WorldWideScience

Sample records for single-subject multiple probe

  1. Volumetric Analysis from a Harmonized Multisite Brain MRI Study of a Single Subject with Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, R T; Oh, J; Nair, G; Calabresi, P A; Davatzikos, C; Doshi, J; Henry, R G; Kim, G; Linn, K A; Papinutto, N; Pelletier, D; Pham, D L; Reich, D S; Rooney, W; Roy, S; Stern, W; Tummala, S; Yousuf, F; Zhu, A; Sicotte, N L; Bakshi, R

    2017-08-01

    MR imaging can be used to measure structural changes in the brains of individuals with multiple sclerosis and is essential for diagnosis, longitudinal monitoring, and therapy evaluation. The North American Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis Cooperative steering committee developed a uniform high-resolution 3T MR imaging protocol relevant to the quantification of cerebral lesions and atrophy and implemented it at 7 sites across the United States. To assess intersite variability in scan data, we imaged a volunteer with relapsing-remitting MS with a scan-rescan at each site. All imaging was acquired on Siemens scanners (4 Skyra, 2 Tim Trio, and 1 Verio). Expert segmentations were manually obtained for T1-hypointense and T2 (FLAIR) hyperintense lesions. Several automated lesion-detection and whole-brain, cortical, and deep gray matter volumetric pipelines were applied. Statistical analyses were conducted to assess variability across sites, as well as systematic biases in the volumetric measurements that were site-related. Systematic biases due to site differences in expert-traced lesion measurements were significant ( P 90% of the variation (range, 13.0-16.4 mL in T1 and 15.9-20.1 mL in T2) in lesion volumes. Site also explained >80% of the variation in most automated volumetric measurements. Output measures clustered according to scanner models, with similar results from the Skyra versus the other 2 units. Even in multicenter studies with consistent scanner field strength and manufacturer after protocol harmonization, systematic differences can lead to severe biases in volumetric analyses. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  2. Exploring inter-task transfer following a CO-OP approach with four children with DCD: A single subject multiple baseline design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capistran, Julie; Martini, Rose

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) approach has been shown to be effective for improving the performance of tasks worked on in therapy and the use of cognitive strategies. No study to date seems to have explored its effectiveness for improving performance of untrained tasks (inter-task transfer) in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). This study aimed to determine whether CO-OP leads to improved performance in an untrained task. A single-subject design with multiple baselines across skills was adopted, with three replications. Four children with DCD (7-12years) received 10 sessions of CO-OP intervention where each child worked on three tasks during therapy sessions and a fourth task was identified, but not worked on, to verify inter-task transfer. Task performance was rated over four phases (baseline, intervention, post-intervention, follow-up) using the Performance Quality Rating Scale (PQRS-OD). Graphed data was statistically analyzed using a two or three standard deviation band method. Significant improvement was obtained for 11 of 12 tasks worked on during therapy and for two of the four untrained tasks. These results indicate that the effectiveness of CO-OP to improve untrained tasks in children merit further exploration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of a motor-based role-play intervention on the social behaviors of adolescents with high-functioning autism: multiple-baseline single-subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, Sharon A; Raphael-Greenfield, Emily I; Rao, Ashwini K

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We examined the effect of a motor-based role-play intervention on the social skills of adolescents with high-functioning autism. METHOD. An ABA multiple-baseline design with three 3-mo phases occurring over 12 mo was used with 7 participants. Frequency of targeted verbal and nonverbal behaviors was tallied in each phase. Frequency data were analyzed using repeated-measures analyses of variance with post hoc comparisons to examine differences in targeted behaviors over the three phases. RESULTS. Three participants completed all three study phases, 2 completed Phase 2, and 2 completed Phase 1. All participants (N = 7) demonstrated improved social skill use in Phase 1. Participants completing Phase 2 (n = 5) further improved social skill use. Additional improvements were observed among participants (n = 3) who completed Phase 3. CONCLUSION. The intervention helped participants improve targeted social skill use. Further testing with larger samples and intervention modifications is warranted. Copyright © 2012 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  4. Single-Subject Research Methodology: An Underutilized Tool in the Field of Deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Michael; Anderson, Glenn

    1986-01-01

    Single-subject research methods are simple, powerful, and very applicable to selected study of deafness. This article considers group versus single-subject designs; an example of withdrawal single-subject design; and an example of the multiple baseline single-subject design. (CB)

  5. A comparison of the effects of visual deprivation and regular body weight support treadmill training on improving over-ground walking of stroke patients: a multiple baseline single subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Soo; Kang, Sun-Young; Jeon, Hye-Seon

    2015-01-01

    The body-weight-support treadmill (BWST) is commonly used for gait rehabilitation, but other forms of BWST are in development, such as visual-deprivation BWST (VDBWST). In this study, we compare the effect of VDBWST training and conventional BWST training on spatiotemporal gait parameters for three individuals who had hemiparetic strokes. We used a single-subject experimental design, alternating multiple baselines across the individuals. We recruited three individuals with hemiparesis from stroke; two on the left side and one on the right. For the main outcome measures we assessed spatiotemporal gait parameters using GAITRite, including: gait velocity; cadence; step time of the affected side (STA); step time of the non-affected side (STN); step length of the affected side (SLA); step length of the non-affected side (SLN); step-time asymmetry (ST-asymmetry); and step-length asymmetry (SL-asymmetry). Gait velocity, cadence, SLA, and SLN increased from baseline after both interventions, but STA, ST-asymmetry, and SL-asymmetry decreased from the baseline after the interventions. The VDBWST was significantly more effective than the BWST for increasing gait velocity and cadence and for decreasing ST-asymmetry. VDBWST is more effective than BWST for improving gait performance during the rehabilitation for ground walking.

  6. The Utility of Single Subject Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kyle D.

    2016-01-01

    Single subject design (SSD) research is a quantitative approach used to investigate basic and applied research questions. It has been used for decades to examine issues of social importance such as those related to general and special education strategies, therapeutic approaches in mental health, community health practices, safety, and business…

  7. A Common Probe Design for Multiple Planetary Destinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, H. H.; Allen, G. A., Jr.; Alunni, A. I.; Amato, M. J.; Atkinson, D. H.; Bienstock, B. J.; Cruz, J. R.; Dillman, R. A.; Cianciolo, A. D.; Elliott, J. O.; hide

    2018-01-01

    Atmospheric probes have been successfully flown to planets and moons in the solar system to conduct in situ measurements. They include the Pioneer Venus multi-probes, the Galileo Jupiter probe, and Huygens probe. Probe mission concepts to five destinations, including Venus, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, have all utilized similar-shaped aeroshells and concept of operations, namely a 45-degree sphere cone shape with high density heatshield material and parachute system for extracting the descent vehicle from the aeroshell. Each concept designed its probe to meet specific mission requirements and to optimize mass, volume, and cost. At the 2017 International Planetary Probe Workshop (IPPW), NASA Headquarters postulated that a common aeroshell design could be used successfully for multiple destinations and missions. This "common probe"� design could even be assembled with multiple copies, properly stored, and made available for future NASA missions, potentially realizing savings in cost and schedule and reducing the risk of losing technologies and skills difficult to sustain over decades. Thus the NASA Planetary Science Division funded a study to investigate whether a common probe design could meet most, if not all, mission needs to the five planetary destinations with extreme entry environments. The Common Probe study involved four NASA Centers and addressed these issues, including constraints and inefficiencies that occur in specifying a common design. Study methodology: First, a notional payload of instruments for each destination was defined based on priority measurements from the Planetary Science Decadal Survey. Steep and shallow entry flight path angles (EFPA) were defined for each planet based on qualification and operational g-load limits for current, state-of-the-art instruments. Interplanetary trajectories were then identified for a bounding range of EFPA. Next, 3-degrees-of-freedom simulations for entry trajectories were run using the entry state

  8. Handbook of statistical methods single subject design

    CERN Document Server

    Satake, Eiki; Maxwell, David L

    2008-01-01

    This book is a practical guide of the most commonly used approaches in analyzing and interpreting single-subject data. It arranges the methodologies used in a logical sequence using an array of research studies from the existing published literature to illustrate specific applications. The book provides a brief discussion of each approach such as visual, inferential, and probabilistic model, the applications for which it is intended, and a step-by-step illustration of the test as used in an actual research study.

  9. Estimating Intervention Effects across Different Types of Single-Subject Experimental Designs: Empirical Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeyaert, Mariola; Ugille, Maaike; Ferron, John M.; Onghena, Patrick; Heyvaert, Mieke; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Van den Noortgate, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to illustrate the multilevel meta-analysis of results from single-subject experimental designs of different types, including AB phase designs, multiple-baseline designs, ABAB reversal designs, and alternating treatment designs. Current methodological work on the meta-analysis of single-subject experimental designs…

  10. Tip Enhanced Raman Scattering of Strained Silicon with Single and Multiple Probe Scanned Probe Microscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Aaron

    2007-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy is an effective tool for the identification and analysis of molecular components of complex materials. The spatial resolution of Raman spectroscopy is limited by the wavelength of the light. One approach to overcome this drawback is Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS). This technique uses nanometric interactions between metal structures and surfaces to effect enhancement of the Raman signals. An important mechanism for enhancement originates from an electrostatic lightning rod effect due to the excitation of localized surface plasmon resonances. This is accomplished in a scanned probe microscopy context by employing an ultra-sharp metalized tip that is brought into a focused laser spot on the sample surface thereby enhancing the Raman signal. In this technique also known as Tip Enhanced Raman Scattering (TERS) the electrical field is locally enhanced near the sharp metalized tip. Rastering the sample should then allow for Raman imaging with nanometric resolution. Within this context it will be shown that multiple probe scanned probe microscopes have considerable potential in such tip enhanced applications.

  11. Creating single-subject design graphs in Microsoft Excel 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mark R; Jackson, James W; Small, Stacey L; Horner-King, Mollie J; Lik, Nicholas Mui Ker; Garcia, Yors; Rosales, Rocio

    2009-01-01

    Over 10 years have passed since the publication of Carr and Burkholder's (1998) technical article on how to construct single-subject graphs using Microsoft Excel. Over the course of the past decade, the Excel program has undergone a series of revisions that make the Carr and Burkholder paper somewhat difficult to follow with newer versions. The present article provides task analyses for constructing various types of commonly used single-subject design graphs in Microsoft Excel 2007. The task analyses were evaluated using a between-subjects design that compared the graphing skills of 22 behavior-analytic graduate students using Excel 2007 and either the Carr and Burkholder or newly developed task analyses. Results indicate that the new task analyses yielded more accurate and faster graph construction than the Carr and Burkholder instructions.

  12. SSDOnt: An Ontology for Representing Single-Subject Design Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berges, Idoia; Bermúdez, Jesus; Illarramendi, Arantza

    2018-02-01

    Single-Subject Design is used in several areas such as education and biomedicine. However, no suited formal vocabulary exists for annotating the detailed configuration and the results of this type of research studies with the appropriate granularity for looking for information about them. Therefore, the search for those study designs relies heavily on a syntactical search on the abstract, keywords or full text of the publications about the study, which entails some limitations. To present SSDOnt, a specific purpose ontology for describing and annotating single-subject design studies, so that complex questions can be asked about them afterwards. The ontology was developed following the NeOn methodology. Once the requirements of the ontology were defined, a formal model was described in a Description Logic and later implemented in the ontology language OWL 2 DL. We show how the ontology provides a reference model with a suitable terminology for the annotation and searching of single-subject design studies and their main components, such as the phases, the intervention types, the outcomes and the results. Some mappings with terms of related ontologies have been established. We show as proof-of-concept that classes in the ontology can be easily extended to annotate more precise information about specific interventions and outcomes such as those related to autism. Moreover, we provide examples of some types of queries that can be posed to the ontology. SSDOnt has achieved the purpose of covering the descriptions of the domain of single-subject research studies. Schattauer GmbH.

  13. Confocal scanning microscopy with multiple optical probes for high speed measurements and better imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Wanhee; Lee, SeungWoo; Gweon, Dae-Gab

    2008-02-01

    Confocal scanning microscopy (CSM) needs a scanning mechanism because only one point information of specimen can be obtained. Therefore the speed of the confocal scanning microscopy is limited by the speed of the scanning tool. To overcome this limitation from scanning tool we propose another scanning mechanism. We make three optical probes in the specimen under confocal condition of each point. Three optical probes are moved by beam scanning mechanism with shared resonant scanning mirror (RM) and galvanometer driven mirror (GM). As each optical probe scan allocated region of the specimen, information from three points is obtained simultaneously and image acquisition time is reduced. Therefore confocal scanning microscopy with multiple optical probes is expected to have three times faster speed of the image acquisition than conventional one. And as another use, multiple optical probes to which different light wavelength is applied can scan whole same region respectively. It helps to obtain better contrast image in case of specimens having different optical characteristics for specific light wavelength. In conclusion confocal scanning microscopy with multiple optical probes is useful technique for views of image acquisition speed and image quality.

  14. The Use of Single-Subject Research to Identify Evidence-Based Practice in Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Robert H.; Carr, Edward G.; Halle, James; McGee, Gail; Odom, Samuel; Wolery, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Single-subject research plays an important role in the development of evidence-based practice in special education. The defining features of single-subject research are presented, the contributions of single-subject research for special education are reviewed, and a specific proposal is offered for using single-subject research to document…

  15. PathogenMIPer: a tool for the design of molecular inversion probes to detect multiple pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhras Michael

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Here we describe PathogenMIPer, a software program for designing molecular inversion probe (MIP oligonucleotides for use in pathogen identification and detection. The software designs unique and specific oligonucleotide probes targeting microbial or other genomes. The tool tailors all probe sequence components (including target-specific sequences, barcode sequences, universal primers and restriction sites and combines these components into ready-to-order probes for use in a MIP assay. The system can harness the genetic variability available in an entire genome in designing specific probes for the detection of multiple co-infections in a single tube using a MIP assay. Results PathogenMIPer can accept sequence data in FASTA file format, and other parameter inputs from the user through a graphical user interface. It can design MIPs not only for pathogens, but for any genome for use in parallel genomic analyses. The software was validated experimentally by applying it to the detection of human papilloma virus (HPV as a model system, which is associated with various human malignancies including cervical and skin cancers. Initial tests of laboratory samples using the MIPs developed by the PathogenMIPer to recognize 24 different types of HPVs gave very promising results, detecting even a small viral load of single as well as multiple infections (Akhras et al, personal communication. Conclusion PathogenMIPer is a software for designing molecular inversion probes for detection of multiple target DNAs in a sample using MIP assays. It enables broader use of MIP technology in the detection through genotyping of pathogens that are complex, difficult-to-amplify, or present in multiple subtypes in a sample.

  16. Noninvasive imaging of multiple myeloma using near infrared fluorescent molecular probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathi, Deep; Zhou, Haiying; Bollerman-Nowlis, Alex; Shokeen, Monica; Akers, Walter J.

    2016-03-01

    Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell malignancy characterized by monoclonal gammopathy and osteolytic bone lesions. Multiple myeloma is most commonly diagnosed in late disease stages, presenting with pathologic fracture. Early diagnosis and monitoring of disease status may improve quality of life and long-term survival for multiple myeloma patients from what is now a devastating and fatal disease. We have developed a near-infrared targeted fluorescent molecular probe with high affinity to the α4β1 integrin receptor (VLA-4)overexpressed by a majority of multiple myeloma cells as a non-radioactive analog to PET/CT tracer currently being developed for human diagnostics. A near-infrared dye that emits about 700 nm was conjugated to a high affinity peptidomimmetic. Binding affinity and specificity for multiple myeloma cells was investigated in vitro by tissue staining and flow cytometry. After demonstration of sensitivity and specificity, preclinical optical imaging studies were performed to evaluate tumor specificity in murine subcutaneous and metastatic multiple myeloma models. The VLA-4-targeted molecular probe showed high affinity for subcutaneous MM tumor xenografts. Importantly, tumor cells specific accumulation in the bone marrow of metastatic multiple myeloma correlated with GFP signal from transfected cells. Ex vivo flow cytometry of tumor tissue and bone marrow further corroborated in vivo imaging data, demonstrating the specificity of the novel agent and potential for quantitative imaging of multiple myeloma burden in these models.

  17. Methods for radiation detection and characterization using a multiple detector probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Douglas William; Roybal, Lyle Gene

    2014-11-04

    Apparatuses, methods, and systems relating to radiological characterization of environments are disclosed. Multi-detector probes with a plurality of detectors in a common housing may be used to substantially concurrently detect a plurality of different radiation activities and types. Multiple multi-detector probes may be used in a down-hole environment to substantially concurrently detect radioactive activity and contents of a buried waste container. Software may process, analyze, and integrate the data from the different multi-detector probes and the different detector types therein to provide source location and integrated analysis as to the source types and activity in the measured environment. Further, the integrated data may be used to compensate for differential density effects and the effects of radiation shielding materials within the volume being measured.

  18. Microarray expression profiling of human dental pulp from single subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tete, Stefano; Mastrangelo, Filiberto; Scioletti, Anna Paola; Tranasi, Michelangelo; Raicu, Florina; Paolantonio, Michele; Stuppia, Liborio; Vinci, Raffaele; Gherlone, Enrico; Ciampoli, Cristian; Sberna, Maria Teresa; Conti, Pio

    2008-01-01

    Microarray is a recently developed simultaneous analysis of expression patterns of thousand of genes. The aim of this research was to evaluate the expression profile of human healthy dental pulp in order to find the presence of genes activated and encoding for proteins involved in the physiological process of human dental pulp. We report data obtained by analyzing expression profiles of human tooth pulp from single subjects, using an approach based on the amplification of the total RNA. Experiments were performed on a high-density array able to analyse about 21,000 oligonucleotide sequences of about 70 bases in duplicate, using an approach based on the amplification of the total RNA from the pulp of a single tooth. Obtained data were analyzed using the S.A.M. system (Significance Analysis of Microarray) and genes were merged according to their molecular functions and biological process by the Onto-Express software. The microarray analysis revealed 362 genes with specific pulp expression. Genes showing significant high expression were classified in genes involved in tooth development, protoncogenes, genes of collagen, DNAse, Metallopeptidases and Growth factors. We report a microarray analysis, carried out by extraction of total RNA from specimens of healthy human dental pulp tissue. This approach represents a powerful tool in the study of human normal and pathological pulp, allowing minimization of the genetic variability due to the pooling of samples from different individuals.

  19. Gene expression risk signatures maintain prognostic power in multiple myeloma despite microarray probe set translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, N E U; Borup, R; Andersen, M K

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Gene expression profiling (GEP) risk models in multiple myeloma are based on 3'-end microarrays. We hypothesized that GEP risk signatures could retain prognostic power despite being translated and applied to whole-transcript microarray data. METHODS: We studied CD138-positive bone...... signatures maintain significant prognostic power in HDT myeloma patients. We suggest probe set matching for GEP risk signature translation as part of the efforts towards a microarray-independent GEP risk standard. (ClicinalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00639054)....

  20. Automated patterning and probing with multiple nanoscale tools for single-cell analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiayao; Kim, Yeonuk; Liu, Boyin; Qin, Ruwen; Li, Jian; Fu, Jing

    2017-10-01

    The nano-manipulation approach that combines Focused Ion Beam (FIB) milling and various imaging and probing techniques enables researchers to investigate the cellular structures in three dimensions. Such fusion approach, however, requires extensive effort on locating and examining randomly-distributed targets due to limited Field of View (FOV) when high magnification is desired. In the present study, we present the development that automates 'pattern and probe' particularly for single-cell analysis, achieved by computer aided tools including feature recognition and geometric planning algorithms. Scheduling of serial FOVs for imaging and probing of multiple cells was considered as a rectangle covering problem, and optimal or near-optimal solutions were obtained with the heuristics developed. FIB milling was then employed automatically followed by downstream analysis using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to probe the cellular interior. Our strategy was applied to examine bacterial cells (Klebsiella pneumoniae) and achieved high efficiency with limited human interference. The developed algorithms can be easily adapted and integrated with different imaging platforms towards high-throughput imaging analysis of single cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence detection for deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization based on gold nanoparticles carrying multiple probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hui; Zhang Chengxiao; Li Yan; Qi Honglan

    2006-01-01

    A novel sensitive electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) method for the detection deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) hybridization based on gold nanoparticles carrying multiple probes was developed. Ruthenium bis(2,2'-bipyridine)(2,2'-bipyridine-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid)-N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (Ru(bpy) 2 (dcbpy)NHS) was used as a ECL label and gold nanoparticle as a carrier. Probe single strand DNA (ss-DNA) was self-assembled at the 3'-terminal with a thiol group to the surface of gold nanoparticle and covalently labeled at the 5'-terminal of a phosphate group with Ru(bpy) 2 (dcbpy)NHS and the resulting conjugate (Ru(bpy) 2 (dcbpy)NHS)-ss-DNA-Au, was taken as a ECL probe. When target analyte ss-DNA was immobilized on a gold electrode by self-assembled monolayer technique and then hybridized with the ECL probe to form a double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA), a strong ECL response was electrochemically generated. The ECL intensity was linearly related to the concentration of the complementary sequence (target ss-DNA) in the range from 1.0 x 10 -11 to 1.0 x 10 -8 mol L -1 , and the linear regression equation was S = 57301 + 4579.6 lg C (unit of C is mol L -1 ). A detection limit of 5.0 x 10 -12 mol L -1 for target ss-DNA was achieved. The ECL signal generated from many reporters of ECL probe prepared is greatly amplified, compared to the convention scheme which is based on one reporter per hybridization event

  2. From single to multiple microcoil flow probe NMR and related capillary techniques: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökay, Ozan; Albert, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is one of the most important and powerful instrumental analytical techniques for structural elucidation of unknown small and large (complex) isolated and synthesized compounds in organic and inorganic chemistry. X-ray crystallography, neutron scattering (neutron diffraction), and NMR spectroscopy are the only suitable methods for three-dimensional structure determination at atomic resolution. Moreover, these methods are complementary. However, by means of NMR spectroscopy, reaction dynamics and interaction processes can also be investigated. Unfortunately, this technique is very insensitive in comparison with other spectrometric (e.g., mass spectrometry) and spectroscopic (e.g., infrared spectroscopy) methods. Mainly through the development of stronger magnets and more sensitive solenoidal microcoil flow probes, this drawback has been successfully counteracted. Capillary NMR spectroscopy increases the mass-based sensitivity of the NMR spectroscopic analysis up to 100-fold compared with conventional 5-mm NMR probes, and thus can be coupled online and off-line with other microseparation and detection techniques. It offers not only higher sensitivity, but in many cases provides better quality spectra than traditional methods. Owing to the immense number of compounds (e.g., of natural product extracts and compound libraries) to be examined, single microcoil flow probe NMR spectroscopy will soon be far from being sufficiently effective as a screening method. For this reason, an inevitable trend towards coupled microseparation-multiple microcoil flow probe NMR techniques, which allow simultaneous online and off-line detection of several compounds, will occur. In this review we describe the current status and possible future developments of single and multiple microcoil capillary flow probe NMR spectroscopy and its application as a high-throughput tool for the analysis of a large number of mass-limited samples. The advantages

  3. Measurement of local flow pattern in boiling R12 simulating PWR conditions with multiple optical probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier, J.

    1998-01-01

    For a comprehensive approach of boiling crisis phenomenon in order to get more reliable predictions of critical heat flux in PWR core, a flow pattern study is under progress at CEA GRENOBLE (in a joint program with Electricite de France: EdF). The first aim is to get experimental results on flow structure in the range of thermal hydraulic parameters involved in the core of a PWR (pressure up to 16 MPa, heat flux about 1 MW/m 2 , mass velocity up to 5000 kg/s/m 2 . As critical heat flux is a local phenomenon and is the result of the flow development, the data has to be measured from the beginning of boiling until boiling crisis, and from the bulk flow until the boundary layer close to the heating walls. Therefore, these results will be useful in modeling not only boiling crisis phenomenon but also condensation in subcooled boiling, coalescence, splitting up, mass and energy transfers at interfaces, and so on. In a first step, the test section is a vertical tube 19.2 mm internal diameter with an axial uniform heat flux over a 3.5m length. The study is performed on the DEBORA loop with Freon 12 as coolant fluid. We assume that basic boiling phenomena (and the knowledge we get about them) only depend on the fluid properties by means of dimensionless parameters but not on the fluid itself. In a first part, we briefly recall that interfacial detection is the most important parameter of a flow pattern study. Therefore, the use of probes able to measure the Phase Indicator Function (P.I.F.) is necessary. A first study of flow conditions shows that the flow pattern is essentially a bubbly one with vapor particles of low diameter (about 300 clm) and high velocity (up to 7 m/s). These criteria induce that a multiple optical probe is the most appropriate tool provided we improve the technology. We detail the way to obtain probes able to detect small particles at high velocity. Each fiber is stretched to get a tip of 10 Clm with the cladding kept on 50 μm length which defines

  4. Diode probes for spatiotemporal optical control of multiple neurons in freely moving animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koos, Tibor; Buzsáki, György

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal control with high temporal precision is possible with optogenetics, yet currently available methods do not enable to control independently multiple locations in the brains of freely moving animals. Here, we describe a diode-probe system that allows real-time and location-specific control of neuronal activity at multiple sites. Manipulation of neuronal activity in arbitrary spatiotemporal patterns is achieved by means of an optoelectronic array, manufactured by attaching multiple diode-fiber assemblies to high-density silicon probes or wire tetrodes and implanted into the brains of animals that are expressing light-responsive opsins. Each diode can be controlled separately, allowing localized light stimulation of neuronal activators and silencers in any temporal configuration and concurrent recording of the stimulated neurons. Because the only connections to the animals are via a highly flexible wire cable, unimpeded behavior is allowed for circuit monitoring and multisite perturbations in the intact brain. The capacity of the system to generate unique neural activity patterns facilitates multisite manipulation of neural circuits in a closed-loop manner and opens the door to addressing novel questions. PMID:22496529

  5. The influence of the design matrix on treatment effect estimates in the quantitative analyses of single-subject experimental design research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeyaert, Mariola; Ugille, Maaike; Ferron, John M; Beretvas, S Natasha; Van den Noortgate, Wim

    2014-09-01

    The quantitative methods for analyzing single-subject experimental data have expanded during the last decade, including the use of regression models to statistically analyze the data, but still a lot of questions remain. One question is how to specify predictors in a regression model to account for the specifics of the design and estimate the effect size of interest. These quantitative effect sizes are used in retrospective analyses and allow synthesis of single-subject experimental study results which is informative for evidence-based decision making, research and theory building, and policy discussions. We discuss different design matrices that can be used for the most common single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs), namely, the multiple-baseline designs, reversal designs, and alternating treatment designs, and provide empirical illustrations. The purpose of this article is to guide single-subject experimental data analysts interested in analyzing and meta-analyzing SSED data. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Studies Using Single-Subject Designs in Sport Psychology: 30 Years of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G. L.; Thompson, K.; Regehr, K.

    2004-01-01

    A prominent feature of behavior-analytic research has been the use of single-subject designs. We examined sport psychology journals and behavioral journals published during the past 30 years, and located 40 studies using single-subject designs to assess interventions for enhancing the performance of athletes and coaches. In this paper, we…

  7. Single-Subject Designs and Action Research in the K-12 Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Sean A.; Ross, Margaret E.; Chesser, Svetlana S.

    2011-01-01

    In as much as educational research is concerned with individual student assessment and development, it is surprising that single-subject designs are not more readily utilized in classroom-based action research. The purpose of this article is to emphasize benefits of single-subject research in the K-12 setting, given that teachers teach and assess…

  8. Analyzing Multiple-Probe Microarray: Estimation and Application of Gene Expression Indexes

    KAUST Repository

    Maadooliat, Mehdi

    2012-07-26

    Gene expression index estimation is an essential step in analyzing multiple probe microarray data. Various modeling methods have been proposed in this area. Amidst all, a popular method proposed in Li and Wong (2001) is based on a multiplicative model, which is similar to the additive model discussed in Irizarry et al. (2003a) at the logarithm scale. Along this line, Hu et al. (2006) proposed data transformation to improve expression index estimation based on an ad hoc entropy criteria and naive grid search approach. In this work, we re-examined this problem using a new profile likelihood-based transformation estimation approach that is more statistically elegant and computationally efficient. We demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method using a benchmark Affymetrix U95A spiked-in experiment. Moreover, We introduced a new multivariate expression index and used the empirical study to shows its promise in terms of improving model fitting and power of detecting differential expression over the commonly used univariate expression index. As the other important content of the work, we discussed two generally encountered practical issues in application of gene expression index: normalization and summary statistic used for detecting differential expression. Our empirical study shows somewhat different findings from the MAQC project (MAQC, 2006).

  9. Quantitative atom probe analysis of nanostructure containing clusters and precipitates with multiple length scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marceau, R.K.W.; Stephenson, L.T.; Hutchinson, C.R.; Ringer, S.P.

    2011-01-01

    A model Al-3Cu-(0.05 Sn) (wt%) alloy containing a bimodal distribution of relatively shear-resistant θ' precipitates and shearable GP zones is considered in this study. It has recently been shown that the addition of the GP zones to such microstructures can lead to significant increases in strength without a decrease in the uniform elongation. In this study, atom probe tomography (APT) has been used to quantitatively characterise the evolution of the GP zones and the solute distribution in the bimodal microstructure as a function of applied plastic strain. Recent nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis has clearly shown strain-induced dissolution of the GP zones, which is supported by the current APT data with additional spatial information. There is significant repartitioning of Cu from the GP zones into the solid solution during deformation. A new approach for cluster finding in APT data has been used to quantitatively characterise the evolution of the sizes and shapes of the Cu containing features in the solid solution solute as a function of applied strain. -- Research highlights: → A new approach for cluster finding in atom probe tomography (APT) data has been used to quantitatively characterise the evolution of the sizes and shapes of the Cu containing features with multiple length scales. → In this study, a model Al-3Cu-(0.05 Sn) (wt%) alloy containing a bimodal distribution of relatively shear-resistant θ' precipitates and shearable GP zones is considered. → APT has been used to quantitatively characterise the evolution of the GP zones and the solute distribution in the bimodal microstructure as a function of applied plastic strain. → It is clearly shown that there is strain-induced dissolution of the GP zones with significant repartitioning of Cu from the GP zones into the solid solution during deformation.

  10. Artificial dural sealant that allows multiple penetrations of implantable brain probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Nathan; Muthuswamy, Jit

    2008-06-15

    This study reports extensive characterization of the silicone gel (3-4680, Dow Corning, Midland, MI), for potential use as an artificial dural sealant in long-term electrophysiological experiments in neurophysiology. Dural sealants are important to preserve the integrity of the intracranial space after a craniotomy and in prolonging the lifetime and functionality of implanted brain probes. In this study, we report results of our tests on a commercially available silicone gel with unique properties that make it an ideal dural substitute. The substitute is transparent, elastic, easy to apply, and has re-sealing capabilities, which makes it desirable for applications where multiple penetrations by the brain probe is desirable over an extended period of time. Cytotoxicity tests (for up to 10 days) with fibroblasts and in vivo tests (for 12 weeks) show that the gel is non-toxic and does not produce any significant neuronal degeneration when applied to the rodent cortex even after 12 weeks. In vivo humidity testing showed no sign of CSF leakage for up to 6 weeks. The gel also allows silicon microprobes to penetrate with forces less than 0.5 mN, and a 200-microm diameter stainless steel microprobe with a blunt tip to penetrate with a force less than 2.5 mN. The force dependency on the velocity of penetration and thickness of the gel was also quantified and empirically modeled. The above results demonstrate that the silicone gel (3-4680) can be a viable dural substitute in long-term electrophysiology of the brain.

  11. A new approach to assessing intra-subject variability in single-subject designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Borodkin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Research Aim: One of the methodological challenges of single-subject designs is accounting for intra-individual variability in performance, which is commonly assessed by applying the same testing materials on multiple sessions (McReynolds & Thompson, 1986. This approach might be less feasible in some individuals, such as bilingual speakers with aphasia, who would need to be tested, using the same materials, on several occasions within as well as across languages. Repetitive exposure to the same testing materials can increase practice effects and further reduce the validity of the testing. In the present study, we explored an alternative approach to measuring stability in performance by comparing the use of identical vs. different (but comparable testing materials. Method: Participants were five monolinguals with non-fluent aphasia following a single left CVA. Participants performed an action-naming task and two narrative tasks: a picture sequence and a personal narrative. There were two testing times, several weeks apart using identical materials. Each testing time included three consecutive sessions, using different materials. Action-naming performance was assessed by the number of correct verbs produced. The verbal output in the narrative tasks was scored for amount (number of utterances, grammaticality (percentage of grammatical sentences, and verb diversity (number of different verbs. Pearson correlation coefficients (r were computed to establish the intra-subject variability across testing times and across sessions. The magnitude of the correlations was evaluated using published guidelines (Strauss, Sherman, & Spreen, 2006. Results: For action naming, the correlations ranged from high to very high (.87 to .98 across testing times and from adequate to very high across sessions (.74 to .96. For the narrative tasks, the correlations between the number of utterances across testing times ranged from adequate to very high (.76 to .97 and from low

  12. On Acoustic Feedback Cancellation Using Probe Noise in Multiple-Microphone and Single-Loudspeaker Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Meng; Elmedyb, Thomas Bo; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2012-01-01

    A probe noise signal can be used in an acoustic feedback cancellation system to prevent biased adaptive estimation of acoustic feedback paths. However, practical experiences and simulation results indicate that when-ever a low-level and inaudible probe noise signal is used, the convergence rate...... feedback cancellation is carried out using a probe noise signal. The derived results show how different system parameters and signal properties affect the cancellation performance, and the results explain theoretically the decreased convergence rate. Understanding this is important for making further...

  13. The Applied Behavior Analysis Research Paradigm and Single-Subject Designs in Adapted Physical Activity Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegele, Justin A; Hodge, Samuel Russell

    2015-10-01

    There are basic philosophical and paradigmatic assumptions that guide scholarly research endeavors, including the methods used and the types of questions asked. Through this article, kinesiology faculty and students with interests in adapted physical activity are encouraged to understand the basic assumptions of applied behavior analysis (ABA) methodology for conducting, analyzing, and presenting research of high quality in this paradigm. The purposes of this viewpoint paper are to present information fundamental to understanding the assumptions undergirding research methodology in ABA, describe key aspects of single-subject research designs, and discuss common research designs and data-analysis strategies used in single-subject studies.

  14. Creating Single-Subject Design Graphs in Microsoft Excel[TM] 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mark R.; Jackson, James W.; Small, Stacey L.; Horner-King, Mollie J.; Mui Ker Lik, Nicholas; Garcia, Yors; Rosales, Rocio

    2009-01-01

    Over 10 years have passed since the publication of Carr and Burkholder's (1998) technical article on how to construct single-subject graphs using Microsoft Excel. Over the course of the past decade, the Excel program has undergone a series of revisions that make the Carr and Burkholder paper somewhat difficult to follow with newer versions. The…

  15. A Single Electrochemical Probe Used for Analysis of Multiple Nucleic Acid Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Dawn M.; Calvo-Marzal, Percy; Pinzon, Jeffer M.; Armas, Stephanie; Kolpashchikov, Dmitry M.; Chumbimuni-Torres, Karin Y.

    2017-01-01

    Electrochemical hybridization sensors have been explored extensively for analysis of specific nucleic acids. However, commercialization of the platform is hindered by the need for attachment of separate oligonucleotide probes complementary to a RNA or DNA target to an electrode’s surface. Here we demonstrate that a single probe can be used to analyze several nucleic acid targets with high selectivity and low cost. The universal electrochemical four-way junction (4J)-forming (UE4J) sensor consists of a universal DNA stem-loop (USL) probe attached to the electrode’s surface and two adaptor strands (m and f) which hybridize to the USL probe and the analyte to form a 4J associate. The m adaptor strand was conjugated with a methylene blue redox marker for signal ON sensing and monitored using square wave voltammetry. We demonstrated that a single sensor can be used for detection of several different DNA/RNA sequences and can be regenerated in 30 seconds by a simple water rinse. The UE4J sensor enables a high selectivity by recognition of a single base substitution, even at room temperature. The UE4J sensor opens a venue for a re-useable universal platform that can be adopted at low cost for the analysis of DNA or RNA targets. PMID:29371782

  16. Artificial dural sealant that allows multiple penetrations of implantable brain probes

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Nathan; Muthuswamy, Jit

    2008-01-01

    This study reports extensive characterization of the silicone gel (3−4680, Dow Corning, Midland, MI), for potential use as an artificial dural sealant in long-term electrophysiological experiments in neurophysiology. Dural sealants are important to preserve the integrity of the intra-cranial space after a craniotomy and in prolonging the lifetime and functionality of implanted brain probes. In this study, we report results of our tests on a commercially available silicone gel with unique prop...

  17. Social antecedents of children's eyewtness testimony a single-subject experimental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doepke, Karla J; Henderson, Angela L; Critchfield, Thomas S

    2003-01-01

    In a laboratory simulation, a single-subject design was used to examine the effects of two types of social influence on children's eyewitness testimony, which has not been the subject of systematic behavioral analyses. This study replicates and extends findings from group-comparison studies, and shows that a topic of pressing social importance is amenable to analysis at the individual level, and therefore, potentially, to a behavioral analysis.

  18. Assaying multiple restriction endonucleases functionalities and inhibitions on DNA microarray with multifunctional gold nanoparticle probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lan; Zhu, Zhijun; Li, Tao; Wang, Zhenxin

    2014-02-15

    Herein, a double-stranded (ds) DNA microarray-based resonance light scattering (RLS) assay with multifunctional gold nanoparticle (GNP) probes has been developed for studying restriction endonuclease functionality and inhibition. Because of decreasing significantly melting temperature, the enzyme-cleaved dsDNAs easily unwind to form single-stranded (ss) DNAs. The ssDNAs are hybridized with multiplex complementary ssDNAs functionalized GNP probes followed by silver enhancement and RLS detection. Three restriction endonucleases (EcoRI, BamHI and EcoRV) and three potential inhibitors (doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX), ethidium bromide (EB) and an EcoRI-derived helical peptide (α4)) were selected to demonstrate capability of the assay. Enzyme activities of restriction endonucleases are detected simultaneously with high specificity down to the limits of 2.0 × 10(-2)U/mL for EcoRI, 1.1 × 10(-2)U/mL for BamHI and 1.6 × 10(-2)U/mL for EcoRV, respectively. More importantly, the inhibitory potencies of three inhibitors are showed quantitatively, indicating that our approach has great promise for high-throughput screening of restriction endonuclease inhibitors. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of a motor-based, social skills intervention for adolescents with high-functioning autism: two single-subject design cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, Sharon A; Raphael, Emily I; Ceder, Leila M; Khan, Arshi; Timp, Katherine M; Salvant, Sabrina

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a motor-based, social skills intervention for two adolescents with high-functioning autism (HFA) using single-subject design. A description of the intervention is provided as a first step in the manualization process. The intervention was provided as a 7-week after-school program, once weekly to the paired participants. Intervention consisted of role-play methods in which motor behaviours were linked with their cognitive and emotional meanings. Baseline, intervention and 3-month probe data collection periods were carried out and then compared using visual inspection of graphed data, paired t-tests and a three-standard-deviation-band approach. Both participants displayed a statistically significant increase in targeted social skills behaviours from baseline to intervention and maintained this level at a 3-month post-intervention probe. These single-subject design cases illustrate that motor-based, social skills interventions may be effective for adolescents with HFA and warrant further testing. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Probing for the Multiplicative Term in Modern Expectancy-Value Theory: A Latent Interaction Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautwein, Ulrich; Marsh, Herbert W.; Nagengast, Benjamin; Ludtke, Oliver; Nagy, Gabriel; Jonkmann, Kathrin

    2012-01-01

    In modern expectancy-value theory (EVT) in educational psychology, expectancy and value beliefs additively predict performance, persistence, and task choice. In contrast to earlier formulations of EVT, the multiplicative term Expectancy x Value in regression-type models typically plays no major role in educational psychology. The present study…

  1. Probing nuclear shell structure beyond the N=40 subshell using multiple Coulomb excitation and transfer experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellgartner, Stefanie Christine

    2015-11-13

    In this work, the N=40 subshell closure is investigated with two complementary methods using a radioactive {sup 72}Zn ISOLDE beam: One- and two-neutron transfer reactions and multiple Coulomb excitation. In the one-neutron transfer reaction, two new levels of {sup 73}Zn were discovered. The two-neutron transfer channel allowed to study the differential cross section of the ground state and the 2{sup +}{sub 1} state of {sup 74}Zn. In the Coulomb excitation experiment, the measured B(E2) values and quadrupole moments of {sup 72}Zn showed that the yrast states 0{sup +}{sub 1}, 2{sup +}{sub 1} and 4{sup +}{sub 1} are moderately collective. Contrary, the 0{sup +}{sub 2} state has a different structure, since it features a stronger closed N=40 configuration compared to the ground state.

  2. Effects of aquatic aerobic exercise for a child with cerebral palsy: single-subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retarekar, Runzun; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A; Townsend, Elise L

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of an aquatic aerobic exercise program for a child with cerebral palsy. A 5-year-old girl with spastic diplegia classified at level III on the Gross Motor Function Classification System participated in this single-subject A-B-A design study. The aquatic aerobic exercise intervention was carried out 3 times per week for 12 weeks at an intensity of 50% to 80% of heart rate reserve. The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, Gross Motor Function Measure, and 6-minute walk test were used as outcomes. Statistically significant improvements were found in the participation, activity, and body function components of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health model. Improvements in functional abilities and walking endurance and speed were recorded. These findings suggest that an aquatic aerobic exercise program was effective for this child with cerebral palsy and support the need for additional research in this area.

  3. Detection of Matrix Crack Density of CFRP using an Electrical Potential Change Method with Multiple Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todoroki, Akira; Omagari, Kazuomi

    Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) laminates are adopted for fuel tank structures of next generation space rockets or automobiles. Matrix cracks may cause fuel leak or trigger fatigue damage. A monitoring system of the matrix crack density is required. The authors have developed an electrical resistance change method for the monitoring of delamination cracks in CFRP laminates. Reinforcement fibers are used as a self-sensing system. In the present study, the electric potential method is adopted for matrix crack density monitoring. Finite element analysis (FEA) was performed to investigate the possibility of monitoring matrix crack density using multiple electrodes mounted on a single surface of a specimen. The FEA reveals the matrix crack density increases electrical resistance for a target segment between electrodes. Experimental confirmation was also performed using cross-ply laminates. Eight electrodes were mounted on a single surface of a specimen using silver paste after polishing of the specimen surface with sandpaper. The two outermost electrodes applied electrical current, and the inner electrodes measured electric voltage changes. The slope of electrical resistance during reloading is revealed to be an appropriate index for the detection of matrix crack density.

  4. Novel lanthanide pH fluorescent probes based on multiple emissions and its visible-light-sensitized feature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jintai [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zheng, Yuhui, E-mail: yhzheng78@scnu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Qianming, E-mail: qmwang@scnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry of Environment, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion and Storage, Guangzhou 510006 (China); State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Zeng, Zhi [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhang, Cheng Cheng [Departments of Physiology and Developmental Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas (United States)

    2014-08-11

    Graphical abstract: A new type of Eu(III) ofloxacin complex as the fluorescent pH indicator has been reported. Compared to pure ligand, the complex offers more distinguished color changes (green–red–blue) derived from both lanthanide line emissions and the secondary ionization steps of ofloxacin. - Highlights: • The pH probe offers a very wide working range in water (pH 1–14). • The emission changes have multiple colors. • Long-lived excited state lifetimes of Eu(III) has been used. • Two types of pH sensitive hydrogels were fabricated. - Abstract: A new type of Eu(III) ofloxacin complex as the fluorescent pH indicator has been presented. Compared to pure ligand, the complex offers more distinguished color changes (green–red–blue) derived from both lanthanide line emissions and the secondary ionization steps of ofloxacin. During the concentration dependence experiments, the photoluminescence studies on the complex showed that the excitation of this pH probe can occur at a very long wavelength which extends to visible range (Ex = 427 nm). Furthermore, the functional complex was successfully incorporated into soft networks and two novel luminescent hydrogels (rod and film) were fabricated. The soft materials also exhibited specific responses towards the pH variation. Finally, the onion cell-stain experiments were carried out to further confirm the validity of pH dependence and the results support the idea that the material will be suitable for monitoring biological samples in the future.

  5. Effectiveness of standing frame on constipation in children with cerebral palsy: a single-subject study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivi, Elena; Filippi, Mariacristina; Fornasari, Elisa; Mascia, Maria Teresa; Ferrari, Adriano; Costi, Stefania

    2014-09-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) and quadriplegia or severe diplegia suffer from highly reduced mobility and consequent constipation. Clinicians recommend standing frames to exercise the support reaction in this population, sharing the opinion that the upright position may facilitate intestinal transit, although no evidence supports this assumption. We conducted this study to determine the effects of the standing frame on spontaneous evacuation in children with CP. Moreover, we studied its effects on the frequency of induction of evacuation, the characteristics of the stool and the pain suffered by the child due to constipation and/or evacuation. We implemented a single-subject research design in one chronically constipated child with CP and quadriplegia, Gross Motor Function Classification System Level V. To monitor the effects of the standing frame, we measured the outcome of interest throughout the study using a daily diary and the Bristol Stool Scale. This study was approved by the local Ethics Committee. This study has several limitation; primarily, the use of a single-subject research design only makes possible the visual analysis of data obtained from a unique patient. So, by themselves, data obtained do not allow us any generalization for the target population. Future research should verify our results collecting more data and also investigating the effect of the standing-frame on respiratory functions. Although the standing frame did not affect the frequency of evacuations or the characteristics of the stool, its employment reduced the inductions of evacuation and the related pain suffered by the child. However, this study has several limitations, such as the lack of generalization due to the fact that we studied a unique patient and the overall brevity of the study due to external circumstances. Therefore, we suggest future research to verify our results, also investigating the effect of the standing frame on respiratory functions. Relevance to clinical

  6. Compositional accuracy of atom probe tomography measurements in GaN: Impact of experimental parameters and multiple evaporation events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, E Di; Blum, I; Houard, J; Gilbert, M; Da Costa, G; Blavette, D; Rigutti, L

    2018-04-01

    A systematic study of the biases occurring in the measurement of the composition of GaN by Atom Probe Tomography was carried out, in which the role of surface electric field and laser pulse intensity has been investigated. Our data confirm that the electric field is the main factor influencing the measured composition, which exhibits a deficiency of N at low field and a deficiency of Ga at high field. The deficiency of Ga at high field is interpreted in terms of preferential evaporation of Ga. The detailed analysis of multiple evaporation events reveals that the measured composition is not affected by pile-up phenomena occurring in detection system. The analysis of correlation histograms yields the signature of the production of neutral N 2 due to the dissociation of GaN 3 2+ ions. However, the amount of N 2 neutral molecules that can be detected cannot account for the N deficiency found at low field. Therefore, we propose that further mechanisms of neutral N evaporation could be represented by dissociation reactions such as GaN + → Ga + + N and GaN 2+ → Ga 2 + + N. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Brace modification improves aerobic performance in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: a single-subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, J; Walsh, A; Frontera, W

    2001-08-01

    Ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) can lower energy expenditure in patients with hemiplegia by 10%-13%. Review of the lower motor injury literature reveals insufficient physiologic evidence supporting the use or modification of AFOs in patients with lower motor neuron injury and, specifically, progressive conditions such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. We sought to test the hypothesis that optimal AFOs would improve submaximal aerobic performance and submaximal perceived exertion, while producing no change in maximal aerobic capacity. In an individual with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, a single-subject design study was used. An A-B-A design was used, with "A" corresponding to use of the patient's old AFOs and "B" corresponding to the newly prescribed AFOs. The subject underwent treadmill exercise tolerance testing using a modified Balke protocol. Indirect calorimetry was used to measure oxygen consumption per unit time (VO2), and the Borg scale was used to measure perceived exertion. At the same submaximal exercise intensities, VO2, rate-pressure product, and perceived exertion were all reduced when using the modified AFOs. Additionally, these conditions allowed the subject to conduct the treadmill exercise test 20% longer. Maximal VO2 remained constant under all conditions. Optimizing the AFO prescription in a patient with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease can enhance physiologic performance and perceived exertion at submaximal activity levels. Larger controlled trials are necessary to further demonstrate such benefits in patients with progressive neuropathy and other causes of lower motor neuron injury.

  8. STATSLAB: An open-source EEG toolbox for computing single-subject effects using robust statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campopiano, Allan; van Noordt, Stefon J R; Segalowitz, Sidney J

    2018-03-21

    Research on robust statistics during the past half century provides concrete evidence that classical hypothesis tests that rely on the sample mean and variance are problematic. Even seemingly minor departures from normality are now known to create major problems in terms of increased error rates and decreased power. Fortunately, numerous robust estimation techniques have been developed that circumvent the need for strict assumptions of normality and equal variances, leading to increased power and accuracy when testing hypotheses. Two robust methods that have been shown to have practical value across a wide range of applied situations are the trimmed mean and percentile bootstrap test. To facilitate the uptake of robust methods into the behavioural sciences, especially when dealing with trial-based data such as EEG, we introduce STATSLAB: An open-source EEG toolbox for computing single-subject effects using robust statistics. With the STATSLAB toolbox users can apply the percentile bootstrap test, with trimmed means, to a variety of neural signals including voltages, global field amplitude, and spectral features for both scalp channels and independent components. The toolbox offers a range of analytical strategies and is packaged with a fully functional graphical user interface that includes documentation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental gingivitis induces systemic inflammatory markers in young healthy individuals: a single-subject interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, Jörg; Grote, Karsten; Luchtefeld, Maren; Heuer, Wieland; Schuett, Harald; Divchev, Dimitar; Scherer, Ralph; Schmitz-Streit, Ruth; Langfeldt, Daniela; Stumpp, Nico; Staufenbiel, Ingmar; Schieffer, Bernhard; Stiesch, Meike

    2013-01-01

    We here investigated whether experimental gingivitis enhances systemic markers of inflammation which are also known as surrogate markers of atherosclerotic plaque development. Gingivitis is a low-level oral infection induced by bacterial deposits with a high prevalence within Western populations. A potential link between the more severe oral disease periodontitis and cardiovascular disease has already been shown. 37 non-smoking young volunteers with no inflammatory disease or any cardiovascular risk factors participated in this single-subject interventional study with an intra-individual control. Intentionally experimental oral inflammation was induced by the interruption of oral hygiene for 21 days, followed by a 21-days resolving phase after reinitiation of oral hygiene. Primary outcome measures at baseline, day 21 and 42 were concentrations of hsCRP, IL-6, and MCP-1, as well as adhesion capacity and oxLDL uptake of isolated blood monocytes. The partial cessation of oral hygiene procedures was followed by the significant increase of gingival bleeding (34.0%, Pgingivitis. Bacterial-induced gingival low-level inflammation induced a systemic increase in inflammatory markers. Dental hygiene almost completely reversed this experimental inflammatory process, suggesting that appropriate dental prophylaxis may also limit systemic markers of inflammation in subjects with natural gingivitis. International Clinical Trials Register Platform of the World Health Organization, registry number: DRKS00003366, URL: http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/Default.aspx.

  10. Can Constraint Induced Movement Therapy Improve In-Hand Manipulation Skills: A Single Subject Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaye Kavousipor

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study describes a single subject design (ABA that shows the effective use of constraint induced movement therapy in improvement of quality and performance of in-hand manipulation skills for a 10 year old boy and a 9 years old girl with hemiplegic cerebral palsy, as Dickerson (2007 showed it in arm movement and function. Methods: To determine the effectiveness of CIMT by the use of C-statistic analysis and visual analysis. Approach: The first step was to design a child friendly group activity and home based intervention program through occupation. The possible effectiveness of CIMT was evaluated by daily measurements and video recording of 6 sub skills of in-hand manipulation according to Pont category (2009 in defined activity. Results: For making the treatment more cost effective, families can produce a simple clinical setting at home and participate in their child treatment plan actively. Discussion: A client center intervention will facilitate the use and quality of fingers and hand motion. Also a group activity can motivate participants to participate more and better.

  11. Effect of Knee Orthoses on Hamstring Contracture in Children With Cerebral Palsy: Multiple Single-Subject Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laessker-Alkema, Kristina; Eek, Meta Nyström

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effect of knee orthoses on extensibility of the hamstrings in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). The short-term effects of knee orthoses on passive range of motion (ROM), spasticity, and gross motor function of the hamstrings. Ten children with spastic CP, aged 5 to 14 years, at Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I to V, were followed. The orthoses were worn for a minimum of 30 minutes day, 5 days per week, during the intervention period of 8 weeks. Visual analysis using the Two Standard Deviation Band Method supported improvements in passive ROM for all 20 hamstring muscles and in 12 of 14 knee extension measurements. Analyses with the Wilcoxon signed rank test confirm the individual results and support a significant increase in hamstring muscles (P = .005) and knee extension (right: P =.028; left: P =.018) compared with baseline. In children with spastic CP, 8 weeks of treatment with knee orthoses can improve extensibility of the hamstrings.

