Bruneau, Julie; Hickman, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    very low-quality evidence that high NSP coverage did not reduce risk of HCV acquisition (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.39 to 1.61) with high heterogeneity (I2 = 77%) based on five studies from North America and Europe involving 3530 participants. After stratification by region, high NSP coverage in Europe was associated with a 76% reduction in HCV acquisition risk (RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.62) with less heterogeneity (I2 =0%). We found low-quality evidence of the impact of combined high coverage of NSP and OST, from three studies involving 3241 participants, resulting in a 74% reduction in the risk of HCV acquisition (RR 0.26 95% CI 0.07 to 0.89). Authors' conclusions OST is associated with a reduction in the risk of HCV acquisition, which is strengthened in studies that assess the combination of OST and NSP. There was greater heterogeneity between studies and weaker evidence for the impact of NSP on HCV acquisition. High NSP coverage was associated with a reduction in the risk of HCV acquisition in studies in Europe. Interventions for reducing hepatitis C infection in people who inject drugs Review question We examine research on the effect of needle syringe programmes (NSP) and opioid substitution treatment (OST) in reducing the risk of becoming infected with the hepatitis C virus. Background There are around 114.9 million people living with hepatitis C and 3 to 4 million people newly infected each year. The main risk for becoming infected is sharing used needles/syringes. Almost half the people who inject drugs have hepatitis C. The provision of sterile injecting equipment through NSPs reduces the need for sharing equipment when preparing and injecting drugs. OST is taken orally and reduces frequency of injection and unsafe injecting practices. We examined whether NSP and OST, provided alone or together, are effective in reducing the chances of becoming infected with hepatitis C in people who inject drugs. Search date The evidence is current to November 2015. Study

  20. Dosimetry for electron beam sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.

    2007-01-01

    According to ISO 11137-1 (sect 4.3.4) dosimetry used in the development, validation and routine control of the sterilization process shall have measurement traceability to national or international standards and shall have a known level of uncertainty. It can only be obtained through calibration of the dosimeters. In presented lecture different types of dosimeter systems for electron beams (calorimeters, radiochromic film dosimeters, alanine / EPR) and their calibration are described

  1. Mirror model for sterile neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezinsky, Veniamin; Narayan, Mohan; Vissani, Francesco

    2003-01-01

    Sterile neutrinos are studied as subdominant contribution to solar neutrino physics. The mirror-matter neutrinos are considered as sterile neutrinos. We use the symmetric mirror model with gravitational communication between mirror and visible sectors. This communication term provides mixing between visible and mirror neutrinos with the basic scale μ=v EW 2 /M Pl =2.5x10 -6 eV, where v EW =174 GeV is the vacuum expectation value of the standard electroweak group and M Pl is the Planckian mass. It is demonstrated that each mass eigenstate of active neutrinos splits into two states separated by small Δm 2 . Unsuppressed oscillations between active and sterile neutrinos (ν a ↔ν s ) occur only in transitions between each of these close pairs ('windows'). These oscillations are characterized by very small Δm 2 and can suppress the flux and distort spectrum of pp-neutrinos in detectable way. The other observable effect is anomalous seasonal variation of neutrino flux, which appears in LMA solution. The considered subdominant neutrino oscillations ν a ↔ν s can reveal itself as big effects in observations of supernova neutrinos and high-energy (HE) neutrinos. In the case of HE neutrinos they can provide a very large diffuse flux of active neutrinos unconstrained by the e-m cascade upper limit

  2. Sterile Neutrinos in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Benjamin J.P. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Measurements of neutrino oscillations at short baselines contain an intriguing set of experimental anomalies that may be suggestive of new physics such as the existence of sterile neutrinos. This three-part thesis presents research directed towards understanding these anomalies and searching for sterile neutrino oscillations. Part I contains a theoretical discussion of neutrino coherence properties. The open-quantum-system picture of neutrino beams, which allows a rigorous prediction of coherence distances for accelerator neutrinos, is presented. Validity of the standard treatment of active and sterile neutrino oscillations at short baselines is verified, and non-standard coherence loss effects at longer baselines are predicted. Part II concerns liquid argon detector development for the MicroBooNE experiment, which will search for short-baseline oscillations in the Booster Neutrino Beam at Fermilab. Topics include characterization and installation of the MicroBooNE optical system; test-stand measurements of liquid argon optical properties with dissolved impurities; optimization of wavelength-shifting coatings for liquid argon scintillation light detection; testing and deployment of high-voltage surge arrestors to protect TPC field cages; and software development for optical and TPC simulation and reconstruction. Part III presents a search for sterile neutrinos using the IceCube neutrino telescope, which has collected a large sample of atmospheric-neutrino-induced events in the 1-10 TeV energy range. Sterile neutrinos would modify the detected neutrino flux shape via MSW-resonant oscillations. Following a careful treatment of systematic uncertainties in the sample, no evidence for MSW-resonant oscillations is observed, and exclusion limits on 3+1 model parameter space are derived. Under the mixing assumptions made, the 90% confidence level exclusion limit extends to sin224 ≤ 0.02 at m2 ~ 0.3 eV2, and the LSND and Mini

  3. Influence of Syringe Volume on Foam Stability in Sclerotherapy for Varicose Vein Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Taoping; Jiang, Wentao; Fan, Yubo

    2018-05-01

    Despite the popularity of sclerotherapy for treating varicose veins, it still exhibits various problems, such as pulmonary embolism, deep-vein thrombosis, phlebitis, and visual disorders. To investigate syringe volume influence on foam stability, obtain the foam decay rule, and provide a reference for clinics. Five types of syringes are used to prepare foam at room temperature with various liquid-gas ratios. Foam decay process experiments were performed 5 times and recorded by video. The stability indices used include drainage time, half-life, bubble diameter, bubble surface density, and drainage rate. The 30 and 2-mL syringes, respectively, recorded the highest and lowest drainage speeds. Foam drainage time and half-life, differences varied between 15 and 70 seconds, and 20 and 100 seconds, respectively. Foam bubble diameters were distributed over 0.1 to 2.0 mm with roughly 200 to 700 bubbles per square centimeter. Increased syringe volume causes the bubble diameter to increase. Thus, foam dispersion increases and foam half-life decreases; hence, foam becomes unstable. It is, thus, better to use a small syringe several times to prepare foam in clinics using segmented injections.

  4. A syringe-sharing model for the spread of HIV: application to Omsk, Western Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artzrouni, Marc; Leonenko, Vasiliy N; Mara, Thierry A

    2017-03-01

    A system of two differential equations is used to model the transmission dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus between 'persons who inject drugs' (PWIDs) and their syringes. Our vector-borne disease model hinges on a metaphorical urn from which PWIDs draw syringes at random which may or may not be infected and may or may not result in one of the two agents becoming infected. The model's parameters are estimated with data mostly from the city of Omsk in Western Siberia. A linear trend in PWID prevalence in Omsk could only be fitted by considering a time-dependent version of the model captured through a secular decrease in the probability that PWIDs decide to share a syringe. A global sensitivity analysis is performed with 14 parameters considered random variables in order to assess their impact on average numbers infected over a 50-year projection. With obvious intervention implications the drug injection rate and the probability of syringe-cleansing are the only parameters whose coefficients of correlations with numbers of infected PWIDs and infected syringes have an absolute value close to or larger than 0.40. © The authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.

  5. Plasma Sterilization: New Epoch in Medical Textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, P.; Arun, N.; Vigneswaran, C.

    2015-04-01

    Clothing is perceived to be second skin to the human body since it is in close contact with the human skin most of the times. In hospitals, use of textile materials in different forms and sterilization of these materials is an essential requirement for preventing spread of germs. The need for appropriate disinfection and sterilization techniques is of paramount importance. There has been a continuous demand for novel sterilization techniques appropriate for use on various textile materials as the existing sterilization techniques suffer from various technical and economical drawbacks. Plasma sterilization is the alternative method, which is friendlier and more effective on the wide spectrum of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. Basically, the main inactivation factors for cells exposed to plasma are heat, UV radiation and various reactive species. Plasma exposure can kill micro-organisms on a surface in addition to removing adsorbed monolayer of surface contaminants. Advantages of plasma surface treatment are removal of contaminants from the surface, change in the surface energy and sterilization of the surface. Plasma sterilization aims to kill and/or remove all micro-organisms which may cause infection of humans or animals, or which can cause spoilage of foods or other goods. This review paper emphasizes necessity for sterilization, essentials of sterilization, mechanism of plasma sterilization and the parameters influencing it.

  6. Regret following female sterilization in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becner, Anja; Turkanović, Anela Bečić; But, Igor

    2015-07-01

    To estimate the regret rate and risk factors for regret among women who have undergone sterilization. A retrospective study was conducted among all women who underwent a sterilization procedure at the University Medical Center Maribor, Maribor, Slovenia, in 2008-2012. Identified women were contacted and asked to complete an online questionnaire assessing regret and symptoms associated with depression. Among 714 identified women, 308 (43.1%) completed the questionnaire. Four (1.3%) participants reported regret, and 9 (2.9%) reported that they would not opt for sterilization again, all of whom had post-sterilization problems. Such problems were significantly associated with participants reporting that they would not opt for sterilization again (P=0.003). Additionally, women who would not choose sterilization again had significantly higher scores on the depressive scale used than did those who would undergo sterilization again (P=0.028). Few women report regret after tubal sterilization in Slovenia. However, an additional consultation on post-sterilization problems and depressive disorder before sterilization might minimize the risk of regret. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Women plan condom use after sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Sexual sterilization is highly effective in preventing pregnancy, but it does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). People who accept sterilization as their method of family planning therefore need to be encouraged to protect themselves against HIV/AIDS and STDs even after they have been sterilized. Since women return less often to family planning providers following their sterilization procedure, they need to be advised to protect themselves against HIV and STDs before the sterilization is performed. 42% of the 2782 women who underwent tubal sterilizations at the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston during 1991-96 indicated their intention in a cross-sectional study to use condoms after sterilization. 20% of all respondents, aged 18-51 years, had a known risk factor for HIV, and almost 25% reported regular condom use for contraception or disease protection during the 3 months before sterilization. Planned condom use increased from 32% in 1991 to 51% in 1996, irrespective of age, marital status, or ethnic background. Of the 646 women who used condoms before being sterilized, almost half indicated no plans to do so after the procedure. The following factors were associated with condom use: relatively younger age, black ethnicity, unmarried status, history of previous STD, no steady partner, having a higher number of previous sex partners, past use of condoms to prevent disease transmission, and lack of partner involvement in the decision to undergo sterilization.

  8. Evaluation and validation of a bee venom sting challenge performed by a micro-syringe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortellini, Gabriele; Severino, Maurizio; Francescato, Elisabetta; Turillazzi, Stefano; Spadolini, Igino; Rogkakou, Anthi; Passalacqua, Giovanni

    2012-12-01

    The honeybee sting challenge is considered a reliable procedure to evaluate the efficacy of specific immunotherapy, but it is difficult and unpractical to perform in clinical practice, because live insects are required. To assess the feasibility and reliability of a challenge test using a micro-syringe, and compared the procedure with sting challenge. Patients on bee venom immunotherapy and without systemic reactions at field sting were enrolled. They underwent a sting challenge with live bee, and large local reactions were assessed up to 48 hours. Those patients displaying systemic reactions at the sting challenge were excluded from the syringe challenge for ethical reasons. The syringe challenge was done by injecting 0.5 μL fresh unfiltered bee venom at 2 mm depth (the length of the sting left by a bee). The same follow-up as at the first challenge was performed. Bee-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) and tryptase were measured after each challenge. Nineteen patients underwent the sting challenge with live bees. Four had immediate systemic reactions (urticaria or asthma) and were excluded from the second challenge. The remaining 15 patients with large local reaction underwent the syringe challenge. No significant difference was seen in the maximum area of the large local reactions between the challenge with live bees and the syringe challenge. Also, no change was seen in tryptase and specific antibodies. This preliminary study suggests that the micro-syringe challenge with honeybee venom is feasible and produces results indistinguishable from those of the traditional sting challenge. Copyright © 2012 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Birth planning and sterilization in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, S E; Linmao, M; Wentao, Y

    2000-11-01

    Sterilization is the most prevalent method of contraception in China. Approximately half of all women of reproductive age report that they or their husbands are sterilized. Using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey we describe patterns of sterilization in eight Chinese provinces. With a discrete-time event history model we investigate the link between characteristics of local birth planning policy and the risk of sterilization. After controlling for parity, the risk of sterilization is highest in communities where birth planning policy is least strong as measured by exceptions to the one-child policy. These results suggest that couples with more flexibility in family building may have less control over contraceptive method use. Other factors affecting the risk of sterilization are a woman's age, parity, and whether or not she has a son. Our results emphasize the importance of taking into account multiple dimensions of reproductive behaviour when assessing one-child policy changes.

  10. Sterilization of heparinized cuprophan hemodialysis membranes

    OpenAIRE

    ten Hoopen, Hermina W.M.; Hinrichs, W.L.J.; Hinrichs, W.L.J.; Engbers, G.H.M.; Feijen, Jan

    1996-01-01

    The effects of sterilization of dry heparinized Cuprophan hemodialysis membranes by means of ethylene oxide (EtO) exposure, gamma irradiation, or steam on the anticoagulant activity and chemical characteristics of immobilized heparin and the permeability of the membrane were investigated. Sterilization did not result in a release of heparin or heparin fragments from heparinized Cuprophan. Sterilization of heparinized Cuprophan by means of EtO exposure and gamma irradiation induced a slight, i...

  11. EB surface sterilization of food material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, H.; Mizutani, A.; Kato, K.; Nishikimi, T.; Taniguchi, S.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a food irradiation with low energetic, lower than 300keV, electrons (so-called SOFT ELECTRON) as a rather new method of food sterilization. It is also a physical sterilization method, and free from the problems mentioned above. Low energetic electrons have small penetration power (50-200micron) through raw materials, and by selecting a proper energy of electrons we can sterilize only the surfaces or skins of target materials

  12. Syringe-vacuum microfluidics: A portable technique to create monodisperse emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, Adam R; Weitz, David A

    2011-03-16

    We present a simple method for creating monodisperse emulsions with microfluidic devices. Unlike conventional approaches that require bulky pumps, control computers, and expertise with device physics to operate devices, our method requires only the microfluidic device and a hand-operated syringe. The fluids needed for the emulsion are loaded into the device inlets, while the syringe is used to create a vacuum at the device outlet; this sucks the fluids through the channels, generating the drops. By controlling the hydrodynamic resistances of the channels using hydrodynamic resistors and valves, we are able to control the properties of the drops. This provides a simple and highly portable method for creating monodisperse emulsions.

  13. Cryoradiation sterilization - contemporary state and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talrose, V.L.

    1995-01-01

    The new approach of radiation sterilization -cryoradiosterilization with programmed freezing - was developed for pharmaceutical solutions. Both scientific and technical problems are solved, the results are discussed. Programmed freezing of vials with the drug's solutions provides the high stability of soluted components with biological activity at sterilizing irradiation without significant change of sterilization doses. Physical, chemical, biological and pharmacological properties of a lot of drug solutions for injection satisfy official requirements after cryoradiation sterilization treatment. This method seems to be especially important for the protein systems which could be infected by dangerous viruses (VIH, hepatitis B): blood plasma, diagnostic sera, protein preparations manufactured from donor's blood, etc. (Author)

  14. Probabilistic model for sterilization of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chepurko, V.V.; Malinovskij, O.V.

    1986-01-01

    The probabilistic model for radiation sterilization is proposed based on the followng suppositions: (1) initial contamination of a volume unit of the sterilized product m is described by the distribution of the probabilities q(m), (2) inactivation of the population from m of microorganisms is approximated by Bernoulli test scheme, and (3) contamination of unit of the sterilized product is independent. The possibility of approximation q(m) by Poisson distribution is demonstrated. The diagrams are presented permitting to evaluate the dose which provides the defined reliability of sterilization of food for chicken-gnotobionts

  15. Sterile neutrino dark matter with supersymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Bibhushan; Wells, James D.

    2017-08-01

    Sterile neutrino dark matter, a popular alternative to the WIMP paradigm, has generally been studied in non-supersymmetric setups. If the underlying theory is supersymmetric, we find that several interesting and novel dark matter features can arise. In particular, in scenarios of freeze-in production of sterile neutrino dark matter, its superpartner, the sterile sneutrino, can play a crucial role in early Universe cosmology as the dominant source of cold, warm, or hot dark matter, or of a subdominant relativistic population of sterile neutrinos that can contribute to the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom Neff during big bang nucleosynthesis.

  16. Currently available devices for female sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Lynne; Magos, Adam

    2005-09-01

    Sterilization is now the method of family planning most commonly used in the world. Over the last 150 years, research has evolved in the search for the ideal method of female sterilization. The procedure should ideally have high efficacy, be readily accessible and be personally and culturally acceptable. The method should be simple, quick, easily learned and be able to be performed in an outpatient setting without general anesthesia. The most common and effective method for sterilization has, thus far, been via the laparoscopic route. Hysteroscopic sterilization, however, potentially fulfills many of these ideal criteria, but until recently has remained more of a concept than a reality.

  17. Genetic basis of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    The use of the sterile insect technique for insect control relies on the introduction of sterility in the females of the wild population. This sterility is produced following the mating of these females with released males carrying, in their sperm, dominant lethal mutations that have been induced by ionizing radiation. As well as radiation-induced sterility, natural mechanisms can be recruited, especially the use of hybrid sterility. Radiation is usually one of the last procedures that insects undergo before leaving mass-rearing facilities for release in the field. It is essential that the dosimetry of the radiation source be checked to ensure that all the insects receive the required minimum dose. A dose should be chosen that maximizes the level of introduced sterility in the wild females in the field. Irradiation in nitrogen can provide protection against the detrimental somatic effects of radiation. Currently, the development of molecular methods to sterilize pest insects in the field, by the release of fertile insects carrying trans genes, is very much in vogue. It is concluded that using a physical process, such as radiation, will always have significant advantages over genetic and other methods of sterilization for the large-scale application of the sterile insect technique. (author)

  18. Media-fill simulation tests in manual and robotic aseptic preparation of injection solutions in syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Irene; Federici, Matteo; Kaiser, Vanessa; Thiesen, Judith

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contamination rate of media-fill products either prepared automated with a robotic system (APOTECAchemo™) or prepared manually at cytotoxic workbenches in the same cleanroom environment and by experienced operators. Media fills were completed by microbiological environmental control in the critical zones and used to validate the cleaning and disinfection procedures of the robotic system. The aseptic preparation of patient individual ready-to-use injection solutions was simulated by using double concentrated tryptic soy broth as growth medium, water for injection and plastic syringes as primary packaging materials. Media fills were either prepared automated (500 units) in the robot or manually (500 units) in cytotoxic workbenches in the same cleanroom over a period of 18 working days. The test solutions were incubated at room temperature (22℃) over 4 weeks. Products were visually inspected for turbidity after a 2-week and 4-week period. Following incubation, growth promotion tests were performed with Staphylococcus epidermidis. During the media-fill procedures, passive air monitoring was performed with settle plates and surface monitoring with contact plates on predefined locations as well as fingerprints. The plates got incubated for 5-7 days at room temperature, followed by 2-3 days at 30-35℃ and the colony forming units (cfu) counted after both periods. The robot was cleaned and disinfected according to the established standard operating procedure on two working days prior to the media-fill session, while on six other working days only six critical components were sanitized at the end of the media-fill sessions. Every day UV irradiation was operated for 4 h after finishing work. None of the 1000 media-fill products prepared in the two different settings showed turbidity after the incubation period thereby indicating no contamination with microorganisms. All products remained uniform, clear, and light

  19. Microbial contamination of syringes during preparation: the direct influence of environmental cleanliness and risk manipulations on end-product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, Cyril; Sautter, Anna-Maria; Favet, Jocelyne; Bonnabry, Pascal

    2009-11-15

    The direct influence of environmental cleanliness and risk manipulations on prepared syringes was evaluated. Media-fill testing was used to estimate potential microbial contamination. Syringes were prepared in three different environments using four different uncontrolled high-risk manipulations. The three environments included an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) class 5 horizontal laminar-airflow hood in an ISO class 6 cleanroom (in accordance with United States Pharmacopeia [USP] chapter 797), an ISO class 7 drug preparation area of an operating room, and an uncontrolled decentralized pharmacy in a ward. For each combination of environment and manipulation, 100 syringes were filled by a single operator. The four high-risk manipulations used included simple filling of syringes with trypticase soy broth, three-second contact by the ungloved fingers of the operator with the hub of the syringe, three-second contact between an object and the hub of the syringe, and exposure of the filled syringes to ambient air for 10 minutes. Of the 1500 syringes prepared in three different environments, none produced within the cleanroom contained microorganisms, 6% were contaminated in the operating room, and 16% were contaminated in the ward (p ISO class 5 cleanroom in accordance with USP chapter 797 requirements was demonstrated to be the best way to avoid bacterial or fungal contamination of injectable drugs directly resulting in patient infections.

  20. Community Impact of Pharmacy-Randomized Intervention to Improve Access to Syringes and Services for Injection Drug Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Natalie D.; Amesty, Silvia; Rivera, Alexis V.; Harripersaud, Katherine; Turner, Alezandria; Fuller, Crystal M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: In an effort to reduce HIV transmission among injection drug users (IDUs), New York State deregulated pharmacy syringe sales in 2001 through the Expanded Syringe Access Program by removing the requirement of a prescription. With evidence suggesting pharmacists' ability to expand their public health role, a structural, pharmacy-based…

  1. MR imaging of ''sterilized'' lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerhouni, E.A.; Fishman, E.K.; Jones, R.; Siegelman, S.S.; Soulen, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Residual masses are commonly observed after effective therapy in patients with lymphoma. These masses may be sterile but their presence poses a management problem, inasmuch as there is no adequate means of distinguishing sterile from active masses. The potential role of MR imaging in this context was evaluated by studying a group of 15 patients with stable, residual, presumably inactive masses (as determined from CT) and comparing the MR imaging findings in patients with newly diagnosed, untreated or recently treated lymphoma. All patients underwent an MR imaging examination consisting of one short repetition time (TR), short echo time (TE) (T1-weighted) sequence and one long TR, long TE(T2-weighted) sequence. The signal intensity of the masses was compared with that of fat in each patient, for each sequence. In selected patients, sequential examinations showed a progressive evolution toward the inactive pattern over a period of several weeks. Active and inactive disease are well depicted on T1-weighted sequences but are not distinguishable from each other. On T2-weighted sequences active disease is poorly demonstrated because the lesions are isointense with fat, whereas inactive masses remain clearly identifiable because they are of much lower signal intensity than fat

  2. Gamma sterilization of disposable medical products (DMP's)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinston, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Ten million cubic meters (361 million cubic feet) of disposable medical products (DMP) and related health care items are estimated to be sterilized in the world. In this paper, current conditions and perspectives of gamma sterilization is discussed in comparison with ethylene oxide gas and electron beams. Of the total sterilization estimates for DMP, 2.8 million cubic meters (99 million cubic feet) are sterilized with gamma radiation, with a market share of 27%. Gamma radiation is becoming increased from both general market growth and the introduction of new products, as well as the conversion of product from ethylene oxide gas to cobalt-60. Regulatory pressures, legal considerations, and increasing publicity surrounding ethylene oxide usage are encouraging manufactures to switch to gamma radiation. Gamma's performance features include: no temperature change during the sterilization, high penetration, even through hermetically sealed packages, no residues, and no post-sterilization treatment or quarantine period. Gamma sterilization is economically beneficial in large volumes of product. Cost saving to the end user of gamma sterilization has meant lower minimum dose levels than 25 KGy. Despite of an increasingly accepted gamma radiation, there are still four factors to be considered, including cobalt-60 availability, price, transportation, and disposal. The price of cobalt-60 is based on neutron cost. In the future, cobalt-60 price is expected to be flat and enables gamma processing to become even more competitive with other sterilization methods. Gamma radiation using cobalt-60 has been proven as a safe, effective, and cost-competitive sterilization method for treating DMP and related health care items. It's wide use and many processing advantages will continue to make it a preferred sterilization method. (N.K.)

  3. Homicide by Sch from a syringe-like dart ejected by a compound crossbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Luo, Guochang; Wang, Hao; Meng, Xiangzhi

    2015-02-01

    The compound crossbow can be used to eject syringe-like dart loaded with poisonous solution. Succinylcholine (Sch) is a short-acting neuromuscular blocker medically used to achieve complete relaxation of muscle for a good intubation condition. Without the help of an artificial respirator, intramuscular injection of a large dose of Sch can paralyze the respiratory muscle and result in the receiver's death. In this paper, we present the homicide case of a young male killed by Sch from a syringe-like dart ejected by a compound crossbow. The subcutaneous and muscular hemorrhages observed around the entry were more severe than that caused by a medical injection. Additionally, other autopsy results showed the external appearance of a pinhole, general asphyxia signs and pathological findings which were not characteristic. The discovery of a syringe-like dart at the scene is the critical clue and reason for analyzing for Sch, which is commonly used to load syringe-like dart to paralyze and steal dog in the countryside of China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. HIV Risk Behavior among Amphetamine Injectors at U.S. Syringe Exchange Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braine, Naomi; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Goldblatt, Cullen; Zadoretzky, Cathy; Turner, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare HIV risk behaviors of amphetamine and non-amphetamine injectors at syringe exchange programs (SEP) in the United States and to identify factors associated with injection risk. This analysis is based on data from a random cross-section of participants at 13 SEPs in different parts of the country. All interviews…

  5. An introduction to the Micrel Micropump MP Daily portable syringe driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Karen E

    2003-11-01

    In this article the author describes the Micrel Micropump MP Daily (MP Daily) portable syringe driver. This follows the author's experience of a 4-month pilot of the device by an inpatient palliative care unit. Portable syringe drivers are commonly used to deliver continuous subcutaneous infusions in palliative care situations. Those in current use are not without problems and serious adverse events have occasionally been reported, mainly resulting from confusion between models. The MP Daily syringe driver addresses some of these issues while remaining small, lightweight and inexpensive, with a long battery life and fitting into the pocket of a shirt of pyjama jacket. Improvements over current models include an on/off button, the absence of facilities to set a zero rate or change the rate once the syringe driver is running, and the absence of a boost button. In addition, there are improved alarms, a message display system and a configuration menu. Although confusion remains a problem, and the ideal has not yet been reached, the MP Daily goes some considerable way towards reducing risks and opportunities for human error.

  6. Eugenics and Involuntary Sterilization: 1907-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Philip R

    2015-01-01

    In England during the late nineteenth century, intellectuals, especially Francis Galton, called for a variety of eugenic policies aimed at ensuring the health of the human species. In the United States, members of the Progressive movement embraced eugenic ideas, especially immigration restriction and sterilization. Indiana enacted the first eugenic sterilization law in 1907, and the US Supreme Court upheld such laws in 1927. State programs targeted institutionalized, mentally disabled women. Beginning in the late 1930s, proponents rationalized involuntary sterilization as protecting vulnerable women from unwanted pregnancy. By World War II, programs in the United States had sterilized approximately 60,000 persons. After the horrific revelations concerning Nazi eugenics (German Hereditary Health Courts approved at least 400,000 sterilization operations in less than a decade), eugenic sterilization programs in the United States declined rapidly. Simplistic eugenic thinking has faded, but coerced sterilization remains widespread, especially in China and India. In many parts of the world, involuntary sterilization is still intermittently used against minority groups.

  7. Cosmology seeking friendship with sterile neutrinos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, G.G.

    2011-01-01

    Precision cosmology and big-bang nucleosynthesis mildly favour extra radiation in the universe beyond photons and ordinary neutrinos, lending support to the existence of low-mass sterile neutrinos. We present bounds on the common mass scale ms and effective number Ns of thermally excited sterile ...

  8. PRINCIPLES OF HEAT STERILIZATION IN DENTAL PRACTICE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRINCIPLES OF HEAT STERILIZATION. IN DENTAL PRACTICE. W.H. van Palenstein Helderman. Department of Community and Preventive Dentistry,. Faculty of Dentistry, Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences,. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Introduction. Sterilization is defined as the destruction of all forms of life ...

  9. Current Sterilization Protocols-An Orthodontic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Vinod Korath

    2010-01-01

    Part I of this article focuses on the working principles of various methods of sterilization with an appraisalof their effects on orthodontic instruments. Additionally,contributory factors of instrument damage is enumerated to emphasis the importance of adhering to precise protocols and manufacturer recommendations as well as in alleviating some misconceptions about sterilization induced instrument damage.

  10. Light Sterile Neutrinos: A White Paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abazajian, K. N.; Acero, M. A.; Agarwalla, S. K.

    2012-01-01

    This white paper addresses the hypothesis of light sterile neutrinos based on recent anomalies observed in neutrino experiments and the latest astrophysical data.......This white paper addresses the hypothesis of light sterile neutrinos based on recent anomalies observed in neutrino experiments and the latest astrophysical data....

  11. Male sterile mutant in Vigna radiata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, Kalpana; Raghuvanshi, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    Single and combined treatment of γ-rays and 0.25 per cent EMS were tried on Vigna radiata variety K851. A male sterile mutant was isolated in M 2 generation. Experiments indicated male sterility to be recessive and monogenic in nature. 6 figures. (author)

  12. Sodium hypochlorite sterilization of culture medium in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the purpose of finding an alternative to thermal sterilization, this research aimed at assessing the efficiency and ideal concentration of sodium hypochlorite for sterilization of culture media and glassware used during rooting of micropropagated Gerbera hybrida cv. Essandre. Two experiments were carried out. In the first ...

  13. Sharing of Needles and Syringes among Men Who Inject Drugs: HIV Risk in Northwest Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kamal Pasa

    Full Text Available Injection drug use is prevalent in northwestern Bangladesh. We sought to explore the context of needle/syringe sharing among persons who inject drugs (PWID, examining risk exposures to blood-borne infections like the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis in a region where these dual epidemics are likely to expand.We used a qualitative research approach to learn about injection practices, conducting 60 in-depth interviews among PWID. We then conducted 12 focus group discussions (FGDs that generated a checklist of salient issues, and followed up with personal observations of typical days at the drug-use venues. Content and interpretative frameworks were used to analyze qualitative information and socio-demographic information, using SPSS software.We found that needle/syringe-sharing behaviours were integrated into the overall social and cultural lives of drug users. Sharing behaviours were an central component of PWID social organization. Sharing was perceived as an inherent element within reciprocal relationships, and sharing was tied to beliefs about drug effects, economic adversity, and harassment due to their drug user status. Carrying used needles/syringes to drug-use venues was deemed essential since user-unfriendly needle-syringe distribution schedules of harm reduction programmes made it difficult to access clean needles/syringes in off-hours. PWID had low self-esteem. Unequal power relationships were reported between the field workers of harm reduction programmes and PWID. Field workers expressed anti-PWID bias and judgmental attitudes, and also had had misconceptions about HIV and hepatitis transmission. PWID were especially disturbed that no assistance was forthcoming from risk reduction programme staff when drug users manifested withdrawal symptoms.Interventions must take social context into account when scaling up programmes in diverse settings. The social organization of PWID include values that foster needle-syringe

  14. Risk analysis of sterile production plants: a new and simple, workable approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapp, Guenther; Holzknecht, Peter

    2011-01-01

    , and delivers sound arguments for investments. Practical experience with this risk analysis, which has already been executed in several production sites in various countries, has demonstrated that it is simple, workable, and delivers valuable information. Many important pharmaceutical products need to be sterile because they are to be injected into the patient's bloodstream or muscle. Sterile means that the product must be free of microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, yeast, and moulds). A non-sterile injection or infusion could lead to very serious or even lethal effects on the patient. Therefore one of the biggest challenges in the pharmaceutical industry nowadays is still the sterile production process itself. Microorganisms are everywhere in the environment, and humans are known to be a significant source of microbial contamination of a sterile product. It is necessary to set up a very effective quality assurance system as well as many quality control analysis tools to assure the sterility of the produced vials/syringes or of the bulk material intended for later filling into vials (bulk material, e.g., 10 kg in bags or cans). Above all, to get an accurate indication of the risk of non-compliance of product quality, regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the updated E.U. Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) Guide have made it mandatory to perform a risk analysis of the production process. This provides in advance valuable information about the potential risk of a product's non-compliance with product specifications and GMP requirements, in our case regarding sterility. The authors set up a new approach for a risk analysis 4 years ago; this approach stems from fundamental experience gained over the past 15 years. Several specific questions are asked regarding various topics that correlate to the sterile production line and associated quality assurance/control systems. If the answer for an item is satisfactory and the best system is in place with

  15. International Standards for Radiation Sterilization of Medical Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.

    2007-01-01

    For a terminally sterilized medical device to be designated '' STERILE '', probability of finding the viable micro-organisms in the device shall be equal to or less than 1 x 10 -6 (EN 556-1:2001: Sterilization of medical devices - Requirements for medical devices to be designated '' STERILE '' - Part 1: Requirements for terminally sterilized medical devices). Author presents the main legal aspects of the international standards for radiation sterilization of medical devices

  16. Making a difference? Applying Vitellone's Social Science of the Syringe to performance and image enhancing drug injecting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Aaron

    2018-04-18

    Vitellone's Social Science of the Syringe investigates epistemologies of injecting drug use. She argues for a methodology that can be simultaneously sensitive to biopolitical power regimes; the trajectories of social stratification; and the resistance, creativity and dignity of human agency. She proposes a methodological focus on the syringe-in-use as an active participant in these dynamics. Harm reduction policy and service provision frameworks have paid little attention to the phenomena of performance and image enhancing drug (PIEDs) injection. One way of assessing the merit of Vitellone's proposal is to use it to investigate these phenomena. I argue that Vitellone's method can be used to articulate a range of significant differences between people who inject PIEDs and other people who inject drugs, and that these differences can inform harm reduction initiatives. When compared to the heroin syringe, the PIED syringe participates in different socio-economic and material contexts, gendered identities, and biopolitical governance regimes. These differences materialise in different rates of syringe sharing and blood-borne virus transmission; and different experiences of needle exchange services. I offer a thought experiment demonstrating how a different syringe might alter the structural dynamics, biopolitical governance, and the agentic choices of people who inject PIEDs. Judging by the productive effects of diffracting Vitellone's analysis through an empirical concern with PIED injecting, I concur with Vitellone's proposition that 'something objective may be gained from an empirical investigation of the syringe-in-use' (p. 33). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Dump the pump: manual aspiration thrombectomy (MAT) with a syringe is technically effective, expeditious, and cost-efficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Bradley A; Jadhav, Ashutosh P; Jovin, Tudor G; Jankowitz, Brian Thomas

    2018-04-01

    Syringe aspiration for manual aspiration thrombectomy (MAT) is a cost- and time-efficient alternative to an aspiration pump with likely similar efficacy. It is counterintuitive to expect the pump to perform better than direct vacuum with a syringe, as the pump must deliver vacuum additionally through a canister and meters of tubing. To present in vitro and clinical results of MAT with a syringe. An in vitro analysis was performed comparing vacuum pressures generated by syringe aspiration and with pump aspiration. This was then complemented with prospective clinical data providing details of angiographic and clinical outcomes for syringe MAT. The in vitro analysis demonstrated that equal to slightly greater vacuum pressures were generated by a 60 cc syringe as compared with the pump in both static and partial flow conditions. In our clinical series, 106/113 acute stroke thrombectomies over a 6-month period were performed with syringe MAT on the first pass. Syringe usage instead of pump tubing and a canister led to a total savings of $58 300. The rate of Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction 2b/3 recanalization was 93%. Adjunctive stentriever usage was performed in 23% of cases. Median puncture to reperfusion time was 25 min; mean change in National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score at 24 hours was an improvement of 5.1 (median 6). The in-hospital mortality rate was 10%. Seventy percent of patients were discharged to home (modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score 0-2) or a rehabilitation facility (mRS score 2-4). MAT using a syringe is a safe, fast, and more cost-effective approach than using an aspiration pump. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. EPR STUDIES OF THERMALLY STERILIZED VASELINUM ALBUM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Paweł; Pilawa, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used for examination of free radicals in thermally treated vaselinum album (VA). Thermal treatment in hot air as sterilization process was tested. Conditions of thermal sterilization were chosen according to the pharmaceutical norms. Vaselinum album was heated at the following conditions (T--temperature, t--time): T = 160°C and t = 120 min, T = 170°C and t = 60 min and T = 180°C and t = 30 min. The aim of this work was to determine concentration and free radical properties of thermally sterilized VA. EPR analysis for VA was done 15 min after sterilization. EPR measurements were done at room temperature. EPR spectra were recorded in the range of microwave power of 2.2-70 mW. g-Factor, amplitudes (A) and line width (ΔBpp) of the spectra were determined. The shape of the EPR spectra was analyzed. Free radical concentration (N) in the heated samples was determined. EPR spectra were not obtained for the non heated VA. EPR spectra were detected for all thermally sterilized samples. The spectra revealed complex character, their asymmetry depends on microwave power. The lowest free radicals concentration was found for the VA sterilized at 180°C during 30 min. EPR spectroscopy is proposed as the method useful for optimization of sterilization process of drugs.

  19. Safety and efficacy of hysteroscopic sterilization compared with laparoscopic sterilization: an observational cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jialin; Pfeifer, Samantha; Schlegel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the safety and efficacy of hysteroscopic sterilization with the “Essure” device with laparoscopic sterilization in a large, all-inclusive, state cohort. Design Population based cohort study. Settings Outpatient interventional setting in New York State. Participants Women undergoing interval sterilization procedure, including hysteroscopic sterilization with Essure device and laparoscopic surgery, between 2005 and 2013. Main outcomes measures Safety events within 30 days of procedures; unintended pregnancies and reoperations within one year of procedures. Mixed model accounting for hospital clustering was used to compare 30 day and 1 year outcomes, adjusting for patient characteristics and other confounders. Time to reoperation was evaluated using frailty model for time to event analysis. Results We identified 8048 patients undergoing hysteroscopic sterilization and 44 278 undergoing laparoscopic sterilization between 2005 and 2013 in New York State. There was a significant increase in the use of hysteroscopic procedures during this period, while use of laparoscopic sterilization decreased. Patients undergoing hysteroscopic sterilization were older than those undergoing laparoscopic sterilization and were more likely to have a history of pelvic inflammatory disease (10.3% v 7.2%, P<0.01), major abdominal surgery (9.4% v 7.9%, P<0.01), and cesarean section (23.2% v 15.4%, P<0.01). At one year after surgery, hysteroscopic sterilization was not associated with a higher risk of unintended pregnancy (odds ratio 0.84 (95% CI 0.63 to 1.12)) but was associated with a substantially increased risk of reoperation (odds ratio 10.16 (7.47 to 13.81)) compared with laparoscopic sterilization. Conclusions Patients undergoing hysteroscopic sterilization have a similar risk of unintended pregnancy but a more than 10-fold higher risk of undergoing reoperation compared with patients undergoing laparoscopic sterilization. Benefits and risks of both procedures

  20. Seeking sterile neutrinos in Finslerian cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Deng [Nankai University, Theoretical Physics Division, Chern Institute of Mathematics, Tianjin (China); Meng, Xin-He [Nankai University, Department of Physics, Tianjin (China)

    2017-11-15

    For the first time, to search for sterile neutrinos in the framework of Finler geometry, we constrain four cosmological models using the most stringent constraint we can provide so far. We find that the Finslerian massless sterile neutrino model can, respectively, give a better cosmological fit to data and alleviate the current H{sub 0} tension more effectively than the other three models. For the Finslerian massless sterile neutrino model, we obtain the constraint N{sub eff} = 3.237{sup +0.092}{sub -0.185}, which is consistent with ΔN{sub eff} > 0 at the 1.03σ confidence level (CL). This gives a very weak hint of massless sterile neutrinos and may imply the non-existence of massless sterile neutrinos in the Finslerian cosmological setting. For the Finslerian massive sterile neutrino model, we obtain the constraints N{sub eff} = 3.143{sup +0.064}{sub -0.066}, which favors ΔN{sub eff} > 0 at the 1.47σ CL, and m{sub ν,sterile}{sup eff} < 0.121 eV at the 2σ CL which is much tighter than the Planck results. This very tight restriction appears to indicate the massive sterile neutrinos are also non-existent in the Finslerian scenarios. Consequently, one may conclude that the sterile neutrinos are possibly non-existent in the Finslerian universe. Our results are compatible with the recent results of the neutrino oscillation experiments implemented by the Daya Bay and MINOS collaborations and the cosmic ray one carried out by the IceCube collaboration. (orig.)

