WorldWideScience

Sample records for single-subject experimental research

  1. Single Subject Research: Applications to Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakiroglu, Orhan

    2012-01-01

    Single subject research is a scientific research methodology that is increasingly used in the field of special education. Therefore, understanding the unique characteristics of single subject research methodology is critical both for educators and practitioners. Certain characteristics make single subject research one of the most preferred…

  2. Pursuing Quality Evidence: Applying Single-Subject Quality Indicators to Non-Experimental Qualitative Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodden, Robert A.; Yamamoto, Kathryn K.; Folk, Eric; Kong, Eran; Otsuji, Derek N.

    2013-01-01

    The need for quality evidence in support of strategies used while working with persons with autism and intellectual disability (ID) has been long been recognized by researchers and practitioners. The authors reviewed and applied a number of evidence-based indicators, developed through the "What Works Clearinghouse" (WWC), to the conduct…

  3. The influence of the design matrix on treatment effect estimates in the quantitative analyses of single-subject experimental design research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeyaert, Mariola; Ugille, Maaike; Ferron, John M; Beretvas, S Natasha; Van den Noortgate, Wim

    2014-09-01

    The quantitative methods for analyzing single-subject experimental data have expanded during the last decade, including the use of regression models to statistically analyze the data, but still a lot of questions remain. One question is how to specify predictors in a regression model to account for the specifics of the design and estimate the effect size of interest. These quantitative effect sizes are used in retrospective analyses and allow synthesis of single-subject experimental study results which is informative for evidence-based decision making, research and theory building, and policy discussions. We discuss different design matrices that can be used for the most common single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs), namely, the multiple-baseline designs, reversal designs, and alternating treatment designs, and provide empirical illustrations. The purpose of this article is to guide single-subject experimental data analysts interested in analyzing and meta-analyzing SSED data. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. The Utility of Single Subject Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kyle D.

    2016-01-01

    Single subject design (SSD) research is a quantitative approach used to investigate basic and applied research questions. It has been used for decades to examine issues of social importance such as those related to general and special education strategies, therapeutic approaches in mental health, community health practices, safety, and business…

  5. Quality Appraisal of Single-Subject Experimental Designs: An Overview and Comparison of Different Appraisal Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Oliver; Miller, Bridget

    2012-01-01

    Critical appraisal of the research literature is an essential step in informing and implementing evidence-based practice. Quality appraisal tools that assess the methodological quality of experimental studies provide a means to identify the most rigorous research suitable for evidence-based decision-making. In single-subject experimental research,…

  6. Single-Subject Research Methodology: An Underutilized Tool in the Field of Deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Michael; Anderson, Glenn

    1986-01-01

    Single-subject research methods are simple, powerful, and very applicable to selected study of deafness. This article considers group versus single-subject designs; an example of withdrawal single-subject design; and an example of the multiple baseline single-subject design. (CB)

  7. The Applied Behavior Analysis Research Paradigm and Single-Subject Designs in Adapted Physical Activity Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegele, Justin A; Hodge, Samuel Russell

    2015-10-01

    There are basic philosophical and paradigmatic assumptions that guide scholarly research endeavors, including the methods used and the types of questions asked. Through this article, kinesiology faculty and students with interests in adapted physical activity are encouraged to understand the basic assumptions of applied behavior analysis (ABA) methodology for conducting, analyzing, and presenting research of high quality in this paradigm. The purposes of this viewpoint paper are to present information fundamental to understanding the assumptions undergirding research methodology in ABA, describe key aspects of single-subject research designs, and discuss common research designs and data-analysis strategies used in single-subject studies.

  8. Bias Corrections for Standardized Effect Size Estimates Used with Single-Subject Experimental Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugille, Maaike; Moeyaert, Mariola; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Ferron, John M.; Van den Noortgate, Wim

    2014-01-01

    A multilevel meta-analysis can combine the results of several single-subject experimental design studies. However, the estimated effects are biased if the effect sizes are standardized and the number of measurement occasions is small. In this study, the authors investigated 4 approaches to correct for this bias. First, the standardized effect…

  9. Experimental gingivitis induces systemic inflammatory markers in young healthy individuals: a single-subject interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, Jörg; Grote, Karsten; Luchtefeld, Maren; Heuer, Wieland; Schuett, Harald; Divchev, Dimitar; Scherer, Ralph; Schmitz-Streit, Ruth; Langfeldt, Daniela; Stumpp, Nico; Staufenbiel, Ingmar; Schieffer, Bernhard; Stiesch, Meike

    2013-01-01

    We here investigated whether experimental gingivitis enhances systemic markers of inflammation which are also known as surrogate markers of atherosclerotic plaque development. Gingivitis is a low-level oral infection induced by bacterial deposits with a high prevalence within Western populations. A potential link between the more severe oral disease periodontitis and cardiovascular disease has already been shown. 37 non-smoking young volunteers with no inflammatory disease or any cardiovascular risk factors participated in this single-subject interventional study with an intra-individual control. Intentionally experimental oral inflammation was induced by the interruption of oral hygiene for 21 days, followed by a 21-days resolving phase after reinitiation of oral hygiene. Primary outcome measures at baseline, day 21 and 42 were concentrations of hsCRP, IL-6, and MCP-1, as well as adhesion capacity and oxLDL uptake of isolated blood monocytes. The partial cessation of oral hygiene procedures was followed by the significant increase of gingival bleeding (34.0%, Pgingivitis. Bacterial-induced gingival low-level inflammation induced a systemic increase in inflammatory markers. Dental hygiene almost completely reversed this experimental inflammatory process, suggesting that appropriate dental prophylaxis may also limit systemic markers of inflammation in subjects with natural gingivitis. International Clinical Trials Register Platform of the World Health Organization, registry number: DRKS00003366, URL: http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/Default.aspx.

  10. Early Intervention for Children with Conduct Disorders: A Quantitative Synthesis of Single-Subject Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruggs, Thomas E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Sixteen studies were analyzed that employed single-subject designs focusing on conduct disorders in preschoolers. Results indicated that reinforcement produced most positive outcomes, followed by punishment, timeout, and differential attention. Subject characteristics such as sex, handicapping condition, and target behavior typically bore little…

  11. Self-Management Interventions on Students with Autism: A Meta-Analysis of Single-Subject Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Monica E.; Moore, Dennis W.; Anderson, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    Self-management interventions aimed at skill acquisition and/or improving behavior of students diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders were examined. Twenty-three single-subject research design studies met inclusion criteria. Quality assessment of these studies was conducted using the What Works Clearinghouse guidelines, and treatment effect…

  12. Rating the methodological quality of single-subject designs and n-of-1 trials: introducing the Single-Case Experimental Design (SCED) Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Robyn L; McDonald, Skye; Perdices, Michael; Togher, Leanne; Schultz, Regina; Savage, Sharon

    2008-08-01

    Rating scales that assess methodological quality of clinical trials provide a means to critically appraise the literature. Scales are currently available to rate randomised and non-randomised controlled trials, but there are none that assess single-subject designs. The Single-Case Experimental Design (SCED) Scale was developed for this purpose and evaluated for reliability. Six clinical researchers who were trained and experienced in rating methodological quality of clinical trials developed the scale and participated in reliability studies. The SCED Scale is an 11-item rating scale for single-subject designs, of which 10 items are used to assess methodological quality and use of statistical analysis. The scale was developed and refined over a 3-year period. Content validity was addressed by identifying items to reduce the main sources of bias in single-case methodology as stipulated by authorities in the field, which were empirically tested against 85 published reports. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using a random sample of 20/312 single-subject reports archived in the Psychological Database of Brain Impairment Treatment Efficacy (PsycBITE). Inter-rater reliability for the total score was excellent, both for individual raters (overall ICC = 0.84; 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.92) and for consensus ratings between pairs of raters (overall ICC = 0.88; 95% confidence interval 0.78-0.95). Item reliability was fair to excellent for consensus ratings between pairs of raters (range k = 0.48 to 1.00). The results were replicated with two independent novice raters who were trained in the use of the scale (ICC = 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.95). The SCED Scale thus provides a brief and valid evaluation of methodological quality of single-subject designs, with the total score demonstrating excellent inter-rater reliability using both individual and consensus ratings. Items from the scale can also be used as a checklist in the design, reporting and critical

  13. Effects of Singapore's Model Method on Elementary Student Problem Solving Performance: Single Subject Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This research investigation examined the effects of Singapore's Model Method, also known as "model drawing" or "bar modeling" on the word problem-solving performance of American third and fourth grade students. Employing a single-case design, a researcher-designed teaching intervention was delivered to a child in third…

  14. Efficacy of Executive Functions Training (Response Inhibition on the Rate of Impulsivity in Preschool Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Single-Subject Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnoush Kavianpour

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study aims to investigate the efficacy of executive functions training (response inhibition on the rate of impulsivity in preschool children with developmental coordination disorder in Isfahan city.  Materials & Methods: The participants of this study were three preschool children which were recognized to have developmental coordination disorder. To collect data, we used NEPSY neuropsychology test, Conner’s parent rating scale, Wechsler intelligence scale for children, basic motor ability tests and clinical interview. A single-subject method with MBD design research methodology was used as well. Results: The results of the data chart analysis based on descriptive statistics' and visual analysis indices revealed that the intervention has been effective on the three participants (PND of 80%, 70% and 70% for test number one, two and three, respectively. Conclusion: The results of the present study show that response inhibition executive function training can reduce level of impulsivity.

  15. Handbook of statistical methods single subject design

    CERN Document Server

    Satake, Eiki; Maxwell, David L

    2008-01-01

    This book is a practical guide of the most commonly used approaches in analyzing and interpreting single-subject data. It arranges the methodologies used in a logical sequence using an array of research studies from the existing published literature to illustrate specific applications. The book provides a brief discussion of each approach such as visual, inferential, and probabilistic model, the applications for which it is intended, and a step-by-step illustration of the test as used in an actual research study.

  16. Knowledge of results and learning to tell the time in an adult male with an intellectual disability: a single-subject research design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, Samantha L; Rice, Martin S; Stein, Franklin; Maitra, Kinsuk K

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated whether knowledge of results, in the form of visual and audible feedback, would increase the accuracy of time-telling in an individual with an intellectual disability. A 19-year-old male with mild intellectual disability participated in this A1-B1-A2-B2 single-subject study design. The task involved correctly identifying the time given on a computer. Data, based on the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, showed that the participant demonstrated a greater number of correct responses during the intervention phases. Incorporating knowledge of results into a learning strategy for this individual with intellectual disability resulted in an increased ability to accurately identify the correct time on an analogue clock. There is a need to replicate the study design to increase the external validity and generalization of results. The strategies described in the present study may also be useful for occupational therapists who teach individuals with intellectual disability to gain skills in their everyday activities of daily living (ADLs). (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Transonic Experimental Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Transonic Experimental Research Facility evaluates aerodynamics and fluid dynamics of projectiles, smart munitions systems, and sub-munitions dispensing systems;...

  18. The Reliability of Single Subject Statistics for Biofeedback Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, Frederick J.; And Others

    To test the usefulness of single subject statistical designs for biofeedback, three experiments were conducted comparing biofeedback to meditation, and to a compound stimulus recognition task. In a statistical sense, this experimental design is best described as one experiment with two replications. The apparatus for each of the three experiments…

  19. Experimental Research in Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Mauro Hernandez; Kenny Basso; Marcelo Moll Brandão

    2014-01-01

    Considering the growing number of scientific studies published in the marketing field and the development of unique theories of the area (Hunt, 2010), using experimental designs seems increasingly appropriate to investigate marketing phenomena. This article aims to discuss the main elements in conducting experimental studies and also to stimulate researchers to adopt this research method. Several international journals (e.g., JCR, JCP, JMR, JR, JBR) have been publishing articles based on expe...

  20. Experimental Research in Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Mauro Hernandez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the growing number of scientific studies published in the marketing field and the development of unique theories of the area (Hunt, 2010, using experimental designs seems increasingly appropriate to investigate marketing phenomena. This article aims to discuss the main elements in conducting experimental studies and also to stimulate researchers to adopt this research method. Several international journals (e.g., JCR, JCP, JMR, JR, JBR have been publishing articles based on experiments that not only demonstrate a relationship between two events, but also elucidate how they occur by means of mediation and moderation analyses. This article intents to be a roadmap for novice researchers on how to conduct experiments and to offer new perspectives in experimental research for experienced researchers.  

  1. Experimental Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents a new, multidisciplinary perspective on and paradigm for integrative experimental design research. It addresses various perspectives on methods, analysis and overall research approach, and how they can be synthesized to advance understanding of design. It explores the foundations...... of experimental approaches and their utility in this domain, and brings together analytical approaches to promote an integrated understanding. The book also investigates where these approaches lead to and how they link design research more fully with other disciplines (e.g. psychology, cognition, sociology......, computer science, management). Above all, the book emphasizes the integrative nature of design research in terms of the methods, theories, and units of study—from the individual to the organizational level. Although this approach offers many advantages, it has inherently led to a situation in current...

  2. SSDOnt: An Ontology for Representing Single-Subject Design Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berges, Idoia; Bermúdez, Jesus; Illarramendi, Arantza

    2018-02-01

    Single-Subject Design is used in several areas such as education and biomedicine. However, no suited formal vocabulary exists for annotating the detailed configuration and the results of this type of research studies with the appropriate granularity for looking for information about them. Therefore, the search for those study designs relies heavily on a syntactical search on the abstract, keywords or full text of the publications about the study, which entails some limitations. To present SSDOnt, a specific purpose ontology for describing and annotating single-subject design studies, so that complex questions can be asked about them afterwards. The ontology was developed following the NeOn methodology. Once the requirements of the ontology were defined, a formal model was described in a Description Logic and later implemented in the ontology language OWL 2 DL. We show how the ontology provides a reference model with a suitable terminology for the annotation and searching of single-subject design studies and their main components, such as the phases, the intervention types, the outcomes and the results. Some mappings with terms of related ontologies have been established. We show as proof-of-concept that classes in the ontology can be easily extended to annotate more precise information about specific interventions and outcomes such as those related to autism. Moreover, we provide examples of some types of queries that can be posed to the ontology. SSDOnt has achieved the purpose of covering the descriptions of the domain of single-subject research studies. Schattauer GmbH.

  3. Experimental Methods in Media Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.W. Handke (Christian); C. Herzog (Christian)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractCausal effects are a prime concern in media policy research, and experimental research designs are widely regarded as the most effective way to identify and gauge causality. Nevertheless, explicit applications of experimental methods are rare in media policy research. This chapter

  4. Experimental plasma research project summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    The experimental plasma Research Branch has responsibility for developing a broad range of experimental data and new experimental techniques that are required for operating and interpreting present large-scale confinement experiments, and for designing future deuterium-tritium burining facilities. The Branch pursued these objectives by supporting research in DOE laboratories, other Federal laboratories, other Federal laboratories, universities, and private industry. Initiation and renewal of research projects are primarily through submission of unsolicited proposals by these institutions to DOE. Summaries of these projects are given

  5. Microarray expression profiling of human dental pulp from single subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tete, Stefano; Mastrangelo, Filiberto; Scioletti, Anna Paola; Tranasi, Michelangelo; Raicu, Florina; Paolantonio, Michele; Stuppia, Liborio; Vinci, Raffaele; Gherlone, Enrico; Ciampoli, Cristian; Sberna, Maria Teresa; Conti, Pio

    2008-01-01

    Microarray is a recently developed simultaneous analysis of expression patterns of thousand of genes. The aim of this research was to evaluate the expression profile of human healthy dental pulp in order to find the presence of genes activated and encoding for proteins involved in the physiological process of human dental pulp. We report data obtained by analyzing expression profiles of human tooth pulp from single subjects, using an approach based on the amplification of the total RNA. Experiments were performed on a high-density array able to analyse about 21,000 oligonucleotide sequences of about 70 bases in duplicate, using an approach based on the amplification of the total RNA from the pulp of a single tooth. Obtained data were analyzed using the S.A.M. system (Significance Analysis of Microarray) and genes were merged according to their molecular functions and biological process by the Onto-Express software. The microarray analysis revealed 362 genes with specific pulp expression. Genes showing significant high expression were classified in genes involved in tooth development, protoncogenes, genes of collagen, DNAse, Metallopeptidases and Growth factors. We report a microarray analysis, carried out by extraction of total RNA from specimens of healthy human dental pulp tissue. This approach represents a powerful tool in the study of human normal and pathological pulp, allowing minimization of the genetic variability due to the pooling of samples from different individuals.

  6. Experimental Plasma Research project summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    This report contains descriptions of the activities supported by the Experimental Plasma Research Branch of APP. The individual project summaries were prepared by the principal investigators and include objectives and milestones for each project. The projects are arranged in six research categories: Plasma Properties; Plasma Heating; Plasma Diagnostics; Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics; Advanced Superconducting Materials; and the Fusion Plasma Research Facility (FPRF). Each category is introduced with a statement of objectives and recent progress and followed by descriptions of individual projects. An overall budget summary is provided at the beginning of the report

  7. Experimental plasma research project summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    This report contans descriptions of the activities supported by the Experimental Plasma Research Branch of APP. The individual project summaries were prepared by the principal investigators and include objectives and milestones for each project. The projects are arranged in six research categories: Plasma Properties; Plasma Heating; Plasma Measurements and Instrumentation; Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics; Advanced Superconducting Materials; and the Fusion Plasma Research Facility (FPRF). Each category is introduced with a statement of objectives and recent progress and followed by descriptions of individual projects. An overall budget summary is provided at the beginning of the report

  8. Experimental Plasma Research project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    This report contains descriptions of the activities supported by the Experimental Plasma Research Branch of APP. The individual project summaries were prepared by the principal investigators and include objectives and milestones for each project. The projects are arranged in six research categories: Plasma Properties; Plasma Heating; Plasma Diagnostics; Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics; Advanced Superconducting Materials; and the Fusion Plasma Research Facility (FPRF). Each category is introduced with a statement of objectives and recent progress and followed by descriptions of individual projects. An overall budget summary is provided at the beginning of the report.

  9. Experimental plasma research project summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This is the latest in a series of Project Summary books going back to 1976 and is the first after a hiatus of several years. They are published to provide a short description of each project supported by the Experimental Plasma Research Branch of the Division of Applied Plasma Physics in the Office of Fusion Energy. The Experimental Plasma Research Branch seeks to provide a broad range of experimental data, physics understanding, and new experimental techniques that contribute to operation, interpretation, and improvement of high temperature plasma as a source of fusion energy. In pursuit of these objectives, the branch supports research at universities, DOE laboratories, other federal laboratories and industry. About 70 percent of the funds expended are spent at universities and a significant function of this program is the training of students in fusion physics. The branch supports small- and medium-scale experimental studies directly related to specific critical plasma issues of the magnetic fusion program. Plasma physics experiments are conducted on transport of particles and energy within plasma and innovative approaches for operating, controlling, and heating plasma are evaluated for application to the larger confinement devices of the magnetic fusion program. New diagnostic approaches to measuring the properties of high temperature plasmas are developed to the point where they can be applied with confidence on the large-scale confinement experiments. Atomic data necessary for impurity control, interpretation of diagnostic data, development of heating devices, and analysis of cooling by impurity ion radiation are obtained. The project summaries are grouped into these three categories of plasma physics, diagnostic development and atomic physics

  10. Experimental Research of Engine Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta-Elena Chiţan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries a compact presentation of experimental research of engine-foundations. The dynamic phenomena are so complex, that the vibrations cannot be estimated in the design stage. The design engineer of an engine foundation must foresee through a dynamic analysis of the vibrations, those measures that lead to the avoidance or limiting of the bad effects caused by the vibrations.

  11. Creating single-subject design graphs in Microsoft Excel 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mark R; Jackson, James W; Small, Stacey L; Horner-King, Mollie J; Lik, Nicholas Mui Ker; Garcia, Yors; Rosales, Rocio

    2009-01-01

    Over 10 years have passed since the publication of Carr and Burkholder's (1998) technical article on how to construct single-subject graphs using Microsoft Excel. Over the course of the past decade, the Excel program has undergone a series of revisions that make the Carr and Burkholder paper somewhat difficult to follow with newer versions. The present article provides task analyses for constructing various types of commonly used single-subject design graphs in Microsoft Excel 2007. The task analyses were evaluated using a between-subjects design that compared the graphing skills of 22 behavior-analytic graduate students using Excel 2007 and either the Carr and Burkholder or newly developed task analyses. Results indicate that the new task analyses yielded more accurate and faster graph construction than the Carr and Burkholder instructions.

  12. Single-subject withdrawal designs in delayed matching-to-sample procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Eilifsen, Christoffer; Arntzen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    In most studies of delayed matching-to-sample (DMTS) and stimulus equivalence, the delay has remained fixed throughout a single experimental condition. We wanted to expand on the DMTS and stimulus equivalence literature by examining the effects of using titrating delays with different starting points during the establishment of conditional discriminations prerequisite for stimulus equivalence. In Experiment 1, a variation of a single-subject withdrawal design was used. Ten adults were exposed...

  13. Safety Research and Experimental Coal Mines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Safety Research and Experimental Coal MinesLocation: Pittsburgh SiteThe Safety Research Coal Mine and Experimental Mine complex is a multi-purpose underground mine...

  14. Experimental research control software system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, I A; Kovalenko, A G; Vystavkin, A N

    2014-01-01

    A software system, intended for automation of a small scale research, has been developed. The software allows one to control equipment, acquire and process data by means of simple scripts. The main purpose of that development is to increase experiment automation easiness, thus significantly reducing experimental setup automation efforts. In particular, minimal programming skills are required and supervisors have no reviewing troubles. Interactions between scripts and equipment are managed automatically, thus allowing to run multiple scripts simultaneously. Unlike well-known data acquisition commercial software systems, the control is performed by an imperative scripting language. This approach eases complex control and data acquisition algorithms implementation. A modular interface library performs interaction with external interfaces. While most widely used interfaces are already implemented, a simple framework is developed for fast implementations of new software and hardware interfaces. While the software is in continuous development with new features being implemented, it is already used in our laboratory for automation of a helium-3 cryostat control and data acquisition. The software is open source and distributed under Gnu Public License.

  15. Experimental research control software system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, I. A.; Kovalenko, A. G.; Vystavkin, A. N.

    2014-05-01

    A software system, intended for automation of a small scale research, has been developed. The software allows one to control equipment, acquire and process data by means of simple scripts. The main purpose of that development is to increase experiment automation easiness, thus significantly reducing experimental setup automation efforts. In particular, minimal programming skills are required and supervisors have no reviewing troubles. Interactions between scripts and equipment are managed automatically, thus allowing to run multiple scripts simultaneously. Unlike well-known data acquisition commercial software systems, the control is performed by an imperative scripting language. This approach eases complex control and data acquisition algorithms implementation. A modular interface library performs interaction with external interfaces. While most widely used interfaces are already implemented, a simple framework is developed for fast implementations of new software and hardware interfaces. While the software is in continuous development with new features being implemented, it is already used in our laboratory for automation of a helium-3 cryostat control and data acquisition. The software is open source and distributed under Gnu Public License.

  16. Experimental research on air propellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, William F

    1918-01-01

    The purposes of the experimental investigation on the performance of air propellers described in this report are as follows: (1) the development of a series of design factors and coefficients drawn from model forms distributed with some regularity over the field of air-propeller design and intended to furnish a basis of check with similar work done in other aerodynamic laboratories, and as a point of departure for the further study of special or individual types and forms; (2) the establishment of a series of experimental values derived from models and intended for later use as a basis for comparison with similar results drawn from certain selected full-sized forms and tested in free flight.

  17. Research in experimental nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, C.F.

    1989-09-01

    Our program concentrates on pion physics experimental results obtained using the Energetic Pion Channel and Spectrometer (EPICS), Pion and Particle Physics channel (P 3 ), and the Low Energy Pion physics channel (LEP). These facilities are unique in the world in their intensity and resolution. Two classes of experiments can be done best with this equipment: scattering (elastic and inelastic) and double charge exchange (DCX). Several coincidence experiments are in progress and are discussed in this paper

  18. Research and Experimentation in Prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, L. Alex

    1979-01-01

    The author argues that the prison system is inherently coercive, and that social and behavioral scientists have been used by state agents to facilitate control of prisoners. He urges that the major objective of research in prisons be to promote the principle of human liberation. (Author/RLV)

  19. An Evaluation of a Computer-Based Training on the Visual Analysis of Single-Subject Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Visual analysis is the primary method of analyzing data in single-subject methodology, which is the predominant research method used in the fields of applied behavior analysis and special education. Previous research on the reliability of visual analysis suggests that judges often disagree about what constitutes an intervention effect. Considering…

  20. Experimental High Energy Physics Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohlmann, Marcus [Florida Inst. of Technology, Melbourne, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics and Space Sciences

    2016-01-13

    This final report summarizes activities of the Florida Tech High Energy Physics group supported by DOE under grant #DE-SC0008024 during the period June 2012 – March 2015. We focused on one of the main HEP research thrusts at the Energy Frontier by participating in the CMS experiment. We were exploiting the tremendous physics opportunities at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and prepared for physics at its planned extension, the High-Luminosity LHC. The effort comprised a physics component with analysis of data from the first LHC run and contributions to the CMS Phase-2 upgrades in the muon endcap system (EMU) for the High-Luminosity LHC. The emphasis of our hardware work was the development of large-area Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs) for the CMS forward muon upgrade. We built a production and testing site for such detectors at Florida Tech to complement future chamber production at CERN. The first full-scale CMS GE1/1 chamber prototype ever built outside of CERN was constructed at Florida Tech in summer 2013. We conducted two beam tests with GEM prototype chambers at CERN in 2012 and at FNAL in 2013 and reported the results at conferences and in publications. Principal Investigator Hohlmann served as chair of the collaboration board of the CMS GEM collaboration and as co-coordinator of the GEM detector working group. He edited and authored sections of the detector chapter of the Technical Design Report (TDR) for the GEM muon upgrade, which was approved by the LHCC and the CERN Research Board in 2015. During the course of the TDR approval process, the GEM project was also established as an official subsystem of the muon system by the CMS muon institution board. On the physics side, graduate student Kalakhety performed a Z' search in the dimuon channel with the 2011 and 2012 CMS datasets that utilized 20.6 fb⁻¹ of p-p collisions at √s = 8 TeV. For the dimuon channel alone, the 95% CL lower limits obtained on the mass of a Z' resonance are 2770 Ge

  1. Quasi experimental designs in pharmacist intervention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krass, Ines

    2016-06-01

    Background In the field of pharmacist intervention research it is often difficult to conform to the rigorous requirements of the "true experimental" models, especially the requirement of randomization. When randomization is not feasible, a practice based researcher can choose from a range of "quasi-experimental designs" i.e., non-randomised and at time non controlled. Objective The aim of this article was to provide an overview of quasi-experimental designs, discuss their strengths and weaknesses and to investigate their application in pharmacist intervention research over the previous decade. Results In the literature quasi experimental studies may be classified into five broad categories: quasi-experimental design without control groups; quasi-experimental design that use control groups with no pre-test; quasi-experimental design that use control groups and pre-tests; interrupted time series and stepped wedge designs. Quasi-experimental study design has consistently featured in the evolution of pharmacist intervention research. The most commonly applied of all quasi experimental designs in the practice based research literature are the one group pre-post-test design and the non-equivalent control group design i.e., (untreated control group with dependent pre-tests and post-tests) and have been used to test the impact of pharmacist interventions in general medications management as well as in specific disease states. Conclusion Quasi experimental studies have a role to play as proof of concept, in the pilot phases of interventions when testing different intervention components, especially in complex interventions. They serve to develop an understanding of possible intervention effects: while in isolation they yield weak evidence of clinical efficacy, taken collectively, they help build a body of evidence in support of the value of pharmacist interventions across different practice settings and countries. However, when a traditional RCT is not feasible for

  2. A Field-Tested Task Analysis for Creating Single-Subject Graphs Using Microsoft[R] Office Excel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Ya-yu; Konrad, Moira

    2007-01-01

    Creating single-subject (SS) graphs is challenging for many researchers and practitioners because it is a complex task with many steps. Although several authors have introduced guidelines for creating SS graphs, many users continue to experience frustration. The purpose of this article is to minimize these frustrations by providing a field-tested…

  3. Experimental atomic and molecular physics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The Atomic Physics research in the Physics Division consists of five ongoing experimental programs: dissociation and other interactions of energetic molecular ions in solid and gaseous targets; beam-foil research and collision dynamics of heavy ions; photoionization-photoelectron research; spectroscopy of free atoms and molecules, high precision laser-rf double-resonance spectroscopy with atomic and molecular beams; and Moessbauer effect research

  4. [Animal experimentation, computer simulation and surgical research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Alain

    2009-11-01

    We live in a digital world In medicine, computers are providing new tools for data collection, imaging, and treatment. During research and development of complex technologies and devices such as artificial hearts, computer simulation can provide more reliable information than experimentation on large animals. In these specific settings, animal experimentation should serve more to validate computer models of complex devices than to demonstrate their reliability.

  5. Experimental design research approaches, perspectives, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stanković, Tino; Štorga, Mario

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a new, multidisciplinary perspective on and paradigm for integrative experimental design research. It addresses various perspectives on methods, analysis and overall research approach, and how they can be synthesized to advance understanding of design. It explores the foundations of experimental approaches and their utility in this domain, and brings together analytical approaches to promote an integrated understanding. The book also investigates where these approaches lead to and how they link design research more fully with other disciplines (e.g. psychology, cognition, sociology, computer science, management). Above all, the book emphasizes the integrative nature of design research in terms of the methods, theories, and units of study—from the individual to the organizational level. Although this approach offers many advantages, it has inherently led to a situation in current research practice where methods are diverging and integration between individual, team and organizational under...

  6. An Introduction to Experimental Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Stanković, Tino; Štorga, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Design research brings together influences from the whole gamut of social, psychological, and more technical sciences to create a tradition of empirical study stretching back over 50 years (Horvath 2004; Cross 2007). A growing part of this empirical tradition is experimental, which has gained in ...

  7. Effects of listening to pleasant music on chronic unilateral neglect: a single-subject study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pei-Luen; Chen, Mei-Ching; Huang, Yu-Ting; Lin, Keh-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the positive emotion induced by pleasant music may improve cognitive functions. We used the single-subject design to study whether listening to preferred music may reduce unilateral neglect in two participants with post-stroke neglect. These participants were instructed to listen to their preferred music every day for 5 weeks, followed by 2 weeks of follow-up assessment. Outcome measures involved the Star Cancellation Test, the Line Bisection Test, and the visual exploration task. A combination of visual analysis and the two-standard-deviation band method was used for data analysis. Both participants showed significant intervention-related improvements on all outcome measures except the Line Bisection Test, on which one participant showed no improvement. The therapeutic effects were maintained during the follow-up phase. The findings suggest that positive emotion, evoked by preferred music, may be used to ameliorate unilateral neglect. Further research using controlled trials is warranted to validate the findings.

  8. Data Analysis in Experimental Biomedical Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovich, Dmitriy

    This thesis covers two non-related topics in experimental biomedical research: data analysis in thrombin generation experiments (collaboration with Novo Nordisk A/S), and analysis of images and physiological signals in the context of neurovascular signalling and blood flow regulation in the brain...... to critically assess and compare obtained results. We reverse engineered the data analysis performed by CAT, a de facto standard assay in the field. This revealed a number of possibilities to improve its methods of data analysis. We found that experimental calibration data is described well with textbook...

  9. Experimental methods of shock wave research

    CERN Document Server

    Seiler, Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    This comprehensive and carefully edited volume presents a variety of experimental methods used in Shock Waves research. In 14 self contained chapters this 9th volume of the “Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library” presents the experimental methods used in Shock Tubes, Shock Tunnels and Expansion Tubes facilities. Also described is their set-up and operation. The uses of an arc heated wind tunnel and a gun tunnel are also contained in this volume. Whenever possible, in addition to the technical description some typical scientific results obtained using such facilities are described. Additionally, this authoritative book includes techniques for measuring physical properties of blast waves and laser generated shock waves. Information about active shock wave laboratories at different locations around the world that are not described in the chapters herein is given in the Appendix, making this book useful for every researcher involved in shock/blast wave phenomena.

  10. Experimental nuclear physics research in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koltay, Ede.

    1984-01-01

    The status and recent results of experimental nuclear physics in Hungary is reviewed. The basic nuclear sciences, instrumental background and international cooperation are discussed. Personal problems and the effects of the international scientific deconjuncture are described. The applied nuclear and interdisciplinary researches play an important role in Hungarian nuclear physics. Some problems of cooperation of Hungarian nuclear and other research institutes applying or producing nuclear analytical technology are reviewed. The new instrument, the Debrecen cyclotron under construction gives new possibilities to basic and applied researches. A new field of Hungarian nuclear physics is the fusion and plasma research using tokamak equipment, the main topics of which are plasma diagnostics and fusion control systems. Some practical applications of Hungarian nuclear physical results, e.g. establishment of new analytical techniques like PIXE, RBS, PIGE, ESCA, etc. are summarized. (D.Gy.)

  11. Characterization of experimental dental research using animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia Granville-Garcia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the profile of experimental dental research using animals. Methods: The research comprised all the 4141 abstracts existent in the books of annals from the 22nd and 23rd Annual meetings of the Brazilian Society of Dentistry Research and the sample was composed of 377 studies (9.1%. The variables analyzed were: area of knowledge, type of institution, State of the country, type of animal and body part used, occurrence of animal sacrifice, mention of the Research Ethics Committee, receipt of funding and type of financing agency. Results: The largest number of studies concentrated on the areas of Buccomaxillofacial Surgery (27.3% and Basic Sciences (21.2%. The Public Universities were responsible for 74% of the researches, and the State Institutions were outstanding (82.4%. The State of São Paulo was responsible for 74.1% of the studies. Rats (67.1% and rabbits (11.1% were the most frequently used animals, and 68.2% of the animals were sacrificed. The oral cavity was used in 50.1% of the researches and the mandible in 59%. Only 1.9% of the studies mentioned the Research Ethics Committee and 26.3% reported that they received funding. Conclusion: In Dentistry, studies involving animals are predominant in the areas of buccomaxillofacial surgery and basic sciences, with rats andrabbits being most frequently used. A significant number of guinea pigs are sacrificed during or at the end of the experiments.

  12. Lung MRI for experimental drug research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmann, Nicolau; Cannet, Catherine; Karmouty-Quintana, Harry; Tigani, Bruno; Zurbruegg, Stefan; Ble, Francois-Xavier; Cremillieux, Yannick; Trifilieff, Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    Current techniques to evaluate the efficacy of potential treatments for airways diseases in preclinical models are generally invasive and terminal. In the past few years, the flexibility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to obtain anatomical and functional information of the lung has been explored with the scope of developing a non-invasive approach for the routine testing of drugs in models of airways diseases in small rodents. With MRI, the disease progression can be followed in the same animal. Thus, a significant reduction in the number of animals used for experimentation is achieved, as well as minimal interference with their well-being and physiological status. In addition, under certain circumstances the duration of the observation period after disease onset can be shortened since the technique is able to detect changes before these are reflected in parameters of inflammation determined using invasive procedures. The objective of this article is to briefly address MRI techniques that are being used in experimental lung research, with special emphasis on applications. Following an introduction on proton techniques and MRI of hyperpolarized gases, the attention is shifted to the MRI analysis of several aspects of lung disease models, including inflammation, ventilation, emphysema, fibrosis and sensory nerve activation. The next subject concerns the use of MRI in pharmacological studies within the context of experimental lung research. A final discussion points towards advantages and limitations of MRI in this area

  13. Experimental research of flow servo-valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takosoglu Jakub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Positional control of pneumatic drives is particularly important in pneumatic systems. Some methods of positioning pneumatic cylinders for changeover and tracking control are known. Choking method is the most development-oriented and has the greatest potential. An optimal and effective method, particularly when applied to pneumatic drives, has been searched for a long time. Sophisticated control systems with algorithms utilizing artificial intelligence methods are designed therefor. In order to design the control algorithm, knowledge about real parameters of servo-valves used in control systems of electro-pneumatic servo-drives is required. The paper presents the experimental research of flow servo-valve.

  14. Experimental research of flow servo-valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takosoglu, Jakub

    Positional control of pneumatic drives is particularly important in pneumatic systems. Some methods of positioning pneumatic cylinders for changeover and tracking control are known. Choking method is the most development-oriented and has the greatest potential. An optimal and effective method, particularly when applied to pneumatic drives, has been searched for a long time. Sophisticated control systems with algorithms utilizing artificial intelligence methods are designed therefor. In order to design the control algorithm, knowledge about real parameters of servo-valves used in control systems of electro-pneumatic servo-drives is required. The paper presents the experimental research of flow servo-valve.

  15. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals.

  16. Experimental research on air propellers V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, W F; Lesley, E P

    1923-01-01

    In previous reports on experimental research on air propellers, by W. F. Durand and E. P. Lesley, as contained in the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics reports nos. 14, 30, and 64, the investigations were made progressively and each without reference to results given in preceding reports and covering only information relating to forms perhaps adjacent in geometrical form and proportion. This report is a review of the entire series of results of the preceding reports with a view of examining through graphical and other appropriate means the nature of the history of the characteristics of operation as related to the systematic variations in characteristics of forms, etc., through the series of such characteristics.

  17. Computer network for experimental research using ISDN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, Katsumi; Nakanishi, Hideya

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the development of a computer network that uses the Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN) for real-time analysis of experimental plasma physics and nuclear fusion research. Communication speed, 64/128kbps (INS64) or 1.5Mbps (INS1500) per connection, is independent of how busy the network is. When INS-1500 is used, the communication speed, which is proportional to the public telephone connection fee, can be dynamically varied from 64kbps to 1472kbps (depending on how much data are being transferred using the Bandwidth-on-Demand (BOD) function in the ISDN Router. On-demand dial-up and time-out disconnection reduce the public telephone connection fee by 10%-97%. (author)

  18. Experimental facilities for Generation IV reactors research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krecanova, E.; Di Gabriele, F.; Berka, J.; Zychova, M.; Macak, J.; Vojacek, A.

    2013-06-01

    Centrum Vyzkumu Rez (CVR) is research and development Company situated in Czech Republic and member of the UJV group. One of its major fields is material research for Generation IV reactor concepts, especially supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR), very high temperature/gas-cooled fast reactor (VHTR/GFR) and lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR). The CVR is equipped by and is building unique experimental facilities which simulate the environment in the active zones of these reactor concepts and enable to pre-qualify and to select proper constructional materials for the most stressed components of the facility (cladding, vessel, piping). New infrastructure is founded within the Sustainable Energy project focused on implementation the Generation IV and fusion experimental facilities. The research of SCWR concept is divided to research and development of the constructional materials ensured by SuperCritical Water Loop (SCWL) and fuel components research on Fuel Qualification Test loop (SCWL-FQT). SCWL provides environment of the primary circuits of European SCWR, pressure 25 MPa, temperature 600 deg. C and its major purpose is to simulate behavior of the primary medium and candidate constructional materials. On-line monitoring system is included to collect the operational data relevant to experiment and its evaluation (pH, conductivity, chemical species concentration). SCWL-FQT is facility focused on the behavior of cladding material and fuel at the conditions of so-called preheater, the first pass of the medium through the fuel (in case of European SCWR concept). The conditions are 450 deg. C and 25 MPa. SCWL-FQT is unique facility enabling research of the shortened fuel rods. VHTR/GFR research covers material testing and also cleaning methods of the medium in primary circuit. The High Temperature Helium Loop (HTHL) enables exposure of materials and simulates the VHTR/GFR core environment to analyze the behavior of medium, especially in presence of organic compounds and

  19. Nuclear Criticality Experimental Research Center (NCERC) Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goda, Joetta Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Grove, Travis Justin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hayes, David Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, William L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sanchez, Rene Gerardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-03

    The mission of the National Criticality Experiments Research Center (NCERC) at the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) is to conduct experiments and training with critical assemblies and fissionable material at or near criticality in order to explore reactivity phenomena, and to operate the assemblies in the regions from subcritical through delayed critical. One critical assembly, Godiva-IV, is designed to operate above prompt critical. The Nuclear Criticality Experimental Research Center (NCERC) is our nation’s only general-purpose critical experiments facility and is only one of a few that remain operational throughout the world. This presentation discusses the history of NCERC, the general activities that makeup work at NCERC, and the various government programs and missions that NCERC supports. Recent activities at NCERC will be reviewed, with a focus on demonstrating how NCERC meets national security mission goals using engineering fundamentals. In particular, there will be a focus on engineering theory and design and applications of engineering fundamentals at NCERC. NCERC activities that relate to engineering education will also be examined.