  12. ReseqChip: Automated integration of multiple local context probe data from the MitoChip array in mitochondrial DNA sequence assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spang Rainer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Affymetrix MitoChip v2.0 is an oligonucleotide tiling array for the resequencing of the human mitochondrial (mt genome. For each of 16,569 nucleotide positions of the mt genome it holds two sets of four 25-mer probes each that match the heavy and the light strand of a reference mt genome and vary only at their central position to interrogate all four possible alleles. In addition, the MitoChip v2.0 carries alternative local context probes to account for known mtDNA variants. These probes have been neglected in most studies due to the lack of software for their automated analysis. Results We provide ReseqChip, a free software that automates the process of resequencing mtDNA using multiple local context probes on the MitoChip v2.0. ReseqChip significantly improves base call rate and sequence accuracy. ReseqChip is available at http://code.open-bio.org/svnweb/index.cgi/bioperl/browse/bioperl-live/trunk/Bio/Microarray/Tools/. Conclusions ReseqChip allows for the automated consolidation of base calls from alternative local mt genome context probes. It thereby improves the accuracy of resequencing, while reducing the number of non-called bases.

  13. Picture Exchange Communication System with Individuals with Developmental Disabilities: A Meta-Analysis of Single Subject Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Stephanie L.; Banda, Devender R.

    2010-01-01

    Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a picture-based communication strategy used to teach communication skills to persons with developmental disabilities including autism. This article systematically reviews 13 published single-subject studies to examine the effectiveness of PECS, the effects of PECS on speech and problem behaviors,…

  14. Self-Management Interventions on Students with Autism: A Meta-Analysis of Single-Subject Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Monica E.; Moore, Dennis W.; Anderson, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    Self-management interventions aimed at skill acquisition and/or improving behavior of students diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders were examined. Twenty-three single-subject research design studies met inclusion criteria. Quality assessment of these studies was conducted using the What Works Clearinghouse guidelines, and treatment effect…

  15. Custom-Designed MLPA Using Multiple Short Synthetic Probes Application to Methylation Analysis of Five Promoter CpG Islands in Tumor and Urine Specimens from Patients with Bladder Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serizawa, R.R.; Ralfkiaer, U.; Dahl, C.

    2010-01-01

    this assay to analyze DNA from tumor tissue and corresponding urine samples from patients with bladder cancer. Our data show that the use of multiple short synthetic probes provides a simple means for custom-designed MS-MLPA analysis. (J Mol Diagn 2010, 12:402-408; DOI: 10.2353/jmoldx.2010.090152)......Ligation of two oligonucleotide probes hybridized adjacently to a DNA template has been widely used for detection of genome alterations. The multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) technique allows simultaneous screening of multiple target sequences in a single reaction by using......-stranded bacteriophage vector to introduce a sequence of defined length between the primer binding site and the specific target sequence. Here we demonstrate that differences in amplicon length can be achieved by using multiple short synthetic probes for each target sequence. When joined by a DNA ligase, these probes...

  16. Using (10)CO2 for single subject characterization of the stimulus frequency dependence in visual cortex: a novel positron emission tomography tracer for human brain mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, I; Jensen, M; Holm, S; Nickles, R J; Paulson, O B

    2001-08-01

    Carbon-10-labeled carbon dioxide ((10)CO2) with a half-life of 19.3 seconds offers almost ideal characteristics as a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for assessment of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) distribution, enabling multiple independent measurements at short intervals. To appraise the feasibility of (10)CO2 for localizing and characterizing human brain function in single subjects, the authors chose a well-characterized activation paradigm. In 6 healthy volunteers, 50 to 64 independent PET scans of the rCBF distribution were acquired while viewing an annular reversing checkerboard presented at 10 reversal frequencies between 0.03 and 30 Hz. Changes in regional cerebral activity as a function of reversal frequency were modeled in every subject using a set of polynomial basis functions, which, as predicted, showed highly significant second or third order relations located in the striatal cortex. Correlation coefficients (R2) ranged from 0.46 to 0.63. The average intersubject maximal response relative to the 0.03 Hz condition was 8.0% +/- 1.7% SD occurring at stimulus contrast reversal frequencies between 6 and 15 Hz with an average of 11.8 +/- 3.8 (SD) Hz. From the qualitative and quantitative replication of previous results it is concluded that (10)CO2 PET is a feasible technique for human brain mapping studies and a great improvement compared with the existing oxygen-15-labeled water (H(2)(15)O) PET method, particularly for single subject studies and parametric design.

  17. Quality Control of Motor Unit Number Index (MUNIX Measurements in 6 Muscles in a Single-Subject "Round-Robin" Setup.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Neuwirth

    Full Text Available Motor Unit Number Index (MUNIX is a neurophysiological measure that provides an index of the number of lower motor neurons in a muscle. Its performance across centres in healthy subjects and patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS has been established, but inter-rater variability between multiple raters in one single subject has not been investigated.To assess reliability in a set of 6 muscles in a single subject among 12 examiners (6 experienced with MUNIX, 6 less experienced and to determine variables associated with variability of measurements.Twelve raters applied MUNIX in six different muscles (abductor pollicis brevis (APB, abductor digiti minimi (ADM, biceps brachii (BB, tibialis anterior (TA, extensor dig. brevis (EDB, abductor hallucis (AH twice in one single volunteer on consecutive days. All raters visited at least one training course prior to measurements. Intra- and inter-rater variability as determined by the coefficient of variation (COV between different raters and their levels of experience with MUNIX were compared.Mean intra-rater COV of MUNIX was 14.0% (±6.4 ranging from 5.8 (APB to 30.3% (EDB. Mean inter-rater COV was 18.1 (±5.4 ranging from 8.0 (BB to 31.7 (AH. No significant differences of variability between experienced and less experienced raters were detected.We provide evidence that quality control for neurophysiological methods can be performed with similar standards as in laboratory medicine. Intra- and inter-rater variability of MUNIX is muscle-dependent and mainly below 20%. Experienced neurophysiologists can easily adopt MUNIX and adequate teaching ensures reliable utilization of this method.

  18. Custom-Designed MLPA Using Multiple Short Synthetic Probes Application to Methylation Analysis of Five Promoter CpG Islands in Tumor and Urine Specimens from Patients with Bladder Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serizawa, R.R.; Ralfkiaer, U.; Dahl, C.

    2010-01-01

    this assay to analyze DNA from tumor tissue and corresponding urine samples from patients with bladder cancer. Our data show that the use of multiple short synthetic probes provides a simple means for custom-designed MS-MLPA analysis. (J Mol Diagn 2010, 12:402-408; DOI: 10.2353/jmoldx.2010.090152)......Ligation of two oligonucleotide probes hybridized adjacently to a DNA template has been widely used for detection of genome alterations. The multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) technique allows simultaneous screening of multiple target sequences in a single reaction by using...... pairs of probes that carry tails for binding of common amplification primers. Resolution of the various targets is achieved by electrophoresis on the basis of pre-defined differences in amplicon length. In the conventional MLPA approach, one of the two target probes is generated by cloning in a single-stranded...

  19. Custom-Designed MLPA Using Multiple Short Synthetic Probes Application to Methylation Analysis of Five Promoter CpG Islands in Tumor and Urine Specimens from Patients with Bladder Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serizawa, R.R.; Ralfkiaer, U.; Dahl, C.

    2010-01-01

    Ligation of two oligonucleotide probes hybridized adjacently to a DNA template has been widely used for detection of genome alterations. The multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) technique allows simultaneous screening of multiple target sequences in a single reaction by using p...... this assay to analyze DNA from tumor tissue and corresponding urine samples from patients with bladder cancer. Our data show that the use of multiple short synthetic probes provides a simple means for custom-designed MS-MLPA analysis.......Ligation of two oligonucleotide probes hybridized adjacently to a DNA template has been widely used for detection of genome alterations. The multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) technique allows simultaneous screening of multiple target sequences in a single reaction by using......-stranded bacteriophage vector to introduce a sequence of defined length between the primer binding site and the specific target sequence. Here we demonstrate that differences in amplicon length can be achieved by using multiple short synthetic probes for each target sequence. When joined by a DNA ligase, these probes...

  20. Highly Efficient Multiple-Anchored Fluorescent Probe for the Detection of Aniline Vapor Based on Synergistic Effect: Chemical Reaction and PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Zinuo; Zhang, Yu; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Xiangtao; Jiang, Haibo; Wu, Pengcheng; Fu, Yanyan; He, Qingguo; Cao, Huimin; Cheng, Jiangong

    2017-05-26

    A multiple-anchored fluorescent probe ((((hexane-1,6-diylbis(2,7-bis(4-formyl)-phenyl)-9H-fluorine-9,9-diyl))-bis(hexane-6,1-diyl))-bis(9H-carbazole-9,3,6-triyl))-tetrakis(benzene-4,1-diyl))-tetraformyl-(8FP-2F) with eight aldehyde groups was designed and synthesized. The molecule has four branches and highly twisted structure. Furthermore, it tends to self-assemble into nanospheres, which is beneficial for gaseous analyte penetration and high fluorescence quantum efficiency. Among gaseous analytes, detection of aniline vapor is extraordinarily important in the control of environmental issues and human diseases. Herein, 8FP-2F was introduced to detect aniline vapor with distinguished sensitivity and selectivity via simple Schiff base reaction at room temperature. After exposure to saturate aniline vapor, the 89% fluorescence of 8FP-2F was quenched in 50 s and the detection limit was as low as 3 ppb. Further study showed the suitable HOMO/LUMO energy levels and matched orbital symmetry between probe and aniline molecules ensured chemical reaction and PET process work together. The synergistic effect resulted in a significant sensing performance and fluorescence quenching toward aniline vapor. Moreover, the multiple active sites structure of 8FP-2F means it could be applied for constructing many interesting structures and highly efficient organic optoelectronic functional materials.

  1. Probing the Unique Contributions of Self-Concept, Task Values, and Their Interactions Using Multiple Value Facets and Multiple Academic Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Jiesi; Nagengast, Benjamin; Marsh, Herbert W.; Kelava, Augustin; Gaspard, Hanna; Brandt, Holger; Cambria, Jenna; Flunger, B.; Dicke, Anna Lena; Häfner, Isabelle; Brisson, Brigitte Maria; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on expectancy-value theory, the present study examined the unique contributions of the four major value beliefs and self-concept on achievement, self-reported effort, and teacher-rated behavioral engagement in mathematics. In particular, we examined the multiplicative effects of self-concept

  2. Thermal diffusivity measurement in thin metallic filaments using the mirage method with multiple probe beams and a digital camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, E.; Cifuentes, A.; Alvarado, S.; Cabrera, H.; Delgado, O.; Calderón, A.; Marín, E.

    2018-02-01

    Photothermal beam deflection is a well-established technique for measuring thermal diffusivity. In this technique, a pump laser beam generates temperature variations on the surface of the sample to be studied. These variations transfer heat to the surrounding medium, which may be air or any other fluid. The medium in turn experiences a change in the refractive index, which will be proportional to the temperature field on the sample surface when the distance to this surface is small. A probe laser beam will suffer a deflection due to the refractive index periodical changes, which is usually monitored by means of a quadrant photodetector or a similar device aided by lock-in amplification. A linear relationship that arises in this technique is that given by the phase lag of the thermal wave as a function of the distance to a punctual heat source when unidimensional heat diffusion can be guaranteed. This relationship is useful in the calculation of the sample's thermal diffusivity, which can be obtained straightforwardly by the so-called slope method, if the pump beam modulation frequency is well-known. The measurement procedure requires the experimenter to displace the probe beam at a given distance from the heat source, measure the phase lag at that offset, and repeat this for as many points as desired. This process can be quite lengthy in dependence of the number points. In this paper, we propose a detection scheme, which overcomes this limitation and simplifies the experimental setup using a digital camera that substitutes all detection hardware utilizing motion detection techniques and software digital signal lock-in post-processing. In this work, the method is demonstrated using thin metallic filaments as samples.

  3. Optimised padlock probe ligation and microarray detection of multiple (non-authorised GMOs in a single reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schoen Cor D

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To maintain EU GMO regulations, producers of new GM crop varieties need to supply an event-specific method for the new variety. As a result methods are nowadays available for EU-authorised genetically modified organisms (GMOs, but only to a limited extent for EU-non-authorised GMOs (NAGs. In the last decade the diversity of genetically modified (GM ingredients in food and feed has increased significantly. As a result of this increase GMO laboratories currently need to apply many different methods to establish to potential presence of NAGs in raw materials and complex derived products. Results In this paper we present an innovative method for detecting (approved GMOs as well as the potential presence of NAGs in complex DNA samples containing different crop species. An optimised protocol has been developed for padlock probe ligation in combination with microarray detection (PPLMD that can easily be scaled up. Linear padlock probes targeted against GMO-events, -elements and -species have been developed that can hybridise to their genomic target DNA and are visualised using microarray hybridisation. In a tenplex PPLMD experiment, different genomic targets in Roundup-Ready soya, MON1445 cotton and Bt176 maize were detected down to at least 1%. In single experiments, the targets were detected down to 0.1%, i.e. comparable to standard qPCR. Conclusion Compared to currently available methods this is a significant step forward towards multiplex detection in complex raw materials and derived products. It is shown that the PPLMD approach is suitable for large-scale detection of GMOs in real-life samples and provides the possibility to detect and/or identify NAGs that would otherwise remain undetected.

  4. Mobile Probing and Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvaa, Uffe; Ørngreen, Rikke; Weinkouff, Anne-Gitte

    2012-01-01

    Mobile probing is a method, which has been developed for learning about digital work situations, as an approach to discover new grounds. The method can be used when there is a need to know more about users and their work with certain tasks, but where users at the same time are distributed (in time...... and space). Mobile probing was inspired by the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. The method has been used in two subsequent projects, involving school children (young adults at 15-17 years old) and employees (adults) in a consultancy company. Findings...... point to mobile probing being a flexible method for uncovering the unknowns, as a way of getting rich data to the analysis and design phases. On the other hand it is difficult to engage users to give in depth explanations, which seem easier in synchronous dialogs (whether online or face2face...

  5. Mobile Probing and Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvaa, Uffe; Ørngreen, Rikke; Weinkouff Mathiasen, Anne-Gitte

    2013-01-01

    Mobile probing is a method, developed for learning about digital work situations, as an approach to discover new grounds. The method can be used when there is a need to know more about users and their work with certain tasks, but where users at the same time are distributed (in time and space......). Mobile probing was inspired by the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. The method has been used in two subsequent projects, involving school children (young adults at 15-17 years old) and employees (adults) in a consultancy company. Findings point...... to mobile probing being a flexible method for uncovering the unknowns, as a way of getting rich data to the analysis and design phases. On the other hand it is difficult to engage users to give in depth explanations, which seem easier in synchronous dialogs (whether online or face2face). The development...

  6. An evaluation of the stimulus equivalence paradigm to teach single-subject design to distance education students via Blackboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Brooke D; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the degree to which instruction based on stimulus equivalence procedures could be used to teach single-subject design methodology to graduate-level professionals through a Web-based course management system known as Blackboard (see http://www.blackboard.com). Specifically, we used the stimulus equivalence paradigm to teach relations among the names, definitions, graphical representations of the designs, and two practical scenarios of when it would be appropriate to implement each design. Most participants demonstrated the emergence of untaught relations, and some participants showed generalization to novel vignettes and graphs. Relations largely were not maintained at follow-up but were retaught.

  7. Consecutive Fragmentation Mechanisms of Protonated Ferulic Acid Probed by Infrared Multiple Photon Dissociation Spectroscopy and Electronic Structure Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Sabrina M.; Marta, Rick A.; Martens, Jonathan K.; McMahon, Terry B.

    2012-10-01

    Protonated ferulic acid and its principle fragment ion have been characterized using infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy and electronic structure calculations at the B3LYP/6-311 + G(d,p) level of theory. Due to its extensively conjugated structure, protonated ferulic acid is observed to yield three stable fragment ions in IRMPD experiments. It is proposed that two parallel fragmentation pathways of protonated ferulic acid are being observed. The first pathway involves proton transfer, resulting in the loss of water and subsequently carbon monoxide, producing fragment ions m/z 177 and 149, respectively. Optimization of m/z 177 yields a species containing an acylium group, which is supported by a diagnostic peak in the IRMPD spectrum at 2168 cm-1. The second pathway involves an alternate proton transfer leading to loss of methanol and rearrangement to a five-membered ring.

  8. Carrier multiplication and charge transport in artificial quantum-dot solids probed by ultrafast photocurrent spectroscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimov, Victor I.

    2017-05-01

    Understanding and controlling carrier transport and recombination dynamics in colloidal quantum dot films is key to their application in electronic and optoelectronic devices. Towards this end, we have conducted transient photocurrent measurements to monitor transport through quantum confined band edge states in lead selenide quantum dots films as a function of pump fluence, temperature, electrical bias, and surface treatment. Room temperature dynamics reveal two distinct timescales of intra-dot geminate processes followed by non-geminate inter-dot processes. The non-geminate kinetics is well described by the recombination of holes with photoinjected and pre-existing electrons residing in mid-gap states. We find the mobility of the quantum-confined states shows no temperature dependence down to 6 K, indicating a tunneling mechanism of early time photoconductance. We present evidence of the importance of the exciton fine structure in controlling the low temperature photoconductance, whereby the nanoscale enhanced exchange interaction between electrons and holes in quantum dots introduces a barrier to charge separation. Finally, side-by-side comparison of photocurrent transients using excitation with low- and high-photon energies (1.5 vs. 3.0 eV) reveals clear signatures of carrier multiplication (CM), that is, generation of multiple excitons by single photons. Based on photocurrent measurements of quantum dot solids and optical measurements of solution based samples, we conclude that the CM efficiency is unaffected by strong inter-dot coupling. Therefore, the results of previous numerous spectroscopic CM studies conducted on dilute quantum dot suspensions should, in principle, be reproducible in electronically coupled QD films used in devices.

  9. Revealing the uncultivated majority: combining DNA stable-isotope probing, multiple displacement amplification and metagenomic analyses of uncultivated Methylocystis in acidic peatlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yin; Dumont, Marc G; Neufeld, Josh D; Bodrossy, Levente; Stralis-Pavese, Nancy; McNamara, Niall P; Ostle, Nick; Briones, Maria J I; Murrell, J Colin

    2008-10-01

    Peatlands represent an enormous carbon reservoir and have a potential impact on the global climate because of the active methanogenesis and methanotrophy in these soils. Uncultivated methanotrophs from seven European peatlands were studied using a combination of molecular methods. Screening for methanotroph diversity using a particulate methane monooxygenase-based diagnostic gene array revealed that Methylocystis-related species were dominant in six of the seven peatlands studied. The abundance and methane oxidation activity of Methylocystis spp. were further confirmed by DNA stable-isotope probing analysis of a sample taken from the Moor House peatland (England). After ultracentrifugation, (13)C-labelled DNA, containing genomic DNA of these Methylocystis spp., was separated from (12)C DNA and subjected to multiple displacement amplification (MDA) to generate sufficient DNA for the preparation of a fosmid metagenomic library. Potential bias of MDA was detected by fingerprint analysis of 16S rRNA using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis for low-template amplification (0.01 ng template). Sufficient template (1-5 ng) was used in MDA to circumvent this bias and chimeric artefacts were minimized by using an enzymatic treatment of MDA-generated DNA with S1 nuclease and DNA polymerase I. Screening of the metagenomic library revealed one fosmid containing methanol dehydrogenase and two fosmids containing 16S rRNA genes from these Methylocystis-related species as well as one fosmid containing a 16S rRNA gene related to that of Methylocella/Methylocapsa. Sequencing of the 14 kb methanol dehydrogenase-containing fosmid allowed the assembly of a gene cluster encoding polypeptides involved in bacterial methanol utilization (mxaFJGIRSAC). This combination of DNA stable-isotope probing, MDA and metagenomics provided access to genomic information of a relatively large DNA fragment of these thus far uncultivated, predominant and active methanotrophs in peatland soil.

  10. Multiplicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    Virginia, 388 U.S. 1 (1967)(criminal statute prohibiting interracial marriages held unconstitutional violation of the Equal Protection and Due Process...such sentences does not violate the Constitution."°2 7 In effect , the double jeopardy protection from multiple punishments is coextensive with...unaware of what it accomplished . . . . In effect , the Blockburger test establishes a presumption of legislative intent: if each of two statutes

  11. Can Air Seat Cushions and Ball Chairs Improved Classroom Behaviors of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Single Subject Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Matin Sadr

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Classroom behaviorsare disturbed in autistic students because of their repetitive, restlessness, and disruptive behaviors. This study aimed to examine the impacts of sitting on a ball, cushion, and/or common chair on classroom behavior of four students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD. Methods: Four children with Autism participated in this single-subject study. Students’ behaviors were video recorded in three phases: Sitting on their common chairs during phase A, air-sit cushioned in phase B, and ball chairs in phase C. Sitting times and on-task/off-task behaviors were quantified by momentary time sampling (every 10 seconds and compared during different phases for important changes. Social validity was taken by the teacher at the end of the research as well. Results: The findings demonstrated increases in on-task and in-seat behaviors in four students when seated on air sit cushioned chairs. Despite rises of ontask behaviors for all students, only two of the students showed enhanced inseat behaviors when seated on therapy balls. Social validity findings indicated that the teacher preferred the use of the balls and air-cushioned chairs for her students. Conclusion: Therapy balls/cushioned chairs for students with ASD may facilitate in-seat and on-task behavior.

  12. Laser-assisted atom probe tomography of four paired poly-Si/SiO{sub 2} multiple-stacks with each thickness of 10 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, C.-M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Seol, J.-B., E-mail: jb_seol@postech.ac.kr [National Institute for Nanomaterials Technology (NINT), POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.-T. [Department of Materials Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Park, C.-G., E-mail: cgpark@postech.ac.kr [Department of Materials Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); National Institute for Nanomaterials Technology (NINT), POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • The nature of the laser-induced emission at the surface of needle-tips depends on material’s conductivity. • Low throughput of APT was overcome by changing the inclination of interfaces to analysis direction. • The Si{sub 2}, SiH{sub 2}O, and Si{sub 2}O ions are detected, for the first time, within poly-Si layers. - Abstract: For the past 10 years, laser-assisted atom probe tomography (APT) analysis has been performed to quantify the near-atomic scale distribution of elements and their local chemical compositions within interfaces that determine the design, processing, and properties of virtually all materials. However, the nature of the occurring laser-induced emission at the surface of needle-shaped sample is highly complex and it has been an ongoing challenge to understand the surface-related interactions between laser-sources and tips containing non-conductive oxides for a robust and reliable analysis of multiple-stacked devices. Here, we find that the APT analysis of four paired poly-Si/SiO{sub 2} (conductive/non-conductive) multiple stacks with each thickness of 10 nm is governed by experimentally monitoring three experimental conditions, such as laser-beam energies ranged from 30 to 200 nJ, analysis temperatures varying with 30–100 K, and the inclination of aligned interfaces within a given tip toward analysis direction. Varying with laser-energy and analysis temperature, a drastic compositional ratio of doubly charged Si ions to single charged Si ions within conductive poly-Si layers is modified, as compared with ones detected in the non-conductive layers. Severe distorted APT images of multiple stacks are also inevitable, especially at the conductive layers, and leading to a lowering of the successful analysis yields. This lower throughput has been overcome though changing the inclination of interfaces within a given tip to analysis direction (planar interfaces parallel to the tip axis), but significant deviations in chemical

  13. Evidence-Based Communication Practices for Children with Visual Impairments and Additional Disabilities: An Examination of Single-Subject Design Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Amy T.; Grimmett, Eric S.; Summers, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    This review examines practices for building effective communication strategies for children with visual impairments, including those with additional disabilities, that have been tested by single-subject design methodology. The authors found 30 studies that met the search criteria and grouped intervention strategies to align any evidence of the…

  14. A novel method of multiple nucleic acid detection: Real-time RT-PCR coupled with probe-melting curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yang; Hou, Shao-Yang; Ji, Shang-Zhi; Cheng, Juan; Zhang, Meng-Yue; He, Li-Juan; Ye, Xiang-Zhong; Li, Yi-Min; Zhang, Yi-Xuan

    2017-11-15

    A novel method, real-time reverse transcription PCR (real-time RT-PCR) coupled with probe-melting curve analysis, has been established to detect two kinds of samples within one fluorescence channel. Besides a conventional TaqMan probe, this method employs another specially designed melting-probe with a 5' terminus modification which meets the same label with the same fluorescent group. By using an asymmetric PCR method, the melting-probe is able to detect an extra sample in the melting stage effectively while it almost has little influence on the amplification detection. Thus, this method allows the availability of united employment of both amplification stage and melting stage for detecting samples in one reaction. The further demonstration by simultaneous detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in one channel as a model system is presented in this essay. The sensitivity of detection by real-time RT-PCR coupled with probe-melting analysis was proved to be equal to that detected by conventional real-time RT-PCR. Because real-time RT-PCR coupled with probe-melting analysis can double the detection throughputs within one fluorescence channel, it is expected to be a good solution for the problem of low-throughput in current real-time PCR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cultural probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Østergaard

    The aim of this study was thus to explore cultural probes (Gaver, Boucher et al. 2004), as a possible methodical approach, supporting knowledge production on situated and contextual aspects of occupation.......The aim of this study was thus to explore cultural probes (Gaver, Boucher et al. 2004), as a possible methodical approach, supporting knowledge production on situated and contextual aspects of occupation....

  16. Rating the methodological quality of single-subject designs and n-of-1 trials: introducing the Single-Case Experimental Design (SCED) Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Robyn L; McDonald, Skye; Perdices, Michael; Togher, Leanne; Schultz, Regina; Savage, Sharon

    2008-08-01

    Rating scales that assess methodological quality of clinical trials provide a means to critically appraise the literature. Scales are currently available to rate randomised and non-randomised controlled trials, but there are none that assess single-subject designs. The Single-Case Experimental Design (SCED) Scale was developed for this purpose and evaluated for reliability. Six clinical researchers who were trained and experienced in rating methodological quality of clinical trials developed the scale and participated in reliability studies. The SCED Scale is an 11-item rating scale for single-subject designs, of which 10 items are used to assess methodological quality and use of statistical analysis. The scale was developed and refined over a 3-year period. Content validity was addressed by identifying items to reduce the main sources of bias in single-case methodology as stipulated by authorities in the field, which were empirically tested against 85 published reports. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using a random sample of 20/312 single-subject reports archived in the Psychological Database of Brain Impairment Treatment Efficacy (PsycBITE). Inter-rater reliability for the total score was excellent, both for individual raters (overall ICC = 0.84; 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.92) and for consensus ratings between pairs of raters (overall ICC = 0.88; 95% confidence interval 0.78-0.95). Item reliability was fair to excellent for consensus ratings between pairs of raters (range k = 0.48 to 1.00). The results were replicated with two independent novice raters who were trained in the use of the scale (ICC = 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.95). The SCED Scale thus provides a brief and valid evaluation of methodological quality of single-subject designs, with the total score demonstrating excellent inter-rater reliability using both individual and consensus ratings. Items from the scale can also be used as a checklist in the design, reporting and critical

  17. An electrocorticographic BCI using code-based VEP for control in video applications: A single-subject study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph eKapeller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A brain-computer-interface (BCI allows the user to control a device or software with brain activity. Many BCIs rely on visual stimuli with constant stimulation cycles that elicit steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP in the electroencephalogram (EEG. This EEG response can be generated with a LED or a computer screen flashing at a constant frequency, and similar EEG activity can be elicited with pseudo-random stimulation sequences on a screen (code-based BCI. Using electrocorticography (ECoG instead of EEG promises higher spatial and temporal resolution and leads to more dominant evoked potentials due to visual stimulation. This work is focused on BCIs based on visual evoked potentials (VEP and its capability as a continuous control interface for augmentation of video applications. One 35 year old female subject with implanted subdural grids participated in the study. The task was to select one out of four visual targets, while each was flickering with a code sequence. After a calibration run including 200 code sequences, a linear classifier was used during an evaluation run to identify the selected visual target based on the generated code-based VEPs over 20 trials. Multiple ECoG buffer lengths were tested and subject reached a mean online classification accuracy of 99.21 % for a window length of 3.15 s. Finally, the subject performed an unsupervised free run in combination with visual feedback of the current selection. Additionally, an algorithm was implemented that allowed to suppress false positive selections and this allowed the subject to start and stop the BCI at any time. The code-based BCI system attained very high online accuracy, which makes this approach very promising for control applications where a continuous control signal is needed.

  18. Mobile probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Jørgensen, Anna Neustrup; Noesgaard, Signe Schack

    2016-01-01

    to in an interview. This method provided valuable insight into the contextual use, i.e. how did the online resource transfer to the work practice. However, the research team also found that mobile probes may provide the scaffolding necessary for individual and peer learning at a very local (intra-school) community...... level. This paper is an initial investigation of how the mobile probes process proved to engage teachers in their efforts to improve teaching. It also highlights some of the barriers emerging when applying mobile probes as a scaffold for learning.......A project investigating the effectiveness of a collection of online resources for teachers' professional development used mobile probes as a data collection method. Teachers received questions and tasks on their mobile in a dialogic manner while in their everyday context as opposed...

  19. Counting probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Haruya; Kaya, Nobuyuki; Yuasa, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Tomoaki

    1976-01-01

    Electron counting method has been devised and experimented for the purpose of measuring electron temperature and density, the most fundamental quantities to represent plasma conditions. Electron counting is a method to count the electrons in plasma directly by equipping a probe with the secondary electron multiplier. It has three advantages of adjustable sensitivity, high sensitivity of the secondary electron multiplier, and directional property. Sensitivity adjustment is performed by changing the size of collecting hole (pin hole) on the incident front of the multiplier. The probe is usable as a direct reading thermometer of electron temperature because it requires to collect very small amount of electrons, thus it doesn't disturb the surrounding plasma, and the narrow sweep width of the probe voltage is enough. Therefore it can measure anisotropy more sensitively than a Langmuir probe, and it can be used for very low density plasma. Though many problems remain on anisotropy, computer simulation has been carried out. Also it is planned to provide a Helmholtz coil in the vacuum chamber to eliminate the effect of earth magnetic field. In practical experiments, the measurement with a Langmuir probe and an emission probe mounted to the movable structure, the comparison with the results obtained in reverse magnetic field by using a Helmholtz coil, and the measurement of ionic sound wave are scheduled. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  20. DNA probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelino, J.

    1992-01-01

    The creation of DNA probes for detection of specific nucleotide segments differs from ligand detection in that it is a chemical rather than an immunological reaction. Complementary DNA or RNA is used in place of the antibody and is labelled with 32 P. So far, DNA probes have been successfully employed in the diagnosis of inherited disorders, infectious diseases, and for identification of human oncogenes. The latest approach to the diagnosis of communicable and parasitic infections is based on the use of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) probes. The genetic information of all cells is encoded by DNA and DNA probe approach to identification of pathogens is unique because the focus of the method is the nucleic acid content of the organism rather than the products that the nucleic acid encodes. Since every properly classified species has some unique nucleotide sequences that distinguish it from every other species, each organism's genetic composition is in essence a finger print that can be used for its identification. In addition to this specificity, DNA probes offer other advantages in that pathogens may be identified directly in clinical specimens

  1. Molecular identification of Clonorchis sinensis and discrimination with other opisthorchid liver fluke species using multiple Ligation-depended Probe Amplification (MLPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Chi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections with the opisthorchid liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, and O. felineus cause severe health problems globally, particularly in Southeast Asia. Early identification of the infection is essential to provide timely and appropriate chemotherapy to patients. Results In this study we evaluate a PCR-based molecular identification method, Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA, which allows rapid and specific detection of single nucleotide acid differences between Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini and O. felineus. Three probe pairs were derived from the Internally Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1 of three opisthorchid liver flukes using a systematic phylogenetic analysis. Specific loci were detected in all three species, yielding three amplicons with 198,172 and 152 bp, respectively, while no cross reactions were observed. A panel of 66 C. sinensis isolates was screened using MLPA. All species were positively identified, and no inhibition was observed. The detection limit was 103 copies of the ITS gene for the three liver flukes, or about 60 pg genomic DNA for Clonorchis sinensis. Amplification products can be detected by electrophoresis on agarose gel or in a capillary sequencer. In addition, genomic DNA of Clonorchis sinensis in fecal samples of infected rats was positively amplified by MLPA. Conclusion The flexibility and specificity make MLPA a potential tool for specific identification of infections by opisthorchid liver flukes in endemic areas.

  2. Conductivity Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander took measurements in Martian soil and in the air. The needles on the end of the instrument were inserted into the Martian soil, allowing TECP to measure the propagation of both thermal and electrical energy. TECP also measured the humidity in the surrounding air. The needles on the probe are 15 millimeters (0.6 inch) long. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Pollution Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chant, Donald A.

    This book is written as a statement of concern about pollution by members of Pollution Probe, a citizens' anti-pollution group in Canada. Its purpose is to create public awareness and pressure for the eventual solution to pollution problems. The need for effective government policies to control the population explosion, conserve natural resources,…

  4. Probe specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laget, J.M.

    1986-11-01

    Specificity and complementarity of hadron and electron probes must be systematically developed to answer three questions currently asked in intermediate energy nuclear physics: what is nucleus structure at short distances, what is nature of short range correlations, what is three body force nature [fr

  5. Symptomatic response to blocked and unblocked pentagastrin stimulation in functional dyspepsia - Comparison of responders and non-responders to omeprazole identified in a single-subject trial model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, L.G.; Bytzer, P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The role of acid in functional dyspepsia is controversial and drug treatment trials indicate that only a subset of patients has acid-related symptoms. A novel single-subject trial design, the Random Starting Day trial (RSD trial), was developed to identify acid-related symptoms. We...... was expected not to be influenced by gastric acid stimulation or type of treatment. Methods: Nineteen patients were evaluated. Symptomatic response to pentagastrin (6 mu g/kg) was assessed twice in each patient following placebo and omeprazole (40 mg bid) treatment in a randomized, double-blind, cross......-over design. Epigastric pain was assessed every 15 for 90 min after stimulation using a 5-graded Likert scale and a VAS scale. A positive acid provocation test was defined as an increase of the Likert score of epigastric pain by at least one grade after pentagastrin stimulation during placebo treatment...

  6. Probing the specific entropy produced in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions with a silicon pixel multiplicity detector: a simulation study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antinori, F.; Balada, A.; Barbera, R.; Staroba, Pavel; Závada, Petr

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 452, - (2000), s. 323-337 ISSN 0168-9002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010920 Keywords : ultra-relativistic * heavy-ion collisions * nuclear matter * phase diagram * hadron gas * Quark Gluon Plasma * particle multiplicity * transverse momentum spectra Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 0.964, year: 2000

  7. N-of-1-pathways MixEnrich: advancing precision medicine via single-subject analysis in discovering dynamic changes of transcriptomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qike; Schissler, A Grant; Gardeux, Vincent; Achour, Ikbel; Kenost, Colleen; Berghout, Joanne; Li, Haiquan; Zhang, Hao Helen; Lussier, Yves A

    2017-05-24

    Transcriptome analytic tools are commonly used across patient cohorts to develop drugs and predict clinical outcomes. However, as precision medicine pursues more accurate and individualized treatment decisions, these methods are not designed to address single-patient transcriptome analyses. We previously developed and validated the N-of-1-pathways framework using two methods, Wilcoxon and Mahalanobis Distance (MD), for personal transcriptome analysis derived from a pair of samples of a single patient. Although, both methods uncover concordantly dysregulated pathways, they are not designed to detect dysregulated pathways with up- and down-regulated genes (bidirectional dysregulation) that are ubiquitous in biological systems. We developed N-of-1-pathways MixEnrich, a mixture model followed by a gene set enrichment test, to uncover bidirectional and concordantly dysregulated pathways one patient at a time. We assess its accuracy in a comprehensive simulation study and in a RNA-Seq data analysis of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). In presence of bidirectionally dysregulated genes in the pathway or in presence of high background noise, MixEnrich substantially outperforms previous single-subject transcriptome analysis methods, both in the simulation study and the HNSCCs data analysis (ROC Curves; higher true positive rates; lower false positive rates). Bidirectional and concordant dysregulated pathways uncovered by MixEnrich in each patient largely overlapped with the quasi-gold standard compared to other single-subject and cohort-based transcriptome analyses. The greater performance of MixEnrich presents an advantage over previous methods to meet the promise of providing accurate personal transcriptome analysis to support precision medicine at point of care.

  8. Water cooled static pressure probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagen, Nicholas T. (Inventor); Eves, John W. (Inventor); Reece, Garland D. (Inventor); Geissinger, Steve L. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An improved static pressure probe containing a water cooling mechanism is disclosed. This probe has a hollow interior containing a central coolant tube and multiple individual pressure measurement tubes connected to holes placed on the exterior. Coolant from the central tube symmetrically immerses the interior of the probe, allowing it to sustain high temperature (in the region of 2500 F) supersonic jet flow indefinitely, while still recording accurate pressure data. The coolant exits the probe body by way of a reservoir attached to the aft of the probe. The pressure measurement tubes are joined to a single, larger manifold in the reservoir. This manifold is attached to a pressure transducer that records the average static pressure.

  9. Generalização baseada nas relações implicacionais obtida pelo modelo "ABAB-Retirada e Provas Múltiplas" Generalization based on the implicational relationships obtained by the "ABAB Withdrawal and Multiple Probes Model"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana da Silva Barberena

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a generalização baseada nas relações implicacionais obtida pelo Modelo "ABAB-Retirada e Provas Múltiplas" em crianças com diferentes graus de severidade de desvio fonológico. MÉTODOS: Análise dos dados de fala de oito sujeitos com desvios fonológicos. Foram realizadas avaliações da linguagem compreensiva e expressiva, do sistema sensório-motor oral, da psicomotricidade, da discriminação auditiva e avaliação fonológica, além de avaliações complementares (otorrinolaringológica audiológica e neurológica. A seguir, foi determinado o grau de severidade do desvio fonológico, para então iniciar o tratamento, em que foi aplicado o Modelo "ABAB-Retirada e Provas Múltiplas". RESULTADOS: Foram observadas generalizações baseadas em relações implicacionais. CONCLUSÕES: O Modelo "ABAB-Retirada e Provas Múltiplas" foi eficaz no tratamento dos sujeitos com desvio fonológico. A generalização baseada em relações implicacionais concordou, em parte, com o Modelo Implicacional de Complexidade de Traços (MICT.PURPOSE: To analyze the generalization based on the implicational relationships obtained by the "ABAB Withdrawal and Multiple Probes Model" in children with different severity degrees of phonological deviation. METHODS: Speech data analysis of eight subjects with phonological deviations. Evaluations of receptive and expressive language, oral sensory-motor oral system, psychomotricity, hea-ring discrimination and phonology were carried out, in addition to audiological, otorhinolaryngological and neurological evaluations. Next, the severity degree of the phonological deviation was determined, and the treatment was initiated, using the "ABAB Withdrawal and Multiple Probes Model". RESULTS: Generalizations based on implicational relationships were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The "ABAB Withdrawal and Multiple Probes Model" was effective in the treatment of subjects with phonological deviation. The generalization

  10. [Evaluation of detection and analysis of chromosome 22q11.2 microdeletion by multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification assay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    DENG, Jian-ying; ZHANG, Ze-wei; LI, Jian-hua; ZHU, Yu-ning; YANG, Jian-bin; GAO, Zhan; YING, Li-yang

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay detection in analysis of chromosome 22q11.2 microdeletion. Between March 2008 and September 2009, thirty-two patients including 10 males and 16 females aged between years (3.6±3.1) were selected and evaluated by history, physical examination and medical records. Of these patients, sixteen patients who were previous diagnostic as 22q11.2 microdeletion were in positive control group, the other 16 healthy children were in negative control group. All the patients were detected by MLPA and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the presence of a 22q11.2 microdeletion after informed consent. Diagnostic efficacy was assessed by sensitivity, specificity and Kappa analysis. We have applied the two assays of detection of chromosome 22q11.2 microdeletion in 32 patients. Sixteen patients in positive control group were found to have a 22q11.2 deletion and, with the deletion size of 3-Mb. However, as expected, chromosome 22q11.2 deletion was not found in negative control group. The MLPA results were in good agreement with that by FISH. Therefore, MLPA has high sensitivity and specificity. MLPA is a rapid, reliable, high-throughput and relatively economical alternative to FISH technology for the diagnosis of 22q11.2 microdeletion. It can provide reliable and helpful information for clinical diagnosis of 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome.

  11. Perturbative growth of electroweak high-multiplicity processes in view of future circular hadron colliders [Probing fundamental physics at 100 TeV

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Following a short theoretical motivation based on non-perturbative B+L violating physics within the SM, the talk will be based on applying instead a purely perturbative technique for computing amplitudes and cross sections for processes involving very high multiplicities of Higgses and massive vector bosons. At tree-level, I’ll review known results for such amplitudes on multiparticle mass-thresholds and will generalise these computations to more general kinematics away from the threshold. I’ll explain that these processes exhibit a factorial growth with the number of massive particle in the final state and that this is in contradiction with perturbative unitarity. This signals the breakdown of our trusted weakly coupled perturbation theory at energies ~ 50 - 1000 TeV and can lead to new unexpected physics signatures and phenomena at these energy scales. I’ll comment on what is currently known about the loop effects and will discuss the general expected structure of the high-energy high-multiplicity c...

  12. Project Prometheus and Future Entry Probe Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, Thomas R.

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on project Prometheus and future entry probe missions is shown. The topics include: 1) What Is Project Prometheus?; 2) What Capabilities Can Project Prometheus Offer? What Mission Types Are Being Considered?; 3) Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO); 4) How Are Mission Opportunities Changing?; 5) Missions Of Interest a Year Ago; 6) Missions Now Being Considered For Further Study; 7) Galileo-Style (Conventional) Probe Delivery; 8) Galileo-Style Probe Support; 9) Conventional Delivery and Support of Multiple Probes; 10) How Entry Probe Delivery From an NEP Vehicle Is Different; and 11) Concluding Remarks.

  13. Comparison of forward versus backward walking using body weight supported treadmill training in an individual with a spinal cord injury: a single subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriello, Gabriele; Pathare, Neeti; Cirone, Cono; Pastore, Danielle; Shears, Dacia; Sulehri, Sahira

    2014-01-01

    Body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) is a task-specific intervention that promotes functional locomotion. There is no research evaluating the effect of backward walking (BW) using BWSTT in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). The purpose of this single subject design was to examine the differences between forward walking (FW) and BW training using BWSTT in an individual with quadriparesis. The participant was a 57-year-old male with incomplete C3-C6 SCI. An ABABAB design (A = BW; B = FW; each phase = 3 weeks of biweekly sessions) was utilized. Outcome measures included: gait parameters; a timed 4-meter walk; the 5-repetition sit-to-stand test (STST); tandem stance time; and 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Data was analyzed with split level method of trend estimation. Improvements in gait parameters, on the timed 4-meter walk, 6MWT, tandem balance and aerobic endurance were similar with FW and BW training. The only difference between FW and BW training was that BW training resulted in greater improvements in the STST. The results of this study suggest that in this individual backward walking training was advantageous, resulting in improved ability to perform the 5-repetition STST. It is suspected that these changes can be attributed to the differences in muscle activation and task difficulty between FW and BW.

  14. Efficacy of behavioral interventions for reducing problem behavior in persons with autism: an updated quantitative synthesis of single-subject research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyvaert, Mieke; Saenen, Lore; Campbell, Jonathan M; Maes, Bea; Onghena, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    Problem or challenging behaviors are highly prevalent among persons with autism and bring along major risks for the individual with autism and his/her family. In order to reduce the problem behavior, several behavioral interventions are used. We conducted a quantitative synthesis of single-subject studies to examine the efficacy of behavioral interventions for reducing problem behavior in persons with autism. Two hundred and thirteen studies representing 358 persons with autism met the inclusion criteria and were included in the statistical analyses. Overall, we found that behavioral interventions were on average effective in reducing problem behavior in individuals with autism, but some interventions were significantly more effective than others. The results further showed that the use of positive (nonaversive) behavioral interventions was increasing over time. The behavioral interventions were on average equally effective regardless of the type of problem behavior that was targeted. Interventions preceded by a functional analysis reduced problem behavior significantly more than interventions not preceded by a functional analysis. Finally, treatment and experimental characteristics, but not participant characteristics, were statistically significant moderators of the behavioral treatment effectiveness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Probing Growth-Induced Anisotropic Thermal Transport in High-Quality CVD Diamond Membranes by Multifrequency and Multiple-Spot-Size Time-Domain Thermoreflectance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhe; Bougher, Thomas; Bai, Tingyu; Wang, Steven Y; Li, Chao; Yates, Luke; Foley, Brian M; Goorsky, Mark; Cola, Baratunde A; Faili, Firooz; Graham, Samuel

    2018-02-07

    The maximum output power of GaN-based high-electron mobility transistors is limited by high channel temperature induced by localized self-heating, which degrades device performance and reliability. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond is an attractive candidate to aid in the extraction of this heat and in minimizing the peak operating temperatures of high-power electronics. Owing to its inhomogeneous structure, the thermal conductivity of CVD diamond varies along the growth direction and can differ between the in-plane and out-of-plane directions, resulting in a complex three-dimensional (3D) distribution. Depending on the thickness of the diamond and size of the electronic device, this 3D distribution may impact the effectiveness of CVD diamond in device thermal management. In this work, time-domain thermoreflectance is used to measure the anisotropic thermal conductivity of an 11.8 μm-thick high-quality CVD diamond membrane from its nucleation side. Starting with a spot-size diameter larger than the thickness of the membrane, measurements are made at various modulation frequencies from 1.2 to 11.6 MHz to tune the heat penetration depth and sample the variation in thermal conductivity. We then analyze the data by creating a model with the membrane divided into ten sublayers and assume isotropic thermal conductivity in each sublayer. From this, we observe a two-dimensional gradient of the depth-dependent thermal conductivity for this membrane. The local thermal conductivity goes beyond 1000 W/(m K) when the distance from the nucleation interface only reaches 3 μm. Additionally, by measuring the same region with a smaller spot size at multiple frequencies, the in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities are extracted. Through this use of multiple spot sizes and modulation frequencies, the 3D anisotropic thermal conductivity of CVD diamond membrane is experimentally obtained by fitting the experimental data to a thermal model. This work provides an improved

  16. Evaluation of a radiolabelled peripheral benzodiazepine receptor ligand in the central nervous system inflammation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: a possible probe for imaging multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattner, F.; Katsifis, A.; Ballantyne, P. [ANSTO, Radiopharmaceuticals Division, Lucas Heights (Australia); Staykova, M.; Willenborg, D.O. [Australian National University Medical School, The Canberra Hospital, Neurosciences Research Unit, Woden, Canberra (Australia)

    2005-04-01

    Peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBRs) are upregulated on macrophages and activated microglia, and radioligands for the PBRs can be used to detect in vivo neuroinflammatory changes in a variety of neurological insults, including multiple sclerosis. Substituted 2-phenyl imidazopyridine-3-acetamides with high affinity and selectivity for PBRs have been prepared that are suitable for radiolabelling with a number of positron emission tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) isotopes. In this investigation, the newly developed high-affinity PBR ligand 6-chloro-2-(4'-iodophenyl)-3-(N,N-diethyl)imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-3-acetamide, or CLINDE, was radiolabelled with{sup 123}I and its biodistribution in the central nervous system (CNS) of rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) evaluated. EAE was induced in male Lewis rats by injection of an emulsion of myelin basic protein and incomplete Freund's adjuvant containing Mycobacterium butyricum. Biodistribution studies with{sup 123}I-CLINDE were undertaken on EAE rats exhibiting different clinical disease severity and compared with results in controls. Disease severity was confirmed by histopathology in the spinal cord of rats. The relationship between inflammatory lesions and PBR ligand binding was investigated using ex vivo autoradiography and immunohistochemistry on rats with various clinical scores. {sup 123}I-CLINDE uptake was enhanced in the CNS of all rats exhibiting EAE when compared to controls. Binding reflected the ascending nature of EAE inflammation, with lumbar/sacral cord > thoracic cord > cervical cord > medulla. The amount of ligand binding also reflected the clinical severity of disease. Ex vivo autoradiography and immunohistochemistry revealed a good spatial correspondence between radioligand signal and foci of inflammation and in particular ED-1{sup +} cells representing macrophages and microglia. These results demonstrate the ability of {sup 123}I

  17. Comparison of mobility and user satisfaction between a microprocessor knee and a standard prosthetic knee: a summary of seven single-subject trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Charla L; Wallace, Chris; Perry, Bonnie; Stokic, Dobrivoje S

    2018-03-01

    Insufficient evidence of the benefits provided by costlier microprocessor knees (MPKs) over nonmicroprocessor knees (NMPKs) often causes concern when considering MPK prescription. Thus, more studies are needed to demonstrate differences between MPKs and NMPKs and define sensitive outcomes to guide MPK prescription. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of switching from NMPK to MPK on measures of mobility and preference. Seven long-term NMPK users (all men, ages 50-84, 3-64 years postamputation) participated in this study, which use a single-subject design (ABA or BAB; A=NMPK, B=MPK). Mobility was assessed with the Amputee Mobility Predictor, Berg Balance Scale (BBS), L-Test, 6-Min Walk Test (6MWT) with Physiological Cost Index, and self-selected normal and very fast gait speeds. The preference between NMPK and MPK was evaluated by the Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire (PEQ) and the visual analog scale. Mobility improved with the MPK in six of seven participants, which was most often captured with BBS (median: +6 points) and 6MWT (median: +63 m). These improvements typically exceeded minimal clinically important difference or minimal detectable change thresholds. Most participants scored the MPK higher on the PEQ (median: +20 points) and six of seven expressed a global preference toward MPK. In the BAB group, the Amputee Mobility Predictor and BBS correlated with perception of change on several PEQ domains (Ρ≥0.59). In conclusion, MPKs may provide better outcomes and user satisfaction, particularly in those with lower mobility function. BBS and 6MWT were found to be the most sensitive measures to capture changes in mobility while using MPK for several weeks.

  18. Single-subject-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Xiong Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a leading cause of sustained impairment in military and civilian populations. However, mild TBI (mTBI can be difficult to detect using conventional MRI or CT. Injured brain tissues in mTBI patients generate abnormal slow-waves (1–4 Hz that can be measured and localized by resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG. In this study, we develop a voxel-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mTBI on a single-subject basis. A normative database of resting-state MEG source magnitude images (1–4 Hz from 79 healthy control subjects was established for all brain voxels. The high-resolution MEG source magnitude images were obtained by our recent Fast-VESTAL method. In 84 mTBI patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms (36 from blasts, and 48 from non-blast causes, our method detected abnormalities at the positive detection rates of 84.5%, 86.1%, and 83.3% for the combined (blast-induced plus with non-blast causes, blast, and non-blast mTBI groups, respectively. We found that prefrontal, posterior parietal, inferior temporal, hippocampus, and cerebella areas were particularly vulnerable to head trauma. The result also showed that MEG slow-wave generation in prefrontal areas positively correlated with personality change, trouble concentrating, affective lability, and depression symptoms. Discussion is provided regarding the neuronal mechanisms of MEG slow-wave generation due to deafferentation caused by axonal injury and/or blockages/limitations of cholinergic transmission in TBI. This study provides an effective way for using MEG slow-wave source imaging to localize affected areas and supports MEG as a tool for assisting the diagnosis of mTBI.

  19. Integrating Language, Pragmatics, and Social Intervention in a Single-Subject Case Study of a Child With a Developmental Social Communication Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine; Gaile, Jacqueline; Lockton, Elaine; Freed, Jenny

    2015-10-01

    This clinical focus article presents an illustration of a complex communication intervention, the Social Communication Intervention Programme (SCIP), as delivered to a child who has a social communication disorder (SCD). The SCIP intervention combined language processing and pragmatic and social understanding therapies in a program of individualized therapy activities and in close liaison with families. The study used an enhanced AB single-subject design in which an 8-year-old child with an SCD participated in 20 therapy sessions with a specialist speech-language pathologist. A procedure of matching assessment findings to intervention choices was followed to construct an individualized treatment program. Examples of intervention content and the embedded structure of SCIP are illustrated. Observational and formal measurements of receptive and expressive language, conversation, and parent-teacher ratings of social communication were completed before therapy, after therapy, and at a 6-month follow-up session. Outcomes revealed change in total and receptive language scores but not in expressive language. Conversation showed marked improvement in responsiveness, appreciation of listener knowledge, turn taking, and adaptation of discourse style. Teacher-reported outcomes included improved classroom behavior and enhanced literacy skills. Parent-reported outcomes included improved verbal interactions with family members and personal narratives. This clinical focus article demonstrates the complexity of needs in a child with an SCD and how these can be addressed in individualized intervention. Findings are discussed in relation to the essential nature of language support including pragmatic therapy for children with SCDs. Discussion of the role of formal and functional outcome measurement as well as the proximity of chosen outcomes to the intervention is included.