  1. Forced sterilization of women as discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Priti

    2017-01-01

    There has been a long history of subjecting marginalized women to forced and coerced sterilization. In recent years, the practice has been documented in countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, and Africa. It has targeted women who are ethnic and racial minorities, women with disabilities, women living with HIV, and poor women. A handful of courts have issued decisions on the recent forced sterilization of marginalized women finding that such actions violate the women's rights. However, they have all failed to address the women's claims of discrimination. The failure to acknowledge that forced sterilization is at its core a violation of the prohibition of discrimination undermines efforts to eradicate the practice. It further fails to recognize that coerced and forced sterilization fundamentally seeks to deny women deemed as "unworthy" the ability to procreate. Four key principles outlined in the human rights in patient care framework highlight the importance of a finding that the prohibition of discrimination was violated in cases of forced sterilization: the need to highlight the vulnerability of marginalized populations to discrimination in health care settings; the importance of the rights of medical providers; the role of the state in addressing systemic human rights violations in health care settings; and the application of human rights to patient care. Based on these principles, it is clear that finding a violation of the prohibition of discrimination in forced sterilization cases is critical in addressing the systemic nature of the practice, acknowledging the marginalization of specific groups and effectively ending forced sterilization through addressing the underlying purpose of the practice. If litigators, non-governmental organizations and judicial officers are mindful of these principles when dealing with cases of forced sterilization, it is likely that they will be better able to eradicate forced sterilization.

  2. Genetic basis of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    The use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for insect control relies on the introduction of sterility in the females of the wild population. This sterility is produced following the mating of these females with released males carrying, in their sperm, dominant lethal mutations that have been induced by ionizing radiation. The reasons why the SIT can only be effective when the induced sterility in the released males is in the form of dominant lethal mutations, and not some form of sperm inactivation, are discussed, together with the relationship of dominant lethal mutations to dose, sex, developmental stage and the particular species. The combination of genetic sterility with that induced by radiation is also discussed in relation to the use of genetic sexing strains of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) in area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the SIT. A case is made to lower the radiation dose used in such programmes so as to produce a more competitive sterile insect. Increased competitiveness can also be achieved by using different radiation environments. As well as radiation-induced sterility, natural mechanisms can be recruited, especially the use of hybrid sterility exemplified by a successful field trial with tsetse flies Glossina spp. in the 1940s. Genetic transformation will make some impact on the SIT, especially regarding the introduction of markers for released flies, and the construction of genetic sexing strains. It is concluded that using a physical process, such as radiation, will always have significant advantages over genetic and other methods of sterilization for the large-scale application of the SIT. (author)

  3. Inheritance of sterility in Dysdercus koenigii F. (Hemiptera: Pyrrhocoridae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwalkar, M.R.; Rahalkar, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    It has been suggested that for the control of Lepidopterous populations, release of fully competitive partially sterile males would be more advantageous than the release of completely sterile males. This suggestion is based on the fact, elucidated in many studies, that partially sterilized males mated to normal females produce totally sterile or partially sterile progeny. In Hemiptera too, F 1 progeny of partially sterile males has been shown to inherit sterility. Individual impact of sterility inherited by either sex of the F 1 progeny on population growth has been studied in an hemipteran insect Dysdercus koenigii. A dose of 7 krad induces near-complete sterility in males. When males irradiated with substerilizing doses of 1,2 and 3 krad were crossed with normal females, F 1 progeny of both sexes was partially sterile : the female being more sterile than the males. When the F 1 progeny was intercrossed, there was enhanced reduction in progeny production. (auth.)

  4. Radiation sterilization facility for melon fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danno, A.

    1985-01-01

    The melon fly (Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett) has been observed in Amami Island since l975. Kagoshima Prefecture has had a melon fly eradication project underway since 1979. A mass-fearing facility and a radiation sterilization facility were constructed in Naze in March of l98l. In the early stages of the project, sterile insects were produced at the rate of 4 x l0/sup 6/ pupae/week. In the later stages, the activity of the project was enlarged by tenfold. The conditions for design of the radiation sterilization facility, which has been developed with a central control system for automated irradiation, are examined from an engineering standpoint

  5. Cosmology seeking friendship with sterile neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamann, J.; Hannestad, S.; Raffelt, G.G.; Tamborra, I.; Wong, Y.Y.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Precision cosmology and big-bang nucleosynthesis mildly favour extra radiation in the universe beyond photons and ordinary neutrinos, lending support to the existence of low-mass sterile neutrinos. We present bounds on the common mass scale ms and effective number Ns of thermally excited sterile neutrino states from the most recent cosmological data. Our results are compatible with the existence of one or perhaps two sterile neutrinos, as suggested by LSND and MiniBooNE, if ms is in the sub-eV range.

  6. Observations on female sterilization in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menanteau-Horta, D

    1982-01-01

    Prior to 1976, voluntary female sterilization was 1 of the regular family planning services offered in Chile. After that the Ministry of Public Health declared that it could not be considered a fertility regulation activity and could thus be performed only for health reasons. Between 1971-75, there was almost a 6-fold increase in the number of sterilizations performed at the Valdivia Regional Hospital, with a rise to 2400 procedures. Such an unprecedented increase in voluntary sterilization prompted this study. The results are based on a 1976 survey of women sterilized between 1971-75 at the Valdivia Regional Hospital. Personal interviews were conducted. The number of voluntary sterilizations there during the aforementioned period showed a sustained upward trend; the number of births increased only moderately during that time. The data on sterilization in the Valdivia area is compared to that collected by the Santiago study. Age, marital status, place of origin or residence, education, and religion were compared. Socioeconomic and occupational data were also examined. 9 of 10 women in Valdivia were from low-income families. This agrees closely with the Santiago data. About 1/4 of the women in both samples were employed outside the home. Also in both samples, about 1/2 of the spouses of sterilized women were blue collar workers; only 1/5 or less were white collar, and very few were professionals. About 52% in Valdivia and 45% in Santiago had borne 7 or more viable offspring. The average number of spontaneous abortions was also similar. A significantly higher percentage (P0.01) of Valdivia women used contraceptives. There are some general trends apparent in both groups as to the reasons for sterilization; most were prompted by difficult socioeconomic conditions. 37.9% of the Santiago women felt their families were complete and 27.3% of the other group cited the same reason. Other reasons were medical, failure of contraception, problems with spouse, and other. Medical

  7. Spore-Forming Bacteria that Resist Sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDuc, Myron; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2003-01-01

    A report presents a phenotypic and genotypic characterization of a bacterial species that has been found to be of the genus Bacillus and has been tentatively named B. odysseensis because it was isolated from surfaces of the Mars Odyssey spacecraft as part of continuing research on techniques for sterilizing spacecraft to prevent contamination of remote planets by terrestrial species. B. odysseensis is a Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that forms round spores. The exosporium has been conjectured to play a role in the elevated resistance to sterilization. Research on the exosporium is proposed as a path toward improved means of sterilization, medical treatment, and prevention of biofouling.

  8. Microscope sterility during spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Jesse E; O'Neill, Kevin R; Crosby, Colin G; Schoenecker, Jonathan G; McGirt, Matthew J; Devin, Clinton J

    2012-04-01

    Prospective study. Assess the contamination rates of sterile microscope drapes after spine surgery. The use of the operating microscope has become more prevalent in certain spine procedures, providing superior magnification, visualization, and illumination of the operative field. However, it may represent an additional source of bacterial contamination and increase the risk of developing a postoperative infection. This study included 25 surgical spine cases performed by a single spine surgeon that required the use of the operative microscope. Sterile culture swabs were used to obtain samples from 7 defined locations on the microscope drape after its use during the operation. The undraped technician's console was sampled in each case as a positive control, and an additional 25 microscope drapes were swabbed immediately after they were applied to the microscope to obtain negative controls. Swab samples were assessed for bacterial growth on 5% sheep blood Columbia agar plates using a semiquantitative technique. No growth was observed on any of the 25 negative control drapes. In contrast, 100% of preoperative and 96% of postoperative positive controls demonstrated obvious contamination. In the postoperative group, all 7 sites of evaluation were found to be contaminated with rates of 12% to 44%. Four of the 7 evaluated locations were found to have significant contamination rates compared with negative controls, including the shafts of the optic eyepieces on the main surgeon side (24%, P = 0.022), "forehead" portion on both the main surgeon (24%, P = 0.022) and assistant sides (28%, P = 0.010), and "overhead" portion of the drape (44%, P = 0.0002). Bacterial contamination of the operative microscope was found to be significant after spine surgery. Contamination was more common around the optic eyepieces, likely due to inadvertent touching of unsterile portions. Similarly, all regions above the eyepieces also have a propensity for contamination because of unknown contact

  9. Gamma-ray irradiation, autoclave and ethylene oxide sterilization to thermosetting polyurethane: sterilization to polyurethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Noriko; Matsumoto, Ken-Ichi; Inishita, Takashi; Takenaka, Yoshinori; Suma, Yasunori; Shintani, Hideharu; National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo

    1995-01-01

    Thermosetting polyurethane (PU) is widely used in a large variety of medical devices. 4,4'-methylenedianiline (MDA) was produced from PU by sterilization and it was studied for the relationship between urethane components or polymer characteristics and formation of MDA upon sterilization, using the commercially available dialyzers fabricated with different combination of isocyanate and polyol. We confirmed that the molecular-weight of polyol influenced the production of MDA upon sterilization. (author)

  10. Trend Analyses of Users of a Syringe Exchange Program in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: 1999-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Laurie A; Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Ye, Du; Benitez, José; Mazzella, Silvana; Krafty, Robert

    2016-12-01

    This study examines trends of injection drug users' (IDUs) use of a Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, syringe exchange program (SEP) from 1999 to 2014, including changes in demographics, drug use, substance abuse treatment, geographic indicators, and SEP use. Prevention Point Philadelphia's SEP registration data were analyzed using linear regression, Pearson's Chi square, and t-tests. Over time new SEP registrants have become younger, more racially diverse, and geographically more concentrated in specific areas of the city, corresponding to urban demographic shifts. The number of new registrants per year has decreased, however syringes exchanged have increased. Gentrification, cultural norms, and changes in risk perception are believed to have contributed to the changes in SEP registration. Demographic changes indicate outreach strategies for IDUs may need adjusting to address unique barriers for younger, more racially diverse users. Implications for SEPs are discussed, including policy and continued ability to address current public health threats.

  11. Costs of a Hospital-Based, Ready-To-Use Syringe Delivery Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risør, Bettina Wulff; Vand, S; Lisby, M

    2017-01-01

    %) and at €20,905 (an increase of 228%) for the endoscopy department. The ready-to-use delivery program imposed an additional cost of €11.32 per day surgery operation and €2.41 per endoscopy procedure. Conclusion: This ready-to-use programme increased the cost of the medical handling process. This incremental......Objective: The risk of errors in the medication administration process is high. Applications of pre lled syringes may improve patient safety but could be more costly. The objective of this study was to assess the additional costs of a ready-to-use syringe delivery programme in comparison...... with a conventional delivery programme at day surgery and endoscopy departments at a large university hospital. Methods: The cost analysis used the hospital perspective and developed an “activity-based costing” model to assess the costs of medicine- handling activities. The model was calibrated with six-month data...

  12. A review: radiation sterilization of pharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, G.P.

    1985-01-01

    The literature on the effects of γ-radiation on drugs, relevant to their sterilization or decontamination, is reviewed. This literature survey essentially covers the past 7 yr, although relevant reports not covered in previous reviews have been included. (author)

  13. Radiation sterilization of animal farm sewage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosiak, J.; Perkowski, J.; Pekala, W.

    1984-01-01

    Influence of irradiation on organisms appearing in farm sewage has been discussed. Practical examples of employing the radiation to sterilization of municipal wastes and liquid sewage from the industrial swine farms have been presented. (author)

  14. Determination of sterilizing dose of lincocine drug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adawi, M.A.; Shamma, M.; Al-Mousa, A.

    1998-01-01

    There are too many antibiotics that have been studied on their dry solid state to determine their safe sterilizing dose by decreasing their bio burden in order to reach the sterility assurance level (SAL) needed. The sterilizing radiating dose of lincocine was determined according to information about their bio burden and radiating sensitivity at the sterility assurance level 10-6. The study of bio burden has shown that the contamination was fungal (Pemicillium sp.) and by applying the same tests to the raw materials of lincocine it came out that the cause of contamination was bad storage and that the radiating dose required to decrease the bio burden was 5.5 kGy. (author)

  15. Searching for Sterile Neutrinos with MINOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmons, Ashley [Manchester U.

    2016-01-01

    This document presents the latest results for a 3+1 sterile neutrino search using the $10.56 \\times 10^{20}$ protons-on-target data set taken from 2005 - 2012. By searching for oscillations driven by a large mass splitting, MINOS is sensitive to the existence of sterile neutrinos through any energy dependent deviations using a charged current sample, as well as looking at any relative deficit between neutral current events between the far and near detectors. This document will discuss the novel analysis that enabled a search for sterile neutrinos setting a limit in the previously unexplored regions in the parameter space $\\{\\Delta m^{2}_{41}, \\sin^2\\theta_{24}\\}$. The results presented can be compared to the parameter space suggested by LSND and MiniBooNE and complements other previous experimental searches for sterile neutrinos in the electron neutrino appearance channel.

  16. Methods of sterilization and monitoring of sterilization across selected dental practices in karachi, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, H.

    2015-01-01

    To assess methods of sterilization in dental practices in Karachi and secondly to investigate methods of monitoring sterilization in dental practices in Karachi, Pakistan. Study Design: Cross-sectional, descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Dental colleges, hospitals and private clinics of Karachi, Pakistan, from January to March 2013. Methodology: A total of 251 questionnaires were obtained. Descriptive statistics were computed and differences between groups were assessed through chi-square test using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0. P-value < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: Autoclave, used by 155 (61.8%) dentists was the most common method of sterilization followed by more than one method, 65 (25.9%); dry heat, 24 (9.6%); and cold sterilization, 7 (2.8%). Majority of dentists, 126 (50.1%), never monitored sterilization and those who did monitored mostly monthly. Statistically significant difference was found amongst the three groups of dentists monitoring sterilization (p=0.09) and methods of sterilization (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Statistically significant difference was found in infection control practices of specialists, postgraduate trainees and general dentists regarding method of monitoring sterilization with majority of dentists never monitoring sterilization. (author)

  17. Stability of busulfan solutions in polypropylene syringes and infusion bags as determined with an original assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichard, Nicolas; Bonnabry, Pascal; Rudaz, Serge; Fleury-Souverain, Sandrine

    2017-11-15

    The stability of busulfan solution in 0.9% sodium chloride and stored in polypropylene syringes or infusion bags was evaluated. Busulfan solutions (0.54 mg/mL) were prepared and transferred to 50-mL polypropylene syringes and 100- and 500-mL polypropylene infusion bags and stored at 2-8 and 23-27 °C. Chemical stability was measured using a stability-indicating, ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry method. The stability of busulfan was assessed by measuring the percentage of the initial concentration remaining at the end of each time point of analysis. The initial busulfan concentration was defined as 100%. Stability was defined as retention of at least 90% of the initial busulfan concentration. A visual inspection of the samples for particulate matter, clarity, and color without instrumentation of magnification was conducted at each time point of analysis. The visual inspection demonstrated no influence of the storage container when busulfan infusions diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride injection were stored at 23-27 °C. No color change or precipitate was observed at this temperature; however, a rapid decrease of the busulfan content in all containers stored at room temperature was observed. Busulfan in syringes was chemically stable for 12 hours, while busulfan in infusion bags (100 and 500 mL) was stable only for 3 hours at 23-27 °C. Busulfan 0.54-mg/mL solution in 0.9% sodium chloride injection was physically and chemically stable for 30 hours when stored in 50-mL polypropylene syringes at 2-8 °C and protected from light. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Syringe needle skull penetration reduces brain injuries and secondary inflammation following intracerebral neural stem cell transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Mou; Dong, Qin; Zhang, Hongtian; Yang, Yang; Zhu, Jianwei; Yang, Zhijun; Xu, Minhui; Xu, Ruxiang

    2017-01-01

    Intracerebral neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation is beneficial for delivering stem cell grafts effectively, however, this approach may subsequently result in brain injury and secondary inflammation. To reduce the risk of promoting brain injury and secondary inflammation, two methods were compared in the present study. Murine skulls were penetrated using a drill on the left side and a syringe needle on the right. Mice were randomly divided into three groups (n=84/group): Group A, receiving...

  19. 21 CFR 522.1862 - Sterile pralidoxime chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sterile pralidoxime chloride. 522.1862 Section 522....1862 Sterile pralidoxime chloride. (a) Chemical name. 2-Formyl-1-methylpyridinium chloride oxime. (b) Specifications. Sterile pralidoxime chloride is packaged in vials. Each vial contains 1 gram of sterile...

  20. Sterilization of instruments in solar ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fjendbo Joergensen, A. [Odense Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Infectious Diseases, Odense (Denmark); Noehr, K. [Odense Technical College, Dept. of Metal, Odense (Denmark); Boisen, F. [The Danish Veterinary and Food Administration Funen, Dept. of Microbiology, Odense (Denmark)

    2000-07-01

    The sterilization of instruments in rural health clinics in less developed countries is an increasing problem because chemical methods can no longer be recommended and wood fuel is becoming more and more scarce. Thus, it seemed obvious to try to utilize solar energy for sterilization purposes. A solar oven was designed and manufactured using local materials and simple tools. The solar oven was tested by physical, chemical, and microbiological methods. A mathematical model for the sterilization effect was developed and programmed into a microprocessor that was connected to a thermocouple. The microprocessor switches on a green light when the sterilization is completed. After successful testing, the oven was built into the west-facing wall of a rural health clinic and used daily for sterilization. The oven was able to generate temperatures above 180 deg. C. On all days with direct sunlight the oven fulfilled the international recommendations for hot air sterilization because no growth could be detected from any of the test bacteria spores. The chemical indicators Brownes tubes types 3 and 5 also changed colours. The solar oven was easy to use for the clinic staff, but during the seasons with low sun position (in Tanzania, December and June) it was difficult to achieve a high enough temperature for sterilization. Therefore, if the method is to be used throughout the year the oven must be moved to collect the sun's rays from several directions, or the clinic must have more than one solar oven facing in different directions. We conclude that the solar oven is a realistic method for sterilization of instruments. (au)

  1. Radiation sterilization of potato starch and Sedonik

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashmetov, M.Yu.; Ismatov, N.B.; Saidov, R.P. et al.

    2016-01-01

    The raw material of pharmaceutical preparations potato starch and sedative means of Sedonik are sterilized at the electron's accelerator Electronics U-003. It is established that at 20.3 kGy absorbed dose and electron's energy 3 - 5 MeV the results of microbiological analysis showed sterility of potato starch and Sedonik and correspondence of their physical-optical properties to the requirements of normative documents. (authors)

  2. Drugs given by a syringe driver: a prospective multicentre survey of palliative care services in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcock, Andrew; Jacob, Jayin K; Charlesworth, Sarah; Harris, Elayne; Gibbs, Margaret; Allsop, Helen

    2006-10-01

    The use of a syringe driver to administer drugs by continuous subcutaneous infusion is common practice in the UK. Over time, drug combinations used in a syringe driver are likely to change and the aim of this survey was to obtain a more recent snapshot of practice. On four separate days, at two-week intervals, a questionnaire was completed for every syringe driver in use by 15 palliative care services. Of 336 syringe drivers, the majority contained either two or three drugs, but one-fifth contained only one drug. The median (range) volume of the infusions was 15 (9.5-48) mL, and duration of infusion was generally 24 hours. Only one combination was reported as visually incompatible, and there were 13 site reactions (4% of total). Laboratory physical and chemical compatibility data are available for less than half of the most frequently used combinations.

  3. Behavioral response and pain perception to computer controlled local anesthetic delivery system and cartridge syringe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T D Yogesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study evaluated and compared the pain perception, behavioral response, physiological parameters, and the role of topical anesthetic administration during local anesthetic administration with cartridge syringe and computer controlled local anesthetic delivery system (CCLAD. Design: A randomized controlled crossover study was carried out with 120 children aged 7-11 years. They were randomly divided into Group A: Receiving injection with CCLAD during first visit; Group B: Receiving injection with cartridge syringe during first visit. They were further subdivided into three subgroups based on the topical application used: (a 20% benzocaine; (b pressure with cotton applicator; (c no topical application. Pulse rate and blood pressure were recorded before and during injection procedure. Objective evaluation of disruptive behavior and subjective evaluation of pain were done using face legs activity cry consolability scale and modified facial image scale, respectively. The washout period between the two visits was 1-week. Results: Injections with CCLAD produced significantly lesser pain response, disruptive behavior (P < 0.001, and pulse rate (P < 0.05 when compared to cartridge syringe injections. Application of benzocaine produced lesser pain response and disruptive behavior when compared to the other two subgroups, although the result was not significant. Conclusion: Usage of techniques which enhance behavioral response in children like injections with CCLAD can be considered as a possible step toward achieving a pain-free pediatric dental practice.

  4. Iloprost infusion by a new device as a portable syringe pump: safety, tolerability and agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Faggioli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Iloprost, prostacyclin (PGI2 analogue, effective in treatment of peripheral arterial disease, secondary Raynaud's phenomenon (RP to connective tissue disease (CTD, vasculitis, pulmonary hypertension, is usually infused through peristaltic pump, or recently through a flow regulator.Materials and methods We tested a new portable syringe pump (Pompa Infonde®, Italfarmaco S.p.A., Cinisello Balsamo, Milano on 120 patients affected by RP to CTD and cryoglobulinaemia, in iloprost therapy with a flow regulator.Results Iloprost infused through portable syringe pump is better tolerated, better appreciated by the patients and nurses and no difference was observed on therapeutic effects, with a lower incidence of side effects statistically significant. Only 3 patients were unable to tolerate the device (2 for changes in pressure and 1 for fear and shifted to traditional method of iloprost infusion.Conclusions Iloprost infusion through the portable syringe Pompa Infonde® appears to be safe, better tolerated, more acceptable and equally effective compared to infusion through a flow regulator.

  5. Determination of bismuth and cadmium after solid-phase extraction with chromosorb-107 in a syringe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokman, Nilgun; Akman, Suleyman

    2004-01-01

    The determination of bismuth and cadmium by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) after solid-phase extraction (SPE) on Chromosorb-107 filled in a syringe was described. To retain the analytes, the sample solution treated with and without ammonium pyrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) was drawn into the syringe filled with Chromosorb-107 and discharged back manually. Bismuth and cadmium were quantitatively sorbed at pH ≥ 6 irrespective of whether the analyte was complexed with APDC prior to passing through the Chromosorb-107. Analyte elements sorbed on the resin were quantitatively eluted with 3.0 M of HNO 3 again drawing and discharging the eluent into the syringe and ejected it back. Optimum flow rates of sample or eluent for sorption and elution processes were 20 ml min -1 for drawing and 20 ml min -1 for discharging in all cases. Bismuth and cadmium were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The elements could be concentrated by drawing and discharging several portions of sample successively but eluting only one time. The validity of the proposed method was checked with standard reference materials (NIST SRM 1515 Apple-Leaves, CWW-TM-E Waste Water and CRM-SW Sea Water). The analyte elements were quantitatively (>95%) recovered from different matrices irrespective of treated samples with APDC. Detection limits (δ) were 0.8 and 1.2 μg l -1 for Bi and Cd, respectively. The method can be characterized with fastness, simplicity, quantitative recovery and high reproducibility

  6. Professional ideologies and the development of syringe exchange: Wales as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, J M; Stimson, G V

    1997-12-01

    This paper is derived from an evaluative study of HIV prevention programs for drug injectors across Wales. It considers how different professional territories and ideologies, concepts of drug misuse and models of HIV prevention may influence policy development. The research involved monitoring the introduction and development of agency and community based syringe exchange schemes and initiatives taken by community pharmacists. Interviews with staff, managers and administrators, and descriptions of service history, development and delivery inform the discussion. HIV prevention varied in different areas of Wales depending on the particular professional group involved, local ideologies regarding drug use treatment, and the extent to which HIV prevention was seen either as a specialist area of expertise and specific remit of drug workers or a generic health care task. Drug agencies with an abstinence policy rejected syringe exchange; instead, prevention in those areas developed in ad hoc ways as health care workers and pharmacists attempted to develop a community based service. Drug agencies with a pre-existing harm minimisation model easily integrated syringe exchange into their work and played the major part in establishing the service, but there was difficulty in extending it beyond their professional caseloads. As there were disincentives to use treatment agencies, and their catchment areas were limited, these factors influenced effective service provision.

  7. Federal funding for syringe exchange in the US: Explaining a long-term policy failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showalter, David

    2018-05-01

    The United States prohibited federal funding for syringe exchange programs for people who inject drugs nearly continuously from 1988 to 2015, despite growing scientific evidence, diminishing AIDS-related controversy, and tens of thousands of deaths from injection-related AIDS. This study investigates the political and institutional bases of this long-term failure to support lifesaving public policy. This study draws on national, regional, and local media coverage, archival sources, and semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 6 long-time syringe exchange researchers and activists from California. I use case-oriented process tracing methods to explain the persistence and reform of the federal funding ban. Though previous studies focus on the symbolic clash between conservative morality and empirical science, I find that changing demographic and regional inequalities in the effects of the AIDS epidemic and dynamics produced by the federal structure of US government were more important factors in the creation and persistence of the funding ban. The persistence and eventual repeal of the ban on federal funding for syringe exchange was a product of the changing demographic, geographic, and political effects of the AIDS epidemic within the federal structure of US government, rather than a consequence of intractable morality politics. These contextual dynamics continue to shape AIDS and public health policy at all levels of government. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Application of radiation sterilization to bone allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Youchen; Li Baoxing; Sun Shiquan

    2003-01-01

    With prominent features of high penetration, no temperature increases, no harm residues and easy dose control, radiation sterilization technology is widely used in the sterilization of bone allografts. During the radiation sterilization of bone allografts, the irradiation dose should be optimized to ensure sterilization of grafts and preservation of biological properties of bone. The immunogenicity of allografts is decreased by irradiation. IAEA devoted great efforts to generalization of the radiation sterilization of tissue allografts in developing countries since 1986. Tissue Bank of China Institute for Radiation Protection (CIRP) was initially established in 1988 with the support of IAEA, afterwards restructured into Shanxi Provincial Tissue Bank (SPTB). The SPTB, as the first manufacturer of the irradiated bone allografts in the country, was granted production license by the State Food and Drug Administration of China. The SPTB sponsored IAEA/RCA Training Courses, National Symposium on Bone Grafting, and National Training Course on Bone Banking. Technique of radiation sterilization for bone grafts has become popularized in China after these activities. (authors)

  9. Production of a sterile species: Quantum kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyanovsky, D.; Ho, C. M.

    2007-10-01

    Production of a sterile species is studied within an effective model of active-sterile neutrino mixing in a medium in thermal equilibrium. The quantum kinetic equations for the distribution functions and coherences are obtained from two independent methods: the effective action and the quantum master equation. The decoherence time scale for active-sterile oscillations is τdec=2/Γaa, but the evolution of the distribution functions is determined by the two different time scales associated with the damping rates of the quasiparticle modes in the medium: Γ1=Γaacos⁡2θm; Γ2=Γaasin⁡2θm where Γaa is the interaction rate of the active species in the absence of mixing and θm the mixing angle in the medium. These two time scales are widely different away from Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein resonances and preclude the kinetic description of active-sterile production in terms of a simple rate equation. We give the complete set of quantum kinetic equations for the active and sterile populations and coherences and discuss in detail the various approximations. A generalization of the active-sterile transition probability in a medium is provided via the quantum master equation. We derive explicitly the usual quantum kinetic equations in terms of the “polarization vector” and show their equivalence to those obtained from the quantum master equation and effective action.

  10. Single-use disposable technologies for biopharmaceutical manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Abhinav A; Gottschalk, Uwe

    2013-03-01

    The manufacture of protein biopharmaceuticals is conducted under current good manufacturing practice (cGMP) and involves multiple unit operations for upstream production and downstream purification. Until recently, production facilities relied on the use of relatively inflexible, hard-piped equipment including large stainless steel bioreactors and tanks to hold product intermediates and buffers. However, there is an increasing trend towards the adoption of single-use technologies across the manufacturing process. Technical advances have now made an end-to-end single-use manufacturing facility possible, but several aspects of single-use technology require further improvement and are continually evolving. This article provides a perspective on the current state-of-the-art in single-use technologies and highlights trends that will improve performance and increase the market penetration of disposable manufacturing in the future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Reducing single-use plastic shopping bags in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Travis P

    2017-12-01

    In the USA, local governments have the primary responsibility to manage MSW. However, local governments lack the authority to explicitly shift costs or responsibility back onto the producer for specific problem wastes. A particularly problematic waste for local governments is the single-use plastic bag. In 2014, in the USA, 103.465 billion single-use plastic shopping bags were consumed. Because of their extremely low recyclability rate, plastic bags remain a significant source of land-based litter and marine debris and impair stormwater management systems. They also reduce the effectiveness of automated recycling systems. In response, local governments increasingly have adopted a variety of measures specifically intended to reduce the store-level consumption of single-use shopping bags in 5 major categories: bans, imposition of fees and taxes, establishing minimum product design of bags, requiring consumer education, and mandating retailer take-back programs. As of September 2017, there were 271 local governments in the USA with plastic bag ordinances covering 9.7% of the nation's population. The majority (95%) of the ordinances is a ban on single-use plastic bags; 56.9% of these bans also include a mandatory fee on paper and/or reusable bags. For the fee-based ordinances, the mode is $0.10 per bag; every tax/fee ordinance allows retailers to retain some or all the collected fee. As local governments continue to increase their actions on plastic bags, 11 states have enacted laws to prohibit local governments from regulating single-use plastic bags. Because of the success with single-use bags, local governments are also enacting similar ordinances on single-use expanded polystyrene consumer products and other single-use plastic products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The impact of citrate introduction at UK syringe exchange programmes: a retrospective cohort study in Cheshire and Merseyside, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wareing Michelle

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2003, it became legal in the UK for syringe exchange programmes (SEPs to provide citrate to injecting drug users to solubilise heroin. Little work has been undertaken on the effect of policy change on SEP function. Here, we examine whether the introduction of citrate in Cheshire and Merseyside SEPs has altered the number of heroin/crack injectors accessing SEPs, the frequency at which heroin/crack injectors visited SEPs and the number of syringes dispensed. Methods Eleven SEPs in Cheshire and Merseyside commenced citrate provision in 2003. SEP-specific data for the six months before and six months after citrate was introduced were extracted from routine monitoring systems relating to heroin and crack injectors. Analyses compared all individuals attending pre and post citrate and matched analyses only those individuals attending in both periods (defined as 'longitudinal attenders'. Non-parametric tests were used throughout. Results Neither new (first seen in either six months period nor established clients visited SEPs more frequently post citrate. New clients collected significantly less syringes per visit post citrate, than pre citrate (14.5,10.0; z = 1.992, P Conclusion The introduction of citrate did not negatively affect SEP attendance. 'Longitudinal attenders' visited SEPs more frequently post citrate, providing staff with greater opportunity for intervention and referral. As the number of syringes they collected each visit remained unchanged the total number of clean syringes made available to this group of injectors increased very slightly between the pre and post citrate periods. However, new clients collected significantly less syringes post citrate than pre citrate, possibly due to staff concerns regarding the amount of citrate (and thus syringes to dispense safely to new clients. These concerns should not be allowed to negatively impact on the number of syringes dispensed.

  13. Syringe shape and positioning relative to efficiency volume inside dose calibrators and its role in nuclear medicine quality assurance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J.A.M.; Carrasco, M.F.; Lencart, J.; Bastos, A.L.

    2009-01-01

    A careful analysis of geometry and source positioning influence in the activity measurement outcome of a nuclear medicine dose calibrator is presented for 99m Tc. The implementation of a quasi-point source apparent activity curve measurement is proposed for an accurate correction of the activity inside several syringes, and compared with a theoretical geometric efficiency model. Additionally, new geometrical parameters are proposed to test and verify the correct positioning of the syringes as part of acceptance testing and quality control procedures.

  14. In-syringe-stirring: A novel approach for magnetic stirring-assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horstkotte, Burkhard; Suárez, Ruth; Solich, Petr; Cerdà, Víctor

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •We propose a new automatic magnetic stirring assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction. •It allows the extraction of aluminum from seawater and freshwater samples within less than 4 min. •The method was applicable to the natural samples. -- Abstract: For the first time, the use of a magnetic stirrer within the syringe of an automated syringe pump and the resulting possible analytical applications are described. A simple instrumentation following roughly the one from sequential injection analyzer systems is used in combination with an adaptor, which is placed onto the barrel of a glass syringe. Swirling around the longitudinal axis of the syringe and holding two strong neodymium magnets, it causes a rotating magnetic field and serves as driver for a magnetic stirring bar placed inside of the syringe. In a first study it was shown that this approach leads to a sealed but also automatically adaptable reaction vessel, the syringe, in which rapid and homogeneous mixing of sample with the required reagents within short time can be carried out. In a second study in-a-syringe magnetic stirring-assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (MSA-DLLME) was demonstrated by the application of the analyzer system to fluorimetric determination of aluminum in seawater samples using lumogallion. A linear working range up to 1.1 μmol L −1 and a limit of detection of 6.1 nmol L −1 were found. An average recovery of 106.0% was achieved for coastal seawaters with a reproducibility of 4.4%. The procedure lasted 210 s including syringe cleaning and only 150 μL of hexanol and 4.1 mL of sample were required

  15. Voluntary sterilization in Serbia: Unmet need?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašević Mirjana M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Is voluntary sterilization as a birth control method accepted in Serbia? This is certainly a question that is being imposed for research, regardless of the fact that voluntary sterilization is neither accessible nor promoted. Most importantly because there is no understanding in the social nor political sphere for legalization of voluntary sterilization as a form of birth control, apart from the clear necessity for this, first, step. They are: the recognition that voluntary sterilization is an efficient and safe birth control method, respectability of basic human as well as sexual and reproductive rights, spreading of sterilization as a form of birth control among population of both developed and developing countries and an epidemic diffusion of repeated induced abortions in Serbia. Thus individual recognition of the advantages of relying on voluntary sterilization, in a non-encouraging atmosphere, certainly represents one more argument to enable couples to prevent conception by sterilization. Since it was impossible to carry out a representative research among the population of men and women who are at risk for conception, an attempt was made to obtain a reply to the set question among women who decided to induce abortion. It was done out of at least two reasons. The first being that women with induced abortion in their reproductive history were the target group for voluntary sterilization. The second reason was based on the assumption that bringing a decision on induced abortion is preceded by the reconsideration of an earlier adopted strategy regarding children, giving birth and contraception and thus its rational component is revealed more and therefore more easily measurable. The research was carried out in the University Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology 'Narodni front' in Belgrade from January 21st o March 1st 2002, and included 296 women. By comparing the social and demographic characteristics of the female respondents, as well as

  16. Potential Air Contamination During CO2 Angiography Using a Hand-Held Syringe: Theoretical Considerations and Gas Chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, David R.; Cho, Kyung J.; Hawkins, Irvin F.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose. To assess air contamination in the hand-held syringes currently used for CO 2 delivery and to determine whether there is an association between their position and the rate of air contamination. Methods. Assessment of air contamination in the syringe (20 ml) included theoretical modeling, mathematical calculation, and gas chromatography (GC). The model was used with Fick's first law to calculate the diffusion of CO 2 and the amount of air contamination. For GC studies, the syringes were placed in the upright, horizontal, and inverted positions and gas samples were obtained after 5, 10, 20, 30, and 60 min. All trials with each position for each sampling time were performed five times. Results. The amounts of air contamination with time calculated mathematically were 5-10% less than those of GC. With the diffusivity of air-CO 2 at 0.1599 cm 2 /sec (9.594 cm 2 /min), air contamination was calculated to be 60% at 60 min. With GC air contamination was 13% at 5 min, 31% at 20 min, 43% at 30 min, and 68% at 60 min. There was no difference in air contamination between the different syringe positions. Conclusion. Air contamination occurs in hand-held syringes filled with CO 2 when they are open to the ambient air. The amounts of air contamination over time are similar among syringes placed in the upright, horizontal, and inverted positions

  17. Potential air contamination during CO2 angiography using a hand-held syringe: theoretical considerations and gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, David R; Cho, Kyung J; Hawkins, Irvin F

    2006-01-01

    To assess air contamination in the hand-held syringes currently used for CO2 delivery and to determine whether there is an association between their position and the rate of air contamination. Assessment of air contamination in the syringe (20 ml) included theoretical modeling, mathematical calculation, and gas chromatography (GC). The model was used with Fick's first law to calculate the diffusion of CO2 and the amount of air contamination. For GC studies, the syringes were placed in the upright, horizontal, and inverted positions and gas samples were obtained after 5, 10, 20, 30, and 60 min. All trials with each position for each sampling time were performed five times. The amounts of air contamination with time calculated mathematically were 5-10% less than those of GC. With the diffusivity of air-CO2 at 0.1599 cm2/sec (9.594 cm2/min), air contamination was calculated to be 60% at 60 min. With GC air contamination was 13% at 5 min, 31% at 20 min, 43% at 30 min, and 68% at 60 min. There was no difference in air contamination between the different syringe positions. Air contamination occurs in hand-held syringes filled with CO2 when they are open to the ambient air. The amounts of air contamination over time are similar among syringes placed in the upright, horizontal, and inverted positions.

  18. Construction of a male sterility system for hybrid rice breeding and seed production using a nuclear male sterility gene

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Zhenyi; Chen, Zhufeng; Wang, Na; Xie, Gang; Lu, Jiawei; Yan, Wei; Zhou, Junli; Tang, Xiaoyan; Deng, Xing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear male sterility is common in flowering plants, but its application in hybrid breeding and seed production is limited because of the inability to propagate a pure male sterile line for commercial hybrid seed production. Here, we characterized a rice nuclear gene essential for sporophytic male fertility and constructed a male sterility system that can propagate the pure male sterile seeds on a large scale. This system is fundamentally advantageous over the current cytoplasmic male steril...