  20. Experimental research of digital holographic microscopic measuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xueliang; Chen, Feifei; Li, Jicheng

    2013-06-01

    Digital holography is a new imaging technique, which is developed on the base of optical holography, Digital processing, and Computer techniques. It is using CCD instead of the conventional silver to record hologram, and then reproducing the 3D contour of the object by the way of computer simulation. Compared with the traditional optical holographic, the whole process is of simple measuring, lower production cost, faster the imaging speed, and with the advantages of non-contact real-time measurement. At present, it can be used in the fields of the morphology detection of tiny objects, micro deformation analysis, and biological cells shape measurement. It is one of the research hot spot at home and abroad. This paper introduced the basic principles and relevant theories about the optical holography and Digital holography, and researched the basic questions which influence the reproduce images in the process of recording and reconstructing of the digital holographic microcopy. In order to get a clear digital hologram, by analyzing the optical system structure, we discussed the recording distance and of the hologram. On the base of the theoretical studies, we established a measurement and analyzed the experimental conditions, then adjusted them to the system. To achieve a precise measurement of tiny object in three-dimension, we measured MEMS micro device for example, and obtained the reproduction three-dimensional contour, realized the three dimensional profile measurement of tiny object. According to the experiment results consider: analysis the reference factors between the zero-order term and a pair of twin-images by the choice of the object light and the reference light and the distance of the recording and reconstructing and the characteristics of reconstruction light on the measurement, the measurement errors were analyzed. The research result shows that the device owns certain reliability.

  1. Creating Single-Subject Design Graphs in Microsoft Excel[TM] 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mark R.; Jackson, James W.; Small, Stacey L.; Horner-King, Mollie J.; Mui Ker Lik, Nicholas; Garcia, Yors; Rosales, Rocio

    2009-01-01

    Over 10 years have passed since the publication of Carr and Burkholder's (1998) technical article on how to construct single-subject graphs using Microsoft Excel. Over the course of the past decade, the Excel program has undergone a series of revisions that make the Carr and Burkholder paper somewhat difficult to follow with newer versions. The…

  2. Single Subject Prediction of Brain Disorders in Neuroimaging: Promises and Pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbabshirani, Mohammad R.; Plis, Sergey; Sui, Jing; Calhoun, Vince D.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging-based single subject prediction of brain disorders has gained increasing attention in recent years. Using a variety of neuroimaging modalities such as structural, functional and diffusion MRI, along with machine learning techniques, hundreds of studies have been carried out for accurate classification of patients with heterogeneous mental and neurodegenerative disorders such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. More than 500 studies have been published during the past quarter century on single subject prediction focused on a multiple brain disorders. In the first part of this study, we provide a survey of more than 200 reports in this field with a focus on schizophrenia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's disease (AD), depressive disorders, autism spectrum disease (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Detailed information about those studies such as sample size, type and number of extracted features and reported accuracy are summarized and discussed. To our knowledge, this is by far the most comprehensive review of neuroimaging-based single subject prediction of brain disorders. In the second part, we present our opinion on major pitfalls of those studies from a machine learning point of view. Common biases are discussed and suggestions are provided. Moreover, emerging trends such as decentralized data sharing, multimodal brain imaging, differential diagnosis, disease subtype classification and deep learning are also discussed. Based on this survey, there are extensive evidences showing the great potential of neuroimaging data for single subject prediction of various disorders. However, the main bottleneck of this exciting field is still the limited sample size, which could be potentially addressed by modern data sharing models such as the ones discussed in this paper. Emerging big data technologies and advanced data-intensive machine learning methodologies such as deep learning have coincided with an increasing need

  3. Design Issues and Inference in Experimental L2 Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Thom; Llosa, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    Explicit attention to research design issues is essential in experimental second language (L2) research. Too often, however, such careful attention is not paid. This article examines some of the issues surrounding experimental L2 research and its relationships to causal inferences. It discusses the place of research questions and hypotheses,…

  4. Minimizing Experimental Error in Thinning Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. B. Briscoe

    1964-01-01

    Many diverse approaches have been made prescribing and evaluating thinnings on an objective basis. None of the techniques proposed hasbeen widely accepted. Indeed. none has been proven superior to the others nor even widely applicable. There are at least two possible reasons for this: none of the techniques suggested is of any general utility and/or experimental error...

  5. Toward a Holistic Federated Future Internet Experimentation Environment: The Experience of NOVI Research and Experimentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maglaris, V.; Papagianni, C.; Androulidakis, G.; Grammatikou, M.; Grosso, P.; van der Ham, J.; de Laat, C.; Pietrzak, B.; Belter, B.; Steger, J.; Laki, S.; Campanella, M.; Sallent, S.

    This article presents the design and pilot implementation of a suite of intelligent methods, algorithms, and tools for federating heterogeneous experimental platforms (domains) toward a holistic Future Internet experimentation ecosystem. The proposed framework developed within the NOVI research and

  6. Ethnographic and Experimental Hypotheses in Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, George E.; Stallings, William M.

    1976-01-01

    Attempts to demonstrate that the ethnographic hypothesis is both culturally relevant and empirically grounded. It is noted that any hypothesis which lacks these attributes is inappropriate for cross cultural research. (Author/AM)

  7. Decreasing Excessive Media Usage while Increasing Physical Activity: A Single-Subject Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larwin, Karen H.; Larwin, David A.

    2008-01-01

    The Kaiser Family Foundation released a report entitled "Kids and Media Use" in the United States that concluded that children's use of media--including television, computers, Internet, video games, and phones--may be one of the primary contributor's to the poor fitness and obesity of many of today's adolescents. The present study examines the…

  8. Experimental research concerning waste co-combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ionel, I.

    2007-07-01

    The paper focuses on a lab facility designed for the co-combustion of low calorific Lignite with waste. Also a technology for the potential removal of principal pollutants such as NO{sub x}, Hg and SO{sub 2}, including particles in the fuel gases is described. The novelty of the paper consists in the lay out of the experimental rigs, as well as the application of renewable energy resource in order to generate energy, with lower CO{sub 2} emission. (orig.)

  9. Experimental research of reactor core flooding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaha, V.; Kotrnoch, J.; Krett, V.

    1978-01-01

    The results are presented of experiments performed with the aim of finding the influence of the method of fixing the thermocouples for measuring the distribution of temperature to the wall of fuel pin simulator. This influence was found for the purpose of emergency core flooding. First experimental results on the effect of nitrogen dissolved in the water on the velocity of the cooling wave are given. These experiments were carried out under the following conditions: initial temperature in pin centre 300 to 600 degC, velocity of water at the inlet into the measuring section 3.5 to 20 cm/s, and atmospheric pressure in the model. (author)

  10. Leakages and pressure relation: an experimental research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. De Paola

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Leaks in water systems are presently a frequent and increasing event that involves cost increase and poor service, not compliant to quality standards and modern management criteria. The most recent data available in Italy, resumed into the report issued by Control Committee for Water Resources Use (CONVIRI, shows leakages with an average value of 37%. It is therefore important, for maintenance perspective, to investigate occurrence and evolution of water leaks and the analytical link between leaks Qp and network pressure P, for a reliable calibration of water networks quali-quantitative simulation models. The present work reports the first results of an experimental campaign started at Laboratory of Hydraulics of Department of Hydraulics, Geotechnical and Environmental Engineering of University of Naples Federico II in order to analyze the features of Qp(P relation, which are compared with other results issued in literature.

  11. Experimental Research in Boost Driver with EDLCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hirokazu

    The supply used in servo systems tends to have a high voltage in order to reduce loss and improve the response of motor drives. We propose a new boost motor driver that comprises EDLCs. The proposed driver has a simple structure, wherein the EDLCs are connected in series to the supply, and comprises a charge circuit to charge the EDLCs. The proposed driver has three advantages over conventional boost drivers. The first advantage is that the driver can easily attain the stable boost voltage. The second advantage is that the driver can reduce input power peaks. In a servo system, the input power peaks become greater than the rated power in order to accelerate the motor rapidly. This implies that the equipments that supply power to servo systems must have sufficient power capacity to satisfy the power peaks. The proposed driver can suppress the increase of the power capacity of supply facilities. The third advantage is that the driver can store almost all of the regenerative energy. Conventional drivers have a braking resistor to suppress the increase in the DC link voltage. This causes a considerable reduction in the efficiency. The proposed driver is more efficient than conventional drivers. In this study, the experimental results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed driver and showed that the drive performance of the proposed driver is the same as that of a conventional driver. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the results of the simulation of a model of the EDLC module, whose capacitance is dependent on the frequency, correspond well with the experimental results.

  12. Experimental research of a microjet cavitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olšiak Róbert

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some results of a cavitation research behind a micro-orifice. Investigated were the conditions of the origin of cavitation represented by parameters such as upstream pressure, downstream pressure, liquid temperature and cavitation number. Presented are also images of a cavitating microjet made by the high speed high definition camera RedLake Y3. Dimensions of a microjet are: diameter 0,3 mm; length 0,5 mm.

  13. Experimental Research on Fluid Coupling Flexible Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangli Zeng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the field of micromechanics, piezoelectric actuator has attracted great attention for its high-frequency response, high displacement resolution, and high output force. However, its prospect of practical application has been largely limited by the displacement of micrometer. A fluid coupling flexible actuator was proposed, which utilizes resonance to enlarge the output displacement. The actuator uses a piezoelectric oscillator as an excitation source, fluid as the transmission medium and a flexible diaphragm for the displacement output. On the condition that the fluid is inviscid and incompressible, mathematical formulation of the membrane vibration theory has been analyzed. Then, the prototype is made. The displacement is amplified 21 times to 1.106 mm when driving frequency is 127 Hz. The flexible diaphragm appears the largest displacement output when driving frequency is close to one of the system’s natural frequency. Then, the points with zero amplitude form a circle on the surface of flexible diaphragm and the movement direction of the flexible diaphragm is opposite on different sides of the circle. In fact, rather than vibrates at the first resonance frequency, the membrane in the essay is vibrating at a certain higher-order resonance frequency. The experimental results are mainly consistent with the theoretical analysis.

  14. Research Directions for Cyber Experimentation: Workshop Discussion Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWaard, Elizabeth [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Deccio, Casey [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fritz, David Jakob [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tarman, Thomas D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories hosted a workshop on August 11, 2017 entitled "Research Directions for Cyber Experimentation," which focused on identifying and addressing research gaps within the field of cyber experimentation , particularly emulation testbeds . This report mainly documents the discussion toward the end of the workshop, which included research gaps such as developing a sustainable research infrastructure, exp anding cyber experimentation, and making the field more accessible to subject matter experts who may not have a background in computer science . Other gaps include methodologies for rigorous experimentation, validation, and uncertainty quantification, which , if addressed, also have the potential to bridge the gap between cyber experimentation and cyber engineering. Workshop attendees presented various ways to overcome these research gaps, however the main conclusion for overcoming these gaps is better commun ication through increased workshops, conferences, email lists, and slack chann els, among other opportunities.

  15. Alternatives to animal experimentation in basic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Franz P; Hartung, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to animal testing required by law to guarantee minimum safety standards for the licensing of drugs and chemicals, there are no regulations in basic research forcing scientists to perform animal tests. By (usually) free choice, questions are posed and hypotheses are examined which, in many cases, can only be answered by means of animal tests. Just as easily, different questions could be asked or different hypotheses could be examined which do not require animal tests. The only criterion for the choice of a topic is its relevance which cannot necessarily be judged in the short-term. Thus, it is up to the individual scientist to judge what is worth studying and therefore worth animal consumption. The educated mind will consider ethical aspects of this choice. However, on the other hand, this decision is largely influenced by questions of efficacy or (in a negative sense) by the obstacles posed to an animal consuming approach. Here, peer review and general attitude will strongly influence the methodology chosen. Availability and awareness of adequate in vitro techniques represent the prerequisites for the use of alternative methods. The least one can do in basic research is to avoid tests which cause severe suffering to animals, as is required in Switzerland and other European countries by binding ethical principles and guidelines. The increasing standard of approval and control procedures has improved the situation over the years. There are many examples of successful alternative methods in basic research. But, the application of such methods is in most cases limited to the laboratories in which they were developed, calling for technology transfer. Exceptions are procedures that are used worldwide, like the production of monoclonal antibodies, which instead of using the ascites mouse can also be performed in vitro with some good will. In these cases, commercialisation of the techniques has aided their spread within the scientific community. Sadly, many

  16. The semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia: clinical and neuroimaging evidence in single subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Iaccarino

    Full Text Available We present a clinical-neuroimaging study in a series of patients with a clinical diagnosis of semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA, with the aim to provide clinical-functional correlations of the cognitive and behavioral manifestations at the single-subject level.We performed neuropsychological investigations, 18F-FDG-PET single-subject and group analysis, with an optimized SPM voxel-based approach, and correlation analyses. A measurement of white matter integrity by means of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI was also available for a subgroup of patients.Cognitive assessment confirmed the presence of typical semantic memory deficits in all patients, with a relative sparing of executive, attentional, visuo-constructional, and episodic memory domains. 18F-FDG-PET showed a consistent pattern of cerebral hypometabolism across all patients, which correlated with performance in semantic memory tasks. In addition, a majority of patients also presented with behavioral disturbances associated with metabolic dysfunction in limbic structures. In a subgroup of cases the DTI analysis showed FA abnormalities in the inferior longitudinal and uncinate fasciculi.Each svPPA individual had functional derangement involving an extended, connected system within the left temporal lobe, a crucial part of the verbal semantic network, as well as an involvement of limbic structures. The latter was associated with behavioral manifestations and extended beyond the area of atrophy shown by CT scan.Single-subject 18F-FDG-PET analysis can account for both cognitive and behavioral alterations in svPPA. This provides useful support to the clinical diagnosis.

  17. Experimental and theoretical high energy physics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Progress in the various components of the UCLA High-Energy Physics Research program is summarized, including some representative figures and lists of resulting presentations and published papers. Principal efforts were directed at the following: (I) UCLA hadronization model, PEP4/9 e + e - analysis, bar P decay; (II) ICARUS and astroparticle physics (physics goals, technical progress on electronics, data acquisition, and detector performance, long baseline neutrino beam from CERN to the Gran Sasso and ICARUS, future ICARUS program, and WIMP experiment with xenon), B physics with hadron beams and colliders, high-energy collider physics, and the φ factory project; (III) theoretical high-energy physics; (IV) H dibaryon search, search for K L 0 → π 0 γγ and π 0 ν bar ν, and detector design and construction for the FNAL-KTeV project; (V) UCLA participation in the experiment CDF at Fermilab; and (VI) VLPC/scintillating fiber R ampersand D

  18. Experimental research on pedestrian lower leg impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, B. A.; Iozsa, D. M.; Stan, C.

    2017-10-01

    The present paper is centred on the research of deceleration measured at the level of the lower leg during a pedestrian impact in multiple load cases. Basically, the used methodology for physical test setup is similar to EuroNCAP and European Union regulatory requirements. Due cost reduction reasons, it was not used a pneumatic system in order to launch the lower leg impactor in the direction of the vehicle front-end. During the test it was used an opposite solution, namely the vehicle being in motion, aiming the standstill lower leg impactor. The impactor has similar specifications to those at EU level, i.e. dimensions, materials, and principle of measurement of the deceleration magnitude. Therefore, all the results obtained during the study comply with the requirements of both EU regulation and EuroNCAP. As a limitation, due to unavailability of proper sensors in the equipment of the lower leg impactor, that could provide precise results, the bending angle, the shearing and the detailed data at the level of knee ligaments were not evaluated. The knee joint should be improved for future studies as some bending angles observed during the post processing of several impact video files were too high comparing to other studies. The paper highlights the first pedestrian impact physical test conducted by the author, following an extensive research in the field. Deceleration at the level of pedestrian knee can be substantially improved by providing enough volume between the bumper fascia and the front-end structure and by using pedestrian friendly materials for shock absorbers, such as foams.

  19. Experimental facility of innovative types as the laboratory analog of research reactor experimental device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androsenko, A.A.; Androsenko, P.A.; Zabud'ko, A.N.; Kremenetskij, A.K.; Nikolaev, A.N.; Trykov, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    The paper analyses capability of creating laboratory analogs of complex experimental facilities at research reactors utilizing power radionuclide neutron sources fabricated in industrial conditions. Some experimental and calculational investigations of neutron-physical characteristics are presented, which have been attained at the RIZ research reactor laboratory analog. Experimental results are supplemented by calculational investigations, fulfilled by means of the BRAND three-dimensional computational complex and the ROZ-6 one-dimensional program. 4 refs.; 3 figs

  20. Experimental and theoretical high energy physics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, D.B.

    1993-01-01

    Progress on seven tasks is reported. (I)UCLA hadronization model, antiproton decay, PEP4/9 e + e - analysis: In addition to these topics, work on CP and CPT phenomenology at a φ factory and letters of support on the hadronization project are included. (II)ICARUS detector and rare B decays with hadron beams and colliders: Developments are summarized and some typcial events as shown; in addition, the RD5 collaboration at CERN and the asymmetric φ factory project are sketched. (III)Theoretical physics: Feynman diagram calculations in gauge theory; supersymmetric standard model; effects of quantum gravity in breaking of global symmetries; models of quark and lepton substructure; renormalized field theory; large-scale structure in the universe and particle-astrophysics/early universe cosmology. (IV)H dibaryon search at BNL, kaon experiments (E799/KTeV) at Fermilab: Project design and some scatterplots are given. (V)UCLA participation in the experiment CDF at Fermilab. (VI)Detectors for hadron physics at ultrahigh energy colliders: Scintillating fiber and visible light photon counter research. (VII)Administrative support and conference organization

  1. Perspectives of experimental nuclear physics research at RBI Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soic, N.

    2009-01-01

    Experimental nuclear physics has been one of the top research activities at the Rudjer Boskovic Institute, the largest and leading Croatian research center in science and applications. The RBI nuclear physics group has strong link with the researchers at the University of Zagreb. RBI scientists perform experiments at the RBI Tandem accelerator facility and at the top European experimental facilities in collaboration with the prominent research groups in the field. Current status of the RBI experimental nuclear physics research and our recent activities aimed to strengthen our position at the RBI and to increase our international reputation and impact in collaborative projects will be presented. Part of these activities is focused on local accelerator facilities, at present mainly used for application research, and their increased usage for nuclear physics research and for development and testing of novel research equipment for large international facilities. Upgrade of the local research equipment is on the way through FP7 REGPOT project 'CLUNA: Clustering phenomena in nuclear physics: strengthening of the Zagreb-Catania-Birmingham partnership'. Recently, steps to exploit potential of the facility for nuclear astrophysics research have been initiated. Possible future actions for further strengthening of the RBI experimental nuclear physics research will be discussed.(author)

  2. Research related to roads in USDA experimental forests [Chapter 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Elliot; P. J. Edwards; R. B. Foltz

    2014-01-01

    Forest roads are essential in experimental forests and rangelands (EFRs) to allow researchers and the public access to research sites and for fire suppression, timber extraction, and fuel management. Sediment from roads can adversely impact watershed health. Since the 1930s, the design and management of forest roads has addressed both access issues and watershed health...

  3. In-pile experimental facility needs for LMFR safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, Norio; Niwa, Hajime

    1994-01-01

    Although the achievement of the safety research during the past years has been significant, there still exists a strong need for future research, especially when there is prospect for future LMFR commercialization. In this paper, our current views are described on future research needs especially with a new in-pile experimental facility. The basic ideas and progress are outlined of a preliminary feasibility study. (author)

  4. Recent Activities on the Experimental Research Programme Using Small Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryaznevich, M. P.; Bosco, E. del; Malaquias, A.; Mank, G.; Oost, G. van

    2006-01-01

    A new concept of interactive co-ordinated research using small tokamaks in the mainstream fusion science areas, in testing of new diagnostics, materials and technologies as well as in education, training and broadening of the geography of fusion research in the scope of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) is discussed in this paper. Besides the presentation of the recent activities on the experimental research programme using small tokamaks and scientific results achieved at the participating laboratories, information is provided about the organisation of the co-ordinated research project. Future plans of the co-ordinated activities within the CRP are discussed

  5. Animal experimentation-Part II: In periodontal research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T K Pal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Animals contribute to the development of medical and dental sciences by being sacrificed in the hands of scientists. The experimental design demands a specific type of animal to be used for experimentation. Each animal needs proper handling, care, and diet. Alongside specific advantages and disadvantages pertaining to each type of animal need to be understood well depending on the type of study/experiment. It is important for the researcher to know the disease susceptibility of each animal. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the salient factors that need to be considered for animal experimentations.

  6. Theoretical and Experimental Research of Synchronous Reluctance Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobriyan, R.; Vitolina, S.; Lavrinovicha, L.; Dirba, J.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the research on evaluation of accuracy of magnetic field calculations of synchronous reluctance motor in comparison with the results obtained in experiments. Magnetic field calculations are performed with the finite element method to determine values of the magnetic flux and electromagnetic torque according to the current value in motor stator and load angle between the rotor direct-axis and axis of stator magnetomotive force (MMF). Experimental values of magnetic flux and electromagnetic torque are obtained on motor with locked rotor while equivalent direct current is applied to the stator windings. The research shows that the results obtained from the magnetic field calculations coincide well with the experimental data.

  7. Temperature measurement and control system for transtibial prostheses: Single subject clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoseiri, Kamiar; Zheng, Yong Ping; Leung, Aaron K L; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Aminian, Gholamreza; Masoumi, Mehdi; Safari, Mohammad Reza

    2018-01-01

    The snug fit of a prosthetic socket over the residual limb can disturb thermal balance and put skin integrity in jeopardy by providing an unpleasant and infectious environment. The prototype of a temperature measurement and control (TM&C) system was previously introduced to resolve thermal problems related to prostheses. This study evaluates its clinical application in a setting with reversal, single subject design. The TM&C system was installed on a fabricated prosthetic socket of a man with unilateral transtibial amputation. Skin temperature of the residual limb without prosthesis at baseline and with prosthesis during rest and walking was evaluated. The thermal sense and thermal comfort of the participant were also evaluated. The results showed different skin temperature around the residual limb with a temperature decrease tendency from proximal to distal. The TM&C system decreased skin temperature rise after prosthesis wearing. The same situation occurred during walking, but the thermal power of the TM&C system was insufficient to overcome heat build-up in some regions of the residual limb. The participant reported no significant change of thermal sense and thermal comfort. Further investigations are warranted to examine thermography pattern of the residual limb, thermal sense, and thermal comfort in people with amputation.

  8. Can Constraint Induced Movement Therapy Improve In-Hand Manipulation Skills: A Single Subject Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaye Kavousipor

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study describes a single subject design (ABA that shows the effective use of constraint induced movement therapy in improvement of quality and performance of in-hand manipulation skills for a 10 year old boy and a 9 years old girl with hemiplegic cerebral palsy, as Dickerson (2007 showed it in arm movement and function. Methods: To determine the effectiveness of CIMT by the use of C-statistic analysis and visual analysis. Approach: The first step was to design a child friendly group activity and home based intervention program through occupation. The possible effectiveness of CIMT was evaluated by daily measurements and video recording of 6 sub skills of in-hand manipulation according to Pont category (2009 in defined activity. Results: For making the treatment more cost effective, families can produce a simple clinical setting at home and participate in their child treatment plan actively. Discussion: A client center intervention will facilitate the use and quality of fingers and hand motion. Also a group activity can motivate participants to participate more and better.

  9. Can Air Seat Cushions and Ball Chairs Improved Classroom Behaviors of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Single Subject Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Matin Sadr

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Classroom behaviorsare disturbed in autistic students because of their repetitive, restlessness, and disruptive behaviors. This study aimed to examine the impacts of sitting on a ball, cushion, and/or common chair on classroom behavior of four students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD. Methods: Four children with Autism participated in this single-subject study. Students’ behaviors were video recorded in three phases: Sitting on their common chairs during phase A, air-sit cushioned in phase B, and ball chairs in phase C. Sitting times and on-task/off-task behaviors were quantified by momentary time sampling (every 10 seconds and compared during different phases for important changes. Social validity was taken by the teacher at the end of the research as well. Results: The findings demonstrated increases in on-task and in-seat behaviors in four students when seated on air sit cushioned chairs. Despite rises of ontask behaviors for all students, only two of the students showed enhanced inseat behaviors when seated on therapy balls. Social validity findings indicated that the teacher preferred the use of the balls and air-cushioned chairs for her students. Conclusion: Therapy balls/cushioned chairs for students with ASD may facilitate in-seat and on-task behavior.

  10. Main directions of Research Institute of Experimental and Theoretic Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazhibaeva, I.L.

    1997-01-01

    The characteristic of main directions of the Research Institute of Experimental and Theoretic Physics (RIETF) activity is given in the paper. It is noted, that Institute is headquarters organisation in 4 following scientific programs of Ministry of Science - Academy of Science of Republic of Kazakhstan: Physics and mechanics of gases, plasma and liquid; Theoretical physics; Nonlinear processes and structural self-organization of substance; Research works Comet. Since 1994 RIETF is one of executors on interstate scientific program ITER. There are following priorities in activity of the institute: - actual problems of relativity theory, gravitation and quantum mechanics; - research on combustion problems and heat-mass-transfer; - physics of gases, plasma and liquid; physics non-equilibrium processes in plasma an in plasma-similar media; - solid state physics and material testing problems; modification of materials properties; electrophysical, optical and structural researches of substance; - interactions of nuclear, electromagnet radiation and accelerated particles with substance; - theoretical and experimental nuclear physics and physics of cosmic rays

  11. Benzodiazepines, opioids and driving: an overview of the experimental research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Stefanie Y

    2011-05-01

    Road crashes contribute significantly to the total burden of injury in Australia, with the risk of injury being associated with the presence of drugs and/or alcohol in the driver's blood. Increasingly, some of the most commonly detected drugs include prescription medicines, the most notable of these being benzodiazepines and opioids. However, there is a paucity of experimental research into the effects of prescribed psychoactive drugs on driving behaviours. This paper provides an overview of experimental studies investigating the effects of prescribed doses of benzodiazepines and opioids on driving ability, and points to future directions for research. There is growing epidemiological evidence linking the therapeutic use of benzodiazepines and opioids to an increased crash risk. However, the current experimental literature remains unclear. Limitations to study methodologies have resulted in inconsistent findings. Limited experimental evidence exists to inform policy and guidelines regarding fitness-to-drive for patients taking prescribed benzodiazepines and opioids. Further experimental research is required to elucidate the effects of these medications on driving, under varying conditions and in different medical contexts. This will ensure that doctors prescribing benzodiazepines and opioids are well informed, and can appropriately advise patients of the risks associated with driving whilst taking these medications. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  12. Managing Cybersecurity Research and Experimental Development: The REVO Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Craigen; Drew Vandeth; D’Arcy Walsh

    2013-01-01

    We present a systematic approach for managing a research and experimental development cybersecurity program that must be responsive to continuously evolving cybersecurity, and other, operational concerns. The approach will be of interest to research-program managers, academe, corporate leads, government leads, chief information officers, chief technology officers, and social and technology policy analysts. The approach is compatible with international standards and procedures published by the...

  13. An experimental research on blended learning in the development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experimental research conducted for this study is based on a blended learning (BL) approach to the teaching of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in China. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of a blended learning approach aimed at improving students' listening and speaking skills.

  14. The Peter Effect in Early Experimental Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    Traces the ways in which educational researchers referred to Ronald A. Fisher's analysis of variance (ANOVA) between 1932 and 1944 in the "Journal of Experimental Education" (JXE). Shows how the changes in citational practices served to separate the ANOVA from its affiliation with Fisher, essentially effacing the memory of its human…

  15. Experimental forests and ranges : 100 years of research success stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gail Wells; Deborah Hayes; Katrina Krause; Ann Bartuska; Susan LeVan-Green; Jim Anderson; Tivoli Gough; Mary Adams; Thomas Schuler; Randy Kolka; Steve Sebestyen; Laura Kenefic; John Brissette; Susan Stout; Keith Kanoti; Fred Swanson; Sarah Greene; Margaret Herring; Martin Ritchie; Carl Skinner; Tom Lisle; Elizabeth Keppeler; Leslie Reid; Peter Wohlegemuth; Stanley Kitchen; Ward McCaughey; Jim Guldin; Don Bragg; Michael Shelton; David Loftis; Cathryn Greenberg; Julia Murphy

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, Forest Service Research and Development celebrated the Centennial Anniversary of these Experimental Forests and Ranges. This publication celebrates the many scientists who over the course of decades conducted the long-term studies that began and are continuing to shed light on important natural resource issues. Story suggestions were solicited from the...

  16. Overhead traveling crane vibration research using experimental wireless measuring system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz HANISZEWSKI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains an operations and constructions description of theexperimental wireless measuring system for measuring accelerations in bridge cranes,based on PHIDGET 1056 sensors. Developed experimental research and measuringmethodology allows the use of the proposed wireless system on other cranesconstructions. The paper also shows examples of the results of vibration measurementsand FFT spectra, obtained on the basis of accelerations measurements.

  17. Optimising experimental research in respiratory diseases: an ERS statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonniaud, Philippe; Fabre, Aurélie; Frossard, Nelly; Guignabert, Christophe; Inman, Mark; Kuebler, Wolfgang M; Maes, Tania; Shi, Wei; Stampfli, Martin; Uhlig, Stefan; White, Eric; Witzenrath, Martin; Bellaye, Pierre-Simon; Crestani, Bruno; Eickelberg, Oliver; Fehrenbach, Heinz; Guenther, Andreas; Jenkins, Gisli; Joos, Guy; Magnan, Antoine; Maitre, Bernard; Maus, Ulrich A; Reinhold, Petra; Vernooy, Juanita H J; Richeldi, Luca; Kolb, Martin

    2018-05-01

    Experimental models are critical for the understanding of lung health and disease and are indispensable for drug development. However, the pathogenetic and clinical relevance of the models is often unclear. Further, the use of animals in biomedical research is controversial from an ethical perspective.The objective of this task force was to issue a statement with research recommendations about lung disease models by facilitating in-depth discussions between respiratory scientists, and to provide an overview of the literature on the available models. Focus was put on their specific benefits and limitations. This will result in more efficient use of resources and greater reduction in the numbers of animals employed, thereby enhancing the ethical standards and translational capacity of experimental research.The task force statement addresses general issues of experimental research (ethics, species, sex, age, ex vivo and in vitro models, gene editing). The statement also includes research recommendations on modelling asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary fibrosis, lung infections, acute lung injury and pulmonary hypertension.The task force stressed the importance of using multiple models to strengthen validity of results, the need to increase the availability of human tissues and the importance of standard operating procedures and data quality. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  18. Statistical Methodologies to Integrate Experimental and Computational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, P. A.; Johnson, R. T.; Montgomery, D. C.

    2008-01-01

    Development of advanced algorithms for simulating engine flow paths requires the integration of fundamental experiments with the validation of enhanced mathematical models. In this paper, we provide an overview of statistical methods to strategically and efficiently conduct experiments and computational model refinement. Moreover, the integration of experimental and computational research efforts is emphasized. With a statistical engineering perspective, scientific and engineering expertise is combined with statistical sciences to gain deeper insights into experimental phenomenon and code development performance; supporting the overall research objectives. The particular statistical methods discussed are design of experiments, response surface methodology, and uncertainty analysis and planning. Their application is illustrated with a coaxial free jet experiment and a turbulence model refinement investigation. Our goal is to provide an overview, focusing on concepts rather than practice, to demonstrate the benefits of using statistical methods in research and development, thereby encouraging their broader and more systematic application.

  19. Monitoring system for automation of experimental researches in cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzinovski, Mikolaj; Trajchevski, Neven; Filipovski, Velimir; Tomov, Mite; Cichosz, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    This study presents procedures being performed when projecting and realizing experimental scientific researches by application of the automated measurement system with a computer support in all experiment stages. A special accent is placed on the measurement system integration and mathematical processing of data from experiments. Automation processes are described through the realized own automated monitoring system for research of physical phenomena in the cutting process with computer-aided data acquisition. The monitoring system is intended for determining the tangential, axial and radial component of the cutting force, as well as average temperature in the cutting process. The hardware acquisition art consists of amplifiers and A/D converters, while as for analysis and visualization software for P C is developed by using M S Visual C++. For mathematical description researched physical phenomena CADEX software is made, which in connection with MATLAB is intended for projecting processing and analysis of experimental scientific researches against the theory for planning multi-factorial experiments. The design and construction of the interface and the computerized measurement system were done by the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering in Skopje in collaboration with the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technologies in Skopje and the Institute of Production Engineering and Automation, Wroclaw University of Technology, Poland. Gaining own scientific research measurement system with free access to hardware and software parts provides conditions for a complete control of the research process and reduction of interval of the measuring uncertainty of gained results from performed researches.

  20. Instrumental and ethical aspects of experimental research with animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Watanabe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Experimental animal models offer possibilities of physiology knowledge, pathogenesis of disease and action of drugs that are directly related to quality nursing care. This integrative review describes the current state of the instrumental and ethical aspects of experimental research with animal models, including the main recommendations of ethics committees that focus on animal welfare and raises questions about the impact of their findings in nursing care. Data show that, in Brazil, the progress in ethics for the use of animals for scientific purposes was consolidated with Law No. 11.794/2008 establishing ethical procedures, attending health, genetic and experimental parameters. The application of ethics in handling of animals for scientific and educational purposes and obtaining consistent and quality data brings unquestionable contributions to the nurse, as they offer subsidies to relate pathophysiological mechanisms and the clinical aspect on the patient.

  1. Experimental research of limits for thermal modulation transfer function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Ljubiša D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presented testing of surface defects by pulse video thermography techniques. Such techniques rely on transient infrared radiation from the sample heated by the short duration flux initiated by flesh. Experimental measurements are realized by infrared sensor (FLIR camera. Testing results are considered for the samples with controlled designed defects beyond observed surfaces. The effects of response through the transparent wall are measured as infrared visible radiance. Researches with controlled samples are performed to verify visibility threshold of defect dimensions and forms, for possible use as modulation transfer function of defects hidden beyond the surfaces of thin metal walls. Dimensionless coefficients are derived for method estimations as the results from experimental research.

  2. Experimental Research on Vibrations of Double Harmonic Gear Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sava Ianici

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Gears transmission can be important sources of vibration in the mechanical system structures and can have a significant share in the overall vibration level. The current trend of significant increase in powers and speeds transmitted by modern mechanical systems, along with the size reduction, may cause a worsening of the behaviour of transmissions with gears in terms of vibration, especially when the optimization criteria were not respected in the design, execution and installation phase. This paper presents a study of vibrations that occur in a double harmonic gear transmission (DHGT, based on experimental research. The experimental researches revealed that in a double harmonic gear transmission the vibrations are initiated and develop in the multipara harmonics engagement of the teeth and in the kinematic couplings materialized between the wave generator and the flexible toothed wheel. These vibrations are later transmitted by means of the shafts and bearings to the transmission housing, respectively, through the walls of it, propagating in the air.

  3. The visualization and availability of experimental research data at Elsevier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keall, Bethan

    2014-05-01

    In the digital age, the visualization and availability of experimental research data is an increasingly prominent aspect of the research process and of the scientific output that researchers generate. We expect that the importance of data will continue to grow, driven by technological advancements, requirements from funding bodies to make research data available, and a developing research data infrastructure that is supported by data repositories, science publishers, and other stakeholders. Elsevier is actively contributing to these efforts, for example by setting up bidirectional links between online articles on ScienceDirect and relevant data sets on trusted data repositories. A key aspect of Elsevier's "Article of the Future" program, these links enrich the online article and make it easier for researchers to find relevant data and articles and help place data in the right context for re-use. Recently, we have set up such links with some of the leading data repositories in Earth Sciences, including the British Geological Survey, Integrated Earth Data Applications, the UK Natural Environment Research Council, and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory DAAC. Building on these links, Elsevier has also developed a number of data integration and visualization tools, such as an interactive map viewer that displays the locations of relevant data from PANGAEA next to articles on ScienceDirect. In this presentation we will give an overview of these and other capabilities of the Article of the Future, focusing on how they help advance communication of research in the digital age.

  4. Single-subject structural networks with closed-form rotation invariant matching mprove power in developmental studies of the cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Benjamin M; Wang, Danny J J; Gee, James C; Avants, Brian B

    2014-01-01

    Although much attention has recently been focused on single-subject functional networks, using methods such as resting-state functional MRI, methods for constructing single-subject structural networks are in their infancy. Single-subject cortical networks aim to describe the self-similarity across the cortical structure, possibly signifying convergent developmental pathways. Previous methods for constructing single-subject cortical networks have used patch-based correlations and distance metrics based on curvature and thickness. We present here a method for constructing similarity-based cortical structural networks that utilizes a rotation-invariant representation of structure. The resulting graph metrics are closely linked to age and indicate an increasing degree of closeness throughout development in nearly all brain regions, perhaps corresponding to a more regular structure as the brain matures. The derived graph metrics demonstrate a four-fold increase in power for detecting age as compared to cortical thickness. This proof of concept study indicates that the proposed metric may be useful in identifying biologically relevant cortical patterns.

  5. Picture Exchange Communication System with Individuals with Developmental Disabilities: A Meta-Analysis of Single Subject Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Stephanie L.; Banda, Devender R.

    2010-01-01

    Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a picture-based communication strategy used to teach communication skills to persons with developmental disabilities including autism. This article systematically reviews 13 published single-subject studies to examine the effectiveness of PECS, the effects of PECS on speech and problem behaviors,…

  6. Evaluating the ergonomics of BCI devices for research and experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekandem, Joshua I; Davis, Timothy A; Alvarez, Ignacio; James, Melva T; Gilbert, Juan E

    2012-01-01

    The use of brain computer interface (BCI) devices in research and applications has exploded in recent years. Applications such as lie detectors that use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to video games controlled using electroencephalography (EEG) are currently in use. These developments, coupled with the emergence of inexpensive commercial BCI headsets, such as the Emotiv EPOC ( http://emotiv.com/index.php ) and the Neurosky MindWave, have also highlighted the need of performing basic ergonomics research since such devices have usability issues, such as comfort during prolonged use, and reduced performance for individuals with common physical attributes, such as long or coarse hair. This paper examines the feasibility of using consumer BCIs in scientific research. In particular, we compare user comfort, experiment preparation time, signal reliability and ease of use in light of individual differences among subjects for two commercially available hardware devices, the Emotiv EPOC and the Neurosky MindWave. Based on these results, we suggest some basic considerations for selecting a commercial BCI for research and experimentation. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Despite increased usage, few studies have examined the usability of commercial BCI hardware. This study assesses usability and experimentation factors of two commercial BCI models, for the purpose of creating basic guidelines for increased usability. Finding that more sensors can be less comfortable and accurate than devices with fewer sensors.

  7. Changing children's eating behaviour - A review of experimental research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCosta, Patricia; Møller, Per; Frøst, Michael Bom; Olsen, Annemarie

    2017-06-01

    The interest in children's eating behaviours and how to change them has been growing in recent years. This review examines the following questions: What strategies have been used to change children's eating behaviours? Have their effects been experimentally demonstrated? And, are the effects transient or enduring? Medline and Cab abstract (Ovid) and Web of Science (Thomson Reuters) were used to identify the experimental studies. A total of 120 experimental studies were identified and they are presented grouped within these 11 topics; parental control, reward, social facilitation, cooking programs, school gardens, sensory education, availability and accessibility, choice architecture and nudging, branding and food packaging, preparation and serving style, and offering a choice. In conclusion, controlling strategies for changing children's eating behaviour in a positive direction appear to be counterproductive. Hands-on approaches such as gardening and cooking programs may encourage greater vegetable consumption and may have a larger effect compared to nutrition education. Providing children with free, accessible fruits and vegetables have been experimentally shown to positively affect long-term eating behaviour. The authors recommend future research to examine how taste and palatability can positively affect children's attitudes and eating behaviour. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Automation of experimental research of waveguide paths induction soldering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynchenko, V. S.; Petrenko, V. E.; Kukartsev, V. V.; Tynchenko, V. V.; Antamoshkin, O. A.