  20. Exploring the Effects of Using an Oral Appliance to Reduce Movement Dysfunction in an Individual With Parkinson Disease: A Single-Subject Design Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Hillary; Rose, Lindsey E; Woodbrey, Megan; Arghavani, David; Lawrence, Michael; Cavanaugh, James T

    2017-01-01

    Clinical reports suggest that wearing an oral appliance can improve the gait and balance of an individual with Parkinson disease (PD). Our primary purpose was to systematically explore this effect using a single-subject study design and quantitative motion analysis. Secondarily, we sought to examine the quality-of-life outcomes following 1-month of routine oral appliance wear. The participant was a 73-year-old ambulatory man with mid-stage PD. Using an A-B-A design, for which a custom-made oral appliance served as the intervention, kinematic and kinetic data were captured during performance of Four Square Step Test, serpentine walk, and tandem walk tasks. Grip strength was quantified with a dynamometer. Quality-of-life outcomes were collected after 1 month of appliance wear using the Parkinson Disease Questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39). Perceived changes in balance, mobility, and quality of life were captured from the participant using an 11-point Global Rate of Change (GRC) scale. Changes in mobility, postural control, and grip strength during appliance wear were suggestive of reduced movement dysfunction. The PDQ-39 revealed a significant improvement in quality of life, primarily related to increased emotional well-being, decreased stigma, and increased communication. GRC scores indicated a clinically significant improvement in ease of movement in the community (+3), ease of movement during the performance of activities of daily living (+4), and in standing balance while performing activities of daily living (+4). Study findings provided quantitative evidence supporting the effectiveness of oral appliance wear for reducing movement dysfunction in a patient with mid-stage PD.Video Abstract available for more insights from the authors (see Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A155).

  1. Automatic kelvin probe compatible with ultrahigh vacuum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baikie, I.D.; van der Werf, Kees; Oerbekke, H.; Broeze, J.; van Silfhout, Arend

    1989-01-01

    This article describes a new type of in situ ultrahigh‐vacuum compatible kelvin probe based on a voice‐coil driving mechanism. This design exhibits several advantages over conventional mechanical feed‐through and (in situ) piezoelectric devices in regard to the possibility of multiple probe

  2. Proximal Probes Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Proximal Probes Facility consists of laboratories for microscopy, spectroscopy, and probing of nanostructured materials and their functional properties. At the...

  3. Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Residual Symptoms in Bipolar Disorder Type II: A Single-Subject Design Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holländare, Fredrik; Eriksson, Annsofi; Lövgren, Lisa; Humble, Mats B; Boersma, Katja

    2015-04-23

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic condition with recurring episodes that often lead to suffering, decreased functioning, and sick leave. Pharmacotherapy in the form of mood stabilizers is widely available, but does not eliminate the risk of a new depressive or (hypo)manic episode. One way to reduce the risk of future episodes is to combine pharmacological treatment with individual or group psychological interventions. However, access to such interventions is often limited due to a shortage of trained therapists. In unipolar depression there is now robust evidence of the effectiveness of Internet-based psychological interventions, usually comprising psychoeducation and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Internet-based interventions for persons suffering from bipolar disorder could increase access to psychological treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of an Internet-based intervention, as well as its effect on residual depressive symptoms in persons diagnosed with bipolar disorder type II (BP-II). The most important outcomes were depressive symptoms, treatment adherence, and whether the patient perceived the intervention as helpful. A total of 7 patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder type II at a Swedish psychiatric outpatient clinic were offered the opportunity to participate. Of the 7 patients, 3 (43%) dropped out before treatment began, and 4 (57%) were treated by means of an online, Internet-based intervention based on CBT (iCBT). The intervention was primarily aimed at psychoeducation, treatment of residual depressive symptoms, emotion regulation, and improved sleep. All patients had ongoing pharmacological treatment at recruitment and established contact with a psychiatrist. The duration of BP-II among the treated patients was between 6 and 31 years. A single-subject design was used and the results of the 4 participating patients were presented individually. Initiating treatment was perceived as too demanding under current life

  4. THE ORNL ATOM PROBE

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, M.

    1986-01-01

    The ORNL Atom Probe is a microanalytical tool for studies in materials science. The instrument is a combination of a customized version of the vacuum system of the VG FIM-100 atom probe, an ORNL-designed microcomputer-controlled digital timing system, and a double curved CEMA Imaging Atom Probe detector. The atom probe combines four instruments into one - namely a field ion microscope, an energy compensated time-of-flight mass spectrometer, an imaging atom probe, and a pulsed laser atom probe.

  5. Mobile Game Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup Lynggaard, Aviaja

    2006-01-01

    This paper will examine how probes can be useful for game designers in the preliminary phases of a design process. The work is based upon a case study concerning pervasive mobile phone games where Mobile Game Probes have emerged from the project. The new probes are aimed towards a specific target...... group and the goal is to specify the probes so they will cover the most relevant areas for our project. The Mobile Game Probes generated many interesting results and new issues occurred, since the probes came to be dynamic and favorable for the process in new ways....

  6. Inspecting Friction Stir Welding using Electromagnetic Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinchen, David G.

    2004-01-01

    A report describes the use of advanced electromagnetic probes to measure the dimensions, the spatial distribution of electrical conductivity, and related other properties of friction stir welds (FSWs) between parts made of the same or different aluminum alloy(s). The probes are of the type described in in another Tech Brief. To recapitulate: A probe of this type is essentially an eddy-current probe that includes a primary (driver) winding that meanders and multiple secondary (sensing) windings that meander along the primary winding. Electrical conductivity is commonly used as a measure of heat treatment and tempering of aluminum alloys, but prior to the development of these probes, the inadequate sensitivity and limited accuracy of electrical-conductivity probes precluded such use on FSWs between different aluminum alloys, and the resolution of those probes was inadequate for measurement of FSW dimensions with positions and metallurgical properties. In contrast, the present probes afford adequate accuracy and spatial resolution for the purposes of measuring the dimensions of FSW welds and correlating spatially varying electrical conductivities with metallurgical properties, including surface defects.

  7. Electrical resistivity probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex; Faybishenko, Boris A.; Solbau, Ray D.

    2003-10-21

    A miniaturized electrical resistivity (ER) probe based on a known current-voltage (I-V) electrode structure, the Wenner array, is designed for local (point) measurement. A pair of voltage measuring electrodes are positioned between a pair of current carrying electrodes. The electrodes are typically about 1 cm long, separated by 1 cm, so the probe is only about 1 inch long. The electrodes are mounted to a rigid tube with electrical wires in the tube and a sand bag may be placed around the electrodes to protect the electrodes. The probes can be positioned in a borehole or on the surface. The electrodes make contact with the surrounding medium. In a dual mode system, individual probes of a plurality of spaced probes can be used to measure local resistance, i.e. point measurements, but the system can select different probes to make interval measurements between probes and between boreholes.

  8. High temperature probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Raymond A.

    1994-01-01

    A high temperature probe for sampling, for example, smokestack fumes, and is able to withstand temperatures of 3000.degree. F. The probe is constructed so as to prevent leakage via the seal by placing the seal inside the water jacket whereby the seal is not exposed to high temperature, which destroys the seal. The sample inlet of the probe is also provided with cooling fins about the area of the seal to provide additional cooling to prevent the seal from being destroyed. Also, a heated jacket is provided for maintaining the temperature of the gas being tested as it passes through the probe. The probe includes pressure sensing means for determining the flow velocity of an efficient being sampled. In addition, thermocouples are located in various places on the probe to monitor the temperature of the gas passing there through.

  9. Microneurosurgical water probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogády, P; Wurm, G

    2005-04-01

    When constructing the micro-neurosurgical water ball probe, the authors have simply combined the properties of a ball probe with an irrigational function and the supportive role of water current to form a new irrigating ball dissector. The micro-instrument has an outlet mechanism with which the surgeon can regulate the flow of physiological solution into the operational field. Its point has the properties of a ball probe, and the overall bayonet shape facilitates surgical interventions in deep tissues under microscopic control. The water probe therefore enables the surgeon to perform precise mechanical preparation supported by a regulated current of water and a targeted irrigation in the operational field. The physiological solution in the pressure infusion cuff is under minimal pressure and directly connected to the probe. Due to the fact that one device can be used for various purposes the water ball probe represents an advantageous alternative to conventional micro-neurosurgical preparation.

  10. Study of probe-sample distance for biomedical spectra measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lei

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fiber-based optical spectroscopy has been widely used for biomedical applications. However, the effect of probe-sample distance on the collection efficiency has not been well investigated. Method In this paper, we presented a theoretical model to maximize the illumination and collection efficiency in designing fiber optic probes for biomedical spectra measurement. This model was in general applicable to probes with single or multiple fibers at an arbitrary incident angle. In order to demonstrate the theory, a fluorescence spectrometer was used to measure the fluorescence of human finger skin at various probe-sample distances. The fluorescence spectrum and the total fluorescence intensity were recorded. Results The theoretical results show that for single fiber probes, contact measurement always provides the best results. While for multi-fiber probes, there is an optimal probe distance. When a 400- μm excitation fiber is used to deliver the light to the skin and another six 400- μm fibers surrounding the excitation fiber are used to collect the fluorescence signal, the experimental results show that human finger skin has very strong fluorescence between 475 nm and 700 nm under 450 nm excitation. The fluorescence intensity is heavily dependent on the probe-sample distance and there is an optimal probe distance. Conclusions We investigated a number of probe-sample configurations and found that contact measurement could be the primary choice for single-fiber probes, but was very inefficient for multi-fiber probes. There was an optimal probe-sample distance for multi-fiber probes. By carefully choosing the probe-sample distance, the collection efficiency could be enhanced by 5-10 times. Our experiments demonstrated that the experimental results of the probe-sample distance dependence of collection efficiency in multi-fiber probes were in general agreement with our theory.

  11. Engaging Preschool Children with Severe and Multiple Disabilities Using Books and iPad Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Coral; Stephenson, Jennifer; Cooper, Megan; Hodge, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    A single subject multiple treatment design was used to compare the engagement of 3 preschool children with severe and multiple disabilities, using 2 different stimuli: picture books and iPad apps matched for theme and content. Two of the 3 children had diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder in addition to their other disabilities. Sessions for each…

  12. Probe tests microweld strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Probe is developed to test strength of soldered, brazed or microwelded joints. It consists of a spring which may be adjusted to the desired test pressure by means of a threaded probe head, and an indicator lamp. Device may be used for electronic equipment testing.

  13. Transmit-receive eddy current probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrutsky, L.S.; Sullivan, S.P.; Cecco, V.S.

    1997-01-01

    In the last two decades, due to increased inspection demands, eddy current instrumentation has advanced from single-frequency, single-output instruments to multifrequency, computer-aided systems. This has significantly increased the scope of eddy current testing, but, unfortunately, it has also increased the cost and complexity of inspections. In addition, this approach has not always improved defect detectability or signal-to-noise. Most eddy current testing applications are still performed with impedance probes, which have well known limitations. However, recent research at AECL has led to improved eddy current inspections through the design and development of transmit-receive (T/R) probes. T/R eddy current probes, with laterally displaced transmit and receive coils, present a number of advantages over impedance probes. They have improved signal-to-noise ratio in the presence of variable lift-off compared to impedance probes. They have strong directional properties, permitting probe optimization for circumferential or axial crack detection, and possess good phase discrimination to surface defects. They can significantly increase the scope of eddy current testing permitting reliable detection and sizing of cracks in heat exchanger tubing as well as in welded areas of both ferritic and non-ferromagnetic components. This presentation will describe the operating principles of T/R probes with the help of computer-derived normalized voltage diagrams. We will discuss their directional properties and analyze the advantages of using single and multiple T/R probes over impedance probes for specific inspection cases. Current applications to surface and tube testing and some typical inspection results will be described. (author)

  14. Shared probe design and existing microarray reanalysis using PICKY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chou Hui-Hsien

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large genomes contain families of highly similar genes that cannot be individually identified by microarray probes. This limitation is due to thermodynamic restrictions and cannot be resolved by any computational method. Since gene annotations are updated more frequently than microarrays, another common issue facing microarray users is that existing microarrays must be routinely reanalyzed to determine probes that are still useful with respect to the updated annotations. Results PICKY 2.0 can design shared probes for sets of genes that cannot be individually identified using unique probes. PICKY 2.0 uses novel algorithms to track sharable regions among genes and to strictly distinguish them from other highly similar but nontarget regions during thermodynamic comparisons. Therefore, PICKY does not sacrifice the quality of shared probes when choosing them. The latest PICKY 2.1 includes the new capability to reanalyze existing microarray probes against updated gene sets to determine probes that are still valid to use. In addition, more precise nonlinear salt effect estimates and other improvements are added, making PICKY 2.1 more versatile to microarray users. Conclusions Shared probes allow expressed gene family members to be detected; this capability is generally more desirable than not knowing anything about these genes. Shared probes also enable the design of cross-genome microarrays, which facilitate multiple species identification in environmental samples. The new nonlinear salt effect calculation significantly increases the precision of probes at a lower buffer salt concentration, and the probe reanalysis function improves existing microarray result interpretations.

  15. [Development of a Fluorescence Probe for Live Cell Imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Aya

    2017-01-01

    Probes that detect specific biological materials are indispensable tools for deepening our understanding of various cellular phenomena. In live cell imaging, the probe must emit fluorescence only when a specific substance is detected. In this paper, we introduce a new probe we developed for live cell imaging. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity is higher in tumor cells than in normal cells and is involved in the development of resistance to various anticancer drugs. We previously reported the development of a general strategy for the synthesis of probes for detection of GST enzymes, including fluorogenic, bioluminogenic, and 19 F-NMR probes. Arylsulfonyl groups were used as caging groups during probe design. The fluorogenic probes were successfully used to quantitate very low levels of GST activity in cell extracts and were also successfully applied to the imaging of microsomal MGST1 activity in living cells. The bioluminogenic and 19 F-NMR probes were able to detect GST activity in Escherichia coli cells. Oligonucleotide-templated reactions are powerful tools for nucleic acid sensing. This strategy exploits the target strand as a template for two functionalized probes and provides a simple molecular mechanism for multiple turnover reactions. We developed a nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction-triggered fluorescent probe. The probe completed its reaction within 30 s of initiation and amplified the fluorescence signal from 0.5 pM target oligonucleotide by 1500 fold under isothermal conditions. Additionally, we applied the oligonucleotide-templated reaction for molecular releasing and peptide detection.

  16. Multiple inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Theory of Inflation, namely, that at some point the entropy content of the universe was greatly increased, has much promise. It may solve the puzzles of homogeneity and the creation of structure. However, no particle physics model has yet been found that can successfully drive inflation. The difficulty in satisfying the constraint that the isotropy of the microwave background places on the effective potential of prospective models is immense. In this work we have codified the requirements of such models in a most general form. We have carefully calculated the amounts of inflation the various problems of the Standard Model need for their solution. We have derived a completely model independent upper bond on the inflationary Hubble parameter. We have developed a general notation with which to probe the possibilities of Multiple Inflation. We have shown that only in very unlikely circumstances will any evidence of an earlier inflation, survive the de Sitter period of its successor. In particular, it is demonstrated that it is most unlikely that two bouts of inflation will yield high amplitudes of density perturbations on small scales and low amplitudes on large. We conclude that, while multiple inflation will be of great theoretical interest, it is unlikely to have any observational impact

  17. Neutrons as a probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizumi, Masashi

    1993-01-01

    As an introduction to the symposium a brief overview will be given about the features of neutrons as a probe. First it will be pointed out that the utilization of neutrons as a probe for investigating the structural and dynamical properties of condensed matters is a benign gift eventuated from the release of atomic energy initiated by Enrico Fermi exactly half century ago. Features of neutrons as a probe are discussed in accordance with the four basic physical properties of neutrons as an elementary particle; (1) no electric charge (the interaction with matter is nuclear), (2) the mass of neutron is 1 amu, (3) spin is 1/2 and (4) neutrons have magnetic dipole moment. Overview will be given on the uniqueness of neutrons as a probe and on the variety in the way they are used in the wide research area from the pure science to the industrial applications. (author)

  18. Retarded Local Dynamics of Single Fluorescent Probes in Polymeric Glass due to Interaction Strengthening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Yang, Jingfa; Zhao, Jiang

    The effect of strengthening of interaction between single fluorescent probes and polymer matrix to the probes dynamics is investigated using single molecule fluorescence defocus microscopy. By introducing multiple hydroxyl groups to the fluorescent probes, which builds up hydrogen bonds between the probe and polymer matrix, the dynamics is discovered to be retarded. This is evidenced by the lowering of the frequency of the vibrational modes in the power spectra of the rotation trajectories of individual fluorescent probes, and also by the lowering of population of rotating probes. The results show that by strengthening the probe-matrix interaction, the local dynamics detected by the probes is equivalent to that detected by a bigger probe, due to the enhanced friction between the probe and the polymer matrix. the National Basic Research Program of China (2012CB821500).

  19. Noninvasive ultrasonic probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, S.R.; Galer, D.R.; Leard, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    An ultrasonic probe is described for insonifying the ascending aorta of a supine or reclining human patient from a location within the suprasternal notch of the patient. The probe comprises: a transducer head and an elongated handle; housing propagates ultrasonic energy and for intercept-frequency-shifted, reflected radiant energy; the handle has a proximate portion and a distal portion and a non-circular cross-sectional configuration with at least one longitudinal edge which furnishes a gripping surface; this facilitates tactile positioning of the probe; the transducer head is integral with the handle of the probe at the exposed end of the proximate portion; the transducer head has a generally arcuate cross-sectional configuration and a generally trapezoidal profile; the transducer head is oriented at right angles to the proximate portion of the handle and has an exposed, patient contacting end in which the transducer means are located; this facilitates the orientation of the transducer means housed in the head relative to the ascending aorta of the patient; and the distal end portion of the elongated probe handle is integral with and immovably oriented at a severe angle relative to the proximate end of that handle, and lies in the same plane as the proximate end of the handle; the transducer head of the probe is placed with facility within the suprasternal notch of the patient by an operator positioned behind the head of the patient

  20. Model for resonant plasma probe.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Johnson, William Arthur; Hebner, Gregory Albert; Jorgenson, Roy E.; Coats, Rebecca Sue

    2007-04-01

    This report constructs simple circuit models for a hairpin shaped resonant plasma probe. Effects of the plasma sheath region surrounding the wires making up the probe are determined. Electromagnetic simulations of the probe are compared to the circuit model results. The perturbing effects of the disc cavity in which the probe operates are also found.

  1. Convective heat flow probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, James C.; Hardee, Harry C.; Striker, Richard P.

    1985-01-01

    A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packer-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

  2. Multiple Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Multiple Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Multiple Pregnancy Page ... Multiple Pregnancy FAQ188, July 2015 PDF Format Multiple Pregnancy Pregnancy How does multiple pregnancy occur? What are ...

  3. Multispectral imaging probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandison, David R.; Platzbecker, Mark R.; Descour, Michael R.; Armour, David L.; Craig, Marcus J.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    1999-01-01

    A multispectral imaging probe delivers a range of wavelengths of excitation light to a target and collects a range of expressed light wavelengths. The multispectral imaging probe is adapted for mobile use and use in confined spaces, and is sealed against the effects of hostile environments. The multispectral imaging probe comprises a housing that defines a sealed volume that is substantially sealed from the surrounding environment. A beam splitting device mounts within the sealed volume. Excitation light is directed to the beam splitting device, which directs the excitation light to a target. Expressed light from the target reaches the beam splitting device along a path coaxial with the path traveled by the excitation light from the beam splitting device to the target. The beam splitting device directs expressed light to a collection subsystem for delivery to a detector.

  4. Multiple sclerosis; Multiple Sklerose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, I.Q.; Kuehn, A.L.; Backens, M.; Papanagiotou, P. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Radiologische Klinik, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Shariat, K. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Neurochirurgie, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Kostopoulos, P. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Neurologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    Multiple sclerosis is the most common chronic inflammatory disease of myelin with interspersed lesions in the white matter of the central nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in the diagnosis and monitoring of white matter diseases. This article focuses on key findings in multiple sclerosis as detected by MRI. (orig.) [German] Die Multiple Sklerose (MS) ist die haeufigste chronisch-entzuendliche Erkrankung des Myelins mit eingesprengten Laesionen im Bereich der weissen Substanz des zentralen Nervensystems. Die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) hat bei der Diagnosestellung und Verlaufskontrolle eine Schluesselrolle. Dieser Artikel befasst sich mit Hauptcharakteristika der MR-Bildbebung. (orig.)

  5. The Significance of Experiences of Nature for People with Parkinson’s Disease, with Special Focus on Freezing of Gait—The Necessity for a Biophilic Environment. A Multi-Method Single Subject Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottosson, Johan; Lavesson, Lillian; Pinzke, Stefan; Grahn, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Freezing of Gait (FOG) is a common condition in people with Parkinson’s disease (PD). FOG entails suddenly experiencing difficulties moving or feeling that one’s feet are as glued to the ground. It is triggered, e.g., when passing through doorways. Earlier studies suggest that being in natural environments affects FOG in a positive way. Five subjects were recruited to serve as five single subject cases. We used interviews, observations, questionnaires and collected gait pattern data with aid of an accelerometer. A special designed outdoor setting was used, where we investigated whether passing through hedge openings with or without built elements triggered FOG. We found that no one experienced a FOG reaction when they passed through hedge openings without built elements. However, FOG was triggered when a doorframe was inserted into a hedge opening, and/or when peripheral vision was blocked. We interpret the results such that the doorframe triggered a phobic reflex, causing a freezing reaction. Passing through hedge openings does not trigger FOG, which we interpret as a biophilic reaction. Our results, if repeated in future studies, may have significance to everyday lives of PD patients, who could get a simpler life by consciously prioritizing stays in natural surroundings. PMID:26132480

  6. Probing the Solar Interior

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 3. Probing the Solar Interior Hearing the Heartbeats of the Sun. Ashok Ambastha. General ... Author Affiliations. Ashok Ambastha1. Joint In-Charge Udaipur Solar Observatory Physical Research laboratory P.O. Box No. 198 Udaipur 313 001, India ...

  7. Probing the Solar Interior

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 3. Probing the Solar Interior Hearing the Heartbeats of the Sun. Ashok Ambastha. General Article Volume 3 Issue 3 March 1998 pp 18-31. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  8. Terahertz scanning probe microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klapwijk, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    The invention provides aterahertz scanning probe microscope setup comprising (i) a terahertz radiation source configured to generate terahertz radiation; (ii) a terahertz lens configured to receive at least part of the terahertz radiation from the terahertz radiation source; (iii) a cantilever unit

  9. One-Probe Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Östlin, Anna; Pagh, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    We consider dictionaries that perform lookups by probing a single word of memory, knowing only the size of the data structure. We describe a randomized dictionary where a lookup returns the correct answer with probability 1 - e, and otherwise returns don't know. The lookup procedure uses an expan...

  10. Probing the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, John

    2013-01-01

    Humans have always had the vision to one day live on other planets. This vision existed even before the first person was put into orbit. Since the early space missions of putting humans into orbit around Earth, many advances have been made in space technology. We have now sent many space probes deep into the Solar system to explore the planets and…

  11. Thermal conductivity probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navickas, J.

    1969-01-01

    Low-mass probe accurately measures the thermal conductivity of polyurethane foam /and other thermal insulating materials/ while exposed to either hydrogen of helium permeation in temperature ranges from ambient to cryogenic. The thermal conductivity of a specimen is determined from an experimentally determined increase in temperature.

  12. Probe selection and expression index computation of Affymetrix Exon Arrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Xing

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is great current interest in developing microarray platforms for measuring mRNA abundance at both gene level and exon level. The Affymetrix Exon Array is a new high-density gene expression microarray platform, with over six million probes targeting all annotated and predicted exons in a genome. An important question for the analysis of exon array data is how to compute overall gene expression indexes. Because of the complexity of the design of exon array probes, this problem is different in nature from summarizing gene-level expression from traditional 3' expression arrays.In this manuscript, we use exon array data from 11 human tissues to study methods for computing gene-level expression. We showed that for most genes there is a subset of exon array probes having highly correlated intensities across multiple samples. We suggest that these probes could be used as reliable indicators of overall gene expression levels. We developed a probe selection algorithm to select such a subset of highly correlated probes for each gene, and computed gene expression indexes using the selected probes.Our results demonstrate that probe selection improves gene expression estimates from exon arrays. The selected probes can be used in future analyses of other exon array datasets to compute gene expression indexes.

  13. A miniature forward-imaging optical coherence tomography (OCT) probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joos, Karen M.; Shen, Jin-Hui

    2012-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has had a tremendous global health impact upon the current ability to diagnose, treat, and monitor multiple eye diseases. We propose that a miniature forward-imaging OCT probe can be developed for real-time ocular imaging. A miniature 25-gauge forward-imaging probe was designed and developed to use with an 850 nm spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) system (Bioptigen, Inc. Durham, NC). Imaging parameters were determined. Ocular tissues were examined with the miniature OCT probe. A miniature SDOCT probe was developed with the scanning driver within the hand piece. The SDOCT fiber-scanning probe maximally transmitted power of 800 μW. The scanning range was 3 mm when the probe tip was held 3 to 5 mm from the tissue surface. The axial resolution was 6 μm and the lateral resolution was 30-35 μm. The 25-gauge forward-imaging probe was used to image cellophane tape, eyelid skin, cornea, conjunctiva, sclera, iris, anterior lens, anterior chamber angle, retina, retinal tear, retinal detachment, optic nerve head, and optic nerve sheath. Images obtained from the miniature probe appeared similar to images from a 3 mm scanning range of a commercial large handheld OCT probe (Bioptigen, Inc. Durham, NC).

  14. Measurement Uncertainty Investigation in the Multi-probe OTA Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Szini, Istvan Janos; Foegelle, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    Extensive efforts are underway to standardize over the air (OTA) testing of the multiple input multiple output (MIMO) capable terminals in COST IC1004, 3GPP RAN4 and CTIA. Due to the ability to reproduce realistic radio propagation environments inside the anechoic chamber and evaluate end user me...... chamber setup. This contribution presents the results of uncertainty measurements carried out in three practical multi-probe setups. Some sources of measurement errors, i.e. cable effect, cable termination, etc. are identified based on the measurement results....... metrics in real world scenarios, the multi-probe based method has attracted huge interest from both industry and academia. This contribution attempts to identify some of the measurement uncertainties of the practical multi-probe setups and provide some guidance to establish the multi-probe anechoic...

  15. Calibration Fixture For Anemometer Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Charles R.; Nagel, Robert T.

    1993-01-01

    Fixture facilitates calibration of three-dimensional sideflow thermal anemometer probes. With fixture, probe oriented at number of angles throughout its design range. Readings calibrated as function of orientation in airflow. Calibration repeatable and verifiable.

  16. Heavy ion beam probing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickok, R L

    1980-07-01

    This report consists of the notes distributed to the participants at the IEEE Mini-Course on Modern Plasma Diagnostics that was held in Madison, Wisconsin in May 1980. It presents an overview of Heavy Ion Beam Probing that briefly describes the principles and discuss the types of measurements that can be made. The problems associated with implementing beam probes are noted, possible variations are described, estimated costs of present day systems, and the scaling requirements for large plasma devices are presented. The final chapter illustrates typical results that have been obtained on a variety of plasma devices. No detailed calculations are included in the report, but a list of references that will provide more detailed information is included.

  17. Heavy ion beam probing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickok, R.L.

    1980-07-01

    This report consists of the notes distributed to the participants at the IEEE Mini-Course on Modern Plasma Diagnostics that was held in Madison, Wisconsin in May 1980. It presents an overview of Heavy Ion Beam Probing that briefly describes the principles and discuss the types of measurements that can be made. The problems associated with implementing beam probes are noted, possible variations are described, estimated costs of present day systems, and the scaling requirements for large plasma devices are presented. The final chapter illustrates typical results that have been obtained on a variety of plasma devices. No detailed calculations are included in the report, but a list of references that will provide more detailed information is included

  18. Gravity Probe B Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The space vehicle Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. In this photograph, engineer Gary Reynolds is inspecting the inside of the probe neck during probe thermal repairs. GP-B is scheduled for launch in April 2004 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Leese, Gravity Probe B, Stanford University)

  19. Novel Eddycurrent Probe Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    oVCut MVc AVu inc F C -- -(1)(-jlOOO AZC (23)0 --2--M F1 (23) If the Thevenin source voltages, V0, are adjusted so that Vinc is the same for both the...as small as 1.2 cm. The differential probe assembly was spring loaded about a pivot post (see Figure 12) so it could scan noncircular or eccentric

  20. Induced current heating probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, G.; Ferguson, B.G.; Winstanley, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    An induced current heating probe is of thimble form and has an outer conducting sheath and a water flooded flux-generating unit formed from a stack of ferrite rings coaxially disposed in the sheath. The energising coil is made of solid wire which connects at one end with a coaxial water current tube and at the other end with the sheath. The stack of ferrite rings may include non-magnetic insulating rings which help to shape the flux. (author)

  1. Atom probe crystallography

    OpenAIRE

    Gault, Baptiste; Moody, Michael P.; Cairney, Julie M.; Ringer, Simon P.

    2012-01-01

    This review addresses new developments in the emerging area of “atom probe crystallography”, a materials characterization tool with the unique capacity to reveal both composition and crystallographic structure at the atomic scale. This information is crucial for the manipulation of microstructure for the design of both structural and functional materials with optimized mechanical, electric, optoelectronic, magnetic, or superconducting properties that will find application in, for example, nan...

  2. Probing gravitation with pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Radio pulsars are fascinating and extremely useful objects. Despite our on-going difficulties in understanding the details of their emission physics, they can be used as precise cosmic clocks in a wide-range of experiments - in particular for probing gravitational physics. While the reader should consult the contributions to these proceedings to learn more about this exciting field of discovering, exploiting and understanding pulsars, we will concentrate here on on the usage of pulsars as gravity labs.

  3. Efficient oligonucleotide probe selection for pan-genomic tiling arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wei

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Array comparative genomic hybridization is a fast and cost-effective method for detecting, genotyping, and comparing the genomic sequence of unknown bacterial isolates. This method, as with all microarray applications, requires adequate coverage of probes targeting the regions of interest. An unbiased tiling of probes across the entire length of the genome is the most flexible design approach. However, such a whole-genome tiling requires that the genome sequence is known in advance. For the accurate analysis of uncharacterized bacteria, an array must query a fully representative set of sequences from the species' pan-genome. Prior microarrays have included only a single strain per array or the conserved sequences of gene families. These arrays omit potentially important genes and sequence variants from the pan-genome. Results This paper presents a new probe selection algorithm (PanArray that can tile multiple whole genomes using a minimal number of probes. Unlike arrays built on clustered gene families, PanArray uses an unbiased, probe-centric approach that does not rely on annotations, gene clustering, or multi-alignments. Instead, probes are evenly tiled across all sequences of the pan-genome at a consistent level of coverage. To minimize the required number of probes, probes conserved across multiple strains in the pan-genome are selected first, and additional probes are used only where necessary to span polymorphic regions of the genome. The viability of the algorithm is demonstrated by array designs for seven different bacterial pan-genomes and, in particular, the design of a 385,000 probe array that fully tiles the genomes of 20 different Listeria monocytogenes strains with overlapping probes at greater than twofold coverage. Conclusion PanArray is an oligonucleotide probe selection algorithm for tiling multiple genome sequences using a minimal number of probes. It is capable of fully tiling all genomes of a species on

  4. Nanoscale thermal probing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Yue

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanoscale novel devices have raised the demand for nanoscale thermal characterization that is critical for evaluating the device performance and durability. Achieving nanoscale spatial resolution and high accuracy in temperature measurement is very challenging due to the limitation of measurement pathways. In this review, we discuss four methodologies currently developed in nanoscale surface imaging and temperature measurement. To overcome the restriction of the conventional methods, the scanning thermal microscopy technique is widely used. From the perspective of measuring target, the optical feature size method can be applied by using either Raman or fluorescence thermometry. The near-field optical method that measures nanoscale temperature by focusing the optical field to a nano-sized region provides a non-contact and non-destructive way for nanoscale thermal probing. Although the resistance thermometry based on nano-sized thermal sensors is possible for nanoscale thermal probing, significant effort is still needed to reduce the size of the current sensors by using advanced fabrication techniques. At the same time, the development of nanoscale imaging techniques, such as fluorescence imaging, provides a great potential solution to resolve the nanoscale thermal probing problem.

  5. Einstein Inflationary Probe (EIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Gary

    2004-01-01

    I will discuss plans to develop a concept for the Einstein Inflation Probe: a mission to detect gravity waves from inflation via the unique signature they impart to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization. A sensitive CMB polarization satellite may be the only way to probe physics at the grand-unified theory (GUT) scale, exceeding by 12 orders of magnitude the energies studied at the Large Hadron Collider. A detection of gravity waves would represent a remarkable confirmation of the inflationary paradigm and set the energy scale at which inflation occurred when the universe was a fraction of a second old. Even a strong upper limit to the gravity wave amplitude would be significant, ruling out many common models of inflation, and pointing to inflation occurring at much lower energy, if at all. Measuring gravity waves via the CMB polarization will be challenging. We will undertake a comprehensive study to identify the critical scientific requirements for the mission and their derived instrumental performance requirements. At the core of the study will be an assessment of what is scientifically and experimentally optimal within the scope and purpose of the Einstein Inflation Probe.

  6. Antibody Fragments as Probe in Biosensor Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Muyldermans

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Today’s proteomic analyses are generating increasing numbers of biomarkers, making it essential to possess highly specific probes able to recognize those targets. Antibodies are considered to be the first choice as molecular recognition units due to their target specificity and affinity, which make them excellent probes in biosensor development. However several problems such as difficult directional immobilization, unstable behavior, loss of specificity and steric hindrance, may arise from using these large molecules. Luckily, protein engineering techniques offer designed antibody formats suitable for biomarker analysis. Minimization strategies of antibodies into Fab fragments, scFv or even single-domain antibody fragments like VH, VL or VHHs are reviewed. Not only the size of the probe but also other issues like choice of immobilization tag, type of solid support and probe stability are of critical importance in assay development for biosensing. In this respect, multiple approaches to specifically orient and couple antibody fragments in a generic one-step procedure directly on a biosensor substrate are discussed.

  7. Electromagnetic Probe Technique for Fluid Flow Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, G. D.; Carl, J. R.; Nguyen, T. X.

    1994-01-01

    The probes described herein, in various configurations, permit the measurement of the volume fraction of two or more fluids flowing through a pipe. Each probe measures the instantaneous relative dielectric constant of the fluid in immediate proximity. As long as separation of the relative dielectric constants of each fluid is possible, several or even many fluids can be measured in the same flow steam. By using multiple probes, the velocity of each fluid can generally be determined as well as the distribution of each constituent in the pipe. The values are determined by statistical computation. There are many potential applications for probes of this type in industry and government. Possible NASA applications include measurements of helium/hydrazine flow during rocket tests at White Sands, liquid/gas flow in hydrogen or oxygen lines in Orbiter engines, and liquid/gaseous Freon flow in zero gravity tests with the KS135 aircraft at JSC. Much interest has been shown recently by the oil industry. In this industry, a good method is needed to measure the fractions of oil, water, and natural gas flowing in a pipeline and the velocity of each. This particular problem involves an extension of what has been developed to date and our plans and program to solve this problem will be discussed herein.

  8. Nine New Fluorescent Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tsung-I.; Jovanovic, Misa V.; Dowben, Robert M.

    1989-06-01

    Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic studies are reported here for nine new fluorescent probes recently synthesized in our laboratories: four pyrene derivatives with substituents of (i) 1,3-diacetoxy-6,8-dichlorosulfonyl, (ii) 1,3-dihydroxy-6,8-disodiumsulfonate, (iii) 1,3-disodiumsulfonate, and (iv) l-ethoxy-3,6,8-trisodiumsulfonate groups, and five [7-julolidino] coumarin derivatives with substituents of (v) 3-carboxylate-4-methyl, (vi) 3- methylcarboxylate, (vii) 3-acetate-4-methyl, (viii) 3-propionate-4-methyl, and (ix) 3-sulfonate-4-methyl groups. Pyrene compounds i and ii and coumarin compounds v and vi exhibit interesting absorbance and fluorescence properties: their absorption maxima are red shifted compared to the parent compound to the blue-green region, and the band width broadens considerably. All four blue-absorbing dyes fluoresce intensely in the green region, and the two pyrene compounds emit at such long wavelengths without formation of excimers. The fluorescence properties of these compounds are quite environment-sensitive: considerable spectral shifts and fluorescence intensity changes have been observed in the pH range from 3 to 10 and in a wide variety of polar and hydrophobic solvents with vastly different dielectric constants. The high extinction and fluorescence quantum yield of these probes make them ideal fluorescent labeling reagents for proteins, antibodies, nucleic acids, and cellular organelles. The pH and hydrophobicity-dependent fluorescence changes can be utilized as optical pH and/or hydrophobicity indicators for mapping environmental difference in various cellular components in a single cell. Since all nine probes absorb in the UV, but emit at different wavelengths in the visible, these two groups of compounds offer an advantage of utilizing a single monochromatic light source (e.g., a nitrogen laser) to achieve multi-wavelength detection for flow cytometry application. As a first step to explore potential application in

  9. Optical Probes for Neurobiological Sensing and Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eric H; Chin, Gregory; Rong, Guoxin; Poskanzer, Kira E; Clark, Heather A

    2018-04-13

    Fluorescent nanosensors and molecular probes are next-generation tools for imaging chemical signaling inside and between cells. Electrophysiology has long been considered the gold standard in elucidating neural dynamics with high temporal resolution and precision, particularly on the single-cell level. However, electrode-based techniques face challenges in illuminating the specific chemicals involved in neural cell activation with adequate spatial information. Measuring chemical dynamics is of fundamental importance to better understand synergistic interactions between neurons as well as interactions between neurons and non-neuronal cells. Over the past decade, significant technological advances in optical probes and imaging methods have enabled entirely new possibilities for studying neural cells and circuits at the chemical level. These optical imaging modalities have shown promise for combining chemical, temporal, and spatial information. This potential makes them ideal candidates to unravel the complex neural interactions at multiple scales in the brain, which could be complemented by traditional electrophysiological methods to obtain a full spatiotemporal picture of neurochemical dynamics. Despite the potential, only a handful of probe candidates have been utilized to provide detailed chemical information in the brain. To date, most live imaging and chemical mapping studies rely on fluorescent molecular indicators to report intracellular calcium (Ca 2+ ) dynamics, which correlates with neuronal activity. Methodological advances for monitoring a full array of chemicals in the brain with improved spatial, temporal, and chemical resolution will thus enable mapping of neurochemical circuits with finer precision. On the basis of numerous studies in this exciting field, we review the current efforts to develop and apply a palette of optical probes and nanosensors for chemical sensing in the brain. There is a strong impetus to further develop technologies capable of

  10. Development of Mackintosh Probe Extractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Noor Khazanah A.; Kaamin, Masiri; Suwandi, Amir Khan; Sahat, Suhaila; Jahaya Kesot, Mohd

    2016-11-01

    Dynamic probing is a continuous soil investigation technique, which is one of the simplest soil penetration test. It basically consist of repeatedly driving a metal tipped probe into the ground using a drop weight of fixed mass and travel. Testing was carried out continuously from ground level to the final penetration depth. Once the soil investigation work done, it is difficult to pull out the probe rod from the ground, due to strong soil structure grip against probe cone and prevent the probe rod out from the ground. Thus, in this case, a tool named Extracting Probe was created to assist in the process of retracting the probe rod from the ground. In addition, Extracting Probe also can reduce the time to extract the probe rod from the ground compare with the conventional method. At the same time, it also can reduce manpower cost because only one worker involve to handle this tool compare with conventional method used two or more workers. From experiment that have been done we found that the time difference between conventional tools and extracting probe is significant, average time difference is 155 minutes. In addition the extracting probe can reduce manpower usage, and also labour cost for operating the tool. With all these advantages makes this tool has the potential to be marketed.

  11. Nucleic acid-based fluorescent probes and their analytical potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juskowiak, Bernard

    2011-03-01

    It is well known that nucleic acids play an essential role in living organisms because they store and transmit genetic information and use that information to direct the synthesis of proteins. However, less is known about the ability of nucleic acids to bind specific ligands and the application of oligonucleotides as molecular probes or biosensors. Oligonucleotide probes are single-stranded nucleic acid fragments that can be tailored to have high specificity and affinity for different targets including nucleic acids, proteins, small molecules, and ions. One can divide oligonucleotide-based probes into two main categories: hybridization probes that are based on the formation of complementary base-pairs, and aptamer probes that exploit selective recognition of nonnucleic acid analytes and may be compared with immunosensors. Design and construction of hybridization and aptamer probes are similar. Typically, oligonucleotide (DNA, RNA) with predefined base sequence and length is modified by covalent attachment of reporter groups (one or more fluorophores in fluorescence-based probes). The fluorescent labels act as transducers that transform biorecognition (hybridization, ligand binding) into a fluorescence signal. Fluorescent labels have several advantages, for example high sensitivity and multiple transduction approaches (fluorescence quenching or enhancement, fluorescence anisotropy, fluorescence lifetime, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), and excimer-monomer light switching). These multiple signaling options combined with the design flexibility of the recognition element (DNA, RNA, PNA, LNA) and various labeling strategies contribute to development of numerous selective and sensitive bioassays. This review covers fundamentals of the design and engineering of oligonucleotide probes, describes typical construction approaches, and discusses examples of probes used both in hybridization studies and in aptamer-based assays.

  12. Mobile Probing Kit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jakob Eg; Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Sørensen, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    Mobile Probing Kit is a low tech and low cost methodology for obtaining inspiration and insights into user needs, requirements and ideas in the early phases of a system's development process. The methodology is developed to identify user needs, requirements and ideas among knowledge workers...... characterized as being highly nomadic and thus potential users of mobile and ubiquitous technologies. The methodology has been applied in the 1ST MAGNET Beyond project in order to obtain user needs and requirements in the process of developing pilot services. We report on the initial findings from applying...... this methodology in the early phases of this large scale research and development process....

  13. High spatial resolution Kelvin probe force microscopy with coaxial probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Keith A; Westervelt, Robert M; Satzinger, Kevin J

    2012-01-01

    Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) is a widely used technique to measure the local contact potential difference (CPD) between an AFM probe and the sample surface via the electrostatic force. The spatial resolution of KPFM is intrinsically limited by the long range of the electrostatic interaction, which includes contributions from the macroscopic cantilever and the conical tip. Here, we present coaxial AFM probes in which the cantilever and cone are shielded by a conducting shell, confining the tip–sample electrostatic interaction to a small region near the end of the tip. We have developed a technique to measure the true CPD despite the presence of the shell electrode. We find that the behavior of these probes agrees with an electrostatic model of the force, and we observe a factor of five improvement in spatial resolution relative to unshielded probes. Our discussion centers on KPFM, but the field confinement offered by these probes may improve any variant of electrostatic force microscopy. (paper)

  14. Parenting Multiples

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Parenting Multiples KidsHealth / For Parents / Parenting Multiples What's in ... your ability to take care of your babies. Parenting Issues With Multiples It may be difficult to ...

  15. A simple way to evaluate self-designed probes for tumor specific Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiechec Emilia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA is widely used for analysis of copy number variations (CNVs in single or multiple loci. MLPA is a versatile methodology and important tool in cancer research; it provides precise information on increased or decreased copy number at specific loci as opposed to loss of heterozygosity (LOH studies based upon microsatellite analysis. Pre-designed MLPA kits and software are commercially available to analyze multiple exons, genes, and genomic regions. However, an increasing demand for new gene specific assays makes it necessary to self-design new MLPA probes for which the available software may not be applicable. During evaluation of new self-designed reference probes, we encountered a number of problems, especially when applying the MLPA methodology to tumor samples. Findings DNA samples from 48 unaffected individuals and 145 breast cancer patients were used to evaluate 11 self-designed MLPA probes and determine the cut-off values for CNV, before applying the MLPA probes to normalize the target probes in a cohort of affected individuals. To test the calculation strategy, three probes were designed to cover regions in Regulator of G-protein Signaling 8 (RGS8, which we previously have identified as being affected by allelic imbalance by LOH analysis across RGS8 in the cohort comprising 145 breast tumors. Agreement between the LOH results and the results obtained by each of the three MLPA probes in RGS8 was found for 64%, 73%, and 91%, of the analyzed samples, respectively. Conclusion Here, we present a straightforward method, based upon the normalization pattern in both unaffected and affected individuals, to evaluate self-designed reference probes and to calculate CNV for the MLPA assay with specific focus on the difficulties when analyzing tumor DNA.

  16. The Galaxy Evolution Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Jason; Galaxy Evolution Probe Team

    2018-01-01

    The Galaxy Evolution Probe (GEP) is a concept for a far-infrared observatory to survey large regions of sky for star-forming galaxies from z = 0 to beyond z = 3. Our knowledge of galaxy formation is incomplete and requires uniform surveys over a large range of redshifts and environments to accurately describe mass assembly, star formation, supermassive black hole growth, interactions between these processes, and what led to their decline from z ~ 2 to the present day. Infrared observations are sensitive to dusty, star-forming galaxies, which have bright polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features and warm dust continuum in the rest-frame mid infrared and cooler thermal dust emission in the far infrared. Unlike previous far-infrared continuum surveys, the GEP will measure photometric redshifts commensurate with galaxy detections from PAH emission and Si absorption features, without the need for obtaining spectroscopic redshifts of faint counterparts at other wavelengths.The GEP design includes a 2 m diameter telescope actively cooled to 4 K and two instruments: (1) An imager covering 10 to 300 um with 25 spectral resolution R ~ 8 bands (with lower R at the longest wavelengths) to detect star-forming galaxies and measure their redshifts photometrically. (2) A 23 – 190 um, R ~ 250 dispersive spectrometer for redshift confirmation and identification of obscured AGN using atomic fine-structure lines. Lines including [Ne V], [O IV], [O III], [O I], and [C II] will probe gas physical conditions, radiation field hardness, and metallicity. Notionally, the GEP will have a two-year mission: galaxy surveys with photometric redshifts in the first year and a second year devoted to follow-up spectroscopy. A comprehensive picture of star formation in galaxies over the last 10 billion years will be assembled from cosmologically relevant volumes, spanning environments from field galaxies and groups, to protoclusters, to dense galaxy clusters.Commissioned by NASA, the

  17. Cosmological Probes for Supersymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Khlopov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The multi-parameter character of supersymmetric dark-matter models implies the combination of their experimental studies with astrophysical and cosmological probes. The physics of the early Universe provides nontrivial effects of non-equilibrium particles and primordial cosmological structures. Primordial black holes (PBHs are a profound signature of such structures that may arise as a cosmological consequence of supersymmetric (SUSY models. SUSY-based mechanisms of baryosynthesis can lead to the possibility of antimatter domains in a baryon asymmetric Universe. In the context of cosmoparticle physics, which studies the fundamental relationship of the micro- and macro-worlds, the development of SUSY illustrates the main principles of this approach, as the physical basis of the modern cosmology provides cross-disciplinary tests in physical and astronomical studies.

  18. Convex probe endobronchial ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bade, Brett; Furukawa, Brian; Tanner, Nichole T

    2014-12-01

    Convex probe endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) is a minimally invasive diagnostic technique that allows real-time sampling of mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes and central pulmonary lesions. Its utility in diagnosing both malignant and nonmalignant diseases has led to an increased uptake and use by pulmonologists over the past decade. Because of the robust evidence supporting its safety and diagnostic yield, EBUS is now the first guideline recommended test for staging in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). It has also a role in providing tissue for molecular analysis, thereby guiding in the selection of agents in the new era of personalized chemotherapies in the treatment of NSCLC. The following review highlights the evidence for EBUS in diagnosing mediastinal pathology and addresses technique, training, and competency and future directions for this technology. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  19. Human MLPA Probe Design (H-MAPD: a probe design tool for both electrophoresis-based and bead-coupled human multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatchwell Eli

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA is an efficient and reliable technique for gene dosage analysis. Currently MLPA can be conducted on two platforms: traditional electrophoresis-based, and FlexMAP bead-coupled. Since its introduction in 2002, MLPA has been rapidly adopted in both clinical and research situations. However, MLPA probe design is a time consuming process requiring many steps that address multiple criteria. There exist only one or two commercial software packages for traditional electrophoresis-based MLPA probe design. To our knowledge, no software is yet available that performs bead-coupled MLPA probe design. Results We have developed H-MAPD, a web-based tool that automates the generation and selection of probes for human genomic MLPA. The software performs physical-chemical property tests using UNAFold software, and uniqueness tests using the UCSC genome browser. H-MAPD supports both traditional electrophoresis-based assays, as well as FlexMAP bead-coupled MLPA. Conclusion H-MAPD greatly reduces the efforts for human genomic MLPA probe design. The software is written in Perl-CGI, hosted on a Linux server, and is freely available to non-commercial users.

  20. Improved in situ hybridization to HIV with RNA probes derived from PCR products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, R W; Schlaepfer, E

    1997-05-01

    These experiments tested the hypothesis that a pool of PCR-derived RNA probes with defined length and even representation of the target sequences could produce more specific and intense in situ hybridization signals than randomly size-reduced, plasmid-derived RNA probes. In situ hybridization was performed with sense and anti-sense HIV-1 RNA probes that were derived from PCR products tailed with the T7 RNA polymerase promoter or from plasmid DNA. In situ hybridization using a pool of seven anti-sense or sense PCR-derived RNA probes (1805 nucleotides of HIV sequence, 257 nucleotides average probe length) was compared with hybridization using anti-sense or sense RNA probes made from a plasmid representing the HIV-1 env gene (3151 nucleotides of HIV-1 target). The pooled PCR-derived probes resulted in stronger in situ hybridization signals and less background than those produced with plasmid-derived RNA probes. This method for creating PCR-derived RNA probes improves the feasibility of synthesizing multiple, discrete RNA probes for studies of specific mRNA expression because it does not require the subcloning steps used to construct plasmids. PCR-derived RNA probes may provide a viable alternative to the use of plasmid-derived RNA probes for in situ hybridization.

  1. Integrated microfluidic linking chip for scanning probe nanolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Kee Suk; Wang, Xuefeng; Shaikh, Kashan; Bullen, David; Goluch, Edgar; Zou, Jun; Liu, Chang; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2004-07-01

    This letter reports an architecture for a microfluidic chip that dresses (inks) multiple nanolithography tips in a high-density array in a parallel and multiplexed fashion. The microfluidic chip consists of multiple precision patterned thin-film poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) patches serving as porous inking pads. Inking chemicals are supplied from loading reservoirs to the inking pads through microfluidic channels. The gas-permeable thin PDMS membranes allow ink molecules to diffuse through while preventing bulk liquid from overflowing or evaporating. The inking chip provides high-density inking, easy loading of inks, and reduced evaporation losses. We present the fabrication process and inking of scanning probe contact printing probes and commercial nitride probes.

  2. Theoretical analysis of a dual-probe scanning tunneling microscope setup on graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Settnes, Mikkel; Power, Stephen R.; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth

    2014-01-01

    Experimental advances allow for the inclusion of multiple probes to measure the transport properties of a sample surface. We develop a theory of dual-probe scanning tunneling microscopy using a Green's function formalism, and apply it to graphene. Sampling the local conduction properties at finite...... to different scattering processes. We compute the conductance maps of graphene systems with different edge geometries or height fluctuations to determine the effects of nonideal graphene samples on dual-probe measurements. © 2014 American Physical Society....

  3. Probe-holding apparatus for holding a probe for checking steam generator tubes particularly in a nuclear reactor installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamowski, A.; Gagny; Gallet, G.; Lhermitte, J.; Monne, M.; Vautherot, G.

    1984-01-01

    Probe-holding apparatus for holding a probe for checking steam generator tubes particularly in a nuclear reactor installation. The apparatus comprises a telescopic arm supported via a ball and socket joint from a support mounted in or near an access aperture in a chamber at one end of the steam generator. A probe guide is carried by a carriage pivotally mounted at the other end of the telescopic arm. The carriage includes an endless belt having a series of spaced projections which engage into the ends of the tubes, the projections being spaced by a distance equal to the tube pitch or a multiple thereof. The belt is driven by a stepping motor in order to move the carriage and place the probe guide opposite different ones of the tubes

  4. Probing strong field ionization of solids with a Thomson parabola ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-11

    Jan 11, 2014 ... Ion spectrometry from laser–plasma is convolved with multiple atomic systems, several charge states and a broad energy spread. Conventional mass spectrometric techniques have serious limitations to probe this ionization dynamics. We have developed an imaging ion spectrometer that measures ...

  5. Probing strong field ionization of solids with a Thomson parabola ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-11

    Jan 11, 2014 ... spectrometry from laser–plasma is convolved with multiple atomic systems, several charge states and a broad energy spread. Conventional mass spectrometric techniques have serious limitations to probe this ionization dynamics. We have developed an imaging ion spectrometer that measures.

  6. Non-inductive current probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Christen Kjeldahl

    1977-01-01

    The current probe described is a low-cost, shunt resistor for monitoring current pulses in e.g., pulsed lasers. Rise time is......The current probe described is a low-cost, shunt resistor for monitoring current pulses in e.g., pulsed lasers. Rise time is...

  7. Gene probes: principles and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aquino de Muro, Marilena; Rapley, Ralph

    2002-01-01

    ... of labeled DNA has allowed genes to be mapped to single chromosomes and in many cases to a single chromosome band, promoting significant advance in human genome mapping. Gene Probes: Principles and Protocols presents the principles for gene probe design, labeling, detection, target format, and hybridization conditions together with detailed protocols, accom...

  8. SNAP: Small Next-generation Atmospheric Probe Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayanagi, K. M.; Dillman, R. A.; Atkinson, D. H.; Li, J.; Saikia, S.; Simon, A. A.; Spilker, T. R.; Wong, M. H.; Hope, D.

