Sample records for single-turn coil due

  1. Engineering design and integration of in-vessel single turn segmental coil in vacuum vessel of SST-1 (United States)

    Jayswal, Snehal; Chauhan, P.; Santra, P.; Vasava, K.; Perekh, T.; Patel, H.; Biswas, P.; Pradhan, S.


    SST-1 tokamak is having the error field due to unsymmetrical positioning of Toroidal field coils which push the plasma to inner side from its major radius of 1100 mm. hence it is required to install the In-vessel Coil (PF6) at a location of 1350 mm radius and elevation of 350 mm above and below the mid plane of the toroidal field coils. The In-Vessel coil was decided to make in eight segments for futuristic use, to control the individual localized error field correction by supplying the different current. A single turn, eight segments, copper conductor with 18 mm diameter with GFRP insulation and in housed in SS304 L casing to carry 8000 A current for 10 s was designed and installed in vacuum vessel of SST-1. This paper will present the design drivers, material selection, advantages and constraints of the in-vessel coils, its conceptual and engineering design, CAD models, finite element analysis using ANSYS, its fabrication, quality assurance/control and assembly/integration aspects inside vacuum vessel of SST-1.

  2. The mechanism of thermal runaway due to continuous local disturbances in the YBCO-coated conductor coil winding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Y; Okuyama, E; Takematsu, T; Takizawa, A; Takahashi, M; Maeda, H; Nakagome, H; Takao, T; Hamada, M; Matsumoto, S; Kiyoshi, T


    Though YBCO coils are stable against transient disturbances such as conductor motion, they suffer from thermal runaway at a current below the coil critical current due to continuous local disturbances attributed to partial degradation of the conductor in the coil winding. Continuous heat generation in the degraded layer induces thermal runaway in adjacent layers; thermal runaway does not occur in the degraded layer spontaneously due to the small n index of the degraded YBCO-coated conductor. The thermal runaway current depends on the cooling conditions of the winding. For a paraffin-impregnated YBCO coil under quasi-adiabatic conditions, the thermal runaway current is far below the coil critical current, while it is close to the coil critical current in the case of a dry-wound coil. The permissible temperature rise following a thermal runaway for YBCO conductors in the degraded layer is demonstrated to be 340 K. If the YBCO coils are operated at a temperature below 20 K, the current density, typically 600–800 A mm −2 , is much higher than that at 77 K. Therefore, the time interval between thermal runaway initiation and the melting temperature becomes less than 0.5 s, posing a difficult problem for protection; i.e., thermal runaway due to continuous local disturbances is hazardous to the safe operation of high current density YBCO coils. (paper)

  3. Kilotesla Magnetic Field due to a Capacitor-Coil Target Driven by High Power Laser (United States)

    Fujioka, Shinsuke; Zhang, Zhe; Ishihara, Kazuhiro; Shigemori, Keisuke; Hironaka, Youichiro; Johzaki, Tomoyuki; Sunahara, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Naoji; Nakashima, Hideki; Watanabe, Tsuguhiro; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Azechi, Hiroshi


    Laboratory generation of strong magnetic fields opens new frontiers in plasma and beam physics, astro- and solar-physics, materials science, and atomic and molecular physics. Although kilotesla magnetic fields have already been produced by magnetic flux compression using an imploding metal tube or plasma shell, accessibility at multiple points and better controlled shapes of the field are desirable. Here we have generated kilotesla magnetic fields using a capacitor-coil target, in which two nickel disks are connected by a U-turn coil. A magnetic flux density of 1.5 kT was measured using the Faraday effect 650 μm away from the coil, when the capacitor was driven by two beams from the GEKKO-XII laser (at 1 kJ (total), 1.3 ns, 0.53 or 1 μm, and 5 × 1016 W/cm2). PMID:23378905

  4. Severe hypertension due to renal polar artery stenosis in an adolescent treated with coil embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Docx, Martine K.; Vandenberghe, Philippe; Maleux, Geert; Gewillig, Marc; Mertens, Luc


    A 12-year-old boy presented with severe arterial hypertension due to a severe subsegmental renal artery stenosis. Treatment consisted of selective embolization of the stenosed polar artery, which resulted in near normalization of the arterial pressures. Renal artery stenosis should always be considered, even in young adolescents, as a cause for arterial hypertension. Only selective angiography was able to demonstrate the subsegmental artery stenosis in this patient. (orig.)

  5. Evolutionary patterns in coiled-coils. (United States)

    Surkont, Jaroslaw; Pereira-Leal, Jose B


    Models of protein evolution are used to describe evolutionary processes, for phylogenetic analyses and homology detection. Widely used general models of protein evolution are biased toward globular domains and lack resolution to describe evolutionary processes for other protein types. As three-dimensional structure is a major constraint to protein evolution, specific models have been proposed for other types of proteins. Here, we consider evolutionary patterns in coiled-coil forming proteins. Coiled-coils are widespread structural domains, formed by a repeated motif of seven amino acids (heptad repeat). Coiled-coil forming proteins are frequently rods and spacers, structuring both the intracellular and the extracellular spaces that often form protein interaction interfaces. We tested the hypothesis that due to their specific structure the associated evolutionary constraints differ from those of globular proteins. We showed that substitution patterns in coiled-coil regions are different than those observed in globular regions, beyond the simple heptad repeat. Based on these substitution patterns we developed a coiled-coil specific (CC) model that in the context of phylogenetic reconstruction outperforms general models in tree likelihood, often leading to different topologies. For multidomain proteins containing both a coiled-coil region and a globular domain, we showed that a combination of the CC model and a general one gives higher likelihoods than a single model. Finally, we showed that the model can be used for homology detection to increase search sensitivity for coiled-coil proteins. The CC model, software, and other supplementary materials are available at (last accessed January 29, 2015). © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  6. ARCIMBOLDO on coiled coils. (United States)

    Caballero, Iracema; Sammito, Massimo; Millán, Claudia; Lebedev, Andrey; Soler, Nicolas; Usón, Isabel


    ARCIMBOLDO solves the phase problem by combining the location of small model fragments using Phaser with density modification and autotracing using SHELXE. Mainly helical structures constitute favourable cases, which can be solved using polyalanine helical fragments as search models. Nevertheless, the solution of coiled-coil structures is often complicated by their anisotropic diffraction and apparent translational noncrystallographic symmetry. Long, straight helices have internal translational symmetry and their alignment in preferential directions gives rise to systematic overlap of Patterson vectors. This situation has to be differentiated from the translational symmetry relating different monomers. ARCIMBOLDO_LITE has been run on single workstations on a test pool of 150 coiled-coil structures with 15-635 amino acids per asymmetric unit and with diffraction data resolutions of between 0.9 and 3.0 Å. The results have been used to identify and address specific issues when solving this class of structures using ARCIMBOLDO. Features from Phaser v.2.7 onwards are essential to correct anisotropy and produce translation solutions that will pass the packing filters. As the resolution becomes worse than 2.3 Å, the helix direction may be reversed in the placed fragments. Differentiation between true solutions and pseudo-solutions, in which helix fragments were correctly positioned but in a reverse orientation, was found to be problematic at resolutions worse than 2.3 Å. Therefore, after every new fragment-placement round, complete or sparse combinations of helices in alternative directions are generated and evaluated. The final solution is once again probed by helix reversal, refinement and extension. To conclude, density modification and SHELXE autotracing incorporating helical constraints is also exploited to extend the resolution limit in the case of coiled coils and to enhance the identification of correct solutions. This study resulted in a specialized mode

  7. Stress on Cold Mass Due to the Supporting System of the CMS Coil in the Vacuum Tank

    CERN Document Server

    Farinon, S


    This report contains a verification analysis of the stress on cold mass coming from the supporting system of the CMS coil in the vacuum tank. The need to carry out this analysis is related to the high mechanical requirements for $9 Al-alloy mandrels (218 MPa yield at cryogenic temperature), demanding accurate analysis of the impact of supporting system on cylinder stress.

  8. Successful Off-Label Use of Recombinant Factor VIIa and Coil Embolization in an Adolescent with Massive Hemoptysis Due to Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Gürlek Gökçebay


    Full Text Available Invasive fungal infections have turned out to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric patients with malignant disorders. Massive hemoptysis, a rare complication of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, may threaten the lives of patients, usually during the resolution of neutropenia. In this report, we describe a patient with massive hemoptysis due to invasive pulmonary aspergillosis whose bleeding was controlled successfully with off-label use of recombinant factor VIIa and subsequent coil embolization of the right pulmonary artery.

  9. An analysis of signal characteristics due to coil-gap variation of ECT bobbin probe for steam generation tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Min Woo; Cho, Chan Hee; Jee, Dong Hyun; Jung, Jee Hong; Lee, Hee Jong


    The bobbin probe technique is basically one of the important ECT methods for the steam generator tube integrity assesment that is practiced during each plant outage. The bobbin probe is one of the essential components which consist of the whole ECT examination system, and provides us a decisive data for the evaluation of tube integrity in compliance with acceptance criteria described in specific procedures. The selection of examination probe is especially important because the quality of acquired ECT data is determined by the probe design characteristics, geometry and operation frequencies, and has an important effect on examination results. In this study, the relationship between electric characteristic changes and differential coil gap variation has been investigated to optimize the ECT signal characteristics of the bobbin probe. With the results from this study, we have elucidated that the optimum coil gap is 1.2 - 1.6 mm that give the best result for O.D. volumetric defects in ASME calibration standards.

  10. Hierarchical cascades of instability govern the mechanics of coiled coils: helix unfolding precedes coil unzipping. (United States)

    Hamed, Elham; Keten, Sinan


    Coiled coils are a fundamental emergent motif in proteins found in structural biomaterials, consisting of α-helical secondary structures wrapped in a supercoil. A fundamental question regarding the thermal and mechanical stability of coiled coils in extreme environments is the sequence of events leading to the disassembly of individual oligomers from the universal coiled-coil motifs. To shed light on this phenomenon, here we report atomistic simulations of a trimeric coiled coil in an explicit water solvent and investigate the mechanisms underlying helix unfolding and coil unzipping in the assembly. We employ advanced sampling techniques involving steered molecular dynamics and metadynamics simulations to obtain the free-energy landscapes of single-strand unfolding and unzipping in a three-stranded assembly. Our comparative analysis of the free-energy landscapes of instability pathways shows that coil unzipping is a sequential process involving multiple intermediates. At each intermediate state, one heptad repeat of the coiled coil first unfolds and then unzips due to the loss of contacts with the hydrophobic core. This observation suggests that helix unfolding facilitates the initiation of coiled-coil disassembly, which is confirmed by our 2D metadynamics simulations showing that unzipping of one strand requires less energy in the unfolded state compared with the folded state. Our results explain recent experimental findings and lay the groundwork for studying the hierarchical molecular mechanisms that underpin the thermomechanical stability/instability of coiled coils and similar protein assemblies. Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Experimental measurements of the eddy current signal due to a flawed, conducting half space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, S.A.; Toomsawasdi, S.; Zaman, A.J.M.


    This chapter reports on an experimental investigation in which the change in impedance of a practical multi-turn eddy current coil near a conducting half space is measured as a function of the conductivity and the lift-off distance. The results are compared in a qualitative fashion with the analytical results for a single-turn coil. Measurements are also made of the change in impedance due to a small void in the conducting half space as a function of both its depth and radial position. The results indicate that, at least in a qualitative fashion, the precisely derived analytical solutions adequately predict the general behavior of the change in complex impedance of an eddy current coil above a conducting ground plane as a function of lift-off distance. It is determined that the effect of a sub-surface void on the change in inductance of the test coil correlates well with theoretical calculations

  12. Assessment of single-turn extraction for a superconducting separated-sector cyclotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-W. Kim


    Full Text Available We have studied the beam dynamics in a high field separated-sector cyclotron to establish conditions required to achieve single-turn extraction. Extraction efficiency above 99% is aimed to avoid beam-induced damages. A sufficient last-turn separation and a preservation of beam quality throughout the acceleration are the prerequisites. The last-turn separation can be enhanced with the orbital precession induced by an off-centering injection as in existent lower field separated-sector cyclotrons. The beam qualities, on the other hand, are affected by the resonances traversed or approached during the acceleration. Acceleration of light nuclei to the energies of 300–400 MeV/u was especially disturbing because of the broadening of radial beamwidth upon crossing the ν_{r}=3/2 resonance. Tolerance to the third harmonic gradient field, which causes the resonance in lowest order, is set to be 0.1 G/cm. The integer resonance ν_{z}=1 can be avoided with a proper design of the yoke. The longitudinal space charge forces were also investigated to estimate the intensity limits determined by the energy spreads of beam assuming simplified charge distributions. Moreover, beam preparations for injection matching are described in view of reducing the beam losses into the extraction elements.

  13. Rope coiling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sitichoke Amnuanpol


    Oct 19, 2017 ... In rope coiling the centre of the circle is static. How- ever, it evolves in time as seen in the curling of .... friction force between the rope and the plane, because no significant changes in the coiling radius R and ... friction force relative to the axial compressive forces,. i.e. gravitational force and inertial force, ...

  14. Rope coiling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present the results of the combined experimental and theoretical investigation of rope coiling arising from the buckling instability. The shape of the rope is perfectly circular in the coiling region and is straight in the region below the feeding point. In between these two distant regions, the rope assumes a catenary-like ...

  15. α/β coiled coils (United States)

    Hartmann, Marcus D; Mendler, Claudia T; Bassler, Jens; Karamichali, Ioanna; Ridderbusch, Oswin; Lupas, Andrei N; Hernandez Alvarez, Birte


    Coiled coils are the best-understood protein fold, as their backbone structure can uniquely be described by parametric equations. This level of understanding has allowed their manipulation in unprecedented detail. They do not seem a likely source of surprises, yet we describe here the unexpected formation of a new type of fiber by the simple insertion of two or six residues into the underlying heptad repeat of a parallel, trimeric coiled coil. These insertions strain the supercoil to the breaking point, causing the local formation of short β-strands, which move the path of the chain by 120° around the trimer axis. The result is an α/β coiled coil, which retains only one backbone hydrogen bond per repeat unit from the parent coiled coil. Our results show that a substantially novel backbone structure is possible within the allowed regions of the Ramachandran space with only minor mutations to a known fold. DOI: PMID:26771248

  16. Structural specificity in coiled-coil interactions


    Grigoryan, Gevorg; Keating, Amy E.


    Coiled coils have a rich history in the field of protein design and engineering. Novel structures, such as the first 7-helix coiled coil, continue to provide surprises and insights. Large-scale data sets quantifying the influence of systematic mutations on coiled-coil stability are a valuable new asset to the area. Scoring methods based on sequence and/or structure can predict interaction preferences in coiled-coil-mediated bZIP transcription factor dimerization. Experimental and computationa...

  17. High-performance RF coil inductors on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malba, V.; Young, D.; Ou, J.J.; Bernhardt, A.F.; Boser, B.E.


    Strong demand for wireless communication devices has motivated research directed toward monolithic integration of transceivers. The fundamental electronic component least compatible with silicon integrated circuits is the inductor, although a number of inductors are required to implement oscillators, filters and matching networks in cellular devices. Spiral inductors have been integrated into the silicon IC metallization sequence but have not performed adequately due to coupling to the silicon which results in parasitic capacitance and loss. We have, for the first time, fabricated three dimensional coil inductors on silicon which have significantly lower capacitive coupling and loss and which now exceed the requirements of potential applications. Quality factors of 30 at 1 GHz have been measured in single turn devices and Q > 16 in 2 and 4 turn devices. The reduced Q for multiturn devices appears to be related to eddy currents in outer turns generated by magnetic fields from current in neighboring turns. Higher Q values significantly in excess of 30 are anticipated using modified coil designs.

  18. Ejector COIL (United States)

    Nikolaev, Valeriy D.; Svistun, Michael I.; Zagidullin, Marsel V.


    The historical ejector-like chemical oxygen iodine laser (COIL) contribution at the Lebedev Physical Institute, Samara Branch is briefly presented. Two possible schemes of such COIL which provide the high exhaust pressure are considered. The high-pressure hot driver nitrogen is carrier of iodine vapor in the first scheme. In the second version the additional nozzles with the low-pressure secondary nitrogen are employed for injection iodine vapor but the pure high-pressure driver nitrogen has the room temperature. The last COIL version was investigated in Lebedev Physical Institute in more detail and results of these investigations are presented. This ejector nozzle bank generates gain medium with high Mach number, low temperature and high gain. A high chemical efficiency up to 25% and the potential pressure recovery up to 90 torr have been achieved simultaneously.

  19. Coil Migration through a Neuroform 3 Stent during Endovascular Coiling. A Case Report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Hare, A


    Summary: A 43-year-old woman attended for stent assisted coiling. A Neuroform 30 x 4.5 mm stent had been successfully placed over the left periophthalmic aneurysm. During the coiling the first coil migrated through the crowns in the stent, lodging at the MCA bifurcation. We believe that the coil herniated through the overlying stent due to the carotid siphon curvature and the open cell design. Furthermore the distal markers of the stent impeded coil extraction with a MERCI device.

  20. PDX toroidal field coils stress analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikodem, Z.D.; Smith, R.A.


    A method used in the stress analysis of the PDX toroidal field coil is developed. A multilayer coil design of arbitrary dimensions in the shape of either a circle or an oval is considered. The analytical model of the coil and the supporting coil case with connections to the main support structure is analyzed using the finite element technique. The three dimensional magnetic fields and the non-uniform body forces which are a loading condition on a coil due to toroidal and poloidal fields are calculated. The method of analysis permits rapid and economic evaluations of design changes in coil geometry as well as in coil support structures. Some results pertinent to the design evolution and their comparison are discussed. The results of the detailed stress analysis of the final coil design due to toroidal field, poloidal field and temperature loads are presented

  1. A high temperature superconductor tape RF receiver coil for a low field magnetic resonance imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, M C; Yan, B P; Lee, K H; Ma, Q Y; Yang, E S


    High temperature superconductor (HTS) thin films have been applied in making a low loss RF receiver coil for improving magnetic resonance imaging image quality. However, the application of these coils is severely limited by their limited field of view (FOV). Stringent fabrication environment requirements and high cost are further limitations. In this paper, we propose a simpler method for designing and fabricating HTS coils. Using industrial silver alloy sheathed Bi (2-x) Pb x Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10 (Bi-2223) HTS tapes, a five-inch single-turn HTS solenoid coil has been developed, and human wrist images have been acquired with this coil. The HTS tape coil has demonstrated an enhanced FOV over a six-inch YBCO thin film surface coil at 77 K with comparable signal-to-noise ratio

  2. Triple Halo Coil: Development and Comparison with Other TMS Coils (United States)

    Rastogi, Priyam; Hadimani, Ravi; Jiles, David

    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive stimulation technique that can be used for the treatment of various neurological disorders such as Parkinson's Disease, PTSD, TBI and anxiety by regulating synaptic activity. TMS is FDA approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder. There is a critical need to develop deep TMS coils that can stimulate deeper regions of the brain without excessively stimulating the cortex in order to provide an alternative to surgical methods. We have developed a novel multi-coil configuration called ``Triple Halo Coil'' (THC) that can stimulate deep brain regions. Investigation of induced electric and magnetic field in these regions have been achieved by computer modelling. Comparison of the results due to THC configuration have been conducted with other TMS coils such as ``Halo Coil'', circular coil and ``Figure of Eight'' coil. There was an improvement of more than 15 times in the strength of magnetic field, induced by THC configuration at 10 cm below the vertex of the head when compared with the ``Figure of Eight'' coil alone. Carver Charitable Trust.

  3. Coiled-Coil Design: Updated and Upgraded. (United States)

    Woolfson, Derek N


    α-Helical coiled coils are ubiquitous protein-folding and protein-interaction domains in which two or more α-helical chains come together to form bundles. Through a combination of bioinformatics analysis of many thousands of natural coiled-coil sequences and structures, plus empirical protein engineering and design studies, there is now a deep understanding of the sequence-to-structure relationships for this class of protein architecture. This has led to considerable success in rational design and what might be termed in biro de novo design of simple coiled coils, which include homo- and hetero-meric parallel dimers, trimers and tetramers. In turn, these provide a toolkit for directing the assembly of both natural proteins and more complex designs in protein engineering, materials science and synthetic biology. Moving on, the increased and improved use of computational design is allowing access to coiled-coil structures that are rare or even not observed in nature, for example α-helical barrels, which comprise five or more α-helices and have central channels into which different functions may be ported. This chapter reviews all of these advances, outlining improvements in our knowledge of the fundamentals of coiled-coil folding and assembly, and highlighting new coiled coil-based materials and applications that this new understanding is opening up. Despite considerable progress, however, challenges remain in coiled-coil design, and the next decade promises to be as productive and exciting as the last.

  4. Crystallographic study on oligonucleotide coiled-coils


    Luchi, Daniela de


    En la presente tesis doctoral se han realizado estudios estructurales de DNA. Estudios previos han demostrado que los coiled-coils de d(ATATATATATAT) y d(ATATATATAT) tienen unos parámetros geométricos muy diferentes. El objetivo de esta tesis es aclarar las propiedades de los coiled-coils.Con esta finalidad se han estudiado por cristalografía de Rayos X oligonucleótidos con diferentes secuencias y con extremos cohesivos que fijen la geometría de los coiled-coils. Se han utilizado oligonucleót...

  5. An inflatable surface coil for rectal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.F.; Hajek, P.C.; Baker, L.L.; Gylys-Morin, V.; Mattrey, R.F.


    Surface coils have become ubiquitous in MR imaging of the body because of substantial gains in signal-to-noise ratio. Unfortunately, there are some anatomic regions, such as the prostate, for which surface coils have insufficient depth sensitivity. The authors have developed an inflatable, distributed capacitance, passively decoupled surface coil which is collapsed for insertion and reinflated for imaging. Images of the prostate are dramatically improved due to proximity of the coil. Lesions in cadaver specimens were observed which were not seen with body coil imaging. Clinical trials are expected to begin in September

  6. Convergently-evolved structural anomalies in the coiled coil domains of insect silk proteins. (United States)

    Sutherland, Tara D; Trueman, Holly E; Walker, Andrew A; Weisman, Sarah; Campbell, Peter M; Dong, Zhaoming; Huson, Mickey G; Woodhead, Andrea L; Church, Jeffrey S


    The use of coiled coil proteins as the basis of silk materials is an engineering solution that has evolved convergently in at least five insect lineages-the stinging hymenopterans (ants, bees, hornets), argid sawflies, fleas, lacewings, and praying mantises-and persisted throughout large radiations of these insect families. These coiled coil silk proteins share a characteristic distinct from other coiled coil proteins, in that they are fabricated into solid materials after accumulating as highly concentrated solutions within dedicated glands. Here, we relate the amino acid sequences of these proteins to the secondary and tertiary structural information available from biophysical methods such as X-ray scattering, nuclear magnetic resonance and Raman spectroscopy. We investigate conserved and convergently evolved features within these proteins and compare these to the features of classic coiled coil proteins including tropomyosin and leucine zippers. Our analysis finds that the coiled coil domains of insect silk proteins have several common structural anomalies including a high prevalence of alanine residues in core positions. These atypical features of the coiled coil fibrous proteins - which likely produce deviations from canonical coiled-coil structure - likely exist due to selection pressures related to the process of silk fabrication and the final function of the proteins. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Structural implications of conserved aspartate residues located in tropomyosin's coiled-coil core. (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey R; Li, Xiaochuan; Nirody, Jasmine; Fischer, Stefan; Lehman, William


    Polar residues lying between adjacent α-helical chains of coiled-coils often contribute to coiled-coil curvature and flexibility, while more typical core hydrophobic residues anneal the chains together. In tropomyosins, ranging from smooth and skeletal muscle to cytoplasmic isoforms, a highly conserved Asp at residue 137 places negative charges within the tropomyosin coiled-coil core in a position which may affect the conformation needed for tropomyosin binding and regulatory movements on actin. Proteolytic susceptibility suggested that substituting a canonical Leu for the naturally occurring Asp at residue 137 increases inter-chain rigidity by stabilizing the tropomyosin coiled-coil. Using molecular dynamics, we now directly assess changes in coiled-coil curvature and flexibility caused by such mutants. Although the coiled-coil flexibility is modestly diminished near the residue 137 mutation site, as expected, a delocalized increase in flexibility along the overall coiled-coil is observed. Even though the average shape of the D137L tropomyosin is straighter than that of wild-type tropomyosin, it is still capable of binding actin due to this increase in flexibility. We conclude that the conserved, non-canonical Asp-137 destabilizes the local structure resulting in a local flexible region in the middle of tropomyosin that normally is important for tropomyosin steady-state equilibrium position on actin.

  8. Predicting coiled coils by use of pairwise residue correlations.


    Berger, B; Wilson, D B; Wolf, E; Tonchev, T; Milla, M; Kim, P S


    A method is presented that predicts coiled-coil domains in protein sequences by using pairwise residue correlations obtained from a (two-stranded) coiled-coil database of 58,217 amino acid residues. A program called PAIRCOIL implements this method and is significantly better than existing methods at distinguishing coiled coils from alpha-helices that are not coiled coils. The database of pairwise residue correlations suggests structural features that stabilize or destabilize coiled coils.

  9. Development of a new error field correction coil (C-coil) for DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, J.I.; Scoville, J.T.


    The C-coil recently installed on the DIII-D tokamak was developed to reduce the error fields created by imperfections in the location and geometry of the existing coils used to confine, heat, and shape the plasma. First results from C-coil experiments include stable operation in a 1.6 MA plasma with a density less than 1.0 x 10 13 cm -3 , nearly a factor of three lower density than that achievable without the C-coil. The C-coil has also been used in magnetic braking of the plasma rotation and high energy particle confinement experiments. The C-coil system consists of six individual saddle coils, each 60 degree wide toroidally, spanning the midplane of the vessel with a vertical height of 1.6 m. The coils are located at a major radius of 3.2 m, just outside of the toroidal field coils. The actual shape and geometry of each coil section varied somewhat from the nominal dimensions due to the large number of obstructions to the desired coil path around the already crowded tokamak. Each coil section consists of four turns of 750 MCM insulated copper cable banded with stainless steel straps within the web of a 3 in. x 3 in. stainless steel angle frame. The C-coil structure was designed to resist peak transient radial forces (up to 1,800 Nm) exerted on the coil by the toroidal and ploidal fields. The coil frames were supported from existing poloidal field coil case brackets, coil studs, and various other structures on the tokamak

  10. Modulation of Coiled-Coil Dimer Stability through Surface Residues while Preserving Pairing Specificity. (United States)

    Drobnak, Igor; Gradišar, Helena; Ljubetič, Ajasja; Merljak, Estera; Jerala, Roman


    The coiled-coil dimer is a widespread protein structural motif and, due to its designability, represents an attractive building block for assembling modular nanostructures. The specificity of coiled-coil dimer pairing is mainly based on hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions between residues at positions a, d, e, and g of the heptad repeat. Binding affinity, on the other hand, can also be affected by surface residues that face away from the dimerization interface. Here we show how design of the local helical propensity of interacting peptides can be used to tune the stabilities of coiled-coil dimers over a wide range. By designing intramolecular charge pairs, regions of high local helical propensity can be engineered to form trigger sequences, and dimer stability is adjusted without changing the peptide length or any of the directly interacting residues. This general principle is demonstrated by a change in thermal stability by more than 30 °C as a result of only two mutations outside the binding interface. The same approach was successfully used to modulate the stabilities in an orthogonal set of coiled-coils without affecting their binding preferences. The stability effects of local helical propensity and peptide charge are well described by a simple linear model, which should help improve current coiled-coil stability prediction algorithms. Our findings enable tuning the stabilities of coiled-coil-based building modules match a diverse range of applications in synthetic biology and nanomaterials.

  11. Programming protein self assembly with coiled coils (United States)

    Dietz, Hendrik; Bornschlögl, Thomas; Heym, Roland; König, Frauke; Rief, Matthias


    The controlled assembly of protein domains into supramolecular structures will be an important prerequisite for the use of functional proteins in future nanotechnology applications. Coiled coils are multimerization motifs whose dimerization properties can be programmed by amino acid sequence. Here, we report programmed supramolecular self-assembly of protein molecules using coiled coils and directly demonstrate its potential on the single molecule level by AFM force spectroscopy. We flanked two different model proteins, Ig27 from human cardiac titin and green fluorescent protein (GFP), by coiled coil binding partners and studied the capability of these elementary building blocks to self-assemble into linear chains. Simple sterical constraints are shown to control the assembly process, providing evidence that many proteins can be assembled with this method. An application for this technique is the design of polyproteins for single molecule force spectroscopy with an integrated force-calibration standard.

  12. Computational analysis of residue contributions to coiled-coil topology (United States)

    Ramos, Jorge; Lazaridis, Themis


    A variety of features are thought to contribute to the oligomeric and topological specificity of coiled coils. In previous work, we examined the determinants of oligomeric state. Here, we examine the energetic basis for the tendency of six coiled-coil peptides to align their α-helices in antiparallel orientation using molecular dynamics simulations with implicit solvation (EEF1.1). We also examine the effect of mutations known to disrupt the topology of these peptides. In agreement with experiment, ARG or LYS at a or d positions were found to stabilize the antiparallel configuration. The modeling suggests that this is not due to a–a′ or d–d′ repulsions but due to interactions with e′ and g′ residues. TRP at core positions also favors the antiparallel configuration. Residues that disfavor parallel dimers, such as ILE at d, are better tolerated in, and thus favor the antiparallel configuration. Salt bridge networks were found to be more stabilizing in the antiparallel configuration for geometric reasons: antiparallel helices point amino acid side chains in opposite directions. However, the structure with the largest number of salt bridges was not always the most stable, due to desolvation and configurational entropy contributions. In tetramers, the extent of stabilization of the antiparallel topology by core residues is influenced by the e′ residue on a neighboring helix. Residues at b and c positions in some cases also contribute to stabilization of antiparallel tetramers. This work provides useful rules toward the goal of designing coiled coils with a well-defined and predictable three-dimensional structure. PMID:21858887

  13. Outcomes with single-coil versus dual-coil implantable cardioverter defibrillators: a meta-analysis. (United States)

    Sunderland, Nicholas; Kaura, Amit; Murgatroyd, Francis; Dhillon, Para; Scott, Paul A


    Dual-coil implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) leads have traditionally been used over single-coil leads due to concerns regarding high defibrillation thresholds (DFT) and consequent poor shock efficacy. However, accumulating evidence suggests that this position may be unfounded and that dual-coil leads may also be associated with higher complication rates during lead extraction. This meta-analysis collates data comparing dual- and single-coil ICD leads. Electronic databases were systematically searched for randomized controlled trials (RCT) and non-randomized studies comparing single-coil and dual-coil leads. The mean differences in DFT and summary estimates of the odds-ratio (OR) for first-shock efficacy and the hazard-ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality were calculated using random effects models. Eighteen studies including a total of 138,124 patients were identified. Dual-coil leads were associated with a lower DFT compared to single coil leads (mean difference -0.83J; 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.39--0.27; P = 0.004). There was no difference in the first-shock success rate with dual-coil compared to single-coil leads (OR 0.74; 95%CI 0.45-1.21; P=0.22). There was a significantly lower risk of all-cause mortality associated with single-coil leads (HR 0.91; 95%CI 0.86-0.95; P dual-coil leads. The mortality benefit with single-coil leads most likely represents patient selection bias. Given the increased risk and complexity of extracting dual-coil leads, centres should strongly consider single-coil ICD leads as the lead of choice for routine new left-sided ICD implants. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email:

  14. Biomaterials Made from Coiled-Coil Peptides. (United States)

    Conticello, Vincent; Hughes, Spencer; Modlin, Charles

    The development of biomaterials designed for specific applications is an important objective in personalized medicine. While the breadth and prominence of biomaterials have increased exponentially over the past decades, critical challenges remain to be addressed, particularly in the development of biomaterials that exhibit highly specific functions. These functional properties are often encoded within the molecular structure of the component molecules. Proteins, as a consequence of their structural specificity, represent useful substrates for the construction of functional biomaterials through rational design. This chapter provides an in-depth survey of biomaterials constructed from coiled-coils, one of the best-understood protein structural motifs. We discuss the utility of this structurally diverse and functionally tunable class of proteins for the creation of novel biomaterials. This discussion illustrates the progress that has been made in the development of coiled-coil biomaterials by showcasing studies that bridge the gap between the academic science and potential technological impact.

  15. Cooling and dehumidifying coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, M.V.K.


    The operating features of cooling and dehumidifying coils and their constructional details are discussed. The heat transfer relations as applicable to the boiling refrigerant and a single phase fluid are presented. Methods of accounting for the effect of moisture condensation on the air side heat transfer coefficient and the fin effectiveness are explained. The logic flow necessary to analyze direct expansion coils and chilled water coils is discussed

  16. Computational characterization of parallel dimeric and trimeric coiled-coils using effective amino acid indices. (United States)

    Li, Chen; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Chen, Zhen; Zhang, Ziding; Song, Jiangning


    The coiled-coil, which consists of two or more α-helices winding around each other, is a ubiquitous and the most frequently observed protein-protein interaction motif in nature. The coiled-coil is known for its straightforward heptad repeat pattern and can be readily recognized based on protein primary sequences, exhibiting a variety of oligomer states and topologies. Due to the stable interaction formed between their α-helices, coiled-coils have been under close scrutiny to design novel protein structures for potential applications in the fields of material science, synthetic biology and medicine. However, their broader application requires an in-depth and systematic analysis of the sequence-to-structure relationship of coiled-coil folding and oligomeric formation. In this article, we propose a new oligomerization state predictor, termed as RFCoil, which exploits the most useful and non-redundant amino acid indices combined with the machine learning algorithm - random forest (RF) - to predict the oligomeric states of coiled-coil regions. Benchmarking experiments show that RFCoil achieves an AUC (area under the ROC curve) of 0.849 on the 10-fold cross-validation test using the training dataset and 0.855 on the independent test using the validation dataset, respectively. Performance comparison results indicate that RFCoil outperforms the four existing predictors LOGICOIL, PrOCoil, SCORER 2.0 and Multicoil2. Furthermore, we extract a number of predominant rules from the trained RF model that underlie the oligomeric formation. We also present two case studies to illustrate the applicability of the extracted rules to the prediction of coiled-coil oligomerization state. The RFCoil web server, source codes and datasets are freely available for academic users at

  17. The coiled coil motif in polymer drug delivery systems. (United States)

    Pechar, Michal; Pola, Robert


    The coiled coil is a superhelical structural protein motif that has been thoroughly investigated in recent years. Because of the relatively well-understood principles that determine the properties of coiled coil peptides and proteins, macromolecular systems containing the coiled coil motif have been suggested for various applications. This short review focuses on hybrid polymer coiled coil systems designed for drug delivery purposes. After a short introduction, the most important features of the coiled coils (stability, association number, oligomerization selectivity and orientation of helices) are described, and the factors influencing these characteristics are discussed. Several examples of the most interesting biomedical applications of the polymer-coiled coil systems (according to the authors' opinion) are presented. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Planar quadrature coil design using shielded-loop resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensgaard, A


    The shielded-loop resonator is known to have a low capacitive sample loss due to a perfect balancing. In this paper, it is demonstrated that shielded-loop technology also can be used to improve design of planar quadrature coils. Both a dual-loop circuit and especially a dual-mode circuit may...... benefit from use of shielded-loop resonators. Observations in measurements agree with theory for both a dual-loop coil and a dual-mode coil. The coils were designed for use as transmit/receive coil for 1H imaging and spectroscopy at 4.7 T in rat brain....

  19. Compact stellarator coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomphrey, N.; Berry, L.A.; Boozer, A.H.


    Experimental devices to study the physics of high-beta (β>∼4%), low aspect ratio (A<∼4.5) stellarator plasmas require coils that will produce plasmas satisfying a set of physics goals, provide experimental flexibility, and be practical to construct. In the course of designing a flexible coil set for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment, we have made several innovations that may be useful in future stellarator design efforts. These include: the use of Singular Value Decomposition methods for obtaining families of smooth current potentials on distant coil winding surfaces from which low current density solutions may be identified; the use of a Control Matrix Method for identifying which few of the many detailed elements of the stellarator boundary must be targeted if a coil set is to provide fields to control the essential physics of the plasma; the use of Genetic Algorithms for choosing an optimal set of discrete coils from a continuum of potential contours; the evaluation of alternate coil topologies for balancing the tradeoff between physics objective and engineering constraints; the development of a new coil optimization code for designing modular coils, and the identification of a 'natural' basis for describing current sheet distributions. (author)

  20. Liquid rope coiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribe, N.M.; Habibi, M.; Bonn, D.


    A thin stream or rope of viscous fluid falling from a sufficient height onto a surface forms a steadily rotating helical coil. Tabletop laboratory experiments in combination with a numerical model for slender liquid ropes reveal that finite-amplitude coiling can occur in four distinct regimes

  1. Molecular basis of coiled-coil oligomerization-state specificity. (United States)

    Ciani, Barbara; Bjelic, Saša; Honnappa, Srinivas; Jawhari, Hatim; Jaussi, Rolf; Payapilly, Aishwarya; Jowitt, Thomas; Steinmetz, Michel O; Kammerer, Richard A


    Coiled coils are extensively and successfully used nowadays to rationally design multistranded structures for applications, including basic research, biotechnology, nanotechnology, materials science, and medicine. The wide range of applications as well as the important functions these structures play in almost all biological processes highlight the need for a detailed understanding of the factors that control coiled-coil folding and oligomerization. Here, we address the important and unresolved question why the presence of particular oligomerization-state determinants within a coiled coil does frequently not correlate with its topology. We found an unexpected, general link between coiled-coil oligomerization-state specificity and trigger sequences, elements that are indispensable for coiled-coil formation. By using the archetype coiled-coil domain of the yeast transcriptional activator GCN4 as a model system, we show that well-established trimer-specific oligomerization-state determinants switch the peptide's topology from a dimer to a trimer only when inserted into the trigger sequence. We successfully confirmed our results in two other, unrelated coiled-coil dimers, ATF1 and cortexillin-1. We furthermore show that multiple topology determinants can coexist in the same trigger sequence, revealing a delicate balance of the resulting oligomerization state by position-dependent forces. Our experimental results should significantly improve the prediction of the oligomerization state of coiled coils. They therefore should have major implications for the rational design of coiled coils and consequently many applications using these popular oligomerization domains.

  2. Divertor coil device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanai, Satoru.


    The present invention concerns a divertor coil device used in a tokamak type thermonuclear device and the object thereof is to reduce thermal loads in the heat receiving portion. An auxiliary power source is disposed, in addition to a main power source, for supplying main electric current for changing electric current ratio between each of the divertor coils. Then, the null point for forming plasmas is made controllable. As a result, a power source for a part of coils connected to the auxiliary power source of the divertor coils can be changed by controlling the voltage of the auxiliary power source. Accordingly, the electric current distribution in the divertor coils is changed and the position for the null point high thermal load region can be moved laterally. The area of the heat receiving portion can be increased by moving the high thermal load region, thereby decreasing the thermal load density. (I.S.)

  3. Open coil traction system. (United States)

    Vibhute, Pavankumar Janardan


    Sliding mechanics have become a popular method for space closure, with the development of preadjusted edgewise appliances. Furthermore, various space closing auxiliaries have been developed and extensively evaluated for their clinical efficiency. Their effectiveness is enhanced with optimum force magnitude and low load deflection rate/force decay. With the advent of nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) springs in orthodontics, load deflection rates have been markedly reduced. To use Ni-Ti springs, clinicians have to depend upon prefabricated closed coil springs. The open coil traction system, or open coil retraction spring, is developed utilizing Ni-Ti open coil springs for orthodontic space closure. This article describes the fabrication and clinical application of the open coil traction system, which has a number of advantages. It sustains a low load deflection rate with optimum force magnitude, and its design is adjustable for a desired length and force level. It is fail-safe for both activation and deactivation (ie, it cannot be overactivated, and the decompression limit of the open coil is controlled by the operator). The open coil traction system can be offset from the mucosa to help reduce soft tissue impingement.

  4. Commercial applications for COIL (United States)

    Solomon, Wayne C.; Carroll, David L.; King, D. M.; Fockler, L. A.; Stromberg, D. S.; Sexauer, M.; Milmoe, A.; Sentman, Lee H.


    The chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) is a high power, fiber deliverable tool, which can be used for a number of different industrial applications. COIL is of particular interest because of its short fiber deliverable wavelength, high scaleable continuous wave power, and excellent material interaction properties. In past research the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign identified and decommissioning and decontamination (DD) of nuclear facilities as a primary focus for COIL technology. DD will be a major challenge in the coming decades. The use of a robotically driven fiber delivered cutting/ablation tool in contaminated areas promises to lower risks to workers for the DD mission. Further, the high cutting speed of COIL will significantly reduce the time required to cut contaminated equipment, reducing costs. The high power of COIL will permit the dismantling of thick stacks of piping and equipment as well as reactor vessels. COIL is very promising for the removal of material from contaminated surfaces, perhaps to depths thicker than an inch. Laser cutting and ablation minimizes dust and fumes, which reduces the required number of high efficiency particulate accumulator filters, thus reducing costly waste disposal. Other potential industrial applications for COIL are shipbuilding, automotive manufacturing, heavy machinery manufacturing, tasks requiring underwater cutting or welding, and there appear to be very promising applications for high powers lasers in the oil industry.

  5. New technique for wiring SSC superconducting sextupole corrector coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, B.


    There exists in the electronics industry, a technology for the manufacture of printed circuit (PC) boards which is directly transferable into the creation of highly controlled coils, such as the SSC sextupole superconducting corrector coils. This technology, which uses a process of laying down insulated wire in highly controlled patterns has heretofore been confined exclusively to the manufacture of high density printed circuit (PC) boards, possibly due to an ignorance of its utility in the field of precision winding of coils. This ability to fix wires in a well defined location can be used to produce precision wound coils in a very cost-effective manner. These coils may be superior in quality to conventionally made coils. Before describing what can be created with this technology, it is necessary to take a look at this coil winding process, the MULTIWIRE process, and the industry which has utilized this technology

  6. A new technique for wiring SSC superconducting sextupole corrector coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, B.


    There exists in the electronics industry, a technology for the manufacture of printed circuit (PC) boards which is directly transferable into the creation of highly controlled coils, such as the SSC sextupole superconducting corrector coils. This technology, which uses a process of laying down insulated wire in highly controlled patterns, has heretofore been confined excusively to the manufacture of high density printed circuit (PC) boards, possibly due to an ignorance of its utility in the field of precision winding of coils. This ability to fix wires in a well defined location can be used to produce precision wound coils in a very cost-effective manner. These coils may be superior in quality to conventionally made coils. Before describing what can be created with this technology, it is necessary to take a look at this coil winding process, the MULTIWIRE process, and the industry which has utilized this technology

  7. Coil spring venting arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCugh, R.M.


    A simple venting device for trapped gas pockets in hydraulic systems is inserted through a small access passages, operated remotely, and removed completely. The device comprises a small diameter, closely wound coil spring which is pushed through a guide temporarily inserted in the access passage. The guide has a central passageway which directs the coil spring radially upward into the pocket, so that, with the guide properly positioned for depth and properly oriented, the coil spring can be pushed up into the top of the pocket to vent it. By positioning a seal around the free end of the guide, the spring and guide are removed and the passage is sealed

  8. Coiled-coils: The long and short of it. (United States)

    Truebestein, Linda; Leonard, Thomas A


    Coiled-coils are found in proteins throughout all three kingdoms of life. Coiled-coil domains of some proteins are almost invariant in sequence and length, betraying a structural and functional role for amino acids along the entire length of the coiled-coil. Other coiled-coils are divergent in sequence, but conserved in length, thereby functioning as molecular spacers. In this capacity, coiled-coil proteins influence the architecture of organelles such as centrioles and the Golgi, as well as permit the tethering of transport vesicles. Specialized coiled-coils, such as those found in motor proteins, are capable of propagating conformational changes along their length that regulate cargo binding and motor processivity. Coiled-coil domains have also been identified in enzymes, where they function as molecular rulers, positioning catalytic activities at fixed distances. Finally, while coiled-coils have been extensively discussed for their potential to nucleate and scaffold large macromolecular complexes, structural evidence to substantiate this claim is relatively scarce. © 2016 The Authors BioEssays Published by WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Extending the self-assembly of coiled-coil hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robson Marsden, Hana


    Of the various biomolecular building blocks in use in nature, coiled-coil forming peptides are amongst those with the most potential as building blocks for the synthetic self-assembly of nanostructures. Native coiled coils have the ability to function in, and influence, complex systems composed of

  10. Disruption of Bcr-Abl coiled coil oligomerization by design. (United States)

    Dixon, Andrew S; Pendley, Scott S; Bruno, Benjamin J; Woessner, David W; Shimpi, Adrian A; Cheatham, Thomas E; Lim, Carol S


    Oligomerization is an important regulatory mechanism for many proteins, including oncoproteins and other pathogenic proteins. The oncoprotein Bcr-Abl relies on oligomerization via its coiled coil domain for its kinase activity, suggesting that a designed coiled coil domain with enhanced binding to Bcr-Abl and reduced self-oligomerization would be therapeutically useful. Key mutations in the coiled coil domain of Bcr-Abl were identified that reduce homo-oligomerization through intermolecular charge-charge repulsion yet increase interaction with the Bcr-Abl coiled coil through additional salt bridges, resulting in an enhanced ability to disrupt the oligomeric state of Bcr-Abl. The mutations were modeled computationally to optimize the design. Assays performed in vitro confirmed the validity and functionality of the optimal mutations, which were found to exhibit reduced homo-oligomerization and increased binding to the Bcr-Abl coiled coil domain. Introduction of the mutant coiled coil into K562 cells resulted in decreased phosphorylation of Bcr-Abl, reduced cell proliferation, and increased caspase-3/7 activity and DNA segmentation. Importantly, the mutant coiled coil domain was more efficacious than the wild type in all experiments performed. The improved inhibition of Bcr-Abl through oligomeric disruption resulting from this modified coiled coil domain represents a viable alternative to small molecule inhibitors for therapeutic intervention.

  11. Coil supporting device for a nuclear fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuno, Kazuo.


    Object: To reduce a thermal stress of a coil such as a magnetic limiter to minimize stress acting on a protective tube of the coil. Structure: A coil within a protective tube has its outer periphery surrounded and supported by a heat-resisting material such as ceramic at more than two positions suitably spaced lengthwise of a coil conductor, and heat insulating members are interposed between both sides of the coil and the protective tube so that it may be retained with respect to the width of the coil. Further, a heat-resisting resilient member is inserted in a clearance between an outer circumference and an inner circumference of the coil to allow a radial displacement of the coil. As a result, elongation of the coil due to thermal expansion may be escaped at the aforesaid two supports to reduce thermal stress of the coil and protective tube to support the coil within the protective tube in positively heat-resisting and insulating manner. (Kamimura, M.)

  12. A periodic table of coiled-coil protein structures. (United States)

    Moutevelis, Efrosini; Woolfson, Derek N


    Coiled coils are protein structure domains with two or more alpha-helices packed together via interlacing of side chains known as knob-into-hole packing. We analysed and classified a large set of coiled-coil structures using a combination of automated and manual methods. This led to a systematic classification that we termed a "periodic table of coiled coils," which we have made available at In this table, coiled-coil assemblies are arranged in columns with increasing numbers of alpha-helices and in rows of increased complexity. The table provides a framework for understanding possibilities in and limits on coiled-coil structures and a basis for future prediction, engineering and design studies.

  13. Borehole induction coil transmitter (United States)

    Holladay, Gale; Wilt, Michael J.


    A borehole induction coil transmitter which is a part of a cross-borehole electromagnetic field system that is used for underground imaging applications. The transmitter consists of four major parts: 1) a wound ferrite or mu-metal core, 2) an array of tuning capacitors, 3) a current driver circuit board, and 4) a flux monitor. The core is wound with several hundred turns of wire and connected in series with the capacitor array, to produce a tuned coil. This tuned coil uses internal circuitry to generate sinusoidal signals that are transmitted through the earth to a receiver coil in another borehole. The transmitter can operate at frequencies from 1-200 kHz and supplies sufficient power to permit the field system to operate in boreholes separated by up to 400 meters.

  14. LHC bending magnet coil

    CERN Multimedia

    A short test version of coil of wire used for the LHC dipole magnets. The high magnetic fields needed for guiding particles around the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ring are created by passing 12’500 amps of current through coils of superconducting wiring. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC is the largest superconducting installation ever built. The magnetic field must also be extremely uniform. This means the current flowing in the coils has to be very precisely controlled. Indeed, nowhere before has such precision been achieved at such high currents. Magnet coils are made of copper-clad niobium–titanium cables — each wire in the cable consists of 9’000 niobium–titanium filaments ten times finer than a hair.

  15. LHCb magnet coils arrive

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice


    Each of the two coils for the LHCb magnet comprises 15 individual monolayer 'pancakes' of identical trapezoidal racetrack shape, and is bent at 45 degrees on the two transverse sides. Each pancake consists of eight turns of conductor, wound from a single length (approx. 290 m) of extruded aluminium. The coils have arrived at CERN; one of them is seen here being unloaded above the LHCb experimental cavern.

  16. Coil optimisation for transcranial magnetic stimulation in realistic head geometry. (United States)

    Koponen, Lari M; Nieminen, Jaakko O; Mutanen, Tuomas P; Stenroos, Matti; Ilmoniemi, Risto J

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) allows focal, non-invasive stimulation of the cortex. A TMS pulse is inherently weakly coupled to the cortex; thus, magnetic stimulation requires both high current and high voltage to reach sufficient intensity. These requirements limit, for example, the maximum repetition rate and the maximum number of consecutive pulses with the same coil due to the rise of its temperature. To develop methods to optimise, design, and manufacture energy-efficient TMS coils in realistic head geometry with an arbitrary overall coil shape. We derive a semi-analytical integration scheme for computing the magnetic field energy of an arbitrary surface current distribution, compute the electric field induced by this distribution with a boundary element method, and optimise a TMS coil for focal stimulation. Additionally, we introduce a method for manufacturing such a coil by using Litz wire and a coil former machined from polyvinyl chloride. We designed, manufactured, and validated an optimised TMS coil and applied it to brain stimulation. Our simulations indicate that this coil requires less than half the power of a commercial figure-of-eight coil, with a 41% reduction due to the optimised winding geometry and a partial contribution due to our thinner coil former and reduced conductor height. With the optimised coil, the resting motor threshold of abductor pollicis brevis was reached with the capacitor voltage below 600 V and peak current below 3000 A. The described method allows designing practical TMS coils that have considerably higher efficiency than conventional figure-of-eight coils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Modulation of elasticity in functionally distinct domains of the tropomyosin coiled-coil. (United States)

    Lakkaraju, Sirish Kaushik; Hwang, Wonmuk


    Alpha-helical coiled-coils are common protein structural motifs. Whereas vast information is available regarding their structure, folding, and stability, far less is known about their elastic properties, even though they play mechanical roles in many cases such as tropomyosin in muscle contraction or neck stalks of kinesin or myosin motor proteins. Using computer simulations, we characterized elastic properties of coiled-coils, either globally or locally. Global bending stiffness of standard leucine zipper coiled-coils was calculated using normal mode analysis. Mutations in hydrophobic residues involved in the knob-into-hole interface between the two alpha-helices affect elasticity significantly, whereas charged side chains forming inter-helical salt bridges do not. This suggests that coiled-coils with less regular heptad periodicity may have regional variations in flexibility. We show this by the flexibility map of tropomyosin, which was constructed by a local fluctuation analysis. Overall, flexibility varies by more than twofold and increases towards the C-terminal region of the molecule. Describing the coiled-coil as a twisted tape, it is generally more flexible in the splay bending than in the bending of the broad face. Actin binding sites in alpha zones show local rigidity minima. Broken core regions due to acidic residues at the hydrophobic face such as the Asp137 and the Glu218 are found to be the most labile with moduli for splay and broad face bending as 70 nm and 116 nm respectively. Such variation in flexibility could be relevant to the tropomyosin function, especially for moving across the non-uniform surface of F-actin to regulate myosin binding.

  18. Coil protection calculator for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsala, R.J.; Woolley, R.D.


    A new coil protection calculator (CPC) is presented in this paper. It is now being developed for TFTR's magnetic field coils will replace the existing coil fault detector. The existing fault detector sacrifices TFTR operating capability for simplicity. The new CPC will permit operation up to the actual coil limits by accurately and continuously computing coil parameters in real-time. The improvement will allow TFTR to operate with higher plasma currents and will permit the optimization of pulse repetition rates

  19. Design of superconducting toroidal magnet coils and testing facility in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luton, J.N.; Haubenreich, P.N.; Thompson, P.B.


    In the U.S. Large Coil Program, three industrial teams are presently designing test coils to general specifications prepared by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory with guidance from USERDA. Each test coil is approximately half the bore size of reactor coils, being oval or D-shaped, with a bore of 2.5 x 3.5 m. The dimensions and operating requirements of the coils are identical for all test coils. The coils are designed to produce a peak field of at least 8 tesla at the winding of a selected coil operated at its design current. This condition is met when the selected coil is operated in a compact toroidal array of 6 coils, with the other five coils being operated at 0.8 of their design current. The six coils are of three different designs. Both pool boiling and forced flow designs are included. The coils are housed in a single large vacuum chamber for economy and testing convenience. Auxiliary coils provide a pulse field over the test coil winding volume. This auxiliary system is designed to produce a pulse field which rises to a peak of 0.14 T in 1 sec. With the exception of material damage due to neutron irradiation, all reactor requirements and environments will be either duplicated, approximated, or simulated. The test facility is being designed to accept coils producing up to 12 tesla in later phases of the program

  20. AAFreqCoil: a new classifier to distinguish parallel dimeric and trimeric coiled coils. (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Yuan; Yan, Renxiang


    Coiled coils are characteristic rope-like protein structures, constituted by one or more heptad repeats. Native coiled-coil structures play important roles in various biological processes, while the designed ones are widely employed in medicine and industry. To date, two major oligomeric states (i.e. dimeric and trimeric states) of a coiled-coil structure have been observed, plausibly exerting different biological functions. Therefore, exploration of the relationship between heptad repeat sequences and coiled coil structures is highly important. In this paper, we develop a new method named AAFreqCoil to classify parallel dimeric and trimeric coiled coils. Our method demonstrated its competitive performance when benchmarked based on 10-fold cross validation and jackknife cross validation. Meanwhile, the rules that can explicitly explain the prediction results of the test coiled coil can be extracted from the AAFreqCoil model for a better explanation of user predictions. A web server and stand-alone program implementing the AAFreqCoil algorithm are freely available at .

  1. Hydrodynamic studies of CNT nanofluids in helical coil heat exchanger (United States)

    Babita; Sharma, S. K.; Mital Gupta, Shipra; Kumar, Arinjay


    Helical coils are extensively used in several industrial processes such as refrigeration systems, chemical reactors, recovery processes etc to accommodate a large heat transfer area within a smaller space. Nanofluids are getting great attention due to their enhanced heat transfer capability. In heat transfer equipments, pressure drop is one of the major factors of consideration for pumping power calculations. So, the present work is aimed to study hydrodynamics of CNT nanofluids in helical coils. In this study, pressure drop characteristics of CNT nanofluid flowing inside horizontal helical coils are investigated experimentally. The helical coil to tube diameter was varied from 11.71 to 27.34 keeping pitch of the helical coil constant. Double distilled water was used as basefluid. SDBS and GA surfactants were added to stablilize CNT nanofluids. The volumetric fraction of CNT nanofluid was varied from 0.003 vol% to 0.051 vol%. From the experimental data, it was analyzed that the friction factor in helical coils is greater than that of straight tubes. Concentration of CNT in nanofluids also has a significant influence on the pressure drop/friction factor of helical coils. At a constant concentration of CNT, decreasing helical coil to tube diameter from 27.24 to 11.71, fanning friction factor of helical coil; f c increases for a constant value of p/d t. This increase in the value of fanning friction factor can be attributed to the secondary flow of CNT nanofluid in helical coils.

  2. Fine-tuning of protein domain boundary by minimizing potential coiled coil regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwaya, Naoko; Goda, Natsuko; Unzai, Satoru; Fujiwara, Kenichiro; Tanaka, Toshiki; Tomii, Kentaro; Tochio, Hidehito; Shirakawa, Masahiro; Hiroaki, Hidekazu


    Structural determination of individual protein domains isolated from multidomain proteins is a common approach in the post-genomic era. Novel and thus uncharacterized domains liberated from intact proteins often self-associate due to incorrectly defined domain boundaries. Self-association results in missing signals, poor signal dispersion and a low signal-to-noise ratio in 1 H- 15 N HSQC spectra. We have found that a putative, non-canonical coiled coil region close to a domain boundary can cause transient hydrophobic self-association and monomer-dimer equilibrium in solution. Here we propose a rational method to predict putative coiled coil regions adjacent to the globular core domain using the program COILS. Except for the amino acid sequence, no preexisting knowledge concerning the domain is required. A small number of mutant proteins with a minimized coiled coil region have been rationally designed and tested. The engineered domains exhibit decreased self-association as assessed by 1 H- 15 N HSQC spectra with improved peak dispersion and sharper cross peaks. Two successful examples of isolating novel N-terminal domains from AAA-ATPases are demonstrated. Our method is useful for the experimental determination of domain boundaries suited for structural genomics studies

  3. Fine-tuning of protein domain boundary by minimizing potential coiled coil regions. (United States)

    Iwaya, Naoko; Goda, Natsuko; Unzai, Satoru; Fujiwara, Kenichiro; Tanaka, Toshiki; Tomii, Kentaro; Tochio, Hidehito; Shirakawa, Masahiro; Hiroaki, Hidekazu


    Structural determination of individual protein domains isolated from multidomain proteins is a common approach in the post-genomic era. Novel and thus uncharacterized domains liberated from intact proteins often self-associate due to incorrectly defined domain boundaries. Self-association results in missing signals, poor signal dispersion and a low signal-to-noise ratio in (1)H-(15)N HSQC spectra. We have found that a putative, non-canonical coiled coil region close to a domain boundary can cause transient hydrophobic self-association and monomer-dimer equilibrium in solution. Here we propose a rational method to predict putative coiled coil regions adjacent to the globular core domain using the program COILS. Except for the amino acid sequence, no preexisting knowledge concerning the domain is required. A small number of mutant proteins with a minimized coiled coil region have been rationally designed and tested. The engineered domains exhibit decreased self-association as assessed by (1)H-(15)N HSQC spectra with improved peak dispersion and sharper cross peaks. Two successful examples of isolating novel N-terminal domains from AAA-ATPases are demonstrated. Our method is useful for the experimental determination of domain boundaries suited for structural genomics studies.

  4. Superconducting coil protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, E.L.


    The protection system is based on a two-phase construction program. Phase I is the development of a reliable hardwired relay control system with a digital loop utilizing firmware and a microprocessor controller. Phase II is an expansion of the digital loop to include many heretofore unmonitored coil variables. These new monitored variables will be utilized to establish early quench detection and to formulate confirmation techniques of the quench detection mechanism. Established quench detection methods are discussed and a new approach to quench detection is presented. The new circuit is insensitive to external pulsed magnetic fields and the associated induced voltages. Reliability aspects of the coil protection system are discussed with respect to shutdowns of superconducting coil systems. Redundance and digital system methods are presented as related topics

  5. TESLA Coil Research (United States)


    Sloan’s work was actually predated by the earlier work of Nikola Tesla . Sloan mistakenly identified " Tesla Coils" as lumped tuned resonators. The...Lefvw WsnJ L REPORT o]i 3. REPRT TYPE AND OATES COVEIRD May 1992 Special/Aug 1992 - May 1992 Z TITLE AND 5U§nUT S. FUNDING NUMIHRS Tesla Coil Research...STATEMENT 1211. ’ISTRIUUTION COOD Approved for public release; dis~ribution is unlimited 13. ABSTRACT (Masrmum 200 worw) High repetition rate Tesla

  6. Meiosis specific coiled-coil proteins in Shizosaccharomyces pombe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okuzaki Daisuke


    Full Text Available Abstract Many meiosis-specific proteins in Schizosaccharomyces pombe contain coiled-coil motifs which play essential roles for meiotic progression. For example, the coiled-coil motifs present in Meu13 and Mcp7 are required for their function as a putative recombinase cofactor complex during meiotic recombination. Mcp6/Hrs1 and Mcp5/Num1 control horsetail chromosome movement by astral microtubule organization and anchoring dynein respectively. Dhc1 and Ssm4 are also required for horsetail chromosome movement. It is clear from these examples that the coiled-coil motif in these proteins plays an important role during the progression of cells through meiosis. However, there are still many unanswered questions on how these proteins operate. In this paper, we briefly review recent studies on the meiotic coiled-coil proteins in Sz. pombe.

  7. NET model coil test possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erb, J.; Gruenhagen, A.; Herz, W.; Jentzsch, K.; Komarek, P.; Lotz, E.; Malang, S.; Maurer, W.; Noether, G.; Ulbricht, A.; Vogt, A.; Zahn, G.; Horvath, I.; Kwasnitza, K.; Marinucci, C.; Pasztor, G.; Sborchia, C.; Weymuth, P.; Peters, A.; Roeterdink, A.