    2018-05-01

    The article presents an automated system of experimental studies of the waveguide paths induction soldering process. The system is a part of additional software for a complex of automated control of the technological process of induction soldering of thin-walled waveguide paths from aluminum alloys, expanding its capabilities. The structure of the software product, the general appearance of the controls and the potential application possibilities are presented. The utility of the developed application by approbation in a series of field experiments was considered and justified. The application of the experimental research system makes it possible to improve the process under consideration, providing the possibility of fine-tuning the control regulators, as well as keeping the statistics of the soldering process in a convenient form for analysis.

  9. Experimental nuclear physics research challenges at low energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, E.; Morales G, L. [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Murillo O, G. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-02-15

    Experimental research with low energy beams of ions (a few MeV) in nuclear physics has gone through a phase transition along its evolution in fifty years because of the increasing complexity (and cost) of the equipment required to conduct meaningful investigations. Many of the small cyclotrons and Van de Graaff (single ended and tandem) accelerators have been used for the last three decades mostly in applications related to the characterization and modification of materials. Specific experimental investigations in nuclear physics with low energy accelerators are proposed in this work. Specifically we discuss the topic of nuclear radii measurements of radioactive species produced via (d,n) reactions. Some emphasis is given to the instrumentation required. (Author)

  10. Experimental research on pressurized water reactor(PWR) safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Su; Chae, Sung Ki; Chang, Won Pyo

    1991-12-01

    The objective of this research is to analyze the experimental results already performed in BETHSY facility of CEA France and to establish essential technologies for the future implementation of both such an experiment and computer code assessment, which are not undergoing in Korea so far. The contents of the present study are divided into 2 categories; namely, analysis of the BETHSY experimental data received from CEA, and CATHARE computer code simulation for the selected experiments, i.e. 'Natural Circulation(Test 4.3a)' and '2 Cold Leg Break'. The later studies are performed under the aims of CATHARE assessment as well as qualification of KOSAC code developing at KAERI, which is the subject in the next year and will concern an adequacy of KOSAC for the prediction of low flow natural circulation and a small break transients. (Author)

  11. Experimental research on safety assurance of advanced WWER fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krainov, Ju.; Kukushkin, Ju.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents the results of experimental investigations on substantiation of implementation of a modernized butt joint for the WWER-440 reactor, carried out in the critical test facility 'P' in the RRC 'Kurchatov Institute'. The comparison results of the calculation and experimental data obtained in the physical startup of Volgodonsk NPP-1 with the WWER-1000 are also given. In the implementation of four-year fuel cycle in the WWER-440 with the average enrichment of fuel makeup 3.82% it was solved to conduct experimental research of power distribution in the vicinity of control rod butt junction. Moreover, it was assumed that adequate actions should be applied to eliminate inadmissible power jumps, if necessary. It is not available to measure their values in NPP conditions. Therefore, the power distribution near the butt joint was studied in a 19-rod bank installed in the critical test facility 'P' first for the normal design of the joint when surrounding fuel assemblies enrichment goes up. Then a set of calculation and tests was fulfilled to optimize a butt junction design. On the base of this research the composition of a butt junction was advanced by placing Hf plates into the junction. The effectiveness of modernized butt joint design was experimentally confirmed. In Volgodonsk NPP-1 with WWER-1000 the four-year fuel cycle is being implemented. During the physical startup of the reactor the measurements of the reactivity effects and coefficients were measured at the minimum controlled flux level, and the parameters of a number of critical states were recorded. The data obtained were compared with the calculation. The validity of the certified code package for forecasting the neutronic characteristics of WWER-1000 cores in the implementation of a four year fuel cycle has been supported (Authors)

  12. Managing Cybersecurity Research and Experimental Development: The REVO Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Craigen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a systematic approach for managing a research and experimental development cybersecurity program that must be responsive to continuously evolving cybersecurity, and other, operational concerns. The approach will be of interest to research-program managers, academe, corporate leads, government leads, chief information officers, chief technology officers, and social and technology policy analysts. The approach is compatible with international standards and procedures published by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD and the Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat (TBS. The key benefits of the approach are the following: i the breadth of the overall (cybersecurity space is described; ii depth statements about specific (cybersecurity challenges are articulated and mapped to the breadth of the problem; iii specific (cybersecurity initiatives that have been resourced through funding or personnel are tracked and linked to specific challenges; and iv progress is assessed through key performance indicators. Although we present examples from cybersecurity, the method may be transferred to other domains. We have found the approach to be rigorous yet adaptive to change; it challenges an organization to be explicit about the nature of its research and experimental development in a manner that fosters alignment with evolving business priorities, knowledge transfer, and partner engagement.

  13. Wind conditions in urban layout - Numerical and experimental research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poćwierz, Marta; Zielonko-Jung, Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents research which compares the numerical and the experimental results for different cases of airflow around a few urban layouts. The study is concerned mostly with the analysis of parameters, such as pressure and velocity fields, which are essential in the building industry. Numerical simulations have been performed by the commercial software Fluent, with the use of a few different turbulence models, including popular k-ɛ, k-ɛ realizable or k-ω. A particular attention has been paid to accurate description of the conditions on the inlet and the selection of suitable computing grid. The pressure measurement near buildings and oil visualization were undertaken and described accordingly.

  14. TIBER: Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Research. Final design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.; Barr, W.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Research (TIBER) device is the smallest superconductivity tokamak designed to date. In the design plasma shaping is used to achieve a high plasma beta. Neutron shielding is minimized to achieve the desired small device size, but the superconducting magnets must be shielded sufficiently to reduce the neutron heat load and the gamma-ray dose to various components of the device. Specifications of the plasma-shaping coil, the shielding, coaling, requirements, and heating modes are given. 61 refs., 92 figs., 30 tabs

  15. Research reactor RB, technical characteristics and experimental possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotic, O.; Vranic, S.

    1978-01-01

    Nuclear research reactor RB tn the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory at the Institute of Nuclear Sciences 'Boris Kidric' in Vinca is the first reactor system built in Yugoslavia in 1958. In this report, the basic technical characteristics of this reactor are described, as well as the experimental possibilities it offers to the users. Its relatively simple construction and flexibility enables direct measurements of a series of physical parameters, and the absence of the biological protection shield makes it very useful for Various biological and other irradiations and dosimetric measurements Where strong neutron source is required. (author) [sr

  16. Annual tendency of research papers used ICR mice as experimental animals in biomedical research fields

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ji Eun; Nam, Jung Hoon; Cho, Joon Young; Kim, Kil Soo; Hwang, Dae Youn

    2017-01-01

    Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice have been widely used in various research fields including toxicology, oncology, pharmacology, and pharmaceutical product safety testing for decades. However, annual tendency of research papers involving ICR mice in various biomedical fields has not been previously analyzed. In this study, we examined the numbers of papers that used ICR mice as experimental animals in the social science, natural science, engineering, medicine-pharmacy, marine agricultur...

  17. Experimental research on crossing shock wave boundary layer interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settles, G. S.; Garrison, T. J.

    1994-10-01

    An experimental research effort of the Penn State Gas Dynamics Laboratory on the subject of crossing shock wave boundary layer interactions is reported. This three year study was supported by AFOSR Grant 89-0315. A variety of experimental techniques were employed to study the above phenomena including planar laser scattering flowfield visualization, kerosene lampblack surface flow visualization, laser-interferometer skin friction surveys, wall static pressure measurements, and flowfield five-hole probe surveys. For a model configuration producing two intersecting shock waves, measurements were made for a range of oblique shock strengths at freestream Mach numbers of 3.0 and 3.85. Additionally, measurements were made at Mach 3.85 for a configuration producing three intersecting waves. The combined experimental dataset was used to formulate the first detailed flowfield models of the crossing-shock and triple-shock wave/boundary layer interactions. The structure of these interactions was found to be similar over a broad range of interaction strengths and is dominated by a large, separated, viscous flow region.

  18. Experimental Research Using of MQL in Metal Cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Globočki Lakić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an effect of using of minimal quantity lubrication (MQL technique in turning operations is presented. Experimental research was performed on carbon steel C45E. Technological parameters: depth of cut, feed rate and cutting speed were adjusted to semi-machining and roughing. Higher values ​​of feed and cutting speed were used, than recommended from literature and different types of cooling and lubrication in turning conditions were applied. As a conventional procedure and technology, lubrication with flooding was applied. As special lubrication the MQL technique was used. During research, monitoring of the cutting force, chip shape, tool wear and surface roughness was performed. Relations between parameters, material machinability and economy of process were analyzed.

  19. Theoretical & Experimental Research in Weak, Electromagnetic & Strong Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandi, Satyanarayan [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Babu, Kaladi [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Rizatdinova, Flera [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Khanov, Alexander [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Haley, Joseph [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)

    2015-09-17

    The conducted research spans a wide range of topics in the theoretical, experimental and phenomenological aspects of elementary particle interactions. Theory projects involve topics in both the energy frontier and the intensity frontier. The experimental research involves energy frontier with the ATLAS Collaboration at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In theoretical research, novel ideas going beyond the Standard Model with strong theoretical motivations were proposed, and their experimental tests at the LHC and forthcoming neutrino facilities were outlined. These efforts fall into the following broad categories: (i) TeV scale new physics models for LHC Run 2, including left-right symmetry and trinification symmetry, (ii) unification of elementary particles and forces, including the unification of gauge and Yukawa interactions, (iii) supersummetry and mechanisms of supersymmetry breaking, (iv) superworld without supersymmetry, (v) general models of extra dimensions, (vi) comparing signals of extra dimensions with those of supersymmetry, (vii) models with mirror quarks and mirror leptons at the TeV scale, (viii) models with singlet quarks and singlet Higgs and their implications for Higgs physics at the LHC, (ix) new models for the dark matter of the universe, (x) lepton flavor violation in Higgs decays, (xi) leptogenesis in radiative models of neutrino masses, (xii) light mediator models of non-standard neutrino interactions, (xiii) anomalous muon decay and short baseline neutrino anomalies, (xiv) baryogenesis linked to nucleon decay, and (xv) a new model for recently observed diboson resonance at the LHC and its other phenomenological implications. The experimental High Energy Physics group has been, and continues to be, a successful and productive contributor to the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Members of the group performed search for gluinos decaying to stop and top quarks, new heavy gauge bosons decaying to top and bottom quarks, and vector-like quarks

  20. About soil cover heterogeneity of agricultural research stations' experimental fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannik, Kaire; Kõlli, Raimo; Kukk, Liia

    2013-04-01

    Depending on local pedo-ecological conditions (topography, (geo) diversity of soil parent material, meteorological conditions) the patterns of soil cover and plant cover determined by soils are very diverse. Formed in the course of soil-plant mutual relationship, the natural ecosystems are always influenced to certain extent by the other local soil forming conditions or they are site specific. The agricultural land use or the formation of agro-ecosystems depends foremost on the suitability of soils for the cultivation of feed and food crops. As a rule, the most fertile or the best soils of the area, which do not present any or present as little as possible constraints for agricultural land use, are selected for this purpose. Compared with conventional field soils, the requirements for the experimental fields' soil cover quality are much higher. Experimental area soils and soil cover composition should correspond to local pedo-ecological conditions and, in addition to that, represent the soil types dominating in the region, whereas the fields should be as homogeneous as possible. The soil cover heterogeneity of seven arable land blocks of three research stations (Jõgeva, Kuusiku and Olustvere) was studied 1) by examining the large scale (1:10 000) digital soil map (available via the internet), and 2) by field researches using the transect method. The stages of soils litho-genetic and moisture heterogeneities were estimated by using the Estonian normal soils matrix, however, the heterogeneity of top- and subsoil texture by using the soil texture matrix. The quality and variability of experimental fields' soils humus status, was studied more thoroughly from the aspect of humus concentration (g kg-1), humus cover thickness (cm) and humus stocks (Mg ha-1). The soil cover of Jõgeva experimental area, which presents an accumulative drumlin landscape (formed during the last glacial period), consist from loamy Luvisols and associated to this Cambisols. In Kuusiku area

  1. Contributions of experimental psychiatry to research on the psychosis prodrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja eBodatsch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decades, a paradigmatic change in psychosis research and treatment shifted attention towards the early and particularly the prodromal stages of illness. Despite substantial progress with regard to the neuronal underpinnings of psychosis development, the crucial biological mechanisms leading to manifest illness are yet insufficiently understood. Until today, one significant approach to elucidate the neurobiology of psychosis has been the modeling of psychotic symptoms by psychedelic substances in healthy individuals. These models bear the opportunity to evoke particular neuronal aberrations and the respective psychotic symptoms in a controlled experimental setting. In the present paper, we hypothesize that experimental psychiatry bears unique opportunities in elucidating the biological mechanisms of the prodromal stages of psychosis. Psychosis risk symptoms are attenuated, transient, and often only retrospectively reported. The respective neuronal aberrations are thought being dynamic. The correlation of unstable psychopathology with observed, e. g., neurophysiological disturbances is thus yet largely unclear. In modeling psychosis, the experimental setting allows not only for evoking particular symptoms, but for the concomitant assessment of psychopathology, neurophysiology, and neuropsychology. Herein, the glutamatergic model will be highlighted exemplarily, with special emphasis on its potential contribution to the elucidation of psychosis development. This model of psychosis appears as candidate for modeling the prodrome since it induces psychopathological, neurocognitive and neurofunctional changes that are comparable to clinical features of the prodrome.As exemplarily illustrated by the PCP/NMDA model of psychosis many aspects advocate that prodromal stages might be validly mimicked by psychedelic substances. In summary, experimental psychiatry bears the potential to further elucidate the biological mechanisms of the psychosis

  2. Overview on the progress of tokamak experimental research in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Jikang . E-mail; Liu Yong; Wen Yizhi; Wang Long

    2001-01-01

    Tokamak experimental research in China has made important progress. The main efforts were related to quasi-steady-state operation, LHCD, plasma heating with ICRF, IBW, NBI and ECRH, fuelling with pellets and supersonic molecular beams, and first wall conditioning techniques. Plasma parameters in the experiments were much improved, for example n e =8x10 19 m -3 and a plasma pulse length of >10 s were achieved. ICRF boronization and conditioning resulted in Z eff close to unity. Steady state full LH wave current drive has been achieved for more than 3 s. LHCD ramp-up and recharge have also been demonstrated. The best η CD exp ∼0.5(1+0.085exp(4.8(B T -1.45)))n e I CD R p /P LH =10 19 m -2 A W -1 . Quasi-steady-state H-mode-like plasmas with a density close to the Greenwald limit were obtained by LHCD, where the energy confinement time was nearly five times longer than in the ohmic case. The synergy between IBW, pellet and LHCD was tested. Research on the mechanism of macroturbulence has been extensively carried out experimentally. AC tokamak operation has been successfully demonstrated. (author)

  3. A Single-Subject Study of a Technology-Based Self-Monitoring Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelgesang, Kari L.; Bruhn, Allison L.; Coghill-Behrends, William L.; Kern, Amanda M.; Troughton, Leonard C. W.

    2016-01-01

    Students with ADHD often struggle with self-regulation skills. One strategy demonstrating considerable success in helping these students regulate their behavior is self-monitoring. Although there is an abundance of research on self-monitoring, research on the use of technology for self-monitoring is only beginning to emerge. The primary goal of…

  4. Multivariate Analysis for Animal Selection in Experimental Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Mercuri Pinto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several researchers seek methods for the selection of homogeneous groups of animals in experimental studies, a fact justified because homogeneity is an indispensable prerequisite for casualization of treatments. The lack of robust methods that comply with statistical and biological principles is the reason why researchers use empirical or subjective methods, influencing their results. Objective: To develop a multivariate statistical model for the selection of a homogeneous group of animals for experimental research and to elaborate a computational package to use it. Methods: The set of echocardiographic data of 115 male Wistar rats with supravalvular aortic stenosis (AoS was used as an example of model development. Initially, the data were standardized, and became dimensionless. Then, the variance matrix of the set was submitted to principal components analysis (PCA, aiming at reducing the parametric space and at retaining the relevant variability. That technique established a new Cartesian system into which the animals were allocated, and finally the confidence region (ellipsoid was built for the profile of the animals’ homogeneous responses. The animals located inside the ellipsoid were considered as belonging to the homogeneous batch; those outside the ellipsoid were considered spurious. Results: The PCA established eight descriptive axes that represented the accumulated variance of the data set in 88.71%. The allocation of the animals in the new system and the construction of the confidence region revealed six spurious animals as compared to the homogeneous batch of 109 animals. Conclusion: The biometric criterion presented proved to be effective, because it considers the animal as a whole, analyzing jointly all parameters measured, in addition to having a small discard rate.

  5. Research at the Section of Experimental Nuclear Physics of ATOMKI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasznahorkay, A.; Fenyes, T.; Dombradi, Zs.; Nyako, B.M.; Timar, J.; Algora, A.; Csatlos, M.; Csige, L.; Gacsi, Z.; Gulyas, J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Nuclear physics research was started in Debrecen by Alexander Szalay (1909-1987) back in the 30's. He had been a postdoc of the Nobel-laureate biologist Albert Szent-Gyorgyi in Szeged and of Lord Rutherford in Cambridge. ATOMKI was founded in Debrecen later, in 1954. The Institute was meant to pursue scientific research in certain areas of experimental nuclear physics and to develop research instruments In the early years the country was pretty isolated, but the institute's state of isolation was gradually easing up from the mid-sixties. During the period 1962-1975 the research work was performed in collaboration with Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna), where up-to-date high-energy accelerators were available for the production of desired isotopes. After finishing the construction of a home-made 5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator (1972) and later on the installation of a K=20 light ion cyclotron (1985) the Institute has become the main centre of accelerator-based nuclear physics in Hungary. In the period 1975-1995 our group performed extensive nuclear structure studies in Debrecen by using γ and conversion electron spectroscopy. At the same time fruitful collaborations were initiated with Jyvaskyla (Finland), with University of Kentucky and University of Zagreb. In 1993 the former Nuclear Reaction Group (NRG) merged with our group. Parallel with this structural change, the main topics of our γ-spectroscopic work has also changed, which resulted that the location of our experiments were shifted from the home institute to foreign large-scale facilities. New topics were brought partly by the emerging NRG, partly by group members returning from postdoctoral fellowships. They also brought important non γ-spectroscopic topics, which enriched our research palette. These new topics have by now become joint endeavours involving more and more group members. The Nuclear Physics European Coordination Committee (NuPECC) has recently stated that the aim of

  6. Experimental And Theoretical High Energy Physics Research At UCLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cousins, Robert D. [University of California Los Angeles

    2013-07-22

    This is the final report of the UCLA High Energy Physics DOE Grant No. DE-FG02- 91ER40662. This report covers the last grant project period, namely the three years beginning January 15, 2010, plus extensions through April 30, 2013. The report describes the broad range of our experimental research spanning direct dark matter detection searches using both liquid xenon (XENON) and liquid argon (DARKSIDE); present (ICARUS) and R&D for future (LBNE) neutrino physics; ultra-high-energy neutrino and cosmic ray detection (ANITA); and the highest-energy accelerator-based physics with the CMS experiment and CERN’s Large Hadron Collider. For our theory group, the report describes frontier activities including particle astrophysics and cosmology; neutrino physics; LHC interaction cross section calculations now feasible due to breakthroughs in theoretical techniques; and advances in the formal theory of supergravity.

  7. Progress of experimental research on nuclear safety in NPIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Houjun; Zan, Yuanfeng; Peng, Chuanxin; Xi, Zhao; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Ying; He, Yanqiu; Huang, Yanping [Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu (China)

    2016-05-15

    Two kinds of Generation III commercial nuclear power plants have been developed in CNNC (China National Nuclear Corporation), one is a small modular reactor ACP100 having an equivalent electric power 100 MW, and the other is HPR1000 (once named ACP1000) having an equivalent electric power 1 000 MW. Both NPPs widely adopted the design philosophy of advanced passive safety systems and considered the lessons from Fukushima Daichi nuclear accident. As the backbone of the R and D of ACP100 and HPR1000, NPIC (Nuclear power Institute of China) has finished the engineering verification test of main safety systems, including passive residual heat removal experiments, reactor cavity injection experiments, hydrogen combustion experiments, and passive autocatalytic recombiner experiments. Above experimental work conducted in NPIC and further research plan of nuclear safety are introduced in this paper.

  8. NASA IMAGESEER: NASA IMAGEs for Science, Education, Experimentation and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Moigne, Jacqueline; Grubb, Thomas G.; Milner, Barbara C.

    2012-01-01

    A number of web-accessible databases, including medical, military or other image data, offer universities and other users the ability to teach or research new Image Processing techniques on relevant and well-documented data. However, NASA images have traditionally been difficult for researchers to find, are often only available in hard-to-use formats, and do not always provide sufficient context and background for a non-NASA Scientist user to understand their content. The new IMAGESEER (IMAGEs for Science, Education, Experimentation and Research) database seeks to address these issues. Through a graphically-rich web site for browsing and downloading all of the selected datasets, benchmarks, and tutorials, IMAGESEER provides a widely accessible database of NASA-centric, easy to read, image data for teaching or validating new Image Processing algorithms. As such, IMAGESEER fosters collaboration between NASA and research organizations while simultaneously encouraging development of new and enhanced Image Processing algorithms. The first prototype includes a representative sampling of NASA multispectral and hyperspectral images from several Earth Science instruments, along with a few small tutorials. Image processing techniques are currently represented with cloud detection, image registration, and map cover/classification. For each technique, corresponding data are selected from four different geographic regions, i.e., mountains, urban, water coastal, and agriculture areas. Satellite images have been collected from several instruments - Landsat-5 and -7 Thematic Mappers, Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) Advanced Land Imager (ALI) and Hyperion, and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). After geo-registration, these images are available in simple common formats such as GeoTIFF and raw formats, along with associated benchmark data.

  9. Measuring Diagnostic Stand for Experimental Researches in Technology Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Dreval'

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews applied techniques, methods, and structure of the control and measuring means to conduct experimental and scientific researches of cutting processes. Existing research methods in cutting the metals are divided by features, such as essence of methods, the number of records of physical indicators, the number of studied factors, duration of tests. The groups of methods are briefly characterized.The chair "Tool Engineering and Technologies" of BMSTU developed and made a diagnostic stand of control and measurements for conducting research activities in the field of materials processing technology by cutting to define rational technological decisions, when machining, and carry out an analysis of efficiency and economic feasibility of made decisions. The diagnostic stand contains modern the electronic equipment. Record of measuring parameters is made in real time with a possibility for visual representation of read results and mathematical and statistical processing of measurement results. The stand can be used in research laboratories of machine-building enterprises, laboratories of higher education institutions, and other scientific divisions.The paper presents a justification that the stand is reasonable to use for the following: completion and choice of rational cutting modes, workability assessment of new constructional materials, technical and operational characteristics of the processed surfaces, and operational properties of the cutting tools of various producers, choice of optimum geometrical parameters of the cutting tools and brands of the lubricant cooling technological means, as well as the energy consumption for the chosen machining process. The stand allows us to make an assessment of wear resistance and tribology-technical characteristics of tool materials, as well as an accuracy, rigidity, vibration stability of machines, both new and being in operation.

  10. An iterative two-threshold analysis for single-subject functional MRI of the human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auer, Tibor; Schweizer, Renate; Frahm, Jens [Biomedizinische NMR Forschungs GmbH am Max-Planck-Institut fuer Biophysikalische Chemie, Goettingen (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Current thresholding strategies for the analysis of functional MRI (fMRI) datasets may suffer from specific limitations (e.g. with respect to the required smoothness) or lead to reduced performance for a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Although a previously proposed two-threshold (TT) method offers a promising solution to these problems, the use of preset settings limits its performance. This work presents an optimised TT approach that estimates the required parameters in an iterative manner. The iterative TT (iTT) method is compared with the original TT method, as well as other established voxel-based and cluster-based thresholding approaches and spatial mixture modelling (SMM) for both simulated data and fMRI of a hometown walking task at different experimental settings (spatial resolution, filtering and SNR). In general, the iTT method presents with remarkable sensitivity and good specificity that outperforms all conventional approaches tested except for SMM in a few cases. This also holds true for challenging conditions such as high spatial resolution, the absence of filtering, high noise level, or a low number of task repetitions. Thus, iTT emerges as a good candidate for both scientific fMRI studies at high spatial resolution and more routine applications for clinical purposes. (orig.)

  11. Experimental research on electromagnetic radiation in inductive energy storage accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Jianzhong; Liu Lie; Li Limin; Wen Jianchun

    2008-01-01

    There exists strong electromagnetic radiation in inductive energy storage accelerators. In can destroy a measuring device at a distance. By repeated experiments, we found that it is a wide-spectrum electromagnetic wave with a main frequency of 75 MHz. The effector such as coaxial transmission line is effected strongly in short distance. The current in the coaxial transmission line can be measured in Rogowski coils. The strength of field in it is about 500 V/m and the peak current is 217 mA. The radiation source may be LC oscillating or electric exploding opening switch. Through the experimental research, we think it probably may be caused by the LC oscillating in the circuit when the switches conduct. And its strength is correlated to current change ratio. The change rate in secondary circuit is stronger than in primary circuit. So the radiation generated in secondary circuit is stronger than in primary circuit. It may be a reference for further research in inductive energy storage accelerators and shielding electromagnetic disturbing. (authors)

  12. Report of Activity, 1996 - 1997. Vol. 1. Experimental Research Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunelle, Alain; Morlet, Marcel; Hutin, Christiane

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the activity of Experimental Research Division of the Orsay Institute of Nuclear Physics on 1996 - 1997. The following 10 sections are represented through summary reports or short communications: 1. Nuclear structure far from stability (with the topics: 1.1. Exotic nuclei -Secondary beams of radioactive ions; 1.2. On-line spectroscopy; 1.3. Discrete high-spin states); 2. High excitation energy nuclear states; 3. Nuclear matter and nucleus-nucleus collisions (which includes 3.1. Evolution of reaction mechanisms from 10 to 150 MeV/u; 3.2. Hot nuclei; 3.3. Ultra-relativistic collisions); 4. Hadronic physics (with the topics: 4.1 Meson production; 4.2. Spin modes in nuclei; 4.3. Hadronic physics with electromagnetic probes); 5. Radiochemistry (with the sub-divisions: 5.1. Studies related to radioactive waste management; 5.2. Optical spectroscopy of actinide and lanthanide ions in solid media); 6. Inter-disciplinary research (with the topics: 6.1. Heavy ion and cluster interactions with matter and surfaces; 6.2. Medical imaging); 8. Teaching; 9. Publications - Conferences - Seminars; 10 Internal reports - Lectures - Theses - Patents. The scientific staff of the following groups is also presented: 1. Group of Nuclear Structure by Reactions; 2. Group of Heavy Ion Nuclear Physics; 3. Intermediary Energy Group; 4. Hadron Physics Group; 5. Nuclei-Ions-Matter Group; 6. Radiochemistry Group; 7. Group of Exotic Deformed Nuclei; 8. Group of Physics-Biology Interface

  13. MYRRHA. An experimental ADS Facility for Research and Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait Abderrahim, H.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Since 1998, SCK-CEN in partnership with IBA s.a. and many European research laboratories, is designing a multipurpose ADS for R and D applications MYRRHA - and is conducting an associated R and D support programme. MYRRHA is an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) under development at Mol in Belgium and aiming to serve as a basis for the European experimental ADS to provide protons and neutrons for various R and D applications. It consists of a proton accelerator delivering a 350 MeV * 5 mA proton beam to a liquid Pb-Bi spallation target that in turn couples to a Pb-Bi cooled, subcritical fast core. In a first stage, the project focuses mainly on demonstration of the ADS concept, safety research on sub-critical systems and nuclear waste transmutation studies. In a later stage, the device will also be dedicated to research on structural materials, nuclear fuel, liquid metal technology and associated aspects and on sub-critical reactor physics. Subsequently, it will be used as fast spectrum irradiation facility and as radioisotope production facility. Along the above design features, the MYRRHA project team is developing the MYRRHA project as a multipurpose irradiation facility for R and D applications on the basis of an Accelerator Driven System (ADS). The project is intended to fit into the European strategy towards an ADS Demo facility for nuclear waste transmutation as described in the PDS-XADS FP5 Project. As such it should serve the following task catalogue: ADS concept demonstration, Safety studies for ADS, MA transmutation studies, LLFP transmutation studies, Medical radioisotopes, Material research, Fuel research. A first preliminary conceptual design file of MYRRHA was completed by the end of 2001 and has been reviewed by an International Technical Guidance Committee that concluded that there are no show stoppers in the project even thought some topics such as the safety studies and the fuel qualification need to be addressed

  14. Experimental research on intraocular aqueous flow by PIV method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongyu; Song, Hongfang; Mei, Xi; Li, Lin; Fu, Xineng; Zhang, Mindi; Liu, Zhicheng

    2013-10-21

    Aqueous humor flows regularly from posterior chamber to anterior chamber, and this flow much involves intraocular pressure, the eye tissue nutrition and metabolism. To visualize and measure the intraocular flow regular pattern of aqueous humor. Intraocular flow in the vitro eyeball is driven to simulate the physiological aqueous humor flow, and the flow field is measured by Particle Image Velocimetry(PIV). Fluorescent particle solution of a certain concentration was infused into the root of Posterior Chamber(PC) of vitro rabbit eye to simulate the generation of aqueous and was drained out at a certain hydrostatic pressure from the angle of Anterior Chamber(AC) to represent the drainage of aqueous. PIV method was used to record and calculate the flow on the midsagittal plane of the eyeball. Velocity vector distribution in AC has been obtained, and the distribution shows symmetry feature to some extent. Fluorescent particle solution first fills the PC as it is continuously infused, then surges into AC through the pupil, flows upwards toward the central cornea, reflecting and scattering, and eventually converges along the inner cornea surface towards the outflow points at the periphery of the eyeball. Velocity values around the pupillary margin are within the range of 0.008-0.012 m/s, which are close to theoretical values of 0.0133 m/s, under the driving rate of 100 μl/min. Flow field of aqueous humor can be measured by PIV method, which makes it possible to study the aqueous humor dynamics by experimental method. Our study provides a basis for experimental research on aqueous humor flow; further, it possibly helps to diagnose and treat eye diseases as shear force damage of ocular tissues and destructions on corneal endothelial cells from the point of intraocular flow field.

  15. Investigating Neuroanatomical Features in Top Athletes at the Single Subject Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubert, Marco; Wenzel, Uwe; Draganski, Bogdan; Kiebel, Stefan J; Ragert, Patrick; Krug, Jürgen; Villringer, Arno

    2015-01-01

    In sport events like Olympic Games or World Championships competitive athletes keep pushing the boundaries of human performance. Compared to team sports, high achievements in many athletic disciplines depend solely on the individual's performance. Contrasting previous research looking for expertise-related differences in brain anatomy at the group level, we aim to demonstrate changes in individual top athlete's brain, which would be averaged out in a group analysis. We compared structural magnetic resonance images (MRI) of three professional track-and-field athletes to age-, gender- and education-matched control subjects. To determine brain features specific to these top athletes, we tested for significant deviations in structural grey matter density between each of the three top athletes and a carefully matched control sample. While total brain volumes were comparable between athletes and controls, we show regional grey matter differences in striatum and thalamus. The demonstrated brain anatomy patterns remained stable and were detected after 2 years with Olympic Games in between. We also found differences in the fusiform gyrus in two top long jumpers. We interpret our findings in reward-related areas as correlates of top athletes' persistency to reach top-level skill performance over years.

  16. Investigating Neuroanatomical Features in Top Athletes at the Single Subject Level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Taubert

    Full Text Available In sport events like Olympic Games or World Championships competitive athletes keep pushing the boundaries of human performance. Compared to team sports, high achievements in many athletic disciplines depend solely on the individual's performance. Contrasting previous research looking for expertise-related differences in brain anatomy at the group level, we aim to demonstrate changes in individual top athlete's brain, which would be averaged out in a group analysis. We compared structural magnetic resonance images (MRI of three professional track-and-field athletes to age-, gender- and education-matched control subjects. To determine brain features specific to these top athletes, we tested for significant deviations in structural grey matter density between each of the three top athletes and a carefully matched control sample. While total brain volumes were comparable between athletes and controls, we show regional grey matter differences in striatum and thalamus. The demonstrated brain anatomy patterns remained stable and were detected after 2 years with Olympic Games in between. We also found differences in the fusiform gyrus in two top long jumpers. We interpret our findings in reward-related areas as correlates of top athletes' persistency to reach top-level skill performance over years.

  17. Effects of Oral Stimulation Intervention in Newborn Babies with Cri du Chat Syndrome: Single-Subject Research Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Kyung Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to treat dysphagia in a newborn baby with cri du chat syndrome using an oral stimulation intervention and to examine its effects. The subject of this study was a baby born 2 weeks prematurely. Since birth, his oxygen saturation (SaO2 decreased while feeding, and he had difficulty with mouth feeding. Thus, an NG feeding tube was inserted, and dysphagia treatment was initiated on the sixth day after birth. A baseline phase and an intervention phase were performed using an AB design. The oral stimulation intervention was not performed in the baseline phase, as only nonnutritive sucking training using a rubber pacifier was used during the baseline phase. During the intervention phase, nonnutritive sucking training and oral stimulation intervention were simultaneously conducted. After the intervention period, daily oral milk intake and intake per feeding of the subject noticeably increased. The oxygen saturation while feeding rose over 90% on average, and the baby did not present with hypoxia. The oral stimulation intervention provided prior to feeding resulted in highly positive effects, including induced normal development of the baby, stimulation of his transition from the NG feeding tube to bottle feeding, increased oxygen saturation, and a shortened hospital stay.

  18. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH REGARDING LEATHER APPLICATIONS IN PRODUCT DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRALEA Jeni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the role and importance of experimental research in design activity. The designer, as a researcher and a project manager, proposes to establish a relationship between functional-aesthetic-constructive-technological-economic,based on the aesthetic possibilities of the materials used for the experiments. With the aim to identify areas for the application of leather waste resulted from the production process, the paper presents experiments conducted with this material in combination with wood, by using different techniques that lead to different aesthetic effects. Identifying the areas to use and creating products from leather and/or wood waste, is based on the properties of these materials. Leather, the subject of these experiments, has the advantage that it can be used on both sides. Tactile differences of the two sides of this material has both aesthetical and functional advantages, which makes it suitable for applications on products that meet the requirements of "design for all". With differentiated tactile characteristics, in combination with other materials, for these experiments wood, easily "read touch" products can be generated to help people with certain disabilities. Thus, experiments presented in this paper allows the establishment of aesthetic schemes applicable to products that are friendly both with the environment (based on the reuse of wood and leather waste and with the users (can be used as applications, accessories and concepts of products for people with certain disabilities. The designer’s choices or decisions can be based on the results of this experiment. The experiment enables the designer to develop creative, innovative and environmentally friendly products.

  19. Thermodynamics of nanoadsorption from solution: Theoretical and experimental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Yan-Zhen; Xue, Yong-Qiang; Cui, Zi-Xiang; Wang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The thermodynamic theory of nanoadsorption was proposed. • The thermodynamic relations of nanoadsorption were derived. • The results of the experiments are accord with the theory. - Abstract: In this study, the effect of nanoparticle size on adsorption thermodynamics was investigated. The results of theoretical and experimental studies show that particle size significantly affects the equilibrium constant and thermodynamic properties of nanoadsorption. Relationships between the equilibrium constant, thermodynamic properties and particle size were derived using the thermodynamic theory of nanoadsorption. The equilibrium constant and thermodynamic properties were obtained by investigating the adsorption of Cu 2+ onto different sizes of nano-ZnO and the adsorption of Ag + onto different sizes of nano-TiO 2 . Good agreement was achieved between results obtained by experiments and predicted by theoretical analyses. The equilibrium constant and the molar Gibbs free energy of nanoadsorption were found to increase with smaller nanoparticle size. However, the effects of particle size on the molar enthalpy and the molar entropy are uncertain. In addition, the molar Gibbs free energy, the molar enthalpy, the molar entropy and the logarithm of the equilibrium constant are linearly related to the reciprocal of the diameter of the nanoparticle. The thermodynamic properties revealed in this study may provide important guidelines for research and application in the field of nanoadsorption

  20. Texas Experimental Tokamak, a plasma research facility: Technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootton, A.J.

    1995-08-01

    In the year just past, the authors made major progress in understanding turbulence and transport in both core and edge. Development of the capability for turbulence measurements throughout the poloidal cross section and intelligent consideration of the observed asymmetries, played a critical role in this work. In their confinement studies, a limited plasma with strong, H-mode-like characteristics serendipitously appeared and received extensive study though a diverted H-mode remains elusive. In the plasma edge, they appear to be close to isolating a turbulence drive mechanism. These are major advances of benefit to the community at large, and they followed from incremental improvements in diagnostics, in the interpretation of the diagnostics, and in TEXT itself. Their general philosophy is that the understanding of plasma physics must be part of any intelligent fusion program, and that basic experimental research is the most important part of any such program. The work here demonstrates a continuing dedication to the problems of plasma transport which continue to plague the community and are an impediment to the design of future devices. They expect to show here that they approach this problem consistently, systematically, and effectively

  1. Development of the complex general linear model in the Fourier domain: application to fMRI multiple input-output evoked responses for single subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, Daniel E; Rawlings, Robert R; Woltz, Lawrence A; Gilman, Jodi; Hommer, Daniel W

    2013-01-01

    A linear time-invariant model based on statistical time series analysis in the Fourier domain for single subjects is further developed and applied to functional MRI (fMRI) blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) multivariate data. This methodology was originally developed to analyze multiple stimulus input evoked response BOLD data. However, to analyze clinical data generated using a repeated measures experimental design, the model has been extended to handle multivariate time series data and demonstrated on control and alcoholic subjects taken from data previously analyzed in the temporal domain. Analysis of BOLD data is typically carried out in the time domain where the data has a high temporal correlation. These analyses generally employ parametric models of the hemodynamic response function (HRF) where prewhitening of the data is attempted using autoregressive (AR) models for the noise. However, this data can be analyzed in the Fourier domain. Here, assumptions made on the noise structure are less restrictive, and hypothesis tests can be constructed based on voxel-specific nonparametric estimates of the hemodynamic transfer function (HRF in the Fourier domain). This is especially important for experimental designs involving multiple states (either stimulus or drug induced) that may alter the form of the response function.

  2. Annual tendency of research papers used ICR mice as experimental animals in biomedical research fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Eun; Nam, Jung Hoon; Cho, Joon Young; Kim, Kil Soo; Hwang, Dae Youn

    2017-06-01

    Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice have been widely used in various research fields including toxicology, oncology, pharmacology, and pharmaceutical product safety testing for decades. However, annual tendency of research papers involving ICR mice in various biomedical fields has not been previously analyzed. In this study, we examined the numbers of papers that used ICR mice as experimental animals in the social science, natural science, engineering, medicine-pharmacy, marine agriculture-fishery, and art-kinesiology fields by analyzing big data. Numbers of ICR mouse-used papers gradually increased from 1961 to 2014, but small decreases were observed in 2015 and 2016. The largest number of ICR-used papers were published in the medicine-pharmacy field, followed by natural science and art-kinesiology fields. There were no ICR mouse-used papers in other fields. Furthermore, ICR mice have been widely employed in cell biology studies within the natural science field as well as in biochemistry and pathology in the medicine-pharmacy field. Few ICR mouse-used papers were published in exercise biochemistry and exercise nutrition in the art-kinesiology field. Regardless in most fields, the total numbers of published papers involving ICR mice were higher in 2014 than in other years, although the numbers in some fields including dentistry, veterinary science, and dermatology were high in 2016. Taken together, the present study shows that various ICR stocks, including Korl:ICR mice, are widely employed as experimental animals in various biomedical research fields.

  3. Research on Hygiene Based on Fieldwork and Experimental Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    Several experimental studies on hygiene have recently been performed and fieldwork studies are also important and essential tools. However, the implementation of experimental studies is insufficient compared with that of fieldwork studies on hygiene. Here, we show our well-balanced implementation of both fieldwork and experimental studies of toxic-element-mediated diseases including skin cancer and hearing loss. Since the pollution of drinking well water by toxic elements induces various diseases including skin cancer, we performed both fieldwork and experimental studies to determine the levels of toxic elements and the mechanisms behind the development of toxic-element-related diseases and to develop a novel remediation system. Our fieldwork studies in several countries including Bangladesh, Vietnam and Malaysia demonstrated that drinking well water was polluted with high concentrations of several toxic elements including arsenic, barium, iron and manganese. Our experimental studies using the data from our fieldwork studies demonstrated that these toxic elements caused skin cancer and hearing loss. Further experimental studies resulted in the development of a novel remediation system that adsorbs toxic elements from polluted drinking water. A well-balanced implementation of both fieldwork and experimental studies is important for the prediction, prevention and therapy of toxic-element-mediated diseases.