    2017-12-01

    We present a concept for a small, atmospheric probe that could be flexibly added to future missions that orbit or fly-by a giant planet as a secondary payload, which we call the Small Next-generation Atmospheric Probe (SNAP). SNAP's main scientific objectives are to determine the vertical distribution of clouds and cloud-forming chemical species, thermal stratification, and wind speed as a function of depth. As a case study, we present the advantages, cost and risk of adding SNAP to the future Uranus Orbiter and Probe flagship mission; in combination with the mission's main probe, SNAP would perform atmospheric in-situ measurements at a second location, and thus enable and enhance the scientific objectives recommended by the 2013 Planetary Science Decadal Survey and the 2014 NASA Science Plan to determine atmospheric spatial variabilities. We envision that the science objectives can be achieved with a 30-kg entry probe 0.5m in diameter (less than half the size of the Galileo probe) that reaches 5-bar pressure-altitude and returns data to Earth via the carrier spacecraft. As the baseline instruments, the probe will carry an Atmospheric Structure Instrument (ASI) that measures the temperature, pressure and acceleration, a carbon nanotube-based NanoChem atmospheric composition sensor, and an Ultra-Stable Oscillator (USO) to conduct a Doppler Wind Experiment (DWE). We also catalog promising technologies currently under development that will strengthen small atmospheric entry probe missions in the future. While SNAP is applicable to multiple planets, we examine the feasibility, benefits and impacts of adding SNAP to the Uranus Orbiter and Probe flagship mission. Our project is supported by NASA PSDS3 grant NNX17AK31G.

  9. Nanobits: customizable scanning probe tips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Rajendra; Shaik, Hassan Uddin; Sardan Sukas, Özlem

    2009-01-01

    We present here a proof-of-principle study of scanning probe tips defined by planar nanolithography and integrated with AFM probes using nanomanipulation. The so-called 'nanobits' are 2-4 mu m long and 120-150 nm thin flakes of Si3N4 or SiO2, fabricated by electron beam lithography and standard...... or dislocation of the tips of the nanobit after several scans. This approach allows an unprecedented freedom in adapting the shape and size of scanning probe tips to the surface topology or to the specific application....... silicon processing. Using a microgripper they were detached from an array and fixed to a standard pyramidal AFM probe or alternatively inserted into a tipless cantilever equipped with a narrow slit. The nanobit-enhanced probes were used for imaging of deep trenches, without visible deformation, wear...

  10. Electrophoresis-mass spectrometry probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Brian D.; Fought, Eric R.

    1987-01-01

    The invention involves a new technique for the separation of complex mixtures of chemicals, which utilizes a unique interface probe for conventional mass spectrometers which allows the electrophoretically separated compounds to be analyzed in real-time by a mass spectrometer. This new chemical analysis interface, which couples electrophoresis with mass spectrometry, allows complex mixtures to be analyzed very rapidly, with much greater specificity, and with greater sensitivity. The interface or probe provides a means whereby large and/or polar molecules in complex mixtures to be completely characterized. The preferred embodiment of the probe utilizes a double capillary tip which allows the probe tip to be continually wetted by the buffer, which provides for increased heat dissipation, and results in a continually operating interface which is more durable and electronically stable than the illustrated single capillary tip probe interface.

  11. Mobile Probes in Mobile Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Blomhøj, Ulla; Duvaa, Uffe

    In this paper experiences from using mobile probes in educational design of a mobile learning application is presented. The probing process stems from the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. In the project, the mobile phone was not only acting...... as an agent for acquiring empirical data (as the situation in hitherto mobile probe settings) but was also the technological medium for which data should say something about (mobile learning). Consequently, not only the content of the data but also the ways in which data was delivered and handled, provided...... a valuable dimension for investigating mobile use. The data was collected at the same time as design activities took place and the collective data was analysed based on user experience goals and cognitive processes from interaction design and mobile learning. The mobile probe increased the knowledge base...

  12. Wearable probes for service design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullane, Aaron; Laaksolahti, Jarmo Matti; Svanæs, Dag

    2014-01-01

    by service employees in reflecting on the delivery of a service. In this paper, we present the ‘wearable probe’, a probe concept that captures sensor data without distracting service employees. Data captured by the probe can be used by the service employees to reflect and co-reflect on the service journey......Probes are used as a design method in user-centred design to allow end-users to inform design by collecting data from their lives. Probes are potentially useful in service innovation, but current probing methods require users to interrupt their activity and are consequently not ideal for use......, helping to identify opportunities for service evolution and innovation....

  13. Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the ... attacks healthy cells in your body by mistake. Multiple sclerosis affects women more than men. It often begins ...

  14. Invited Review Article: Pump-probe microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Martin C.; Wilson, Jesse W.; Robles, Francisco E.; Warren, Warren S.

    2016-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy has rapidly gained popularity in biomedical imaging and materials science because of its ability to provide three-dimensional images at high spatial and temporal resolution even in optically scattering environments. Currently the majority of commercial and home-built devices are based on two-photon fluorescence and harmonic generation contrast. These two contrast mechanisms are relatively easy to measure but can access only a limited range of endogenous targets. Recent developments in fast laser pulse generation, pulse shaping, and detection technology have made accessible a wide range of optical contrasts that utilize multiple pulses of different colors. Molecular excitation with multiple pulses offers a large number of adjustable parameters. For example, in two-pulse pump-probe microscopy, one can vary the wavelength of each excitation pulse, the detection wavelength, the timing between the excitation pulses, and the detection gating window after excitation. Such a large parameter space can provide much greater molecular specificity than existing single-color techniques and allow for structural and functional imaging without the need for exogenous dyes and labels, which might interfere with the system under study. In this review, we provide a tutorial overview, covering principles of pump-probe microscopy and experimental setup, challenges associated with signal detection and data processing, and an overview of applications.

  15. Invited Review Article: Pump-probe microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Martin C., E-mail: Martin.Fischer@duke.edu; Wilson, Jesse W.; Robles, Francisco E. [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Warren, Warren S. [Departments of Chemistry, Biomedical Engineering, Physics, and Radiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Multiphoton microscopy has rapidly gained popularity in biomedical imaging and materials science because of its ability to provide three-dimensional images at high spatial and temporal resolution even in optically scattering environments. Currently the majority of commercial and home-built devices are based on two-photon fluorescence and harmonic generation contrast. These two contrast mechanisms are relatively easy to measure but can access only a limited range of endogenous targets. Recent developments in fast laser pulse generation, pulse shaping, and detection technology have made accessible a wide range of optical contrasts that utilize multiple pulses of different colors. Molecular excitation with multiple pulses offers a large number of adjustable parameters. For example, in two-pulse pump-probe microscopy, one can vary the wavelength of each excitation pulse, the detection wavelength, the timing between the excitation pulses, and the detection gating window after excitation. Such a large parameter space can provide much greater molecular specificity than existing single-color techniques and allow for structural and functional imaging without the need for exogenous dyes and labels, which might interfere with the system under study. In this review, we provide a tutorial overview, covering principles of pump-probe microscopy and experimental setup, challenges associated with signal detection and data processing, and an overview of applications.

  16. Invited Review Article: Pump-probe microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Martin C.; Wilson, Jesse W.; Robles, Francisco E.; Warren, Warren S.

    2016-03-01

    Multiphoton microscopy has rapidly gained popularity in biomedical imaging and materials science because of its ability to provide three-dimensional images at high spatial and temporal resolution even in optically scattering environments. Currently the majority of commercial and home-built devices are based on two-photon fluorescence and harmonic generation contrast. These two contrast mechanisms are relatively easy to measure but can access only a limited range of endogenous targets. Recent developments in fast laser pulse generation, pulse shaping, and detection technology have made accessible a wide range of optical contrasts that utilize multiple pulses of different colors. Molecular excitation with multiple pulses offers a large number of adjustable parameters. For example, in two-pulse pump-probe microscopy, one can vary the wavelength of each excitation pulse, the detection wavelength, the timing between the excitation pulses, and the detection gating window after excitation. Such a large parameter space can provide much greater molecular specificity than existing single-color techniques and allow for structural and functional imaging without the need for exogenous dyes and labels, which might interfere with the system under study. In this review, we provide a tutorial overview, covering principles of pump-probe microscopy and experimental setup, challenges associated with signal detection and data processing, and an overview of applications.

  17. Invited Review Article: Pump-probe microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jesse W.; Robles, Francisco E.; Warren, Warren S.

    2016-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy has rapidly gained popularity in biomedical imaging and materials science because of its ability to provide three-dimensional images at high spatial and temporal resolution even in optically scattering environments. Currently the majority of commercial and home-built devices are based on two-photon fluorescence and harmonic generation contrast. These two contrast mechanisms are relatively easy to measure but can access only a limited range of endogenous targets. Recent developments in fast laser pulse generation, pulse shaping, and detection technology have made accessible a wide range of optical contrasts that utilize multiple pulses of different colors. Molecular excitation with multiple pulses offers a large number of adjustable parameters. For example, in two-pulse pump-probe microscopy, one can vary the wavelength of each excitation pulse, the detection wavelength, the timing between the excitation pulses, and the detection gating window after excitation. Such a large parameter space can provide much greater molecular specificity than existing single-color techniques and allow for structural and functional imaging without the need for exogenous dyes and labels, which might interfere with the system under study. In this review, we provide a tutorial overview, covering principles of pump-probe microscopy and experimental setup, challenges associated with signal detection and data processing, and an overview of applications. PMID:27036751

  18. Transient Astrophysics Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Jordan; Transient Astrophysics Probe Team

    2018-01-01

    The Transient Astrophysics Probe (TAP) is a wide-field multi-wavelength transient mission proposed for flight starting in the late 2020s. The mission instruments include unique “Lobster-eye” imaging soft X-ray optics that allow a ~1600 deg2 FoV; a high sensitivity, 1 deg2 FoV soft X-ray telescope; a 1 deg2 FoV Infrared telescope with bandpass 0.6-3 micron; and a set of 8 NaI gamma-ray detectors. TAP’s most exciting capability will be the observation of tens per year of X-ray and IR counterparts of GWs involving stellar mass black holes and neutron stars detected by LIGO/Virgo/KAGRA/LIGO-India, and possibly several per year X-ray counterparts of GWs from supermassive black holes, detected by LISA and Pulsar Timing Arrays. TAP will also discover hundreds of X-ray transients related to compact objects, including tidal disruption events, supernova shock breakouts, and Gamma-Ray Bursts from the epoch of reionization.

  19. Steerable Doppler transducer probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidel, H.F.; Greenwood, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    An ultrasonic diagnostic probe is described which is capable of performing ultrasonic imaging and Doppler measurement consisting of: a hollow case having an acoustic window which passes ultrasonic energy and including chamber means for containing fluid located within the hollow case and adjacent to a portion of the acoustic window; imaging transducer means, located in the hollow case and outside the fluid chamber means, and oriented to direct ultrasonic energy through the acoustic window toward an area which is to be imaged; Doppler transducer means, located in the hollow case within the fluid chamber means, and movably oriented to direct Doppler signals through the acoustic window toward the imaged area; means located within the fluid chamber means and externally controlled for controllably moving the Doppler transducer means to select one of a plurality of axes in the imaged area along which the Doppler signals are to be directed; and means, located external to the fluid chamber means and responsive to the means for moving, for providing an indication signal for identifying the selected axis

  20. Multiple Endpoints

    OpenAIRE

    Parys, Dariusz

    2007-01-01

    In ANOVA we are mainly based on inter-treatment comparisons. Another common problems arising in biometric studies (especially in biomedical studies) is that of comparing two groups of patients (treatment and a control group) based on multiple response (called multiple endpoints). In this paper we present the continuos and discrete approaches to multiple endpoints. In the case of continuous multiple endpoints we have common assumption in that the covariance matrices in group ...

  1. Artefactual multiplicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Hertzum, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Whiteboards are highly important to the work in emergency departments (EDs). As a collaborative technology ED whiteboards are usually placed in the dynamic centre of the ED, and all ED staff will approach the whiteboard regularly to organize their individual yet interdependent work. Currently, di...... this characteristic of heterogeneous artefacts; namely artefactual multiplicity. Artefactual multiplicity identifies not only the multiple functions of heterogeneous artefacts but also the intricate relations between these multiple functionalities....

  2. Finger Multiplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanihuruk, Mudin

    2011-01-01

    Multiplication facts are difficult to teach. Therefore many researchers have put a great deal of effort into finding multiplication strategies. Sherin and Fuson (2005) provided a good survey paper on the multiplication strategies research area. Kolpas (2002), Rendtorff (1908), Dabell (2001), Musser (1966) and Markarian (2009) proposed the finger…

  3. Multiplicity Counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, William H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  4. A comparison of alternative 60-mer probe designs in an in-situ synthesized oligonucleotide microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairbanks Benjamin D

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA microarrays have proven powerful for functional genomics studies. Several technologies exist for the generation of whole-genome arrays. It is well documented that 25mer probes directed against different regions of the same gene produce variable signal intensity values. However, the extent to which this is true for probes of greater length (60mers is not well characterized. Moreover, this information has not previously been reported for whole-genome arrays designed against bacteria, whose genomes may differ substantially in characteristics directly affecting microarray performance. Results We report here an analysis of alternative 60mer probe designs for an in-situ synthesized oligonucleotide array for the GC rich, β-proteobacterium Burkholderia cenocepacia. Probes were designed using the ArrayOligoSel3.5 software package and whole-genome microarrays synthesized by Agilent, Inc. using their in-situ, ink-jet technology platform. We first validated the quality of the microarrays as demonstrated by an average signal to noise ratio of >1000. Next, we determined that the variance of replicate probes (1178 total probes examined of identical sequence was 3.8% whereas the variance of alternative probes (558 total alternative probes examined designs was 9.5%. We determined that depending upon the definition, about 2.4% of replicate and 7.8% of alternative probes produced outlier conclusions. Finally, we determined none of the probe design subscores (GC content, internal repeat, binding energy and self annealment produced by ArrayOligoSel3.5 were predictive or probes that produced outlier signals. Conclusion Our analysis demonstrated that the use of multiple probes per target sequence is not essential for in-situ synthesized 60mer oligonucleotide arrays designed against bacteria. Although probes producing outlier signals were identified, the use of ratios results in less than 10% of such outlier conclusions. We also determined that

  5. Probing the Probes: Fitness Factors For Small Molecule Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Workman, Paul; Collins, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Chemical probes for interrogating biological processes are of considerable current interest. Cell permeable small molecule tools have a major role in facilitating the functional annotation of the human genome, understanding both physiological and pathological processes, and validating new molecular targets. To be valuable, chemical tools must satisfy necessary criteria and recent publications have suggested objective guidelines for what makes a useful chemical probe. Although recognizing that...

  6. MULTIPLE OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Bosov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of complicated techniques of production and management processes, information systems, computer science, applied objects of systems theory and others requires improvement of mathematical methods, new approaches for researches of application systems. And the variety and diversity of subject systems makes necessary the development of a model that generalizes the classical sets and their development – sets of sets. Multiple objects unlike sets are constructed by multiple structures and represented by the structure and content. The aim of the work is the analysis of multiple structures, generating multiple objects, the further development of operations on these objects in application systems. Methodology. To achieve the objectives of the researches, the structure of multiple objects represents as constructive trio, consisting of media, signatures and axiomatic. Multiple object is determined by the structure and content, as well as represented by hybrid superposition, composed of sets, multi-sets, ordered sets (lists and heterogeneous sets (sequences, corteges. Findings. In this paper we study the properties and characteristics of the components of hybrid multiple objects of complex systems, proposed assessments of their complexity, shown the rules of internal and external operations on objects of implementation. We introduce the relation of arbitrary order over multiple objects, we define the description of functions and display on objects of multiple structures. Originality.In this paper we consider the development of multiple structures, generating multiple objects.Practical value. The transition from the abstract to the subject of multiple structures requires the transformation of the system and multiple objects. Transformation involves three successive stages: specification (binding to the domain, interpretation (multiple sites and particularization (goals. The proposed describe systems approach based on hybrid sets

  7. Monitoring probe for groundwater flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, B.B.; Ballard, S.

    1994-08-23

    A monitoring probe for detecting groundwater migration is disclosed. The monitor features a cylinder made of a permeable membrane carrying an array of electrical conductivity sensors on its outer surface. The cylinder is filled with a fluid that has a conductivity different than the groundwater. The probe is placed in the ground at an area of interest to be monitored. The fluid, typically saltwater, diffuses through the permeable membrane into the groundwater. The flow of groundwater passing around the permeable membrane walls of the cylinder carries the conductive fluid in the same general direction and distorts the conductivity field measured by the sensors. The degree of distortion from top to bottom and around the probe is precisely related to the vertical and horizontal flow rates, respectively. The electrical conductivities measured by the sensors about the outer surface of the probe are analyzed to determine the rate and direction of the groundwater flow. 4 figs.

  8. A three dimensional probe positioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intrator, T.; Sun, X.; Furno, I.; Dorf, L.; Lapenta, G.

    2008-01-01

    In order to sort out the physics that is important in many plasma experiments, data in three dimensions (3D) are becoming necessary. Access to the usual cylindrical vacuum vessel is typically restricted to radially or axially insertable probes that can pivot. The space that can be explored usually has significant restrictions either because probe travel must be along a travel path, or a 'wobbly' probe positioner requires one to map between a moveable coordinate system and a preferred laboratory coordinate system. This could for example introduce errors in measurements of vector quantities such as magnetic field or flow. We describe the design and implementation of a 3D probe positioner that slides in two dimensions on a double O-ring seal and radially inserts along the third dimension. The net result is that a 3D space can be explored in a laboratory Cartesian reference frame.

  9. Pneumatic probe with laser interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkens, P.H.

    1978-01-01

    Improvements to upgrade the accuracy of Rotacon probes by a complete redesign of probe to include a Michelson interferometer to replace the existing long-range capacity transducer are described. This has resulted in a compact and interchangeable probe cartridge with a 3 μin. resolution and accuracy; the cartridge can be installed and replaced in the Rotacon gauge with the minimum of realignment, which should reduce our dependence on operator skill. In addition, the stylus contact force can be reduced to 750 mg for the contacting types, but an alternative feature, which we are still developing, will use a gas jet cushion in place of the stylus to provide a noncontacting version of the same basic probe cartridge. This device is very sensitive to external vibration effects because it is virtually frictionless

  10. A verification protocol for the probe sequences of Affymetrix genome arrays reveals high probe accuracy for studies in mouse, human and rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nap Jan-Peter

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Affymetrix GeneChip technology uses multiple probes per gene to measure its expression level. Individual probe signals can vary widely, which hampers proper interpretation. This variation can be caused by probes that do not properly match their target gene or that match multiple genes. To determine the accuracy of Affymetrix arrays, we developed an extensive verification protocol, for mouse arrays incorporating the NCBI RefSeq, NCBI UniGene Unique, NIA Mouse Gene Index, and UCSC mouse genome databases. Results Applying this protocol to Affymetrix Mouse Genome arrays (the earlier U74Av2 and the newer 430 2.0 array, the number of sequence-verified probes with perfect matches was no less than 85% and 95%, respectively; and for 74% and 85% of the probe sets all probes were sequence verified. The latter percentages increased to 80% and 94% after discarding one or two unverifiable probes per probe set, and even further to 84% and 97% when, in addition, allowing for one or two mismatches between probe and target gene. Similar results were obtained for other mouse arrays, as well as for human and rat arrays. Based on these data, refined chip definition files for all arrays are provided online. Researchers can choose the version appropriate for their study to (reanalyze expression data. Conclusion The accuracy of Affymetrix probe sequences is higher than previously reported, particularly on newer arrays. Yet, refined probe set definitions have clear effects on the detection of differentially expressed genes. We demonstrate that the interpretation of the results of Affymetrix arrays is improved when the new chip definition files are used.

  11. DNA probe for lactobacillus delbrueckii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delley, M.; Mollet, B.; Hottinger, H. (Nestle Research Centre, Lausanne (Switzerland))

    1990-06-01

    From a genomic DNA library of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, a clone was isolated which complements a leucine auxotrophy of an Escherichia coli strain (GE891). Subsequent analysis of the clone indicated that it could serve as a specific DNA probe. Dot-blot hybridizations with over 40 different Lactobacillus strains showed that this clone specifically recognized L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, bulgaricus, and lactis. The sensitivity of the method was tested by using an {alpha}-{sup 32}P-labeled probe.

  12. DNA probe for lactobacillus delbrueckii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delley, M.; Mollet, B.; Hottinger, H.

    1990-01-01

    From a genomic DNA library of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, a clone was isolated which complements a leucine auxotrophy of an Escherichia coli strain (GE891). Subsequent analysis of the clone indicated that it could serve as a specific DNA probe. Dot-blot hybridizations with over 40 different Lactobacillus strains showed that this clone specifically recognized L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, bulgaricus, and lactis. The sensitivity of the method was tested by using an α- 32 P-labeled probe

  13. DIGITAL CONTACT POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE PROBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. U. Pantsialeyeu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the technique of analog contact potential difference probes well developed. Due to the influence of various parasitic factors, analog probes has substantial errors. The integration time for automatic CPD compensation should be at least several seconds to achieve high accuracy measurements. The speed and the accuracy are essential, for example, for Scanning Kelvin Probes. The purpose of this paper is to develop a digital contact potential difference probe, with a higher accuracy and speed of measurements as compared to analog probe. The digital probe made on base of 32-bit microprocessor with a Cortex M4 core. Measuring cycle consists of at least two successive determinations of the output signal amplitude at different compensation voltage generated by the microcontroller. It allows synchronizing of the generated oscillations and reading of the measuring signals. Data arrays processed in real time of the Digital Signal Processing by microprocessor. In this case is possible computation of the root mean square value or determination of the desired spectral line of the signal after fast Fourier transformation. Both methods permit eliminate of random noise and spurious harmonics. The method provides the digital contact potential difference probe operation in large signal mode and with a large signal/noise ratio. This eliminates the error associated with the zero signal finding. Also the integration time for automatic CPD compensation of the measured value is not necessary, which significantly reduces the measurement time and eliminates errors of compensation and DAC. In addition, the microcontroller could control the movement of the probe during scanning and transfer data to the host computer on interface USB, etc.

  14. Highly specific detection of genetic modification events using an enzyme-linked probe hybridization chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M Z; Zhang, X F; Chen, X M; Chen, X; Wu, S; Xu, L L

    2015-08-10

    The enzyme-linked probe hybridization chip utilizes a method based on ligase-hybridizing probe chip technology, with the principle of using thio-primers for protection against enzyme digestion, and using lambda DNA exonuclease to cut multiple PCR products obtained from the sample being tested into single-strand chains for hybridization. The 5'-end amino-labeled probe was fixed onto the aldehyde chip, and hybridized with the single-stranded PCR product, followed by addition of a fluorescent-modified probe that was then enzymatically linked with the adjacent, substrate-bound probe in order to achieve highly specific, parallel, and high-throughput detection. Specificity and sensitivity testing demonstrated that enzyme-linked probe hybridization technology could be applied to the specific detection of eight genetic modification events at the same time, with a sensitivity reaching 0.1% and the achievement of accurate, efficient, and stable results.

  15. A fast spatial scanning combination emissive and mach probe for edge plasma diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmer, R.D.; LaBombard, B.; Conn, R.W.

    1989-04-01

    A fast spatially scanning emissive and mach probe has been developed for the measurement of plasma profiles in the PISCES facility at UCLA. A pneumatic cylinder is used to drive a multiple tip probe along a 15cm stroke in less than 400msec, giving single shot profiles while limiting power deposition to the probe. A differentially pumped sliding O-ring seal allows the probe to be moved between shots to infer two and three dimensional profiles. The probe system has been used to investigate the plasma potential, density, and parallel mach number profiles of the presheath induced by a wall surface and scrape-off-layer profile modifications in biased limiter simulation experiments. Details of the hardware, data acquisition electronics, and tests of probe reliability are discussed. 30 refs., 24 figs

  16. A multiple baseline analysis of the effect of peer tutoring on the academic performance of a second grade child with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackbourn, J M; Campbell, J

    1991-08-01

    A multiple baseline, single-subject design was employed in the analysis of the academic performance of a second grade girl labeled "learning disabled." Peer tutoring combined with praise led to a significant improvement in solving mathematics problems requiring regrouping, word recognition, and ability to locate specific text pages.

  17. Multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunwald, I.Q.; Kuehn, A.L.; Backens, M.; Papanagiotou, P.; Shariat, K.; Kostopoulos, P.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is the most common chronic inflammatory disease of myelin with interspersed lesions in the white matter of the central nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in the diagnosis and monitoring of white matter diseases. This article focuses on key findings in multiple sclerosis as detected by MRI. (orig.) [de

  18. IVVS probe mechanical concept design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.rossi@enea.it; Neri, Carlo; De Collibus, Mario Ferri; Mugnaini, Giampiero; Pollastrone, Fabio; Crescenzi, Fabio

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • ENEA designed, developed and tested a laser based In Vessel Viewing System (IVVS). • IVVS mechanical design has been revised from 2011 to 2013 to meet ITER requirements. • Main improvements are piezoceramic actuators and a step focus system. • Successful qualification activities validated the concept design for ITER environment. - Abstract: ENEA has been deeply involved in the design, development and testing of a laser based In Vessel Viewing System (IVVS) required for the inspection of ITER plasma-facing components. The IVVS probe shall be deployed into the vacuum vessel, providing high resolution images and metrology measurements to detect damages and possible erosion. ENEA already designed and manufactured an IVVS probe prototype based on a rad-hard concept and driven by commercial micro-step motors, which demonstrated satisfying viewing and metrology performances at room conditions. The probe sends a laser beam through a reflective rotating prism. By rotating the axes of the prism, the probe can scan all the environment points except those present in a shadow cone and the backscattered light signal is then processed to measure the intensity level (viewing) and the distance from the probe (metrology). During the last years, in order to meet all the ITER environmental conditions, such as high vacuum, gamma radiation lifetime dose up to 5 MGy, cumulative neutron fluence of about 2.3 × 10{sup 17} n/cm{sup 2}, temperature of 120 °C and magnetic field of 8 T, the probe mechanical design was significantly revised introducing a new actuating system based on piezo-ceramic actuators and improved with a new step focus system. The optical and mechanical schemes have been then modified and refined to meet also the geometrical constraints. The paper describes the mechanical concept design solutions adopted in order to fulfill IVVS probe functional performance requirements considering ITER working environment and geometrical constraints.

  19. An image registration based ultrasound probe calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Kumar, Dinesh; Sarkar, Saradwata; Narayanan, Ram

    2012-02-01

    Reconstructed 3D ultrasound of prostate gland finds application in several medical areas such as image guided biopsy, therapy planning and dose delivery. In our application, we use an end-fire probe rotated about its axis to acquire a sequence of rotational slices to reconstruct 3D TRUS (Transrectal Ultrasound) image. The image acquisition system consists of an ultrasound transducer situated on a cradle directly attached to a rotational sensor. However, due to system tolerances, axis of probe does not align exactly with the designed axis of rotation resulting in artifacts in the 3D reconstructed ultrasound volume. We present a rigid registration based automatic probe calibration approach. The method uses a sequence of phantom images, each pair acquired at angular separation of 180 degrees and registers corresponding image pairs to compute the deviation from designed axis. A modified shadow removal algorithm is applied for preprocessing. An attribute vector is constructed from image intensity and a speckle-insensitive information-theoretic feature. We compare registration between the presented method and expert-corrected images in 16 prostate phantom scans. Images were acquired at multiple resolutions, and different misalignment settings from two ultrasound machines. Screenshots from 3D reconstruction are shown before and after misalignment correction. Registration parameters from automatic and manual correction were found to be in good agreement. Average absolute differences of translation and rotation between automatic and manual methods were 0.27 mm and 0.65 degree, respectively. The registration parameters also showed lower variability for automatic registration (pooled standard deviation σtranslation = 0.50 mm, σrotation = 0.52 degree) compared to the manual approach (pooled standard deviation σtranslation = 0.62 mm, σrotation = 0.78 degree).

  20. A quirky probe of neutral naturalness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Zackaria; Curtin, David; Verhaaren, Christopher B.

    2016-07-01

    We consider the signals arising from top partner pair production at the LHC as a probe of theories of neutral naturalness. We focus on scenarios in which top partners carry electroweak charges, such as folded supersymmetry or the quirky little Higgs. In this class of theories the top partners are pair produced as quirky bound states, since they are charged under a mirror color group whose lightest states are hidden glueballs. The quirks promptly de-excite and annihilate into glueballs, which decay back to Standard Model fermions via Higgs mixing. This can give rise to spectacular signatures at the LHC, such displaced decays, or high-multiplicity prompt production of many hard b ¯b or τ+τ- pairs. We show that signals arising from top partner pair production constitute the primary discovery channel for this class of theories in most regions of parameter space, and might provide the only experimental probe of scenarios with sub-cm glueball decay lengths. The measurement of top partner masses and couplings, which could be used to test the neutral naturalness mechanism directly, is also a tantalizing possibility.

  1. Shape Descriptors for Scanning Probe Recognition Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Ayres, Virginia; Udpa, Lalita

    2003-03-01

    Direct investigation of, and interaction with, biological objects at the macromolecular level will provide insight into multiple physical regulatory processes. Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques have the potential to provide a direct interaction with living specimens at the macromolecular scale. A key enabling capability is to replace the current x-y raster scan with site-specific direct investigation. In the present research we will discuss the site-specific recognition techniques that are appropriate for tubular and globular biological features. The SPM image will be input to an image segmentation and boundary detection algorithm to extract closed boundaries of features in the image. The boundary information will be parameterized using Fourier descriptors, which are rotation invariant descriptors to be used for recognizing the segmented shape.

  2. Flexible, Penetrating Brain Probes Enabled by Advances in Polymer Microfabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahuva Weltman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition of high-fidelity, long-term neural recordings in vivo is critically important to advance neuroscience and brain–machine interfaces. For decades, rigid materials such as metal microwires and micromachined silicon shanks were used as invasive electrophysiological interfaces to neurons, providing either single or multiple electrode recording sites. Extensive research has revealed that such rigid interfaces suffer from gradual recording quality degradation, in part stemming from tissue damage and the ensuing immune response arising from mechanical mismatch between the probe and brain. The development of “soft” neural probes constructed from polymer shanks has been enabled by advancements in microfabrication; this alternative has the potential to mitigate mismatch-related side effects and thus improve the quality of recordings. This review examines soft neural probe materials and their associated microfabrication techniques, the resulting soft neural probes, and their implementation including custom implantation and electrical packaging strategies. The use of soft materials necessitates careful consideration of surgical placement, often requiring the use of additional surgical shuttles or biodegradable coatings that impart temporary stiffness. Investigation of surgical implantation mechanics and histological evidence to support the use of soft probes will be presented. The review concludes with a critical discussion of the remaining technical challenges and future outlook.

  3. All-Fiber Raman Probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunetti, Anna Chiara

    to perform real-time measurements with little or no sample preparation, Raman spectroscopy is now considered an invaluable analytical tool, finding application in several fields including medicine, defense and process control. When combined with fiber optics technology, Raman spectroscopy allows......The design and development of an all-in-fiber probe for Raman spectroscopy are presented in this Thesis. Raman spectroscopy is an optical technique able to probe a sample based on the inelastic scattering of monochromatic light. Due to its high specificity and reliability and to the possibility...... for the realization of flexible and minimally-invasive devices, able to reach remote or hardly accessible samples, and to perform in-situ analyses in hazardous environments. The work behind this Thesis focuses on the proof-of-principle demonstration of a truly in-fiber Raman probe, where all parts are realized...

  4. Gamma-ray imaging probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    External nuclear medicine diagnostic imaging of early primary and metastatic lung cancer tumors is difficult due to the poor sensitivity and resolution of existing gamma cameras. Nonimaging counting detectors used for internal tumor detection give ambiguous results because distant background variations are difficult to discriminate from neighboring tumor sites. This suggests that an internal imaging nuclear medicine probe, particularly an esophageal probe, may be advantageously used to detect small tumors because of the ability to discriminate against background variations and the capability to get close to sites neighboring the esophagus. The design, theory of operation, preliminary bench tests, characterization of noise behavior and optimization of such an imaging probe is the central theme of this work

  5. Spaser as a biological probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Weingold, Robert; Nedosekin, Dmitry A.; Sarimollaoglu, Mustafa; Nolan, Jacqueline; Harrington, Walter; Kuchyanov, Alexander S.; Parkhomenko, Roman G.; Watanabe, Fumiya; Nima, Zeid; Biris, Alexandru S.; Plekhanov, Alexander I.; Stockman, Mark I.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2017-06-01

    Understanding cell biology greatly benefits from the development of advanced diagnostic probes. Here we introduce a 22-nm spaser (plasmonic nanolaser) with the ability to serve as a super-bright, water-soluble, biocompatible probe capable of generating stimulated emission directly inside living cells and animal tissues. We have demonstrated a lasing regime associated with the formation of a dynamic vapour nanobubble around the spaser that leads to giant spasing with emission intensity and spectral width >100 times brighter and 30-fold narrower, respectively, than for quantum dots. The absorption losses in the spaser enhance its multifunctionality, allowing for nanobubble-amplified photothermal and photoacoustic imaging and therapy. Furthermore, the silica spaser surface has been covalently functionalized with folic acid for molecular targeting of cancer cells. All these properties make a nanobubble spaser a promising multimodal, super-contrast, ultrafast cellular probe with a single-pulse nanosecond excitation for a variety of in vitro and in vivo biomedical applications.

  6. Multiple myeloma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Conor D

    2012-02-01

    Advances in the imaging and treatment of multiple myeloma have occurred over the past decade. This article summarises the current status and highlights how an understanding of both is necessary for optimum management.

  7. Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... read or download the National Academies/Institute of Medicine report, go to: " Multiple Sclerosis: Current Status and Strategies for the Future ." Information from the National Library of Medicine’s MedlinePlus ...

  8. Radioactive Probes on Ferromagnetic Surfaces

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    On the (broad) basis of our studies of nonmagnetic radioactive probe atoms on magnetic surfaces and at interfaces, we propose to investigate the magnetic interaction of magnetic probe atoms with their immediate environment, in particular of rare earth (RE) elements positioned on and in ferromagnetic surfaces. The preparation and analysis of the structural properties of such samples will be performed in the UHV chamber HYDRA at the HMI/Berlin. For the investigations of the magnetic properties of RE atoms on surfaces Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) measurements and Mössbauer Spectroscopy (MS) in the UHV chamber ASPIC (Apparatus for Surface Physics and Interfaces at CERN) are proposed.

  9. Probing nuclear matter with dileptons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, L.S.

    1986-06-01

    Dileptons are shown to be of interest in helping probe extreme conditions of temperature and density in nuclear matter. The current state of experimental knowledge about dileptons is briefly described, and their use in upcoming experiments with light ions at CERN SPS are reviewed, including possible signatures of quark matter formation. Use of dileptons in an upcoming experiment with a new spectrometer at Berkeley is also discussed. This experiment will probe the nuclear matter equation of state at high temperature and density. 16 refs., 8 figs

  10. Evaluation of Low-Cost Multi-Hole Probes for Atmospheric Boundary Layer Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azartash-Namin, Solmoz; Jacob, Jamey; Canter, Caleb; Bailey, Sean; Cloud-Map Team

    2017-11-01

    Low-cost multi-hole probes (MHPs) for atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) studies are investigated. Probes are designed using rapid prototyping methods through FDM, SLA, and other techniques for evaluation through calibration testing and comparison with probes manufactured through more traditional methods. Each probe is tested and validated to develop calibration curves and PIV is used to examine the flow field around the probe during both attached and separated conditions. Standard non-nulling calibration and data reduction methods were used showing performance characteristics of each probe. Impact of probe tip geometry and internal duct arrangements are examined. Multiple geometries, including hemispherical and pyramid, as well as multiple sizes are evaluated for both accuracy and sensitivity. Of the two primary geometric designs evaluated, the hemisphere 5HPs produced the most symmetric calibration curves with linearity between +/-25° . Further issues related to optimized probe designs, manufacturing quality consistency, and sensor development are discussed. A custom weather data sensor package has been developed for flight testing in ABL studies and preliminary results are presented. Supported in part by National Science Foundation Award Numbers 1351411 and 1539070.

  11. Probing and Manipulating Ultracold Fermi Superfluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lei

    Ultracold Fermi gas is an exciting field benefiting from atomic physics, optical physics and condensed matter physics. It covers many aspects of quantum mechanics. Here I introduce some of my work during my graduate study. We proposed an optical spectroscopic method based on electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT) as a generic probing tool that provides valuable insights into the nature of Fermi paring in ultracold Fermi gases of two hyperfine states. This technique has the capability of allowing spectroscopic response to be determined in a nearly non-destructive manner and the whole spectrum may be obtained by scanning the probe laser frequency faster than the lifetime of the sample without re-preparing the atomic sample repeatedly. Both quasiparticle picture and pseudogap picture are constructed to facilitate the physical explanation of the pairing signature in the EIT spectra. Motivated by the prospect of realizing a Fermi gas of 40K atoms with a synthetic non-Abelian gauge field, we investigated theoretically BEC-HCS crossover physics in the presence of a Rashba spin-orbit coupling in a system of two-component Fermi gas with and without a Zeeman field that breaks the population balance. A new bound state (Rashba pair) emerges because of the spin-orbit interaction. We studied the properties of Rashba pairs using a standard pair fluctuation theory. As the two-fold spin degeneracy is lifted by spin-orbit interaction, bound pairs with mixed singlet and triplet pairings (referred to as rashbons) emerge, leading to an anisotropic superfluid. We discussed in detail the experimental signatures for observing the condensation of Rashba pairs by calculating various physical observables which characterize the properties of the system and can be measured in experiment. The role of impurities as experimental probes in the detection of quantum material properties is well appreciated. Here we studied the effect of a single classical impurity in trapped ultracold Fermi

  12. Emulating Ray-Tracing Channels in Multi-probe Anechoic Chamber Setups for Virtual Drive Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Llorente, Ines Carton; Kyösti, Pekka

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses virtual drive testing (VDT) for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) capable terminals in multi-probe anechoic chamber (MPAC) setups. We propose to perform VDT, via reproducing ray tracing (RT) simulated channels with the field synthesis technique. Simulation results demonst...

  13. Processing of Graphene combining Optical Detection and Scanning Probe Lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmermann Sören

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental setup tailored for robotic processing of graphene with in-situ vision based control. A robust graphene detection approach is presented applying multiple image processing operations of the visual feedback provided by a high-resolution light microscope. Detected graphene flakes can be modified using a scanning probe based lithographical process that is directly linked to the in-situ optical images. The results of this process are discussed with respect to further application scenarios.

  14. Experimental verification of carrier multiplication in graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plötzing, T; Winzer, T; Malic, E; Neumaier, D; Knorr, A; Kurz, H

    2014-09-10

    We report on the first direct experimental observation of carrier multiplication in graphene reaching a multiplication factor of up to 2 and persisting on a picoseconds time scale. Exploiting multicolor pump-probe measurement techniques, the excited nonequilibrium carrier distribution is retrieved on an ultrafast time scale. This provides access to the temporal evolution of the optically excited carrier density and thus allows quantitative conclusions on possible carrier multiplication. Microscopic time- and momentum-resolved calculations on the ultrafast relaxation dynamics of optically excited carriers confirm the observation of carrier multiplication under corresponding experimental conditions, suggesting graphene as a promising material for novel high-efficiency photodetection devices.

  15. SUB-SLAB PROBE INSTALLATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sub-slab sampling has become an integral part of vapor intrusion investigations. It is now recommended in guidance documents developed by EPA and most states. A method for sub-slab probe installation was devised in 2002, presented at conferences through 2005, and finally docume...

  16. Resolution analysis by random probing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fichtner, Andreas; van Leeuwen, T.

    2015-01-01

    We develop and apply methods for resolution analysis in tomography, based on stochastic probing of the Hessian or resolution operators. Key properties of our methods are (i) low algorithmic complexity and easy implementation, (ii) applicability to any tomographic technique, including full‐waveform

  17. Seismic probing of Fennoscandian lithosphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bock, G.; Achauer, U.; Alinaghi, A.; Ansorge, J.; Bruneton, M.; Friederich, W.; Grad, M.; Guterch, A.; Hjelt, S. E.; Plomerová, Jaroslava

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 50 (2001), s. 621, 628-629 ISSN 0096-3941 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3012908 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3012916 Keywords : seismic probing * lithosphere * Fennoscandia * SVEKALAPKO * Europrobe Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  18. Combined in vitro transcription and reverse transcription to amplify and label complex synthetic oligonucleotide probe libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgha, Yusuf; Beliveau, Brian; Semrau, Kassandra; Schwartz, Donald; Wu, Chao-ting; Gulari, Erdogan; Rouillard, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Oligonucleotide microarrays allow the production of complex custom oligonucleotide libraries for nucleic acid detection–based applications such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We have developed a PCR-free method to make single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) fluorescent probes through an intermediate RNA library. A double-stranded oligonucleotide library is amplified by transcription to create an RNA library. Next, dye- or hapten-conjugate primers are used to reverse transcribe the RNA to produce a dye-labeled cDNA library. Finally the RNA is hydrolyzed under alkaline conditions to obtain the single-stranded fluorescent probes library. Starting from unique oligonucleotide library constructs, we present two methods to produce single-stranded probe libraries. The two methods differ in the type of reverse transcription (RT) primer, the incorporation of fluorescent dye, and the purification of fluorescent probes. The first method employs dye-labeled reverse transcription primers to produce multiple differentially single-labeled probe subsets from one microarray library. The fluorescent probes are purified from excess primers by oligonucleotide-bead capture. The second method uses an RNA:DNA chimeric primer and amino-modified nucleotides to produce amino-allyl probes. The excess primers and RNA are hydrolyzed under alkaline conditions, followed by probe purification and labeling with amino-reactive dyes. The fluorescent probes created by the combination of transcription and reverse transcription can be used for FISH and to detect any RNA and DNA targets via hybridization. PMID:26054766

  19. Combined in vitro transcription and reverse transcription to amplify and label complex synthetic oligonucleotide probe libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgha, Yusuf; Beliveau, Brian; Semrau, Kassandra; Schwartz, Donald; Wu, Chao-Ting; Gulari, Erdogan; Rouillard, Jean-Marie

    2015-06-01

    Oligonucleotide microarrays allow the production of complex custom oligonucleotide libraries for nucleic acid detection-based applications such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We have developed a PCR-free method to make single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) fluorescent probes through an intermediate RNA library. A double-stranded oligonucleotide library is amplified by transcription to create an RNA library. Next, dye- or hapten-conjugate primers are used to reverse transcribe the RNA to produce a dye-labeled cDNA library. Finally the RNA is hydrolyzed under alkaline conditions to obtain the single-stranded fluorescent probes library. Starting from unique oligonucleotide library constructs, we present two methods to produce single-stranded probe libraries. The two methods differ in the type of reverse transcription (RT) primer, the incorporation of fluorescent dye, and the purification of fluorescent probes. The first method employs dye-labeled reverse transcription primers to produce multiple differentially single-labeled probe subsets from one microarray library. The fluorescent probes are purified from excess primers by oligonucleotide-bead capture. The second method uses an RNA:DNA chimeric primer and amino-modified nucleotides to produce amino-allyl probes. The excess primers and RNA are hydrolyzed under alkaline conditions, followed by probe purification and labeling with amino-reactive dyes. The fluorescent probes created by the combination of transcription and reverse transcription can be used for FISH and to detect any RNA and DNA targets via hybridization.

  20. Pump-flow-probe x-ray absorption spectroscopy as a tool for studying aintermediate states of photocatalytic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolentsev, Grigory; Guda, Alexander; Zhang, Xiaoyi

    2013-01-01

    measurement technique that utilizes a 1 kHz repetition rate laser and multiple X-ray probe pulses. Such an experiment was performed at beamline 11ID-D of the Advanced Photon Source. Advantages, limitations, and potential for improvement of the pump-flow-probe setup are discussed by analyzing the photon...

  1. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, Egon; Stenager, E N; Knudsen, Lone

    1994-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 117 randomly selected patients (52 men, 65 women) with definite multiple sclerosis, it was found that 76 percent were married or cohabitant, 8 percent divorced. Social contacts remained unchanged for 70 percent, but outgoing social contacts were reduced for 45 percent......, need for structural changes in home and need for pension became greater with increasing physical handicap. No significant differences between gender were found. It is concluded that patients and relatives are under increased social strain, when multiple sclerosis progresses to a moderate handicap...

  2. Sandwich nucleic acid hybridization: a method with a universally usable labeled probe for various specific tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, H.; Leser, U.; Haus, M.; Gu, S.Y.; Pathmanathan, R.

    1986-01-01

    The use of recombinant m13 phages as hybridization probes offers a considerable advantage over the commonly used recombinant plasmids as the preparation of the DNA probe is very simple and it can easily be labeled directly, e.g. with isotopes with long half-life like 125 I and used for hybridization. However, as the application of nucleic acid hybridization for diagnostic and epidemiological purposes becomes almost unavoidable, the logistic problems of keeping numerous individually labeled hybridization probes increase considerably and may reach prohibitory levels in less well-equipped laboratories. In a new sandwich technique, the first step involves hybridization with an unlabeled recombinant m13 DNA carrying an insert of the desired specificity. In a second step a universally usable labeled probe directed against the m13 part of the recombinant phage DNA is applied. This reduces considerably the problem of preparing and keeping multiple labeled probes in stock. (Auth.)

  3. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Knudsen, L; Jensen, K

    1991-01-01

    In a cross-sectional investigation of 116 patients with multiple sclerosis, the social and sparetime activities of the patient were assessed by both patient and his/her family. The assessments were correlated to physical disability which showed that particularly those who were moderately disabled...

  4. Multiple Myeloma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of the use of melphalan in 52 patients with multiple myeloma have been analysed. The median survival of the whole group of patients was 30 months, and of those w:th renal insufficiency only 12,5 months. Bence-lones proteinuria was also a poor prognostic finding,. but only because of its association with renal ...

  5. Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on multiple sclerosis is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  6. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Jensen, K

    1988-01-01

    Forty-two (12%) of a total of 366 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) had psychiatric admissions. Of these, 34 (81%) had their first psychiatric admission in conjunction with or after the onset of MS. Classification by psychiatric diagnosis showed that there was a significant positive correlati...

  7. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Jensen, K

    1990-01-01

    An investigation on the correlation between ability to read TV subtitles and the duration of visual evoked potential (VEP) latency in 14 patients with definite multiple sclerosis (MS), indicated that VEP latency in patients unable to read the TV subtitles was significantly delayed in comparison...

  8. Scanning probe and micropatterning approaches for biomolecular screening applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, Lisa M

    2002-07-01

    Force mapping using atomic force microscopy (AFM) allows for the simultaneous acquisition of topography and probe-sample interaction data. For example, AFM probes functionalised with an antigen can be employed to map the spatial distribution of recognition events on a substrate functionalised with the complementary specific antibody. However, this technique is currently limited to the detection of a single receptor-ligand species. Were the detection of multiple receptor-ligand interactions possible, AFM force mapping would offer greater scope as a sensitive tool for bioassay and screening applications. This thesis outlines developments in probe and substrate immobilisation methods to facilitate this process. We have developed an immobilisation strategy, which allows two antigen species, human serum albumin (HSA) and the beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin ({beta}hCG) to be simultaneously present on an AFM probe. Single point force spectroscopy results have revealed the ability of such probes to discriminate between their corresponding antibodies (anti-HSA and anti-{beta}hCG lgG antibodies). In addition, these antibodies have been employed in the fabrication of a 2-D biomolecular array using microfluidic network patterning. The formed chequered pattern was visualised with fluorescence microscopy using fluorescently tagged anti-IgG antibodies. In parallel with such developments we have employed AFM force volume imaging to investigate the distribution of antigen binding sites on an antibody functionalised substrate. Highly resolved adhesion maps were obtained of surfaces functionalised with anti-HSA lgG antibodies using HSA functionalised AFM probes, adopting the sample molecular tether immobilisation strategy employed in the single point force spectroscopy investigations. The observed forces were seen to be comparable with previous investigations. The addition of free HSA into the system was found to result in a significant reduction in the number of

  9. Cantilevered probe detector with piezoelectric element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jesse D; Sulchek, Todd A; Feigin, Stuart C

    2013-04-30

    A disclosed chemical detection system for detecting a target material, such as an explosive material, can include a cantilevered probe, a probe heater coupled to the cantilevered probe, and a piezoelectric element disposed on the cantilevered probe. The piezoelectric element can be configured as a detector and/or an actuator. Detection can include, for example, detecting a movement of the cantilevered probe or a property of the cantilevered probe. The movement or a change in the property of the cantilevered probe can occur, for example, by adsorption of the target material, desorption of the target material, reaction of the target material and/or phase change of the target material. Examples of detectable movements and properties include temperature shifts, impedance shifts, and resonant frequency shifts of the cantilevered probe. The overall chemical detection system can be incorporated, for example, into a handheld explosive material detection system.

  10. Cantilevered probe detector with piezoelectric element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Jesse D; Sulchek, Todd A; Feigin, Stuart C

    2014-04-29

    A disclosed chemical detection system for detecting a target material, such as an explosive material, can include a cantilevered probe, a probe heater coupled to the cantilevered probe, and a piezoelectric element disposed on the cantilevered probe. The piezoelectric element can be configured as a detector and/or an actuator. Detection can include, for example, detecting a movement of the cantilevered probe or a property of the cantilevered probe. The movement or a change in the property of the cantilevered probe can occur, for example, by adsorption of the target material, desorption of the target material, reaction of the target material and/or phase change of the target material. Examples of detectable movements and properties include temperature shifts, impedance shifts, and resonant frequency shifts of the cantilevered probe. The overall chemical detection system can be incorporated, for example, into a handheld explosive material detection system.

  11. Versatile ultrafast pump-probe imaging with high sensitivity CCD camera

    OpenAIRE

    Pezeril , Thomas; Klieber , Christoph; Temnov , Vasily; Huntzinger , Jean-Roch; Anane , Abdelmadjid

    2012-01-01

    International audience; A powerful imaging technique based on femtosecond time-resolved measurements with a high dynamic range, commercial CCD camera is presented. Ultrafast phenomena induced by a femtosecond laser pump are visualized through the lock-in type acquisition of images recorded by a femtosecond laser probe. This technique allows time-resolved measurements of laser excited phenomena at multiple probe wavelengths (spectrometer mode) or conventional imaging of the sample surface (ima...

  12. Where do pulse oximeter probes break?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crede, S; Van der Merwe, G; Hutchinson, J; Woods, D; Karlen, W; Lawn, J

    2014-06-01

    Pulse oximetry, a non-invasive method for accurate assessment of blood oxygen saturation (SPO2), is an important monitoring tool in health care facilities. However, it is often not available in many low-resource settings, due to expense, overly sophisticated design, a lack of organised procurement systems and inadequate medical device management and maintenance structures. Furthermore medical devices are often fragile and not designed to withstand the conditions of low-resource settings. In order to design a probe, better suited to the needs of health care facilities in low-resource settings this study aimed to document the site and nature of pulse oximeter probe breakages in a range of different probe designs in a low to middle income country. A retrospective review of job cards relating to the assessment and repair of damaged or faulty pulse oximeter probes was conducted at a medical device repair company based in Cape Town, South Africa, specializing in pulse oximeter probe repairs. 1,840 job cards relating to the assessment and repair of pulse oximeter probes were reviewed. 60.2 % of probes sent for assessment were finger-clip probes. For all probes, excluding the neonatal wrap probes, the most common point of failure was the probe wiring (>50 %). The neonatal wrap most commonly failed at the strap (51.5 %). The total cost for quoting on the broken pulse oximeter probes and for the subsequent repair of devices, excluding replacement components, amounted to an estimated ZAR 738,810 (USD $98,508). Improving the probe wiring would increase the life span of pulse oximeter probes. Increasing the life span of probes will make pulse oximetry more affordable and accessible. This is of high priority in low-resource settings where frequent repair or replacement of probes is unaffordable or impossible.

  13. Probe-based recording technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naberhuis, Steve

    2002-01-01

    The invention of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) prompted researchers to contemplate whether such technology could be used as the basis for the storage and retrieval of information. With magnetic data storage technology facing limits in storage density due to the thermal instability of magnetic bits, the super-paramagnetic limit, the heir-apparent for information storage at higher densities appeared to be variants of the STM or similar probe-based storage techniques such as atomic force microscopy (AFM). Among these other techniques that could provide replacement technology for magnetic storage, near-field optical scanning optical microscopy (NSOM or SNOM) has also been investigated. Another alternative probe-based storage technology called atomic resolution storage (ARS) is also currently under development. An overview of these various technologies is herein presented, with an analysis of the advantages and disadvantages inherent in each particularly with respect to reduced device dimensions. The role of micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) is emphasized

  14. Gallium nitride nanowire probe for near-field scanning microwave microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, J. C.; Blanchard, P. T.; Sanders, A. W.; Imtiaz, A.; Wallis, T. M.; Coakley, K. J.; Bertness, K. A.; Kabos, P.; Sanford, N. A.; Bright, V. M.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of a GaN nanowire probe for near-field scanning microwave microscopy. A single nanowire was Pt-bonded to a commercial Si cantilever prior to evaporation of a Ti/Al coating to provide a microwave signal pathway. Testing over a microcapacitor calibration sample shows the probe to have capacitance resolution of at least 0.7 fF with improved sensitivity and reduced uncertainty compared with a commercial microwave probe. High wear resistance of the defect-free nanowire enabled it to maintain a tip radius of 150 nm after multiple contact-mode scans while demonstrating nanometer-scale topographical resolution.