  19. Phenology, sterility and inheritance of two environment genic male sterile (EGMS) lines for hybrid rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Namaky, R.; Oort, van P.A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is still limited quantitative understanding of how environmental factors affect sterility of Environment-conditioned genic male sterility (EGMS) lines. A model was developed for this purpose and tested based on experimental data from Ndiaye (Senegal) in 2013-2015. For the two

  20. Phenology, sterility and inheritance of two environment genic male sterile (EGMS) lines for hybrid rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Namaky, R; van Oort, P A J

    2017-12-01

    There is still limited quantitative understanding of how environmental factors affect sterility of Environment-conditioned genic male sterility (EGMS) lines. A model was developed for this purpose and tested based on experimental data from Ndiaye (Senegal) in 2013-2015. For the two EGMS lines tested here, it was not clear if one or more recessive gene(s) were causing male sterility. This was tested by studying sterility segregation of the F2 populations. Daylength (photoperiod) and minimum temperatures during the period from panicle initiation to flowering had significant effects on male sterility. Results clearly showed that only one recessive gene was involved in causing male sterility. The model was applied to determine the set of sowing dates of two different EGMS lines such that both would flower at the same time the pollen would be completely sterile. In the same time the local popular variety (Sahel 108, the male pollen donor) being sufficiently fertile to produce the hybrid seeds. The model was applied to investigate the viability of the two line breeding system in the same location with climate change (+2oC) and in two other potential locations: in M'Be in Ivory Coast and in the Nile delta in Egypt. Apart from giving new insights in the relation between environment and EGMS, this study shows that these insights can be used to assess safe sowing windows and assess the suitability of sterility and fertility period of different environments for a two line hybrid rice production system.

  1. Investigating Liquid Leak from Pre-Filled Syringes upon Needle Shield Removal: Effect of Air Bubble Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Edwin; Maa, Yuh-Fun; Overcashier, David; Hsu, Chung C

    2011-01-01

    This study is to investigate the effect of headspace air pressure in pre-filled syringes on liquid leak (dripping) from the syringe needle upon needle shield removal. Drip tests to measure drip quantity were performed on syringes manually filled with 0.5 or 1.0 mL of various aqueous solutions. Parameters assessed included temperature (filling and test), bulk storage conditions (tank pressure and the type of the pressurized gas), solution composition (pure water, 0.9% sodium chloride, and a monoclonal antibody formulation), and testing procedures. A headspace pressure analyzer was used to verify the drip test method. Results suggested that leakage is indeed caused by headspace pressure increase, and the temperature effect (ideal gas expansion) is a major, but not the only, factor. The dissolved gases in the liquid bulk prior to or during filling may contribute to leakage, as these gases could be released into the headspace due to solubility changes (in response to test temperature and pressure conditions) and cause pressure increase. Needle shield removal procedures were found to cause dripping, but liquid composition played little role. Overall, paying attention to the processing history (pressure and temperature) of the liquid bulk is the key to minimize leakage. The headspace pressure could be reduced by decreasing liquid bulk storage pressure, filling at a higher temperature, or employing lower solubility gas (e.g., helium) for bulk transfer and storage. Leakage could also be mitigated by simply holding the syringe needle pointing upward during needle shield removal. Substantial advances in pre-filled syringe technology development, particularly in syringe filling accuracy, have been made. However, there are factors, as subtle as how the needle shield (or tip cap) is removed, that may affect dosing accuracy. We recently found that upon removal of the tip cap from a syringe held vertically with needle pointed downwards, a small amount of solution, up to 3-4% of

  2. Sterile insect supply, emergence, and release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, R.V.; Worley, J.; Gomes, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    Insect mass-rearing for a sterile insect technique (SIT) programme is designed to move beyond the large-scale rearing of insects in a laboratory to the industrial production of consistently high-quality insects for sterilization and release. Each facility reflects the unique biology of the insect reared within it, but there are some generalities for all rearing facilities. Rearing insects in self-contained modules offers flexibility, and increased safety from catastrophic occurrences, compared with using a single building which houses all facets of the rearing process. Although mechanizing certain aspects of the rearing steps helps provide a consistently high-quality insect, successful mass-rearing and delivery depends largely upon the human component. Besides production in centralized facilities, insects can be produced from purchased eggs, or nowadays, adult insects are often obtained from specialized satellite emergence/collection facilities. Interest in commercializing insect production and release is increasing. Shipping sterile insects, sometimes over long distances, is now common practice. Procedures for handling and chilling adult insects, and providing food and water prior to release, are continually being improved. Sterile insects are released via static-release receptacles, ground-release systems, or most commonly from the air. The aerial release of chilled sterile insects is the most efficient method of release, especially when aircraft flight paths are guided by a Global Positioning System (GPS) linked to a computer-controlled release mechanism. (author)

  3. Gamma radiation sterilized amnion: use in ophthalmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez P, M. E.; Leon T, Y.; Vazquez M, L.

    2010-10-01

    Amnion processed at the Radio sterilized Tissue Bank at the National Institute of Nuclear Research, sterilized with 60 Co gamma radiation, have been used in Mexico since 2005 either as a graft to replace the damaged ocular surface, or as a patch to prevent unwanted inflammatory reactions. Patients from the Hospital General de Mexico (HGM) and Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), suffering diverse pathologies such as keratoconjunctivitis; recurrent pterygium associated with symblepharon; corneal neuro trophic ulcers, chemical and thermal burns, and corneal thinning s, had been successfully treated with irradiated amnion. In the HGM, a clinical prospective study on lesions of the ocular surface of 17 eyes from 15 patients, affected with the above mentioned pathologies, was successful in 88.2%. The results have proven to be excellent as much for cosmetic purposes as for functional ones. Without the treatment, the patients could have suffered a healing after-effect or loss of sight. At IMSS, a controlled clinical randomized trial with 108 eyes from 100 patients, affected with primary nasal pterygium, was performed in 2009. These eyes were treated with radio sterilized amnion and intraoperative mitomycin C to prevent recurrence after excision of the primary pterygium. The preliminary results do not shown adverse reaction, inflammation and pain were significantly reduced radio sterilized amnion also offer security because they do no express antigens HLA-A, B or Dr and the sterile irradiated tissue do not provoke rejection or transmit an infective disease. (Author)

  4. Gamma radiation sterilized amnion: use in ophthalmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez P, M. E. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Leon T, Y. [Hospital General Regional 220, IMSS, Paseo Tollocan No. 620, Col. Vertice, Toluca 50150, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Vazquez M, L., E-mail: esther.martinez@inin.gob.m [Hospital General de Mexico, Dr. Balmis 148, Col. Doctores, 06720 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    Amnion processed at the Radio sterilized Tissue Bank at the National Institute of Nuclear Research, sterilized with {sup 60}Co gamma radiation, have been used in Mexico since 2005 either as a graft to replace the damaged ocular surface, or as a patch to prevent unwanted inflammatory reactions. Patients from the Hospital General de Mexico (HGM) and Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), suffering diverse pathologies such as keratoconjunctivitis; recurrent pterygium associated with symblepharon; corneal neuro trophic ulcers, chemical and thermal burns, and corneal thinning s, had been successfully treated with irradiated amnion. In the HGM, a clinical prospective study on lesions of the ocular surface of 17 eyes from 15 patients, affected with the above mentioned pathologies, was successful in 88.2%. The results have proven to be excellent as much for cosmetic purposes as for functional ones. Without the treatment, the patients could have suffered a healing after-effect or loss of sight. At IMSS, a controlled clinical randomized trial with 108 eyes from 100 patients, affected with primary nasal pterygium, was performed in 2009. These eyes were treated with radio sterilized amnion and intraoperative mitomycin C to prevent recurrence after excision of the primary pterygium. The preliminary results do not shown adverse reaction, inflammation and pain were significantly reduced radio sterilized amnion also offer security because they do no express antigens HLA-A, B or Dr and the sterile irradiated tissue do not provoke rejection or transmit an infective disease. (Author)

  5. Sterilization and disinfection: the prevailing indifference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, I.

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the knowledge and attitude of health care professionals towards the process of sterilization and disinfection, and to check the adequacy of the reading material accessible to them. The study comprised of three components. In the first part, sections devoted to this subject in the popular books read by the students of operation theatre assistant course and students of diploma in general nursing were examined for adequacy and authenticity of information. In the second part, standard operating procedures were examined regarding sterilization of textile, rubber tubes of suction units and diathermy hand pieces of 20 operation theatres of three teaching hospital attached to undergraduate medical college of Punjab. In the third part of the study, working knowledge of 64 practicing operation theatre assistants and 57 practicing nurses was assessed through a questionnaire. It was found that popular books either did not contain the required information or the information provided was misleading or incorrect. Standard operating procedures for sterilization of selected items of all the operation theatres studied fell much below the standard of practice desired in the light of current knowledge and contemporary practices. Finally the working knowledge of the professionals studied was much below the bare minimum expected by the profession. There is a dire need for upgrading the knowledge and attitude of health care professionals regarding sterilization, besides improving the operation theatres sterilization procedures. (author)

  6. Revisiting cosmological bounds on sterile neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, Aaron C. [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology (IPPP), Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Martínez, Enrique Fernández [Departamento and Instituto de Física Teórica (IFT), UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, C/ Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, E-28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Hernández, Pilar; Mena, Olga [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC-Universitat de València, Apartado de Correos 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Lattanzi, Massimiliano, E-mail: aaron.vincent@durham.ac.uk, E-mail: enrique.fernandez-martinez@uam.es, E-mail: m.pilar.hernandez@uv.es, E-mail: omena@ific.uv.es, E-mail: lattanzi@fe.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Science della Terra, Università di Ferrara and INFN, sezione di Ferrara, Polo Scientifico e Tecnologico, Edificio C Via Saragat, 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy)

    2015-04-01

    We employ state-of-the art cosmological observables including supernova surveys and BAO information to provide constraints on the mass and mixing angle of a non-resonantly produced sterile neutrino species, showing that cosmology can effectively rule out sterile neutrinos which decay between BBN and the present day. The decoupling of an additional heavy neutrino species can modify the time dependence of the Universe's expansion between BBN and recombination and, in extreme cases, lead to an additional matter-dominated period; while this could naively lead to a younger Universe with a larger Hubble parameter, it could later be compensated by the extra radiation expected in the form of neutrinos from sterile decay. However, recombination-era observables including the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), the shift parameter R{sub CMB} and the sound horizon r{sub s} from Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) severely constrain this scenario. We self-consistently include the full time-evolution of the coupled sterile neutrino and standard model sectors in an MCMC, showing that if decay occurs after BBN, the sterile neutrino is essentially bounded by the constraint sin{sup 2}θ ∼< 0.026 (m{sub s}/eV){sup −2}.

  7. Ionizing radiation for sterilization of medical products and biological tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S K; Raghevendrarao, M K [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Library and Technical Information Section

    1975-10-01

    The article reviews the deliberations of the International Symposium on Ionizing Radiation for Sterilization of Medical Products and Biological Tissues which was held during 9-13 December 1974 under the auspices of the IAEA at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay. 42 papers were presented in the following broad subject areas: (1) Microbiological Control aspects of radiation sterilization, (2) Dosimetry aspects of radiation sterilization practices, (3) Effects of sterilizing radiation dose on the constituents of medical products, (4) Application of radiation sterilization of medical products of biological origin, (5) Technological aspects of radiation sterilization facilities, (6) Radiation sterilization of pharmaceutical substances, (7) Reports on current status of radiation sterilization of medical products in IAEA member states and (8) Working group discussion on the revision of the IAEA recommended code of practice for radiation sterilization of medical products.

  8. Radiation Fusion Technology for Sewage Sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M. J.; Kim, T. H.; Ryu, S. H.; Jung, I. H.; Lee, O. M.; Kim, T. H.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental regulation for effluent of sewage and wastewater treatment plant is going to be reinforced in terms of ecology toxicity and number of E.coli from 2011. Besides, it has been known that UV technology is not enough to be a sterilization tool due to regrowth of E.coli even after treatment with UV. Therefore it needs a novel technology for both restriction of E.coli regrowth and treatment of toxic materials in order to meet the environmental regulation being enforced. Electron beam has unique capabilities on destruction of chemicals and sterilization of microbial. In this study, field study on destruction of antibiotics and endocrine disruptors, reduction ecological toxicity and E.Coli regrowth was carried out using by mobile electron beam accelerator. Experimental results showed that irradiation on effluent could effectively reduce not only ecology toxicity but regrowth of E.coli by destruction of chemicals and complete sterilization

  9. Mechanisms of male sterility in higher plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, Yasuo [Tsukuba Univ., Sakura, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1982-03-01

    The mechanisms causing male sterility in higher plants were classified into two major categories: genetic and non-genetic. The former was further divided into six classes: 1) Anomality in spindle mechanism during meiosis, 2) chromosomal anomality such as haploidy, polyploidy, aneuploidy, chromosome some deficiency, inversion and reciprocal translocation, 3) presence of male sterile genes, 4) cytoplasmic abnormality, 5) the combination of some specific cytoplasm with particular genes, and 6) infections of microorganisms or viruses. Each mechanism was briefly explained, and the methods for the maintenance of parent lines for heterosis breeding and hybrid seed production were described. The non-genetic male sterility was classified into four types, which are caused by 1) low or high temperature, 2) water deficiency, 3) application of chemicals, and 4) radiation, with a brief explanation given for each of them.

  10. Dosimetry requirements derived from the sterilization standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1998-01-01

    The main standards for radiation sterilization, ISO 11137 and EN 552, rest the documentation for the properly executed sterilization process on dosimetry. Both standards describe general requirements to the dosimetry system: The dose measurements must be traceable to national standards...... and documented uncertainty limits of the dose measurements can be used to specify process control limits. This is also useful, for example, when dose setting experiments are carried out according to the methods described in ISO 11137, where product samples shall be irradiated within narrow limits......., the uncertainty of the dose measurement and the environmental influences must be known. This paper discusses how to obtain and maintain traceability and how to document measurement uncertainty. The implications of these requirements in the process control of radiation sterilization are further discussed. Known...

  11. Mechanisms of male sterility in higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Yasuo

    1982-01-01

    The mechanisms causing male sterility in higher plants were classified into two major categories: genetic and non-genetic. The former was further divided into six classes: 1) Anomality in spindle mechanism during meiosis, 2) chromosomal anomality such as haploidy, polyploidy, aneuploidy, chromosome some deficiency, inversion and reciprocal translocation, 3) presence of male sterile genes, 4) cytoplasmic abnormality, 5) the combination of some specific cytoplasm with particular genes, and 6) infections of microorganisms or viruses. Each mechanism was briefly explained, and the methods for the maintenance of parent lines for heterosis breeding and hybrid seed production were described. The non-genetic male sterility was classified into four types, which are caused by 1) low or high temperature, 2) water deficiency, 3) application of chemicals, and 4) radiation, with a brief explanation given for each of them. (Kaihara, S.)

  12. Contraceptive sterilization among Canadians, 1984-1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Krishnan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior to early 1970s, traditional methods were the principal means of controlling the number and spacing of births. Today, an estimated 57 per cent of the world’s married women use contraceptives and half use modern methods such as medical sterilizations. Recent statistics suggest that Canada has the highest sterilization rate in the Western world. This paper presents findings of research examining sterilization trends in Canada with respect to changing patterns in the use of modern contraceptives, using data from the 1984 Canadian Fertility Survey (CFS and the 1995 General Social Survey (GSS. The main finding is that there is a decrease in the use of tubal ligation and an increase in the use of hysterectomy over the period 1984-1995. Less educated women are more likely to be in the forefront of modern methods of contraception.

  13. Making Nasopalatine Blocks Comfortable: A Randomised Prospective Clinical Comparison of Pain Associated with the Injection Using an Insulin Syringe and a Standard Disposable 3 mL Syringe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Sundararaman; Faizel, Syed; Pahlajani, Vedant; Prabhu, Shweta Jha

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted to compare and evaluate the pain associated with administration of Nasopalatine blocks using a disposable insulin syringe and the conventional disposable 3 mL syringe. Forty patients requiring intraalveolar extractions of maxillary central incisors were randomly assigned to two groups of 20 patients each; one (Group A) received the nasopalatine block with a standard 3mL syringe and the other (Group B) received the block with an insulin syringe. Patients were asked to rate the pain associated with the injection on a visual analog scale (VAS) and the results were analysed using a Chi Square Test. The mean VAS score for Group A and B was 1.55 and 1 respectively. Chi Square value was calculated to be 8.603 (degree of freedom= 3, P value= 0.0351). There were no differences in the effectiveness of anesthesia between the groups. Pain associated with administration of the nasopalatine blocks may be significantly mitigated by using the Insulin syringe.

  14. Ozone--the latest advance in sterilization of medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Lorna

    2006-06-01

    How many times have procedures in your operating rooms been delayed because the instruments needed were still in the sterilizer? As Perioperative nurses you are likely to be quite familiar with the constant pressure to ensure that scarce instrumentation is available when needed. In 2003, a Canadian company developed a unique sterilization process employing ozone as the sterilizing agent. This technology is a safe, rapid and economical alternative to other low temperature sterilization modalities and may relieve some of the pressure experienced when instruments in short supply are in high demand. This article will discuss the principles of the sterilizer and the cycle and will explore the advantages of using this sterilization technology.

  15. Sterilization processes. Meeting the demands of today's health care technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, S

    1993-09-01

    Universal Precautions dictate sterilization for all invasive equipment that break the blood barrier; however, current methods of sterilization, such as steam and ethylene oxide gas (ETO), are not compatible with many of the delicate, heat-sensitive surgical instruments used in modern health care. In addition, traditional sterilization methods are often too time consuming for practical use in the operating room. Clearly, new sterilization processes need to be developed. In this article, the criteria modern sterilization processes must meet and how some manufacturers plan to meet this challenge are discussed. In addition, the pros and cons of using peracetic acid (the newest sterilization process currently available) are examined.

  16. Dynamic sterilization of titanium implants with ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.; Schaaf, N.G.

    1989-01-01

    All implantable devices must be sterile. However, autoclaves produce poor surface properties that jeopardize the integration process. The application of a modified ultraviolet light source has proven to enhance bioreactivity by controlling surface properties, but it lacks validation of its sterilization capabilities. Forty-eight titanium implants were contaminated with spores of the biological indicator Bacillus stearothermophilus and subjected to dynamic sterilization by ultraviolet light. Forty-seven of the implants were successfully sterilized, as indicated by not producing turbidity in a suitable growth medium. This sterilization technique only requires a 20-second exposure to achieve sterility

  17. About the Sterilization of Chitosan Hydrogel Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galante, Raquel; Rediguieri, Carolina F; Kikuchi, Irene Satiko; Vasquez, Pablo A S; Colaço, Rogério; Serro, Ana Paula; Pinto, Terezinha J A

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, nanostructured biomaterials have raised a great interest as platforms for delivery of drugs, genes, imaging agents and for tissue engineering applications. In particular, hydrogel nanoparticles (HNP) associate the distinctive features of hydrogels (high water uptake capacity, biocompatibility) with the advantages of being possible to tailor its physicochemical properties at nano-scale to increase solubility, immunocompatibility and cellular uptake. In order to be safe, HNP for biomedical applications, such as injectable or ophthalmic formulations, must be sterile. Literature is very scarce with respect to sterilization effects on nanostructured systems, and even more in what concerns HNP. This work aims to evaluate the effect and effectiveness of different sterilization methods on chitosan (CS) hydrogel nanoparticles. In addition to conventional methods (steam autoclave and gamma irradiation), a recent ozone-based method of sterilization was also tested. A model chitosan-tripolyphosphate (TPP) hydrogel nanoparticles (CS-HNP), with a broad spectrum of possible applications was produced and sterilized in the absence and in the presence of protective sugars (glucose and mannitol). Properties like size, zeta potential, absorbance, morphology, chemical structure and cytotoxicity were evaluated. It was found that the CS-HNP degrade by autoclaving and that sugars have no protective effect. Concerning gamma irradiation, the formation of agglomerates was observed, compromising the suspension stability. However, the nanoparticles resistance increases considerably in the presence of the sugars. Ozone sterilization did not lead to significant physical adverse effects, however, slight toxicity signs were observed, contrarily to gamma irradiation where no detectable changes on cells were found. Ozonation in the presence of sugars avoided cytotoxicity. Nevertheless, some chemical alterations were observed in the nanoparticles.

  18. About the Sterilization of Chitosan Hydrogel Nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Galante

    Full Text Available In the last years, nanostructured biomaterials have raised a great interest as platforms for delivery of drugs, genes, imaging agents and for tissue engineering applications. In particular, hydrogel nanoparticles (HNP associate the distinctive features of hydrogels (high water uptake capacity, biocompatibility with the advantages of being possible to tailor its physicochemical properties at nano-scale to increase solubility, immunocompatibility and cellular uptake. In order to be safe, HNP for biomedical applications, such as injectable or ophthalmic formulations, must be sterile. Literature is very scarce with respect to sterilization effects on nanostructured systems, and even more in what concerns HNP. This work aims to evaluate the effect and effectiveness of different sterilization methods on chitosan (CS hydrogel nanoparticles. In addition to conventional methods (steam autoclave and gamma irradiation, a recent ozone-based method of sterilization was also tested. A model chitosan-tripolyphosphate (TPP hydrogel nanoparticles (CS-HNP, with a broad spectrum of possible applications was produced and sterilized in the absence and in the presence of protective sugars (glucose and mannitol. Properties like size, zeta potential, absorbance, morphology, chemical structure and cytotoxicity were evaluated. It was found that the CS-HNP degrade by autoclaving and that sugars have no protective effect. Concerning gamma irradiation, the formation of agglomerates was observed, compromising the suspension stability. However, the nanoparticles resistance increases considerably in the presence of the sugars. Ozone sterilization did not lead to significant physical adverse effects, however, slight toxicity signs were observed, contrarily to gamma irradiation where no detectable changes on cells were found. Ozonation in the presence of sugars avoided cytotoxicity. Nevertheless, some chemical alterations were observed in the nanoparticles.

  19. Induced mutant for male sterility in niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujatha, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.), an important oilseed crop of the family Compositae is highly cross-pollinated due to the twin mechanisms of protandry and incompatibility. Studies revealed the functional nature of protandry and the breakdown of incompatibility with alteration in temperature. It has very small flowers (disc florets) arranged in a capitulum that open on 3-4 consecutive days which pose problems in emasculation for cross-breeding. To induce mutations, seeds of variety 'IGP-76' were irradiated with γ-rays 200 to 1000 Gy. All seeds of M 1 plants were sown separately in individual plant-to progeny rows. The results of screening of M 2 segregating material indicated that γ-ray treatment was effective in induction of male sterility. Frequency of visible mutations were higher in sibbed progeny as compared to open pollinated population and male sterile plants were observed only in sibbed population (1000 Gy). Male sterile plants could easily be identified at the flowering stage by their altered floral morphology (disc florets transformed into ligulate ray florets) and complete absence or presence of a rudimentary anther column. Seeds were collected following sib-mating with the fertile counterparts. Progeny segregated in a ration of 3 normal : 1 male sterile. Further work on the mechanism of sterility, maintenance and linkage relationships with associated characters is under progress. This is the first report of induction of male sterility in niger through the use of physical mutagens. The availability of this mutant will be of great value for exploitation of heterosis on commercial basis. (author)

  20. [Preference for etanercept pen versus syringe in patients with chronic arthritis. Nurse education workshop].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Diaz, Silvia; Girabent-Farrés, Montserrat; Roig-Vilaseca, Daniel; Reina, Delia; Cerdà, Dacia; González, Marina; Torrente-Segarra, Vicenç; Fíguls, Ramon; Corominas, Hèctor

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study are to evaluate the level of fear of post-injection pain prior to the administration, the difficulty in handling the device, and the level of satisfaction of patients using a pre-filled syringe versus an etanercept pen, as well as to evaluate the usefulness of the training given by nursing staff prior to starting with the pen, and the preferences of patients after using both devices. A prospective study was designed to follow-up a cohort of patients during a 6 months period. The data was collected using questionnaires and analyzed with SPSS 18.00. Rank and McNemar tests were performed. Statistical significance was pre-set at an α level of 0.05. A total of 29 patients were included, of whom 69% female, and with a mean age 52.5±10.9 years. Of these, 48% had rheumatoid arthritis, 28% psoriatic arthritis, 21% ankylosing spondylitis, and 3% undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy. There were no statistically significant differences either with the fear or pain or handling of the device between the syringe and the pen (P=.469; P=.812; P=.169 respectively). At 6 months, 59% of patients referred to being satisfied or very satisfied with the pen. Almost all (93%) found useful or very useful the training given by nursing staff prior to using the pen, and 55% preferred the pen over the pre-filled syringe. The etanercept pen is another subcutaneous device option for patients with chronic arthritis. According to the present study, nursing educational workshops before starting this therapy are recommended. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  1. Mass-rearing for sterile insect release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    As the sterile insect technique (SIT) relies upon released sterile male insects efficiently competing with wild males to mate with wild females, it follows that mass-rearing of insects is one of the principal steps in the process. Mass-rearing for the SIT presents both problems and opportunities due to the increased scale involved compared with rearing insects for most other purposes. This chapter discusses facility design, environmental concerns, strain management, quality control, automation, diet, sex separation, marking, and storage in relation to rearing for the SIT. (author)

  2. Radiation sterilization of pharmaceuticals and biomedical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, R.; Iddon, B.; Moore, J.S.; Phillips, G.O.; Power, D.M.; Woodward, T.W.

    1975-01-01

    Sterilization of pharmaceuticals by radiation is accompanied by chemical degradation which must be eliminated or minimised if the method is to be successfully applied. In order to devise ways in which the pharmaceutical can be protected it is necessary to know the yield and nature of the decomposition products, the mechanisms by which degradation occurs, and the rate constants for the reactions involved. We have obtained such data for a variety of pharmaceutical compounds, viz. vitamin B12, benzyl penicillin, sulphonamides, indoles, heparin, alginates and phenylmercurics, both in the solid state and in aqueous solution. The scope and limitations of radiation sterilization are discussed in the light of these results. (author)

  3. Radiation sterilization of pharmaceuticals (eg chloramphenicol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeegers, F.; Tilquin, B.

    1991-01-01

    In connection with the ongoing world-wide application of irradiation as a new technology for sterilization, the identification of the drugs products is very important. Introduction of radiosterilization of pharmaceuticals is proceeding at a slower rate than that for disposable medical supplies; it is the responsibility of the manufacturer to prove that degradation of products is safe. Major advantages in the use of radiation as a sterilization procedure are high penetrating power, small temperature rise, ease of control and minimal degradation of irradiated solid drugs [fr

  4. Syringe confiscation as an HIV risk factor: the public health implications of arbitrary policing in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beletsky, Leo; Lozada, Remedios; Gaines, Tommi; Abramovitz, Daniela; Staines, Hugo; Vera, Alicia; Rangel, Gudelia; Arredondo, Jaime; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-04-01

    Female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) face elevated risk for HIV/STIs and constitute a key population for public health prevention. Through direct and indirect pathways including human rights violations, policing practices like syringe confiscation can compound FSW-IDU health risk and facilitate the spread of disease. We studied correlates of experiencing syringe confiscation among FSW-IDUs in northern Mexico, where formal policy allows for syringes to be available over the counter without a prescription, but police practices are often at odds with the law. FSW-IDUs reporting recent syringe sharing and unprotected sex with clients in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez were administered surveys and HIV/STI testing. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of syringe confiscation. Among 624 respondent FSW-IDUs, prevalence of syringe confiscation in the last 6 months was 48%. The following factors were positively associated with syringe confiscation: testing positive for HIV (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11-5.80), reporting sexual abuse by police (aOR = 12.76, 95% CI = 6.58-24.72), engaging in groin injection (aOR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.15-2.93), injecting in public (aOR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.14-2.36), and obtaining syringes from pharmacies (aOR = 1.54; 95% CI = 1.06-2.23). Higher education level was negatively associated with syringe confiscation (aOR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.87-0.98) as was frequent injection with clients within the last month (aOR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.44-0.94). This analysis adds to the body of evidence linking unauthorized law enforcement actions targeting high-risk groups with HIV and other adverse health outcomes. Using a public health lens to conceptualize abuse as a structural risk factor, we advocate for multi-prong prevention, systematic monitoring, and evidence-based intervention response to deleterious police practices.

  5. Comparison between syringe irrigation and RinsEndo in reduction of Enterococcus faecalis in experimentally infected root canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharareh Mousavi Zahed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: To ensure root canal treatment success, endodontic microbiota should be efficiently reduced. Several irrigation devices have been recently introduced with the main objective of improving root canal disinfection.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rinsing effect of RinsEndo system in reduction of enterococcus faecalis in comparison with conventional hand syringe in infected root canals.   Materials and Methods: 60 extracted single canal anterior teeth were infected with enterococcus faecalis and divided into 3 groups: RinsEndo system, conventional hand syringe and control group. The enterococcus faecalis colonies were counted in each group before and after rinsing. Data were analyzed using Variance and Kruskal Wallis test.   Results: The mean of enterococcus faecalis growth after rinsing was 3.50×103 in group with conventional syring rinsing, 2.04×103 in group with RinsEndo washing and 6.11×103 in control group. Reduction of enterococcus faecalis after rinsing was statistically significant in each group (P<0.001. The amount of reduction in number of colonies with RinsEndo and conventional syringe rinsing was higher in comparison with control group and this difference was significant (P<0.001. RinsEndo rinsing effect was statistically significantly higher in comparison to conventional syringe as well (P<0.001.   Conclusion: Rinsing with RinsEndo system was significantly more efficient in reduction of enterococcus faecalis from root canal in comparison with hand syringe washing.

  6. Present studies on the radio-sterilized drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciniec, B.; Dettlaff, K.

    2007-01-01

    Lecture presents present status of radiosterilization of drugs and medical materials as compared to other sterilization methods. Literature review is shown on degradation of different kinds of drugs sterilized upon action of the sterilising doses of radiation

  7. Unintended pregnancies after Essure sterilization in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veersema, S.; Vleugels, M.P.; Moolenaar, L.M.; Janssen, C.A.; Brölmann, H.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the data of cases of unintended pregnancies after Essure sterilization. Design: Retrospective case series analysis. Setting: National multicenter. Patient(s): Ten cases of unintended pregnancies after Essure sterilization in the Netherlands were reported from August 2002

  8. Bilateral cornual abscess after endometrial ablation following Essure sterilization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, N.E.; Vleugels, M.P.; Kluivers, K.B.; Vierhout, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    Endometrial ablation is used extensively to treat dysfunctional bleeding. Since the introduction of Essure tubal sterilization, this permanent contraception method has been widely used. Both endometrial ablation and Essure sterilization are procedures reported to have only a few complications. We

  9. Red oak borers become sterile when reared under continuous light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimmy R. Galford

    1975-01-01

    Red oak borers, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman), reared under continuous light for 12 weeks became sterile. Sterility is thought to have been caused by light destroying vitamins essential for fertility

  10. Biological basis of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lance, D.R.; McInnis, D.O.

    2005-01-01

    In principle, the sterile insect technique (SIT) is applicable to controlling a wide variety of insect pests, but biological factors, interacting with socio-economic and political forces, restrict its practical use to a narrower set of pest species and situations. This chapter reviews how the biology and ecology of a given pest affect the feasibility and logistics of developing and using the SIT against that pest insect. The subjects of pest abundance, distribution, and population dynamics are discussed in relation to producing and delivering sufficient sterile insects to control target populations. Pest movement and distribution are considered as factors that influence the feasibility and design of SIT projects, including the need for population- or area-wide management approaches. Biological characteristics, that affect the ability of sterile insects to interact with wild populations, are presented, including the nature of mating systems of pests, behavioural and physiological consequences of mass production and sterilization, and mechanisms that males use to block a female's acquisition and/or use of sperm from other males. An adequate knowledge of the biology of the pest species and potential target populations is needed, both for making sound decisions on whether integration of the SIT into an area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programme is appropriate, and for the efficient and effective application of the technique. (author)

  11. Gamma radiation sterilization of Bactrocera invadens (Diptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African invader fly, Bactrocera invadens, an invasive pest in Africa since 2003, causes damage and poses a threat to the mango and horticultural industry. Its control is therefore needed. Sterilization of males using gamma radiation doses (25, 50 and 75 Gy) as a means of population control was investigated. Irradiation ...

  12. Sterilization of heparinized cuprophan hemodialysis membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Hoopen, Hermina W.M.; Hinrichs, W.L.J.; Hinrichs, W.L.J.; Engbers, G.H.M.; Feijen, Jan

    1996-01-01

    The effects of sterilization of dry heparinized Cuprophan hemodialysis membranes by means of ethylene oxide (EtO) exposure, gamma irradiation, or steam on the anticoagulant activity and chemical characteristics of immobilized heparin and the permeability of the membrane were investigated.

  13. Heat sterilization times of five hardwood species

    Science.gov (United States)

    William T. Simpson; Xiping Wang; John W. Forsman; John R. Erickson

    2005-01-01

    Heat sterilization of lumber, timbers, and pallets is currently used to kill insects, thus preventing their transfer between countries in international trade. An important factor in this treatment is the time required for the center of any wood configuration to reach the temperature necessary to kill the insect. This study explored the effect of size (1-, 1.5-, and 2.0...

  14. Sterilization of spices through ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heins, H G; Ulmann, R M

    1971-10-01

    Sterilization of spices is discussed in relation to other methods. Efficiency, organoleptic inspection and costs of the treatment are considered. It is concluded that the irradiation method is feasible and acceptable with respect to taste and juridicial requirements. (G.J.P.). 12 refs.; 1 figure; 4 tabs.

  15. Perspectives: Eugenics and Sterilization in the Heartland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehmeyer, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    Noting the Governor of Virginia's recent apology for his state's participation in eugenics, this article reviews the history of the sterilization of people with epilepsy and mental retardation in several states, and the importance of the Buck v. Bell (1927) Supreme Court decision in the promotion of eugenics. (Contains references.) (CR)

  16. Utilization of male sterility in forage crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suginobu, Ken-ichi

    1982-01-01

    The genetic nature of male sterility in forage crops was reviewed. Many workers have suggested that hybrids in forage crops are quite promising. First, the selection of the most desirable parental genotype from a large original population is improtant in heterosis breeding programs. After the more promising inbreds or clones have been selected on the basis of good general combining ability, it is necessary to identify the particular single, three-way or double cross that will produce the highest yields. A high seed yield potential is also important in a new variety so that the seeds can be sold at lower prices than other varieties. A tentative scheme for hybrid seed production by using inbred lines of male sterile or normal parents is proposed. At a breeding station, the seeds for male sterile F 1 (AB), maintainer S 1 (C-S 1 ) and either maintainer or restorer S 1 s(D-S 1 , E-S 1 ) are produced from the parental clones. At a seed increase agency, the seeds for male sterile F 1 (ABC) and either maintainer or restorer S 2 (D-S 2 ) are produced. In the case that D-S 2 seed production is difficult, maintainer or restorer F 1 (DE) should be produced from D-S 1 x E-S 1 . These seeds are used for commercial seed production. Seeds of hybrid F 1 (ABCD) or hybrid F 1 (ABCDE) are for practical use. (Kaihara, S.)

  17. Process variation in electron beam sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    The qualification and control of electron beam sterilization can be improved by the application of proven statistical analysis techniques such as Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Statistical Tolerance Limits. These statistical techniques can be useful tools in: •Locating and quantifying the minimum and maximum absorbed dose in a product. •Estimating the expected process maximum dose, given a minimum sterilizing dose. •Setting a process minimum dose target, based on an allowance for random measurement and process variation. •Determining the dose relationship between a reference dosimeter and process minimum and maximum doses. This study investigates and demonstrates the application of these tools in qualifying electron beam sterilization, and compares the conclusions obtained with those obtained using practices recommended in Guide for Process Control in Radiation Sterilization. The study supports the following conclusions for electron beam processes: 1.ANOVA is a more effective tool for evaluating the equivalency of absorbed doses than methods suggested in . 2.Process limits computed using statistical tolerance limits more accurately reflect actual process variability than the AAMI method, which applies +/−2 sample standard deviations (s) regardless of sample size. 3.The use of reference dose ratios lends itself to qualification using statistical tolerance limits. The current AAMI recommended approach may result in an overly optimistic estimate of the reference dose adjustment factor, as it is based on application of +/−2(s) tolerances regardless of sample size.

  18. Sterilization of Microorganisms by Ozone and Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnyj, V. V.; Klosovskij, A. V.; Panasko, T. A.; Shvets, O. M.; Semenova, O. T.; Taran, V. S.; Tereshin, V. I.

    2008-03-01

    The results of recent experimental methods of sterilization of microorganisms with the use of ozone and ultrasound are presented. The main aim was to optimize the process of sterilization in water solution taking into account the ozone concentration, the power of ultrasonic emitter and the temperature of water. In the present work, the ultrasonic cavitation with simultaneous ozone generation has been used. The high ozone concentration in water solution was achieved by two-barrier glow discharge generated at atmospheric pressure and a cooling thermo-electric module. Such a sterilizer consists of ozone generator in a shape of flat electrodes covered with dielectric material and a high-voltage pulsed power supply of 250 W. The sterilization camera was equipped with ultrasonic source operated at 100 W. The experiments on the inactivation of bacteria of the Bacillus Cereus type were carried out in the distilled water saturated by ozone. The ozone concentration in the aqueous solution was 10 mg/1, whereas the ozone concentration at the output of ozone generator was 30 mg/1. The complete inactivation of spores took 15 min. Selection of the temperature of water, the ozone concentrations and ultrasonic power allowed to determine the time necessary for destroying the row of microorganisms.

  19. Whey powder sterilization by ionizing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorovic, M.; Salatic, Z.; Markov, S.

    1988-01-01

    Whey powder was sterilized by gamma waves application. As a source of irridiation isotope 60Co was used in Institute of Nuclear sciences B oris Kidrich , Vincha-Belgrade (Yugoslavia). The applied doses were: a, b, c, d, and e Kgy. The dose d was radappertization. After whey powder irradiation no adverse changes of organoleptic properties were noticed

  20. Methods of medical sterilization; Metody sterylizacji medycznej

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stachowicz, W [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-10-01

    Broad review of different (physical, chemical and mechanical) methods commonly used for medical materials sterilization have been performed. Among them the special attention have been played on radiosterilization. The advantages and weaknesses each of the presented method have been pointed out. 1 fig.

  1. STERILIZATION AND DISINFECTION IN A PRIVATE CLINIC

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oral examination is done with a mirror and probe. The mirror is then washed under the tap water and disinfected in 'V3 sterilizing' fluid concentrate. The probe is placed in a tray with ... Protective glasses are worn additionally to the gloves and facemask, when cavity preparation. is being performed. The handpiece is wiped.

  2. Sterile insect technique: A model for dose optimisation for improved sterile insect quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, A.; Mehta, K.