  4. Alzheimer Disease and Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia: Automatic Classification Based on Cortical Atrophy for Single-Subject Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Christiane; Pijnenburg, Yolande A L; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Versteeg, Adriaan; Tijms, Betty; de Munck, Jan C; Hafkemeijer, Anne; Rombouts, Serge A R B; van der Grond, Jeroen; van Swieten, John; Dopper, Elise; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik; Vrenken, Hugo; Wink, Alle Meije

    2016-06-01

    Purpose To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of an image-based classifier to distinguish between Alzheimer disease (AD) and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) in individual patients by using gray matter (GM) density maps computed from standard T1-weighted structural images obtained with multiple imagers and with independent training and prediction data. Materials and Methods The local institutional review board approved the study. Eighty-four patients with AD, 51 patients with bvFTD, and 94 control subjects were divided into independent training (n = 115) and prediction (n = 114) sets with identical diagnosis and imager type distributions. Training of a support vector machine (SVM) classifier used diagnostic status and GM density maps and produced voxelwise discrimination maps. Discriminant function analysis was used to estimate suitability of the extracted weights for single-subject classification in the prediction set. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and area under the ROC curve (AUC) were calculated for image-based classifiers and neuropsychological z scores. Results Training accuracy of the SVM was 85% for patients with AD versus control subjects, 72% for patients with bvFTD versus control subjects, and 79% for patients with AD versus patients with bvFTD (P ≤ .029). Single-subject diagnosis in the prediction set when using the discrimination maps yielded accuracies of 88% for patients with AD versus control subjects, 85% for patients with bvFTD versus control subjects, and 82% for patients with AD versus patients with bvFTD, with a good to excellent AUC (range, 0.81-0.95; P ≤ .001). Machine learning-based categorization of AD versus bvFTD based on GM density maps outperforms classification based on neuropsychological test results. Conclusion The SVM can be used in single-subject discrimination and can help the clinician arrive at a diagnosis. The SVM can be used to distinguish disease-specific GM patterns in patients with AD

  5. Experimental mechanics in research work and in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The current state of the art in experimental mechanics is reflected and explained by the 34 conference papers of the 12th GESA symposium. Separate records of 12 papers have been prepared for the ENERGY database. (MM) [de

  6. A Unified Checklist for Observational and Experimental Research in Software Engineering (Version 1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.

    2012-01-01

    Current checklists for empirical software engineering cover either experimental research or case study research but ignore the many commonalities that exist across all kinds of empirical research. Identifying these commonalities, and explaining why they exist, would enhance our understanding of

  7. Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) Data Processing Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Wright, C. Wayne; Brock, John C.; Nagle, David

    2009-01-01

    The Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) is an example of a Light Detection and Ranging (Lidar) system that utilizes a blue-green wavelength (532 nanometers) to determine the distance to an object. The distance is determined by recording the travel time of a transmitted pulse at the speed of light (fig. 1). This system uses raster laser scanning with full-waveform (multi-peak) resolving capabilities to measure submerged topography and adjacent coastal land elevations simultaneously (Nayegandhi and others, 2009). This document reviews procedures for the post-processing of EAARL data using the custom-built Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS). ALPS software was developed in an open-source programming environment operated on a Linux platform. It has the ability to combine the laser return backscatter digitized at 1-nanosecond intervals with aircraft positioning information. This solution enables the exploration and processing of the EAARL data in an interactive or batch mode. ALPS also includes modules for the creation of bare earth, canopy-top, and submerged topography Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). The EAARL system uses an Earth-centered coordinate and reference system that removes the necessity to reference submerged topography data relative to water level or tide gages (Nayegandhi and others, 2006). The EAARL system can be mounted in an array of small twin-engine aircraft that operate at 300 meters above ground level (AGL) at a speed of 60 meters per second (117 knots). While other systems strive to maximize operational depth limits, EAARL has a narrow transmit beam and receiver field of view (1.5 to 2 milliradians), which improves the depth-measurement accuracy in shallow, clear water but limits the maximum depth to about 1.5 Secchi disk depth (~20 meters) in clear water. The laser transmitter [Continuum EPO-5000 yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG)] produces up to 5,000 short-duration (1.2 nanosecond), low-power (70 microjoules) pulses each second

  8. Experimental research on stability of covering blocks for sloping banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, Toshihiko

    1988-01-01

    In the case of constructing thermal and nuclear power stations facing open seas, usually the harbors for unloading fuel and others are constructed. In Japan, breakwaters are installed in the places of relatively shallow depth less than 20 m, and in such case, the sloping banks having the covering material of wave-controlling blocks made of concrete are mostly adopted as those are excellent in their function and economical efficiency, and are advantageous in the maintenance and management. Sloping banks are of such type that wave-controlling blocks cover the vertical front face of nonpermeating caissons, and the same type was adopted for breakwaters and others in Onagawa Nuclear Power Station, Tohoku Electric Power Co., Inc. As for the wave-controlling blocks, tetrapods and shake blocks were used. One of the most important problems in the design of sloping banks is how to estimate the stability of wave controlling blocks. In this paper, the results of the examination by hydraulic model experiment on the stability of covering blocks are reported, which are useful as the basic data for the rational and economical design of sloping banks. The experimental setup and a model bank, the generation of experimental waves and their characteristics, the experimental conditions and experimental method, and the results are reported. (Kako, I.)

  9. Sodium fires. Progress achieved in research and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.; Duverger de Cuy, G.; Casselman, C.; Charpenel, J.; Natta, M.; Devillers, C.

    1979-08-01

    This paper describes the sodium fire programs undertaken by the CEA's Nuclear Safety Department. Experimental results concerning sodium ignition and combustion, sodium fire suppression, sodium aerosol filtration and sodium-concrete contact reactions are given and the applications of these results in the Super-Phenix reactor is discussed

  10. Threats to the Internal Validity of Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Research in Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannelly, Kevin J; Flannelly, Laura T; Jankowski, Katherine R B

    2018-01-24

    The article defines, describes, and discusses the seven threats to the internal validity of experiments discussed by Donald T. Campbell in his classic 1957 article: history, maturation, testing, instrument decay, statistical regression, selection, and mortality. These concepts are said to be threats to the internal validity of experiments because they pose alternate explanations for the apparent causal relationship between the independent variable and dependent variable of an experiment if they are not adequately controlled. A series of simple diagrams illustrate three pre-experimental designs and three true experimental designs discussed by Campbell in 1957 and several quasi-experimental designs described in his book written with Julian C. Stanley in 1966. The current article explains why each design controls for or fails to control for these seven threats to internal validity.

  11. The Nonuse, Misuse, and Proper Use of Pilot Studies in Experimental Evaluation Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westlund, Erik; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the nonuse, misuse, and proper use of pilot studies in experimental evaluation research. The authors first show that there is little theoretical, practical, or empirical guidance available to researchers who seek to incorporate pilot studies into experimental evaluation research designs. The authors then discuss how pilot…

  12. Experimental research on transient ionizing radiation effects of CMOS microcontroller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Xiaoming; Fan Ruyu; Chen Wei; Wang Guizhen; Lin Dongsheng; Yang Shanchao; Bai Xiaoyan

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental test system of CMOS microcontroller EE80C196KC20. Based on this system, the transient ionizing radiation effects on microcontroller were investigated using 'Qiangguang-I' accelerator. The gamma pulse width was 20 ns and the dose rate (for the Si atom) was in the range of 6.7 x 10 6 to 2.0 x 10 8 Gy/s in the experimental study. The disturbance and latchup effects were observed at different dose rate levels. Latchup threshold of the microcontroller was obtained. Disturbance interval and the system power supply current have a relationship with the dose rate level. The transient ionizing radiation induces photocurrent in the PN junctions that are inherent in CMOS circuits. The photocurrent is responsible for the electrical and functional degradation. (authors)

  13. [Experimental research on temporomandibular joint function in dysgnathic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, S

    1990-10-01

    In an experimental study we examined the function of the TMJ of patients with a considerable aberration from ideal dynamic occlusion and with obvious symptoms of frontal dysgnathia. Using a measuring seat for the simultaneous recording of opening and closing movements without occlusal interference and the sounds produced by the TMJ, we could not find any significantly impaired TMJ function compared with an orthognathic control group of similar age.

  14. Experimental and Analytical Research on Fracture Processes in ROck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert H.. Einstein; Jay Miller; Bruno Silva

    2009-02-27

    Experimental studies on fracture propagation and coalescence were conducted which together with previous tests by this group on gypsum and marble, provide information on fracturing. Specifically, different fracture geometries wsere tested, which together with the different material properties will provide the basis for analytical/numerical modeling. INitial steps on the models were made as were initial investigations on the effect of pressurized water on fracture coalescence.

  15. Neural Network Assisted Experimental Designs for Food Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.S. Ramaswamy

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of artificial neural networks (ANN in predicting full factorial data from the fractional data corresponding to some of the commonly used experimental designs is explored in this paper. Factorial and fractional factorial designs such as L8, L9, L18, and Box and Behnken schemes were considered both in their original form and with some variations (L8+6, L15 and L9+1. Full factorial (3 factors x 5 levels and fractional data were generated employing sixteen different mathematical equations (four in each category: linear, with and without interactions, and non-linear, with and without interactions. Different ANN models were trained and the best model was chosen for each equation based on their ability to predict the fractional data. The best experimental design was then chosen based on their ability to simulate the full- factorial data for each equation. In several cases, the mean relative errors with the L18 design (which had more input data than other models were even higher than with other smaller fractional design. In general, the ANN assisted Lm, Box and Behnken, L15 and L18 designs were found to predict the full factorial data reasonably well with errors less than 5 %. The L8+6 model performed well with several experimental datasets reported in the literature.

  16. Experimental model for research on the blood-ocular barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hak Jin; Jea, Seung Youn; Park, Jae Sung; Jung, Yeon Joo [Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Woo [Inje University, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of); Park, Byung Rae [Catholic University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    The eyeball has 2 blood-ocular barriers, i.e, the blood-retinal and blood-aqueous barriers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if triolein emulsion could disrupt the barriers, and we wanted to suggest as an experimental model for future blood-ocular barrier studies. The triolein emulsion was made of 0.1 ml triolein and 20 ml normal saline, and this was infused into the carotid artery of ten cats (the experimental group). As a control group, only normal saline was infused in another ten cats. Precontrast and postcontrast T1-weighted MR images were obtained at 30 minutes and 3 hours after embolization in both groups. The signal intensities were evaluate qualitatively and quantitatively in the anterior and posterior chambers and also in the vitreus fluid. Statistical analysis was performed by employing the Kruskal Wallist test, Dunn's Multiple Comparison test and the wilcoxon signed rank test. In the control group, no contrast enhancement was demonstrated in the anterior or posterior chamber or in the vitreus fluid of the ipsilateral or contralateral eyeball on the 30 minutes MR images. The anterior chambers of the ipsilateral and contralateral eyeballs revealed delayed contrast enhancement on the 3 hour MR images. In the experimental group, the 30 minute-postembolization MR images were not different from those of the control group. The 30 minute-postembolization MR images demonstrated delayed contrast enhancement in the anterior chamber of the ipsilateral and contralateral eyeballs and in the posterior chamber of the ipsilateral eyeball. The delayed contrast enhancement of the posterior chamber of the ipsilateral eyeball was statistically significant ({rho} < 0.05). The present study demonstrated significant contrast enhancement in the posterior chamber with infusion of the triolein emulsion, and this can serve as a model for blood-aqueous barrier studies.

  17. Experimental model for research on the blood-ocular barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hak Jin; Jea, Seung Youn; Park, Jae Sung; Jung, Yeon Joo; Kim, Yong Woo; Park, Byung Rae

    2006-01-01

    The eyeball has 2 blood-ocular barriers, i.e, the blood-retinal and blood-aqueous barriers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if triolein emulsion could disrupt the barriers, and we wanted to suggest as an experimental model for future blood-ocular barrier studies. The triolein emulsion was made of 0.1 ml triolein and 20 ml normal saline, and this was infused into the carotid artery of ten cats (the experimental group). As a control group, only normal saline was infused in another ten cats. Precontrast and postcontrast T1-weighted MR images were obtained at 30 minutes and 3 hours after embolization in both groups. The signal intensities were evaluate qualitatively and quantitatively in the anterior and posterior chambers and also in the vitreus fluid. Statistical analysis was performed by employing the Kruskal Wallist test, Dunn's Multiple Comparison test and the wilcoxon signed rank test. In the control group, no contrast enhancement was demonstrated in the anterior or posterior chamber or in the vitreus fluid of the ipsilateral or contralateral eyeball on the 30 minutes MR images. The anterior chambers of the ipsilateral and contralateral eyeballs revealed delayed contrast enhancement on the 3 hour MR images. In the experimental group, the 30 minute-postembolization MR images were not different from those of the control group. The 30 minute-postembolization MR images demonstrated delayed contrast enhancement in the anterior chamber of the ipsilateral and contralateral eyeballs and in the posterior chamber of the ipsilateral eyeball. The delayed contrast enhancement of the posterior chamber of the ipsilateral eyeball was statistically significant (ρ < 0.05). The present study demonstrated significant contrast enhancement in the posterior chamber with infusion of the triolein emulsion, and this can serve as a model for blood-aqueous barrier studies

  18. Experimental application of design principles in corrosion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyrl, W.H.; Pohlman, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental design criteria for corrosion investigations are based on established principles for systems that have uniform, or nearly uniform, corrosive attack. Scale-up or scale-down may be accomplished by proper use of dimensionless groups that measure the relative importance of interfacial kinetics, solution conductivity, and mass transfer. These principles have been applied to different fields of corrosion which include materials selection testing and protection; and to a specific corrosion problem involving attack of a substrate through holes in a protective overplate

  19. Experimental and numerical research on forging with torsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Mikhail A.; Subich, Vadim N.; Petrov, Pavel A.

    2017-10-01

    Increasing the efficiency of the technological operations of blank production is closely related to the computer-aided technologies (CAx). On the one hand, the practical result represents reality exactly. On the other hand, the development procedure of new process development demands unrestricted resources, which are limited on the SMEs. The tools of CAx were successfully applied for development of new process of forging with torsion and result analysis as well. It was shown, that the theoretical calculations find the confirmation both in praxis and during numerical simulation. The mostly used constructional materials were under study. The torque angles were stated. The simulated results were evaluated by experimental procedure.

  20. Experimental complex for high flux-materials interaction research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagen-Torn, V.K.; Kirillov, I.R.; Komarov, V.L.; Litunovsky, V.N.; Mazul, I.V.; Ovchinnikov, I.B.; Prokofjev, Yu.G.; Saksagansky, G.L.; Titov, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    The experimental complex for high heat flux testing of divertor materials and bumper mock-ups under conditions close to both ITER stationary and plasma disruption PFC heat loads is described. High power plasma and electron beams are using as high heat flux sources. The former are applied to disruption simulation experiments. The values of pulsed plasma heat flux load up to 110 MJ/m 2 and stationary e-beam load up to 15 MW/m 2 can obtained on these facilities. (orig.)

  1. Changing children's eating behaviour - A review of experimental research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeCosta, Patricia Enebær Irene; Møller, Per; Frøst, Michael Bom

    2017-01-01

    programs, school gardens, sensory education, availability and accessibility, choice architecture and nudging, branding and food packaging, preparation and serving style, and offering a choice. In conclusion, controlling strategies for changing children's eating behaviour in a positive direction appear...... to be counterproductive. Hands-on approaches such as gardening and cooking programs may encourage greater vegetable consumption and may have a larger effect compared to nutrition education. Providing children with free, accessible fruits and vegetables have been experimentally shown to positively affect long-term eating...

  2. Comparison of forward versus backward walking using body weight supported treadmill training in an individual with a spinal cord injury: a single subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriello, Gabriele; Pathare, Neeti; Cirone, Cono; Pastore, Danielle; Shears, Dacia; Sulehri, Sahira

    2014-01-01

    Body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) is a task-specific intervention that promotes functional locomotion. There is no research evaluating the effect of backward walking (BW) using BWSTT in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). The purpose of this single subject design was to examine the differences between forward walking (FW) and BW training using BWSTT in an individual with quadriparesis. The participant was a 57-year-old male with incomplete C3-C6 SCI. An ABABAB design (A = BW; B = FW; each phase = 3 weeks of biweekly sessions) was utilized. Outcome measures included: gait parameters; a timed 4-meter walk; the 5-repetition sit-to-stand test (STST); tandem stance time; and 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Data was analyzed with split level method of trend estimation. Improvements in gait parameters, on the timed 4-meter walk, 6MWT, tandem balance and aerobic endurance were similar with FW and BW training. The only difference between FW and BW training was that BW training resulted in greater improvements in the STST. The results of this study suggest that in this individual backward walking training was advantageous, resulting in improved ability to perform the 5-repetition STST. It is suspected that these changes can be attributed to the differences in muscle activation and task difficulty between FW and BW.

  3. 76 FR 81991 - National Spectrum Sharing Research Experimentation, Validation, Verification, Demonstration and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION National Spectrum Sharing Research Experimentation, Validation... requirements of national level spectrum research, development, demonstration, and field trial facilities... to determine the optimal way to manage and use the radio spectrum. During Workshop I held at Boulder...

  4. Overview of experimental research on nuclear structure in department of modern applied physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shengjiang

    1999-01-01

    The experimental research on nuclear structure in Department of Modern Applied Physics, Tsinghua University has been summarized. The main research results in high spin states of nuclear structure, as well as some low spin states, have been reported

  5. European community light water reactor safety research projects. Experimental issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Research programs on light water reactor safety currently carried out in the European Community are presented. They cover: accident conditions (LOCA, ECCS, core meltdown, external influences, etc...), fault and accident prevention and means of mitigation, normal operation conditions, on and off site implications and equipment under severe accident conditions, and miscellaneous subjects

  6. Technologies and experimental approaches in the NIH Botanical Research Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Stephen; Birt, Diane F; Cassileth, Barrie R; Cefalu, William T; Chilton, Floyd H; Farnsworth, Norman R; Raskin, Ilya; van Breemen, Richard B; Weaver, Connie M

    2009-01-01

    There are many similarities between research on combinatorial chemistry and natural products and research on dietary supplements and botanicals in the NIH Botanical Research Centers. The technologies in the centers are similar to those used by other NIH-sponsored investigators. All centers rigorously examine the authenticity of botanical dietary supplements and determine the composition and concentrations of the phytochemicals therein, most often by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Several of the centers specialize in fractionation and high-throughput evaluation to identify the individual bioactive agent or a combination of agents. Some centers are using DNA microarray analyses to determine the effects of botanicals on gene transcription with the goal of uncovering the important biochemical pathways they regulate. Other centers focus on bioavailability and uptake, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of the phytochemicals as for all xenobiotics. Because phytochemicals are often complex molecules, synthesis of isotopically labeled forms is carried out by plant cells in culture, followed by careful fractionation. These labeled phytochemicals allow the use of accelerator mass spectrometry to trace the tissue distribution of 14C-labeled proanthocyanidins in animal models of disease. State-of-the-art proteomics and mass spectrometry are also used to identify proteins in selected tissues whose expression and posttranslational modification are influenced by botanicals and dietary supplements. In summary, the skills needed to carry out botanical centers’ research are extensive and may exceed those practiced by most NIH investigators. PMID:18258642

  7. Research on the experimental verification of dosimetry calculations. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, J.W.

    1984-06-01

    Research has been focused on the development of a technique to section PATE organ dosimeters and the application of the technique to dosimetry of the extremities. In addition, a realistic model for the head and neck region has been designed and a model for the circulating blood has been proposed

  8. The pig as an experimental model for clinical craniofacial research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štembírek, Jan; Kyllar, M.; Putnová, I.; Stehlík, L.; Buchtová, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 4 (2012), s. 269-279 ISSN 0023-6772 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP304/08/P289 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : platelet rich plasma * streptococcus suis serotype 2 * implant surface coatings Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.257, year: 2012

  9. Research interface for experimental ultrasound imaging - the CFU grabber project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Møller; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    system RASMUS. Furthermore precise scanner settings are stored for inter- and intra-observer studies. The resulting images are used for clinical evaluation. Method and materials The ultrasound scanners research interface is connected to a graphical grabber card in a Windows PC (Grabber PC). The grabber...

  10. Experimental Research at the Intensity Frontier in High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshak, Marvin L. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-06-30

    This Final Report describes DOE-supported Intensity Frontier research by the University of Minnesota during the interval April 1, 2011 to March 31, 2014. Primary activities included the MINOS, NOvA and LBNE Experiments and Heavy Quark studies at BES III.

  11. Para-Quantitative Methodology: Reclaiming Experimentalism in Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani Varaki, Bakhtiar; Floden, Robert E.; Javidi Kalatehjafarabadi, Tahereh

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the criticisms of current approaches in educational research methodology. It summarizes rationales for mixed methods and argues that the mixing quantitative paradigm and qualitative paradigm is problematic due to practical and philosophical arguments. It is also indicated that the current rise of mixed methods work has…

  12. An experimental research program on chirality at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markert, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Heavy-ion collisions provide a unique opportunity to investigate the fundamental laws of physics of the strong force. The extreme conditions created by the collisions within a finite volume are akin to the properties of the deconfined partonic state which existed very shortly after the Big Bang and just prior to visible matter formation in the Universe. In this state massless quarks and gluons (partons) are ''quasi free'' particles, the so-called Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP). By following the expansion and cooling of this state, we will map out the process of nucleonic matter formation, which occurs during the phase transition. The fundamental properties of this early partonic phase of matter are not well understood, but they are essential for confirming QCD (Quantum Chromo-Dynamics) and the Standard Model. The specific topic, chiral symmetry restoration, has been called ''the remaining puzzle of QCD.'' This puzzle can only be studied in the dense partonic medium generated in heavy-ion collisions. The research objectives of this proposal are the development and application of new analysis strategies to study chirality and the properties of the medium above the QGP phase transition using hadronic resonances detected with the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the CERN research laboratory in Switzerland. This grant funded a new effort at the University of Texas at Austin (UT Austin) to investigate the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) at the highest possible energy of 2.76 TeV per nucleon at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN via the ALICE experiment. The findings added to our knowledge of the dynamical evolution and the properties of the hot, dense matter produced in heavy-ion collisions, and provided a deeper understanding of multi-hadron interactions in these extreme nuclear matter systems. Our group contributed as well to the hardware and software for the ALICE USA-funded Calorimeter Detector (EMCal). The LHC research program and its connection to

  13. An experimental investigation of recruitment bias in eating pathology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Erin L; von Ranson, Kristin M

    2006-04-01

    Previous, uncontrolled research has suggested a bias may exist in recruiting participants for eating disorder research. Recruitment biases may affect sample representativeness and generalizability of findings. This experiment investigated whether revealing that a study's topic was related to eating disorders created a self-selection bias. Young women at a university responded to advertisements containing contrasting information about the nature of a single study. We recruited one group by advertising the study under the title "Disordered Eating in Young Women" (n = 251) and another group using the title "Consumer Preferences" (n = 259). Results indicated similar levels of eating pathology in both groups, so the different recruitment techniques did not engender self-selection. However, the consumer preferences group scored higher in self-reported social desirability. The level of information conveyed in study advertising does not impact reporting of eating disturbances among nonclinical samples, although there is evidence social desirability might. 2006 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Field research program for unsaturated flow and transport experimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tidwell, V.C.; Rautman, C.A.; Glass, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    As part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, a field research program has been developed to refine and validate models for flow and transport through unsaturated fractured rock. Validation of these models within the range of their application for performance assessment requires a more sophisticated understanding of the processes that govern flow and transport within fractured porous media than currently exists. In particular, our research is prioritized according to understanding and modeling processes that, if not accurately incorporated into performance assessment models, would adversely impact the project's ability to evaluate repository performance. For this reason, we have oriented our field program toward enhancing our understanding of scaling processes as they relate to effective media property modeling, as well as to the conceptual modeling of complex flow and transport phenomena

  15. Experimental and theoretical research in applied plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porkolab, M.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses research in the following areas: fusion theory and computations; theory of thermonuclear plasmas; user service center; high poloidal beta studies on PBX-M; fast ECE fluctuation diagnostic for balloning mode studies; x-ray imaging diagnostic; millimeter/submillimeter-wave fusion ion diagnostics; small scale turbulence and nonlinear dynamics in plasmas; plasma turbulence and transport; phase contrast interferometer diagnostic for long wavelength fluctuations in DIII-D; and charged and neutral fusion production for fusio plasmas

  16. Publishing Single-Case Research Design Studies That Do Not Demonstrate Experimental Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tincani, Matt; Travers, Jason

    2018-01-01

    Demonstration of experimental control is considered a hallmark of high-quality single-case research design (SCRD). Studies that fail to demonstrate experimental control may not be published because researchers are unwilling to submit these papers for publication and journals are unlikely to publish negative results (i.e., the file drawer effect).…

  17. An annotated bibliography of scientific literature on research and management activities conducted in Coram Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilana Abrahamson; Katie Lyon

    2012-01-01

    The Coram Experimental Forest represents western larch-mixed conifer forests of the Northern Rockies. Western larch research was centered at Coram Experimental Forest (CEF) to provide a scientific basis to regenerate and grow this important and valuable species. For example, the long-term silvicultural studies installed at CEF are allowing researchers and managers to...

  18. [Research in experimental and theoretical high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodek, A.; Ferbel, T.; Melissinos, A.C.

    1989-01-01

    The Experimental High Energy Physics Program is directed toward the execution of experiments at both national and international accelerator facilities. During the next fiscal year, we will be primarily concentrating on the following projects: Fermilab direct photon experiment E706; Tevatron proton-antiproton collider experiment D-Zero; Analysis of Fermilab neutrino experiments and hadron experiment; Analysis of SLAC experiment E140 and all previous SLAC data; Running of the SLAC E140 extension (approved to run in 89/90); SLAC experiment NE11 (ran in 1989); Brookhaven galactic axion experiment; Coherent production of axions and Dellbruck scattering at BNL; The AMY experiment at TRISTAN; and Laser Switched LINAC at the Rochester Laser Laboratory. Projects which are in the completion stages: Search for new states of matter using the Rochester Tandem and SLAC experiment E141 Axion search. Projects in study and planning stages: Nonlinear Compton Scattering at LEP; Production of hybrid mesons in the nuclear coulomb field; Neutrino experiment for the Tevatron upgrade and the SSC; and Involvement in the CDF upgrade and the SSC

  19. Methodology for the experimental research of vapor explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitriy I Borisenko; Yanhua Yang

    2005-01-01

    The method for experimental definition of influence of speed of fuel's surface increase at FCI is proposed. by modeling a fuel fragmentation for a case of falling of fuel compact weight on a coolant free surface with the help of the dumped heated up capsule opening under a level of a coolant free surface. Basic scheme of capsule is submitted in figure (the scheme of Dumped Opening Capsule (DOC)). Before beginning experiment through apertures in a covering 3 and a body of a case 4 in a hollow, limited to a case and the cylinder 6, spheres of small diameter have been incorporated. The total area of a surface of spheres is much more than area of external superficial of capsule. DOC is heated up to necessary temperature and it is fallen down in cooling a liquid. The principle work of DOC consists in the following. The plate 8, amazing about a free surface of a coolant, presses a pusher of 11 internal DOC. A pusher moving - relative DOC on axes of symmetry a teeth of compression of 'dog' 14. Being narrowed, teeth 'dogs' stop to hold a glass 7 installations bottom part of a case 5. At action of spring 13 parts of a case 4 and 5 moved separately on an axis of symmetry DOC and are enclosed in spheres adjoin to a coolant. (authors)

  20. Experimental research of double-pulse linear induction electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Shuqing; Cheng Cheng; Zheng Shuxin; Tang Chuanxiang; Lin Yuzheng; Jing Xiaobing; Mu Fan; Pan Haifeng

    2009-01-01

    The Mini-LIA is a double-pulse linear induction electron accelerator with megahertz repetition rates, which consists of a double-pulse power system, a thermal cathode electron gun, two induction cells, beam transportation systems and diagnosis systems, etc. Experiments of the Mini-LIA have been conducted. The double-pulse high voltage was obtained with several hundred nanosecond pulse intervals (i. e. megahertz repetition rate) and each pulse had an 80 kV amplitude with a FWHM of 80 ns. In the gap of the induction cell, the double-pulse accelerating electric field was measured via E-field probes, and the double-pulse electron beam with a current about 1.1 A has been obtained at the Mini-LIA exit. These experimental results show that the double-pulse high voltage with megahertz repetition rates can be generated by an insulation and junction system. And they also indicate that the induction cell with metglas as the ferromagnetic material and the LaB 6 thermal cathode electron gun suit the double-pulse operation with megahertz repetition rates. (authors)

  1. Organophosphorous pesticides research in Mexico: epidemiological and experimental approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Guerra, M; Pérez-Herrera, N; Quintanilla-Vega, B

    2011-11-01

    Non-persistent pesticides, such as organophosphorous (OP) insecticides have been extensively used in Mexico, and becoming a public health problem. This review presents data of OP use and related toxicity from epidemiological and experimental studies conducted in Mexico. Studies in agricultural workers from several regions of the country reported moderate to severe cholinergic symptoms, including decreased acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity (the main acute OP toxic effect that causes an over accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine), revealing the potential risk of intoxication of Mexican farmers. OP exposure in occupational settings has been associated with decreased semen quality, sperm DNA damage and as endocrine disrupter, particularly in agricultural workers. Alterations in female reproductive function have also been observed, as well as adverse effects on embryo development by prenatal exposure in agricultural communities. This illustrates that OP exposure represents a risk for reproduction and offspring well-being in Mexico. The genotoxic effects of this group of pesticides in somatic and sperm cells are also documented. Lastly, we present data about gene-environmental interactions regarding OP metabolizing enzymes, such as paraoxonase-1 (PON1) and its role in modulating their toxicity, particularly on semen quality and sperm DNA integrity. In summary, readers will see the important health problems associated with OP exposure in Mexican populations, thereby the need of capacitation programs to communicate farmers the proper handling of agrochemicals to prevent their toxic effects and of more well designed human studies to support data of the current situation of workers and communities dedicated to agriculture activities.

  2. Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, September 1965: Review Of Experimental Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitzer, Lyman Jr. [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1966-04-15

    To my way of thinking the most significant milestone of the present meeting is the substantial body of evidence that has been presented on the hydromagnetic stabilization of open-ended systems. The success of minimum magnetic-field ('minimum-B') configurations in stabilizing a plasma marks one more area where theory and experiment in the field of plasma physics have been brought together with gratifying results. Let me go back a little into history and discuss the gradual growth of our information on hydromagnetic instabilities generally. Many of you will remember that hydromagnetic theory was applied to the self-pinched discharge in the early years of the controUed fusion programme. The predictions of this theory were very shortly fulfilled by the observations; the effects were so unmistakable that it was not difficult to compare the theory with the observations. On the streak pictures of the linear or toroidal discharges that were obtained in those early years one saw clearly the diffuse plasma column, which first contracted to a narrow filament and then started to distort and kink until finally it hit the wall. Under some conditions the plasma was observed to break up into a series of blobs like a string of sausages. Since the behaviour was exactly what the theory had predicted, it took no very great experimental wisdom to conclude that observations had confirmed theory.

  3. Experimental parameters research for oxides of synthesis by microwave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratmann, Ezequiel Cafumann; Moreira, Mário Lúcio; Ratmann, Cristiane Raubach; Cava, Sergio da Silva, E-mail: ezequiel.ratmann@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPEL), RS (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of experimental parameter of zinc oxide (ZnO) in the structural and optical properties obtained by a microwave-assisted solvo thermal method. The method consists in obtaining ZnO at temperatures from 90 - 140 °C and subsequently characterized structurally and verify possible variations in optical characteristics through photoluminescence measurements. The characterizations were performed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and photoluminescence measurements. The results show that the change in temperature of synthesis does not affect the crystal structure of ZnO. The photoluminescence measurements show a shift only in the sample obtained at 120 °C temperature. A more detailed study on the 120°C system is necessary to be able to say that the effect observed in the optical property is due to the method of synthesis. References: [1] S. R. Pinnell, D. Fairhurst, R. Gillies, M. A. Mitchnick, and N. Kollias. Microfine zinc oxide is a superior sunscreen ingredient to microfine titanium dioxide, Dermatologic surgery, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 309-314, 2000; [2] Efracio M. Flores. Influência do solvente nas propriedades estruturais e ópticas de sistema ZnO@ZnS core-shell, obtidos pelo método solvotérmico assistido por microondas. Dissertação de Mestrado. 2015. (author)

  4. Experimental Research of a New Wave Energy Conversion Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhongyue; Shang, Jianzhong; Luo, Zirong; Sun, Chongfei; Chen, Gewei

    2018-01-01

    With the increasing tension of contemporary social energy, the development and utilization of renewable energy has become an important development direction. As an important part of renewable energy, wave energy has the characteristics of green environmental protection and abundant reserves, attracting more investment and research. For small marine equipment energy supply problem, this paper puts forward a micro wave energy conversion device as the basic of heaving motion of waves in the ocean. This paper designed a new type of power output device can solve the micro wave energy conversion problem.

  5. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Research Reactor Experimenters' Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cagle, C.D.

    1982-10-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has three multipurpose research reactors which accommodate testing loops, target irradiations, and beam-type experiments. Since the experiments must share common or similar facilities and utilities, be designed and fabricated by the same groups, and meet the same safety criteria, certain standards for these have been developed. These standards deal only with those properties from which safety and economy of time and money can be maximized and do not relate to the intent of the experiment or quality of the data obtained. The necessity for, and the limitations of, the standards are discussed; and a compilation of general standards is included

  6. Outlines of revised regulation standards for experimental research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohara, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    In response to the accident of TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, the government took actions through the revision of regulatory standards as well as the complete separation of regulation administrative department from promotion administrative department. The Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, which has been in charge of the regulations of commercial reactors, and the Office of Nuclear Regulations of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, which has been in charge of the regulations of reactors for experiment and research, were separated from both ministries, and integrated into the Nuclear Regulation Authority, which was newly established as the affiliated agency of the Ministry of the Environment. As for the revision of regulations and standards, the Nuclear Safety Commission was dismantled, and regulation enacting authority was given to the new Nuclear Regulation Authority, and the regulations that stipulated new regulatory standards were enacted. This paper outlines the contents of regulations related mainly to the reactors for experiment and research, and explains the following: (1) retroactive application of the new regulatory standards to existing reactor facilities, (2) examinations at the Nuclear Regulatory Agency, (3) procedures to confirm the compliance to the new standards, (4) seismic design classification, and (5) importance classification of safety function. (A.O.)

  7. Experimental and numerical research on cavitating flows around axisymmetric bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haipeng, Wei; Song, Fu; Qin, Wu; Biao, Huang; Guoyu, Wang

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the cavitating flows around different axisymmetric bodies based on experiments and numerical simulation. In the numerical simulation, the multiphase Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes equations (RANS) were solved via the commercial computational fluid dynamics code CFX. The modified k-wSST turbulence model was used along with the transport equation-based cavitation model. In the experiments, a high-speed video technique was used to observe the unsteady cavitating flow patterns, and the dynamic force measurement system was used to measure the hydrodynamics of the axisymmetric bodies under different cavitation conditions. Results are shown for the hemisphere bodies, conical bodies and blunt bodies. Reasonable agreements were obtained between the computational and experimental results. The results show that for the hemispherical body, the cavity consists of quasi-steady transparent region and unsteady foggy water-vapor mixture region, which contains small-scale vortices and is dominated by bubble clusters, causing irregular disturbances at the cavity interfaces. The curvature at the front of the conical body is larger, resulting in that the flow separates at the shoulder of the axisymmetric body. The cavity stretches downstream and reaches to a fixed cavity length and shape. For blunt bodies, the incipient cavitation number is larger than that for the hemispherical body. A large cloud cavity is formed at the shoulder of the blunt body in the cores of vortices in high shear separation regions and the re-entrant jet does not significantly interact with the cavity interface when it moves upstream. As to the dynamic characteristics of unsteady cavitating flows around the axisymmetric bodies, the pulsation frequency for the hemispherical body is larger than that for the blunt body. For the hemispherical body, the pulsation is mainly caused by the high-frequency, small-scale shedding at the rear end of the cavity, while for the blunt body, the main factor for

  8. Experimental particle physics research at Texas Tech University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akchurin, Nural; Lee, Sung-Won; Volobouev, Igor; Wigmans, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The high energy physics group at Texas Tech University (TTU) concentrates its research efforts on the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and on generic detector R&D for future applications. Our research programs have been continuously supported by the US Department of Energy for over two decades, and this final report summarizes our achievements during the last grant period from May 1, 2012 to March 31, 2016. After having completed the Run 1 data analyses from the CMS detector, including the discovery of the Higgs boson in July 2012, we concentrated on commissioning the CMS hadron calorimeter (HCAL) for Run 2, performing analyses of Run 2 data, and making initial studies and plans for the second phase of upgrades in CMS. Our research has primarily focused on searches for Beyond Standard Model (BSM) physics via dijets, monophotons, and monojets. We also made significant contributions to the analyses of the semileptonic Higgs decays and Standard Model (SM) measurements in Run 1. Our work on the operations of the CMS detector, especially the performance monitoring of the HCAL in Run 1, was indispensable to the experiment. Our team members, holding leadership positions in HCAL, have played key roles in the R&D, construction, and commissioning of these detectors in the last decade. We also maintained an active program in jet studies that builds on our expertise in calorimetry and algorithm development. In Run 2, we extended some of our analyses at 8 TeV to 13 TeV, and we also started to investigate new territory, e.g., dark matter searches with unexplored signatures. The objective of dual-readout calorimetry R&D was intended to explore (and, if possible, eliminate) the obstacles that prevent calorimetric detection of hadrons and jets with a comparable level of precision as we have grown accustomed to for electrons and photons. The initial prototype detector was successfully tested at the SPS/CERN in 2003-2004 and evolved over the

  9. Experimental particle physics research at Texas Tech University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akchurin, Nural [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Lee, Sung-Won [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Volobouev, Igor [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Wigmans, Richard [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2016-06-22

    The high energy physics group at Texas Tech University (TTU) concentrates its research efforts on the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and on generic detector R&D for future applications. Our research programs have been continuously supported by the US Department of Energy for over two decades, and this final report summarizes our achievements during the last grant period from May 1, 2012 to March 31, 2016. After having completed the Run 1 data analyses from the CMS detector, including the discovery of the Higgs boson in July 2012, we concentrated on commissioning the CMS hadron calorimeter (HCAL) for Run 2, performing analyses of Run 2 data, and making initial studies and plans for the second phase of upgrades in CMS. Our research has primarily focused on searches for Beyond Standard Model (BSM) physics via dijets, monophotons, and monojets. We also made significant contributions to the analyses of the semileptonic Higgs decays and Standard Model (SM) measurements in Run 1. Our work on the operations of the CMS detector, especially the performance monitoring of the HCAL in Run 1, was indispensable to the experiment. Our team members, holding leadership positions in HCAL, have played key roles in the R&D, construction, and commissioning of these detectors in the last decade. We also maintained an active program in jet studies that builds on our expertise in calorimetry and algorithm development. In Run 2, we extended some of our analyses at 8 TeV to 13 TeV, and we also started to investigate new territory, e.g., dark matter searches with unexplored signatures. The objective of dual-readout calorimetry R&D was intended to explore (and, if possible, eliminate) the obstacles that prevent calorimetric detection of hadrons and jets with a comparable level of precision as we have grown accustomed to for electrons and photons. The initial prototype detector was successfully tested at the SPS/CERN in 2003-2004 and evolved over the

  10. Simulation and experimental research on line throwing rocket with flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-bin Gu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The finite segment method is used to model the line throwing rocket system. A dynamic model of line throwing rocket with flight motion based on Kane's method is presented by the kinematics description of the system and the consideration of the forces acting on the system. The experiment designed according to the parameters of the dynamic model is made. The simulation and experiment results, such as range, velocity and flight time, are compared and analyzed. The simulation results are basically agreed with the test data, which shows that the flight motion of the line throwing rocket can be predicted by the dynamic model. A theoretical model and guide for the further research on the disturbance of rope and the guidance, flight control of line throwing rocket are provided by the dynamic modeling.