  15. Portable LED-induced autofluorescence imager with a probe of L shape for oral cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ting-Wei; Lee, Yu-Cheng; Cheng, Nai-Lun; Yan, Yung-Jhe; Chiang, Hou-Chi; Chiou, Jin-Chern; Mang, Ou-Yang

    2015-08-01

    The difference of spectral distribution between lesions of epithelial cells and normal cells after excited fluorescence is one of methods for the cancer diagnosis. In our previous work, we developed a portable LED Induced autofluorescence (LIAF) imager contained the multiple wavelength of LED excitation light and multiple filters to capture ex-vivo oral tissue autofluorescence images. Our portable system for detection of oral cancer has a probe in front of the lens for fixing the object distance. The shape of the probe is cone, and it is not convenient for doctor to capture the oral image under an appropriate view angle in front of the probe. Therefore, a probe of L shape containing a mirror is proposed for doctors to capture the images with the right angles, and the subjects do not need to open their mouse constrainedly. Besides, a glass plate is placed in probe to prevent the liquid entering in the body, but the light reflected from the glass plate directly causes the light spots inside the images. We set the glass plate in front of LED to avoiding the light spots. When the distance between the glasses plate and the LED model plane is less than the critical value, then we can prevent the light spots caused from the glasses plate. The experiments show that the image captured with the new probe that the glasses plate placed in the back-end of the probe has no light spots inside the image.

  16. Distance probes of dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, A. G.; Padmanabhan, N.; Aldering, G.; Allen, S. W.; Baltay, C.; Cahn, R. N.; D’Andrea, C. B.; Dalal, N.; Dawson, K. S.; Denney, K. D.; Eisenstein, D. J.; Finley, D. A.; Freedman, W. L.; Ho, S.; Holz, D. E.; Kasen, D.; Kent, S. M.; Kessler, R.; Kuhlmann, S.; Linder, E. V.; Martini, P.; Nugent, P. E.; Perlmutter, S.; Peterson, B. M.; Riess, A. G.; Rubin, D.; Sako, M.; Suntzeff, N. V.; Suzuki, N.; Thomas, R. C.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Woosley, S. E.

    2015-03-01

    This document presents the results from the Distances subgroup of the Cosmic Frontier Community Planning Study (Snowmass 2013). We summarize the current state of the field as well as future prospects and challenges. In addition to the established probes using Type Ia supernovae and baryon acoustic oscillations, we also consider prospective methods based on clusters, active galactic nuclei, gravitational wave sirens and strong lensing time delays.

  17. Component Analyses Using Single-Subject Experimental Designs: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Horner, John; Sturmey, Peter

    2010-01-01

    A component analysis is a systematic assessment of 2 or more independent variables or components that comprise a treatment package. Component analyses are important for the analysis of behavior; however, previous research provides only cursory descriptions of the topic. Therefore, in this review the definition of "component analysis" is discussed,…

  18. Postoperative management of pigmented villonodular synovitis in a single subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedus, Eric J; Theresa, Kristen

    2008-12-01

    Case report. Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare, benign disorder characterized by idiopathic proliferation affecting the synovium of joints, tendon sheaths, and bursae. Diagnosing PVNS in the knee is difficult because the clinical presentation and symptoms mimic those of more common disorders at the joint, such as internal derangements or arthritis. Operative treatment of PVNS typically consists of arthroscopic or open synovectomy, but no reports of postoperative rehabilitation exist. This case describes the postoperative rehabilitation of a 46-year-old female who had left knee surgery secondary to PVNS. Rehabilitation consisted of combined manual therapy, exercise, and gait training to improve function and gait, and cognitive-behavioral techniques to improve self-efficacy. All impairments improved in 2.5 months of physical therapy to normal, and the patient estimated 80% to 90% return to function. This patient obtained excellent outcomes in 2.5 months of physical therapy following surgery for PVNS. Although no firm conclusions can be drawn from a case report, this patient responded well to a biopsychosocial approach that combined physical therapy with cognitive-behavioral techniques. Therapy, level 4.

  19. Visual Analysis of Single-Subject Studies by School Psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Michael J.; Wampold, Bruce E.

    1981-01-01

    To guide the unbiased process of visual inference, a four-step model is presented for the assessment of reliability, intervention effect, meaningfulness, and generalizability. A Visual Inference Checklist (VIC) systematizes this assessment process. (Author)

  20. The Van Allen Probes mission

    CERN Document Server

    Burch, James

    2014-01-01

    This collection of articles provides broad and detailed information about NASA’s Van Allen Probes (formerly known as the Radiation Belt Storm Probes) twin-spacecraft Earth-orbiting mission. The mission has the objective of achieving predictive understanding of the dynamic, intense, energetic, dangerous, and presently unpredictable belts of energetic particles that are magnetically trapped in Earth’s space environment above the atmosphere. It documents the science of the radiation belts and the societal benefits of achieving predictive understanding. Detailed information is provided about the Van Allen Probes mission design, the spacecraft, the science investigations, and the onboard instrumentation that must all work together to make unprecedented measurements within a most unforgiving environment, the core of Earth’s most intense radiation regions.
 This volume is aimed at graduate students and researchers active in space science, solar-terrestrial interactions and studies of the up...

  1. A computerized Langmuir probe system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, L. S.; Bydder, E. L.; Carnegie, D. A.

    2003-07-01

    For low pressure plasmas it is important to record entire single or double Langmuir probe characteristics accurately. For plasmas with a depleted high energy tail, the accuracy of the recorded ion current plays a critical role in determining the electron temperature. Even for high density Maxwellian distributions, it is necessary to accurately model the ion current to obtain the correct electron density. Since the electron and ion current saturation values are, at best, orders of magnitude apart, a single current sensing resistor cannot provide the required resolution to accurately record these values. We present an automated, personal computer based data acquisition system for the determination of fundamental plasma properties in low pressure plasmas. The system is designed for single and double Langmuir probes, whose characteristics can be recorded over a bias voltage range of ±70 V with 12 bit resolution. The current flowing through the probes can be recorded within the range of 5 nA-100 mA. The use of a transimpedance amplifier for current sensing eliminates the requirement for traditional current sensing resistors and hence the need to correct the raw data. The large current recording range is realized through the use of a real time gain switching system in the negative feedback loop of the transimpedance amplifier.

  2. Multiple Parenting

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Paulo Cezar; Gramstrup, Erik Frederico

    2016-01-01

    With the modification of the family concept in human history, now considered the site of important value, aimed at personal fulfillment of its members, in line with the Federal Constitution of 1988 was enshrined in the principles of human dignity, affection, equal affiliations and plurality of family entities, recognizing the socio-affective parenting, founded in the state of emotional child, and biological, originally from consanguinity ties, arises multiple parenting in response to the full...

  3. Suppression of probe background signals via B1 field inhomogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Jian; Reimer, Jeffrey

    2011-01-27

    A new approach combining a long pulse with the DEPTH sequence (Cory and Ritchey, Journal of Magnetic Resonance, 1988) greatly improves the efficiency for suppressing probe background signals arising from spinning modules. By applying a long initial excitation pulse in the DEPTH sequence, instead of a {pi}/2 pulse, the inhomogeneous B{sub 1} fields outside the coil can dephase the background coherence in the nutation frame. The initial long pulse and the following two consecutive EXORCYCLE {pi} pulses function complementarily and prove most effective in removing background signals from both strong and weak B{sub 1} fields. Experimentally, the length of the long pulse can be optimized around odd multiples of the {pi}/2 pulse, depending on the individual probe design, to preserve signals inside the coil while minimizing those from probe hardware. This method extends the applicability of the DEPTH sequence to probes with small differences in B{sub 1} field strength between the inside and outside of the coil, and can readily combine with well-developed double resonance experiments for quantitative measurement. In general, spin systems with weak internal interactions are required to attain efficient and uniform excitation for powder samples, and the principles to determine the applicability are discussed qualitatively in terms of the relative strength of spin interactions, r.f. power and spinning rate.

  4. Multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Alan J; Baranzini, Sergio E; Geurts, Jeroen; Hemmer, Bernhard; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2018-03-22

    Multiple sclerosis continues to be a challenging and disabling condition but there is now greater understanding of the underlying genetic and environmental factors that drive the condition, including low vitamin D levels, cigarette smoking, and obesity. Early and accurate diagnosis is crucial and is supported by diagnostic criteria, incorporating imaging and spinal fluid abnormalities for those presenting with a clinically isolated syndrome. Importantly, there is an extensive therapeutic armamentarium, both oral and by infusion, for those with the relapsing remitting form of the disease. Careful consideration is required when choosing the correct treatment, balancing the side-effect profile with efficacy and escalating as clinically appropriate. This move towards more personalised medicine is supported by a clinical guideline published in 2018. Finally, a comprehensive management programme is strongly recommended for all patients with multiple sclerosis, enhancing health-related quality of life through advocating wellness, addressing aggravating factors, and managing comorbidities. The greatest remaining challenge for multiple sclerosis is the development of treatments incorporating neuroprotection and remyelination to treat and ultimately prevent the disabling, progressive forms of the condition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadashima, Hiromichi; Kusaka, Hirofumi; Imai, Terukuni; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Matsumoto, Sadayuki; Yamamoto, Toru; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maya, Kiyomi

    1986-01-01

    Eleven patients with a definite diagnosis of multiple sclerosis were examined in terms of correlations between the clinical features and the results of cranial computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results: In 5 of the 11 patients, both CT and MRI demonstrated lesions consistent with a finding of multiple sclerosis. In 3 patients, only MRI demonstrated lesions. In the remaining 3 patients, neither CT nor MRI revealed any lesion in the brain. All 5 patients who showed abnormal findings on both CT and MRI had clinical signs either of cerebral or brainstem - cerebellar lesions. On the other hand, two of the 3 patients with normal CT and MRI findings had optic-nerve and spinal-cord signs. Therefore, our results suggested relatively good correlations between the clinical features, CT, and MRI. MRI revealed cerebral lesions in two of the four patients with clinical signs of only optic-nerve and spinal-cord lesions. MRI demonstrated sclerotic lesions in 3 of the 6 patients whose plaques were not detected by CT. In conclusion, MRI proved to be more helpful in the demonstration of lesions attributable to chronic multiple sclerosis. (author)

  6. Influence of probe geometry on the response of an electrostatic probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Torben; Crichton, George C; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1999-01-01

    The response of an electrostatic probe is examined with reference to the probe geometry. The study involves the evaluation of the probe lambda function, from which response-related characteristic parameters can be derived. These parameters enable the probe detection sensitivity Se and spatial...

  7. [HPV contamination of endocavity vaginal ultrasound probes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, I; Favre, M

    2015-02-01

    While the use of endovaginal ultrasound probes is increasing, the risk of contamination of women with endocavity vaginal probes was not assessed. In particular, the clinical significance of detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, the most common sexually transmitted viral infection, on endovaginal ultrasound probes is uncertain. The recommendations of good practice for decontamination of these probes developed by the High Council for Public Health and the Academy of Medicine have not been evaluated. The objective of this article was to review recent publications concluding to the detection of HPV and human cellular DNA after gynecological examination and disinfection of vaginal ultrasound probes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Probe Selection in Multiprobe OTA Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Sun, Fan; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum

    2014-01-01

    is costly, so finding ways to limit the number of probes while still reproducing the target channels accurately could make the test system both cheaper and simpler to implement. Several probe selection algorithms are presented in this paper to address this issue. The proposed techniques provide a probe...... selection framework for the channel emulation techniques published in the literature. Simulation results show that good channel emulation accuracy can be achieved with the selected subset of probes for the considered target channel models. The probe selection algorithm is further supported by measurement...... results in a practical multiprobe setup...

  9. Zero voltage mass spectrometry probes and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Wleklinski, Michael Stanley; Bag, Soumabha; Li, Yafeng

    2017-10-10

    The invention generally relates to zero volt mass spectrometry probes and systems. In certain embodiments, the invention provides a system including a mass spectrometry probe including a porous material, and a mass spectrometer (bench-top or miniature mass spectrometer). The system operates without an application of voltage to the probe. In certain embodiments, the probe is oriented such that a distal end faces an inlet of the mass spectrometer. In other embodiments, the distal end of the probe is 5 mm or less from an inlet of the mass spectrometer.

  10. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, Egon; Stenager, E N; Knudsen, Lone

    1994-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 117 randomly selected patients (52 men, 65 women) with definite multiple sclerosis, it was found that 76 percent were married or cohabitant, 8 percent divorced. Social contacts remained unchanged for 70 percent, but outgoing social contacts were reduced for 45 percent....... Ninety-five percent lived in own house or flat and 70 percent received disablement pension. More than half of the patients (56.4 percent) were dependent on help from close relatives, most frequently spouse. The need for help, the risk of divorce, loss of contact with relatives, difficulty in going out...

  11. A Pan-GTPase Inhibitor as a Molecular Probe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hong

    Full Text Available Overactive GTPases have often been linked to human diseases. The available inhibitors are limited and have not progressed far in clinical trials. We report here a first-in-class small molecule pan-GTPase inhibitor discovered from a high throughput screening campaign. The compound CID1067700 inhibits multiple GTPases in biochemical, cellular protein and protein interaction, as well as cellular functional assays. In the biochemical and protein interaction assays, representative GTPases from Rho, Ras, and Rab, the three most generic subfamilies of the GTPases, were probed, while in the functional assays, physiological processes regulated by each of the three subfamilies of the GTPases were examined. The chemical functionalities essential for the activity of the compound were identified through structural derivatization. The compound is validated as a useful molecular probe upon which GTPase-targeting inhibitors with drug potentials might be developed.

  12. QD-Based FRET Probes at a Glance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armen Shamirian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The unique optoelectronic properties of quantum dots (QDs give them significant advantages over traditional organic dyes, not only as fluorescent labels for bioimaging, but also as emissive sensing probes. QD sensors that function via manipulation of fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET are of special interest due to the multiple response mechanisms that may be utilized, which in turn imparts enhanced flexibility in their design. They may also function as ratiometric, or “color-changing” probes. In this review, we describe the fundamentals of FRET and provide examples of QD-FRET sensors as grouped by their response mechanisms such as link cleavage and structural rearrangement. An overview of early works, recent advances, and various models of QD-FRET sensors for the measurement of pH and oxygen, as well as the presence of metal ions and proteins such as enzymes, are also provided.

  13. [Multiple myeloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Masahiro; Miki, Hirokazu; Nakamura, Shingen

    2016-03-01

    Owing to the positive clinical benefits obtained with new agents, complete remission (CR) can be used as a surrogate for overall survival, and should be achieved. Although multiple myeloma is a heterogeneous disease in terms of myeloma cell- and patient-related risk factors, patients should receive the most effective combination therapy based on proteasome inhibitors and/or immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) as backbone medication irrespective of the risks encountered in the setting of induction therapy ("one-size-fits-all" therapy), followed by consolidation/maintenance therapy to achieve CR with the ultimate goal of extended survival. Myeloma-defining biomarkers have been established to identify high-risk smoldering myeloma requiring treatment. The development of salvage treatments yielding better outcomes for relapsed/refractory myeloma is urgently needed. Upcoming novel molecular targeting agents with different modes of action and immunotherapeutic agents will be integrated into myeloma treatment regimens with a great therapeutic impact, and further evolution of the treatment paradigm for multiple myeloma is eagerly anticipated.

  14. Soft QGP probes with ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Graczykowski, Łukasz Kamil

    2016-01-01

    In heavy-ion collisions at the LHC a hot and dense medium of deconfided partons, the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), is created. Its global properties can be characterized by the measurements of particles in the low transverse momentum (or "soft") regime, which represent the majority of created particles. In this report we outline a selection of measurements of the soft probes by the ALICE experiment in pp, p--Pb, and Pb--Pb collisions. The paper focuses on recent flow measurements via angular correlations and femtoscopic studies. The first ever preliminary analysis of $\\mathrm{K}^0_{\\rm S}\\mathrm{K}^{\\pm}$ femtoscopy is also presented.

  15. Bifunctional atomic force microscopy probes for molecular screening applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, Lisa M.; Allen, Stephanie; Davies, Martyn C.; Tendler, Saul J.B.; Williams, Philip M.; Roberts, Clive J

    2003-03-05

    Force mapping with the atomic force microscope (AFM) allows the simultaneous acquisition of topography and probe-sample interaction data. For example, AFM probes functionalised with an antigen can be employed to map the spatial distribution of recognition events on a substrate functionalised with its specific antibody. However, to date this method has been limited to the detection of single receptor-ligand species. Were the detection of multiple receptor-ligand interactions possible, force mapping would offer great scope as a sensitive tool for bioassay and screening applications. We have developed an immobilisation strategy, which allows two different molecular species (in this case human serum albumin and the {beta} subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin) to be present simultaneously on an AFM probe. Single point force spectroscopy results have revealed the ability of such probes to discriminate between their corresponding recognition points (anti-HSA and anti-{beta}hCG IgG antibodies). As a control, force measurements were re-recorded in the presence of the known antigen (free in solution) for each antibody species and a marked decrease in the frequency of specific interaction is observed. As an additional control interactions between anti-{beta}hCG IgG and the multifunctional probe are taken in the presence of free {beta}hCG ('true' antigen) and free HSA ('false' antigen). It is shown that measurements recorded in the presence of a non-related protein species results in no change in either the force observed or the frequency of specific interactions, further confirmation that the specificity of force observed is due to the separation of antibody-antigen complex.

  16. Soil moisture calibration of TDR multilevel probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrarens Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Time domain reflectometry (TDR probes are increasingly used for field estimation of soil water content. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the multilevel TDR probe under field conditions. For this purpose, eight such TDR probes were installed in small plots that were seeded with beans and sorghum. Data collection from the probes was such that soil moisture readings were automated and logged using a standalone field unit. Neutron probe measurements were used to calibrate the TDR probes. Soil-probe contact and soil compaction were critical to the accuracy of the TDR, especially when a number of TDR probes are combined for a single calibration curve. If each probe is calibrated individually, approximate measurement errors were between 0.005 and 0.015 m³ m-3. However, measurement errors doubled to approximately 0.025 to 0.03 m³ m-3, when TDR probes were combined to yield a single calibration curve.

  17. Auroral Spatial Structures Probe Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration —    Methodology Fly a high altitude sounding rocket with multiple sub-payloads to measure electric and magnetic fields during an auroral event. Use...

  18. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Knudsen, L; Jensen, K

    1994-01-01

    a significant correlation between results of an attention and perceptual motor speed test i.e. Symbol Digit Modalities test and the ability to read TV-subtitles, but no correlation was found with another attention and perceptual motor speed test, or verbal or visual memory. No correlation between the use......In a cross-sectional study of 94 patients (42 males, 52 females) with definite multiple sclerosis (MS) in the age range 25-55 years, the correlation of neuropsychological tests with the ability to read TV-subtitles and with the use of sedatives is examined. A logistic regression analysis reveals...... of sedatives and results on neuropsychological tests was found. Anxiety was not correlated with the ability to read TV-subtitles. It is concluded that visual deficits but not the use of sedatives may be a confounding factor in neuropsychological testing in MS....

  19. [Multiple apheresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffe, C

    2007-05-01

    Multiple apheresis makes it possible to obtain at least two labile blood components from a single donor using a cell separator. It can be either multicomponent apheresis leading to the preparation of at least two different blood component types or red blood cell apheresis providing two identical red blood cell concentrates. These techniques available in addition to whole blood donation, are modifying collection strategies in many Etablissements Français du Sang and will contribute to improve stock logistics in the future. In areas with insufficient stock, these procedures will help achieve blood component self-sufficiency. The author first describes the principle underlying different--current or future--techniques as well as their advantages and drawbacks. He finally addresses the potential impact of these processes on the evolution of blood collection and the advantages to be gained.

  20. Eddy current flaw detecting probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Mitsuo; Harada, Yutaka; Shimone, Junri; Maeda, Kotaro

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides an eddy current-flaw detection probe facilitating quantitative evaluation, which is used for maintenance and inspection of metal fine tubes of a heat exchanger of a nuclear power plant. Namely, the probe comprises a substantially cylindrical or columnar flow detection main body to be inserted to a metal tube. Wires are wound on the circumferential surface of the flaw detection main body substantially uniformly and in parallel to form a solenoid portion having a predetermined width. Magnetic sensors are disposed on the lateral center of the solenoid portion. With such a constitution, the solenoid portion forms eddy current in the circumferential direction. The eddy current is substantially in parallel having the same intensity at the lateral central portion of the solenoid. Accordingly, the quantitative evaluation for the shape and the size of cracks in the axial direction of the tube can be conducted by the magnetic sensors disposed to the portion. In addition, since the eddy current is substantially uniform, parameters upon reverse analysis can be reduced upon determination of the shape of flaws. (I.S.)

  1. The Gravity Probe B Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    This presentation briefly describes the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) Experiment which is designed to measure parts of Einstein's general theory of relativity by monitoring gyroscope orientation relative to a distant guide star. To measure the miniscule angles predicted by Einstein's theory, it was necessary to build near-perfect gyroscopes that were approximately 50 million times more precise than the best navigational gyroscopes. A telescope mounted along the central axis of the dewar and spacecraft provided the experiment's pointing reference to a guide star. The telescope's image divide precisely split the star's beam into x-axis and y-axis components whose brightness could be compared. GP-B's 650-gallon dewar, kept the science instrument inside the probe at a cryogenic temperature for 17.3 months and also provided the thruster propellant for precision attitude and translation control. Built around the dewar, the GP-B spacecraft was a total-integrated system, comprising both the space vehicle and payload, dedicated as a single entity to experimentally testing predictions of Einstein's theory.

  2. Portal monitor incorporating smart probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartos, D.; Constantin, F.; Guta, T.

    2003-01-01

    Portal monitors are intended for detection of radioactive and special nuclear materials in vehicles, pedestrians, luggage, as well as for prevention of illegal traffic of radioactive sources. Monitors provide audio and visual alarms when radioactive and/or special nuclear materials are detected. They can be recommended to officers of customs, border guard and emergency services, civil defense, fire brigades, police and military departments or nuclear research or energetic facilities. The portal monitor developed by us consists in a portal frame, which sustains five intelligent probes having long plastic scintillator (0.5 liters each). The probes communicate, by serial transmission, with a Central Unit constructed on the basis of the 80552 microcontroller. This one manages the handshake, calculates the background, establishes the measuring time, starts and stops each measurement and makes all the other decisions. Sound signals and an infrared sensor monitor the passing through the portal and the measuring procedure. For each measurement the result is displayed on a LCD device contaminated/uncontaminated; for the contaminated case a loud and long sound signal is also issued. An RS 232 serial interface is provided in order to further developments or custom made devices. As a result, the portal monitor detects 1 μ Ci 137 Cs, spread all over a human body, in a 20 μR/h gamma background for a measuring time of 1.5 or 10 seconds giving a 99% confidence factor. (authors)

  3. Influence of probe motion on laser probe temperature in circulating blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehrlein, C; Splinter, R; Littmann, L; Tuntelder, J R; Tatsis, G P; Svenson, R H

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of probe motion on laser probe temperature in various blood flow conditions. Laser probe temperatures were measured in an in vitro blood circulation model consisting of 3.2 nm-diameter plastic tubes. A 2.0 mm-diameter metal probe attached to a 300 microns optical quartz fiber was coupled to an argon laser. Continuous wave 4 watts and 8 watts of laser power were delivered to the fiber tip corresponding to a 6.7 +/- 0.5 and 13.2 +/- 0.7 watts power setting at the laser generator. The laser probe was either moved with constant velocity or kept stationary. A thermocouple inserted in the lateral portion of the probe was used to record probe temperatures. Probe temperature changes were found with the variation of laser power, probe velocity, blood flow, and duration of laser exposure. Probe motion significantly reduced probe temperatures. After 10 seconds of 4 watts laser power the probe temperature in stagnant blood decreased from 303 +/- 18 degrees C to 113 +/- 17 degrees C (63%) by moving the probe with a velocity of 5 cm/sec. Blood flow rates of 170 ml/min further decreased the probe temperature from 113 +/- 17 degrees C to 50 +/- 8 degrees C (56%). At 8 watts of laser power a probe temperature reduction from 591 +/- 25 degrees C to 534 +/- 36 degrees C (10%) due to 5 cm/sec probe velocity was noted. Probe temperatures were reduced to 130 +/- 30 degrees C (78%) under the combined influence of 5 cm/sec probe velocity and 170 ml/min blood flow.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Large-scale recording of neurons by movable silicon probes in behaving rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecasteele, Marie; M, S; Royer, Sébastien; Belluscio, Mariano; Berényi, Antal; Diba, Kamran; Fujisawa, Shigeyoshi; Grosmark, Andres; Mao, Dun; Mizuseki, Kenji; Patel, Jagdish; Stark, Eran; Sullivan, David; Watson, Brendon; Buzsáki, György

    2012-03-04

    A major challenge in neuroscience is linking behavior to the collective activity of neural assemblies. Understanding of input-output relationships of neurons and circuits requires methods with the spatial selectivity and temporal resolution appropriate for mechanistic analysis of neural ensembles in the behaving animal, i.e. recording of representatively large samples of isolated single neurons. Ensemble monitoring of neuronal activity has progressed remarkably in the past decade in both small and large-brained animals, including human subjects. Multiple-site recording with silicon-based devices are particularly effective because of their scalability, small volume and geometric design. Here, we describe methods for recording multiple single neurons and local field potential in behaving rodents, using commercially available micro-machined silicon probes with custom-made accessory components. There are two basic options for interfacing silicon probes to preamplifiers: printed circuit boards and flexible cables. Probe supplying companies (http://www.neuronexustech.com/; http://www.sbmicrosystems.com/; http://www.acreo.se/) usually provide the bonding service and deliver probes bonded to printed circuit boards or flexible cables. Here, we describe the implantation of a 4-shank, 32-site probe attached to flexible polyimide cable, and mounted on a movable microdrive. Each step of the probe preparation, microdrive construction and surgery is illustrated so that the end user can easily replicate the process.

  5. Estimating the similarity of alternative Affymetrix probe sets using transcriptional networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The usefulness of the data from Affymetrix microarray analysis depends largely on the reliability of the files describing the correspondence between probe sets, genes and transcripts. Particularly, when a gene is targeted by several probe sets, these files should give information about the similarity of each alternative probe set pair. Transcriptional networks integrate the multiple correlations that exist between all probe sets and supply much more information than a simple correlation coefficient calculated for two series of signals. In this study, we used the PSAWN (Probe Set Assignment With Networks) programme we developed to investigate whether similarity of alternative probe sets resulted in some specific properties. Findings PSAWNpy delivered a full textual description of each probe set and information on the number and properties of secondary targets. PSAWNml calculated the similarity of each alternative probe set pair and allowed finding relationships between similarity and localisation of probes in common transcripts or exons. Similar alternative probe sets had very low negative correlation, high positive correlation and similar neighbourhood overlap. Using these properties, we devised a test that allowed grouping similar probe sets in a given network. By considering several networks, additional information concerning the similarity reproducibility was obtained, which allowed defining the actual similarity of alternative probe set pairs. In particular, we calculated the common localisation of probes in exons and in known transcripts and we showed that similarity was correctly correlated with them. The information collected on all pairs of alternative probe sets in the most popular 3’ IVT Affymetrix chips is available in tabular form at http://bns.crbm.cnrs.fr/download.html. Conclusions These processed data can be used to obtain a finer interpretation when comparing microarray data between biological conditions. They are particularly well

  6. Directional neutronometric probe; Kierunkowa sonda neutronometryczna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strzelecki, M.; Owczarczyk, A.; Wieclaw, B.; Szpilowwski, S.

    1991-11-04

    The neutronometric probe for direction and rate of groundwater flow measurements has been designed. The probe consists in collimated proportional neutron counter and also collimated and shielded neutron source. The neutron source can be disconnected from the detection part of the probe and transported separately in especially designed container. In the place of measurement the source can be easily joined to the detection part. 1 fig.

  7. Characterizing the performance of an affordable, multichannel conductivity probe for density measurements in stratified flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Balaji; Carminati, Marco; Luzzatto-Fegiz, Paolo

    2017-11-01

    In stratified flows, conductivity (combined with temperature) is often used to measure density. The conductivity probes typically used can resolve very fine spatial scales, but on the downside they are fragile, expensive, sensitive to environmental noise and have only single channel capability. Recently a low-cost, robust, arduino-based probe called Conduino was developed, which can be valuable in a wide range of applications where resolving extremely small spatial scales is not needed. This probe uses micro-USB connectors as actual conductivity sensors with a custom designed electronic board for simultaneous acquisition from multiple probes, with conductivity resolution comparable to commercially available PME conductivity probe. A detailed assessment of performance of this Conduino probe is described here. To establish time response and sensitivity as a function of electrode geometry, we build a variety of shapes for different kinds of applications, with tip spacing ranging from 0.5-2.5 mm, and with electrode length ranging from 2.3-6 mm. We set up a two-layer density profile and traverse it rapidly, yielding a time response comparable to PME. The Conduino's multi-channel capability is used to operate probe arrays, which helps to construct density fields in stratified flows.

  8. Study of submelt laser induced junction nonuniformities using Therma-Probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosseel, E.; Bogdanowicz, J; Clarysse, T.

    2010-01-01

    to standard and micro-four-point probe sheet resistance data, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and Hall measurements obtained during earlier studies. Besides the impact of the nonuniformities on the “conventional” thermal wave signal, they found a strong correlation to the dc reflectance of the probe laser...... both at macroscopic and microscopic levels. In this work, the authors present high resolution Therma-Probe® measurements to assess the junction nonuniformity on 0.5 keV boron junctions and zoom in on the effect of temperature variations and multiple subsequent laser scans. The results are compared...... (lambda = 675 nm). The dc probe reflectance is dominated by free carriers and is highly correlated to the sheet resistance both on blanket wafers and on real device wafers. ©2010 American Vacuum Society...

  9. Revealing Nucleic Acid Mutations Using Förster Resonance Energy Transfer-Based Probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina P. L. Junager

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nucleic acid mutations are of tremendous importance in modern clinical work, biotechnology and in fundamental studies of nucleic acids. Therefore, rapid, cost-effective and reliable detection of mutations is an object of extensive research. Today, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET probes are among the most often used tools for the detection of nucleic acids and in particular, for the detection of mutations. However, multiple parameters must be taken into account in order to create efficient FRET probes that are sensitive to nucleic acid mutations. In this review; we focus on the design principles for such probes and available computational methods that allow for their rational design. Applications of advanced, rationally designed FRET probes range from new insights into cellular heterogeneity to gaining new knowledge of nucleic acid structures directly in living cells.

  10. Gravity Probe B spacecraft description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, Norman R; Burns, Kevin; Katz, Russell; Kirschenbaum, Jon; Mason, Gary; Shehata, Shawky

    2015-01-01

    The Gravity Probe B spacecraft, developed, integrated, and tested by Lockheed Missiles and Space Company and later Lockheed Martin Corporation, consisted of structures, mechanisms, command and data handling, attitude and translation control, electrical power, thermal control, flight software, and communications. When integrated with the payload elements, the integrated system became the space vehicle. Key requirements shaping the design of the spacecraft were: (1) the tight mission timeline (17 months, 9 days of on-orbit operation), (2) precise attitude and translational control, (3) thermal protection of science hardware, (4) minimizing aerodynamic, magnetic, and eddy current effects, and (5) the need to provide a robust, low risk spacecraft. The spacecraft met all mission requirements, as demonstrated by dewar lifetime meeting specification, positive power and thermal margins, precision attitude control and drag-free performance, reliable communications, and the collection of more than 97% of the available science data. (paper)

  11. Gravity Probe B orbit determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shestople, P; Ndili, A; Parkinson, B W; Small, H; Hanuschak, G

    2015-01-01

    The Gravity Probe B (GP-B) satellite was equipped with a pair of redundant Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers used to provide navigation solutions for real-time and post-processed orbit determination (OD), as well as to establish the relation between vehicle time and coordinated universal time. The receivers performed better than the real-time position requirement of 100 m rms per axis. Post-processed solutions indicated an rms position error of 2.5 m and an rms velocity error of 2.2 mm s −1 . Satellite laser ranging measurements provided independent verification of the GPS-derived GP-B orbit. We discuss the modifications and performance of the Trimble Advance Navigation System Vector III GPS receivers. We describe the GP-B precision orbit and detail the OD methodology, including ephemeris errors and the laser ranging measurements. (paper)

  12. Nuclear probes of fundamental symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelberger, E.G.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear experiments which probe the parity (P) and time-reversal (T) symmetries and lepton-number conservation are reviewed. The P-violating NN interaction, studied in the NN system and in light nuclei, provides an unique window on ΔS=0 hadronic weak processes. Results are in accord with expectations. Sensitive searches for T-violation via detailed balance, T-odd correlations in γ and β-decay, and a possible neutron electric dipole moment (EDM) are discussed. No T-violation is observed. The EDM limit is almost good enough to eliminate one of the leading theoretical explanations for CP violation. Experimental studies of double β-decay are reviewed. Although ββ nu nu decay has been convincingly detected in geochemical experiments there is no evidence for the lepton number violating ββ decay mode

  13. Nuclear reactions as structure probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Bernard; Cugnon, Joseph; Roussel-Chomaz, Patricia; Sparenberg, Jean-Marc; Oliveira Santos, Francois de; Bauge, Eric; Poves, Alfredo; Keeley, Nicholas; Simenel, Cedric; Avez, Benoit; Lacroix, Denis; Baye, Daniel; Cortina-Gil, Dolores; Pons, Alexandre

    2007-09-01

    This publication gathers courses which aim at giving a view on new experiments which are performed by using radioactive beams, notably low intensity beams, in different accelerators, and allow the structure of very exotic nuclei to be characterized. Experimental as well as theoretical aspects are thus addressed. The contributions propose: a brief history of nuclear reactions and of instruments used to study them from the discovery of nucleus to the DWBA (Distorted Wave Born Approximation); an overview of nuclear reactions; experimental techniques; the theory of collisions at low energy; resonant elastic scattering, inelastic scattering and astrophysical reactions; to probe nuclear structure with nucleons; shell model and spectroscopic factors; analysis of transfer reactions and determination of spectroscopic factors; microscopic approaches of nuclear dynamics; theoretical aspects of dissociation reactions; experimental aspects of knockout reactions; research in oenology with the chemical characterisation of defective ageing of dry white wines

  14. Pitfalls in Kelvin probe measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottinger, Oliver M.; Melzer, Christian; Seggern, Heinz von

    2009-01-01

    We report on the interpretation of thickness-dependent surface potential profiles in insulators on metal substrates measured by Kelvin probe method. The electrical potentials are calculated within a self-consistent model taking both the conductive substrate and the insulator into account. It is shown that interpreting the Kelvin potentials for different layer thicknesses as the prevailing potential profile of a thick insulator film is generally wrong. Even more controversially, the reconstruction of the potential profile in a thick insulator layer on the basis of layer-thickness-dependent Kelvin measurements alone is per se impossible. This will be demonstrated exemplarily on the basis of doped and undoped organic films on conductive substrates.

  15. The Oxford Probe: an open access five-hole probe for aerodynamic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, B F; Povey, T

    2017-01-01

    The Oxford Probe is an open access five-hole probe designed for experimental aerodynamic measurements. The open access probe can be manufactured by the end user via additive manufacturing (metal or plastic). The probe geometry, drawings, calibration maps, and software are available under a creative commons license. The purpose is to widen access to aerodynamic measurement techniques in education and research environments. There are many situations in which the open access probe will allow results of comparable accuracy to a well-calibrated commercial probe. We discuss the applications and limitations of the probe, and compare the calibration maps for 16 probes manufactured in different materials and at different scales, but with the same geometrical design. (paper)

  16. Emulating Spherical Wave Channel Models in Multi-probe Anechoic Chamber Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Carreño, Xavier; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum

    2015-01-01

    Spherical wave channel modeling has attracted huge research attention for massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) and short-distance MIMO systems. Current research work in multi-probe anechoic chamber systems is limited to reproduce radio channels assuming planar wavefronts. There is a need...... to emulate spherical wave channel models in multi-probe anechoic chamber setups. In this paper, a technique based on the field synthesis principle is proposed to approximate spherical waves emitted from arbitrarily located point sources with arbitrary polarizations. Simulation results show that static...... spherical waves can be reproduced with a limited number of probes, and the field synthesis accuracy of spherical wave depends on the location of the source point....

  17. The TORE SUPRA fast reciprocating RF probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.E. Jr.; Harris, J.H.; Haste, G.R.

    1994-01-01

    A fast reciprocating ICRF (Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies) probe was installed and operated on TORE SUPRA during 1992/1993. The body of the probe was originally used on the ATF experiment at ORNL. The probe was adapted for use on TORE SUPRA, and mounted on one of the two fast reciprocating probe mounts. The probe consists of two orthogonal single-turn wire loops, mounted so that one loop senses toroidal RF magnetic fields and the other senses poloidal RF magnetic fields. The probe began operation in June, 1993. The probe active area is approximately 5 cm long by 2 cm, and the reciprocating mount has a slow stroke (5 cm/sec) of 30 cm by 2 cm, and the reciprocating mount has a slow stroke (5 cm/sec) of 30 cm and a fast stroke (1.5 m/sec) of about 10 cm. The probe was operated at distances from the plasma edge ranging from 30 cm to -5 cm (i.e., inside the last closed flux surface). The probe design, electronics, calibration, data acquisition and data processing are discussed. First data from the probe are presented as a function of ICRF power, distance from the plasma, loop orientation, and other plasma parameters. Initial data shows parametric instabilities do not play an important role for ICRF in the TORE SUPRA edge and scrape-off-layer (SOL) plasmas. Additionally it is observed that the probe signal has little or no dependence on position in the SOL/plasma edge

  18. Graphene quantum dots probed by scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgenstern, Markus; Freitag, Nils; Nent, Alexander; Nemes-Incze, Peter; Liebmann, Marcus [II. Institute of Physics B and JARA-FIT, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    Scanning tunneling spectroscopy results probing the electronic properties of graphene quantum dots are reviewed. After a short summary of the study of squared wave functions of graphene quantum dots on metal substrates, we firstly present data where the Landau level gaps caused by a perpendicular magnetic field are used to electrostatically confine electrons in monolayer graphene, which are probed by the Coulomb staircase revealing the consecutive charging of a quantum dot. It turns out that these quantum dots exhibit much more regular charging sequences than lithographically confined ones. Namely, the consistent grouping of charging peaks into quadruplets, both, in the electron and hole branch, portrays a regular orbital splitting of about 10meV. At low hole occupation numbers, the charging peaks are, partly, additionally grouped into doublets. The spatially varying energy separation of the doublets indicates a modulation of the valley splitting by the underlying BN substrate. We outline that this property might be used to eventually tune the valley splitting coherently. Afterwards, we describe graphene quantum dots with multiple contacts produced without lithographic resist, namely by local anodic oxidation. Such quantum dots target the goal to probe magnetotransport properties during the imaging of the corresponding wave functions by scanning tunneling spectroscopy. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Methodology for Calculating Latency of GPS Probe Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Stanley E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wang, Zhongxiang [University of Maryland; Hamedi, Masoud [University of Maryland

    2017-10-01

    Crowdsourced GPS probe data, such as travel time on changeable-message signs and incident detection, have been gaining popularity in recent years as a source for real-time traffic information to driver operations and transportation systems management and operations. Efforts have been made to evaluate the quality of such data from different perspectives. Although such crowdsourced data are already in widespread use in many states, particularly the high traffic areas on the Eastern seaboard, concerns about latency - the time between traffic being perturbed as a result of an incident and reflection of the disturbance in the outsourced data feed - have escalated in importance. Latency is critical for the accuracy of real-time operations, emergency response, and traveler information systems. This paper offers a methodology for measuring probe data latency regarding a selected reference source. Although Bluetooth reidentification data are used as the reference source, the methodology can be applied to any other ground truth data source of choice. The core of the methodology is an algorithm for maximum pattern matching that works with three fitness objectives. To test the methodology, sample field reference data were collected on multiple freeway segments for a 2-week period by using portable Bluetooth sensors as ground truth. Equivalent GPS probe data were obtained from a private vendor, and their latency was evaluated. Latency at different times of the day, impact of road segmentation scheme on latency, and sensitivity of the latency to both speed-slowdown and recovery-from-slowdown episodes are also discussed.

  20. A probe for Eddy current inspection devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The invention relates to a surface probe for Eddy current inspection devices. According to the invention, said probe comprises two magnetic core windings, with their axes in parallel relationship and at right angles to the surface of the part to be inspected. This can be applied to the nondestructive inspection of reactor components [fr

  1. Surface charge measurement using an electrostatic probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crichton, George C; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1998-01-01

    During the 1960s, the first measurements of charge on dielectric surfaces using simple electrostatic probes were reported. However it is only within the last 10 years that a proper understanding of the probe response has been developed. This situation arose as a consequence of the earlier studies...

  2. Quality of the neutron probe calibration curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libardi, Paulo Leonel; Moraes, Sergio Oliveira

    1997-01-01

    An experiment of neutron probe calibration has been performed, involving various volume size samples and collected at various distances from the access tubes. The experiment aimed to give some answers to questions such as suitable sample physical volume, always use of the same volume and sample distance from the neutron probe access tube

  3. Neutron-based portable drug probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Womble, P. C.; Vourvopoulos, G.; Ball Howard, J.; Paschal, J.

    1999-01-01

    Based on previous measurements, a probe prototype for contraband detection utilizing the neutron technique of Pulsed Fast-Thermal Neutron Analysis (PFTNA) is being constructed. The prototype weighs less than 45 kg and is composed of a probe (5 cm diameter), a power pack and a data acquisition and display system. The probe is designed to be inserted in confined spaces such as the boiler of a ship or a tanker truck filled with liquid. The probe provides information on a) the elemental content, and b) the density variations of the interrogated object. By measuring elemental content, the probe can differentiate between innocuous materials and drugs. Density variations can be found through fast neutron transmission. In all cases, hidden drugs are identified through the measurement of the elemental content of the object, and the comparison of expected and measured elemental ratios

  4. Molecular Imaging Probe Development using Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kan; Wang, Ming-Wei; Lin, Wei-Yu; Phung, Duy Linh; Girgis, Mark D.; Wu, Anna M.; Tomlinson, James S.; Shen, Clifton K.-F.

    2012-01-01

    In this manuscript, we review the latest advancement of microfluidics in molecular imaging probe development. Due to increasing needs for medical imaging, high demand for many types of molecular imaging probes will have to be met by exploiting novel chemistry/radiochemistry and engineering technologies to improve the production and development of suitable probes. The microfluidic-based probe synthesis is currently attracting a great deal of interest because of their potential to deliver many advantages over conventional systems. Numerous chemical reactions have been successfully performed in micro-reactors and the results convincingly demonstrate with great benefits to aid synthetic procedures, such as purer products, higher yields, shorter reaction times compared to the corresponding batch/macroscale reactions, and more benign reaction conditions. Several ‘proof-of-principle’ examples of molecular imaging probe syntheses using microfluidics, along with basics of device architecture and operation, and their potential limitations are discussed here. PMID:22977436

  5. Recent status of the Kiev nuclear probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebed, S.; Tolmachov, M.; Kukharenko, O.; Veselov, O.

    2009-06-01

    The modified Van de Graaff accelerator with proton beam energy W ⩽ 3 MeV has been installed and put into operation at the TMM laboratory in Kiev. The laboratory incorporates the nuclear probe (NP) beam line, coupled to this accelerator. A short version of an optimized probe-forming system (PFS) has been developed for the Kiev NP. The system is based on divided triplet of the magnetic quadrupole lenses (MQLs). This PFS has two working regimes for the probe operations. The results of numerical calculations of the geometrical and ion-optical parameters of the PFS are presented. It is shown that this versatile PFS is a promising design for a modern nuclear nano-probe. A new precision adjustable MQL has been designed. Three lenses, the slit systems and target chamber are manufactured and installed at the Kiev probe beam line. Also a new data acquisition system for the Kiev NP is being developed.

  6. Recent status of the Kiev nuclear probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebed, S. [Research Laboratory ' Spectra' , TMM Ltd., ul. Chaadaeva 2b, 03148, Kiev (Ukraine)], E-mail: salmp1@ukr.net; Tolmachov, M.; Kukharenko, O.; Veselov, O. [Research Laboratory ' Spectra' , TMM Ltd., ul. Chaadaeva 2b, 03148, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2009-06-15

    The modified Van de Graaff accelerator with proton beam energy W {<=} 3 MeV has been installed and put into operation at the TMM laboratory in Kiev. The laboratory incorporates the nuclear probe (NP) beam line, coupled to this accelerator. A short version of an optimized probe-forming system (PFS) has been developed for the Kiev NP. The system is based on divided triplet of the magnetic quadrupole lenses (MQLs). This PFS has two working regimes for the probe operations. The results of numerical calculations of the geometrical and ion-optical parameters of the PFS are presented. It is shown that this versatile PFS is a promising design for a modern nuclear nano-probe. A new precision adjustable MQL has been designed. Three lenses, the slit systems and target chamber are manufactured and installed at the Kiev probe beam line. Also a new data acquisition system for the Kiev NP is being developed.

  7. Pentop Computers as Tools for Teaching Multiplication to Students with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, Emily C.; Bassette, Laura; Taber-Doughty, Teresa; Flanagan, Sara M.; Szwed, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of a pentop computer when teaching multiplication facts to three middle school students with mild intellectual disabilities was examined. A multiple probe design was used to assess the students learning of one and two digit multiplication facts over a 2-3 week intervention period. During the intervention phase, students used a…

  8. Multiple Intelligence and Digital Learning Awareness of Prospective B.Ed Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracious, F. L. Antony; Shyla, F. L. Jasmine Anne

    2012-01-01

    The present study Multiple Intelligence and Digital Learning Awareness of prospective B.Ed teachers was probed to find the relationship between Multiple Intelligence and Digital Learning Awareness of Prospective B.Ed Teachers. Data for the study were collected using self made Multiple Intelligence Inventory and Digital Learning Awareness Scale.…

  9. Imaging probe for tumor malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shotaro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae; Hiraoka, Hasahiro

    2009-02-01

    Solid tumors possess unique microenvironments that are exposed to chronic hypoxic conditions ("tumor hypoxia"). Although more than half a century has passed since it was suggested that tumor hypoxia correlated with poor treatment outcomes and contributed to cancer recurrence, a fundamental solution to this problem has yet to be found. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) is the main transcription factor that regulates the cellular response to hypoxia. It induces various genes whose functions are strongly associated with malignant alteration of the entire tumor. The cellular changes induced by HIF-1 are extremely important targets of cancer therapy, particularly in therapy against refractory cancers. Imaging of the HIF-1-active microenvironment is therefore important for cancer therapy. To image HIF-1activity in vivo, we developed a PTD-ODD fusion protein, POHA, which was uniquely labeled with near-infrared fluorescent dye at the C-terminal. POHA has two functional domains: protein transduction domain (PTD) and VHL-mediated protein destruction motif in oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domain of the alpha subunit of HIF-1 (HIF-1α). It can therefore be delivered to the entire body and remain stabilized in the HIF-1-active cells. When it was intravenously injected into tumor-bearing mice, a tumor-specific fluorescence signal was detected in the tumor 6 h after the injection. These results suggest that POHA can be used an imaging probe for tumor malignancy.

  10. The Gravity Probe B gyroscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchman, S; Lipa, J A; Keiser, G M; Muhlfelder, B; Turneaure, J P

    2015-01-01

    The Gravity Probe B (GP-B) gyroscope, a unique cryogenically operated mechanical sensor, was used on-orbit to independently test two predictions of general relativity (GR). Here, we describe the development and performance of the GP-B gyroscope, its geometry and fabrication, spin-up and vacuum approach, magnetic considerations, and static charge management. The history of electrically suspended gyroscopes puts the current work in context. Fabrication and ground testing of the GP-B gyroscope are detailed, followed by a review of on-orbit initialization, calibration, operation, and performance. We find that the performance was degraded relative to the mission goals, but was still sufficient to provide excellent new tests of GR. The degradation is partially due to the existence of gyroscope torques due to an unanticipated interaction between patch potentials on the rotor and the housing. We discuss these patch potentials and describe the effect of related torques on gyro drift. It was essential to include models for the effects due to the patch potentials in the complete data analysis model to yield determinations of the two GR effects. (paper)

  11. Probing the string winding sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldazabal, Gerardo; Mayo, Martín [G. Física CAB-CNEA and CONICET, Centro Atómico Bariloche,Av. Bustillo 9500, Bariloche (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro, Centro Atómico Bariloche,Av. Bustillo 9500, Bariloche (Argentina); Nuñez, Carmen [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (CONICET-UBA),C.C. 67 - Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Física, FCEN, Universidad de Buenos Aires,C.C. 67 - Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2017-03-17

    We probe a slice of the massive winding sector of bosonic string theory from toroidal compactifications of Double Field Theory (DFT). This string subsector corresponds to states containing one left and one right moving oscillators. We perform a generalized Kaluza Klein compactification of DFT on generic 2n-dimensional toroidal constant backgrounds and show that, up to third order in fluctuations, the theory coincides with the corresponding effective theory of the bosonic string compactified on n-dimensional toroidal constant backgrounds, obtained from three-point amplitudes. The comparison between both theories is facilitated by noticing that generalized diffeomorphisms in DFT allow to fix generalized harmonic gauge conditions that help in identifying the physical degrees of freedom. These conditions manifest as conformal anomaly cancellation requirements on the string theory side. The explicit expression for the gauge invariant effective action containing the physical massless sector (gravity+antisymmetric+gauge+ scalar fields) coupled to towers of generalized Kaluza Klein massive states (corresponding to compact momentum and winding modes) is found. The action acquires a very compact form when written in terms of fields carrying O(n,n) indices, and is explicitly T-duality invariant. The global algebra associated to the generalized Kaluza Klein compactification is discussed.

  12. Probing Light Stops with Stoponium

    CERN Document Server

    Batell, Brian

    2015-01-01

    We derive new limits on light stops from diboson resonance searches in the $\\gamma\\gamma$, $Z \\gamma$, $ZZ$, $WW$ and $hh$ channels from the first run of the LHC. If the two-body decays of the light stop are mildly suppressed or kinematically forbidden, stoponium bound states will form in $pp$ collisions and subsequently decay via the pair annihilation of the constituent stops to diboson final states, yielding striking resonance signatures. Remarkably, we find that stoponium searches are highly complementary to direct collider searches and indirect probes of light stops such as Higgs coupling measurements. Using an empirical quarkonia potential model and including the first two $S$-wave stoponium states, we find that in the decoupling limit $m_{\\widetilde t_1} \\lesssim 130$ GeV is excluded for any value of the stop mixing angle and heavy stop mass by the combination of the latest resonance searches and the indirect constraints. The $\\gamma \\gamma$ searches are the most complementary to the indirect constraint...

  13. Integrated cosmological probes: concordance quantified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicola, Andrina; Amara, Adam; Refregier, Alexandre, E-mail: andrina.nicola@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: adam.amara@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: alexandre.refregier@phys.ethz.ch [Department of Physics, ETH Zürich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2017-10-01

    Assessing the consistency of parameter constraints derived from different cosmological probes is an important way to test the validity of the underlying cosmological model. In an earlier work [1], we computed constraints on cosmological parameters for ΛCDM from an integrated analysis of CMB temperature anisotropies and CMB lensing from Planck, galaxy clustering and weak lensing from SDSS, weak lensing from DES SV as well as Type Ia supernovae and Hubble parameter measurements. In this work, we extend this analysis and quantify the concordance between the derived constraints and those derived by the Planck Collaboration as well as WMAP9, SPT and ACT. As a measure for consistency, we use the Surprise statistic [2], which is based on the relative entropy. In the framework of a flat ΛCDM cosmological model, we find all data sets to be consistent with one another at a level of less than 1σ. We highlight that the relative entropy is sensitive to inconsistencies in the models that are used in different parts of the analysis. In particular, inconsistent assumptions for the neutrino mass break its invariance on the parameter choice. When consistent model assumptions are used, the data sets considered in this work all agree with each other and ΛCDM, without evidence for tensions.

  14. Using Simultaneous Prompting Procedure to Promote Recall of Multiplication Facts by Middle School Students with Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shaila; Mallow, Lynette

    2009-01-01

    This study examined effectiveness of simultaneous prompting system in teaching students with cognitive impairment to automate recall of multiplication facts. A multiple probes design with multiple sets of math facts and replicated across multiple subjects was used to assess effectiveness of simultaneous prompting on recall of basic multiplication…

  15. RT-based memory detection : Item saliency effects in the single-probe and the multiple-probe protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuere, B.; Kleinberg, B.; Theocharidou, K.