    A single full size coil for NET/INTOR represents an investment of the order of 40 MUC (Million Unit Costs). Before such an amount of money or even more for the 16 TF coils is invested as much risks as possible must be eliminated by a comprehensive development programme. In the course of such a programme a coil technology verification test should finally prove the feasibility of NET/INTOR TF coils. This study report is almost exclusively dealing with such a verification test by model coil testing. These coils will be built out of two Nb 3 Sn-conductors based on two concepts already under development and investigation. Two possible coil arrangements are discussed: A cluster facility, where two model coils out of the two Nb 3 TF-conductors are used, and the already tested LCT-coils producing a background field. A solenoid arrangement, where in addition to the two TF model coils another model coil out of a PF-conductor for the central PF-coils of NET/INTOR is used instead of LCT background coils. Technical advantages and disadvantages are worked out in order to compare and judge both facilities. Costs estimates and the time schedules broaden the base for a decision about the realisation of such a facility. (orig.) [de

  8. Extrap with iron-cored coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.


    In Extrap configurations there is a high average beta value with respect to the plasma confinement volume. The externally imposed magnetic field which is required for stabilization therefore comes out to have a rather moderate strength, even under expected reactor conditions. As a consequence, this field can be generated not only by conventional external conductor arrangements, but also by iron-cored coils being operated below the saturation limit. A proposal for such iron-cored coil systems is presented in this paper. As compared to conventional conductors, this has the advantage of localizing the magnetic energy of the externally imposed magnetic field mainly to the discharge vessel and the plasma volume, thereby increasing the engineering beta value substantially. Also the problems of the coil stresses and of irradiation of the coils appear to become simplified, as well as replacement of the coil system. A main limitation of this proposal is due to combination of iron core saturation with the required stabilization effect from an ion Larmor radius of sufficient relative magnitude. This limitaion requires further investigation, especially in the full-scale reactor case. Also the modifications of the field geometry by iron core shaping needs further analysis. (Author)

  9. Finite element modeling of TFTR poloidal field coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, J.A.; O'Toole, J.A.


    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Poloidal Field (PF) coils were originally analyzed to TFTR design conditions. The coils have been reanalyzed by PPPL and Grumman to determine operating limits under as-built conditions. Critical stress levels, based upon data obtained from the reanalysis of each PF coil, are needed for input to the TFTR simulation code algorithms. The primary objective regarding structural integrity has been to ascertain the magnitude and location of critical internal stresses in each PF coil due to various combinations of electromagnetic and thermally induced loads. For each PF coil, a global finite element model (FEM) of a coil sector is being analyzed to obtain the basic coil internal loads and displacements. Subsequent fine mesh local models of the coil lead stem and lead spur regions produce the magnitudes and locations of peak stresses. Each copper turn and its surrounding insulation are modeled using solid finite elements. The corresponding electromagnetic and thermal analyses are similarly modeled. A series of test beams were developed to determine the best combination of MSC/NASTRAN-type finite elements for use in PF coil analysis. The results of this analysis compare favorably with those obtained by the earlier analysis which was limited in scope

  10. 7T head volume coils: improvements for rostral brain imaging. (United States)

    Avdievich, Nikolai I; Hetherington, Hoby P; Kuznetsov, Andrey M; Pan, Jullie W


    To improve the performance of 7T head coils over the rostral head regions. Due to radiofrequency (RF) field/tissue interactions, the RF magnetic field profile produced by 7T volume head coils is very inhomogeneous, with enhanced sensitivity near the center of the human brain and substantially reduced in the periphery. Two head-sized quadrature volume coils of similar diameters but substantially different lengths (17 and 10 cm) were constructed and tested using a 7T Varian Inova system. Experimental data demonstrated that by using a shorter volume head-sized coil or simply by partially moving a head out of the coil, coil efficiency near the top of a head can be improved by 20%. The homogeneity also improved, largely resulting from an increase in peripheral B(1) values. This resulted in 10%-20% variation in axial slices located near the top of a head. We have demonstrated a less deeply positioned head or substantially shorter volume coil can significantly improve coil performance and homogeneity for the rostral head at ultrahigh magnetic fields (7T and above). For studies that target superior brain regions, this coil arrangement can be highly effective.

  11. Acoustic rainbow trapping by coiling up space

    KAUST Repository

    Ni, Xu


    We numerically realize the acoustic rainbow trapping effect by tapping an air waveguide with space-coiling metamaterials. Due to the high refractive-index of the space-coiling metamaterials, our device is more compact compared to the reported trapped-rainbow devices. A numerical model utilizing effective parameters is also calculated, whose results are consistent well with the direct numerical simulation of space-coiling structure. Moreover, such device with the capability of dropping different frequency components of a broadband incident temporal acoustic signal into different channels can function as an acoustic wavelength division de-multiplexer. These results may have potential applications in acoustic device design such as an acoustic filter and an artificial cochlea.

  12. Pressure rise analysis in superconducting coils during dumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, E.; Shimamoto, S.


    This chapter describes the ALPHE computer code, whose purpose is to calculate transient helium behavior in a poolboiling coil and to determine suitable characteristics of safety devices to minimize the maximum pressure and the liquid helium lost during dumping due to quench, or when discharging without normalcy. The analysis is compared with the measurements obtained in the domestic test of the Japanese LCT coil. Topics considered include basic equations (helium behavior, heat generation), manual dump without quench, and dumping due to quench. It is demonstrated that the transient behavior, calculated by ALPHE assuming quasi-static equilibrium between helium and coil, is in good agreement with the experimental measurements observed in the domestic test of the Japanese LCT coil. The engineering technique required for the design criteria of superconducting coils and safety device during dumping is established. ALPHE can be used to design an emergency safety system for a helium refrigerator during dumping

  13. Optimal Value of Series Capacitors for Uniform Field Distribution in Transmission Line MRI Coils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy


    Transmission lines are often used as coils in high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Due to the distributed nature of transmission lines, coils based on them produce inhomogeneous field. This work investigates application of series capacitors to improve field homogeneity along the coil...

  14. Coiled-coil networking shapes cell molecular machinery (United States)

    Wang, Yongqiang; Zhang, Xinlei; Zhang, Hong; Lu, Yi; Huang, Haolong; Dong, Xiaoxi; Chen, Jinan; Dong, Jiuhong; Yang, Xiao; Hang, Haiying; Jiang, Taijiao


    The highly abundant α-helical coiled-coil motif not only mediates crucial protein–protein interactions in the cell but is also an attractive scaffold in synthetic biology and material science and a potential target for disease intervention. Therefore a systematic understanding of the coiled-coil interactions (CCIs) at the organismal level would help unravel the full spectrum of the biological function of this interaction motif and facilitate its application in therapeutics. We report the first identified genome-wide CCI network in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which consists of 3495 pair-wise interactions among 598 predicted coiled-coil regions. Computational analysis revealed that the CCI network is specifically and functionally organized and extensively involved in the organization of cell machinery. We further show that CCIs play a critical role in the assembly of the kinetochore, and disruption of the CCI network leads to defects in kinetochore assembly and cell division. The CCI network identified in this study is a valuable resource for systematic characterization of coiled coils in the shaping and regulation of a host of cellular machineries and provides a basis for the utilization of coiled coils as domain-based probes for network perturbation and pharmacological applications. PMID:22875988

  15. Heterodimeric coiled-coil interactions of human GABAB receptor. (United States)

    Burmakina, Svetlana; Geng, Yong; Chen, Yan; Fan, Qing R


    Metabotropic GABAB receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor that mediates inhibitory neurotransmission in the CNS. It functions as an obligatory heterodimer of GABAB receptor 1 (GBR1) and GABAB receptor 2 (GBR2) subunits. The association between GBR1 and GBR2 masks an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal in the cytoplasmic region of GBR1 and facilitates cell surface expression of both subunits. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the first crystal structure of an intracellular coiled-coil heterodimer of human GABAB receptor. We found that polar interactions buried within the hydrophobic core determine the specificity of heterodimer pairing. Disruption of the hydrophobic coiled-coil interface with single mutations in either subunit impairs surface expression of GBR1, confirming that the coiled-coil interaction is required to inactivate the adjacent ER retention signal of GBR1. The coiled-coil assembly buries an internalization motif of GBR1 at the heterodimer interface. The ER retention signal of GBR1 is not part of the core coiled-coil structure, suggesting that it is sterically shielded by GBR2 upon heterodimer formation.

  16. Electrospun Buckling Coils (United States)

    Xin, Yu; Reneker, Darrell


    Electrospinning offers a useful way to produce fibers with micron and nanometer scale diameter. The present work deals with the buckling phenomenon characteristic of a jet impinging upon the surface of collector. A viscous jet may have either tensile or compressive forces along its axis. The periodic buckling that is often observed is attributed to the occurrence of compressive forces as the jet decelerates at the collector. With the increase of axial compressive stresses along the jet, a jet with circular cross sections first buckles by formation of sharp folds, and then by formation of coils. The resulting buckling patterns include zigzag patterns and coils that which can be controlled by changing parameters, such as density, viscosity, conductivity, voltage, polymer concentration, distance and volumetric flow rate. Uniformly buckled polymer fibers can be made at a rate of one turn per microsecond. An experimental apparatus was built to continuously collect buckling coils of nylon 6, from a water surface, into a multilayer sheet. These small ``springs'' and sheets will be tested for mechanical properties needed in biomedical applications.

  17. Impedance of curved rectangular spiral coils around a conductive cylinder (United States)

    Burke, S. K.; Ditchburn, R. J.; Theodoulidis, T. P.


    Eddy-current induction due to a thin conformable coil wrapped around a long conductive cylinder is examined using a second-order vector potential formalism. Compact closed-form expressions are derived for the self- and mutual impedances of curved rectangular spiral coils (i) in free space and (ii) when wrapped around the surface of the cylindrical rod. The validity of these expressions was tested against the results of a systematic series of experiments using a cylindrical Al-alloy rod and conformable coils manufactured using flexible printed-circuit-board technology. The theoretical expressions were in very good agreement with the experimental measurements. The significance of the results for eddy-current nondestructive inspection using flexible coils and flexible coil arrays is discussed.

  18. Cooling of BITTER-type electromagnetic coils with intense field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, Jacques


    After having outlined the various problems faced when designing BITTER-type electromagnetic coils with axial cooling (evacuation of the power dissipated in the coil, electromagnetic forces, fabrication and machining technologies, corrosion and erosion due to the presence of water and to potential differences), the author of this research thesis reports the study of the cooling of such an electromagnetic coil. In order to know the heat power to be evacuated for a given field, both the power and the field must be computed, but the influence of cooling holes on these both values is not well known. Thus, the author reports the study of the influence of these holes on the power to be dissipated by these holes, and on the magnetic field. Then, he studies how this power is evacuated, and determines heat exchange relationships for the coil canals. He finally discusses how the obtained results can be used to design an advanced electromagnetic coil [fr

  19. Large coil test structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinard, J.A.; Hammonds, C.J.


    The International Fusion Superconducting Magnet Test Facility (IFSMTF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is being utilized for testing of 2.5 x 3.5-m bore superconducting 8-T magnets produced by four international agencies (U.S., Euratom, Japan, and Switzerland). The definitive tests in the design configuration, six coils arranged in a compact torus, will begin in late 1985. Partial-array tests involving one US coil and the Japanese coil were completed in the fall of 1984. This presentation describes structural analysis using NASTRAN, with symmetry and superelement techniques, to predict the IFSMTF test stand and coil responses to various combinations of in-plane and out-of-plane loading conditions for both the partial-array and six-coil test configurations. Comparison to partial-array displacement and strain measurements are presented and discussed. Six-coil results and their utilization for determining safe levels of operation of the system are likewise discussed

  20. Coil Optimization for HTS Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    An optimization approach of HTS coils in HTS synchronous machines (SM) is presented. The optimization is aimed at high power SM suitable for direct driven wind turbines applications. The optimization process was applied to a general radial flux machine with a peak air gap flux density of ~3T...... is suitable for which coil segment is presented. Thus, the performed study gives valuable input for the coil design of HTS machines ensuring optimal usage of HTS tapes....

  1. An improvement of airflow and heat transfer performance of multi-coil condensers by different coil configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tzong-Shing; Wu, Wu-Chieh; Chuah, Yew-Khoy; Wang, Sheng-Kai [Department of Energy and Refrigerating Air-Conditioning Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, 1, Sec.3, Chung-Hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 106 (China)


    Mal-distribution of airflow is an important factor for the performance of air-cooled multi-coil air-cooled condensers. This study is an attempt to investigate the effects of different included angles between the coils of the condenser. It has been found in this study that it can be a mean to improve the performance of multi-coil condensers without using larger heat transfer surfaces. A commercially used four-coil condenser of an air-cooled water chiller was used as the base case in the tests and analysis. The results show that the variation of the included angle can increase the airflow rate by 7.85%, which corresponds to 5.29% increase in heat transfer. The improvements were found to be due to the reduction of the stagnant flow regions of the heat exchanger coils, and more even flow distribution through the coils. Test data were used to verify the computer model of the four-coil heat exchanger. The same tested fan performance characteristic was used in all of the analyses. The research results are important as air-cooled condensing units can be designed to better performance merely by changing the configuration of the coil arrangements. (author)

  2. Large superconducting coil fabrication development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.L.; Allred, E.L.; Anderson, W.C.; Burn, P.B.; Deaderick, R.I.; Henderson, G.M.; Marguerat, E.F.


    Toroidal fields for some fusion devices will be produced by an array of large superconducting coils. Their size, space limitation, and field requirements dictate that they be high performance coils. Once installed, accessibility for maintenance and repairs is severely restricted; therefore, good reliability is an obvious necessity. Sufficient coil fabrication will be undertaken to develop and test methods that are reliable, fast, and economical. Industrial participation will be encouraged from the outset to insure smooth transition from development phases to production phases. Initially, practice equipment for three meter bore circular coils will be developed. Oval shape coil forms will be included in the practice facility later. Equipment that is more automated will be developed with the expectation of winding faster and obtaining good coil quality. Alternate types of coil construction, methods of winding and insulating, will be investigated. Handling and assembly problems will be studied. All technology developed must be feasible for scaling up when much larger coils are needed. Experimental power reactors may need coils having six meter or larger bores

  3. Manufacturing Development of the NCSX Modular Coil Windings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrzanowski, JH; Fogarty, PJ; Heitzenroeder, PJ; Meighan, T.; Nelson, B.; Raftopoulos, S.; Williamson, D.


    The modular coils on the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) present a number of significant engineering challenges due to their complex shapes, requirements for high dimensional accuracy and the high current density required in the modular coils due to space constraints. In order to address these challenges, an R and D program was established to develop the conductor, insulation scheme, manufacturing techniques, and procedures. A prototype winding named Twisted Racetrack Coil (TRC) was of particular importance in dealing with these challenges. The TRC included a complex shaped winding form, conductor, insulation scheme, leads and termination, cooling system and coil clamps typical of the modular coil design. Even though the TRC is smaller in size than a modular coil, its similar complex geometry provided invaluable information in developing the final design, metrology techniques and development of manufacturing procedures. In addition a discussion of the development of the copper rope conductor including ''Keystoning'' concerns; the epoxy impregnation system (VPI) plus the tooling and equipment required to manufacture the modular coils will be presented

  4. High-resolution structures of a heterochiral coiled coil. (United States)

    Mortenson, David E; Steinkruger, Jay D; Kreitler, Dale F; Perroni, Dominic V; Sorenson, Gregory P; Huang, Lijun; Mittal, Ritesh; Yun, Hyun Gi; Travis, Benjamin R; Mahanthappa, Mahesh K; Forest, Katrina T; Gellman, Samuel H


    Interactions between polypeptide chains containing amino acid residues with opposite absolute configurations have long been a source of interest and speculation, but there is very little structural information for such heterochiral associations. The need to address this lacuna has grown in recent years because of increasing interest in the use of peptides generated from d amino acids (d peptides) as specific ligands for natural proteins, e.g., to inhibit deleterious protein-protein interactions. Coiled-coil interactions, between or among α-helices, represent the most common tertiary and quaternary packing motif in proteins. Heterochiral coiled-coil interactions were predicted over 50 years ago by Crick, and limited experimental data obtained in solution suggest that such interactions can indeed occur. To address the dearth of atomic-level structural characterization of heterochiral helix pairings, we report two independent crystal structures that elucidate coiled-coil packing between l- and d-peptide helices. Both structures resulted from racemic crystallization of a peptide corresponding to the transmembrane segment of the influenza M2 protein. Networks of canonical knobs-into-holes side-chain packing interactions are observed at each helical interface. However, the underlying patterns for these heterochiral coiled coils seem to deviate from the heptad sequence repeat that is characteristic of most homochiral analogs, with an apparent preference for a hendecad repeat pattern.

  5. Coiled Coils Ensure the Physiological Ectodomain Shedding of Collagen XVII* (United States)

    Nishie, Wataru; Jackow, Joanna; Hofmann, Silke C.; Franzke, Claus-Werner; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena


    α-Helical coiled coils, frequent protein oligomerization motifs, are commonly observed in vital proteins. Here, using collagen XVII as an example, we provide evidence for a novel function of coiled coils in the regulation of ectodomain shedding. Transmembrane collagen XVII, an epithelial cell surface receptor, mediates dermal-epidermal adhesion in the skin, and its dysfunction is linked to human skin blistering diseases. The ectodomain of this collagen is constitutively shed from the cell surface by proteinases of a disintegrin and metalloprotease family; however, the mechanisms regulating shedding remain elusive. Here, we used site-specific mutagenesis to target the coiled-coil heptad repeats within the juxtamembranous, extracellular noncollagenous 16th A (NC16A) domain of collagen XVII. This resulted in a substantial increase of ectodomain shedding, which was not mediated by disintegrin and metalloproteases. Instead, conformational changes induced by the mutation(s) unmasked a furin recognition sequence that was used for cleavage. This study shows that apart from their functions in protein oligomerization, coiled coils can also act as regulators of ectodomain shedding depending on the biological context. PMID:22761443

  6. The coiled coil motif in polymer drug delivery systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pechar, Michal; Pola, Robert


    Roč. 31, č. 1 (2013), s. 90-96 ISSN 0734-9750 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0543; GA MŠk 1M0505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : coiled coil * hydrophilic polymer * recombinant protein Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 8.905, year: 2013

  7. Competition between Coiled-Coil Structures and the Impact on Myosin-10 Bundle Selection. (United States)

    Vavra, Kevin C; Xia, Youlin; Rock, Ronald S


    Coiled-coil fusions are a useful approach to enforce dimerization in protein engineering. However, the final structures of coiled-coil fusion proteins have received relatively little attention. Here, we determine the structural outcome of adjacent parallel and antiparallel coiled coils. The targets are coiled coils that stabilize myosin-10 in single-molecule biophysical studies. We reveal the solution structure of a short, antiparallel, myosin-10 coiled-coil fused to the parallel GCN4-p1 coiled coil. Surprisingly, this structure is a continuous, antiparallel coiled coil where GCN4-p1 pairs with myosin-10 rather than itself. We also show that longer myosin-10 segments in these parallel/antiparallel fusions are dynamic and do not fold cooperatively. Our data resolve conflicting results on myosin-10 selection of actin filament bundles, demonstrating the importance of understanding coiled-coil orientation and stability. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Baculovirus FP25K Localization: Role of the Coiled-Coil Domain. (United States)

    Garretson, Tyler A; McCoy, Jason C; Cheng, Xiao-Wen


    of occlusion-associated proteins. Baculovirus infection produces two forms of viruses: BV and ODV. Manufacturing of ODV involves trafficking of envelope proteins to the inner nuclear membrane, mediated partly through the FP25K protein. Since FP25K is present in alpha-, beta-, and gammabaculoviruses, it is uncertain if this trafficking function is conserved. In this study, we looked at alpha- and betabaculovirus FP25K trafficking by its localization. Alphabaculovirus FP25K localized primarily to the cytoplasm, whereas betabaculovirus FP25K localized to the nucleus. We found that an N-terminal coiled-coil domain present in all alphabaculovirus FP25K proteins, but absent in betabaculovirus FP25K, was critical for alphabaculovirus FP25K cytoplasmic localization. We believe that this represents an evolutionary process that partly led to the gain of function of this N-terminal coiled-coil domain in alphabaculovirus FP25K to aid in nuclear trafficking of occlusion-associated proteins. Due to betabaculovirus breakdown of the nuclear membrane before occlusion, this function is not needed, and the domain was lost or never acquired. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Design and testing of a coil-unit barrel for helical coil electromagnetic launcher (United States)

    Yang, Dong; Liu, Zhenxiang; Shu, Ting; Yang, Lijia; Ouyang, Jianming


    A coil-unit barrel for a helical coil electromagnetic launcher is described. It provides better features of high structural strength and flexible adjustability. It is convenient to replace the damaged coil units and easy to adjust the number of turns in the stator coils due to the modular design. In our experiments, the highest velocity measured for a 4.5-kg projectile is 47.3 m/s and the mechanical reinforcement of the launcher could bear 35 kA peak current. The relationship between the energy conversion efficiency and the inductance gradient of the launcher is also studied. In the region of low inductance gradient, the efficiency is positively correlated with the inductance gradient. However, in the region of high inductance gradient, the inter-turn arc erosion becomes a major problem of limiting the efficiency and velocity of the launcher. This modular barrel allows further studies in the inter-turn arc and the variable inductance gradient helical coil launcher.

  10. Pulsed field losses and intentional quenches of superconducting coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.H.


    Pulsed field losses of several 5-20 kJ coils have been measured under triangular field variations. The conductors, developed as potential subcables of 25-50 kA cables, consist of Cu wires and NbTi strands with or without CuNi barriers. Losses of soft-soldered subcables are compared with those of well-compacted cables. The coils were quenched intentionally by pulsing the coils above the critical current to observe loss variations due to possible conductor damage. The method of measurements, and effects of soldering and compactness of the conductors on the pulsed field losses will be presented

  11. Quasistationary magnetic field generation with a laser-driven capacitor-coil assembly (United States)

    Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Bailly-Grandvaux, M.; Santos, J. J.; Poyé, A.


    Recent experiments are showing possibilities to generate strong magnetic fields on the excess of 500 T with high-energy nanosecond laser pulses in a compact setup of a capacitor connected to a single turn coil. Hot electrons ejected from the capacitor plate (cathode) are collected at the other plate (anode), thus providing the source of a current in the coil. However, the physical processes leading to generation of currents exceeding hundreds of kiloamperes in such a laser-driven diode are not sufficiently understood. Here we present a critical analysis of previous results and propose a self-consistent model for the high current generation in a laser-driven capacitor-coil assembly. It accounts for three major effects controlling the diode current: the space charge neutralization, the plasma magnetization between the capacitor plates, and the Ohmic heating of the external circuit—the coil-shaped connecting wire. The model provides the conditions necessary for transporting strongly super-Alfvenic currents through the diode on the time scale of a few nanoseconds. The model validity is confirmed by a comparison with the available experimental data.

  12. Quasistationary magnetic field generation with a laser-driven capacitor-coil assembly. (United States)

    Tikhonchuk, V T; Bailly-Grandvaux, M; Santos, J J; Poyé, A


    Recent experiments are showing possibilities to generate strong magnetic fields on the excess of 500 T with high-energy nanosecond laser pulses in a compact setup of a capacitor connected to a single turn coil. Hot electrons ejected from the capacitor plate (cathode) are collected at the other plate (anode), thus providing the source of a current in the coil. However, the physical processes leading to generation of currents exceeding hundreds of kiloamperes in such a laser-driven diode are not sufficiently understood. Here we present a critical analysis of previous results and propose a self-consistent model for the high current generation in a laser-driven capacitor-coil assembly. It accounts for three major effects controlling the diode current: the space charge neutralization, the plasma magnetization between the capacitor plates, and the Ohmic heating of the external circuit-the coil-shaped connecting wire. The model provides the conditions necessary for transporting strongly super-Alfvenic currents through the diode on the time scale of a few nanoseconds. The model validity is confirmed by a comparison with the available experimental data.

  13. CCHMM_PROF: a HMM-based coiled-coil predictor with evolutionary information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartoli, Lisa; Fariselli, Piero; Krogh, Anders


    MOTIVATION: The widespread coiled-coil structural motif in proteins is known to mediate a variety of biological interactions. Recognizing a coiled-coil containing sequence and locating its coiled-coil domains are key steps towards the determination of the protein structure and function. Different...

  14. "Slinky" coils for neuromagnetic stimulation. (United States)

    Zimmermann, K P; Simpson, R K


    Future advances in neuromagnetic stimulation depend significantly on the design of coils with improved focality. Although in the absence of internal current sources, no true focusing of magnetically induced currents is possible, improvements in the focality of current concentrations passing through an area of biologic tissue are achievable through variations of the shape, orientation and size of neuromagnetic stimulating coils. The "butterfly" and the "4-leaf" coils are two examples of planar designs which achieve improved focality through centralization of the maximum coil current and peripheral distribution of the return currents. We introduce the "slinky" coil design as a 3-dimensional generalization of the principle of peripheral distribution of return currents and demonstrate its advantages over planar designs.

  15. Thermal analysis of COIL (United States)

    Takeuchi, Noriyuki; Sugimoto, Daichi; Tei, Kazuyoku; Fujioka, Tomoo


    Analysis of heat release into operative gas of Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser (COIL) is discussed. Pooling reaction of oxygen molecules in the excited state, the iodine dissociation process and the interaction of them with water vapor release energy of in the excited state oxygen molecules as heat energy. As results of heat release in the plenum, a rise of the total pressure as a rise of the total temperature is observed, and in the supersonic region a rise of static pressure and a decrease of total pressure as a rise of total temperature are observed. By following our analysis technique regarding pressure data of three different nozzles, the evaluations such as energy loss in a duct from a Singlet delta Oxygen Generator (SOG) and the number of dissipated oxygen molecules for the iodine dissociation can be estimated.

  16. Superconducting cyclotron magnet coil short

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, M.L.; Blosser, H.G.; Clark, D.J.; Launer, H.; Lawton, D.; Miller, P.; Resmini, F.


    In February 1981, a short circuit appeared in the superconducting coil of the K500 cyclotron. The short is resistive in character and therefore has no effect on steady state operation of the magnet. The resistance of the short varies, sometimes being below threshold of detection as a heat load on the cooling system and sometimes being significant. The resistance under certain conditions shows approximately cyclic phenomena with time constants in the range of seconds and other approximately cyclic phenomena which correlate with gross operating parameters of the magnet (shifting current from one coil to another at high field and lowering and raising the liquid helium level). A number of diagnostic studies of the short have been made, using 1) an array of flux sensing loops to sense the magnetic effect of the short, 2) voltage comparisons between upper and lower sections of the coil, 3) comparisons of forces in the nine member coil support system and 4) the effect of the short on the thermal charactersitics of the coil. Insulation failure or a metal chip shorting out turns have been explored in some detail but a convincing determination of the exact cause of the short may never be available, (even the extreme step of unwinding the coil having a significant probability that an imperfection with the observed characteristics would pass unnoticed). Analysis of the characteristics of the short indicated that the most serious consequence would be failure of the coils mechanical support system in the event that the magnet was quickly discharged, as in a dump or quench. To deal with this hazard, the support system has been modified by installing solid supports which prevent the coil from moving by an amount sufficient to damage the support system. We have also reexamined the data and calculations used in the original coil design and have made some additional measurements of the properties of the materials (yield strength, friction coefficient, Young's modulus) used in the

  17. The IEA Large Coil Task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beard, D.S.; Klose, W.; Shimamoto, S.; Vecsey, G.


    A multinational program of cooperative research, development, demonstrations, and exchanges of information on superconducting magnets for fusion was initiated in 1977 under an IEA agreement. The first major step in the development of TF magnets was called the Large Coil Task. Participants in LCT were the U.S. DOE, EURATOM, JAERI, and the Departement Federal de l'Interieur of Switzerland. The goals of LCT were to obtain experimental data, to demonstrate reliable operation of large superconducting coils, and to prove design principles and fabrication techniques being considered for the toroidal magnets of thermonuclear reactors. These goals were to be accomplished through coordinated but largely independent design, development, and construction of six test coils, followed by collaborative testing in a compact toroidal test array at fields of 8 T and higher. Under the terms of the IEA Agreement, the United States built and operated the test facility at Oak Ridge and provided three test coils. The other participants provided one coil each. Information on design and manufacturing and all test data were shared by all. The LCT team of each participant included a government laboratory and industrial partners or contractors. The last coil was completed in 1985, and the test assembly was completed in October of that year. Over the next 23 months, the six-coil array was cooled down and extensive testing was performed. Results were gratifying, as tests achieved design-point performance and well beyond. (Each coil reached a peak field of 9 T.) Experiments elucidated coil behavior, delineated limits of operability, and demonstrated coil safety. (orig./KP)

  18. Superconducting poloidal coils for STARFIRE commercial reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.T.; Evans, K. Jr.; Turner, L.R.; Huang, Y.C.; Prater, R.; Alcorn, J.


    STARFIRE is considered to be the tenth commercial tokamak power plant. A preliminary design study on its superconducting poloidal coil system is presented. Key features of the design studies are: the elimination of the ohmic heating coil; the trade-off studies of the equilibrium field coil locations; and the development of a conceptual design for the superconducting equilibrium field coils. Described are the 100 kA cryostable conductor design, the coil structure, and evaluation of the coil forces

  19. Coil protection calculator for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsala, R.J.; Lawson, J.E.; Persing, R.G.; Senko, T.R.; Woolley, R.D.


    A new coil protection system (CPS) is being developed to replace the existing TFTR magnetic coil fault detector. The existing fault detector sacrifices TFTR operating capability for simplicity. The new CPS, when installed in October of 1988, will permit operation up to the actual coil stress limits parameters in real-time. The computation will be done in a microprocessor based Coil Protection Calculator (CPC) currently under construction at PPL. THe new CPC will allow TFTR to operate with higher plasma currents and will permit the optimization of pulse repetition rates. The CPC will provide real-time estimates of critical coil and bus temperatures and stresses based on real-time redundant measurements of coil currents, coil cooling water inlet temperature, and plasma current. The critical parameter calculations are compared to prespecified limits. If these limits are reached or exceeded, protection action will be initiated to a hard wired control system (HCS), which will shut down the power supplies. The CPC consists of a redundant VME based microprocessor system which will sample all input data and compute all stress quantities every ten milliseconds. Thermal calculations will be approximated every 10ms with an exact solution occurring every second. The CPC features continuous cross-checking of redundant input signal, automatic detection of internal failure modes, monitoring and recording of calculated results, and a quick, functional verification of performance via an internal test system. (author)

  20. Is umbilical coiling genetically determined? (United States)

    Ayala, Nina K; Ernst, Linda M; Miller, Emily S


    Abnormal umbilical cord coiling is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes; however, the etiology of the umbilical coiling pattern is poorly understood. Retrospective cohort of all twin deliveries >20 weeks in 2014. Pregnancies were dichotomized by chorionicity and the umbilical coiling index (UCI) and placental cord insertion location were compared. In cases with one or both cords hypercoiled, the direction and pattern of coiling were compared by chorionicity. A similar analysis was performed stratified by zygosity. Three hundred sisty two twin pairs were included; 26 (7.2%) monochorionic and 174 (87.0%) definitively dizygotic. Concordance in the UCI and coiling category were similar between dichorionic and monochorionic as well as dizygous and monozygous gestations, (73.2% vs 80.8%, p = 0.399 and 71.4% vs 80.8%, p = 0.399, respectively). Analyses of the coiling direction and pattern also demonstrated no difference by chorionicity or zygosity. These data do not support a genetic basis for umbilical cord coiling.

  1. Coiled Coils - A Model System for the 21st Century. (United States)

    Lupas, Andrei N; Bassler, Jens


    α-Helical coiled coils were described more than 60 years ago as simple, repetitive structures mediating oligomerization and mechanical stability. Over the past 20 years, however, they have emerged as one of the most diverse protein folds in nature, enabling many biological functions beyond mechanical rigidity, such as membrane fusion, signal transduction, and solute transport. Despite this great diversity, their structures can be described by parametric equations, making them uniquely suited for rational protein design. Far from having been exhausted as a source of structural insight and a basis for functional engineering, coiled coils are poised to become even more important for protein science in the coming decades. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cross-linking reveals laminin coiled-coil architecture (United States)

    Armony, Gad; Jacob, Etai; Moran, Toot; Levin, Yishai; Mehlman, Tevie; Levy, Yaakov; Fass, Deborah


    Laminin, an ∼800-kDa heterotrimeric protein, is a major functional component of the extracellular matrix, contributing to tissue development and maintenance. The unique architecture of laminin is not currently amenable to determination at high resolution, as its flexible and narrow segments complicate both crystallization and single-particle reconstruction by electron microscopy. Therefore, we used cross-linking and MS, evaluated using computational methods, to address key questions regarding laminin quaternary structure. This approach was particularly well suited to the ∼750-Å coiled coil that mediates trimer assembly, and our results support revision of the subunit order typically presented in laminin schematics. Furthermore, information on the subunit register in the coiled coil and cross-links to downstream domains provide insights into the self-assembly required for interaction with other extracellular matrix and cell surface proteins. PMID:27815530

  3. Design of Correction Coil for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Hiroatsu; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Omine, Takeshi


    ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) project is under way among EU, Japan, Russia and US. In order to shut plasma, the magnetic field is applied by the superconducting coils in ITER. The coils which are called 'Poloidal field (PF-coil)' are installed to control the location and the cross-section shape for plasma in the vacuum vessel. Incorrect position of Magnetic field (Magnetic error) is occurred by the manufacture tolerance for PF-coil. The coils which are called 'Correction-Coil' are installed in order to correct these magnetic error around the PF-coil. The Correction Coils are consist of the 3-sets of the superconducting coil. The stress analysis for the correction coils is performed and the supporting structure of the coils are designed. The bolts for clamps and the position for clamps are examined from this analysis. (J.P.N.)

  4. Induced current in superconducting coils and its effect on dynamic stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haibin; Zhou Youhe; Zheng Xiaojing


    An analysis of the dynamic stability of the superconducting coils in tokamak-type fusion reactor has been performed, when the induced current and its effect on the dynamic stability have been taken into account from the theory of magnetism captured by the superconducting coil. Based on the theory of curved beams and the Biot-Savart law, a theoretical model of the magneto-elastic interactions among the deformation of the coils, the electromagnetic force exerted on the coils and the induced current of the coils has been established. From the numerical analysis of a three-coil superconducting partial torus, it is found that the induced current due to the coil vibration is very small when a steady current is applied in the coil, therefore there is a little effect of the current on the mechanical behavior of the coil. When the structure is subjected to a transient electromagnetic force due to a rapid change of pulse current, the influence of induced current on the mechanical behavior becomes notable. That is to say, the range of magneto-elastic dynamic stability becomes smaller due to the induced current in the superconducting partial torus when pulse current is applied in the coils

  5. Photonic crystal fiber coil sensor for water-depth sensing (United States)

    Fan, Chen-Feng; Yu, Chin-Ping


    We fabricate a PCF coil sensor for water-depth sensing by winding a PCF on a plastic straw. Due to the bending-induced birefringence along the PCF, we can observe clear interference pattern in the output spectrum by placing the PCF coil into a Sagnac fiber loop. As we horizontally immerse the fabricated PCF coil into water, a nonlinear relationship between the water depth and the wavelength shift can be obtained. We have also measured the interference spectrum by vertically immersing the PCF coil into water. We can observe a linear relationship between the water depth and the wavelength shift, and the measured water-depth sensitivity for vertical immersion is -1.17 nm/mm.

  6. A new twist in the coil: functions of the coiled-coil domain of structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) proteins. (United States)

    Matityahu, Avi; Onn, Itay


    The higher-order organization of chromosomes ensures their stability and functionality. However, the molecular mechanism by which higher order structure is established is poorly understood. Dissecting the activity of the relevant proteins provides information essential for achieving a comprehensive understanding of chromosome structure. Proteins of the structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) family of ATPases are the core of evolutionary conserved complexes. SMC complexes are involved in regulating genome dynamics and in maintaining genome stability. The structure of all SMC proteins resembles an elongated rod that contains a central coiled-coil domain, a common protein structural motif in which two α-helices twist together. In recent years, the imperative role of the coiled-coil domain to SMC protein activity and regulation has become evident. Here, we discuss recent advances in the function of the SMC coiled coils. We describe the structure of the coiled-coil domain of SMC proteins, modifications and interactions that are mediated by it. Furthermore, we assess the role of the coiled-coil domain in conformational switches of SMC proteins, and in determining the architecture of the SMC dimer. Finally, we review the interplay between mutations in the coiled-coil domain and human disorders. We suggest that distinctive properties of coiled coils of different SMC proteins contribute to their distinct functions. The discussion clarifies the mechanisms underlying the activity of SMC proteins, and advocates future studies to elucidate the function of the SMC coiled coil domain.

  7. Two-Slotted Surface Coil Array for Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 4 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis, S. E.; Hernandez, J. A.; Rodriguez, A. O.; Tomasi, D.


    Arrays of antennas have been widely accepted for magnetic resonance imaging applications due to their high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) over large volumes of interest. A new surface coil based on the magnetron tube and called slotted surface coil, has been recently introduced by our group. This coil design experimentally demonstrated a significant improvement over the circular-shaped coil when used in the receive-only mode. The slotted coils formed a two-sheet structure with a 90 deg. separation and each coil had 6 circular slots. Numerical simulations were performed using the finite element method for this coil design to study the behaviour of the array magnetic field. Then, we developed a two-coil array for brain magnetic resonance imaging to be operated at the resonant frequency of 170 MHz in the transceiver mode. Phantom images were acquired with our coil array and standard pulse sequences on a research-dedicated 4 Tesla scanner. Numerical simulations demonstrated that electromagnetic interaction between the coil elements is negligible, and that the magnetic field showed a good uniformity. In vitro images showed the feasibility of this coil array for standard pulses for high field magnetic resonance imaging

  8. Flexible eddy current coil arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krampfner, Y.; Johnson, D.P.


    A novel approach was devised to overcome certain limitations of conventional eddy current testing. The typical single-element hand-wound probe was replaced with a two dimensional array of spirally wound probe elements deposited on a thin, flexible polyimide substrate. This provides full and reliable coverage of the test area and eliminates the need for scanning. The flexible substrate construction of the array allows the probes to conform to irregular part geometries, such as turbine blades and tubing, thereby eliminating the need for specialized probes for each geometry. Additionally, the batch manufacturing process of the array can yield highly uniform and reproducible coil geometries. The array is driven by a portable computer-based eddy current instrument, smartEDDY/sup TM/, capable of two-frequency operation, and offers a great deal of versatility and flexibility due to its software-based architecture. The array is coupled to the instrument via an 80-switch multiplexer that can be configured to address up to 1600 probes. The individual array elements may be addressed in any desired sequence, as defined by the software

  9. First coil for the SC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    The coils for the SC magnet were stored in the large hangar of the Cointrin Airport (to make sure that they would be available before snow and ice would block the roads and canals from Belgium, where they were built).

  10. Coil for LEAR extraction septum

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    Which way does the current flow ? This intriguing object is the coil for the LEAR extraction septum. There were two septa, first a thin one, then this one, not so thin, somewhat on the borderline between septum and bending magnet.

  11. Nylon screws make inexpensive coil forms (United States)

    Aucoin, G.; Rosenthal, C.


    Standard nylon screws act as coil form copper wire laid down in spiral thread. Completed coil may be bonded to printed-circuit board. However, it is impossible to tune coil by adjusting spacing between windings, technique sometimes used with air-core coils.

  12. Amino acid duplication in the coiled-coil structure of collagen XVII alters its maturation and trimerization causing mild junctional epidermolysis bullosa. (United States)

    Kroeger, Jasmin K; Hofmann, Silke C; Leppert, Juna; Has, Cristina; Franzke, Claus-Werner


    The function and stability of collagens depend on the accurate triple helix formation of three distinct polypeptide chains. Disruption of this triple-helical structure can result in connective-tissue disorders. Triple helix formation is thought to depend on three-stranded coiled-coil oligomerization sites within non-collagenous domains. However, only little is known about the physiological relevance of these coiled-coil structures. Transmembrane collagen XVII, also known as 180 kDa bullous pemphigoid antigen provides mechanical stability through the anchorage of epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Mutations in the collagen XVII gene, COL17A1, cause junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB), characterized by chronic trauma-induced skin blistering. Here we exploited a novel naturally occurring COL17A1 mutation, leading to an in-frame lysine duplication within the coiled-coil structure of the juxtamembranous NC16A domain of collagen XVII, which resulted in a mild phenotype of JEB due to reduced membrane-anchored collagen XVII molecules. This mutation causes structural changes in the mutant molecule and interferes with its maturation. The destabilized coiled-coil structure of the mutant collagen XVII unmasks a furin cleavage site that results in excessive and non-physiological ectodomain shedding during its maturation. Furthermore, it decreases its triple-helical stability due to defective coiled-coil oligomerization, which makes it highly susceptible to proteolytic degradation. As a consequence of altered maturation and decreased stability of collagen XVII trimers, reduced collagen XVII is incorporated into the cell membrane, resulting in compromised dermal-epidermal adhesion. Taken together, using this genetic model, we provide the first proof that alteration of the coiled-coil structure destabilizes oligomerization and impairs physiological shedding of collagen XVII in vivo. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For

  13. Carbon footprint of automotive ignition coil (United States)

    Chang, Huey-Ling; Chen, Chih-Ming; Sun, Chin-Huang; Lin, Hung-Di


    In recent years, environmental issues, such as climate change and global warming due to the excessive development of industry, have attracted increasing attention of citizens worldwide. It is known that CO2 accounts for the largest proportion of greenhouse gases. Therefore, how to reduce CO2 emissions during the life cycle of a product to lessen its impact on environment is an important topic in the industrial society. Furthermore, it is also of great significance to cut down the required energy so as to lower its production costs during the manufacturing process nowadays. This study presents the carbon footprint of an automotive ignition coil and its partial materials are defined to explore their carbon emissions and environmental impact. The model IPCC GWP100a calculates potential global greenhouse effect by converting them into CO2 equivalents. In this way, the overall carbon footprint of an ignition coil can be explored. By using IPCC GWP100a, the results display that the shell has the most carbon emissions. The results can help the industry reduce the carbon emissions of an ignition coil product.

  14. Coil supporting device in nuclear fusion apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Ryo; Imura, Yasuya.


    Object: To secure intermediate fittings with a coil fixed thereon by an insulating tape to a fixed body by means of fittings, thereby supporting the coil in a narrow space. Structure: A coil is secured to intermediate fittings by means of an insulating tape, after which the intermediate fittings is mounted on a fixed body through fittings to support the coil in a narrow clearance portion between a plasma sealed vessel and a main coil. (Kamimura, M.)

  15. Voltage harmonic variation in three-phase induction motors with different coil pitches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshmukh, Ram; Moses, Anthony John; Anayi, Fatih


    A pulse-width modulation (PWM) inverter feeding four different chorded three-phase induction motors was tested for low-order odd harmonic voltage component and efficiency at different loads. Total harmonic distortion (THD) due to 3rd, 5th and 9th harmonics was less in a motor with 160 o coil pitch. Particular harmonic order for each coil pitch was suppressed and the efficiency of a 120 o coil pitch motor was increased by 7.5%

  16. Optimal Value of Series Capacitors for Uniform Field Distribution in Transmission Line MRI Coils


    Vitaliy Zhurbenko


    Transmission lines are often used as coils in high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Due to the distributed nature of transmission lines, coils based on them produce inhomogeneous field. This work investigates application of series capacitors to improve field homogeneity along the coil. The equations for optimal values of evenly distributed capacitors are derived and expressed in terms of the implemented transmission line parameters. The achieved magnetic field homogeneity is estimated ...

  17. In vitro study of near-wall flow in a cerebral aneurysm model with and without coils. (United States)

    Goubergrits, L; Thamsen, B; Berthe, A; Poethke, J; Kertzscher, U; Affeld, K; Petz, C; Hege, H-C; Hoch, H; Spuler, A


    Coil embolization procedures change the flow conditions in the cerebral aneurysm and, therefore, in the near-wall region. Knowledge of these flow changes may be helpful to optimize therapy. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of the coil-packing attenuation on the near-wall flow and its variability due to differences in the coil structure. An enlarged transparent model of an ACA aneurysm was fabricated on the basis of CT angiography. The near-wall flow was visualized by using a recently proposed technique called Wall-PIV. Coil-packing attenuation of 10%, 15%, and 20% were investigated and compared with an aneurysmal flow without coils. Then the flow variability due to the coil introduction was analyzed in 10 experiments by using a packing attenuation of 15%. A small packing attenuation of 10% already alters the near-wall flow significantly in a large part of the aneurysmal sac. These flow changes are characterized by a slow flow with short (interrupted) path lines. An increased packing attenuation expands the wall area exposed to the altered flow conditions. This area, however, depends on the coil position and/or on the 3D coil structure in the aneurysm. To our knowledge, this is the first time the near-wall flow changes caused by coils in an aneurysm model have been visualized. It can be concluded that future hydrodynamic studies of coil therapy should include an investigation of the coil structure in addition to the coil-packing attenuation.

  18. Single-molecule observation of helix staggering, sliding, and coiled coil misfolding (United States)

    Xi, Zhiqun; Gao, Ying; Sirinakis, George; Guo, Honglian; Zhang, Yongli


    The biological functions of coiled coils generally depend on efficient folding and perfect pairing of their α-helices. Dynamic changes in the helical registry that lead to staggered helices have only been proposed for a few special systems and not found in generic coiled coils. Here, we report our observations of multiple staggered helical structures of two canonical coiled coils. The partially folded structures are formed predominantly by coiled coil misfolding and occasionally by helix sliding. Using high-resolution optical tweezers, we characterized their energies and transition kinetics at a single-molecule level. The staggered states occur less than 2% of the time and about 0.1% of the time at zero force. We conclude that dynamic changes in helical registry may be a general property of coiled coils. Our findings should have broad and unique implications in functions and dysfunctions of proteins containing coiled coils. PMID:22451899

  19. Designed Coiled Coils Promote Folding of a Recombinant Bacterial Collagen* (United States)

    Yoshizumi, Ayumi; Fletcher, Jordan M.; Yu, Zhuoxin; Persikov, Anton V.; Bartlett, Gail J.; Boyle, Aimee L.; Vincent, Thomas L.; Woolfson, Derek N.; Brodsky, Barbara


    Collagen triple helices fold slowly and inefficiently, often requiring adjacent globular domains to assist this process. In the Streptococcus pyogenes collagen-like protein Scl2, a V domain predicted to be largely α-helical, occurs N-terminal to the collagen triple helix (CL). Here, we replace this natural trimerization domain with a de novo designed, hyperstable, parallel, three-stranded, α-helical coiled coil (CC), either at the N terminus (CC-CL) or the C terminus (CL-CC) of the collagen domain. CD spectra of the constructs are consistent with additivity of independently and fully folded CC and CL domains, and the proteins retain their distinctive thermal stabilities, CL at ∼37 °C and CC at >90 °C. Heating the hybrid proteins to 50 °C unfolds CL, leaving CC intact, and upon cooling, the rate of CL refolding is somewhat faster for CL-CC than for CC-CL. A construct with coiled coils on both ends, CC-CL-CC, retains the ∼37 °C thermal stability for CL but shows less triple helix at low temperature and less denaturation at 50 °C. Most strikingly however, in CC-CL-CC, the CL refolds slower than in either CC-CL or CL-CC by almost two orders of magnitude. We propose that a single CC promotes folding of the CL domain via nucleation and in-register growth from one end, whereas initiation and growth from both ends in CC-CL-CC results in mismatched registers that frustrate folding. Bioinformatics analysis of natural collagens lends support to this because, where present, there is generally only one coiled-coil domain close to the triple helix, and it is nearly always N-terminal to the collagen repeat. PMID:21454493

  20. Toroidal field coil torque structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaines, A.L.


    A torque structure is disclosed particularly suitable for utilization in a power reactor of the Tokamak-type, and operable therein for purposes of providing support for the toroidal field (TF) coils that comprise one of the major operating components of such a Tokamak power reactor. The subject torque structure takes the form of a frame structure that is operable to enable torque loads acting on the TF coils to be equilibrated as close to the area of force application as feasible. The aforesaid torque structure includes an intercoil structure composed of spacer wedges that are interposed between each adjacent pair of TF coils. The spacer wedges, in turn, consist of bearing plates positioned between the TF coils so as to be in contacting relation therewith and a number of cross plates that are cooperatively associated with the bearing plates so as to form therewith a rigid assembly. The intercoil structure is affixed to a segmented, membrane shell that surrounds, encloses and supports the TF coil frames. Access is had to the interior of the shell through an opening formed for this purpose in a reinforced portion of the shell. Eddy current losses are minimized by insulating the joints formed at the juncture of adjoining segments of the shell

  1. A large stellarator based on modular coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamberger, S.M.; Sharp, L.E.; Petersen, L.F.


    Although stellarators offer some considerable advantages over tokamaks, difficulties arise in designing large devices due, for instance, to poor plasma access as well as to constructional electromechanical and maintenance problems associated with continous helical windings. This paper describes a design for a fairly large device (major radius 2.1m), based on a set of discrete coil modules arranged in a toroidal configuration to provide the required closed magnetic surfaces, having gaps for unobstructed access to the plasma for diagnostics, etc, and allowing for easy removal for maintenance

  2. The Calculated and Measured Resistance for Splices between Conductors in a MICE Superconducting Coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Michael A.; Dietderich, Dan; Higley, Hugh; Pan, Heng; Tam, Darren; Trillaud, Federic; Wang, Li; Wu, Hong; Xu, Feng Yu


    The resistance of superconducting joints within MICE coils is an important issue particularly for the coupling coils. The MICE tracker solenoids have only two superconducting joints in the three spectrometer set (end coil 1, the center coil and end coil 2). The AFC magnets may have only a single joint within the coil. The coupling coils may have as many as fifteen joints within the coil, due to relatively short piece lengths of the superconductor. LBNL and ICST looked at three types of coil joints. They are: (1) cold fusion butt joints, (2) side-by-side lap joints, and (3) up-down lap joints. A theoretical calculation of the joint resistance was done at LBNL and checked by ICST. After looking at the theoretical resistance of the three types of joints, it was decided that the cold welded butt joint was not an attractive alternative for joints within a MICE superconducting magnet coil. Side-by-side and up-down lap joints were fabricated at ICST using two types of soft solder between the conductors. These conductor joints were tested at LBNL at liquid helium temperatures over a range of magnetic fields. The joint resistance was compared with the theoretical calculations. Measurements of splice strength were also made at 300 K and 77 K.

  3. Self-assembled artificial viral capsids bearing coiled-coils at the surface. (United States)

    Fujita, Seiya; Matsuura, Kazunori


    In order to construct artificial viral capsids bearing complementary dimeric coiled-coils on the surface, a β-annulus peptide bearing a coiled-coil forming sequence at the C-terminus (β-annulus-coiled-coil-B) was synthesized by a native chemical ligation of a β-annulus-SBn peptide with a Cys-containing coiled-coil-B peptide. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images revealed that the β-annulus-coiled-coil-B peptide self-assembled into spherical structures of about 50 nm in 10 mM Tris-HCl buffer. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra indicated the formation of the complementary coiled-coil structure on the spherical assemblies. Addition of 0.25 equivalent of the complementary coiled-coil-A peptide to the β-annulus-coiled-coil-B peptide showed the formation of spherical assemblies of 46 ± 14 nm with grains of 5 nm at the surface, whereas addition of 1 equivalent of the complementary coiled-coil-A peptide generated fibrous assemblies.

  4. Coiled-coil domains enhance the membrane association of Salmonella type III effectors. (United States)

    Knodler, Leigh A; Ibarra, J Antonio; Pérez-Rueda, Ernesto; Yip, Calvin K; Steele-Mortimer, Olivia


    Coiled-coil domains in eukaryotic and prokaryotic proteins contribute to diverse structural and regulatory functions. Here we have used in silico analysis to predict which proteins in the proteome of the enteric pathogen, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, harbour coiled-coil domains. We found that coiled-coil domains are especially prevalent in virulence-associated proteins, including type III effectors. Using SopB as a model coiled-coil domain type III effector, we have investigated the role of this motif in various aspects of effector function including chaperone binding, secretion and translocation, protein stability, localization and biological activity. Compared with wild-type SopB, SopB coiled-coil mutants were unstable, both inside bacteria and after translocation into host cells. In addition, the putative coiled-coil domain was required for the efficient membrane association of SopB in host cells. Since many other Salmonella effectors were predicted to contain coiled-coil domains, we also investigated the role of this motif in their intracellular targeting in mammalian cells. Mutation of the predicted coiled-coil domains in PipB2, SseJ and SopD2 also eliminated their membrane localization in mammalian cells. These findings suggest that coiled-coil domains represent a common membrane-targeting determinant for Salmonella type III effectors. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. The structure of the GemC1 coiled coil and its interaction with the Geminin family of coiled-coil proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caillat, Christophe; Fish, Alexander [The Netherlands Cancer Institute, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pefani, Dafni-Eleftheria; Taraviras, Stavros; Lygerou, Zoi [University of Patras, 26505 Rio, Patras (Greece); Perrakis, Anastassis, E-mail: [The Netherlands Cancer Institute, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    The GemC1 coiled-coil structure has subtle differences compared with its homologues Geminin and Idas. Co-expression experiments in cells and biophysical stability analysis of the Geminin-family coiled coils suggest that the GemC1 coiled coil alone is unstable. GemC1, together with Idas and Geminin, an important regulator of DNA-replication licensing and differentiation decisions, constitute a superfamily sharing a homologous central coiled-coil domain. To better understand this family of proteins, the crystal structure of a GemC1 coiled-coil domain variant engineered for better solubility was determined to 2.2 Å resolution. GemC1 shows a less typical coiled coil compared with the Geminin homodimer and the Geminin–Idas heterodimer structures. It is also shown that both in vitro and in cells GemC1 interacts with Geminin through its coiled-coil domain, forming a heterodimer that is more stable that the GemC1 homodimer. Comparative analysis of the thermal stability of all of the possible superfamily complexes, using circular dichroism to follow the unfolding of the entire helix of the coiled coil, or intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of a unique conserved N-terminal tryptophan, shows that the unfolding of the coiled coil is likely to take place from the C-terminus towards the N-terminus. It is also shown that homodimers show a single-state unfolding, while heterodimers show a two-state unfolding, suggesting that the dimer first falls apart and the helices then unfold according to the stability of each protein. The findings argue that Geminin-family members form homodimers and heterodimers between them, and this ability is likely to be important for modulating their function in cycling and differentiating cells.

  6. Optimal Value of Series Capacitors for Uniform Field Distribution in Transmission Line MRI Coils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy Zhurbenko


    Full Text Available Transmission lines are often used as coils in high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Due to the distributed nature of transmission lines, coils based on them produce inhomogeneous field. This work investigates application of series capacitors to improve field homogeneity along the coil. The equations for optimal values of evenly distributed capacitors are derived and expressed in terms of the implemented transmission line parameters. The achieved magnetic field homogeneity is estimated under quasistatic approximation and compared to the regular transmission line resonator. Finally, a more practical case of a microstrip line coil with two series capacitors is considered.

  7. Simple technique to place niti open coil spring in a lingual archwire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Kanta Das


    Full Text Available Due to limited accessibility and postural issues, placement of open coil spring in lingual technique can be a struggle to the operator. In the present technique, along with the archwire, a ligature wire is passed through the lumen of the niti open coil spring. Both ends of the ligature are wound together tightly thereby compressing the coil spring to a smaller length so that it can be placed in the interbracket span without any active force. Once the archwire is ligated to the lingual brackets, the ligature is cut open to free the coil spring to exert desired force.

  8. Large coil program support structure conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litherland, P.S.


    The purpose of the Large Coil Program (LCP) is to perform tests on both pool boiling and force cooled superconducting toroidal field coils. The tests will attempt to approximate conditions anticipated in an ignition tokamak. The test requirements resulted in a coil support design which accommodates up to six (6) test coils and is mounted to a structure capable of resisting coil interactions. The steps leading to the present LCP coil support structure design, details on selected structural components, and the basic assembly sequence are discussed

  9. Structural and biochemical characterizations of an intramolecular tandem coiled coil protein. (United States)

    Shin, Donghyuk; Kim, Gwanho; Kim, Gyuhee; Zheng, Xu; Kim, Yang-Gyun; Lee, Sangho


    Coiled coil has served as an excellent model system for studying protein folding and developing protein-based biomaterials. Most designed coiled coils function as oligomers, namely intermolecular coiled coils. However, less is known about structural and biochemical behavior of intramolecular coiled coils where coiled coil domains are covalently linked in one polypeptide. Here we prepare a protein which harbors three coiled coil domains with two short linkers, termed intramolecular tandem coiled coil (ITCC) and characterize its structural and biochemical behavior in solution. ITCC consists of three coiled coil domains whose sequences are derived from Coil-Ser and its domain swapped dimer. Modifications include positioning E (Glu) residue at "e" and K (Lys) at "g" positions throughout heptad repeats to enhance ionic interaction among its constituent coiled coil domains. Molecular modeling of ITCC suggests a compact triple helical bundle structure with the second and the third coiled coil domains forming a canonical coiled coil. ITCC exists as a mixture of monomeric and dimeric species in solution. Small-angle X-ray scattering reveals ellipsoidal molecular envelopes for both dimeric and monomeric ITCC in solution. The theoretically modeled structures of ITCC dock well into the envelopes of both species. Higher ionic strength shifts the equilibrium into monomer with apparently more compact structure while secondary structure remains unchanged. Taken together, our results suggest that our designed ITCC is predominantly monomeric structure through the enhanced ionic interactions, and its conformation is affected by the concentration of ionic species in the buffer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthesis and functionalization of coiled carbon filaments (United States)

    Hikita, Muneaki

    Coiled carbon filaments have one of the most attractive three-dimensional forms in carbon materials due to their helical morphologies. Because of their shape and carbon structure, they exhibit excellent mechanical and electrical properties such as superelasticity, low Young's modulus, relatively high electrical conductivity, and good electromagnetic (EM) wave absorption. Therefore, they are good candidates as fillers in composite materials for tactile sensor and electromagnetic interference shielding. In medical areas of interests, coiled carbon filaments can be used as micro and nano heaters or trigger for thermotherapy and biosensors using EM wave exposure because absorbed EM waves by coiled carbon filaments are converted into heat. Although various shapes of coiled carbon filaments have been discovered, optimum synthesis conditions and growth mechanisms of coiled carbon filaments are poorly understood. The study of growth kinetics is significant not only to analyze catalyst activity but also to establish the growth mechanisms of coiled carbon filaments. The establishment of growth mechanisms would be useful for determining optimum synthesis conditions and maximizing the quantity of carbon filaments synthesized for a given application. In the first study, tip grown single helical carbon filaments or carbon nanocoils (CNCs) were synthesized by a chemical vapor deposition method using tin-iron-oxide (Sn-Fe-O) xerogel film catalyst. The Sn-Fe-O catalyst was prepared by a low-cost sol-gel method using stannous acetate and ferric acetate as precursors. The growth kinetics of CNCs were monitored by a thermogravimetric analyzer, and the experimental result was correlated using a one-dimensional kinetic model, corresponding to one-dimensional tip growth. In the second study, bidirectionally grown double helical filaments or carbon microcoils (CMCs) were synthesized using a chemical vapor deposition method. CMCs obtained at two reaction temperatures were compared. CMCs

  11. Suppression of m = 0 in a RFP by toroidal field coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, D.; Robertson, S.


    The Reversatron RFP is normally operated with the toroidal field coils connected in series. The time-integrated voltage applied to the circuit determines the sum of the fluxes linking each turn but not the flux within each turn. Each winding may have a different flux determined by the external drive and by currents within the plasma. A parallel connection of the field coils results in the flux within each coil being determined by the volt-seconds applied to the windings; thus the toroidal flux is the same within each coil. This configuration suppresses any toroidal variation in the toroidal flux and effectively reduces the level of the m = 0 component of the radial field. The m = 0 fluctuations are expected to arise due to nonlinear coupling of the m = 1 modes. A parallel connection of field coils is impractical due to the low impedance required for driving the coils. The authors have tested the effect of parallel connected coils by adding an auxiliary set of 36 coils. These are connected in parallel but are not connected to any supply. The toroidal flux is generated by the series-connected coils which generate voltage but not current in the parallel-connected coils. With the auxiliary coils, the discharge duration is increased from 500 to 550 μsec, the plasma current is increased from 50 kA to 60 kA, F is more negative, Θ is larger, and there is less shot-to-shot variation in the discharges. The m = 0 fluctuations measured by 43 surface coils are, however, only slightly reduced

  12. Large Coil Program magnetic system design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, S.D.; Johnson, N.E.


    The primary objective of the Large Coil Program (LCP) is to demonstrate the reliable operation of large superconducting coils to provide a basis for the design principles, materials, and fabrication techniques proposed for the toroidal magnets for the THE NEXT STEP (TNS) and other future tokamak devices. This paper documents a design study of the Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) in which the structural response of the Toroidal Field (TF) Coils and the supporting structure was evaluated under simulated reactor conditions. The LCP test facility structural system consists of six TF Coils, twelve coil-to-coil torsional restraining beams (torque rings), a central bucking post with base, and a Pulse Coil system. The NASTRAN Finite Element Structural Analysis computer Code was utilized to determine the distribution of deflections, forces, and stresses for each of the TF Coils, torque rings, and the central bucking post. Eleven load conditions were selected to represent probable test operations. Pulse Coils suspended in the bore of the test coil were energized to simulate the pulsed field environment characteristic of the TNS reactor system. The TORMAC Computer Code was utilized to develop the magnetic forces in the TF Coils for each of the eleven loading conditions examined, with or without the Pulse Coils energized. The TORMAC computer program output forces were used directly as input load conditions for the NASTRAN analyses. Results are presented which demonstrate the reliability of the LCTF under simulated reactor operating conditions

  13. Primary calibration of coiled 103Pd brachytherapy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paxton, Adam B.; Culberson, Wesley S.; DeWerd, Larry A.; Micka, John A.