  11. Final report. [Research in theoretical and experimental elementary particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report gives summaries of particle physics research conducted by different group members for Task A. A summary of work on the CLEO experiment and detector is included for Task B along with a list of CLEO publications. During the present grant period for Task C, the authors had responsibility for the design, assembly, and programming of the high-resolution spectrometer which looks for narrow peaks in the output of the cavity in the LLNL experiment. They successfully carried out this task. Velocity peaks are expected in the spectrum of dark matter axions on Earth. The computing proposal (Task S) is submitted in support of the High Energy Experiment (CLEO, Fermilab, CMS) and the Theory tasks

  12. The use of experimental animals in spa research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iluta Alexandru

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory rat is a rat of species Rattus norvegicus which is bred and kept for scientific research. Laboratory rats have served as an important animal model for reaserch in psychology medicine , and other fields.Laboratory rats share origins with their cousins in domestication , the fancy rats. In 18th century Europe , wild Brown rats ran rampant and this infestation fueled the industry of rat-catching .Rat-cathcers would not only make money by trapping the rodents , but also by turning around and selling them for food , or more importantly , for rat-baiting . Rat-baiting was a popular sport which involved filling a pit with rats and timing how long it took for a terrier to kill them all.

  13. Microgrids research: A review of experimental microgrids and test systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidula, N.W.A.; Rajapakse, A.D. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 75A Chancellor' s Circle, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 5V6 (Canada)

    2011-01-15

    A microgrid is particularly a portion of the power distribution system that comprises distributed generation, energy storage and loads. To be capable of operating in parallel to the grid, as an autonomous power island and in transition modes, microgrids must be robust in controlling the local voltage and frequency, and protecting the network and equipment connected to the microgrid. It also needs to facilitate demand side management and resynchronization. This paper presents a review of existing microgrid test networks around the world (North America, Europe and Asia) and some significantly different microgrid simulation networks present in the literature. Paper is focused on the test systems and available microgrid control options. A summary table comparing and contrasting the existing test systems is presented. The paper is concluded highlighting the worthy findings and possible areas of research that would enhance practical use of microgrid facilities. (author)

  14. Experimental research of radiogenic therapy on human melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min Fengling; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Zhang Hong; Li Wenjiang; Liu Bing; Zhou Qingming; Duan Xin; Zhou Guangming; Gao Qingxiang

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the effect of low dose irradiation on gene transfer efficiency and the effect of adenoviral-mediated exogenous P53 overexpression on radiosensitivity of radioresistant human melanoma cell line A375 with wild type p53, control vector, a replication deficient recombinant adenoviral vector containing a CMV promoter and green fluorescent protein (AdCMV-GFP), was used to transfect the A375 cells preirradiated with or without 1 Gy X-ray radiation. The transduction efficiency of GFP gene was determined with fluorescence microscope directly. A375 cells radiated by 1 Gy X-ray were transfected with a replication deficient recombinant adenoviral vector carrying human wild p53 were detected using flow cytometry (FCM) at different time after transfection. The radiosensitivity of A375 cells after p53 transduction was assayed by clonoy formation. The authors found that 1 Gy exposure increased the gene transfer efficiency of A375 cells. The expression of exogenous P53 was found to be 60% to 80% of transfected cells during the first three days after transduction and then declined continuously down to the control level on the day 10. The G1 cell cycle arrest was also observed after p53 gene transfer. A375 cells that were transfected with p53 showed higher sensitivity of X-ray-induced cell killing than those cells that either were transfected with the viral vector carrying a green fluorescent protein gene or were not transfected at all. Low dose ionizing radiation can improve gene transfer efficiency of A375 cells mediated by adenovirus vector. Althrough the overexpresion of exogenous P53 may not inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis of melanoma cell line A375 in vitro, it made the tumor cells much sensitive to death by irradiation. the data suggested that p53 gene might be a potential gene for melanoma therapy and provide the experimental evidences to clinically using the combination of radiation with gene therapy on melanoma. Namely, there may be a reduction of

  15. A half century (1961-2011) of applying microsurgery to experimental liver research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, Maria-Angeles; Arias, Natalia; Prieto, Isabel; Agudo, Salvador; Gilsanz, Carlos; Lorente, Laureano; Arias, Jorge-Luis; Arias, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    The development of microsurgery has been dependent on experimental animals. Microsurgery could be a very valuable technique to improve experimental models of liver diseases. Microdissection and microsutures are the two main microsurgical techniques that can be considered for classifying the experimental models developed for liver research in the rat. Partial portal vein ligation, extrahepatic cholestasis and hepatectomies are all models based on microdissection. On the other hand, in portacaval shunts, orthotopic liver transplantation and partial heterotopic liver transplantation, the microsuture techniques stand out. By reducing surgical complications, these microsurgical techniques allow for improving the resulting experimental models. If good experimental models for liver research are successfully developed, the results obtained from their study might be particularly useful in patients with liver disease. Therefore experimental liver microsurgery could be an invaluable way to translate laboratory data on liver research into new clinical diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:22855695

  16. Experimental Research on Boundary Shear Stress in Typical Meandering Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai-hua; Xia, Yun-feng; Zhang, Shi-zhao; Wen, Yun-cheng; Xu, Hua

    2018-06-01

    A novel instrument named Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) flexible hot-film shear stress sensor was used to study the boundary shear stress distribution in the generalized natural meandering open channel, and the mean sidewall shear stress distribution along the meandering channel, and the lateral boundary shear stress distribution in the typical cross-section of the meandering channel was analysed. Based on the measurement of the boundary shear stress, a semi-empirical semi-theoretical computing approach of the boundary shear stress was derived including the effects of the secondary flow, sidewall roughness factor, eddy viscosity and the additional Reynolds stress, and more importantly, for the first time, it combined the effects of the cross-section central angle and the Reynolds number into the expressions. Afterwards, a comparison between the previous research and this study was developed. Following the result, we found that the semi-empirical semi-theoretical boundary shear stress distribution algorithm can predict the boundary shear stress distribution precisely. Finally, a single factor analysis was conducted on the relationship between the average sidewall shear stress on the convex and concave bank and the flow rate, water depth, slope ratio, or the cross-section central angle of the open channel bend. The functional relationship with each of the above factors was established, and then the distance from the location of the extreme sidewall shear stress to the bottom of the open channel was deduced based on the statistical theory.

  17. Experimental Researches Regarding the Ecological Dyeing with Natural Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budeanu Ramona

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of ‘environmental awareness’ has recently had a major impact on the textile industry and on the fashion world as well. In this context, the use of natural fibres and the development of natural dyeing processes gradually became important goals of the textile industry. Of all natural textile fibres, hemp is considered to be one of the strongest and most durable. A wide range of natural extracts have been used for natural textile coloration and dyeing. Dyes deriving from natural sources have emerged as an important alternative to synthetic dyes. Ecofriendly, nontoxic, sustainable and renewable natural dyes and pigments have been used for colouring the food substrate, leather, wood, natural fibres and fabrics from the dawn of human history. The purpose of the research is to obtain ecologically coloured fabrics for textiles by using a method of dyeing that relies on natural ingredients extracted from red beet, onion leaves and black tea. The experiments are conducted on three different types of hemp fabrics. This paper presents the results of the studies regarding the dyeing process of hemp fabrics with natural extracts, the colours of the dyed samples inspected with reflectance spectra and the CIE L*a*b* colour space measurements.

  18. Experimental and theoretical high energy physics research. [UCLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, Charles D.; Cline, David B.; Byers, N.; Ferrara, S.; Peccei, R.; Hauser, Jay; Muller, Thomas; Atac, Muzaffer; Slater, William; Cousins, Robert; Arisaka, Katsushi

    1992-01-01

    Progress in the various components of the UCLA High-Energy Physics Research program is summarized, including some representative figures and lists of resulting presentations and published papers. Principal efforts were directed at the following: (I) UCLA hadronization model, PEP4/9 e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} analysis, {bar P} decay; (II) ICARUS and astroparticle physics (physics goals, technical progress on electronics, data acquisition, and detector performance, long baseline neutrino beam from CERN to the Gran Sasso and ICARUS, future ICARUS program, and WIMP experiment with xenon), B physics with hadron beams and colliders, high-energy collider physics, and the {phi} factory project; (III) theoretical high-energy physics; (IV) H dibaryon search, search for K{sub L}{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma} and {pi}{sup 0}{nu}{bar {nu}}, and detector design and construction for the FNAL-KTeV project; (V) UCLA participation in the experiment CDF at Fermilab; and (VI) VLPC/scintillating fiber R D.

  19. NASA Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research: South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    The use of an appropriate relationship model is critical for reliable prediction of future urban growth. Identification of proper variables and mathematic functions and determination of the weights or coefficients are the key tasks for building such a model. Although the conventional logistic regression model is appropriate for handing land use problems, it appears insufficient to address the issue of interdependency of the predictor variables. This study used an alternative approach to simulation and modeling urban growth using artificial neural networks. It developed an operational neural network model trained using a robust backpropagation method. The model was applied in the Myrtle Beach region of South Carolina, and tested with both global datasets and areal datasets to examine the strength of both regional models and areal models. The results indicate that the neural network model not only has many theoretic advantages over other conventional mathematic models in representing the complex urban systems, but also is practically superior to the logistic model in its capability to predict urban growth with better - accuracy and less variation. The neural network model is particularly effective in terms of successfully identifying urban patterns in the rural areas where the logistic model often falls short. It was also found from the area-based tests that there are significant intra-regional differentiations in urban growth with different rules and rates. This suggests that the global modeling approach, or one model for the entire region, may not be adequate for simulation of a urban growth at the regional scale. Future research should develop methods for identification and subdivision of these areas and use a set of area-based models to address the issues of multi-centered, intra- regionally differentiated urban growth.

  20. US Forest Service Experimental Forests and Ranges Network: a continental research platform for catchment-scale research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Neary; Deborah Hayes; Lindsey Rustad; James Vose; Gerald Gottfried; Stephen Sebesteyn; Sherri Johnson; Fred Swanson; Mary Adams

    2012-01-01

    The US Forest Service initiated its catchment research program in 1909 with the first paired catchment study at Wagon Wheel Gap, Colorado, USA. It has since developed the Experimental Forests and Ranges Network, with over 80 long-term research study sites located across the contiguous USA, Alaska, Hawaii, and the Caribbean. This network provides a unique, powerful...

  1. Research publications of the Cascade Head Experimental Forest and Scenic Research Area, Oregon Coast Range, 1934 to 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah E. Greene; Tawny Blinn

    1991-01-01

    A list of publications resulting from research at the Cascade Head Experimental Forest and Scenic Research Area, Siuslaw National Forest, Oregon, from 1934 to 1990 is presented. Over 200 publications are listed, including papers, theses, and reports. An index is provided that cross-references the listings under appropriate keywords.

  2. An annotated bibliography of scientific literature on research and management activities conducted in Manitou Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilana Abrahamson

    2012-01-01

    The Manitou Experimental Forest (MEF) is part of the USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station. Established in 1936, its early research focused on range and watershed management. Currently, the site is home to several meteorological, ecological and biological research initiatives. Our collaborators include the University of Colorado, Colorado State University...

  3. Experimental research on passive residual heat remove system for advanced PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yanping; Zhuo Wenbin; Yang Zumao; Xiao Zejun; Chen Bingde

    2003-01-01

    The experimental and qualified results of MISAP in the research of passive residual heat remove system of advanced PWR performed in the Bubble physics and natural circulation laboratory in Nuclear Power Institute of China in the past ten years is overviewed. Further researches for engineering research and design are also suggested

  4. [RESEARCH PROGRESS OF EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS OF AVASCULAR NECROSIS OF FEMORAL HEAD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kaifu; Tan, Hongbo; Xu, Yongqing

    2015-12-01

    To summarize the current researches and progress on experimental animal models of avascular necrosis of the femoral head. Domestic and internation literature concerning experimental animal models of avascular necrosis of the femoral head was reviewed and analyzed. The methods to prepare the experimental animal models of avascular necrosis of the femoral head can be mainly concluded as traumatic methods (including surgical, physical, and chemical insult), and non-traumatic methods (including steroid, lipopolysaccharide, steroid combined with lipopolysaccharide, steroid combined with horse serum, etc). Each method has both merits and demerits, yet no ideal methods have been developed. There are many methods to prepare the experimental animal models of avascular necrosis of the femoral head, but proper model should be selected based on the aim of research. The establishment of ideal experimental animal models needs further research in future.

  5. An overview of criticality safety research at the All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuvshinov, M.I.; Voinov, A.M.; Yuferev, V.I. [All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics, Arzamas (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1997-06-01

    This paper presents a summary of experimental and calculational activities conducted at VNIIEF from the late 1940s to now to study the critical conditions of systems as part of a nuclear safety program. 9 refs., 1 tab.

  6. An overview of criticality safety research at the All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuvshinov, M.I.; Voinov, A.M.; Yuferev, V.I.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of experimental and calculational activities conducted at VNIIEF from the late 1940s to now to study the critical conditions of systems as part of a nuclear safety program. 9 refs., 1 tab

  7. Evidence-Based Communication Practices for Children with Visual Impairments and Additional Disabilities: An Examination of Single-Subject Design Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Amy T.; Grimmett, Eric S.; Summers, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    This review examines practices for building effective communication strategies for children with visual impairments, including those with additional disabilities, that have been tested by single-subject design methodology. The authors found 30 studies that met the search criteria and grouped intervention strategies to align any evidence of the…

  8. Four Years of Farmer Experimentation on Soil Fertility in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: Trends in Research Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaijvanger, Richard G.; Veldkamp, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper analyses research strategies followed by farmer groups in Tigray, that were involved in participatory experimentation. Understanding choices made by farmers in such experimentation processes is important to understand reasons why farmers in Tigray often hesitated to adopt recommended practices. Design/Methodology/Approach: A…

  9. Abstracts of the International seminar 'Experimental possibilities of KTM tokamak and research programme'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The International seminar 'Experimental possibilities of KTM tokamak and research programme' was held in 10-12 October 2005 in Astana city (Kazakhstan). The seminar was dedicated to problems of KTM tokamak commissioning. The Collection of abstracts comprises 45 papers

  10. Experimental research of "microcable in a microconduct" system stability to effect of freezing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, Vladimir A.; Burdin, Vladimir A.; Nikulina, Tatiana G.; Alekhin, Ivan N.; Gavryushin, Sergey A.; Nikulin, Aleksey G.; Praporshchikov, Denis E.

    2011-12-01

    Results of experimental researches of "optical microcable in a microduct" system stability to effect of freezing water are presented. It is shown this system is steadier to water freezing in comparison to lighten optical cable in protective polymer tube.

  11. Ethics of animal research in human disease remediation, its institutional teaching; and alternatives to animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheluvappa, Rajkumar; Scowen, Paul; Eri, Rajaraman

    2017-08-01

    Animals have been used in research and teaching for a long time. However, clear ethical guidelines and pertinent legislation were instated only in the past few decades, even in developed countries with Judeo-Christian ethical roots. We compactly cover the basics of animal research ethics, ethical reviewing and compliance guidelines for animal experimentation across the developed world, "our" fundamentals of institutional animal research ethics teaching, and emerging alternatives to animal research. This treatise was meticulously constructed for scientists interested/involved in animal research. Herein, we discuss key animal ethics principles - Replacement/Reduction/Refinement. Despite similar undergirding principles across developed countries, ethical reviewing and compliance guidelines for animal experimentation vary. The chronology and evolution of mandatory institutional ethical reviewing of animal experimentation (in its pioneering nations) are summarised. This is followed by a concise rendition of the fundamentals of teaching animal research ethics in institutions. With the advent of newer methodologies in human cell-culturing, novel/emerging methods aim to minimise, if not avoid the usage of animals in experimentation. Relevant to this, we discuss key extant/emerging alternatives to animal use in research; including organs on chips, human-derived three-dimensional tissue models, human blood derivates, microdosing, and computer modelling of various hues. © 2017 The Authors. Pharmacology Research & Perspectives published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd, British Pharmacological Society and American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  12. Evolution of soil, ecosystem, and critical zone research at the USDA FS Calhoun Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel deB. Richter; Allan R. Bacon; Sharon A. Billings; Dan Binkley; Marilyn Buford; Mac Callaham; Amy E. Curry; Ryan L. Fimmen; A. Stuart Grandy; Paul R. Heine; Michael Hofmockel; Jason A. Jackson; Elisabeth LeMaster; Jianwei Li; Daniel Markewitz; Megan L. Mobley; Mary W. Morrison; Michael S. Strickland; Thomas Waldrop; Carol G. Wells

    2015-01-01

    The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service Calhoun Experimental Forest was organized in 1947 on the southern Piedmont to engage in research that today is called restoration ecology, to improve soils, forests, and watersheds in a region that had been severely degraded by nearly 150 years farming. Today, this 2,050-ha research forest is managed by the Sumter...

  13. Louisiana’s Palustris Experimental Forest: 75 years of research that transformed the South

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Barnett; James D. Haywood; Henry A. Pearson

    2011-01-01

    The Palustris Experimental Forest, located on Kisatchie National Forest, has been in existence for 75 years. Research at Palustris has focused on southern pine reforestation technology, including seed production, bareroot nursery production, direct seeding, and planting container seedlings. After establishing pine plantations, researchers developed stand management...

  14. Personal Reflections on Observational and Experimental Research Approaches to Childhood Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, Judith L.

    2009-01-01

    The past 50 years have seen dramatic changes in childhood psychopathology research. The goal of this overview is to contrast observational and experimental research approaches; both have grown more complex such that the boundary between these approaches may be blurred. Both are essential. Landmark observational studies with long-term follow-up…

  15. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCHES OF THERMO-PHYSICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL INTERNALS OF BIO-DIESEL FUEL

    OpenAIRE

    V. N. Goryachkin; A. V. Ivaschenko

    2010-01-01

    The conducted researches are related to transfer of diesel engines to biodiesel fuel. The technique and results of an experimental research of thermo-physical and physical-and-chemical properties of biodiesel fuel as well as mixes of biodiesel fuel with the petroleum one are presented.

  16. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCHES OF THERMO-PHYSICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL INTERNALS OF BIO-DIESEL FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Goryachkin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The conducted researches are related to transfer of diesel engines to biodiesel fuel. The technique and results of an experimental research of thermo-physical and physical-and-chemical properties of biodiesel fuel as well as mixes of biodiesel fuel with the petroleum one are presented.

  17. Volcanic Experimentation: Using Mentos and Soda to Teach Causal Research in a Marketing Research Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Edwin; Stelling, Pete

    2012-01-01

    The reaction that occurs when Mentos are added to bottled soft drinks has become a staple demonstration in earth science courses to explain how volcanoes erupt. This paper presents how this engaging exercise can be used in a marketing research course to provide hands-on experience with problem formation, hypothesis testing, and causal research. A…

  18. Accomplishments of LOCA/ECCS experimental research at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasaka, Kanji; Murao, Yoshio; Koizumi, Yasuo

    1984-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has investigated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA)/emergency core cooling system (ECCS) from 1970. Major results of the LOCA/ECCS research are summarized in this report. ROSA-II program was LOCA/ECCS research for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) and ROSA-III program was for a boiling water reactor (BWR). The both test facilities were scaled at approximately 1/400 of the respective reference PWR and BWR. Large scale reflood test is research on reflood phenomena during a large break LOCA of PWR. The test facility is scaled at approximately 1/20 of the reference PWR and the research is still being continued. (author)

  19. Experimental psychopathology paradigms for alcohol use disorders: Applications for translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujarski, Spencer; Ray, Lara A

    2016-11-01

    In spite of high prevalence and disease burden, scientific consensus on the etiology and treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) has yet to be reached. The development and utilization of experimental psychopathology paradigms in the human laboratory represents a cornerstone of AUD research. In this review, we describe and critically evaluate the major experimental psychopathology paradigms developed for AUD, with an emphasis on their implications, strengths, weaknesses, and methodological considerations. Specifically we review alcohol administration, self-administration, cue-reactivity, and stress-reactivity paradigms. We also provide an introduction to the application of experimental psychopathology methods to translational research including genetics, neuroimaging, pharmacological and behavioral treatment development, and translational science. Through refining and manipulating key phenotypes of interest, these experimental paradigms have the potential to elucidate AUD etiological factors, improve the efficiency of treatment developments, and refine treatment targets thus advancing precision medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Safety and feasibility of transcranial direct current stimulation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis - a pilot study with a single subject experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Sangeetha; Sivaramakrishnan, Anjali; Bond, Sam; Jiang, Qin Li

    2018-02-28

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been explored as a neuromodulatory tool to prime motor function in several neurological disorders. Studies using tDCS in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are limited. We investigated the safety, feasibility and effects of long-term tDCS in an individual with ALS. A 36-year-old male diagnosed with clinically definite ALS received 12 sessions each of anodal, sham, and cathodal tDCS. Outcome measures included disease progression (revised ALS functional rating scale (ALSFRS-R)), clinical measures of endurance and mobility, and corticomotor excitability. No adverse events or change in disease progression were noticed during the study. Small improvement in gait speed (15% increase) was noticed with anodal tDCS only. This case study demonstrates the safety and feasibility of long-term facilitatory and inhibitory tDCS on a single participant with ALS. This study serves as a guideline for implementing tDCS in future ALS trials.

  1. Experimental research and numerical simulation on flow resistance of integrated valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Wei; Bo Hanliang; Qin Benke

    2008-01-01

    The flow resistance of the integrated valve is one of the key parameters for the design of the control rod hydraulic drive system (CRHDS). Experimental research on the improved new integrated valve was performed, and the key data such as pressure difference, volume flow, resistance coefficient and flow coefficient of each flow channel were obtained. With the computational fluid dynamics software CFX, numerical simulation was executed to analyze the effect of Re on the flow resistance. On the basis of experimental and numerical results, fitting empirical formulas of resistance coefficient were obtained, which provide experimental and theoretical foundations for CRHDS's optimized design and theoretical analysis. (authors)

  2. Experimental and calculational works on characteristics of the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor. Second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Ngoc Khoi; Nguyen Kim Dung

    2016-03-01

    Recognizing the significant value and necessity of publishing the scientific document of experimental and calculational works on the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor (DNRR) physics and engineering for research, operation, training activities as well as for international scientific exchange, Vietnam Atomic Energy Agency (VAEA) and Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute have completed editing to publish the “Experimental and Calculational Works on Characteristics of THE DALAT NUCLEAR RESEARCH REACTOR” which consists of 26 typical papers representing the most important experimental and calculational results of the DNRR physics and engineering obtained during 30 years of operation and exploitation with the contribution of Vietnamese and former USSR’s experts, especially scientists and engineers working at the Reactor Center of the NRI

  3. Theoretical and Experimental Research Performed on the Tesla Turbine - Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Nedelcu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the theoretical and experimental research performed on a Tesla turbine driven by compressed air and designed to equip a teaching laboratory [1], [2]. It introduces the operating principle of the Tesla turbine, which was invented by engineer Nikola Tesla, a turbine which uses discs instead of blades, mounted on a shaft at a small distance between them. The turbine geometry, results from stress and flow calculations performed on the turbine rotor and assembly, using the Simulation modules and SolidWorks Flow Simulation program are presented. After designing the turbine, it becomes the subject of experimental research to determine the curve of the speed depending on the pressure. Also, the experimental research focuses on the behaviour of the turbine from a dynamic point of view [3].

  4. To Support Research Activities Under the NASA Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, John C.

    2003-01-01

    The Alabama NASA EPSCoR Program is a collaborative venture of The Alabama Space Grant Consortium, The Alabama EPSCoR, and faculty and staff at 10 Alabama colleges and universities as well as the Alabama School of Math and Science in Mobile. There are two Research Clusters which include infrastructure-building and outreach elements embedded in their research activities. Each of the two Research Clusters is in an area of clear and demonstrable relevance to NASA's mission, to components of other Alabama EPSCoR projects, and to the State of Alabama's economic development. This Final Report summarizes and reports upon those additional activities occurring after the first report was submitted in March 2000 (included here as Appendix C). Since the nature of the activities and the manner in which they relate to one another differ by cluster, these clusters function independently and are summarized in parallel in this report. They do share a common administration by the Alabama Space Grant Consortium (ASGC) and by this means, good ideas from each group were communicated to the other, as appropriate. During the past year these research teams, involving 15 scientists, 16 graduate students, 16 undergraduates, and 7 high school students involving 10 Alabama universities had 14 peer reviewed scientific journal articles published, 21 others reviewed for publication or published in proceedings, gave 7 formal presentations and numerous informal presentations to well over 3000 people, received 3 patents and were awarded 14 research proposals for more than $213K dollars in additional research related to these investigations. Each cluster's activities are described and an Appendix summarizes these achievements.

  5. Experimental facilities for research of properties and behaviour of fluoride salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosnedl, P.; Jilek, M.; Kroc, V.; Pedal, L.; Valenta, V.; Vodicka, J.

    1999-01-01

    SKODA JS s.r.o. (Czech leading nuclear technology manufacturer) prepared and manufactured experimental loops for research and verification of properties and behaviour of fluoride salts for primary and secondary circuit, construction materials and ADTT systems technological components for the operation in the Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc fluorine chemistry laboratory. This paper presents charts and experimental program for molten fluoride salts experimental loops with natural circulation. Further on, the paper describes extension of the loops for research with forced circulation and next works for steam generator model verification and connection with the loop of Energovyzkum Brno. The loops are designed and constructed to obtain a sufficient amount of experience on ADTT technology. The research and utilisation program covers questions of corrosion and intergranular corrosion of structural materials, research of material properties and welding, research of fluoride fluid properties, measuring of thermo-hydraulic properties of molten salt fluoride fluids, heat transfer and hydraulics, development and tests of some plant components (steam generators, heat exchangers, pumps, valves) and other engineering issues. Two electrolyzers have been manufactured for the research of fuel/coolant fluoride salts mixture purification. One for the production of hydrogen fluoride, and the other for the research of salts purification. (author)

  6. Experimental research of liquid entrainment through ADS-4 in AP1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Zhaoming; Dong, Bo; Wang, Laishun; Fu, Xiaoliang; Tian, Wenxi; Yang, Yanhua; Su, Guanghui

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We performed experimental research of liquid entrainment through ADS-4 in AP1000. • Effect of various factors on entrainment at T-junction was conducted. • Visualization research was conducted to make entrainment mechanism clear. - Abstract: In this study, based on a T-junction that consists of Automatic Depressurization System Stage Four (ADS-4) and hot leg in an AP1000 plant, a small-scale experimental research on entrainment at a T-junction was performed. This study mainly focused on the effect of various factors on entrainment, such as the effect of branch size, branch shape and liquid crossflow. The flow pattern map was plotted from the experimental data, and the visualization research indicated that the entrainment phenomena through a large size branch were apparently different from that through a small branch. Three entrainment phenomena were observed in the studies, two entrainment mechanisms could be found in the stratified flow regime entrainment area, the existence of branch contributed to generating intermittent flow in the horizontal main pipe, and the backflow region was observable in the vicinity of a large size branch inlet. Also, experimental research showed that downstream of the branch of T-junction had an important effect on the onset entrainment, and liquid crossflow did not seem to affect the onset entrainment

  7. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH CONCERNING THE OPTIMAL DIMENSIONS OF AN ELASTIC STRUCTURE OF BEECH WOOD PARQUET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia-Minerva ȚURCAȘ (DIACONU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the experimental research concerning the modulus of elasticity and the average value of the bending strength in case of beech (Fagus sylvatica L. wood. The investigations were performed according to SR EN 408-2004. The results of the research have been analysed in order to establish the variable parameters to be considered for the final experimental research focused on beech wood floor structures that meet the necessary requirements for the sports halls applications. The research presented in the paper is a part of the study theme of the Ph. D. thesis, which investigates the flooring structures able to support the requirements of sports halls activities, different from one sport to another.

  8. Research ethics I: Responsible conduct of research (RCR)--historical and contemporary issues pertaining to human and animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Jennifer; Minifie, Fred D

    2011-02-01

    In this series of articles--Research Ethics I, Research Ethics II, and Research Ethics III--the authors provide a comprehensive review of the 9 core domains for the responsible conduct of research (RCR) as articulated by the Office of Research Integrity. In Research Ethics I, they present a historical overview of the evolution of RCR in the United States then examine the evolution of human and animal experimentation from the birth of scientific medicine through World War II to the present day. They relied on authoritative documents, both historical and contemporary, insightful commentary, and empirical research in order to identify current issues and controversies of potential interest to both faculty and students. The authors have written this article from a historical perspective because they think all readers interested in RCR should appreciate how the history of science and all the good--and harm--it has produced can inform how researchers practice responsible research in the 21st century and beyond.

  9. A summary of research-based assessment of students' beliefs about the nature of experimental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2018-03-01

    Within the undergraduate physics curriculum, students' primary exposure to experimental physics comes from laboratory courses. Thus, as experimentation is a core component of physics as a discipline, lab courses can be gateways in terms of both recruiting and retaining students within the physics major. Physics lab courses have a wide variety of explicit and/or implicit goals for lab courses, including helping students to develop expert-like beliefs about the nature and importance of experimental physics. To assess students' beliefs, attitudes, and expectations about the nature of experimental physics, there is currently one research-based assessment instrument available—the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS). Since its development, the E-CLASS has been the subject of multiple research studies aimed at understanding and evaluating the effectiveness of various laboratory learning environments. This paper presents a description of the E-CLASS assessment and a summary of the research that has been done using E-CLASS data with a particular emphasis on the aspects of this work that are most relevant for instructors.

  10. Experimental research of the effects of different shields on power frequency electric field mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahman Jovan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes experimental research on the effects of different shields on power frequency electric field mitigation. This research was performed in order to determine those materials that may be used for electric field mitigation in cases where the reference level is exceeded. Using measured results, the value of the shielding factor has been calculated for all tested shields and the most efficient shields were determined.

  11. Structural concepts and experimental considerations for a versatile high-speed research airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, L. R.; Kirkham, F. S.; Weidner, J. P.

    1978-01-01

    Future aircraft may be hydrogen fueled and fly at hypersonic speeds. The resulting environments will require new structural concepts to satisfy performance goals. Large representative structures will have to be flight tested prior to commitment to a costly vehicle fleet. To perform flight tests, a versatile, economical, high-speed research airplane is defined. Results of this study including experimental considerations for a hypersonic research airplane are reported.

  12. Experimental research of slab cast over precast joists with prestressed reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koyankin Aleksandr Aleksandrovich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available At the present time reinforced concrete is the main construction material in civil and industrial construction. Cast-in-place and precast construction is gradually becoming a more widespread type of house-building, but still there is a lack of data, including experimental data, which allows evaluating the stress and strain state of a construction of a slab cast over precast joists. Experimental research of stress and strain state of slab cast over precast joists with prestressed reinforcement was carried out. An experimental model of a fragment of a hybrid precast/cast-in-place building was produced and tested (reduction scale 1:6. The experimental investigations of slab cast over precast joists with prestressed reinforcement proved that the construction solution of the framework offered in the previous works of the authors possess good stiffness, crack-resistance and bearing capacity. It well fits for constructing the slabs of long spans in residential and public buildings.

  13. 27 CFR 19.71 - Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges of learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... operations by scientific institutions and colleges of learning. 19.71 Section 19.71 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges of learning. (a) General. The appropriate TTB officer may authorize any scientific university, college of learning, or institution of...

  14. No Randomization? No Problem: Experimental Control and Random Assignment in Single Case Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, Jennifer R.

    2018-01-01

    Randomization of large number of participants to different treatment groups is often not a feasible or preferable way to answer questions of immediate interest to professional practice. Single case designs (SCDs) are a class of research designs that are experimental in nature but require only a few participants, all of whom receive the…

  15. The Experimental Social Scientific Model in Speech Communication Research: Influences and Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Sharmila Pixy

    A substantial number of published articles in speech communication research today is experimental/social scientific in nature. It is only in the past decade that scholars have begun to put the history of communication under the lens. Early advocates of the adoption of the method of social scientific inquiry were J. A. Winans, J. M. O'Neill, and C.…

  16. Objective Markers of the analgesic response to morphine in experimental pain research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brokjær, Anne; Olesen, Anne Estrup; Kreilgaard, Mads

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In experimental pain research the effect of opioids is normally assessed by verbal subjective response to analgesia. However, as many confounders in pain assessment exist, objective bed-side assessment of the effect is highly warranted. Therefore, we aimed to assess the effect...

  17. Built for the future: New directions in silviculture research and demonstration at Montana's Lubrecht Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher R. Keyes; Thomas E. Perry

    2010-01-01

    Manipulative experiments at the University of Montana’s Lubrecht Experimental Forest have long been set aside as permanent research and demonstration areas (RDA’s) to communicate the tradeoffs among different stand management strategies. However, most of these have either degraded over time or have diminished relevance to contemporary forest management issues. An...

  18. An engineering approach to business model experimentation – an online investment research startup case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijl, Björn; Boersma, Durk

    2010-01-01

    Every organization needs a viable business model. Strikingly, most of current literature is focused on business model design, whereas there is almost no attention for business model validation and implementation and related business model experimentation. The goal of the research as described in

  19. The Experimental Stand for Research of Wakefield Method of Charged Particles Acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, V.A.; Linnik, A.F.; Onishchenko, I.N.; Onishchenko, N.I.; Sotnikov, G.V.; Uskov, V.V.

    2006-01-01

    The experimental installation and diagnostic equipment with motivation to use for various researches of wakefield method of charged particles acceleration both in plasma and in dielectric structure has been described. The main parameters of a sequence of short relativistic electron bunch and values of physical characteristics of slow-down structures have been presented

  20. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF PROCESSING OF DUMP SAND-CLAY MIXES BY THE CENTRIFUGAL AND SHOCK CRUSHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Vorobev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of experimental research of processing of centrifugal and shock crushing of dump sandy-clay mixes are given. Use of products of processing of received mixes in foundry production and in production of asphalt concrete mixes allows to exclude transportation of the mix to dumping.

  1. Long-term trends from ecosystem research at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    John L. Campbell; Charles T. Driscoll; Christopher Eagar; Gene E. Likens; Thomas G. Siccama; Chris E. Johnson; Timothy J. Fahey; Steven P. Hamburg; Richard T. Holmes; Amey S. Bailey; Donald C. Buso

    2007-01-01

    Summarizes 52 years of collaborative, long-term research conducted at the Hubbard Brook (NH) Experimental Forest on ecosystem response to disturbances such as air pollution, climate change, forest disturbance, and forest management practices. Also provides explanations of some of the trends and lists references from scientific literature for further reading.

  2. Glioma Surgical Aspirate: A Viable Source of Tumor Tissue for Experimental Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, Bryan W.; Stringer, Brett W.; Wilson, John; Jeffree, Rosalind L.; Jamieson, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    Brain cancer research has been hampered by a paucity of viable clinical tissue of sufficient quality and quantity for experimental research. This has driven researchers to rely heavily on long term cultured cells which no longer represent the cancers from which they were derived. Resection of brain tumors, particularly at the interface between normal and tumorigenic tissue, can be carried out using an ultrasonic surgical aspirator (CUSA) that deposits liquid (blood and irrigation fluid) and resected tissue into a sterile bottle for disposal. To determine the utility of CUSA-derived glioma tissue for experimental research, we collected 48 CUSA specimen bottles from glioma patients and analyzed both the solid tissue fragments and dissociated tumor cells suspended in the liquid waste fraction. We investigated if these fractions would be useful for analyzing tumor heterogeneity, using IHC and multi-parameter flow cytometry; we also assessed culture generation and orthotopic xenograft potential. Both cell sources proved to be an abundant, highly viable source of live tumor cells for cytometric analysis, animal studies and in-vitro studies. Our findings demonstrate that CUSA tissue represents an abundant viable source to conduct experimental research and to carry out diagnostic analyses by flow cytometry or other molecular diagnostic procedures

  3. Animal models in biological and biomedical research - experimental and ethical concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Monica L; Winter, Lucile M F

    2017-09-04

    Animal models have been used in experimental research to increase human knowledge and contribute to finding solutions to biological and biomedical questions. However, increased concern for the welfare of the animals used, and a growing awareness of the concept of animal rights, has brought a greater focus on the related ethical issues. In this review, we intend to give examples on how animals are used in the health research related to some major health problems in Brazil, as well as to stimulate discussion about the application of ethics in the use of animals in research and education, highlighting the role of National Council for the Control of Animal Experimentation (Conselho Nacional de Controle de Experimentação Animal - CONCEA) in these areas. In 2008, Brazil emerged into a new era of animal research regulation, with the promulgation of Law 11794, previously known as the Arouca Law, resulting in an increased focus, and rapid learning experience, on questions related to all aspects of animal experimentation. The law reinforces the idea that animal experiments must be based on ethical considerations and integrity-based assumptions, and provides a regulatory framework to achieve this. This review describes the health research involving animals and the current Brazilian framework for regulating laboratory animal science, and hopes to help to improve the awareness of the scientific community of these ethical and legal rules.

  4. Inclusion of quasi-experimental studies in systematic reviews of health systems research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockers, Peter C; Røttingen, John-Arne; Shemilt, Ian; Tugwell, Peter; Bärnighausen, Till

    2015-04-01

    Systematic reviews of health systems research commonly limit studies for evidence synthesis to randomized controlled trials. However, well-conducted quasi-experimental studies can provide strong evidence for causal inference. With this article, we aim to stimulate and inform discussions on including quasi-experiments in systematic reviews of health systems research. We define quasi-experimental studies as those that estimate causal effect sizes using exogenous variation in the exposure of interest that is not directly controlled by the researcher. We incorporate this definition into a non-hierarchical three-class taxonomy of study designs - experiments, quasi-experiments, and non-experiments. Based on a review of practice in three disciplines related to health systems research (epidemiology, economics, and political science), we discuss five commonly used study designs that fit our definition of quasi-experiments: natural experiments, instrumental variable analyses, regression discontinuity analyses, interrupted times series studies, and difference studies including controlled before-and-after designs, difference-in-difference designs and fixed effects analyses of panel data. We further review current practices regarding quasi-experimental studies in three non-health fields that utilize systematic reviews (education, development, and environment studies) to inform the design of approaches for synthesizing quasi-experimental evidence in health systems research. Ultimately, the aim of any review is practical: to provide useful information for policymakers, practitioners, and researchers. Future work should focus on building a consensus among users and producers of systematic reviews regarding the inclusion of quasi-experiments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. On the mechanics of cerebral aneurysms: experimental research and numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshin, D. V.; Kuianova, I. O.; Yunoshev, A. S.; Ovsyannikov, K. S.; Dubovoy, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    This research extends existing experimental data for CA tissues [1, 2] and presents the preliminary results of numerical calculations. Experiments were performed to measure aneurysm wall stiffness and the data obtained was analyzed. To reconstruct the geometry of the CAs, DICOM images of real patients with aneurysms and ITK Snap [3] were used. In addition, numerical calculations were performed in ANSYS (commercial software, License of Lavrentyev Institute of Hydrodynamics). The results of these numerical calculations show a high level of agreement with experimental data from previous literature.

  6. The emergence of modern statistics in agricultural science: analysis of variance, experimental design and the reshaping of research at Rothamsted Experimental Station, 1919-1933.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolini, Giuditta

    2015-01-01

    During the twentieth century statistical methods have transformed research in the experimental and social sciences. Qualitative evidence has largely been replaced by quantitative results and the tools of statistical inference have helped foster a new ideal of objectivity in scientific knowledge. The paper will investigate this transformation by considering the genesis of analysis of variance and experimental design, statistical methods nowadays taught in every elementary course of statistics for the experimental and social sciences. These methods were developed by the mathematician and geneticist R. A. Fisher during the 1920s, while he was working at Rothamsted Experimental Station, where agricultural research was in turn reshaped by Fisher's methods. Analysis of variance and experimental design required new practices and instruments in field and laboratory research, and imposed a redistribution of expertise among statisticians, experimental scientists and the farm staff. On the other hand the use of statistical methods in agricultural science called for a systematization of information management and made computing an activity integral to the experimental research done at Rothamsted, permanently integrating the statisticians' tools and expertise into the station research programme. Fisher's statistical methods did not remain confined within agricultural research and by the end of the 1950s they had come to stay in psychology, sociology, education, chemistry, medicine, engineering, economics, quality control, just to mention a few of the disciplines which adopted them.