    RT-based memory detection may provide an efficient means to assess recognition of concealed information. There is, however, considerable heterogeneity in detection rates, and we explored two potential moderators: item saliency and test protocol. Participants tried to conceal low salient (e.g.,

  16. Computational design of peptide-Au cluster probe for sensitive detection of αIIbβ3 integrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lina; Zhai, Jiao; Zhang, Xuejie; Gao, Xueyun; Fang, Xiaohong; Li, Jingyuan

    2016-02-01

    We have designed a novel peptide-Au cluster probe to specifically bind to αIIbβ3 integrin. As indicated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, the binding mode of the native ligand of αIIbβ3 integrin, γC peptide, can be realized by the designed probe. More importantly, the peptide-Au probe can provide multiple coating peptides to form additional salt bridges with protein, and the binding stability of the probe is comparable to the native ligand. The designed probe was then successfully synthesized. The specific binding in a cellular environment was validated by colocalization analysis of confocal microscopy. In addition, the binding affinity was confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) based single molecule force spectroscopy. Our results suggest the combination of computational design and experimental verification can be a useful strategy for the development of nanoprobes.We have designed a novel peptide-Au cluster probe to specifically bind to αIIbβ3 integrin. As indicated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, the binding mode of the native ligand of αIIbβ3 integrin, γC peptide, can be realized by the designed probe. More importantly, the peptide-Au probe can provide multiple coating peptides to form additional salt bridges with protein, and the binding stability of the probe is comparable to the native ligand. The designed probe was then successfully synthesized. The specific binding in a cellular environment was validated by colocalization analysis of confocal microscopy. In addition, the binding affinity was confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) based single molecule force spectroscopy. Our results suggest the combination of computational design and experimental verification can be a useful strategy for the development of nanoprobes. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr09175f

  17. Hyperpolarized NMR Probes for Biological Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Meier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, the development of nuclear spin polarization enhanced (hyperpolarized molecular probes has opened up new opportunities for studying the inner workings of living cells in real time. The hyperpolarized probes are produced ex situ, introduced into biological systems and detected with high sensitivity and contrast against background signals using high resolution NMR spectroscopy. A variety of natural, derivatized and designed hyperpolarized probes has emerged for diverse biological studies including assays of intracellular reaction progression, pathway kinetics, probe uptake and export, pH, redox state, reactive oxygen species, ion concentrations, drug efficacy or oncogenic signaling. These probes are readily used directly under natural conditions in biofluids and are often directly developed and optimized for cellular assays, thus leaving little doubt about their specificity and utility under biologically relevant conditions. Hyperpolarized molecular probes for biological NMR spectroscopy enable the unbiased detection of complex processes by virtue of the high spectral resolution, structural specificity and quantifiability of NMR signals. Here, we provide a survey of strategies used for the selection, design and use of hyperpolarized NMR probes in biological assays, and describe current limitations and developments.

  18. Development and application of DNA molecular probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Vizzini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of DNA probes started from 1950's for diagnostic purposes and it is still growing. DNA probes are applied in several fields such as food, medical, veterinary, environment and security, with the aim of prevention, diagnosis and treatment. The use of DNA probes permits microorganism identification, including pathogen detection, and their quantification when used in specific systems. Various techniques obtained success by the utilization of specific DNA probes, that allowed the obtainment of rapid and specific results. From PCR, qPCR and blotting techniques that were first used in well equipped laboratories to biosensors such as fiber optic, surface plasmon resonance (SPR, electrochemical, and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM biosensors that use different transduction systems. This review describes i the design and production of primers and probes, and their utilization from the traditional techniques to the new emerging techniques like biosensors used in current applications; ii the possibility to use labelled-free probes and probes labelled with an enzyme/fluorophore, etc.; iii the different sensitivity obtained by using specific systems; and iv the advantage obtained by using biosensors.

  19. Overview of Key Saturn Probe Mission Trades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, Tibor S.; Kowalkowski, Theresa; Folkner, Bill

    2007-01-01

    Ongoing studies, performed at NASA/JPL over the past two years in support of NASA's SSE Roadmap activities, proved the feasibility of a NF class Saturn probe mission. I. This proposed mission could also provide a good opportunity for international collaboration with the proposed Cosmic Vision KRONOS mission: a) With ESA contributed probes (descent modules) on a NASA lead mission; b) Early 2017 launch could be a good programmatic option for ESA-CV/NASA-NF. II. A number of mission architectures could be suitable for this mission: a) Probe Relay based architecture with short flight time (approx. 6.3-7 years); b) DTE probe telecom based architecture with long flight time (-11 years), and low probe data rate, but with the probes decoupled from the carrier, allowing for polar trajectories I orbiter. This option may need technology development for telecom; c) Orbiter would likely impact mission cost over flyby, but would provide significantly higher science return. The Saturn probes mission is expected to be identified in NASA's New Frontiers AO. Thus, further studies are recommended to refine the most suitable architecture. International collaboration is started through the KRONOS proposal work; further collaborated studies will follow once KRONOS is selected in October under ESA's Cosmic Vision Program.

  20. Nuclear borehole probes - theory and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joergensen, J.L.; Korsbech, U.; Gynther Nielsen, K.; Oelgaard, P.L.

    1985-06-01

    The report gives a summary of the theoretical and expeimental work on borehole probes that has been performed since 1971 at The Department of Electrophysics, The Technical University of Denmark. The first part of the report concerns the use of a spectral natural gamma-ray probe (SNG-probe), which is used for measurements of the spectral distribution of the gamma-rays of the geological strata around a borehole. In general the spectrum is divided into three parts - the gamma-rays from potassium-40, from thorium-232 and daughters, and from uranium-238 and daughters. A set of curves showing the intensities of the gamm-radiation from K, Th, and U versus depth is called a SNG-log. If proper calibrated, the SNG-log gives the concentration of Th, U, and K in the formation surrounding the borehole. Initially the basis for an interpretation of SNG-logs is discussed. Then follows a description og some SNG-problems designed and built by The Department of Electrophysics, and a discussion of the calibration of SNG-probes. Some examples of SNG-logs are presented, and some general comments on the use of SNG-logs are given. The second part of the report concerns mainly the development of theoretical models for neutron-neutron probes, gamma-gamma probes, and pulsed-neutron probes. The purpose of this work has been to examine how well the models correlate with measured results and - where reasonable agreement is found - to use the models in studies of the factors that affect the probe responses in interpretation of experimental results and in probe design. (author)

  1. Dependence of Error Level on the Number of Probes in Over-the-Air Multiprobe Test Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afroza Khatun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of MIMO over-the-air (OTA test methodology is ongoing. Several test methods have been proposed. Anechoic chamber-based multiple-probe technique is one promising candidate for MIMO-OTA testing. The required number of probes for synthesizing the desired fields inside the multiprobe system is an important issue as it has a large impact on the cost of the test system. In this paper, we review the existing investigations on this important topic and end up presenting rules for the required number of probes as a function of the test zone size in wavelengths for certain chosen uncertainty levels of the field synthesis.

  2. Combination probes with intercalating anchors and proximal fluorophores for DNA and RNA detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jieqiong; Wilson, Adam; El-Sagheer, Afaf H; Brown, Tom

    2016-09-30

    A new class of modified oligonucleotides (combination probes) has been designed and synthesised for use in genetic analysis and RNA detection. Their chemical structure combines an intercalating anchor with a reporter fluorophore on the same thymine nucleobase. The intercalator (thiazole orange or benzothiazole orange) provides an anchor, which upon hybridisation of the probe to its target becomes fluorescent and simultaneously stabilizes the duplex. The anchor is able to communicate via FRET to a proximal reporter dye (e.g. ROX, HEX, ATTO647N, FAM) whose fluorescence signal can be monitored on a range of analytical devices. Direct excitation of the reporter dye provides an alternative signalling mechanism. In both signalling modes, fluorescence in the unhybridised probe is switched off by collisional quenching between adjacent intercalator and reporter dyes. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in DNA and RNA targets are identified by differences in the duplex melting temperature, and the use of short hybridization probes, made possible by the stabilisation provided by the intercalator, enhances mismatch discrimination. Unlike other fluorogenic probe systems, placing the fluorophore and quencher on the same nucleobase facilitates the design of short probes containing multiple modifications. The ability to detect both DNA and RNA sequences suggests applications in cellular imaging and diagnostics. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. Cone penetrometer moisture probe acceptance test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, G.A.

    1996-04-23

    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) documents the results of WHC-SD-WM-ATP-146 (Prototype Cone Penetrometer Moisture Probe Acceptance Test Procedure) and WHC-SD-WM-ATP-145 (Cone Penetrometer Moisture Probe Acceptance Test Procedure). The master copy of WHC-SD-WM-ATP-145 can be found in Appendix A and the master copy of WHC-SD-WM-ATP-146 can be found in Appendix B. Also included with this report is a matrix showing design criteria of the cone penetrometer moisture probe and the verification method used (Appendix C).

  4. Advanced ultrasound probes for medical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildes, Douglas G.; Smith, L. Scott

    2012-05-01

    New medical ultrasound probe architectures and materials build upon established 1D phased array technology and provide improved imaging performance and clinical value. Technologies reviewed include 1.25D and 1.5D arrays for elevation slice thickness control; electro-mechanical and 2D array probes for real-time 3D imaging; catheter probes for imaging during minimally-invasive procedures; single-crystal piezoelectric materials for greater frequency bandwidth; and cMUT arrays using silicon MEMS in place of piezo materials.

  5. Electrostatic Probe with Shielded Probe Insulator Tube for Low Disturbing Plasma Measurements in Hall Thrusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staack, D.; Raitses, Y.; Fisch, N.J.

    2003-01-01

    Electrostatic probes are widely used to measure spatial plasma parameters of the quasi-neutral plasma in Hall thrusters and similar ExB electric discharge devices. Significant perturbations of the plasma, induced by such probes, can mask the actual physics involved in operation of these devices. In Hall thrusters, probe-induced perturbations can produce changes in the discharge current and plasma parameters on the order of their steady state values. These perturbations are explored by varying the material, penetration distance, and residence time of various probe designs. A possible cause of these perturbations appears to be the secondary electron emission, induced by energetic plasma electrons, from insulator ceramic tubes in which the probe wire is inserted. A new probe in which a low secondary electron emission material, such as metal, shields the probe ceramic tube, is shown to function without producing such large perturbations. A segmentation of this shield further prevents probe -induced perturbations, by not shortening the plasma through the conductive shield. In a set of experiments with a segmented shield probe, the thruster was operated in the input power range of 500-2.5 kW and discharge voltages of 200-500 V, while the probe-induced perturbations of the discharge current were below 4% of its steady state value in the region in which 90% of the voltage drop takes place

  6. Full information acquisition in scanning probe microscopy and spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse, Stephen; Belianinov, Alex; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Somnath, Suhas

    2017-04-04

    Apparatus and methods are described for scanning probe microscopy and spectroscopy based on acquisition of full probe response. The full probe response contains valuable information about the probe-sample interaction that is lost in traditional scanning probe microscopy and spectroscopy methods. The full probe response is analyzed post data acquisition using fast Fourier transform and adaptive filtering, as well as multivariate analysis. The full response data is further compressed to retain only statistically significant components before being permanently stored.

  7. Peptide nucleic acid probes with charged photocleavable mass markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Rachel J; Green, Philip S; Gale, Nittaya; Langley, G John

    2010-01-01

    Halogen-labelled peptide organic acid (HPOA) monomers have been synthesised and incorporated into sequence-specific peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes. Three different types of probe have been prepared; the unmodified PNA probe, the PNA probe with a mass marker, and the PNA probe with photocleavable mass marker. All three types of probe have been used in model studies to develop a mass spectrometry-based hybridisation assay for detection of point mutations in DNA. PMID:21687524

  8. Multiple phonon excitation in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomaz, Ph.; Frascaria, N.

    1994-01-01

    The studies of multiphonon excitations in nuclei are reviewed both from the theoretical and experimental points of view. The presence of giant resonances in nuclei is described in the framework of macroscopic and microscopic models and the relative merits of different probes to excite such states are illustrated. The existence of giant resonances built on excited states is stressed. An exhaustive description of the theoretical estimates of the properties of the multiphonon states is presented. The theory predicts that such multiple collective excitations should closely follow a harmonic pattern. Recent experimental results on the double giant dipole resonance using the (π + π - ) double charge exchange reaction are shown. The status of the search for isoscalar multiphonon excitations by means of the strong nuclear potential produced by heavy ions is presented. Conclusions are drawn and new prospects are discussed. (authors) 293 refs., 67 figs., 8 tabs

  9. Measurement Verification of Plane Wave Synthesis Technique Based on Multi-probe MIMO-OTA Setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Carreño, Xavier; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum

    2012-01-01

    Standardization work for MIMO OTA testing methods is currently ongoing, where a multi-probe anechoic chamber based solution is an important candidate. In this paper, the probes located on an OTA ring are used to synthesize a plane wave field in the center of the OTA ring. This paper investigates...... the extent to which we can approach the synthesized plane wave in practical measurement systems. Both single plane wave with certain AoA and multiple plane waves with different AoAs and power weightings are synthesized and measured. Deviations of the measured plane wave and the simulated plane wave field...

  10. Estimation of current sheath curvature in plasma focus device using magnetic probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Cai; Yujuan, Shi; Patran, A.; Rawat, R.S.

    2002-01-01

    The dynamics of current sheath, in terms of its speed and sheath curvature, in dense plasma focus device was investigated in its axial acceleration phase using multiple magnetic probes. The investigation was performed for different filling gas pressures of neon. The relative X-ray yields were estimated using a diode X-ray spectrometer. A possible correlation between the current sheath curvature and the X-ray emission was explored. The investigation demonstrates the effective use of relatively simple diagnostics tool, the magnetic probes, in the estimation of current sheath axial speeds and curvatures. (authors)

  11. Multiple Input - Multiple Output (MIMO) SAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort will research and implement advanced Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) techniques which have the potential to improve...

  12. Development of DNA probes for Candida albicans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, L.L.; Hudson, J.B.

    1988-07-01

    An attempt was made to produce DNA probes that could be used as a rapid and efficient means of detecting candidiasis (invasive Candida infection) in immunocompromised patients. Whole DNA from Candida albicans was digested with restriction endonuclease, and the resulting fragments were randomly cloned into a plasmid vector. Several recombinant plasmids were evaluated for cross-hybridization to various other Candida species, other fungal DNAs, and to nonfungal DNAs. Cross reactions were observed between the probes and different yeasts, but none with unrelated DNAs. Some recombinants were genus-specific, and two of these were applied to the analysis of C. albicans growth curves. It became evident that, although both /sup 32/P- and biotin-labelled probes could be made quite sensitive, a possible limitation in their diagnostic potential was the poor liberation of Candida DNA from cells. Thus, better methods of treatment of clinical specimens will be required before such probes will be useful in routine diagnosis.

  13. Intrauterine photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Christopher; Barkley, Joel; Smith, Barbara

    2018-04-01

    Intrauterine photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging are probe-based imaging modalities with translational potential for use in detecting endometrial diseases. This deep-tissue imaging probe design allows for the retrofitting of commercially available endometrial sampling curettes. The imaging probe presented here has a 2.92-mm diameter and approximate length of 26 cm, which allows for entry into the human endometrial cavity, making it possible to use photoacoustic imaging and high-resolution ultrasound to characterize the uterus. We demonstrate the imaging probes' ability to provide structural information of an excised pig uterus using ultrasound imaging and detect photoacoustic signals at a radial depth of 1 cm. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  14. Pneumatic Proboscis Heat Flow Probe Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The heat flow probe directly answers requirements in the topic: S1.11 Lunar Science Instruments and Technology: "Geophysical Measurements: Systems, subsystems, and...

  15. Development of DNA probes for Candida albicans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, L.L.; Hudson, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    An attempt was made to produce DNA probes that could be used as a rapid and efficient means of detecting candidiasis (invasive Candida infection) in immunocompromised patients. Whole DNA from Candida albicans was digested with restriction endonuclease, and the resulting fragments were randomly cloned into a plasmid vector. Several recombinant plasmids were evaluated for cross-hybridization to various other Candida species, other fungal DNAs, and to nonfungal DNAs. Cross reactions were observed between the probes and different yeasts, but none with unrelated DNAs. Some recombinants were genus-specific, and two of these were applied to the analysis of C. albicans growth curves. It became evident that, although both 32 P- and biotin-labelled probes could be made quite sensitive, a possible limitation in their diagnostic potential was the poor liberation of Candida DNA from cells. Thus, better methods of treatment of clinical specimens will be required before such probes will be useful in routine diagnosis

  16. Flow cytometry, fluorescent probes, and flashing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunthof, C.J.

    2002-01-01


    Key words: fluorescent probes, flow cytometry, CSLM, viability, survival, microbial physiology, lactic acid bacteria, Lactococcus lactis , Lactobacillus plantarum , cheese, milk,

  17. Software Risk Identification for Interplanetary Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Robert J.; Papadopoulos, Periklis E.

    2005-01-01

    The need for a systematic and effective software risk identification methodology is critical for interplanetary probes that are using increasingly complex and critical software. Several probe failures are examined that suggest more attention and resources need to be dedicated to identifying software risks. The direct causes of these failures can often be traced to systemic problems in all phases of the software engineering process. These failures have lead to the development of a practical methodology to identify risks for interplanetary probes. The proposed methodology is based upon the tailoring of the Software Engineering Institute's (SEI) method of taxonomy-based risk identification. The use of this methodology will ensure a more consistent and complete identification of software risks in these probes.

  18. Tools for Ultraspecific Probe/Primer Design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fofanov, Yurly

    2006-01-01

    .... Our approach will deliver DNA probes and PCR primers that have an unprecedentedly low probability of false positives or confusion by environmental background, and which resist evasion by threat agent engineering...

  19. Scanning microscopic four-point conductivity probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christian Leth; Hansen, Torben Mikael; Bøggild, Peter

    2002-01-01

    A method for fabricating microscopic four-point probes is presented. The method uses silicon-based microfabrication technology involving only two patterning steps. The last step in the fabrication process is an unmasked deposition of the conducting probe material, and it is thus possible to select...... the conducting material either for a silicon wafer or a single probe unit. Using shadow masking photolithography an electrode spacing (pitch) down to 1.1 mum was obtained, with cantilever separation down to 200 run. Characterisation measurements have shown the microscopic probes to be mechanically very flexible...... and robust. Repeated conductivity measurements on polythiophene films in the same surface area are reproduced within an accuracy of 3%. Automated nanoresolution position control allows scanning across millimetre sized areas, in order to create high spatial resolution maps of the in-plane conductivity....

  20. Modulated microwave microscopy and probes used therewith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Keji; Kelly, Michael; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2012-09-11

    A microwave microscope including a probe tip electrode vertically positionable over a sample and projecting downwardly from the end of a cantilever. A transmission line connecting the tip electrode to the electronic control system extends along the cantilever and is separated from a ground plane at the bottom of the cantilever by a dielectric layer. The probe tip may be vertically tapped near or at the sample surface at a low frequency and the microwave signal reflected from the tip/sample interaction is demodulated at the low frequency. Alternatively, a low-frequency electrical signal is also a non-linear electrical element associated with the probe tip to non-linearly interact with the applied microwave signal and the reflected non-linear microwave signal is detected at the low frequency. The non-linear element may be semiconductor junction formed near the apex of the probe tip or be an FET formed at the base of a semiconducting tip.

  1. Surface sampling concentration and reaction probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary J; Elnaggar, Mariam S

    2013-07-16

    A method of analyzing a chemical composition of a specimen is described. The method can include providing a probe comprising an outer capillary tube and an inner capillary tube disposed co-axially within the outer capillary tube, where the inner and outer capillary tubes define a solvent capillary and a sampling capillary in fluid communication with one another at a distal end of the probe; contacting a target site on a surface of a specimen with a solvent in fluid communication with the probe; maintaining a plug volume proximate a solvent-specimen interface, wherein the plug volume is in fluid communication with the probe; draining plug sampling fluid from the plug volume through the sampling capillary; and analyzing a chemical composition of the plug sampling fluid with an analytical instrument. A system for performing the method is also described.

  2. Calibration models for high enthalpy calorimetric probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannel, A

    1978-07-01

    The accuracy of gas-aspirated liquid-cooled calorimetric probes used for measuring the enthalpy of high-temperature gas streams is studied. The error in the differential temperature measurements caused by internal and external heat transfer interactions is considered and quantified by mathematical models. The analysis suggests calibration methods for the evaluation of dimensionless heat transfer parameters in the models, which then can give a more accurate value for the enthalpy of the sample. Calibration models for four types of calorimeters are applied to results from the literature and from our own experiments: a circular slit calorimeter developed by the author, single-cooling jacket probe, double-cooling jacket probe, and split-flow cooling jacket probe. The results show that the models are useful for describing and correcting the temperature measurements.

  3. Multipartite entanglement detection with nonsymmetric probing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellantonio, Luca; Das, Sumanta; Appel, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    We show that spin-squeezing criteria commonly used for entanglement detection can be erroneous if the probe is not symmetric. We then derive a lower bound on squeezing for separable states in spin systems probed asymmetrically. Using this we further develop a procedure that allows us to verify th...... the degree of entanglement of a quantum state in the spin system. Finally, we apply our method for entanglement verification to existing experimental data, and use it to prove the existence of tripartite entanglement in a spin-squeezed atomic ensemble.......We show that spin-squeezing criteria commonly used for entanglement detection can be erroneous if the probe is not symmetric. We then derive a lower bound on squeezing for separable states in spin systems probed asymmetrically. Using this we further develop a procedure that allows us to verify...

  4. Probing plasmonic nanostructures by photons and electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kneipp, Katrin; Kneipp, Harald; Kneipp, Janina

    2015-01-01

    We discuss recent developments for studying plasmonic metal nanostructures. Exploiting photons and electrons opens up new capabilities to probe the complete plasmon spectrum including bright and dark modes and related local optical fields at subnanometer spatial resolution. This comprehensive...

  5. Calculation of concentration depth profiles in electron probe microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrae, M.

    1996-03-01

    The intention of this thesis is to calculate concentration depth-profiles with Electron Probe Microanalysis. In order to conclude the structure of the sample from the measured intensity of radiation, it is necessary to have an accurate correction procedure. In the first part of the thesis all physical quantities needed for the multiple reflection model are described in detail. There will be more possibilities to compare theoretical predictions with the experiment, if the correction procedure is also valid for tilted specimens. Therefore the model hat to generalize for oblique electron incidence. Several quantities in the multiple reflection model tilted specimens (transmission, coefficient, angular distribution of transmitted electrons most probable angle of transmitted electrons etc.) had to be derived. The possibility extending this model comparatively easily to the analysis of layered specimens is one advantage of this model. The alteration of the important quantities in this case is described. Measurements of some specimens with one layer on a substrate proved that the mean deviation of calculated thicknesses is about 10 %. In order to calculate depth profiles gold and copper were evaporated with Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) on silver foils. The thicknesses of evaporated films for gold were 50 nm and 100 nm and for copper 65 nm and 130 nm. Then the specimens were annealed with a temperature of approximately 400 degree C. Finally the concentration depth profiles were quantified with Electron Probe Microanalysis. The shape of the profiles was derived from a simple diffusion model valid for the samples under consideration. In order to check the shape of obtained functions a comparison with measurement by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) was performed. Errors of calculated, depth profiles resulting from approximations of the multiple reflection model and the unknown mass of diffused substances of the samples, are estimated. (author)

  6. Urethral alarm probe for permanent prostate implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutajar, D.; Lerch, M.; Takacs, G.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a urethral dosimetry system for real time dose verification along the urethra during permanent implant prostate brachytherapy. The urethral alarm uses 'spectroscopic dosimetry' to calculate the dose rate along the urethra in real time. The application of spectroscopic dosimetry for the urethral alarm probe was verified using Monte Carlo calculations. In phantom depth dose measurements as well as isotropy measurements were performed to verify the usefulness of the urethra alarm probe as an in vivo real time dosimeter. (author)

  7. Reactive Chemical Probes: Beyond the Kinase Cysteinome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lyn H

    2018-04-12

    The reaction of small molecule chemical probes with proteins has been harnessed to develop covalent inhibitor drugs and protein profiling technologies. This Essay discusses some of the recent enhancements to the chemical biology toolkit that are enabling the study of previously unchartered areas of chemoproteomic space. An analysis of the kinome is used to illustrate the potential for these approaches to pursue new targets using reactive chemical probes. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Plasma diagnostics by means of electric probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colunga S, S.

    1991-04-01

    In this work a summary of the classical theoretical models to interpret the characteristic curve of a Langmuir electric probe placed in a plasma without magnetic field and with the one is made. The methodology for the electron temperature calculation and the density of the plasma in both cases is given, starting from the characteristic curve of the probe, as well as the approaches for the correct application of this diagnostic method of the plasma. (Author)

  9. Accuracy of micro four-point probe measurements on inhomogeneous samples: A probe spacing dependence study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fei; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a probe spacing dependence study in order to estimate the accuracy of micro four-point probe measurements on inhomogeneous samples. Based on sensitivity calculations, both sheet resistance and Hall effect measurements are studied for samples (e.g. laser annealed samples...... the probe spacing is smaller than 1/40 of the variation wavelength, micro four-point probes can provide an accurate record of local properties with less than 1% measurement error. All the calculations agree well with previous experimental results.......) with periodic variations of sheet resistance, sheet carrier density, and carrier mobility. With a variation wavelength of ¿, probe spacings from 0.0012 to 1002 have been applied to characterize the local variations. The calculations show that the measurement error is highly dependent on the probe spacing. When...

  10. Characterization of coating probe with Ti-DLC for electrical scanning probe microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shia Xiaolei; Guo Liqiu; Bai Yang; Qiao Lijie

    2011-01-01

    In electrical scanning probe microscope (ESPM) applications, the wear and conductivity of the probe are undoubtedly serious concerns since they affect the integrity of the measurements. This study investigates the characterization of Ti doped diamond-like-carbon (DLC) as coating material on a silicon cantilever for ESPM. We deposited a layer of Ti-DLC thin film on the surface of Si cantilever by magnetron sputtering. The morphology and composition of the Ti-DLC films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. We also compared the wear resistance, electric conductivity and scanning image quality of the Ti-DLC-coated probes with those of commercially available conductive probes. The results showed that the electric conductivity and the scanning image quality of the Ti-DLC-coated probes were the same as the commercial conductive probes, while the wear resistance and service life was significantly better.

  11. Characterization of coating probe with Ti-DLC for electrical scanning probe microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shia Xiaolei [Corrosion and Protection Center, Key Laboratory for Environmental Fracture (Ministry of Education), University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Guo Liqiu, E-mail: glq@mater.ustb.edu.cn [Corrosion and Protection Center, Key Laboratory for Environmental Fracture (Ministry of Education), University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Bai Yang; Qiao Lijie [Corrosion and Protection Center, Key Laboratory for Environmental Fracture (Ministry of Education), University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2011-06-01

    In electrical scanning probe microscope (ESPM) applications, the wear and conductivity of the probe are undoubtedly serious concerns since they affect the integrity of the measurements. This study investigates the characterization of Ti doped diamond-like-carbon (DLC) as coating material on a silicon cantilever for ESPM. We deposited a layer of Ti-DLC thin film on the surface of Si cantilever by magnetron sputtering. The morphology and composition of the Ti-DLC films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. We also compared the wear resistance, electric conductivity and scanning image quality of the Ti-DLC-coated probes with those of commercially available conductive probes. The results showed that the electric conductivity and the scanning image quality of the Ti-DLC-coated probes were the same as the commercial conductive probes, while the wear resistance and service life was significantly better.

  12. Preventing probe induced topography correlated artifacts in Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Leo; Wijngaarden, Rinke J

    2016-12-01

    Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM) on samples with rough surface topography can be hindered by topography correlated artifacts. We show that, with the proper experimental configuration and using homogeneously metal coated probes, we are able to obtain amplitude modulation (AM) KPFM results on a gold coated sample with rough topography that are free from such artifacts. By inducing tip inhomogeneity through contact with the sample, clear potential variations appear in the KPFM image, which correlate with the surface topography and, thus, are probe induced artifacts. We find that switching to frequency modulation (FM) KPFM with such altered probes does not remove these artifacts. We also find that the induced tip inhomogeneity causes a lift height dependence of the KPFM measurement, which can therefore be used as a check for the presence of probe induced topography correlated artifacts. We attribute the observed effects to a work function difference between the tip and the rest of the probe and describe a model for such inhomogeneous probes that predicts lift height dependence and topography correlated artifacts for both AM and FM-KPFM methods. This work demonstrates that using a probe with a homogeneous work function and preventing tip changes is essential for KPFM on non-flat samples. From the three investigated probe coatings, PtIr, Au and TiN, the latter appears to be the most suitable, because of its better resistance against coating damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Bunker probe: A plasma potential probe almost insensitive to its orientation with the magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costea, S; Fonda, B; Kovačič, J; Gyergyek, T; Schneider, B S; Schrittwieser, R; Ionita, C

    2016-05-01

    Due to their ability to suppress a large part of the electron current and thus measuring directly the plasma potential, ion sensitive probes have begun to be widely tested and used in fusion devices. For these probes to work, almost perfect alignment with the total magnetic field is necessary. This condition cannot always be fulfilled due to the curvature of magnetic fields, complex magnetic structure, or magnetic field reconnection. In this perspective, we have developed a plasma potential probe (named Bunker probe) based on the principle of the ion sensitive probe but almost insensitive to its orientation with the total magnetic field. Therefore it can be used to measure the plasma potential inside fusion devices, especially in regions with complex magnetic field topology. Experimental results are presented and compared with Ball-Pen probe measurements taken under identical conditions. We have observed that the floating potential of the Bunker probe is indeed little affected by its orientation with the magnetic field for angles ranging from 90° to 30°, in contrast to the Ball-Pen probe whose floating potential decreases towards that of a Langmuir probe if not properly aligned with the magnetic field.

  14. Bunker probe: A plasma potential probe almost insensitive to its orientation with the magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costea, S.; Schneider, B. S.; Schrittwieser, R.; Ionita, C.; Fonda, B.; Kovačič, J.; Gyergyek, T.

    2016-01-01

    Due to their ability to suppress a large part of the electron current and thus measuring directly the plasma potential, ion sensitive probes have begun to be widely tested and used in fusion devices. For these probes to work, almost perfect alignment with the total magnetic field is necessary. This condition cannot always be fulfilled due to the curvature of magnetic fields, complex magnetic structure, or magnetic field reconnection. In this perspective, we have developed a plasma potential probe (named Bunker probe) based on the principle of the ion sensitive probe but almost insensitive to its orientation with the total magnetic field. Therefore it can be used to measure the plasma potential inside fusion devices, especially in regions with complex magnetic field topology. Experimental results are presented and compared with Ball-Pen probe measurements taken under identical conditions. We have observed that the floating potential of the Bunker probe is indeed little affected by its orientation with the magnetic field for angles ranging from 90° to 30°, in contrast to the Ball-Pen probe whose floating potential decreases towards that of a Langmuir probe if not properly aligned with the magnetic field.

  15. Multiple object tracking: Anticipatory attention doesn't "bounce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atsma, J.S.; Koning, A.R.; Lier, R.J. van

    2012-01-01

    We investigated motion extrapolation in object tracking in two experiments. In Experiment 1, we used a multiple-object-tracking task (MOT; three targets, three distractors) combined with a probe detection task to investigate the distribution of attention around a target object. We found anisotropic

  16. Investigating the QCD phase diagram with hadron multiplicities at NICA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becattini, F. [Universita di Firenze (Italy); INFN, Firenze (Italy); Stock, R. [Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    We discuss the potential of the experimental programme at NICA to investigate the QCD phase diagram and particularly the position of the critical line at large baryon-chemical potential with accurate measurements of particle multiplicities. We briefly review the present status and we outline the tasks to be accomplished both theoretically and the experimentally to make hadronic abundances a sensitive probe. (orig.)

  17. Wavelength-Dependent Differential Interference Contrast Microscopy: Selectively Imaging Nanoparticle Probes in Live Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Wei; Wang, Gufeng; Fang, Ning; and Yeung, Edward S.

    2009-11-15

    Gold and silver nanoparticles display extraordinarily large apparent refractive indices near their plasmon resonance (PR) wavelengths. These nanoparticles show good contrast in a narrow spectral band but are poorly resolved at other wavelengths in differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy. The wavelength dependence of DIC contrast of gold/silver nanoparticles is interpreted in terms of Mie's theory and DIC working principles. We further exploit this wavelength dependence by modifying a DIC microscope to enable simultaneous imaging at two wavelengths. We demonstrate that gold/silver nanoparticles immobilized on the same glass slides through hybridization can be differentiated and imaged separately. High-contrast, video-rate images of living cells can be recorded both with and without illuminating the gold nanoparticle probes, providing definitive probe identification. Dual-wavelength DIC microscopy thus presents a new approach to the simultaneous detection of multiple probes of interest for high-speed live-cell imaging.

  18. IEC Thrusters for Space Probe Applications and Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miley, George H.; Momota, Hiromu; Wu, Linchun; Reilly, Michael P.; Teofilo, Vince L.; Burton, Rodney; Dell, Richard; Dell, Dick; Hargus, William A.

    2009-03-01

    Earlier conceptual design studies (Bussard, 1990; Miley et al., 1998; Burton et al., 2003) have described Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion propulsion to provide a high-power density fusion propulsion system capable of aggressive deep space missions. However, this requires large multi-GW thrusters and a long term development program. As a first step towards this goal, a progression of near-term IEC thrusters, stating with a 1-10 kWe electrically-driven IEC jet thruster for satellites are considered here. The initial electrically-powered unit uses a novel multi-jet plasma thruster based on spherical IEC technology with electrical input power from a solar panel. In this spherical configuration, Xe ions are generated and accelerated towards the center of double concentric spherical grids. An electrostatic potential well structure is created in the central region, providing ion trapping. Several enlarged grid opening extract intense quasi-neutral plasma jets. A variable specific impulse in the range of 1000-4000 seconds is achieved by adjusting the grid potential. This design provides high maneuverability for satellite and small space probe operations. The multiple jets, combined with gimbaled auxiliary equipment, provide precision changes in thrust direction. The IEC electrical efficiency can match or exceed efficiencies of conventional Hall Current Thrusters (HCTs) while offering advantages such as reduced grid erosion (long life time), reduced propellant leakage losses (reduced fuel storage), and a very high power-to-weight ratio. The unit is ideally suited for probing missions. The primary propulsive jet enables delicate maneuvering close to an object. Then simply opening a second jet offset 180 degrees from the propulsion one provides a "plasma analytic probe" for interrogation of the object.

  19. IEC Thrusters for Space Probe Applications and Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, George H.; Momota, Hiromu; Wu Linchun; Reilly, Michael P.; Teofilo, Vince L.; Burton, Rodney; Dell, Richard; Dell, Dick; Hargus, William A.

    2009-01-01

    Earlier conceptual design studies (Bussard, 1990; Miley et al., 1998; Burton et al., 2003) have described Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion propulsion to provide a high-power density fusion propulsion system capable of aggressive deep space missions. However, this requires large multi-GW thrusters and a long term development program. As a first step towards this goal, a progression of near-term IEC thrusters, stating with a 1-10 kWe electrically-driven IEC jet thruster for satellites are considered here. The initial electrically-powered unit uses a novel multi-jet plasma thruster based on spherical IEC technology with electrical input power from a solar panel. In this spherical configuration, Xe ions are generated and accelerated towards the center of double concentric spherical grids. An electrostatic potential well structure is created in the central region, providing ion trapping. Several enlarged grid opening extract intense quasi-neutral plasma jets. A variable specific impulse in the range of 1000-4000 seconds is achieved by adjusting the grid potential. This design provides high maneuverability for satellite and small space probe operations. The multiple jets, combined with gimbaled auxiliary equipment, provide precision changes in thrust direction. The IEC electrical efficiency can match or exceed efficiencies of conventional Hall Current Thrusters (HCTs) while offering advantages such as reduced grid erosion (long life time), reduced propellant leakage losses (reduced fuel storage), and a very high power-to-weight ratio. The unit is ideally suited for probing missions. The primary propulsive jet enables delicate maneuvering close to an object. Then simply opening a second jet offset 180 degrees from the propulsion one provides a 'plasma analytic probe' for interrogation of the object.

  20. Electromagnetic probes of the QGP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratkovskaya E. L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the properties of the QCD matter across the deconfinement phase transition in the scope of the parton-hadron string dynamics (PHSD transport approach. We present here in particular the results on the electromagnetic radiation, i.e. photon and dilepton production, in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. By comparing our calculations for the heavy-ion collisions to the available data, we determine the relative importance of the various production sources and address the possible origin of the observed strong elliptic flow v2 of direct photons. We argue that the different centrality dependence of the hadronic and partonic sources for direct photon production in nucleusnucleus collisions can be employed to shed some more light on the origin of the photon v2 “puzzle”. While the dilepton spectra at low invariant mass show in-medium effects like an enhancement from multiple baryonic resonance formation or a collisional broadening of the vector meson spectral functions, the dilepton yield at high invariant masses (above 1.1 GeV is dominated by QGP contributions for central heavy-ion collisions at ultra-relativistic energies. This allows to have an independent view on the parton dynamics via their electromagnetic massive radiation.

  1. Depth Probing Soft X-ray Microprobe (DPSXRM) for High Resolution Probing of Earth's Microstructural Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikedi, P. N.

    2015-12-01

    The Cambrian explosion; occurrence of landslides in very dry weather conditions; rockslides; dead, shriveled-up and crumbled leaves possessing fossil records with the semblance of well preserved, flat leaves; abundance of trilobite tracks in lower and higher rock layers; and sailing stones are enigmas demanding demystifications. These enigmas could be elucidated when data on soil structure, texture and strength are provided by some device with submicrometre accuracy; for these and other reasons, the design of a Depth Probing Soft X-ray Microprobe (DPSXRM), is being proposed; it is expected to deliver soft X-rays, at spatial resolution, ϛ≥600nm and to probe at the depth of 0.5m in 17s. The microprobe is portable compared to a synchrotron radiation facility (Diamond Light Source has land size of 43,300m2); spatial resolution,ϛ , of the DPSXRM surpasses those of the X-ray Fluorescence microanalysis (10µm), electron microprobe (1-3µm) and ion microprobe (5->30µm); the DPSXRM has allowance for multiple targets. Vanadium and Manganese membranes are proposed owing to respective 4.952KeV VKα1 and 5.899KeV MnKα1 X-rays emitted, which best suits micro-probing of Earth's microstructural samples. Compound systems like the Kirk-Patrick and Baez and Wolter optics, aspheric mirrors like elliptical and parabolic optics, small apertures and Abbe sine condition are employed to reduce or remove astigmatism, obliquity, comatic and spherical aberrations—leading to good image quality. Results show that 5.899KeV MnKα1 and 4.952KeV VKα1 soft X-rays will travel a distance of 2.75mm to form circular patches of radii 2.2mm and 2.95mm respectively. Zone plate with nth zone radius of 1.5mm must be positioned 1.5mm and 2mm from the electron gun if circular patches must be formed from 4.952KeV VKα1 and 5.899KeV MnKα1 soft X-rays respectively. The focal lengths of 0.25μm≤ƒ≤1.50μm and 0.04μm≤ƒ≤0.2μm covered by 4.952KeV VKα1 and 5.899KeV Mn Kα1 soft X-Rays, will

  2. ProbFold: a probabilistic method for integration of probing data in RNA secondary structure prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Sudhakar; Świtnicki, Michał P; Pedersen, Jakob Skou

    2016-09-01

    Recently, new RNA secondary structure probing techniques have been developed, including Next Generation Sequencing based methods capable of probing transcriptome-wide. These techniques hold great promise for improving structure prediction accuracy. However, each new data type comes with its own signal properties and biases, which may even be experiment specific. There is therefore a growing need for RNA structure prediction methods that can be automatically trained on new data types and readily extended to integrate and fully exploit multiple types of data. Here, we develop and explore a modular probabilistic approach for integrating probing data in RNA structure prediction. It can be automatically trained given a set of known structures with probing data. The approach is demonstrated on SHAPE datasets, where we evaluate and selectively model specific correlations. The approach often makes superior use of the probing data signal compared to other methods. We illustrate the use of ProbFold on multiple data types using both simulations and a small set of structures with both SHAPE, DMS and CMCT data. Technically, the approach combines stochastic context-free grammars (SCFGs) with probabilistic graphical models. This approach allows rapid adaptation and integration of new probing data types. ProbFold is implemented in C ++. Models are specified using simple textual formats. Data reformatting is done using separate C ++ programs. Source code, statically compiled binaries for x86 Linux machines, C ++ programs, example datasets and a tutorial is available from http://moma.ki.au.dk/prj/probfold/ : jakob.skou@clin.au.dk Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Direct Probing of Polarization Charge at Nanoscale Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Owoong [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Republic of Korea). School of Advanced Materials and Engineering; Seol, Daehee [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Republic of Korea). School of Advanced Materials and Engineering; Lee, Dongkyu [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Han, Hee [Korea Research Inst. of Standards and Science (KRISS), Daejeon (South Korea); Lindfors-Vrejoiu, Ionela [Univ. of Cologne (Germany). Physics Inst.; Lee, Woo [Korea Research Inst. of Standards and Science (KRISS), Daejeon (South Korea); Jesse, Stephen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences; Lee, Ho Nyung [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Kalinin, Sergei V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences; Alexe, Marin [Univ. of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Kim, Yunseok [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Republic of Korea). School of Advanced Materials and Engineering

    2017-11-14

    Ferroelectric materials possess spontaneous polarization that can be used for multiple applications. Owing to a long-term development of reducing the sizes of devices, the preparation of ferroelectric materials and devices is entering the nanometer-scale regime. In order to evaluate the ferroelectricity, there is a need to investigate the polarization charge at the nanoscale. Nonetheless, it is generally accepted that the detection of polarization charges using a conventional conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) without a top electrode is not feasible because the nanometer-scale radius of an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip yields a very low signal-to-noise ratio. But, the detection is unrelated to the radius of an AFM tip and, in fact, a matter of the switched area. In this work, the direct probing of the polarization charge at the nanoscale is demonstrated using the positive-up-negative-down method based on the conventional CAFM approach without additional corrections or circuits to reduce the parasitic capacitance. The polarization charge densities of 73.7 and 119.0 µC cm-2 are successfully probed in ferroelectric nanocapacitors and thin films, respectively. The results we obtained show the feasibility of the evaluation of polarization charge at the nanoscale and provide a new guideline for evaluating the ferroelectricity at the nanoscale.

  4. Soil Properties from Low-Velocity Probe Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome B. Johnson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A physical model of low-velocity probe penetration is developed to characterize soil by type, strength, maximum compaction, and initial density using Newton's second law to describe the processes controlling probe momentum loss. The probe loses momentum by causing soil failure (strength, accelerating and compacting soil around the probe (inertia, and through frictional sliding at the probe/soil interface (friction. Probe geometry, mass, and impact velocity influences are incorporated into the model. Model predictions of probe deceleration history and depth of penetration agree well with experiments, without the need for free variables or complex numerical simulations.

  5. Probing Zeolite Crystal Architecture and Structural Imperfections using Differently Sized Fluorescent Organic Probe Molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Frank C.; Schmidt, Joel E.; Rombouts, Jeroen A.; Lammertsma, Koop; Bruijnincx, Pieter C.A.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2017-01-01

    A micro-spectroscopic method has been developed to probe the accessibility of zeolite crystals using a series of fluorescent 4-(4-diethylaminostyryl)-1-methylpyridinium iodide (DAMPI) probes of increasing molecular size. Staining large zeolite crystals with MFI (ZSM-5) topology and subsequent

  6. Preventing probe induced topography correlated artifacts in Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polak, L.; Wijngaarden, Rinke J.

    2016-01-01

    Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM) on samples with rough surface topography can be hindered by topography correlated artifacts. We show that, with the proper experimental configuration and using homogeneously metal coated probes, we are able to obtain amplitude modulation (AM) KPFM results on a

  7. In-vitro accuracy and reproducibility evaluation of probing depth measurements of selected periodontal probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.N. Al Shayeb

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Depth measurements with the Chapple UB-CF-15 probe were more accurate and reproducible compared to measurements with the Vivacare TPS and Williams 14 W probes. This in vitro model may be useful for intra-examiner calibration or clinician training prior to the clinical evaluation of patients or in longitudinal studies involving periodontal evaluation.

  8. Chromosome-specific DNA Repeat Probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, Adolf; Weier, Jingly Fung; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.

    2006-03-16

    In research as well as in clinical applications, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has gained increasing popularity as a highly sensitive technique to study cytogenetic changes. Today, hundreds of commercially available DNA probes serve the basic needs of the biomedical research community. Widespread applications, however, are often limited by the lack of appropriately labeled, specific nucleic acid probes. We describe two approaches for an expeditious preparation of chromosome-specific DNAs and the subsequent probe labeling with reporter molecules of choice. The described techniques allow the preparation of highly specific DNA repeat probes suitable for enumeration of chromosomes in interphase cell nuclei or tissue sections. In addition, there is no need for chromosome enrichment by flow cytometry and sorting or molecular cloning. Our PCR-based method uses either bacterial artificial chromosomes or human genomic DNA as templates with {alpha}-satellite-specific primers. Here we demonstrate the production of fluorochrome-labeled DNA repeat probes specific for human chromosomes 17 and 18 in just a few days without the need for highly specialized equipment and without the limitation to only a few fluorochrome labels.

  9. Donated chemical probes for open science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Susanne; Ackloo, Suzanne; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Bauser, Marcus; Baryza, Jeremy L; Blagg, Julian; Böttcher, Jark; Bountra, Chas; Brown, Peter J; Bunnage, Mark E; Carter, Adrian J; Damerell, David; Dötsch, Volker; Drewry, David H; Edwards, Aled M; Edwards, James; Elkins, Jon M; Fischer, Christian; Frye, Stephen V; Gollner, Andreas; Grimshaw, Charles E; IJzerman, Adriaan; Hanke, Thomas; Hartung, Ingo V; Hitchcock, Steve; Howe, Trevor; Hughes, Terry V; Laufer, Stefan; Li, Volkhart Mj; Liras, Spiros; Marsden, Brian D; Matsui, Hisanori; Mathias, John; O'Hagan, Ronan C; Owen, Dafydd R; Pande, Vineet; Rauh, Daniel; Rosenberg, Saul H; Roth, Bryan L; Schneider, Natalie S; Scholten, Cora; Singh Saikatendu, Kumar; Simeonov, Anton; Takizawa, Masayuki; Tse, Chris; Thompson, Paul R; Treiber, Daniel K; Viana, Amélia Yi; Wells, Carrow I; Willson, Timothy M; Zuercher, William J; Knapp, Stefan; Mueller-Fahrnow, Anke

    2018-04-20

    Potent, selective and broadly characterized small molecule modulators of protein function (chemical probes) are powerful research reagents. The pharmaceutical industry has generated many high-quality chemical probes and several of these have been made available to academia. However, probe-associated data and control compounds, such as inactive structurally related molecules and their associated data, are generally not accessible. The lack of data and guidance makes it difficult for researchers to decide which chemical tools to choose. Several pharmaceutical companies (AbbVie, Bayer, Boehringer Ingelheim, Janssen, MSD, Pfizer, and Takeda) have therefore entered into a pre-competitive collaboration to make available a large number of innovative high-quality probes, including all probe-associated data, control compounds and recommendations on use (https://openscienceprobes.sgc-frankfurt.de">https://openscienceprobes.sgc-frankfurt.dehttps://openscienceprobes.sgc-frankfurt.de/">/). Here we describe the chemical tools and target-related knowledge that have been made available, and encourage others to join the project. © 2018, Müller et al.

  10. Configurations of polymers attached to probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubis, Roy; Kantor, Yacov; Kardar, Mehran

    2009-11-01

    We study polymers attached to spherical (circular) or paraboloidal (parabolic) probes in three (two) dimensions. Both self-avoiding and random walks are examined numerically. The behavior of a polymer of size R0 attached to the tip of a probe with radius of curvature R, differs qualitatively for large and small values of the ratio s=R0/R. We demonstrate that the scaled compliance (inverse force constant) S/R02, and scaled mean position of the polymer end-point langx⊥rang/R can be expressed as a function of s. Scaled compliance is anisotropic, and quite large in the direction parallel to the surface when R0~R. The exponent γ, characterizing the number of polymer configurations, crosses over from a value of γ1 - characteristic of a planar boundary - at small s to one reflecting the overall shape of the probe at large s. For a spherical probe the crossover is to an unencumbered polymer, while for a parabolic probe we cannot rule out a new exponent.

  11. Luminescent probes and sensors for temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu-dong; Wolfbeis, Otto S; Meier, Robert J

    2013-10-07

    Temperature (T) is probably the most fundamental parameter in all kinds of science. Respective sensors are widely used in daily life. Besides conventional thermometers, optical sensors are considered to be attractive alternatives for sensing and on-line monitoring of T. This Review article focuses on all kinds of luminescent probes and sensors for measurement of T, and summarizes the recent progress in their design and application formats. The introduction covers the importance of optical probes for T, the origin of their T-dependent spectra, and the various detection modes. This is followed by a survey on (a) molecular probes, (b) nanomaterials, and (c) bulk materials for sensing T. This section will be completed by a discussion of (d) polymeric matrices for immobilizing T-sensitive probes and (e) an overview of the various application formats of T-sensors. The review ends with a discussion on the prospects, challenges, and new directions in the design of optical T-sensitive probes and sensors.

  12. Outsourced Probe Data Effectiveness on Signalized Arterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Stanley E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sharifi, Elham [University of Maryland; Eshragh, Sepideh [University of Maryland; Hamedi, Masoud [University of Maryland; Juster, Reuben M. [University of Maryland; Kaushik, Kartik [University of Maryland

    2017-07-31

    This paper presents results of an I-95 Corridor Coalition sponsored project to assess the ability of outsourced vehicle probe data to provide accurate travel time on signalized roadways for the purposes of real-time operations as well as performance measures. The quality of outsourced probe data on freeways has led many departments of transportation to consider such data for arterial performance monitoring. From April 2013 through June of 2014, the University of Maryland Center for Advanced Transportation Technology gathered travel times from several arterial corridors within the mid-Atlantic region using Bluetooth traffic monitoring (BTM) equipment, and compared these travel times with the data reported to the I95 Vehicle Probe Project (VPP) from an outsourced probe data vendor. The analysis consisted of several methodologies: (1) a traditional analysis that used precision and bias speed metrics; (2) a slowdown analysis that quantified the percentage of significant traffic disruptions accurately captured in the VPP data; (3) a sampled distribution method that uses overlay methods to enhance and analyze recurring congestion patterns. (4) Last, the BTM and VPP data from each 24-hour period of data collection were reviewed by the research team to assess the extent to which VPP captured the nature of the traffic flow. Based on the analysis, probe data is recommended only on arterial roadways with signal densities (measured in signals per mile) up to one, and it should be tested and used with caution for signal densities between one and two, and is not recommended when signal density exceeds two.

  13. Recent beam probe measurements on EBT, TMX, and RENTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickok, R L

    1980-06-01

    It is noted that beam probe systems can provide accurate, reliable measurments of plasma space potential and nf(T/sub e/). Over some temperature range, at least, it should be possible to separate n and T/sub e/ by measuring the multiple ionization reaction products. It is also an ideal diagnostic for studying fluctuations since it provides a simultaneous measurement of phi and nf(T/sub e/) from the same point in the plasma and the measurements are continuous in time. Measurements can be made quasi-continuously in space by rapidly sweeping the beam. By using more than one detector it should be possible to make measurements simultaneously at two different observation points in the plasma.

  14. Recent beam probe measurements on EBT, TMX, and RENTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickok, R.L.

    1980-06-01

    It is noted that beam probe systems can provide accurate, reliable measurments of plasma space potential and nf(T/sub e/). Over some temperature range, at least, it should be possible to separate n and T/sub e/ by measuring the multiple ionization reaction products. It is also an ideal diagnostic for studying fluctuations since it provides a simultaneous measurement of phi and nf(T/sub e/) from the same point in the plasma and the measurements are continuous in time. Measurements can be made quasi-continuously in space by rapidly sweeping the beam. By using more than one detector it should be possible to make measurements simultaneously at two different observation points in the plasma

  15. Charged Higgs Probes of Dark Bosons at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Kyoungchul [University of Kansas; Lee, Hye-Sung [William and Mary College, JLAB; Park, Myeonghun [University of Tokyo

    2014-08-01

    A very light (GeV scale) dark gauge boson (Z') is a recently highlighted hypothetical particle that can address some astrophysical anomalies as well as the 3.6σ deviation in the muon g-2 measurement. We suggest top quark decays as a venue to search for light dark force carriers at the LHC. Such Z's can be easily boosted, and they can decay into highly collimated leptons (lepton-jet) with large branching ratio. We investigate a scenario where a top quark decays to bW accompanied by one or multiple dark force carriers and find that such a scenario could be easily probed at the early stage of LHC Run 2.

  16. Probing the statistical properties of Anderson localization with quantum emitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolka, Stephan; Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup; Sapienza, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Wave propagation in disordered media can be strongly modified by multiple scattering and wave interference. Ultimately, the so-called Anderson-localized regime is reached when the waves become strongly confined in space. So far, Anderson localization of light has been probed in transmission...... experiments by measuring the intensity of an external light source after propagation through a disordered medium. However, discriminating between Anderson localization and losses in these experiments remains a major challenge. In this paper, we present an alternative approach where we use quantum emitters...... embedded in disordered photonic crystal waveguides as light sources. Anderson-localized modes are efficiently excited and the analysis of the photoluminescence spectra allows us to explore their statistical properties, for example the localization length and average loss length. With increasing the amount...