    Coiled 103 Pd brachytherapy sources have been developed by RadioMed Corporation for use as low-dose-rate (LDR) interstitial implants. The coiled sources are provided in integer lengths from 1 to 6 cm and address many common issues seen with traditional LDR brachytherapy sources. The current standard for determining the air-kerma strength (S K ) of low-energy LDR brachytherapy sources is the National Institute of Standards and Technology's Wide-Angle Free-Air Chamber (NIST WAFAC). Due to geometric limitations, however, the NIST WAFAC is unable to determine the S K of sources longer than 1 cm. This project utilized the University of Wisconsin's Variable-Aperture Free-Air Chamber (UW VAFAC) to determine the S K of the longer coiled sources. The UW VAFAC has shown agreement in S K values of 1 cm length coils to within 1% of those determined with the NIST WAFAC, but the UW VAFAC does not share the same geometric limitations as the NIST WAFAC. A new source holder was constructed to hold the coiled sources in place during measurements with the UW VAFAC. Correction factors for the increased length of the sources have been determined and applied to the measurements. Using the new source holder and corrections, the S K of 3 and 6 cm coiled sources has been determined. Corrected UW VAFAC data and ionization current measurements from well chambers have been used to determine calibration coefficients for use in the measurement of 3 and 6 cm coiled sources in well chambers. Thus, the UW VAFAC has provided the first transferable, primary measurement of low-energy LDR brachytherapy sources with lengths greater than 1 cm

  14. Open-coil retraction spring. (United States)

    Vibhute, Pavankumar Janardan


    Sliding mechanic has become a popular method for space closure with developments in preadjusted edgewise appliance. Furthermore, various space closing auxiliaries have been developed and evaluated extensively for their clinical efficiency. Their effectiveness enhanced with optimum force magnitude and low-load deflection rate (LDR)/force decay. With the advent of NiTi springs in orthodontics, LDRs have been markedly reduced. For use of NiTi, clinician has to depend upon prefabricated closed coil springs. "Open Coil Retraction Spring (OCRS)" is developed utilizing NiTi open-coil spring for orthodontic space closure. This paper describes fabrication and clinical application of OCRS which have number of advantages. It sustains low LDR with optimum force magnitude. Its design is adjustable for desired length and force level. It is fail-safe for both activation and deactivation (i.e., it cannot be over activated, and decompression limit of open coil is also controlled by the operator, resp.). A possibility to offset the OCRS away from mucosa helps to reduce its soft-tissue impingement.

  15. Open-Coil Retraction Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavankumar Janardan Vibhute


    Full Text Available Sliding mechanic has become a popular method for space closure with developments in preadjusted edgewise appliance. Furthermore, various space closing auxiliaries have been developed and evaluated extensively for their clinical efficiency. Their effectiveness enhanced with optimum force magnitude and low-load deflection rate (LDR/force decay. With the advent of NiTi springs in orthodontics, LDRs have been markedly reduced. For use of NiTi, clinician has to depend upon prefabricated closed coil springs. “Open Coil Retraction Spring (OCRS” is developed utilizing NiTi open-coil spring for orthodontic space closure. This paper describes fabrication and clinical application of OCRS which have number of advantages. It sustains low LDR with optimum force magnitude. Its design is adjustable for desired length and force level. It is fail-safe for both activation and deactivation (i.e., it cannot be over activated, and decompression limit of open coil is also controlled by the operator, resp.. A possibility to offset the OCRS away from mucosa helps to reduce its soft-tissue impingement.

  16. Finite element coiled cochlea model (United States)

    Isailovic, Velibor; Nikolic, Milica; Milosevic, Zarko; Saveljic, Igor; Nikolic, Dalibor; Radovic, Milos; Filipović, Nenad


    Cochlea is important part of the hearing system, and thanks to special structure converts external sound waves into neural impulses which go to the brain. Shape of the cochlea is like snail, so geometry of the cochlea model is complex. The simplified cochlea coiled model was developed using finite element method inside SIFEM FP7 project. Software application is created on the way that user can prescribe set of the parameters for spiral cochlea, as well as material properties and boundary conditions to the model. Several mathematical models were tested. The acoustic wave equation for describing fluid in the cochlea chambers - scala vestibuli and scala timpani, and Newtonian dynamics for describing vibrations of the basilar membrane are used. The mechanical behavior of the coiled cochlea was analyzed and the third chamber, scala media, was not modeled because it does not have a significant impact on the mechanical vibrations of the basilar membrane. The obtained results are in good agreement with experimental measurements. Future work is needed for more realistic geometry model. Coiled model of the cochlea was created and results are compared with initial simplified coiled model of the cochlea.

  17. Wedding ring shaped excitation coil (United States)

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Tsai, Peter


    A high frequency inductively coupled electrodeless lamp includes an excitation coil with an effective electrical length which is less than one half wavelength of a driving frequency applied thereto, preferably much less. The driving frequency may be greater than 100 MHz and is preferably as high as 915 MHz. Preferably, the excitation coil is configured as a non-helical, semi-cylindrical conductive surface having less than one turn, in the general shape of a wedding ring. At high frequencies, the current in the coil forms two loops which are spaced apart and parallel to each other. Configured appropriately, the coil approximates a Helmholtz configuration. The lamp preferably utilizes an bulb encased in a reflective ceramic cup with a pre-formed aperture defined therethrough. The ceramic cup may include structural features to aid in alignment and/or a flanged face to aid in thermal management. The lamp head is preferably an integrated lamp head comprising a metal matrix composite surrounding an insulating ceramic with the excitation integrally formed on the ceramic. A novel solid-state oscillator preferably provides RF power to the lamp. The oscillator is a single active element device capable of providing over 70 watts of power at over 70% efficiency.

  18. Design and modelling of a SMES coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Weijia; Campbell, A M; Coombs, T A, E-mail: [EPEC Superconductivity group, Engineering Department, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)


    The design of a Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) coil wound by coated conductors has been presented. Based on an existing model for coated conductor pancake coils, this paper analysed the magnetic field and current density distribution of the coil at two different operation temperatures, 77K and 22K. A comparison table of the critical currents and AC losses at these two temperatures has been presented. Several steps to improve the transport current of the coil have been suggested as well.

  19. Bow-shaped toroidal field coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonanos, P.


    Design features of Bow-Shaped Toroidal Field Coils are described and compared with circular and D shaped coils. The results indicate that bow coils can produce higher field strengths, store more energy and be made demountable. The design offers the potential for the production of ultrahigh toroidal fields. Included are representative coil shapes and their engineering properties, a suggested structural design and an analysis of a specific case

  20. Nested Surface Coils for Multinuclear NMR


    Magill, Arthur; Gruetter, Rolf


    This article introduces the design of surface coils for multinuclear applications. The relative sensitivities of several NMR-visible nuclei of biological interest are considered, and the motivations to operate an RF coil at multiple frequencies, both sequentially and simultaneously, are reviewed. The design of nested surface coils is then developed. Magnetic fields generated by planar loop and butterfly coils are first introduced. The benefits of quadrature design are briefly considered, and ...

  1. Plasmodium vivax antigen discovery based on alpha-helical coiled coil protein motif

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Céspedes, Nora; Habel, Catherine; Lopez-Perez, Mary


    Protein α-helical coiled coil structures that elicit antibody responses, which block critical functions of medically important microorganisms, represent a means for vaccine development. By using bioinformatics algorithms, a total of 50 antigens with α-helical coiled coil motifs orthologous to Pla...

  2. Are coiled-coils of dimeric kinesins unwound during their walking on microtubule? (United States)

    Duan, Zhao-Wen; Xie, Ping; Li, Wei; Wang, Peng-Ye


    Dimeric kinesin motor proteins such as homodimeric kinesin-1, homodimeric Ncd and heterodimeric Kar3/Vik1are composed of two head domains which are connected together by a rod-shaped, coiled-coil stalk. Despite the extensive and intensive studies on structures, kinetics, dynamics and walking mechanism of the dimers, whether their coiled-coils are unwound or not during their walking on the microtubule is still an unclear issue. Here, we try to clarify this issue by using molecular dynamics simulations. Our simulation results showed that, for Ncd, a large change in potential of mean force is required to unwind the coiled-coil by only several pairs of residues. For both Ncd and kinesin-1, the force required to initiate the coiled-coil unwinding is larger than that required for unfolding of the single [Formula: see text]-helix that forms the coiled-coil or is larger than that required to unwind the DNA duplex, which is higher than the unbinding force of the kinesin head from the microtubule in strong microtubule-binding states. Based on these results and the comparison of the sequence between the coiled-coil of Kar3/Vik1 and those of Ncd and kinesin-1, it was deduced that the coiled-coil of the Kar3/Vik1 should also be very stable. Thus, we concluded that the coiled-coils of kinesin-1, Ncd and Kar3/Vik1 are almost impossible to unwind during their walking on the microtubule.

  3. Split Coil Forms for Rotary Transformers (United States)

    Mclyman, C. W. T.


    Split cores for rotor and stator windings of rotary transformer mounted around their respective coils (which are in bobbins) and cemented together. This arrangement simplifies winding of stator coil to go in a slot in inner diameter of stator coil. One practical application of rotary transformers fabricated according to this technique is for centrifuges, in which conventional sliprings are of uncertain reliability.

  4. The umbilical coiling index in normal pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diik, C. C.; Franx, A.; de Laat, M. W. M.; Bruinse, H. W.; Visser, G. H. A.; Nikkels, P. G. J.


    To provide reference values for the umbilical coiling index in uncomplicated pregnancy. Umbilical cords were collected from livebom singleton infants born after uncomplicated pregnancies. The umbilical coiling index (UCI) was calculated as the number of coils divided by the cord length in

  5. The umbilical coiling index in complicated pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Laat, Monique W. M.; van Alderen, Elise D.; Franx, Arie; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Bots, Michiel L.; Nikkels, Peter G. J.


    To evaluate umbilical cord coiling in pregnancies with adverse outcome. Umbilical cords and hospital records of 565 consecutive cases with an indication for histological examination of the placenta were studied. The umbilical coiling index (UCI) was determined as the number of complete coils divided

  6. Development of SMART CRDM Coil Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Seon; Kim, Tae Wan; Choi, Suhn; Park, Hee June


    A control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) is an electromagnetic device which drives a control rod assembly linearly to regulate reactivity of a nuclear core. Driving force is electromagnetic force generated from coils installed outside of a motor housing. The magnetic parts of a motor assembly installed inside of a motor housing are magnetized when a coil is activated, and adhere to each other to produce latching or driving force as a result. A coil assembly consists of a lifting coil, a movable latch coil and a stationary latch coil as shown in Fig. 1. The latch coils make a drive shaft engaged with or released from latches, and the lift coil makes a drive shaft and a control rod assembly move up or drop. A CRDM control system supplies controlled electric current to a specified coil in order, and then a control rod assembly moves up or down. The coil assembly for SMART CRDM has been developed based on the design concept of a coil assembly for control element drive mechanism (CEDM) of the OPR1000, and modified to satisfy dedicated design requirements for SMART reactor. Some of representative design requirements are the lifting capacity of 3200N which is greater, the lifting step of 15.875mm which is longer than that for CEDM, and one step driving instead of two step driving. Design process through an electromagnetic analysis for a lift coil is described herein as a representative example, and representative results of the analysis are presented

  7. Flexibility of LHD configuration with multi-layer helical coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichiguchi, Katsuji; Motojima, Osamu; Yamazaki, Kozo; Nakajima, Noriyoshi; Okamoto, Masao


    The Large Helical Device (LHD) is a heliotron device with two helical coils, each of which has a structure of three current layers. It is designed so that the current in each layer should be controlled independently. By changing the combination of the coil current in the layers, it is possible to vary the effective minor radius of the helical coils, which enlarges the flexibility of the configuration. The properties of the plasmas for several combinations of the layers are investigated numerically. In the vacuum configuration, it is obtained that the combination of the layers corresponding to a large effective coil radius has a large outermost surface. In this case, the rotational transform decreases and the magnetic hill is reduced compared with the configuration with all three layers. The large Shafranov shift which is due to the small rotational transform enhances the magnetic well and the magnetic shear to stabilize the Mercier mode, however, it degrades the equilibrium beta limit. In the case of the combination for a small effective coil radius, the Mercier mode is destabilized, because the magnetic hill is enhanced. The effect on the bootstrap current is also studied. (author).

  8. MR-based conductivity imaging using multiple receiver coils. (United States)

    Lee, Joonsung; Shin, Jaewook; Kim, Dong-Hyun


    To propose a signal combination method for MR-based tissue conductivity mapping using a standard clinical scanner with multiple receiver coils. The theory of the proposed method is presented with two practical approaches, a coil-specific approach and a subject-specific approach. Conductivity maps were reconstructed using the transceive phase of the combined signal. The sensitivities of the coefficients used for signal combination were analyzed and the method was compared with other signal combination methods. For validation, multiple receiver brain coils and multiple receiver breast coils were used in phantom, in vivo brain, and in vivo breast studies. The variation among the conductivity estimates was conductivity estimates. MR-based tissue conductivity mapping is feasible when using a standard clinical MR scanner with multiple receiver coils. The proposed method reduces systematic errors in phase-based conductivity mapping that can occur due to the inhomogeneous magnitude of the combined receive profile. Magn Reson Med 76:530-539, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. An insertable nonlinear gradient coil for phase compensation in SEA imaging. (United States)

    Bosshard, John C; McDougall, Mary Preston; Wright, Steven M


    In magnetic resonance imaging with array coils with many elements, as the radiofrequency (RF) coil dimensions approach the voxel dimensions, the phase gradient due to the magnetic field pattern of the coil causes signal cancellation within each voxel. In single echo acquisition (SEA) imaging with coil arrays, a gradient pulse can be applied to compensate for this effect. However, because RF coil phase varies with distance from the array and reverses on opposite sides of a dual-sided array, this method of phase compensation can be optimized for only a single slice at a time. In this study, a nonlinear gradient coil was implemented to provide spatially varying phase compensation to offset the coil phase with slice position for dual-sided arrays of narrow coils. This nonlinear gradient coil allows the use of one phase compensation pulse for imaging multiple slices through a slab, and, importantly, is shown to enable simultaneous SEA imaging from opposite sides of a sample using a dual-sided receive array.

  10. A 16-channel MR coil for simultaneous PET/MR imaging in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dregely, Isabel [Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, Nuklearmedizinische Klinik, Munich (Germany); Department of Radiological Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Lanz, Titus; Mueller, Matthias F. [Rapid Biomedical GmbH, Rimpar (Germany); Metz, Stephan [Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, Institut fuer diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie, Munich (Germany); Kuschan, Marika [Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, Nuklearmedizinische Klinik, Munich (Germany); IMETUM, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Munich (Germany); Nimbalkar, Manoj; Ziegler, Sibylle I.; Nekolla, Stephan G.; Schwaiger, Markus [Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, Nuklearmedizinische Klinik, Munich (Germany); Bundschuh, Ralph A. [Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, Nuklearmedizinische Klinik, Munich (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Bonn, Nuklearmedizinische Klinik, Bonn (Germany); Haase, Axel [IMETUM, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Munich (Germany)


    To implement and evaluate a dedicated receiver array coil for simultaneous positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR) imaging in breast cancer. A 16-channel receiver coil design was optimized for simultaneous PET/MR imaging. To assess MR performance, the signal-to-noise ratio, parallel imaging capability and image quality was evaluated in phantoms, volunteers and patients and compared to clinical standard protocols. For PET evaluation, quantitative {sup 18} F-FDG PET images of phantoms and seven patients (14 lesions) were compared to images without the coil. In PET image reconstruction, a CT-based template of the coil was combined with the MR-acquired attenuation correction (AC) map of the phantom/patient. MR image quality was comparable to clinical MR-only examinations. PET evaluation in phantoms showed regionally varying underestimation of the standardised uptake value (SUV; mean 22 %) due to attenuation caused by the coil. This was improved by implementing the CT-based coil template in the AC (<2 % SUV underestimation). Patient data indicated that including the coil in the AC increased the SUV values in the lesions (21 ± 9 %). Using a dedicated PET/MR breast coil, state-of-the-art MRI was possible. In PET, accurate quantification and image homogeneity could be achieved if a CT-template of this coil was included in the AC for PET image reconstruction. (orig.)

  11. Electromagnetic-thermal-structural coupling analysis of the ITER edge localized mode coil with flexible supports (United States)

    Zhang, Shanwen; Song, Yuntao; Tang, Linlin; Wang, Zhongwei; Ji, Xiang; Du, Shuangsong


    In a fusion reactor, the edge localized mode (ELM) coil has a mitigating effect on the ELMs of the plasma. The coil is placed close to the plasma between the vacuum vessel and the blanket to reduce its design power and improve its mitigating ability. The coil works in a high-temperature, high-nuclear-heat and high-magnetic-field environment. Due to the existence of outer superconducting coils, the coil is subjected to an alternating electromagnetic force induced by its own alternating current and the outer magnetic field. The design goal for the ELM coil is to maintain its structural integrity in the multi-physical field. Taking as an example the middle ELM coil (with flexible supports) of ITER (the International Thermonuclear Fusion Reactor), an electromagnetic-thermal-structural coupling analysis is carried out using ANSYS. The results show that the flexible supports help the three-layer casing meet the static and fatigue design requirements. The structural design of the middle ELM coil is reasonable and feasible. The work described in this paper provides the theoretical basis and method for ELM coil design.

  12. Intravascular placement of metallic coils as lung tumor markers for CyberKnife stereotactic radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaman, Kutlay; Dokdok, A. Murat; Karadeniz, Okatay; Ceylan, Cemile; Engin, Kayihan [Anadolu Medical Center, Kocaeli (Turkey)


    To present our experience with placing endovascular coils in pulmonary arteries used as a fiducial marker for CyberKnife therapy and to describe the technical details and complications of the procedure. Between June 2005 and September 2013, 163 patients with primary or secondary lung malignancies, referred for fiducial placement for stereotactic radiosurgery, were retrospectively reviewed. Fourteen patients (9 men, 5 women; mean age, 70 years) with a history of pneumonectomy (n = 3), lobectomy (n = 3) or with severe cardiopulmonary co-morbidity (n = 8) underwent coil (fiducial marker) placement. Pushable or detachable platinum micro coils (n = 49) 2-3 mm in size were inserted through coaxial microcatheters into a small distal pulmonary artery in the vicinity of the tumor under biplane angiography/fluoroscopy guidance. Forty nine coils with a median number of 3 coils per tumor were placed with a mean tumor-coil distance of 2.7 cm. Forty three (87.7%) of 49 coils were successfully used as fiducial markers. Two coils could not be used due to a larger tumor-coil distance (> 50 mm). Four coils were in an acceptable position but their non-coiling shape precluded tumor tracking for CyberKnife treatment. No major complications needing further medication other than nominal therapy, hospitalization more than one night or permanent adverse sequale were observed. Endovascular placement of coil as a fiducial marker is safe and feasible during CyberKnife therapy, and might be an option for the patients in which percutaneous transthoracic fiducial placement might be risky.

  13. Intravascular placement of metallic coils as lung tumor markers for CyberKnife stereotactic radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaman, Kutlay; Dokdok, A. Murat; Karadeniz, Okatay; Ceylan, Cemile; Engin, Kayihan


    To present our experience with placing endovascular coils in pulmonary arteries used as a fiducial marker for CyberKnife therapy and to describe the technical details and complications of the procedure. Between June 2005 and September 2013, 163 patients with primary or secondary lung malignancies, referred for fiducial placement for stereotactic radiosurgery, were retrospectively reviewed. Fourteen patients (9 men, 5 women; mean age, 70 years) with a history of pneumonectomy (n = 3), lobectomy (n = 3) or with severe cardiopulmonary co-morbidity (n = 8) underwent coil (fiducial marker) placement. Pushable or detachable platinum micro coils (n = 49) 2-3 mm in size were inserted through coaxial microcatheters into a small distal pulmonary artery in the vicinity of the tumor under biplane angiography/fluoroscopy guidance. Forty nine coils with a median number of 3 coils per tumor were placed with a mean tumor-coil distance of 2.7 cm. Forty three (87.7%) of 49 coils were successfully used as fiducial markers. Two coils could not be used due to a larger tumor-coil distance (> 50 mm). Four coils were in an acceptable position but their non-coiling shape precluded tumor tracking for CyberKnife treatment. No major complications needing further medication other than nominal therapy, hospitalization more than one night or permanent adverse sequale were observed. Endovascular placement of coil as a fiducial marker is safe and feasible during CyberKnife therapy, and might be an option for the patients in which percutaneous transthoracic fiducial placement might be risky.

  14. Modular assembly of a protein nanotriangle using orthogonally interacting coiled coils. (United States)

    Park, Won Min; Bedewy, Mostafa; Berggren, Karl K; Keating, Amy E


    Synthetic protein assemblies that adopt programmed shapes would support many applications in nanotechnology. We used a rational design approach that exploits the modularity of orthogonally interacting coiled coils to create a self-assembled protein nanotriangle. Coiled coils have frequently been used to construct nanoassemblies and materials, but rarely with successful prior specification of the resulting structure. We designed a heterotrimer from three pairs of heterodimeric coiled coils that mediate specific interactions while avoiding undesired crosstalk. Non-associating pairs of coiled-coil units were strategically fused to generate three chains that were predicted to preferentially form the heterotrimer, and a rational annealing process led to the desired oligomer. Extensive biophysical characterization and modeling support the formation of a molecular triangle, which is a shape distinct from naturally occurring supramolecular nanostructures. Our approach can be extended to design more complex nanostructures using additional coiled-coil modules, other protein parts, or templated surfaces.

  15. The clear and dark sides of water: influence on the coiled coil folding domain. (United States)

    Vajda, Tamás; Perczel, András


    The essential role of water in extra- and intracellular coiled coil structures of proteins is critically evaluated, and the different protein types incorporating coiled coil units are overviewed. The following subjects are discussed: i) influence of water on the formation and degradation of the coiled coil domain together with the stability of this conformer type; ii) the water's paradox iii) design of coiled coil motifs and iv) expert opinion and outlook is presented. The clear and dark sides refer to the positive and negative aspects of the water molecule, as it may enhance or inhibit a given folding event. This duplicity can be symbolized by the Roman 'Janus-face' which means that water may facilitate and stimulate coiled coil structure formation, however, it may contribute to the fatal processes of oligomerization and amyloidosis of the very same polypeptide chain.

  16. Scaffolds, levers, rods and springs: diverse cellular functions of long coiled-coil proteins. (United States)

    Rose, A; Meier, I


    Long alpha-helical coiled-coil proteins are involved in a variety of organizational and regulatory processes in eukaryotic cells. They provide cables and networks in the cyto- and nucleoskeleton, molecular scaffolds that organize membrane systems, motors, levers, rotating arms and possibly springs. A growing number of human diseases are found to be caused by mutations in long coiled-coil proteins. This review summarizes our current understanding of the multifaceted group of long coiled-coil proteins in the cytoskeleton, nucleus, Golgi and cell division apparatus. The biophysical features of coiled-coil domains provide first clues toward their contribution to the diverse protein functions and promise potential future applications in the area of nanotechnology. Combining the power of fully sequenced genomes and structure prediction algorithms, it is now possible to comprehensively summarize and compare the complete inventory of coiled-coil proteins of different organisms.

  17. Development of a device for measuring the sensitivity area of coil arrays for magnetic induction measurements. (United States)

    Cordes, Axel; Santos, Susana Aguiar; Leonhardt, Steffen


    Combining single coils to form a coil array provide advantages for magnetic induction measurements of breathing or heart activity. The main goal for such combination could be a coil configuration which makes the whole measurement system less sensitive for moving artifacts of the patient due to the capability of using many coils for signal acquisition. Such setup could be designed and tested with FEM software. But in most cases, the technical realization differs from theoretical, for instance due to cable effects or the presence of amplifiers attached very close to the coils. Thus, a measurement system for detecting the sensitive area of real arrays is required. In this article, such a device is presented. Based on a crane construction, it is well suited for testing arrays which are built for an integration under a bed or within an incubator for vital parameter monitoring. We will describe the construction as well as first example measurements of a test array.

  18. Performance of long J-shaped coils in large and giant intracranial aneurysms: an in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, K.; Tanaka, N.; Sugiu, K.; Levrier, O.; Martin, J.B.; Ruefenacht, D.A.


    We evaluated the performance of long straight coils (Detach-18 trademark J-shaped coils) in large and giant in-vitro aneurysms. The coils consisted of a distal semicircular part 7 or 15 mm in diameter and a proximal 70 cm straight part having three types of stiffness: soft, standard, and stiff. We first investigated the ease of passage through a microcatheter in a realistic cerebral vessel model. Second, we made silicone models simulating lateral-type aneurysms of various spherical dome diameters (12, 15, 20 and 30 mm) and neck sizes (3-10 mm; dome-to-neck ratio approximately 3:1) and connected them to a pulsating circulatory pump. We evaluated the anchoring and folding patterns of the coils, stability of the microcatheter and coils in the aneurysm, and smoothness of delivery and retrieval of coils. Third, we compared the conformability of a coil in a large, irregular aneurysm with that of a spiral coil. The long J-shaped coils were easily advanced and retrieved through a microcatheter in a tortuous vessel model. In 12 mm spherical aneurysms, each coil made a complex framework, and knot formation or damage to the coil during withdrawal was often observed. In 15 mm aneurysms, the coils were all easily delivered and retrieved; standard-stiffness coils adapted best to this size. In 20 mm aneurysms, frameworks were less complex but still good with a standard or stiff coil, but those with soft coil were unstable and changed significantly within 3 min of detachment due to gravity and pulsatile flow. In 30 mm aneurysms, soft coils filled only the lower part during introduction, whereas a stiff coil still made a favourable framework. Conformability of a long J-shaped coil was superior to that of a spiral coil in a large, irregular aneurysm. Long J-shaped coils conform well to various configurations of large and giant aneurysms and can shorten procedures since a larger implant volume can be delivered with a single coil. Their principle of action may promote more favourable

  19. Pulse coil concepts for the LCP Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, B.E.; Burn, P.B.


    The pulse coils described in this paper are resistive copper magnets driven by time-varying currents. They are included in the Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) portion of the Large Coil Program (LCP) to simulate the pulsed field environment of the toroidal coils in a tokamak reactor. Since TNS (a 150 sec, 5MA, igniting tokamak) and the Oak Ridge EPR (Experimental Power Reactor) are representative of the first tokamaks to require the technology developed in LCP, the reference designs for these machines, especially TNS, are used to derive the magnetic criteria for the pulse coils. This criteria includes the magnitude, distribution, and rate of change of pulsed fields in the toroidal coil windings. Three pulse coil concepts are evaluated on the basis of magnetic criteria and factors such as versatility of design, ease of fabrication and cost of operation. The three concepts include (1) a pair of poloidal coils outside the LCTF torus, (2) a single poloidal coil threaded through the torus, and (3) a pair of vertical axis coil windings inside the bore of one or more of the toroidal test coils

  20. Coiled transmission line pulse generators (United States)

    McDonald, Kenneth Fox


    Methods and apparatus are provided for fabricating and constructing solid dielectric "Coiled Transmission Line" pulse generators in radial or axial coiled geometries. The pour and cure fabrication process enables a wide variety of geometries and form factors. The volume between the conductors is filled with liquid blends of monomers, polymers, oligomers, and/or cross-linkers and dielectric powders; and then cured to form high field strength and high dielectric constant solid dielectric transmission lines that intrinsically produce ideal rectangular high voltage pulses when charged and switched into matched impedance loads. Voltage levels may be increased by Marx and/or Blumlein principles incorporating spark gap or, preferentially, solid state switches (such as optically triggered thyristors) which produce reliable, high repetition rate operation. Moreover, these Marxed pulse generators can be DC charged and do not require additional pulse forming circuitry, pulse forming lines, transformers, or an a high voltage spark gap output switch. The apparatus accommodates a wide range of voltages, impedances, pulse durations, pulse repetition rates, and duty cycles. The resulting mobile or flight platform friendly cylindrical geometric configuration is much more compact, light-weight, and robust than conventional linear geometries, or pulse generators constructed from conventional components. Installing additional circuitry may accommodate optional pulse shape improvements. The Coiled Transmission Lines can also be connected in parallel to decrease the impedance, or in series to increase the pulse length.

  1. Simple Coiling versus Stent-Assisted Coiling of Paraclinoid Aneurysms: Radiological Outcome in a Single Center Study. (United States)

    Kim, Soo Yeon; Park, Dong Sun; Park, Hye Yin; Chun, Young Il; Moon, Chang Taek; Roh, Hong Gee


    Paraclinoid aneurysms are a group of aneurysms arising at the distal internal carotid artery. Due to a high incidence of small, wide-necked aneurysms in this zone, it is often challenging to achieve complete occlusion when solely using detachable coils, thus stent placement is often required. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of stent placement in endovascular treatment of paraclinoid aneurysms. Data of 98 paraclinoid aneurysms treated by endovascular approach in our center from August 2005 to June 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. They were divided into two groups: simple coiling and stent-assisted coiling. Differences in the recurrence and progressive occlusion between the two groups were mainly analyzed. The recurrence was defined as more than one grade worsening according to Raymond-Roy Classification or major recanalization that is large enough to permit retreatment in the follow-up study compared to the immediate post-operative results. Complete occlusion was achieved immediately after endovascular treatment in eight out of 37 patients (21.6%) in the stent-assisted group and 18 out of 61 (29.5%) in the simple coiling group. In the follow-up imaging studies, the recurrence rate was lower in the stent-assisted group (one out of 37, 2.7%) compared to the simple coiling group (13 out of 61, 21.3%) ( p =0.011). Multivariate logistic regression model showed lower recurrence rate in the stent-assisted group than the simple coiling group (odds ratio [OR] 0.051, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.005-0.527). Furthermore there was also a significant difference in the rate of progressive occlusion between the stent-assisted group (16 out of 29 patients, 55.2%) and the simple coiling group (10 out of 43 patients, 23.3%) ( p =0.006). The stent-assisted group also exhibited a higher rate of progressive occlusion than the simple coiling group in the multivariate logistic regression model (OR 3.208, 95% CI 1.106-9.302). Use of stents results in good

  2. Exploring alternate states and oligomerization preferences of coiled-coils by de novo structure modeling. (United States)

    Rämisch, Sebastian; Lizatović, Robert; André, Ingemar


    Homomeric coiled-coils can self-assemble into a wide range of structural states with different helix topologies and oligomeric states. In this study, we have combined de novo structure modeling with stability calculations to simultaneously predict structure and oligomeric states of homomeric coiled-coils. For dimers an asymmetric modeling protocol was developed. Modeling without symmetry constraints showed that backbone asymmetry is important for the formation of parallel dimeric coiled-coils. Collectively, our results demonstrate that high-resolution structure of coiled-coils, as well as parallel and antiparallel orientations of dimers and tetramers, can be accurately predicted from sequence. De novo modeling was also used to generate models of competing oligomeric states, which were used to compare stabilities and thus predict the native stoichiometry from sequence. In a benchmark set of 33 coiled-coil sequences, forming dimers to pentamers, up to 70% of the oligomeric states could be correctly predicted. The calculations demonstrated that the free energy of helix folding could be an important factor for determining stability and oligomeric state of homomeric coiled-coils. The computational methods developed here should be broadly applicable to studies of sequence-structure relationships in coiled-coils and the design of higher order assemblies with improved oligomerization specificity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Growth Factor Identity Is Encoded by Discrete Coiled-Coil Rotamers in the EGFR Juxtamembrane Region. (United States)

    Doerner, Amy; Scheck, Rebecca; Schepartz, Alanna


    Binding of transforming growth factor α (TGF-α) to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) extracellular domain is encoded through the formation of a unique antiparallel coiled coil within the juxtamembrane segment. This new coiled coil is an "inside-out" version of the coiled coil formed in the presence of epidermal growth factor (EGF). A third, intermediary coiled-coil interface is formed in the juxtamembrane region when EGFR is stimulated with betacellulin. The seven growth factors that activate EGFR in mammalian systems (EGF, TGF-α, epigen, epiregulin, betacellulin, heparin-binding EGF, and amphiregulin) fall into distinct categories in which the structure of the coiled coil induced within the juxtamembrane region correlates with cell state. The observation that coiled-coil state tracks with the downstream signaling profiles for each ligand provides evidence for growth factor functional selectivity by EGFR. Encoding growth factor identity in alternative coiled-coil rotamers provides a simple and elegant method for communicating chemical information across the plasma membrane. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A repeated coiled-coil interruption in the Escherichia coli condensin MukB. (United States)

    Weitzel, Christopher S; Waldman, Vincent M; Graham, Travis A; Oakley, Martha G


    MukB, a divergent structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) protein, is important for chromosome segregation and condensation in Escherichia coli and other γ-proteobacteria. MukB and canonical SMC proteins share a common five-domain structure in which globular N- and C-terminal regions combine to form an ATP-binding-cassette-like ATPase domain. This ATPase domain is connected to a central, globular dimerization domain by a long antiparallel coiled coil. The structures of both globular domains have been solved recently. In contrast, little is known about the coiled coil, in spite of its clear importance for SMC function. Recently, we identified interacting regions on the N- and C-terminal halves of the MukB coiled coil through photoaffinity cross-linking experiments. On the basis of these low-resolution experimental constraints, phylogenetic data, and coiled-coil prediction analysis, we proposed a preliminary model in which the MukB coiled coil is divided into multiple segments. Here, we use a disulfide cross-linking assay to detect paired residues on opposite strands of MukB's coiled coil. This method provides accurate register data and demonstrates the presence of at least five coiled-coil segments in this domain. Moreover, these studies show that the segments are interrupted by a repeated, unprecedented deviation from canonical coiled-coil structure. These experiments provide a sufficiently detailed view of the MukB coiled coil to allow rational manipulation of this region for the first time, opening the door for structure-function studies of this domain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Remote maintenance of tandem mirror hybrid coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, L.P.


    Hybrid Coils (superconducting coils with normal conducting inserts) are being employed with increasing frequency on Tandem Mirror Devices to obtain high field strengths. The normal conducting copper inserts are short lived in comparison to their encircling superconductors. It becomes desirable, therefore, to devise design features and maintenance procedures to replace the inner normal conducting coils without simultaneously replacing the longer lived (and significantly more costly) superconducting coils. The high neutron wall loadings require that the task be accomplished by remote control. The approach is to permanently mount the coil assemblies on track mounted carriages which serve, during machine operation merely as structural supports, but during maintenance procedures as moveable transport devices. The carriages incorporate all necessary provisions to facilitate remote maintenance operations and to adjust and align the coil assemblies with respect to adjacent machine components. The vacuum vessel is severed on both sides of the hybrid coil by means of a remote cutting machine. The entire coil is transported horizontally, normal to the machine axis to a nearby repair station. Prepositioned carriage mounted repair equipment at the repair station withdraws the damaged normal coil as a single entity and inserts a preassembled spare unit. The repaired hybrid coil is reassembled to the reactor. A cost and risk effective procedure has been evolved to maintain one of the more critical components of a Tandem Mirror Machine

  6. Large coil test facility conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelms, L.W.; Thompson, P.B.; Mann, T.L.


    In the development of a superconducting toroidal field (TF) magnet for The Next Step (TNS) tokamak reactor, several different TF coils, about half TNS size, will be built and tested to permit selection of a design and fabrication procedure for full-scale TNS coils. A conceptual design has been completed for a facility to test D-shaped TF coils, 2.5 x 3.5-m bore, operating at 4-6 K, cooled either by boiling helium or by forced-flow supercritical helium. Up to six coils can be accommodated in a toroidal array housed in a single vacuum tank. The principal components and systems in the facility are an 11-m vacuum tank, a test stand providing structural support and service connections for the coils, a liquid nitrogen system, a system providing helium both as saturated liquid and at supercritical pressure, coils to produce a pulsed vertical field at any selected test coil position, coil power supplies, process instrumentation and control, coil diagnostics, and a data acquisition and handling system. The test stand structure is composed of a central bucking post, a base structure, and two horizontal torque rings. The coils are bolted to the bucking post, which transmits all gravity loads to the base structure. The torque ring structure, consisting of beams between adjacent coils, acts with the bucking structure to react all the magnetic loads that occur when the coils are energized. Liquid helium is used to cool the test stand structure to 5 K to minimize heat conduction to the coils. Liquid nitrogen is used to precool gaseous helium during system cooldown and to provide thermal radiation shielding

  7. Autonomous Coil Alignment System Using Fuzzy Steering Control for Electric Vehicles with Dynamic Wireless Charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karam Hwang


    Full Text Available An autonomous coil alignment system (ACAS using fuzzy steering control is proposed for vehicles with dynamic wireless charging. The misalignment between the power receiver coil and power transmitter coil is determined based on the voltage difference between two coils installed on the front-left/front-right of the power receiver coil and is corrected through autonomous steering using fuzzy control. The fuzzy control is chosen over other control methods for implementation in ACAS due to the nonlinear characteristic between voltage difference and lateral misalignment distance, as well as the imprecise and constantly varying voltage readings from sensors. The operational validity and feasibility of the ACAS are verified through simulation, where the vehicle equipped with ACAS is able to align with the power transmitter in the road majority of the time during operation, which also implies achieving better wireless power delivery.

  8. Analysis of a flux-coupling type superconductor fault current limiter with pancake coils (United States)

    Liu, Shizhuo; Xia, Dong; Zhang, Zhifeng; Qiu, Qingquan; Zhang, Guomin


    The characteristics of a flux-coupling type superconductor fault current limiter (SFCL) with pancake coils are investigated in this paper. The conventional double-wound non-inductive pancake coil used in AC power systems has an inevitable defect in Voltage Sourced Converter Based High Voltage DC (VSC-HVDC) power systems. Due to its special structure, flashover would occur easily during the fault in high voltage environment. Considering the shortcomings of conventional resistive SFCLs with non-inductive coils, a novel flux-coupling type SFCL with pancake coils is carried out. The module connections of pancake coils are performed. The electromagnetic field and force analysis of the module are contrasted under different parameters. To ensure proper operation of the module, the impedance of the module under representative operating conditions is calculated. Finally, the feasibility of the flux-coupling type SFCL in VSC-HVDC power systems is discussed.

  9. Design of an 18 Tesla, tandem mirror, fusion reactor, hybrid choke coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parmer, J.F.; Agarwal, K.; Gurol, H.; Mancuso, A.; Michels, P.H.; Peck, S.D.; Burgeson, J.; Dalder, E.N.


    A hybrid, part normal part superconducting 18-Tesla solenoid choke coil is designed for a tandem mirror fusion reactor. The present state of the art is represented by the 12-Tesla, superconducting NbSn coil. Future applications other than tandem mirror fusion devices needing high field solenoids might require hybrid magnets of the type described herein. The hybrid design was generated because of critical field performance limitations on present, practical superconducting wires. A hybrid design might be required (due to structural limits) even if the critical field were higher. Also, hybrids could be a cost-effective way of getting very high fields for certain applications. The 18-Tesla solenoid described is composed of an inner coil made of water-cooled, high-strength zirconium copper which generates 3 Tesla. A superconducting NbSn background coil contributes the remaining 15 Tesla. The focus of the design study was on the inner coil. Demonstration fabrication and testing was performed

  10. Treatment of Rectal Hemorrhage by Coil Embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, Craig Charles; Nicholson, Anthony A.


    Four patients, aged 54-84 years, presenting with life-threatening rectal bleeding from the superior hemorrhoidal artery, underwent percutaneous fibered platinum coil embolization via coaxial catheters. Pre-procedure sigmoidoscopy had failed to identify the source of hemorrhage, because the rectum was filled with fresh blood. Embolization was technically and clinically successful in all four patients. Subsequent sigmoidoscopy confirmed the diagnoses in three patients as a solitary rectal ulcer, iatrogenic traumatic ulceration following manual evacuation, and a rectal Dieulafoy's lesion. The other case was angiographically seen to be due to a rectal angiodysplasia. Embolization is an effective procedure in life-threatening superior hemorrhoidal arterial bleeding when endoscopic treatment fails, and should be preferred to rectosigmoid resection

  11. A novel electric design for electromagnetic stimulation--the Slinky coil. (United States)

    Ren, C; Tarjan, P P; Popović, D B


    A novel coil design for inductive electromagnetic stimulation of neural cells has been simulated and experimentally tested. This coil improves the focal effect of a magnetic stimulator, and it reduces its inductance, hence the efficiency of the system is improved. The basic structure of the device is derived from the popular "Slinky" toy. The actual device is formed by winding different numbers of loops forming a helical coil on a half torus. The loops are bunched at the axis of the torus. The coil, due to its geometry, generates a unique distribution of eddy currents in nearby tissues which is favorable compared to a solenoid type stimulator. This renders the Slinky coil more selective than conventional coils used for magnetic stimulation. The distribution of eddy currents was analyzed using Matlab, following Faraday's Law of Induction. Improved focality permits the current through the coil to be reduced for the same effect. In addition, the reduced inductance of the Slinky coil decreases the power requirement; thus, the improved efficiency of the system may allow the generation of bursts of pulses, and expand the utilization of the system to possible functional activation of certain neuro-muscular structures when peripheral nerves are stimulated.

  12. A polygonal double-layer coil design for high-efficiency wireless power transfer (United States)

    Mao, Shitong; Wang, Hao; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Sun, Mingui


    In this work, we present a novel coil structure for the design of Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) systems via magnetic resonant coupling. The new coil consists of two layers of flat polygonal windings in square, pentagonal and hexagonal shapes. The double-layer coil can be conveniently fabricated using the print circuit broad (PCB) technology. In our design, we include an angle between the two layers which can be adjusted to change the area of inter-layer overlap. This unique structure is thoroughly investigated with respect to the quality factor Q and the power transfer efficiency (PTE) using the finite element method (FEM). An equivalent circuit is derived and used to explain the properties of the angularly shifted double-layer coil theoretically. Comparative experiments are conducted from which the performance of the new coil is evaluated quantitatively. Our results have shown that an increased shift angle improves the Q-factor, and the optimal PTE is achieved when the angle reaches the maximum. When compared to the pentagonal and hexagonal coils, the square coil achieves the highest PTE due to its lowest parasitic capacitive effects. In summary, our new coil design improves the performance of WPT systems and allows a formal design procedure for optimization in a given application.

  13. The coiled coils of cohesin are conserved in animals, but not in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn E White

    Full Text Available The SMC proteins are involved in DNA repair, chromosome condensation, and sister chromatid cohesion throughout Eukaryota. Long, anti-parallel coiled coils are a prominent feature of SMC proteins, and are thought to serve as spacer rods to provide an elongated structure and to separate domains. We reported recently that the coiled coils of mammalian condensin (SMC2/4 showed moderate sequence divergence (approximately 10-15% consistent with their functioning as spacer rods. The coiled coils of mammalian cohesins (SMC1/3, however, were very highly constrained, with amino acid sequence divergence typically <0.5%. These coiled coils are among the most highly conserved mammalian proteins, suggesting that they make extensive contacts over their entire surface.Here, we broaden our initial analysis of condensin and cohesin to include additional vertebrate and invertebrate organisms and multiple species of yeast. We found that the coiled coils of SMC1/3 are highly constrained in Drosophila and other insects, and more generally across all animal species. However, in yeast they are no more constrained than the coils of SMC2/4 and Ndc80/Nuf2p, suggesting that they are serving primarily as spacer rods.SMC1/3 functions for sister chromatid cohesion in all species. Since its coiled coils apparently serve only as spacer rods in yeast, it is likely that this is sufficient for sister chromatid cohesion in all species. This suggests an additional function in animals that constrains the sequence of the coiled coils. Several recent studies have demonstrated that cohesin has a role in gene expression in post-mitotic neurons of Drosophila, and other animal cells. Some variants of human Cornelia de Lange Syndrome involve mutations in human SMC1/3. We suggest that the role of cohesin in gene expression may involve intimate contact of the coiled coils of SMC1/3, and impose the constraint on sequence divergence.

  14. Critical evaluation of in silico methods for prediction of coiled-coil domains in proteins. (United States)

    Li, Chen; Ching Han Chang, Catherine; Nagel, Jeremy; Porebski, Benjamin T; Hayashida, Morihiro; Akutsu, Tatsuya; Song, Jiangning; Buckle, Ashley M


    Coiled-coils refer to a bundle of helices coiled together like strands of a rope. It has been estimated that nearly 3% of protein-encoding regions of genes harbour coiled-coil domains (CCDs). Experimental studies have confirmed that CCDs play a fundamental role in subcellular infrastructure and controlling trafficking of eukaryotic cells. Given the importance of coiled-coils, multiple bioinformatics tools have been developed to facilitate the systematic and high-throughput prediction of CCDs in proteins. In this article, we review and compare 12 sequence-based bioinformatics approaches and tools for coiled-coil prediction. These approaches can be categorized into two classes: coiled-coil detection and coiled-coil oligomeric state prediction. We evaluated and compared these methods in terms of their input/output, algorithm, prediction performance, validation methods and software utility. All the independent testing data sets are available at In addition, we conducted a case study of nine human polyglutamine (PolyQ) disease-related proteins and predicted CCDs and oligomeric states using various predictors. Prediction results for CCDs were highly variable among different predictors. Only two peptides from two proteins were confirmed to be CCDs by majority voting. Both domains were predicted to form dimeric coiled-coils using oligomeric state prediction. We anticipate that this comprehensive analysis will be an insightful resource for structural biologists with limited prior experience in bioinformatics tools, and for bioinformaticians who are interested in designing novel approaches for coiled-coil and its oligomeric state prediction. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email:

  15. Argonne National Laboratory superconducting pulsed coil program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.T.; Kim, S.H.


    The main objectives are to develop high current (approx. 100 kA) cryostable cable configurations with reasonably low ac losses, to build a demonstration pulsed coil, and to develop a rather inexpensive large fiberglass reinforced helium cryostat. A 1.5-MJ cryostable pulsed superconducting coil has been developed and constructed at ANL. The coil has a peak field of 4.5 T at an operating current of 11.0 kA. A large inexpensive plastic cryostat has been developed for testing the pulsed coil. The coil has been pulsed with a maximum dB/dt of 11 T/s. The coil was pulsed more than 4000 cycles. Detailed results of the ac loss measurements and the current sharing of the cryostability will be described

  16. Power loss problems in EXTRAP coil systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.


    The Ohmic power loss in the coils of external ring traps is minimized with respect to the thermonuclear power production. In the case of the DT-reaction this leads to dimensions and power densities being relevant to full-scale reactors. Not only superconducting or refrigerated coil windings can thus be used, but also hot-coil systems which are operated at several hundred degrees centrigrade and form part of a steam cycle and power extraction system. For hot coils the problems of void formation and tritium regeneration have to be further examined. The high beta value leads to moderately large coil stresses. Finally, replacement and repair become simplified by the present coil geometry. (Auth.)

  17. Split-coil-system SULTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vecsey, G.


    The high field superconductor test facility SULTAN started operation successfully in May 1992. Originally designed for testing full scale conductors for the large magnets of the next generation fusion reactors, the SULTAN facility installed at PSI (Switzerland) was designed as a common venture of three European Laboratories: ENEA (Italy), ECN (Netherlands) and PSI, and built by ENEA and PSI in the framework of the Euratom Fusion Technology Program. Presently the largest facility in the world, with its superconducting split coil system generating 11 Tesla in a 0.6 m bore, it is ready now for testing superconductor samples with currents up to 50 kA at variable cooling conditions. Similar tests can be arranged also for other applications. SULTAN is offered by the European Community as a contribution to the worldwide cooperation for the next step of fusion reactor development ITER. First measurements on conductor developed by CEA (Cadarache) are now in progress. Others like those of ENEA and CERN will follow. For 1993, a test of an Italian 12 TZ model coil for fusion application is planned. SULTAN is a worldwide unique facility marking the competitive presence of Swiss technology in the field of applied superconductivity research. Based on development and design of PSI, the high field Nb 3 Sn superconductors and coils were fabricated at the works of Kabelwerke Brugg and ABB, numerous Swiss companies contributed to the success of this international effort. Financing of the Swiss contribution of SULTAN was made available by NEFF, BEW, BBW, PSI and EURATOM. (author) figs., tabs., 20 refs

  18. Radiative MRI Coil Design Using Parasitic Scatterers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez-Heredia, Juan D.; Avendal, Johan; Bibic, Adnan


    allows for antenna design techniques to be adapted to RF coil designs. This study proposes the use of parasitic scatterers to improve the performance of an existing 7T MRI coil called the single-sided adapted dipole (SSAD) antenna. The results reveal that scatterers arranged in a Yagi fashion can...... suitable for use in high density arrays. These findings show the potential of parasitic scatterers as an effective method to improve the performance of existing radiative MRI coils....

  19. The structure of the GemC1 coiled coil and its interaction with the Geminin family of coiled-coil proteins. (United States)

    Caillat, Christophe; Fish, Alexander; Pefani, Dafni Eleftheria; Taraviras, Stavros; Lygerou, Zoi; Perrakis, Anastassis


    GemC1, together with Idas and Geminin, an important regulator of DNA-replication licensing and differentiation decisions, constitute a superfamily sharing a homologous central coiled-coil domain. To better understand this family of proteins, the crystal structure of a GemC1 coiled-coil domain variant engineered for better solubility was determined to 2.2 Å resolution. GemC1 shows a less typical coiled coil compared with the Geminin homodimer and the Geminin-Idas heterodimer structures. It is also shown that both in vitro and in cells GemC1 interacts with Geminin through its coiled-coil domain, forming a heterodimer that is more stable that the GemC1 homodimer. Comparative analysis of the thermal stability of all of the possible superfamily complexes, using circular dichroism to follow the unfolding of the entire helix of the coiled coil, or intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of a unique conserved N-terminal tryptophan, shows that the unfolding of the coiled coil is likely to take place from the C-terminus towards the N-terminus. It is also shown that homodimers show a single-state unfolding, while heterodimers show a two-state unfolding, suggesting that the dimer first falls apart and the helices then unfold according to the stability of each protein. The findings argue that Geminin-family members form homodimers and heterodimers between them, and this ability is likely to be important for modulating their function in cycling and differentiating cells.

  20. Some considerations on the stress analysis of the Swiss coil for the Large Coil Task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, J.F.; Stiefel, U.; Dean, J.R.; Klauser, P.


    A finite element stress analysis of the coil under consideration is unavoidable due to the proximity of the stresses to the 0.2% yield strength. The casing of this D-shaped coil is both a hollow body and a looped one. This leads to computing costs and memory requirements which are enormous and preclude any parametric study. To reduce computer costs a newly developed code, FLASH, has been used. It has a hybrid stress model leading to more rapid converge and thick plate elements which allow bending moments to be computed. Only one thick plate is needed across the thickness of the casing and local stress concentrations are obtained from the mean stress and the bending moment. Several models were developed most of which can be set up automatically. Comparisons between the models and with ASKA finite element results from BROWN BOVERI Co. essentially show agreement. The casing of individual conductors has also been investigated with the same code. Both the effect of the Lorentz forces and those arising from the quench pressure due to helium heating on loss of superconductivity have been considered. (Auth.)

  1. Manufacturing development of the Westinghouse Nb3Sn coil for the Large Coil Test Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.L.; Vota, T.L.; Singh, S.K.


    The Westinghouse Nb 3 Sn Magnet for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Large Coil Program (LCP) is currently well into the manufacturing phase. This paper identifies the manufacturing processes and development tasks for his unique, advanced coil

  2. Effects of five-membered ring amino acid incorporation into peptides for coiled coil formation. (United States)

    Oba, Makoto; Ito, Chika; Tanaka, Masakazu


    A five-membered ring amino acid (Ac 5 c), the peptides of which exhibit a preference for helical secondary structures, was introduced into peptides for the purpose of designing coiled coil peptides with high binding affinities. We prepared five types of peptides containing Ac 5 c with different numbers or at different positions. The incorporation of Ac 5 c into peptides enhanced their α-helicities; however, in contrast to our expectations, it did not result in stable coiled coil formation. The structures of side chains in hydrophobic amino acids, not α-helicities appeared to be important for stable hydrophobic interactions between peptides. Although we were unable to develop coiled coil peptides with high binding affinities, the present results will be useful for designing novel coiled coil peptides. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Transport Vesicle Tethering at the Trans Golgi Network: Coiled Coil Proteins in Action. (United States)

    Cheung, Pak-Yan P; Pfeffer, Suzanne R


    The Golgi complex is decorated with so-called Golgin proteins that share a common feature: a large proportion of their amino acid sequences are predicted to form coiled-coil structures. The possible presence of extensive coiled coils implies that these proteins are highly elongated molecules that can extend a significant distance from the Golgi surface. This property would help them to capture or trap inbound transport vesicles and to tether Golgi mini-stacks together. This review will summarize our current understanding of coiled coil tethers that are needed for the receipt of transport vesicles at the trans Golgi network (TGN). How do long tethering proteins actually catch vesicles? Golgi-associated, coiled coil tethers contain numerous binding sites for small GTPases, SNARE proteins, and vesicle coat proteins. How are these interactions coordinated and are any or all of them important for the tethering process? Progress toward understanding these questions and remaining, unresolved mysteries will be discussed.

  4. A precise technique for manufacturing correction coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, L.


    An automated method of manufacturing correction coils has been developed which provides a precise embodiment of the coil design. Numerically controlled machines have been developed to accurately position coil windings on the beam tube. Two types of machines have been built. One machine bonds the wire to a substrate which is wrapped around the beam tube after it is completed while the second machine bonds the wire directly to the beam tube. Both machines use the Multiwire reg-sign technique of bonding the wire to the substrate utilizing an ultrasonic stylus. These machines are being used to manufacture coils for both the SSC and RHIC

  5. A Comparative Study of Orthodontic Coil Springs


    Deepak Kumar Agarwal; Anup Razdan; Abhishek Agarwal; Preeti Bhattacharya; Ankur Gupta; D N Kapoor


    Several types of force delivering system are used to carry out tooth movement in orthodontics. Coil springs being one of them are used for the same thus requiring minimal operator manipulation. Aims and objectives : The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of wire diameter, lumen size and length of coil spring on the load produced as a function of displacement of SS and NiTi coil spring. Materials and methods : The study consisted of 60 samples of open and closed coil sprin...

  6. Thomson's Jumping Ring Over a Long Coil (United States)

    Jeffery, Rondo N.; Amiri, Farhang


    The classic jumping ring apparatus consists of a coil with an iron core that extends out of the coil. A copper or aluminum ring placed over the iron core jumps upward when AC power is applied to the coil. In this paper we will examine a modified design of the jumping ring apparatus, called the "long-coil design." It allows the ring to jump upward or downward, depending on the starting position of the ring. These features shed significant light on the study of the force that causes the ring to jump.

  7. Usefulness of the Guglielmi detachable coil for embolization of a systemic venous collateral after Fontan operation: A case report. (United States)

    Sonomura, Tetsuo; Ikoma, Akira; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Suenaga, Tomohiro; Takeuchi, Takashi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Uchita, Shunji; Nakai, Motoki; Minamiguchi, Hiroki; Kishi, Kazushi; Sato, Morio


    Embolization of collateral veins is often treated with rigid coils (Gianturco and interlocking detachable coils type). However, when dealing with tortuous and dilated collateral veins, there is a high risk for technical failure and coil migration due to inflexibility of the coils. To safely and successfully solve this problem, Guglielmi detachable coils (GDC) can be used for embolization. Their flexibility allows for easy navigation in tortuous veins, low risk of unintended coil release or coil migration, and safe deployment. A 12-year-old girl with a single ventricle had severe cyanosis and a low exercise tolerance 5 years after Fontan procedure. The symptoms were caused by a tortuous and dilated collateral from the left phrenic vein into the left pulmonary vein, forming a right-to-left shunt. The collateral, which had a large diameter and high flow, and therefore a high risk of coil migration, was successfully embolized with 8 GDC. There were no complications such as coil migration or cerebral infarction. Transcatheter embolization increased her systemic oxygen saturation from 81%-84% to 94%-95%, and increased her ability to exercise. The embolization procedure using flexible GDC was low risk compared with other rigid coil embolization techniques when performing embolization of tortuous and dilated collateral veins.

  8. Coiled-coil driven membrane fusion: zipper-like vs. non-zipper-like peptide orientation. (United States)

    Versluis, Frank; Dominguez, Juan; Voskuhl, Jens; Kros, Alexander


    Membrane fusion plays a central role in biological processes such as neurotransmission and exocytosis. An important class of proteins that induce membrane fusion are called SNARE (soluble N-ethyl malemeide sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) proteins. To induce membrane fusion, two SNARE proteins embedded in opposing membranes form a four-helix coiled-coil motif together with a third, cytoplasmic, SNARE protein. Coiled-coil formation brings the two membranes into close proximity allowing fusion to occur. Importantly, structural investigations have demonstrated that native membrane fusion only occurs when the orientation of the coiled-coil motif resembles that of a zipper. The zipper orientation arises when parallel coiled-coil formation takes place between peptides that are anchored into apposing membranes at identical termini, thereby forcing the membranes into close contact. Recently, we have designed a synthetic model for membrane fusion, which is based on a set of lipidated coiled-coil forming peptide pairs which are denoted E-K. When incorporated into liposomal membranes, coiled-coil formation between these lipidated peptides induces targeted and efficient membrane fusion of liposomes. Our model system mimics SNARE-driven membrane fusion, as it contains a coiled-coil motif which has a zipper-like orientation, similar to that of the SNARE proteins. Here we investigate whether the zipper-like orientation of the coiled-coil motifs is a prerequisite for membrane fusion in our model system. Our strategy is based on conjugation of the transmembrane anchor to either the N- or the C-terminus of peptides E and K. Whereas the use of a set of complementary peptides with the membrane anchor on identical peptide termini yields the zipper-like orientation of the coiled-coil complex, membrane anchors on opposite peptide termini results in a non-zipper-like coiled-coil orientation. Surprisingly, it was observed that efficient and targeted membrane fusion was

  9. Considerations of a ship defense with a pulsed COIL (United States)

    Takehisa, K.


    Ship defense system with a pulsed COIL (Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser) has been considered. One of the greatest threats for battle ships and carriers in warfare are supersonic anti-ship cruise missiles (ASCMs). A countermeasure is considered to be a supersonic RAM (Rolling Airframe Missile) at first. A gun-type CIWS (Close-In Weapon System) should be used as the last line of defense. However since an ASCM can be detected at only 30-50km away due to radar horizon, a speed-of-light weapon is desirable as the first defense especially if the ASCM flies at >Mach 6. Our previous report explained several advantages of a giant pulse from a chemical oxygen laser (COL) to shoot down supersonic aircrafts. Since the first defense has the target distance of ~30km, the use of COIL is better considering its beam having high transmissivity in air. Therefore efficient operation of a giant-pulsed COIL has been investigated with rate-equation simulations. The simulation results indicate that efficient single-pass amplification can be expected. Also a design example of a giant-pulsed COIL MOPA (master oscillator and power amplifier) system has been shown, in which the output energy can be increased without limit.

  10. A Non-perturbing Probe of Coiled Coil Formation Based on Electron Transfer Mediated Fluorescence Quenching. (United States)

    Watson, Matthew D; Peran, Ivan; Raleigh, Daniel P


    Coiled coils are abundant in nature, occurring in ∼3% of proteins across sequenced genomes, and are found in proteins ranging from transcription factors to structural proteins. The motif continues to be an important model system for understanding protein-protein interactions and is finding increased use in bioinspired materials and synthetic biology. Knowledge of the thermodynamics of self-assembly, particularly the dissociation constant KD, is essential for the application of designed coiled coils and for understanding the in vivo specificity of natural coiled coils. Standard methods for measuring KD typically rely on concentration dependent circular dichroism (CD). Fluorescence methods are an attractive alternative; however Trp is rarely found in an interior position of a coiled coil, and appending unnatural fluorophores can perturb the system. We demonstrate a simple, non-perturbing method to monitor coiled coil formation using p-cyanophenylalanine (FCN) and selenomethionine (MSe), the Se analogue of Met. FCN fluorescence can be selectively excited and is effectively quenched by electron transfer with MSe. Both FCN and MSe represent minimally perturbing substitutions in coiled coils. MSe quenching of FCN fluorescence is shown to offer a non-perturbing method for following coiled coil formation and for accurately determining dissociation constants. The method is validated using a designed heterodimeric coiled coil. The KD deduced by fluorescence monitored titration is in excellent agreement with the value deduced from concentration dependent CD measurements to within the uncertainty of the measurement. However, the fluorescence approach requires less protein, is less time-consuming, can be applied to lower concentrations and could be applied to high throughput screens.