  7. Structural fire resistance experimental research priority needs of U.S. industry

    CERN Document Server

    Almand, Kathleen H

    2012-01-01

    Structural Fire Resistance Experimental Research – Priority Needs of U.S. Industry provides a synthesis of stakeholder input to a prioritized agenda for research at the National Fire Research Laboratory (NFRL) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) designed to accelerate the implementation of performance-based fire engineering for structures. The NFRL presents a broad range of unanswered questions regarding the performance of real structures in fire conditions, and informs performance-based design methods and standards in this field. The authors conducted a comprehensive literature review of large-scale structural fire testing and compiled research needs from a variety of sources. The book addresses major issues of broad concern in the fire community, such as real fire exposure and structural response, composite floor system performance, enhancing modeling performance, and understanding the embedded safety features in design methods. It concludes with a prioritized set of research reco...

  8. Recent highlights of experimental research for inhibiting tumor growth by using Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xi-ran; Han, Shu-yan; Li, Ping-ping

    2015-10-01

    To give an overview of contemporary experimental research using Chinese medicine (CM) for the treatment of cancer. As an integral part of mainstream medicine in the People's Republic of China, CM emphasizes improvements in holistic physical condition instead of merely killing tumor cells, which is consistent with the current medical model that advocates patient-oriented treatment. Great progress has been made in experimental research, and the principle aspects include anti-tumor angiogenesis, inducing apoptosis and differentiation, reversing multidrug resistance, and improving immune function. As a current hot topic in cancer research, tumor microenvironment (TME) highlights the mutual and interdependent interaction between tumor cells and their surrounding tissues, and the CM treatment concept bears a striking resemblance to it. To date, primary points of TME include extracellular matrix remodeling, inflammation, hypoxia, and angiogenesis, but trials using CM with a focus on TME are rare. Despite considerable recent development, experimental research on CM for solving cancer issues appears insufficient. Greater efforts in this field are urgently needed.

  9. CONCEPTUALIZATION OF IDEAS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL SAFETY IN SPORTS: PROBLEMS OF EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Vladimirovna Vardanyan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the research of the concept “psychological safety in sports”. On the basis of analysis of ideas about psychological safety in sports and their representation in printed or verbal form the necessity of overcoming the fragmentation and lack of system is substantiated. The authors state that one and the same sports situation can constructively or destructively affect the psychological safety of direct or indirect participants of sports events. In this context, it is important to create the psycholinguistic basis of experimental research of psychological safety in sports. Great attention is paid to systematization of the content of the concept “psychological safety in sports”. The created models of words and expressions that convey ideas about this phenomenon are of particular value. In the structure of the concept the dominant meanings, expressed in the nucleus, and additional meanings, related to the periphery of the concept are distinguished.Purpose: to explore the ideas of psychological safety in sports and their representation in printed or verbal form; to determine ways of overcoming the conceptual psycholinguistic problems in the process of experimental research of psychological safety in sports; to create the model of words and expressions which are used to verbalize the concept “psychological safety in sports”.Methodology: theoretical analysis of psychological and linguistic literature, creation of the psycholinguistic basis of experimental research, modeling of the conceptual ideas of psychological safety in sports.Results: psycholinguistic basis of experimental research of psychological safety in sports, the model of content and structure of the corresponding concept.Practical implications: Pedagogical Psychology, Sports Psychology, Philology, Psycholinguistics.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-11

  10. Choosing appropriate independent variable in educational experimental research: some errors debunked

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjaitan, R. L.

    2018-03-01

    It is found that a number of quantitative research reports of some beginning researchers, especially undergraduate students, tend to ‘merely’ quantitative with not really proper understanding of variables involved in the research. This paper focuses on some mistakes related to independent variable determination in experimental research in education. With literature research methodology, data were gathered from an undergraduate student’s thesis as a single non-human subject. This data analysis resulted some findings, such as misinterpreted variables that should have represented the research question, and unsuitable calculation of determination coefficient due to incorrect independent variable determination. When a researcher misinterprets data as data that could behave as the independent variable but actually it could not, all of the following data processes become pointless. These problems might lead to inaccurate research conclusion. In this paper, the problems were analysed and discussed. To avert the incorrectness in processing data, it is suggested that undergraduate students as beginning researchers have adequate statistics mastery. This study might function as a resource to researchers in education to be aware to and not to redo similar errors.

  11. Invited review: Experimental design, data reporting, and sharing in support of animal systems modeling research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, J P; Hanigan, M D; White, R R

    2016-12-01

    The National Animal Nutrition Program "National Research Support Project 9" supports efforts in livestock nutrition, including the National Research Council's committees on the nutrient requirements of animals. Our objective was to review the status of experimentation and data reporting in animal nutrition literature and to provide suggestions for the advancement of animal nutrition research and the ongoing improvement of field-applied nutrient requirement models. Improved data reporting consistency and completeness represent a substantial opportunity to improve nutrition-related mathematical models. We reviewed a body of nutrition research; recorded common phrases used to describe diets, animals, housing, and environmental conditions; and proposed equivalent numerical data that could be reported. With the increasing availability of online supplementary material sections in journals, we developed a comprehensive checklist of data that should be included in publications. To continue to improve our research effectiveness, studies utilizing multiple research methodologies to address complex systems and measure multiple variables will be necessary. From the current body of animal nutrition literature, we identified a series of opportunities to integrate research focuses (nutrition, reproduction and genetics) to advance the development of nutrient requirement models. From our survey of current experimentation and data reporting in animal nutrition, we identified 4 key opportunities to advance animal nutrition knowledge: (1) coordinated experiments should be designed to employ multiple research methodologies; (2) systems-oriented research approaches should be encouraged and supported; (3) publication guidelines should be updated to encourage and support sharing of more complete data sets; and (4) new experiments should be more rapidly integrated into our knowledge bases, research programs and practical applications. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association

  12. Experimental study on accelerator driven subcritical reactor. JAERI's nuclear research promotion program, H12-031 (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiroya, Seiji; Misawa, Tsuyoshi; Unesaki, Hironobu

    2004-03-01

    In view of the future plan of Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University (KURRI), the present study consisted of 1) the transmission experiments of high energy neutrons through materials, 2) experimental simulation of ADSR using the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA), and 3) conceptual neutronics design study on Kyoto University Reactor (KUR) type ADSR using the MCNPX code. The purpose of the present study was not only to obtain the knowledge usable for the realization of ADSR as a new neutron source for research but also to select technical issues in the field of reactor physics for the development of ADSR in general. Through the present study, valuable knowledge on the basic nuclear characteristics of ADSR was obtained both theoretically and experimentally. This kind of knowledge is indispensable to promote the study on ADSR further. If one dare say the main part of knowledge in short words, the basic nuclear characteristics of ADSR is overwhelmed by the characteristics of the subcritical reactor as expected. For the realization of ADSR in the future, it is considered to be necessary to accumulate results of research steadily. For this purpose, it is inevitable 1) to compile the more precise nuclear data for the wide energy range, 2) to establish experimental techniques for reactor physics study on ADSR including subcriticality measurement and absolute neutron flux measurement from the low energy region to the high energy region, and 3) to develop neutronics calculation tools which facilitate to take into account the neutron generation process by the spallation reaction and the delayed neutron behavior. (author)

  13. The effect of a motor-based, social skills intervention for adolescents with high-functioning autism: two single-subject design cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, Sharon A; Raphael, Emily I; Ceder, Leila M; Khan, Arshi; Timp, Katherine M; Salvant, Sabrina

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a motor-based, social skills intervention for two adolescents with high-functioning autism (HFA) using single-subject design. A description of the intervention is provided as a first step in the manualization process. The intervention was provided as a 7-week after-school program, once weekly to the paired participants. Intervention consisted of role-play methods in which motor behaviours were linked with their cognitive and emotional meanings. Baseline, intervention and 3-month probe data collection periods were carried out and then compared using visual inspection of graphed data, paired t-tests and a three-standard-deviation-band approach. Both participants displayed a statistically significant increase in targeted social skills behaviours from baseline to intervention and maintained this level at a 3-month post-intervention probe. These single-subject design cases illustrate that motor-based, social skills interventions may be effective for adolescents with HFA and warrant further testing. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. High-temperature experimental and thermodynamic modelling research on the pyrometallurgical processing of copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Taufiq; Shishin, Denis; Decterov, Sergei A.; Hayes, Peter C.; Jak, Evgueni

    2017-01-01

    Uncertainty in the metal price and competition between producers mean that the daily operation of a smelter needs to target high recovery of valuable elements at low operating cost. Options for the improvement of the plant operation can be examined and decision making can be informed based on accurate information from laboratory experimentation coupled with predictions using advanced thermodynamic models. Integrated high-temperature experimental and thermodynamic modelling research on phase equilibria and thermodynamics of copper-containing systems have been undertaken at the Pyrometallurgy Innovation Centre (PYROSEARCH). The experimental phase equilibria studies involve high-temperature equilibration, rapid quenching and direct measurement of phase compositions using electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA). The thermodynamic modelling deals with the development of accurate thermodynamic database built through critical evaluation of experimental data, selection of solution models, and optimization of models parameters. The database covers the Al-Ca-Cu-Fe-Mg-O-S-Si chemical system. The gas, slag, matte, liquid and solid metal phases, spinel solid solution as well as numerous solid oxide and sulphide phases are included. The database works within the FactSage software environment. Examples of phase equilibria data and thermodynamic models of selected systems, as well as possible implementation of the research outcomes to selected copper making processes are presented.

  15. Experimental liver fibrosis research: update on animal models, legal issues and translational aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is defined as excessive extracellular matrix deposition and is based on complex interactions between matrix-producing hepatic stellate cells and an abundance of liver-resident and infiltrating cells. Investigation of these processes requires in vitro and in vivo experimental work in animals. However, the use of animals in translational research will be increasingly challenged, at least in countries of the European Union, because of the adoption of new animal welfare rules in 2013. These rules will create an urgent need for optimized standard operating procedures regarding animal experimentation and improved international communication in the liver fibrosis community. This review gives an update on current animal models, techniques and underlying pathomechanisms with the aim of fostering a critical discussion of the limitations and potential of up-to-date animal experimentation. We discuss potential complications in experimental liver fibrosis and provide examples of how the findings of studies in which these models are used can be translated to human disease and therapy. In this review, we want to motivate the international community to design more standardized animal models which might help to address the legally requested replacement, refinement and reduction of animals in fibrosis research. PMID:24274743

  16. Methodological and Epistemological Criticism on Experimental Accounting Research Published in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Frederico Homero Junior

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I analyze 17 experimental studies published in Brazilian accounting journals between 2006 and 2015, in order to develop both critical and methodological criticism on these articles. First, we discuss the methodological characteristics of the experiments and the main validity threats they face, analyzing how the selected articles deal with these threats. Overall, this analysis shows a lack of consideration of the validity of the constructs used, difficulty to develop internally valid experiments and inability to express confidence in the applicability of the results to contexts other than the experimental. Then, I compare the positivist theoretical perspective these articles have in common with constructionist conceptions of the social sciences and criticize them, based on these notions. I maintain that these articles are characterized by a behaviorist approach, a reified notion of subjectivity, disregard of the cultural and historical specificities and axiological commitment to submission, instead of the emancipation of the people in relation to management control. The paper contributes to the Brazilian accounting literature in two ways: raising awareness on the challenges faced in conducting appropriate experimental designs and showing how the experimental accounting research can be problematic from an epistemological point of view, aiming to promote an interparadigmatic debate to arouse greater awareness on the subject and more robust consideration of such issues by future researchers.

  17. New experimental research stand SVICKA neutron field analysis using neutron activation detector technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varmuza, Jan; Katovsky, Karel; Zeman, Miroslav; Stastny, Ondrej; Haysak, Ivan; Holomb, Robert

    2018-04-01

    Knowledge of neutron energy spectra is very important because neutrons with various energies have a different material impact or a biological tissue impact. This paper presents basic results of the neutron flux distribution inside the new experimental research stand SVICKA which is located at Brno University of Technology in Brno, Czech Republic. The experiment also focused on the investigation of the sandwich biological shielding quality that protects staff against radiation effects. The set of indium activation detectors was used to the investigation of neutron flux distribution. The results of the measurement provide basic information about the neutron flux distribution inside all irradiation channels and no damage or cracks are present in the experimental research stand biological shielding.

  18. Lines of experimental research in developing mathematical models for estimating internal radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bad'in, V.I.; Ermilov, A.P.; Margulis, U.Ya.; Khrushch, V.T.

    The report presents material involved with the statistical approach to the problem of modeling internal radiation and the trend of experimental research dictated by that approach. The content of a radioactive isotope in an organ must be viewed as a random function for which the ratio of two independent incorporations, on the average by probability, corresponds to the ratio of the corresponding amounts of the isotope that have accumulated in the organism. This tenet determines the principle of similarity. Specifically, it follows from it that the distribution of the arbitrary amount in the organism with multiple repetition of the experiment will be subordinate to a log-normal law. Second, the vital condition for creating the quantitative statistical model of the metabolism is a large volume of experimental data. This requires perfection of the unified rapid methods of research

  19. Experimental Research into Technology of Abrasive Flow Machining Nonlinear Tube Runner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junye Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the fields of military and civil uses, some special passages exist in many major parts, such as non-linear tubes. The overall performance is usually decided by the surface quality. Abrasive flow machining (AFM technology can effectively improve the surface quality of the parts. In order to discuss the mechanism and technology of abrasive flow machining nonlinear tube, the nozzle is picked up as the researching object, and the self-designed polishing liquid is employed to make research on the key technological parameters of abrasive flow machining linear tube. Technological parameters’ impact on surface quality of the parts through the nozzle surface topography and scanning electron microscopy (SEM map is explored. It is experimentally confirmed that abrasive flow machining can significantly improve surface quality of nonlinear runner, and experimental results can provide technical reference to optimizing study of abrasive flow machining theory.

  20. Experimental medical mycological research in Latin America - a 2000-2009 overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Blas, Gioconda; Burger, Eva

    2011-01-01

    An overview of current trends in Latin American Experimental Medical Mycological research since the beginning of the 21(st) century is done (search from January 2000 to December 2009). Using the PubMed and LILACS databases, the authors have chosen publications on medically important fungi which, according to our opinion, are the most relevant because of their novelty, interest, and international impact, based on research made entirely in the Latin American region or as part of collaborative efforts with laboratories elsewhere. In this way, the following areas are discussed: 1) molecular identification of fungal pathogens; 2) molecular and clinical epidemiology on fungal pathogens of prevalence in the region; 3) cell biology; 4) transcriptome, genome, molecular taxonomy and phylogeny; 5) immunology; 6) vaccines; 7) new and experimental antifungals. Copyright © 2010 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Experimental research on the residual mechanical properties of an ordinary concretes after fire

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, C.C.; Rodrigues, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental research to assess the residual mechanical properties of an ordinary concrete after fire. It was studied the influence of the cooling process, the maximum temperature that the concrete was subjected to and the loading level on the residual mechanical properties of calcareous and granite aggregate concretes. The properties studied were the residual compressive, tensile, splitting and flexural strengths and modulus of elasticit...

  2. Experimental research on the durability cutting tools for cutting-off steel profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristea Alexandru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The production lines used for manufacturing U-shaped profiles are very complex and they must have high productivity. One of the most important stages of the fabrication process is the cutting-off. This paper presents the experimental research and analysis of the durability of the cutting tools used for cutting-off U-shaped metal steel profiles. The results of this work can be used to predict the durability of the cutting tools.

  3. Experimental and modeling studies of fire in compartments at Electricite de France, Research and Development Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, B.

    1997-12-01

    Since 1985, The Research and Development Division at Electricite de France has been in charge, through the development of the software MAGIC, to simulate the fire propagation in Nuclear Plants. The research program has included, since its beginning, an experimental activity dedicated to the combustion of fluids and electrical cables. This paper gives an overview of the works in progress and presents the latest results obtained, in particular in cable combustion. In this field, a three scale approach has been carried on, based on micro-thermo-gravimetry, calorimetry and real scale experiments. (author)

  4. Status of the INL high-temperature electrolysis research program –experimental and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. E. O' Brien; C. M. Stoots; M. G. McKellar; E. A. Harvego; K. G. Condie; G. K. Housley; J. S. Herring; J. J. Hartvigsen

    2009-04-01

    This paper provides a status update on the high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) research and development program at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), with an overview of recent large-scale system modeling results and the status of the experimental program. System analysis results have been obtained using the commercial code UniSim, augmented with a custom high-temperature electrolyzer module. The process flow diagrams for the system simulations include an advanced nuclear reactor as a source of high-temperature process heat, a power cycle and a coupled steam electrolysis loop. Several reactor types and power cycles have been considered, over a range of reactor coolant outlet temperatures. In terms of experimental research, the INL has recently completed an Integrated Laboratory Scale (ILS) HTE test at the 15 kW level. The initial hydrogen production rate for the ILS test was in excess of 5000 liters per hour. Details of the ILS design and operation will be presented. Current small-scale experimental research is focused on improving the degradation characteristics of the electrolysis cells and stacks. Small-scale testing ranges from single cells to multiple-cell stacks. The INL is currently in the process of testing several state-of-the-art anode-supported cells and is working to broaden its relationship with industry in order to improve the long-term performance of the cells.

  5. Haunted thoughts of the careful experimentalist: psychical research and the troubles of experimental physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noakes, Richard

    2014-12-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between the 'elusive' science of psychical research and experimental physics in the period approximately, 1870-1930. Most studies of the relationship between psychical research and the established sciences have examined the ways in which psychical researchers used theories in the established sciences to give greater plausibility to their interpretations of such puzzling phenomena as telepathy, telekinesis and ectoplasm. A smaller literature has examined the use of laboratory instruments to produce scientific evidence for these phenomena. This paper argues that the cultures of experiment in the established science of physics could matter to psychical research in a different way: it suggests that experience of capricious effects, recalcitrant instruments and other problems of the physical laboratory made British physicists especially sympathetic towards the difficulties of the spiritualistic séance and other sites of psychical enquiry. In the wake of widely-reported claims that the mediums they had investigated had been exposed as frauds, these scientific practitioners were eventually persuaded by the merits of an older argument that human psychic subjects could not be treated like laboratory hardware. However, well into the twentieth century, they maintained that experimental physics had important lessons for psychical researchers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Experimental Physics of Elementary Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednyakov, V. A.; Russakovich, N. A.

    2018-05-01

    The year 2016 marks the 60th anniversary of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, an international intergovernmental organization for basic research in the fields of elementary particles, atomic nuclei, and condensed matter. Highly productive advances over this long road clearly show that the international basis and diversity of research guarantees successful development (and maintenance) of fundamental science. This is especially important for experimental research. In this review, the most significant achievements are briefly described with an attempt to look into the future (seven to ten years ahead) and show the role of JINR in solution of highly important problems in elementary particle physics, which is a fundamental field of modern natural sciences. This glimpse of the future is full of justified optimism.

  7. Study Design Rigor in Animal-Experimental Research Published in Anesthesia Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerauf, Janine M; Moss, Angela F; Fernandez-Bustamante, Ana; Bartels, Karsten

    2018-01-01

    Lack of reproducibility of preclinical studies has been identified as an impediment for translation of basic mechanistic research into effective clinical therapies. Indeed, the National Institutes of Health has revised its grant application process to require more rigorous study design, including sample size calculations, blinding procedures, and randomization steps. We hypothesized that the reporting of such metrics of study design rigor has increased over time for animal-experimental research published in anesthesia journals. PubMed was searched for animal-experimental studies published in 2005, 2010, and 2015 in primarily English-language anesthesia journals. A total of 1466 publications were graded on the performance of sample size estimation, randomization, and blinding. Cochran-Armitage test was used to assess linear trends over time for the primary outcome of whether or not a metric was reported. Interrater agreement for each of the 3 metrics (power, randomization, and blinding) was assessed using the weighted κ coefficient in a 10% random sample of articles rerated by a second investigator blinded to the ratings of the first investigator. A total of 1466 manuscripts were analyzed. Reporting for all 3 metrics of experimental design rigor increased over time (2005 to 2010 to 2015): for power analysis, from 5% (27/516), to 12% (59/485), to 17% (77/465); for randomization, from 41% (213/516), to 50% (243/485), to 54% (253/465); and for blinding, from 26% (135/516), to 38% (186/485), to 47% (217/465). The weighted κ coefficients and 98.3% confidence interval indicate almost perfect agreement between the 2 raters beyond that which occurs by chance alone (power, 0.93 [0.85, 1.0], randomization, 0.91 [0.85, 0.98], and blinding, 0.90 [0.84, 0.96]). Our hypothesis that reported metrics of rigor in animal-experimental studies in anesthesia journals have increased during the past decade was confirmed. More consistent reporting, or explicit justification for absence

  8. Research coordination meeting of the coordinated research project on analytical and experimental benchmark analyses of accelerator driven systems. Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The Technical Meeting hosted at the Belarus National Academy of Sciences in Minsk by the Joint Institute of Power Engineering and Nuclear Research 'SOSNY' from 5-9 December 2005 was the kick-off Research Coordination Meeting (RCM) of the IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Analytical and Experimental Benchmark Analyses of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS)'. The CRP had received proposals for research agreements and contracts from scientists representing the following 25 institutions: Centro Atomico Bariloche, SCK CEN Mol, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares Sao Paulo, Joint Institute of Power Engineering and Nuclear Research SOSNY Minsk, China Institute of Atomic Energy, CEA Cadarache, CNRS Paris, FZ Rossendorf, FZ Karlsruhe, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Politecnico di Torino, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG) Petten, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, AGH-University of Science and Technology Krakow, Institute of Atomic Energy Otwock/Swierk, ITEP Moscow, MEPHI Moscow, Kurchatov Institute, JINR Dubna, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, CIEMAT Madrid, Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm, National Science Center 'Kharkov Institute and Technology', and Argonne National Laboratory). These institutions represent 18 IAEA Member States (i.e., Argentina, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, China, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Pakistan, Poland, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Ukraine, USA), and one International Organization (JINR Dubna). The overall objective of the CRP is contributing to the generic R and D efforts in various fields common to innovative fast neutron system development, i.e., heavy liquid metal thermal hydraulics, dedicated transmutation fuels and associated core designs, theoretical nuclear reaction models, measurement and evaluation of nuclear data for transmutation, and development and validation of calculational methods and codes. Ultimately, the CRP

  9. Ethical issues associated with the use of animal experimentation in behavioral neuroscience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, Frauke; Meijboom, Franck

    2015-01-01

    This chapter briefly explores whether there are distinct characteristics in the field of Behavioral Neuroscience that demand specific ethical reflection. We argue that although the ethical issues in animal-based Behavioral Neuroscience are not necessarily distinct from those in other research disciplines using animal experimentation, this field of endeavor makes a number of specific, ethically relevant, questions more explicit and, as a result, may expose to discussion a series of ethical issues that have relevance beyond this field of science. We suggest that innovative research, by its very definition, demands out-of-the-box thinking. At the same time, standardization of animal models and test procedures for the sake of comparability across experiments inhibits the potential and willingness to leave well-established tracks of thinking, and leaves us wondering how open minded research is and whether it is the researcher's established perspective that drives the research rather than the research that drives the researcher's perspective. The chapter finishes by introducing subsequent chapters of this book volume on Ethical Issues in Behavioral Neuroscience.

  10. Experimental research of kinetic and dynamic characteristics of temperature movements of machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfenov, I. V.; Polyakov, A. N.

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, the urgency of informational support of machines at different stages of their life cycle is increasing in the form of various experimental characteristics that determine the criteria for working capacity. The effectiveness of forming the base of experimental characteristics of machines is related directly to the duration of their field tests. In this research, the authors consider a new technique that allows reducing the duration of full-scale testing of machines by 30%. To this end, three new indicator coefficients were calculated in real time to determine the moments corresponding to the characteristic points. In the work, new terms for thermal characteristics of machine tools are introduced: kinetic and dynamic characteristics of the temperature movements of the machine. This allow taking into account not only the experimental values for the temperature displacements of the elements of the carrier system of the machine, but also their derivatives up to the third order, inclusively. The work is based on experimental data obtained in the course of full-scale thermal tests of a drilling-milling and boring CNC machine.

  11. Experimental research on heat transfer performance of supercritical water in vertical tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fei; Yang Jue; Li Hongbo; Lu Donghua; Gu Hanyang; Zhao Meng

    2013-01-01

    Experimental research under supercritical pressure conditions was carried out on heat transfer performance in vertical tube of φ10 mm with a wide range of experimental parameters. The impacts of heat flux, mass flow rate and pressure on wall temperature and heat transfer coefficient were investigated. The experimental parameters are following: The pressures are 23, 25, 26 MPa, the mass flow rate range is 450 1200 kg/(m 2 ·s), and the heat flux range is 200-1200 kW/m 2 . Experimental results indicate that the wall temperature gradually increases with the bulk temperature, and heat transfer enhancement exists near the critical temperature as the drastic changes in physical properties. The increase in heat flux and the decrease in mass flow rate reduce heat transfer enhancement and lead to deterioration of heat transfer. The main effects of pressure are reflected in the difference of heat flux and bulk temperature of the start point where heat transfer deterioration and enhancement occur. (authors)

  12. An Introduction to Sensitivity Analysis for Unobserved Confounding in Non-Experimental Prevention Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, S. Janet; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite that randomization is the gold standard for estimating causal relationships, many questions in prevention science are left to be answered through non-experimental studies often because randomization is either infeasible or unethical. While methods such as propensity score matching can adjust for observed confounding, unobserved confounding is the Achilles heel of most non-experimental studies. This paper describes and illustrates seven sensitivity analysis techniques that assess the sensitivity of study results to an unobserved confounder. These methods were categorized into two groups to reflect differences in their conceptualization of sensitivity analysis, as well as their targets of interest. As a motivating example we examine the sensitivity of the association between maternal suicide and offspring’s risk for suicide attempt hospitalization. While inferences differed slightly depending on the type of sensitivity analysis conducted, overall the association between maternal suicide and offspring’s hospitalization for suicide attempt was found to be relatively robust to an unobserved confounder. The ease of implementation and the insight these analyses provide underscores sensitivity analysis techniques as an important tool for non-experimental studies. The implementation of sensitivity analysis can help increase confidence in results from non-experimental studies and better inform prevention researchers and policymakers regarding potential intervention targets. PMID:23408282

  13. IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) on 'Analytical and experimental benchmark analyses of accelerator driven systems'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abanades, Alberto; Aliberti, Gerardo; Gohar, Yousry; Talamo, Alberto; Bornos, Victor; Kiyavitskaya, Anna; Carta, Mario; Janczyszyn, Jerzy; Maiorino, Jose; Pyeon, Cheolho; Stanculescu, Alexander; Titarenko, Yury; Westmeier, Wolfram

    2008-01-01

    In December 2005, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has started a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Analytical and Experimental Benchmark Analyses of Accelerator Driven Systems'. The overall objective of the CRP, performed within the framework of the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWGFR) of IAEA's Nuclear Energy Department, is to increase the capability of interested Member States in developing and applying advanced reactor technologies in the area of long-lived radioactive waste utilization and transmutation. The specific objective of the CRP is to improve the present understanding of the coupling of an external neutron source (e.g. spallation source) with a multiplicative sub-critical core. The participants are performing computational and experimental benchmark analyses using integrated calculation schemes and simulation methods. The CRP aims at integrating some of the planned experimental demonstration projects of the coupling between a sub-critical core and an external neutron source (e.g. YALINA Booster in Belarus, and Kyoto University's Critical Assembly (KUCA)). The objective of these experimental programs is to validate computational methods, obtain high energy nuclear data, characterize the performance of sub-critical assemblies driven by external sources, and to develop and improve techniques for sub-criticality monitoring. The paper summarizes preliminary results obtained to-date for some of the CRP benchmarks. (authors)

  14. Immunosuppression for in vivo research: state-of-the-art protocols and experimental approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rita Diehl; Fabienne Ferrara; Claudia Müller; Antje Y Dreyer; Damian D McLeod; Stephan Fricke; Johannes Boltze

    2017-01-01

    Almost every experimental treatment strategy using non-autologous cell,tissue or organ transplantation is tested in small and large animal models before clinical translation.Because these strategies require immunosuppression in most cases,immunosuppressive protocols are a key element in transplantation experiments.However,standard immunosuppressive protocols are often applied without detailed knowledge regarding their efficacy within the particular experimental setting and in the chosen model species.Optimization of such protocols is pertinent to the translation of experimental results to human patients and thus warrants further investigation.This review summarizes current knowledge regarding immunosuppressive drug classes as well as their dosages and application regimens with consideration of species-specific drug metabolization and side effects.It also summarizes contemporary knowledge of novel immunomodulatory strategies,such as the use of mesenchymal stem cells or antibodies.Thus,this review is intended to serve as a state-of-the-art compendium for researchers to refine applied experimental immunosuppression and immunomodulation strategies to enhance the predictive value of preclinical transplantation studies.

  15. Basic versus applied research: Julius Sachs (1832-1897) and the experimental physiology of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    The German biologist Julius Sachs was the first to introduce controlled, accurate, quantitative experimentation into the botanical sciences, and is regarded as the founder of modern plant physiology. His seminal monograph Experimental-Physiologie der Pflanzen (Experimental Physiology of Plants) was published 150 y ago (1865), when Sachs was employed as a lecturer at the Agricultural Academy in Poppelsdorf/Bonn (now part of the University). This book marks the beginning of a new era of basic and applied plant science. In this contribution, I summarize the achievements of Sachs and outline his lasting legacy. In addition, I show that Sachs was one of the first biologists who integrated bacteria, which he considered to be descendants of fungi, into the botanical sciences and discussed their interaction with land plants (degradation of wood etc.). This "plant-microbe-view" of green organisms was extended and elaborated by the laboratory botanist Wilhelm Pfeffer (1845-1920), so that the term "Sachs-Pfeffer-Principle of Experimental Plant Research" appears to be appropriate to characterize this novel way of performing scientific studies on green, photoautotrophic organisms (embryophytes, algae, cyanobacteria).

  16. Experimental Research in Operation Management in Engine Room by using Language Sentiment/Opinion Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Papachristos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper argues for the necessity of a combination MMR methods (questionnaire, interview and sentiment/opinion techniques to personal satisfaction analysis at the maritime and training education and proposes a generic, but practical research approach for this purpose. The proposed approach concerns the personal satisfaction evaluation of Engine Room simulator systems and combines the speech recording (sentiment/opinion analysis for measuring emotional user responses with usability testing (SUS tool. The experimental procedure presented here is a primary effort to research the emotion analysis (satisfaction of the users-students in Engine Room Simulators. Finally, the ultimate goal of this research is to find and test the critical factors that influence the educational practice and user’s satisfaction of Engine Room Simulator Systems and the ability to conduct full-time system control by the marine crew.

  17. Aerodynamic Research of the Experimental Prototype of the Variable Geometry Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbahs Aleksandrs

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to develop a vertical rotation axis variable geometry wind turbine (WT. The experimental prototype is being manufactured with the help of CAM (Computer-aided manufacturing technologies – computer-based preparation of the product manufacturing process. The Institute of Aeronautics of Riga Technical University is using CNC (Computer Numerical Control machines for manufacturing the innovative WT and its components. The aerodynamic research has been done in T-4 wind tunnel at an air flow rate from 5 m/s to 30 m/s. The power increase of the variable geometry WT is a topical issue. Installation of such WTs in wind farms is possible and is subject to further research.

  18. Case study: videogame distraction reduces behavioral distress in a preschool-aged child undergoing repeated burn dressing changes: a single-subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sil, Soumitri; Dahlquist, Lynnda M; Burns, Andrew J

    2013-04-01

    This single-subject design study evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of passive and interactive videogame distraction on behavioral distress for a preschool-aged child receiving repeated burn dressing changes. A 4-year-old girl underwent 3 baseline and 10 videogame distraction sessions (5 passive and 5 interactive) using a restricted alternating treatments design. Observed behavioral distress was coded, and parents and nurses rated the child's distress and cooperative behavior. Relative to baseline, behavioral distress decreased and cooperative behavior increased immediately after the onset of videogame distraction. Single Case Randomization Tests revealed significantly lower behavioral distress and greater cooperation during interactive videogame distraction relative to passive videogame distraction. Interactive videogame distraction appears to be a feasible and effective pain management strategy for a preschool-aged child undergoing repeated painful medical procedures.

  19. Experimentations queer in a research about production of femininities in “trans bodies”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaissa Vasconcelos

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we analyze some aspects about otherness, addressing the body not like a materiality, but above all in their properties affectations and possibilities. These reflections are presented based on an experimentation, developed in the course of development of a master's thesis, which was the experience of “se montar” by the researcher (registered at birth as female. Through this experimentation and subsequent dialogues about it, we discussed the limits and possibilities of a Queer theoretical body, entering on questions of production dimorphic model of bodies, the heteronorm, and intelligibility that produces viable (or not some bodies. In this process still we are discussing issues relating to the abjection and gender as performativity.

  20. Experimental research on velocity distribution in narrow slots of plane type reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Xinxing; Zhang Youjie; Jia Haijun; Jiang Shengyao; Bo Hanliang; Min Gang

    2003-01-01

    The experimental research on velocity distribution in multiple parallel narrow channels formed by fuel plane of assembly is carried out under various Re and the water without ions as fluid in testing loop. The experimental results show that under various Re within a channel the velocity in the middle area is high and the velocity in the edge of channel decreases rapidly to zero, and the velocity is symmetrically distributed along the central line, thus the velocity distribution within a channel is like a trapezium. While in parallel channels the velocity of the middle channel is low and the velocity of the channel close to the edge is high, it is supposed to be caused by the inlet structure of channels, this concave distribution is a disadvantage to the even distribution of reactor flux

  1. A comparative study to investigate burnup in research reactor fuel using two independent experimental methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.; Mehmood, T.; Ayazuddin, S.K.; Salahuddin, A.; Pervez, S.

    2001-01-01

    Two independent experimental methods have been used for the comparative study of fuel burnup measurement in low enriched uranium, plate type research reactor. In the first method a gamma ray activity ratio method was employed. An experimental setup was established for gamma ray scanning using prior calibrated high purity germanium detector. The computer software KORIGEN gave the theoretical support. In the second method reactivity difference technique was used. At the same location in the same core configuration the fresh and burned fuel element's reactivity worth was estimated. For theoretical estimated curve, group cross-sections were generated using computer code WIMS-D/4, and three dimensional modeling was made by computer code CITATION. The measured burnup of different fuel elements using these methods were found to be in good agreement

  2. Experimental research of inclined-micro-fin flat tube on single phase convection heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Guangming; Sun Zhongning; Wang Meng

    2011-01-01

    The experimental research of heat transfer and flow resistance characteristics of single phase water in four inclined-micro-fin flat tubes with different physical dimensions was conducted. At the same time,suitable criteria were selected to evaluate the efficiency of inclined-micro-fin flat tubes within the experimental scope and the optimal working region was determined. The results indicate that inclined-micro-fin flat tubes can greatly enhance the single-phase heat transfer in turbulent flow and the maximum heat transfer coefficient attains to 5.9 times of that in smooth tube. The quantities of heat transfer for inclined-micro-fin flat tubes are three times higher than that of smooth tube with the same of heat exchange area and pump power. (authors)

  3. N-of-1-pathways MixEnrich: advancing precision medicine via single-subject analysis in discovering dynamic changes of transcriptomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qike; Schissler, A Grant; Gardeux, Vincent; Achour, Ikbel; Kenost, Colleen; Berghout, Joanne; Li, Haiquan; Zhang, Hao Helen; Lussier, Yves A

    2017-05-24

    Transcriptome analytic tools are commonly used across patient cohorts to develop drugs and predict clinical outcomes. However, as precision medicine pursues more accurate and individualized treatment decisions, these methods are not designed to address single-patient transcriptome analyses. We previously developed and validated the N-of-1-pathways framework using two methods, Wilcoxon and Mahalanobis Distance (MD), for personal transcriptome analysis derived from a pair of samples of a single patient. Although, both methods uncover concordantly dysregulated pathways, they are not designed to detect dysregulated pathways with up- and down-regulated genes (bidirectional dysregulation) that are ubiquitous in biological systems. We developed N-of-1-pathways MixEnrich, a mixture model followed by a gene set enrichment test, to uncover bidirectional and concordantly dysregulated pathways one patient at a time. We assess its accuracy in a comprehensive simulation study and in a RNA-Seq data analysis of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). In presence of bidirectionally dysregulated genes in the pathway or in presence of high background noise, MixEnrich substantially outperforms previous single-subject transcriptome analysis methods, both in the simulation study and the HNSCCs data analysis (ROC Curves; higher true positive rates; lower false positive rates). Bidirectional and concordant dysregulated pathways uncovered by MixEnrich in each patient largely overlapped with the quasi-gold standard compared to other single-subject and cohort-based transcriptome analyses. The greater performance of MixEnrich presents an advantage over previous methods to meet the promise of providing accurate personal transcriptome analysis to support precision medicine at point of care.

  4. Experimental research in neutron physic and thermal-hydraulic at the CDTN Triga reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, Amir Z.; Souza, Rose Mary G.P.; Ferreira, Andrea V.; Pinto, Antonio J.; Costa, Antonio C.L.; Rezende, Hugo C., E-mail: amir@cdtn.b, E-mail: souzarm@cdtn.b, E-mail: avf@cdtn.b, E-mail: ajp@cdtn.b, E-mail: aclc@cdtn.b, E-mail: hcr@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The IPR-R1 TRIGA (Training, Research, Isotopes production, General Atomics) at Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) is a pool type reactor cooled by natural circulation of light water and an open surface. TRIGA reactors, developed by General Atomics (GA), are the most widely used research reactor in the world and characterized by inherent safety. The IPR-R1 is the only Brazilian nuclear research reactor available and able to perform experiments in which interaction between neutronic and thermal-hydraulic areas occurs. The IPR-R1 has started up on November 11th, 1960. At that time the maximum thermal power was 30 kW. The present forced cooling system was built in the 70th and the power was upgraded to 100 kW. Recently the core configuration and instrumentation was upgraded again to 250 kW at steady state, and is awaiting the license of CNEN to operate definitely at this new power. This paper describes the experimental research project carried out in the IPR-R1 reactor that has as objective evaluate the behaviour of the reactor operational parameters, and mainly to investigate the influence of temperature on the neutronic variables. The research was supported by Research Support Foundation of the State of Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG) and Brazilian Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq). The research project meets the recommendations of the IAEA, for safety, modernization and development of strategic plan for research reactors utilization. This work is in line with the strategic objectives of Brazil, which aims to design and construct the Brazilian Multipurpose research Reactor (RMB). (author)

  5. Experimental research in neutron physic and thermal-hydraulic at the CDTN Triga reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, Amir Z.; Souza, Rose Mary G.P.; Ferreira, Andrea V.; Pinto, Antonio J.; Costa, Antonio C.L.; Rezende, Hugo C.