    2007-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environment-friendly pest control technique with application in the area-wide integrated control of key pests, including the suppression or elimination of introduced populations and the exclusion of new introductions. Reproductive sterility is normally induced by ionizing radiation, a convenient and consistent method that maintains a reasonable degree of competitiveness in the released insects. The cost and effectiveness of a control program integrating the SIT depend on the balance between sterility and competitiveness, but it appears that current operational programs with an SIT component are not achieving an appropriate balance. In this paper we discuss optimization of the sterilization process and present a simple model and procedure for determining the optimum dose. (author) [es

  3. Status of radiation sterilization of healthcare products in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Nankang; Wang Chunlei; Teng Weifang

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the status of 60 Co radiation facilities both in service and under construction in China and examines the future market for radiation sterilization of healthcare products. Policies for developing the industry of radiation sterilization are also put forward; these include implementation of appropriate quality systems, scale-up and merging of existing radiation facilities, development of electron beam radiation for sterilization purposes and increasing awareness of the technology of radiation sterilization

  4. Correlates of lending needles/syringes among HIV-seropositive injection drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsch, Lisa R; Pereyra, Margaret; Purcell, David W; Latkin, Carl A; Malow, Robert; Gómez, Cynthia A; Latka, Mary H

    2007-11-01

    Among HIV-positive injection drug users (IDUs), we examined the correlates of lending needles/syringes with HIV-negative and unknown status injection partners. HIV-positive IDUs (N=738) from 4 cities in the United States who reported injection drug use with other IDUs in the past 3 months participated in an audio computer-assisted self-administered interview. Eighteen percent of study participants self-reported having lent their needles to HIV-negative or unknown status injection partners. Multivariate analyses showed that 6 variables were significantly associated with this high-risk injecting practice. Older IDUs, high school graduates, and those reporting more supportive peer norms for safer drug use were less likely to lend needles/syringes. Admission to a hospital for drug treatment in the past 6 months, having injected with >1 person in the past 3 months, and having more psychiatric symptoms were all associated with more risk. These findings underscore the need for a continued prevention focus on HIV-positive IDUs that recognizes the combination of drug use, mental health factors, and social factors that might affect this high-risk injecting practice, which could be associated with HIV and hepatitis C transmission.

  5. A practical guide for nurses in diluent selection for subcutaneous infusion using a syringe driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Fiona; Flowers, Charne

    2006-12-01

    Appropriate diluent selection in continuous subcutaneous infusion optimises symptom management and client well-being. The responsibility of diluent selection is commonly one of the attending nurse. This paper was developed with the intention of providing nurses with practical instruction for diluent selection when preparing medications for administration subcutaneously using a syringe driver. A literature review was undertaken of published journal databases and published guidelines sites. Recommendations regarding diluent choice were reviewed in two iterations by an expert panel of palliative care nurse clinicians. The principles for diluent selection are presented. They are based primarily on expert opinion level of evidence given a lack of primary research evidence in the area of diluent selection. There is a pressing need for manufacturers' guidance on diluent selection and independent research to establish the impact of diluents on drug and drug combinations when using syringe drivers. Until such time that this evidence is available to guide practice, clinicians need to be trained to inspect solutions and assess the effectiveness of the medication in controlling symptoms. The capacity of this paper to provide practical instruction has been limited by the lack of rigorous evidence available, and indeed, the process of developing this guide identified perhaps more questions than answers available at the present time.

  6. Syringe test screening of microbial gas production activity: Cases denitrification and biogas formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østgaard, Kjetill; Kowarz, Viktoria; Shuai, Wang; Henry, Ingrid A; Sposob, Michal; Haugen, Hildegunn Hegna; Bakke, Rune

    2017-01-01

    Mass produced plastic syringes may be applied as vessels for cheap, simple and large scale batch culture testing. As illustrated for the cases of denitrification and of biogas formation, metabolic activity was monitored by direct reading of the piston movement due to the gas volume formed. Pressure buildup due to friction was shown to be moderate. A piston pull and slide back routine can be applied before recording gas volume to minimize experimental errors due to friction. Inoculum handling and activity may be conveniently standardized as illustrated by applying biofilm carriers. A robust set of positive as well as negative controls ("blanks") should be included to ensure quality of the actual testing. The denitrification test showed saturation response at increasing amounts of inoculum in the form of adapted moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) carriers, with well correlated nitrate consumption vs. gas volume formed. As shown, the denitrification test efficiently screened different inocula at standardized substrates. Also, different substrates were successfully screened and compared at standardized inocula. The biogas potential test showed efficient screening of different substrates with effects of relative amounts of carbohydrate, protein, fat. A second case with CO 2 capture reclaimer waste as substrate demonstrated successful use of co-feeding to support waste treatment and how temperature effects on kinetics and stoichiometry can be observed. In total, syringe test screening of microbial gas production seems highly efficient at a low cost when properly applied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Association Between Law Enforcement Encounters and Syringe Sharing Among IDUs on Skid Row: A Mixed Methods Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Freeman, Rebecca; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.

    2013-01-01

    The legal environment is one factor that influences injection drug users' (IDUs) risk for HIV and other bloodborne pathogens such as hepatitis C virus (HCV). We examined the association between law enforcement encounters (i.e., arrests and citations) and receptive syringe sharing among IDUs in the context of an intensified policing effort. We conducted a mixed methods analysis of 30 qualitative and 187 quantitative interviews with IDUs accessing services at a Los Angeles, CA syringe exchange program from 2008 to 2009. Qualitative findings illustrate concerns related to visibility, drug withdrawal, and previous history of arrest/incarceration. In quantitative analysis, the number of citations received, current homelessness, and perceiving that being arrested would be a “big problem” were independently associated with recent syringe sharing. Findings illustrate some of the unintended public health consequences associated with intensified street-level policing, including risk for HIV and HCV transmission. PMID:23620243

  8. Laparoscopic tubal sterilization reversal and fertility outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Jayakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study was two-fold. Firstly it was to assess the suitability for tubal recanalization and factors predicting successful laparoscopic recanalization. Secondly, it was to analyze the fertility outcomes and factors affecting the pregnancy rate following laparoscopic tubal recanalization. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review of prospectively followed-up 29 women at a tertiary care center seeking tubal sterilization reversal between May 2005 and February 2010 were included. Results: In 14 (48.3% women unilateral tubes were suitable and in only 3 women (10.3% bilateral tubes were suitable. All cases with laparoscopic tubal sterilization were suitable, whereas all cases with fimbriectomy were unsuitable for recanalization. In 6 (20.7% cases salphingostomy was performed as an alternative procedure to tubal reanastomosis. The overall pregnancy rate was 58.8%. In cases with sterilization by Pomeroy′s method, 4 out of 10 (40% conceived, whereas for laparoscopic tubal ligation cases 6 out of 7 (85.7% conceived (P=0.32. None of the patients with final tubal length <5 cm conceived (P=0.03. Comparing the age at recanalization, in women ≤30 years, 71.4% conceived, as compared with 50% when age of women was more than 30 years (P=0.37. Conclusions: The important factors determining the success of recanalization are technique of sterilization and the remaining length of the tube after recanalization. The gynecologist must use an effective technique of sterilization to minimize the failure rates, but at the same time, which causes minimal trauma, and aim at preserving the length of the tube so that reversal is more likely to be successful, should the patient′s circumstances change.

  9. Device and Container for Reheating and Sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, Sudhir K.; Heskitt, Brian F.; Jun, Soojin; Marcy, Joseph E.; Mahna, Ritesh

    2012-01-01

    Long-duration space missions require the development of improved foods and novel packages that do not represent a significant disposal issue. In addition, it would also be desirable if rapid heating technologies could be used on Earth as well, to improve food quality during a sterilization process. For this purpose, a package equipped with electrodes was developed that will enable rapid reheating of contents via ohmic heating to serving temperature during space vehicle transit. Further, the package is designed with a resealing feature, which enables the package, once used, to contain and sterilize waste, including human waste for storage prior to jettison during a long-duration mission. Ohmic heating is a technology that has been investigated on and off for over a century. Literature indicates that foods processed by ohmic heating are of superior quality to their conventionally processed counterparts. This is due to the speed and uniformity of ohmic heating, which minimizes exposure of sensitive materials to high temperatures. In principle, the material may be heated rapidly to sterilization conditions, cooled rapidly, and stored. The ohmic heating device herein is incorporated within a package. While this by itself is not novel, a reusable feature also was developed with the intent that waste may be stored and re-sterilized within the packages. These would then serve a useful function after their use in food processing and storage. The enclosure should be designed to minimize mass (and for NASA's purposes, Equivalent System Mass, or ESM), while enabling the sterilization function. It should also be electrically insulating. For this reason, Ultem high-strength, machinable electrical insulator was used.

  10. Production of a sterile species via active-sterile mixing: An exactly solvable model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyanovsky, D.

    2007-11-01

    The production of a sterile species via active-sterile mixing in a thermal medium is studied in an exactly solvable model. The exact time evolution of the sterile distribution function is determined by the dispersion relations and damping rates Γ1,2 for the quasiparticle modes. These depend on γ˜=Γaa/2ΔE, with Γaa the interaction rate of the active species in absence of mixing and ΔE the oscillation frequency in the medium without damping. γ˜≪1, γ˜≫1 describe the weak and strong damping limits, respectively. For γ˜≪1, Γ1=Γaacos⁡2θm; Γ2=Γaasin⁡2θm where θm is the mixing angle in the medium and the sterile distribution function does not obey a simple rate equation. For γ˜≫1, Γ1=Γaa and Γ2=Γaasin⁡22θm/4γ˜2, is the sterile production rate. In this regime sterile production is suppressed and the oscillation frequency vanishes at an Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) resonance, with a breakdown of adiabaticity. These are consequences of quantum Zeno suppression. For active neutrinos with standard model interactions the strong damping limit is only available near an MSW resonance if sin⁡2θ≪αw with θ the vacuum mixing angle. The full set of quantum kinetic equations for sterile production for arbitrary γ˜ are obtained from the quantum master equation. Cosmological resonant sterile neutrino production is quantum Zeno suppressed relieving potential uncertainties associated with the QCD phase transition.

  11. Cost-effectiveness analysis comparing the essure tubal sterilization procedure and laparoscopic tubal sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, John A; Carson, George D

    2008-07-01

    To analyze the financial implications of establishing a hysteroscopic sterilization program using the Essure micro-insert tubal sterilization system in an ambulatory clinic. A retrospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification Type II-2), in an ambulatory women's health clinic in a tertiary hospital, of 108 women undergoing Essure coil insertion between 2005 and 2006, and 104 women undergoing laparoscopic tubal sterilization for permanent sterilization between 2001 and 2004. The Essure procedures used a 4 mm single channel operative hysteroscope and conscious sedation (fentanyl and midazolam); the laparoscopic tubal sterilizations were completed under general anaesthesia with a 7 mm laparoscope and either bipolar cautery or Filshie clips. Costs associated with the procedure, follow-up, and management of any complications (including nursing, hospital charges, equipment, and disposables) were tabulated. The Essure coils were successfully placed on the first attempt in 103 of 108 women (95%). Three patients required a second attempt to complete placement and two patients required laparoscopic tubal sterilization after an unsuccessful Essure. All 104 laparoscopic tubals were completed on the first attempt with no complications reported. The total cost for the 108 Essure procedures, including follow-up evaluation, was $138,996 or $1287 per case. The total cost associated with the 104 laparoscopic tubal sterilization procedures was $148,227 or $1398 per case. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $111. The Essure procedure in an ambulatory setting resulted in a statistically significant cost saving of $111 per sterilization procedure. Carrying out the Essure procedure in an ambulatory setting frees space in the operating room for other types of cases, improving access to care for more patients.

  12. The male gametophytic sterility. 1 - Gametic sterilities and deletions in petunia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornu, A.; Maizonnier, D.

    1982-01-01

    Terminal deletions induced by ionizing radiations in Petunia are not sexually transmitted. Cytogenetic study of plants with a heterozygous deletion and their progenies shows that this lack of transmission is accompanied by a gametic semi-sterility due to the fact that gametes carrying the deleted chromosome are not viable. The interest of such a male sterility with a gametophytic determinism for the study of sporophyte-gametophyte relationships is underlined [fr

  13. 7 CFR 305.23 - Steam sterilization treatment schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Steam sterilization treatment schedules. 305.23... Steam sterilization treatment schedules. Treatment schedule Temperature( °F) Pressure Exposure period (minutes) Directions T303-b-1 10 lbs 20 Use 28″ vacuum. Steam sterilization is not practical for treatment...

  14. 21 CFR 880.6860 - Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. 880.6860 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6860 Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. (a) Identification. An ethylene gas sterilizer is a nonportable device intended for use by a health care provider that uses ethylene oxide (ETO) to...

  15. 9 CFR 116.4 - Sterilization and pasteurization -records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sterilization and pasteurization... REPORTS § 116.4 Sterilization and pasteurization -records. Records shall be made by means of automatic... ingredients, equipment, or biological product subjected to sterilization or pasteurization. (Approved by the...

  16. Thermal sterilization of heat-sensitive products using high-temperature short-time sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, A; Kiefer, M; Leuenberger, H

    2001-03-01

    High-temperature short-time (HTST) sterilization with a continuous-flow sterilizer, developed for this study, was evaluated. The evaluation was performed with respect to (a) the chemical degradation of two heat-sensitive drugs in HTST range (140-160 degrees C) and (b) the microbiological effect of HTST sterilization. Degradation kinetics of two heat-sensitive drugs showed that a high peak temperature sterilization process resulted in less chemical degradation for the same microbiological effect than a low peak temperature process. Both drugs investigated could be sterilized with acceptable degradation at HTST conditions. For the evaluation of the microbiological effect, Bacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 7953 spores were used as indicator bacteria. Indicator spore kinetics (D(T), z value, k, and E(a)), were determined in the HTST range. A comparison between the Bigelow model (z value concept) and the Arrhenius model, used to describe the temperature coefficient of the microbial inactivation, demonstrated that the Bigelow model is more accurate in prediction of D(T) values in the HTST range. The temperature coefficient decreased with increasing temperature. The influence of Ca(2+) ions and pH value on the heat resistance of the indicator spores, which is known under typical sterilization conditions, did not change under HTST conditions.

  17. Syringe shape and positioning relative to efficiency volume inside dose calibrators and its role in nuclear medicine quality assurance programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, J.A.M. [Servico de Fisica Medica, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia do Porto Francisco Gentil, E.P.E., Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200072 Porto (Portugal); Centro de Investigacao, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia do Porto Francisco Gentil, E.P.E., Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200072 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: a.miranda@portugalmail.pt; Carrasco, M.F. [Servico de Fisica Medica, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia do Porto Francisco Gentil, E.P.E., Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200072 Porto (Portugal); Centro de Investigacao, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia do Porto Francisco Gentil, E.P.E., Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200072 Porto (Portugal); Lencart, J. [Servico de Fisica Medica, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia do Porto Francisco Gentil, E.P.E., Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200072 Porto (Portugal); Bastos, A.L. [Servico de Medicina Nuclear, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia do Porto Francisco Gentil, E.P.E., Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200072 Porto (Portugal)

    2009-06-15

    A careful analysis of geometry and source positioning influence in the activity measurement outcome of a nuclear medicine dose calibrator is presented for {sup 99m}Tc. The implementation of a quasi-point source apparent activity curve measurement is proposed for an accurate correction of the activity inside several syringes, and compared with a theoretical geometric efficiency model. Additionally, new geometrical parameters are proposed to test and verify the correct positioning of the syringes as part of acceptance testing and quality control procedures.

  18. Durability of radiation-sterilized polymers, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Fumio; Sasaki, Takashi; Makuuchi, Keizo; Tamura, Naoyuki

    1985-01-01

    The degradation during storage after electron beam and γ-ray irradiation on to polymers for disposables syringes was investigated in connection with the decay curves of chemiluminescence amounts. The degradation during storage of homopolypropylene was relatively small, large part of polymers having been degraded during irradiation. The degradation during storage of copolypropylene occurred at earlier stage up to three months, while in later stage, it hardly proceeded. The degradation during storage of electron beam irradiated samples were far smaller than that γ-ray irradiated ones. Irradiation of 2.5 Mrad with electron beam caused degradation only a little during storage. It was suggested that the degradation during storage depend on degree of oxidation during irradiation. The degradation during storage was not observed for radiation resistant polypropylene and polymethylpentene. The degradation during storage of coprolypropylene was affected by atmosphere, being smaller in vacuo than in air. (author)

  19. Microbiological aspects relating to the choice of radiation sterilization dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitby, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is widely used for sterilization of single-use medical devices, and it is employed for its lethal effect on microbial life. Microbes are capable of regenerating from a single surviving cell, and individual cells of some microbial species are highly resistant to the lethal effects of radiation. It is necessary to employ radiation doses far in excess of those lethal to man or animals to ensure that no viable microbe remains to repopulate the device or the patient at the time that the device is used. Ionizations induce the production of short-lived free radicals that also induce lethal changes in cells. The sensitivity of microbial species to these changes varies markedly but since the changes are induced within the cell, each cell has to sustain the necessary amount of lethal damage before death will occur. Therefore the death of cells will occur in the exponential mode the surviving fraction decreasing with increasing dose. Using a semi-logarithmic plot, curves of three types may be generated, a simple exponential curve with a constant slope over the whole dose range, one where an initial shoulder is followed by a constant slope, and curves which are concave, and only seen in mixed bacterial populations of differing radiation resistance. (author)

  20. Sterilization of solutions for parenterals products. Problem analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanelys Montes-González

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The solutions for the formulation of parenteral products must be sterile before the aseptic formulation process. For this reason, different methods of sterilization referred in the literature are analyzed. Thermodynamic criteria that rule the sterilization are presented. Furthermore, previous experiences in the sterilization of solutions for the formulation of parental products in an autoclave are analyzed, that take large time of processing and only low volumes of solution can be handled. Using jacketed stirred tanks for the sterilization may solve the problem and, therefore, criteria for the design of the later that allow to process high volumes of solution for the formulation of parenteral products are shown.

  1. Moving beyond non-engagement on regulated needle-syringe exchange programs in Australian prisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Michael

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Australia is at a fork in the road with the possibility of a needle-syringe exchange program (NSP to be introduced at the new prison in the ACT. However, the current situation is characterised by non-engagement from major stakeholders. We explore why informed discussion will not be enough to convince prison officers, policy makers and the wider community of the benefits of prison-based NSPs. Other methods of engagement and communication will be proposed – in that may provide avenues for "breakthrough". Methods A review of the literature on needle-syringe exchanges and harm reduction strategies within the context of prisons and prisoner health was conducted. Literature on strategies to change attitudes and move beyond intractable situations was also consulted. In addition, one author, DM, conducted a two-hour interview with an ex-prison officer. Results No studies were found which investigated the potential efficacy of interventions to modify attitudes or behaviours in the specific context of introducing an NSP into a prison. Nonetheless, several theories were identified which may explain the failure of informed discussion alone to create change in this situation and may therefore lead to suggestions for engagement and communication to move towards a resolution Discussion Cognitive-behavioural therapy highlights the importance of individual cognitions and how they shape behaviours in any change campaign. Social identity theory emphasizes changes to social processes that may open the prison officer workforce to change. Peace studies also suggests socialization strategies such as observing an established and effective prison-based needle-syringe exchange. Social marketing provides suggestions on how to sell an exchange to ensuring the benefits are framed to outweigh the costs. Conclusion Psychology, peace studies and social marketing all agree people's views must be carefully collected and analysed if people are going to be

  2. Investigation of Two Prototypes of Novel Noncontact Technologies for Automated Real-Time Capture of Incremental Drug Administration Data From Syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Benjamin; Williams, David J; Dingley, John

    2017-08-01

    An ideal electronic anesthesia recording system would be capable of not only recording physiological data but also injectable drug doses given, including those given incrementally from one syringe, without recourse to manual data entry. We compared 2 prototype devices which wirelessly recognized individual syringes and measured changes in their plunger positions via 2 different optical noncontact means, allowing calculation of incremental drug doses given. Both devices incorporated a radio-frequency identification reader, which wirelessly read a unique code from a radio-frequency identification tag within syringe drug labels. A custom-designed cradle oriented any inserted 1-mL to 20-mL syringe in a repeatable position. The "laser" device had a moving laser beam broken by the end of the syringe plunger. The infrared (IR) device measured time of travel of IR light from a sender to a syringe plunger and back to a receiver. Both devices could therefore determine the drug and volume administered since the previous occasion when any syringe had been used. For each syringe size of 1, 2, 5, 10, and 20 mL, 121 plunger-length measurements were made over their full range, with each machine against a reference method of water filling and weighing using a randomized de Bruijn sequence. For every syringe size, the laser device showed greater accuracy and precision, lower bias, and narrower limits of agreement (95% confidence intervals = bias ± 1.96 SD) than the IR device when compared to the reference method. For all syringe sizes, the range of bias was -0.05 to 0.32 mL for the laser and -2.42 to 1.38 mL for the IR. Lin concordance correlation coefficient values for the IR versus reference methods ranged from 0.6259 to 0.9255, with the lowest coefficients seen in syringes with the shortest distance of plunger travel (2 and 5 mL), while in laser versus reference comparisons, these coefficients were similar (0.9641-0.9981) over all syringe lengths. Both devices measured syringe

  3. Genetic complexity underlying hybrid male sterility in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawamura, Kyoichi; Roote, John; Wu, Chung-I; Yamamoto, Masa-Toshi

    2004-02-01

    Recent genetic analyses of closely related species of Drosophila have indicated that hybrid male sterility is the consequence of highly complex synergistic effects among multiple genes, both conspecific and heterospecific. On the contrary, much evidence suggests the presence of major genes causing hybrid female sterility and inviability in the less-related species, D. melanogaster and D. simulans. Does this contrast reflect the genetic distance between species? Or, generally, is the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility more complex than that of hybrid female sterility and inviability? To clarify this point, the D. simulans introgression of the cytological region 34D-36A to the D. melanogaster genome, which causes recessive male sterility, was dissected by recombination, deficiency, and complementation mapping. The 450-kb region between two genes, Suppressor of Hairless and snail, exhibited a strong effect on the sterility. Males are (semi-)sterile if this region of the introgression is made homozygous or hemizygous. But no genes in the region singly cause the sterility; this region has at least two genes, which in combination result in male sterility. Further, the males are less fertile when heterozygous with a larger introgression, which suggests that dominant modifiers enhance the effects of recessive genes of male sterility. Such an epistatic view, even in the less-related species, suggests that the genetic complexity is special to hybrid male sterility.

  4. APSIC guidelines for disinfection and sterilization of instruments in health care facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moi Lin Ling

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Asia Pacific Society of Infection Control launched its revised Guidelines for Disinfection and Sterilization of Instruments in Health Care Facilities in February 2017. This document describes the guidelines and recommendations for the reprocessing of instruments in healthcare setting. It aims to highlight practical recommendations in a concise format designed to assist healthcare facilities at Asia Pacific region in achieving high standards in sterilization and disinfection. Method The guidelines were revised by an appointed workgroup comprising experts in the Asia Pacific region, following reviews of previously published guidelines and recommendations relevant to each section. Results It recommends the centralization of reprocessing, training of all staff with annual competency assessment, verification of cleaning, continual monitoring of reprocessing procedures to ensure their quality and a corporate strategy for dealing with single-use and single-patient use medical equipment/devices. Detailed recommendations are also given with respect to reprocessing of endoscopes. Close working with the Infection Prevention & Control department is also recommended where decisions related to reprocessing medical equipment/devices are to be made. Conclusions Sterilization facilities should aim for excellence in practices as this is part of patient safety. The guidelines that come with a checklist help service providers identify gaps for improvement to reach this goal.

  5. Sterilization by ionizing radiation comparative evaluation; Sterilizzazione mediante radiazioni e confronto con le tecniche convenzionali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tata, A. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Innovazione; Giuliani, S.

    1996-01-01

    Sterilization of surgical and medical devices by ionizing radiation (gamma or accelerated electron beams) is currently regarded as one of the main industrial-scale applications of radiation technology processes. Considering the most widely utilized chemical-physical methods (i.e. ethylene oxide (EtO) fumigation and radiation treatment), about 10-12 millions m(3) of surgical and medical devices are estimated to be processed yearly all around the world, of which 70 % by EtO, 27% by gamma-irradiation and 3% using accelerated beams. Due to the increasing demand for reusable and single-use devices, and the need of assuring their sterility in order to prevent, as much as possible, the diffusion of serious infective diseases (among which for instance Aids), the market of sterilization of these items is considerably expanding. In the general depicted scenario, radiation technologies are expected to gain a leading role, even a part from their economic attractiveness, as an alternative to EtO treatment, which is more and more considered as responsible for increasing environmental, social and public health problems.

  6. A search for sterile neutrinos in MINOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osiecki, Thomas Henry [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2007-01-01

    MINOS, the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment based at Fermilab National Accelerator Laboratory. The experiment uses a neutrino beam, which is measured 1 km downstream from its origin in the Near detector at Fermilab and then 735 km later in the Far detector at the Soudan mine. By comparing these two measurements, MINOS can attain a very high precision for parameters in the atmospheric sector of neutrino oscillations. In addition to precisely determining Δm$2\\atop{23}$ and θ23 through the disappearance of vμ, MINOS is able to measure vμ → vsterile by looking for a deficit in the number of neutral current interactions seen in the Far detector. In this thesis, we present the results of a search for sterile neutrinos in MINOS.

  7. Energy analysis in sterilization process of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Sun; Pyun, Yu Ryang

    1986-01-01

    A procedure was developed for predicting energy consumption of batch type thermal processing of food. From mass and energy balance equations various energy usages or losses were estimated for steam sterilization of model food system in No.301-7 can (Φ74.1 x 113.0mm) at three different temperatures. Selected models were 5 % bentonite solution for conductive food and tap water for convective food. Total steam or energy consumption was higher at 110 deg C than at two other higher temperatures (121 deg C and 130 deg C). High energy consumption at low sterilization temperature was mainly due to high bleeding steam energy and convective and radiative heat losses. Thermal energy efficiency was also disscussed. (Author)

  8. Radiation sterilization of pharmaceuticals and polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopal, N.G.S.

    1978-01-01

    Radiation, in the form of high energy electrons as well as gamma radiation, has featured in the last 15 yr as a promising sterilization agent for many heat sensitive and ethylene oxide incompatible pharmaceuticals and polymers of medical usage. This article deals with (i) a comparison of the various methods of sterilization and their shortcomings, (ii) modes of interaction of radiation with matter, (iii) the types of radiation sources in common use, (iv) dosimetry, (v) dose rate effect, (vi) a literature survey of the radiation effect on pharmaceuticals in solid form as well as in aqueous solution and on polymers in the form of plastic medical products and (vii) the evaluation of the irradiated products. The effect of dose rate on the stability of these materials is emphasized. Either very little work has been done on the dose rate effect or the published information is scanty. The literature survey covers the recent period of 5 to 6 years. (author)

  9. A search for sterile neutrinos in MINOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osiecki, Thomas Henry

    2007-01-01

    MINOS, the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment based at Fermilab National Accelerator Laboratory. The experiment uses a neutrino beam, which is measured 1 km downstream from its origin in the Near detector at Fermilab and then 735 km later in the Far detector at the Soudan mine. By comparing these two measurements, MINOS can attain a very high precision for parameters in the atmospheric sector of neutrino oscillations. In addition to precisely determining Δm 23 2 and θ 23 through the disappearance of ν μ , MINOS is able to measure ν μ → ν sterile by looking for a deficit in the number of neutral current interactions seen in the Far detector. In this thesis, we present the results of a search for sterile neutrinos in MINOS

  10. Radiation sterilization of triple sugar iron agar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altmann, G.; Eisenberg, E.; Bogokowsky, B.

    1979-01-01

    Triple sugar iron agar (TSI), a medium used for the identification of enteric bacteria, was sterilized by gamma radiation using radiation doses of 750-2000 krad. The radio-sterilized medium, slightly modified by increasing its Phenol Red content, performed well when tested with different enterobacteriaceae and other gram negative bacteria. Growth, change of indicator reaction in slant and butt and formation of gas and H 2 S were equal in irradiated and autoclaved TSI. Slants of irradiated TSI in stoppered plastic tubes kept their diagnostic properties during storage for at least 4 months. Gamma irradiation appears to be an attractive and economical method of sterilising nutrient media in sealed tubes or other containers, avoiding the risk of contamination during processing. (author)

  11. Radiation Sterilization of Naturual Rubber Examination Gloves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jetawattana, S.; Na-Ranong, N.; Kajornchaiyakul, V.

    1998-01-01

    The sterilization dose setting by ISO 11137 method 1 was conducted for natural rubber examination gloves provided by a local factory. The suitable sterilization dose for an average product bioburden falls between 20 - 25 kilogray. Maximum dose of 25 or 50 kilogray results in no changes of tensile s and elongation at break. Samples of examination glove were irradiated using various doses between 10 - 50 kilogray. Analysis of soluble protein content using modified Lowry method was carried out and the results revealed that irradiation did not affect the decrement of soluble protein content in this case. However, thin film samples were prepared in laboratory and treated in the same procedure. The results were also the same. The results did not show any correlation. Two factors are possibly presumed : un consistency of samples and the irradiation of finished products could not affect those soluble proteins in rubber gloves

  12. Surgical sterilization of free-ranging wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, C E; Kenyon, J E; Smith, D R; Hayes, R D; Baer, A M

    1999-02-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether surgical sterilization of both males and females in wolf pairs alters basic wolf social and territorial behaviors. Wolves were located from the air by snow-tracking methods and were tranquilizer-darted from a helicopter. Surgeries were performed either in a tent at the capture site or in a heated building in a nearby village. Six vasectomies and seven uterine horn ligations were performed in January and February of 1996 and 1997. Two females died: one likely related to the capture procedure, the other of a peritonitis unrelated to the surgery. One wolf had a litter. None of the wolves have shown changes in behavioral patterns. Surgical sterilization can be effective, but other, less invasive, fertility control techniques should be investigated.

  13. Utilization of male sterility in forage crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suginobu, Ken-ichi [National Grassland Research Inst., Nishinasuno, Tochigi (Japan)

    1982-03-01

    The genetic nature of male sterility in forage crops was reviewed. Many workers have suggested that hybrids in forage crops are quite promising. First, the selection of the most desirable parental genotype from a large original population is improtant in heterosis breeding programs. After the more promising inbreds or clones have been selected on the basis of good general combining ability, it is necessary to identify the particular single, three-way or double cross that will produce the highest yields. A high seed yield potential is also important in a new variety so that the seeds can be sold at lower prices than other varieties. A tentative scheme for hybrid seed production by using inbred lines of male sterile or normal parents is proposed. At a breeding station, the seeds for male sterile F/sub 1/(AB), maintainer S/sub 1/(C-S/sub 1/) and either maintainer or restorer S/sub 1/s(D-S/sub 1/, E-S/sub 1/) are produced from the parental clones. At a seed increase agency, the seeds for male sterile F/sub 1/(ABC) and either maintainer or restorer S/sub 2/(D-S/sub 2/) are produced. In the case that D-S/sub 2/ seed production is difficult, maintainer or restorer F/sub 1/(DE) should be produced from D-S/sub 1/ x E-S/sub 1/. These seeds are used for commercial seed production. Seeds of hybrid F/sub 1/(ABCD) or hybrid F/sub 1/(ABCDE) are for practical use.

  14. Thermal In-Pouch Microwave Sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    straints for heat-sterilized ( retort ) packaging materials. Table 1: Functional Contributions of Materials in Foil Laminations MATERIAL FUNCTIONS...shelf life of the packaged entree items through temperature and humidity changes typically seen throughout the extended shelf life of the items. 15...Barber Industrial Ct.. Villa Rica. GA 30180. Final Scientific Report Light Barrier for Non-Foil Packaging Contract No. W911QY-08-C-0132 Thermal In

  15. Sterile neutrinos in the early universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malaney, R.A. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Fuller, G.M. (California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1990-11-14

    We discuss the role played by right-handed sterile neutrinos in the early universe. We show how well known {sup 4}He constraint on the number of relativistic degrees of freedom at early times limits the equilibration of the right handed neutrino sea with the background plasma. We discuss how this allows interesting constraints to be placed on neutrino properties. In particular, a new limit on the Dirac mass of the neutrino is presented. 12 refs.

  16. Sterilization: new method options, failure rate info.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses new sterilization methods for tubal ligation, failure rates, and risks for ectopic pregnancy in the US. The Filshie clip, which was developed by Femcare, Ltd. in Nottingham, England, and is distributed by Avalon Medical Corp of Vermont, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in September 1996. The company has provided training sessions at major universities nationwide and exhibited at national professional association meetings. A training video and two more films will be available in 1998. The new clip is considered a more modern approach to a tubal occlusion method, which relies on newer materials and solves prior problems. Physicians usually used Falope rings, which had better failure rates than the Hulka clip and bipolar coagulation methods. There is a need for more long-term and large scale information exchange about the new Filshie clip. Some physicians still use the Falope ring because it is cost effective and well-studied. Physicians are warned to continue to advise women about the potential failure rates up to 10 years after sterilization and the 1 in 3 risk of ectopic pregnancy. Counseling about failure rates and the risk of ectopic pregnancy should target women under 30 years old, who have the highest failure rates, and women 30-34 years old. All sterilized women should be advised to seek a provider immediately if they have pregnancy symptoms following sterilization. Counseling should include the issue of "regrets," since it is a permanent method. All women should know about nonpermanent methods and experience a basic informed consent process. Young women and newly divorced women are particularly vulnerable to the "regrets" syndrome.

  17. Irradiation sterilization of semi-crystalline polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.; Dunn, T.; Stannett, V.

    1978-01-01

    A semi-crystalline polymer such as polypropylene, is sterilized by high energy irradiation, with the polymer containing a non-crystalline mobilizing additive which increases the free volume of the polymer, to prevent embrittlement of the polymer during and subsequent to the irradiation. The additive has a density of from 0.6 to 1.9 g/cm 3 and a molecular weight from 100 to 10,000 g/mole

  18. Dose mapping for documentation of radiation sterilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1999-01-01

    The radiation sterilization standards EN 552 and ISO 11137 require that dose mapping in real or simulated product be carried in connection with the process qualification. This paper reviews the recommendations given in the standards and discusses the difficulties and limitations of practical dose...... mapping. The paper further gives recommendations for effective dose mapping including traceable dosimetry, documented procedures for placement of dosimeters, and evaluation of measurement uncertainties. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  19. Standardized Method for High-throughput Sterilization of Arabidopsis Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Benson E; Rivero, Luz; Calhoun, Chistopher S; Grotewold, Erich; Brkljacic, Jelena

    2017-10-17

    Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) seedlings often need to be grown on sterile media. This requires prior seed sterilization to prevent the growth of microbial contaminants present on the seed surface. Currently, Arabidopsis seeds are sterilized using two distinct sterilization techniques in conditions that differ slightly between labs and have not been standardized, often resulting in only partially effective sterilization or in excessive seed mortality. Most of these methods are also not easily scalable to a large number of seed lines of diverse genotypes. As technologies for high-throughput analysis of Arabidopsis continue to proliferate, standardized techniques for sterilizing large numbers of seeds of different genotypes are becoming essential for conducting these types of experiments. The response of a number of Arabidopsis lines to two different sterilization techniques was evaluated based on seed germination rate and the level of seed contamination with microbes and other pathogens. The treatments included different concentrations of sterilizing agents and times of exposure, combined to determine optimal conditions for Arabidopsis seed sterilization. Optimized protocols have been developed for two different sterilization methods: bleach (liquid-phase) and chlorine (Cl2) gas (vapor-phase), both resulting in high seed germination rates and minimal microbial contamination. The utility of these protocols was illustrated through the testing of both wild type and mutant seeds with a range of germination potentials. Our results show that seeds can be effectively sterilized using either method without excessive seed mortality, although detrimental effects of sterilization were observed for seeds with lower than optimal germination potential. In addition, an equation was developed to enable researchers to apply the standardized chlorine gas sterilization conditions to airtight containers of different sizes. The protocols described here allow easy, efficient, and

  20. Counselling women considering or seeking sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, T

    1980-12-01

    The view of counseling as assessment and advice-giving places unrealistic and unnecessary stresses on both counselor and client. The counselor-doctor feels responsible for client's subsequent happiness in life and feels guilty if his advice leads to future unhappiness for her. The client feels powerless in the decision-making process and has less incentive to take full responsibility for the direction of her life. A review of studies of emotional adjustment to sterilization revealed a lack of clearly defined goals for preoperative counseling and the failure to test in any way the effect of different models of counseling on client outcome. Issues which might be raised with a woman considering sterilization may be grouped into 4: 1) the woman's life situation; 2) her reasons for considering sterilization; 3) timing; and 4) ambivalence. Counselors should be prepared for and comfortable with the expression of emotion in counseling sessions. Counselors who themselves are unable to cope with expression of intense emotion will send conflicting messages to clients, both giving permission for and disapproving of exploration of certain levels of feeling. The concept of 'regret' as an outcome measure should be refined.

  1. [Essure--a novel method of sterilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revel, Ariel; Nadjary, Michel; Shushan, Asher

    2008-02-01

    Essure hysteroscopic sterilization is a minimally invasive, outpatient approach to female sterilization, which avoids the possible complications of laparoscopic sterilization. This procedure has been available since 2003 in both Europe and North America. We present our experience of the first 12 cases of the procedure performed in Israel. Women who have completed their family planning were offered to consider Essure as their permanent contraception. The procedure was performed without anesthesia by the vaginoscopic technique at the hospital's outpatient clinic. Patients completed a questionnaire and were discharged immediately following the procedure. A follow-up checkup was completed after three months including three dimensional sonography, abdominal X-ray and occasional hysterosalpingogram. Twelve patients participated in the pilot group at Hadassah. The average age was 40 years (34-45) and the average number of children was 5 (4-8). The average time for the procedure was under 8 minutes. Periostial adhesions required adhesiolysis prior to insertion of the device in one patient. All patients resumed their normal activity on the same day. Our patient satisfaction survey revealed that the procedure was associated with high satisfaction levels. Sonographic and radiographic studies confirmed the good placement of the device. The Essure procedure was well tolerated by patients. The limitation is probably going to be the price of Essure, as this procedure is not covered by the 'health basket' in Israel.

  2. Failure mode and effects analysis applied to the administration of liquid medication by oral syringes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva María Guerra-Alia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To carry out a Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA to the use of oral syringes. Methods: A multidisciplinary team was assembled within the Safety Committee. The stages of oral administration process of liquid medication were analysed, identifying the most critical and establishing the potential modes of failure that can cause errors. The impact associated with each mode of failure was calculated using the Risk Priority Number (RPN. Preventive actions were proposed. Results: Five failure modes were identified, all classified as high risk (RPN> 100. Seven of the eight preventive actions were implemented. Conclusions: The FMEA methodology was a useful tool. It has allowed to know the risks, analyse the causes that cause them, their effects on patient safety and the measures to reduce them

  3. 3D Printing Prototypes for Healthcare Professionals: Creating a Reciprocating Syringe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, Steven; Abdullah, Selwan; Hirsch, Jeffrey

    2017-10-01

    3D printing (additive manufacturing) has been around since 1984, but interest in the technology has increased exponentially as it has become both accessible and inexpensive. The applications of the technology in healthcare are still being explored; however, initial forays have been encouraging. It has the potential to revolutionize the process of prototyping for healthcare professionals by democratizing the process and enhancing collaboration, making it cheaper to do iterative prototyping with little or no engineering experience. This case report details the creation of a multi-lumen reciprocating syringe with 3D printing. The product has been created and tested using a variety of publicly available resources. It provides a detailed overview of the approach and the framework required to create such a medical device. However, the implications of this report are much larger than this one product, and the fundamental ideas discussed here could be used for creating customized solutions for many healthcare problems.