  11. Moving coil-based actuators (United States)

    Neff, Edward A.


    SMAC Corporation manufactures a wide variety of moving coil based electric servo actuators. These actuators were developed with a specific purpose in mind: To produce tools that would make the automation of assembly easier to accomplish, tools that could perform work in much the same manner as fingers but with more precision. The design targets were: A. Variable programmable accurate positioning down to sub-micron level. B. Variable programmable accurately controlled speeds. C. Variable programmable forces from grams to kilograms. D. Multiple axis configurations to increase degrees of freedom hence flexibility. E. The ability to perform work and verify its success at the same time. F. A low cost design that could eventually compete with pneumatic devices. (SMAC is related to two large pneumatic manufacturers: SMC Corp. and Mac Valve, Inc.) It should be noted that in the past a number of designers have developed voice coil based actuators, the Stout design and patent, with its discussion of programmable force was an early inspiration. SMAC's basic electro/mechanical and software design patents number 20.

  12. Superconducting Coil of Po Dipole

    CERN Multimedia


    The Po superconducting dipole was built as a prototype beam transport magnet for the SPS extracted proton beam P0. Its main features were: coil aperture 72 mm, length 5 m, room-temperature yoke, NbTi cable conductor impregnated with solder, nominal field 4.2 T at 4.7 K (87% of critical field). It reached its nominal field without any quench.After this successful test up to its nominal field of 4.2 T, the power was not raised to reach a quench. The magnet was not installed in a beam and had no other further use. Nevertheless its construction provided knowledges and experience which became useful in the design and construction of the LHC magnets. The photo shows a detail of the inner layer winding before superposing the outer layer to form the complete coil of a pole. Worth noticing is the interleaved glass-epoxy sheet (white) with grooved channels for the flow of cooling helium. See also 8211532X.

  13. Theoretical and experimental study on the magnetomechanical behavior of superconducting helical coils for a fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaghi, T.; Miya, K.; Yamada, H.; Takagi, T.


    The magnetomechanical behavior of superconducting helical coils for a magnetic fusion reactor was investigated experimentally and theoretically. Deformations of straight and torus type helical coils were caused due to static electromagnetic forces in the liquid helium cryostat and were analysed with the finite element computer code made here. Despite of a large scatter of experimental data due to a non-uniform friction force between the helical coil and the torus of stainless steel, the numerical results are very close to the mean value of the data. Numerical analysis of the force distribution acting on the helical coils was also performed for a Heliotron's coil system to characterize its nature. The force could be categorized conveniently as an extensional force, a tangential force and a toroidal force which correspond respectively to the kind of forces acting on toroidal field coils. Additionally, the effect of mechanical constraint on the magnetomechanical behavior is discussed and shows that the location of the constraint significantly affects the stress distributions in the coils. (orig.)

  14. Accommodation of structural rearrangements in the huntingtin-interacting protein 1 coiled-coil domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilbur, Jeremy D., E-mail: [Graduate Program in Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); Hwang, Peter K. [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); Brodsky, Frances M. [The G. W. Hooper Foundation, Departments of Microbiology and Immunology and of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); Fletterick, Robert J. [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); Graduate Program in Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States)


    Variable packing interaction related to the conformational flexibility within the huntingtin-interacting protein 1 coiled coil domain. Huntingtin-interacting protein 1 (HIP1) is an important link between the actin cytoskeleton and clathrin-mediated endocytosis machinery. HIP1 has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of Huntington’s disease. The binding of HIP1 to actin is regulated through an interaction with clathrin light chain. Clathrin light chain binds to a flexible coiled-coil domain in HIP1 and induces a compact state that is refractory to actin binding. To understand the mechanism of this conformational regulation, a high-resolution crystal structure of a stable fragment from the HIP1 coiled-coil domain was determined. The flexibility of the HIP1 coiled-coil region was evident from its variation from a previously determined structure of a similar region. A hydrogen-bond network and changes in coiled-coil monomer interaction suggest that the HIP1 coiled-coil domain is uniquely suited to allow conformational flexibility.

  15. Multicoil2: Predicting Coiled Coils and Their Oligomerization States from Sequence in the Twilight Zone (United States)

    Trigg, Jason; Gutwin, Karl; Keating, Amy E.; Berger, Bonnie


    The alpha-helical coiled coil can adopt a variety of topologies, among the most common of which are parallel and antiparallel dimers and trimers. We present Multicoil2, an algorithm that predicts both the location and oligomerization state (two versus three helices) of coiled coils in protein sequences. Multicoil2 combines the pairwise correlations of the previous Multicoil method with the flexibility of Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) in a Markov Random Field (MRF). The resulting algorithm integrates sequence features, including pairwise interactions, through multinomial logistic regression to devise an optimized scoring function for distinguishing dimer, trimer and non-coiled-coil oligomerization states; this scoring function is used to produce Markov Random Field potentials that incorporate pairwise correlations localized in sequence. Multicoil2 significantly improves both coiled-coil detection and dimer versus trimer state prediction over the original Multicoil algorithm retrained on a newly-constructed database of coiled-coil sequences. The new database, comprised of 2,105 sequences containing 124,088 residues, includes reliable structural annotations based on experimental data in the literature. Notably, the enhanced performance of Multicoil2 is evident when tested in stringent leave-family-out cross-validation on the new database, reflecting expected performance on challenging new prediction targets that have minimal sequence similarity to known coiled-coil families. The Multicoil2 program and training database are available for download from PMID:21901122

  16. Natural templates for coiled-coil biomaterials from praying mantis egg cases. (United States)

    Walker, Andrew A; Weisman, Sarah; Kameda, Tsunenori; Sutherland, Tara D


    Whereas there is growing interest in producing biomaterials containing coiled-coils, relatively few studies have made use of naturally occurring fibrous proteins. In this study, we have characterized fibrous proteins used by mother praying mantises to produce an extensive covering for their eggs called an ootheca and demonstrate the production of artificial ootheca using recombinantly produced proteins. Examination of natural oothecae by infrared spectroscopy and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance revealed the material to consist of proteins organized predominately as coiled-coils. Two structural proteins, Mantis Fibroin 1 and Mantis Fibroin 2, were identified in ootheca from each of three species. Between species, the primary sequences of both proteins had diverged considerably, but other features were tightly conserved, including low molecular weight, high abundance of Ala, Glu, Lys, and Ser, and a triblock-like architecture with extensive central coiled-coil domain. Mantis fibroin hydrophobic cores had an unusual composition containing high levels of alanine and aromatic residues. Recombinantly produced mantis fibroins folded into coiled-coils in solution and could be fabricated into solid materials with high coiled-coil content. The structural features of mantis fibroins and their straightforward recombinant production make them promising templates for the production of coiled-coil biomimetics materials.

  17. LOGICOIL--multi-state prediction of coiled-coil oligomeric state. (United States)

    Vincent, Thomas L; Green, Peter J; Woolfson, Derek N


    The coiled coil is a ubiquitous α-helical protein-structure domain that directs and facilitates protein-protein interactions in a wide variety of biological processes. At the protein-sequence level, the coiled coil is readily recognized via a conspicuous heptad repeat of hydrophobic and polar residues. However, structurally coiled coils are more complicated, existing in a wide range of oligomer states and topologies. As a consequence, predicting these various states from sequence remains an unmet challenge. This work introduces LOGICOIL, the first algorithm to address the problem of predicting multiple coiled-coil oligomeric states from protein-sequence information alone. By covering >90% of the known coiled-coil structures, LOGICOIL is a net improvement compared with other existing methods, which achieve a predictive coverage of ∼31% of this population. This leap in predictive power offers better opportunities for genome-scale analysis, and analyses of coiled-coil containing protein assemblies. LOGICOIL is available via a web-interface at Source code, training sets and supporting information can be downloaded from the same site.

  18. Coiled-coil formation on lipid bilayers--implications for docking and fusion efficiency. (United States)

    Pähler, Gesa; Panse, Cornelia; Diederichsen, Ulf; Janshoff, Andreas


    Coiled-coil formation of four different oligopeptides was characterized in solution, on hydrogels, and on membranes by employing circular dichroism spectroscopy, surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy, and ellipsometry. Peptide sequences rich in either glutamic acid (E: E3Cys, i-E3Cys) or lysine (K: K3Cys, i-K3Cys) were used to represent minimal mimics of eukaryotic SNARE motifs. Half of the peptides were synthesized in reverse sequence, so that parallel and antiparallel heptad coiled-coil structures were formed. Either E-peptides or K-peptides were attached covalently to phospholipid anchors via maleimide chemistry, and served as receptors for the recognition of the corresponding binding partners added to solution. Attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy of single bilayers confirmed the formation of coiled-coil complexes at the membrane interface. Coiled-coil formation in solution, as compared with association at the membrane surface, displays considerably larger binding constants that are largely attributed to loss of translational entropy at the interface. Finally, the fusogenicity of the various coiled-coil motifs was explored, and the results provide clear evidence that hemifusion followed by full fusion requires a parallel orientation of α-helices, whereas antiparallel oriented coiled-coil motifs display only docking. Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Coiled-Coil Formation on Lipid Bilayers—Implications for Docking and Fusion Efficiency (United States)

    Pähler, Gesa; Panse, Cornelia; Diederichsen, Ulf; Janshoff, Andreas


    Coiled-coil formation of four different oligopeptides was characterized in solution, on hydrogels, and on membranes by employing circular dichroism spectroscopy, surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy, and ellipsometry. Peptide sequences rich in either glutamic acid (E: E3Cys, i-E3Cys) or lysine (K: K3Cys, i-K3Cys) were used to represent minimal mimics of eukaryotic SNARE motifs. Half of the peptides were synthesized in reverse sequence, so that parallel and antiparallel heptad coiled-coil structures were formed. Either E-peptides or K-peptides were attached covalently to phospholipid anchors via maleimide chemistry, and served as receptors for the recognition of the corresponding binding partners added to solution. Attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy of single bilayers confirmed the formation of coiled-coil complexes at the membrane interface. Coiled-coil formation in solution, as compared with association at the membrane surface, displays considerably larger binding constants that are largely attributed to loss of translational entropy at the interface. Finally, the fusogenicity of the various coiled-coil motifs was explored, and the results provide clear evidence that hemifusion followed by full fusion requires a parallel orientation of α-helices, whereas antiparallel oriented coiled-coil motifs display only docking. PMID:23283228

  20. Structural characteristics of the redox-sensing coiled coil in the voltage-gated H+ channel. (United States)

    Fujiwara, Yuichiro; Takeshita, Kohei; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Okamura, Yasushi


    Oxidation is an important biochemical defense mechanism, but it also elicits toxicity; therefore, oxidation must be under strict control. In phagocytotic events in neutrophils, the voltage-gated H(+) (Hv) channel is a key regulator of the production of reactive oxygen species against invading bacteria. The cytoplasmic domain of the Hv channel forms a dimeric coiled coil underpinning a dimerized functional unit. Importantly, in the alignment of the coiled-coil core, a conserved cysteine residue forms a potential intersubunit disulfide bond. In this study, we solved the crystal structures of the coiled-coil domain in reduced, oxidized, and mutated (Cys → Ser) states. The crystal structures indicate that a pair of Cys residues forms an intersubunit disulfide bond dependent on the redox conditions. CD spectroscopy revealed that the disulfide bond increases the thermal stability of the coiled-coil protein. We also reveal that two thiol modifier molecules are able to bind to Cys in a redox-dependent manner without disruption of the dimeric coiled-coil assembly. Thus, the biochemical properties of the cytoplasmic coiled-coil domain in the Hv channel depend on the redox condition, which may play a role in redox sensing in the phagosome.

  1. Multicoil2: predicting coiled coils and their oligomerization states from sequence in the twilight zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Trigg

    Full Text Available The alpha-helical coiled coil can adopt a variety of topologies, among the most common of which are parallel and antiparallel dimers and trimers. We present Multicoil2, an algorithm that predicts both the location and oligomerization state (two versus three helices of coiled coils in protein sequences. Multicoil2 combines the pairwise correlations of the previous Multicoil method with the flexibility of Hidden Markov Models (HMMs in a Markov Random Field (MRF. The resulting algorithm integrates sequence features, including pairwise interactions, through multinomial logistic regression to devise an optimized scoring function for distinguishing dimer, trimer and non-coiled-coil oligomerization states; this scoring function is used to produce Markov Random Field potentials that incorporate pairwise correlations localized in sequence. Multicoil2 significantly improves both coiled-coil detection and dimer versus trimer state prediction over the original Multicoil algorithm retrained on a newly-constructed database of coiled-coil sequences. The new database, comprised of 2,105 sequences containing 124,088 residues, includes reliable structural annotations based on experimental data in the literature. Notably, the enhanced performance of Multicoil2 is evident when tested in stringent leave-family-out cross-validation on the new database, reflecting expected performance on challenging new prediction targets that have minimal sequence similarity to known coiled-coil families. The Multicoil2 program and training database are available for download from


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbour, J; Vickie Williams, V; Erich Hansen, E


    The Tank Closure and Technology Development Groups are developing a strategy for closing the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Two Type IV tanks, 17 and 20 in the F-Area Tank Farm, have been successfully filled with grout. Type IV tanks at SRS do not contain cooling coils; on the other hand, the majority of the tanks (Type I, II, III and IIIA) do contain cooling coils. The current concept for closing tanks equipped with cooling coils is to pump grout into the cooling coils to prevent pathways for infiltrating water after tank closure. This task addresses the use of grout to fill intact cooling coils present in most of the remaining HLW tanks on Site. The overall task was divided into two phases. Phase 1 focused on the development of a grout formulation (mix design) suitable for filling the HLW tank cooling coils. Phase 2 will be a large-scale demonstration of the filling of simulated cooling coils under field conditions using the cooling coil grout mix design recommended from Phase 1. This report summarizes the results of Phase 1, the development of the cooling coil grout formulation. A grout formulation is recommended for the full scale testing at Clemson Environmental Technology Laboratory (CETL) that is composed by mass of 90% Masterflow (MF) 816 (a commercially available cable grout) and 10% blast furnace slag, with a water to cementitious material (MF 816 + slag) ratio of 0.33. This formulation produces a grout that meets the fresh and cured grout requirements detailed in the Task Technical Plan (2). The grout showed excellent workability under continuous mixing with minimal change in rheology. An alternative formulation using 90% MF 1341 and 10% blast furnace slag with a water to cementitious material ratio of 0.29 is also acceptable and generates less heat per gram than the MF 816 plus slag mix. However this MF 1341 mix has a higher plastic viscosity than the MF 816 mix due to the presence of sand in the MF 1341 cable grout and a

  3. Cerebral vasospasm patterns following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: an angiographic study comparing coils with clips. (United States)

    Jones, J; Sayre, J; Chang, R; Tian, J; Szeder, V; Gonzalez, N; Jahan, R; Vinuela, F; Duckwiler, G; Tateshima, S


    Cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) results in significant morbidity due to ischemia. Subarachnoid hematoma evacuation during aneurysm clipping reduces the incidence of vasospasm. However, studies comparing endovascular coiling with open clipping have reported similar rates of spasm. We addressed the question of how coiling produces similar (if not less) vasospasm without the benefit of clot evacuation by evaluating vasospasm patterns among patients with aSAH. We hypothesize that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation plays a major role in clearing blood breakdown products, and that coiling may preserve CSF flow in the subarachnoid space. A retrospective chart review identified 36 (18 coiled/18 clipped) patients with aSAH who developed angiographic vasospasm. The degree of spasm was quantified using an ordinal scale from 0 (none) to 5 (severe) for 26 anatomic vessel segments evaluated on 164 successive angiograms. Statistical analysis was performed using the Fisher exact test for proportions and the Wilcoxon and Student t tests on ordinal/continuous measures. Quadratic regression was also used as a model for spasm activity versus post-bleed days. In both the coiling and clipping groups the most severely spastic vessels were located adjacent to aneurysm rupture. Perianeurysmal spasm affected all subjects. However, whereas spasm remained largely confined in patients treated by clipping, those who underwent coiling developed stepwise progression distally over time. The distal vasospasm severity scores were higher among subjects treated by coiling, particularly in the most dependent regions of the subarachnoid space. Patients with aSAH treated by endovascular coiling and surgical clipping demonstrate distinct vasospasm patterns. While both initially exhibit perianeurysmal spasm, patients treated by coiling go on to develop stepwise progression distally over time. This finding may reflect dispersion of blood breakdown products along

  4. Progress on large superconducting toroidal field coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubenreich, P.N.; Luton, J.N.; Thompson, P.B.; Beard, D.S.


    Large superconducting toroidal field coils of competing designs are being produced by six major industrial teams. In the US, teams headed by General Dynamics Convair, General Electric, and Westinghouse are under contract to design and fabricate one coil each to specifications established by the Large Coil Program. A facility for testing 6 coils in a toroidal array at fields to 8 to 12 tesla is under construction at Oak Ridge. Through an international agreement, EURATOM, Japan, and Switzerland will produce one coil each for testing with the US coils. Each test coil will have a 2.5 x 3.5 m D-shape winding bore and is designed to operate at a current of 10 to 18 kA at a peak field of 8T while subjected to pulsed fields of 0.14 T applied in 1.0 s. There are significant differences among the six coil designs: five use NbTi, one Nb 3 Sn; three are cooled by pool boiling helium, three by forced flow; five have welded or bolted stainless steel coil cases, one has aluminum plate structure. All are designed to be cryostable at 8T, with structural margin for extended operation. The three US coil teams are almost or completely finished with detailed design and are now procuring materials and setting up manufacturing equipment. The non-US teams are at various stages of verification testing and design. The GDC and GE coils are scheduled for delivery in the spring of 1981 and the others will be completed a year later. The 11-m diameter vessel at the test facility has been completed and major components of the test stand are being procured. Engineering and procurement to upgrade the helium liquifier-refrigerator system are under way

  5. Simple technique to place niti open coil spring in a lingual archwire


    Surya Kanta Das; Shivangi Ramteke; Debashri Mohanty


    Due to limited accessibility and postural issues, placement of open coil spring in lingual technique can be a struggle to the operator. In the present technique, along with the archwire, a ligature wire is passed through the lumen of the niti open coil spring. Both ends of the ligature are wound together tightly thereby compressing the coil spring to a smaller length so that it can be placed in the interbracket span without any active force. Once the archwire is ligated to the lingual bracket...

  6. HydroCoil as an adjuvant to bare platinum coil treatment of 100 cerebral aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanning, Noel F.; Berentei, Zsolt; Brennan, Paul R.; Thornton, John


    Introduction The overall safety of the HydroCoil, an expansile hybrid hydrogel-platinum coil, is unknown. We report a prospective observational study of our first 100 cerebral aneurysms treated with HydroCoils, focusing on safety and initial efficacy.Methods Indications, procedural complications, clinical and angiographic outcomes were recorded. Packing density, number of coils deployed and angiographic results were compared with those in a matched control group of 100 aneurysms treated solely with bare platinum coils. HydroCoil complication rates were compared to bare platinum coil rates at our institution and in published series. Results Adjuvant HydroCoil treatment led to increased mean percentage aneurysm filling compared to controls (50 ± 21% versus 27 ± 13%, P < 0.001). Immediate posttreatment angiographic results showed significantly (P < 0.001) more complete occlusions and fewer incomplete (<95%) occlusions compared to controls. Intermediate follow-up angiograms (median 7.5 months) in 63 aneurysms showed a trend towards fewer incomplete occlusions with HydroCoil treatment. There were significantly fewer major recurrences with HydroCoil treatment compared to the control treatment (9.5% versus 22.6%, P 0.046). In the adjuvant HydroCoil group, major recurrent aneurysms had significantly less percentage volume packing with HydroCoils than non-recurrent aneurysms (50.3 ± 5.0% versus 65.3 ± 18.0%, P = 0.04). There was a 12% procedural complication rate, 6% procedural morbidity and 1% mortality rate, similar to institutional and reported bare platinum coil complication rates.Conclusion HydroCoils can be safely deployed with a similar complication rate to bare platinum coils. They result in improved aneurysm filling. Intermediate follow-up angiography showed significantly fewer major recurrences. Long-term follow-up is required to confirm initial improved stability. (orig.)

  7. Designed Coiled-Coil Peptides Inhibit the Type Three Secretion System of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (United States)

    Larzábal, Mariano; Mercado, Elsa C.; Vilte, Daniel A.; Salazar-González, Hector; Cataldi, Angel; Navarro-Garcia, Fernando


    Background Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are two categories of E. coli strains associated with human disease. A major virulence factor of both pathotypes is the expression of a type three secretion system (TTSS), responsible for their ability to adhere to gut mucosa causing a characteristic attaching and effacing lesion (A/E). The TTSS translocates effector proteins directly into the host cell that subvert mammalian cell biochemistry. Methods/Principal Findings We examined synthetic peptides designed to inhibit the TTSS. CoilA and CoilB peptides, both representing coiled-coil regions of the translocator protein EspA, and CoilD peptide, corresponding to a coiled–coil region of the needle protein EscF, were effective in inhibiting the TTSS dependent hemolysis of red blood cells by the EPEC E2348/69 strain. CoilA and CoilB peptides also reduced the formation of actin pedestals by the same strain in HEp-2 cells and impaired the TTSS-mediated protein translocation into the epithelial cell. Interestingly, CoilA and CoilB were able to block EspA assembly, destabilizing the TTSS and thereby Tir translocation. This blockage of EspA polymerization by CoilA or CoilB peptides, also inhibited the correct delivery of EspB and EspD as detected by immunoblotting. Interestingly, electron microscopy of bacteria incubated with the CoilA peptide showed a reduction of the length of EspA filaments. Conclusions Our data indicate that coiled-coil peptides can prevent the assembly and thus the functionality of the TTSS apparatus and suggest that these peptides could provide an attractive tool to block EPEC and EHEC pathogenesis. PMID:20140230

  8. A six-channel pediatric coil array for detection of children spinal pathologies by MRI at 1.5 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López Terrones, Marcos Alonso, E-mail: [Ingeniería Biomédica, Dirección de Planeación, Servicios de Salud de Durango. Cuauhtémoc 225 Norte, Durango, Durango 34000 (Mexico); Solís-Nájera, Sergio Enrique, E-mail: [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, DF 04510 (Mexico)


    Nowadays, magnetic resonance (MR) in Mexico has become a standard technique for clinical imaging. Although most of the times the MR systems contain only coils oriented for adults. Radiologists use these coils for children studies due to the non-availability of pediatric coils. Image quality is decreased due to the low signal to noise ratio delivered to the system. The development of RF coils is always focused towards increasing SNR and optimizing the RF penetration into the sample. Moreover, spinal pathologies in children, which are an important topic in pediatric care, cover congenital and neuromuscular disorders that occur in childhood. In this work, the design of a dedicated six-channel coil for detection of spinal pathologies at 1.5 Tesla is addressed. Numerical electromagnetic simulations were performed in order to evaluate their magnetic field performance at (63.6 MHz) 1.5 Tesla. The magnetic field uniformity as well as the RF penetration depth of the coil configurations was evaluated in order to find the best/optimized coil array configuration. The coil is comprised of three rows, one with 4 coil elements and two with only one coil element. Phantom and in vivo images were acquired with the six-channel pediatric coil array. The phantom images agree with the simulated data. In vivo images acquired with the 6-channel pediatric coil array have shown very good penetration depth and homogeneity, which allow better image quality throughout the whole FOV. In addition, the parallel imaging capabilities of the array allow the acceleration of the experiments avoiding possible motion artifacts.

  9. Coil Optimization for High Temperature Superconductor Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech


    This paper presents topology optimization of HTS racetrack coils for large HTS synchronous machines. The topology optimization is used to acquire optimal coil designs for the excitation system of 3 T HTS machines. Several tapes are evaluated and the optimization results are discussed...

  10. Evidence-based pathology: umbilical cord coiling. (United States)

    Khong, T Y


    The generation of a pathology test result must be based on criteria that are proven to be acceptably reproducible and clinically relevant to be evidence-based. This review de-constructs the umbilical cord coiling index to illustrate how it can stray from being evidence-based. Publications related to umbilical cord coiling were retrieved and analysed with regard to how the umbilical coiling index was calculated, abnormal coiling was defined and reference ranges were constructed. Errors and other influences that can occur with the measurement of the length of the umbilical cord or of the number of coils can compromise the generation of the coiling index. Definitions of abnormal coiling are not consistent in the literature. Reference ranges defining hypocoiling or hypercoiling have not taken those potential errors or the possible effect of gestational age into account. Even the way numerical test results in anatomical pathology are generated, as illustrated by the umbilical coiling index, warrants a critical analysis into its evidence base to ensure that they are reproducible or free from errors.

  11. Operator coil monitoring Acceptance Test Procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erhart, M.F.


    The readiness of the Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) to provide monitoring and control of the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) abort coils from the Master and RSS stations will be systematically tested during performance of this procedure. It should be noted that these are not physical abort coils but software coils controlled by the software's ladder logic. The readiness of the DACS to properly interface with the ENRAF wire level gauge installed in the SY-101 storage tank will also be tested. During this test, a verification of all abort coil indications will be conducted at the DACS Development Facility in the 306E Building by injecting an input signal for each DACS sensor that has an associated abort coil until the abort coil actuates, and then ensuring that the status of the abort coil indicated at the Master and RSS stations is correct. Each abort coil will also be tested to ensure that the ''ENABLE'' and ''DISABLE'' controls from the Master and RSS stations function correctly, and only with the use of proper passwords

  12. Magnetic Fields at the Center of Coils (United States)

    Binder, Philippe; Hui, Kaleonui; Goldman, Jesse


    In this note we synthesize and extend expressions for the magnetic field at the center of very short and very long current-carrying coils. Elementary physics textbooks present the following equation for the magnetic field inside a very long current-carrying coil (solenoid): B[subscript sol] = µ[subscript 0] (N/L) I, (1) where I is the current, N…

  13. Toroidal field coils for the PDX machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushnell, C.W.


    This paper describes the engineering design features of the TF coils for the PDX machine. Included are design details of the electrical insulation, water cooling, and coil segment joint which allows access to the central machine area. A discussion of the problems anticipated in the manufacture and the planned solutions are presented

  14. Optimization of modular coils for stellarator fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.K.; Furth, H.P.; Johnson, J.L.; Ludescher, C.; Weimer, K.E.


    Introduction of a non-sinusoidal deformation can enhance the efficacy of modular coils for generating magnetic fields with a built-in rotational transform. Techniques are developed that provide an understanding of how specific deformations affect the harmonic content of the magnetic field and thus the properties of the vacuum configuration. This provides an optimization procedure for coil design

  15. The bar coil for NMR tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogorodzki, P.; Piatkowski, A.; Wasielewski, J.


    The bar coil (bi-planar) for the NMR tomograph, designed for medical diagnostics, has been described. The tests of coil shown that it generates good homogenous magnetic field in a big volume what results in improving of the signal-to-noise ratio

  16. Functional investigation of the plant-specific long coiled-coil proteins PAMP-INDUCED COILED-COIL (PICC and PICC-LIKE (PICL in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmya Venkatakrishnan

    Full Text Available We have identified and characterized two Arabidopsis long coiled-coil proteins PAMP-INDUCED COILED-COIL (PICC and PICC-LIKE (PICL. PICC (147 kDa and PICL (87 kDa are paralogs that consist predominantly of a long coiled-coil domain (expanded in PICC, with a predicted transmembrane domain at the immediate C-terminus. Orthologs of PICC and PICL were found exclusively in vascular plants. PICC and PICL GFP fusion proteins are anchored to the cytoplasmic surface of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER membrane by a C-terminal transmembrane domain and a short tail domain, via a tail-anchoring mechanism. T-DNA-insertion mutants of PICC and PICL as well as the double mutant show an increased sensitivity to the plant abiotic stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA in a post-germination growth response. PICC, but not PICL gene expression is induced by the bacterial pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP flg22. T-DNA insertion alleles of PICC, but not PICL, show increased susceptibility to the non-virulent strain P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 hrcC, but not to the virulent strain P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000. This suggests that PICC mutants are compromised in PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI. The data presented here provide first evidence for the involvement of a plant long coiled-coil protein in a plant defense response.

  17. Functional investigation of the plant-specific long coiled-coil proteins PAMP-INDUCED COILED-COIL (PICC) and PICC-LIKE (PICL) in Arabidopsis thaliana. (United States)

    Venkatakrishnan, Sowmya; Mackey, David; Meier, Iris


    We have identified and characterized two Arabidopsis long coiled-coil proteins PAMP-INDUCED COILED-COIL (PICC) and PICC-LIKE (PICL). PICC (147 kDa) and PICL (87 kDa) are paralogs that consist predominantly of a long coiled-coil domain (expanded in PICC), with a predicted transmembrane domain at the immediate C-terminus. Orthologs of PICC and PICL were found exclusively in vascular plants. PICC and PICL GFP fusion proteins are anchored to the cytoplasmic surface of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane by a C-terminal transmembrane domain and a short tail domain, via a tail-anchoring mechanism. T-DNA-insertion mutants of PICC and PICL as well as the double mutant show an increased sensitivity to the plant abiotic stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) in a post-germination growth response. PICC, but not PICL gene expression is induced by the bacterial pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) flg22. T-DNA insertion alleles of PICC, but not PICL, show increased susceptibility to the non-virulent strain P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 hrcC, but not to the virulent strain P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000. This suggests that PICC mutants are compromised in PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). The data presented here provide first evidence for the involvement of a plant long coiled-coil protein in a plant defense response.

  18. Functional Investigation of the Plant-Specific Long Coiled-Coil Proteins PAMP-INDUCED COILED-COIL (PICC) and PICC-LIKE (PICL) in Arabidopsis thaliana (United States)

    Venkatakrishnan, Sowmya; Mackey, David; Meier, Iris


    We have identified and characterized two Arabidopsis long coiled-coil proteins PAMP-INDUCED COILED-COIL (PICC) and PICC-LIKE (PICL). PICC (147 kDa) and PICL (87 kDa) are paralogs that consist predominantly of a long coiled-coil domain (expanded in PICC), with a predicted transmembrane domain at the immediate C-terminus. Orthologs of PICC and PICL were found exclusively in vascular plants. PICC and PICL GFP fusion proteins are anchored to the cytoplasmic surface of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane by a C-terminal transmembrane domain and a short tail domain, via a tail-anchoring mechanism. T-DNA-insertion mutants of PICC and PICL as well as the double mutant show an increased sensitivity to the plant abiotic stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) in a post-germination growth response. PICC, but not PICL gene expression is induced by the bacterial pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) flg22. T-DNA insertion alleles of PICC, but not PICL, show increased susceptibility to the non-virulent strain P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 hrcC, but not to the virulent strain P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000. This suggests that PICC mutants are compromised in PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). The data presented here provide first evidence for the involvement of a plant long coiled-coil protein in a plant defense response. PMID:23451199

  19. Composite coils for toroidal field coils and method of using same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, R. G.; Trujillo, S. M.


    A composite toroidal field (TF) generating means consisting of segmented magnetic coil windings is disclosed. Each coil winding of the TF generating means consists of a copper or copper alloy conductor segment and an aluminum or aluminum alloy conductor segment. The conductor segments are joined at a high strength, low electrical resistance joint and the joint may either be a mechanical or metallurgical one. The use of the aluminum or aluminum alloy conductor segments improves the neutron economy of the reactor with which the TF coil is associated and reduces TF coil nuclear heating and heating gradients, and activation in the TF coils

  20. Startup of Large Coil Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubenreich, P.N.; Bohanan, R.E.; Fietz, W.A.; Luton, J.N.; May, J.R.


    The Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) is being used to test superconducting toroidal field coils about one-third the size of those for INTOR. Eventually, six different coils from four countries will be tested. Operations began in 1983 with acceptance testing of the helium refrigerator/liquefier system. Comprehensive shakedown of the facility and tests with the first three coils (from Japan, the United States, and Switzerland) were successfully accomplished in the summer of 1984. Currents up to 10,200 A and fields up to 6.4 T were reached. Data were obtained on performance of refrigerator, helium distribution, power supplies, controls, and data acquisition systems and on the acoustic emission, voltages, currents, and mechanical strains during charging and discharging the coils

  1. Design description of the Large Coil Test Facility pulse-coil support and transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queen, C.C.


    In order to simulate the transient fields which would be imposed on superconducting toroidal field coils in an operating tokamak reactor, the Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) test stand includes a set of pulse coils. This set of pulse coils is designed to be moved from one test location to another within the LCTF vacuum vessel while the vessel is operating under vacuum and the test stand and test coils are at an operating temperature of 4.2K. This operating environment and the extremely high magnetic loads have necessitated some unique design features for the pulse coil support and transport system. The support structure for the pulse coil must react high overturning moments and axial loads induced on the pulse coil by the interaction of the pulse field with the field generated by the large test coils. These loads are reacted into the test stand support structure or spider frame by an arrangement of six pedestals and a support beam. In order to move the pulse coil set from one test location to another, the support beam containing the pulse coils must be driven across rollers mounted on the pedestals, then clamped securely to react the loads. Because these operations must be performed in a vacuum environment at cryogenic tmperature, special consideration was given to component design

  2. Simultaneous formation of right- and left-handed anti-parallel coiled-coil interfaces by a coil2 fragment of human lamin A. (United States)

    Kapinos, Larisa E; Burkhard, Peter; Herrmann, Harald; Aebi, Ueli; Strelkov, Sergei V


    The elementary building block of all intermediate filaments (IFs) is a dimer featuring a central α-helical rod domain flanked by the N- and C-terminal end domains. In nuclear IF proteins (lamins), the rod domain consists of two coiled-coil segments, coil1 and coil2, that are connected by a short non-helical linker. Coil1 and the C-terminal part of coil2 contain the two highly conserved IF consensus motifs involved in the longitudinal assembly of dimers. The previously solved crystal structure of a lamin A fragment (residues 305-387) corresponding to the second half of coil2 has yielded a parallel left-handed coiled coil. Here, we present the crystal structure and solution properties of another human lamin A fragment (residues 328-398), which is largely overlapping with fragment 305-387 but harbors a short segment of the tail domain. Unexpectedly, no parallel coiled coil forms within the crystal. Instead, the α-helices are arranged such that two anti-parallel coiled-coil interfaces are formed. The most significant interface has a right-handed geometry, which is accounted for by a characteristic 15-residue repeat pattern that overlays with the canonical heptad repeat pattern. The second interface is a left-handed anti-parallel coiled coil based on the predicted heptad repeat pattern. In solution, the fragment reveals only a weak dimerization propensity. We speculate that the C-terminus of coil2 might unzip, thereby allowing for a right-handed coiled-coil interface to form between two laterally aligned dimers. Such an interface might co-exist with a heterotetrameric left-handed coiled-coil assembly, which is expected to be responsible for the longitudinal A(CN) contact. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. N@a and N@d: Oligomer and Partner Specification by Asparagine in Coiled-Coil Interfaces. (United States)

    Fletcher, Jordan M; Bartlett, Gail J; Boyle, Aimee L; Danon, Jonathan J; Rush, Laura E; Lupas, Andrei N; Woolfson, Derek N


    The α-helical coiled coil is one of the best-studied protein-protein interaction motifs. As a result, sequence-to-structure relationships are available for the prediction of natural coiled-coil sequences and the de novo design of new ones. However, coiled coils adopt a wide range of oligomeric states and topologies, and our understanding of the specification of these and the discrimination between them remains incomplete. Gaps in our knowledge assume more importance as coiled coils are used increasingly to construct biomimetic systems of higher complexity; for this, coiled-coil components need to be robust, orthogonal, and transferable between contexts. Here, we explore how the polar side chain asparagine (Asn, N) is tolerated within otherwise hydrophobic helix-helix interfaces of coiled coils. The long-held view is that Asn placed at certain sites of the coiled-coil sequence repeat selects one oligomer state over others, which is rationalized by the ability of the side chain to make hydrogen bonds, or interactions with chelated ions within the coiled-coil interior of the favored state. We test this with experiments on de novo peptide sequences traditionally considered as directing parallel dimers and trimers, and more widely through bioinformatics analysis of natural coiled-coil sequences and structures. We find that when located centrally, rather than near the termini of such coiled-coil sequences, Asn does exert the anticipated oligomer-specifying influence. However, outside of these bounds, Asn is observed less frequently in the natural sequences, and the synthetic peptides are hyperthermostable and lose oligomer-state specificity. These findings highlight that not all regions of coiled-coil repeat sequences are equivalent, and that care is needed when designing coiled-coil interfaces.

  4. Force generation by orthodontic coil springs. (United States)

    von Fraunhofer, J A; Bonds, P W; Johnson, B E


    Nickel titanium (NiTi) coil springs are a new development in orthodontics, designed to produce light continuous forces. This study compares the force delivery by NiTi open and closed coil springs during unloading (de-activation) to that provided by comparable stainless steel (SS) springs. Open-coil springs (0.010 x 0.035 inch) were compressed from their initial length of 15 mm to 6 mm and the forces generated with spring recovery recorded. Closed-coil springs (0.009 x 0.035 inch) were distracted from their initial length of 3 mm to 9 mm and the force recorded as the spring recovered. The closed-coil NiTi springs produced light continuous forces of 75-90 g over the distraction range of 6 mm while the open-coil springs produced forces of 55-70 g within the 9 mm compression range. SS springs produced heavier forces, ca. 200 g, for an activation of 1 mm and the generated force increased rapidly as the activation was increased. The findings indicate that NiTi coil springs deliver optimal forces for orthodontic tooth movement over a longer activation range than comparable SS springs.

  5. Correcting coils in end magnets of accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. P. Kassab


    Full Text Available We present an empirical investigation of the correcting coils behavior used to homogenize the field distribution of the race-track microtron accelerator end magnets. These end magnets belong to the second stage of the 30.0 MeV cw electron accelerator under construction at IFUSP, the race-track microtron booster, in which the beam energy is raised from 1.97 to 5.1 MeV. The correcting coils are attached to the pole faces and are based on the inhomogeneities of the magnetic field measured. The performance of these coils, when operating the end magnets with currents that differ by ±10% from the one used in the mappings that originated the coils copper leads, is presented. For one of the magnets, adjusting conveniently the current of the correcting coils makes it possible to homogenize field distributions of different intensities, once their shapes are practically identical to those that originated the coils. For the other one, the shapes are changed and the coils are less efficient. This is related to intrinsic factors that determine the inhomogeneities. However, we obtained uniformity of 0.001% in both cases.

  6. A resonant biaxial Helmholtz coil employing a fractal capacitor bank. (United States)

    Martin, James E


    The design and construction of a series resonant biaxial Helmholtz coil for the production of magnetic fields as large as 500 G in the range of 100-2500 Hz is described. Important aspects of ac coil design are discussed, including: minimizing power losses due to the expected Joule heating, self-induced eddy currents, and skin resistance; controlling the stray capacitance; maximizing field homogeneity; and keeping peak voltages at acceptable levels. The design and construction of a computer-controlled, optically isolated fractal capacitor bank is then treated, and various aspects of capacitor selection and characterization were discussed. The system performance is demonstrated, including stability and the possibility of field component dephasing with typical magnetic samples.

  7. Mesenteric ischaemia after endovascular coiling of ruptured cerebral aneurysms.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamel, M H


    Three patients were referred to a national neurosurgical centre following CT evidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage. The three patients, who were referred from different institutions within a seven week period, were Fisher grade 3 and WFNS Grade I at all times. Angiography showed a PCOM aneurysm in one case, a ruptured Basilar tip aneurysm and an unruptured ACOM aneurysm in another case, and an ACOM aneurysm in the third case. It was decided that the aneurysms were suitable for endovascular coiling. These patients had unremarkable intraoperative catheterizations and coiling but subsequently deteriorated post-operatively due to mesenteric ischaemia. Two patients required colectomy for mesenteric ischaemia, and the third arrested secondary to sepsis from bowel perforation. We discuss the various causes that may explain this association, and we alert the neurosurgical community for this complication which has not been reported before.

  8. Crystal structure of a coiled-coil domain from human ROCK I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daqi Tu


    Full Text Available The small GTPase Rho and one of its targets, Rho-associated kinase (ROCK, participate in a variety of actin-based cellular processes including smooth muscle contraction, cell migration, and stress fiber formation. The ROCK protein consists of an N-terminal kinase domain, a central coiled-coil domain containing a Rho binding site, and a C-terminal pleckstrin homology domain. Here we present the crystal structure of a large section of the central coiled-coil domain of human ROCK I (amino acids 535-700. The structure forms a parallel α-helical coiled-coil dimer that is structurally similar to tropomyosin, an actin filament binding protein. There is an unusual discontinuity in the coiled-coil; three charged residues (E613, R617 and D620 are positioned at what is normally the hydrophobic core of coiled-coil packing. We speculate that this conserved irregularity could function as a hinge that allows ROCK to adopt its autoinhibited conformation.

  9. A set of computationally designed orthogonal antiparallel homodimers that expands the synthetic coiled-coil toolkit. (United States)

    Negron, Christopher; Keating, Amy E


    Molecular engineering of protein assemblies, including the fabrication of nanostructures and synthetic signaling pathways, relies on the availability of modular parts that can be combined to give different structures and functions. Currently, a limited number of well-characterized protein interaction components are available. Coiled-coil interaction modules have been demonstrated to be useful for biomolecular design, and many parallel homodimers and heterodimers are available in the coiled-coil toolkit. In this work, we sought to design a set of orthogonal antiparallel homodimeric coiled coils using a computational approach. There are very few antiparallel homodimers described in the literature, and none have been measured for cross-reactivity. We tested the ability of the distance-dependent statistical potential DFIRE to predict orientation preferences for coiled-coil dimers of known structure. The DFIRE model was then combined with the CLASSY multistate protein design framework to engineer sets of three orthogonal antiparallel homodimeric coiled coils. Experimental measurements confirmed the successful design of three peptides that preferentially formed antiparallel homodimers that, furthermore, did not interact with one additional previously reported antiparallel homodimer. Two designed peptides that formed higher-order structures suggest how future design protocols could be improved. The successful designs represent a significant expansion of the existing protein-interaction toolbox for molecular engineers.

  10. Exploiting Oligo(amido amine) Backbones for the Multivalent Presentation of Coiled-Coil Peptides. (United States)

    Gerling-Driessen, Ulla I M; Mujkic-Ninnemann, Nina; Ponader, Daniela; Schöne, Daniel; Hartmann, Laura; Koksch, Beate; Gerling-Driessen, U I M; Schöne, D; Koksch, B; Ponader, D; Mujkic-Ninnemann, N; Hartmann, L


    The investigation of coiled coil formation for one mono- and two divalent peptide-polymer conjugates is presented. Through the assembly of the full conjugates on solid support, monodisperse sequence-defined conjugates are obtained with defined positions and distances between the peptide side chains along the polymeric backbone. A heteromeric peptide design was chosen, where peptide K is attached to the polymer backbone, and coiled-coil formation is only expected through complexation with the complementary peptide E. Indeed, the monovalent peptide K-polymer conjugate displays rapid coiled-coil formation when mixed with the complementary peptide E sequence. The divalent systems show intramolecular homomeric coiled-coil formation on the polymer backbone despite the peptide design. Interestingly, this intramolecular assembly undergoes a conformational rearrangement by the addition of the complementary peptide E leading to the formation of heteromeric coiled coil-polymer aggregates. The polymer backbone acts as a template bringing the covalently bound peptide strands in close proximity to each other, increasing the local concentration and inducing the otherwise nonfavorable formation of intramolecular helical assemblies.

  11. Routine phasing of coiled-coil protein crystal structures with AMPLE. (United States)

    Thomas, Jens M H; Keegan, Ronan M; Bibby, Jaclyn; Winn, Martyn D; Mayans, Olga; Rigden, Daniel J


    Coiled-coil protein folds are among the most abundant in nature. These folds consist of long wound α-helices and are architecturally simple, but paradoxically their crystallographic structures are notoriously difficult to solve with molecular-replacement techniques. The program AMPLE can solve crystal structures by molecular replacement using ab initio search models in the absence of an existent homologous protein structure. AMPLE has been benchmarked on a large and diverse test set of coiled-coil crystal structures and has been found to solve 80% of all cases. Successes included structures with chain lengths of up to 253 residues and resolutions down to 2.9 Å, considerably extending the limits on size and resolution that are typically tractable by ab initio methodologies. The structures of two macromolecular complexes, one including DNA, were also successfully solved using their coiled-coil components. It is demonstrated that both the ab initio modelling and the use of ensemble search models contribute to the success of AMPLE by comparison with phasing attempts using single structures or ideal polyalanine helices. These successes suggest that molecular replacement with AMPLE should be the method of choice for the crystallo-graphic elucidation of a coiled-coil structure. Furthermore, AMPLE may be able to exploit the presence of a coiled coil in a complex to provide a convenient route for phasing.

  12. Cloning, overexpression, purification and crystallization of the CRN12 coiled-coil domain from Leishmania donovani. (United States)

    Srivastava, Vijay Kumar; Rana, Ajay Kumar; Sahasrabuddhe, Amogh A; Gupta, C M; Pratap, J V


    Leishmania donovani coronin CRN12 is an actin-binding protein which consists of two domains: an N-terminal WD repeat domain and a C-terminal coiled-coil domain. The coiled-coil domain is 53 residues in length. Helix-helix interactions in general and coiled coils in particular are ubiquitous in the structure of proteins and play a significant role in the association among proteins, including supramolecular assemblies and transmembrane receptors that mediate cellular signalling, transport and actin dynamics. The L. donovani coronin CRN12 coiled-coil domain (5.8 kDa) was cloned, overexpressed, purified to homogeneity and the N-terminal 6×His tag was successfully removed by thrombin cleavage. Crystals of recombinant L. donovani coronin CRN12 coiled-coil domain were grown by vapour diffusion using a hanging-drop setup. Diffraction-quality crystals were obtained and data extending to 2.46 Å resolution were collected at 100 K on BM14, ESRF, Grenoble, France. The crystal belonged to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 118.0, b = 50.6, c = 46.0 Å, β = 111.0°. Matthews coefficient (VM) calculations suggested the presence of 4-6 molecules in the asymmetric unit, corresponding to a solvent content of ∼33-55%, and are consistent with self-rotation function calculations.

  13. Inhibition of the 26S proteasome by peptide mimics of the coiled-coil region of its ATPase subunits. (United States)

    Inobe, Tomonao; Genmei, Reiko

    Regulation of proteasomal degradation is an indispensable tool for biomedical studies. Thus, there is demand for novel proteasome inhibitors. Proteasomal degradation requires formation of coiled-coil structure by the N-terminal region of ATPase subunits of the proteasome cap. Here we show that peptides that mimic the N-terminal coiled-coil region of ATPase subunits interfere with proteasome function. These results suggest that coiled-coil peptides represent promising new proteasome inhibitors and that N-terminal coiled-coil regions of ATPase subunits are targets for proteasome inhibition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Magnetic field mapper based on rotating coils

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2087244; Arpaia, Pasquale

    This thesis presents a magnetic field mapper based on rotating coils. The requirements, the architecture, the conceptual design, and the prototype for straight magnets were shown. The proposed system is made up of a rotating coil transducer and a train-like system for longitudinal motion and positioning inside magnet bore. The mapper allows a localized measurement of magnetic fields and the variation of the harmonic multipole content in the magnet ends. The proof-of-principle demonstration and the experimental characterization of the rotating-coil transducer specifically conceived for mapping validated the main objective of satisfying the magnetic measurement needs of the next generation of compact accelerators.

  15. CS model coil experimental log book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishijima, Gen; Sugimoto, Makoto; Nunoya, Yoshihiko; Wakabayashi, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Hiroshi


    Charging test of the ITER CS Model Coil which is the world's largest superconducting pulse coil and the CS Insert Coil had started at April 11, 2000 and had completed at August 18, 2000. In the campaign, total shot numbers were 356 and the size of the data file in the DAS (Data Acquisition System) was over 20 GB. This report is a database that consists of the log list and the log sheets of every shot. One can access the database, make a search, and browse results via Internet ( The database will be useful to quick search to choose necessary shots. (author)

  16. Large magnetic coils for fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarek, P.; Ulbricht, A.


    This paper reviews the current status of research in this field and outlines future tasks and experiments for the Next European Torus (NET). Research and development work accomplished so far permits generation and safe operation of magnetic fields up to 9 T by means of NbTi coils. Fields up to 11 T are feasible if the coils are cooled with superfluid helium at 1.8 K. The potential of the Nb 3 Sn coils promise achievement of magnetic fields between 12 and 13 T. (MM) [de

  17. Wireless Power Transfer Technology Applied to an Autonomous Electric UAV with a Small Secondary Coil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Campi


    Full Text Available This study deals with the design and the optimization of a wireless power transfer (WPT charging system based on magnetic resonant coupling applied to an electric vertical take-off and landing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV. In this study, a procedure for primary and secondary coil design is proposed. The primary circuit in the ground station consists of an array of coils in order to mitigate the negative effects on the coupling factor produced by the possible misalignment between the coils due to an imperfect landing. Key aspects for the design of the secondary coil onboard the UAV are the lightness and compactness of the WPT system components. A demonstrative prototype of the WPT system is applied to a commercial drone. The WPT electrical performances are calculated and measured. Finally, an automatic battery recharge station is built where the drone can autonomously land, recharge the battery and take off to continue its flight mission.

  18. Coil geometry effects on scanning single-coil magnetic induction tomography (United States)

    Feldkamp, Joe R.; Quirk, Stephen


    Alternative coil designs for single coil magnetic induction tomography are considered in this work, with the intention of improving upon the standard design used previously. In particular, we note that the blind spot associated with this coil type, a portion of space along its axis where eddy current generation can be very weak, has an important effect on performance. The seven designs tested here vary considerably in the size of their blind spot. To provide the most discerning test possible, we use laboratory phantoms containing feature dimensions similar to blind spot size. Furthermore, conductivity contrasts are set higher than what would occur naturally in biological systems, which has the effect of weakening eddy current generation at coil locations that straddle the border between high and low conductivity features. Image reconstruction results for the various coils show that coils with smaller blind spots give markedly better performance, though improvements in signal-to-noise ratio could alter that conclusion.

  19. A coil test facility for the cryogenic tests of the JT-60SA TF coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantant, M.; Genini, L.; Bayetti, P.; Millet, F.; Wanner, M.; Massaut, V.; Corte, A. Della; Ardelier-Desage, F.; Catherine-Dumont, V.; Dael, A.; Decool, P.; Donati, A.; Duchateau, J.L.; Garibaldi, P.; Girard, S.; Hatchressian, J.C.; Fejoz, P.; Jamotton, P.; Jourdheuil, L.; Juster, F.P.


    In the framework of the Broader Approach Activities, the EU will deliver to Japan the 18 superconducting coils, which constitute the JT-60SA Toroidal field magnet. These 18 coils, manufactured by France and Italy, will be cold tested before shipping to Japan. For this purpose, the European Joint Undertaking for ITER, the Development of Fusion Energy ('Fusion for Energy', F4E) and the European Voluntary Contributors are collaborating to design and set-up a coil test facility (CTF) and to perform the acceptance test of the 18 JT-60SA Toroidal Field (TF) coils. The test facility is designed to test one coil at a time at nominal current and cryogenic temperature. The test of the first coil of each manufacturer includes a quench triggered by increasing the temperature. The project is presently in the detailed design phase.

  20. Functional Analysis of the Bacteriophage T4 Rad50 Homolog (gp46) Coiled-coil Domain. (United States)

    Barfoot, Tasida; Herdendorf, Timothy J; Behning, Bryanna R; Stohr, Bradley A; Gao, Yang; Kreuzer, Kenneth N; Nelson, Scott W


    Rad50 and Mre11 form a complex involved in the detection and processing of DNA double strand breaks. Rad50 contains an anti-parallel coiled-coil with two absolutely conserved cysteine residues at its apex. These cysteine residues serve as a dimerization domain and bind a Zn(2+) cation in a tetrathiolate coordination complex known as the zinc-hook. Mutation of the zinc-hook in bacteriophage T4 is lethal, indicating the ability to bind Zn(2+) is critical for the functioning of the MR complex. In vitro, we found that complex formation between Rad50 and a peptide corresponding to the C-terminal domain of Mre11 enhances the ATPase activity of Rad50, supporting the hypothesis that the coiled-coil is a major conduit for communication between Mre11 and Rad50. We constructed mutations to perturb this domain in the bacteriophage T4 Rad50 homolog. Deletion of the Rad50 coiled-coil and zinc-hook eliminates Mre11 binding and ATPase activation but does not affect its basal activity. Mutation of the zinc-hook or disruption of the coiled-coil does not affect Mre11 or DNA binding, but their activation of Rad50 ATPase activity is abolished. Although these mutants excise a single nucleotide at a normal rate, they lack processivity and have reduced repetitive exonuclease rates. Restricting the mobility of the coiled-coil eliminates ATPase activation and repetitive exonuclease activity, but the ability to support single nucleotide excision is retained. These results suggest that the coiled-coiled domain adopts at least two conformations throughout the ATPase/nuclease cycle, with one conformation supporting enhanced ATPase activity and processivity and the other supporting nucleotide excision. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. MR angiography after coiling of intracranial aneurysms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, J.D.


    Introduction Endovascular occlusion with detachable coils has become an alternative treatment to neurosurgical clipping of intracranial aneurysms over the last two decades. Its minimal invasiveness is the most important advantage of this treatment compared to clipping. The disadvantage of occlusion

  2. 12 tesla test coil. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Plasma Fusion Center at MIT has been charged with responsibility for the design, development, fabrication and test operation of a Niobium-3-Tin Superconducting Test Coil. Research is described on DOE's 12 tesla coil demonstration program in which several one-meter diameter superconducting test coils will be inserted and tested in DOE's High Field Test Facility at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratories. The work was initiated at the start of FY 79. FY 79 saw the completion of our Preliminary Design and the initiation of three (3) subcontracts: (1) Westinghouse review of the Preliminary Design, (II) Supercon, Inc. development of a tubular copper matrix, Nb 3 Sn Superconductor and (III) Airco optimization of the LCP-W Nb 3 Sn superconductor for 12T service. In addition, Airco was charged with the production of a 1000 foot length of model 15,000A conductor. Coil winding exercises were initiated at the Everson Electric Company

  3. Superconducting magnet coils protection schemes and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchinski, V.; Bulgakov, S.; Larionov, B.; Mikhailov, N.; Silin, V.


    The circuitry of the superconducting coils protection system of the large fusion installations is analyzed. The requirements to the switches and several options of the circuit breakers and making switches with the data of their experimental study are discussed. (orig.)

  4. Design considerations for ITER toroidal field coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalsi, S.S.; Lousteau, D.C.; Miller, J.R.


    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is a new tokamak design project with joint participation from Europe, Japan, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.), and the United States. This paper describes a magnetic and mechanical design methodology for toroidal field (TF) coils that employs Nb 3 Sn superconductor technology. Coil winding is sized by using conductor concepts developed for the U.S. TIBER concept. Manifold concepts are presented for the complete cooling system. Also included are concepts for the coil structural arrangement. The effects of in-plane and out-of-plane loads are included in the design considerations for the windings and case. Concepts are presented for reacting these loads with a minimum amount of additional structural material. Concepts discussed in this paper could be considered for the ITER TF coils

  5. Fields analysis of TFR 604 copper coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrier, P.; Dubois, C.; Deschamps, P.; Millard, A.


    This paper describes the analysis of the toroidal Bitter type coils of TFR-604 fusion device. Electric, magnetic and mechanical fields have been investigated. The major difficulty arises from the quite complicated shape of the structure

  6. Umbilical coiling index & the perinatal outcome. (United States)

    Devaru, Dakshayini; Thusoo, Meghna


    To correlate the perinatal outcome by noting the umbilical coiling index. The umbilical cords of the babies born to 100 women, who delivered either vaginally or by lower segment cesarean section, were examined and umbilical coiling index was calculated. There was significant correlation (p value 0.003) between the hypercoiled cords (UCI >90th percentile) and intrauterine growth restriction of the babies. Apgar score at 1 min UCI UCI UCI >10th percentile is associated with intra uterine growth restriction.

  7. Heterogeneous Superconducting Low-Noise Sensing Coils (United States)

    Hahn, Inseob; Penanen, Konstantin I.; Ho Eom, Byeong


    A heterogeneous material construction has been devised for sensing coils of superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometers that are subject to a combination of requirements peculiar to some advanced applications, notably including low-field magnetic resonance imaging for medical diagnosis. The requirements in question are the following: The sensing coils must be large enough (in some cases having dimensions of as much as tens of centimeters) to afford adequate sensitivity; The sensing coils must be made electrically superconductive to eliminate Johnson noise (thermally induced noise proportional to electrical resistance); and Although the sensing coils must be cooled to below their superconducting- transition temperatures with sufficient cooling power to overcome moderate ambient radiative heat leakage, they must not be immersed in cryogenic liquid baths. For a given superconducting sensing coil, this combination of requirements can be satisfied by providing a sufficiently thermally conductive link between the coil and a cold source. However, the superconducting coil material is not suitable as such a link because electrically superconductive materials are typically poor thermal conductors. The heterogeneous material construction makes it possible to solve both the electrical- and thermal-conductivity problems. The basic idea is to construct the coil as a skeleton made of a highly thermally conductive material (typically, annealed copper), then coat the skeleton with an electrically superconductive alloy (typically, a lead-tin solder) [see figure]. In operation, the copper skeleton provides the required thermally conductive connection to the cold source, while the electrically superconductive coating material shields against Johnson noise that originates in the copper skeleton.

  8. Coil tests and superconductor code calculations for the stellarator W7-X coils (United States)

    Baldzuhn, J.; Ehmler, H.; Hoelting, A.; Hertel, K.; Sborchia, C.; Genini, L.; Schild, T.


    For the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X, a plasma fusion experiment, the performance of the superconducting coils is tested in a cryogenic test facility. Focus is on the quench behaviour of these coils. Some key data of the coils are given here. The coil quench data, obtained during the tests, are compared to GANDALF code calculations. GANDALF is a one-dimensional finite elements code for the simulation of the quench properties of superconducting CICC cables. Good consistency between measurement and calculation is found for the development of the resistive voltage and temperature increase during the quench.

  9. Magnetic resonance dacryocystography: comparison between conventional surface coils and microscopic coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu Junior, Luiz de; Wolosker, Angela Maria Borri; Borri, Maria Lucia; Galvao Filho, Mario de Melo; Hartmann, Luiz Guilherme de Carvalho; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe; Castro, Claudio Campi de


    Objective: Magnetic resonance imaging has been utilized in the evaluation of the lacrimal apparatus with some advantages over conventional dacryocystography. The present study was aimed at acquiring high resolution images utilizing microscopic coils for evaluating typical structures of the lacrimal apparatus as compared with the findings observed with conventional surface coils. Materials and methods: Five asymptomatic volunteers with no history of epiphora were submitted to high-field magnetic resonance imaging with microscopic and conventional surface coils, and STIR sequence after instillation of saline solution. The definition of normal anatomic structures of lacrimal apparatuses was compared utilizing conventional and microscopic surface coils. Based on a consensual scoring system, the mean values for each structure were calculated by two observers. Results: In 90% of cases, higher scores were attributed to images acquired with the microscopic coil. On average, a 1.17 point increase was observed in the scoring of anatomic structures imaged with the microscopic coil. Additionally, a subjective improvement was observed in the signal-to-noise ratio with the microscopic coil. Conclusion: Magnetic resonance dacryocystography with microscopic coils is the appropriate method for evaluating the lacrimal apparatus, providing images with better quality as compared with those acquired with conventional surface coils. (author)

  10. Coiled coil interactions for the targeting of liposomes for nucleic acid delivery. (United States)

    Oude Blenke, Erik E; van den Dikkenberg, Joep; van Kolck, Bartjan; Kros, Alexander; Mastrobattista, Enrico


    Coiled coil interactions are strong protein-protein interactions that are involved in many biological processes, including intracellular trafficking and membrane fusion. A synthetic heterodimeric coiled-coil forming peptide pair, known as E3 (EIAALEK)3 and K3 (KIAALKE)3 was used to functionalize liposomes encapsulating a splice correcting oligonucleotide or siRNA. These peptide-functionalized vesicles are highly stable in solution but start to cluster when vesicles modified with complementary peptides are mixed together, demonstrating that the peptides quickly coil and crosslink the vesicles. When one of the peptides was anchored to the cell membrane using a hydrophobic cholesterol anchor, vesicles functionalized with the complementary peptide could be docked to these cells, whereas non-functionalized cells did not show any vesicle tethering. Although the anchored peptides do not have a downstream signaling pathway, microscopy pictures revealed that after four hours, the majority of the docked vesicles were internalized by endocytosis. Finally, for the first time, it was shown that the coiled coil assembly at the interface between the vesicles and the cell membrane induces active uptake and leads to cytosolic delivery of the nucleic acid cargo. Both the siRNA and the splice correcting oligonucleotide were functionally delivered, resulting respectively in the silencing or recovery of luciferase expression in the appropriate cell lines. These results demonstrate that the docking to the cell by coiled coil interaction can induce active uptake and achieve the successful intracellular delivery of otherwise membrane impermeable nucleic acids in a highly specific manner.