    2011-01-01

    The IPR-R1 TRIGA (Training, Research, Isotopes production, General Atomics) at Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) is a pool type reactor cooled by natural circulation of light water and an open surface. TRIGA reactors, developed by General Atomics (GA), are the most widely used research reactor in the world and characterized by inherent safety. The IPR-R1 is the only Brazilian nuclear research reactor available and able to perform experiments in which interaction between neutronic and thermal-hydraulic areas occurs. The IPR-R1 has started up on November 11th, 1960. At that time the maximum thermal power was 30 kW. The present forced cooling system was built in the 70th and the power was upgraded to 100 kW. Recently the core configuration and instrumentation was upgraded again to 250 kW at steady state, and is awaiting the license of CNEN to operate definitely at this new power. This paper describes the experimental research project carried out in the IPR-R1 reactor that has as objective evaluate the behaviour of the reactor operational parameters, and mainly to investigate the influence of temperature on the neutronic variables. The research was supported by Research Support Foundation of the State of Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG) and Brazilian Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq). The research project meets the recommendations of the IAEA, for safety, modernization and development of strategic plan for research reactors utilization. This work is in line with the strategic objectives of Brazil, which aims to design and construct the Brazilian Multipurpose research Reactor (RMB). (author)

  6. Experimental research on thermal characteristics of a hybrid thermocline heat storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Huibin; Ding, Jing; Yang, Xiaoxi

    2014-01-01

    Considering the high-temperature thermal utilization of solar energy as the research background in this paper and focussing on the heat storage process, a kind of hybrid thermocline heat storage method in multi-scale structure and relevant experimental systems are designed by using the mixed molten nitrate salt as the heat storage medium and two representative porous materials, i.e. zirconium ball and silicon carbide (SiC) foam, as the heat storage fillers. The fluid flow and heat storage performance of molten salt in multi-scale structure are experimentally investigated. The results show that the theoretical heat storage efficiencies amongst the three experimental heat storage manners are less than 80% because of the existence of thermocline layers. Comparing to the single-phase molten salt heat storage, the two hybrid thermocline heat storage manners with porous fillers lead to a certain decrease in the effective heat storage capacity. The presence of porous fillers can also help to maintain the molten salt fluid as ideal gravity flow or piston flow and partially replace expensive molten salt. Therefore, it requires a combination of heat storage capacity and economical consideration for optimization design when similar spherical particles or foam ceramics are employed as the porous fillers. -- Highlights: • A hybrid thermocline heat storage method in multi-scale structure is developed. • The fluid flow and heat storage performance are experimentally investigated. • Stable thermocline can form in single tank for the experimental cases. • The hybrid thermocline heat storage with porous filler is promising

  7. Appropriateness of the food-pics image database for experimental eating and appetite research with adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Chad D; Duraccio, Kara M; Barnett, Kimberly A; Stevens, Kimberly S

    2016-12-01

    Research examining effects of visual food cues on appetite-related brain processes and eating behavior has proliferated. Recently investigators have developed food image databases for use across experimental studies examining appetite and eating behavior. The food-pics image database represents a standardized, freely available image library originally validated in a large sample primarily comprised of adults. The suitability of the images for use with adolescents has not been investigated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the appropriateness of the food-pics image library for appetite and eating research with adolescents. Three hundred and seven adolescents (ages 12-17) provided ratings of recognizability, palatability, and desire to eat, for images from the food-pics database. Moreover, participants rated the caloric content (high vs. low) and healthiness (healthy vs. unhealthy) of each image. Adolescents rated approximately 75% of the food images as recognizable. Approximately 65% of recognizable images were correctly categorized as high vs. low calorie and 63% were correctly classified as healthy vs. unhealthy in 80% or more of image ratings. These results suggest that a smaller subset of the food-pics image database is appropriate for use with adolescents. With some modifications to included images, the food-pics image database appears to be appropriate for use in experimental appetite and eating-related research conducted with adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of differentiated margin on futures market investors' behavior and structure An experimental research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-hui Luo; Di-fang Wan; Yang Yang; Guang Yang

    2011-01-01

    Purpose-The purpose of this paper is to empirically analyze the role of differentiated margin system in leading investors' investing behavior and then optimize investor structure in futures markets.Design/methodology/approach-Using economic experimental research method,this paper designs and conducts a futures market experiment according to experimental research's basic norms,thus acquiring needed and credible empirical data.Findings-By analyzing the experimental data,it is found that compared with situations in futures markets that implement uniform margin system,investors' (especially speculators') futures open position and the ratio of their open position and futures turnover are both significantly higher,in futures markets that implement differentiated margin system.On the other hand,differentiated margin system has no effects on hedgers' futures turnover,but significantly reduces speculators' futures turnover.Research limitations/implications-The findings suggest that compared with uniform margin system,differentiated margin system is beneficial to effectively restrict both speculators' and hedgers' speculating behavior and lead hedgers' market participation.Practical implications-In order to resolve the problem of unreasonable investor structure in China's futures market,i.e.lack of hedgers and over-speculating China's futures market's regulators should reform the margin system and adopt differentiated margin system to lead investors' rational behavior and optimize investor structure.Originality/value-This paper empirically analyzes and verifies,for the first time,the roles of differentiated margin system in affecting investors' investing behavior.The futures market experiment designed and used in this study is a pioneering and exploratory experiment.

  9. Current Status of Clinical and Experimental Researches on Cognitive Impairment in Diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the clinical and experimental researches on cognitive impairment related to diabetes in the recent decade. Most clinical studies indicate that the cognitive impairment in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus is related to recurrent hypoglycemia closely. There is little research about whether or not hyperglycemia is related to cognitive impairment in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Most studies indicate that the cognitive impairment in type 2 diabetes involves multiple factors through multiple mechanisms, including blood glucose, blood lipid, blood pressure, level of insulin, medication, chronic complication, etc. But, there has been no large-scale, multi-center, randomized controlled clinical trial in China recently. And what is more, some problems exist in this field of research, such as the lack of golden criterion of cognitive function measurement, different population of studied objects, and incomprehensive handling of confounding factors. Experimental studies found that hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) was impaired,which were manifested by impairment of spatial memory and decreased expression of LTP, but its relation to hyperglycemia, the duration of diabetes, learning and memory has always been differently reported by different researches. Thus, there are a lot of unknown things to be explored and studied in order to clarify its mechanism. TCM has abundant clinical experience in treating cerebral disease with medicine that enforces the kidney and promotes wit. However, there has been no research on treating diabetic cognitive impairment,which requires work to be done actively and TCM to be put into full play, in order to improve the treatment of diabetes and enhance living quality of patients.

  10. Experimental research for γ-ray interference threshold effect of high electromagnetic pulse sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Cui; Chen Xiangyue; Nie Xin; Xiang Hui; Guo Xiaoqiang; Mao Congguang; Cheng Jianping; Ni Jianping

    2007-01-01

    The high electromagnetic pulse (EMP) sensor using optical-fiber to transmit signal can restrain electromagnetic interference. The Compton electrons scattered by γ-ray irradiated from nuclear explosion or nuclear explosion simulator can generate high EMP, γ-ray can penetrate the shielding box and irradiate the integrated circuit directly. The γ-ray irradiation effect includes interference, latch up and burn out, these will make the measurement result unbelievable. In this paper, the experimental method researching the γ-ray irradiation effect of high electromagnetic pulse sensor on Qiangguang-I accelerator is introduced. The γ-ray dose rate interference threshold is 2 x 10 6 Gy/s. (authors)

  11. The theoretical and experimental researches of Pb-Al composite materials extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ryzińska

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The work presents the analysis of the character of a simultaneous plastic flow of composite material of a hard core-soft sleeve structure. Experimental research work using model composite material Aluminium-Lead and theoretical analysis allowed to identify the initial cracking conditions, its character and localization, depending on geometrical parameters of the composite materials and the extrusion ratio value. It has been shown that the higher the parameters’ values are, the longer the flawless extruded product is (cracking appears in the further stages of the process.

  12. Experimental Research into Noise Emission of A Gear Micropump with Plastic Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionov, L. V.; Rekadze, P. D.

    2018-01-01

    The previous researches show that it’s possible to replace several parts of gear pump to plastic ones. This substitution leads to cost and noise reduction of the pump. Therefore, the series of acoustic experiments on a test bench were carry-out. Sound pressure levels were recorded with microphone, located in a pipe made of a vacuum rubber. Conducted experiment shows that acoustic characteristics of the micropump depend on the different material of driven rotor. Experimental result indicates that the proposed measures for replacing metal rotor to plastic one reduce micropump noise on the studied modes. The maximum achieved acoustic efficiency on equivalent level is 11 dB.

  13. Experimental research into operating strength and fatigue life of bodywork of buses and trolleybuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolhof, V.; Kepka, M.; Rehor, P.; Horak, V.; Sima, J.

    1992-01-01

    Operational strength and fatigue life reliability of trolleybus and bus bodies are usually assessed by computational methods in combination with selected tests. The latter include test runs of vehicles on real routes or on specially designed tracks, tests on complete vehicles under model test conditions and laboratory tests on selected materials, parts and subassemblies. This paper describes a method of experimental investigation of operational strength and reliability developed and applied at the Central Research Institute Skoda for public-transport road vehicles made in Czechoslovakia. (orig.)

  14. Experimental studies on mitigation of LOCA for a high flux research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, A.K.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental studies on the rewetting behaviour of hot vertical annular channels were performed to study the mitigation of consequences of loss of coolant accident (LOCA) for a high flux research reactor. Studies were carried out to study the rewetting behaviour with hot inner tube, for bottom flooding and top flow rewetting conditions. The tube was made of stainless steel. Experiments were conducted for water flow rates in the annulus upto 7 litres per minute (l pm) (11.7 x 10 -5 m 3 s -1 ). The initial surface temperature of the inner tube was varied from 200 to 500 degC. (author)

  15. Experimental Research Into High Barometric Oxygen Prevention of Guinea Pig Hearing Loss,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-28

    PREVENTION OF GUINEA PIG HEARING LOSS by Yin Jiacai, Sun Fang ren, et al. DTIC MLECTE •<• EP 2 9 1992 Approved for public release, Distribution unlimited...PREVENTION OF GUINEA PIG HEARING LOSS By: Yin Jiacai, Sun Fang ren, et al. English pages: 9 Source: Chung-Hua I Shueh Tsa Chih, Vol. 65, Nr. 11, Nov.eember...Distributionf._DL~~~t .•b • / or __ Dlist szeccat .lef ’ ~1 EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH INTO HIGH BAROMETRIC OXYGEN PREVENTION OF GUINEA PIG HEARING LOSS BY: Yin

  16. THE EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF THE TECHONOLOGY OF FUTURE ATCO-TRAINERS’ PEDAGOGY COMPETENCE FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Людмила Немлій

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the experimental research of pedagogical competence formation of future air traffic control officers-trainers (ATCO-trainers. At the stage of forming experiment a course «Fundamentals of ATCOtrainer’s educational activities» was developed and introduced into the process of professional training of future ATCO-trainers. According to the plan of this course, the organization of educational process was carried out based on the integrative technology. The results of the forming experiment demonstrate the effectiveness of the implemented technologies.

  17. Experimental research on the structural characteristics of high organic soft soil in different deposition ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Lin, Guo-he

    2018-03-01

    High organic soft soil, which is distributed at Ji Lin province in China, has been studied by a lot of scholars. In the paper, structural characteristics with different deposition ages have been researched by experimental tests. Firstly, the characteristics of deposition age, degree of decompositon, high-pressure consolidation and microstructure have been measured by a series of tests. Secondly, structural strengths which were deposited in different ages, have been carried out to test the significant differences of stress-strain relations between remoulded and undisturbed high organic soft soil samples. Results showed that high organic soft soil which is deposited at different ages will influence its structural characteristics.

  18. Experimental studying the effects of horizontal experimental channels on the neutron field in the model of the TVR-M research reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvedov, O.V.; Aitov, G.M.; Balyuk, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of horizontal channels on the neutron field in the core of the TVR-M heavy-water cooled high-flux research reactor is experimentally studied. The experiments are carried out in a critical assembly using full-scale core model. The data are obtained characterizing soft and rigid effects of horizontal experimental channels on neutron field. The soft effect is connected with the total mass of experimental channels. It is practically uniform by the core azimuth and reveals itself in the decrease of neutron burst in the reflector, and, consequently in the decrease of neutron field distorsion in the external and middle fuel assembly rows. The rigid effect is conditioned by separate experimental channels located close to the core. It brings about local disturbance in the closest fuel assemblies. The data obtained are a part of experimental program on studying basis power distributions in the TVR-M reactor lattices. 2 refs.; 18 figs

  19. A comparison of the effects of visual deprivation and regular body weight support treadmill training on improving over-ground walking of stroke patients: a multiple baseline single subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Soo; Kang, Sun-Young; Jeon, Hye-Seon

    2015-01-01

    The body-weight-support treadmill (BWST) is commonly used for gait rehabilitation, but other forms of BWST are in development, such as visual-deprivation BWST (VDBWST). In this study, we compare the effect of VDBWST training and conventional BWST training on spatiotemporal gait parameters for three individuals who had hemiparetic strokes. We used a single-subject experimental design, alternating multiple baselines across the individuals. We recruited three individuals with hemiparesis from stroke; two on the left side and one on the right. For the main outcome measures we assessed spatiotemporal gait parameters using GAITRite, including: gait velocity; cadence; step time of the affected side (STA); step time of the non-affected side (STN); step length of the affected side (SLA); step length of the non-affected side (SLN); step-time asymmetry (ST-asymmetry); and step-length asymmetry (SL-asymmetry). Gait velocity, cadence, SLA, and SLN increased from baseline after both interventions, but STA, ST-asymmetry, and SL-asymmetry decreased from the baseline after the interventions. The VDBWST was significantly more effective than the BWST for increasing gait velocity and cadence and for decreasing ST-asymmetry. VDBWST is more effective than BWST for improving gait performance during the rehabilitation for ground walking.

  20. Experimental and Numerical Research Activity on a Packed Bed TES System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Cascetta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of experimental and numerical research activities on a packed bed sensible thermal energy storage (TES system. The TES consists of a cylindrical steel tank filled with small alumina beads and crossed by air used as the heat transfer fluid. Experimental tests were carried out while varying some operating parameters such as the mass flow rate, the inlet–outlet temperature thresholds and the aspect ratio (length over diameter. Numerical simulations were carried out using a one-dimensional model, specifically developed in the Matlab-Simulink environment and a 2D axisymmetric model based on the ANSYS-Fluent platform. Both models are based on a two-equation transient approach to calculate fluid and solid phase temperatures. Thermodynamic properties were considered to be temperature-dependent and, in the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD model, variable porosity of the bed in the radial direction, thermal losses and the effective conductivity of the alumina beads were also considered. The simulation results of both models were compared to the experimental ones, showing good agreement. The one-dimensional model has the advantage of predicting the axial temperature distribution with a very low computational cost, but it does not allow calculation of the correct energy stored when the temperature distribution is strongly influenced by the wall. To overcome this problem a 2D CFD model was used in this work.

  1. Evaluating Amazon's Mechanical Turk as a tool for experimental behavioral research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J C Crump

    Full Text Available Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT is an online crowdsourcing service where anonymous online workers complete web-based tasks for small sums of money. The service has attracted attention from experimental psychologists interested in gathering human subject data more efficiently. However, relative to traditional laboratory studies, many aspects of the testing environment are not under the experimenter's control. In this paper, we attempt to empirically evaluate the fidelity of the AMT system for use in cognitive behavioral experiments. These types of experiment differ from simple surveys in that they require multiple trials, sustained attention from participants, comprehension of complex instructions, and millisecond accuracy for response recording and stimulus presentation. We replicate a diverse body of tasks from experimental psychology including the Stroop, Switching, Flanker, Simon, Posner Cuing, attentional blink, subliminal priming, and category learning tasks using participants recruited using AMT. While most of replications were qualitatively successful and validated the approach of collecting data anonymously online using a web-browser, others revealed disparity between laboratory results and online results. A number of important lessons were encountered in the process of conducting these replications that should be of value to other researchers.

  2. Research on accelerator-driven transmutation and studies of experimental facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takizuka, Takakazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-11-01

    JAERI is carrying out R and Ds on accelerator-driven transmutation systems under the national OMEGA Program that aims at development of the technology to improve efficiency and safety in the final disposal of radioactive waste. Research facilities for accelerator-driven transmutation experiments are proposed to construct within the framework of the planned JAERI Neutron Science Project. This paper describes the features of the proposed accelerator-driven transmutation systems and their technical issues to be solved. A research facility plan under examination is presented. The plan is divided in two phases. In the second phase, technical feasibility of accelerator-driven systems will be demonstrated with a 30-60 MW experimental integrated system and with a 7 MW high-power target facility. (author)

  3. Experimental research into motor vehicle oscillations in the case of changeable deceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pečeliūnas,

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper processes of oscillation of flexible mounted and inflexible mounted masses are analysed. The tangential effect of the wheel contact with bearing surface is given, thus enabling more precise calculus of vehicle braking parameters. The methodology of research includes the development of mathematical algorithms and theoretical calculus of the analysed processes as well as the presentation of the influence of various factors on vehicle oscillations during braking. Analytical methods and those in figures have been applied for the research. Experimental investigations were carried out applying the electronic device VZM-100 measuring the acceleration of deceleration adapted for synchronous operation together with vibration processing system VAS-21. The expert opportunities for modelling of vehicle movement are extended with the help of the created mathematical models used for the examination of road accidents related to vehicle braking.

  4. Experimental research on the machinability of Hardox steel by abrasive waterjet cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Alexandru Catalin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main present industry challenges is finding the most efficient manufacturing process for a certain part. When parts are made of strong steels like Hardox, their fabrication method is usually difficult. Abrasive waterjet cutting (AWJ is one of the cutting processes which can be used in this case. This paper presents an experimental research on the machinability of Hardox steel by AWJ. The experiments were conducted using a factorial design model considering two of the main influence parameters like the traverse speed and the distance between the nozzle and the surface of the material. Based on the measurement of the dimensions and the roughness of the parts, the influence of the parameters was revealed and analyzed. The manufacturing time was also compared, as it directly influences the production cost. Further research is considered to develop a mathematical model which can be used for a proper choice of the process parameters depending on the initial requirements.

  5. Experimental research of vehicle traction properties for reconstruction of traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudziak Marian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to broaden the database of motor vehicle traction properties in unusual conditions, the research team has performed experimental studies: on wet and snow-covered surfaces. Tests of vehicles equipped with winter tyres with non-skid snow chains have been performed on snow-covered surfaces. It has been shown that on snowy surface chains affect vehicle traction properties, mostly during acceleration. They increase the rate of acceleration up to 50% compared to a vehicle with winter tyres without chains. The results of the performed research can be the basis for the full reconstruction of road accidents under these conditions. Knowledge of traction properties of cars in difficult and unusual conditions is an important cognitive factor and serves to improve road safety.

  6. Quasi-experimental study designs series-paper 11: supporting the production and use of health systems research syntheses that draw on quasi-experimental study designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavis, John N; Bärnighausen, Till; El-Jardali, Fadi

    2017-09-01

    To describe the infrastructure available to support the production of policy-relevant health systems research syntheses, particularly those incorporating quasi-experimental evidence, and the tools available to support the use of these syntheses. Literature review. The general challenges associated with the available infrastructure include their sporadic nature or limited coverage of issues and countries, whereas the specific ones related to policy-relevant syntheses of quasi-experimental evidence include the lack of mechanism to register synthesis titles and scoping review protocols, the limited number of groups preparing user-friendly summaries, and the difficulty of finding quasi-experimental studies for inclusion in rapid syntheses and research syntheses more generally. Although some new tools have emerged in recent years, such as guidance workbooks and citizen briefs and panels, challenges related to using available tools to support the use of policy-relevant syntheses of quasi-experimental evidence arise from such studies potentially being harder for policymakers and stakeholders to commission and understand. Policymakers, stakeholders, and researchers need to expand the coverage and institutionalize the use of the available infrastructure and tools to support the use of health system research syntheses containing quasi-experimental evidence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of an Experimental Testbed for Research in Lithium-Ion Battery Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ferdowsi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Advanced electrochemical batteries are becoming an integral part of a wide range of applications from household and commercial to smart grid, transportation, and aerospace applications. Among different battery technologies, lithium-ion (Li-ion batteries are growing more and more popular due to their high energy density, high galvanic potential, low self-discharge, low weight, and the fact that they have almost no memory effect. However, one of the main obstacles facing the widespread commercialization of Li-ion batteries is the design of reliable battery management systems (BMSs. An efficient BMS ensures electrical safety during operation, while increasing battery lifetime, capacity and thermal stability. Despite the need for extensive research in this field, the majority of research conducted on Li-ion battery packs and BMS are proprietary works conducted by manufacturers. The available literature, however, provides either general descriptions or detailed analysis of individual components of the battery system, and ignores addressing details of the overall system development. This paper addresses the development of an experimental research testbed for studying Li-ion batteries and their BMS design. The testbed can be configured in a variety of cell and pack architectures, allowing for a wide range of BMS monitoring, diagnostics, and control technologies to be tested and analyzed. General considerations that should be taken into account while designing Li-ion battery systems are reviewed and different technologies and challenges commonly encountered in Li-ion battery systems are investigated. This testbed facilitates future development of more practical and improved BMS technologies with the aim of increasing the safety, reliability, and efficiency of existing Li-ion battery systems. Experimental results of initial tests performed on the system are used to demonstrate some of the capabilities of the developed research testbed. To the authors

  8. The Hobbs Oil and Water Experimental Facility of the Waste-Management Education and Research Consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, F.D.; Bretz, R.E.; Bowman, R.S.; Kieft, T.L.; Cadena, F.

    1992-01-01

    The Hobbs Oil and Water Experimental (HOWE) Facility came on-line as a research component of the Waste-Management Education and Research Consortium (WERC) when funding for the Consortium became official in late February 1990. As a support facility for WERC, which was established to expand the ability of this nation to manage hazardous, radioactive, and solid wastes through a multidisciplinary approach, HOWE can tap into the expertise that resides at three major New Mexico universities, on Native American community college, and two national laboratories. The intention of the HOWE is to provide education, as well as research and development programs, that reflect concerns of the petroleum industry in the United States. Personnel work to solve environmental problems and assess the impact to the industry of regulatory actions pertaining to those problems. Leadership for the program is provided from the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology at Socorro, NM, by Technical Leaders F.D. Martin, Director of the Petroleum Recovery Research Center, and Dr. R.E. Bretz of the petroleum engineering faculty. The HOWE site is administered by Mike DeMarco, Director of the Petroleum Technology Program at the New Mexico Junior College in Hobbs, NM. Currently, the HOWE laboratory is being provided with state-of-the-art equipment to support research projects or field demonstration activities. Programs include research pertaining to groundwater pollution transport processes, slurry-phase bioremediation of oilfield production pit sludges, and treatment of produced brines or contaminated waters. This paper introduces the HOWE and discusses the research programs relevant to the petroleum industry that are presently underway or planned. Future collaborative efforts with industry that are presently underway or planned. Future collaborative efforts with industry groups are being encouraged

  9. Numerical modeling and experimental research on the movement of the explosion clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoli; Zheng Yi; Liu Wei; Wu Guansheng

    2011-01-01

    It presents the experimental research and numerical modeling on the movement of explosion clouds. The experiment was performed under two kinds of recorder, one is high speed CCD recorder which was mainly used to record the process of the fireball when the TNT was detonated, and the other is SONY vidicon that was mainly used to record the movement of the clouds. Based on the assumption that the effects on the clouds were gravity and buoyancy, the numerical model on the thermal was established. The initial condition of the thermal that was to say the initial cloud dimension was gained through the results of the recording of the highly CCD recorder. Followed this, the results of the numerical simulation were presented. And the computational results of the rising cloud are reasonable compared to that of the experiment. Thus, it can be seen that the numerical modeling and experimental research methods presented in this paper are reasonable and it can be serve as a reference to related person. Finally, the problems about the experiment and the model are pointed to establish a more accurate model. (authors)

  10. Analysis of Experimental Research on Cyclones with Cylindrical and Spiral Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandras Chlebnikovas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The conducted investigation is aimed at providing information on air flow parameters in the cylindrical and spiral shell (devices are designed for separating solid particles from air flow having tangent flow inlet. Experimental research has employed multi-cyclones created by the Department of Environmental Protection at Vilnius Gediminas Technical University. The study is focused on investigating and comparing the distribution of the dynamic pressure of the airflow in six-channel cyclones inside the structures of devices. The paper establishes and estimates the efficiency of air cleaning changing air phase parameters using different particulate matters. The efficiency of the cyclone has been defined applying the weighted method based on LAND 28-98/M-08 methodology. The article presents the results of experimental research on the air cleaning efficiency of cylindrical and spiral shells using 20 µm glass and clay particulate matter under the initial concentration that may vary from 500 mg/m3 to 15 g/m3 using semi-rings with windows at different positions. The obtained results has shown that the maximum efficiency of the cylindrical shell increases up to 87,3 % while the initial concentration of glass makes 15 g/m3.Article in Lithuanian

  11. Repetitive concussions in adolescent athletes – translating clinical and experimental research into perspectives on rehabilitation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridgette D Semple

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sports-related concussions are particularly common during adolescence, a time when even mild brain injuries may disrupt ongoing brain maturation and result in long-term complications. A recent focus on the consequences of repetitive concussions amongst professional athletes has prompted the development of several new experimental models in rodents, as well as the revision of guidelines for best management of sports concussions. Here, we consider the utility of rodent models to understand the functional consequences and pathobiology of concussions in the developing brain, identifying the unique behavioral and pathological signatures of concussive brain injuries. The impact of repetitive concussions on behavioral consequences and injury progression is also addressed. In particular, we focus on the epidemiological, clinical and experimental evidence underlying current recommendations for physical and cognitive rest after concussion, and highlight key areas in which further research is needed. Lastly, we consider how best to promote recovery after injury, recognizing that optimally-timed, activity-based rehabilitative strategies may hold promise for the adolescent athlete who has sustained single or repetitive concussions. The purpose of this review is to inform the clinical research community as it strives to develop and optimize evidence-based guidelines for the concussed adolescent, in terms of both acute and long-term management.

  12. Repetitive Concussions in Adolescent Athletes – Translating Clinical and Experimental Research into Perspectives on Rehabilitation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Bridgette D.; Lee, Sangmi; Sadjadi, Raha; Fritz, Nora; Carlson, Jaclyn; Griep, Carrie; Ho, Vanessa; Jang, Patrice; Lamb, Annick; Popolizio, Beth; Saini, Sonia; Bazarian, Jeffrey J.; Prins, Mayumi L.; Ferriero, Donna M.; Basso, D. Michele; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J.

    2015-01-01

    Sports-related concussions are particularly common during adolescence, a time when even mild brain injuries may disrupt ongoing brain maturation and result in long-term complications. A recent focus on the consequences of repetitive concussions among professional athletes has prompted the development of several new experimental models in rodents, as well as the revision of guidelines for best management of sports concussions. Here, we consider the utility of rodent models to understand the functional consequences and pathobiology of concussions in the developing brain, identifying the unique behavioral and pathological signatures of concussive brain injuries. The impact of repetitive concussions on behavioral consequences and injury progression is also addressed. In particular, we focus on the epidemiological, clinical, and experimental evidence underlying current recommendations for physical and cognitive rest after concussion, and highlight key areas in which further research is needed. Lastly, we consider how best to promote recovery after injury, recognizing that optimally timed, activity-based rehabilitative strategies may hold promise for the adolescent athlete who has sustained single or repetitive concussions. The purpose of this review is to inform the clinical research community as it strives to develop and optimize evidence-based guidelines for the concussed adolescent, in terms of both acute and long-term management. PMID:25883586

  13. Scaling up experimental ocean acidification and warming research: from individuals to the ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiros, A. M.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding long-term, ecosystem-level impacts of climate change is challenging because experimental research frequently focuses on short-term, individual-level impacts in isolation. We address this shortcoming first through an inter-disciplinary ensemble of novel experimental techniques to investigate the impacts of 14-month exposure to ocean acidification and warming (OAW) on the physiology, activity, predatory behaviour and susceptibility to predation of an important marine gastropod (Nucella lapillus). We simultaneously estimated the potential impacts of these global drivers on N. lapillus population dynamics and dispersal parameters. We then used these data to parameterise a dynamic bioclimatic envelope model, to investigate the consequences of OAW on the distribution of the species in the wider NE Atlantic region by 2100. The model accounts also for changes in the distribution of resources, suitable habitat and environment simulated by finely resolved biogeochemical models, under three IPCC global emissions scenarios. The experiments showed that temperature had the greatest impact on individual level responses, while acidification has a similarly important role in the mediation of predatory behaviour and susceptibility to predators. Changes in Nucella predatory behaviour appeared to serve as a strategy to mitigate individual level impacts of acidification, but the development of this response may be limited in the presence of predators. The model projected significant large-scale changes in the distribution of Nucella by the year 2100 that were exacerbated by rising greenhouse gas emissions. These changes were spatially heterogeneous, as the degree of impact of OAW on the combination of responses considered by the model varied depending on local environmental conditions and resource availability. Such changes in macro-scale distributions cannot be predicted by investigating individual level impacts in isolation, or by considering climate stressors

  14. Innovativeness as an emergent property: a new alignment of comparative and experimental research on animal innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Andrea S

    2016-03-19

    Innovation and creativity are key defining features of human societies. As we face the global challenges of the twenty-first century, they are also facets upon which we must become increasingly reliant. But what makes Homo sapiens so innovative and where does our high innovation propensity come from? Comparative research on innovativeness in non-human animals allows us to peer back through evolutionary time and investigate the ecological factors that drove the evolution of innovativeness, whereas experimental research identifies and manipulates underpinning creative processes. In commenting on the present theme issue, I highlight the controversies that have typified this research field and show how a paradigmatic shift in our thinking about innovativeness will contribute to resolving these tensions. In the past decade, innovativeness has been considered by many as a trait, a direct product of cognition, and a direct target of selection. The evidence I review here suggests that innovativeness will be hereon viewed as one component, or even an emergent property of a larger array of traits, which have evolved to deal with environmental variation. I illustrate how research should capitalize on taxonomic diversity to unravel the full range of psychological processes that underpin innovativeness in non-human animals. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Integrating local research watersheds into hydrologic education: Lessons from the Dry Creek Experimental Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, J. P.; Aishlin, P. S.; Flores, A. N.; Benner, S. G.; Marshall, H. P.; Pierce, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    While a proliferation of instrumented research watersheds and new data sharing technologies has transformed hydrologic research in recent decades, similar advances have not been realized in hydrologic education. Long-standing problems in hydrologic education include discontinuity of hydrologic topics from introductory to advanced courses, inconsistency of content across academic departments, and difficulties in development of laboratory and homework assignments utilizing large time series and spatial data sets. Hydrologic problems are typically not amenable to "back-of-the-chapter" examples. Local, long-term research watersheds offer solutions to these problems. Here, we describe our integration of research and monitoring programs in the Dry Creek Experimental Watershed into undergraduate and graduate hydrology programs at Boise State University. We developed a suite of watershed-based exercises into courses and curriculums using real, tangible datasets from the watershed to teach concepts not amenable to traditional textbook and lecture methods. The aggregation of exercises throughout a course or degree allows for scaffolding of concepts with progressive exposure of advanced concepts throughout a course or degree. The need for exercises of this type is growing as traditional lecture-based classes (passive learning from a local authoritative source) are being replaced with active learning courses that integrate many sources of information through situational factors.

  16. Overview of research and networking with ground based remote sensing for atmospheric profiling at the Cabauw experimental site for atmospheric research (Cesar) - the Netherlandse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apituley, A.; Russchenberg, H.; Marel, van der H.; Bosveld, F.; Boers, R.; Brink, ten H.; Leeuw, de G.; Uijlenhoet, R.; Abresser-Rastburg, B.; Röckmann, T.

    2008-01-01

    CESAR, the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research, is the Dutch focal point for collaboration on climate monitoring and atmospheric research and is situated on the KNMI meteorological research site near Cabauw in the Netherlands (Cabauw, 51.97 N, 4.93 E). CESAR addresses challenging

  17. Personalized translational epilepsy research - Novel approaches and future perspectives: Part II: Experimental and translational approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Sebastian; van Alphen, Natascha; Becker, Albert; Chiocchetti, Andreas; Deichmann, Ralf; Deller, Thomas; Freiman, Thomas; Freitag, Christine M; Gehrig, Johannes; Hermsen, Anke M; Jedlicka, Peter; Kell, Christian; Klein, Karl Martin; Knake, Susanne; Kullmann, Dimitri M; Liebner, Stefan; Norwood, Braxton A; Omigie, Diana; Plate, Karlheinz; Reif, Andreas; Reif, Philipp S; Reiss, Yvonne; Roeper, Jochen; Ronellenfitsch, Michael W; Schorge, Stephanie; Schratt, Gerhard; Schwarzacher, Stephan W; Steinbach, Joachim P; Strzelczyk, Adam; Triesch, Jochen; Wagner, Marlies; Walker, Matthew C; von Wegner, Frederic; Rosenow, Felix

    2017-11-01

    Despite the availability of more than 15 new "antiepileptic drugs", the proportion of patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy has remained constant at about 20-30%. Furthermore, no disease-modifying treatments shown to prevent the development of epilepsy following an initial precipitating brain injury or to reverse established epilepsy have been identified to date. This is likely in part due to the polyetiologic nature of epilepsy, which in turn requires personalized medicine approaches. Recent advances in imaging, pathology, genetics, and epigenetics have led to new pathophysiological concepts and the identification of monogenic causes of epilepsy. In the context of these advances, the First International Symposium on Personalized Translational Epilepsy Research (1st ISymPTER) was held in Frankfurt on September 8, 2016, to discuss novel approaches and future perspectives for personalized translational research. These included new developments and ideas in a range of experimental and clinical areas such as deep phenotyping, quantitative brain imaging, EEG/MEG-based analysis of network dysfunction, tissue-based translational studies, innate immunity mechanisms, microRNA as treatment targets, functional characterization of genetic variants in human cell models and rodent organotypic slice cultures, personalized treatment approaches for monogenic epilepsies, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, therapeutic focal tissue modification, computational modeling for target and biomarker identification, and cost analysis in (monogenic) disease and its treatment. This report on the meeting proceedings is aimed at stimulating much needed investments of time and resources in personalized translational epilepsy research. This Part II includes the experimental and translational approaches and a discussion of the future perspectives, while the diagnostic methods, EEG network analysis, biomarkers, and personalized treatment approaches were addressed in Part I [1]. Copyright © 2017

  18. MEASURING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ORGANIZATIONAL PUBLIC RELATIONS: AN EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ON CRISIS RESPONSE STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Çelebi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of organization-public relations and crisis communication strategies on audience perception and attitudes during a crisis have been investigated experimentally. In the context of the research, a university in Turkey was selected as the organization and students were selected as stakeholders and Coombs' situational crisis communication theories have been tested on 97 students in an experimental manner. Students were divided into 8 groups according to different corporate reputation and relational satisfaction perceptions; a crisis situation was created and a different crisis communication strategy was applied to each group. According to the research results, no matter what the thoughts were before the crisis, crisis communication strategy doesn’t reduce the responsibility of the organization in crisis and it doesn’t affect the minds of the audience, but the perception of corporate reputation and sense of relational satisfaction affect the credibility and confidence of the organization's words and actions. Regardless of the corporate reputation and relational satisfaction, the strategy of denying the crisis gave the highest accusation score and the messages given to reduce the negative consequences of the crisis were found effective within each participant group. The reason for this is that participants weren’t concerned about the cause of the crisis; they were concerned only with the messages to reduce the harmful effects of the crisis. According to the research results, organizations should make an effort to minimize the negative effects of the crisis and attach importance to their corporate reputation and relational satisfaction in order to increase the credibility of these efforts.

  19. Experimental study of the temperature distribution in the TRIGA IPR-R1 Brazilian research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, Amir Zacarias

    2005-01-01

    The TRIGA-IPR-R1 Research Nuclear Reactor has completed 44 years in operation in November 2004. Its initial nominal thermal power was 30 kW. In 1979 its power was increased to 100 kW by adding new fuel elements to the reactor. Recently some more fuel elements were added to the core increasing the power to 250 kW. The TRIGA-IPR-R1 is a pool type reactor with a natural circulation core cooling system. Although the large number of experiments had been carried out with this reactor, mainly on neutron activation analysis, there is not many data on its thermal-hydraulics processes, whether experimental or theoretical. So a number of experiments were carried out with the measurement of the temperature inside the fuel element, in the reactor core and along the reactor pool. During these experiments the reactor was set in many different power levels. These experiments are part of the CDTN/CNEN research program, and have the main objective of commissioning the TRIGA-IPR-R1 reactor for routine operation at 250 kW. This work presents the experimental and theoretical analyses to determine the temperature distribution in the reactor. A methodology for the calibration and monitoring the reactor thermal power was also developed. This methodology allowed adding others power measuring channels to the reactor by using thermal processes. The fuel thermal conductivity and the heat transfer coefficient from the cladding to the coolant were also experimentally valued. lt was also presented a correlation for the gap conductance between the fuel and the cladding. The experimental results were compared with theoretical calculations and with data obtained from technical literature. A data acquisition and processing system and a software were developed to help the investigation. This system allows on line monitoring and registration of the main reactor operational parameters. The experiments have given better comprehension of the reactor thermal-fluid dynamics and helped to develop numerical

  20. Effects of some dopamine antagonists on spatial memory performance in rats--experimental research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Gabriela; Popa, Gratiela; Ochiuz, Lacramioara; Nechifor, M; Tartau, Liliana

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine is a neurotransmitter with an important role in forming long-lasting memories for some time, especially in episodic memory. Literature data show that dopamine receptor stimulation may be detrimental to spatial working memory functions in lab animals. (R)-(+)-7-Chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine hydrochloride derivative--SCH-23390 is a synthetic compound that acts as a selective, high-affinity antagonist of D1 receptors. Experimental studies suggest that SCH 23390 may prevent the spatial working memory disturbances induced by the active substances of marijuana. Melperone is an atypic antipsychotic drug presenting also dopaminergic D2 and 5-HT2A receptor antagonistic activity. This neuroleptic agent is used in the treatment of some types of schizophrenia. Experimental research on the effects of two dopamine receptor antagonists on spatial memory performance in rats. The experiment was carried out in white Wistar rats (200-250g), divided into 3 groups of 7 animals each, treated intraperitoneally with the same volume of solution for 14 days, as follows: Group I (Control): saline solution 0.1 ml/10g kbw; Group II (coded SCH): SCH-23390 0.3 mg/kbw; Group III (coded MLP): melperone 2 mg/kbw. The dopaminergic agent spatial memory performance was assessed by recording spontaneous alternation behavior in a single session in Y-maze. Each animal was placed at the end of one arm and allowed to move freely through the maze during an 8 min session. Alternation was defined as a consecutive entry in three different arms. The alternation percentage was computed with the following formula: number of alternations divided by total number of arm visits minus 2. Data were presented as +/- standard deviation and significance was tested by SPSS Statistics for Windows version 13.0 and ANOVA method. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant compared to those in the control group. Experimental researches were carried out in

  1. Clinical Impact Research – how to choose experimental or observational intervention study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmivaara, Antti

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Interventions directed to individuals by health and social care systems should increase health and welfare of patients and customers. Aims: This paper aims to present and define a new concept Clinical Impact Research (CIR) and suggest which study design, either randomized controlled trial (RCT) (experimental) or benchmarking controlled trial (BCT) (observational) is recommendable and to consider the feasibility, validity, and generalizability issues in CIR. Methods: The new concept is based on a narrative review of the literature and on author’s idea that in intervention studies, there is a need to cover comprehensively all the main impact categories and their respective outcomes. The considerations on how to choose the most appropriate study design (RCT or BCT) were based on previous methodological studies on RCTs and BCTs and on author’s previous work on the concepts benchmarking controlled trial and system impact research (SIR). Results: The CIR covers all studies aiming to assess the impact for health and welfare of any health (and integrated social) care or public health intervention directed to an individual. The impact categories are accessibility, quality, equality, effectiveness, safety, and efficiency. Impact is the main concept, and within each impact category, both generic- and context-specific outcome measures are needed. CIR uses RCTs and BCTs. Conclusions: CIR should be given a high priority in medical, health care, and health economic research. Clinicians and leaders at all levels of health care can exploit the evidence from CIR. Key messagesThe new concept of Clinical Impact Research (CIR) is defined as a research field aiming to assess what are the impacts of healthcare and public health interventions targeted to patients or individuals.The term impact refers to all effects caused by the interventions, with particular emphasis on accessibility, quality, equality, effectiveness, safety, and efficiency. CIR uses two study

  2. Clinical Impact Research - how to choose experimental or observational intervention study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmivaara, Antti

    2016-11-01

    Interventions directed to individuals by health and social care systems should increase health and welfare of patients and customers. This paper aims to present and define a new concept Clinical Impact Research (CIR) and suggest which study design, either randomized controlled trial (RCT) (experimental) or benchmarking controlled trial (BCT) (observational) is recommendable and to consider the feasibility, validity, and generalizability issues in CIR. The new concept is based on a narrative review of the literature and on author's idea that in intervention studies, there is a need to cover comprehensively all the main impact categories and their respective outcomes. The considerations on how to choose the most appropriate study design (RCT or BCT) were based on previous methodological studies on RCTs and BCTs and on author's previous work on the concepts benchmarking controlled trial and system impact research (SIR). The CIR covers all studies aiming to assess the impact for health and welfare of any health (and integrated social) care or public health intervention directed to an individual. The impact categories are accessibility, quality, equality, effectiveness, safety, and efficiency. Impact is the main concept, and within each impact category, both generic- and context-specific outcome measures are needed. CIR uses RCTs and BCTs. CIR should be given a high priority in medical, health care, and health economic research. Clinicians and leaders at all levels of health care can exploit the evidence from CIR. Key messages The new concept of Clinical Impact Research (CIR) is defined as a research field aiming to assess what are the impacts of healthcare and public health interventions targeted to patients or individuals. The term impact refers to all effects caused by the interventions, with particular emphasis on accessibility, quality, equality, effectiveness, safety, and efficiency. CIR uses two study designs: randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (experimental

  3. Experimental research project on the dynamic behaviour of Garigliano N.P.P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Tito; Vitiello, Edmondo

    1988-01-01

    The Garigliano N.P.P., 150 MW electric and 500 MW thermic, was built from 1961- to 1964. During 1980 it was shut down and thereafter the decommissioning procedure was started. In 1984 ENEA-DISP sponsored a preliminary study for a program of on-site experimental research on the Garigliano plant as part of a more general research program on seismic safety margin assessments. This paper presents the main conclusions of this preliminary study. For the research concerning the dynamic behaviour, some features have been pointed out: a) The Garigliano N.P.P. gives the opportunity to get some results on the soil-structure interaction in the interesting case of soft-soil (indefinite layer). b) The interaction structure-soil-structure can be tested between reactor building and turbine that are separated by an expansion-joint (extending in the mat too). c) The spherical steel containment has no other structural connections with the inner reinforced concrete structure than at the foundation level and therefore it may give clean experimental results on the dynamic behaviour of the containment alone. d) The H/B (height/base) ratio of the reactor building is sufficiently low to obtain translational modes of the structure. The research program is subdivided into many phases. The ones concerning the overall structure behaviour are as following: 1) Excitation by underground explosions. 2) Excitation by actuators on the mat using as reaction mass a concrete slab (ad hoc built aside). The latter is also used to compare the dynamic foundation response with and without micropiles. 3) Excitation by shakers inside the reactor building (at the top of the concrete structure). 4) Impact tests on the external R.C. wall of the turbine building. Others phases of research program are related to the tests of aged components on site and on shaking table (up to failure load). At the end of this paper an outline of the first experiment (excitation by explosion) and some results are presented. (author)

  4. Toxicology research for precautionary decision-making and the role of Human & Experimental Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, P

    2015-12-01

    A key aim of toxicology is the prevention of adverse effects due to toxic hazards. Therefore, the dissemination of toxicology research findings must confront two important challenges: one being the lack of information on the vast majority of potentially toxic industrial chemicals and the other being the strict criteria for scientific proof usually required for decision-making in regard to prevention. The present study ascertains the coverage of environmental chemicals in four volumes of Human & Experimental Toxicology and the presentation and interpretation of research findings in published articles. Links in SciFinder showed that the 530 articles published in four selected volumes between 1984 and 2014 primarily dealt with metals (126 links) and other toxicants that have received substantial attention in the past. Thirteen compounds identified by US authorities in 2006 as high-priority substances, for which toxicology documentation is badly needed, were not covered in the journal issues at all. When reviewing published articles, reliance on p values was standard, and non-significant findings were often called 'negative.' This tradition may contribute to the perceived need to extend existing research on toxic hazards that have already been well characterized. Several sources of bias towards the null hypothesis can affect toxicology research, but are generally not considered, thus adding to the current inclination to avoid false positive findings. In this regard, toxicology is particularly prone to bias because of the known paucity of false positives and, in particular, the existence of a vast number of toxic hazards which by default are considered innocuous due to lack of documentation. The Precautionary Principle could inspire decision-making on the basis of incomplete documentation and should stimulate a change in toxicology traditions and in toxicology research publication. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Experimental Models Used in Fat Grafting Research for Volume Augmentation in Soft Tissue Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Lujan-Hernandez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available As the popularity of fat grafting research increases, animal models are being used as the source of pre-clinical experimental information for discovery and to enhance techniques. To date, animal models used in this research have not been compared to provide a standardized model. We analyzed publications from 1968–2015 to compare published accounts of animal models in fat grafting research. Data collected included: species used, graft characteristics (donor tissue, recipient area, amount injected, injection technique, time of sacrifice and quantification methods. Mice were most commonly used (56% of studies, with the “athymic nude” strain utilized most frequently (44%. Autologous fat was the most common source of grafted tissue (52%. Subcutaneous dorsum was the most common recipient site (51%. On average, 0.80±0.60 mL of fat was grafted. A single bolus technique was used in 57% of studies. Fat volume assessment was typically completed at the end of the study, occurring at less than 1 week to one year. Graft volume was quantified by weight (63%, usually in conjunction with another analysis. The results demonstrate the current heterogeneity of animal models in this research. We propose that the research community reach a consensus to allow better comparison of techniques and results. One example is the model used in our laboratory and others; this model is described in detail. Eventually, larger animal models may better translate to the human condition but, given increased financial costs and animal facility capability, should be explored when data obtained from small animal studies is exhausted or inconclusive.