  4. Evidence-based policy versus morality policy: the case of syringe access programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saxe Zerden, Lisa; O'Quinn, Erin; Davis, Corey

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) combines proven interventions with clinical experience, ethics, and client preferences to inform treatment and services. Although EBP is integrated into most aspects of social work and public health, at times EBP is at odds with social policy. In this article the authors explore the paradox of evidence-based policy using syringe access programs (SAP) as a case example, and review methods of bridging the gap between the emphasis on EBP and lack of evidence informing SAP policy. Analysis includes the overuse of morality policy and examines historical and current theories why this paradox exists. Action steps are highlighted for creating effective policy and opportunities for public health change. Strategies on reframing the problem and shifting target population focus to garner support for evidence-based policy change are included. This interdisciplinary understanding of the way in which these factors converge is a critical first step in moving beyond morality-based policy toward evidence-based policy.

  5. A rapid and economic in-house DNA purification method using glass syringe filters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Cheol Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Purity, yield, speed and cost are important considerations in plasmid purification, but it is difficult to achieve all of these at the same time. Currently, there are many protocols and kits for DNA purification, however none maximize all four considerations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We now describe a fast, efficient and economic in-house protocol for plasmid preparation using glass syringe filters. Plasmid yield and quality as determined by enzyme digestion and transfection efficiency were equivalent to the expensive commercial kits. Importantly, the time required for purification was much less than that required using a commercial kit. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This method provides DNA yield and quality similar to that obtained with commercial kits, but is more rapid and less costly.

  6. Portable system of programmable syringe pump with potentiometer for determination of promethazine in pharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Tawfik A; Abulkibash, A M; Ibrahim, Atta E

    2012-04-01

    A simple and fast-automated method was developed and validated for the assay of promethazine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulations, based on the oxidation of promethazine by cerium in an acidic medium. A portable system, consisting of a programmable syringe pump connected to a potentiometer, was constructed. The developed change in potential during promethazine oxidation was monitored. The related optimum working conditions, such as supporting electrolyte concentration, cerium(IV) concentration and flow rate were optimized. The proposed method was successfully applied to pharmaceutical samples as well as synthetic ones. The obtained results were realized by the official British pharmacopoeia (BP) method and comparable results were obtained. The obtained t-value indicates no significant differences between the results of the proposed and BP methods, with the advantages of the proposed method being simple, sensitive and cost effective.

  7. A computer-controlled syringe driver for use during anaesthesia. A modification of the Graseby MS16A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, A T

    1986-06-01

    The requirements of a drug infusion device for use in theatre are discussed. A modification of the Graseby MS16A syringe pump and an interface circuit permitting its remote control by microcomputer are described. The pump is controlled via a standard computer interface (RS232) which makes it a unique and powerful research tool. Aspects of safety are considered.

  8. Sterilization of health care products - Radiation. Part 2: Establishing the sterilization dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This part of ISO 11137 describes methods that may be used to establish the sterilization dose in accordance with one of the two approaches specified in 8.2 of ISO 11137-1:2006. The methods used in these approaches are: a) dose setting to obtain a product-specific dose; b) dose substantiation to verify a preselected dose of 25 kGy or 15 kGy. The basis of the dose setting methods described in this part of ISO 11137 (Methods 1 and 2) owe much to the ideas first propounded by Tallentire (Tallentire, 1973 [17]; Tallentire, Dwyer and Ley, 1971 [18]; Tallentire and Khan, 1978 [19]). Subsequently, standardized protocols were developed (Davis et al., 1981 [8]; Davis, Strawderman and Whitby, 1984 [9]) which formed the basis of the dose setting methods detailed in the AAMI Recommended Practice for Sterilization by Gamma Radiation (AAMI 1984, 1991 [4], [6]). Methods 1 and 2 and the associated sterilization dose audit procedures use data derived from the inactivation of the microbial population in its natural state on product. The methods are based on a probability model for the inactivation of microbial populations. The probability model, as applied to bioburden made up of a mixture of various microbial species, assumes that each such species has its own unique D 10 value. In the model, the probability that an item will possess a surviving microorganism after exposure to a given dose of radiation is defined in terms of the initial number of microorganisms on the item prior to irradiation and the D 10 values of the microorganisms. The methods involve performance of tests of sterility on product items that have received doses of radiation lower than the sterilization dose. The outcome of these tests is used to predict the dose needed to achieve a predetermined sterility assurance level, SAL. Methods 1 and 2 may also be used to substantiate 25 kGy if, on performing a dose setting exercise, the derived sterilization dose for an SAL of 10 -6 is u ≤25 kGy. The basis of the method

  9. Anterior and middle superior alveolar nerve block for anesthesia of maxillary teeth using conventional syringe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Velasco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental procedures in the maxilla typically require multiple injections and may inadvertently anesthetize facial structures and affect the smile line. To minimize these inconveniences and reduce the number of total injections, a relatively new injection technique has been proposed for maxillary procedures, the anterior and middle superior alveolar (AMSA nerve block, which achieves pulpal anesthesia from the central incisor to second premolar through palatal approach with a single injection. The purpose of this article is to provide background information on the anterior and middle superior alveolar nerve block and demonstrate its success rates of pulpal anesthesia using the conventional syringe. Materials and Methods: Thirty Caucasian patients (16 men and 14 women with an average age of 22 years-old, belonging to the School of Dentistry of Los Andes University, were selected. All the patients received an AMSA nerve block on one side of the maxilla using the conventional syringe, 1 ml of lidocaine 2% with epinephrine 1:100.000 was injected to all the patients. Results: The AMSA nerve block obtained a 66% anesthetic success in the second premolar, 40% in the first premolar, 60% in the canine, 23.3% in the lateral incisor, and 16.7% in the central incisor. Conclusions: Because of the unpredictable anesthetic success of the experimental teeth and variable anesthesia duration, the technique is disadvantageous for clinical application as the first choice, counting with other techniques that have greater efficacy in the maxilla. Although, anesthetizing the teeth without numbing the facial muscles may be useful in restorative dentistry.

  10. Syringe-Injectable Electronics with a Plug-and-Play Input/Output Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhmann, Thomas G; Yao, Jun; Hong, Guosong; Fu, Tian-Ming; Lieber, Charles M

    2017-09-13

    Syringe-injectable mesh electronics represent a new paradigm for brain science and neural prosthetics by virtue of the stable seamless integration of the electronics with neural tissues, a consequence of the macroporous mesh electronics structure with all size features similar to or less than individual neurons and tissue-like flexibility. These same properties, however, make input/output (I/O) connection to measurement electronics challenging, and work to-date has required methods that could be difficult to implement by the life sciences community. Here we present a new syringe-injectable mesh electronics design with plug-and-play I/O interfacing that is rapid, scalable, and user-friendly to nonexperts. The basic design tapers the ultraflexible mesh electronics to a narrow stem that routes all of the device/electrode interconnects to I/O pads that are inserted into a standard zero insertion force (ZIF) connector. Studies show that the entire plug-and-play mesh electronics can be delivered through capillary needles with precise targeting using microliter-scale injection volumes similar to the standard mesh electronics design. Electrical characterization of mesh electronics containing platinum (Pt) electrodes and silicon (Si) nanowire field-effect transistors (NW-FETs) demonstrates the ability to interface arbitrary devices with a contact resistance of only 3 Ω. Finally, in vivo injection into mice required only minutes for I/O connection and yielded expected local field potential (LFP) recordings from a compact head-stage compatible with chronic studies. Our results substantially lower barriers for use by new investigators and open the door for increasingly sophisticated and multifunctional mesh electronics designs for both basic and translational studies.

  11. Syringe needle skull penetration reduces brain injuries and secondary inflammation following intracerebral neural stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mou; Dong, Qin; Zhang, Hongtian; Yang, Yang; Zhu, Jianwei; Yang, Zhijun; Xu, Minhui; Xu, Ruxiang

    2017-03-01

    Intracerebral neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation is beneficial for delivering stem cell grafts effectively, however, this approach may subsequently result in brain injury and secondary inflammation. To reduce the risk of promoting brain injury and secondary inflammation, two methods were compared in the present study. Murine skulls were penetrated using a drill on the left side and a syringe needle on the right. Mice were randomly divided into three groups (n=84/group): Group A, receiving NSCs in the left hemisphere and PBS in the right; group B, receiving NSCs in the right hemisphere and PBS in the left; and group C, receiving equal NSCs in both hemispheres. Murine brains were stained for morphological analysis and subsequent evaluation of infiltrated immune cells. ELISA was performed to detect neurotrophic and immunomodulatory factors in the brain. The findings indicated that brain injury and secondary inflammation in the left hemisphere were more severe than those in the right hemisphere, following NSC transplantation. In contrast to the left hemisphere, more neurotrophic factors but less pro-inflammatory cytokines were detected in the right hemisphere. In addition, increased levels of neurotrophic factors and interleukin (IL)-10 were observed in the NSC transplantation side when compared with the PBS-treated hemispheres, although lower levels of IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α were detected. In conclusion, the present study indicated that syringe needle skull penetration vs. drill penetration is an improved method that reduces the risk of brain injury and secondary inflammation following intracerebral NSC transplantation. Furthermore, NSCs have the potential to modulate inflammation secondary to brain injuries.

  12. Syringeal specialization of frequency control during song production in the Bengalese finch (Lonchura striata domestica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen R Secora

    Full Text Available Singing in songbirds is a complex, learned behavior which shares many parallels with human speech. The avian vocal organ (syrinx has two potential sound sources, and each sound generator is under unilateral, ipsilateral neural control. Different songbird species vary in their use of bilateral or unilateral phonation (lateralized sound production and rapid switching between left and right sound generation (interhemispheric switching of motor control. Bengalese finches (Lonchura striata domestica have received considerable attention, because they rapidly modify their song in response to manipulations of auditory feedback. However, how the left and right sides of the syrinx contribute to acoustic control of song has not been studied.Three manipulations of lateralized syringeal control of sound production were conducted. First, unilateral syringeal muscular control was eliminated by resection of the left or right tracheosyringeal portion of the hypoglossal nerve, which provides neuromuscular innervation of the syrinx. Spectral and temporal features of song were compared before and after lateralized nerve injury. In a second experiment, either the left or right sound source was devoiced to confirm the role of each sound generator in the control of acoustic phonology. Third, air pressure was recorded before and after unilateral denervation to enable quantification of acoustic change within individual syllables following lateralized nerve resection.These experiments demonstrate that the left sound source produces louder, higher frequency, lower entropy sounds, and the right sound generator produces lower amplitude, lower frequency, higher entropy sounds. The bilateral division of labor is complex and the frequency specialization is the opposite pattern observed in most songbirds. Further, there is evidence for rapid interhemispheric switching during song production. Lateralized control of song production in Bengalese finches may enhance acoustic

  13. Contact with hospital syringes containing body fluids: implications for medical waste management regulation Jeringas en contacto con sangre y fluidos corporales utilizadas en el hospital: implicaciones para el manejo de desechos hospitalarios

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Volkow; Bénédicte Jacquemin; Diana Vilar-Compte; José Ramón Castillo

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine amount of syringes used in the hospital and extent of contact with blood and body fluids of these syringes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Syringe use was surveyed at a tertiary care center for one week; syringes were classified into the following four categories according to use: a) contained blood; b) contained other body fluids (urine, gastric secretion, cerebrospinal fluid, wound drainage); c) used exclusively for drug dilution and application in plastic intravenous (IV) tu...

  14. Sensitivity of viruses to radiation sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziedzic Goclawska; A

    1999-01-01

    The hazard of infectious disease transmission with tissue allografts is a major concern in tissue banking practice. Microorganisms can be introduced into grafts during tissue collection, processing and storage, but even when all these procedures are performed under a septic conditions, the possibility of fungal, bacterial or viral disease transmission of donor origin can not be excluded. Therefore, in order to minimize the risk of infectious disease transmission, several steps should be undertaken, including a careful donor screening, proper tissue processing and sterilization of tissue allografts. The risk of transmission of viral infections such as hepatitis B, C, other viruses and particularly HIV with tissue allografts is of great significance and the search for sterilizing methods which inactivate and/or highly reduce viral infectivity continues. Sterilization of tissue allografts with ionizing radiation (introduced in the mid of 1950s) is increasingly used in tissue banking practice. The effectiveness of the radiation-sterilization procedure depends on the amount of energy transferred, the number of contaminating microorganisms and their resistance to ionizing radiation (initial contamination, bioburden). Usually, spores are more resistant than vegetative forms of bacteria, some fungi may be as resistant as bacterial spores, and viruses are, in general, more resistant than bacteria. Dita concerning effectiveness of ionizing radiation to inactivate viruses (e.g. such as HBV, HCV or HIV) in tissue allografts collected from cadavers are scarce. It has been found that the dose of irradiation needed to reduce HIV load by I log10 unit (D10) is about 4.0 kGy or even 5.6 kGy. The level of infectious HIV in plasma is usually evaluated by titration of tissue culture infective dose (TCID50/ml). Taking into consideration the recommended sterility assurance level (SAL) 10-6, assuming the HIV bioburden to be 103 TCID50/ml for the state of acute infection and D10 value of 4

  15. Pre-sterilization contamination of disposable medical products and the choice of minimum sterilization dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horakova, V.; Buriankova, E.

    1975-01-01

    The bacterial contamination was assessed on randomly taken samples of blood-transfusion devices, donor sets, intra-uterine contraceptive devices and inserters, surgical gloves and dressing material prior to sterilization. The quantitative and qualitative efficiency of six nutrient media was compared. The best results were obtained with the enriched ''Universal'' medium. It was confirmed that the contamination of plastic products was low compared with dressing material. Most frequently, Gram-positive aerobic spore-forming rods and Gram-positive cocci were found on non-sterile medical disposable products. A method was tested to obtain a general informative picture of the resistance of bacteria on products. The methods used for choosing the dose for radiation sterilization of medical products are discussed. (author)

  16. Evaluation of steam sterilization conditions for [18F]fludeoxyglucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Priscilla F.; Nascimento, Leonardo T.; Valente, Eduardo S.; Silva, Juliana B.; Silveira, Marina B.; Ferreira, Soraya Z.

    2011-01-01

    [ 18 F]Flu deoxyglucose ( 18 FDG) is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical for positron emission tomography. Sterile filtration of the final product into sterile vials using 0.22 μm filter membrane is usually adopted for 18 FDG. However, Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) guidelines recommend heat sterilization as the method of choice to ensure sterility of pharmaceutical preparations. The aim of this study was to essay different steam sterilization conditions in order to choose the best one for 18 FDG. Three different sterilization conditions were essayed. The first one at 121 deg C for 15 minutes, the second one at 135 deg C for 3.5 minutes and the third one at 133 deg C for 2 minutes. 18 FDG pH-formulation was kept around 6.0. At the end of autoclave cycles, 18 FDG sterility was evaluated by direct inoculation of 18 FDG in culture media and radiochemical purity was determined by TLC and HPLC. Results demonstrated that all essayed conditions were able to ensure 18 FDG sterility, but caused a decrease in radiochemical purity of 18 FDG. Autoclave cycle at 133 deg C for 2 minutes was the best essayed condition for 18 FDG terminal sterilization, once it provided the greater radiochemical purity value and took less time. 18 FDG was able to meet specifications after autoclave cycles, what supports the application of steam sterilization in routine 18 FDG production, in compliance with GMP. (author)

  17. Degradation of chitosan-based materials after different sterilization treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Juan, A; Montembault, A; Royaud, I; David, L; Gillet, D; Say, J P; Rouif, S; Bouet, T

    2012-01-01

    Biopolymers have received in recent years an increasing interest for their potential applications in the field of biomedical engineering. Among the natural polymers that have been experimented, chitosan is probably the most promising in view of its exceptional biological properties. Several techniques may be employed to sterilize chitosan-based materials. The aim of our study was to compare the effect of common sterilization treatments on the degradation of chitosan-based materials in various physical states: solutions, hydrogels and solid flakes. Four sterilization methods were compared: gamma irradiation, beta irradiation, exposure to ethylene oxide and saturated water steam sterilization (autoclaving). Exposure to gamma or beta irradiation was shown to induce an important degradation of chitosan, regardless of its physical state. The chemical structure of chitosan flakes was preserved after ethylene oxide sterilization, but this technique has a limited use for materials in the dry state. Saturated water steam sterilization of chitosan solutions led to an important depolymerization. Nevertheless, steam sterilization of chitosan flakes bagged or dispersed in water was found to preserve better the molecular weight of the polymer. Hence, the sterilization of chitosan flakes dispersed in water would represent an alternative step for the preparation of sterilized chitosan solutions. Alternatively, autoclaving chitosan physical hydrogels did not significantly modify the macromolecular structure of the polymer. Thus, this method is one of the most convenient procedures for the sterilization of physical chitosan hydrogels after their preparation.

  18. Use of sterile insect technique in Brazil by the sterilization of Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okeese, G.O.; Kitomer, T.J.; Gayaradus, L.B.; Etrigan, M.; Jansen, C.W.J.H.; Houlahar, H.L.

    2006-01-01

    The Sterile Insect Technique is a method of pest control allowed in Integrated Pest Management programs in fruit growing, where sterile insects released compete in mate process against fertile wild ones, generating a gradative population reduction. The most used sterilization method is using ionizing radiation from 60 Co or 137 Cs. For efficient application of SIT, an important item is the sterilizing dose. This must be as lower as possible in order to preserve insect behavior. In this work, it was studied the reproductive potential of fruit fly Ceratitis capitata, tsl VIENNA 8 strain, irradiated with different doses of gamma radiation. This strain has been used in population suppression programs at fruit-growing areas from Northeast of Brazil, through a partnership between CENA and Bio factory MOSCAMED Brazil, intending only sterile male releases. Radiation source used was a 60 Co irradiator, with 17.2 x 1012 Bq. Individualized couples were distributed in a randomized delineament with 10 replicates for each treatment and eggs were collected for fifteen days. With 9 and 10 days old, pupae were irradiated with doses ranging from 30 to 120 Gy. All averages of emerged adult's percentages were higher than 90%. In regards to fecundity, different doses did not affect the number of eggs laid, being the overall mean around 30 eggs/couple/day. Fertility data showed that as radiation dose increases, sterility increases. It was concluded that the dose of 90 Gy can be used in Brazil, since to SIT programs a dose is chosen witch prevents an egg hatch higher than 1%. (author)

  19. Microbial viability in preparations packaged for single use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obayashi, Akiko; Oie, Shigeharu; Kamiya, Akira

    2003-05-01

    We evaluated microbial viability in preparations packaged for single use only which mandate that residual solution be discarded such as albumin and globulin preparations as blood products, preparations containing albumin (such as urokinase and interferon), fat emulsions, and a preparation containing fat emulsions (propofol). In most preparations, Serratia marcescens and Burkholderia cepacia proliferated rapidly at 30 degrees C. However, in globulin preparations containing 1-2.25% glycine to prevent protein degradation (Gamma-Venin P, Venilon-I, Globulin Injection, and Ahlbulin), no growth of S. marcescens and B. cepacia was detected over 24 h at 30 degrees C. For globulin preparations containing 1-2.25% glycine, the injunction to "Discard residual solution after the package has been used" in the package inserts can be revised to "It is possible to use residual solution within 24 h after the package has been used with storage in a cool place."

  20. Towards sustainable design for single-use medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jacob J; Hitchcock, Robert W

    2009-01-01

    Despite their sophistication and value, single-use medical devices have become commodity items in the developed world. Cheap raw materials along with large scale manufacturing and distribution processes have combined to make many medical devices more expensive to resterilize, package and restock than to simply discard. This practice is not sustainable or scalable on a global basis. As the petrochemicals that provide raw materials become more expensive and the global reach of these devices continues into rapidly developing economies, there is a need for device designs that take into account the total life-cycle of these products, minimize the amount of non-renewable materials consumed and consider alternative hybrid reusable / disposable approaches. In this paper, we describe a methodology to perform life cycle and functional analyses to create additional design requirements for medical devices. These types of sustainable approaches can move the medical device industry even closer to the "triple bottom line"--people, planet, profit.

  1. Are major reductions in new HIV infections possible with people who inject drugs? The case for low dead-space syringes in highly affected countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zule, William A; Cross, Harry E; Stover, John; Pretorius, Carel

    2013-01-01

    Circumstantial evidence from laboratory studies, mathematical models, ecological studies and bio behavioural surveys, suggests that injection-related HIV epidemics may be averted or reversed if people who inject drugs (PWID) switch from using high dead-space to using low dead-space syringes. In laboratory experiments that simulated the injection process and rinsing with water, low dead space syringes retained 1000 times less blood than high dead space syringes. In mathematical models, switching PWID from high dead space to low dead space syringes prevents or reverses injection-related HIV epidemics. No one knows if such an intervention is feasible or what effect it would have on HIV transmission among PWID. Feasibility studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) will be needed to answer these questions definitively, but these studies will be very expensive and take years to complete. Rather than waiting for them to be completed, we argue for an approach similar to that used with needle and syringe programs (NSP), which were promoted and implemented before being tested more rigorously. Before implementation, rapid assessments that involve PWID will need to be conducted to ensure buy-in from PWID and other local stakeholders. This commentary summarizes the existing evidence regarding the protective effects of low dead space syringes and estimates potential impacts on HIV transmission; it describes potential barriers to transitioning PWID from high dead space to low dead space needles and syringes; and it presents strategies for overcoming these barriers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of clot formation in blood-contrast agent mixture: experimental study on ionic/nonionic contrast agents and plastic/ glass syringes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Hyung Jin; Lee, Jong Beum; Lee, Yong Chul; Lee, Kwan Seh; Kim, Kun Sang

    1991-01-01

    Recent introduction of low-osmolar nonionic contrast agents has allowed the performance of angiography with certain advantages such as reduced pain, reduced osmotic load and other potential advantages, over high osmolar ionic contrast agents. But the potential thrombogenic risk of nonionic contrast agent has been debate because of their weak anticoagulation effect. Several reports have recently documented the formation of thrombi in catheters and syringes containing nonionic contrast agent, and thromboembolic episodes have been noted during angiographic procedures. We have also been experienced blood clotting within blood mixed contrast agent syringe during angiography. Thus, we have studied with blood mixed ionic (Diatrizoate, Ioglicate) agents and nonionic (Iopamidol, Iopromide) agents, that used usually in our hospital, and saline in plastic and glass syringes. Each syringes were checked the clot formation on 10,30,60,90 minutes. Total 340 samples were obtained from 8 adults before angiography. Our data showed that nonionic contrast agents had significantly lesser anticoagulation effect than ionic contrast agents (ρ < 0.0001) on Chi-square test), both in plastic and glass syringes. And formation of clotting in glass syringes were significantly greater than that in plastic syringes (ρ < 0.0001). Thus meticulous technique is required to prevent thrombosis during angiographic procedure using nonionic contrast agents

  3. Studies on induced mutation of sesame male sterility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yingde; Feng Xiangyun; Zhao Yingzhong

    2001-01-01

    The dry seeds of the high yielding cultivar, Yuzhi-4, were irradiated with 300, 500 and 700 Gy of 60 Co- gamma rays. 3277 M 1 plants were harvested separately as single plants and also in bulk, by doses. In M 2 , the single plant seeds were grown in progeny rows and the bulked seeds were grown as bulks. 25 male sterile plants were screened from M 2 . 10 of the 25 male sterile plants were from the progenies of the single plant seeds and 15 were from the progenies of the bulked seeds. In further genetic research of the 25 male sterile plants in M 3 and M 4 , 6 separate genic male sterile (GMS) lines were identified. Their male sterility was stable and was controlled by a pair of alleles, male fertility being dominant to sterility. (author)

  4. A see-saw mechanism with light sterile neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKellar, B.H.J.; Garbutt, M.; Stephenson, G.J.; Goldman, T.

    2001-01-01

    The usual see-saw mechanism for the generation of light neutrino masses is based on the assumption that all of the flavours of right-handed (more properly, sterile) neutrinos are heavy. If the sterile Majorana mass matrix is singular, one or more of the sterile neutrinos will have zero mass before mixing with the active (left-handed) neutrinos and be light after that mixing is introduced In particular, a rank 1 sterile mass matrix leads naturally to two pseudo-Dirac pairs, one very light active Majorana neutrino and one heavy sterile Majorana neutrino. For any pattern of Dirac masses, there exists a region of parameter space in which the two pseudo-Dirac pairs are nearly degenerate in mass. This, in turn, leads to large amplitude mixing of active states as well as mixing into sterile states

  5. Male sterility in plants. Induction, isolation and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, C.J.; Barlow, K.K.

    1976-01-01

    Both induced and spontaneously arising male sterility mutants exist in a number of important plant species. These mutants are somewhat unique in that they effect procedures for breeding improved varieties. They allow for the possibility of easily obtaining large numbers of hybrids, population breeding systems and the production of hybrid varieties. These mutants are normally classified as cytoplasmic mutants or chromosomal mutants, the latter also being referred to as nuclear or genic mutants. Specific examples of these types of sterility are examined in relation to the breeding system of the species and their potential use for varietal development. Male sterility in diploid and polyploid species is compared, with reference to gene duplication in polyploids. The mechanism of male sterility is examined in the various species at the anatomical and biochemical levels. Methods of isolating male sterility mutants are compared and a specific example is outlined for hexaploid wheat. Future use of male sterility mutants for improving varieties of various crops is examined. (author)

  6. Plant's sterilization rule for fertile women cited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The American Cyanamid Corporation has been cited by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for violating federal law by requiring female employees of childbearing age to be sterilized in order to continue working in areas of the plant where they would be exposed to high levels of airborne lead. High levels of airborne lead can cause damage to workers' reproductive systems and be responsible for birth defects in fetuses. The OSHA charged that American Cyanamid's policy constituted a "willful violation" of the 1970 Occupational Safety and Health Act. The Act requires employers to provide employment that is free from recognized hazards likely to cause death or physical harm. According to OSHA, the Act does not allow an employer to eliminate the hazard by compelling employees to choose between losing their jobs and undergoing sterilization. The reproductive health of workers is considered a valid part of OSHA's regulatory concern. The citation, which carries a $10,000 fine, grew out of a complaint that was filed by the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers Union on behalf of 5 female workers working in the lead pigment division of the company's Willow Island, West Virginia plant. The 5 employees alleged that they had themselves sterilized to avoid being transferred to other and possibly lower paying janitorial jobs or losing thier jobs completely. The company is appealing the citation. The union has also filed a complaint with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission charging American Cyanamid with sex discrimination, since only the women workers are at risk of being transferred to lower paying jobs.

  7. Gene, protein, and network of male sterility in rice

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Kun; Peng, Xiaojue; Ji, Yanxiao; Yang, Pingfang; Zhu, Yingguo; Li, Shaoqing

    2013-01-01

    Rice is one of the most important model crop plants whose heterosis has been well-exploited in commercial hybrid seed production via a variety of types of male-sterile lines. Hybrid rice cultivation area is steadily expanding around the world, especially in Southern Asia. Characterization of genes and proteins related to male sterility aims to understand how and why the male sterility occurs, and which proteins are the key players for microspores abortion. Recently, a series of genes and prot...

  8. Cross-cultural attitudes toward voluntary sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S

    1985-06-01

    The degree to which voluntary sterilization (VS) is accepted as a form of fertility control throughout the world was assessed by examining the prevalence and legal status of VS in all countries for which information was available and by examining current religious and traditional attitudes toward VS. Information on VS prevalence for 73 countries indicates that in 28 countries, 10% of all eligible couples rely on VS. In a number of countries, including Korea, New Zealand, Panama, US, and Puerto Rico, 25% or more of all currently married women of reproductive age rely on VS. VS prevalence rates tend to be higher in Asian countries than in African, Latin American, and Middle Eastern countries. In a number of countries, the average age and family size of VS acceptors is declining. Information on the legal status of VS for 124 countries indicates that 22 countries have laws which permit or encourage VS. These countries contain 13.4% of the world's population. In 54 countries, representing 60% of the world's population, there are no laws restricting VS, and VS is generally assumed to be legal. In 29 countries, representing 14% of world's population, the legal status of VS is unclear. In the remaining 29 countries, sterilization is forbidden except for medical or eugenic reasons. The degree to which these laws actually restrict VS varies from country to country. For example in Indonesia VS is illegal but widely practiced. Although some religious teachings discourage sterilization, the impact of religion on VS varies considerably from country to country. In the Catholic countries of Panama, Dominican Republic, and Philippines the prevalence of VS is high, and in the Catholic countries of Argentina, Bolivia, and Uruguay the prevalence of VS is low. VS prevalence is generally low in Muslim countries, but high in the Muslim countries of Tunisia, Indonesia, and Bangladesh. VS prevalence is high in the Buddhist country of Thailand but low in the Buddhist country of Burma

  9. Search for sterile neutrinos at RENO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, In Sung; RENO Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The RENO experiment was designed to measure a neutrino mixing angle, θ13, by detecting electron antineutrinos emitted from the Hanbit nuclear reactors in Korea, and succeeded to measure θ13 from the disappearance mode in three neutrino frame. We investigate the possibility of sterile neutrinos existence at RENO experiment and compare data with Monte Carlo generated in four neutrino frame. In this talk, we present some recent results using chi-square analysis method. The probability deficit curve as a function of an effective baseline and the excluded contour plot in sin2(2 θ14) - Δ(m41)2 space will be shown.

  10. Processing laboratory of radio sterilized biological tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre H, Paulina; Zarate S, Herman; Silva R, Samy; Hitschfeld, Mario

    2005-01-01

    The nuclear development applications have also reached those areas related to health. The risk of getting contagious illnesses through applying biological tissues has been one of the paramount worries to be solved since infectious illnesses might be provoked by virus, fungis or bacterias coming from donors or whether they have been introduced by means of intermediate stages before the use of these tissues. Therefore it has been concluded that the tissue allografts must be sterilized. The sterilization of medical products has been one of the main applications of the ionizing radiations and that it is why the International Organization of Atomic Energy began in the 70s promoting works related to the biological tissue sterilization and pharmaceutical products. The development of different tissue preservation methods has made possible the creation of tissue banks in different countries, to deal with long-term preservation. In our country, a project was launched in 1998, 'Establishment of a Tissue Bank in Latino america', this project was supported by the OIEA through the project INT/ 6/ 049, and was the starting of the actual Processing Laboratory of Radioesterilized Biological Tissues (LPTR), leaded by the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN). This first organization is part of a number of entities compounding the Tissue Bank in Chile, organizations such as the Transplantation Promotion Corporation hospitals and the LPTR. The working system is carried out by means of the interaction between the hospitals and the laboratory. The medical professionals perform the procuring of tissues in the hospitals, then send them to the LPTR where they are processed and sterilized with ionizing radiation. The cycle ends up with the tissues return released to the hospitals, where they are used, and then the result information is sent to the LPTR as a form of feedback. Up to now, human skin has been processed (64 donors), amniotic membranes (35 donors) and pig skin (175 portions

  11. Basic radiation sterilization properties of packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouharova, A.; Kolarova, J.; Olbrichova, D.

    1984-01-01

    The foils of various materials were irradiated with 60 Co with an activity of 11,538 TBq. The minimum radiation dose was 25 kGy. Changes in chemico-physical properties were evaluated by infrared spectroscopy and were not detected after irradiation with 25 kGy. Packing foils were subjected to the following tests: mechanical tests, tests of weld strength, tests of impact resistance, free fall tests, permeability tests for water vapour and microbiological tests. The results of all tests were tabulated. The tests showed that the foils are impermeable for microorganisms and provided the welds are airtight the packed products remain sterile. (J.P.)

  12. Environment and the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, P.; Peveling, R.

    2005-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an exceptionally promising pest control method in terms of efficacy and environmental compatibility. Assessments of environmental risks vary according to the status and origin of the target pests. The suppression or eradication of exotic pest populations with the SIT raises few environmental concerns, and these are related mainly to pre-release suppression techniques. However, the elimination of native species, or at least populations of native species, requires more detailed and complex assessments of ecological effects and consequences for biodiversity conservation. Eradication programmes provide opportunities to study these topics within the scope of both environmental impact assessments and operational monitoring programmes. (author)

  13. Proton decay and light sterile neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helo, Juan C.; Hirsch, Martin; Ota, Toshihiko

    2018-06-01

    Within the standard model, non-renormalizable operators at dimension six ( d = 6) violate baryon and lepton number by one unit and thus lead to proton decay. Here, we point out that the proton decay mode with a charged pion and missing energy can be a characteristic signature of d = 6 operators containing a light sterile neutrino, if it is not accompanied by the standard π0 e + final state. We discuss this effect first at the level of effective operators and then provide a concrete model with new physics at the TeV scale, in which the lightness of the active neutrinos and the stability of the proton are related.

  14. Sterile searches with Liquid Argon at FNAL

    CERN Document Server

    Raselli, Gian Luca

    2017-01-01

    A new Short Baseline Neutrino (SBN) experiment is in preparation at FNAL to definitely prove or exclude the existence of non-standard neutrino oscillations into sterile states. The program foresees the deployment along the Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB) of three detectors, all based on the liquid-argon time projection chamber technique. This technology has been taken to full maturity with ICARUS T600, which will act as far detector after the completion of the overhauling at CERN and its transportation to FNAL. The program foresees the data taking for three years.

  15. Surgical sterilization of free-ranging wolves.

    OpenAIRE

    Spence, C E; Kenyon, J E; Smith, D R; Hayes, R D; Baer, A M

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether surgical sterilization of both males and females in wolf pairs alters basic wolf social and territorial behaviors. Wolves were located from the air by snow-tracking methods and were tranquilizer-darted from a helicopter. Surgeries were performed either in a tent at the capture site or in a heated building in a nearby village. Six vasectomies and seven uterine horn ligations were performed in January and February of 1996 and 1997. Two females...

  16. American Sterilization: The Racist Justifications for Sterilization in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Trevor Price

    2016-01-01

    An investigative analysis into anthropometrics, sterilization, eugenics, and other forms of scientific racism used to justify white supremacy and racial thought in the 19th and 20th centuries in the United States. The Tuskegee syphilis study, Darwinistic ideals, and neo-Lamarckian thoughts are critically analyzed as justifications for institutional racism.

  17. International standard (ISO) of radiation sterilization and issues in the sterilization dose setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takehisa, Masaaki

    1995-01-01

    The ISO dose setting method 1 uses bioburden and verification by sublethal sterility test. Current devices produced in clean environmental have low bioburden, however, sensitivity of verification test declines at low bioburden. Validation of verification in this region should be further studied. A dose setting using D 10 of bioburden isolates should be reevaluated and included in the ISO. (author)

  18. Dark matter relic abundance and light sterile neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Yi-Lei [Center for High Energy Physics,Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhu, Shou-hua [Center for High Energy Physics,Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Institute of Theoretical Physics & State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology,Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter,Beijing 100871 (China)

    2017-01-09

    In this paper, we calculate the relic abundance of the dark matter particles when they can annihilate into sterile neutrinos with the mass ≲100 GeV in a simple model. Unlike the usual standard calculations, the sterile neutrino may fall out of the thermal equilibrium with the thermal bath before the dark matter freezes out. In such a case, if the Yukawa coupling y{sub N} between the Higgs and the sterile neutrino is small, this process gives rise to a larger Ω{sub DM}h{sup 2} so we need a larger coupling between the dark matter and the sterile neutrino for a correct relic abundance.

  19. Exploiting novel sterilization techniques for porous polyurethane scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoldi, Serena; Farè, Silvia; Haugen, Håvard Jostein; Tanzi, Maria Cristina

    2015-05-01

    Porous polyurethane (PU) structures raise increasing interest as scaffolds in tissue engineering applications. Understanding the effects of sterilization on their properties is mandatory to assess their potential use in the clinical practice. The aim of this work is the evaluation of the effects of two innovative sterilization techniques (i.e. plasma, Sterrad(®) system, and ozone) on the morphological, chemico-physical and mechanical properties of a PU foam synthesized by gas foaming, using water as expanding agent. In addition, possible toxic effects of the sterilization were evaluated by in vitro cytotoxicity tests. Plasma sterilization did not affect the morphological and mechanical properties of the PU foam, but caused at some extent degradative phenomena, as detected by infrared spectroscopy. Ozone sterilization had a major effect on foam morphology, causing the formation of new small pores, and stronger degradation and oxidation on the structure of the material. These modifications affected the mechanical properties of the sterilized PU foam too. Even though, no cytotoxic effects were observed after both plasma and ozone sterilization, as confirmed by the good values of cell viability assessed by Alamar Blue assay. The results here obtained can help in understanding the effects of sterilization procedures on porous polymeric scaffolds, and how the scaffold morphology, in particular porosity, can influence the effects of sterilization, and viceversa.

  20. Induction of male sterility in rice using chemical mutagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minocha, J L; Gupta, R K [Department of Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (India)

    1988-07-01

    Full text: To diversify the sources of cytoplasmic male sterility for hybrid seed production in rice (Oryza sativa L.) attempts were made to induce this character in a popular indica cultivar PR 106 through chemical mutagens. Seeds were treated with 0.4% ethidium bromide (EB) for 24 or 48h at 10 deg. C, with 0.4% ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) for 24 or 48h at 10 deg. C for 16 hr at 20 deg. C or with 0.2% streptomycin sulphate (SM) for 24 or 48 hr at 10 deg. C. In M{sub 2} male sterile plants were detected in eleven different progenies, one from SM treatment and the remaining from EMS treatments. All the sterile plants had 100% non-stainable aborted pollen. Seed set upon open-pollination of the male sterile plants with the variety PR 106 ranged from 0.03 to 4.93 per cent whereas no seed formed in bagged panicles. In M{sub 3}, open-pollinated progenies of the male sterile plants and their fertile sibs were further studied. Two progenies segregated for male sterility, all others had only fertile plants. In one of the segregating progenies, five out of six and in the other nine out of fourteen plants were male sterile. The progenies of fertile sibs did not have any male sterile plant. The results indicate that sterility of cytoplasmic type has been induced by EMS. The parental variety PR 106 acts as the maintainer. (author)

  1. Genetic expression of induced rice sterility under alien-cytoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Naiyuan; Cai Zhijun; Liang Kangjing; Li Yu

    2005-01-01

    Rice restorer lines were treated with 60 Co γ-ray and 4 male sterile mutants obtained with the fertility of controlled by 4 non-allelic recessive genes, respectively. Sixty combinations were made by using male sterile plants/fertile plants as male parents, and 15 different cytoplasmic substitution lines of the same cell nucleus as female parents. The result showed that F 1 spikelets were normal and fertile, and different numbers of male sterile plants were segregated in F 2 . Complete fertility genotype was not found among interactions between induced male sterile genes and alien-cytoplasms. (authors)

  2. Protozoa and their bacterial prey colonize sterile soil fast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altenburger, Andreas; Ekelund, Flemming; Jacobsen, Carsten Suhr

    2010-01-01

    We know little about the ability of protozoa to colonize soils, including their successional patterns. To elucidate this issue, we investigated in which order different protozoan morpho-types colonize sterile soil. We used sterilized soils with different carbon content, and exposed them to the at......We know little about the ability of protozoa to colonize soils, including their successional patterns. To elucidate this issue, we investigated in which order different protozoan morpho-types colonize sterile soil. We used sterilized soils with different carbon content, and exposed them...