  17. Non-Cytotoxic Quantum Dot–Chitosan Nanogel Biosensing Probe for Potential Cancer Targeting Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler Maxwell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantum dot (Qdot biosensors have consistently provided valuable information to researchers about cellular activity due to their unique fluorescent properties. Many of the most popularly used Qdots contain cadmium, posing the risk of toxicity that could negate their attractive optical properties. The design of a non-cytotoxic probe usually involves multiple components and a complex synthesis process. In this paper, the design and synthesis of a non-cytotoxic Qdot-chitosan nanogel composite using straight-forward cyanogen bromide (CNBr coupling is reported. The probe was characterized by spectroscopy (UV-Vis, fluorescence, microscopy (Fluorescence, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM and Dynamic Light Scattering. This activatable (“OFF”/“ON” probe contains a core–shell Qdot (CdS:Mn/ZnS capped with dopamine, which acts as a fluorescence quencher and a model drug. Dopamine capped “OFF” Qdots can undergo ligand exchange with intercellular glutathione, which turns the Qdots “ON” to restore fluorescence. These Qdots were then coated with chitosan (natural biocompatible polymer functionalized with folic acid (targeting motif and Fluorescein Isothiocyanate (FITC; fluorescent dye. To demonstrate cancer cell targetability, the interaction of the probe with cells that express different folate receptor levels was analyzed, and the cytotoxicity of the probe was evaluated on these cells and was shown to be nontoxic even at concentrations as high as 100 mg/L.

  18. Sandwich-format 3D printed microfluidic mixers: a flexible platform for multi-probe analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kise, Drew P; Reddish, Michael J; Brian Dyer, R

    2015-01-01

    We report on a microfluidic mixer fabrication platform that increases the versatility and flexibility of mixers for biomolecular applications. A sandwich-format design allows the application of multiple spectroscopic probes to the same mixer. A polymer spacer is ‘sandwiched’ between two transparent windows, creating a closed microfluidic system. The channels of the mixer are defined by regions in the polymer spacer that lack material and therefore the polymer need not be transparent in the spectral region of interest. Suitable window materials such as CaF 2 make the device accessible to a wide range of optical probe wavelengths, from the deep UV to the mid-IR. In this study, we use a commercially available 3D printer to print the polymer spacers to apply three different channel designs into the passive, continuous-flow mixer, and integrated them with three different spectroscopic probes. All three spectroscopic probes are applicable to each mixer without further changes. The sandwich-format mixer coupled with cost-effective 3D printed fabrication techniques could increase the applicability and accessibility of microfluidic mixing to intricate kinetic schemes and monitoring chemical synthesis in cases where only one probe technique proves insufficient. (paper)

  19. Gravity and On-Shell Probe Actions

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrari, Frank

    2016-08-08

    In any gravitational theory and in a wide class of background space-times, we argue that there exists a simple, yet profound, relation between the on-shell Euclidean gravitational action and the on-shell Euclidean action of probes. The probes can be, for instance, charged particles or branes. The relation is tightly related to the thermodynamic nature of gravity. We provide precise checks of the relation in several examples, which include both asymptotically flat and asymptotically AdS space-times, with particle, D-brane and M-brane probes. Perfect consistency is found in all cases, including in a highly non-trivial example including \\alpha'-corrections.

  20. Nanobits - exchangable and customisable scanning probe tips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yildiz, Izzet

    Invention of atomic force microscopy (AFM) pioneered a novel aspect for the surface metrology concept. A range of scanning probe methods have been developed over the years based on different sorts of tip-surface interaction: electrical, optical, thermal, force. Reproducible and fast fabrication...... miniaturisation requires the scanning probes to adapt into finer geometries to provide higher lateral resolution. To meet these needs critical dimension AFM (CD-AFM) and deep trench AFM (DT-AFM) were invented, which use different types of AFM tips: high-aspect-ratio tips for DT-AFM and CD tips for CD...... replacement could greatly increase the efficiency and adaptability of a CD system. In this PhD study, NanoBits – nano-sized customisable and exchangeable scanning probe tips – were developed to meet the demands of current AFM applications. Two different methods were followed for the fabrication of Nano...

  1. Small molecule probes for cellular death machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Qian, Lihui; Yuan, Junying

    2017-08-01

    The past decade has witnessed a significant expansion of our understanding about the regulated cell death mechanisms beyond apoptosis. The application of chemical biological approaches had played a major role in driving these exciting discoveries. The discovery and use of small molecule probes in cell death research has not only revealed significant insights into the regulatory mechanism of cell death but also provided new drug targets and lead drug candidates for developing therapeutics of human diseases with huge unmet need. Here, we provide an overview of small molecule modulators for necroptosis and ferroptosis, two non-apoptotic cell death mechanisms, and discuss the molecular pathways and relevant pathophysiological mechanisms revealed by the judicial applications of such small molecule probes. We suggest that the development and applications of small molecule probes for non-apoptotic cell death mechanisms provide an outstanding example showcasing the power of chemical biology in exploring novel biological mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Remote tuning of NMR probe circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodibagkar, V D; Conradi, M S

    2000-05-01

    There are many circumstances in which the probe tuning adjustments cannot be located near the rf NMR coil. These may occur in high-temperature NMR, low-temperature NMR, and in the use of magnets with small diameter access bores. We address here circuitry for connecting a fixed-tuned probe circuit by a transmission line to a remotely located tuning network. In particular, the bandwidth over which the probe may be remotely tuned while keeping the losses in the transmission line acceptably low is considered. The results show that for all resonant circuit geometries (series, parallel, series-parallel), overcoupling of the line to the tuned circuit is key to obtaining a large tuning bandwidth. At equivalent extents of overcoupling, all resonant circuit geometries have nearly equal remote tuning bandwidths. Particularly for the case of low-loss transmission line, the tuning bandwidth can be many times the tuned circuit's bandwidth, f(o)/Q. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  3. Redesign of a Low Energy Probe Head

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, Yi-Nong; Ries, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The present situation of the low energy probe LE2 in TRIUMF cyclotron is that the thickness of the finger 5 is uniform over a radial length of 3.25 inch and its weight which amounts to ~447 g is affecting its re-circulating ball mechanism and causing it to fall below the median plane over its range of movement. We therefore re-design it in order to reduce its weight. First, we made simulations and determined the optimum thickness of the probe head vs its radial length. These simulation results are found to be in good agreement with experimental measurements made. Finally, we calculated the temperature rise caused by the beam power dumped on the probe, and figured out the maximum current of beam that can be dumped on the finger.

  4. The Next Generation of Planetary Atmospheric Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, Howard

    2005-01-01

    Entry probes provide useful insights into the structures of planetary atmospheres, but give only one-dimensional pictures of complex four-dimensional systems that vary on all temporal and spatial scales. This makes the interpretation of the results quite challenging, especially as regards atmospheric dynamics. Here is a planetary meteorologist's vision of what the next generation of atmospheric entry probe missions should be: Dedicated sounding instruments get most of the required data from orbit. Relatively simple and inexpensive entry probes are released from the orbiter, with low entry velocities, to establish ground truth, to clarify the vertical structure, and for adaptive observations to enhance the dataset in preparation for sensitive operations. The data are assimilated onboard in real time. The products, being immediately available, are of immense benefit for scientific and operational purposes (aerobraking, aerocapture, accurate payload delivery via glider, ballooning missions, weather forecasts, etc.).

  5. The Probe of Inflation and Cosmic Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanany, Shaul; Inflation Probe Mission Study Team

    2018-01-01

    The Probe of Inflation and Cosmic Origins will map the polarization of the cosmic microwave background over the entire sky with unprecedented sensitivity. It will search for gravity wave signals from the inflationary epoch, thus probing quantum gravity and constraining the energy scale of inflation; it will test the standard model of particle physics by measuring the number of light particles in the Universe and the mass of the neutrino; it will elucidate the nature of dark matter and search for new forms of matter in the early Universe; it will constrain star formation history over cosmic time; and it will determine the mechanisms of structure formation from galaxy cluster to stellar scales. I will review the status of design of this probe-scale mission.

  6. Modeling Atom Probe Tomography: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vurpillot, F., E-mail: francois.vurpillot@univ-rouen.fr [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, UMR CNRS 6634, Université de Rouen, Saint Etienne du Rouvray 76801 (France); Oberdorfer, C. [Institut für Materialwissenschaft, Lehrstuhl für Materialphysik, Universität Stuttgart, Heisenbergstr. 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Improving both the precision and the accuracy of Atom Probe Tomography reconstruction requires a correct understanding of the imaging process. In this aim, numerical modeling approaches have been developed for 15 years. The injected ingredients of these modeling tools are related to the basic physic of the field evaporation mechanism. The interplay between the sample nature and structure of the analyzed sample and the reconstructed image artefacts have pushed to gradually improve and make the model more and more sophisticated. This paper reviews the evolution of the modeling approach in Atom Probe Tomography and presents some future potential directions in order to improve the method. - Highlights: • The basics of field evaporation. • The main aspects of Atom Probe Tomography modeling. • The intrinsic limitations of the current method and future potential directions to improve the understanding of tip to image ion projection.

  7. Theory of dual probes on graphene structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Settnes, Mikkel

    . Here we investigate strained graphene bubbles ("pseudomagnetic dots") directly from tight binding, effectively going beyond the Dirac approximation. In this way, we study the local density of states of different pseudomagnetic dots in real space and show Friedel-type oscillations caused by the finite......This thesis concerns the development of theoretical and computational methods for multiprobe systems and their application to nanostructured graphene. Recent experimental advances emphasize the usefulness of multi-probe techniques when analyzing the electrical properties of nanoscale samples...... around the local probes. This necessitates a reformulation of the conventional calculation methods allowing for the description of non-periodic structures embedded within infinite samples. The two-dimensional material graphene, is a highly interesting system for multi- probe characterization as graphene...

  8. Reconstructing atom probe data: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vurpillot, Francois; Gault, Baptiste; Geiser, Brian P; Larson, D J

    2013-09-01

    Atom probe tomography stands out from other materials characterisation techniques mostly due to its capacity to map individual atoms in three-dimensions with high spatial resolution. The methods used to transform raw detector data into a three-dimensional reconstruction have, comparatively to other aspects of the technique, evolved relatively little since their inception more than 15 years ago. However, due to the importance of the fidelity of the data, this topic is currently attracting a lot of interest within the atom probe community. In this review we cover: (1) the main aspects of the image projection, (2) the methods used to build tomographic reconstructions, (3) the intrinsic limitations of these methods, and (4) future potential directions to improve the integrity of atom probe tomograms. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Distant polypharmacology among MLP chemical probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolín, Albert A; Mestres, Jordi

    2015-02-20

    Small molecules are essential tool compounds to probe the role of proteins in biology and advance toward more efficient therapeutics. However, they are used without a complete knowledge of their selectivity across the entire proteome, at risk of confounding their effects due to unknown off-target interactions. Current state-of-the-art computational approaches to predicting the affinity profile of small molecules offer a means to anticipate potential nonobvious selectivity liabilities of chemical probes. The application of in silico target profiling on the full set of chemical probes from the NIH Molecular Libraries Program (MLP) resulted in the identification of biologically relevant in vitro affinities for proteins distantly related to the primary targets of ML006, ML123, ML141, and ML204, helping to lower the risk of their further use in chemical biology.

  10. Saturn Probe: Revealing Solar System Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, T. R.

    2015-12-01

    Comparative studies of the gas giant and ice giant planets are needed to reliably discriminate among competing theories of the origin and evolution of giant planets and the solar system, but we lack critical measurements. A Saturn atmospheric entry probe mission would fill a vital part of that gap, allowing comparative studies of Jupiter and Saturn, providing the basis for later comparisons with the ice giants Uranus and Neptune, and informing studies of extrasolar planetary systems now being characterized. The Galileo Probe mission provided the first in situ studies of Jupiter's atmosphere. Similar measurements at Saturn, Uranus and Neptune would provide an important comparative planetology context for the Galileo results. Cassini's "Proximal Orbits" in 2017 will reveal Saturn's internal structure to complement the Juno mission's similar measurements at Jupiter. A Saturn entry probe, complementing the Galileo Probe investigations at Jupiter, would complete a solid basis for improved understanding of both Jupiter and Saturn, an important stepping stone to understanding Uranus and Neptune and solar system formation and evolution. The 2012 Decadal Survey ("DS") added Saturn Probe science objectives to NASA's New Frontiers Program: highest-priority Tier 1 objectives any New Frontiers implementation must achieve, and Tier 2, high priority but lower than Tier 1. A DS mission concept study using extremely conservative assumptions concluded that a Saturn Probe project could fit within New Frontiers resource constraints, giving a PI confidence that they could pursue some Tier 2 objectives, customizing for the proper balance of science return, science team composition, procured or contributed instruments, etc. Contributed instruments could significantly enhance the payload and the science team for greater science return. They also provide international collaboration opportunities, with science benefits well demonstrated by missions such as Cassini-Huygens and Rosetta.

  11. Downlink Channel Estimation in Cellular Systems with Antenna Arrays at Base Stations Using Channel Probing with Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biguesh Mehrzad

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In mobile communication systems with multisensor antennas at base stations, downlink channel estimation plays a key role because accurate channel estimates are needed for transmit beamforming. One efficient approach to this problem is channel probing with feedback. In this method, the base station array transmits probing (training signals. The channel is then estimated from feedback reports provided by the users. This paper studies the performance of the channel probing method with feedback using a multisensor base station antenna array and single-sensor users. The least squares (LS, linear minimum mean square error (LMMSE, and a new scaled LS (SLS approaches to the channel estimation are studied. Optimal choice of probing signals is investigated for each of these techniques and their channel estimation performances are analyzed. In the case of multiple LS channel estimates, the best linear unbiased estimation (BLUE scheme for their linear combining is developed and studied.

  12. Can Local Probes Go Global? A Joint Experiment-Simulation Analysis of λ(6-85) Folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukenik, Shahar; Pogorelov, Taras V; Gruebele, Martin

    2016-06-02

    The process of protein folding is known to involve global motions in a cooperative affair; the structure of most of the protein sequences is gained or lost over a narrow range of temperature, denaturant, or pressure perturbations. At the same time, recent simulations and experiments reveal a complex structural landscape with a rich set of local motions and conformational changes. We couple experimental kinetic and thermodynamic measurements with specifically tailored analysis of simulation data to isolate local versus global folding probes. We find that local probes exhibit lower melting temperatures, smaller surface area changes, and faster kinetics compared to global ones. We also see that certain local probes of folding match the global behavior more closely than others. Our work highlights the importance of using multiple probes to fully characterize protein folding dynamics by theory and experiment.

  13. Isotropic Broadband E-Field Probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla Szentpáli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An E-field probe has been developed for EMC immunity tests performed in closed space. The leads are flexible resistive transmission lines. Their influence on the field distribution is negligible. The probe has an isotropic reception from 100 MHz to 18 GHz; the sensitivity is in the 3 V/m–10 V/m range. The device is an accessory of the EMC test chamber. The readout of the field magnitude is carried out by personal computer, which fulfils also the required corrections of the raw data.

  14. DESIGN OF THE CONTACT POTENTIALS DIFFERENCE PROBES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. U. Pantsialeyeu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The contact potential difference probes distinguished by great variety and produced mostly in the laboratory for specific experimental applications. As a rule, they consist of commercially available instrumentation, and have a number of disadvantages: large dimensions, complexity and high cost, small sensitivity, operating speed, noiseproof, etc. The purpose of this paper is to describe the basic approaches to design of the small dimension, complete contact potential difference probes, providing high sensitivity, operating speed, and noise immunity. In this paper the contact potential difference probe, which is a electrometer with dynamic capacitor plate at about 0.1–5 mm2 . These probes are could be used in scanning systems, such as a Scanning Kelvin Probe, as well as for controlling system of manufacturing processes, e.g. under friction. The design of such contact potential difference probes conducted using modern electronic components, unique circuitry and design solutions described in detail at paper. The electromechanical modulator applied for mechanical vibrations of the reference sample. To provide a high amplitude and phase stability the upgraded generator with Wien bridge was used instead traditional oscillation sensor. The preamplifier made on the base of modern operational amplifiers with femtoampere current input. The power of the preamplifier designed with «floating ground». It allows keeping the relation constant potential to the probe components when changing over a wide range the compensation voltage. The phase detector-integrator based on the electronic antiphase switches with the modulation frequency of the contact potential difference and the integrator. Fullwave phase detection would greatly increase the sensitivity of the probe. In addition, the application of the phase detection allows suppressing noise and crosstalk at frequencies different from the modulation frequency. The preamplifier and the reference sample

  15. Chemical Probes of Histone Lysine Methyltransferases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that histone methyltransferases (HMTs, also known as protein methyltransferases (PMTs)) play an important role in diverse biological processes and human diseases by regulating gene expression and the chromatin state. Therefore, HMTs have been increasingly recognized by the biomedical community as a class of potential therapeutic targets. High quality chemical probes of HMTs, as tools for deciphering their physiological functions and roles in human diseases and testing therapeutic hypotheses, are critical for advancing this promising field. In this review, we focus on the discovery, characterization, and biological applications of chemical probes for HMTs. PMID:25423077

  16. Atmospheric trident production for probing new physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Feng Ge

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose to use atmospheric neutrinos as a powerful probe of new physics beyond the Standard Model via neutrino trident production. The final state with double muon tracks simultaneously produced from the same vertex is a distinctive signal at large Cherenkov detectors. We calculate the expected event numbers of trident production in the Standard Model. To illustrate the potential of this process to probe new physics we obtain the sensitivity on new vector/scalar bosons with coupling to muon and tau neutrinos.

  17. Linking probe thermodynamics to microarray quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shuzhao; Pozhitkov, Alexander; Brouwer, Marius

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the difference in probe properties holds the key to absolute quantification of DNA microarrays. So far, Langmuir-like models have failed to link sequence-specific properties to hybridization signals in the presence of a complex hybridization background. Data from washing experiments indicate that the post-hybridization washing has no major effect on the specifically bound targets, which give the final signals. Thus, the amount of specific targets bound to probes is likely determined before washing, by the competition against nonspecific binding. Our competitive hybridization model is a viable alternative to Langmuir-like models. (comment)

  18. Atom probe tomography analysis of WC powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidow, Jonathan

    2013-09-01

    A tantalum doped tungsten carbide powder, (W,Ta)C, was prepared with the purpose to maximise the amount of Ta in the hexagonal mixed crystal carbide. Atom probe tomography (APT) was considered to be the best technique to quantitatively measure the amount of Ta within this carbide. As the carbide powder consisted in the form of very small particles (WC-Co based cemented carbide specimen. With the use of a laser assisted atom probe, it was shown that the method is working and the Ta content of the (W,Ta)C could be measured quantitatively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. In Australia: Multiple Intelligences in Multiple Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vialle, Wilma

    1997-01-01

    In Australia, Gardner's multiple-intelligences theory has strongly influenced primary, preschool, and special education. A survey of 30 schools revealed that teachers use two basic approaches: teaching to, and teaching through, multiple intelligences. The first approach might develop children's music skills via playing an instrument. The second…

  20. Simultaneous detection of multiple DNA targets by integrating dual-color graphene quantum dot nanoprobes and carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhaosheng; Shan, Xiaoyue; Chai, Lujing; Chen, Jianrong; Feng, Hui

    2014-12-01

    Simultaneous detection of multiple DNA targets was achieved based on a biocompatible graphene quantum dots (GQDs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) platform through spontaneous assembly between dual-color GQD-based probes and CNTs and subsequently self-recognition between DNA probes and targets. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Nuclear Probing of Dense Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard Petrasso

    2007-01-01

    The object of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is to compress a fuel capsule to a state with high enough density and temperature to ignite, starting a self-sustaining fusion burn that consumes much of the fuel and releases a large amount of energy. The national ICF research program is trying to reach this goal, especially through experiments at the OMEGA laser facility of the University of Rochester Laboratory of Laser Energetics (LLE), planned experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and experimental and theoretical work at other national laboratories. The work by MIT reported here has played several important roles in this national program. First, the development of new and improved charged-particle-based plasma diagnostics has allowed the gathering of new and unique diagnostic information about the implosions of fuel capsules in ICF experiments, providing new means for evaluating experiments and for studying capsule implosion dynamics. Proton spectrometers have become the standard for evaluating the mass assembly in compressed capsules in experiments at OMEGA; the measured energy downshift of either primary or secondary D3He fusion protons to determines the areal density, or ?R, of imploded capsules. The Proton Temporal Diagnostic measures the time history of fusion burn, and multiple proton emission imaging cameras reveal the 3-D spatial distribution of fusion burn. A new compact neutron spectrometer, for measuring fusion yield, is described here for the first time. And of especially high importance to future work is the Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS), which is a neutron spectrometer that will be used to study a range of important performance parameters in future experiments at the NIF. A prototype is currently being prepared for testing at OMEGA, using a magnet funded by this grant. Second, MIT has used these diagnostic instruments to perform its own physics experiments

  2. Nuclear Probing of Dense Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Petrasso

    2007-02-14

    The object of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is to compress a fuel capsule to a state with high enough density and temperature to ignite, starting a self-sustaining fusion burn that consumes much of the fuel and releases a large amount of energy. The national ICF research program is trying to reach this goal, especially through experiments at the OMEGA laser facility of the University of Rochester Laboratory of Laser Energetics (LLE), planned experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and experimental and theoretical work at other national laboratories. The work by MIT reported here has played several important roles in this national program. First, the development of new and improved charged-particle-based plasma diagnostics has allowed the gathering of new and unique diagnostic information about the implosions of fuel capsules in ICF experiments, providing new means for evaluating experiments and for studying capsule implosion dynamics. Proton spectrometers have become the standard for evaluating the mass assembly in compressed capsules in experiments at OMEGA; the measured energy downshift of either primary or secondary D3He fusion protons to determines the areal density, or ?R, of imploded capsules. The Proton Temporal Diagnostic measures the time history of fusion burn, and multiple proton emission imaging cameras reveal the 3-D spatial distribution of fusion burn. A new compact neutron spectrometer, for measuring fusion yield, is described here for the first time. And of especially high importance to future work is the Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS), which is a neutron spectrometer that will be used to study a range of important performance parameters in future experiments at the NIF. A prototype is currently being prepared for testing at OMEGA, using a magnet funded by this grant. Second, MIT has used these diagnostic instruments to perform its own physics experiments

  3. Scaling of heavy ion beam probes for reactor-size devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickok, R.L.; Jennings, W.C.; Connor, K.A.; Schoch, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    Heavy ion beam probes for reactor-size plasma devices will require beam energies of approximately 10 MeV. Although accelerator technology appears to be available, beam deflection systems and parallel plate energy analyzers present severe difficulties if existing technology is scaled in a straightforward manner. We propose a different operating mode which will use a fixed beam trajectory and multiple cylindrical energy analyzers. Development effort will still be necessary, but we believe the basic technology is available

  4. Relationship between Multiple Intelligence, Reading Proficiency, and Implementing Motivational Strategies: A Study of Iranian Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayazi-Nasab, Ensieh; Ghafournia, Narjes

    2016-01-01

    There exist many factors, affecting reading ability. Multiple intelligence and motivational strategies are among the factors that seem to make significant contribution to the reading process. Thus, the present study probed the probable significant relation between Iranian language learners' multiple intelligences and reading ability. The study…

  5. Dynamic pressure probe response tests for robust measurements in periodic flows close to probe resonating frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhun Şahin, Fatma; Schiffmann, Jürg

    2018-02-01

    A single-hole probe was designed to measure steady and periodic flows with high fluctuation amplitudes and with minimal flow intrusion. Because of its high aspect ratio, estimations showed that the probe resonates at a frequency two orders of magnitude lower than the fast response sensor cut-off frequencies. The high fluctuation amplitudes cause a non-linear behavior of the probe and available models are neither adequate for a quantitative estimation of the resonating frequencies nor for predicting the system damping. Instead, a non-linear data correction procedure based on individual transfer functions defined for each harmonic contribution is introduced for pneumatic probes that allows to extend their operating range beyond the resonating frequencies and linear dynamics. This data correction procedure was assessed on a miniature single-hole probe of 0.35 mm inner diameter which was designed to measure flow speed and direction. For the reliable use of such a probe in periodic flows, its frequency response was reproduced with a siren disk, which allows exciting the probe up to 10 kHz with peak-to-peak amplitudes ranging between 20%-170% of the absolute mean pressure. The effect of the probe interior design on the phase lag and amplitude distortion in periodic flow measurements was investigated on probes with similar inner diameters and different lengths or similar aspect ratios (L/D) and different total interior volumes. The results suggest that while the tube length consistently sets the resonance frequency, the internal total volume affects the non-linear dynamic response in terms of varying gain functions. A detailed analysis of the introduced calibration methodology shows that the goodness of the reconstructed data compared to the reference data is above 75% for fundamental frequencies up to twice the probe resonance frequency. The results clearly suggest that the introduced procedure is adequate to capture non-linear pneumatic probe dynamics and to

  6. Azaphthalocyanines: Red Fluorescent Probes for Cations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, V.; Lochman, L.; Zajícová, I.; Kopecký, K.; Miletin, M.; Lang, Kamil; Kirakci, Kaplan; Zimcik, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 16 (2013), s. 5025-5028 ISSN 0947-6539 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/10/1678 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : crown compounds * fluorescent probes * phthalocyanine s * potassium * sodium Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.696, year: 2013

  7. Carbon nanotubes as in vivo bacterial probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Neelkanth M.; Ghosh, Debadyuti; Belcher, Angela M.

    2014-09-01

    With the rise in antibiotic-resistant infections, non-invasive sensing of infectious diseases is increasingly important. Optical imaging, although safer and simpler, is less developed than other modalities such as radioimaging, due to low availability of target-specific molecular probes. Here we report carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as bacterial probes for fluorescence imaging of pathogenic infections. We demonstrate that SWNTs functionalized using M13 bacteriophage (M13-SWNT) can distinguish between F‧-positive and F‧-negative bacterial strains. Moreover, through one-step modification, we attach an anti-bacterial antibody on M13-SWNT, making it easily tunable for sensing specific F‧-negative bacteria. We illustrate detection of Staphylococcus aureus intramuscular infections, with ~3.4 × enhancement in fluorescence intensity over background. SWNT imaging presents lower signal spread ~0.08 × and higher signal amplification ~1.4 × , compared with conventional dyes. We show the probe offers greater ~5.7 × enhancement in imaging of S. aureus infective endocarditis. These biologically functionalized, aqueous-dispersed, actively targeted, modularly tunable SWNT probes offer new avenues for exploration of deeply buried infections.

  8. Continuously tunable nucleic acid hybridization probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lucia R; Wang, Juexiao Sherry; Fang, John Z; Evans, Emily R; Pinto, Alessandro; Pekker, Irena; Boykin, Richard; Ngouenet, Celine; Webster, Philippa J; Beechem, Joseph; Zhang, David Yu

    2015-12-01

    In silico-designed nucleic acid probes and primers often do not achieve favorable specificity and sensitivity tradeoffs on the first try, and iterative empirical sequence-based optimization is needed, particularly in multiplexed assays. We present a novel, on-the-fly method of tuning probe affinity and selectivity by adjusting the stoichiometry of auxiliary species, which allows for independent and decoupled adjustment of the hybridization yield for different probes in multiplexed assays. Using this method, we achieved near-continuous tuning of probe effective free energy. To demonstrate our approach, we enforced uniform capture efficiency of 31 DNA molecules (GC content, 0-100%), maximized the signal difference for 11 pairs of single-nucleotide variants and performed tunable hybrid capture of mRNA from total RNA. Using the Nanostring nCounter platform, we applied stoichiometric tuning to simultaneously adjust yields for a 24-plex assay, and we show multiplexed quantitation of RNA sequences and variants from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples.

  9. Probing the pre-big bang universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veneziano, G.

    2000-01-01

    Superstring theory suggests a new cosmology whereby a long inflationary phase preceded a non singular big bang-like event. After discussing how pre-big bang inflation naturally arises from an almost trivial initial state of the Universe, I will describe how present or near-future experiments can provide sensitive probes of how the Universe behaved in the pre-bang era

  10. Electrospray deposition from fountain pen AFM probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, J.; Sarajlic, Edin; Berenschot, Johan W.; Abelmann, Leon; Tas, Niels Roelof

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present for the first time electrospraying from fountain pen probes. By using electrospray contactless deposition in an AFM setup becomes possible. Experiments on a dedicated setup were carried out as first step towards this goal. Spraying from 8 and 2 µm apertures was observed. For

  11. Probing Students' Numerical Misconceptions in School Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Zarina; Steinle, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    The study was designed to probe students' thinking about which numerical values can be assigned to algebraic letters. The data from students in Year 7 (n = 533), Year 8 (n = 377) and Year 9 (n = 172) was analysed using response patterns. The data confirmed that each year contained students with two misconceptions; "Different Letter means…

  12. Evaluating Metal Probe Meters for Soil Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.

    1992-01-01

    Inexpensive metal probe meters that are sold by garden stores can be evaluated by students for their accuracy in measuring soil pH, moisture, fertility, and salinity. The author concludes that the meters are inaccurate and cannot be calibrated in standard units. However, the student evaluations are useful in learning the methods of soil analysis…

  13. Manufacturing techniques for Gravity Probe B gyroscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasquin, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Additional and improved techniques for the manufacture of Gravity Probe B gyroscopes are reported. Improvements discussed include the redesign of the housings, new techniques for indentation of the electrode surfaces, and a new rotor ball lapping machine. These three items represent a significant improvement in operation of the gyroscope and also make possible the fabrication of a gyroscope which will meet flight requirements.

  14. Probe and method for DNA detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hsin-Chih; Werner, James Henry; Sharma, Jaswinder Kumar; Martinez, Jennifer Suzanne

    2013-07-02

    A hybridization probe containing two linear strands of DNA lights up upon hybridization to a target DNA using silver nanoclusters that have been templated onto one of the DNA strands. Hybridization induces proximity between the nanoclusters on one strand and an overhang on the other strand, which results in enhanced fluorescence emission from the nanoclusters.

  15. Response time of electromagnetic field strength probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt-Ardatjew, R.A.; Serra, Ramiro; Hiltz, L. Gregory; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Modern signals in for instance wireless communication systems and radars use very complex modulation with high peakto-average ratio. Other signals, such as in reverberation chambers with mode stirring, vary very fast with a high dynamic range. Conventional probes, using thermocouples or diode

  16. Probing echoic memory with different voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, D J; Bastian, J

    1977-05-01

    Considerable evidence has indicated that some acoustical properties of spoken items are preserved in an "echoic" memory for approximately 2 sec. However, some of this evidence has also shown that changing the voice speaking the stimulus items has a disruptive effect on memory which persists longer than that of other acoustical variables. The present experiment examined the effect of voice changes on response bias as well as on accuracy in a recognition memory task. The task involved judging recognition probes as being present in or absent from sets of dichotically presented digits. Recognition of probes spoken in the same voice as that of the dichotic items was more accurate than recognition of different-voice probes at each of three retention intervals of up to 4 sec. Different-voice probes increased the likelihood of "absent" responses, but only up to a 1.4-sec delay. These shifts in response bias may represent a property of echoic memory which should be investigated further.

  17. Genetically encoded fluorescent probe to visualize phosphatidylinositol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eisenreichová, Andrea; Humpolíčková, Jana; Bouřa, Evžen

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 284, Suppl 1 (2017), s. 364-365 ISSN 1742-464X. [FEBS Congress /42./ From Molecules to Cells and Back. 10.09.2017-14.09.2017, Jerusalem] R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ15-21030Y; GA MŠk LO1302 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : phosphatidylinositol * fluorescent probe Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  18. University scientists test Mars probe equipment

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Scientists at Leicester University have spent four years researching and designing the Flight Model Position Adjustable Workbench (PAW) at the university. It will be attached to the Beagle 2 probe before being sent to the Red Planet in the spring (1/2 page).

  19. Crack detection by mobile photothermal probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besnard, R.; Le Blanc, A.; Sellier, J.Y.

    1993-01-01

    This paper deals with an industrial method for crack detection. The apparatus presented is based on a mobile photothermal probe. It can be used under different modes (sinusoidal, pulsed or scanned excitation). Moreover, the description of the device provided includes theoretical and experimental results. (TEC). 7 refs., 6 figs

  20. Recombinant phage probes for Listeria monocytogenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnazza, S; Gioffre, G; Felici, F; Guglielmino, S [Department of Microbiological, Genetic and Molecular Sciences, University of Messina, Messina (Italy)

    2007-10-03

    Monitoring of food and environmental samples for biological threats, such as Listeria monocytogenes, requires probes that specifically bind biological agents and ensure their immediate and efficient detection. There is a need for robust and inexpensive affinity probes as an alternative to antibodies. These probes may be recruited from random peptide libraries displayed on filamentous phage. In this study, we selected from two phage peptide libraries phage clones displaying peptides capable of specific and strong binding to the L. monocytogenes cell surface. The ability of isolated phage clones to interact specifically with L. monocytogenes was demonstrated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and confirmed by co-precipitation assay. We also assessed the sensitivity of phage-bacteria binding by PCR on phage-captured Listeria cells, which could be detected at a concentration of 10{sup 4} cells ml{sup -1}. In addition, as proof-of-concept, we tested the possibility of immobilizing the affinity-selected phages to a putative biosensor surface. The quality of phage deposition was monitored by ELISA and fluorescent microscopy. Phage-bacterial binding was confirmed by high power optical phase contrast microscopy. Overall, the results of this work validate the concept of affinity-selected recombinant filamentous phages as probes for detecting and monitoring bacterial agents under any conditions that warrant their recognition, including in food products.

  1. Probing ultrafast carrier dynamics, nonlinear absorption and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 471–481. Probing ultrafast carrier dynamics, nonlinear absorption and refraction in core–shell silicon nanowires. SUNIL KUMAR1,∗, M KHORASANINEJAD2, M M ADACHI2,. K S KARIM2, S S SAINI2 and A K SOOD1. 1Department of Physics and Centre for Ultrafast Laser Applications, Indian Institute of Science,.

  2. Uso de órtese para abdução do polegar no desempenho funcional de criança portadora de paralisia cerebral: estudo de caso único Use of abduction thumb orthosis in functional performance of a child with cerebral palsy: a single-subject study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana M. Valladão N. Rodrigues

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: documentar o impacto do uso da órtese de abdução do polegar no desempenho funcional de uma criança hemiparética com leve espasticidade. MÉTODOS: foi utilizado um desenho experimental de caso-único do tipo AB. A fase A consistiu na coleta de dados durante um período sem intervenção (condição controle. A fase B incluiu o uso de órtese de abdução do polegar como procedimento terapêutico associado ao atendimento de terapia ocupacional tradicional. A fase A teve a duração de seis semanas e a fase subseqüente de oito semanas. A criança foi avaliada semanalmente quanto à amplitude ativa de movimento de extensão e flexão de punho, abdução e oponência do polegar e quanto à função manual. A análise dos dados foi realizada através dos métodos estatísticos Celeration Line e Banda de Dois Desvios-Padrão, assim como da Análise Visual. RESULTADOS: a criança apresentou melhora significativa na amplitude de movimento do punho e polegar (ADM ativa. Com relação à função manual observou-se redução do tempo para realização das tarefas, porém não significativa, exceto para a tarefa de empilhar blocos. CONCLUSÕES: os resultados sugerem que o uso da órtese de abdução do polegar pode ser útil no tratamento de crianças com paralisia cerebral espástica para a melhoria da ADM ativa da mão, podendo ser utilizada como adjuvante a outras terapêuticas.OBJECTIVE: to investigate the impact of a thumb abduction orthosis on functional skills of a child with hemiparetic cerebral palsy and mild spasticity. METHODS: an AB single-subject design was used in this study. Baseline A consisted of data collected during a period without intervention (control conditions. The intervention phase B included the use of a thumb abduction orthosis in association with traditional occupational therapy. The baseline lasted six weeks and the intervention period eight weeks. Assessments were performed once a week throughout the study and

  3. Evaluation of Flat Surface Temperature Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beges, G.; Rudman, M.; Drnovsek, J.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is elaboration of elements related to metrological analysis in the field of surface temperature measurement. Surface temperature measurements are applicable in many fields. As examples, safety testing of electrical appliances and a pharmaceutical production line represent case studies for surface temperature measurements. In both cases correctness of the result of the surface temperature has an influence on final product safety and quality and thus conformity with specifications. This paper deals with the differences of flat surface temperature probes in measuring the surface temperature. For the purpose of safety testing of electrical appliances, surface temperature measurements are very important for safety of the user. General requirements are presented in European standards, which support requirements in European directives, e.g., European Low Voltage Directive 2006/95/EC and pharmaceutical requirements, which are introduced in official state legislation. This paper introduces a comparison of temperature measurements of an attached thermocouple on the measured surface and measurement with flat surface temperature probes. As a heat generator, a so called temperature artifact is used. It consists of an aluminum plate with an incorporated electrical heating element with very good temperature stability in the central part. The probes and thermocouple were applied with different forces to the surface in horizontal and vertical positions. The reference temperature was measured by a J-type fine-wire (0.2 mm) thermocouple. Two probes were homemade according to requirements in the European standard EN 60335-2-9/A12, one with a fine-wire (0.2 mm) thermocouple and one with 0.5mm of thermocouple wire diameter. Additional commercially available probes were compared. Differences between probes due to thermal conditions caused by application of the probe were found. Therefore, it can happen that measurements are performed with improper equipment or

  4. Probing cell mechanical properties with microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowat, Amy

    2012-02-01

    Exploiting flow on the micron-scale is emerging as a method to probe cell mechanical properties with 10-1000x advances in throughput over existing technologies. The mechanical properties of cells and the cell nucleus are implicated in a wide range of biological contexts: for example, the ability of white blood cells to deform is central to immune response; and malignant cells show decreased stiffness compared to benign cells. We recently developed a microfluidic device to probe cell and nucleus mechanical properties: cells are forced to deform through a narrow constrictions in response to an applied pressure; flowing cells through a series of constrictions enables us to probe the ability of hundreds of cells to deform and relax during flow. By tuning the constriction width so it is narrower than the width of the cell nucleus, we can specifically probe the effects of nuclear physical properties on whole cell deformability. We show that the nucleus is the rate-limiting step in cell passage: inducing a change in its shape to a multilobed structure results in cells that transit more quickly; increased levels of lamin A, a nuclear protein that is key for nuclear shape and mechanical stability, impairs the passage of cells through constrictions. We are currently developing a new class of microfluidic devices to simultaneously probe the deformability of hundreds of cell samples in parallel. Using the same soft lithography techniques, membranes are fabricated to have well-defined pore distribution, width, length, and tortuosity. We design the membranes to interface with a multiwell plate, enabling simultaneous measurement of hundreds of different samples. Given the wide spectrum of diseases where altered cell and nucleus mechanical properties are implicated, such a platform has great potential, for example, to screen cells based on their mechanical phenotype against a library of drugs.

  5. Data Communication PC/NaI-borehole probe (Hardware & Software)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Buch

    Development of new hard- & software to a NaI borehole probe on a PC. Save data from the probe each 10'th sec, handle the data from the probe and make calculations every 10'th sec and show the results on the monitor.......Development of new hard- & software to a NaI borehole probe on a PC. Save data from the probe each 10'th sec, handle the data from the probe and make calculations every 10'th sec and show the results on the monitor....

  6. Domestic Violence - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Domestic Violence URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Domestic Violence - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  7. ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Christensen, C

    2013-01-01

    The Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) extends the coverage for multiplicity of charge particles into the forward regions - giving ALICE the widest coverage of the 4 LHC experiments for these measurements.

  8. Health Literacy - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Health Literacy URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... W XYZ List of All Topics All Health Literacy - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  9. Postpartum Depression - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Postpartum Depression URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Postpartum Depression - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  10. Dual Diagnosis - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Dual Diagnosis URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Dual Diagnosis - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  11. Zika Virus - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Zika Virus URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Zika Virus - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  12. Cesarean Section - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Cesarean Section URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Cesarean Section - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  13. Child Abuse - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  14. Salmonella Infections - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Salmonella Infections URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Salmonella Infections - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  15. Panic Disorder - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Panic Disorder URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Panic Disorder - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  16. Rotavirus Infections - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Rotavirus Infections URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Rotavirus Infections - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  17. Herbal Medicine - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Herbal Medicine URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Herbal Medicine - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  18. Cosmetic Dentistry - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Cosmetic Dentistry URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... W XYZ List of All Topics All Cosmetic Dentistry - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  19. Oral Cancer - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Oral Cancer URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Oral Cancer - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  20. Generalized internal multiple imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, Mohammad Akbar Hosain

    2014-12-04

    Various examples are provided for generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI). In one example, among others, a method includes generating a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and rendering the higher order internal multiple image for presentation. In another example, a system includes a computing device and a generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI) application executable in the computing device. The GIMI application includes logic that generates a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and logic that renders the higher order internal multiple image for display on a display device. In another example, a non-transitory computer readable medium has a program executable by processing circuitry that generates a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and renders the higher order internal multiple image for display on a display device.

  1. Multiple sclerosis - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000129.htm Multiple sclerosis - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... Your doctor has told you that you have multiple sclerosis (MS). This disease affects the brain and spinal ...

  2. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... switch to the Professional version Home Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes Types Type 1 disease Type 2A disease Type 2B disease Diagnosis Treatment Resources In This Article Drugs Mentioned In This ...

  3. Multiple System Atrophy (MSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) Overview Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare, degenerative neurological disorder affecting your body's involuntary (autonomic) functions, including blood pressure, breathing, bladder function and muscle ...

  4. A Universal Spring-Probe System for Reliable Probing of Electrochemical Lab-on-a-Chip Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon-Keun Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For achieve sensitivity in lab-on-a-chip electrochemical detection, more reliable probing methods are required, especially for repeated measurements. Spring-probes are a promising candidate method which can replace needle-like probes and alligator clips that usually produce scratches on the surface of gold electrodes due to the strong physical contacts needed for electrochemical measurements. The superior reliability of amperometric measurements by a spring-probe system was compared with results by conventional probing methods. We demonstrated that a universal spring-probe system would be potentially suitable to achieve high performance in lab-on-a-chip devices using electrochemical detection.

  5. High Temperature Ultrasonic Probe and Pulse-Echo Probe Mounting Fixture for Testing and Blind Alignment on Steam Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Lih, Shyh-Shiuh (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Takano, Nobuyuki (Inventor); Ostlund, Patrick N. (Inventor); Lee, Hyeong Jae (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A high temperature ultrasonic probe and a mounting fixture for attaching and aligning the probe to a steam pipe using blind alignment. The high temperature ultrasonic probe includes a piezoelectric transducer having a high temperature. The probe provides both transmitting and receiving functionality. The mounting fixture allows the high temperature ultrasonic probe to be accurately aligned to the bottom external surface of the steam pipe so that the presence of liquid water in the steam pipe can be monitored. The mounting fixture with a mounted high temperature ultrasonic probe are used to conduct health monitoring of steam pipes and to track the height of condensed water through the wall in real-time.

  6. Rational chemical design of the next generation of molecular imaging probes based on physics and biology: mixing modalities, colors and signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hisataka; Longmire, Michelle R; Ogawa, Mikako; Choyke, Peter L

    2011-09-01

    In recent years, numerous in vivo molecular imaging probes have been developed. As a consequence, much has been published on the design and synthesis of molecular imaging probes focusing on each modality, each type of material, or each target disease. More recently, second generation molecular imaging probes with unique, multi-functional, or multiplexed characteristics have been designed. This critical review focuses on (i) molecular imaging using combinations of modalities and signals that employ the full range of the electromagnetic spectra, (ii) optimized chemical design of molecular imaging probes for in vivo kinetics based on biology and physiology across a range of physical sizes, (iii) practical examples of second generation molecular imaging probes designed to extract complementary data from targets using multiple modalities, color, and comprehensive signals (277 references). This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  7. Neutron Multiplicity Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frame, Katherine Chiyoko [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-28

    Neutron multiplicity measurements are widely used for nondestructive assay (NDA) of special nuclear material (SNM). When combined with isotopic composition information, neutron multiplicity analysis can be used to estimate the spontaneous fission rate and leakage multiplication of SNM. When combined with isotopic information, the total mass of fissile material can also be determined. This presentation provides an overview of this technique.

  8. Multiple meningiomas CASE SERIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • June 2006. Abstract. Multiple meningioma is a condition in which ... Post-contrast image showing contrast enhanced right temporal and frontal parasagittal meningiomas. CASE SERIES ... in the formation of multiple, clonally related tumours.2,3,4,8. Gruber et al.6 described a case of multiple ...

  9. Probe experiment characterizing 30-MHz radio wave scatter in the high-latitude ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, M.; Gorokhov, N.; Tanaka, Y.; Yamagishi, H.; Hansen, T.

    1999-07-01

    A probe experiment, consisting of radio links between a common 30-MHz transmitter located at Murmansk, Russia, and two receivers used as the imaging riometer (two-dimensional 64 multiple-beam antenna) located at Ny Ålesund, Svalbard, and Tjornes, Iceland, was carried out to characterize wave scatter in the high-latitude ionosphere. They are nearly aligned with and perpendicular to the geomagnetic meridian, respectively. In experiments conducted in March-April 1994, the 30-MHz probe signals were identified at nighttime more frequently than during the day at both receiver stations during periods of increased geomagnetic activity near the path midpoints, indicating that a relationship between the propagation path and the location of the auroral oval controls signal identification. For the nighttime propagation paths within or crossing through the auroral oval, duty cycles of the probe signals were roughly correlated with increases in geomagnetic activity. Their arrival directions showed a spread with a dominant power on the low elevation and a normal distribution in azimuth. These results indicate that the probe signals are characterized as nonmeteoric "auroral E" scatter caused by irregular, large-scale profiles of electron density enhancements at the lower edge of the ionosphere. However, on 2 days of weak geomagnetic activity, strong probe signals with bursty behavior were identified by an extremely high duty cycle (˜98%) for the nighttime meridian path only, and their arrival directions showed an isotropic spread in azimuth. Such nonmeteoric probe signals are characterized as "coherent" scatter caused by small-scale (˜5 m) field-aligned irregularities in electron density in the E region ionosphere, related to "sporadic E" occurrence.

  10. Bio-polymer coatings on neural probe surfaces: Influence of the initial sample composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Winnie W.Y. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Herwik, Stanislav; Ruther, Patrick [Department of Microsystems Engineering (IMTEK), University of Freiburg (Germany); Goethelid, Emmanuelle [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Oscarsson, Sven, E-mail: sven@svenoscarsson.com [Department of Organic Chemistry, Stockholm University, Arrhenius Laboratory, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents the results of the study of hyaluronic acid (HyA) coating on two structural materials, silicon oxide (dielectric) surface and platinum (Pt) surface used for fabrication of probes developed for neurological investigations in the framework of the EU-project NeuroProbes. The silicon-based neural probes consist of multiple Pt electrodes on the probe shafts for neural recording applications. HyA coatings were proposed to apply on the probe surfaces to enhance the biocompatibility. This study aims at understanding the influence of the initial composition of the probe surface on the structure and morphology of HyA coating. HyA was chemically functionalized by SS-pyridin using (N-Succinimidyl 3-[2-pyridyldithio]-propionate) (SPDP) and was immobilized on the surfaces via a covalent bond. The dielectric and Pt surfaces were derivatized by use of (3-mercaptopropyl) methyldimethoxysilane (MPMDMS). The silanol groups in MPMDMS bind to the dielectric surface, leaving the thiol groups at the uppermost surface and the thiol groups then bind covalently to the functionalized HyA. On the Pt surface, it is the thiol group which binds on the Pt surface. The coated surfaces were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). A well-defined HyA layer was observed on both dielectric and Pt surfaces. The coating of two molecular weights (340 kDa and 1.3 MDa) of HyA was examined. The influence of the silanized layer on the HyA coating was also investigated.

  11. Free radical scavenging properties of some wine probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stasko, A.; Liptakova, M.; Malik, F.

    1999-01-01

    There are preliminary results of investigation of scavenging properties of 8 probes of Slovak wines (consisting of one reference, 3 probes of white wine and 4 probes of red wine). According to the literature so far, wine probes contain paramagnetic species (Mn 2+ , characterised with sextet spectrum, and a singlet line around g=2,00). In our probes we observed Mn 2+ signals, but no significant evidence for a single line of free radical was found. We can conclude that Mn 2+ content in the red wines is generally higher than in the white ones. Further, we investigated the scavenging activities of the probes adding solution of dinitropicryl hydrazyl (DPPH-stable radical) to them. Their ability to terminate free radicals resulted in the decrease of the final DPPH concentrations in the probes. The red wines have significantly higher capability to scavenge free radicals than the probes of white wines. (authors)

  12. Periodontal probing systems: a review of available equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, Srinivas Sulugodu; Mehta, Dhoom Singh; Sandesh, Nagarajappa; Baliga, Vidya; Amarnath, Janardhan

    2011-03-01

    The periodontal pocket, one of the definitive signs of periodontal disease, is the most common parameter to be assessed by dental clinicians. Periodontal probes have been the instruments most commonly used to locate and measure these pockets. Regular use of periodontal probes in routine dental practice facilitates and increases the accuracy of the process of diagnosing the condition, formulating the treatment, and predicting the outcome of therapy. Advances in the field of periodontal probing have led to the development of probes that may help reduce errors in determining this parameter used to define the state of active periodontal disease. One such advance is the emergence of probes that purportedly assess periodontal disease activity noninvasively. The selection of periodontal probe depends on the type of dental practice: a general dental practitioner would require first- or second-generation probes, while third- through fifth-generation probes generally are used in academic and research institutions as well as specialty practices.

  13. Database architecture and query structures for probe data processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This report summarizes findings and implementations of probe vehicle data collection based on Bluetooth MAC address matching technology. Probe vehicle travel time data are studied in the following field deployment case studies: analysis of traffic ch...

  14. Investigations of Probe Induced Perturbations in a Hall Thruster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Staack; Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch

    2002-01-01

    An electrostatic probe used to measure spatial plasma parameters in a Hall thruster generates perturbations of the plasma. These perturbations are examined by varying the probe material, penetration distance, residence time, and the nominal thruster conditions. The study leads us to recommendations for probe design and thruster operating conditions to reduce discharge perturbations, including metal shielding of the probe insulator and operation of the thruster at lower densities

  15. Hand and shoe monitor using air ionization probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fergus, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    A hand and shoe radiation monitor is provided which includes a probe support body defining a plurality of cells, within each cell there being an ionization probe. The support body provides structural strength for protecting the ionization probes from force applied to the support body during a radiation monitoring event. There is also provided a fast response time amplifier circuit for the output from the ionization probes

  16. Characteristics of langmuir probe in low temperature, weakly magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Liqi; Liu Wandong; Xie Jinlin; Yu Zhi; Lan Tao; Ouyang Liang; Wang Yi; Zhao Kai

    2003-01-01

    The systematic Langmuir probe measurements for a weakly magnetized plasma have been carried out in the Linear Magnetized Plasma Device for different magnetic fields. By comparing the ion current density of probes with different sizes, the sheath thickness can be evaluated. It is found that while the ratio of cylindrical probe's dimension to ion Larmor radius is not more than 2, the model of probe for non-magnetized plasma is still applicable

  17. Micro- and nanodevices integrated with biomolecular probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alapan, Yunus; Icoz, Kutay; Gurkan, Umut A

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how biomolecules, proteins and cells interact with their surroundings and other biological entities has become the fundamental design criterion for most biomedical micro- and nanodevices. Advances in biology, medicine, and nanofabrication technologies complement each other and allow us to engineer new tools based on biomolecules utilized as probes. Engineered micro/nanosystems and biomolecules in nature have remarkably robust compatibility in terms of function, size, and physical properties. This article presents the state of the art in micro- and nanoscale devices designed and fabricated with biomolecular probes as their vital constituents. General design and fabrication concepts are presented and three major platform technologies are highlighted: microcantilevers, micro/nanopillars, and microfluidics. Overview of each technology, typical fabrication details, and application areas are presented by emphasizing significant achievements, current challenges, and future opportunities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Probing surface magnetism with ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, H.

    2007-01-01

    Ion beams can be used to probe magnetic properties of surfaces by a variety of different methods. Important features of these methods are related to trajectories of atomic projectiles scattered from the surface of a solid target and to the electronic interaction mechanisms in the surface region. Both items provide under specific conditions a high sensitivity for the detection of magnetic properties in the region at the topmost layer of surface atoms. This holds in particular for scattering under planar surface channeling conditions, where under grazing impact atoms or ions are reflected specularly from the surface without penetration into the subsurface region. Two different types of methods are employed based on the detection of the spin polarization of emitted or captured electrons and on spin blocking effects for capture into atomic terms. These techniques allow one to probe the long range and short range magnetic order in the surface region

  19. Mapping interfacial excess in atom probe data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felfer, Peter; Scherrer, Barbara; Demeulemeester, Jelle; Vandervorst, Wilfried; Cairney, Julie M.

    2015-01-01

    Using modern wide-angle atom probes, it is possible to acquire atomic scale 3D data containing 1000 s of nm 2 of interfaces. It is therefore possible to probe the distribution of segregated species across these interfaces. Here, we present techniques that allow the production of models for interfacial excess (IE) mapping and discuss the underlying considerations and sampling statistics. We also show, how the same principles can be used to achieve thickness mapping of thin films. We demonstrate the effectiveness on example applications, including the analysis of segregation to a phase boundary in stainless steel, segregation to a metal–ceramic interface and the assessment of thickness variations of the gate oxide in a fin-FET. - Highlights: • Using computational geometry, interfacial excess can be mapped for various features in APT. • Suitable analysis models can be created by combining manual modelling and mesh generation algorithms. • Thin film thickness can be mapped with high accuracy using this technique.