  11. COMPASS magnetic field coils and structure systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossland, R.T.; Booth, J.A.; Hayward, R.J.; Keogh, P.; Pratt, A.P.


    COMPASS is a new experimental toroidal assembly of compact design and with a wide range of physics objectives. It is required to operate either as a Tokamak or as a Reversed Field Pinch with interchangeable circular and dee-section vacuum vessels. The Toroidal field is produced by 16 rectangular coils of 4 turns with tapered conductors on the inside which nest together to form a vault to resist the centering forces. The coils are designed to produce a maximum field on axis of 2.1T which requires a current of 91 kA per turn. Two central solenoids and five pairs of coils symmetrically positioned above and below the machine equator provide the poloidal field. Both coil systems are supported form a mechanical support structure which surrounds the machine. This is primarily designed to resist out-of-plane forces on the TF coils but also acts as the base support for the PF coils and vacuum vessels. An illustration of the COMPASS Load Assembly is given and shows the D-shaped vacuum vessel, the major components and the various field windings

  12. ISX toroidal field coil design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussung, R.O.; Lousteau, D.C.; Johnson, N.E.; Weed, R.A.


    Structural design and analysis aspects of the toroidal field coils for the Impurity Study Experiment (ISX) tokamak are discussed. The overall mechanical design of ISX is predicated on the ability to remove the upper segment of the toroidal field coils to allow access to the toroidal vacuum vessel. The high current, 120 kA, capability of the new 74 MW power supply, coupled with the modest field requirement of ISX, allows the use of room temperature copper coils. Seventy-two turns, grouped into 18 coils, generate a magnet field of 18 kG at the major radius of 90 cm. Finite element structural analysis codes were utilized to determine the distribution of stresses and deflections around a typical turn. Initial material distribution on a coil was sized using the two-dimensional program FEATS. The resulting coil design was then coupled to the center bucking and out-of-plane restraint systems utilizing the NASTRAN code. The boundary conditions for the analytical models used in the two programs were then iterated, reaching satisfactory agreement as to stress contours and location for the joints

  13. Usefulness of multifunctional gastrointestinal coil catheter for colorectal stent placement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae-Hyung; Shin, Ji Hoon; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Lim, Jin-Oh; Kim, Kyung Rae [Asan Medical Center, Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Song, Ho-Young [Asan Medical Center - Radiology, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea); Park, In Kook [Dongguk University, Life Science, Seoul (Korea); Choi, Eugene K. [Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY (United States)


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a multifunctional gastrointestinal coil catheter for stent placement in 98 patients with colorectal strictures. The catheter was used in 98 consecutive patients for stent placement in the rectum (n = 24), recto-sigmoid (n = 13), sigmoid (n = 38), descending (n = 6), transverse (n = 11), splenic flexure (n = 3), hepatic flexure (n = 2), and ascending (n = 1) colon. The catheter was made of a stainless steel coil (1.3 mm in inner diameter), a 0.4-mm nitinol wire, a polyolefin tube, and a hemostasis valve. Usefulness of the catheter was evaluated depending on whether the catheter could pass a stricture over a guide wire and whether measurement of the stricture length was possible. The passage of the catheter over a guide wire beyond the stricture was technically successful and well tolerated in 93 (94.9%) of 98 patients. In the failed five patients, it was not possible to negotiate the guide wire due to presence of nearly complete small bowel obstruction. The average length of stricture was 6.15 cm (range, 3 cm to 20 cm) in patients with the colorectal stricture. There were no procedure-related complications. In conclusion, the multifunctional coil catheter seems to be useful in colorectal stent placement. (orig.)

  14. Poloidal coils for the Large Helical Device (LHD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahata, K.; Satow, T.; Iwamoto, A.


    Poloidal coil system of the Large Helical Device (LHD) consists of three pairs of circular solenoids; Inner Vertical (IV), Inner shaping (IS) and Outer Vertical (OV) coils. Forced flow cooling is adopted as a cooling method of the poloidal coils. The conductors of the poloidal coils are Nb-Ti cable-in-conduit types. Each coil consists of eight double-pancake coils, and coolant flows in parallel from the inner turns to the outer turns. A superconducting joint technique is adopted in the joints among the double-pancake coils. Miniaturized joints and severe quality control bring the reduction of error field. (author)

  15. HydroSoft coil versus HydroCoil for endovascular aneurysm occlusion study: A single center experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xinbin; Fan Yimu; Zhang Jianning


    Background and purpose: The HydroCoil Embolic System (HES) was developed to reduce recurrences of aneurysms relative to platinum coils. But the HydroCoil Embolic System was characterized with many limitations. The manufacturer had recognized the challenge and recently a new design of hydrogel-coated coil-HydroSoft has become available in the market as the new generation HydroCoil. We reported our initial experience using HydroSoft coil versus HydroCoil in our center. Methods: 75 aneurysms embolized primarily using HydroSoft Coils from July 2008 to May 2009 were compared with 66 volume- and shape-matched aneurysms treated with HydroCoils from March 2006 to August 2008. Outcome measures included length and number of coils used, contrast volume, and length of hospital stay. During embolization, a stable framework was first established with bare coils, and hydrogel-coated coils were used subsequently to increase the packing density. Follow-up angiographic results 6 months after treatment were evaluated among some of the patients. Results: Successful coil embolization was achieved in all patients. There were no differences in average total coil length used per aneurysm. There were no differences in length of hospital stay and packing density. HydroSoft coils were more suitable using as the finishing or final coil. HydroSoft coil decreased the procedure-related retreated rates, and aneurysm packing was finished with soft, flexible HydroSoft coil and decreased the neck remnant rates. Follow-up angiography in HydroSoft-treated patients at 6 months revealed aneurysm stability without significant residual neck. Conclusions: HydroSoft coil allowed us to deploy coated coils with good packing density. A slight expansion of these coils at the neck can be expected to reduce neck remnant and potentially inhibit recurrence.

  16. Effect of Coiling Temperature on Microstructure, Properties and Resistance to Fish-Scaling of Hot Rolled Enamel Steel. (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Huang, Xueqi; Yu, Bo; Yuan, Xiaoyun; Liu, Xianghua


    The microstructure, mechanical properties, and hydrogen permeation behavior of hot rolled enamel steel were investigated. Three coiling temperatures were adopted to gain different sizes of ferrite grain and TiC precipitates. The results show that a large number of interphase precipitates of nano-sized TiC can be obtained at coiling temperatures of 650 and 700 °C, while a few precipitates are found in experimental steel when coiling temperature is 600 °C. The yield strength and ultimate tensile strength decrease with increasing coiling temperature, while elongation increases. The experimental steel has the best resistance to fish-scaling at coiling temperature of 700 °C, due to the large quantities of nano-sized interphase precipitates of TiC.

  17. Versatile fill coils: initial experience as framing coils for oblong aneurysms. A technical case report. (United States)

    Osanai, Toshiya; Bain, Mark; Hui, Ferdinand K


    Coil embolization of oblong aneurysms is difficult because the majority of commercially available coils are manufactured with a helical or spherical tertiary structure. While adopting framing strategies for oblong aneurysms (aspect ratio ≥ 2: 1), traditional coils may be undersized in the long axis but oversized in the short axis, resulting in increased aneurysmal wall stress, risk of re-rupture, and difficulty creating a basket that respects the aneurysmal neck. We review three cases in which versatile filling coils (VFCs) were used as the initial coils for embolization of oblong aneurysms and report coil distribution characteristics and clinical outcomes. Packing density after VFC implantation was assessed using the software AngioSuite-Neuro edition and AngioCalc. a 58-year-old woman experienced a subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm (7.5 mm × 3.5 mm). A 3-6 mm × 15 cm VFC was selected as the first coil because the flexibility of its wave-loop structure facilitates framing of an irregularly shaped aneurysm. The loop portions of the structures tend to be pressed to the extremes of the aneurysmal sac by the wave component. The VFC was introduced smoothly into the aneurysmal sac without catheter kickback. We were then able to insert detachable filling coils without any adjunctive technique and achieved complete occlusion. Complete occlusion without severe complications was achieved in all three cases in our study. Average packing density after the first coil was 15.63%. VFC coils may have a specific role in framing oblong aneurysms given their complex loop-wave design, allowing spacing of the coils at the dome and neck while keeping sac stress to a minimum.

  18. Structural Correlation of the Neck Coil with the Coiled-coil (CC1)-Forkhead-associated (FHA) Tandem for Active Kinesin-3 KIF13A. (United States)

    Ren, Jinqi; Huo, Lin; Wang, Wenjuan; Zhang, Yong; Li, Wei; Lou, Jizhong; Xu, Tao; Feng, Wei


    Processive kinesin motors often contain a coiled-coil neck that controls the directionality and processivity. However, the neck coil (NC) of kinesin-3 is too short to form a stable coiled-coil dimer. Here, we found that the coiled-coil (CC1)-forkhead-associated (FHA) tandem (that is connected to NC by Pro-390) of kinesin-3 KIF13A assembles as an extended dimer. With the removal of Pro-390, the NC-CC1 tandem of KIF13A unexpectedly forms a continuous coiled-coil dimer that can be well aligned into the CC1-FHA dimer. The reverse introduction of Pro-390 breaks the NC-CC1 coiled-coil dimer but provides the intrinsic flexibility to couple NC with the CC1-FHA tandem. Mutations of either NC, CC1, or the FHA domain all significantly impaired the motor activity. Thus, the three elements within the NC-CC1-FHA tandem of KIF13A are structurally interrelated to form a stable dimer for activating the motor. This work also provides the first direct structural evidence to support the formation of a coiled-coil neck by the short characteristic neck domain of kinesin-3. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Structural Correlation of the Neck Coil with the Coiled-coil (CC1)-Forkhead-associated (FHA) Tandem for Active Kinesin-3 KIF13A* (United States)

    Ren, Jinqi; Huo, Lin; Wang, Wenjuan; Zhang, Yong; Li, Wei; Lou, Jizhong; Xu, Tao; Feng, Wei


    Processive kinesin motors often contain a coiled-coil neck that controls the directionality and processivity. However, the neck coil (NC) of kinesin-3 is too short to form a stable coiled-coil dimer. Here, we found that the coiled-coil (CC1)-forkhead-associated (FHA) tandem (that is connected to NC by Pro-390) of kinesin-3 KIF13A assembles as an extended dimer. With the removal of Pro-390, the NC-CC1 tandem of KIF13A unexpectedly forms a continuous coiled-coil dimer that can be well aligned into the CC1-FHA dimer. The reverse introduction of Pro-390 breaks the NC-CC1 coiled-coil dimer but provides the intrinsic flexibility to couple NC with the CC1-FHA tandem. Mutations of either NC, CC1, or the FHA domain all significantly impaired the motor activity. Thus, the three elements within the NC-CC1-FHA tandem of KIF13A are structurally interrelated to form a stable dimer for activating the motor. This work also provides the first direct structural evidence to support the formation of a coiled-coil neck by the short characteristic neck domain of kinesin-3. PMID:26680000

  20. Compression and heating of a laser-produced plasma using single and double induction coils (United States)

    Creel, J. R.; Lunney, J. G.


    The results of an experiment on magnetohydrodynamic compression and heating of a laser-produced plasma in vacuum are described. The plasma was produced by laser ablation of copper at 2 J cm-2. A pulsed magnetic field, with an amplitude of 0.3 T and a period of 2.2 µs, was produced by a three-turn spiral induction coil placed 10 mm above the ablation spot. Time-resolved imaging revealed that the magnetic field had a strong influence on both the plasma between the coil and the target, and on the plasma which flows through the aperture in the coil. The plasma flow through the coil aperture is strongly pinched due to the Lorentz interaction of the induced current and the coil magnetic field. Heating of the plasma is evidenced by strong enhancement of the overall visible light emission and the appearance of Cu+ line emission. Magnetic compression and plasma heating were also observed in a setup using two induction coils separated by 10 mm. This technique could be used to enhance the sensitivity of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, increase the ion yield in laser plasma ion sources, or control the ablation plume expansion in pulsed laser deposition.

  1. Delayed Migration of Embolized Coil with Large Renal Stone Formation: A Rare Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar


    Full Text Available Delayed bleeding following percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL usually occurs due to development of the pseudoaneurysm which can be successfully managed with coil embolization. However very few cases of such complications have been reported in the literature. Here we are reporting a case of delayed post-PCNL bleeding that occurred in a 53-year-old diabetic patient operated on for renal stone. Computed tomography scan revealed a presence of the pseudoaneurysm in the segmental branch of right renal artery, which was successfully managed with coiling. Patient remained asymptomatic for the next 9 years after which he again presented with similar complaints. X-ray KUB was done which revealed a 2.7 cms renal pelvic calculus with the migrated coil in its center and a left upper ureteric calculus. His routine haemogram, coagulogram, serum electrolytes, and liver function tests, renal function tests, vitamin D3, and PTH (parathyroid hormone were within normal limits. He underwent left laparoscopic ureterolithotomy and right percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL. Intraoperatively the migrated stainless steel embolization coil was seen engulfed all around by the multiple stones in the right renal pelvis. Postoperative period was uneventful. Later he was followed in the outpatient department and was doing well. To conclude, this is the only case report of development of a large calculus around a migrated embolization coil which was successfully managed with PCNL. PCNL offers better stone clearance in cases of stones being formed over foreign bodies like fragmented double J stents, fragmented nephrostomies, or migrated embolization coil.

  2. Potted fiber optic sensor coil by novel adhesives for high-stability FOG (United States)

    Bi, Congzhi; Sun, Guofei; Wu, Yanji; Zhao, Keyong


    A sensor coil for a fiber optic gyroscope is fabricated and potted by a novel adhesive. The kind of adhesive can match to the outer jacket of polarization maintaining fiber (PMF) to improve the potting uniformity of the whole coil, so that it could contribute to reduce the temperature-induced strain and the strain differential between the clockwise and counterclockwise-wound portions of a symmetrically-wound fiber coil, i.e. temperature-dependent Shupe stress effect. The adhesive is a compound comprising acrylate and polyurethane, which can avoid the non-wetting problem resulting from the two different types of compounds. The adhesive is a low viscosity system which exhibits a prolonged work life, an adjustable hardness. Specially, the potting compound with a low glass transition temperature (Tg), down to the lower temperature -60°C, remain stable modulus during thermal cycling between -40°C and 60°C. The potted fiber optic sensor coil with a smooth surface is clear and regular due to the completely curable adhesive. The extinction coefficient of the fiber optic sensor coil can reflect the additional stress produced by the adhesives through comparing before potting with after potting. the potted fiber optic sensor coil shows excellent bias characteristics and temperature performance.

  3. Comparison of surface coil and knee coil for evaluation of the patellar cartilage by MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steen, M. van den; Maeseneer, M. de E-mail:; Hoste, M.; Vanderdood, K.; Ridder, F. de; Osteaux, M


    Purpose: The aim of this work was to compare the knee coil and the surface coil for the visualisation of the patellar cartilage. Materials and methods: In 28 patients (17 women, 11 men) with an average age of 40 years (range 14-76) with knee pain MR was performed. Transverse images were obtained using a fast spin echo proton density weighted sequence on a Philips Gyroscan Intera 1.5 T clinical system. Transverse images were obtained at the level of the patellar cartilage using both the surface and the knee coil. All images were evaluated by consensus of two radiologists. They evaluated a number of quality criteria on a 4-point scale. Criteria for artefacts were also graded on a 4-point scale. Results: For the visualisation of fluid there was no significant difference between the knee coil and the surface coil (P=0.021). For all other criteria regarding image quality and presence of imaging artefacts there was a significant difference between both coils (P<0.001) with the surface coil obtaining the better result. Conclusion: The use of the surface coil in the visualisation of the patellar cartilage can be recommended at knee MR.

  4. Immunogenicity of coiled-coil based drug-free macromolecular therapeutics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kverka, Miloslav; Hartley, J.M.; Chu, T.W.; Yang, J.; Heidchen, R.; Kopeček, J.


    Roč. 35, č. 2 (2014), s. 5886-5896 ISSN 1616-0177 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0003 Grant - others:NIH(US) GM095606 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : coiled-coil * enantiomers * HPMA copolymer Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  5. The influence of fusion sequences on the thermal stabilities of coiled-coil proteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Xu, C.; Joss, L.; Wang, C.; Pechar, Michal; Kopeček, J.


    Roč. 2, č. 8 (2002), s. 395-401 ISSN 1616-5187 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4055109 Grant - others:GA-(US) CA88047 Keywords : coiled -coil * fusion sequence * oligomers Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.792, year: 2002

  6. Additional coiling of previously coiled cerebral aneurysms : Clinical and angiographic results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slob, MJ; Sluzewski, M; van Rooij, WJ; Roks, G; Rinkel, GJE

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Some cerebral aneurysms that have been coiled reopen over time and additional treatment should be considered to reduce the risk of recurrent hemorrhage. Our purpose was to assess procedural complications and angiographic results of additional coiling in patients with

  7. Advanced approaches for the characterization of a de novo designed antiparallel coiled coil peptide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pagel, K; Seeger, K; Seiwert, B; Villa, Alessandra; Mark, AE; Berger, S; Koksch, B


    We report here an advanced approach for the characterization of the folding pattern of a de novo designed antiparallel coiled coil peptide by high-resolution methods. Incorporation of two fluorescence labels at the C- and N-terminus of the peptide chain as well as modi. cation of two hydrophobic

  8. Associative diblock copolymers of poly(ethylene glycol) and coiled-coil peptides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pechar, Michal; Kopečková, P.; Joss, L.; Kopeček, J.


    Roč. 2, č. 5 (2002), s. 199-206 ISSN 1616-5187 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4050111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : coiled -coil peptides * diblock copolymers * poly(ethylene glycol) Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.792, year: 2002

  9. Structural Stability of the Coiled-Coil Domain of Tumor Susceptibility Gene (TSG)-101. (United States)

    White, Jordan T; Toptygin, Dmitri; Cohen, Randy; Murphy, Natalie; Hilser, Vincent J


    The tumor susceptibility gene-101 coiled coil domain (TSG101cc) is an integral component of the endosomal maturation machinery and cytokinesis, and also interacts with several transcription factors. The TSG101cc has been crystallized as a homotetramer but is known to interact with two of its binding partners as a heterotrimer. To investigate this apparent discrepancy, we examined the solution thermodynamics of the TSG101cc. Here, we use circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry, analytical ultracentrifugation, fluorescence, and structural thermodynamic analysis to investigate the structural stability and the unfolding of the TSG101cc. We demonstrate that TSG101cc exists in solution primarily as a tetramer, which unfolds in a two-state manner. Surprisingly, no homodimeric or homotrimeric species were detected. Structural thermodynamic analysis of the homotetrameric structure and comparison with known oligomeric coiled-coils suggests that the TSG101cc homotetramer is comparatively unstable on a per residue basis. Furthermore, the homotrimeric coiled-coil is predicted to be much less stable than the functional heterotrimeric coiled-coil in the endosomal sorting complex required for transport 1 (ESCRT1). These results support a model whereby the tetramer-monomer equilibrium of TSG101 serves as the cellular reservoir of TSG101, which is effectively outcompeted when its binding partners are present and the heteroternary complex can form.

  10. Coiled-Coil Domains of SUN Proteins as Intrinsic Dynamic Regulators. (United States)

    Nie, Si; Ke, Huimin; Gao, Feng; Ren, Jinqi; Wang, Mingzhu; Huo, Lin; Gong, Weimin; Feng, Wei


    SUN proteins are the core components of LINC complexes that span across the nuclear envelope for nuclear positioning and migration. SUN proteins contain at least one predicted coiled-coil domain preceding the SUN domain. Here, we found that the two coiled-coil domains (CC1 and CC2) of SUN2 exhibit distinct oligomeric states. CC2 is a monomer in solution. The structure of the CC2-SUN monomer revealed that CC2 unexpectedly folds as a three-helix bundle that interacts with the SUN domain and locks it in an inactive conformation. In contrast, CC1 is a trimer. The structure of the CC1 trimer demonstrated that CC1 is an imperfect coiled coil for the trimerization and activation of the SUN domain. Modulations of CC1 and CC2 dictate different oligomeric states of CC1-CC2-SUN, which is essential for LINC complex formation. Thus, the two coiled-coil domains of SUN2 act as the intrinsic dynamic regulators for controlling the SUN domain activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The tripartite motif coiled-coil is an elongated antiparallel hairpin dimer (United States)

    Sanchez, Jacint G.; Okreglicka, Katarzyna; Chandrasekaran, Viswanathan; Welker, Jordan M.; Sundquist, Wesley I.; Pornillos, Owen


    Tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins make up a large family of coiled-coil-containing RING E3 ligases that function in many cellular processes, particularly innate antiviral response pathways. Both dimerization and higher-order assembly are important elements of TRIM protein function, but the atomic details of TRIM tertiary and quaternary structure have not been fully understood. Here, we present crystallographic and biochemical analyses of the TRIM coiled-coil and show that TRIM proteins dimerize by forming interdigitating antiparallel helical hairpins that position the N-terminal catalytic RING domains at opposite ends of the dimer and the C-terminal substrate-binding domains at the center. The dimer core comprises an antiparallel coiled-coil with a distinctive, symmetric pattern of flanking heptad and central hendecad repeats that appear to be conserved across the entire TRIM family. Our studies reveal how the coiled-coil organizes TRIM25 to polyubiquitylate the RIG-I/viral RNA recognition complex and how dimers of the TRIM5α protein are arranged within hexagonal arrays that recognize the HIV-1 capsid lattice and restrict retroviral replication. PMID:24550273

  12. Golgi coiled-coil proteins contain multiple binding sites for Rab family G proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinka, Rita; Gillingham, Alison K.; Kondylis, Vangelis; Munro, Sean


    Vesicles and other carriers destined for the Golgi apparatus must be guided to the correct cisternae. Golgins, long coiled-coil proteins that localize to particular Golgi subdomains via their C termini, are candidate regulators of vesicle sorting. In this study, we report that the GRIP domain

  13. The Nup62 Coiled-Coil Motif Provides Plasticity for Triple-Helix Bundle Formation. (United States)

    Dewangan, Pravin S; Sonawane, Parshuram J; Chouksey, Ankita R; Chauhan, Radha


    The central transport channel of the vertebrate nuclear pore complex (NPC) consists of nucleoporins: Nup62, Nup54, and Nup58. The coiled-coil domains in α-helical regions of these nucleoporins are thought to be crucial for several protein-protein interactions in the NPC subcomplexes. In this study, we determined the crystal structure of the coiled-coil domain of rat Nup62 fragment (residues 362-425) to 2.4 Å resolution. The crystal structure shows the conserved coiled-coil domain as a parallel three-helix bundle for the Nup62(362-425) fragment. On the basis of our size exclusion chromatography coupled to multiangle light scattering analysis and glutaraldehyde cross-linking experiments, we conclude that the Nup62(362-425) fragment displays dynamic behavior in solution and can also exist in either homodimeric or homotrimeric states. Our comparative analysis of the rat Nup62(362-425) homotrimeric structure with previously reported heterotrimeric structures [rat Nup62(362-425)·Nup54(346-407) and Xenopus Nup62(358-485)·Nup54(315-450)·Nup58(283-406) complexes] demonstrates the structural basis for parallel triple-helix bundle formation for Nup62 with different partners. Moreover, we show that the coiled-coil domain of Nup62 is sufficient for interaction with the coiled-coil domain of rat Exo70, a protein in an exocyst complex. On the basis of these observations, we suggest the plausible chain replacement mechanism that yields to diverse protein assemblies with Nup62. In summary, the coiled-coil motif present in Nup62 imparts the ability to form a homotrimer and heterotrimers either with Nup54 or with Nup54-Nup58 within the NPCs as well as with Exo70 beyond the NPCs. These complexes of Nup62 suggest the crucial role of the coiled-coil motifs in providing plasticity to various modular assemblies.

  14. Structural analysis (Siemens) of the Euratom coil for the large coil task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, A.


    The structural analysis of coil and casing of large superconducting magnets is essential to ensure the safety in the design and is important for the concept of even larger magnet units in future projects. For the Large Coil Task calculations are performed by the finite element computer code NASTRAN to obtain the stress on the various structural parts under thermal and magnetic loads. The mechanical behavior of the coil and casing under normal as well as alternative load conditions is discussed. Plots demonstrate the state of deformation belonging to the single structure parts. The results for the components of normal and shear stresses in the coil as well as for the equivalent stresses in the casing are summarized. The finite element model used is presented. The assumptions relating to the material properties, the force transmitted between coil and casing, the loading conditions, and the boundary conditions are discussed. 2 refs

  15. Coil in coil - components for the high voltage superconducting resistive current limiter CULT 110 (United States)

    Elschner, S.; Stemmle, M.; Breuer, F.; Walter, H.; Frohne, C.; Noe, M.; Bock, J.


    The German government (BMBF/VDI) funded project CULT 110 is presently the largest European current limiter project and aims at the development of a one-phase resistive limiter for the voltage level of 110 kV. The contribution presents the actual state of development of the superconducting components. As in the successful predecessor project CURL 10 these are made of melt cast processed BSCCO 2212 bulk material, however monofilar instead of bifilar coils are used. The electrical protection concept is based on a normal conducting coil arranged around a superconducting coil and connected in parallel. Simultaneously this coil serves as an electrical bypass and, under fault conditions, generates a magnetic field for quench homogenisation. Since no continuously connected shunt is needed, a much higher voltage during faults can be applied. The rules for an optimum superconductor and coil design are given and the viability of the whole concept is demonstrated by both, experiment and numerical simulation.

  16. High magnetic field multipoles generated by superconductor magnetization within a set of nested superconducting correction coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.


    Correction elements in colliding beam accelerators such as the SSC can be the source of undesirable higher magnetic field multipoles due to magnetization of the superconductor within the corrector. Quadrupole and sextupole correctors located within the main dipole will produce sextupole and decapole due to magnetization of the superconductor within the correction coils. Lumped nested correction coils can produce a large number of skew and normal magnetization multipoles which may have an adverse effect on a stored beam at injection into a high energy colliding beam machine such as the SSC. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Heat load characteristics and new design using one-coil model superconducting magnets (United States)

    Jizo, Yoshihiro; Akagi, Hidenari; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Terai, Motoaki; Shinobu, Masatoshi

    Superconducting magnets (SCM) for Maglev trains are vibrated by the electromagnetic force arising from the magnetic field of higher harmonics, which is due to the arrangement of the ground coils. The heat load within the liquid helium temperature region increases by the vibration of the magnets. This paper reports a heat load generation estimation mechanism due to the above-mentioned vibration, as well as effective measures of reducing heat load generation. In addition, we show how a one-coil type SCM can reduce the heat load generation in electromagnetic disturbance tests.

  18. Molecular dynamics studies of PEGylated α-helical coiled coils and their self-assembled micelles. (United States)

    Woo, Sun Young; Lee, Hwankyu


    We performed coarse-grained (CG) molecular dynamics simulations of trimeric α-helical coiled coils grafted with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) of different sizes and conjugate positions and the self-assembled micelle of amphiphilic trimers. The CG model for the trimeric coiled coil is verified by comparing the α-helical structure and interhelical distance with those calculated from all-atom simulations. In CG simulations of PEGylated trimers, the end-to-end distances and radii of gyration of PEGs grafted to the sides of peptides become shorter than those of free PEGs in water, which agrees with experiments. This shorter size of the grafted PEGs is also confirmed by calculating the thickness of the PEG layer, which is less than the size of the mushroom. These indicate the adsorption of PEG chains onto coiled coils since hydrophobic residues in the exterior sites of coiled coils tend to be less exposed to water and thus interact with PEGs, leading to the compact conformation of adsorbed PEGs. Simulations of the self-assembly of amphiphilic trimers show that the randomly distributed trimers self-assemble to micelles. The outer radius and hydrodynamic radius of the micelle, which were calculated respectively from radial densities and diffusion coefficients, are ∼7 nm, in agreement with the experimental value of ∼7.5 nm, while the aggregation number of amphiphilic molecules per micelle is lower than the experimentally proposed value. These simulations predict the experimentally measured size of PEGs grafted to the trimeric coiled coils and their self-assembled amphiphilic micelles and suggest that the aggregation number of the micelle may be lower, which needs to be confirmed by experiments.

  19. Automated de novo phasing and model building of coiled-coil proteins. (United States)

    Rämisch, Sebastian; Lizatović, Robert; André, Ingemar


    Models generated by de novo structure prediction can be very useful starting points for molecular replacement for systems where suitable structural homologues cannot be readily identified. Protein-protein complexes and de novo-designed proteins are examples of systems that can be challenging to phase. In this study, the potential of de novo models of protein complexes for use as starting points for molecular replacement is investigated. The approach is demonstrated using homomeric coiled-coil proteins, which are excellent model systems for oligomeric systems. Despite the stereotypical fold of coiled coils, initial phase estimation can be difficult and many structures have to be solved with experimental phasing. A method was developed for automatic structure determination of homomeric coiled coils from X-ray diffraction data. In a benchmark set of 24 coiled coils, ranging from dimers to pentamers with resolutions down to 2.5 Å, 22 systems were automatically solved, 11 of which had previously been solved by experimental phasing. The generated models contained 71-103% of the residues present in the deposited structures, had the correct sequence and had free R values that deviated on average by 0.01 from those of the respective reference structures. The electron-density maps were of sufficient quality that only minor manual editing was necessary to produce final structures. The method, named CCsolve, combines methods for de novo structure prediction, initial phase estimation and automated model building into one pipeline. CCsolve is robust against errors in the initial models and can readily be modified to make use of alternative crystallographic software. The results demonstrate the feasibility of de novo phasing of protein-protein complexes, an approach that could also be employed for other small systems beyond coiled coils.

  20. Coil development for W VII-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisslinger, J.


    Starting from a closed vacuum flux surface near the edge and using the NESCOIL code, current distributions on various toroidal surfaces are obtained. The toroidal surfaces are optimized by varying the coefficients which describe the torus topology, and by restricting the number of coefficients for the potential distribution. Configuration HS4-12 with 4 field periods has 12 coils per field period, and that with 5 periods has 10 or 12 coils per period at an average coil aspect ratio of 5. Aspect ratio of the largest flux surfaces is 10. For Helias configurations with 5 field periods compared to those with 4 field periods, higher beta values are predicted. Keeping the coil aspect ratio constant the configuration with 5 field periods has coils with lower minimum curvature radius and a larger lateral excursion. They also have reduced distance between wall and plasma. To improve the geometrical tightness with 5 field periods an increase of the major radius from 5 to 6.5m and a reduction of Bo from 4 to 3T (which allows an increase of current density from 40 to 50 MA/m 2 ) is proposed

  1. Distal biceps rupture: the coil sign. (United States)

    Austin, Luke; Pepe, Matt; VanBeek, Corinne; Tjoumakaris, Fotios


    Delayed repair of the distal biceps brachii tendon can lead to the formation of scar tissue and coiling of the tendon. Dissection of the scar tissue and unraveling of the tendon may allow for anatomic repair to the radial tuberosity. A 50-year-old man had a distal biceps brachii tendon tear with an intact lacertus fibrosis. Surgery was performed 22 days after injury. On inspection, the distal biceps tendon was coiled, encased in scar tissue, and unable to be reduced to the radial tuberosity. Dissection of the scar tissue and unraveling of the tendon provided additional length, allowing anatomic repair. Postoperatively, the patient regained full range of motion and strength and returned to work without restrictions. After a distal biceps brachii tear in which the lacertus fibrosis remains intact, the coiled tendon may become enveloped in a sheath of scar tissue. Dissection of the "pseudosheath" unveils the native tendon and allows reduction to the radial tuberosity. Cadaveric analysis shows that the pseudosheath may conceal 6 cm of coiled tendon. When the lacertus fibrosis remains intact after distal biceps tendon rupture, the tethered tendon stump may coil, become encased in scar tissue, and resemble the native tendon. Failure to identify the native tendon could result in the loss of 6 cm of tendon. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Fabrication of the KSTAR toroidal field coil structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, C.H.; Sa, J.W.; Park, H.K.; Hong, K.H.; Shin, H.; Kim, H.T.; Bak, J.S.; Lee, G.S.; Kwak, J.H.; Moon, H.G.; Yoon, H.H.; Lee, J.W.; Lee, S.K.; Song, J.Y.; Nam, K.M.; Byun, S.E.; Kim, H.C.; Ha, E.T.; Ahn, H.J.; Kim, D.S.; Lee, J.S.; Park, K.H.; Hong, C.D.


    The KSTAR toroidal field (TF) coil structure is under fabrication upon completion of engineering design and prototype construction. The prototype TF coil structure has been fabricated within allowable tolerances. Encasing of the prototype TF coil (TF00) in the prototype structure has been carried out through major processes involving a coil encasing, an enclosing weld, a vacuum pressure impregnation, and an outer surface machining. During the enclosing weld of the TF00 coil structure, we have measured temperatures and stresses on the coil surface. Assembly test had been performed with the TF00 coil structure. We have chosen Type 316LN as material of the TF coil structure. We used the narrow-gap TIG welding method. Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction Company (DHI) will complete the fabrication of the TF coil structure in Feb. 2006. (author)

  3. Improving Coil Designs for the HSX Stellarator with FOCUS (United States)

    Kruger, Thomas; Zhu, Caoxiang; Bader, Aaron; Singh, Luquant; Anderson, David


    We use the FOCUS code to generate improved coil sets for the HSX stellarator. FOCUS produces curves in 3D space to best reproduce a target plasma equilibrium. Unlike similar codes, the curves in FOCUS are not constrained to lie on a user-defined 2D surface. Therefore FOCUS can inherently solve problems such as determining the optimum coil-plasma distance for a given equilibrium. By adjusting the relative weights between a) the match to the plasma boundary, and b) the average coil length. We present the results from FOCUS where we attempt to improve the coil set by moving coils further away to reduce coil ripple, decreasing the number of coils to improve accessibility, and better matching the target plasma surface. We also present results of alternative coil designs with helical and saddle coils. Work supported by the US DOE under Grant DE-FG02-93ER54222 and UW Sorden account 233PRJ65ZM.

  4. Helium distribution system for the Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, C.G.; May, J.R.


    The helium distribution system of the Large Coil Test Facility is designed to establish and maintain the thermal environment of the toroidal array of superconducting magnets throughout the initial test and evaluation period of the test program. The refrigeration and liquefaction requirements for the LCTF will be discussed including both the usual cooldown, lead cooling, thermal conduction and radiation and joule heating losses, and the unusual losses due to simulated nuclear heating, magnetic coupling losses due to the transient fields of the driving magnets, and pumping losses due to fluid resistance and pump inefficiency. The flow system is designed with separate cooldown and steady-state flow systems, and to simultaneously circulate helium understeady-state conditions through coils cooled by boiling liquid or supercritical helium at approximately 4.0 K and >2.5-atm pressure. Separate helium storage dewars are utilized for vapor cooling of the current leads to the magnets with the effluent gas being stored after compression in high pressure storage tanks. The flow diagram will be presented in simplified form to show the salient features of the cryogenic system

  5. Remarkable weakness against cleavage stress for YBCO-coated conductors and its effect on the YBCO coil performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Y.; Nakagome, H.; Takematsu, T.; Takao, T.; Sato, N.; Takahashi, M.; Maeda, H.


    Cleavage strength for YBCO-coated conductor is extremely low, typically 0.5 MPa. The remarkable weakness is due to cracks on the slit edge of the conductor. The cleavage stress appears on YBCO double pancake coils impregnated with epoxy. The cleavage stress should be avoided in the coil winding. Cleavage strength for an YBCO-coated conductor at 77 K was investigated with a model experiment. The nominal cleavage strength for an YBCO-coated conductor is extremely low, typically 0.5 MPa. This low nominal cleavage strength is due to stress concentration on a small part of the YBCO-coated conductor in cleavage fracture. Debonding by the cleavage stress occurs at the interface between the buffer layer and the Hastelloy substrate. The nominal cleavage strength for a slit edge of the conductor is 2.5-times lower than that for the original edge of the conductor; cracks and micro-peel existing over the slit edge reduce the cleavage strength for the slit edge. Cleavage stress and peel stress should be avoided in coil winding, as they easily delaminate the YBCO-coated conductor, resulting in substantial degradation of coil performance. These problems are especially important for epoxy impregnated YBCO-coated conductor coils. It appears that effect of cleavage stress and peel stress are mostly negligible for paraffin impregnated YBCO-coated conductor coils or dry wound YBCO-coated conductor coils.

  6. CS model coil experimental log book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishijima, Gen; Sugimoto, Makoto; Nunoya, Yoshihiko; Wakabayashi, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment


    Charging test of the ITER CS Model Coil which is the world's largest superconducting pulse coil and the CS Insert Coil had started at April 11, 2000 and had completed at August 18, 2000. In the campaign, total shot numbers were 356 and the size of the data file in the DAS (Data Acquisition System) was over 20 GB. This report is a database that consists of the log list and the log sheets of every shot. One can access the database, make a search, and browse results via Internet ( The database will be useful to quick search to choose necessary shots. (author)

  7. Considerations against a force compensated coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassenzahl, W.


    The cost of structural components in a large superconducting coil may well exceed the coil and cryostat cost. As a result, the idea of constructing a system composed of two different coil types assembled in such a way that the sources balance and reduce the total structural requirement is oft proposed. A suitable geometry has never been found for the fundamental reason that there can be no force compensated solution. In this paper, the general problem is presented and an analysis of the energy stored and stresses produced in the structure are described in a fundamental way. Finally, the relation between structural mass M and stored energy E, M ≥/rho/E/σ/sub w/, that is valid for all magnetic systems is developed, where /rho/ is the density of the structure and σ/sub w/ is the working stress in the structure. 12 refs., 2 figs

  8. Determination of Coil Inductances Cylindrical Iron Nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azeddine Mazouz


    Full Text Available The paper describes the investigation and development of a structure and performance characteristics of a coil iron nucleus cylindrical (C.I.N.C. The coil iron nucleus cylindrical is a nonlinear electro radio in which the moving of the nucleus in a sense or in other causes change in inductance and can reach extreme values at the superposition of nucleus and coil centers. The variation of the inductance and the degree of freedom of movement of the nucleus can lead to a device with electromechanical conversion The aim of this paper is the determination and visualization of self inductance and mutual of the (C.I.N.C based on geometric dimensions and the displacement of the nucleus.  

  9. A new type of coil structure called pan-shaped coil of wireless charging system based on magnetic resonance (United States)

    Yue, Z. K.; Liu, Z. Z.; Hou, Y. J.; Zeng, H.; Liang, L. H.; Cui, S.


    The problem that misalignment between the transmitting coil and the receiving coil significantly impairs the transmission power and efficiency of the system has been attached more and more attention. In order to improve the uniformity of the magnetic field between the two coils to solve this problem, a new type of coil called pan-shaped coil is proposed. Three-dimension simulation models of the planar-core coil and the pan-shaped coil are established using Ansoft Maxwell software. The coupling coefficient between the transmitting coil and the receiving coil is obtained by simulating the magnetic field with the receiving coil misalignment or not. And the maximum percentage difference strength along the radial direction which is defined as the magnetic field uniformity factor is calculated. According to the simulation results of the two kinds of coil structures, it is found that the new type of coil structure can obviously improve the uniformity of the magnetic field, coupling coefficient and power transmission properties between the transmitting coil and the receiving coil.

  10. Superconducting Coil Winding Machine Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogiec, J. M. [Fermilab; Kotelnikov, S. [Fermilab; Makulski, A. [Fermilab; Walbridge, D. [Fermilab; Trombly-Freytag, K. [Fermilab


    The Spirex coil winding machine is used at Fermilab to build coils for superconducting magnets. Recently this ma-chine was equipped with a new control system, which al-lows operation from both a computer and a portable remote control unit. This control system is distributed between three layers, implemented on a PC, real-time target, and FPGA, providing respectively HMI, operational logic and direct controls. The system controls motion of all mechan-ical components and regulates the cable tension. Safety is ensured by a failsafe, redundant system.

  11. Multiple coil closure of isolated aortopulmonary collateral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padhi Sumanta


    Full Text Available A 7-month-old girl was diagnosed to have large aortopulmonary collateral during evaluation for congestive heart failure. There was no other evidence of cardiopulmonary disease. The collateral was successfully closed with multiple coils delivered sequentially. We describe the issues associated during closure of the aortopulmonary collateral in this case. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of large aortopulmonary collateral presenting with heart failure in an otherwise structurally normal heart that was closed successfully with multiple coils delivered sequentially.

  12. Self-assembling segmented coiled tubing (United States)

    Raymond, David W.


    Self-assembling segmented coiled tubing is a concept that allows the strength of thick-wall rigid pipe, and the flexibility of thin-wall tubing, to be realized in a single design. The primary use is for a drillstring tubular, but it has potential for other applications requiring transmission of mechanical loads (forces and torques) through an initially coiled tubular. The concept uses a spring-loaded spherical `ball-and-socket` type joint to interconnect two or more short, rigid segments of pipe. Use of an optional snap ring allows the joint to be permanently made, in a `self-assembling` manner.

  13. Strand Displacement in Coiled-Coil Structures: Controlled Induction and Reversal of Proximity. (United States)

    Gröger, Katharina; Gavins, Georgina; Seitz, Oliver


    Coiled-coil peptides are frequently used to create new function upon the self-assembly of supramolecular complexes. A multitude of coil peptide sequences provides control over the specificity and stability of coiled-coil complexes. However, comparably little attention has been paid to the development of methods that allow the reversal of complex formation under non-denaturing conditions. Herein, we present a reversible two-state switching system. The process involves two peptide molecules for the formation of a size-mismatched coiled-coil duplex and a third, disruptor peptide that targets an overhanging end. A real-time fluorescence assay revealed that the proximity between two chromophores can be switched on and off, repetitively if desired. Showcasing the advantages provided by non-denaturing conditions, the method permitted control over the bivalent interactions of the tSH2 domain of Syk kinase with a phosphopeptide ligand. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms using internally expanding coils (United States)

    Suri, M. Fareed K.; Memon, Muhammad Zeeshan; Qureshi, Adnan I.


    Background and Purpose The International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) showed that patients with intracranial aneurysms treated with coil embolization have better clinical outcomes than those undergoing neurosurgical clipping. However some patients treated endovascularly have recurrence of aneurysms. Low packing density is often cited as a reason for recurrence. Coiling with hydrogel covered coils significantly improves the packing density. We report our initial experience in using a newly introduced design of hydrogel coils. Methods: Three consecutive patients with unruptured aneurysms were treated with hydrogel coated coils. During embolization, a stable framework was first established with bare metal coils, and gel coated coils were used subsequently to increase the packing density. After the procedure, packing density was estimated by calculating the compaction ratio using an online calculator. Results: Successful coil embolization was achieved in all 3 patients. Hydrogel coated coils comprised 11, 63 and 72% of the total coils deployed. One patient had coil herniation that required stent deployment. All patients remained neurologically intact during and after the procedure. Follow-up angiography in 2 patients at 6 months revealed aneurysm stability without any residual neck remnant. Conclusions: The softness of the hydrogel allowed us to deploy coated coils with good packing density. A slight expansion of these coils at the neck can be expected to reduce any neck remnant and potentially inhibit recurrence. PMID:22518218

  15. Response Characteristics and Experimental Study of Underground Magnetic Resonance Sounding Using a Small-Coil Sensor. (United States)

    Qin, Shengwu; Ma, Zhongjun; Jiang, Chuandong; Lin, Jun; Xue, Yiguo; Shang, Xinlei; Li, Zhiqiang


    Due to its unique sensitivity to hydrogen protons, magnetic resonance sounding (MRS) is the only geophysical method that directly detects water and can provide nondestructive information on subsurface aquifer properties. The relationship between the surface MRS signal and the location and characteristics of aquifers using large-coil (typically 50-150 m) sensors has been discussed based on forward modelling and experiments. However, few researchers have studied underground MRS using a small-coil sensor. In this paper, a parametric study and a large-scale physical model test were conducted to shed light on the critical response characteristics of underground MRS using a small-coil sensor. The effects of the size and number of turns of the transmitter coil and receiver coil, the geomagnetic declination, the geomagnetic inclination, and the position, thickness, and water content of a water-bearing structure on the performance of the underground MRS were studied based on numerical simulations. Furthermore, we derived the kernel function and underground MRS signal curves for a water-bearing structure model based on the simulations. Finally, a large-scale physical model test on underground MRS using a small-coil sensor was performed using a physical test system for geological prediction of tunnels at Shandong University. The results show that the inversion results of the physical model test were in good agreement with the physical prototype results. Using both numerical modeling and physical model tests, this study showed that underground MRS using a small-coil sensor can be used to predict water-bearing structures in underground engineering.

  16. Rogowski coils for studies of detonator initiation (United States)

    Tasker, Douglas


    The Rogowski coil dates back to 1887 and it has commonly been employed to measure rapid changes of electrical currents without direct contact with the circuits, especially in high energy density applications. Recently, it has been used to measure currents in relatively low energy devices such as semiconductor circuits; here we report its utility in the analysis of detonator initiation. From an electrical perspective, the coil is essentially an air-cored transformer and measures the temporal rate of change of current dI/dt. Following a careful characterization of the circuit, an accurate measurement of this derivative is shown to provide a complete solution of the detonator circuit, including current, voltage, power and energy delivered to the detonator. The dependence of the electrical sensitivity, accuracy and bandwidth on coil design will be discussed and a new printed circuit design will be presented. Interesting features in the initiation of exploding bridgewire detonators have been observed with this coil and the results of various experiments will be discussed.

  17. Large coil test facility instrumentation system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walstrom, P.L.; Fletcher, W.M.; Goddard, J.S.; Murphy, J.L.


    The design of the instrumentation system for the Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) is described. Sensors are divided into two categories: coil diagnostic sensors, installed in the test coils; and facility sensors, installed in the various systems of the test facility in order to monitor their performance. After signal conditioning, data from the ''fast'' channels are multiplexed, digitized, and stored in four microcomputer systems programmed to be used in a ring buffer mode to record data before and after receipt of a random trigger from the normal zone detection circuitry. ''Slow'' channels are digitized by a scanner and buffered by a microcomputer. Selected data channels are continuously displayed on digital or recorded on strip chart recorders. The microcomputer systems are interfaced to a central minicomputer system for display and archival storage. Facility variables are digitized by a separate scanner system. Certain critical fault variables are compared with set point values, and if they are out of range, cause a programmable logic controller to initiate an emergency coil energy dump. 2 refs

  18. Coiling of ruptured pericallosal artery aneurysms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menovsky, T.; Rooij, W.J.J. van; Sluzewski, M.; Wijnalda, D.


    OBJECTIVE: To assess the technical feasibility of treating ruptured pericallosal artery aneurysms with detachable coils and to evaluate the anatomic and clinical results. METHODS: Over a period of 27 months, 12 patients with a ruptured pericallosal artery aneurysm were treated with detachable

  19. Voltage distribution within superconducting coils during quench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominaka, T.; Hara, N.; Kuroda, K.


    A computer program which can be applied to the calculation of voltage distribution within superconducting coils during quench has been developed. The calculation is compared with an experiment for a small superconducting solenoid, and the propriety of the calculation is discussed

  20. Ureteral stents: coil strength and durometer. (United States)

    Hendlin, Kari; Dockendorf, Kelly; Horn, Christina; Pshon, Nicole; Lund, Brynn; Monga, Manoj


    To evaluate the coil strength before and after urine exposure and the stiffness of commercially available double-J ureteral stents because both properties may affect stent performance and patient comfort. Twelve commercially available 6F ureteral stents were tested for coil strength before and after 30 days of urine exposure. The proximal end of each stent was inserted through a 2-mm hole in bologna, allowed to recoil, and then pulled using a handheld force gauge. Ten different commercially available ureteral stent models were tested for tensile strength using an MTS MicroBionix Testing System and Testworks II software and a 5 N load cell. The Cook Black Silicone and Cook C-Flex stents had the strongest coil strengths before urine exposure at 0.480 +/- 0.0 lb (P Circon Double J stent and Bard InLay. Ureteral stents can be differentiated according to their coil strength and stiffness. The impact of these properties on stent performance and patient comfort deserve additional evaluation. The significant variability found in stent stiffness among stents from different lot numbers suggests poor quality assurance in biomaterials or stent processing and increases the complexity of cross-stent comparisons.

  1. Moving coil linear variable differential transformer. (United States)

    Ellis, J F; Walstrom, P L


    A moving-coil linear variable differential transformer with no ferromagnetic components is described. The device is essentially interchangeable with a conventional moving-core linear variable differential transformer, but is virtually unaffected by ambient magnetic fields up to 8 T. The transducer is connected to a standard commercially available carrier amplifier for signal conditioning.

  2. Testing electrical insulation of LCT coils and instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luton, J.N.; Ulbricht, A.R.; Ellis, J.F.; Shen, S.S.; Wilson, C.T.; Okuno, K.; Siewerdt, L.O.; Zahn, G.R.; Zichy, J.A.


    Three of the superconducting test coils in the Large Coil Task (LCT) use conductors cooled internally by forced flow of helium. In the other three coils, the conductors are cooled externally by a bath of helium. The coils and facility are designed for rapid discharges (dumps) at voltages up to 2.5 kV, depending on coil design. Many coil sensors are connected electrically to the conductors. These sensor leads and signal conditioning equipment also experience high voltage. High-potential tests of ground insulation were performed on all components of the International Fusion Superconducting Magnet Test Facility (IFSMTF). Coil insulation was also tested by ring-down tests that produced voltage distributions within the coils like those occurring during rapid discharge. Methods were developed to localize problem areas and to eliminate them. The effect on breakdown voltage near the Paschen minimum of magnetic fields up to 2 T was investigated

  3. Superconducting coil design for a tokamak experimental power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, L.R.; Wang, S.T.; Smelser, P.


    Superconducting toroidal field (TF) and polodial-field (PF) coils have been designed for the proposed Argonne National Laboratory experimental power reactor (EPR). Features of the design include: (1) Peak field of 8 T at 4.2 K or 10 T at 3.0 K. (2) Constant-tension shape for the TF coils, corrected for the finite number (16) of coils. (3) Analysis of errors in coil alignment. (4) Comparison of safety aspects of series-connected and parallel-connected coils. (5) A 60 kA sheet conductor of NbTi with copper stabilizer and stainless steel for support. (6) Superconducting PF coils outside the TF coils. (7) The TF coils shielded from pulsed fields by high-purity aluminum

  4. Structural design of the superconducting toroidal field coils for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, F.M.G.; Sborchia, C.; Thome, R.J.; Malkov, A.; Titus, P.H.


    Structural design issues and features of the superconducting toroidal field (TF) coils for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) will be discussed. Selected analyses of the structural and mechanical behavior of the ITER TF coils will also be presented. (orig.)

  5. Coiled-Coil Irregularities and Instabilities in Group A Streptococcus M1 Are Required for Virulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNamara, Case; Zinkernagel, Annelies S.; Macheboeuf, Pauline; Cunningham, Madeleine W.; Nizet, Victor; Ghosh, Partho (UO-HSC); (UCSD)


    Antigenically variable M proteins are major virulence factors and immunogens of the human pathogen group A Streptococcus (GAS). Here, we report the -3 angstrom resolution structure of a GAS M1 fragment containing the regions responsible for eliciting type-specific, protective immunity and for binding fibrinogen, which promotes M1 proinflammatory and antiphagocytic functions. The structure revealed substantial irregularities and instabilities throughout the coiled coil of the M1 fragment. Similar structural irregularities occur in myosin and tropomyosin, explaining the patterns of cross-reactivity seen in autoimmune sequelae of GAS infection. Sequence idealization of a large segment of the M1 coiled coil enhanced stability but diminished fibrinogen binding, proinflammatory effects, and antibody cross-reactivity, whereas it left protective immunogenicity undiminished. Idealized M proteins appear to have promise as vaccine immunogens.

  6. GBNV encoded movement protein (NSm) remodels ER network via C-terminal coiled coil domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Pratibha; Savithri, H.S., E-mail:


    Plant viruses exploit the host machinery for targeting the viral genome–movement protein complex to plasmodesmata (PD). The mechanism by which the non-structural protein m (NSm) of Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV) is targeted to PD was investigated using Agrobacterium mediated transient expression of NSm and its fusion proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana. GFP:NSm formed punctuate structures that colocalized with mCherry:plasmodesmata localized protein 1a (PDLP 1a) confirming that GBNV NSm localizes to PD. Unlike in other movement proteins, the C-terminal coiled coil domain of GBNV NSm was shown to be involved in the localization of NSm to PD, as deletion of this domain resulted in the cytoplasmic localization of NSm. Treatment with Brefeldin A demonstrated the role of ER in targeting GFP NSm to PD. Furthermore, mCherry:NSm co-localized with ER–GFP (endoplasmic reticulum targeting peptide (HDEL peptide fused with GFP). Co-expression of NSm with ER–GFP showed that the ER-network was transformed into vesicles indicating that NSm interacts with ER and remodels it. Mutations in the conserved hydrophobic region of NSm (residues 130–138) did not abolish the formation of vesicles. Additionally, the conserved prolines at positions 140 and 142 were found to be essential for targeting the vesicles to the cell membrane. Further, systematic deletion of amino acid residues from N- and C-terminus demonstrated that N-terminal 203 amino acids are dispensable for the vesicle formation. On the other hand, the C-terminal coiled coil domain when expressed alone could also form vesicles. These results suggest that GBNV NSm remodels the ER network by forming vesicles via its interaction through the C-terminal coiled coil domain. Interestingly, NSm interacts with NP in vitro and coexpression of these two proteins in planta resulted in the relocalization of NP to PD and this relocalization was abolished when the N-terminal unfolded region of NSm was deleted. Thus, the NSm

  7. Compressing DNA sequence databases with coil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendy Michael D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Publicly available DNA sequence databases such as GenBank are large, and are growing at an exponential rate. The sheer volume of data being dealt with presents serious storage and data communications problems. Currently, sequence data is usually kept in large "flat files," which are then compressed using standard Lempel-Ziv (gzip compression – an approach which rarely achieves good compression ratios. While much research has been done on compressing individual DNA sequences, surprisingly little has focused on the compression of entire databases of such sequences. In this study we introduce the sequence database compression software coil. Results We have designed and implemented a portable software package, coil, for compressing and decompressing DNA sequence databases based on the idea of edit-tree coding. coil is geared towards achieving high compression ratios at the expense of execution time and memory usage during compression – the compression time represents a "one-off investment" whose cost is quickly amortised if the resulting compressed file is transmitted many times. Decompression requires little memory and is extremely fast. We demonstrate a 5% improvement in compression ratio over state-of-the-art general-purpose compression tools for a large GenBank database file containing Expressed Sequence Tag (EST data. Finally, coil can efficiently encode incremental additions to a sequence database. Conclusion coil presents a compelling alternative to conventional compression of flat files for the storage and distribution of DNA sequence databases having a narrow distribution of sequence lengths, such as EST data. Increasing compression levels for databases having a wide distribution of sequence lengths is a direction for future work.

  8. Coiled-coil forming peptides for the induction of silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Božič Abram, Sabina [Department of Synthetic Biology and Immunology, National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Graduate School of Biomedicine, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana 1000 (Slovenia); Aupič, Jana [Department of Synthetic Biology and Immunology, National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Doctoral Programme in Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana 1000 (Slovenia); Dražić, Goran [Laboratory for Materials Chemistry, National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Gradišar, Helena [Department of Synthetic Biology and Immunology, National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); EN-FIST, Centre of Excellence, Trg Osvobodilne fronte 13, Ljubljana 1000 (Slovenia); Jerala, Roman, E-mail: [Department of Synthetic Biology and Immunology, National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); EN-FIST, Centre of Excellence, Trg Osvobodilne fronte 13, Ljubljana 1000 (Slovenia)


    Biopolymers with defined sequence patterns offer an attractive alternative for the formation of silver nanoparticle (AgNP). A set of coiled-coil dimer forming peptides was tested for their AgNP formation ability. Seventeen of those peptides mediated the formation of AgNPs in aqueous solution at neutral pH, while the formation of a coiled-coil dimer inhibited the nanoparticle generation. A QSAR regression model on the relationship between sequence and function suggests that in this peptide type the patterns KXQQ and KXEE are favorable, whereas Ala residues appear to have an inhibitory effect. UV–VIS spectra of the obtained nanoparticles gave a peak at around 420 nm, typical for AgNPs in the size range around 40 nm, which was confirmed by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Peptide-induced AgNPs exhibited good antibacterial activity, even after a 15 min contact time, while they had low toxicity to human cells at the same concentrations. These results show that our designed peptides generate AgNPs with antibacterial activity at mild conditions and might be used for antibacterial coatings. - Highlights: • 17 of the 30 tested coiled-coil forming peptides induce AgNP formation. • Coiled-coil dimer formation suppresses AgNP generation of individual peptides. • Size of the peptide-induced silver nanoparticles is around 40 nm. • QSAR analysis points to the importance of KXQQ and KXEE motifs for AgNP generation. • Peptide-induced silver nanoparticles exhibit antibacterial activity.

  9. CCBuilder 2.0: Powerful and accessible coiled-coil modeling. (United States)

    Wood, Christopher W; Woolfson, Derek N


    The increased availability of user-friendly and accessible computational tools for biomolecular modeling would expand the reach and application of biomolecular engineering and design. For protein modeling, one key challenge is to reduce the complexities of 3D protein folds to sets of parametric equations that nonetheless capture the salient features of these structures accurately. At present, this is possible for a subset of proteins, namely, repeat proteins. The α-helical coiled coil provides one such example, which represents ≈ 3-5% of all known protein-encoding regions of DNA. Coiled coils are bundles of α helices that can be described by a small set of structural parameters. Here we describe how this parametric description can be implemented in an easy-to-use web application, called CCBuilder 2.0, for modeling and optimizing both α-helical coiled coils and polyproline-based collagen triple helices. This has many applications from providing models to aid molecular replacement for X-ray crystallography, in silico model building and engineering of natural and designed protein assemblies, and through to the creation of completely de novo "dark matter" protein structures. CCBuilder 2.0 is available as a web-based application, the code for which is open-source and can be downloaded freely. We have created CCBuilder 2.0, an easy to use web-based application that can model structures for a whole class of proteins, the α-helical coiled coil, which is estimated to account for 3-5% of all proteins in nature. CCBuilder 2.0 will be of use to a large number of protein scientists engaged in fundamental studies, such as protein structure determination, through to more-applied research including designing and engineering novel proteins that have potential applications in biotechnology. © 2017 The Authors Protein Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Protein Society.

  10. Coiled coil peptides as universal linkers for the attachment of recombinant proteins to polymer therapeutics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pechar, Michal; Pola, Robert; Laga, Richard; Ulbrich, Karel; Bednárová, Lucie; Maloň, Petr; Sieglová, Irena; Král, Vlastimil; Fábry, Milan; Vaněk, O.


    Roč. 12, č. 10 (2011), s. 3645-3655 ISSN 1525-7797 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0543; GA MŠk 1M0505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505; CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : coiled coil * polymer therapeutics * drug targeting Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.479, year: 2011

  11. Plasmodium vivax antigen discovery based on alpha-helical coiled coil protein motif.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Céspedes

    Full Text Available Protein α-helical coiled coil structures that elicit antibody responses, which block critical functions of medically important microorganisms, represent a means for vaccine development. By using bioinformatics algorithms, a total of 50 antigens with α-helical coiled coil motifs orthologous to Plasmodium falciparum were identified in the P. vivax genome. The peptides identified in silico were chemically synthesized; circular dichroism studies indicated partial or high α-helical content. Antigenicity was evaluated using human sera samples from malaria-endemic areas of Colombia and Papua New Guinea. Eight of these fragments were selected and used to assess immunogenicity in BALB/c mice. ELISA assays indicated strong reactivity of serum samples from individuals residing in malaria-endemic regions and sera of immunized mice, with the α-helical coiled coil structures. In addition, ex vivo production of IFN-γ by murine mononuclear cells confirmed the immunogenicity of these structures and the presence of T-cell epitopes in the peptide sequences. Moreover, sera of mice immunized with four of the eight antigens recognized native proteins on blood-stage P. vivax parasites, and antigenic cross-reactivity with three of the peptides was observed when reacted with both the P. falciparum orthologous fragments and whole parasites. Results here point to the α-helical coiled coil peptides as possible P. vivax malaria vaccine candidates as were observed for P. falciparum. Fragments selected here warrant further study in humans and non-human primate models to assess their protective efficacy as single components or assembled as hybrid linear epitopes.