  3. Gene, protein and network of male sterility in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang eKun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rice is one of the most important model crop plants whose heterosis has been well exploited in commercial hybrid seed production via a variety of types of male sterile lines. Hybrid rice cultivation area is steadily expanding around the world, especially in Southern Asia. Characterization of genes and proteins related to male sterility aims to understand how and why the male sterility occurs, and which proteins are the key players for microspores abortion. Recently, a series of genes and proteins related to cytoplasmic male sterility, photoperiod sensitive male sterility, self-incompatibility and other types of microspores deterioration have been characterized through genetics or proteomics. Especially the latter, offers us a powerful and high throughput approach to discern the novel proteins involving in male-sterile pathways which may help us to breed artificial male-sterile system. This represents an alternative tool to meet the critical challenge of further development of hybrid rice. In this paper, we reviewed the recent developments in our understanding of male sterility in rice hybrid production across gene, protein and integrated network levels, and also, present a perspective on the engineering of male sterile lines for hybrid rice production.

  4. End-preparation assessments and tests for compounded sterile preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhiney, Linda F

    2013-01-01

    Outsourcing has become a necessity to obtain sterile products that are currently on backorder. Because of the expense of outsourcing sterile compounding, pharmacy leadership in health systems are now considering the option of insourcing and batch preparing compounded sterile preparations, which can be a viable option for a health system. It can significantly decrease drug-spending costs, and the pharmacy has a complete record of the compounding process. The key to preparing high-quality, safe, sterile preparations and meeting United States Pharmacopeia standards is end-preparation assessments and tests.

  5. Sterilization of the artificial blood circulation apparatus with ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisarevskii, A A; Korukhov, N I.U.; Brazhnikov, E M; Konstantinova, M L; Razumovskii, S D

    1982-01-01

    Presented in this paper is the sterilization method of the assisted circulation unit. The method has been approved by stand testing and then applied for sterilizing the unit Ae, yeK-5 m when experimental implanting artificial heart. According to the method, ozone in concentration of 5 x 10(-3) moles/1 and with flow rate of 0,5 1/min is passed through an internal circuit of the unit during I h and 15 min. Control wash-out samples from lines have demonstrated complete sterility of the internal circuit. The method makes the sterilization process of such units much easier and may be recommended for clinical application.

  6. Induction of male sterility in rice using chemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minocha, J.L.; Gupta, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    Full text: To diversify the sources of cytoplasmic male sterility for hybrid seed production in rice (Oryza sativa L.) attempts were made to induce this character in a popular indica cultivar PR 106 through chemical mutagens. Seeds were treated with 0.4% ethidium bromide (EB) for 24 or 48h at 10 deg. C, with 0.4% ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) for 24 or 48h at 10 deg. C for 16 hr at 20 deg. C or with 0.2% streptomycin sulphate (SM) for 24 or 48 hr at 10 deg. C. In M 2 male sterile plants were detected in eleven different progenies, one from SM treatment and the remaining from EMS treatments. All the sterile plants had 100% non-stainable aborted pollen. Seed set upon open-pollination of the male sterile plants with the variety PR 106 ranged from 0.03 to 4.93 per cent whereas no seed formed in bagged panicles. In M 3 , open-pollinated progenies of the male sterile plants and their fertile sibs were further studied. Two progenies segregated for male sterility, all others had only fertile plants. In one of the segregating progenies, five out of six and in the other nine out of fourteen plants were male sterile. The progenies of fertile sibs did not have any male sterile plant. The results indicate that sterility of cytoplasmic type has been induced by EMS. The parental variety PR 106 acts as the maintainer. (author)

  7. Comparative mating and reproductive performance of radiation sterilized and radiation induced F1 sterile males of Earias vittella (Fabricius)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shantharam, K.; Tamhankar, A.J.; Harwalkar, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    Studies were conducted on mating behaviour and reproductive performance of a) Earias vittella (F.) males rendered sterile by exposing them to 300 Gy gamma rays and b) F 1 sterile males obtained by exposing parent male to 100 Gy gamma rays. For the study, males were allowed only one mating with a normal female. Results revealed that premating period, period in copula and per cent insects mating were not adversely affected in case of both types of sterile males and fecundity also remained unaffected. However, in both types of sterile males, incidence of spermatophore transfer without sperm was very large and such an occurrence (including reduced spermatophore transfer) was significantly higher in case of radiation sterilized males compared to the F 1 sterile males. Inability to produce and transfer spermatophore and/or sperm appeared to be a major cause behind the reduced mating competitiveness of both types of males. (author). 22 refs., 2 tabs

  8. Why are rates of sterilization in decline? A pilot study designed to explore reasons for declining female sterilization in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhong E; Glasier, Anna; Warner, Pamela

    2008-10-01

    In the last decade, female sterilization had been in decline throughout the UK. It is not clear whether fewer women are requesting sterilization or whether the universal enthusiasm for long-acting reversible methods is leading health professionals to discourage women from being sterilized. Since correct and consistent use of alternative, reversible contraceptive methods depends somewhat on their acceptability, it is important to determine whether women are being refused sterilization or whether they are freely choosing other methods. This study aims to explore whether female sterilization is being widely considered as a contraceptive method, the reasons for choosing or rejecting it, and whether women are being discouraged by health professionals from being sterilized. A self-completed questionnaire survey among 205 women aged 30 to 50 years who felt that their family was complete attending a family planning clinic in Scotland. Of the 203 women included in the study, 151 (74.4%) had heard of female sterilization, 90 had discussed it with someone (60%) and 87 (58%) had considered it as a contraceptive option. Of the 56 women who consulted their family doctor about sterilization, almost half (27; 48%) were not referred to a hospital and fewer than one (17, 30.4%) in three of them was eventually sterilized or had arrangements in place to get it done. Free-text comments from the women revealed a variety of reasons for not choosing female sterilization and suggested that some women are being deterred from sterilization. The study suggests that some women are being actively encouraged by health professionals to use long-acting reversible contraceptive methods and discouraged from choosing sterilization. However, other women recognize for themselves the wisdom of keeping their fertility options open.

  9. Peepoo bag: self-sanitising single use biodegradable toilet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnerås, Björn; Hedenkvist, Mikael; Nordin, Annika; Wilhelmson, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene together with deficient nutritional status are major contributors to the global burden of disease. Safe collection, disposal and reuse of human excreta would enable the risk of transmission of diseases to be decreased and household food security to be increased in many regions. However, the majority of the 2.5 billion people lacking improved sanitation comprise poor people in societies with weak infrastructure. This study developed a low cost sanitation option requiring little investment and maintenance--a single use, self-sanitising, biodegradable toilet (Peepoo bag) and tested it for smell, degradability and hygiene aspects. It was found that no smell was detectable from a 25 microm thick bag filled with faeces during 24 h in a 10 m2 room at 30 degrees C. Bags that had been in contact with urea-treated faeces or urine for 2 months in air, compost or water at 24 or 37 degrees C showed little signs of degradation. Furthermore, pathogen inactivation modelling of the 4 g of urea present in the bag indicated that appropriate sanitation of faecal material collected is achieved in the bag within 2-4 weeks, after which the bag can be degraded and reused as fertiliser.

  10. Sterilization Monitoring management of the integration of the operating room with CSSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-yan XIA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Explore the Sterilization Monitoring management of the integration of the operating room with CSSD. Methods: Compare sterilization process monitoring with biological monitoring and chemical monitoring. Results: The management in Biological monitoring, chemical monitoring and sterilization process monitoring is crucial. Conclusion: Sterilization monitoring is to ensure the safe use of sterile goods so as to protect the safety of surgical patients.

  11. Sterilization of biological tissues with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes F, M.L.; Martinez P, M.E.; Luna Z, D.

    1997-01-01

    On June 1994, the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) and the South Central Hospital for High Specialty of PEMEX (HCSAE) began a joint work with the finality to obtain radio sterilized amniotic membranes for to be used as cover (biological bandage) in burnt patients. Subsequently the Chemistry Faculty of UNAM and the National Institute of Cardiology began to collaborate this last with interest on cardiac valves for graft. Starting from 1997, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) supports this project (MEX/7/008) whose main objective is to set up the basis to establish in Mexico a Radio sterilized Tissue Bank (amniotic membranes, skin, bones, tendons, cardiac valves, etc.) to be used with therapeutic purposes (grafts). The IAEA support has consisted in the equipment acquisition which is fundamental for the Tissue Bank performance such as an experimental irradiator, laminar flow bell, lyophilizer, vacuum sealer and special knives for tissues. Also visits to Mexico of experts have been authorized with the aim of advising to the personnel which participate in the project and scientific visits of this personnel to another tissue banks (Sri Lanka and Argentine). The establishment in Mexico of a Tissue bank will be a great benefit because it will have availability of distinct tissues for grafts and it will reduce the synthetic materials importation which is very expensive. (Author)

  12. Radiation sterilization of polymeric implant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruck, S.D.; Mueller, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    High-energy irradiation sterilization of medical devices and implants composed of polymeric biomaterials that are in contact with tissue and/or blood, may adversely affect their long-term mechanical and/or biological performance (tissue and/or blood compatibility). Since many polymeric implants may contain trace quantities of catalysts and/or other additives, the effect of high-energy radiation on these additives, and possible synergistic effects with the polymer chains under the influence of high-energy radiation, must be considered. It is essential to indicate whether polymeric implants are used in short-term (acute) or long-term (chronic) applications. Relatively small changes in their physicochemical, mechanical, and biological properties may be tolerable in the short term, whereas similar changes may lead to catastrophic failures in long-term applications. Therefore, polymeric implants which are to be sterilized by high-energy irradiation should be carefully evaluated for long-term property changes which may be induced by the radiation

  13. A two-stage procedure for determining unsaturated hydraulic characteristics using a syringe pump and outflow observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildenschild, Dorthe; Jensen, Karsten Høgh; Hollenbeck, Karl-Josef

    1997-01-01

    A fast two-stage methodology for determining unsaturated flow characteristics is presented. The procedure builds on direct measurement of the retention characteristic using a syringe pump technique, combined with inverse estimation of the hydraulic conductivity characteristic based on one......-step outflow experiments. The direct measurements are obtained with a commercial syringe pump, which continuously withdraws fluid from a soil sample at a very low and accurate how rate, thus providing the water content in the soil sample. The retention curve is then established by simultaneously monitoring......-step outflow data and the independently measured retention data are included in the objective function of a traditional least-squares minimization routine, providing unique estimates of the unsaturated hydraulic characteristics by means of numerical inversion of Richards equation. As opposed to what is often...

  14. Direct Evidence of Egestion and Salivation of Xylella fastidiosa Suggests Sharpshooters Can Be "Flying Syringes".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, Elaine A; Shugart, Holly J; Rogers, Elizabeth E; Morgan, J Kent; Shatters, Robert

    2015-05-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is unique among insect-transmitted plant pathogens because it is propagative but noncirculative, adhering to and multiplying on the cuticular lining of the anterior foregut. Any inoculation mechanism for X. fastidiosa must explain how bacterial cells exit the vector's stylets via the food canal and directly enter the plant. A combined egestion-salivation mechanism has been proposed to explain these unique features. Egestion is the putative outward flow of fluid from the foregut via hypothesized bidirectional pumping of the cibarium. The present study traced green fluorescent protein-expressing X. fastidiosa or fluorescent nanoparticles acquired from artificial diets by glassy-winged sharpshooters, Homalodisca vitripennis, as they were egested into simultaneously secreted saliva. X. fastidiosa or nanoparticles were shown to mix with gelling saliva to form fluorescent deposits and salivary sheaths on artificial diets, providing the first direct, conclusive evidence of egestion by any hemipteran insect. Therefore, the present results strongly support an egestion-salivation mechanism of X. fastidiosa inoculation. Results also support that a column of fluid is transiently held in the foregut without being swallowed. Evidence also supports (but does not definitively prove) that bacteria were suspended in the column of fluid during the vector's transit from diet to diet, and were egested with the held fluid. Thus, we hypothesize that sharpshooters could be true "flying syringes," especially when inoculation occurs very soon after uptake of bacteria, suggesting the new paradigm of a nonpersistent X. fastidiosa transmission mechanism.

  15. A portable multi-syringe flow system for spectrofluorimetric determination of iodide in seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frizzarin, Rejane M; Aguado, Enrique; Portugal, Lindomar A; Moreno, Daniel; Estela, José M; Rocha, Fábio R P; Cerdà, Victor

    2015-11-01

    A miniaturized analyzer encompassing a poly(methyl methacrylate) chip with integrated spectrofluorimetric detection and solutions propelling by a multi-syringe module is proposed. Iodide was determined through its catalytic effect on the reaction between Ce(IV) and As(III). Matrix isopotential synchronous fluorescence was explored to set the excitation and emission wavelengths. A two-level full factorial design allowed to evaluate the significance of variables (Ce(IV), As(III) and H2SO4 concentrations) and their interaction effects in the experimental domain. A Doehlert Matrix was applied to identify the critical values. The optimized procedure showed a linear response from 1 to 100 μg L(-1) (S=53.7+2.61C, in which S is the net fluorescence and C is iodide concentration in μg L(-1)). Detection limit, coefficient of variation (n=6) and sampling rate were estimated at 0.3 μg L(-1), 0.8% and 20 h(-1), respectively. Recoveries within 90-117% were estimated for iodide spiked to seawater samples. The proposed procedure stands out because of the portability, robustness, and simplicity for in-field analysis of iodide in seawater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Performance of a restrictive flow device and an electronic syringe driver for continuous subcutaneous infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capes, D; Martin, K; Underwood, R

    1997-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the flow performance of the mechanical Springfusor 30 short model and the electronic Graseby MS16A. Flow rate was measured gravimetrically in a temperature-controlled cabinet. There was no statistically significant difference between the Graseby and Springfusor syringe drivers in the flow rate error at 25 degrees C. The percentage of flow rates within +/-20% accuracy during a 35-min periods at 25 degrees C was significantly less with the Graseby, being 91.9% compared with 100% for the Springfusor. Only 58.2% of flow rates with the Graseby were within the manufacturer claimed accuracy of +/-5%. The flow rate of the Springfusor was affected by temperature; at 30 degrees C the mean flow rate was 10.8% greater than at 25 degrees C. These results indicate that the Springfusor 30 had less flow rate variation than the Graseby MS16A. However, this would not be expected to cause noticeable clinical effects when used for opioid infusion in palliative care.

  17. A laser syringe aimed at delivering drug into the outer layer of human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoh, Jack J.; Jang, Hun-jae; Park, Mi-ae; Han, Tae-hee; Hah, Jung-moo

    2012-07-01

    A desire to eliminate hypodermic needle in transdermal drug delivery may now be realized. Imaging of the skin after injection of fluorescent probe and biotin via the bio-ballistic technique revealed the epidermal and dermal layers which were stained well below 60 μm underneath the abdominal skin of the guinea-pig. An extensive network of cells are shown in the deeper layer of the stained dermis as the distributed fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) dose is administered by repeated injection via the laser-based microjet. Here, we show our method of laser-based microjet drug delivery is capable of breaching guinea-pig's skin tissue and then delivering controlled dose of drug to the targeted region between 10 to 400 μm underneath the outermost layer of the skin. While minimizing pain and tissue damage by reducing the injection volume to ˜100 nl per pulse and the microjet diameter of half the conventional syringe needle in 100 μm, the optimally controlled delivery of liquid drug by the irradiated laser pulse is shown possible.

  18. Syringic Acid Extracted from Herba dendrobii Prevents Diabetic Cataract Pathogenesis by Inhibiting Aldose Reductase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyong Wei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Effects of Syringic acid (SA extracted from dendrobii on diabetic cataract (DC pathogenesis were explored. Methods. Both in vitro and in vivo DC lens models were established using D-gal, and proliferation of HLEC exposed to SA was determined by MMT assay. After 60-day treatment with SA, rat lens transparency was observed by anatomical microscopy using a slit lamp. SA protein targets were extracted and isolated using 2-DE and MALDI TOF/TOF. AR gene expression was investigated using qRT-PCR. Interaction sites and binding characteristics were determined by molecule-docking techniques and dynamic models. Results. Targeting AR, SA provided protection from D-gal-induced damage by consistently maintaining lens transparency and delaying lens turbidity development. Inhibition of AR gene expression by SA was confirmed by qRT-PCR. IC50 of SA for inhibition of AR activity was 213.17 μg/mL. AR-SA binding sites were Trp111, His110, Tyr48, Trp20, Trp79, Leu300, and Phe122. The main binding modes involved hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding. The stoichiometric ratio of non-covalent bonding between SA and AR was 1.0 to 13.3. Conclusion. SA acts to prevent DC in rat lenses by inhibiting AR activity and gene expression, which has potential to be developed into a novel drug for therapeutic management of DC.

  19. Treatment of herniated lumbar disc by percutaneous laser disc decompression combined with synchronous suction technique through syringe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dhir B. Gurung; Gaojian Tao; Hongyi Lin; Yanning Qian; Jian Lin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To compare the outcomes of percutaneous laser disc decompression (PLDD) and PLDD with synchronous suction through syringe in the patients with herniated lumbar disc (HLD). Methods: Forty-two patients with HLD on MRI and those who did not respond to conservative treatment for 6 weeks were randomly divided into group A and group B. In group A, the patients were treated with PLDD and those in group B with PLDD and synchronous suction through syringe. GaAIAS diode laser at 810 nm was used for the ablation in both groups. The treatment effect was evaluated by modified MacNab's criteria on the 7th, 30th and 90th day. Results: Evaluated by modified MacNab's criteria, the percentages of the excellent and good cases in total patients treated for group B and A were 80.95% and 57.14% on the 7th follow-up day, 85.71% and 66.67% on the 30th follow-up day, and 95.24% and 71.43% on the 90th follow-up day, respectively. Conclusion: Synchronous suction technique through syringe during PLDD improves the overall outcome in the treatment of herniated lumbar disc.

  20. Organic Extractives from Mentha spp. Honey and the Bee-Stomach: Methyl Syringate, Vomifoliol, Terpenediol I, Hotrienol and Other Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Jerković

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The GC and GC/MS analyses of the solvent organic extractive from the stomach of the bees, having collected Mentha spp. nectar, revealed the presence of methyl syringate (6.6%, terpendiol I (5.0% and vomifoliol (3.0% that can be attributed to the plant origin. Other major compounds from the bee-stomach were related to the composition of cuticular waxes and less to pheromones. Organic extractivesfrom Mentha spp. honey were obtained by solvent-free headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The major honey headspace compounds were hotrienol (31.1%–38.5%, 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol (0.5–6.0%, cis- and trans-linalool oxides (0.9–2.8%, linalool (1.0–3.1% and neroloxide (0.9–1.9%. Methyl syringate was the most abundant compound (38.3-56.2% in the honey solvent extractives followed by vomifoliol (7.0–26.6%. Comparison of the honey organic extractives with the corresponding bee-stomach extractive indicated that methyl syringate and vomofoliol were transferred to the honey while terpendiol I was partially transformed to hotrienol in ripened honey.

  1. Analysis of Hypodermic Needles and Syringes for the Presence of Blood and Polydimethylsiloxane (Silicone) Utilizing Microchemical Tests and Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, John B; Lanzarotta, Adam; Witkowski, Mark R; Andria, Sara E

    2015-07-01

    Suspect hypodermic needles and syringes were seized from an unlicensed individual who was allegedly injecting patients with silicone (polydimethylsiloxane [PDMS]) for cosmetic enhancement. Since control syringe barrels and needles often contain an interfering PDMS lubricant, a risk for false positives of foreign PDMS exists. The focus of this report was to minimize this risk and determine a quick and reliable test for the presence of blood in PDMS matrices. Using ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy, the risk for false-positive identification of foreign PDMS was reduced by (i) overfilling the sampling aperture to prevent spectral distortions and (ii) sampling a region of the suspect syringe/needle assembly where manufacturer-applied PDMS is not typically located. Analysis for blood indicated that the Teichman microchemical test was effective for detecting blood in the presence of PDMS. Overall, detecting PDMS established intent and detecting blood established that the needle containing the PDMS had been used for injection. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Analysis of event logs from syringe pumps: a retrospective pilot study to assess possible effects of syringe pumps on safety in a university hospital critical care unit in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastrup, Marc; Balzer, Felix; Volk, Thomas; Spies, Claudia

    2012-07-01

    Medication errors occur in approximately one out of five doses in a typical hospital setting. Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are particularly susceptible to errors during the application of intravenous drugs as they receive numerous potent drugs applied by syringe pumps. The aim of this study was to analyse the effects on potential harmful medication errors and to address factors that have potential for improving medication safety after the introduction of a standardized drug library into syringe pumps with integrated decision support systems. A team of physicians and nurses developed a dataset that defined standardized drug concentrations, application rates and alert limits to prevent accidental overdosing of intravenous medications. This dataset was implemented in 100 syringe pumps with the ability to log programming errors, alerts, reprogramming events and overrides ('smart pumps'). In this retrospective pilot study, all pump-related transaction data were obtained from the pump logs, by downloading the data from the pumps, covering 20 months of use between 1 April 2008 and 30 November 2009. Patient data were gathered from the electronic patient charts. The study was performed in a cardiothoracic ICU of the Charité University Hospital, Berlin, Germany. A total of 7884 patient treatment days and 133,601 infusion starts were evaluated. The drug library with the features of the dose rate was used in 92.8% of the syringe pump starts, in 1.5% of the starts a manual dosing mode without the use of the drug library was used and in 5.7% of the starts the mode 'mL/h', without any calculation features, was used. The most frequently used drugs were vasoactive drugs, followed by sedation medication. The user was alerted for a potentially harmful overdosing in 717 cases and in 66 cases the pumps were reprogrammed after the alert. During the early morning hours a higher rate of alarms was generated by the pumps, compared with the rest of the day. Syringe pumps with

  3. Sterilization of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) with X-rays for sterile insect technique programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago de Araujo

    2009-01-01

    Recent fear of acts of terrorism provoked an increase of delays and denials in the shipment of radioisotopes. This truly represented a menace to sterile insect production projects around the world. In order to validate the use of a new kind of low-energy Xray irradiator, a series of radiobiological studies on Ceratitis capitata (tsl-VIENNA 8 strain) (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and an Argentinean strain of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae) were carried out, also comparing biological effectiveness between X-rays and traditional γ radiation from 60 Co. Pupae 48- 24 h before adult emergence of C. capitata males and both sexes of A. fraterculus were irradiated with doses ranging from 15 to 120 Gy and 10 to 70 Gy respectively. Doses that induce 50, 90 and 99% of sterility were estimated and the hypothesis of Parallelism for the Probit equations was tested. Doses of 82.7 Gy of X-rays and 128.2 Gy of γ rays (thus, a RBE∼1.5) induced 99% sterility on medfly males. The fertility of A. fraterculus fertile females crossed with 41 Gy of X-rays and 62.7 Gy of γ rays decreased in 99% comparing with the control group (RBE∼1.5). 99% sterility of A. fraterculus irradiated females was achieved with 60-80 Gy (RBE∼0.7). The standard quality control parameters of fecundity, adult emergence, fliers and survival were not significantly affected by the two types of radiation (RBE∼1) either for medfly or A. fraterculus (p>0.01), being averages in conformity with the values required by FAO/IAEA/USDA. Only fecundity of irradiated A. fraterculus females was severely reduced with increasing doses and no egg was laid at 70 Gy of both radiations. There were no significant differences between X-rays and γ rays regarding mating indices (RSI for medfly, RII, ISI, MRPI and FRPI for A. fraterculus) (p>0.05), what indicated more random matings for fertile and sterile insects. The results demonstrated that no significant difference in biological

  4. 9. School of radiation sterilization and hygienization - Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimek, Z.; Kaluska, I.; Gluszewski, W.

    2007-01-01

    During the 9 School of radiation sterilization and hygienization 23 lectures were presented. They were devoted to all aspects of sterilization and hygienization of food, medicinal articles and cosmetics using the ionisation radiation. It was destined to physicians, manufacturers and vendees of spices, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, personnel of the sanitary-epidemiological stations and even for the art conservators

  5. Female sterilization by tubal ligation at caesarean section in Makurdi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Female sterilization is an important tool in reducing unplanned pregnancy and maternal mortality in our environment. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, sociodemographic characteristics, technique, effectiveness and complications associated with female sterilization by bilateral tubal ligation ...

  6. Objections to tubal sterilization: what reversibility can and cannot overcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shain, R N

    1980-09-01

    In a study of 1074 women, 696 and 338 subjects would not seriously consider permanent and hypothetically reversible sterilization, respectively; they were asked to explain their feelings. The reason accounting for most objections to permanent sterilization (65%) was irreversibility and of the subjects who would not consider reversible sterilization or were unsure, 42.7% attributed their principal objection to unnecessary surgery, a factor at least currently intrinsic to the procedure and not readily overcome by education. Many of the remaining objections to both permanent and reversible sterilization may be amenable to change either through education or financial subsidies. In response to a question concerning female attractiveness subsequent to permanent sterilization, 3% of the sample felt attractiveness would decrease and 17.5% were unsure of the surgery's effect. Unsure responses were largely negative in character. This issue is important because of its relationship to intention to undergo sterilization. Upon consideration of reversible sterilization, negative and unsure responses significantly declined, even on the part of those women whose friends have had a poor experience with currently available procedures. Thus, whereas the option of reversibility cannot overcome objections to surgery, it does overcome those regarding permanency; moreover, the "temporary" character it bestows upon surgical sterilization appears to help certain individuals overcome their fears of losing their physical appeal as a result of such procedures.

  7. 9. School of radiation sterilization and hygienization - Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimek, Z.; Kaluska, I.; Gluszewski, W.

    2007-01-01

    During the 9. School of radiation sterilization and hygienization 23 lectures were presented. They were devoted to all aspects of sterilization and hygienization of food, medicinal articles and cosmetics using the ionisation radiation. It was destined to physicians, manufacturers and vendees of spices, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, personnel of the sanitary-epidemiological stations and even for the art conservators

  8. Comparison of Sterile and Clean Dressing Techniques in Post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of Sterile and Clean Dressing Techniques in Post-operative Surgical Wound Infection in a Chinese Healthcare Facility. ... of sterile and clean dressing techniques on wound management in a Chinese hospital, and to compare their impact on wound healing and the cost of the dressing materials with respect to ...

  9. Assessment of Non-Sterile Pharmaceutical Compounding Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the practices of non-sterile pharmaceutical compounding in selected 42 community and 3 hospital pharmacies in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from 01 April, 2016 to 15 May, 2016. The study revealed that the most commonly prescribed and compounded non-sterile ...

  10. Thermalisation of light sterile neutrinos in the early universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannestad, Steen; Tamborra, Irene; Tram, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    on the current cosmological data have been derived using simplified assumptions about thermalisation of the sterile neutrino at the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) epoch. These assumptions are not necessarily justified and here we solve the full quantum kinetic equations in the (1 active + 1 sterile) scenario...

  11. Surface sterilization method for reducing microbial contamination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An effective disinfection method for strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) cv. Senga Sengana micropropagation using runner tips and nodal segments as explants was developed. The explants were surface sterilized with different sterilants for different durations. The present studies on the effect of different regimes of ...

  12. 42 CFR 50.207 - Sterilization by hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sterilization by hysterectomy. 50.207 Section 50.207 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS POLICIES OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY Sterilization of Persons in Federally Assisted Family Planning Projects § 50.207...

  13. Efficacy of gamma sterilization technique for biofertilizer carrier production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rallos, Roland V.; Rivera, Faye G.; Anarna, Julie A.; Rojales, Jacqueline S.

    2013-01-01

    Th use of gamma irradiation as sterilization technique for biofertilizer carrier is very efficient and practical especially in large scale production. The results of this study on the efficacy of gamma sterilization justify research on the effects of established doses of gamma irradiation on the physico-chemical properties of the clay-charcoal mixture

  14. The context and limitations of female sterilization services in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Adnan Ahmad; Khan, Ayesha; Abbas, Khadija; Tirmizi, Syed Farhan Ali; ul Islam, Zia

    2013-04-01

    Female sterilization has long been the most popular method of family planning (FP) in Pakistan, and yet most public health experts feel it contributes little to controlling family size or to population welfare. We used Pakistan Demographic Health Survey (PDHS) data to understand the role female sterilization plays in the overall context of FP in Pakistan. We performed a secondary analysis of data from the PDHS 1990-1 and 2006-7 to study factors that lead to sterilization and trends in the use of the procedure. In addition, census data were multiplied by proportions from PDHS data to estimate the number of women availing sterilization services. Around 1.9 million women in Pakistan are currently sterilized--up from 0.55 million in 1990-1, and around 173,867 undergo the procedure, annually. Women usually receive sterilization after 30 years of age (mean = 39) and after six children. The probability of sterilization increases with age, family size, and urban residence, and is unaffected by poverty, province of residence, or the woman or her husband's education. Most sterilizationis conducted in public sector facilities. Sterilization in Pakistan may be common, but occurs too late to have any significant effect on family size or benefit public health. Future avenues to make this option more useful to women and society would be to improve the repertoire and access and quality of FP services that are available, and to address governance issues that limit the performance and utility of government facilities.

  15. Nuclear-Cytoplasmic male-sterility in diploid dandelions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hulst, R.G.M.; Meirmans, P.; van Tienderen, P.H.; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Male-sterility was found in diploid dandelions from two widely separated populations from France, and its inheritance was analysed by crossing a diploid male-sterile dandelion to diploid sexuals and triploid apomicts. Nuclear genetic variation, found in full-sib families, segregated for

  16. Nuclear-cytoplasmic male-sterility in diploid dandelions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hulst, R.G.M.; Meirmans, P.G.; van Tienderen, P.H.; van Damme, J.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Male-sterility was found in diploid dandelions from two widely separated populations from France, and its inheritance was analysed by crossing a diploid male-sterile dandelion to diploid sexuals and triploid apomicts. Nuclear genetic variation, found in full-sib families, segregated for male

  17. A simple genetic incompatibility causes hybrid male sterility in mimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweigart, Andrea L; Fishman, Lila; Willis, John H

    2006-04-01

    Much evidence has shown that postzygotic reproductive isolation (hybrid inviability or sterility) evolves by the accumulation of interlocus incompatibilities between diverging populations. Although in theory only a single pair of incompatible loci is needed to isolate species, empirical work in Drosophila has revealed that hybrid fertility problems often are highly polygenic and complex. In this article we investigate the genetic basis of hybrid sterility between two closely related species of monkeyflower, Mimulus guttatus and M. nasutus. In striking contrast to Drosophila systems, we demonstrate that nearly complete hybrid male sterility in Mimulus results from a simple genetic incompatibility between a single pair of heterospecific loci. We have genetically mapped this sterility effect: the M. guttatus allele at the hybrid male sterility 1 (hms1) locus acts dominantly in combination with recessive M. nasutus alleles at the hybrid male sterility 2 (hms2) locus to cause nearly complete hybrid male sterility. In a preliminary screen to find additional small-effect male sterility factors, we identified one additional locus that also contributes to some of the variation in hybrid male fertility. Interestingly, hms1 and hms2 also cause a significant reduction in hybrid female fertility, suggesting that sex-specific hybrid defects might share a common genetic basis. This possibility is supported by our discovery that recombination is reduced dramatically in a cross involving a parent with the hms1-hms2 incompatibility.

  18. Cleaning, disinfection and sterilization of surface prion contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, G; Dehen, C; Perrin, A; Thomas, V; Igel-Egalon, A; Burke, P A; Deslys, J P; Comoy, E

    2013-12-01

    Prion contamination is a risk during device reprocessing, being difficult to remove and inactivate. Little is known of the combined effects of cleaning, disinfection and sterilization during a typical reprocessing cycle in clinical practice. To investigate the combination of cleaning, disinfection and/or sterilization on reducing the risk of surface prion contamination. In vivo test methods were used to study the impact of cleaning alone and cleaning combined with thermal disinfection and high- or low-temperature sterilization processes. A standardized test method, based on contamination of stainless steel wires with high titres of scrapie-infected brain homogenates, was used to determine infectivity reduction. Traditional chemical methods of surface decontamination against prions were confirmed to be effective, but extended steam sterilization was more variable. Steam sterilization alone reduced the risk of prion contamination under normal or extended exposure conditions, but did show significant variation. Thermal disinfection had no impact in these studies. Cleaning with certain defined formulations in combination with steam sterilization can be an effective prion decontamination process, in particular with alkaline formulations. Low-temperature, gaseous hydrogen peroxide sterilization was also confirmed to reduce infectivity in the presence and absence of cleaning. Prion decontamination is affected by the full reprocessing cycle used on contaminated surfaces. The correct use of defined cleaning, disinfection and sterilization methods as tested in this report in the scrapie infectivity assay can provide a standard precaution against prion contamination. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Determinants of sterilization among married couples in Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju Hee; Chung, Woojin; Lee, Sunmi; Suh, Moonhee; Kang, Dae Ryong

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the determinants of sterilization in South Korea. This study was based on the data from the Korea National Fertility Survey carried out in the year 2000 by the Korea Institute of Health and Social Affairs. The subjects of the analysis were 4,604 women and their husbands who were in their first marriage, in the age group of 15-49 years. The data were analyzed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Consistent with the findings of previous studies, the woman's age and the number of total children increased the likelihood of sterilization. In addition, the year of marriage had a strong positive association with sterilization. Interestingly, the number of surviving sons tended to increase the likelihood of sterilization, whereas the woman's education level and age at the time of marriage showed a negative association with sterilization. Religion, place of residence, son preference, and the husband's education level, age and type of occupation were not significant determinants of sterilization. The sex of previous children and lower level of education are distinct determinants of sterilization among women in South Korea. More studies are needed in order to determine the associations between sterilization rate and decreased fertility.

  20. History of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klassen, W.; Curtis, C.F.

    2005-01-01

    During the 1930s and 1940s the idea of releasing insects of pest species to introduce sterility (sterile insect technique or SIT) into wild populations, and thus control them, was independently conceived in three extremely diverse intellectual environments. The key researchers were A. S. Serebrovskii at Moscow State University, F. L. Vanderplank at a tsetse field research station in rural Tanganyika (now Tanzania), and E. F. Knipling of the United States Department of Agriculture. Serebrovskii's work on chromosomal translocations for pest population suppression could not succeed in the catastrophic conditions in the USSR during World War II, after which he died. Vanderplank used hybrid sterility to suppress a tsetse population in a large field experiment, but lacked the resources to develop this method further. Knipling and his team exploited H. J. Muller's discovery that ionizing radiation can induce dominant lethal mutations, and after World War II this approach was applied on an area-wide basis to eradicate the New World screwworm Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) in the USA, Mexico, and Central America. Since then very effective programmes integrating the SIT have been mounted against tropical fruit flies, some species of tsetse flies Glossina spp., the pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders), and the codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.). In non-isolated onion fields in the Netherlands, the onion maggot Delia antiqua (Meigen) has since 1981 been suppressed by the SIT. In the 1970s there was much research conducted on mosquito SIT, which then went into 'eclipse', but now appears to be reviving. Development of the SIT for use against the boll weevil Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman and the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) has ended, but it is in progress for two sweetpotato weevil species, Cylas formicarius (F.) and Euscepes postfasciatus (Fairmaire), the false codling moth Cryptophlebia leucotreta (Meyrick), the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae

  1. Contraceptive sterilization among Canadians, 1984-1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan, Vijaya

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishPrior to early 1970s, traditional methods were the principal means ofcontrolling the number and spacing of births. Today, an estimated 57 per cent of the world's marriedwomen use contraceptives and half use modern methods such as medical sterilizations. Recent statisticssuggest that Canada has the highest sterilization rate in the Western world. This paper presentsfindings of research examining sterilization trends in Canada with respect to changing patterns in theuse of modern contraceptives, using data from the 1984 Canadian Fertility Survey (CFS and the 1995General Social Survey (GSS. The main finding is that there is a decrease in the use of tubal ligationand an increase in the use of hysterectomy over the period 1984-1995. Less educated women are morelikely to be in the forefront of modern methdos of contraception.FrenchAvant les années 1970, les méthodes traditionnelles représentaient le principalmoyen de contrôler et d’espacer le nombre de naissances. De nos jours, onestime que 57 pour cent des femmes mariées dans le monde entier utilisent unmoyen contraceptif et la moitié utilise des méthodes modernes telles que lastérilisation. Les dernières statistiques indiquent que le Canada compte le tauxde stérilisations le plus élevé dans le monde occidental. Cet article présente lesconclusions de recherches portant sur les tendances en matière de stérilisation auCanada en ce qui concerne les modèles changeants d’utilisation de moyens decontraception modernes et ce, à partir de données de l’Enquête canadienne sur lafécondité de 1984 et de l’Enquête sociale générale (ESG de 1995. La principaleconclusion qui en est ressortie est une réduction de la ligature des trompes etune augmentation du nombre d’hystérectomies de 1984 à 1995. Les femmesmoins éduquées sont plus portées à se trouver au premier plan des méthodes decontraception modernes.

  2. Portable Chemical Sterilizer for Microbial Decontamination of Surgical Instruments, Fruits and Vegetables, and Field Feeding Equipment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doona, C. J; Feeherry, F. E; Kustin, K; Curtin, M. A; Baer, D. G

    2006-01-01

    The Portable Chemical Sterilizer (PCS) is a revolutionary biomedical sterilization technology that provides the capability for portable, power-free, point-of-use sterilization to meet the Army's Far-Forward Surgical Teams (FSTs...

  3. The causes of genetic male sterility in 3 soybaen lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubaihayo, P R; Gumisiriza, G

    1978-11-01

    The cause of male sterility in 3 soybean lines, TGM 103-1, N-69-2774 and TGM 242-4 was studied. In TGM 103-1, which was both male and female sterile, two different abnormalities were associated with sterility. Precocious movement of a few chromosomes at the metaphase I stage resulted into the production of non-functional pollen while cells which underwent apparent normal meiotic division had disintergration of the tapetal cell wall immediately after the free microspore stage leading to the starvation and subsequent death of the developing microspores. In lines N-69-2774 and TGM 242-4, both of which were partially sterile, male sterility resulted from a failure of cytokinesis after the telophase II stage. Meiosis proceeded normally but the 4 microspores after telophase II failed to separate into pollen grains and degenerated thereafter.

  4. Hysteroscopic tubal sterilization: a systematic review of the Essure system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurskainen, Ritva; Hovi, Sirpa-Liisa; Gissler, Mika

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To update the evidence of the efficacy and safety of the Essure system. Female sterilization has undergone changes in the last decade. Besides laparoscopic tubal occlusion, the Essure system is now a viable option, with about 200,000 women sterilized using this method. DESIGN: The review...... in ambulatory settings. However, sterilization is not immediate and women must use additional contraception for 3 months until permanent tubal occlusion is verified by transvaginal ultrasound, hysterosalpingosonography, hysterosalpingography, or pelvic radiography. The evidence on efficacy and safety is mainly...... sterilization, but more information on the total cost is needed. CONCLUSION(S): The Essure system appears to be safe, permanent, irreversible, and a less invasive method of contraception compared with laparoscopic sterilization. Copyright (c) 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published...