  20. Modeling Atom Probe Tomography: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vurpillot, F; Oberdorfer, C

    2015-12-01

    Improving both the precision and the accuracy of Atom Probe Tomography reconstruction requires a correct understanding of the imaging process. In this aim, numerical modeling approaches have been developed for 15 years. The injected ingredients of these modeling tools are related to the basic physic of the field evaporation mechanism. The interplay between the sample nature and structure of the analyzed sample and the reconstructed image artefacts have pushed to gradually improve and make the model more and more sophisticated. This paper reviews the evolution of the modeling approach in Atom Probe Tomography and presents some future potential directions in order to improve the method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A probe station for testing silicon sensors

    CERN Multimedia

    Caraban Gonzalez, Noemi

    2017-01-01

    A probe station for testing silicon sensors. The probe station is located inside a dark box that can keep away light during the measurement. The set-up is located in the DSF (Department Silicon Facility). The golden plate is the "chuck" where the sensor is usually placed on. With the help of "manipulators", thin needles can be precisely positioned that can contact the sensor surface. Using these needles and the golden chuck, a high voltage can be applied to the sensor to test its behaviour under high voltage. We will use the silicon sensors that we test here for building prototypes of a highly granular sandwich calorimeter, the CMS HGC (Highly granular Calorimeter) upgrade for High-Luminosity LHC.

  2. Labeled estrogens as mammary tumor probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feenstra, A.

    1981-01-01

    In this thesis estrogens labeled with a gamma or positron emitting nuclide, called estrogen-receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals are investigated as mammary tumour probes. The requirements for estrogen-receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals are formulated and the literature on estrogens labeled for this purpose is reviewed. The potential of mercury-197/197m and of carbon-11 as label for estrogen-receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals is investigated. The synthesis of 197 Hg-labeled 4-mercury-estradiol and 2-mercury-estradiol and their properties in vitro and in vivo are described. It appears that though basically carbon-11 labeled compounds are very promising as mammary tumour probes, their achievable specific activity has to be increased. (Auth.)

  3. Optimal design of a touch trigger probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui-Jun; Xiang, Meng; Fan, Kuang-Chao; Zhou, Hao; Feng, Jian

    2015-02-01

    A tungsten stylus with a ruby ball tip was screwed into a floating plate, which was supported by four leaf springs. The displacement of the tip caused by the contact force in 3D could be transferred into the tilt or vertical displacement of a plane mirror mounted on the floating plate. A quadrant photo detector (QPD) based two dimensional angle sensor was used to detect the tilt or the vertical displacement of the plane mirror. The structural parameters of the probe are optimized for equal sensitivity and equal stiffness in a displacement range of +/-5 μm, and a restricted horizontal size of less than 40 mm. Simulation results indicated that the stiffness was less than 0.6 mN/μm and equal in 3D. Experimental results indicated that the probe could be used to achieve a resolution of 1 nm.

  4. Relativistic Current Dynamics Investigations By Proton Probing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghesi, M.; Quinn, K.; Wilson, P. A.; Cecchetti, C. A.; Ramakrishna, B.; Romagnani, L.; Sarri, G.; Lancia, L.; Fuchs, J.; Pipahl, A.; Toncian, T.; Willi, O.; Carroll, D. C.; Gallegos, P.; Quinn, M. N.; Yuan, X. H.; McKenna, P.; Clarke, R. J.; Evans, R. G.; Neely, D.; Notley, M.; Macchi, A.; Lyseikina, T. V.; Nazarov, W.

    2009-07-01

    The proton probing technique has been used to investigate the incidence of a mid-1019 W cm-2 pulse with metallic wire and laminar foam targets. Electric fields ˜1010 Vṡm-1 are measured on the surface of the 125 μm-diameter wire in the wake of the laser interaction as it charges and discharges within a 20 ps temporal window, whilst the employment of a novel experimental technique permits the observation of the propagation of a charging front at ˜c away from the point of interaction. In the foam shots, meanwhile, the behaviour of the hot electrons generated by the interaction pulse is probed inside the target. Evidence of electric inhibition effects and filamentation is found.

  5. Electronic system for Langmuir probe measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitov, M.; Bankova, A.; Dimitrova, M.; Ivanova, P.; Tutulkov, K.; Djermanova, N.; Dejarnac, R.; Stöckel, J.; Popov, Tsv K.

    2012-03-01

    A newly developed Langmuir probe system for measurements of current-voltage (IV) characteristics in the tokamak divertor area is presented and discussed. The system is partially controlled by a computer allowing simultaneous and independent feeding and registration of signals. The system is mounted in the COMPASS tokamak, Institute of Plasma Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. The new electronic circuit boards include also active low-pass filters which smooth the signal before recording by the data acquisition system (DAQ). The signal is thus less noisy and the data processing is much easier. We also designed and built a microcontroller-driven waveform generator with resolution of 1 Ms/s. The power supply is linear and uses a transformer. We avoided the use of a switching power supply because of the noise that it could generate. Examples of measurements of the IV characteristics by divertor probes in the COMPASS tokamak and evaluation of the EEDF are presented.

  6. Protease-activated quantum dot probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Emmanuel; Miller, Jordan S.; Sun, Jiantang; Yu, William W.; Colvin, Vicki L.; Drezek, Rebekah; West, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a novel nanoparticulate luminescent probe with inherent signal amplification upon interaction with a targeted proteolytic enzyme. This construct may be useful for imaging in cancer detection and diagnosis. In this system, quantum dots (QDs) are bound to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) via a proteolytically degradable peptide sequence to non-radiatively suppress luminescence. A 71% reduction in luminescence was achieved with conjugation of AuNPs to QDs. Release of AuNPs by peptide cleavage restores radiative QD photoluminescence. Initial studies observed a 52% rise in luminescence over 47 h of exposure to 0.2 mg/mL collagenase. These probes can be customized for targeted degradation simply by changing the sequence of the peptide linker

  7. Aligned ion implementation using scanning probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persaud, A.

    2006-12-12

    A new technique for precision ion implantation has been developed. A scanning probe has been equipped with a small aperture and incorporated into an ion beamline, so that ions can be implanted through the aperture into a sample. By using a scanning probe the target can be imaged in a non-destructive way prior to implantation and the probe together with the aperture can be placed at the desired location with nanometer precision. In this work first results of a scanning probe integrated into an ion beamline are presented. A placement resolution of about 120 nm is reported. The final placement accuracy is determined by the size of the aperture hole and by the straggle of the implanted ion inside the target material. The limits of this technology are expected to be set by the latter, which is of the order of 10 nm for low energy ions. This research has been carried out in the context of a larger program concerned with the development of quantum computer test structures. For that the placement accuracy needs to be increased and a detector for single ion detection has to be integrated into the setup. Both issues are discussed in this thesis. To achieve single ion detection highly charged ions are used for the implantation, as in addition to their kinetic energy they also deposit their potential energy in the target material, therefore making detection easier. A special ion source for producing these highly charged ions was used and their creation and interactions with solids of are discussed in detail. (orig.)

  8. Ultraspecific probes for high throughput HLA typing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eggers Rick

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The variations within an individual's HLA (Human Leukocyte Antigen genes have been linked to many immunological events, e.g. susceptibility to disease, response to vaccines, and the success of blood, tissue, and organ transplants. Although the microarray format has the potential to achieve high-resolution typing, this has yet to be attained due to inefficiencies of current probe design strategies. Results We present a novel three-step approach for the design of high-throughput microarray assays for HLA typing. This approach first selects sequences containing the SNPs present in all alleles of the locus of interest and next calculates the number of base changes necessary to convert a candidate probe sequences to the closest subsequence within the set of sequences that are likely to be present in the sample including the remainder of the human genome in order to identify those candidate probes which are "ultraspecific" for the allele of interest. Due to the high specificity of these sequences, it is possible that preliminary steps such as PCR amplification are no longer necessary. Lastly, the minimum number of these ultraspecific probes is selected such that the highest resolution typing can be achieved for the minimal cost of production. As an example, an array was designed and in silico results were obtained for typing of the HLA-B locus. Conclusion The assay presented here provides a higher resolution than has previously been developed and includes more alleles than previously considered. Based upon the in silico and preliminary experimental results, we believe that the proposed approach can be readily applied to any highly polymorphic gene system.

  9. Electronic system for Langmuir probe measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mitov, M.; Bankova, A.; Dimitrova, M.; Ivanova, P.; Tutulkov, K.; Djermanova, N.; Dejarnac, Renaud; Stöckel, Jan; Popov, Tsv.K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 356, č. 1 (2012), s. 012008 ISSN 1742-6588. [InternationalSummerSchoolonVacuum,Electron, and IonTechnologies(VEIT2011)/17./. Sunny Beach, 19.09.2011-23.09.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Plasma * tokamak * diagnostics * electric probe Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://iopscience.iop.org/1742-6596/356/1/012008/pdf/1742-6596_356_1_012008.pdf

  10. Probing the Higgs vacuum with general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannheim, Philip D.; Kazanas, Demosthenes

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that the structure of the Higgs vacuum can be revealed in gravitational experiments which probe the Schwarzschild geometry to only one order in MG/r beyond that needed for the classical tests of general relativity. The possibility that deviations from the conventional geometry are at least theoretically conceivable is explored. The deviations obtained provide a diagnostic test for searching for the existence of macroscopic scalar fields and open up the possiblity for further exploring the Higgs mechanism.

  11. Probing jet decoherence in heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Mehtar-Tani, Yacine; Salgado, Carlos A.; Tywoniuk, Konrad

    2017-11-01

    We suggest to use the SofDrop jet grooming technique to investigate the sensitivity of jet substructure to color decoherence in heavy ion collisions. We propose in particular to analyze the two-prong probability angular distribution as a probe of the transition between the coherent and incoherent energy loss regimes. We predict an increasing suppression of two-prong substructures with angle as the medium resolves more jet substructure.

  12. Flow Cytometric Applicability of Fluorescent Vitality Probes on Phytoplankton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peperzak, L.; Brussaard, C.P.D.

    2011-01-01

    The applicability of six fluorescent probes (four esterase probes: acetoxymethyl ester of Calcein [Calcein-AM], 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate [CMFDA], fluorescein diacetate [FDA], and 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate [H(2)DCFDA]; and two membrane probes: bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid)

  13. 21 CFR 882.4725 - Radiofrequency lesion probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiofrequency lesion probe. 882.4725 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4725 Radiofrequency lesion probe. (a) Identification. A radiofrequency lesion probe is a device connected to a radiofrequency (RF...

  14. Expanding probe repertoire and improving reproducibility in human genomic hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Stephanie N.; Shirley, Ben C.; Knoll, Joan H. M.; Rogan, Peter K.

    2013-01-01

    Diagnostic DNA hybridization relies on probes composed of single copy (sc) genomic sequences. Sc sequences in probe design ensure high specificity and avoid cross-hybridization to other regions of the genome, which could lead to ambiguous results that are difficult to interpret. We examine how the distribution and composition of repetitive sequences in the genome affects sc probe performance. A divide and conquer algorithm was implemented to design sc probes. With this approach, sc probes can include divergent repetitive elements, which hybridize to unique genomic targets under higher stringency experimental conditions. Genome-wide custom probe sets were created for fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and microarray genomic hybridization. The scFISH probes were developed for detection of copy number changes within small tumour suppressor genes and oncogenes. The microarrays demonstrated increased reproducibility by eliminating cross-hybridization to repetitive sequences adjacent to probe targets. The genome-wide microarrays exhibited lower median coefficients of variation (17.8%) for two HapMap family trios. The coefficients of variations of commercial probes within 300 nt of a repetitive element were 48.3% higher than the nearest custom probe. Furthermore, the custom microarray called a chromosome 15q11.2q13 deletion more consistently. This method for sc probe design increases probe coverage for FISH and lowers variability in genomic microarrays. PMID:23376933

  15. 21 CFR 886.1670 - Ophthalmic isotope uptake probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1670 Ophthalmic isotope uptake probe. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic isotope uptake probe is an AC-powered device intended to measure... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic isotope uptake probe. 886.1670 Section...

  16. Development of Raman-shifted probe laser beam for plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Optical diagnostics of laser-produced plasma requires a coherent, polarized probe beam synchronized with the pump beam. The probe beam should have energy above the background emission of plasma. Though the second harmonic probe beam satisfies most of the requirements, the plasma emission is larger ...

  17. The response of electrostatic probes via the λ-function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rerup, T.O.; Crichton, George C; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1994-01-01

    The response of an electrostatic probe is examined with reference to a planar spacer. The study involves the numerical calculation of the probe λ-function, from which response-related characteristic parameters can be derived. These parameters enable the probe detection sensitivity and spatial...

  18. Response of electrostatic probes to eccentric charge distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Torben; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    2001-01-01

    The response of an electrostatic probe mounted in an electrode is examined with reference to eccentric charge distributions. The study involves using the probe λ function to derive a characteristic parameter. This parameter enables the response of the probe to different degrees of eccentricity...

  19. Three-way flexible cantilever probes for static contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fei; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Jensen, Helle Vendelbo

    2011-01-01

    In micro four-point probe measurements, three-way flexible L-shaped cantilever probes show significant advantages over conventional straight cantilever probes. The L-shaped cantilever allows static contact to the sample surface which reduces the frictional wear of the cantilever tips. We analyze...

  20. Modular design of AFM probe with sputtered silicon tip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter; Thaysen, Jacob; Bouwstra, Siebe

    2001-01-01

    of the thin films constituting the cantilever. The AFM probe has an integrated tip made of a thick sputtered silicon layer, which is deposited after the probe has been defined and just before the cantilevers are released. The tips are so-called rocket tips made by reactive ion etching. We present probes...

  1. A novel universal real-time PCR system using the attached universal duplex probes for quantitative analysis of nucleic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Zoe A

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Real-time PCR techniques are being widely used for nucleic acids analysis, but one limitation of current frequently employed real-time PCR is the high cost of the labeled probe for each target molecule. Results We describe a real-time PCR technique employing attached universal duplex probes (AUDP, which has the advantage of generating fluorescence by probe hydrolysis and strand displacement over current real-time PCR methods. AUDP involves one set of universal duplex probes in which the 5' end of the fluorescent probe (FP and a complementary quenching probe (QP lie in close proximity so that fluorescence can be quenched. The PCR primer pair with attached universal template (UT and the FP are identical to the UT sequence. We have shown that the AUDP technique can be used for detecting multiple target DNA sequences in both simplex and duplex real-time PCR assays for gene expression analysis, genotype identification, and genetically modified organism (GMO quantification with comparable sensitivity, reproducibility, and repeatability with other real-time PCR methods. Conclusion The results from GMO quantification, gene expression analysis, genotype identification, and GMO quantification using AUDP real-time PCR assays indicate that the AUDP real-time PCR technique has been successfully applied in nucleic acids analysis, and the developed AUDP real-time PCR technique will offer an alternative way for nucleic acid analysis with high efficiency, reliability, and flexibility at low cost.

  2. OEDGE Modeling of Collector Probe measurements in L-mode from the DIII-D tungsten ring campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, J. D.; Stangeby, P. C.; Unterberg, Z.; Donovan, D.; Wampler, W. R.; Watkins, J.; Abrams, T.; McLean, A. G.

    2017-10-01

    During the tungsten ring campaign on DIII-D, a collector probe system with multiple diameter, dual-facing collector rods was inserted into the far scrape off layer (SOL) near the outer midplane to measure the plasma tungsten content. For most probes more tungsten was observed on the side connected along field lines to the inner divertor, with the larger probes showing largest divertor-facing asymmetries The OEDGE code is used to model the tungsten erosion, transport and deposition. It has been enhanced with (i) a peripheral particle transport and deposition model to record the impurity content in the peripheral region outside the regular mesh, and (ii) a collector probe model. The OEDGE results approximately reproduce both the divertor-facing asymmetries and the radial decay of each collector probe profile. The effect of changing impurity transport assumptions and wall location are examined. The measured divertor-facing asymmetries imply a higher tungsten density in the plasma upstream of the probe; this was expected theoretically from the effect of the parallel ion temperature gradient force driving upstream transport of tungsten from the outer divertor and was also found in the code analysis. Work supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-NA0003525, DE-AC05-00OR22725, and DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  3. Thermal probe design for Europa sample acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Mera F.

    2018-01-01

    The planned lander missions to the surface of Europa will access samples from the subsurface of the ice in a search for signs of life. A small thermal drill (probe) is proposed to meet the sample requirement of the Science Definition Team's (SDT) report for the Europa mission. The probe is 2 cm in diameter and 16 cm in length and is designed to access the subsurface to 10 cm deep and to collect five ice samples of 7 cm3 each, approximately. The energy required to penetrate the top 10 cm of ice in a vacuum is 26 Wh, approximately, and to melt 7 cm3 of ice is 1.2 Wh, approximately. The requirement stated in the SDT report of collecting samples from five different sites can be accommodated with repeated use of the same thermal drill. For smaller sample sizes, a smaller probe of 1.0 cm in diameter with the same length of 16 cm could be utilized that would require approximately 6.4 Wh to penetrate the top 10 cm of ice, and 0.02 Wh to collect 0.1 g of sample. The thermal drill has the advantage of simplicity of design and operations and the ability to penetrate ice over a range of densities and hardness while maintaining sample integrity.

  4. Eddy Current Flexible Probes for Complex Geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles-Pascaud, C.; Decitre, J. M.; Vacher, F.; Fermon, C.; Pannetier, M.; Cattiaux, G.

    2006-03-01

    The inspection of materials used in aerospace, nuclear or transport industry is a critical issue for the safety of components exposed to stress or/and corrosion. The industry claims for faster, more sensitive, and more flexible techniques. Technologies based on Eddy Current (EC) flexible array probe and magnetic sensor with high sensitivity such as giant magneto-resistance (GMR) could be a good solution to detect surface-breaking flaws in complex shaped surfaces. The CEA has recently developed, with support from the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), a flexible array probe based on micro-coils etched on Kapton. The probe's performances have been assessed for the inspection of reactor residual heat removal pipes, and for aeronautical applications within the framework of the European project VERDICT. The experimental results confirm the very good detection of narrow cracks on plane and curve shaped surfaces. This paper also describes the recent progresses concerning the application of GMR sensors to EC testing, and the results obtained for the detection of small surface breaking flaws.

  5. Mining information from atom probe data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairney, Julie M.; Rajan, Krishna; Haley, Daniel; Gault, Baptiste; Bagot, Paul A.J.; Choi, Pyuck-Pa; Felfer, Peter J.; Ringer, Simon P.; Marceau, Ross K.W.; Moody, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Whilst atom probe tomography (APT) is a powerful technique with the capacity to gather information containing hundreds of millions of atoms from a single specimen, the ability to effectively use this information creates significant challenges. The main technological bottleneck lies in handling the extremely large amounts of data on spatial–chemical correlations, as well as developing new quantitative computational foundations for image reconstruction that target critical and transformative problems in materials science. The power to explore materials at the atomic scale with the extraordinary level of sensitivity of detection offered by atom probe tomography has not been not fully harnessed due to the challenges of dealing with missing, sparse and often noisy data. Hence there is a profound need to couple the analytical tools to deal with the data challenges with the experimental issues associated with this instrument. In this paper we provide a summary of some key issues associated with the challenges, and solutions to extract or “mine” fundamental materials science information from that data. - Highlights: • Overview of the newest developments in techniques to extract information from atom probe data. • As well as reviewing existing approaches, improvements and new approaches are presented. • Techniques covered include tests for randomness, short range order and crystallography. • Methods for interfacial excess mapping and spectral decomposition are also covered.

  6. Imaging of neurosphere oxygenation with phosphorescent probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, Ruslan I; Zhdanov, Alexander V; Nolan, Yvonne M; Papkovsky, Dmitri B

    2013-12-01

    Multicellular spheroids are useful models of mammalian tissue for studies of cell proliferation, differentiation, replacement therapies and drug action. Having a size of 100-500 μm they mimic in vivo micro-environment and characteristic gradients of O2, pH and nutrients. We describe the use of cell-penetrating O2 probes based on phosphorescent Pt-porphyrins to perform high-resolution 2D and 3D mapping of O2 in spheroid structures by live cell fluorescence imaging technique. Optimised procedures for preparation of neurospheres from cortical neural cells isolated from embryonic rat brain, their staining with the phosphorescent O2 probes NanO2 and MM2 and subsequent analysis of oxygenation on different live cell imaging platforms, including widefield and confocal phosphorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (PLIM), conventional confocal and two-photon ratiometric intensity based O2 detection are presented. This is followed by a series of physiological experiments in which oxygenation patterns of the neurospheres are correlated with culturing conditions (atmospheric hypoxia and hyperoxia, size, growth factors), distribution of stem cells, mature neurons and astrocytes, HIF-2α stabilisation and responses to metabolic stimulation. The O2 imaging method allows multiplexing with many conventional fluorescent probes to perform multi-parametric imaging analysis of cells in 3D microenvironment. It can be applied to other types of spheroids and 3D tissue models. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mining information from atom probe data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairney, Julie M., E-mail: julie.cairney@sydney.edu.au [School of Aerospace, Mechanical, Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Rajan, Krishna [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Haley, Daniel [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Max Planck Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck Straße 1, 40237 Düsseldorf (Germany); Gault, Baptiste; Bagot, Paul A.J. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Choi, Pyuck-Pa [Max Planck Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck Straße 1, 40237 Düsseldorf (Germany); Felfer, Peter J.; Ringer, Simon P. [School of Aerospace, Mechanical, Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Marceau, Ross K.W. [Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Geelong Technology Precinct, 75 Pigdons Road, Waurn Ponds, Victoria 3216 (Australia); Moody, Michael P. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-15

    Whilst atom probe tomography (APT) is a powerful technique with the capacity to gather information containing hundreds of millions of atoms from a single specimen, the ability to effectively use this information creates significant challenges. The main technological bottleneck lies in handling the extremely large amounts of data on spatial–chemical correlations, as well as developing new quantitative computational foundations for image reconstruction that target critical and transformative problems in materials science. The power to explore materials at the atomic scale with the extraordinary level of sensitivity of detection offered by atom probe tomography has not been not fully harnessed due to the challenges of dealing with missing, sparse and often noisy data. Hence there is a profound need to couple the analytical tools to deal with the data challenges with the experimental issues associated with this instrument. In this paper we provide a summary of some key issues associated with the challenges, and solutions to extract or “mine” fundamental materials science information from that data. - Highlights: • Overview of the newest developments in techniques to extract information from atom probe data. • As well as reviewing existing approaches, improvements and new approaches are presented. • Techniques covered include tests for randomness, short range order and crystallography. • Methods for interfacial excess mapping and spectral decomposition are also covered.

  8. Highlighting cancer cells with macromolecular probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Sicheng; Zhang, Yang; Thapaliya, Ek Raj; Brown, Adrienne S.; Wilson, James N.; Raymo, Françisco M.

    2017-02-01

    Conventional fluorophore-ligand constructs for the detection of cancer cells generally produce relatively weak signals with modest contrast. The inherently low brightness accessible per biding event with the pairing of a single organic fluorophore to a single ligand as well as the contribution of unbound probes to background fluorescence are mainly responsible for these limitations. Our laboratories identified a viable structural design to improve both brightness and contrast. It is based on the integration of activatable fluorophores and targeting ligands within the same macromolecular construct. The chromophoric components are engineered to emit bright fluorescence exclusively in acidic environments. The targeting agents are designed to bind complementary receptors overexpressed on the surface of cancer cells and allow internalization of the macromolecules into acidic organelles. As a result of these properties, our macromolecular probes switch their intense emission on exclusively in the intracellular space of target cells with minimal background fluorescence from the extracellular matrix. In fact, these operating principles translate into a 170-fold enhancement in brightness, relative to equivalent but isolated chromophoric components, and a 3-fold increase in contrast, relative to model but non-activatable fluorophores. Thus, our macromolecular probes might ultimately evolve into valuable analytical tools to highlight cancer cells with optimal signal-to-noise ratios in a diversity of biomedical applications.

  9. Solar Probe ANalyzer for Ions - Laboratory Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livi, R.; Larson, D. E.; Kasper, J. C.; Korreck, K. E.; Whittlesey, P. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Parker Solar Probe (PSP) mission is a heliospheric satellite that will orbit the Sun closer than any prior mission to date with a perihelion of 35 solar radii (RS) and an aphelion of 10 RS. PSP includes the Solar Wind Electrons Alphas and Protons (SWEAP) instrument suite, which in turn consists of four instruments: the Solar Probe Cup (SPC) and three Solar Probe ANalyzers (SPAN) for ions and electrons. Together, this suite will take local measurements of particles and electromagnetic fields within the Sun's corona. SPAN-Ai has completed flight calibration and spacecraft integration and is set to be launched in July of 2018. The main mode of operation consists of an electrostatic analyzer (ESA) at its aperture followed by a Time-of-Flight section to measure the energy and mass per charge (m/q) of the ambient ions. SPAN-Ai's main objective is to measure solar wind ions within an energy range of 5 eV - 20 keV, a mass/q between 1-60 [amu/q] and a field of view of 2400x1200. Here we will show flight calibration results and performance.

  10. MICROSCALE METROLOGY USING STANDING WAVE PROBES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauza, M B; Woody, S C; Smith, S T; Seugling, R M; Darnell, I; Florando, J N

    2008-08-04

    Miniaturization has been one of the driving forces in the development of new technologies leading to new products in a variety of industries. As a result, the integration of components over several orders of magnitude on the length scale poses enormous challenges for quality assurance and control. Therefore, new solutions are necessary to meet the growing need for more challenging metrology tasks and metrology requirements in nano- and micro-technology. However, with miniaturization, new challenges arise such as the increased influence of adhesion, electrostatic, Van der Waals and meniscus forces that affect the measurement process. Technical solutions to overcome these micro- and nano-metrology challenges will include the need for traceability, new calibration procedures and calibration artifacts. Over the past decade many new metrology tools have been proposed, however; for contact based measurements, adhesion between the measurement probe and the specimen still proves to be one of the more difficult challenges to overcome. To address this issue, a new class of tactile sensing probe referred to as standing wave sensor has been developed and was previously presented. Previous work introduced the principle of operation of the standing wave senor. This work presents new measurements showing applications of the standing wave probe as the sensing element in a microscale high aspect ratio profiling system.

  11. Atom probe tomography analysis of WC powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidow, Jonathan, E-mail: jonathan.weidow@chalmers.se [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/164, A-1060 Wien (Austria)

    2013-09-15

    A tantalum doped tungsten carbide powder, (W,Ta)C, was prepared with the purpose to maximise the amount of Ta in the hexagonal mixed crystal carbide. Atom probe tomography (APT) was considered to be the best technique to quantitatively measure the amount of Ta within this carbide. As the carbide powder consisted in the form of very small particles (<1 μm), a method to produce APT specimens of such a powder was developed. The powder was at first embedded in copper and a FIB-SEM workstation was used to make an in-situ lift-out from a selected powder particle. The powder particle was then deposited on a post made from a WC-Co based cemented carbide specimen. With the use of a laser assisted atom probe, it was shown that the method is working and the Ta content of the (W,Ta)C could be measured quantitatively. - Highlights: ► Method for producing atom probe tomography specimens of powders was developed. ► Method was successfully implemented on (W,Ta)C powder. ► Method can possibly be implemented on completely other powders.

  12. RNAex: an RNA secondary structure prediction server enhanced by high-throughput structure-probing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yang; Qu, Rihao; Huang, Yiming; Shi, Binbin; Liu, Mengrong; Li, Yang; Lu, Zhi John

    2016-07-08

    Several high-throughput technologies have been developed to probe RNA base pairs and loops at the transcriptome level in multiple species. However, to obtain the final RNA secondary structure, extensive effort and considerable expertise is required to statistically process the probing data and combine them with free energy models. Therefore, we developed an RNA secondary structure prediction server that is enhanced by experimental data (RNAex). RNAex is a web interface that enables non-specialists to easily access cutting-edge structure-probing data and predict RNA secondary structures enhanced by in vivo and in vitro data. RNAex annotates the RNA editing, RNA modification and SNP sites on the predicted structures. It provides four structure-folding methods, restrained MaxExpect, SeqFold, RNAstructure (Fold) and RNAfold that can be selected by the user. The performance of these four folding methods has been verified by previous publications on known structures. We re-mapped the raw sequencing data of the probing experiments to the whole genome for each species. RNAex thus enables users to predict secondary structures for both known and novel RNA transcripts in human, mouse, yeast and Arabidopsis The RNAex web server is available at http://RNAex.ncrnalab.org/. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. Interaction of a ballistic probe with gaseous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucerovsky, Zden; Greason, William D

    2008-01-01

    Free-flying metal probes are used to determine charge densities in gaseous media containing free charge or low density plasma. The trajectory of the probe is ensured either by gravity or by propelling the probe to a certain velocity at the launch site. While travelling, the probe charge changes from its launch-site magnitude to that related to the space charge density existing along the trajectory. The degree to which the probe's arrival-site charge magnitude matches the space charge density in the area of interest depends on the probe shape and on the charge exchange processes between the probe body and the medium. The paper studies a probe acting as a free-flying charge carrier in air, and discusses the problems that may lead to an imbalance between the charge collected by the probe in the area of interest and the charge measured at the arrival site. The analysis and the described experiments are of the ballistic type: a small, triboelectrically pre-charged metal probe was propelled on a horizontal path, and the charge carried by the probe was measured at several points along the trajectory by means of contact-free induction rings; the initial and final charges were determined by static Faraday cups. A charge disparity was found under certain conditions, and its degree explained by the effects of the charge carrier potential. The studied probe charges ranged from 10 to 50 nF, and the fly-times needed to cross a one-meter path ranged from 20 to 40 ms. The probe to gas charge exchange experiments and their analysis yielded conditions under which the probe lost approximately 10 % of its charge. The results of our study may be of interest to those who intend to use the free-flying probe technique for the determination of space charge density.

  14. Application of the iterative probe correction technique for a high-order probe in spherical near-field antenna measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laitinen, Tommi; Pivnenko, Sergey; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2006-01-01

    An iterative probe-correction technique for spherical near-field antenna measurements is examined. This technique has previously been shown to be well-suited for non-ideal first-order probes. In this paper, its performance in the case of a high-order probe (a dual-ridged horn) is examined....

  15. Probing photoelectron multiple interferences via Fourier spectroscopy in energetic photoionization of Xe-C60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, Andrea; McCune, Matthew A.; De, Ruma; Chakraborty, Himadri S.; Madjet, Mohamed E.

    2010-01-01

    Considering the photoionization of the Xe-C 60 endohedral compound, we study in detail the ionization cross sections of various levels of the system at energies higher than the plasmon resonance region. Five classes of single-electron levels are identified depending on their spectral character. Each class engenders distinct oscillations in the cross section, emerging from the interference between active ionization modes specific to that class. Analysis of the cross sections based on their Fourier transforms unravels oscillation frequencies that carry unique fingerprints of the emitting level.

  16. Probing photoelectron multiple interferences via Fourier spectroscopy in energetic photoionization of Xe@C60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Andrea; McCune, Matthew A.; de, Ruma; Madjet, Mohamed E.; Chakraborty, Himadri S.

    2010-09-01

    Considering the photoionization of the Xe@C60 endohedral compound, we study in detail the ionization cross sections of various levels of the system at energies higher than the plasmon resonance region. Five classes of single-electron levels are identified depending on their spectral character. Each class engenders distinct oscillations in the cross section, emerging from the interference between active ionization modes specific to that class. Analysis of the cross sections based on their Fourier transforms unravels oscillation frequencies that carry unique fingerprints of the emitting level.

  17. Multiple isotope effects with alternative dinucleotide substrates as a probe of the malic enzyme reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, P.M.; Urbauer, J.L.; Cleland, W.W.; Gavva, S.R.; Harris, B.G.; Cook, P.F.

    1991-01-01

    Deuterium isotope effects and 13 C isotope effects with deuterium- and protium-labeled malate have been obtained for both NAD- and NADP-malic enzymes by using a variety of alternative dinucleotide substrates. With nicotinamide-containing dinucleotides as the oxidizing substrate, the 13 C effect decreases when deuterated malate is the substrate compared to the value obtained with protium-labeled malate. These data are consistent with a stepwise chemical mechanism in which hydride transfer precedes decarboxylation of the oxalacetate intermediate as previously proposed. When dinucleotide substrates such as thio-NAD, 3-nicotinamide rings are used, the 13 C effect increases when deuterated malate is the substrate compared to the value obtained with protium-labeled malate. These data, at face value, are consistent with a change in mechanism from stepwise to concerted for the oxidative decarboxylation portion of the mechanism. However, the increase in the deuterium isotope effect from 1.5 to 3 with a concomitant decrease in the 13 C isotope effect from 1.034 to 1.003 as the dinucleotide substrate is changed suggests that the reaction may still be stepwise with the non-nicotinamide dinucleotides. A more likely explanation is that a β-secondary 13 C isotope effect accompanies hydride transfer as a result of hyperconjugation of the β-carboxyl of malate as the transition state for the hydride transfer step is approached

  18. Probing the stereoselective interaction of ofloxacin enantiomers with corresponding monoclonal antibodies by multiple spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Hongtao; Xu, Zhenlin; Liu, Yingju; Sun, Yuanming; Wang, Baoling; Sun, Xiulan; Wang, Zhanhui; Eremin, Sergei; Zherdev, Anatoly V.; Dzantiev, Boris B.; Lei, Hongtao

    2018-04-01

    Although stereoselective antibody has immense potential in chiral compounds detection and separation, the interaction traits between stereoselective antibody and the corresponding antigenic enantiomers are not yet fully exploited. In this study, the stereospecific interactions between ofloxacin isomers and corresponding monoclonal antibodies (McAb-WR1 and McAb-MS1) were investigated using time-resolved fluorescence, steady-state fluorescence, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic methods. The chiral recognition discrepancies of antibodies with ofloxacin isomers were reflected through binding constant, number of binding sites, driving forces and conformational changes. The major interacting forces of McAb-WR1 and McAb-MS1 chiral interaction systems were hydrophobic force and van der Waals forces joined up with hydrogen bonds, respectively. Synchronous fluorescence spectra and CD spectra results showed that the disturbing of tyrosine and tryptophan micro-environments were so slightly that no obvious secondary structure changes were found during the chiral hapten binding. Clarification of stereospecific interaction of antibody will facilitate the application of immunoassay to analyze chiral contaminants in food and other areas.

  19. Probing Zeolite Crystal Architecture and Structural Imperfections using Differently Sized Fluorescent Organic Probe Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Frank C; Schmidt, Joel E; Rombouts, Jeroen A; Lammertsma, Koop; Bruijnincx, Pieter C A; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2017-05-05

    A micro-spectroscopic method has been developed to probe the accessibility of zeolite crystals using a series of fluorescent 4-(4-diethylaminostyryl)-1-methylpyridinium iodide (DAMPI) probes of increasing molecular size. Staining large zeolite crystals with MFI (ZSM-5) topology and subsequent mapping of the resulting fluorescence using confocal fluorescence microscopy reveal differences in structural integrity: the 90° intergrowth sections of MFI crystals are prone to develop structural imperfections, which act as entrance routes for the probes into the zeolite crystal. Polarization-dependent measurements provide evidence for the probe molecule's alignment within the MFI zeolite pore system. The developed method was extended to BEA (Beta) crystals, showing that the previously observed hourglass pattern is a general feature of BEA crystals with this morphology. Furthermore, the probes can accurately identify at which crystal faces of BEA straight or sinusoidal pores open to the surface. The results show this method can spatially resolve the architecture-dependent internal pore structure of microporous materials, which is difficult to assess using other characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  20. The Interstellar Ethics of Self-Replicating Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, K.

    Robotic spacecraft have been our primary means of exploring the Universe for over 50 years. Should interstellar travel become reality it seems unlikely that humankind will stop using robotic probes. These probes will be able to replicate themselves ad infinitum by extracting raw materials from the space resources around them and reconfiguring them into replicas of themselves, using technology such as 3D printing. This will create a colonising wave of probes across the Galaxy. However, such probes could have negative as well as positive consequences and it is incumbent upon us to factor self-replicating probes into our interstellar philosophies and to take responsibility for their actions.

  1. Probe design for expression arrays using OligoWiz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernersson, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    Since all measurements from a DNA microarray is dependant on the probes used, a good choice of probes is of vital importa nce when designing custom micro-arrays. This chapter describes how to de sign expression arrays using the “ OligoWiz ” software suite. The general desired features of good...... probes and the issues which probe design must address are introduced and a conceptual (rather than mathematical) description of how OligoWiz scores the quality of th e potential probes is presented. This is followed by a detailed step-by-step guide to designing expression arrays with OligoWiz....

  2. Atom probe microanalysis: Principles and applications to materials problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.K.; Smith, G.D.W.

    1987-01-01

    A historical background and general introduction to field emission and field-ionization, field-ion microscopy, and the atom probe is given. Physical principles of field ion microscopy are explained, followed by interpretation of images. Types of atom probes are discussed, as well as the instrumentation used in atomic probe microanalysis. Methods of atom probe analysis and data representation are covered, along with factors affecting performance and statistical analysis of atom probe data. Finally, some case studies and special types of analyses are presented

  3. Feature extraction of the wafer probe marks in IC packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Yu; Lin, Chia-Te; Kao, Chen-Ting; Wang, Chau-Shing

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents an image processing approach to extract six features of the probe mark on semiconductor wafer pads. The electrical characteristics of the chip pad must be tested using a probing needle before wire-bonding to the wafer. However, this test leaves probe marks on the pad. A large probe mark area results in poor adhesion forces at the bond ball of the pad, thus leading to undesirable products. In this paper, we present a method to extract six features of the wafer probe marks in IC packaging for further digital image processing.

  4. Diagnostic PCR: Comparative sensitivity of four probe chemistries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann; Löfström, Charlotta; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard

    2009-01-01

    Three probe chemistries: locked nucleic acid (LNA), minor groove binder (MGB) and Scorpion were compared with a TaqMan probe in a validated real-time PCR assay for detection of food-borne thermotolerant Campylobacter. The LNA probe produced significantly lower Ct-values and a higher proportion...... of positive PCR responses analyzing less than 150 DNA copies than the TaqMan probe. Choice of probe chemistry clearly has an impact on the sensitivity of PCR assays, and should be considered in an optimization strategy....

  5. The role of probe oxide in local surface conductivity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, C. J.; Kryvchenkova, O.; Wilson, L. S. J.; Maffeis, T. G. G.; Kalna, K.; Cobley, R. J.

    2015-05-01

    Local probe methods can be used to measure nanoscale surface conductivity, but some techniques including nanoscale four point probe rely on at least two of the probes forming the same low resistivity non-rectifying contact to the sample. Here, the role of probe shank oxide has been examined by carrying out contact and non-contact I V measurements on GaAs when the probe oxide has been controllably reduced, both experimentally and in simulation. In contact, the barrier height is pinned but the barrier shape changes with probe shank oxide dimensions. In non-contact measurements, the oxide modifies the electrostatic interaction inducing a quantum dot that alters the tunneling behavior. For both, the contact resistance change is dependent on polarity, which violates the assumption required for four point probe to remove probe contact resistance from the measured conductivity. This has implications for all nanoscale surface probe measurements and macroscopic four point probe, both in air and vacuum, where the role of probe oxide contamination is not well understood.

  6. Design and analysis of mismatch probes for long oligonucleotide microarrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2008-08-15

    Nonspecific hybridization is currently a major concern with microarray technology. One of most effective approaches to estimating nonspecific hybridizations in oligonucleotide microarrays is the utilization of mismatch probes; however, this approach has not been used for longer oligonucleotide probes. Here, an oligonucleotide microarray was constructed to evaluate and optimize parameters for 50-mer mismatch probe design. A perfect match (PM) and 28 mismatch (MM) probes were designed for each of ten target genes selected from three microorganisms. The microarrays were hybridized with synthesized complementary oligonucleotide targets at different temperatures (e.g., 42, 45 and 50 C). In general, the probes with evenly distributed mismatches were more distinguishable than those with randomly distributed mismatches. MM probes with 3, 4 and 5 mismatched nucleotides were differentiated for 50-mer oligonucleotide probes hybridized at 50, 45 and 42 C, respectively. Based on the experimental data generated from this study, a modified positional dependent nearest neighbor (MPDNN) model was constructed to adjust the thermodynamic parameters of matched and mismatched dimer nucleotides in the microarray environment. The MM probes with four flexible positional mismatches were designed using the newly established MPDNN model and the experimental results demonstrated that the redesigned MM probes could yield more consistent hybridizations. Conclusions: This study provides guidance on the design of MM probes for long oligonucleotides (e.g., 50 mers). The novel MPDNN model has improved the consistency for long MM probes, and this modeling method can potentially be used for the prediction of oligonucleotide microarray hybridizations.

  7. Multiple dimensions of performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torenvlied, René

    2013-01-01

    This presentation considers the multiple dimensions of performance in performance studies, and potentially contradicting effects of different management strategies on separate indicators of performance

  8. Reducing Plasma Perturbations with Segmented Metal Shielding on Electrostatic Probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staack, D.; Raitses, Y.; Fisch, N.J.

    2002-01-01

    Electrostatic probes are widely used to measure spatial plasma parameters in the quasi-neutral plasma created in Hall thrusters and similar E x B electric discharge devices. Significant perturbations of the plasma, induced by such probes, can mask the actual physics involved in operation of these devices. In an attempt to reduce these perturbations in Hall thrusters, the perturbations were examined by varying the component material, penetration distance, and residence time of various probe designs. This study leads us to a conclusion that secondary electron emission from insulator ceramic tubes of the probe can affect local changes of the plasma parameters causing plasma perturbations. A probe design, which consists of a segmented metal shielding of the probe insulator, is suggested to reduce these perturbations. This new probe design can be useful for plasma applications in which the electron temperature is sufficient to produce secondary electron emission by interaction of plasma electrons with dielectric materials

  9. Prediction of ultrasonic probe characteristics through modeling and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amry Amin Abas; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail; Suhairy Sani

    2004-01-01

    One of the main component in an ultrasonic probe is piezoelectric material. It converts electrical energy supplied to it into mechanical energy (i.e. sound waves) and vice versa. In industrial application, the characteristic of ultrasonic probes is important as it will affect the results obtained. The probes fabricated must possess the characteristics suitable to the intended application. Through modeling and simulation, we can predict the characteristics of the probes. Mason equivalent circuit is used to make a model and simulation of the probes. In this model, the probes will be treated and simplified as a one dimensional electrical line. From simulation, the electrical properties such as impedance, operating frequency bandwidth and others can be predicted. From this model, the correct material to be used for actual probe construction can be obtained. The limitation of this method is details such as bond line between layers is not taken into consideration. (Author)

  10. Touch-Trigger Probe Error Compensation in a Machining Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chan Ho; Lee, Eung Suk

    2011-01-01

    Kinematic contact trigger probes are widely used for feature inspection and measurement on coordinate measurement machines (CMMs) and computer numerically controlled (CNC) machine tools. Recently, the probing accuracy has become one of the most important factors in the improvement of product quality, as the accuracy of such machining centers and measuring machines is increasing. Although high-accuracy probes using strain gauge can achieve this requirement, in this paper we study the universal economic kinematic contact probe to prove its probing mechanism and errors, and to try to make the best use of its performance. Stylus-ball-radius and center-alignment errors are proved, and the probing error mechanism on the 3D measuring coordinate is analyzed using numerical expressions. Macro algorithms are developed for the compensation of these errors, and actual tests and verifications are performed with a kinematic contact trigger probe and reference sphere on a CNC machine tool

  11. Cone penetrometer fiber optic raman spectroscopy probe assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Kevin R.; Brown, Steven B.

    2000-01-01

    A chemically and mechanically robust optical Raman spectroscopy probe assembly that can be incorporated in a cone penetrometer (CPT) for subsurface deployment. This assembly consists of an optical Raman probe and a penetrometer compatible optical probe housing. The probe is intended for in-situ chemical analysis of chemical constituents in the surrounding environment. The probe is optically linked via fiber optics to the light source and the detection system at the surface. A built-in broadband light source provides a strobe method for direct measurement of sample optical density. A mechanically stable sapphire window is sealed directly into the side-wall of the housing using a metallic, chemically resistant, hermetic seal design. This window permits transmission of the interrogation light beam and the resultant signal. The spectroscopy probe assembly is capable of accepting Raman, Laser induced Fluorescence, reflectance, and other optical probes with collimated output for CPT deployment.

  12. Objective, Quantitative, Data-Driven Assessment of Chemical Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolin, Albert A; Tym, Joseph E; Komianou, Angeliki; Collins, Ian; Workman, Paul; Al-Lazikani, Bissan

    2018-02-15

    Chemical probes are essential tools for understanding biological systems and for target validation, yet selecting probes for biomedical research is rarely based on objective assessment of all potential compounds. Here, we describe the Probe Miner: Chemical Probes Objective Assessment resource, capitalizing on the plethora of public medicinal chemistry data to empower quantitative, objective, data-driven evaluation of chemical probes. We assess >1.8 million compounds for their suitability as chemical tools against 2,220 human targets and dissect the biases and limitations encountered. Probe Miner represents a valuable resource to aid the identification of potential chemical probes, particularly when used alongside expert curation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Probing the crystallography of ordered Phases by coupling of orientation microscopy with atom probe tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meher, S; Nandwana, P; Rojhirunsakool, T; Tiley, J; Banerjee, R

    2015-01-01

    The determination of atomic scale structural and compositional information using atom probe tomography is currently limited to elemental solids and dilute alloys. In the present article, a unique coupling of orientation microscopy and atom probe tomography successfully facilitates the crystallographic study of non-dilute alloy systems, with high evaporation fields. This reproducible methodology affords a new perspective to the conventional atom probe tomography of ordered precipitate strengthened superalloys. The high accuracy in crystallographic site-specific sample preparation results in high spatial resolution in APT, which has been demonstrated in Co-base superalloys. The practical applications of this technique can be extended to accurately characterize the nature of buried order/disorder interfaces at the atomic scale, as well as the site occupancies associated with different solute atoms in multi-component superalloys. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. UPS 2.0: unique probe selector for probe design and oligonucleotide microarrays at the pangenomic/genomic level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Hwa; Lo, Chen-Zen; Su, Sheng-Yao; Kuo, Bao-Han; Hsiung, Chao A; Lin, Chung-Yen

    2010-12-02

    Nucleic acid hybridization is an extensively adopted principle in biomedical research, in which the performance of any hybridization-based method depends on the specificity of probes to their targets. To determine the optimal probe(s) for detecting target(s) from a sample cocktail, we developed a novel algorithm, which has been implemented into a web platform for probe designing. This probe design workflow is now upgraded to satisfy experiments that require a probe designing tool to take the increasing volume of sequence datasets. Algorithms and probe parameters applied in UPS 2.0 include GC content, the secondary structure, melting temperature (Tm), the stability of the probe-target duplex estimated by the thermodynamic model, sequence complexity, similarity of probes to non-target sequences, and other empirical parameters used in the laboratory. Several probe background options,Unique probe within a group,Unique probe in a specific Unigene set,Unique probe based on the pangenomic level, and Unique Probe in the user-defined genome/transcriptome, are available to meet the scenarios that the experiments will be conducted. Parameters, such as salt concentration and the lower-bound Tm of probes, are available for users to optimize their probe design query. Output files are available for download on the result page. Probes designed by the UPS algorithm are suitable for generating microarrays, and the performance of UPS-designed probes has been validated by experiments. The UPS 2.0 evaluates probe-to-target hybridization under a user-defined condition to ensure high-performance hybridization with minimal chance of non-specific binding at the pangenomic and genomic levels. The UPS algorithm mimics the target/non-target mixture in an experiment and is very useful in developing diagnostic kits and microarrays. The UPS 2.0 website has had more than 1,300 visits and 360,000 sequences performed the probe designing task in the last 30 months. It is freely accessible at http

  15. Four-point probe measurements using current probes with voltage feedback to measure electric potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüpke, Felix; Cuma, David; Korte, Stefan; Cherepanov, Vasily; Voigtländer, Bert

    2018-02-01

    We present a four-point probe resistance measurement technique which uses four equivalent current measuring units, resulting in minimal hardware requirements and corresponding sources of noise. Local sample potentials are measured by a software feedback loop which adjusts the corresponding tip voltage such that no current flows to the sample. The resulting tip voltage is then equivalent to the sample potential at the tip position. We implement this measurement method into a multi-tip scanning tunneling microscope setup such that potentials can also be measured in tunneling contact, allowing in principle truly non-invasive four-probe measurements. The resulting measurement capabilities are demonstrated for \

  16. In situ X-ray probing reveals fingerprints of surface platinum oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friebel, Daniel; Miller, Daniel J; O'Grady, Christopher P; Anniyev, Toyli; Bargar, John; Bergmann, Uwe; Ogasawara, Hirohito; Wikfeldt, Kjartan Thor; Pettersson, Lars G M; Nilsson, Anders

    2011-01-07

    In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the Pt L(3) edge is a useful probe for Pt-O interactions at polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) cathodes. We show that XAS using the high energy resolution fluorescence detection (HERFD) mode, applied to a well-defined monolayer Pt/Rh(111) sample where the bulk penetrating hard X-rays probe only surface Pt atoms, provides a unique sensitivity to structure and chemical bonding at the Pt-electrolyte interface. Ab initio multiple-scattering calculations using the FEFF code and complementary extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) results indicate that the commonly observed large increase of the white-line at high electrochemical potentials on PEMFC cathodes originates from platinum oxide formation, whereas previously proposed chemisorbed oxygen-containing species merely give rise to subtle spectral changes.

  17. Probe-controlled soliton frequency shift in the regime of optical event horizon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jie; Guo, Hairun; Wang, Shaofei; Zeng, Xianglong

    2015-08-24

    In optical analogy of the event horizon, temporal pulse collision and mutual interactions are mainly between an intense solitary wave (soliton) and a dispersive probe wave. In such a regime, here we numerically investigate the probe-controlled soliton frequency shift as well as the soliton self-compression. In particular, in the dispersion landscape with multiple zero dispersion wavelengths, bi-directional soliton spectral tunneling effects is possible. Moreover, we propose a mid-infrared soliton self-compression to the generation of few-cycle ultrashort pulses, in a bulk of quadratic nonlinear crystals in contrast to optical fibers or cubic nonlinear media, which could contribute to the community with a simple and flexible method to experimental implementations.

  18. In Situ X-Ray Probing Reveals Fingerprints of Surface Platinum Oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friebel, Daniel

    2011-08-24

    In situ x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the Pt L{sub 3} edge is a useful probe for Pt-O interactions at polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) cathodes. We show that XAS using the high energy resolution fluorescence detection (HERFD) mode, applied to a well-defined monolayer Pt/Rh(111) sample where the bulk penetrating hard x-rays probe only surface Pt atoms, provides a unique sensitivity to structure and chemical bonding at the Pt-electrolyte interface. Ab initio multiple-scattering calculations using the FEFF8 code and complementary extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) results indicate that the commonly observed large increase of the white-line at high electrochemical potentials on PEMFC cathodes originates from platinum oxide formation, whereas previously proposed chemisorbed oxygen-containing species merely give rise to subtle spectral changes.

  19. Development of nanowire arrays for neural probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jose K.; Xie, Jining; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2005-05-01

    It is already established that functional electrical stimulation is an effective way to restore many functions of the brain in disabled individuals. The electrical stimulation can be done by using an array of electrodes. Neural probes stimulate or sense the biopotentials mainly through the exposed metal sites. These sites should be smaller relative to the spatial potential distribution so that any potential averaging in the sensing area can be avoided. At the same time, the decrease in size of these sensing sites is limited due to the increase in impedance levels and the thermal noise while decreasing its size. It is known that current density in a planar electrode is not uniform and a higher current density can be observer around the perimeter of the electrodes. Electrical measurements conducted on many nanotubes and nanowires have already proved that it could be possible to use for current density applications and the drawbacks of the present design in neural probes can be overcome by incorporating many nanotechnology solutions. In this paper we present the design and development of nanowire arrays for the neural probe for the multisite contact which has the ability to collect and analyze isolated single unit activity. An array of vertically grown nanowires is used as contact site and many of such arrays can be used for stimulating as well as recording sites. The nanolevel interaction and wireless communication solution can extend to applications involving the treatment of many neurological disorders including Parkinson"s disease, Alzheimer"s disease, spinal injuries and the treatment of blindness and paralyzed patients with minimal or no invasive surgical procedures.

  20. Probing the Big Bang with LEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, D.N. (Chicago Univ., IL (USA) Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA))

    1990-06-01

    It is shown that LEP probes the Big Bang in two significant ways: (1) nucleosynthesis and (2) dark matter constraints. In the first case, LEP verifies the cosmological standard model prediction on the number of neutrino types, thus strengthening the conclusion that the cosmological baryon density is {approximately}6% of the critical value. In the second case, LEP shows that the remaining non-baryonic cosmological matter must be somewhat more massive and/or more weakly interacting that the favorite non-baryonic dark matter candidates of a few years ago. 59 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.