  12. Data-Driven Prediction and Design of bZIP Coiled-Coil Interactions (United States)

    Potapov, Vladimir; Kaplan, Jenifer B.; Keating, Amy E.


    Selective dimerization of the basic-region leucine-zipper (bZIP) transcription factors presents a vivid example of how a high degree of interaction specificity can be achieved within a family of structurally similar proteins. The coiled-coil motif that mediates homo- or hetero-dimerization of the bZIP proteins has been intensively studied, and a variety of methods have been proposed to predict these interactions from sequence data. In this work, we used a large quantitative set of 4,549 bZIP coiled-coil interactions to develop a predictive model that exploits knowledge of structurally conserved residue-residue interactions in the coiled-coil motif. Our model, which expresses interaction energies as a sum of interpretable residue-pair and triplet terms, achieves a correlation with experimental binding free energies of R = 0.68 and significantly out-performs other scoring functions. To use our model in protein design applications, we devised a strategy in which synthetic peptides are built by assembling 7-residue native-protein heptad modules into new combinations. An integer linear program was used to find the optimal combination of heptads to bind selectively to a target human bZIP coiled coil, but not to target paralogs. Using this approach, we designed peptides to interact with the bZIP domains from human JUN, XBP1, ATF4 and ATF5. Testing more than 132 candidate protein complexes using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay confirmed the formation of tight and selective heterodimers between the designed peptides and their targets. This approach can be used to make inhibitors of native proteins, or to develop novel peptides for applications in synthetic biology or nanotechnology. PMID:25695764

  13. Application of Coiled Coil Peptides in Liposomal Anticancer Drug Delivery Using a Zebrafish Xenograft Model. (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Shimada, Yasuhito; Olsthoorn, René C L; Snaar-Jagalska, B Ewa; Spaink, Herman P; Kros, Alexander


    The complementary coiled coil forming peptides E4 [(EIAALEK)4] and K4 [(KIAALKE)4] are known to trigger liposomal membrane fusion when tethered to lipid vesicles in the form of lipopeptides. In this study, we examined whether these coiled coil forming peptides can be used for drug delivery applications. First, we prepared E4 peptide modified liposomes containing the far-red fluorescent dye TO-PRO-3 iodide (E4-Lipo-TP3) and confirmed that E4-liposomes could deliver TP3 into HeLa cells expressing K4 peptide on the membrane (HeLa-K) under cell culture conditions in a selective manner. Next, we prepared doxorubicin-containing E4-liposomes (E4-Lipo-DOX) and confirmed that E4-liposomes could also deliver DOX into HeLa-K cells. Moreover, E4-Lipo-DOX showed enhanced cytotoxicity toward HeLa-K cells compared to free doxorubicin. To prove the suitability of E4/K4 coiled coil formation for in vivo drug delivery, we injected E4-Lipo-TP3 or E4-Lipo-DOX into zebrafish xenografts of HeLa-K. As a result, E4-liposomes delivered TP3 to the implanted HeLa-K cells, and E4-Lipo-DOX could suppress cancer proliferation in the xenograft when compared to nontargeted conditions (i.e., zebrafish xenograft with free DOX injection). These data demonstrate that coiled coil formation enables drug selectivity and efficacy in vivo. It is envisaged that these findings are a step forward toward biorthogonal targeting systems as a tool for clinical drug delivery.

  14. Coiled-coil coactivators play a structural role mediating interactions in hypoxia-inducible factor heterodimerization. (United States)

    Guo, Yirui; Scheuermann, Thomas H; Partch, Carrie L; Tomchick, Diana R; Gardner, Kevin H


    The hypoxia-inducible factor complex (HIF-α·aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT)) requires association with several transcription coactivators for a successful cellular response to hypoxic stress. In addition to the conventional global transcription coactivator CREB-binding protein/p300 (CBP/p300) that binds to the HIF-α transactivation domain, a new group of transcription coactivators called the coiled-coil coactivators (CCCs) interact directly with the second PER-ARNT-SIM (PAS) domain of ARNT (ARNT PAS-B). These less studied transcription coactivators play essential roles in the HIF-dependent hypoxia response, and CCC misregulation is associated with several forms of cancer. To better understand CCC protein recruitment by the heterodimeric HIF transcription factor, we used x-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, and biochemical methods to investigate the structure of the ARNT PAS-B domain in complex with the C-terminal fragment of a coiled-coil coactivator protein, transforming acidic coiled-coil coactivator 3 (TACC3). We found that the HIF-2α PAS-B domain also directly interacts with TACC3, motivating an NMR data-derived model suggesting a means by which TACC3 could form a ternary complex with HIF-2α PAS-B and ARNT PAS-B via β-sheet/coiled-coil interactions. These findings suggest that TACC3 could be recruited as a bridge to cooperatively mediate between the HIF-2α PAS-B·ARNT PAS-B complex, thereby participating more directly in HIF-dependent gene transcription than previously anticipated. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. 3 Tesla MRI surface coil: Is it sensitive for prostatic imaging?? | Agha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study aimed to check the sensitivity of phased array surface coli of 3T MRI, in pre-sampling diagnosis of prostate cancer, in an attempt to use it instead of endorectal coil. Patients and methods: This was a prospective comparative study, included 20 male patients, presented with suspected prostate cancer due ...

  16. Electron beam therapy with coil-generated magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardi, Eran; Barnea, Gideon; Ma, Chang-Ming


    This paper presents an initial study on the issues involved in the practical implementation of the use of transverse magnetic fields in electron beam therapy. By using such magnetic fields the dose delivered to the tumor region can increase significantly relative to that deposited to the healthy tissue. Initially we calculated the magnetic fields produced by the Helmholtz coil and modified Helmholtz coil configurations. These configurations, which can readily be used to generate high intensity magnetic fields, approximate the idealized magnetic fields studied in our previous publications. It was therefore of interest to perform a detailed study of the fields produced by these configurations. Electron beam dose distributions for 15 MeV electrons were calculated using the ACCEPTM code for a 3T transverse magnetic field produced by the modified Helmholtz configuration. The dose distribution was compared to those obtained with no magnetic field. The results were similar to those obtained in our previous work, where an idealized step function magnetic field was used and a 3T field was shown to be the optimal field strength. A simpler configuration was also studied in which a single external coil was used to generate the field. Electron dose distributions are also presented for a given geometry and given magnetic field strength using this configuration. The results indicate that this method is more difficult to apply to radiotherapy due to its lack of symmetry and its irregularity. For the various configurations dealt with here, a major problem is the need to shield the magnetic field in the beam propagation volume, a topic that must be studied in detail

  17. Transport of one SC coil through the village of Meyrin

    CERN Multimedia


    The energizing coils of the Synchro-cyclotron magnet were manufactured in Belgium before travelling to Basel in Switzerland by boat and continuing by road to Geneva. The first coil reached Geneva in December 1955, with the second following in early 1956. The coils were stored in a hangar at the Geneva airport before they were brought to CERN in May 1956.

  18. The umbilical coiling index, a review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Laat, Monique W. M.; Franx, Arie; van Alderen, Elise D.; Nikkels, Peter G. J.; Visser, Gerard H. A.


    Our aim was to review the literature on umbilical cord coiling. Relevant articles in English published between 1966 and 2003 were retrieved by a Medline search and cross-referencing. The normal umbilical cord coiling index (UCI) is 0.17 (+/- 0.009) spirals completed per cm. Abnormal cord coiling,

  19. The Roach muscle bundle and umbilical cord coiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Laat, Monique W. M.; Nikkels, Peter G. J.; Franx, Arie; Visser, Gerard H. A.


    To determine if presence of the Roach muscle, a small muscle bundle lying just beside the umbilical artery, contributes to umbilical cord coiling. 251 umbilical cords were examined. The umbilical coiling index (UCI) was calculated as the number of coils divided by the cord length in cm. Cords were

  20. The coil array method for creating a dynamic imaging volume. (United States)

    Smith, Elliot; Freschi, Fabio; Repetto, Maurizio; Crozier, Stuart


    Gradient strength and speed are limited by peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) thresholds. The coil array method allows the gradient field to be moved across the imaging area. This can help reduce PNS and provide faster imaging for image-guided therapy systems such as the magnetic resonance imaging-guided linear accelerator (MRI-linac). The coil array is designed such that many coils produce magnetic fields, which combine to give the desired gradient profile. The design of the coil array uses two methods: either the singular value decomposition (SVD) of a set of field profiles or the electromagnetic modes of the coil surface. Two whole-body coils and one experimental coil were designed to investigate the method. The field produced by the experimental coil was compared to simulated results. The experimental coil region of uniformity (ROU) was moved along the z axis as shown in simulation. The highest observed field deviation was 16.9% at the edge of the ROU with a shift of 35 mm. The whole-body coils showed a median field deviation across all offsets below 5% with an eight-coil basis when using the SVD design method. Experimental results show the feasibility of a moving imaging region within an MRI with a low number of coils in the array. Magn Reson Med 78:784-793, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  1. Strain and stress of the ASDEX multipole magnetic coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jandl, O.; Pillsticker, M.


    A brief description of the technical concept of the multipole magnetic field coils for the ASDEX tokamak is given. The various loads of the coils are explained in quality. To compute displacement and stress of the coils FEM computer programs are used. The computing models applied to this problem are founded and the results and the conclusions are reported. (orig.) [de

  2. Preferred side-chain constellations at antiparallel coiled-coil interfaces. (United States)

    Hadley, Erik B; Testa, Oliver D; Woolfson, Derek N; Gellman, Samuel H


    Reliable predictive rules that relate protein sequence to structure would facilitate postgenome predictive biology and the engineering and de novo design of peptides and proteins. Through a combination of experiment and analysis of the protein data bank (PDB), we have deciphered and rationalized new rules for helix-helix interfaces of a common protein-folding and association motif, the antiparallel dimeric coiled coil. These interfaces are defined by a specific pattern of interactions among largely hydrophobic side chains often referred to as knobs-into-holes (KIH) packing: a knob from one helix inserts into a hole formed by four residues on the partner. Previous work has focused on lateral interactions within the KIH motif, for example, between an a position on one helix and a d' position on the other in an antiparallel coiled coil. We show that vertical interactions within the KIH motif, such as a'-a-a', are energetically important as well. The experimental and database analyses concur regarding preferred vertical combinations, which can be rationalized as leading to favorable side-chain interactions that we call constellations. The findings presented here highlight an unanticipated level of complexity in coiled-coil interactions, and our analysis of a few specific constellations illustrates a general, multipronged approach to addressing this complexity.

  3. Historical review: another 50th anniversary--new periodicities in coiled coils. (United States)

    Gruber, Markus; Lupas, Andrei N


    In 1953, Francis Crick and Linus Pauling both proposed models of supercoiled alpha helices ('coiled coils') for the structure of keratin. These were the first attempts at modelling the tertiary structure of a protein. Crick emphasized the packing mode of the side-chains ('knobs-into-holes'), which required a periodicity of seven residues over two helical turns (7/2) and a supercoil in the opposite sense of the constituent helices. By contrast, Pauling envisaged a broader set of periodicities (4/1, 7/2, 18/5, 15/4, 11/3) and supercoils of both senses. Crick's model became canonical and the 'heptad repeat' essentially synonymous with coiled coils, but 50 years later new crystal structures and protein sequences show that the less common periodicities envisaged by Pauling also occur in coiled coils, adding a variant packing mode ('knobs-to-knobs') to the standard model. Pauling's laboratory notebooks suggest that he searched unsuccessfully for this packing mode in 1953.

  4. Role of the coiled-coil tip of Escherichia coli DksA in promoter control (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Hyun; Lennon, Christopher W.; Ross, Wilma; Gourse, Richard L.


    E. coli DksA works in conjunction with the small molecule ppGpp to regulate transcription initiation negatively or positively, depending on the identity of the promoter. DksA is in a class of transcription factors that do not bind directly to DNA like classical repressors or activators but rather bind in the RNA polymerase (RNAP) secondary channel like the transcription elongation factors GreA and GreB in E. coli and TFIIS in eukaryotes. We found that substitution for either of two residues in its coiled-coil tip, D74 or A76, eliminates DksA function without affecting its apparent affinity for RNAP. The properties of DksA-Gre factor chimeras indicated that the coiled-coil tip is responsible for the DksA-specific effects on open complex formation. A conservative substitution at position 74, D74E, resulted in a loss of DksA function in both negative and positive control, and an E44D substitution at the analogous position in GreA resulted in a gain of function in both negative and positive control. That a single methylene group has such an extraordinary effect on these transcription factors highlights the critical nature of the identity of coiled-coil tip interactions with RNAP for open complex formation. PMID:22200485

  5. Coiled-Coil Proteins Facilitated the Functional Expansion of the Centrosome (United States)

    Kuhn, Michael; Hyman, Anthony A.; Beyer, Andreas


    Repurposing existing proteins for new cellular functions is recognized as a main mechanism of evolutionary innovation, but its role in organelle evolution is unclear. Here, we explore the mechanisms that led to the evolution of the centrosome, an ancestral eukaryotic organelle that expanded its functional repertoire through the course of evolution. We developed a refined sequence alignment technique that is more sensitive to coiled coil proteins, which are abundant in the centrosome. For proteins with high coiled-coil content, our algorithm identified 17% more reciprocal best hits than BLAST. Analyzing 108 eukaryotic genomes, we traced the evolutionary history of centrosome proteins. In order to assess how these proteins formed the centrosome and adopted new functions, we computationally emulated evolution by iteratively removing the most recently evolved proteins from the centrosomal protein interaction network. Coiled-coil proteins that first appeared in the animal–fungi ancestor act as scaffolds and recruit ancestral eukaryotic proteins such as kinases and phosphatases to the centrosome. This process created a signaling hub that is crucial for multicellular development. Our results demonstrate how ancient proteins can be co-opted to different cellular localizations, thereby becoming involved in novel functions. PMID:24901223

  6. Determination of current distribution in EM gun armature by least square fitting of BDOT coil voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, K.K.


    The analysis of the voltage induced on small induction (BDOT) coils has been one of the most rewarding methods of inferring the characteristics of the Electromagnetic (EM) Launcher Armature. A closed form mathematical model has been derived which gives the voltage induced on BDOT coils in terms of parameters describing the current distribution in the plasma armature. The model was derived by integrating the coil magnetic field contributions (using the Biot-Savart equation for the field due to a current element) over the current elements contained in the armature model. The rate of change of the field flux linking the coil gives the coil voltage. The parameters in the model allow the plasma to expand or contract with acceleration, to have varying total current, and to have an arbitrary functional geometrical distribution of current along the axis of the launcher. The closed form solution requires the assumption that the current in the plasma is made up of sheets with flow being perpendicular to the rails and the current amplitude being a function of the distance from the projectile base only. Simple predictions from the model giving the approximate position of the projectile base correlate well with optical measurements

  7. The precise adjustment of coil location for transcranial magnetic stimulation during dynamic motion. (United States)

    Kitamura, Taku; Yaeshima, Katsutoshi; Yamamoto, Shin-Ichiro; Kawashima, Noritaka


    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the cerebral cortex is a major in vitro technique that is used in the field of neurophysiology. The magnitude of the motor-evoked potentials (MEP) that are elicited by TMS to the primary motor cortex reflect the excitability of the corticospinal pathway. MEPs are very sensitive to the scalp location of the stimulus coil, especially when corticospinal excitability is recorded during walking or other dynamic motions. In this study, we created a coil navigational system that consisted of three-dimensional motion analysis cameras, rigid bodies on the head and coil, and programming software. In order to evaluate the feasibility of the use of our system, pseudo TMS was applied during treadmill walking with or without the navigational system. As a result, we found that the variances due to coil location and/or distance from the target site were reduced with our system. This technique enabled us to realize high precision and accuracy in coil placement, even during dynamic motion.

  8. Mechanical and electric characteristics of vacuum impregnated no-insulation HTS coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Heecheol; Kim, A-rong; Kim, Seokho; Park, Minwon; Kim, Kwangmin; Park, Taejun


    Highlights: • A single pancake no-insulation coil was fabricated with a brass lamination conductor. • Charging/discharging test was performed using liquid nitrogen and conduction-cooling. • Consistent contact resistance was verified after epoxy impregnation. • Equivalent circuit was used to estimate the heat generation during charging operation. • The HTS coil did not showed delamination problem for the conduction cooling. - Abstract: For the conduction cooling application, epoxy impregnation is inevitable to enhance the thermal conduction. However, there have been several research results on the delamination problem with coated conductor and the main cause of the delamination is related with the different thermal contraction between epoxy, the insulation layer and the weak conductor. To avoid this problem, the amount of epoxy and insulation layer between conductors should be minimized or removed. Therefore, no insulation (NI) winding method and impregnation after dry winding can be considered to solve the problem. The NI coil winding method is very attractive due to high mechanical/thermal stability for the special purpose of DC magnets by removing the insulation layer. In this paper, the NI coil winding method and vacuum impregnation are applied to a HTS coil to avoid the delamination problem and enhance the mechanical/thermal stability for the conduction cooling application. Through the charging/discharging operation, electric/thermal characteristics are investigated at 77 K and 30 K

  9. Analytical model of tilted driver–pickup coils for eddy current nondestructive evaluation (United States)

    Cao, Bing-Hua; Li, Chao; Fan, Meng-Bao; Ye, Bo; Tian, Gui-Yun


    A driver-pickup probe possesses better sensitivity and flexibility due to individual optimization of a coil. It is frequently observed in an eddy current (EC) array probe. In this work, a tilted non-coaxial driver-pickup probe above a multilayered conducting plate is analytically modeled with spatial transformation for eddy current nondestructive evaluation. Basically, the core of the formulation is to obtain the projection of magnetic vector potential (MVP) from the driver coil onto the vector along the tilted pickup coil, which is divided into two key steps. The first step is to make a projection of MVP along the pickup coil onto a horizontal plane, and the second one is to build the relationship between the projected MVP and the MVP along the driver coil. Afterwards, an analytical model for the case of a layered plate is established with the reflection and transmission theory of electromagnetic fields. The calculated values from the resulting model indicate good agreement with those from the finite element model (FEM) and experiments, which validates the developed analytical model. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61701500, 51677187, and 51465024).

  10. New measurements of coil-related magnetic field errors on DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luxon, J.L. E-mail:; Jackson, G.L.; Leuer, J.A.; Nagy, A.; Schaffer, M.J.; Scoville, J.T.; Strait, E.J


    Non-axisymmetric (error) fields in tokamaks lead to a number of instabilities including so-called locked modes [J.T. Scoville, R.J. La Haye, Nucl. Fusion 43 (4) (2003) 250-257] and resistive wall modes (RWM) [A.M. Garofab, R.J. La Haye, J.T. Scoville, Nucl. Fusion 42 (11) (2002) 1335-1339] and subsequent loss of confinement. They can also cause errors in magnetic measurements made by point probes near the plasma edge, error in measurements made by magnetic field sensitive diagnostics, and they violate the assumption of axisymmetry in the analysis of data. Most notably, the sources of these error fields include shifts and tilts in the coil positions from ideal, coil leads, and nearby ferromagnetic materials excited by the coils. New measurements have been made of the n=1 coil-related field errors in the DIII-D plasma chamber. These measurements indicate that the errors due to the plasma shaping coil system are smaller than previously reported and no additional sources of anomalous fields were identified. Thus they fail to support the suggestion of an additional significant error field suggested by locked mode and RWM experiments.

  11. Determination of position and shape of flexible mri surface coils using the Microsoft Kinect for attenuation correction in PET/MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frohwein, Lynn; He, Mirco; Buther, Florian; Safers, Klaus


    Due to the varying position and shape of flexible MRI RF surface coils, the creation of attenuation maps for these coils is a challenging task. Nevertheless, coil material (metal, plastic, rubber) attenuates the PET signal to a considerable amount. Thus, including a coil μ-map into the human μ-map is essential. In this work, we present a method to determine the position and shape of flexible coils with the help of the Microsoft Kinect depth camera. Phantom PET/MRI (Siemens Biograph mMR) and CT scans (Siemens Biograph mCT) were performed with and without the flexible 32-channel coil equipped with 15 markers visible in CT and Kinect. Prior to the PET/MRI acquisition, Kinect data is acquired of the phantom with the coil on top. The manually extracted marker positions from CT and Kinect are used to non-rigidly transform the template CT according to the Kinect marker positions describing the shape of the coil during PET/MRI acquisition. An appropriate μ-map can then be calculated from the transformed CT dataset. Subsequently, the μ-map is placed in relation to the patient table according to the Kinect-derived marker positions. First results show that the coil shape can be determined with the help of the Kinect camera. The transformation of the template CT dataset according to Kinect marker positions during PET/MRI leads to appropriate results. Furthermore, the position of the coil can also be determined for an accurate placement of the μ-map in relation to the patient table. The determination of position and shape of flexible surface coils using the Kinect camera can be a way to include the CT-based coil μ-map in PET/MRI acquisitions without the need for additional MRI scans. Accuracy and practicability of the method have to be tested in further experiments.

  12. Simulation of concomitant magnetic fields on fast switched gradient coils used in advanced application of MRI (United States)

    Salinas-Muciño, G.; Torres-García, E.; Hidalgo-Tobon, S.


    The process to produce an MR image includes nuclear alignment, RF excitation, spatial encoding, and image formation. To form an image, it is necessary to perform spatial localization of the MR signals, which is achieved using gradient coils. MRI requires the use of gradient coils that generate magnetic fields, which vary linearly with position over the imaging volume. Safety issues have been a motivation to study deeply the relation between the interaction of gradient magnetic field and the peripheral nerve stimulation. In this work is presented a numerical modeling between the concomitant magnetic fields produced by the gradient coils and the electric field induced in a cube with σ conductivity by the gradient field switching in pulse sequences as Eco planar Imaging (EPI), due to this kind of sequence is the most used in advance applications of magnetic resonance imaging as functional MRI, cardiac imaging or diffusion.

  13. A code for calculating force and temperature of a bitter plate type toroidal field coil system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, U.


    To assist the design effort of the TF coils for CIT, a set of programs was developed to calculate the transient spatial distribution of the current density, the temperature and the forces in the TF coil conductor region. The TF coils are of the Bitter (disk) type design and therefore have negligible variation of current density in the toroidal direction. During the TF pulse, voltages are induced which cause the field and current to diffuse in the minor radial direction. This penetration, combined with the increase of resistance due to the temperature rise determines the distribution of the current. After the current distribution has been determined, the in-plane (TF-TF) and the out-of-plane (TF-PF) forces in the conductor are computed. The predicted currents and temperatures have been independently corroborated using the SPARK code which has been modified for this type of problem. 6 figs

  14. Slightly flexed knee position within a standard knee coil: MR delineation of the anterior cruciate ligament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niitsu, M.; Itai, Y. [Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 (Japan); Ikeda, K. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 (Japan)


    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of positioning the knee slightly flexed within a standard MR knee coil in delineation of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Within the confined space of a commercially available knee coil, knee could bend as much as 30 , average 17 of flexion. Sets of oblique sagittal MR images were obtained at both fully extended and slightly flexed positions. Twenty-two normal knees and 18 knees with ACL tears were examined and paired MR images were evaluated by two observers. Compared with knee extension, the MR images for knee flexion provided better clarity in 57 % of reviews of full length of the ACL and 53 % of the femoral attachment. In the extended position the anterior margin of the ligament was obscured due to partial averaging with the intercondylar roof. We recommend examining the knee in an achievable flexed position within the standard knee coil. (orig.) With 3 figs., 1 tab., 6 refs.

  15. Special remote tooling developed and utilized to tighten TFTR TF coil casing bolts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, T.W.; Walton, G.R.; Meighan, T.G.; Paul, B.L.


    Special tooling has been developed and used to tighten toroidal field (TF) coil casing bolts that have loosened from years of Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) operation. Due to their location, many of the TF casing bolts cannot be directly accessed or viewed; their condition was first discovered during unrelated inspections in 1988. Engineering solutions were, sought until 1992, when a remotely operated wrench concept was successfully demonstrated on a TF coil mockup. The concept was developed into several working tools that have successfully been applied to tighten several thousand TF casing bolts during recent scheduled outages. This effort has improved the integrity and reliability of the TF coil system in preparing for the final experimental phase of the TFTR. This paper discusses the design and application of this tooling


    CERN Document Server

    Polinski, J; Bogdan, P


    The goal of the WP 7.2.1 sub-task of the EuCARD program has been to determine the Nb$_{3}$Sn based accelerator magnet coil electrical insulation resistance against irradiation, which will occur in future accelerators. The scope of the certification covers determination of mechanical, electrical and thermal properties changes due to irradiation. The report presents a selection of the insulation material candidates for future accelerator magnets as well as the definition of the radiation certification methodology with respect of radiation type, energy, doses and irradiation conditions. The test methods and results of the electrical and mechanical insulation materials properties degradation due to irradiation are presented. Thermal conductivity and Kapitza resistance at temperature range from 1.5 K to 2.0 K (superfluid helium conditions) are given.

  17. Differential Gene Expression in Coiled versus Flow-Diverter-Treated Aneurysms: RNA Sequencing Analysis in a Rabbit Aneurysm Model. (United States)

    Rouchaud, A; Johnson, C; Thielen, E; Schroeder, D; Ding, Y-H; Dai, D; Brinjikji, W; Cebral, J; Kallmes, D F; Kadirvel, R


    The biologic mechanisms leading to aneurysm healing or rare complications such as delayed aneurysm ruptures after flow-diverter placement remain poorly understood. We used RNA sequencing following implantation of coils or flow diverters in elastase aneurysms in rabbits to identify genes and pathways of potential interest. Aneurysms were treated with coils (n = 5) or flow diverters (n = 4) or were left untreated for controls (n = 6). Messenger RNA was isolated from the aneurysms at 4 weeks following treatment. RNA samples were processed by using RNA-sequencing technology and were analyzed by using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tool. With RNA sequencing for coiled versus untreated aneurysms, 464/9990 genes (4.6%) were differentially expressed (58 down-regulated, 406 up-regulated). When we compared flow-diverter versus untreated aneurysms, 177/10,041 (1.8%) genes were differentially expressed (8 down-regulated, 169 up-regulated). When we compared flow-diverter versus coiled aneurysms, 13/9982 (0.13%) genes were differentially expressed (8 down-regulated, 5 up-regulated). Keratin 8 was overexpressed in flow diverters versus coils. This molecule may potentially play a critical role in delayed ruptures due to plasmin production. We identified overregulation of apelin in flow diverters, supporting the preponderance of endothelialization, whereas we found overexpression of molecules implicated in wound healing (dectin 1 and hedgehog interacting protein) for coiled aneurysms. Furthermore, we identified metallopeptidases 1, 12, and 13 as overexpressed in coiled versus untreated aneurysms. We observed different physiopathologic responses after endovascular treatment with various devices. Flow diverters promote endothelialization but express molecules that could potentially explain the rare delayed ruptures. Coils promote wound healing and express genes potentially implicated in the recurrence of coiled aneurysms. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  18. Modeling the shape of a noncircular toroidal field coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, V.N.; Marshall, N.H.


    Operating and transient forces acting on toroidal field coils may cause conductors and insulation to slide or break and may lead to quenching of the coil. Therefore, it is essential that each individual turn of the coil be modeled for detailed analysis of the coil structure. For this, a special purpose computer program is needed. As a first step in developing such a computer program, the authors present a finite element analysis of a turn of noncircular coil subjected to electromagnetic loading. A turn of superconducting coil is represented by a thin ring modeled by curved finite elements. Of the several curved beam elements reported in the literature, the strain element with two nodes, six degrees-of-freedom, and constant radius of curvature converges fastest for thin-deep arches whose geometrical characteristics are similar to those of a turn of toroidal field coil. They present an algorithm to model a noncircular ring using the number of strain elements satisfying the continuity of slopes at their nodes. This paper verifies the finite element model of a coil shape subjected to a toroidal magnetic field by solving three problems: circular and elliptic coils with the same inner and outer radii, a D-shaped coil, and a compound coil consisting of C- and D-shaped segments. The first problem shows that the resultant vertical force in the upper half of the coil is independent of coil shape. The remaining two problems calculate stresses that represent the constant tension in the D-shaped coil and in each segment of the compound coil. The results of the three problems compare well with the analytical results

  19. Computational study for the effects of coil configuration on blood flow characteristics in coil-embolized cerebral aneurysm. (United States)

    Otani, Tomohiro; Ii, Satoshi; Shigematsu, Tomoyoshi; Fujinaka, Toshiyuki; Hirata, Masayuki; Ozaki, Tomohiko; Wada, Shigeo


    Coil embolization of cerebral aneurysms with inhomogeneous coil distribution leads to an incomplete occlusion of the aneurysm. However, the effects of this factor on the blood flow characteristics are still not fully understood. This study investigates the effects of coil configuration on the blood flow characteristics in a coil-embolized aneurysm using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The blood flow analysis in the aneurysm with coil embolization was performed using a coil deployment (CD) model, in which the coil configuration was constructed using a physics-based simulation of the CD. In the CFD results, total flow momentum and kinetic energy in the aneurysm gradually decayed with increasing coil packing density (PD), regardless of the coil configuration attributed to deployment conditions. However, the total shear rate in the aneurysm was relatively high and the strength of the local shear flow varied based on the differences in coil configuration, even at adequate PDs used in clinical practice (20-25 %). Because the sufficient shear rate reduction is a well-known factor in the blood clot formation occluding the aneurysm inside, the present study gives useful insight into the effects of coil configuration on the treatment efficiency of coil embolization.

  20. Subunit b-Dimer of the Escherichia coli ATP Synthase Can Form Left-Handed Coiled-Coils (United States)

    Wise, John G.; Vogel, Pia D.


    One remaining challenge to our understanding of the ATP synthase concerns the dimeric coiled-coil stator subunit b of bacterial synthases. The subunit b-dimer has been implicated in important protein interactions that appear necessary for energy conservation and that may be instrumental in energy conservation during rotary catalysis by the synthase. Understanding the stator structure and its interactions with the rest of the enzyme is crucial to the understanding of the overall catalytic mechanism. Controversy exists on whether subunit b adopts a classic left-handed or a presumed right-handed dimeric coiled-coil and whether or not staggered pairing between nonhomologous residues in the homodimer is required for intersubunit packing. In this study we generated molecular models of the Escherichia coli subunit b-dimer that were based on the well-established heptad-repeat packing exhibited by left-handed, dimeric coiled-coils by employing simulated annealing protocols with structural restraints collected from known structures. In addition, we attempted to create hypothetical right-handed coiled-coil models and left- and right-handed models with staggered packing in the coiled-coil domains. Our analyses suggest that the available structural and biochemical evidence for subunit b can be accommodated by classic left-handed, dimeric coiled-coil quaternary structures. PMID:18326648

  1. Structural attributes for the recognition of weak and anomalous regions in coiled-coils of myosins and other motor proteins (United States)


    Background Coiled-coils are found in different proteins like transcription factors, myosin tail domain, tropomyosin, leucine zippers and kinesins. Analysis of various structures containing coiled-coils has revealed the importance of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. In such domains, regions of different strength of interactions need to be identified since they could be biologically relevant. Findings We have updated our coiled-coil validation webserver, now called COILCHECK+, where new features were added to efficiently identify the strength of interaction at the interface region and measure the density of charged residues and hydrophobic residues. We have examined charged residues and hydrophobic ladders, using a new algorithm called CHAHO, which is incorporated within COILCHECK + server. CHAHO permits the identification of spatial charged residue patches and the continuity of hydrophobic ladder which stabilizes and destabilizes the coiled-coil structure. Conclusions The availability of such computational tools should be useful to understand the importance of spatial clustering of charged residues and the continuity of hydrophobic residues at the interface region of coiled-coil dimers. COILCHECK + is a structure based tool to validate coiled-coil stability; it can be accessed at PMID:23009691

  2. CCBuilder: an interactive web-based tool for building, designing and assessing coiled-coil protein assemblies. (United States)

    Wood, Christopher W; Bruning, Marc; Ibarra, Amaurys Á; Bartlett, Gail J; Thomson, Andrew R; Sessions, Richard B; Brady, R Leo; Woolfson, Derek N


    The ability to accurately model protein structures at the atomistic level underpins efforts to understand protein folding, to engineer natural proteins predictably and to design proteins de novo. Homology-based methods are well established and produce impressive results. However, these are limited to structures presented by and resolved for natural proteins. Addressing this problem more widely and deriving truly ab initio models requires mathematical descriptions for protein folds; the means to decorate these with natural, engineered or de novo sequences; and methods to score the resulting models. We present CCBuilder, a web-based application that tackles the problem for a defined but large class of protein structure, the α-helical coiled coils. CCBuilder generates coiled-coil backbones, builds side chains onto these frameworks and provides a range of metrics to measure the quality of the models. Its straightforward graphical user interface provides broad functionality that allows users to build and assess models, in which helix geometry, coiled-coil architecture and topology and protein sequence can be varied rapidly. We demonstrate the utility of CCBuilder by assembling models for 653 coiled-coil structures from the PDB, which cover >96% of the known coiled-coil types, and by generating models for rarer and de novo coiled-coil structures. CCBuilder is freely available, without registration, at © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. Umbilical Cord Coiling and Zygosity: Is there a Link? (United States)

    Coetzee, André Joannou; Castro, Eumenia; Peres, Luiz Cesar


    The aim of this study was to analyze abnormalities of umbilical coiling index (UCI) in twin gestation to test whether the coiling is genetically influenced by zygosity. Data retrieved comprised gestational age (GA), chorionicity, fetal gender, and UCI. The mean UCI of hypercoiled cords in monochorionic placentas was 0.55 coils/cm and 0.49 coils/cm in dichorionic placentas with discordant fetal gender (P = 0.2629). In conclusion, no significant statistical difference between UCI in monochorionic and dichorionic twin placentas with discordant fetal gender was identified, suggesting that zygosity does not play a role in umbilical coiling induction.

  4. SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] dipole coil production tooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, J.A.; Barczak, E.J.; Bossert, R.C.; Brandt, J.S.; Smith, G.A.


    Superconducting Super Collider dipole coils must be produced to high precision to ensure uniform prestress and even conductor distribution within the collared coil assembly. Tooling is being prepared at Fermilab for the production of high precision 1M and 16.6M SSC dipole coils suitable for mass production. The design and construction methods builds on the Tevatron tooling and production experience. Details of the design and construction methods and measured coil uniformity of 1M coils will be presented. 4 refs., 10 figs

  5. SSC (Superconducting Super Collider) dipole coil production tooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, J.A.; Barczak, E.J.; Bossert, R.C.; Brandt, J.S.; Smith, G.A.


    Superconducting Super Collider dipole coils must be produced to high precision to ensure uniform prestress and even conductor distribution within the collared coil assembly. Tooling is being prepared at Fermilab for the production of high precision 1M and 16.6M SSC dipole coils suitable for mass production. The design and construction methods builds on the Tevatron tooling and production experience. Details of the design and construction methods and measured coil uniformity of 1M coils will be presented. 4 refs., 10 figs.

  6. The IEA large coil task test results in IFSMTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubell, M.S.; Clinard, J.A.; Dresner, L.


    The Large Coil Task (LCT) is an international collaboration of the United States, EURATOM, Japan, and Switzerland to develop large superconducting magnets for fusion reactors. The testing phase of LCT was completed on September 3, 1987. All six coils exceeded the design goals, both as single coils and in six-coil toroidal tests. In addition, a symmetric torus test was performed in which a maximum field of 9 T was reached in all coils simultaneously. These are by far the largest magnets (either in size, weight, or stored energy) ever to achieve such a field. 6 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Coil compaction after embolization of the superior mesenteric artery pseudoaneurysm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hama, Yukihiro; Iwasaki, Yoshie; Kaji, Tatsumi; Kusano, Shoichi [Department of Radiology, National Defense Medical College, 3-2 Namiki, Tokorozawa, 3590042 Saitama (Japan); Hatsuse, Kazuo [Department of Surgery I, National Defense Medical College, 3-2 Namiki, Tokorozawa, 3590042 Saitama (Japan)


    A 58-year-old man with an abscess of the psoas muscle was returned to our hospital with hematemesis. Two years earlier, he had undergone coil embolization for a superior mesenteric artery (SMA) pseudoaneurysm secondary to pancreatitis. Based on the physical examination, serum amylase level, and abdominal radiographs, a diagnosis of acute exacerbation of pancreatitis and coil compaction of the SMA pseudoaneurysm was made. The patient underwent re-embolization for the coil compaction using interlocking detachable coils. His condition improved gradually, and he was discharged 3 weeks later. To our knowledge, this is the first report of coil compaction of SMA pseudoaneurysm. (orig.)

  8. Random coil chemical shift for intrinsically disordered proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Magnus; Brander, Søren; Poulsen, Flemming Martin


    Secondary chemical shift analysis is the main NMR method for detection of transiently formed secondary structure in intrinsically disordered proteins. The quality of the secondary chemical shifts is dependent on an appropriate choice of random coil chemical shifts. We report random coil chemical....... Temperature has a non-negligible effect on the (13)C random coil chemical shifts, so temperature coefficients are reported for the random coil chemical shifts to allow extrapolation to other temperatures. The pH dependence of the histidine random coil chemical shifts is investigated in a titration series...

  9. Finite element and analytical models for twisted and coiled actuator (United States)

    Tang, Xintian; Liu, Yingxiang; Li, Kai; Chen, Weishan; Zhao, Jianguo


    Twisted and coiled actuator (TCA) is a class of recently discovered artificial muscle, which is usually made by twisting and coiling polymer fibers into spring-like structures. It has been widely studied since discovery due to its impressive output characteristics and bright prospects. However, its mathematical models describing the actuation in response to the temperature are still not fully developed. It is known that the large tensile stroke is resulted from the untwisting of the twisted fiber when heated. Thus, the recovered torque during untwisting is a key parameter in the mathematical model. This paper presents a simplified model for the recovered torque of TCA. Finite element method is used for evaluating the thermal stress of the twisted fiber. Based on the results of the finite element analyses, the constitutive equations of twisted fibers are simplified to develop an analytic model of the recovered torque. Finally, the model of the recovered torque is used to predict the deformation of TCA under varying temperatures and validated against experimental results. This work will enhance our understanding of the deformation mechanism of TCAs, which will pave the way for the closed-loop position control.

  10. Vacuum chamber eddy current correction coil for the AGS booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danby, G.; Jackson, J.


    This paper reports on the AGS Booster injector that performs a variety of functions. Heavy ion acceleration requires a bakeable, ultra-high vacuum system (VC). Acceleration for intense proton beams requires rapid cycling (B ≤10T/sec). If straight forward heavy walled VC are used, the field perturbations due to eddy currents are large. The state of the art lattice has highly distributed lumped sextupoles capable of substantially correcting the induced field nonlinearity. Nevertheless, for the very highest space charge-intensity limits, it is desirable to have the capability to remove eddy current fields at the source. Correction coils attached to the outside of the VC cancel its current aberrations over the required good field aperture. These can be passively powered by transformer action, using two turn windings around the magnet yoke. Programmed power supplies can also be used. This inexpensive additional correction option uses a three turn per quadrant coil which follows the local contour of the VC. Transverse movements of several mms of the VC will have no beam optical effect since the large field aberrations and their corrections have the same displace coordinates. Experimental and computer studies will be presented, as well as mechanical and electrical design of a simple method of construction

  11. Vacuum chamber eddy current correction coil for the AGS Booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danby, G.; Jackson, J.


    The AGS Booster injector will perform a variety of functions. Heavy ion acceleration requires a bakeable, ultra-high vacuum system (VC). Acceleration for intense proton beams requires rapid cycling (B /preceq/ 10T/sec). If straight forward heavy walled VC are used, the field perturbations due to eddy currents are large. The state of the art lattice has highly distributed lumped sextupoles capable of substantially correcting the induced field nonlinearity. Nevertheless, for the very highest space charge-intensity limits, it is desirable to have the capability to remove eddy current fields at the source. Correction coils attached to the outside of the VC cancel its current aberrations over the required good field aperture. These can be passively powered by transformer action, using two turn windings around the magnet yoke. Programmed power supplies can also be used. This inexpensive additional correction option uses a three turn per quadrant coil which follows the local contour of the VC. Transverse movements of several mms of the VC will have no beam optical effect since the large field aberrations and their corrections have the same displaced coordinates. Experimental and computer studies will be presented, as well as mechanical and electrical design of a simple method of construction. 6 figs

  12. Experimental investigation and histopathological identification of acute thermal damage in skeletal porcine muscle in relation to whole-body SAR, maximum temperature, and CEM43 °C due to RF irradiation in an MR body coil of birdcage type at 123 MHz. (United States)

    Nadobny, Jacek; Klopfleisch, Robert; Brinker, Gerhard; Stoltenburg-Didinger, Gisela


    This study is an investigation of the relationship between several characteristic parameters and acute thermal damage in porcine skeletal muscle. Fourteen pigs under injection anaesthesia were placed into a magnetic resonance body coil and exposed for different time durations to different specific energy absorption rate (SAR) levels at 123 MHz. Local temperatures were measured using four temperature sensors. Sensors 1-3 were placed in skeletal muscle and one sensor was placed in the rectum. Sensors 1 and 2 were placed in hot-spot areas and sensor 3 was placed at the periphery of the animals. The pigs were exposed to whole-body SAR (SAR-wb) between 2.5 W/kg and 5.2 W/kg for 30 or 60 min. Three animals received no SAR. After each experiment, muscle samples adjacent to the positions of sensors 1-3 were taken for frozen section analysis. Three characteristic parameters were chosen for investigation: SAR-wb, maximum sensor temperature (T-max), and cumulative equivalent minutes at 43 °C (CEM43 °C). Histopathological criteria were established to detect acute thermal tissue damage in frozen sections such as widening of intercellular space between the muscle fibres and loss of glycogen. Clear tissue damage thresholds were found for T-max and CEM43 °C, though not for SAR-wb. For all animals with high thermal exposure, damage was also found for muscle samples adjacent to the peripheral sensor 3. Both T-max and CEM43, are able to predict thermal damage in porcine muscle. However, CEM43 is the less ambiguous parameter. The reasons for the occurrence of the aforementioned damage at low local temperatures at the animals' periphery remain unclear and further investigations are needed.

  13. Accurate Measurement of ‘Q’ Factor of An Inductive Coil Using a Modified Maxwell Wein Bridge Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Q factor of a coil can be measured by measuring accurately the inductance and effective resistance of the coil for a specific signal. The inductance of an inductive coil is generally measured by usual inductive circuit like Maxwell-Wein Bridge, Hay Bridge etc. which suffer from error due to stray capacitance between bridge nodal point and ground and stray inductance of the inductive coil. The conventional Wagner Earth Technique is not suitable for continuous measurement. In the present paper, a modified operational amplifier based Maxwell-Wein Bridge measurement technique has been proposed in which stray capacitance and stray inductance are minimized. The experiment is done for different value of known inductance & Q factor for a specific signal. The linear characteristic with a good repeatability, linearity and variable sensitivity has been described.

  14. Deep brain transcranial magnetic stimulation using variable "Halo coil" system (United States)

    Meng, Y.; Hadimani, R. L.; Crowther, L. J.; Xu, Z.; Qu, J.; Jiles, D. C.


    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation has the potential to treat various neurological disorders non-invasively and safely. The "Halo coil" configuration can stimulate deeper regions of the brain with lower surface to deep-brain field ratio compared to other coil configurations. The existing "Halo coil" configuration is fixed and is limited in varying the site of stimulation in the brain. We have developed a new system based on the current "Halo coil" design along with a graphical user interface system that enables the larger coil to rotate along the transverse plane. The new system can also enable vertical movement of larger coil. Thus, this adjustable "Halo coil" configuration can stimulate different regions of the brain by adjusting the position and orientation of the larger coil on the head. We have calculated magnetic and electric fields inside a MRI-derived heterogeneous head model for various positions and orientations of the coil. We have also investigated the mechanical and thermal stability of the adjustable "Halo coil" configuration for various positions and orientations of the coil to ensure safe operation of the system.

  15. Measurement of a Conduction Cooled Nb3Sn Racetrack Coil (United States)

    Kim, HS; Kovacs, C.; Rochester, J.; Sumption, MD; Tomsic, M.; Peng, X.; Doll, D.


    Use of superconducting coils for wind turbines and electric aircraft is of interest because of the potential for high power density and weight reduction. Here we test a racetrack coil developed as a proof-of-concept for cryogen-free superconducting motors and generators. The coil was wound with 1209 m of 0.7-mm-diameter insulated tube-type Nb3Sn wire. The coil was epoxy-impregnated, instrumented, covered with numerous layers of aluminized mylar insulation, and inserted vertically into a dewar. The system was cooled to 4.2 K, and a few inches of liquid helium was allowed to collect at the bottom of the dewar but below the coil. The coil was cooled by conduction via copper cooling bars were attached to the coil but also were immersed in the liquid helium at their lower ends. Several current tests were performed on the coil, initially in voltage mode, and one run in current mode. The maximum coil Ic at 4.2 K was 480 A, generating 3.06 T at the surface of the coil. The coil met the design targets with a noticeable margin.

  16. Spontaneous quenches of a high temperature superconducting pancake coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lue, J.W.; Lubell, M.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Aized, D.; Campbell, J.M.; Schwall, R.E. [American Superconductor Corp., Westborough, MA (United States)


    A double-pancake coil made of Bi-2223/Ag high temperature superconducting (HTS) tape was constructed with an embedded heater and graded conductors to study the stability and quench propagation in HTS coils. The experiments were performed with liquid nitrogen and gaseous helium cooling in temperatures ranging from 5 to 77 K. The coil was very stable, and no ``normal`` zone was sustained or propagated with local pulsed heating. However, spontaneous quenches of the cod were experienced. This was found to be the result of having the coil current higher than that of the lower I{sub c} sections of the coil for a long time. This quench process took minutes to develop--much longer than would be expected in a low temperature superconducting coil. The quench behaved more like a spreading and continuous heating of an increasingly larger partially resistive section of the coil than like a sequential ``normal`` front propagation.

  17. Design of a dynamic transcranial magnetic stimulation coil system. (United States)

    Ge, Sheng; Jiang, Ruoli; Wang, Ruimin; Chen, Ji


    To study the brain activity at the whole-head range, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) researchers need to investigate brain activity over the whole head at multiple locations. In the past, this has been accomplished with multiple single TMS coils that achieve quasi whole-head array stimulation. However, these designs have low resolution and are difficult to position and control over the skull. In this study, we propose a new dynamic whole-head TMS mesh coil system. This system was constructed using several sagittal and coronal directional wires. Using both simulation and real experimental data, we show that by varying the current direction and strength of each wire, this new coil system can form both circular coils or figure-eight coils that have the same features as traditional TMS coils. Further, our new system is superior to current coil systems because stimulation parameters such as size, type, location, and timing of stimulation can be dynamically controlled within a single experiment.

  18. Coil irrigation in sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Sánchez Gutiérrez


    Full Text Available This study was made at the Basic Seed Bank of the Local Sugar Cane Research Station for the Mideastern Cuba, based in Camaguey, on brown carbonate soil, between 2013 and 12014. Coil irrigation was applied to meet the water requirements for the crop, according to the edafoclimatic conditions and the different phenological phases it has. The Savo method was used to determine useful rain water. Adjustment and complementation of the irrigation program was based on indicators that characterize the exploitation scheme. The machine´s working parameters were determined to meet the water needs, and increase crop´s overall yields. The evaluations and results achieved have contributed to new proposals for management and operation of coil irrigation, and they are important to increase its efficiency.

  19. Voice coil based scanning probe microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klapetek, P.; Valtr, M.; Duchoň, V.; Sobota, Jaroslav


    Roč. 7, č. 6 (2012), 332:1-7 ISSN 1931-7573 R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI1/241; GA AV ČR KAN311610701; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : SPM * Voice coil * Interferometry Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.524, year: 2012

  20. Coil irrigation in sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum)


    Jesús Sánchez Gutiérrez; Yoslén Fernández Gálvez; Mayra Martínez Pírez; Camilo Bonet Pérez; Manuel A Hernández Victoria; Arlandy Noy Perera


    This study was made at the Basic Seed Bank of the Local Sugar Cane Research Station for the Mideastern Cuba, based in Camaguey, on brown carbonate soil, between 2013 and 12014. Coil irrigation was applied to meet the water requirements for the crop, according to the edafoclimatic conditions and the different phenological phases it has. The Savo method was used to determine useful rain water. Adjustment and complementation of the irrigation program was based on indicators that characterize the...

  1. Acute lung injury following refrigeration coil deicing. (United States)

    McKeown, Nathanael J; Burton, Brent T


    We report a case of a worker who developed ALI requiring mechanical ventilatory support after attempting to melt ice condensate by applying the flame of an oxy-acetylene torch to refrigeration coils charged with a halocarbon refrigerant in a closed environment. A discussion of possible etiologies are discussed, including phosgene, carbonyl fluoride, and nitrogen oxides. Primary prevention with adequate respiratory protection is recommended whenever deicing is performed in a closed space environment.

  2. A new moving-coil microelectrode puller. (United States)

    Ensor, D R


    This paper describes an improved electrode puller for the manufacture of glass microelectrodes or micropipettes. The instrument resembles a conventional horizontal two-stage, solenoid-powered electrode puller but the pull is now developed by a light moving-coil and a fixed permanent magnet, using the principle of the moving-coil loudspeaker. In a conventional puller the force is generated by a solenoid with a massive moving-iron core. In this new puller the moving-coil solenoid responds much more rapidly to changing currents because of its greatly reduced inductance, and a substantial reduction in mass to 25 g, gives more acceleration from a comparable force. The sudden discharge of a capacitor bank through the coil accelerates the glass quickly during the last stage of the pull. This rapid acceleration is of importance in the formation of good electrodes with fine tips. For the prototype, an electronic control unit was constructed which allows the parameters necessary for the manufacture of electrodes to be set and regulated accurately and repeatedly, so that series of electrodes of constant shapes can be made. The length of the electrode shank may be predetermined over a wide range and tip diameters down to 0.08 micron have already been measured. The angle of the taper that supports the tip may be varied from less than 1 to over 6 degrees. The mechanical design of the instrument is comparatively simple, as it has only one moving part, while the relative complexity of the electronic control section should not present any manufacturing difficulties. Although this puller has been used mainly to make single-barrel fine electrodes from borosilicate glass, it is adaptable for other purposes. The extent of the control over the shape of the shank of the electrode renders it particularly suitable for the manufacture of composite, ion-sensitive electrodes.

  3. Single coil bistable, bidirectional micromechanical actuator (United States)

    Tabat, Ned; Guckel, Henry


    Micromechanical actuators capable of bidirectional and bistable operation can be formed on substrates using lithographic processing techniques. Bistable operation of the microactuator is obtained using a single coil and a magnetic core with a gap. A plunger having two magnetic heads is supported for back and forth linear movement with respect to the gap in the magnetic core, and is spring biased to a neutral position in which the two heads are on each side of the gap in the core. The single electrical coil is coupled to the core and is provided with electrical current to attract one of the heads toward the core by reluctance action to drive the plunger to a limit of travel in one direction. The current is then cut off and the plunger returns by spring action toward the gap, whereafter the current is reapplied to the coil to attract the other head of the plunger by reluctance action to drive the plunger to its other limit of travel. This process can be repeated at a time when switching of the actuator is required.

  4. Transcatheter coil embolisation of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wingen, M.; Guenther, R.W.


    Evaluation of technical success, complications and long-term results of transcatheter coil embolisation in pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (pAVMs). Material and Methods: Transcatheter embolisations of 46 pAVMs in 14 patients were analysed retrospectively, and, 5 years after treatment, the patients were interviewed by telefone concerning persistent symptoms and complications. Main symptoms before embolisation were dyspnoe (86%), hypoxaemia (100%), cerebral ischemia (21%), and hemoptysis (14%); 11 patients (79%) suffered from hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Results: Embolisation with an average of 3,9 coils (min. 1, max. 19 coils) per pAVM yielded technical success in all cases. Only two minor complications, transitory pleuritis and a small lung infarction were observed. On follow up examination after 5 years either no residual complaints or substantial improvement of dyspnoe were reported; no patient suffered from neurologic or hemorrhagic complications after the embolisation. Conclusion: Transcatheter embolisation is a safe and minimally invasive therapy for pAVMs and has rightfully replaced surgical resection as the therapy of choice. (orig.) [de

  5. Improvements in or relating to superconductive coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Good, J.A.


    The windings of a superconducting coil may operate under great stress and movement of the conductors under this stress results in energy dissipation and since specific heats are small at the low temperatures required to induce superconductivity the resultant temperature rise may be sufficient to cause the superconducting properties of the conductor to be impaired. The usual solution to the problem is to employ substantial quantities of normal material in parallel with the superconductor to minimise such effects, but such coils are cumbersome and expensive to produce and operate, and are not suitable for generating intense field gradients. It has been proposed, as an alternative solution, to construct the winding so rigidly as to prevent the movement occurring. Simple potting in an epoxy resin is too brittle to withstand the large stresses. Another proposal involves glass fibre interleaving between layers of winding and then potting in epoxy resin, but this is not very satisfactory. In the arrangement described the winding is wrapped in at least one yard of glass fibre wound helically and the whole is impregnated with epoxy resin. A method for producing such a coil is described. (U.K.)

  6. Requirement of the coiled-coil domain of PML-RARα oncoprotein for localization, sumoylation, and inhibition of monocyte differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young-Eui; Kim, Dong-Yeon; Lee, Jang-Mi; Kim, Seong-Tae; Han, Tae-Hee; Ahn, Jin-Hyun


    Homo-oligomerization via a coiled-coil (C-C) domain has been shown to be necessary for the promyelocytic leukemia (PML)-retinoic acid receptor-α (RARα) fusion protein to acquire oncogenic potential in acute promyelocytic leukemia. We show here that PML(ΔC-C)-RARα, which contains a deletion in its C-C domain, is neither localized as characteristic microspeckles nor modified by small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMO). The absence of sumoylation of the ΔC-C mutant was due to the lack of binding to Ubc9, a SUMO conjugation enzyme. The integrity of RING finger domain was also needed for both sumoylation and microspeckle formation. In GAL4-DNA tethering assays, the ΔC-C mutant completely lost the inhibitory effect on retinoic acid (RA)-mediated transactivation. Furthermore, the expression of CD14 in U937 cells expressing the ΔC-C mutant in response to vitamin D3 was markedly higher than in cells expressing PML-RARα. However, the RA-mediated induction of C/EBPβ in cells expressing the ΔC-C mutant was comparable to that of control cells. Thus, our results suggest that the C-C domain-associated functions of sumoylation, localization as microspeckles, and the inhibition of monocyte differentiation all contribute to the oncogenic activity of PML-RARα

  7. Performance analyses of helical coil heat exchangers. The effect of external coil surface modification on heat exchanger effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzejczyk Rafał


    Full Text Available The shell and coil heat exchangers are commonly used in heating, ventilation, nuclear industry, process plant, heat recovery and air conditioning systems. This type of recuperators benefits from simple construction, the low value of pressure drops and high heat transfer. In helical coil, centrifugal force is acting on the moving fluid due to the curvature of the tube results in the development. It has been long recognized that the heat transfer in the helical tube is much better than in the straight ones because of the occurrence of secondary flow in planes normal to the main flow inside the helical structure. Helical tubes show good performance in heat transfer enhancement, while the uniform curvature of spiral structure is inconvenient in pipe installation in heat exchangers. Authors have presented their own construction of shell and tube heat exchanger with intensified heat transfer. The purpose of this article is to assess the influence of the surface modification over the performance coefficient and effectiveness. The experiments have been performed for the steady-state heat transfer. Experimental data points were gathered for both laminar and turbulent flow, both for co current- and countercurrent flow arrangement. To find optimal heat transfer intensification on the shell-side authors applied the number of transfer units analysis.

  8. Performance analyses of helical coil heat exchangers. The effect of external coil surface modification on heat exchanger effectiveness (United States)

    Andrzejczyk, Rafał; Muszyński, Tomasz


    The shell and coil heat exchangers are commonly used in heating, ventilation, nuclear industry, process plant, heat recovery and air conditioning systems. This type of recuperators benefits from simple construction, the low value of pressure drops and high heat transfer. In helical coil, centrifugal force is acting on the moving fluid due to the curvature of the tube results in the development. It has been long recognized that the heat transfer in the helical tube is much better than in the straight ones because of the occurrence of secondary flow in planes normal to the main flow inside the helical structure. Helical tubes show good performance in heat transfer enhancement, while the uniform curvature of spiral structure is inconvenient in pipe installation in heat exchangers. Authors have presented their own construction of shell and tube heat exchanger with intensified heat transfer. The purpose of this article is to assess the influence of the surface modification over the performance coefficient and effectiveness. The experiments have been performed for the steady-state heat transfer. Experimental data points were gathered for both laminar and turbulent flow, both for co current- and countercurrent flow arrangement. To find optimal heat transfer intensification on the shell-side authors applied the number of transfer units analysis.

  9. Moving-table MR angiography of the peripheral runoff vessels: comparison of body coil and dedicated phased array coil systems. (United States)

    Huber, A; Scheidler, J; Wintersperger, B; Baur, A; Schmidt, M; Requardt, M; Holzknecht, N; Helmberger, T; Billing, A; Reiser, M


    The aim of our study was to compare the signal-to-noise ratio and the diagnostic accuracy of moving-table MR angiography of the peripheral arteries with body coil and dedicated phased array coil systems. Forty patients were examined with digital subtraction angiography and moving-table MR angiography with a 1.5-T MR imaging system either with a body coil (n = 20) or with a dedicated phased array coil (n = 20). The timing of contrast material was performed with real-time MR fluoroscopy. For the iliac artery, upper leg, and lower leg, the mean values for signal-to-noise ratios were 56, 51, and 17, respectively, for the body coil, and 54, 74, and 64, respectively, for the dedicated phased array coil. For the body coil, sensitivity and specificity in identifying stenosis greater than 50% and occlusions were 100% and 96%, respectively, for the iliac arteries, and 100% and 96%, respectively, for the upper leg. For the dedicated phased array coil, sensitivity and specificity for stenosis greater than 50% and occlusions were 100% and 96%, respectively, for the iliac arteries, and 100% and 98%, respectively, for the upper leg. Sensitivity and specificity were inferior for the body coil (88% and 85%) compared with the dedicated phased array coil (100% and 96%) in the lower leg. A significant difference of the mean values of contrast-to-noise ratio was found before and after subtraction for the dedicated phased array coil and body-coil techniques (Student's t test, p coil, the dedicated peripheral phased array surface coil system improves signal-to-noise ratio for the upper and lower leg and diagnostic accuracy in the lower leg.

  10. LCT-coil design: Mechanical interaction between composite winding and steel casing under various test conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolensky, B.; Messemer, G.; Zehlein, H.; Erb, J.


    Finite element computations for the structural design of the large superconducting toroidal field coil contributed by EURATOM to the Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) at ORNL, USA were performed at KfK, using the ASKA code. The layout of the coil must consider different types of requirements: firstly, an optimal D-shaped contour minimizing circumferential stress gradients under normal operation in the toroidal arrangement must be defined. Secondly, the three-dimensional real design effects due to the actual support conditions, manufacturing tolerances etc. must be mastered for different basic operational and failure load cases. And, thirdly, the design must stand a single coil qualification test in the TOSKA-facility at KfK, Karlsruhe, FRG, before it is plugged into the LCTF. The emphasis of the paper is three-pronged according to these requirements: i) the 3D magnetic body forces as well as the underlying magnetic fields as computed by the HEDO-code are described. ii) The mechanical interaction between casing and winding as given elsewhere in terms of high stress regions, gaps, slide movements and contact forces for various load cases representing the LCTF test conditions is illustrated here by a juxtaposition of the operational deformations and stresses within the LCTF and the TOSKA. iii) Particular effects like the restraint imposed by a corset-type reinforcement of the coil in the TOSKA test facility to limit the breathing deformation are parametrically studied. Moreover, the possibilities to derive scaling laws which make essential results transferable to larger coils by extracting a 1D mechanical response from the 3D finite element model is also demonstrated. (orig./GG)

  11. Coil-current effect in Kibble balances: analysis, measurement, and optimization (United States)

    Li, S.; Bielsa, F.; Stock, M.; Kiss, A.; Fang, H.


    The Kibble balance is expected to become an important instrument in the near future for realizing the unit of mass, the kilogram, in the revised international system of units (SI). The Kibble balance assumes an equality of two magnetic profiles measured in the weighing and velocity phases. A recent study conducted in the Kibble balance group at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) showed that the coil current could significantly affect the magnetic profile, which should be carefully taken into account in the Kibble balance experiment. This paper gives a deeper understanding and investigation of the effect, and discusses the magnetic profile change due to the coil current, for both the classical two-mode and the one-mode Kibble balances. The coil current effect has been theoretically and experimentally investigated based on a typical magnet design with an air gap. One important conclusion found in the one-mode Kibble balance is that the magnetic profile change measured in the velocity phase is twice the change in the weighing phase. A compensation suggestion, to minimize the profile change due to the coil current in a BIPM-type magnet, is presented.