  5. Color stability of shade guides after autoclave sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeling, Max; Sartori, Neimar; Monteiro, Sylvio; Baratieri, Luiz

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of 120 autoclave sterilization cycles on the color stability of two commercial shade guides (Vita Classical and Vita System 3D-Master). The specimens were evaluated by spectrophotometer before and after the sterilization cycles. The color was described using the three-dimensional CIELab system. The statistical analysis was performed in three chromaticity coordinates, before and after sterilization cycles, using the paired samples t test. All specimens became darker after autoclave sterilization cycles. However, specimens of Vita Classical became redder, while those of the Vita System 3D-Master became more yellow. Repeated cycles of autoclave sterilization caused statistically significant changes in the color coordinates of the two shade guides. However, these differences are considered clinically acceptable.

  6. Post-sterilization autonomy among young mothers in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallikadavath, Saseendran; Rajan, Irudaya; Singh, Abhishek; Ogollah, Reuben; Page, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the post-sterilization autonomy of women in south India in the context of early sterilization and low fertility. Quantitative data were taken from the third round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) carried out in 2005-06, and qualitative data from one village each in Kerala and Tamil Nadu during 2010-11. The incident rate ratios and thematic analysis showed that among currently married women under the age of 30 years, those who had been sterilized had significantly higher autonomy in household decision-making and freedom of mobility compared with women who had never used any modern family planning method. Early age at sterilization and low fertility enables women to achieve the social status that is generally attained at later stages in the life-cycle. Policies to capitalize on women's autonomy and free time resulting from early sterilization and low fertility should be adopted in south India.

  7. In-syringe magnetic-stirring-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction for the spectrophotometric determination of Cr(VI) in waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henríquez, Camelia; Horstkotte, Burkhard; Solich, Petr; Cerdà, Víctor

    2013-08-01

    A fully automated method for the determination of chromate is described. It is based on the selective reaction of Cr(VI) with diphenylcarbazide in acidic media to form a colored complex of Cr(III) with the oxidation product diphenylcarbazone. The reaction was performed within the syringe of an automatic burette containing a magnetic stirrer for homogenization of the sample and the required reagents. In-syringe stirring was made possible using a specially designed driving device placed around the syringe barrel to achieve a rotating magnetic field in the syringe, forcing the stirrer to spin. In a second step, the reaction mixture in the syringe was neutralized to allow in-syringe magnetic-stirring-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction of the complex into 125 μL of n-hexanol. After phase separation by droplet flotation over 30 s, the organic phase was propelled into a coupled spectrophotometric detection cell. The entire multistep procedure including in-system standard preparation was done within 270 s. The method was used for the analysis of natural waters, achieving average analyte recovery of 103%, a limit of detection of 0.26 μg L(-1), and a repeatability of less than 4% relative standard deviation.

  8. [Safe injection rooms and police crackdowns in areas with heavy drug dealing. Evaluation by counting discarded syringes collected from the public space].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecino, Carmen; Villalbí, Joan R; Guitart, Anna; Espelt, Albert; Bartroli, Montserrat; Castellano, Yolanda; Brugal, M Teresa

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of drug injection in public places is analysed using as indicator the number of syringes collected from public spaces, evaluating as well the influence of public health harm reduction interventions and of police actions, with a before and after quasi experimental study. Monthly syringe counts on the semester before and after each intervention were compared both in the involved district and in the city as a whole, using the U and z tests with a 95% confidence level. The average number of collected syringes drops from 13.132 in 2004 to 3.190 in 2012. Comparing indicators before and after health and police interventions, the opening of a facility with a supervised drug consumption room in the inner city was associated with a huge reduction in the number of abandoned syringes in the city, while its number did not rise in the district where the facility was located. The subsequent opening of another drug consumption room did not have a significant impact in collected syringes in the area. Some police interventions in 2005-2006 and 2011 had a significant impact in the indicators of the involved districts, while others did not. Harm reduction programs might have a favourable impact on drug injection in public spaces and related syringe presence. Some police interventions appear to have an impact while others do not or just have a modest local and temporary effect.

  9. Neutrophil Responses to Sterile Implant Materials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Jhunjhunwala

    Full Text Available In vivo implantation of sterile materials and devices results in a foreign body immune response leading to fibrosis of implanted material. Neutrophils, one of the first immune cells to be recruited to implantation sites, have been suggested to contribute to the establishment of the inflammatory microenvironment that initiates the fibrotic response. However, the precise numbers and roles of neutrophils in response to implanted devices remains unclear. Using a mouse model of peritoneal microcapsule implantation, we show 30-500 fold increased neutrophil presence in the peritoneal exudates in response to implants. We demonstrate that these neutrophils secrete increased amounts of a variety of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Further, we observe that they participate in the foreign body response through the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs on implant surfaces. Our results provide new insight into neutrophil function during a foreign body response to peritoneal implants which has implications for the development of biologically compatible medical devices.

  10. Methane potential of sterilized solid slaughterhouse wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitk, Peep; Kaparaju, Prasad; Vilu, Raivo

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine chemical composition and methane potential of Category 2 and 3 solid slaughterhouse wastes rendering products (SSHWRP) viz. melt, decanter sludge, meat and bone meal (MBM), technical fat and flotation sludge from wastewater treatment. Chemical analyses showed that SSHWRP were high in protein and lipids with total solids (TS) content of 96-99%. Methane yields of the SSHWRP were between 390 and 978 m(3) CH(4)/t volatile solids (VS)(added). Based on batch experiments, anaerobic digestion of SSHWRP from the dry rendering process could recover 4.6 times more primary energy than the energy required for the rendering process. Estonia has technological capacity to sterilize all the produced Category 2 and 3 solid slaughterhouse wastes (SSHW) and if separated from Category 1 animal by-products (ABP), it could be further utilized as energy rich input material for anaerobic digestion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pressure-assisted thermal sterilization of soup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibeshi, Kidane; Farid, Mohammed M.

    2010-12-01

    The overall efficiency of an existing scale-up pressure-assisted thermal sterilization (PATS) unit was investigated with regards to inactivation of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores suspended in pumpkin soup. The PATS unit is a double pipe heat exchanger in which the soup is pumped into its inner high pressure tube and constrained by two high pressure valves, while steam is continuously passed through the annular region to heat the content. The technology is based on pressure generation by thermal expansion of the liquid in an enclosure. In this work, the addition of an air line to push the treated liquid food out of the existing PATS unit has improved the overall quality of the treated samples, as evidenced by achieving higher log reduction of the spores. Compared with thermal processing, the application of PATS shows the potential for lowering the thermal treatment temperature, offering improved food quality.

  12. Twenty years of radiation sterilization in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ražem, Dus̆an

    2004-09-01

    The development of radiation processing in Croatia is described from its inception 20 years ago up to the present time. Annual throughputs of treated materials are given by the categories of materials and pertaining volumes. The pasteurization of hard gelatine capsules occured during the early stages, while sterilization of disposable medical supplies has been dominant in the later stages. Irradiation of foods and of cosmetics and toiletries has been a minor fraction of the total throughput. Since the recovery of everyday life and economy of the country after the war, the total throughput has increased steadily to reach 13,000 m 3 kGy in 2002, 90% of which are medical supplies. Estimates of the present maximum capacity of 30,000 m 3 kGy and of future needs indicate that the present rate of growth could be sustained for the next several years only, unless a major upgrading is undertaken. An estimate of potential future needs is made.

  13. [The psychosocial background of sterile patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusch, H H; Urdl, W; Walcher, W

    1989-01-01

    The psychosocial background of 300 childless couples from the Infertility Clinic of the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Graz, was evaluated by means of a questionnaire and statistical analysis of data from their files. Points of special interest were problems such as interactions of the couple, motivations for the desire of children, psychosomatics, andrological investigation within the gynecological department, sexual habits and motivation and compliance concerning investigations and treatment. 72% of the questionnaires were returned. 50% of the sterile couples preferred to attend the infertility clinic together. 26% felt restrictions in their sexual behaviour due to the unrealized desire of children, 48% expected improvements in their partnership if they could have children. Compliance of male partners concerning the regular intake of prescribed medicaments was 83%, 63% accepted to stop smoking in cases of pathospermia.

  14. Informed consent needed for sterilization or research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, B

    1998-01-01

    Informed choice involves enabling family planning clients to base their decisions about contraceptive use upon adequate information. It is a process in which clients give their permission to undergo a procedure, take a medication, or participate in a study after being fully informed. Informed consent protects an individual's freedom of choice, respects his or her autonomy, is important in both family planning programs and reproductive health research, and should always be available to clients seeking health services. Although written informed consent is not needed for most reproductive health services, it should be obtained from men and women who undergo sterilization, since that involves surgery and is considered permanent. In addition, people who volunteer to participate in contraceptive studies need to be fully informed of the risks and benefits of any new drugs or devices they receive. Volunteers should understand the potential effects of methods upon their physical health and other aspects of their lives. Ethical reviews need to be conducted before research begins.

  15. Twenty years of radiation sterilization in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razem, Dusan

    2004-01-01

    The development of radiation processing in Croatia is described from its inception 20 years ago up to the present time. Annual throughputs of treated materials are given by the categories of materials and pertaining volumes. The pasteurization of hard gelatine capsules occured during the early stages, while sterilization of disposable medical supplies has been dominant in the later stages. Irradiation of foods and of cosmetics and toiletries has been a minor fraction of the total throughput. Since the recovery of everyday life and economy of the country after the war, the total throughput has increased steadily to reach 13,000 m 3 kGy in 2002, 90% of which are medical supplies. Estimates of the present maximum capacity of 30,000 m 3 kGy and of future needs indicate that the present rate of growth could be sustained for the next several years only, unless a major upgrading is undertaken. An estimate of potential future needs is made

  16. Heavy Sterile Neutrino in Dark Matter Searches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevi C. Divari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sterile neutrinos are possible dark matter candidates. We examine here possible detection mechanisms, assuming that the neutrino has a mass of about 50 keV and couples to the ordinary neutrino. Even though this neutrino is quite heavy, it is nonrelativistic with a maximum kinetic energy of 0.1 eV. Thus new experimental techniques are required for its detection. We estimate the expected event rate in the following cases: (i measuring electron recoil in the case of materials with very low electron binding; (ii low temperature crystal bolometers; (iii spin induced atomic excitations at very low temperatures, leading to a characteristic photon spectrum; (iv observation of resonances in antineutrino absorption by a nucleus undergoing electron capture; (v neutrino induced electron events beyond the end point energy of beta decaying systems, for example, in the tritium decay studied by KATRIN.

  17. Radiation treatment for sterilization of packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haji-Saeid, Mohammad; Sampa, Maria Helena O.; Chmielewski, Andrzej G.

    2007-01-01

    Treatment with gamma and electron radiation is becoming a common process for the sterilization of packages, mostly made of natural or synthetic plastics, used in the aseptic processing of foods and pharmaceuticals. The effect of irradiation on these materials is crucial for packaging engineering to understand the effects of these new treatments. Packaging material may be irradiated either prior to or after filling. The irradiation prior to filling is usually chosen for dairy products, processed food, beverages, pharmaceutical, and medical device industries in the United States, Europe, and Canada. Radiation effects on packaging material properties still need further investigation. This paper summarizes the work done by different groups and discusses recent developments in regulations and testing procedures in the field of packaging technology

  18. Physical stability of 20% lipid injectable emulsions via simulated syringe infusion: effects of glass vs plastic product packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, David F; Ling, Pei-Ra; Bistrian, Bruce R

    2007-01-01

    The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) has proposed large-globule-size limits to ensure the physical stability of lipid injectable emulsions, expressed as the percent fat >5 microm, or PFAT(5), not exceeding 0.05%. Visibly obvious phase separation as free oil has been shown to occur in some samples if PFAT(5) is >0.4%. We recently found that lipids, newly packaged in plastic (P), exceed the proposed USP limits and seem to produce less stable total nutrient admixtures compared with those made from conventional glass (G), which do meet proposed USP standards. We tested the possible stability differences between 20% lipid injectable emulsions in either P or G in a simulated neonatal syringe infusion study. Eighteen individual syringes were prepared from each 20% lipid injectable emulsion product (n = 36) and attached to a syringe pump set at an infusion rate of 0.5 mL/hour. The starting PFAT(5) levels were measured at time 0 and after 24 hours of infusion, using a laser-based light obscuration technique as described by the USP Chapter . The data were assessed by a 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Container (G vs P) and Time as the independent variables and PFAT as the dependent variable. At time 0, the starting PFAT(5) level for lipids packaged in G was 0.006% +/- 0.001% vs 0.162% +/- 0.026% for P, whereas at the end of the infusion they were 0.013% +/- 0.003% and 0.328% +/- 0.046%, respectively. Significant differences were noted overall between groups for Container, Time, and Container-Time interaction (all p emulsions packaged in newly introduced plastic containers exceed the proposed USP PFAT(5) limits and subsequently become significantly less stable during a simulated syringe-based infusion. Although modest growth (p = NS) in large-diameter fat globules was observed for the glass-based lipids, they remained within proposed USP globule size limits throughout the study. Glass-based lipids seem to be a more stable dosage form and potentially a safer way to

  19. [Mechanisms of urinary tract sterility maintenance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okrągła, Emilia; Szychowska, Katarzyna; Wolska, Lidia

    2014-06-02

    Physiologically, urine and the urinary tract are maintained sterile because of physical and chemical properties of urine and the innate immune system's action. The urinary tract is constantly exposed to the invasion of microorganisms from the exterior environment, also because of the anatomical placement of the urethra, in the vicinity of the rectum. Particularly vulnerable to urinary tract infections (UTI) are women (an additional risk factor is pregnancy), but also the elderly and children. The main pathogens causing UTI are bacteria; in 70-95% of cases it is the bacterium Escherichia coli. Infections caused by viruses and fungi are less common and are associated with decreased immunity, pharmacotherapy, or some diseases. Bacteria have evolved a number of factors that facilitate the colonization of the urinary tract: the cover and cell membrane antigens O and K1, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), fimbriae, pile and cilia. On the other hand, the human organism has evolved mechanisms to hinder colonization of the urinary tract: mechanisms arising from the anatomical structure of the urinary tract, the physicochemical properties of the urine and the activity of the innate immune system, also known as non-specific, which isolates and destroys pathogens using immunological processes, and the mechanisms for release of antimicrobial substances such as Tamm-Horsfall protein, mucopolysaccharides, immunoglobulins IgA and IgG, lactoferrin, lipocalin, neutrophils, cytokines and antimicrobial peptides. This review aims to analyze the state of knowledge on the mechanisms to maintain the sterility of the urinary tract used by the human organism and bacterial virulence factors to facilitate the colonization of the urinary tract.

  20. Mechanisms of urinary tract sterility maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Okrągła

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Physiologically, urine and the urinary tract are maintained sterile because of physical and chemical properties of urine and the innate immune system’s action. The urinary tract is constantly exposed to the invasion of microorganisms from the exterior environment, also because of the anatomical placement of the urethra, in the vicinity of the rectum. Particularly vulnerable to urinary tract infections (UTI are women (an additional risk factor is pregnancy, but also the elderly and children. The main pathogens causing UTI are bacteria; in 70-95% of cases it is the bacterium Escherichia coli. Infections caused by viruses and fungi are less common and are associated with decreased immunity, pharmacotherapy, or some diseases. Bacteria have evolved a number of factors that facilitate the colonization of the urinary tract: the cover and cell membrane antigens O and K1, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, fimbriae, pile and cilia. On the other hand, the human organism has evolved mechanisms to hinder colonization of the urinary tract: mechanisms arising from the anatomical structure of the urinary tract, the physicochemical properties of the urine and the activity of the innate immune system, also known as non-specific, which isolates and destroys pathogens using immunological processes, and the mechanisms for release of antimicrobial substances such as Tamm-Horsfall protein, mucopolysaccharides, immunoglobulins IgA and IgG, lactoferrin, lipocalin, neutrophils, cytokines and antimicrobial peptides. This review aims to analyze the state of knowledge on the mechanisms to maintain the sterility of the urinary tract used by the human organism and bacterial virulence factors to facilitate the colonization of the urinary tract.

  1. Sterile neutrino search in the STEREO experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, Christian; Lindner, Manfred; Roca, Christian [MPIK (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In neutrino oscillations, a canonical understanding has been established during the last decades after the measurement of the mixing angles θ{sub 12}, θ{sub 23}, θ{sub 13} via solar, atmospheric and, most recently, reactor neutrinos. However, the re-evaluation of the reactor neutrino theoretical flux has forced a re-analysis of most reactor neutrino measurements at short distances. This has led to an unexpected experimental deficit of neutrinos with respect to the theory that needs to be accommodated, commonly known as the ''reactor neutrino anomaly''. This deficit can be interpreted as the existence of a light sterile neutrino state into which reactor neutrinos oscillate at very short distances. The STEREO experiment aims to find an evidence of such oscillations. The ILL research reactor in Grenoble (France) operates at a power of 58MW and provides a large flux of electron antineutrinos with an energy range of a few MeV. These neutrinos will be detected in a 2000 liter organic liquid scintillator detector doped with Gadolinium and consisting of 6 cells stacked along the direction of the core. Given the proximity of the detector, neutrinos will only travel a few meters until they interact with the scintillator. The detector will be placed about 10 m from the reactor core, allowing STEREO to be sensitive to oscillations into the above mentioned neutrino sterile state. The project presents a high potential for a discovery that would impact deeply the paradigms of neutrino oscillations and in consequence the current understanding of particle physics and cosmology.

  2. Impact of moth suppression/eradication programmes using the sterile insect technique or inherited sterility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloem, K.A.; Bloem, S.; Carpenter, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    Numerous lepidopteran species have been investigated as candidates for control using the sterile insect technique (SIT) or inherited sterility (IS). However to date only two programmes are operational - the pink bollworm containment programme in the San Joaquin Valley, California, USA, and the codling moth suppression programme in British Columbia, Canada. Both of these programmes have been highly successful in controlling the pest populations, reducing insecticide use, and improving interactions between growers and the general public. However, other benefits, including the positive economic impacts of these programmes, have not been fully quantified. Methods to reduce the cost of lepidopteran programmes might include combining the SIT/IS with other pest control tactics such as mating disruption or the release of natural enemies, the development of genetic sexing strains, or the application of molecular technologies to develop genetic markers and genetic sterility. In future the greatest potential for impact of lepidopteran SIT/IS programmes may be in combating key invasive threats such as the eradication of an outbreak of the painted apple moth in New Zealand. (author)

  3. On-line lab-in-syringe cloud point extraction for the spectrophotometric determination of antimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frizzarin, Rejane M; Portugal, Lindomar A; Estela, José M; Rocha, Fábio R P; Cerdà, Victor

    2016-02-01

    Most of the procedures for antimony determination require time-consuming sample preparation (e.g. liquid-liquid extraction with organic solvents), which are harmful to the environment. Because of the high antimony toxicity, a rapid, sensitive and greener procedure for its determination becomes necessary. The goal of this work was to develop an analytical procedure exploiting for the first time the cloud point extraction on a lab-in-syringe flow system aiming at the spectrophotometric determination of antimony. The procedure was based on formation of an ion-pair between the antimony-iodide complex and H(+) followed by extraction with Triton X-114. The factorial design showed that the concentrations of ascorbic acid, H2SO4 and Triton X-114, as well as second and third order interactions were significant at the 95% confidence level. A Box-Behnken design was applied to obtain the response surfaces and to identify the critical values. System is robust at the 95% confidence level. A linear response was observed from 5 to 50 µg L(-1), described by the equation A=0.137+0.050C(Sb) (r=0.998). The detection limit (99.7% confidence level), the coefficient of variation (n=5; 15 µg L(-1)) and the sampling rate was estimated at 1.8 µg L(-1), 1.6% and 16 h(-1), respectively. The procedure allows quantification of antimony in the concentrations established by environmental legislation (6 µg L(-1)) and it was successfully applied to the determination of antimony in freshwater samples and antileishmanial drugs, yielding results in agreement with those obtained by HGFAAS at the 95% confidence level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Needle and syringe programs in Yunnan, China yield health and financial return

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Zhuang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a harm reduction strategy in response to HIV epidemics needle and syringes programs (NSPs were initiated throughout China in 2002. The effectiveness of NSPs in reducing the spread of infection in such an established epidemic is unknown. In this study we use data from Yunnan province, the province most affected by HIV in China, to (1 estimate the population benefits in terms of infections prevented due to the programs; (2 calculate the cost-effectiveness of NSPs. Methods We developed a mathematical transmission model, informed by detailed behavioral and program data, which accurately reflected the unique HIV epidemiology among Yunnan injecting drug users (IDUs in the presence of NSPs. We then used the model to estimate the likely epidemiological and clinical outcomes without NSPs and conducted a health economics analysis to determine the cost-effectiveness of the program. Results It is estimated that NSPs in Yunnan have averted approximately 16-20% (5,200-7,500 infections of the expected HIV cases since 2002 and led to gains of 1,300-1,900 DALYs. The total $1.04 million spending on NSPs from 2002 to 2008 has resulted in an estimated cost-saving over this period of $1.38-$1.97 million due to the prevention of HIV and the associated costs of care and management. Conclusion NSPs are not only cost-effective but cost-saving in Yunnan. Significant scale-up of NSPs interventions across China and removal of the societal and political barriers that compromise the effects of NSPs should be a health priority of the Chinese government.

  5. An investigation into the stability and sterility of citric acid solutions used for cough reflex testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, James R; Wu, Zimei; Lau, Hugo; Suen, Joanna; Wang, Lucy; Pottinger, Sarah; Lee, Elaine; Alazawi, Nawar; Kallesen, Molly; Gargiulo, Derryn A; Swift, Simon; Svirskis, Darren

    2014-10-01

    Citric acid is used in cough reflex testing in clinical and research settings to assess reflexive cough in patients at risk of swallowing disorders. To address a lack of knowledge in this area, this study investigated the stability and sterility of citric acid solutions. Triplicate solutions of citric acid (0.8 M) in isotonic saline were stored at 4 ± 2 °C for up to 28 days and analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Microbiological sterility of freshly prepared samples and bulk samples previously used for 2 weeks within the hospital was determined using a pour plate technique. Microbial survival in citric acid was determined by inoculating Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, or Candida albicans into citric acid solution and monitoring the number of colony-forming units/mL over 40 min. Citric acid solutions remained stable at 4 °C for 28 days (98.4 ± 1.8 % remained). The freshly prepared and clinical samples tested were sterile. However, viability studies revealed that citric acid solution allows for the survival of C. albicans but not for S. aureus or E. coli. The microbial survival study showed that citric acid kills S. aureus and E. coli but has no marked effect on C. albicans after 40 min. Citric acid samples at 0.8 M remained stable over the 4-week testing period, with viable microbial cells absent from samples tested. However, C. albicans has the ability to survive in citric acid solution if inadvertently introduced in practice. For this reason, in clinical and research practice it is suggested to use single-use aliquots prepared aseptically which can be stored for up to 28 days at 4 °C.

  6. A research on industrial development of radiation sterilization in Sichuan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xun; Zhu Rong; Chen Jigang

    2010-01-01

    Radiation sterilization is widely applied in food processing, Pharmaceutical Manufacturing and medical instrumentation producing. As this industry offers service to related corporations, its development depends largely on the market scale of the relevant industries. This article mainly discusses the balance point between the capacity of radiation sterilization and the requirement of its market. There are less than 1% of the companies in Sichuan which using radiation sterilization for its products, broad prospects has shown in this field. The output value of radiation sterilization industry reached 0.1% of the GDP in some advanced countries (America and Japan...), under this standard, its output value in Sichuan province would be RMB1.2 hundred million, but now our capacity and scale of this industry is less than RMB40million.Research shows: there are 3 key points to make its output value reach 0.1% of the GDP in Sichuan: 1. Breaking the 'bottleneck' restrictions of capacity and Inappropriate resources distribution. 2. Promoting the technique of radiation sterilization, guiding corporation to reduce their dependence on food additive from the perspective of food safety, make effective implantation of radiation sterilization into their manufacture processes. 3. Increasing publicity for radiation sterilization, eliminating scared mentality among customer on nuclear technology, helping manufacturing corporations to establish green environmental protection brand, directing our customer to a more healthy awareness. (authors)

  7. Gamma ray induced male sterility mutant in lentil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, A.; Yadav, A.K.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Male sterility refers to the failure of pollen grains to bring about effective fertilization, either due to structural default or physiological disfunctioning and has special significance in hybridization programmes. Male steriles have been produced in a number of crop plants like red gram, pigeon pea, mung bean, khesari and lentil. A completely male sterile mutant was isolated in Lens culinaris Medik, after seed treatment with 100 Gy dose of gamma rays. The male sterile mutant showed 100% pollen sterility but was morphologically more vigorous than the parent plants. It showed more branches and its leaves were bigger, more oblong and dark green. The number of flowers borne by the mutant was significantly higher than any other plant of the treatment. The size of the flowers was also increased but the anthers were smaller in size. Pollen grains were few in number, round in shape but empty and did not take up any stain, indicating that normal microsporogenesis had not taken place. This male sterile mutant was used as the female parent and pollinated with pollen of a parent. Four pods with one seed in each were formed indicating that the mutant was female fertile. The seeds were smaller than those of the parent variety and also dark coloured. The mutant showed increased vigour and flower number as compared to parental plants. Lentil is an important pulse crop and induction of variability in its germplasm is necessary for its improvement. Male steriles can be used conveniently in lentil hybridization programmes. (author)

  8. Radio-sterilization and processing of frozen human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarate S, Herman; Aguirre H, Paulina; Silva R, Samy; Hitschfeld G, Mario

    2006-01-01

    The Laboratory of Radio-sterilized Biological Tissues Processing (LPTR) belonging to the Chilean Commission of Nuclear Energy and the International Atomic Energy Agency have played a paramount role in our country, concerning the biological tissue processing, which can be radio-sterilized as human skin, pig skin, amniotic membrane, human bone and bovine bone. The frozen radio.-sterilized human skin processing began in 2001, by means of putting into practice the knowledge acquired in training courses through the IAEA and the experience transferred by experts who visited our laboratory. The human skin processing of dead donor can be divided into 6 stages: a) Profuse washing with physiological sterilized serum in to remove the microorganisms, chemical and pharmacological compounds; b) immersion in glycerol solution at 10% to better keep the stored tissues; c) packing, to avoid post manipulation of the sterilized tissue; d) microbiological controls which allow and guarantee a sterility assurance level of 10 6 ; e) radio-sterilization, technique that consists of exposing the grafts to electromagnetic gamma waves which eliminate the microorganisms of the tissue, f) and finally, dispatching and liberation of the frozen sterilized human skin for its clinical use in different centers that take care of burned people. The LPTR receives feedback from surgeons who have used these tissues in order to improve the processing stages based in an integral quality system ISO 9001.2000. The State Health System in our country counts on limited and scarce resources to implement synthetic substitutes that is why It is considered necessary to spread the use of these noble tissues which have sterility assurance and they are processed at low price

  9. Geographic Variation in Characteristics of Postpartum Women Using Female Sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kari; Potter, Joseph E; Zite, Nikki

    2015-01-01

    Southern states have higher rates of female sterilization compared with other areas of the United States, and the reasons for this are not well understood. We examined whether low-income and racial/ethnic minority women, who were previous targets of coercive practices, disproportionately report using sterilization in the South. We used data from 12 states participating in the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System that collected information on women's contraceptive method use between 2006 and 2009. We categorized states according to geographic region: South, Midwest/West, and Northeast. Within each region, we computed the percentage of women using sterilization according to their demographic and obstetric characteristics and estimated multivariable-adjusted prevalence ratios to evaluate whether the same characteristics were associated with sterilization use. The percentage of postpartum women using sterilization ranged from 5.0% to 9.9% in the Northeast, 8.9% to 10.6% in the Midwest/West, and 11.6% to 22.4% in the South. Women in nearly all subgroups in Southern states were more likely to use sterilization than women in the Northeast. After multivariable adjustment, there were no differences in the prevalence of sterilization for Blacks compared with Whites in the Northeast (0.76; 95% CI, 0.55-1.06), Midwest/West (0.91; 95% CI, 0.80-1.04), and South (0.96; 95% CI, 0.85-1.07). Women with Medicaid-paid deliveries (vs. private insurance) had a higher prevalence of sterilization in all regions (p sterilization at disproportionately higher rates compared with other regions, and suggest that other differences, such as social norms and family planning policies, may contribute to this geographic variation. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Gamma-irradiation sterilization of lipases for cheese making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umanskij, M S; Borovkova, Yu A; Odegov, N I [Vsesoyuznyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Maslodel' noj i Syrodel' noj Promyshlennosti, Uglich (USSR)

    1979-03-01

    The possibility of sterilizing the enzyme compounds of lipases from Oospora fragrans strains by gamma irradiation was studied. The enzyme compounds were exposed to gamma irradiation at the doses from 0.1 to 0.8 Mrad with the discreteness of 0.1 Mrad and at the dose of 2.0 Mrad. After the radiation treatment the lipases were investigated for bacterial invasion by the cultivation method and for the lipolytic activity by the titrometrical method. It is shown that the sterilization effect is achieved without losses of lipase activity and the radiation dose necessary for sterilization depends on initial invasion levels in the enzyme compounds.

  11. Sterility and meeting competitiveness of medfly, Ceratitis Capitata (Wiedemann)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taein-Tun; Molly-Maung-Maung

    2001-01-01

    The basic methodology in the determination of sterilising dosage in male med flies and mating competitiveness with the normal males was carried out in the laboratory. Application of the Sterile Insect Technique (S.I.T.) by three irradiation dosages on Seib-6096 pupae results in sterility when dosage increased. A lower mating competitiveness was observed with the increase in sterility value. This value was determined from the corrected egg hatch percent. The resulting data showed that irradiation dosage of γ 10.0 Krad gave a good advantage to suppress the population in the next generation. The method suggested a good application in the control and eradication of fruit flies. (author)

  12. Sterile Neutrino Search with the Double Chooz Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwig, D.; Matsubara, T.; Double Chooz Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    Double Chooz is a reactor antineutrino disappearance experiment located in Chooz, France. A far detector at a distance of about 1 km from reactor cores is operating since 2011; a near detector of identical design at a distance of about 400 m is operating since begin 2015. Beyond the precise measurement of θ 13, Double Chooz has a strong sensitivity to so called light sterile neutrinos. Sterile neutrinos are neutrino mass states not taking part in weak interactions, but may mix with known neutrino states. In this paper, we present an analysis method to search for sterile neutrinos and the expected sensitivity with the baselines of our detectors.

  13. Sterile neutrinos as the origin of dark and baryonic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetti, Laurent; Drewes, Marco; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail

    2013-02-08

    We demonstrate for the first time that three sterile neutrinos alone can simultaneously explain neutrino oscillations, the observed dark matter, and the baryon asymmetry of the Universe without new physics above the Fermi scale. The key new point of our analysis is leptogenesis after sphaleron freeze-out, which leads to resonant dark matter production, evading thus the constraints on sterile neutrino dark matter from structure formation and x-ray searches. We identify the range of sterile neutrino properties that is consistent with all known constraints. We find a domain of parameters where the new particles can be found with present day experimental techniques, using upgrades to existing experimental facilities.

  14. Resonant Production of Sterile Neutrinos in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Lauren; Grohs, Evan; Fuller, George M.

    2016-06-01

    This study examines the cosmological impacts of a light resonantly produced sterile neutrino in the early universe. Such a neutrino could be produced through lepton number-driven Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) conversion of active neutrinos around big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), resulting in a non-thermal spectrum of both sterile and electron neutrinos. During BBN, the neutron-proton ratio depends sensitively on the electron neutrino flux. If electron neutrinos are being converted to sterile neutrinos, this makes the n/p ratio a probe of possible new physics. We use observations of primordial Yp and D/H to place limits on this process.

  15. Bacterial spores survive treatment with commercial sterilants and disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagripanti, J L; Bonifacino, A

    1999-09-01

    This study compared the activity of commercial liquid sterilants and disinfectants on Bacillus subtilis spores deposited on three types of devices made of noncorrodible, corrodible, or polymeric material. Products like Renalin, Exspor, Wavicide-01, Cidexplus, and cupric ascorbate were tested under conditions specified for liquid sterilization. These products, at the shorter times indicated for disinfection, and popular disinfectants, like Clorox, Cavicide, and Lysol were also studied. Data obtained with a sensitive and quantitative test suggest that commercial liquid sterilants and disinfectants are less effective on contaminated surfaces than generally acknowledged.

  16. Use of radioimmunoassay to diagnose some forms of endocrine sterility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balabolkin, M.I.; Gerasimov, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    The possibility is considered of using a metoclopramide test combined with radioimmunoassay for determing prolactin in the blood to diagnose some forms of endocrine sterility Of 17 women examined 5 are practically healthy, sterility of 6 women is caused by tumor of hypophysis verified by X-rayograms, 6 women suffered from disorderded prolactin secretion and sterility without roentgenologic signs of disordered sella turcica. Metoclopramide has been injected intravenously in the 10 mm dose. A series of advantages is noted of the metoclopramide sample characteristic of high availability of the preparation and practically complete absence of side-effects

  17. Delayed pulsar kicks from the emission of sterile neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusenko, Alexander; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad; Mukherjee, Alok

    2008-01-01

    The observed velocities of pulsars suggest the possibility that sterile neutrinos with mass of several keV are emitted from a cooling neutron star. The same sterile neutrinos could constitute all or part of cosmological dark matter. The neutrino-driven kicks can exhibit delays depending on the mass and the mixing angle, which can be compared with the pulsar data. We discuss the allowed ranges of sterile neutrino parameters, consistent with the latest cosmological and x-ray bounds, which can explain the pulsar kicks for different delay times

  18. The processing technology of bread crumbs sterilization by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jiating; Li Zhengkui; Zhao Yongfu; Zhang Weidong; Jin Jie; Wu Lei; Wang Xinghai

    2003-01-01

    The processing technology of bread crumbs sterilization by irradiation was studied. The results demonstrated that dose heterogeneity had osculatory connection with pile height and turning, sterilization effect had positive correlation with the irradiation dose and negative correlation with colour. Compared with the CK, the content of crud protein, fat, carbohydrate, microelement and amino acid in irradiated bread crumbs had no obvious change. It is recommended that the range of best sterilization dose be 6-10 kGy and the shelf time of bread crumbs be extended to one year

  19. The impact of harm reduction programs and police interventions on the number of syringes collected from public spaces. A time series analysis in Barcelona, 2004-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelt, A; Villalbí, J R; Bosque-Prous, M; Parés-Badell, O; Mari-Dell'Olmo, M; Brugal, M T

    2017-12-01

    To estimate the effect of opening two services for people who use drugs and three police interventions on the number of discarded syringes collected from public spaces in Barcelona between 2004 and 2014. We conducted an interrupted time-series analysis of the monthly number of syringes collected from public spaces during this period. The dependent variable was the number of syringes collected per month. The main independent variables were month and five dummy variables (the opening of two facilities with safe consumption rooms, and three police interventions). To examine which interventions affected the number of syringes collected, we performed an interrupted time-series analysis using a quasi-Poisson regression model, obtaining relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The number of syringes collected per month in Barcelona decreased from 13,800 in 2004 to 1655 in 2014 after several interventions. For example, following the closure of an open drug scene in District A of the city, we observed a decreasing trend in the number of syringes collected [RR=0.88 (95% CI: 0.82-0.95)], but an increasing trend in the remaining districts [RR=1.11 (95% CI: 1.05-1.17) and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.99-1.18) for districts B and C, respectively]. Following the opening of a harm reduction facility in District C, we observed an initial increase in the number collected in this district [RR=2.72 (95% CI: 1.57-4.71)] and stabilization of the trend thereafter [RR=0.97 (95% CI: 0.91-1.03)]. The overall number of discarded syringes collected from public spaces has decreased consistently in parallel with a combination of police interventions and the opening of harm reduction facilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Allelic interaction of F1 pollen sterility loci and abnormal chromosome behaviour caused pollen sterility in intersubspecific autotetraploid rice hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J H; Shahid, M Q; Li, Y J; Guo, H B; Cheng, X A; Liu, X D; Lu, Y G

    2011-08-01

    The intersubspecific hybrids of autotetraploid rice has many features that increase rice yield, but lower seed set is a major hindrance in its utilization. Pollen sterility is one of the most important factors which cause intersubspecific hybrid sterility. The hybrids with greater variation in seed set were used to study how the F(1) pollen sterile loci (S-a, S-b, and S-c) interact with each other and how abnormal chromosome behaviour and allelic interaction of F(1) sterility loci affect pollen fertility and seed set of intersubspecific autotetraploid rice hybrids. The results showed that interaction between pollen sterility loci have significant effects on the pollen fertility of autotetraploid hybrids, and pollen fertility further decreased with an increase in the allelic interaction of F(1) pollen sterility loci. Abnormal ultra-structure and microtubule distribution patterns during pollen mother cell (PMC) meiosis were found in the hybrids with low pollen fertility in interphase and leptotene, suggesting that the effect-time of pollen sterility loci interaction was very early. There were highly significant differences in the number of quadrivalents and bivalents, and in chromosome configuration among all the hybrids, and quadrivalents decreased with an increase in the seed set of autotetraploid hybrids. Many different kinds of chromosomal abnormalities, such as chromosome straggling, chromosome lagging, asynchrony of chromosome disjunction, and tri-fission were found during the various developmental stages of PMC meiosis. All these abnormalities were significantly higher in sterile hybrids than in fertile hybrids, suggesting that pollen sterility gene interactions tend to increase the chromosomal abnormalities which cause the partial abortion of male gametes and leads to the decline in the seed set of the autotetraploid rice hybrids. © 2011 The Author(s).

  1. Construction of a male sterility system for hybrid rice breeding and seed production using a nuclear male sterility gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhenyi; Chen, Zhufeng; Wang, Na; Xie, Gang; Lu, Jiawei; Yan, Wei; Zhou, Junli; Tang, Xiaoyan; Deng, Xing Wang

    2016-12-06

    The breeding and large-scale adoption of hybrid seeds is an important achievement in agriculture. Rice hybrid seed production uses cytoplasmic male sterile lines or photoperiod/thermo-sensitive genic male sterile lines (PTGMS) as female parent. Cytoplasmic male sterile lines are propagated via cross-pollination by corresponding maintainer lines, whereas PTGMS lines are propagated via self-pollination under environmental conditions restoring male fertility. Despite huge successes, both systems have their intrinsic drawbacks. Here, we constructed a rice male sterility system using a nuclear gene named Oryza sativa No Pollen 1 (OsNP1). OsNP1 encodes a putative glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase regulating tapetum degeneration and pollen exine formation; it is specifically expressed in the tapetum and miscrospores. The osnp1 mutant plant displays normal vegetative growth but complete male sterility insensitive to environmental conditions. OsNP1 was coupled with an α-amylase gene to devitalize transgenic pollen and the red fluorescence protein (DsRed) gene to mark transgenic seed and transformed into the osnp1 mutant. Self-pollination of the transgenic plant carrying a single hemizygous transgene produced nontransgenic male sterile and transgenic fertile seeds in 1:1 ratio that can be sorted out based on the red fluorescence coded by DsRed Cross-pollination of the fertile transgenic plants to the nontransgenic male sterile plants propagated the male sterile seeds of high purity. The male sterile line was crossed with ∼1,200 individual rice germplasms available. Approximately 85% of the F1s outperformed their parents in per plant yield, and 10% out-yielded the best local cultivars, indicating that the technology is promising in hybrid rice breeding and production.