  12. A low cost light diffuser made of metal coil. (United States)

    Morita, Nozomi; Arai, Tsunenori


    We proposed a low cost flexible light diffuser made of metal coil to obtain an appropriate light dose against certain laser therapies in narrow bending organs. We investigated experimentally the diffusion light dose of prototype coils made of stainless steel (sus304). We measured the diffusion light intensity of the prototype coils along the irradiation direction and the circumferential direction with the various pitch distances of the prototype coils and numerical aperture (NA) of laser light beam as the characteristic parameters of the light diffusion. We measured the temperature elevation of the prototype coils to study the waste energy of these prototype coils. The FWHM on the light intensity along the prototype coils marked up to 12.8mm with the constant pitch distance of 0.09 mm and the fiber output light NA of 0.038. The FWHM on the light intensity was improved to 13.7 mm with the composite pitch distance coils of which the pitch distances were 0.09 mm in the proximate and 0.18 mm in the distal. Since the efficiency of the diffusion irradiation against the fiber output was typically 7.7% in the prototype coils of which the surface reflectance was 50%, approximately 90% of the laser light energy was transferred to the temperature elevation. We estimated the practical diffusion efficiency around 75% using the high reflection of the prototype coils surface up to 90%.

  13. Retrieval of prolapsed coils during endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinc, Hasan [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Trabzon (Turkey); KTU Farabi Hospital, Department of Radiology, Trabzon (Turkey); Kuzeyli, Kayhan [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Trabzon (Turkey); Kosucu, Polat; Sari, Ahmet [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Trabzon (Turkey); Cekirge, Saruhan [Hacettepe University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)


    One of the feared complications during detachable coil embolization of cerebral aneurysms is herniation of a coil loop into the parent artery. Although coil protrusion of one or two loops into the parent vessel may not cause adverse events and in some instances can be ignored, the authors believe that coil retrieval is indicated if a free end is seen pulsating along the blood flow stream to prevent migration of the entire coil mass. In one patient, a microballoon was inflated across the neck of the aneurysm during retrieval of a herniated coil to prevent further coil herniation from the aneurysm sac. We present two cases in which prolapsed coils were successfully retrieved either using a microsnare and balloon combination or a microsnare alone. This report focuses on the efficacy of the Amplatz microsnare for such retrievals and the circumstances in which a herniated coil needs to be retrieved. We report two cases in which embolization coils partially migrated into the parent artery during endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysm and were retrieved using the Amplatz Nitinol microsnare. (orig.)

  14. Conceptual Design of Alborz Tokamak Poloidal Coils System (United States)

    Mardani, M.; Amrollahi, R.


    The Alborz tokamak is a D-shape cross section tokamak that is under construction in Amirkabir University of Technology. One of the most important parts of tokamak design is the design of the poloidal field system. This part includes the numbers, individual position, currents and number of coil turns of the magnetic field coils. Circular cross section tokamaks have Vertical Field system but since the elongation and triangularity of plasma cross section shaping are important in improving the plasma performance and stability, the poloidal field coils are designed to have a shaped plasma configuration. In this paper the design of vertical field system and the magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium of axisymmetric plasma, as given by the Grad-Shafranov equation will be discussed. The poloidal field coils system consists of 12 circular coils located symmetrically about the equator plane, six inner PF coils and six outer PF coils. Six outer poloidal field coils (PF) are located outside of the toroidal field coils (TF), and six inner poloidal field coils are wound on the inner legs and are located outside of a vacuum vessel.

  15. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation-coil design with improved focality (United States)

    Rastogi, P.; Lee, E. G.; Hadimani, R. L.; Jiles, D. C.


    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a technique for neuromodulation that can be used as a non-invasive therapy for various neurological disorders. In TMS, a time varying magnetic field generated from an electromagnetic coil placed on the scalp is used to induce an electric field inside the brain. TMS coil geometry plays an important role in determining the focality and depth of penetration of the induced electric field responsible for stimulation. Clinicians and basic scientists are interested in stimulating a localized area of the brain, while minimizing the stimulation of surrounding neural networks. In this paper, a novel coil has been proposed, namely Quadruple Butterfly Coil (QBC) with an improved focality over the commercial Figure-8 coil. Finite element simulations were conducted with both the QBC and the conventional Figure-8 coil. The two coil's stimulation profiles were assessed with 50 anatomically realistic MRI derived head models. The coils were positioned on the vertex and the scalp over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to stimulate the brain. Computer modeling of the coils has been done to determine the parameters of interest-volume of stimulation, maximum electric field, location of maximum electric field and area of stimulation across all 50 head models for both coils.

  16. Structural analysis of the NET toroidal field coils and conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, N.; Collier, D.; Gori, R.


    The NET toroidal field coils will utilise A15-type superconductor at 4.2 K to generate fields up to 11.5 T. The superconductor strands themselves are sensitive to strain, which causes degradation of their current carrying capacity, and thus the detailed behaviour of the coil conductor must be analysied so that the strian can be minimised. This analysis must include the manufacturing processes of the conductor as well as the normal and abnormal loperational loads. The conductor will be insulated and bonded by glass fibre reinforced epoxy resin, with limited bonding shear strength, and the overall support of the complete coil system must be designed to reduce these shear stresses. The coils will be subjected to pulse loads form the poloidal field coils, and analysis of the slip between the various coil components, such as conductors and the coil case, giving rise to frictional heating and possible loss of superconducting properties is another important factor, which has been investigated by a number of stress analyses. The manufacturing, thermal and normal magnetic loads on the coils and the analysis leading to the proposed structural design are described. In addition to the normal operating conditions, there is a range of abnormal load conditions which could result from electrical or mechanical faults on the coils. The effect of these potential faults has been analysed and the coil design modified to prevent catastrophic structural failure. (author). 13 refs.; 8 figs.; 1 tab

  17. Magnetic coil design considerations for functional magnetic stimulation. (United States)

    Lin, V W; Hsiao, I N; Dhaka, V


    Our studies have demonstrated effective stimulation of the bladder, bowel, and expiratory muscles in patients with spinal cord injury using functional magnetic stimulation. However, one limitation of the magnetic coils (MC) is related to their inability to specifically stimulate the target tissue without activation of surrounding tissue. The primary goal of this study was to determine the governing parameters in the MC design, such as coil configuration, diameter, and number of turns in one loop of the coil. By varying these parameters, our approach was to design, construct, and evaluate the induced electric field distributions of two sets of novel MC's. Based on the slinky coil design, the first set of coils was constructed to compare their abilities in generating induced electric fields for focal nerve excitation. The second set of coils was built to determine the effect that changes in two parameters, coil diameter and number of turns in one loop, had on field penetration. The results showed that the slinky coil design produced more focalized stimulation when compared to the planar round coils. The primary-to-secondary peak ratios of the induced electric field from slinky 1 to 5 were 1.00, 2.20, 2.85, 2.62, and 3.54. We also determined that coils with larger diameters had better penetration than those with smaller diameters. Coils with less number of turns in one loop had higher initial field strengths; when compared to coils that had more turns per loop, initial field strengths remained higher as distance from the coil increased. In our attempt to customize MC design according to each functional magnetic stimulation application and patients of different sizes, the parameters of MC explored in this study may facilitate designing an optimal MC for a certain clinical application.

  18. Bending of the BST-2 coiled-coil during viral budding. (United States)

    Ozcan, Kadir A; Berndsen, Christopher E


    BST-2/tetherin is a human extracellular transmembrane protein that serves as a host defense factor against HIV-1 and other viruses by inhibiting viral spreading. Structurally, BST-2 is a homo-dimeric coiled-coil that is connected to the host cell membrane by N and C terminal transmembrane anchors. The C-terminal membrane anchor of BST-2 is inserted into the budding virus while the N-terminal membrane anchor remains in the host cell membrane creating a viral tether. The structural mechanism of viral budding and tethering as mediated by BST-2 is not clear. To more fully describe the mechanism of viral tethering, we created a model of BST-2 embedded in a membrane and used steered molecular dynamics to simulate the transition from the host cell membrane associated form to the cell-virus membrane bridging form. We observed that BST-2 did not transition as a rigid structure, but instead bent at positions with a reduced interface between the helices of the coiled-coil. The simulations for the human BST-2 were then compared with simulations on the mouse homolog, which has no apparent weak spots. We observed that the mouse homolog spread the bending across the ectodomain, rather than breaking at discrete points as observed with the human homolog. These simulations support previous biochemical and cellular work suggesting some flexibility in the coiled-coil is necessary for viral tethering, while also highlighting how subtle changes in protein sequence can influence the dynamics and stability of proteins with overall similar structure. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Coil Migration after Transarterial Coil Embolization of a Splenic Artery Pseudoaneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezawit D. Tekola


    Full Text Available A 48-year-old man with a history of splenic artery pseudoaneurysm requiring transarterial embolization 3 months earlier presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain and fever. Computed tomography showed evidence of embolization coil fragments within the gastrointestinal tract. Upper endoscopy showed a large gastric ulcer with numerous embolization coils extruding into the gastric lumen. The patient underwent partial gastrectomy, distal pancreatectomy and resection of the splenic artery pseudoaneurysm. This case illustrates a rare delayed complication of transarterial embolization of a splenic artery pseudoaneurysm.

  20. Polymer therapeutics with a coiled coil motif targeted against murine BCL1 leukemia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pola, Robert; Laga, Richard; Ulbrich, Karel; Sieglová, Irena; Král, Vlastimil; Fábry, Milan; Kabešová, Martina; Kovář, Marek; Pechar, Michal


    Roč. 14, č. 3 (2013), s. 881-889 ISSN 1525-7797 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP301/11/0325; GA AV ČR IAAX00500803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:61388971 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : coiled coil * polymer therapeutics * scFv Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry; EC - Immunology (MBU-M); EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (UMG-J) Impact factor: 5.788, year: 2013

  1. Polymer cancerostatics with a coiled coil motif targeted against murine leukemia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pechar, Michal; Pola, Robert; Janoušková, Olga; Sieglová, Irena; Král, Vlastimil; Fábry, Milan; Tomalová, Barbora; Kovář, Marek


    Roč. 6, 4 (Suppl) (2017), s. 36 ISSN 2325-9604. [International Conference and Exhibition on Nanomedicine and Drug Delivery. 29.05.2017-31.05.2017, Osaka] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-17207S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:68378050 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : coiled coil * polymer cancerostatics * active targeting Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry; EC - Immunology (MBU-M)

  2. Microhole High-Pressure Jet Drill for Coiled Tubing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken Theimer; Jack Kolle


    Tempress Small Mechanically-Assisted High-Pressure Waterjet Drilling Tool project centered on the development of a downhole intensifier (DHI) to boost the hydraulic pressure available from conventional coiled tubing to the level required for high-pressure jet erosion of rock. We reviewed two techniques for implementing this technology (1) pure high-pressure jet drilling and (2) mechanically-assisted jet drilling. Due to the difficulties associated with modifying a downhole motor for mechanically-assisted jet drilling, it was determined that the pure high-pressure jet drilling tool was the best candidate for development and commercialization. It was also determined that this tool needs to run on commingled nitrogen and water to provide adequate downhole differential pressure and to facilitate controlled pressure drilling and descaling applications in low pressure wells. The resulting Microhole jet drilling bottomhole assembly (BHA) drills a 3.625-inch diameter hole with 2-inch coil tubing. The BHA consists of a self-rotating multi-nozzle drilling head, a high-pressure rotary seal/bearing section, an intensifier and a gas separator. Commingled nitrogen and water are separated into two streams in the gas separator. The water stream is pressurized to 3 times the inlet pressure by the downhole intensifier and discharged through nozzles in the drilling head. The energy in the gas-rich stream is used to power the intensifier. Gas-rich exhaust from the intensifier is conducted to the nozzle head where it is used to shroud the jets, increasing their effective range. The prototype BHA was tested at operational pressures and flows in a test chamber and on the end of conventional coiled tubing in a test well. During instrumented runs at downhole conditions, the BHA developed downhole differential pressures of 74 MPa (11,000 psi, median) and 90 MPa (13,000 psi, peaks). The median output differential pressure was nearly 3 times the input differential pressure available from the

  3. Quench behavior of a no-insulation coil wound with stainless steel cladding REBCO tape at 4.2 K (United States)

    Kim, Kwanglok; Kim, Kwangmin; Bhattarai, Kabindra R.; Radcliff, Kyle; Jang, Jae Young; Hwang, Young Jin; Lee, SangGap; Yoon, Sangwon; Hahn, Seungyong


    A single pancake no-insulation (NI) coil was wound in a hermetic way with REBCO tape having a thin (1-2 μm) cladding layer of stainless steel. With an electric heater embedded at the innermost turn of the coil, heater-induced quench tests were performed under a background field of 15 T in a bath of liquid helium at 4.2 K. Despite the large average contact surface resistance of 1.63 {{m}}{{Ω }} cm2 , > 20 times larger than those of pure NI coils, ‘thermal recovery’ was observed at a coil current density (J e ) below 700 A mm-2 mainly due to the local current sharing. The coil experienced nine consecutive ‘thermal runaway’ quenches at J e of 700-820 A mm-2 (power supply limit), yet no discernible coil degradation or damage was observed. The results demonstrated that the stainless steel cladding REBCO tape may be effective at reducing the charging delay of high field NI REBCO magnets without sacrificing the self-protecting feature.

  4. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided coil or glue injection in post-cyanoacrylate gastric variceal re-bleed. (United States)

    Mukkada, Roy J; Antony, Rajesh; Chooracken, Mathew J; Francis, Jose V; Chettupuzha, Antony P; Mathew, Pradeep G; Augustine, Philip; Koshy, Abraham


    N-butyl-cyanoacrylate injection is recommended in bleeding/recently bled gastric varices. However, cyanoacrylate injection is associated with re-bleed in 25% to 50% of patients. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided coil application is an emerging treatment modality for bleeding gastric varices. The aim of this study was to compare EUS-guided coil application combined with or without cyanoacrylate glue injection to injection alone in post-glue gastric variceal re-bleed. A retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database was performed. Thirty patients who re-bled after cyanoacrylate injection and who had EUS-guided coil application to gastric varices were included. The comparison was done with data of 51 patients who had only repeat cyanoacrylate injection. Both groups had a follow up for 12 months. EUS-guided coil application was done under endosonographic guidance. A single coil was placed in 7, two coils in each of 13 patients, three in 5, four in 3, five in one, and 6 coils in one patient. In addition, cyanoacrylate glue injection was given in 15 patients. Eight patients had repeat EUS-guided coil application 1 month later. Re-bleed and mortality were assessed. Coilng: Six out of 30 (20%) patients re-bled during follow up of 9 to 365 days. Three out of 30 (10%) died. One patient died 9 days after the procedure due to acute respiratory distress syndrome, one died 4 months after the procedure due to a re-bleed and one 5 months after the procedure due to spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Glue only: 26/51 (51%) re-bled during follow up of 45 to 365 days. EUS-guided coil application resulted in significantly less re-bleed than glue-only (Kaplan-Meir survival analysis with log-rank test, z = 5.4, p guided coil application with/without cyanoacrylate injection for the obliteration of gastric varices is effective for post-cyanoacrylate gastric variceal re-bleed.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of the inner ear by using a hybrid radiofrequency coil at 7 T (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Heo, Phil; Kim, Young-Bo; Han, Gyu-Cheol


    Visualization of the membranous structures of the inner ear has been limited to the detection of the normal fluid signal intensity within the bony labyrinth by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipped with a 1.5 Tesla (T) magnet. High-field (HF) MRI has been available for more than a decade, and numerous studies have documented its significant advantages over conventional MRI with regards to its use in basic scientific research and routine clinical assessments. No previous studies of the inner ear by using HF MRI have been reported, in part because high-quality resolution of mastoid pneumatization is challenging due to artifacts generated in the HF environment and insufficient performance of radiofrequency (RF) coils. Therefore, a hybrid RF coil with integrated circuitry was developed at 7 T and was targeted for anatomical imaging to achieve a high resolution image of the structure of the human inner ear, excluding the bony portion. The inner-ear's structure is composed of soft tissues containing hydrogen ions and includes the membranous labyrinth, endolymphatic space, perilymphatic space, and cochlear-vestibular nerves. Visualization of the inner-ear's anatomy was performed in-vivo with a custom-designed hybrid RF coil and a specific imaging protocol based on an interpolated breath-held examination sequence. The comparative signal intensity value at 30-mm away from the phantom side was 88% higher for the hybrid RF coil and 24% higher for the 8-channel transmit/receive (Tx/Rx) coil than for the commercial birdcage coil. The optimized MRI protocol employed a hybrid RF coil because it enabled high-resolution imaging of the inner-ear's anatomy and accurate mapping of structures including the cochlea and the semicircular canals. These results indicate that 7 T MRI achieves high spatial resolution visualization of the inner-ear's anatomy. Therefore, MRI imaging using a hybrid RF coil at 7 T could provide a powerful tool for clinical investigations of petrous

  6. The heterotrimeric laminin coiled-coil domain exerts anti-adhesive effects and induces a pro-invasive phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Santos-Valle

    Full Text Available Laminins are large heterotrimeric cross-shaped extracellular matrix glycoproteins with terminal globular domains and a coiled-coil region through which the three chains are assembled and covalently linked. Laminins are key components of basement membranes, and they serve as attachment sites for cell adhesion, migration and proliferation. In this work, we produced a recombinant fragment comprising the entire laminin coiled-coil of the α1-, β1-, and γ1-chains that assemble into a stable heterotrimeric coiled-coil structure independently of the rest of the molecule. This domain was biologically active and not only failed to serve as a substrate for cell attachment, spreading and focal adhesion formation but also inhibited cell adhesion to laminin when added to cells in a soluble form at the time of seeding. Furthermore, gene array expression profiling in cells cultured in the presence of the laminin coiled-coil domain revealed up-regulation of genes involved in cell motility and invasion. These findings were confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR and zymography assays. In conclusion, this study shows for the first time that the laminin coiled-coil domain displays anti-adhesive functions and has potential implications for cell migration during matrix remodeling.

  7. Crystal Structure of the Central Coiled-Coil Domain from Human Liprin-β2†,‡ (United States)

    Stafford, Ryan L.; Tang, Ming-Yun; Sawaya, Michael R.; Phillips, Martin L.; Bowie, James U.


    Liprins are a conserved family of scaffolding proteins important for the proper regulation and development of neuronal synapses. Humans have four liprin-αs and two liprin-βs which all contain long coiled-coil domains followed by three tandem SAM domains. Complex interactions between the coiled-coil and SAM domains are thought to create liprin scaffolds, but the structural and biochemical properties of these domains remain largely uncharacterized. In this study we find that the human liprin-β2 coiled-coil forms an extended dimer. Several protease-resistant sub-domains within the liprin-β1 and liprin-β2 coiled-coils were also identified. A 2.0 Å crystal structure of the central, protease-resistant core of the liprin-β2 coiled-coil reveals a parallel helix orientation. These studies represent an initial step towards determining the overall architecture of liprin scaffolds and understanding the molecular basis for their synaptic functions. PMID:21462929

  8. Comparison of the association of sac growth and coil compaction with recurrence in coil embolized cerebral aneurysms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L Hoppe

    Full Text Available In recurrent cerebral aneurysms treated by coil embolization, coil compaction is regarded as the presumptive mechanism. We test the hypothesis that aneurysm growth is the primary recurrence mechanism. We also test the hypothesis that the coil mass will translate a measurable extent when recurrence occurs.An objective, quantitative image analysis protocol was developed to determine the volumes of aneurysms and coil masses during initial and follow-up visits from 3D rotational angiograms. The population consisted of 15 recurrence and 12 non-recurrence control aneurysms initially completely coiled at a single center. An investigator sensitivity study was performed to assess the objectivity of the methods. Paired Wilcoxon tests (p<0.05, one-tailed were performed to assess for aneurysm and coil growth. The translation of the coil mass center at follow-up was computed. A Mann Whitney U-Test (p<0.05, one-tailed was used to compare translation of coil mass centers between recurrence and control subjects.Image analysis protocol was found to be insensitive to the investigator. Aneurysm growth was evident in the recurrence cohort (p=0.003 but not the control (p=0.136. There was no evidence of coil compaction in either the recurrence or control cohorts (recurrence: p=0.339; control: p=0.429. The translation of the coil mass centers was found to be significantly larger in the recurrence cohort than the control cohort (p=0.047.Aneurysm sac growth, not coil compaction, was the primary mechanism of recurrence following successful coil embolization. The coil mass likely translates to a measurable extent when recurrence occurs and has the potential to serve as a non-angiographic recurrence marker.

  9. An automated coil winding machine for the SSC dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, S.; Iwase, T.; Inoue, I.; Fukui, I.; Ishida, K.; Kashiwagi, S.; Sato, Y.; Yoshihara, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Johnson, E.; Gibson, C.


    The authors have finished the preliminary design of a fully automated coil winding machine that can be used to manufacture the large number of SSC dipole magnets. The machine aims to perform all coil winding operations including coil parts inserting without human operators at a high productive rate. The machine is composed of five industrial robots. In order to verify the design, they built a small winding machine using an industrial robot and successfully wound a 1 meter long coil using SSC dipole magnet wire. The basic design for the full length coil and the robot winding technique are described in this paper. A fully automated coil winding machine using standard industrial components would be very useful if duplicate production lines are used. 5 figs., 1 tab

  10. Ferrite core non-linearity in coils for magnetic neurostimulation. (United States)

    RamRakhyani, Anil Kumar; Lazzi, Gianluca


    The need to correctly predict the voltage across terminals of mm-sized coils, with ferrite core, to be employed for magnetic stimulation of the peripheral neural system is the motivation for this work. In such applications, which rely on a capacitive discharge on the coil to realise a transient voltage curve of duration and strength suitable for neural stimulation, the correct modelling of the non-linearity of the ferrite core is critical. A demonstration of how a finite-difference model of the considered coils, which include a model of the current-controlled inductance in the coil, can be used to correctly predict the time-domain voltage waveforms across the terminals of a test coil is presented. Five coils of different dimensions, loaded with ferrite cores, have been fabricated and tested: the measured magnitude and width of the induced pulse are within 10% of simulated values.

  11. New method to design stellarator coils without the winding surface (United States)

    Zhu, Caoxiang; Hudson, Stuart R.; Song, Yuntao; Wan, Yuanxi


    Finding an easy-to-build coils set has been a critical issue for stellarator design for decades. Conventional approaches assume a toroidal ‘winding’ surface, but a poorly chosen winding surface can unnecessarily constrain the coil optimization algorithm, This article presents a new method to design coils for stellarators. Each discrete coil is represented as an arbitrary, closed, one-dimensional curve embedded in three-dimensional space. A target function to be minimized that includes both physical requirements and engineering constraints is constructed. The derivatives of the target function with respect to the parameters describing the coil geometries and currents are calculated analytically. A numerical code, named flexible optimized coils using space curves (FOCUS), has been developed. Applications to a simple stellarator configuration, W7-X and LHD vacuum fields are presented.

  12. Electromagnetic results of the Japanese LCT coil's domestic test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Masataka; Okuno, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Ando, Toshinari; Shimamoto, Susumu


    The domestic test of the Japanese LCT coil was carried out in 1982. During this test, the coil was charged up to the single coil's 100% state (10.22kA, 6.4T, 106MJ) four times and experienced no quenche. at the 100% charging state, coil stability was tested by using heaters installed in the conductor. A half turn length normal zone (about 5 m) generated by heaters was spontenously disappeared in 2 second. This normalized zone included the highest magnetic field position. The transport current which gives the stable limit is extraporated to be about 12.5kA at 8T by this test result. The dump test was carried out also from the 100% charging state. At that time, about 90% of the coil's stored energy was extracted by the dump resistor and the coil was not damaged. (author)

  13. Poloidal field coil stress analysis for the ZTH machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girrens, S.P.; Bennett, J.G.; Murphy, D.M.


    Three-dimensional finite element analysis of representative equilibrium field and ohmic heating coils for the Los Alamos ZTH air core machine was performed to determine static stress levels developed within the coil structure caused by Lorentz-force loading. Because of the complex coil configuration in cross section (copper conductors embedded in an epoxy insulating matrix), the study was performed in three steps: a bulk orthotropic material property determination, a bulk material coil section analysis, and a detailed composite cross section of selected thickness analysis. Computational procedures used with coil stress and displacement results that were obtained are presented. Extensive work was performed to investigate the magnitude of the error in coil stress predictions arising from the use of the three-step analysis procedure. Analytical and numerical procedures used to perform the estimate of error study are also presented. 34 figs

  14. General Atomic's superconducting toroidal field coil concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcorn, J.; Purcell, J.


    General Atomic's concept for a superconducting toroidal field coil is presented. The concept is generic for large tokamak devices, while a specific design is indicated for a 3.8 meter (major radius) ignition/burn machine. The concept utilizes bath cooled NbTi conductor to generate a peak field of 10 tesla at 4.2 K. The design is simple and straightforward, requires a minimum of developmental effort, and draws extensively upon the perspective of past experience in the design and construction of large superconducting magnets for high energy physics. Thus, the primary emphasis is upon economy, reliability, and expeditious construction scheduling. (author)

  15. Sound Coiled-Tubing Drilling Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Thomas; Deskins, Greg (Maurer Technology Inc.); Ward, Stephen L. (Advantage Energy Services Ltd); Hightower, Mel


    This Coiled-Tubing Drilling (CTD) Sound Practices Manual provides tools needed by CTD engineers and supervisors to plan, design and perform safe, successful CTD operations. As emphasized throughout, both careful planning and attention to detail are mandatory for success. A bibliography of many useful CTD references is presented in Chapter 6. This manual is organized according to three processes: 1) Pre-Job Planning Process, 2) Operations Execution Process, and 3) Post-Job Review Process. Each is discussed in a logical and sequential format.

  16. Analytical solutions to SSC coil end design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossert, R.C.; Brandt, J.S.; Carson, J.A.; Fulton, H.J.; Lee, G.C.; Cook, J.M.


    As part of the SCC magnet effort, Fermilab will build and test a series of one meter model SSC magnets. The coils in these magnets will be constructed with several different end configurations. These end designs must satisfy both mechanical and magnetic criteria. Only the mechanical problem will be addressed. Solutions will attempt to minimize stresses and provide internal support for the cable. Different end designs will be compared in an attempt to determine which is most appropriate for the SSC dipole. The mathematics required to create each end configuration will be described. The computer aided design, programming and machine technology needed to make the parts will be reviewed. 2 refs., 10 figs

  17. Coil Occlusion of the Patent Ductus Arteriosus: Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanatani, Shubhayan; Potts, James E.; Ryan, Angela; Sandor, George G.S.; Human, Derek G.; Culham, J.A. Gordon


    Purpose: To review the clinical outcomes of catheter-directed coil occlusion (coil occlusion) of persistently patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) at a pediatric tertiary care hospital.Methods: A retrospective review of all patients referred to the Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory for coil occlusion at our institution was performed. Twenty-one consecutive patients (12 female) underwent coil occlusion and follow-up between May 1995 and December 1997. We undertook PDA occlusion if: (a) the PDA narrowed to less than 4 mm on echocardiogram and (b) the minimum body weight was approximately 10 kg. Standard right and retrograde left heart catheterization was performed, followed by coil occlusion. Color-flow mapping (CFM) was used intra-procedurally to confirm occlusion of the PDA with a follow-up study several weeks later.Results: The median age and weight of the patients were 33 months and 13.2 kg, respectively. Fourteen patients received one coil, with six requiring a second coil and one requiring multiple coils. Initial follow-up was at a median of 2.4 months. At latest follow-up, 2 patients still have persistent flow at the ductal level. The coils were deployed without complication or embolization.Conclusions: A review of our first 21 cases demonstrated three important lessons: (1) the maximum diameter of the PDA suitable for coil occlusion is approximately 3 mm; (2) CFM must show complete obliteration of flow in the catheterization lab in order to ensure occlusion of the PDA at follow-up; and (3) the Jackson detachable system allows for precise placement of the coil, often within another coil

  18. Self-assembled nanocages based on the coiled coil bundle motif (United States)

    Sinha, Nairiti; Villegas, Jose; Saven, Jeffery; Kiick, Kristi; Pochan, Darrin

    Computational design of coiled coil peptide bundles that undergo solution phase self-assembly presents a diverse toolbox for engineering new materials with tunable and pre-determined nanostructures that can have various end applications such as in drug delivery, biomineralization and electronics. Self-assembled cages are especially advantageous as the cage geometry provides three distinct functional sites: the interior, the exterior and the solvent-cage interface. In this poster, syntheses and characterization of a peptide cage based on computationally designed homotetrameric coiled coil bundles as building blocks is discussed. Techniques such as Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) and Analytical Ultracentrifugation (AUC) are employed to characterize the size, shape and molecular weight of the self-assembled peptide cages under different pH and temperature conditions. Various self-assembly pathways such as dialysis and thermal quenching are shown to have a significant impact on the final structure of these peptides in solution. Comparison of results with the target cage design can be used to iteratively improve the peptide design and provide greater understanding of its interactions and folding.

  19. Accommodating Discontinuities in Dimeric Left-Handed Coiled Coils in ATP Synthase External Stalks (United States)

    Wise, John G.; Vogel, Pia D.


    ATP synthases from coupling membranes are complex rotary motors that convert the energy of proton gradients across coupling membranes into the chemical potential of the β-γ anhydride bond of ATP. Proton movement within the ring of c subunits localized in the F0-sector drives γ and ɛ rotation within the F1α3β3 catalytic core where substrates are bound and products are released. An external stalk composed of homodimeric subunits b2 in Escherichia coli or heterodimeric bb′ in photosynthetic synthases connects F0 subunit a with F1 subunits δ and most likely α. The external stalk resists rotation, and is of interest both functionally and structurally. Hypotheses that the external stalk contributes to the overall efficiency of the reaction through elastic coupling of rotational substeps, and that stalks form staggered, right-handed coiled coils, are investigated here. We report on different structures that accommodate heptad discontinuities with either local or global underwinding. Analyses of the knob-and-hole packing of the E. coli b2 and Synechocystis bb′ stalks strongly support the possibility that these proteins can adopt conventional left-handed coiled coils. PMID:19348765

  20. Structure and Misfolding of the Flexible Tripartite Coiled-Coil Domain of Glaucoma-Associated Myocilin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Shannon E.; Nguyen, Elaine; Donegan, Rebecca K.; Patterson-Orazem, Athéna C.; Hazel, Anthony; Gumbart, James C.; Lieberman, Raquel L.


    Glaucoma-associated myocilin is a member of the olfactomedins, a protein family involved in neuronal development and human diseases. Molecular studies of the myocilin N-terminal coiled coil demonstrate a unique tripartite architecture: a Y-shaped parallel dimer-of-dimers with distinct tetramer and dimer regions. The structure of the dimeric C-terminal 7-heptad repeats elucidates an unexpected repeat pattern involving inter-strand stabilization by oppositely charged residues. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal an alternate accessible conformation in which the terminal inter-strand disulfide limits the extent of unfolding and results in a kinked configuration. By inference, full-length myocilin is also branched, with two pairs of C-terminal olfactomedin domains. Selected variants within the N-terminal region alter the apparent quaternary structure of myocilin but do so without compromising stability or causing aggregation. In addition to increasing our structural knowledge of naturally occurring extracellular coiled coils and biomedically important olfactomedins, this work broadens the scope of protein misfolding in the pathogenesis of myocilin-associated glaucoma.

  1. Magnetic field alignment of coil-coil diblock copolymers and blends via intrinsic chain anisotropy (United States)

    Rokhlenko, Yekaterina; Majewski, Pawel; Larson, Steven; Yager, Kevin; Gopalan, Padma; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos; Chan, Edwin; Osuji, Chinedum

    Magnetic fields can control alignment of self-assembled soft materials such as block copolymers provided there is a suitably large magnetic susceptibility anisotropy present in the system. Recent results have highlighted the existence of a non-trivial intrinsic anisotropy in coil-coil diblock copolymers, specifically in lamellar-forming PS-b-P4VP, which enables alignment at field strengths of a few tesla in systems lacking mesogenic components. Alignment is predicated on correlation in the orientation of end-end vectors implied by the localization of block junctions at the microdomain interface and is observed on cooling across the order-disorder transition in the presence of the field. For appropriate combinations of field strength and grain size, we can leverage intrinsic chain anisotropy to magnetically direct self-assembly of many non-mesogenic systems, including other coil-coil BCPs like PS-b-PDMS and PS-b-PMMA, blends of BCPs of disparate morphologies and MWs, and blends of BCPs with homopolymers. This is noteworthy as blends of PS-b-P4VP with PEO provide a route to form functional materials such as nanoporous films by dissolution of PEO, or aligned ion conduction materials. We survey these various systems using TEM and in-situ X-ray scattering to study the phase behavior and temperature-, time- and field- dependent dynamics of alignment.

  2. Structure and Misfolding of the Flexible Tripartite Coiled-Coil Domain of Glaucoma-Associated Myocilin. (United States)

    Hill, Shannon E; Nguyen, Elaine; Donegan, Rebecca K; Patterson-Orazem, Athéna C; Hazel, Anthony; Gumbart, James C; Lieberman, Raquel L


    Glaucoma-associated myocilin is a member of the olfactomedins, a protein family involved in neuronal development and human diseases. Molecular studies of the myocilin N-terminal coiled coil demonstrate a unique tripartite architecture: a Y-shaped parallel dimer-of-dimers with distinct tetramer and dimer regions. The structure of the dimeric C-terminal 7-heptad repeats elucidates an unexpected repeat pattern involving inter-strand stabilization by oppositely charged residues. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal an alternate accessible conformation in which the terminal inter-strand disulfide limits the extent of unfolding and results in a kinked configuration. By inference, full-length myocilin is also branched, with two pairs of C-terminal olfactomedin domains. Selected variants within the N-terminal region alter the apparent quaternary structure of myocilin but do so without compromising stability or causing aggregation. In addition to increasing our structural knowledge of naturally occurring extracellular coiled coils and biomedically important olfactomedins, this work broadens the scope of protein misfolding in the pathogenesis of myocilin-associated glaucoma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Switching transients in the MFTF yin-yang coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, E.W.; Shimer, D.W.


    This report is a study of the transients caused by the fast dump of large superconducting coils. Theoretical analysis, computer simulation, and actual measurements are used. Theoretical analysis can only be applied to the simplest of models. In the computer simulations two models are used, one in which the coil is divided into ten segments and another in which a single coil is employed. The circuit breaker that interrupts the current to the power supply, causing a fast dump, is represented by a time and current dependent conductance. Actual measurements are limited to measurements made incidental to the coils' performance tests

  4. Relationship between voice coil fill factor and loudspeaker efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Niels Elkjær; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.


    -mode technology, can be designed to much lower loads. A thorough analysis of the loudspeaker efficiency is presented and its relation to the voice coil fill factor is described. In addition to this the influence of the driver’s mass ratio is investigated and it is found that high mass ratios is beneficial...... for the efficiency of drivers using high fill factor voice coils. Different voice coil winding strategies are described and their fill factors analysed. It is found that by lowering the nominal resistance of a voice coil, using rectangular wire, one can increase the fill factor. However a practical realization...

  5. Symmetry-Directed Self-Assembly of a Tetrahedral Protein Cage Mediated by de Novo-Designed Coiled Coils. (United States)

    Badieyan, Somayesadat; Sciore, Aaron; Eschweiler, Joseph D; Koldewey, Philipp; Cristie-David, Ajitha S; Ruotolo, Brandon T; Bardwell, James C A; Su, Min; Marsh, E Neil G


    The organization of proteins into new hierarchical forms is an important challenge in synthetic biology. However, engineering new interactions between protein subunits is technically challenging and typically requires extensive redesign of protein-protein interfaces. We have developed a conceptually simple approach, based on symmetry principles, that uses short coiled-coil domains to assemble proteins into higher-order structures. Here, we demonstrate the assembly of a trimeric enzyme into a well-defined tetrahedral cage. This was achieved by genetically fusing a trimeric coiled-coil domain to its C terminus through a flexible polyglycine linker sequence. The linker length and coiled-coil strength were the only parameters that needed to be optimized to obtain a high yield of correctly assembled protein cages. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Crystal structure of tetranectin, a trimeric plasminogen-binding protein with an alpha-helical coiled coil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B B; Kastrup, J S; Rasmussen, H


    Tetranectin is a plasminogen kringle 4-binding protein. The crystal structure has been determined at 2.8 A resolution using molecular replacement. Human tetranectin is a homotrimer forming a triple alpha-helical coiled coil. Each monomer consists of a carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) connected...... the third is present only in long-form CRDs. Tetranectin represents the first structure of a long-form CRD with intact calcium-binding sites. In tetranectin, the third disulfide bridge tethers the CRD to the long helix in the coiled coil. The trimerization of tetranectin as well as the fixation of the CRDs...... relative to the helices in the coiled coil indicate a demand for high specificity in the recognition and binding of ligands....

  7. Due diligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghera, G.S.


    The Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Act requires that every employer shall ensure the health and safety of workers in the workplace. Issues regarding the practices at workplaces and how they should reflect the standards of due diligence were discussed. Due diligence was described as being the need for employers to identify hazards in the workplace and to take active steps to prevent workers from potentially dangerous incidents. The paper discussed various aspects of due diligence including policy, training, procedures, measurement and enforcement. The consequences of contravening the OHS Act were also described

  8. Functional and morphological cardiac magnetic resonance imaging of mice using a cryogenic quadrature radiofrequency coil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babette Wagenhaus

    Full Text Available Cardiac morphology and function assessment by magnetic resonance imaging is of increasing interest for a variety of mouse models in pre-clinical cardiac research, such as myocardial infarction models or myocardial injury/remodeling in genetically or pharmacologically induced hypertension. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR constraints, however, limit image quality and blood myocardium delineation, which crucially depend on high spatial resolution. Significant gains in SNR with a cryogenically cooled RF probe have been shown for mouse brain MRI, yet the potential of applying cryogenic RF coils for cardiac MR (CMR in mice is, as of yet, untapped. This study examines the feasibility and potential benefits of CMR in mice employing a 400 MHz cryogenic RF surface coil, compared with a conventional mouse heart coil array operating at room temperature. The cryogenic RF coil affords SNR gains of 3.0 to 5.0 versus the conventional approach and hence enables an enhanced spatial resolution. This markedly improved image quality--by better deliniation of myocardial borders and enhanced depiction of papillary muscles and trabeculae--and facilitated a more accurate cardiac chamber quantification, due to reduced intraobserver variability. In summary the use of a cryogenically cooled RF probe represents a valuable means of enhancing the capabilities of CMR of mice.

  9. Experiment study on an inductive superconducting fault current limiter using no-insulation coils (United States)

    Qiu, D.; Li, Z. Y.; Gu, F.; Huang, Z.; Zhao, A.; Hu, D.; Wei, B. G.; Huang, H.; Hong, Z.; Ryu, K.; Jin, Z.


    No-insulation (NI) coil made of 2 G high temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes has been widely used in DC magnet due to its excellent performance of engineering current density, thermal stability and mechanical strength. However, there are few AC power device using NI coil at present. In this paper, the NI coil is firstly applied into inductive superconducting fault current limiter (iSFCL). A two-winding structure air-core iSFCL prototype was fabricated, composed of a primary copper winding and a secondary no-insulation winding using 2 G HTS coated conductors. Firstly, in order to testify the feasibility to use NI coil as the secondary winding, the impedance variation of the prototype at different currents and different cycles was tested. The result shows that the impedance increases rapidly with the current rises. Then the iSFCL prototype was tested in a 40 V rms/ 3.3 kA peak short circuit experiment platform, both of the fault current limiting and recovery property of the iSFCL are discussed.

  10. Umbilical cord coiling index and perinatal outcome. (United States)

    Patil, Nivedita S; Kulkarni, Sunanda R; Lohitashwa, Renu


    To evaluate the perinatal outcome with the abnormal umbilical cord coiling index. This prospective study was carried out in the department of OBG at Adichunchangiri Institute of Medical Sciences, B.G.Nagara, Mandya, Karnataka, India from January 2008 to August 2010. 200 patients who were in active labour with term gestations, irrespective of their parities, who had singleton pregnancies with live babies who were either delivered by vaginal or LSCS were included in the study. Umbilical cord coiling index was calculated and it was correlated with various perinatal parameters like birth weight, meconium stained liquor, Apgar score, ponderal index and foetal growth restriction. Chi square and Fisher exact tests were used to find the significance of study parameters. There was a significant correlation between the hypercoiled cords (UCI >90(th) percentile) and IUGR of the babies (p value of UCI which was UCI which was > 90(th) percentile was associated with IUGR and low ponderal indices. Hypocoiled cords or UCI which was <10th percentile was associated with meconium staining, Apgar score at 1 min of <4 and at 5 min of <7, more LSCS rates and more NICU admissions.

  11. Performance analysis of an optical passive ring-resonator gyro with a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber sensing coil (United States)

    Zhang, X. L.; Jin, W.; Ying, D. Q.


    We evaluate the measurement errors induced by various deleterious effects in an optical passive ring-resonator gyro (OPRG) with a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber (HC-PBF) sensing coil. The uncertainties in measuring rotation rate due to Kerr, Shupe, and Faraday effects are found to be reduced respectively by 2~3, 1, and 1~2 orders of magnitude as compared with an OPRG with a conventional single mode fiber (SMF) sensing coil of similar parameters. The errors due to shot and coherent backscatter noises are larger for the OPRG made of the current state-of-the-art HC-PBF than for the OPRG with a conventional SMF coil, but are expected to reduce in future with improved fiber manufacture technologies.

  12. Development of Ground Coils with Low Eddy Current Loss by Applying the Compression Molding Method after the Coil Winding (United States)

    Suzuki, Masao; Aiba, Masayuki; Takahashi, Noriyuki; Ota, Satoru; Okada, Shigenori

    In a magnetically levitated transportation (MAGLEV) system, a huge number of ground coils will be required because they must be laid for the whole line. Therefore, stable performance and reduced cost are essential requirements for the ground coil development. On the other hand, because the magnetic field changes when the superconducting magnet passes by, an eddy current will be generated in the conductor of the ground coil and will result in energy loss. The loss not only increases the magnetic resistance for the train running but also brings an increase in the ground coil temperature. Therefore, the reduction of the eddy current loss is extremely important. This study examined ground coils in which both the eddy current loss and temperature increase were small. Furthermore, quantitative comparison for the eddy current loss of various magnet wire samples was performed by bench test. On the basis of the comparison, a round twisted wire having low eddy current loss was selected as an effective ground coil material. In addition, the ground coils were manufactured on trial. A favorable outlook to improve the size accuracy of the winding coil and uneven thickness of molded resin was obtained without reducing the insulation strength between the coil layers by applying a compression molding after winding.

  13. A multicenter registry of hydrocephalus following coil embolization of unruptured aneurysms: which patients are at risk and why it occurs. (United States)

    Turner, Raymond D; da Costa, LeoDante B; terBrugge, Karel G


    Unexplained post-procedural events such as cerebral edema, inflammation, aseptic meningitis and hydrocephalus have been reported following unruptured cerebral aneurysm coiling. However, understanding of the etiology for these occurrences is limited due to their rare occurrence. A multicenter registry was developed to investigate further the occurrence of these events. This registry consisted of a retrospective analysis of unruptured aneurysms treated with hydrocoil that evolved to develop focal cerebral edema, inflammation, aseptic meningitis, or ventricular enlargement/hydrocephalus following uncomplicated coil embolization. Data points included pre, intra, and postoperative imaging, patient demographics, aneurysm demographics, procedural details such as coils used, medications administered, and intraprocedural complications, and all post-procedure follow-up including clinical status of the patients and all adverse events. Twenty-five patients (26 aneurysm coiling procedures) were found at 12 centers over an 8-year period. The mean aneurysm size was 13.7 mm. The average time from treatment to onset of symptoms was 8.5 months (2 weeks to 30 months, median 6 months). Delayed hydrocephalus was the most common clinical presentation. Six of the 25 patients were asymptomatic and did not require treatment. Patients undergoing endovascular coiling may be at risk of developing delayed complications, which may or may not be symptomatic. This risk appeared low and was restricted mostly to larger aneurysms. These events can be difficult to detect due to delayed presentation.

  14. Effect of capacitive feedback on the characteristics of direct current superconducting quantum interference device coupled to a multiturn input coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minotani, T.; Enpuku, K.; Kuroki, Y.


    Distortion of voltage versus flux (V endash Φ) relation of a dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) coupled to a multiturn input coil is studied. First, resonant behavior of the coupled SQUID due to the so-called input coil resonance is clarified. It is shown that large rf noise flux is produced by the input coil resonance. This rf flux is added to the SQUID, and results in large rf voltage across the SQUID. In the case where parasitic capacitance exists between the input coil and the ground of the SQUID, this rf voltage produces the rf flux again, i.e., a feedback loop for the rf flux is formed. Taking into account this capacitive feedback, we study the V endash Φ relation of the coupled SQUID. Numerical simulation shows that the V endash Φ relation is distorted considerably by the feedback mechanism. The simulation result explains well the experimental V endash Φ relation of the coupled SQUID. The combination of the input coil resonance with the capacitive feedback is the most likely mechanism for the distorted V endash Φ curve of the coupled SQUID. The condition for occurrence of the distorted V endash Φ curve due to the capacitive feedback is also obtained, and methods to prevent degradation are discussed. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  15. Isentropic compression studies using the NHMFL single turn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasker, Douglas G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mielke, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rodriguez, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rickel, Dwight [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Magnetic isentropic compression experiments (ICE) provide the most accurate shock free compression data for materials at megabar stresses. Recent ICE experiments performed on the Sandia Z-machine (Asay, 1999) and at the Los Alamos High Explosive Pulsed Power facility (Tasker, 2006) are providing our nation with data on material properties in extreme dynamic high stress environments. The LANL National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL) can offer a less complex ICE experiment at high stresses (up to {approx}1Mbar) with a high sample throughput and relatively low cost. This is not to say that the NHMFL technique will replace the other methods but rather complement them. For example, NHMFL-ICE is ideal for the development of advanced diagnostics, e.g., to detect phase changes. We will discuss the physics of the NHMFL-ICE experiments and present data from the first proof-of-principle experiments that were performed in September 2010.

  16. Improved Field Homogeneity for Transmission Line MRI Coils Using Series Capacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Dong, Yunfeng


    High field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems often use short sections of transmission lines for generating and sensing alternating magnetic fields. Due to distributed nature of transmission lines, the generated field is inhomogeneous. This work investigates the application of series...... capacitors to improve the field homogeneity. The resulting magnetic field distribution is estimated analytically and evaluated numerically. The results are compared to a case of a conventional transmission line coil realization....

  17. The size and conservation of a coiled-coil structure in the ectodomain of human BST-2/tetherin is dispensable for inhibition of HIV-1 virion release. (United States)

    Andrew, Amy J; Berndsen, Christopher E; Kao, Sandra; Strebel, Klaus


    BST-2/CD317/tetherin is a host factor that inhibits HIV-1 release and is counteracted by HIV-1 Vpu. Structural studies indicate that the BST-2 ectodomain assumes a coiled-coil conformation. Here we studied the role of the BST-2 ectodomain for tethering function. First, we addressed the importance of the length and structure of the ectodomain by adding or substituting heterologous coiled-coil or non-coiled-coil sequences. We found that extending or replacing the BST-2 ectodomain using non-coiled-coil sequences resulted in loss of BST-2 function. Doubling the size of the BST-2 ectodomain by insertion of a heterologous coiled-coil motif or substituting the BST-2 coiled-coil domain with a heterologous coiled-coil motif maintained tethering function. Reductions in the size of the BST-2 coiled-coil domain were tolerated as well. In fact, deletion of the C-terminal half of the BST-2 ectodomain, including a series of seven consecutive heptad motifs did not abolish tethering function. However, slight changes in the positioning of deletions affecting the relative placing of charged or hydrophobic residues on the helix severely impacted the functional properties of BST-2. Overall, we conclude that the size of the BST-2 ectodomain is highly flexible and can be reduced or extended as long as the positioning of residues important for the stability of the dimer interface is maintained.

  18. Performance of trim coils made by a novel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanderer, P.; Anerella, M.; Cottingham, J.; Ganetis, G.; Garber, M.; Ghosh, A.; Goodzeit, C.; Greene, A.; Gupta, R.; Herrera, J.; Kahn, S.; Kelly, E.; Meade, A.; Morgan, G.; Muratore, J.; Prodell, A.; Rehak, M.; Rohrer, E.P.; Sampson, W.; Shutt, R.; Skaritka, J.; Thompson, P.; Willen, E.


    A precision, automated method of manufacturing trim coils based on printed circuit technology has been developed. Excellent quench performance and increased radiation resistance have been achieved in recently-tested models of sextupole trim coils developed for operation inside 40 mm-aperture SSC Main Collider dipoles. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Device for measuring elastic modulus of superconducting coils (See 7903169)

    CERN Multimedia


    This device was made to measure elastic modulus of the Po dipole superconducting coils. More elaborated devices, but based on the same concept, were later used to measure the apparent elastic moduli of the LHC superconducting magnet coils. See also 7903169, 7901386.

  20. Bioaerosol deposition on an air-conditioning cooling coil (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Chen, Ailu; Luhung, Irvan; Gall, Elliott T.; Cao, Qingliang; Chang, Victor Wei-Chung; Nazaroff, William W.


    This study is concerned with the role of a fin-and-tube heat exchanger in modifying microbial indoor air quality. Specifically, depositional losses of ambient bioaerosols and particles onto dry (not cooled) and wet (cool) coil surfaces were measured for different airspeeds passing through the test coil. Total, bacterial and fungal DNA concentrations in condensate water produced by a wet coil were also quantified by means of fluorescent dsDNA-binding dye and qPCR assays. Results revealed that the deposition of bioaerosols and total particles is substantial on coil surfaces, especially when wet and cool. The average deposition fraction was 0.14 for total DNA, 0.18 for bacterial DNA and 0.22 for fungal DNA on the dry coil, increasing to 0.51 for total DNA, 0.50 for bacterial DNA and 0.68 for fungal DNA on the wet coil. Overall, as expected, deposition fractions increased with increasing particle size and increasing airspeed. Deposited DNA was removed from the cooling coil surfaces through the flow of condensing water at a rate comparable to the rate of direct deposition from air. A downward trend of bacterial and fungal DNA measured in condensate water over time provides suggestive evidence of biological growth on heat exchangers during nonoperational times of a ventilation system. This investigation provides new information about bioaerosol deposition onto a conventional fin-and-tube cooling coil, a potentially important factor influencing indoor exposure to microbial aerosols in air-conditioned buildings.

  1. AC loss in a high-temperature superconducting coil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chevtchenko, O.A.; Rabbers, J.J.; Godeke, A.; ten Haken, Bernard; ten Kate, Herman H.J.


    In a typical superconducting coil made of BSCCO/Ag tape, both amplitude and direction of the magnetic field determine the critical current, resistive voltage and AC loss. The distribution of the magnetic field along and across the superconducting tape in a coil is rather complex. This gives rise to

  2. First assembly phase for the ATLAS toroid coils

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez


    The ATLAS barrel toroid system consists of eight coils, each of axial length 25.3 m, assembled radially and symmetrically around the beam axis. The coils are of a flat racetrack type with two double-pancake windings made of 20.5 kA aluminium-stabilized niobium-titanium superconductor. In the first phase of assembly, the two 'pancakes' are packed into their vacuum vessel. This is done using bladders filled with resin and glass microbeads under pressure. The resin is heated and, once cooled, holds the pancakes in place. The operation has to be performed on both sides of the coil, which necessitated a special technique to turn the coils over and then transport them to the heating table. Photos 01, 02, 03: Use of the overhead travelling crane to hoist the coil up and then tilt it over, the coil frame's metal feet being used as rotational pivots, supporting half the coil's weight. Once it has been turned over, the coil, now with only half the frame, is transported to the heating table using a special lifting gant...

  3. Forces on a magnet moving past figure-eight coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulcahy, T.H.; He, Jianliang; Rote, D.M.; Rossing, T.D.


    For the first time, the lift, drag, and guidance forces acting on a permanent magnet are measured as the magnet passes over different arrays of figure-eight (null-flux) coils. The experimental results are in good agreement with the predictions of dynamic circuit theory, which is used to explain more optimal coil arrays

  4. Study on Pole Arrangement of the CEDM Coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Seok; Lee, Myoung Goo; Kim, Hyun Min; Cho, Yeon Ho; Choi, Taek Sang


    The coil stack assembly is important for reliable operation of the CEDM, there have been efforts to improve the design by optimizing the design parameters such as dimensions and winding turns. However, magnetic forces of the CEDM can also change by different pole arrangement even if their design parameters are the same. Since the latch coil and lift coil are installed connected to each other, they produce magnetically coupled field when they are energized at the same time. This coupling field can affect the magnetic force of the CEDM significantly. In this paper, coil pole arrangement effects are studied. Electro-magnetic analysis is performed for the different pole arrangements of the CEDM coils to calculate the magnetic forces. Pole arrangement effects on magnetic forces were studied by static analysis of the CEDM magnetic field. Magnetic forces were calculated and compared for the two different pole arrangements of the coils. The results show that the magnetic poles of the lift coil and latch coil shall be arranged to have the same magnetic pole direction to achieve higher magnetic force

  5. Performance of trim coils made by a novel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanderer, P.; Anerella, M.; Cottingham, J.; Ganetis, G.; Garber, M.; Ghosh, A.; Goodzeit, C.; Greene, A.; Gupta, R.; Herrera, J.; Kahn, S.; Kelly, E.; Meade, A.; Morgan, G.; Muratore, J.; Prodell, A.; Rehak, M.; Rohrer, E.P.; Sampson, W.; Shutt, R.; Skaritka, J.; Thompson, P.; Willen, E.


    A precision, automated method of manufacturing trim coils based on printed circuit technology has been developed. Excellent quench performance and increased radiation resistance have been achieved in recently-tested models of sextupole trim coils developed for operation inside 40 mm-aperture SSC Main Collider dipoles. 6 refs., 2 figs

  6. Coiled‐coils: The long and short of it (United States)

    Truebestein, Linda


    Coiled‐coils are found in proteins throughout all three kingdoms of life. Coiled‐coil domains of some proteins are almost invariant in sequence and length, betraying a structural and functional role for amino acids along the entire length of the coiled‐coil. Other coiled‐coils are divergent in sequence, but conserved in length, thereby functioning as molecular spacers. In this capacity, coiled‐coil proteins influence the architecture of organelles such as centrioles and the Golgi, as well as permit the tethering of transport vesicles. Specialized coiled‐coils, such as those found in motor proteins, are capable of propagating conformational changes along their length that regulate cargo binding and motor processivity. Coiled‐coil domains have also been identified in enzymes, where they function as molecular rulers, positioning catalytic activities at fixed distances. Finally, while coiled‐coils have been extensively discussed for their potential to nucleate and scaffold large macromolecular complexes, structural evidence to substantiate this claim is relatively scarce. PMID:27492088

  7. Coil planet centrifugation as a means for small particle separation (United States)

    Herrmann, F. T.


    The coil planet centrifuge uses a centrifugal force field to provide separation of particles based on differences in sedimentation rates by flow through a rotating coiled tube. Three main separations are considered: (1) single phase fresh sheep and human erythrocytes, (2) single phase fixed heep and human erythrocytes, and (3) electrophoretically enhanced single phase fresh sheep and human erythrocytes.

  8. Impulse and Frequency Response of a Moving Coil Galvanometer. (United States)

    McNeill, D. J.


    Describes an undergraduate laboratory experiment in which a moving coil galvanometer is studied and the electromotive force generated by the swinging coil provides the impulse response information in a form suitable for digitizing and inputing to a microcomputer. Background information and analysis of typical data are included. (JN)

  9. High voltage fault current limiter having immersed phase coils (United States)

    Darmann, Francis Anthony


    A fault current limiter including: a ferromagnetic circuit formed from a ferromagnetic material and including at least a first limb, and a second limb; a saturation mechanism surrounding a limb for magnetically saturating the ferromagnetic material; a phase coil wound around a second limb; a dielectric fluid surrounding the phase coil; a gaseous atmosphere surrounding the saturation mechanism.

  10. An Air Bearing Rotating Coil Magnetic Measurement System

    CERN Document Server

    Gottschalk, Stephen C; Taylor, David J; Thayer, William


    This paper describes a rotating coil magnetic measurement system supported on air bearings. The design is optimized for measurements of 0.1micron magnetic centerline changes on long, small aperture quadrupoles. Graphite impregnated epoxy resin is used for the coil holder and coil winding forms. Coil holder diameter is 11 mm with a length between supports of 750mm. A pair of coils is used to permit quadrupole bucking during centerline measurements. Coil length is 616mm, inner radius 1.82mm, outer radius 4.74mm. The key features of the mechanical system are simplicity; air bearings for accurate, repeatable measurements without needing warm up time and a vibration isolated stand that uses a steel-topped Newport optical table with air suspension. Coil rotation is achieved by a low noise servo motor controlled by a standalone Ethernet servo board running custom servo software. Coil calibration procedures that correct wire placement errors, tests for mechanical resonances, and other system checks will also be discu...

  11. Impact of coil price knowledge by the operator on the cost of aneurysm coiling. A single center study. (United States)

    Finitsis, Stephanos; Fahed, Robert; Gaulin, Ian; Roy, Daniel; Weill, Alain


    Endovascular treatment of aneurysms with coils is among the most frequent treatments in interventional neuroradiology, and represents an important expense. Each manufacturer has created several types of coils, with prices varying among brands and coil types. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of cost awareness of the exact price of each coil by the operating physician on the total cost of aneurysm coiling. This was a comparative study conducted over 1 year in a single tertiary care center. The reference cohort and the experimental cohort consisted of all aneurysm embolization procedures performed during the first 6 months and the last 6 months, respectively. During the second period, physicians were given an information sheet with the prices of all available coils and were requested to look at the sheet during each procedure with the instruction to try to reduce the total cost of the coils used. Expenses related to the coiling procedures during each period were compared. 77 aneurysms (39 ruptured) in the reference cohort and 73 aneurysms (36 ruptured) in the experimental cohort were treated, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference regarding aneurysm location and mean size. The overall cost of the coiling procedures, the mean number of coils used per procedure, and the median cost of each procedure did not differ significantly between the two cohorts. Awareness of the precise price of coils by operators without any additional measure did not have a scientifically proven impact on the cost of aneurysm embolization. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Performance scaling of inductive pulsed plasma thrusters with coil angle and pulse rate (United States)

    Martin, A. K.


    A circuit model for an inductive pulsed plasma thruster was developed in order to investigate the performance of thrusters with conical coils; the model can accommodate cone-angles from 0° (a straight theta-pinch coil) to 90° (a planar coil). The plasma is treated as a deformable slug that moves both radially and axially in response to the force applied by the coil. The radial equation of motion includes a restoring force due to the plasma pressure, which is derived under the assumption that the electron population is isothermal, while the ions are isothermal, adiabatic, or shock-heated depending on the magnitude and sign of the radial velocity. The inductance of the coil and the plasma slug, and their mutual inductance, was determined using QuickField. A local maximum in efficiency and specific impulse was found for angles less than 90° however the absolute maximum for both these quantities occurs at 90°. High pulse-rate operation was found to yield dynamic efficiencies (excluding ionization cost) as high as 60-70% for I SP in the range of 3000-5000 s, even for a device with modest jet-power (5 kW). This mode of operation also permits elimination of the pulsed gas valve, which would be a significant system-level simplification. An alternate mode of inductive recapture, in which the current is interrupted at the second zero-crossing, was found to result in a sacrifice of only 1-2% in efficiency, while offering other significant system-level benefits for this kind of thruster.

  13. Development of superconducting pulsed poloidal coil in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamoto, S.; Okuno, K.; Ando, T.; Tsuji, H.


    In the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, (JAERI), development work on pulsed superconductors and coils started in 1979, aiming at the demonstration of the applicability of superconducting technologies to pulsed poloidal coils in a fusion reactor. Initially our effort was concentrated mainly on the development of pool-cooled large-current pulsed conductors. Over the past ten years, superconducting technology has made great progress and the forced-flow cooled coil has assumed great importance in the development work. Now the Demo Poloidal Coil Project is in progress in JAERI, and three large forced-flow cooled coils have so far been fabricated and tested. Many improvements have been achieved in ac-loss performance and mechanical characteristics. (author)

  14. Fabrication of an epoxy-insulated Marshall Coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, E.E.; Ehart, E.P.; Ebaugh, L.R.; Fox, A.G.; Dickinson, J.M.