  2. Belgian experience with radiation technologies for sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonet, H.; Dardenne, P.; Herier, A.

    1998-01-01

    Belgium pioneered in non energetic applications of nuclear science. In 1970, the National Institute for Radioisotopes (IRE) was founded on the ground of the experience acquired at the CEN/SCK, for developing nuclear techniques oriented to the well-being of population. In 1978 IRE started operation of 2 γ-irradiation units with a 2.25 million Ci Co 60 , source having a capacity for sterilization of more than 100 m 3 of product per day. this installation is currently operated by Griffith-Mediris (Group Griffith Micro Science) and has accumulated 20 years of experience for irradiation of foodstuffs, medical appliances and pharmaceuticals. In 1986, IRE was producing radioisotopes from accelerators and joined UCL for founding Ion Beam Applications (IBA) company which shortly became the world leader for design and delivery of cyclotrons. More recently, on the basis of French CEA patent, IBA developed the Rhodotron, an e-beam accelerator, with an X-ray option, which is now facing commercial success i area of ionization of food and medical appliances. IRE developed also expertise for the back-end of these activities i.e. final disposal of radioactive sealed source and dismantling of the installations. (author)

  3. Infection Risk in Sterile Operative Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacconelli, Evelina; Müller, Niklas F; Lemmen, Sebastian; Mutters, Nico T; Hagel, Stefan; Meyer, Elisabeth

    2016-04-22

    The main objective of hospital hygiene and infection prevention is to protect patients from preventable nosocomial infections. It was recently stated that the proper goal should be for zero infection rates in sterile surgical procedures. In this article, we attempt to determine whether this demand is supported by the available literature. We systematically searched the Medline and EMBASE databases for studies published in the last 10 years on the efficacy of infection control measures and carried out a meta-analysis according to the PRISMA tool. We used the following search terms: "aseptic surgery," "intervention," "surgical site infection," "nosocomial infection," "intervention," and "prevention." 2277 articles were retrieved, of which 204 were acquired in full text and analyzed. The quantitative analysis included 7 prospective cohort studies on the reduction of nosocomial infection rates after aseptic surgery. The measures used included training sessions, antibiotic prophylaxis, and operative-site disinfection and cleaning techniques. These interventions succeeded in reducing postoperative wound infections (relative risk (RR] 0.99 [0.98; 1.00]). Subgroup analyses on antibiotic prophylaxis (RR 0.99 [0.98; 1.01]) and noncontrolled trials (RR 0.97 [0.92; 1.02]) revealed small, insignificant effects. A multimodal approach with the participation of specialists from various disciplines can further reduce the rate of postoperative infection. A reduction to zero is not realistic and is not supported by available evidence.

  4. Twenty years of radiation sterilization in Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razem, Dusan E-mail: razem@irb.hr

    2004-10-01

    The development of radiation processing in Croatia is described from its inception 20 years ago up to the present time. Annual throughputs of treated materials are given by the categories of materials and pertaining volumes. The pasteurization of hard gelatine capsules occured during the early stages, while sterilization of disposable medical supplies has been dominant in the later stages. Irradiation of foods and of cosmetics and toiletries has been a minor fraction of the total throughput. Since the recovery of everyday life and economy of the country after the war, the total throughput has increased steadily to reach 13,000 m{sup 3} kGy in 2002, 90% of which are medical supplies. Estimates of the present maximum capacity of 30,000 m{sup 3} kGy and of future needs indicate that the present rate of growth could be sustained for the next several years only, unless a major upgrading is undertaken. An estimate of potential future needs is made.

  5. Transcriptional regulation of male-sterility in 7B-1 male-sterile tomato mutant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Omidvar

    Full Text Available The 7B-1 tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv Rutgers is a male-sterile mutant with enhanced tolerance to abiotic stress, which makes it a potential candidate for hybrid seed breeding and stress engineering. To underline the molecular mechanism regulating the male-sterility in 7B-1, transcriptomic profiles of the 7B-1 male-sterile and wild type (WT anthers were studied using mRNA sequencing (RNA-Seq. In total, 768 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified, including 132 up-regulated and 636 down-regulated transcripts. Gene ontology (GO enrichment analysis of DEGs suggested a general impact of the 7B-1 mutation on metabolic processes, such as proteolysis and carbohydrate catabolic process. Sixteen candidates with key roles in regulation of anther development were subjected to further analysis using qRT-PCR and in situ hybridization. Cytological studies showed several defects associated with anther development in the 7B-1 mutant, including unsynchronized anther maturation, dysfunctional meiosis, arrested microspores, defect in callose degradation and abnormal tapetum development. TUNEL assay showed a defect in programmed cell death (PCD of tapetal cells in 7B-1 anthers. The present study provides insights into the transcriptome of the 7B-1 mutant. We identified several genes with altered expression level in 7B-1 (including beta-1,3 glucanase, GA2oxs, cystatin, cysteine protease, pectinesterase, TA29, and actin that could potentially regulate anther developmental processes, such as meiosis, tapetum development, and cell-wall formation/degradation.

  6. Radiation sterilization of traditional medicine drugs in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hang, N.D.; Canh, T.T.; Thuy, T.T.

    1995-01-01

    With the application of Gamma Co-60 radiation sterilization in pharmaceutical industry, attention should be paid to the possibilities of sterilizing traditional medicine drugs produced in Vietnam. In this paper the opinion which traditional medicine drugs can be satisfactorily sterilized by irradiation is based on the changes of physical and chemical properties of the products and microbiological examinations. The sterilizing radiation dose were calculated and the results are the following (in Mrad) Rheumatine-2.2, Hasinh-3.3, snake extract-1.8, Samcotgiao-2.2. The changes of physical and chemical properties of the products and their toxicity after irradiation have been shown to be not over the levels of allowance. (Author)

  7. Radiation sterilization of plastic packing materials and aseptic packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuoka, Keiko

    1986-01-01

    In the present day of 'satiation', quality, not quantity, is emphasized for foods, the consumers being oriented toward raw and healthy foodstuff. Aseptic Packaging is excellent means of conservation. While conventionally chemicals have been used for sterilization of packing materials for aseptic packaging, the sterilization by radiation is used in part recently. The following are described : history of aseptic packaging and its features, sterilization by radiation, γ-ray sterilization of large-sized containers, the development of an aseptic packaging system using electron rays, the occurrence of offensive odors from packing materials (comparison of odors from various materials, volatile substances occurring in irradiated polyethylene, influence of film grade upon the formation of carboxylic acid, influence of the irradiation conditions upon the occurrences of volatile substances, volatile substances occurring in the irradiation of bag-in-box packing materials), changes in properties of the packing materials. (Mori, K.)

  8. Radiation sterilization of traditional medicine drugs in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hang, N.D.; Canh, T.T.; Thuy, T.T. [Nuclear Research Inst., Da Lat (Viet Nam)

    1995-10-01

    With the application of Gamma Co-60 radiation sterilization in pharmaceutical industry, attention should be paid to the possibilities of sterilizing traditional medicine drugs produced in Vietnam. In this paper the opinion which traditional medicine drugs can be satisfactorily sterilized by irradiation is based on the changes of physical and chemical properties of the products and microbiological examinations. The sterilizing radiation dose were calculated and the results are the following (in Mrad) Rheumatine-2.2, Hasinh-3.3, snake extract-1.8, Samcotgiao-2.2. The changes of physical and chemical properties of the products and their toxicity after irradiation have been shown to be not over the levels of allowance. (Author).

  9. Possibilities of sterilizing nutrient media used to grow tissue cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veber, P.; Leshko, Ya.; Gana, L.; Yankovicheva, T.; Yurmanova, K.

    1976-01-01

    Effects of radiosterilization on the properties of liquid and powdery Eagle's media and on inactivated calf and horse sera are described. It is shown that radiosterilization may be employed to sterilize biological agents required for in vitro cell cultivation. (author)

  10. Eugenics, sterilization, and historical memory in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Minna Stern

    Full Text Available Abstract From the 1920s to the 1950s, California sterilized approximately 20,000 people in state homes and hospitals based on a eugenic law that authorized medical superintendents to perform reproductive surgeries on patients deemed unfit and “suffering from a mental affliction likely to be inherited.” Working with a unique resource – a dataset created from 19,000 sterilization recommendations – my team and I have reconstructed patterns and experiences of institutionalization of sterilizations. This article presents several of our important initial findings related to ethnic and gender bias in sterilization policies, and reflects on the relevance of the history for contemporary issues in genomics and social justice.

  11. Steam sterilization costs: a guide for the central service manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, K L

    1993-07-01

    The Nassau County Medical Center CS department, East Meadow, New York, was faced with a staff layoff and an increased workload. With some hard thinking and strong staff support, new processes/systems were designed to save time and money. These included outsourcing the sterilization of "easy" trays, instituting a case cart program and developing custom packs. In order to determine where savings could be had, it was first important to examine current costs. By breaking the costs of sterilization processing down into an average cost per load, a formula was developed that helped determine many additional cost comparisons for the department. For example, the cost analysis formula could be used by CS departments to determine the cost-effectiveness of off-site sterilization, to compare using disposable vs. reusable items and to determine costs for EtO sterilization and aeration.

  12. Clean Air Act Standards and Guidelines for Sterilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the stationary sources of air pollution for the sterilizer industries, and their corresponding air pollution regulations. To learn more about the regulations for each industry, just click on the links below.

  13. Cosmological lepton asymmetry, primordial nucleosynthesis and sterile neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazajian, Kevork; Bell, Nicole F.; Fuller, George M.; Wong, Yvonne Y. Y.

    2005-09-01

    We study post weak decoupling coherent active-sterile and active-active matter-enhanced neutrino flavor transformation in the early Universe. We show that flavor conversion efficiency at Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein resonances is likely to be high (adiabatic evolution) for relevant neutrino parameters and energies. However, we point out that these resonances cannot sweep smoothly and continuously with the expansion of the Universe. We show how neutrino flavor conversion in this way can leave both the active and sterile neutrinos with nonthermal energy spectra, and how, in turn, these distorted energy spectra can affect the neutron-to-proton ratio, primordial nucleosynthesis, and cosmological mass/closure constraints on sterile neutrinos. We demonstrate that the existence of a light sterile neutrino which mixes with active neutrinos can change fundamentally the relationship between the cosmological lepton numbers and the primordial nucleosynthesis He4 yield.

  14. Postpartum Sterilization Choices Made by HIV-Infected Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen S. Stuart

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess if HIV-infected women made different choices for postpartum sterilization after implementation of the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 076 (November 1, 1994 compared to before implementation.

  15. Design, Construction and Evaluation of a Dry Solar Sterilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández Fereira, Arcelio A.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the work was the search of an alternative for sterilization using solar energy. For such purposes, a dry solar sterilizer of 4276 cm3 capacity was designed, constructed and evaluated. Potential users would be rural medical posts in areas without electricity, health posts in military units under field conditions, and experimental microbiology stations. The evaluation included the determination of the energy efficiency of the sterilizer, the economic evaluation against other variants and the biological safety assessment. The developed equipment reached the sterilization temperature for levels of the direct component of the solar radiation higher than 300 W/m2 in 14 minutes, corresponding to an average heating rate of 13 0C/minute, higher than that of an electric furnace. Its energy efficiency with direct solar radiation of 310.5 W/m2 was 53.79%. The equipment is of easy construction, simple operation and very low cost. (author)

  16. Degradation and stability of polycarbonate sterilized by gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, E.S.; Guedes, S.M.L.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the behavior of the polycarbonate (poly (bis phenol-A carbonate)) when it is sterilized by gamma rays because undesirable discoloration appears. Aromatic polycarbonates are amorphous polymers usually prepared from bis phenols and phosgene by interfacial polymerization. They are employed in medical applications, including blood filters, dialyzers, oxygenators and sterilizing equipment. At present, the best process for sterilization of medical supplies is present, the best process for sterilization of medical supplies is gamma irradiation. The two major effects of γ-radiation in polymers are crosslinking and main chain scission. Both effects coexist and either one may predominate depending on the chemical structure of the polymer and the conditions of irradiation. (author). 5 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  17. The role of meiotic drive in hybrid male sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Shannon R; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2010-04-27

    Meiotic drive causes the distortion of allelic segregation away from Mendelian expected ratios, often also reducing fecundity and favouring the evolution of drive suppressors. If different species evolve distinct drive-suppressor systems, then hybrid progeny may be sterile as a result of negative interactions of these systems' components. Although the hypothesis that meiotic drive may contribute to hybrid sterility, and thus species formation, fell out of favour early in the 1990s, recent results showing an association between drive and sterility have resurrected this previously controversial idea. Here, we review the different forms of meiotic drive and their possible roles in speciation. We discuss the recent empirical evidence for a link between drive and hybrid male sterility, also suggesting a possible mechanistic explanation for this link in the context of chromatin remodelling. Finally, we revisit the population genetics of drive that allow it to contribute to speciation.

  18. Mating competitiveness of sterile male Anopheles coluzzii in large cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïga, Hamidou; Damiens, David; Niang, Abdoulaye; Sawadogo, Simon P; Fatherhaman, Omnia; Lees, Rosemary S; Roux, Olivier; Dabiré, Roch K; Ouédraogo, Georges A; Tripet, Fréderic; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Gilles, Jeremie R L

    2014-11-26

    Understanding the factors that account for male mating competitiveness is critical to the development of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Here, the effects of partial sterilization with 90 Gy of radiation on sexual competitiveness of Anopheles coluzzii allowed to mate in different ratios of sterile to untreated males have been assessed. Moreover, competitiveness was compared between males allowed one versus two days of contact with females. Sterile and untreated males four to six days of age were released in large cages (~1.75 sq m) with females of similar age at the following ratios of sterile males: untreated males: untreated virgin females: 100:100:100, 300:100:100, 500:100:100 (three replicates of each) and left for two days. Competitiveness was determined by assessing the egg hatch rate and the insemination rate, determined by dissecting recaptured females. An additional experiment was conducted with a ratio of 500:100:100 and a mating period of either one or two days. Two controls of 0:100:100 (untreated control) and 100:0:100 (sterile control) were used in each experiment. When males and females consort for two days with different ratios, a significant difference in insemination rate was observed between ratio treatments. The competitiveness index (C) of sterile males compared to controls was 0.53. The number of days of exposure to mates significantly increased the insemination rate, as did the increased number of males present in the untreated: sterile male ratio treatments, but the number of days of exposure did not have any effect on the hatch rate. The comparability of the hatch rates between experiments suggest that An. coluzzii mating competitiveness experiments in large cages could be run for one instead of two days, shortening the required length of the experiment. Sterilized males were half as competitive as untreated males, but an effective release ratio of at least five sterile for one untreated male has the potential to impact the fertility of

  19. Periodontal instrumentation for the general dental practitioner: Pt. 2. Management maintenance and sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touyz, L.Z.G. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Oral Medicine and Periodontology); De Waal, J.

    1983-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the management, maintenance and sterilization of periodontal instrumentation used by the general dental practitioner. The pre-sterilization, decontamination and cleaning, the sharpening of instrumentation and the packaging, identification and grouping for sterilization are discussed. Attention is also given to various techniques of sterilization, including gamma radiation.

  20. Guide for dosimetry for sterile insect release programs. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This guide outlines dosimetric procedures to be followed for the radiation sterilization of live insects for use in pest management programs. The primary use of irradiated, reproductively sterile insects is in the Sterile Insect Technique, where large numbers of sterile insects are released into the field to mate with and thus control pest populations of the same species. A secondary use of sterile insects is as benign hosts for rearing insect parasitoids. The procedures outlined in this guide will help ensure that insects processed with ionizing radiation from gamma, electron, or X-ray sources receive absorbed doses within a predetermined range. Information on effective dose ranges for specific applications of insect sterilization, or on methodology for determining effective dose ranges, is not within the scope of this guide. Note: Dosimetry is only one component of a total quality control program to ensure that irradiated insects are adequately sterilized and sufficiently competitive or otherwise suitable for their intended purpose. This guide covers dosimetry in the irradiation of insects for these types of irradiators: self-contained dry-storage 137 Cs or 60 Co irradiators, large-scale gamma irradiators, and electron accelerators. Additional, detailed information on dosimetric procedures to be followed in installation qualification, operational qualification, performance qualification, and routine product processing can be found in ISO/ASTM Practices 51608 (X-ray [bremsstrahlung] facilities), 51649 (electron beam facilities), 51702 (large-scale gamma facilities), and ASTM Practice E 2116 (self-contained dry-storage gamma facilities). The absorbed dose for insect sterilization is typically within the range of 20 Gy to 600 Gy

  1. Sterilization of Lung Matrices by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Jenna L; Liu, Angela; Gard, Ashley L; Huie, Janet; Blatt, Kelly M S; Schwan, Jonas; Zhao, Liping; Broekelmann, Tom J; Mecham, Robert P; Wilcox, Elise C; Niklason, Laura E

    2016-03-01

    Lung engineering is a potential alternative to transplantation for patients with end-stage pulmonary failure. Two challenges critical to the successful development of an engineered lung developed from a decellularized scaffold include (i) the suppression of resident infectious bioburden in the lung matrix, and (ii) the ability to sterilize decellularized tissues while preserving the essential biological and mechanical features intact. To date, the majority of lungs are sterilized using high concentrations of peracetic acid (PAA) resulting in extracellular matrix (ECM) depletion. These mechanically altered tissues have little to no storage potential. In this study, we report a sterilizing technique using supercritical carbon dioxide (ScCO2) that can achieve a sterility assurance level 10(-6) in decellularized lung matrix. The effects of ScCO2 treatment on the histological, mechanical, and biochemical properties of the sterile decellularized lung were evaluated and compared with those of freshly decellularized lung matrix and with PAA-treated acellular lung. Exposure of the decellularized tissue to ScCO2 did not significantly alter tissue architecture, ECM content or organization (glycosaminoglycans, elastin, collagen, and laminin), observations of cell engraftment, or mechanical integrity of the tissue. Furthermore, these attributes of lung matrix did not change after 6 months in sterile buffer following sterilization with ScCO2, indicating that ScCO2 produces a matrix that is stable during storage. The current study's results indicate that ScCO2 can be used to sterilize acellular lung tissue while simultaneously preserving key biological components required for the function of the scaffold for regenerative medicine purposes.

  2. How self-interactions can reconcile sterile neutrinos with cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannestad, Steen; Hansen, Rasmus Sloth; Tram, Thomas

    2014-01-24

    Short baseline neutrino oscillation experiments have shown hints of the existence of additional sterile neutrinos in the eV mass range. However, such neutrinos seem incompatible with cosmology because they have too large of an impact on cosmic structure formation. Here we show that new interactions in the sterile neutrino sector can prevent their production in the early Universe and reconcile short baseline oscillation experiments with cosmology.

  3. Pharmaceutical aerosols. Study of their gamma radiation sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebert, P.

    1984-10-01

    The gamma radiation sterilization of pharmaceutical aerosols was studied. The following topics were investigated: radiosterilization of nitrogen protoxide used as a propellant; radiosterilization of packaging materials (aluminium containers, plastics valves); radio-sterilization of excipients and active ingredients. Most of the investigated materials proved to be stable to irradiation (2,5 Mrads) from pharmacopoeial aspect. Stability tests of the preparations packaged showed no change in the parameters investigated [fr

  4. Hysteroscopic tubal sterilization: a systematic review of the Essure system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurskainen, Ritva; Hovi, Sirpa-Liisa; Gissler, Mika; Grahn, Riitta; Kukkonen-Harjula, Katriina; Nord-Saari, Merja; Mäkelä, Marjukka

    2010-06-01

    To update the evidence of the efficacy and safety of the Essure system. Female sterilization has undergone changes in the last decade. Besides laparoscopic tubal occlusion, the Essure system is now a viable option, with about 200,000 women sterilized using this method. The review is based on the report of the Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research and completed with systematic literature searches up to April 8, 2008. The Managed Uptake of Medical Methods program of the Finnish National Research and Development Center for Health and Welfare. Women over 30 years, who had been sterilized by the Essure method. Hysteroscopic tubal sterilization using Essure system. Efficacy/effectiveness, adverse events, costs. Sterilization by Essure can be performed under local anesthesia or with oral analgesics in ambulatory settings. However, sterilization is not immediate and women must use additional contraception for 3 months until permanent tubal occlusion is verified by transvaginal ultrasound, hysterosalpingosonography, hysterosalpingography, or pelvic radiography. The evidence on efficacy and safety is mainly available from short follow-up case series but shows good efficacy and safety of the Essure system. Only a few small risks are associated with the procedure. Two economic studies, one of which implemented Essure as an in-office procedure, suggest that Essure could be more cost-effective than laparoscopic sterilization, but more information on the total cost is needed. The Essure system appears to be safe, permanent, irreversible, and a less invasive method of contraception compared with laparoscopic sterilization. Copyright (c) 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bacterial Spores Survive Treatment with Commercial Sterilants and Disinfectants

    OpenAIRE

    Sagripanti, Jose-Luis; Bonifacino, Aylin

    1999-01-01

    This study compared the activity of commercial liquid sterilants and disinfectants on Bacillus subtilis spores deposited on three types of devices made of noncorrodible, corrodible, or polymeric material. Products like Renalin, Exspor, Wavicide-01, Cidexplus, and cupric ascorbate were tested under conditions specified for liquid sterilization. These products, at the shorter times indicated for disinfection, and popular disinfectants, like Clorox, Cavicide, and Lysol were also studied. Data ob...

  6. Genetic complexity underlying hybrid male sterility in Drosophila.

    OpenAIRE

    Sawamura, Kyoichi; Roote, John; Wu, Chung-I; Yamamoto, Masa-Toshi

    2004-01-01

    Recent genetic analyses of closely related species of Drosophila have indicated that hybrid male sterility is the consequence of highly complex synergistic effects among multiple genes, both conspecific and heterospecific. On the contrary, much evidence suggests the presence of major genes causing hybrid female sterility and inviability in the less-related species, D. melanogaster and D. simulans. Does this contrast reflect the genetic distance between species? Or, generally, is the genetic b...

  7. Simultaneous extraction and determination of albendazole and triclabendazole by a novel syringe to syringe dispersive liquid phase microextraction-solidified floating organic drop combined with high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Mohammad; Dadfarnia, Shayessteh; Haji Shabani, Ali Mohammad

    2016-08-17

    A syringe to syringe dispersive liquid phase microextraction-solidified floating organic drop was introduced and used for the simultaneous extraction of trace amounts of albendazole and triclabendazole from different matrices. The extracted analytes were determined by high performance liquid chromatography along with fluorescence detection. The analytical parameters affecting the microextraction efficiency including the nature and volume of the extraction solvent, sample volume, sample pH, ionic strength and the cycles of extraction were optimized. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 0.1-30.0 μg L(-1) and 0.2-30.0 μg L(-1) with determination coefficients of 0.9999 and 0.9998 for albendazole and triclabendazole respectively. The detection limits defined as three folds of the signal to noise ratio were found to be 0.02 μg L(-1) for albendazole and 0.06 μg L(-1) for triclabendazole. The inter-day and intra-day precision (RSD%) for both analytes at three concentration levels (0.5, 2.0 and 10.0 μg L(-1)) were in the range of 6.3-10.1% and 5.0-7.5% respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to determine albendazole and triclabendazole in water, cow milk, honey, and urine samples. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Gamma radiations an effective way of monoclonal antibodies sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenay Barrera Barroso, Lenay; Otero Abreu, Isabel; Rodriguez Napoles, Dania; Bulte Ocanna, Dubhe; Caballero, Idania

    2006-01-01

    The sterilization for radiations of pharmaceutical products is an effective, sure and reliable procedure; that it have been proving technically and grateful for different pharmacopoeia. The Monoclonal Antibodies (Acm) produced in the Center of Molecular Immunology (CIM) are products parenteral for the one which results indispensable that they complete the requirements of established sterility. The radio sterilization result the method more recommend for the sterilization of the Acm deep drying, due to the contained first floor of humidity remnant that minimizes the formation of sub-product that they affect their properties. With the objective of proposing a good dose of irradiation for the sterilization, we were carried out a study of the radius sensibility so much of the product like of the polluting of greater frequency of isolation of the clean area of the CIM. The characterization of the radius sensibility of the different micro- organisms was determined by D 10 characteristic of each isolated strains. From the developed studies the Gram-positive rods endospore-forming were the most resistant strains at the deep drying, the radiations and they were of the greater frequency of apparition in the carried out isolations. We could conclude that utilizing a dose of 10 kGy it is possible to eliminate of the pollution more radio resistant, assuring the sterility required in the product, and without inducing effects under desire radiolytic in the same

  9. A search for sterile neutrinos with the latest cosmological observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Lu; Zhang, Jing-Fei [Northeastern University, Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Shenyang (China); Zhang, Xin [Northeastern University, Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Shenyang (China); Peking University, Center for High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)

    2017-06-15

    We report the result of a search for sterile neutrinos with the latest cosmological observations. Both cases of massless and massive sterile neutrinos are considered in the ΛCDM cosmology. The cosmological observations used in this work include the Planck 2015 temperature and polarization data, the baryon acoustic oscillation data, the Hubble constant direct measurement data, the Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich cluster counts data, the Planck lensing data, and the cosmic shear data. We find that the current observational data give a hint of the existence of massless sterile neutrino (as dark radiation) at the 1.44σ level, and the consideration of an extra massless sterile neutrino can indeed relieve the tension between observations and improve the cosmological fit. For the case of massive sterile neutrino, the observations give a rather tight upper limit on the mass, which implies that actually a massless sterile neutrino is more favored. Our result is consistent with the recent result of neutrino oscillation experiment done by the Daya Bay and MINOS collaborations, as well as the recent result of cosmic ray experiment done by the IceCube collaboration. (orig.)

  10. Development of atmospheric pressure plasma needle jet for sterilization applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfa, Rizan Rizon; Ahmad, Mohd Khairul; Soon, Chin Fhong; Sahdan, Mohd Zainizan; Lias, Jais; Wibowo, Kusnanto Mukti; Bakar, Ahmad Shuhaimi Abu; Arshad, Mohd Khairuddin Md; Hashim, Uda; Nayan, Nafarizal

    2017-09-01

    Inactivation of bacteria or sterilization has been a major issue in the medical field, especially regarding of human safety, whereby, in a huge scenario fatality can be caused by hazardous bacteria. Often, E-coli as gram-negative bacteria are selected as a key indicator of proper sterilization process as E-coli is tough and dormant bacteria. The technology in sterilization has moved on from chemical, wet and irradiation sterilization to a high promising device such as atmospheric pressure plasma needle jet (APPNJ). It has been reported that atmospheric pressure plasma has provided bundle of advantages over earlier sterilization process. The APPNJ is developed in our lab using high frequency and high voltage neon transformer power supply connected to copper needle and copper sheet electrodes. The gas discharge is Ar gas flowing at 40 L/min through a quartz glass tube. The E-coli bacteria are self-cultured from waste water and then treated with APPNJ. The treatment processes are run into two difference gaps between the plasma orifice and sample with various treatment times. Only 40s is required by direct treatment to achieve 100% killing of E-coli. On the other hand, indirect treatment has inactivated 50% of the E-coli in 40s. In this study, direct and indirect effect of APPNJ to the E-coli can be observed which can be utilized into sterilization of bio-compatible material applications.

  11. Sterilizing elastomeric chains without losing mechanical properties. Is it possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Melo Pithon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of different sterilization/disinfection methods on the mechanical properties of orthodontic elastomeric chains. METHODS: Segments of elastomeric chains with 5 links each were sent for sterilization by cobalt 60 (Co60 (20 KGy gamma ray technology. After the procedure, the elastomeric chains were contaminated with clinical samples of Streptococcus mutans. Subsequently, the elastomeric chains were submitted to sterilization/disinfection tests carried out by means of different methods, forming six study groups, as follows: Group 1 (control - without contamination, Group 2 (70°GL alcohol, Group 3 (autoclave, Group 4 (ultraviolet, Group 5 (peracetic acid and Group 6 (glutaraldehyde. After sterilization/disinfection, the effectiveness of these methods, by Colony forming units per mL (CFU/mL, and the mechanical properties of the material were assessed. Student's t-test was used to assess the number of CFUs while ANOVA and Tukey's test were used to assess elastic strength. RESULTS: Ultraviolet treatment was not completely effective for sterilization. No loss of mechanical properties occurred with the use of the different sterilization methods (p > 0.05. CONCLUSION: Biological control of elastomeric chains does not affect their mechanical properties.

  12. Remodeling of ACL Allografts is Inhibited by Peracetic Acid Sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonnermann, Johannes; Kamp, Julia; Przybilla, Dorothea; Pruss, Axel

    2008-01-01

    Sterilization of allografts for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has become an important prerequisite to prevent disease transmission. However, current sterilization techniques impair the biological or mechanical properties of such treated grafts. Peracetic acid (PAA) has been successfully used to sterilize bone allografts without these disadvantages and does not impair the mechanical properties of soft tissue grafts in vitro. We asked whether PAA sterilization would influence recellularization, restoration of crimp length and pattern, and revascularization of ACL grafts during early healing. We used an in vivo sheep model for open ACL reconstruction. We also correlated the histologic findings with the restoration of anteroposterior stability and structural properties during load-to-failure testing. PAA slowed remodeling activity at 6 and 12 weeks compared to nonsterilized allografts and autografts. The mechanical properties of PAA grafts were also reduced compared to these control groups at both time points. We conclude PAA sterilization currently should not be used to sterilize soft tissue grafts typically used in ACL reconstruction. PMID:18491201

  13. Effects of Sterilization Cycles on PEEK for Medical Device Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Wai Teng; Foo, Soo Leong; Lee, Teck Kheng

    2018-01-01

    The effects of the sterilization process have been studied on medical grade thermoplastic polyetheretherketone (PEEK). For a reusable medical device, material reliability is an important parameter to decide its lifetime, as it will be subjected to the continuous steam sterilization process. A spring nature, clip component was selected out of a newly designed medical device (patented) to perform this reliability study. This clip component was sterilized for a predetermined number of cycles (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 20…100) at 121 °C for 30 min. A significant decrease of ~20% in the compression force of the spring was observed after 30 cycles, and a ~6% decrease in the lateral dimension of the clip was observed after 50 cycles. No further significant change in the compression force or dimension was observed for the subsequent sterilization cycles. Vickers hardness and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques were used to characterize the effects of sterilization. DSC results exhibited no significant change in the degree of cure and melting behavior of PEEK before and after the sterilization. Hardness measurement exhibited an increase of ~49% in hardness after just 20 cycles. When an unsterilized sample was heated for repetitive cycles without the presence of moisture (121 °C, 10 and 20 cycles), only ~7% of the maximum change in hardness was observed. PMID:29466289

  14. Effect of fermentation and sterilization on anthocyanins in blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Qixing; Feng, Lei; Hu, Jielun; Wang, Sunan; Chen, Haihong; Huang, Xiaojun; Nie, Shaoping; Xiong, Tao; Xie, Mingyong

    2017-03-01

    Blueberry products have various health benefits due to their high content of dietary anthocyanins. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of fermentation and sterilization on total anthocyanin content, composition and some quality attributes of blueberry puree. The blueberry puree used here was fermented for 40 h at 37 °C by Lactobacillus after sterilization. The method of ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was optimized for the rapid analysis of anthocyanins. Quality attributes including pH, color, total soluble solids and viscosity were measured. A total of 21 anthocyanins and five anthocyanidins were quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Fermented blueberry had reduced total anthocyanin content (29%) and levels of individual anthocyanins compared with fresh blueberry. Total anthocyanin content was decreased 46% by sterilization, and different degradation behavior of individual anthocyanin was appeared between fermented and sterilized-fermented blueberry puree. Fermentation and sterilization decreased the total soluble solids and pH and changed color parameters, while minimally influencing viscosity. The loss of total anthocyanin content by fermentation was related to the unstable structure of blueberry anthocyanins. Anthocyanins are sensitive to temperature (>80 °C), and degradation of anthocyanins by sterilization in blueberry should be considered in the fermentation procedure. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Sterile Neutrino Search in the NOvA Far Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edayath, Sijith [Cochin U.; Aurisano, Adam [Cincinnati U.; Sousa, Alexandre [Cincinnati U.; Davies, Gavin [Indiana U.; Suter, Louise [Fermilab; Yang, Shaokai [Cincinnati U.

    2017-10-03

    The majority of neutrino oscillation experiments have obtained evidence for neutrino oscillations that are compatible with the three-flavor model. Explaining anomalous results from short-baseline experiments, such as LSND and MiniBooNE, in terms of neutrino oscillations requires the existence of sterile neutrinos. The search for sterile neutrino mixing conducted in NOvA uses a long baseline of 810 km between Near Detector (ND) at Fermilab and Far Detector (FD) in Minnesota. The signal for sterile neutrino oscillations is a deficit of neutral-current neutrino interactions at the FD with respect to the ND prediction. In this document, We will present the analysis improvements that we are implementing for future NC sterile neutrino searches with NOvA. These include: improved modelling of our detector response; the inclusion of NC 2p2h interaction modelling; implementing a better energy reconstruction techniques; and including possible oscillation due to sterile neutrinos in the ND . This improvements enable us to do a simultaneous ND-FD shape fit of the NC energy spectrum covering a wider sterile mass range than previous analyses.

  16. Sterilization techniques without heating (ultraviolet ray, radiation and ozone)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi

    1991-01-01

    The recent demand of consumers for processed foods is characterized by the intention for health and nature, besides, the demand for low sweetness, salt reduction, no additive and freshness becomes strong. In view of the control of microorganisms in products, all these become the negative factors. Accordingly, in order to overcome them, it is urgently desired to develop new technology or to improve conventional methods. As to heating sterilization, the uniform temperature treatment to the inside of foods is difficult, and it cannot be applied to perishables. The high temperature sterilization above 120degC causes the change in nutrition composition and physical properties. Ultraviolet ray and ozone can be used for the sterilization of food surface and powder and liquid foods. Radiation treatment can be applied to packed foods and frozen foods as well as food surface. The principle and the fields of application of ultraviolet ray sterilization, radiation sterilization and ozone sterilization are reported. In the mechanism of these methods, the action to DNA and oxidation are common. (K.I.)

  17. Effects of Sterilization Cycles on PEEK for Medical Device Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Yap, Wai Teng; Foo, Soo Leong; Lee, Teck Kheng

    2018-02-21

    The effects of the sterilization process have been studied on medical grade thermoplastic polyetheretherketone (PEEK). For a reusable medical device, material reliability is an important parameter to decide its lifetime, as it will be subjected to the continuous steam sterilization process. A spring nature, clip component was selected out of a newly designed medical device (patented) to perform this reliability study. This clip component was sterilized for a predetermined number of cycles (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 20…100) at 121 °C for 30 min. A significant decrease of ~20% in the compression force of the spring was observed after 30 cycles, and a ~6% decrease in the lateral dimension of the clip was observed after 50 cycles. No further significant change in the compression force or dimension was observed for the subsequent sterilization cycles. Vickers hardness and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques were used to characterize the effects of sterilization. DSC results exhibited no significant change in the degree of cure and melting behavior of PEEK before and after the sterilization. Hardness measurement exhibited an increase of ~49% in hardness after just 20 cycles. When an unsterilized sample was heated for repetitive cycles without the presence of moisture (121 °C, 10 and 20 cycles), only ~7% of the maximum change in hardness was observed.

  18. Electric dipole moments of charged leptons with sterile fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abada, Asmaa; Toma, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    We address the impact of sterile fermions on charged lepton electric dipole moments. Any experimental signal of these observables calls for scenarios of physics beyond the Standard Model providing new sources of CP violation. In this work, we consider a minimal extension of the Standard Model via the addition of sterile fermions which mix with active neutrinos and we derive the corresponding analytical expressions for the electric dipole moments of charged leptons at two-loop order. Our study reveals that, in order to have a non-vanishing contribution in this framework, the minimal extension necessitates the addition of at least 2 sterile fermion states to the Standard Model field content. Our conclusion is that sterile neutrinos can give significant contributions to the charged lepton electric dipole moments, some of them lying within present and future experimental sensitivity if the masses of the non-degenerate sterile states are both above the electroweak scale. The Majorana nature of neutrinos is also important in order to allow for significative contributions to the charged lepton electric dipole moments. In our analysis we impose all available experimental and observational constraints on sterile neutrinos and we further discuss the prospect of probing this scenario at low and high energy experiments.

  19. Electric dipole moments of charged leptons with sterile fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abada, Asmaa; Toma, Takashi [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, CNRS, University Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2016-02-26

    We address the impact of sterile fermions on charged lepton electric dipole moments. Any experimental signal of these observables calls for scenarios of physics beyond the Standard Model providing new sources of CP violation. In this work, we consider a minimal extension of the Standard Model via the addition of sterile fermions which mix with active neutrinos and we derive the corresponding analytical expressions for the electric dipole moments of charged leptons at two-loop order. Our study reveals that, in order to have a non-vanishing contribution in this framework, the minimal extension necessitates the addition of at least 2 sterile fermion states to the Standard Model field content. Our conclusion is that sterile neutrinos can give significant contributions to the charged lepton electric dipole moments, some of them lying within present and future experimental sensitivity if the masses of the non-degenerate sterile states are both above the electroweak scale. The Majorana nature of neutrinos is also important in order to allow for significative contributions to the charged lepton electric dipole moments. In our analysis we impose all available experimental and observational constraints on sterile neutrinos and we further discuss the prospect of probing this scenario at low and high energy experiments.

  20. Radiating sterilization of the venom of snake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abiyev, H.A.; Topchiyeva, Sh.A.; Rustamov, V.R.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Water solutions of venoms are unstable and they lose toxicity in some day. Snake venoms inactivate under action of some physical factors: the UV-irradiation, x-rays beams. The purpose of the present work was sterilization of venom Vipera lebetina obtusa under influence of small dozes γ-radiations. Object of research was integral venom of adult individuals. Transcaucasian viper, and also the water solutions of venom irradiated with small dozes scale of radiation. An irradiation of venom carried out to radioisotope installation 60NI. For experiment tests of dry venom, and also their water solutions have been taken. Water solutions of venom have been subjected -radiation up to dozes 1.35, 2.7, 4.05, 5.4 kGr simultaneously dry venom of vipers was exposed -radiation before absorption of a doze 5.4 kGr. In comparative aspect action scale of radiation on ultra-violet spectra of absorption of venom was studied. Ultra-violet spectra venom have been taken off on device Specord UV-VIS. In 12 months after an irradiation spectra of absorption of venom have been repeatedly taken off. In spectra irradiated dry and solutions of venom new maxima of absorption have been revealed in the field of 285 nm and 800 nm describing change of toxicity. It is shown, that the increase in absorption of a doze of radiation occurs decrease of intensity of strips of absorption reduction of intensity of absorption.It is revealed at 260 and 300 nm testifying to course of biochemical reactions of separate enzymes zootoxins. It is necessary to note, that at comparison of intensity of absorption of control samples of poison with irradiated up to dozes 1.35 kGr it has not been revealed essential changes. The subsequent increase in a doze scale of radiation up to 2.7, 4.05, 5.4 kGr promotes proportional reduction of intensity of the absorption, describing toxicity of snake venom. At repeated (later 12 months) measurement of the irradiated water solutions of venom are not revealed changes in