    A Marshall Coil was fabricated by the LASL CMB-6 Materials Technology Group for use in an electrical testing program to evaluate the Marshall Coil concept. The coil is basically a hat-shaped epoxy insulator which was electroplated with copper on all surfaces, and a complex conductor pattern was machined out of the copper. The brim of the coil is approximately 84 cm diameter and the crown is 24 cm high. Other techniques for fabricating Marshall Coils were studied, the one selected being that which was felt to offer the best chance of success on a one-time basis. Alternate proposals involved (a) the potting of a freestanding copper insulator array in epoxy resin, and (b) inlaying stamped copper conductor sections in the slots of a machined epoxy insulator

  15. New head gradient coil design and construction techniques. (United States)

    Handler, William B; Harris, Chad T; Scholl, Timothy J; Parker, Dennis L; Goodrich, K Craig; Dalrymple, Brian; Van Sass, Frank; Chronik, Blaine A


    To design and build a head insert gradient coil to use in conjunction with body gradients for superior imaging. The use of the boundary element method to solve for a gradient coil wire pattern on an arbitrary surface allowed us to incorporate engineering changes into the electromagnetic design of a gradient coil directly. Improved wire pattern design was combined with robust manufacturing techniques and novel cooling methods. The finished coil had an efficiency of 0.15 mT/m/A in all three axes and allowed the imaging region to extend across the entire head and upper part of the neck. The ability to adapt an electromagnetic design to necessary changes from an engineering perspective leads to superior coil performance. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Vehicle to wireless power transfer coupling coil alignment sensor (United States)

    Miller, John M.; Chambon, Paul H.; Jones, Perry T.; White, Clifford P.


    A non-contacting position sensing apparatus includes at least one vehicle-mounted receiver coil that is configured to detect a net flux null when the vehicle is optimally aligned relative to the primary coil in the charging device. Each of the at least one vehicle-mounted receiver coil includes a clockwise winding loop and a counterclockwise winding loop that are substantially symmetrically configured and serially connected to each other. When the non-contacting position sensing apparatus is located directly above the primary coil of the charging device, the electromotive forces from the clockwise winding loop and the counterclockwise region cancel out to provide a zero electromotive force, i.e., a zero voltage reading across the coil that includes the clockwise winding loop and the counterclockwise winding loop.

  17. Program NICOLET to integrate energy loss in superconducting coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.F.


    A voltage pickup coil, inductively coupled to the magnetic field of the superconducting coil under test, is connected so its output may be compared with the terminal voltage of the coil under test. The integrated voltage difference is indicative of the resistive volt-seconds. When multiplied with the main coil current, the volt-seconds yield the loss. In other words, a hysteresis loop is obtained if the integrated voltage difference phi = ∫ΔVdt is plotted as a function of the coil current, i. First, time functions of the two signals phi(t) and i(t) are recorded on a dual-trace digital oscilloscope, and these signals are then recorded on magnetic tape. On a CDC-6600, the recorded information is decoded and plotted, and the hysteresis loops are integrated by the set of FORTRAN programs NICOLET described in this report. 4 figures

  18. First assembly phase for the ATLAS toroid coils

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice


    The ATLAS barrel toroid system consists of eight coils, each of axial length 25.3 m, assembled radially and symmetrically around the beam axis. The coils are of a flat racetrack type with two double-pancake windings made of 20.5 kA aluminium-stabilized niobium-titanium superconductor. In the first phase of assembly, the two 'pancakes' are packed into their vacuum vessel. This is done using bladders filled with resin and glass microbeads under pressure. The resin is heated and, once cooled, holds the pancakes in place. The operation has to be performed on both sides of the coil, which necessitated a special technique to turn the coils over and then transport them to the heating table. Photos 01, 02, 03: Transporting the coil to the heating table using a special lifting gantry manufactured at JINR-Dubna, Russia in preparation for the 'bladderisation' operation.

  19. Re-use of disposable coil dialysers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbud Filho, M.


    Re-use of disposable dialysers has been in practice for over 16 years throughout the world but it still is a polemical subject. The main justification for it is the reduction of costs in the hemodialytic treatment. We evaluated the technique of re-use that we adopt by studying 33 patients who should re-utilize coil dialysers for 8 consecutive hemodialysis sessions. We investigated: 1) small and middle molecules clearances trough a radioisotopic method; 2) the integrity of the system regarding bacterial invasion; 3) the frequency of anti-N antibodies; 4) aspects of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of dialysis membrane after re-use. We observed no changes in the dialysers performance during re-use. We conclude that the re-use of dialyzers is feasible, without risks for the patients, allowing marked reduction of costs, thus making possible to offer treatment to a larger number of uremic patients. (author)

  20. Coiled-coil oligomerization controls localization of the plasma membrane REMORINs. (United States)

    Martinez, Denis; Legrand, Anthony; Gronnier, Julien; Decossas, Marion; Gouguet, Paul; Lambert, Olivier; Berbon, Mélanie; Verron, Loris; Grélard, Axelle; Germain, Veronique; Loquet, Antoine; Mongrand, Sébastien; Habenstein, Birgit


    REMORINs are nanodomain-organized proteins located in the plasma membrane and involved in cellular responses in plants. The dynamic assembly of the membrane nanodomains represents an essential tool of the versatile membrane barriers to control and modulate cellular functions. Nevertheless, the assembly mechanisms and protein organization strategies of nanodomains are poorly understood and many structural aspects are difficult to visualize. Using an ensemble of biophysical approaches, including solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, cryo-electron microscopy and in vivo confocal imaging, we provide first insights on the role and the structural mechanisms of REMORIN trimerization. Our results suggest that the formation of REMORIN coiled-coil trimers is essential for membrane recruitment and promotes REMORIN assembly in vitro into long filaments by trimer-trimer interactions that might participate in nanoclustering into membrane domains in vivo. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Antibody engineering using phage display with a coiled-coil heterodimeric Fv antibody fragment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinwei Wang

    Full Text Available A Fab-like antibody binding unit, ccFv, in which a pair of heterodimeric coiled-coil domains was fused to V(H and V(L for Fv stabilization, was constructed for an anti-VEGF antibody. The anti-VEGF ccFv showed the same binding affinity as scFv but significantly improved stability and phage display level. Furthermore, phage display libraries in the ccFv format were constructed for humanization and affinity maturation of the anti-VEGF antibody. A panel of V(H frameworks and V(H-CDR3 variants, with a significant improvement in affinity and expressibility in both E. coli and yeast systems, was isolated from the ccFv phage libraries. These results demonstrate the potential application of the ccFv antibody format in antibody engineering.

  2. Characteristics analysis on a superconductor resonance coil WPT system according to cooling vessel materials in different distances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, In-Sung, E-mail:; Lee, Yu-Kyeong; Choi, Hyo-Sang, E-mail:


    Highlights: • WPT using the superconductor coil was needed research for cooling vessel. FRP, bakelite, polystyrene, aluminum, and iron were applied as the cooling vessel material to analyze the WPT distance efficiency. • When the distance between the transmitter and receiver coils was 2000 mm, FRP being used for the cooling vessel made the transmission efficiency higher than any other materials. The efficiency and distance of sending power can be improved in the superconductor coil if the cooling vessel is made with FRP. - Abstract: The interest in wireless power transfer (WPT) that can send power without using wires has been increasing recently. Especially, there is a great interest in the wireless power devices for portable IT devices. The WPT devices that have been developed so far use the magnetic induction method, and they are not active due to their distance problem. A magnetic resonance WPT method was developed and has been actively researched to resolve this problem. A superconductor coil was applied in this study to increase the efficiency of the magnetic resonance WPT. FRP, bakelite, polystyrene, aluminum, and iron were applied as the cooling vessel material to analyze the WPT distance. The distance between the transmitter and receiver coils started from 800 mm and was increased by 200 mm. The reflection coefficient was measured at each distance. As a result, FRP, bakelite, plastic PVC, polystyrene of the reflection coefficient was similar. From among these FRP being used for the cooling vessel made the transmission characteristics higher than any other materials when the distance between the transmitter and receiver coils was 2,000 mm. On the other hand, the reflection coefficient dropped when iron was used. It is estimated based on the experimental results that the wireless power transmission characteristics and distance of sending power can be improved in the superconductor coil if the cooling vessel is made with FRP.

  3. Principles Governing the Self-Assembly of Coiled-Coil Protein Nanoparticles. (United States)

    Indelicato, Giuliana; Wahome, Newton; Ringler, Philippe; Müller, Shirley A; Nieh, Mu-Ping; Burkhard, Peter; Twarock, Reidun


    Self-assembly refers to the spontaneous organization of individual building blocks into higher order structures. It occurs in biological systems such as spherical viruses, which utilize icosahedral symmetry as a guiding principle for the assembly of coat proteins into a capsid shell. In this study, we characterize the self-assembling protein nanoparticle (SAPN) system, which was inspired by such viruses. To facilitate self-assembly, monomeric building blocks have been designed to contain two oligomerization domains. An N-terminal pentameric coiled-coil domain is linked to a C-terminal coiled-coil trimer by two glycine residues. By combining monomers with inherent propensity to form five- and threefold symmetries in higher order agglomerates, the supposition is that nanoparticles will form that exhibit local and global symmetry axes of order 3 and 5. This article explores the principles that govern the assembly of such a system. Specifically, we show that the system predominantly forms according to a spherical core-shell morphology using a combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy and small angle neutron scattering. We introduce a mathematical toolkit to provide a specific description of the possible SAPN morphologies, and we apply it to characterize all particles with maximal symmetry. In particular, we present schematics that define the relative positions of all individual chains in the symmetric SAPN particles, and provide a guide of how this approach can be generalized to nonspherical morphologies, hence providing unprecedented insights into their geometries that can be exploited in future applications. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sub-20 nm Stable Micelles Based on a Mixture of Coiled-Coils: A Platform for Controlled Ligand Presentation. (United States)

    Ang, JooChuan; Ma, Dan; Jung, Benson T; Keten, Sinan; Xu, Ting


    Ligand-functionalized, multivalent nanoparticles have been extensively studied for biomedical applications from imaging agents to drug delivery vehicles. However, the ligand cluster size is usually heterogeneous and the local valency is ill-defined. Here, we present a mixed micelle platform hierarchically self-assembled from a mixture of two amphiphilic 3-helix and 4-helix peptide-polyethylene glycol (PEG)-lipid hybrid conjugates. We demonstrate that the local multivalent ligand cluster size on the micelle surface can be controlled based on the coiled-coil oligomeric state. The oligomeric states of mixed peptide bundles were found to be in their individual native states. Similarly, mixed micelles indicate the orthogonal self-association of coiled-coil amphiphiles. Using differential scanning calorimetry, fluorescence recovery spectroscopy, and coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation, we studied the distribution of coiled-coil bundles within the mixed micelles and observed migration of coiled-coils into nanodomains within the sub-20 nm mixed micelle. This report provides important insights into the assembly and formation of nanophase-separated micelles with precise control over the local multivalent state of ligands on the micelle surface.

  5. Self-assembly of designed coiled coil peptides studied by small-angle X-ray scattering and analytical ultracentrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malik, Leila; Nygaard, Jesper; Christensen, Niels Johan


    , they are promising tools for the construction of nanomaterials. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) has emerged as a new biophysical technique for elucidation of protein topology. Here, we describe a systematic study of the self-assembly of a small ensemble of coiled coil sequences using SAXS and analytical...

  6. Novel Coiled-Coil Cell Division Factor ZapB Stimulates Z Ring Assembly and Cell Division

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebersbach, Gitte; Galli, Elizabeth; Møller-Jensen, Jakob


    exhibited a synthetic sick phenotype and aberrant cell divisions. The crystal structure showed that ZapB exists as a dimer that is 100% coiled-coil. In vitro, ZapB self-assembled into long filaments and bundles. These results raise the possibility that ZapB stimulates Z ring formation directly via its...

  7. A coiled coil trigger site is essential for rapid binding of synaptobrevin to the SNARE acceptor complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiederhold, Katrin; Kloepper, Tobias H; Walter, Alexander M


    to the preformed syntaxin 1.SNAP-25 dimer. Exactly how this step relates to neurotransmitter release is not well understood. Here, we combined different approaches to gain insights into this reaction. Using computational methods, we identified a stretch in synaptobrevin 2 that may function as a coiled coil...

  8. Non-covalent modification of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) by coiled-coil technology. (United States)

    Reichert, Christian; Perozzo, Remo; Borchard, Gerrit


    We present here an approach to non-covalently combine an engineered model protein with a PEGylated peptide via coiled-coil binding. To this end a fusion protein of G-CSF and the peptide sequence (JunB) was created-one sequence of JunB was expressed at the N-terminal of GCSF. JunB is able to bind to the peptide sequence cFos, which was in turn covalently linked to a chain of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). The selected peptide sequences are leucine zipper motives from transcription factors and are known to bind to each other specifically by formation of a super secondary structure called coiled-coil. The binding between PEGylated peptides of various molecular weights and the modified protein was assessed by isothermal calorimetry (ITC), dynamic light scattering (DLS), circular dichroism (CD), and fluorescence anisotropy. Our findings show that the attachment of 2 and 5kDa PEG does not interfere with coiled-coil formation and thus binding of peptide to fusion protein. With this work we successfully demonstrate the non-covalent binding of a model moiety (PEG) to a protein through coiled-coil interaction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Location of disorder in coiled coil proteins is influenced by its biological role and subcellular localization: a GO-based study on human proteome. (United States)

    Anurag, Meenakshi; Singh, Gajinder Pal; Dash, Debasis


    Intrinsic disorder in proteins has been explored to study lack of structure-function aspects of many proteins. The current study focuses on coiled coils which are often linked to intrinsic disorder. We present a sequence level analysis of human coiled coils to find out if this is universally true for all coiled coils. When annotated coiled-coil regions were collected from UniProt and investigated with disorder prediction tools namely-IUPred and DISpro, three patterns were commonly observed-disordered coiled coils (DisCCs), ordered coiled coils (OCCs) and the last one having a disordered region outside the coiled-coil region (DOCCs). Differential enrichment in the gene ontology was seen in these three categories. We found that OCCs are enriched in structural components of the extracellular space including the fibrinogen complex and laminin complex. On the contrary, DisCCs were found to be exclusively over-represented in proteins involved in actin filament, lamellipodium, cell junction, macromolecule complexes, ciliary rootlet and nucleolus. DOCCs are found to be associated with many regulatory and adaptor functions including positive regulation of calcium ion transport via store-operated calcium channel activity, cytoskeletal adaptor activity etc. Other than the GO-based analysis, sequence level analysis showed that disordered coiled-coil regions bear a high proportion of low-complexity regions as compared to ordered coiled coils. The former also has a higher probability of forming a dimer as compared to the ordered counterpart. Our study shows that the in silico approach of mapping of disorder in or around coiled coils in other biological systems or organisms can be applied to understand and rationalize the mode of action of these dynamic motifs.

  10. The possibility and the countermeasure of the re-rupture within procedure in the embolization of intracranial aneurysms with Guglielmi detachable coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Minghua; Gu Binxian; Cheng Yingsheng; Fang Chun; Wang Wu; Xu Tao; Xu Shiding


    Objective: To study the possibility and the way to deal with the re-rupture within procedure for rupture aneurysms with Guglielmi detachable coil (GDC) embolization. Methods: When 159 cases with intracranial aneurysms were treated with GDC embolization, the rupture during procedure occurred in 7 cases. Of them, the re-rupture was related to microguidewire in one cases, related to coils in 3 cases, related to microcatheter in 2 cases, and related to over-packing with coils in one case. Results: A continuous packing with GDC with or without microcatheter adjustment, till a total occlusion of aneurysm, was performed in 3 cases with re-rupture related to coils and in 2 cases with re-rupture related to microcatheter. Of them, a complete recovery was acquired in 4 and a monoplegia remained in one case; Both the case with re-rupture related to microguidewire and the case with re-rupture related to over-packing with coils died due to intracerebral over-bleeding. Conclusion: It is unavoidable that the re-rupture occurred during the procedure of GDC embolization of intracranial aneurysms. Its occurrence is in inverse proportion with operator's experience. The proper choice of coils may reduce the occurrence of re-rupture related to procedure. A continuous packing with coils is possible to get a total occlusion without any sequels in re-ruptured aneurysms

  11. Applications of rotary jetting tool with coiled tubing offshore Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, Ricardo; Almeida, Victor; Mendez, Alfredo; Dean, Greg [BJ Services do Brasil Ltda., RJ (Brazil)


    It is well known that offshore operators are continuously looking for alternatives to reduce rig time, especially when it comes to work over operations due to high costs. The introduction of a Rotary Jetting Tool (RJT) in conjunction with coiled tubing was successfully tested and proved to be a better alternative not only because of its efficiency but also due to a reduction in the time of intervention operations. The RJT was created to remove scales and well obstructions by utilization of stress-cycling jetting. Stress cycling is a jetting mechanism that consists of pressuring and energizing fluid against a material. This mechanism breaks scales or obstructions and vibrates proppants in gravel pack completions. The RJT is composed of turbines that generate spinning and magnets that control the rotation. Most fluids used in the oil industry for remedial operations are compatible with this tool, hence its wide range of applications. This paper will present case histories that vary from hydrate and scale removal, and matrix stimulations including cleaning of gravel pack completions. The usage of this RJT has demonstrated effectiveness as a new alternative to improve well production and reduce rig time when compared to other methods commonly used in the area. (author)

  12. Equilibrium crossing exhibited by an ethynylhelicene (M)-nonamer during random-coil-to-double-helix thermal transition in solution. (United States)

    Miyagawa, Masamichi; Yagi, Atsushi; Shigeno, Masanori; Yamaguchi, Masahiko


    The structural change between the random-coil and the double-helix of an ethynylhelicene (M)-nonamer during heating crosses equilibrium. This is a phenomenon where a chemical reaction crosses equilibrium and returns to equilibrium. It is due to an accelerated rate of formation of the double-helix by self-catalysis and an equilibrium shift.

  13. Magnetic field systems employing a superconducting D.C. field coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartram, T.C.; Hazell, P.A.


    Method and equipment for transferring energy to or from a direct-current superconducting field coil to change the magnetic field generated by the coil in which a second direct-current superconducting coil is used as a storage coil, and energy transfer between the field coil and the storage coil is effected automatically in dependence upon a control program. Preferably, the control program acts upon a variable transformer which is coupled by respective rectifier/inverters to the field and storage coils and also serves for intital supply of energy to the coils

  14. Coiled-coil destabilizing residues in the group A Streptococcus M1 protein are required for functional interaction. (United States)

    Stewart, Chelsea M; Buffalo, Cosmo Z; Valderrama, J Andrés; Henningham, Anna; Cole, Jason N; Nizet, Victor; Ghosh, Partho


    The sequences of M proteins, the major surface-associated virulence factors of the widespread bacterial pathogen group A Streptococcus, are antigenically variable but have in common a strong propensity to form coiled coils. Paradoxically, these sequences are also replete with coiled-coil destabilizing residues. These features are evident in the irregular coiled-coil structure and thermal instability of M proteins. We present an explanation for this paradox through studies of the B repeats of the medically important M1 protein. The B repeats are required for interaction of M1 with fibrinogen (Fg) and consequent proinflammatory activation. The B repeats sample multiple conformations, including intrinsically disordered, dissociated, as well as two alternate coiled-coil conformations: a Fg-nonbinding register 1 and a Fg-binding register 2. Stabilization of M1 in the Fg-nonbinding register 1 resulted in attenuation of Fg binding as expected, but counterintuitively, so did stabilization in the Fg-binding register 2. Strikingly, these register-stabilized M1 proteins gained the ability to bind Fg when they were destabilized by a chaotrope. These results indicate that M1 stability is antithetical to Fg interaction and that M1 conformational dynamics, as specified by destabilizing residues, are essential for interaction. A "capture-and-collapse" model of association accounts for these observations, in which M1 captures Fg through a dynamic conformation and then collapses into a register 2-coiled coil as a result of stabilization provided by binding energy. Our results support the general conclusion that destabilizing residues are evolutionarily conserved in M proteins to enable functional interactions necessary for pathogenesis.

  15. Analysis of quench-vent pressures for present design of ITER [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor] TF [toroidal field] coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slack, D.S.


    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is a new tokamak design project with joint participation from Japan, the European Community, the Union of the Soviet Union, and the United States. This paper examines the effects of a quench within the toroidal field (TF) coils based on current ITER design. It is a preliminary, rough analysis. Its intent is to assist ITER designers while more accurate computer codes are being developed and to provide a check against these more rigorous solutions. Rigorous solutions to the quench problem are very complex involving three-dimensional heat transfer, extreme changes in heat capacities and copper resistivity, and varying flow dynamics within the conductors. This analysis addresses all these factors in an approximate way. The result is much less accurate than a rigorous analysis. Results here could be in error as much as 30 to 40 percent. However, it is believed that this paper can still be very useful to the coil designer. Coil pressures and temperatures vs time into a quench are presented. Rate of helium vent, energy deposition in the coil, and depletion of magnetic stored energy are also presented. Peak pressures are high (about 43 MPa). This is due to the very long vent path length (446 m), small hydraulic diameters, and high current densities associated with ITER's cable-in-conduit design. The effects of these pressures as well as the ability of the coil to be self protecting during a quench are discussed. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  16. Construction and modeling of a reconfigurable MRI coil for lowering SAR in patients with deep brain stimulation implants. (United States)

    Golestanirad, Laleh; Iacono, Maria Ida; Keil, Boris; Angelone, Leonardo M; Bonmassar, Giorgio; Fox, Michael D; Herrington, Todd; Adalsteinsson, Elfar; LaPierre, Cristen; Mareyam, Azma; Wald, Lawrence L


    Post-operative MRI of patients with deep brain simulation (DBS) implants is useful to assess complications and diagnose comorbidities, however more than one third of medical centers do not perform MRIs on this patient population due to stringent safety restrictions and liability risks. A new system of reconfigurable magnetic resonance imaging head coil composed of a rotatable linearly-polarized birdcage transmitter and a close-fitting 32-channel receive array is presented for low-SAR imaging of patients with DBS implants. The novel system works by generating a region with low electric field magnitude and steering it to coincide with the DBS lead trajectory. We demonstrate that the new coil system substantially reduces the SAR amplification around DBS electrodes compared to commercially available circularly polarized coils in a cohort of 9 patient-derived realistic DBS lead trajectories. We also show that the optimal coil configuration can be reliably identified from the image artifact on B 1 + field maps. Our preliminary results suggest that such a system may provide a viable solution for high-resolution imaging of DBS patients in the future. More data is needed to quantify safety limits and recommend imaging protocols before the novel coil system can be used on patients with DBS implants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sequence correction of random coil chemical shifts: correlation between neighbor correction factors and changes in the Ramachandran distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Magnus; Poulsen, Flemming Martin


    Random coil chemical shifts are necessary for secondary chemical shift analysis, which is the main NMR method for identification of secondary structure in proteins. One of the largest challenges in the determination of random coil chemical shifts is accounting for the effect of neighboring residues....... The contributions from the neighboring residues are typically removed by using neighbor correction factors determined based on each residue's effect on glycine chemical shifts. Due to its unusual conformational freedom, glycine may be particularly unrepresentative for the remaining residue types. In this study, we...... in the conformational ensemble are an important source of neighbor effects in disordered proteins. Glutamine derived random coil chemical shifts and correction factors modestly improve our ability to predict (13)C chemical shifts of intrinsically disordered proteins compared to existing datasets, and may thus improve...

  18. Optimization of gradient coil technology for human magnetic resonance imaging (United States)

    Chronik, Blaine Alexander

    The general problem of identifying the optimal gradient coil design for any given application is addressed in this thesis. The problem is divided into stages. The first step is the development of an optimal mathematical solution for single designs conforming to some set of constraints. The second step is the systematic implementation of the mathematical algorithm to search for the optimal set of design constraints for an intended application, two examples of which are investigated. The final step is the consideration of gradient coil dependent physiological limits specific to the application of strong gradient fields in human subjects. A modified minimum inductance target field method that allows the placement of a set of constraints on the final current density is developed. This constrained current minimum inductance (CCMI) method is derived in the context of previous target field methods. The method has been fully implemented on computer and applied to the design of both central and edge uniformity gradient coils. A three axis gradient coil set that utilizes interleaved, multilayer axes to achieve maximum gradient strengths of over 2000mT/m in rise times of less than 50μs with an inner coil diameter of 5cm was designed. Water cooling was incorporated into the coil to assist in thermal management. The duty cycle for the most extreme cases of single shot EPI is limited by the thermal response and expressions for maximum rates of image collection are given for burst and continuous modes of operation. A three axis gradient coil set with an imaging region extending outside the physical edge of the coil was designed, constructed, and tested. The configuration is compatible with both neck and brain imaging in humans. The coil produces a cylindrical imaging region 16cm in diameter and 16cm in length. The coil axes produce gradient strengths between 80mT/m and 100mT/m at 250A peak current, with minimum rise times of approximately 400μs. Heating tests were performed

  19. Fetal MRI on a multi-element digital coil platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serai, Suraj D.; Merrow, Arnold C.; Kline-Fath, Beth M. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, 3333 Burnett Ave., MLC 5031, Cincinnati, OH (United States)


    Fetal MRI has an increasing list of indications and is most commonly employed when anomalies detected by prenatal ultrasonography require further characterization. This may occur when sonography is technically challenging or where specific MRI findings will determine pre- and postnatal management, including critical in utero and/or peripartum interventions. In these circumstances, there are high expectations for MRI to sort out complex diagnostic dilemmas through exquisite anatomical imaging that fetal surgeons and obstetricians can comprehend and relay to their patients. These expectations, in light of evolving clinical innovations, continue to drive advances in fetal imaging. Increasing signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is fundamental to improving MR image quality, and proper coil selection is a key component of this pursuit. Since the introduction of parallel imaging techniques, the numbers of elements in phased-array coils have been continuously increased to achieve high SNR and shorter scan times. With the invention of a digital coil platform, it is now possible to connect combinations of multiple coil elements to enhance SNR beyond the capabilities of the adult eight-channel torso-coil routinely used in fetal imaging. This paper describes the application of multi-element radiofrequency coils on a digital broadband imaging platform with unique coil combinations to perform dedicated fetal MRI. (orig.)

  20. Thermal performance in circular tube fitted with coiled square wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Promvonge, Pongjet


    The effects of wires with square cross section forming a coil used as a turbulator on the heat transfer and turbulent flow friction characteristics in a uniform heat flux, circular tube are experimentally investigated in the present work. The experiments are performed for flows with Reynolds numbers ranging from 5000 to 25,000. Two different spring coiled wire pitches are introduced. The results are also compared with those obtained from using a typical coiled circular wire, apart from the smooth tube. The experimental results reveal that the use of coiled square wire turbulators leads to a considerable increase in heat transfer and friction loss over those of a smooth wall tube. The Nusselt number increases with the rise of Reynolds number and the reduction of pitch for both circular and square wire coils. The coiled square wire provides higher heat transfer than the circular one under the same conditions. Also, performance evaluation criteria to assess the real benefits in using both coil wires of the enhanced tube are determined

  1. Optically induced inductance modulation of a Nb coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, S.W.; Park, G.S.; Cabrera, B.; Huber, M.E.


    The authors have designed and tested an optically driven inductance modulator, for use as part of a 1/f noise reduction scheme for SQUID magnetometers. The modulated element is a Nb coil photolithographically patterned on a 6x6 nm silicon chip. The coil is covered by three concentric superconducting washers, patterned from a layer of PbInAu deposited above the Nb. Leads from the washers extend to a meander region directly below an optical fiber, which is coupled to a diode laser. With the laser off, the superconducting washer loops diamagnetically shield the coil, and the coil has a low effective inductance. With the laser on, the meander is driven normal and the superconducting washer loops are open, greatly reducing the shielding. The coil then has a high effective inductance. The inductance is measured using a SQUID connected to the coil. Using this method, they have modulated the coil inductance from 2 μH to nearly 20 μH. By using four of these inductance modulators, they plan to fabricate a low-noise chopping network at the input of a SQUID, which can be used to reduce the 1/f noise in SQUID measurements

  2. Discrete-coil investigations of modular stellarator configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilliequist, C.G.


    The existence of a vacuum magnetic well is generally accepted as a prerequisite to start-up. The special set of modular-stellarator configurations selected for the present computational investigation was derived from coefficients and equations that produced finite-beta wells in a continuous-current-sheet representation. The corresponding coils did not produce magnetic wells in a vacuum when their field configuration was investigated with a discrete-coil code. Vacuum magnetic wells have been identified through the use of this discrete-coil code in previous Heliac and stellarator studies. Therefore, these finite-beta magnetic wells could be the consequence of the continuous-current-sheet model: a conjecture that is supported by the linear scaling of the magnetic hills found in the present work as a function of the separation between the coils used. In addition to magnetic field profiles, comparisons are shown here of ripple, rotational transform, and flux-surface shapes for the discrete-coil, modular stellarators under study. Initially, each of the significant parameters affecting the shape of the control surface upon which the coils lie and the deformation of the individual coils was varied separately in search of a vacuum magnetic well in the parameter neighborhood of the successful finite-beta configuration

  3. Progress on the Focus Coil for the MICE Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, S.Q.; Lau, W.; Senanayake, R.S.; Witte, H.; Green, M.A.; Drumm, P.; Ivanyushenkov, Y.


    This report describes the progress on the magnet part of the absorber focus coil module for the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE). MICE consists of two cells of a SFOFO cooling channel that is similar to that studied in Feasibility 2 study of a neutrino factory [1]. The MICE absorber focus coil module consists of a pair of superconducting solenoids, mounted on an aluminum mandrel. The coil package is in its own vacuum vessel located around an absorber. The absorber is within a separate vacuum vessel that is within the warm bore of the focusing magnet. The superconducting focus coils may either be run in the solenoid mode (with the two coils at the same polarity) or in the gradient mode (with the coils at opposite polarity, causing the field direction to flip within the magnet bore). The coils will be cooled using a pair of small 4 K coolers. This report discusses the progress on the MICE focusing magnets, the magnet current supply system, and the quench protection system

  4. A Simple and Robust Sliding Mode Velocity Observer for Moving Coil Actuators in Digital Hydraulic Valves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Christian; Schmidt, Lasse; Bech, Michael Møller


    This paper focuses on estimating the velocity and position of fast switching digital hydraulic valves actuated by electromagnetic moving coil actuators, based on measurements of the coil current and voltage. The velocity is estimated by a simple first-order sliding mode observer architecture...... and the position is estimated by integrating the estimated velocity. The binary operation of digi-valves enables limiting and resetting the position estimate since the moving member is switched between the mechanical end-stops of the valve. This enables accurate tracking since drifting effects due to measurement...... noise and integration of errors in the velocity estimate may be circumvented. The proposed observer architecture is presented along with stability proofs and initial experimental results. To reveal the optimal observer performance, an optimization of the observer parameters is carried out. Subsequently...

  5. Modified Bean Model and FEM Method Combined for Persistent Current Calculation in Superconducting Coils

    CERN Document Server

    Völlinger, Christine; Russenschuck, Stephan


    Field variations in the LHC superconducting magnets, e. g. during the ramping of the magnets, induce magnetization currents in the superconducting material, the so-called persistent currents that do not decay but persist due to the lack of resistivity. This paper describes a semi-analytical hysteresis model for hard superconductors, which has been developed for the computation of the total field errors arising from persistent currents. Since the superconducting coil is surrounded by a ferromagnetic yoke structure, the persistent current model is combined with the finite element method (FEM), as the non-linear yoke can only be calculated numerically. The used finite element method is based on a reduced vector potential formulation that avoids the meshing of the coil while calculating the part of the field arising from the source currents by means of the Biot-Savart Law. The combination allows to determine persistent current induced field errors as function of the excitation and for arbitrarily shaped iron yoke...

  6. Countering the stray magnetic field of the CUSP trap by using additional coils

    CERN Document Server

    Thole, Jelle


    The ASACUSA experiment at the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at CERN tries to measure the Hyperfine Structure (HFS) of Antihydrogen (H ̄) using a Rabi spectroscopy set-up. In measuring this HFS it will yield a very precise test of CPT-symmetry. For this set-up to work a homogeneous magnetic field is needed in the cavity where the Hyperfine transition of H ̄ occurs. Due to the stray fields from the CUSP trap, where H ̄ is produced, additional coils are needed to counter these fields. It is found, using COMSOL simulations, that two coils are suitable for this. Leading to a relative standard deviation of the magnetic field of σB/B = 1.06%.

  7. A Review of the Properties and CVD Synthesis of Coiled Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dóra Fejes


    Full Text Available The CVD route for carbon nanotube production has become a popular method to make large amounts of multiwall carbon nanotubes. The structure, morphology and size of carbon materials depend critically on the catalyst preparation and deposition conditions. According to current knowledge, CVD method is the only process which can produce carbon nanocoils. These nanocoils are perfect candidates for nanotechnology applications. One might indeed hope that these coils would have the extraordinary stiffness displayed by straight nanotubes. Based on theoretical studies, regular coiled nanotubes exhibit exceptional mechanical, electrical, and magnetic properties due to the combination of their peculiar helical morphology and the fascinating properties of nanotubes. In spite of its technological interest, relatively low attention has been paid to this special field. In this paper we attempt to summarize results obtained until now.

  8. Residual stress measurement of the jacket material for ITER coil by neutron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Yoshinori [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    Nickel-Iron based super alloy INCOLOY 908 is used for the jacket of a central solenoid coil (CS coil) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). INCOLOY 908, however, has a possibility of fracture due to Stress Accelerated Grain Boundary Oxidation (SAGBO) under a tensile residual stress beyond 200MPa. Therefore it is necessary to measure the residual stress of the jacket to avoid SAGBO. We performed residual stress measurement of the jacket by neutron diffraction using the neutron diffractometer for residual stress analysis (RESA) installed at JRR-3M in JAERI. A sample depth dependence of internal strain was obtained from the (111) plane spacing. A residual stress distribution was calculated from the strain using Young`s modulus and Poisson`s ratio that were evaluated by a tensile test with neutron diffraction. The result shows that the tensile residual stress exceeds 200MPa of the SAGBO condition in some regions inside the jacket. (author)

  9. Active feedback stabilization of the flute instability in a mirror machine using field-aligned coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lifshitz, A.; Be'ery, I.; Fisher, A.; Ron, A.; Fruchtman, A.


    A plasma confined in linear mirror machines is unstable even at low β, mainly because of the flute instability. One possible way to stabilize the plasma is to use active feedback to correct the plasma shape in real time. The theoretically investigated apparatus consists of feedback coils aligned with the magnetic field, immersed in a cold plasma around the hot core. When the current through the feedback coils changes, the plasma moves to conserve the magnetic flux via compressional Alfvén waves. An analytical model is used to find a robust feedback algorithm with zero residual currents. It is shown that due to the plasma's rotation, maximal stability is obtained with a large phase angle between the perturbations' modes and the feedback integral-like term. Finally, a two-dimensional MHD simulation implementing the above algorithm in fact shows stabilization of the plasma with zero residual currents. (paper)

  10. Composite Coiled Tubing for Extended Reach in Horizontal Oil Wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costache, Andrei; Berggreen, Christian


    Conventional steel coiled tubing cannot reach along the entire length of very long horizontal oil wells. A lighter and more buoyant coiled tube is made possible using composite materials. The high stiffness to weight ratio of fiber reinforced polymers, coupled with a lower coefficient of friction......, has the potential of greatly extending the reach in horizontal oil wells. This study shows how to design composite coiled tubing and gives a comprehensive discussion about the most influential parameters. Several solutions, using glass-fiber and carbon are considered. Finite element models are used...

  11. SLPX TF coil, description and fem stress analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogoff, P.; File, J.


    A step-wise stress analysis was performed on the SLPX-TF Coil. It started with simple two dimensional simulations of both the support plate and the conductors. The results of the first studies provided input for decisions on the size of and material members. Later a more complicated analysis was made, constructing a 3-dimensional model of the coil using COSMIC-NASTRAN Version 17.5 with its accompanying substructuring capabilities. The upper half of the coil is simulated and reduced to a manageable size by using three basic substructures. Loads and boundary conditions are applied at each substructure. This magnet is for fusion applications. 5 refs

  12. Local head gradient coils: window(s) of opportunity. (United States)

    Wong, Eric C


    At the Medical College of Wisconsin (MCW), prior to the 1991 announcement of the discovery of BOLD fMRI, all of the technical pieces that were needed for efficient BOLD fMRI imaging were assembled for other applications, allowing MCW to jump into the fMRI business just days after the announcement. Central among these pieces was single shot EPI, implemented at MCW using a three axis local head gradient coil. This article describes the development of local gradient coil technology at MCW, and a historical perspective on local head gradient coils in general. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Resistive toroidal-field coils for tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalnavarns, J.; Jassby, D.L.


    This paper analyzes the optimization of the geometry of resistive TF coils of rectangular bore for tokamak fusion test reactors and practical neutron generators. In examining the trade-offs between geometric parameters and magnetic field for reactors giving a specified neutron wall loading, either the resistive power loss or the lifetime coil cost can be minimized. Aspects of cooling, magnetic stress, and construction are addressed for several reference designs. Bending moment distributions in closed form have been derived for rectangular coils on the basis of the theory of rigid frames. Candidate methods of fabrication and of implementing demountable joints are summarized

  14. Magnetic mirror structure for testing shell-type quadrupole coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Chlachidze, G.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; Tartaglia, N.; Turrioni, D.; /Fermilab


    This paper presents magnetic and mechanical designs and analyses of the quadrupole mirror structure to test single shell-type quadrupole coils. Several quadrupole coils made of different Nb{sub 3}Sn strands, cable insulation and pole materials were tested using this structure at 4.5 and 1.9 K. The coils were instrumented with voltage taps, spot heaters, temperature sensors and strain gauges to study their mechanical and thermal properties and quench performance. The results of the quadrupole mirror model assembly and test are reported and discussed.

  15. A general winding law of modular stellarator coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmeyer, E.; Kisslinger, J.; Rau, F.; Wobig, H.


    A general winding law for twisted coils is described in terms of analytic functions. On a toroidal surface given as x vector = x vector (φ,Θ) (φ = toroidal coordinate, Θ = poloidal coordinate) the current filaments φ = φ κ (Θ) are represented in terms of sin-functions. The paper includes several examples of classical stellarator and HELIAC configurations. By specifying a separate winding law for every single coil also WVII-AS type configurations can be modelled. The numerical code describing the central filament and the borderlines of the coils are given in the appendix. (orig.)

  16. Parametric design of tri-axial nested Helmholtz coils. (United States)

    Abbott, Jake J


    This paper provides an optimal parametric design for tri-axial nested Helmholtz coils, which are used to generate a uniform magnetic field with controllable magnitude and direction. Circular and square coils, both with square cross section, are considered. Practical considerations such as wire selection, wire-wrapping efficiency, wire bending radius, choice of power supply, and inductance and time response are included. Using the equations provided, a designer can quickly create an optimal set of custom coils to generate a specified field magnitude in the uniform-field region while maintaining specified accessibility to the central workspace. An example case study is included.

  17. Optimization of Moving Coil Actuators for Digital Displacement Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Christian; Bech, Michael Møller; Roemer, Daniel Beck


    This paper focuses on deriving an optimal moving coil actuator design, used as force pro-ducing element in hydraulic on/off valves for Digital Displacement machines. Different moving coil actuator geometry topologies (permanent magnet placement and magnetiza-tion direction) are optimized...... cycle using a single chamber Digital Displacement lumped parameter model. The optimization results shows that efficient operation is achievable using all of the proposed moving coil geometries, however some geometries require more space and actuator power. The most appealing of the optimized actuator...

  18. Coil-Globule Transition of PNIPAM in Non-Ionic Surfactant Mesophase (United States)

    Jijo, V. J.; Sharma, K. P.; Mathew, R.; Rajamohanan, P. R.; Guruswamy, K.


    We investigate the Coil-Globule transition of linear poly N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAM) in the hexagonal (H1) mesophase of a non ionic surfactant, C12E9 in water, by Turbidimetry, NMR and SAXS. For aqueous PNIPAM, the LCST (coil-globule transition temperature), TPNIPAM, is 35 C, whereas the H1 phase transitions to a micellar phase at a temperature, THI, of 45 C. As PNIPAM is added to the C12E9/H2O system; depending on the ratio of C12E9:H2O, TPNIPAM changes. It is observed that at 42wt% of C12E9 (viz. 58wt% water; micellar phase), the TPNIPAM is 33 C. At 44wt% of C12E9 (viz. 56wt% water), the H1 phase forms and the the coil-globule transition for PNIPAM starts at 28 C. For 50wt% C12E9, the transition starts from 13 C and for 60wt% C12E9 in water, PNIPAM does not even shows the phase transition even as below as 5 C. It is observed using optical microscopy that the PNIPAM is trapped at the domain boundaries of the H1 phase. The decrease in the coil globule transition temperature, TPNIPAM, is not only because of the hydrophobic interactions but also due to the competition between polymer and C12E9 for water in the H1 phase. The inability of PNIPAM to become a complete globule at higher temperature may be due to the adsorption of C12E9.

  19. The significant impact of framing coils on long-term outcomes in endovascular coiling for intracranial aneurysms: how to select an appropriate framing coil. (United States)

    Ishida, Wataru; Sato, Masayuki; Amano, Tatsuo; Matsumaru, Yuji


    OBJECTIVE The importance of a framing coil (FC)-the first coil inserted into an aneurysm during endovascular coiling, also called a lead coil or a first coil-is recognized, but its impact on long-term outcomes, including recanalization and retreatment, is not well established. The purposes of this study were to test the hypothesis that the FC is a significant factor for aneurysmal recurrence and to provide some insights on appropriate FC selection. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed endovascular coiling for 280 unruptured intracranial aneurysms and gathered data on age, sex, aneurysm location, aneurysm morphology, maximal size, neck width, adjunctive techniques, recanalization, retreatment, follow-up periods, total volume packing density (VPD), volume packing density of the FC, and framing coil percentage (FCP; the percentage of FC volume in total coil volume) to clarify the associated factors for aneurysmal recurrence. RESULTS Of 236 aneurysms included in this study, 33 (14.0%) had recanalization, and 18 (7.6%) needed retreatment during a mean follow-up period of 37.7 ± 16.1 months. In multivariate analysis, aneurysm size (odds ratio [OR] = 1.29, p < 0.001), FCP < 32% (OR 3.54, p = 0.009), and VPD < 25% (OR 2.96, p = 0.015) were significantly associated with recanalization, while aneurysm size (OR 1.25, p < 0.001) and FCP < 32% (OR 6.91, p = 0.017) were significant predictors of retreatment. VPD as a continuous value or VPD with any cutoff value could not predict retreatment with statistical significance in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS FCP, which is equal to the FC volume as a percentage of the total coil volume and is unaffected by the morphology of the aneurysm or the measurement error in aneurysm length, width, or height, is a novel predictor of recanalization and retreatment and is more significantly predictive of retreatment than VPD. To select FCs large enough to meet the condition of FCP ≥ 32% is a potential relevant factor for better

  20. Safety and cost of stent-assisted coiling of unruptured intracranial aneurysms compared with coiling or clipping. (United States)

    Frontera, Jennifer A; Moatti, Joseph; de los Reyes, Kenneth M; McCullough, Stephen; Moyle, Henry; Bederson, Joshua B; Patel, Aman


    Stent-assisted coiling (SAC) of unruptured intracranial aneurysms is a treatment alternative to clipping or coiling, although high complication and procedure-related mortality rates have been reported. A retrospective study was conducted of patients undergoing SAC, coiling or clipping of unruptured intracranial aneurysms between 2003 and 2010. Rates of residual aneurysm, recanalization, complications, cost (adjusted to 2010), length of stay (LOS) and outcome were compared between groups. Of 116 subjects, 47 underwent SAC, 33 coiling and 36 clipping. The groups were similar in age, gender and aneurysm location, although the SAC group had significantly larger aneurysms with wider necks (p=0.001). Patients who underwent SAC had more residual aneurysm after initial treatment than those treated with coiling or clipping (75%, 52% and 19%, respectively, p<0.0001), but this difference was smaller at follow-up angiography (50%, 50% and 17% residual, respectively) and was not significant after adjusting for baseline aneurysm and neck size. SAC was not associated with increased recanalization, requirement for additional treatment, mortality or complications after adjusting for aneurysm and neck size. Patients who underwent SAC and those who underwent coiling were more likely to have a good discharge disposition than patients treated with clipping (100% vs 91%, p=0.042). LOS was significantly shorter for patients who underwent SAC or coiling compared with those treated with clipping (p<0.0001). The overall direct cost was higher for patients who underwent SAC than for those treated with coiling or clipping (median $22 544 vs $12 933 vs $14 656, p=0.001), even after adjusting for aneurysm and neck size, LOS and retreatment. SAC is a safe alternative to coiling or clipping of unruptured aneurysms but it is currently more expensive.

  1. The Search-Coil Magnetometer for MMS (United States)

    Le Contel, O.; Leroy, P.; Roux, A.; Coillot, C.; Alison, D.; Bouabdellah, A.; Mirioni, L.; Meslier, L.; Galic, A.; Vassal, M. C.; Torbert, R. B.; Needell, J.; Rau, D.; Dors, I.; Ergun, R. E.; Westfall, J.; Summers, D.; Wallace, J.; Magnes, W.; Valavanoglou, A.; Olsson, G.; Chutter, M.; Macri, J.; Myers, S.; Turco, S.; Nolin, J.; Bodet, D.; Rowe, K.; Tanguy, M.; de la Porte, B.


    The tri-axial search-coil magnetometer (SCM) belongs to the FIELDS instrumentation suite on the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission (Torbert et al. in Space Sci. Rev. (2014), this issue). It provides the three magnetic components of the waves from 1 Hz to 6 kHz in particular in the key regions of the Earth's magnetosphere namely the subsolar region and the magnetotail. Magnetospheric plasmas being collisionless, such a measurement is crucial as the electromagnetic waves are thought to provide a way to ensure the conversion from magnetic to thermal and kinetic energies allowing local or global reconfigurations of the Earth's magnetic field. The analog waveforms provided by the SCM are digitized and processed inside the digital signal processor (DSP), within the Central Electronics Box (CEB), together with the electric field data provided by the spin-plane double probe (SDP) and the axial double probe (ADP). On-board calibration signal provided by DSP allows the verification of the SCM transfer function once per orbit. Magnetic waveforms and on-board spectra computed by DSP are available at different time resolution depending on the selected mode. The SCM design is described in details as well as the different steps of the ground and in-flight calibrations.

  2. Preoperative coiling of coexisting intracranial aneurysm and subsequent brain tumor surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Keun Young; Kim, Byung Moon; Kim, Dong Joon [Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Few studies have investigated treatment strategies for brain tumor with a coexisting unruptured intracranial aneurysm (cUIA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of preoperative coiling for cUIA, and subsequent brain tumor surgery. A total of 19 patients (mean age, 55.2 years; M:F = 4:15) underwent preoperative coiling for 23 cUIAs and subsequent brain tumor surgery. Primary brain tumors were meningiomas (n = 7, 36.8%), pituitary adenomas (n = 7, 36.8%), gliomas (n = 3, 15.8%), vestibular schwannoma (n = 1, 5.3%), and Rathke's cleft cyst (n = 1, 5.3%). cUIAs were located at the distal internal carotid artery (n = 9, 39.1%), anterior cerebral artery (n = 8, 34.8%), middle cerebral artery (n = 4, 17.4%), basilar artery top (n = 1, 4.3%), and posterior cerebral artery, P1 segment (n = 1, 4.3%). The outcomes of preoperative coiling of cUIA and subsequent brain tumor surgery were retrospectively evaluated. Single-microcatheter technique was used in 13 cases (56.5%), balloon-assisted in 4 cases (17.4%), double-microcatheter in 4 cases (17.4%), and stent-assisted in 2 cases (8.7%). Complete cUIA occlusion was achieved in 18 cases (78.3%), while residual neck occurred in 5 cases (21.7%). The only coiling-related complication was 1 transient ischemic attack (5.3%). Neurological deterioration did not occur in any patient during the period between coiling and tumor surgery. At the latest clinical follow-up (mean, 29 months; range, 2-120 months), 15 patients (78.9%) had favorable outcomes (modified Rankin Scale, 0-2), while 4 patients (21.1%) had unfavorable outcomes due to consequences of brain tumor surgery. Preoperative coiling and subsequent tumor surgery was safe and effective, making it a reasonable treatment option for patients with brain tumor and cUIA.

  3. Productive international collaboration in the large coil task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubenreich, P.N.; Komarek, P.; Shimamoto, S.; Vecsey, G.


    The Large Coil Task (LCT), initiated in 1977, has been very productive of useful technical information about superconducting toroidal field (TF) coil design and manufacture. Moreover, it has demonstrated close international collaboration in fusion technology development, including integration of large components built in four different countries. Each of six 40-t test coils was designed and produced by a major industrial team, with government laboratory guidance, to a common set of specifications. The six were assembled into a toroidal array for testing in the International Fusion Superconducting Magnet Test Facility (IFSMTF) at Oak Ridge. Testing was done by a team of representatives of EURATOM, Japan, Switzerland, and the United States, with each participant having full access to all data. Coils were thoroughly instrumented, enabling penetrating analysis of behavior

  4. Design of the pancake-winding central solenoid coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Nishi, Masataka; Tsuji, Hirosi


    There was a debate over whether a pancake-winding or layer-winding technique is more appropriate for the Central Solenoid (CS) coil for ITER superconducting magnet. The layer-winding CS has the advantage of homogeneous winding supporting the TF centering force without weak joints, but has many difficulties during manufacturing and quality control. On other hand, the pancake-winding has the advantage of better quality control during manufacturing and module testing but has difficulties with joints and feeders, and pipes located in the load path of the bucking force from the toroidal field coils. The compact joints, reinforcement by preformed amour, sharp bending, and double seals are applied to the design of pancake-winding CS coil and demonstrated by hardware developments. The pancake-winding CS coil by using modified existing technology is compatible with the bucking concept of the ITER magnet system. (author)

  5. Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA) project will result in a proof-of-concept demonstration for a lightweight, compact, affordable, regenerable and disposable...

  6. Fields and coupling between coils embedded in conductive environments (United States)

    Chu, Son; Vallecchi, Andrea; Stevens, Christopher J.; Shamonina, Ekaterina


    An approximate solution is developed for the mutual inductance of two circular coils enclosed by insulating cavities in a conducting medium. This solution is used to investigate the variation of the mutual inductance upon the conductivity of the background (e.g., soil, seawater or human body), as well as upon other parameters such as the vertical of the coils and the displacement of one of the coils in the horizontal plane. Our theoretical results are compared with full wave simulations and a previous solution valid when a conductive slab is inserted between two coupled resonant coils. The proposed approach can have direct impact on the design and optimisation of magnetoinductive waveguides and wireless power transfer for underground/underwater networks and embedded biomedical systems.

  7. Superconducting Coils for Small Nuclear Fusion Rocket Engines, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal focuses on the superconducting coils subsystem, a critical subsystem for the PFRC reactor and Direct Fusion Drive and other fusion and electric...

  8. Control and monitoring of the Tore Supra toroidal superconducting coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prou, M.


    Light nuclei controlled fusion reactions are seen as a possible way to produce nuclear energy. For this reason, the interest in hot plasma researches in tokamaks has increased. The Tore Supra main characteristic is related to the superconducting magnet coils. They allow a suitable energy balance, however, they require an accurate and preventive fault detection. The Tore Supra machine and the different methods to detect a transition (from superconducting to normal mode) in the toroidal coils are described. The voltage of the coils, the pressure of the helium superfluid at 1.8 K and the electric current in the circuit parallel resistances, are measured. A computer aided control system allows the toroidal field monitoring (current in the coils, fault detection). The superconducting magnet configuration chosen for Tore Supra seems to be suitable for future large Tokamak devices [fr

  9. Epoxy resin casting of trim coils for superconducting cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajra, D.P.; Sarkar, S.C.; Saha, Subimal; Chaudhuri, J.; Bhandari, R.K.


    The life of any magnet depends on the soundness of the coil insulation, its aging properties and initial and final endurance limitations. The insulation of water-cooled trim coils for superconducting cyclotron is made of glass fibre tape with heat cured unfilled epoxy resin combination. This type of insulation has been selected to achieve excellent stability against thermal and electromagnetic stresses, tight dimensional control, good dielectric strength, non-hygroscopic and considerably low vapour-pressure as it will be inside rough vacuum. The process development and the difficulties encountered for appropriate selection of epoxy resin combination, potting, vacuum process, curing cycle, control of coil dimension to achieve a sound coil absolutely free from cracks, trapped air and voids has been discussed. (author)

  10. A hybrid optimization method for biplanar transverse gradient coil design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Feng; Tang Xin; Jin Zhe; Jiang Zhongde; Shen Yifei; Meng Bin; Zu Donglin; Wang Weimin


    The optimization of transverse gradient coils is one of the fundamental problems in designing magnetic resonance imaging gradient systems. A new approach is presented in this paper to optimize the transverse gradient coils' performance. First, in the traditional spherical harmonic target field method, high order coefficients, which are commonly ignored, are used in the first stage of the optimization process to give better homogeneity. Then, some cosine terms are introduced into the series expansion of stream function. These new terms provide simulated annealing optimization with new freedoms. Comparison between the traditional method and the optimized method shows that the inhomogeneity in the region of interest can be reduced from 5.03% to 1.39%, the coil efficiency increased from 3.83 to 6.31 mT m -1 A -1 and the minimum distance of these discrete coils raised from 1.54 to 3.16 mm

  11. Coil end design for the LHC dipole magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, J.S.


    This paper describes the design of the coil ends for the Large Hadron Collider dipole magnets of the CERN European Laboratory for Particle Physics in Switzerland. This alternative to existing European designs was provided by Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory by agreement between CERN and the United States. The superconducting cable paths are determined from both magnetic and mechanical considerations. The coil end parts used to shape and constrain the conductors in the coil ends are designed using the developable surface, grouped end approach. This method allows the analysis of strain energy within the conductor groups, and the optimization of mechanical factors during the design. Design intent and implementation are discussed. Inner and outer coil design challenges and end analysis are detailed

  12. Progress of the ITER Correction Coils in China

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, J; Han, S; Yu, X; Du, S; Li, C; Fang, C; Wang, L; Zheng, W; Liu, L; Wen, J; Li, H; Libeyre, P; Dolgetta, N; Cormany, C; Sgobba, S


    The ITER Correction Coils (CC) include three sets of six coils each, distributed symmetrically around the tokamak to correct error fields. Each pair of coils, located on opposite sides of the tokamak, is series connected with polarity to produce asymmetric fields. The manufacturing of these superconducting coils is undergoing qualification of the main fabrication processes: winding into multiple pancakes, welding helium inlet/outlet on the conductor jacket, turn and ground insulation, vacuum pressure impregnation, inserting into an austenitic stainless steel case, enclosure welding, and assembling the terminal service box. It has been proceeding by an intense phase of R\\&D, trials tests, and final adjustment of the tooling. This paper mainly describes the progress in ASIPP for the CC manufacturing process before and on qualification phase and the status of corresponding equipment which are ordered or designed for each process. Some test results for the key component and procedure are also presented.

  13. Techniques For Microfabricating Coils For Microelectromechanical Systems Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, R. C.; Powell, A. L.


    The advanced technology necessary for building future space exploration vehicles includes microfabricated coils for making possible self-inductances integrated with other passive and active electronic components. Integrated inductances make possible significant improvements in reliability over the traditional arrangement of using external discrete inductances, as well as allowing significant size (volume) reductions (also important in space vehicles). Two possible fabrication techniques (one using proprietary branded 'Foturan' glass, the other using silicon wafer substrates) for microscopic coils are proposed, using electroplating into channels. The techniques have been evaluated for fabricating the planar electrical coils needed for typical microelectromechanical systems applications. There remain problems associated with processing using 'Foturan' glass, but coil fabrication on silicon wafers was successful. Fabrication methods such as these are expected to play an important part in the development of systems and subsystems for forthcoming space exploration missions

  14. Diffusion tensor imaging using multiple coils for mouse brain connectomics. (United States)

    Nouls, John C; Badea, Alexandra; Anderson, Robert B J; Cofer, Gary P; Allan Johnson, G


    The correlation between brain connectivity and psychiatric or neurological diseases has intensified efforts to develop brain connectivity mapping techniques on mouse models of human disease. The neural architecture of mouse brain specimens can be shown non-destructively and three-dimensionally by diffusion tensor imaging, which enables tractography, the establishment of a connectivity matrix and connectomics. However, experiments on cohorts of animals can be prohibitively long. To improve throughput in a 7-T preclinical scanner, we present a novel two-coil system in which each coil is shielded, placed off-isocenter along the axis of the magnet and connected to a receiver circuit of the scanner. Preservation of the quality factor of each coil is essential to signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) performance and throughput, because mouse brain specimen imaging at 7 T takes place in the coil-dominated noise regime. In that regime, we show a shielding configuration causing no SNR degradation in the two-coil system. To acquire data from several coils simultaneously, the coils are placed in the magnet bore, around the isocenter, in which gradient field distortions can bias diffusion tensor imaging metrics, affect tractography and contaminate measurements of the connectivity matrix. We quantified the experimental alterations in fractional anisotropy and eigenvector direction occurring in each coil. We showed that, when the coils were placed 12 mm away from the isocenter, measurements of the brain connectivity matrix appeared to be minimally altered by gradient field distortions. Simultaneous measurements on two mouse brain specimens demonstrated a full doubling of the diffusion tensor imaging throughput in practice. Each coil produced images devoid of shading or artifact. To further improve the throughput of mouse brain connectomics, we suggested a future expansion of the system to four coils. To better understand acceptable trade-offs between imaging throughput and connectivity

  15. An Overview of Flux Pumps for HTS Coils


    Coombs, Timothy Arthur; Geng, Jianzhao; Fu, L; Matsuda, K


    High-Tc superconducting (HTS) flux pumps are capable of injecting flux into closed HTS magnets without electrical contact. It is becoming a promising alternative of current source in powering HTS coils. This paper reviews the recent progress in flux pumps for HTS coil magnets. Different types of HTS flux pumps are introduced. The physics of these flux pumps are explained and comparisons are made. J. Geng would like to acknowledge Cambridge Trust for offering Cambridge International Scholar...

  16. Fault-current limiter using a superconducting coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boenig, H.J.; Paice, D.A.


    A novel circuit, consisting of solid-state diodes and a biased superconducting coil, for limiting the fault currents in three-phase ac systems is presented. A modification of the basic circuit results in a solid-state ac breaker with current-limiting features. The operating characteristics of the fault-current limiter and the ac breaker are analyzed. An optimization procedure for sizing the superconducting coil is derived

  17. Calculation of the beam injector steering system using Helmholtz coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passaro, A.; Sircilli Neto, F.; Migliano, A.C.C.


    In this work, a preliminary evaluation of the beam injector steering system of the IEAv electron linac is presented. From the existing injector configuration and with the assumptions of monoenergetic beam (100 keV) and uniform magnetic field, two pairs of Helmholtz coils were calculated for the steering system. Excitations of 105 A.turn and 37 A.turn were determined for the first and second coils, respectively. (author)

  18. Development and testing of the cooling coil cleaning end effector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.I.; Mullen, O.D.; Powell, M.R.; Daly, D.S.; Engel, D.W.


    The Retrieval Process Development and Enhancement (KPD ampersand E) program has developed and tested an end effector to support the waste retrieval mission at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The end effector was developed specifically to remove a sticky waste material from the cooling coils in the High Level Liquid Waste (HLLW) tank, and to vacuum up a sediment layer that has settled beneath the cooling coils. An extensive testing program was conducted in the hydraulic test bed (HTB) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to evaluate the performance of the end effector under simulated in-tank conditions. A mock up of the cooling coils was installed in the test bed tank, and simulated waste materials were included to represent the sticky waste on the tubes and the particulate waste settled beneath them. The testing program focused on assessing long-duration mining strategies for cleaning the cooling coils and removing the particulate waste forms. The report describes the results of the end effector testing program at PNNL. Section 2 describes the physical characteristics of the HLLW tanks, including the layout of the cooling coils, and it also describes what is known of the waste forms in the tanks. Section 3 describes the cleaning and retrieval strategy that was used in developing the end effector design. Section 4 describes the cooling coil mockup in the hydraulic test bed. Section 5 discusses the rationale used in selecting the simulants for the tarry waste and particulate waste forms. Section 6 describes the tests that were performed to evaluate cleaning of the cooling coils and retrieval of the particulate simulant. Section 7 summarizes the cleaning and retrieval tests, assesses the relative importance of cleaning the cooling coils and retrieving the particulate waste, and suggests modifications that would simplify the end effector design

  19. Induction of coiling in tendrils by auxin and carbon dioxide. (United States)

    Reinhold, L


    Symmetric application of indole-3-acetic acid, CO(2), or, to a lesser extent, ethylene can substitute for the contact stimulus in inducing coiling in the tendrils of Marah fabaceus. In the case of auxin, treatment of the apical few millimeters results in strong, permanent coiling throughout the length of the tendril. The speed of the response to CO(2) is comparable to that to tactile stimuli. A possible mechanism for thigmotropism is outlined.

  20. NSTX-U Digital Coil Protection System Software Detailed Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) currently uses a collection of analog signal processing solutions for coil protection. Part of the NSTX Upgrade (NSTX-U) entails replacing these analog systems with a software solution running on a conventional computing platform. The new Digital Coil Protection System (DCPS) will replace the old systems entirely, while also providing an extensible framework that allows adding new functionality as desired.