  6. Research in experimental nuclear physics: Progress report, April 1, 1988--March 31, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, C.F.

    1988-11-01

    This report summarizes the work carried out by personnel from the University of Texas at Austin at the Los Alamos Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) during the calendar year 1987 under grant AS05-87ER40343 between The University of Texas at Austin and the United States Department of Energy. The research activities involved experiments done with the Energetic Pion Channel and Spectrometer (EPICS), the Low Energy Pion Channel (LEP), the Pion and Particle Physics Channel (P 3 ), and the High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS). A brief overview of work supported by this grant is given. This report contains a list of abstracts of papers reported at scientific meetings, a list of invited papers, and a list of published papers and preprints. These papers summarize experiments undertaken in this grant period and indicate the work accomplished by the participants in this program of medium energy nuclear physics research. Much of the experimental work that has been attempted during the period covered by this report has either been published or submitted for publication. Also included is a list of the recent proposals on which we have participation at LAMPF, and a list of personnel who have participated in this research program

  7. Aligning experimental design with bioinformatics analysis to meet discovery research objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael D

    2002-01-01

    The utility of genomic technology and bioinformatic analytical support to provide new and needed insight into the molecular basis of disease, development, and diversity continues to grow as more research model systems and populations are investigated. Yet deriving results that meet a specific set of research objectives requires aligning or coordinating the design of the experiment, the laboratory techniques, and the data analysis. The following paragraphs describe several important interdependent factors that need to be considered to generate high quality data from the microarray platform. These factors include aligning oligonucleotide probe design with the sample labeling strategy if oligonucleotide probes are employed, recognizing that compromises are inherent in different sample procurement methods, normalizing 2-color microarray raw data, and distinguishing the difference between gene clustering and sample clustering. These factors do not represent an exhaustive list of technical variables in microarray-based research, but this list highlights those variables that span both experimental execution and data analysis. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Acute and chronic effects of aquatic treadmill training on land treadmill running kinematics: A cross-over and single-subject design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressel, Eadric; Louder, Talin J; Hoover, James P; Roberts, Luke C; Dolny, Dennis G

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if selected kinematic measures (foot strike index [SI], knee contact angle and overstride angle) were different between aquatic treadmill (ATM) and land treadmill (LTM) running, and to determine if these measures were altered during LTM running as a result of 6 weeks of ATM training. Acute effects were tested using 15 competitive distance runners who completed 1 session of running on each treadmill type at 5 different running speeds. Subsequently, three recreational runners completed 6 weeks of ATM training following a single-subject baseline, intervention and withdrawal experiment. Kinematic measures were quantified from digitisation of video. Regardless of speed, SI values during ATM running (61.3 ± 17%) were significantly greater (P = 0.002) than LTM running (42.7 ± 23%). Training on the ATM did not change (pre/post) the SI (26 ± 3.2/27 ± 3.1), knee contact angle (165 ± 0.3/164 ± 0.8) or overstride angle (89 ± 0.4/89 ± 0.1) during LTM running. Although SI values were different between acute ATM and LTM running, 6 weeks of ATM training did not appear to alter LTM running kinematics as evidenced by no change in kinematic values from baseline to post intervention assessments.

  9. Experimental estimation of moderator temperature coefficient of reactivity of the IPEN/MB-01 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Rubens C. da; Bitelli, Ulysses D.; Mura, Luiz Ernesto C.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present the procedure for the experimental estimation of the Moderator Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity of the IPEN/MB-01 Research Reactor, a parameter that has an important role in the physics and the control operations of any reactor facility. At the experiment, the IPEN/MB-01 reactor went critical at the power of 1W (1% of its total power), and whose core configuration was 28 x 26 rectangular array of UO_2 fuel rods, inside a light water (moderator) tank. In addition, there was a heavy water (D_2O) reflector installed in the West side of the core to obtain an adequate neutron reflection along the experiment. The moderator temperature was increased in steps of 4 °C, and the measurement of the mean moderator temperature was acquired using twelve calibrated thermocouples, placed around the reactor core. As a result, the mean value of -4.81 pcm/°C was obtained for such coefficient. The curves of ρ(T) (Reactivity x Temperature) and α"M_T(T)(Moderator Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity x Temperature) were developed using data from an experimental measurement of the integral reactivity curves through the Stable Period and Inverse Kinetics Methods, that was carried out at the reactor with the same core configuration. Such curves were compared and showed a very similar behavior between them. (author)

  10. Experimental estimation of moderator temperature coefficient of reactivity of the IPEN/MB-01 research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rubens C. da; Bitelli, Ulysses D.; Mura, Luiz Ernesto C., E-mail: rubensrcs@usp.br, E-mail: ubitelli@ipen.br, E-mail: credidiomura@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (PNV/POLI/USP), SP (Brazil). Arquitetura Naval e Departamento de Engenharia Oceanica; Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this article is to present the procedure for the experimental estimation of the Moderator Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity of the IPEN/MB-01 Research Reactor, a parameter that has an important role in the physics and the control operations of any reactor facility. At the experiment, the IPEN/MB-01 reactor went critical at the power of 1W (1% of its total power), and whose core configuration was 28 x 26 rectangular array of UO{sub 2} fuel rods, inside a light water (moderator) tank. In addition, there was a heavy water (D{sub 2}O) reflector installed in the West side of the core to obtain an adequate neutron reflection along the experiment. The moderator temperature was increased in steps of 4 °C, and the measurement of the mean moderator temperature was acquired using twelve calibrated thermocouples, placed around the reactor core. As a result, the mean value of -4.81 pcm/°C was obtained for such coefficient. The curves of ρ(T) (Reactivity x Temperature) and α{sup M}{sub T}(T)(Moderator Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity x Temperature) were developed using data from an experimental measurement of the integral reactivity curves through the Stable Period and Inverse Kinetics Methods, that was carried out at the reactor with the same core configuration. Such curves were compared and showed a very similar behavior between them. (author)

  11. Pain perception in people with Down syndrome: a synthesis of clinical and experimental research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Brian E.; Defrin, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    People with an intellectual disability experience both acute and chronic pain with at least the same frequency as the general population. However, considerably less is known about the pain perception of people with Down syndrome. In this review paper, we evaluated the available clinical and experimental evidence. Some experimental studies of acute pain have indicated that pain threshold was higher than normal but only when using a reaction time method to measure pain sensitivity. However, when reaction time is not part of the calculation of the pain threshold, pain sensitivity in people with Down syndrome is in fact lower than normal (more sensitive to pain). Clinical studies of chronic pain have shown that people with an intellectual disability experience chronic pain and within that population, people with Down syndrome also experience chronic pain, but the precise prevalence of chronic pain in Down syndrome has yet to be established. Taken together, the literature suggests that people with Down syndrome experience pain, both acute and chronic, with at least the same frequency as the rest of the population. Furthermore, the evidence suggests that although acute pain expression appears to be delayed, once pain is registered, there appears to be a magnified pain response. We conclude by proposing an agenda for future research in this area. PMID:26283936

  12. Numerical and experimental research on unsteady cavitating flow around NACA 2412 hydrofoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlář, M; Komárek, M; Rudolf, P; Kozák, J; Huzlík, R

    2015-01-01

    This work deals with the numerical and experimental investigation of unsteady cavitating flow around a prismatic NACA 2412 hydrofoil. The main attention is focussed on the dependence of cavitation dynamics on the cavitation number at high incidence angles. The experimental research is carried out in the cavitation water tunnel the rectangular test section of which has inner dimensions 150×150×500 mm. Currently tested hydrofoils have a chord length of 120 mm and are equipped with pressure transducers at the leading edge and on the suction side. The PVDF hydrophone enables to measure high-frequency pressure pulses behind the hydrofoil trailing edge. The visualizations are based on two simultaneous high-speed cameras, recording the hydrofoil from the top and from one side. A comprehensive CFD analysis has been done with the ANSYS CFX package for a wide range of flow regimes. Different turbulence models including SAS-SST and Reynolds-stress models have been tested to capture highly unsteady phenomena on the hydrofoil. The numerical simulations show, that the dominant frequency of the cavity oscillation depends on the cavitation number and that there is a certain range of this number in which the 'resonance' effect can be reached. In such regime the amplitudes of the pressure pulses on the suction side of the hydrofoil dramatically increase. The calculated results have been verified by both the visualizations and the pressure measurements carried out at the hydrofoil incidence angle of 8 degrees

  13. Experimental research on in-tube condensation in the presence of air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanrikut, A.; Yesin, O.

    2000-01-01

    In this research work, in-tube condensation in the presence of air is investigated experimentally for different operating conditions, and inhibiting effect of air is analyzed by comparing the experimental data of air/steam mixture with the data of corresponding pure steam cases, with respect to temperature, heat flux, and heat transfer coefficient. The test matrix covers the range of; P=2-6 bar, Re v =45000-94000, and X i =0%-52%. The inhibiting effect of air manifests itself as a remarkable decrease in centerline temperature (10 deg. C - 50 deg. C), depending on inlet air mass fraction. However, the measured centerline temperature is suppressed compared to the predicted one, from the Gibbs-Dalton Law, which indicates that the centerline temperature measurements are highly affected by inner wall thermal conditions, possibly due to narrow channel and high vapor Reynolds number. Even at the lowest air quality (10%) the reduction of the heat flux is 20% while it reaches up to 50% for the quality of 40%. Maximum percent decrease of the heat transfer coefficient was observed in runs with the system pressure of 2 bar; 45% and 65%, for the air mass fraction of 10% and 28%, respectively. (author)

  14. The experimental set for in situ research of benthic communities in marine and freshwater ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornijów Ryszard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented system of experimental trays permits conducting field experiments at considerable depths, all year round, and with no application of diving techniques. The deployed set can be entirely hidden under water, which is an advantage in crowded areas. The set is composed of single units, each composed of a tray filled with a substrate, four-legged bridles, and a hanging rope with a removable marker float fixed on top by means of a carabiner clip. The float provides information on the location of deployed trays, and permits proper distribution of next trays to be deployed. After deployment from a boat, the units are connected with a rope, extended on one end by a sinking retrieval rope. The floats are removed immediately after deployment. Any number of units can be deployed to the bottom. It depends on the experimental design and the number of replicates. Retrieval of the set starts with locating the trays by means of GPS, and searching for the retrieval rope by means of a grappling hook dragged behind the boat. Based on our own experience and the literature, the possibilities of development of the described system are proposed depending on the local field conditions and research objectives.

  15. Experimental research of heat recuperators in ventilation systems on the basis of heat pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matveev Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of experimental studies of heat pipes and their thermo-technical characteristics (heat power, conductivity, heat transfer resistance, heat-transfer coefficient, temperature level and differential, etc.. The theoretical foundations and the experimental methods of the research of ammonia heat pipes made of aluminum section АS – КRА 7.5 – R1 (made of the alloy AD - 31 are explained. The paper includes the analysis of the thermo-technical characteristics of heat pipes as promising highly efficient heat transfer devices, which may be used as the basic elements of heat exchangers - heat recuperators for exhaust ventilation air, capable of providing energy-saving technologies in ventilation systems for housing and public utilities and for various branches of industry. The thermo-technical characteristics of heat pipes (HP as the basic elements of a decentralized supply-extract ventilation system (DSEVS and energy-saving technologies are analyzed. As shown in the test report of the ammonia horizontal HP made of the section АS-КRА 7,5-R1-120, this pipe ensures safe operation under various loads.

  16. Comparison of results of experimental research with numerical calculations of a model one-sided seal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachimiak Damian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents the results of experimental and numerical research of a model segment of a labyrinth seal for a different wear level. The analysis covers the extent of leakage and distribution of static pressure in the seal chambers and the planes upstream and downstream of the segment. The measurement data have been compared with the results of numerical calculations obtained using commercial software. Based on the flow conditions occurring in the area subjected to calculations, the size of the mesh defined by parameter y+ has been analyzed and the selection of the turbulence model has been described. The numerical calculations were based on the measurable thermodynamic parameters in the seal segments of steam turbines. The work contains a comparison of the mass flow and distribution of static pressure in the seal chambers obtained during the measurement and calculated numerically in a model segment of the seal of different level of wear.

  17. Experimental researches of nuclear reactor neutron and gamma radiation scattering into the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Istomin, Yu.L.; Zelensky, D.I.; Cherepnin, Yu.S.; Orlov, Yu.V.; Netecha, M.E.; Avaev, V.N.; Vasel'ev, G.A.; Sakamoto, H.; Nomura, Y.; Naito, Y.

    1998-01-01

    In the report there are results of measuring radiation distribution on the caps of the RA and IWG.1M research reactors. Comparative analysis of the results is also in the report. There are neutron spectra in the interval of energies from 10 -9 to 13 MeV above RA and IWG.1M reactors. The spectra were measured with a set of activation detectors. Measurements were calculated to a nominal rate: for RA reactor - 300 kw, for IWG.1M - 7 MW. Thus, in the course of the experiment, vast experimental information relating to distribution of the RA and IWG.1M reactor gamma and neutron radiation scattered in the air for distances varying from 50 to 1000 m from the reactors has become available. The data obtained are to be used to verify the calculation codes and to validate the group nuclear constants

  18. Translational pain research: evaluating analgesic effect in experimental visceral pain models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Estrup; Andresen, Trine; Christrup, Lona Louring

    2009-01-01

    Deep visceral pain is frequent and presents major challenges in pain management, since its pathophysiology is still poorly understood. One way to optimize treatment of visceral pain is to improve knowledge of the mechanisms behind the pain and the mode of action of analgesic substances. This can ...... studies and clinical condition in patients suffering from visceral pain, and thus constitute the missing link in translational pain research.......Deep visceral pain is frequent and presents major challenges in pain management, since its pathophysiology is still poorly understood. One way to optimize treatment of visceral pain is to improve knowledge of the mechanisms behind the pain and the mode of action of analgesic substances. This can...... facilitate minimizing the gap between knowledge gained in animal and human clinical studies. Combining experimental pain studies and pharmacokinetic studies can improve understanding of the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship of analgesics and, thus, provide valuable insight into optimal clinical...

  19. Experimental conditions and monitoring items of the prototype repository project (PRP). Research document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugita, Yutaka; Ito, Akira; Kawakami, Susumu

    2003-03-01

    Various experiments are ongoing in the underground research facility 'the Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL)' of SKB in Sweden for the geological disposal of the high-level radioactive waste. International joint project Prototype Repository Project (PRP) is one of the experiments in the HRL which has some engineered barrier systems and to study the coupled behavior happening in and around the engineered barrier system. JNC has joined this international joint project PRP to obtain the information of the coupled behavior on such systematic engineered barrier system and to apply the JNC's coupled THMC analytical code to the prediction and back analysis of the PRP. The analytical code will be verified through these analyses in this project. JNC can apply the verified analytical code to assess the coupled behavior in Japan. This report summarizes the experimental conditions and monitoring items of the PRP. (author)

  20. Experimental research on charging characteristics of a solar photovoltaic system by the pressure-control method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua ZHU; Zhang-lu XU; Zi-juan CAO

    2011-01-01

    The charging characteristics of the valve-regulated lead acid (VRLA) battery driven by solar energy were experimentally studied through the pressure-control method in this paper. The aims of the research were to increase charging efficiency to make the most of solar energy and to improve charging quality to prolong life of battery. The charging process of a 12 V 12 A.h VRLA battery has been tested under the mode of a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system. Results show that the pressure-control method can effectively control PV charging of the VRLA battery and make the best of PV cells through the maximum power point tracking (MPPT). The damage of VRLA battery by excess oxygen accumulation can be avoided through the inner pressure control of VRLA battery. Parameters such as solar radiation intensity, charging power, inner pressure of the battery, and charging current and voltage during the charging process were measured and analyzed.

  1. IAEA coordinated research project on 'analytical and experimental benchmark analyses of accelerator driven systems'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait-Abderrahim, H.; Stanculescu, A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides the general background and the main specifications of the benchmark exercises performed within the framework of the IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Analytical and Experimental Benchmark Analyses of Accelerator Driven Systems. The overall objective of the CRP, performed within the framework of the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR) of IAEA's Nuclear Energy Dept., is to contribute to the generic R and D efforts in various fields common to innovative fast neutron system development, i.e. heavy liquid metal thermal hydraulics, dedicated transmutation fuels and associated core designs, theoretical nuclear reaction models, measurement and evaluation of nuclear data for transmutation, and development and validation of calculational methods and codes. (authors)

  2. Co-ordinated experimental research into PV power interaction with the supply network - Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacker, R.; Thornycroft, J.; Knight, J.

    2000-07-01

    This report describes the development of a procedure for type testing photovoltaic inverters that are suitable for connecting to the UK public distribution system based on experimental research and consultation within the industry. Phase 1 of the project investigated the performance of the inverters and the cumulative effect of multiple installation on a section of distributed network, and Phase 2 concentrated on the requirements for PV inverters that would allow them to be connected to the grid without further investigation and to develop a type test procedure. The production of the 'UK Technical Guidelines for Inverter Connected Single Phase Photovoltaic (PV) Generators up to 5kVA' based on the project results and its adoption by the Electricity Association as draft Engineering Recommendations G77 are reported.

  3. Toxicology research for precautionary decision-making and the role of Human & Experimental Toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, P

    2015-01-01

    being the strict criteria for scientific proof usually required for decision-making in regard to prevention. The present study ascertains the coverage of environmental chemicals in four volumes of Human & Experimental Toxicology and the presentation and interpretation of research findings in published...... is particularly prone to bias because of the known paucity of false positives and, in particular, the existence of a vast number of toxic hazards which by default are considered innocuous due to lack of documentation. The Precautionary Principle could inspire decision-making on the basis of incomplete...... articles. Links in SciFinder showed that the 530 articles published in four selected volumes between 1984 and 2014 primarily dealt with metals (126 links) and other toxicants that have received substantial attention in the past. Thirteen compounds identified by US authorities in 2006 as high...

  4. The international STRIPA project. Experimental research on the underground disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    The International Stripa Project is a joint undertaking by a number of countries, carried out under the sponsorship of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. It concerns research into the feasibility and safety of disposal of highly radioactive wastes from nuclear power generation, deep underground in crystalline rock. The Project is managed by the Division KBS of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel Supply Company (SKBF), under the direction of representatives from each participating country. This report summarizes the objectives and preliminary results of experimental work performed within the framework of the Stripa Project and that undertaken prior to the establishment of the Project at the Stripa Mine in Sweden. It also describes the part played by the Project in the development of national policies for the safe disposal of radioactive wastes

  5. Selecting and Improving Quasi-Experimental Designs in Effectiveness and Implementation Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Margaret A; Lyles, Courtney R; McCulloch, Charles; Cattamanchi, Adithya

    2018-04-01

    Interventional researchers face many design challenges when assessing intervention implementation in real-world settings. Intervention implementation requires holding fast on internal validity needs while incorporating external validity considerations (such as uptake by diverse subpopulations, acceptability, cost, and sustainability). Quasi-experimental designs (QEDs) are increasingly employed to achieve a balance between internal and external validity. Although these designs are often referred to and summarized in terms of logistical benefits, there is still uncertainty about (a) selecting from among various QEDs and (b) developing strategies to strengthen the internal and external validity of QEDs. We focus here on commonly used QEDs (prepost designs with nonequivalent control groups, interrupted time series, and stepped-wedge designs) and discuss several variants that maximize internal and external validity at the design, execution and implementation, and analysis stages.

  6. Numerical simulation and experimental research of the integrated high-power LED radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, J. H.; Zhang, C. L.; Gan, Z. J.; Zhou, C.; Chen, C. G.; Chen, S.

    2017-01-01

    The thermal management has become an urgent problem to be solved with the increasing power and the improving integration of the LED (light emitting diode) chip. In order to eliminate the contact resistance of the radiator, this paper presented an integrated high-power LED radiator based on phase-change heat transfer, which realized the seamless connection between the vapor chamber and the cooling fins. The radiator was optimized by combining the numerical simulation and the experimental research. The effects of the chamber diameter and the parameters of fin on the heat dissipation performance were analyzed. The numerical simulation results were compared with the measured values by experiment. The results showed that the fin thickness, the fin number, the fin height and the chamber diameter were the factors which affected the performance of radiator from primary to secondary.

  7. Study design elements for rigorous quasi-experimental comparative effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Matthew L; Curtis, Lesley H; Dowd, Bryan

    2013-03-01

    Quasi-experiments are likely to be the workhorse study design used to generate evidence about the comparative effectiveness of alternative treatments, because of their feasibility, timeliness, affordability and external validity compared with randomized trials. In this review, we outline potential sources of discordance in results between quasi-experiments and experiments, review study design choices that can improve the internal validity of quasi-experiments, and outline innovative data linkage strategies that may be particularly useful in quasi-experimental comparative effectiveness research. There is an urgent need to resolve the debate about the evidentiary value of quasi-experiments since equal consideration of rigorous quasi-experiments will broaden the base of evidence that can be brought to bear in clinical decision-making and governmental policy-making.

  8. Experimental research on energy circled fraction of continuous phase plates in focal spot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuanhang; Yang Chunlin; Wen Shenglin; Shi Qikai; Wang Jian

    2013-01-01

    In inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research process, the form of focal spot is extremely crucial. Especially in the indirect driven implosion, energy circled fraction is higher than 95% in focal spot. Based on the offline test platform, the focusing spot of continuous phase plates with different application error is clearly imaged on CCD. By experimental analysis, it is found that the beam rotation error, caliber error, translational error and inclination error have a high tolerance in affecting focal plane of CPP. Energy circled fraction is higher than 95%, the range is less than 0.5%. Nevertheless, the waterfront aberration seriously affects the shaping ability of the CPP. Clearly, the main factor of reducing energy circled fraction to less than 90% is waterfront aberration. (authors)

  9. Experimental study of radiation dose rate at different strategic points of the BAEC TRIGA Research Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajijul Hoq, M; Malek Soner, M A; Salam, M A; Haque, M M; Khanom, Salma; Fahad, S M

    2017-12-01

    The 3MW TRIGA Mark-II Research Reactor of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) has been under operation for about thirty years since its commissioning at 1986. In accordance with the demand of fundamental nuclear research works, the reactor has to operate at different power levels by utilizing a number of experimental facilities. Regarding the enquiry for safety of reactor operating personnel and radiation workers, it is necessary to know the radiation level at different strategic points of the reactor where they are often worked. In the present study, neutron, beta and gamma radiation dose rate at different strategic points of the reactor facility with reactor power level of 2.4MW was measured to estimate the rising level of radiation due to its operational activities. From the obtained results high radiation dose is observed at the measurement position of the piercing beam port which is caused by neutron leakage and accordingly, dose rate at the stated position with different reactor power levels was measured. This study also deals with the gamma dose rate measurements at a fixed position of the reactor pool top surface for different reactor power levels under both Natural Convection Cooling Mode (NCCM) and Forced Convection Cooling Mode (FCCM). Results show that, radiation dose rate is higher for NCCM in compared with FCCM and increasing with the increase of reactor power. Thus, concerning the radiological safety issues for working personnel and the general public, the radiation dose level monitoring and the experimental analysis performed within this paper is so much effective and the result of this work can be utilized for base line data and code verification of the nuclear reactor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A century of avian research on USFS Experimental Forests and Ranges: Introduction to the special section on long-term avian research on Experimental Forests and Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monica Tomosy; Scott H. Stoleson; David I. King

    2011-01-01

    In August of 2009 a symposium was convened at the 127th Stated Meeting of the American Ornithologist's Union in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the nationwide system of Experimental Forests and Ranges (EFRs) established by the US Forest Service in 1909. Fifteen scientists from across the United States and the Caribbean gathered...

  11. Tools to prevent process safety events at university research facility - chemical risk assessment and experimental set-up risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the two forms developed to examine the hazards of the chemicals to be used in the experiments in the experimental setup in the Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering of the Technical University of Denmark. A system for the safety assessment of new experimental se...... setups in university research and teaching laboratories is presented. The significance of the forms for the effort of researchers in improving work with significant hazards is described....

  12. Research Ethics I: Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR)--Historical and Contemporary Issues Pertaining to Human and Animal Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Jennifer; Minifie, Fred D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In this series of articles--"Research Ethics I", "Research Ethics II", and "Research Ethics III"--the authors provide a comprehensive review of the 9 core domains for the responsible conduct of research (RCR) as articulated by the Office of Research Integrity. In "Research Ethics I", they present a historical overview of the evolution of…

  13. THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF SPINE BEAM OF FREIGHT CARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. O. Neduzha

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the results of theoretical and experimental studies of the strength properties of rolling stock; search for design tools, modeling, selection, justification of the service life extension of freight cars and their elements. Methodology. The article is based on the finite element method (FEM. It makes possible to completely automate the calculation of mechanical systems, although, as a rule, it requires a much larger number of computational operations than the classical methods of mechanics. The modern level of development of computer technology opens wide opportunities for the introduction of FEM into engineering practice. FEM is implemented in many well-known and widely distributed software products that provide strength analysis of models of machines, mechanisms, structures, including the rolling stock of railways. Findings. The article presents an analysis of the theoretical and experimental studies of the strength properties of rolling stock elements on the example of the spine beam of freight cars; calculations were performed using a modern application program package. The presented example of use of the offered approach has shown its operation capacity and efficiency, as well as correctness of the research direction. The offered approach can be used when solving similar optimization tasks in research and developmental practice of transport mechanical engineering. Originality. The authors proposed me-thod of determining the reliability indicators and solving scientific and applied problem of calculating the elements of freight cars, taking into account the operation features and the loading mode impact. This allows determining their durability at the design stage. There were developed and investigated the models of the spine beam of a freight car, on the basis of which the dependences characterizing the stress-strain state of its elements were obtained. Scientifically substantiated results of

  14. Quasi-experimental study designs series-paper 13: realizing the full potential of quasi-experiments for health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockers, Peter C; Tugwell, Peter; Røttingen, John-Arne; Bärnighausen, Till

    2017-09-01

    Although the number of quasi-experiments conducted by health researchers has increased in recent years, there clearly remains unrealized potential for using these methods for causal evaluation of health policies and programs globally. This article proposes five prescriptions for capturing the full value of quasi-experiments for health research. First, new funding opportunities targeting proposals that use quasi-experimental methods should be made available to a broad pool of health researchers. Second, administrative data from health programs, often amenable to quasi-experimental analysis, should be made more accessible to researchers. Third, training in quasi-experimental methods should be integrated into existing health science graduate programs to increase global capacity to use these methods. Fourth, clear guidelines for primary research and synthesis of evidence from quasi-experiments should be developed. Fifth, strategic investments should be made to continue to develop new innovations in quasi-experimental methodologies. Tremendous opportunities exist to expand the use of quasi-experimental methods to increase our understanding of which health programs and policies work and which do not. Health researchers should continue to expand their commitment to rigorous causal evaluation with quasi-experimental methods, and international institutions should increase their support for these efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Constructing experimental designs for discrete-choice experiments: report of the ISPOR Conjoint Analysis Experimental Design Good Research Practices Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed Johnson, F; Lancsar, Emily; Marshall, Deborah; Kilambi, Vikram; Mühlbacher, Axel; Regier, Dean A; Bresnahan, Brian W; Kanninen, Barbara; Bridges, John F P

    2013-01-01

    Stated-preference methods are a class of evaluation techniques for studying the preferences of patients and other stakeholders. While these methods span a variety of techniques, conjoint-analysis methods-and particularly discrete-choice experiments (DCEs)-have become the most frequently applied approach in health care in recent years. Experimental design is an important stage in the development of such methods, but establishing a consensus on standards is hampered by lack of understanding of available techniques and software. This report builds on the previous ISPOR Conjoint Analysis Task Force Report: Conjoint Analysis Applications in Health-A Checklist: A Report of the ISPOR Good Research Practices for Conjoint Analysis Task Force. This report aims to assist researchers specifically in evaluating alternative approaches to experimental design, a difficult and important element of successful DCEs. While this report does not endorse any specific approach, it does provide a guide for choosing an approach that is appropriate for a particular study. In particular, it provides an overview of the role of experimental designs for the successful implementation of the DCE approach in health care studies, and it provides researchers with an introduction to constructing experimental designs on the basis of study objectives and the statistical model researchers have selected for the study. The report outlines the theoretical requirements for designs that identify choice-model preference parameters and summarizes and compares a number of available approaches for constructing experimental designs. The task-force leadership group met via bimonthly teleconferences and in person at ISPOR meetings in the United States and Europe. An international group of experimental-design experts was consulted during this process to discuss existing approaches for experimental design and to review the task force's draft reports. In addition, ISPOR members contributed to developing a consensus

  16. PredPsych: A toolbox for predictive machine learning-based approach in experimental psychology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Atesh; Becchio, Cristina; Cavallo, Andrea

    2017-12-12

    Recent years have seen an increased interest in machine learning-based predictive methods for analyzing quantitative behavioral data in experimental psychology. While these methods can achieve relatively greater sensitivity compared to conventional univariate techniques, they still lack an established and accessible implementation. The aim of current work was to build an open-source R toolbox - "PredPsych" - that could make these methods readily available to all psychologists. PredPsych is a user-friendly, R toolbox based on machine-learning predictive algorithms. In this paper, we present the framework of PredPsych via the analysis of a recently published multiple-subject motion capture dataset. In addition, we discuss examples of possible research questions that can be addressed with the machine-learning algorithms implemented in PredPsych and cannot be easily addressed with univariate statistical analysis. We anticipate that PredPsych will be of use to researchers with limited programming experience not only in the field of psychology, but also in that of clinical neuroscience, enabling computational assessment of putative bio-behavioral markers for both prognosis and diagnosis.

  17. Accelerator research on MBE-4, an experimental multi-beam induction linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meuth, H.; Fessenden, T.J.; Keefe, D.; Warwick, A.I.

    1988-06-01

    The multiple beam accelerator MBE-4 is a device for research toward a heavy ion driver for inertial confinement fusion, based on the induction linac concept. Its main goal is proof of the principle of current amplification by acceleration and controlled self-similar beam pulse compression. Into the 16-m long device four beams, each with an initial current of 10 mA are injected from a Marx-driven diode at 200 keV. The current amplification is up to nine-fold, with a final beam energy of about 800 keV in the middle of the bunch. Now that all the apparatus' accelerator sections have been completed, installed and aligned, and its unaccelerated transport properties have been studied, our experimental research has reached the crucial phase of implementing appropriate accelerator schedules that approximate self-similar current-pulse compression. These schedules are established through a close interplay of computations using a one-dimensional simulation code and a manual empirical tuning procedure. In a first approach, with a rather vigorous schedule that uses most of the accelerator modules to their voltage limits, we have determined the limits of our capability for controlled pulse compression, mainly due to waveform shaping of the driving pulse-forming networks. We shall report on these results. In the future, we will also aim for gentler schedules that would model more closely an inertial confinement fusion scenario. 8 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  18. A Summary of Recent Experimental Research on Ion Energy and Charge States of Pulsed Vacuum Arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oks, Efim M.; Yushkov, Georgy Yu.; Anders, Andre

    2008-01-01

    The paper reviews the results of vacuum arc experimental investigations made collaboratively by research groups from Berkeley and Tomsk over the last two years, i.e. since the last ISDEIV in 2006. Vacuum arc plasma of various metals was produced in pulses of a few hundred microseconds duration, and the research focused on three topics: (i) the energy distribution functions for different ion charge states, (ii) the temporal development of the ion charge state distribution, and (iii) the evolution of the mean directed ion velocities during plasma expansion. A combined quadruple mass-to-charge and energy analyzer (EQP by HIDEN Ltd) and a time-of-flight spectrometer were employed. Cross-checking data by those complimentary techniques helped to avoid possible pitfalls in interpretation. It was found that the ion energy distribution functions in the plasma were independent of the ion charge state, which implies that the energy distribution on a substrate are not equal to due to acceleration in the substrate's sheath. In pulsed arc mode, the individual ion charge states fractions showed changes leading to a decrease of the mean charge state toward a steady-state value. This decrease can be reduced by lower arc current, higher pulse repetition rate and reduced length of the discharge gap. It was also found that the directed ion velocity slightly decreased as the plasma expanded into vacuum

  19. Collaborative Research: Experimental and Theoretical Study of the Plasma Physics of Antihydrogen Generation and Trapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robicheaux, Francis

    2013-03-29

    Ever since Dirac predicted the existence of antimatter in 1928, it has excited our collective imagination. Seventy-four years later, two collaborations at CERN, ATHENA and ATRAP, created the first slow antihydrogen. This was a stunning achievement, but the most important antimatter experiments require trapped, not just slow, antihydrogen. The velocity, magnetic moment, and internal energy and state of the antihydrogen depend strongly on how it is formed. To trap antihydrogen, physicists face two broad challenges: (1) Understanding the behavior of the positron and antiprotons plasmas from which the antihydrogen is synthesized; and (2) Understanding the atomic processes by which positrons and antiprotons recombine. Recombination lies on the boundary between atomic and plasma physics, and cannot be studied properly without employing tools from both fields. The proposed collaborative research campaign will address both of these challenges. The collaboration members have unique experience in the relevant fields of experimental and theoretical non-neutral plasma physics, numerical modeling, nonlinear dynamics and atomic physics. This expertise is not found elsewhere amongst antihydrogen researchers. The collaboration members have strong ties already, and seek to formalize them with this proposal. Three of the four PIs are members of the ALPHA collaboration, an international collaboration formed by most of the principal members of the ATHENA collaboration.

  20. Food-pics: an image database for experimental research on eating and appetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens eBlechert

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Our current environment is characterized by the omnipresence of food cues. The sight and smell of real foods, but also graphically depictions of appetizing foods, can guide our eating behavior, for example, by eliciting food craving and influencing food choice. The relevance of visual food cues on human information processing has been demonstrated by a growing body of studies employing food images across the disciplines of psychology, medicine, and neuroscience. However, currently used food image sets vary considerably across laboratories and image characteristics (contrast, brightness, etc. and food composition (calories, macronutrients, etc. are often unspecified. These factors might have contributed to some of the inconsistencies of this research. To remedy this, we developed food-pics, a picture database comprising 568 food images and 315 non-food images along with detailed meta-data. A total of N = 1988 individuals with large variance in age and weight from German speaking countries and North America provided normative ratings of valence, arousal, palatability, desire to eat, recognizability and visual complexity. Furthermore, data on macronutrients (g, energy density (kcal, and physical image characteristics (color composition, contrast, brightness, size, complexity are provided. The food-pics image data base is freely available under the creative commons license with the hope that the set will facilitate standardization and comparability across studies and advance experimental research on the determinants of eating behavior.

  1. Quasi-experimental designs in practice-based research settings: design and implementation considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Margaret A; Schillinger, Dean; Shiboski, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Although randomized controlled trials are often a gold standard for determining intervention effects, in the area of practice-based research (PBR), there are many situations in which individual randomization is not possible. Alternative approaches to evaluating interventions have received increased attention, particularly those that can retain elements of randomization such that they can be considered "controlled" trials. Methodological design elements and practical implementation considerations for two quasi-experimental design approaches that have considerable promise in PBR settings--the stepped-wedge design, and a variant of this design, a wait-list cross-over design, are presented along with a case study from a recent PBR intervention for patients with diabetes. PBR-relevant design features include: creation of a cohort over time that collects control data but allows all participants (clusters or patients) to receive the intervention; staggered introduction of clusters; multiple data collection points; and one-way cross-over into the intervention arm. Practical considerations include: randomization versus stratification, training run in phases; and extended time period for overall study completion. Several design features of practice based research studies can be adapted to local circumstances yet retain elements to improve methodological rigor. Studies that utilize these methods, such as the stepped-wedge design and the wait-list cross-over design, can increase the evidence base for controlled studies conducted within the complex environment of PBR.

  2. Food-pics: an image database for experimental research on eating and appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blechert, Jens; Meule, Adrian; Busch, Niko A; Ohla, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    Our current environment is characterized by the omnipresence of food cues. The sight and smell of real foods, but also graphically depictions of appetizing foods, can guide our eating behavior, for example, by eliciting food craving and influencing food choice. The relevance of visual food cues on human information processing has been demonstrated by a growing body of studies employing food images across the disciplines of psychology, medicine, and neuroscience. However, currently used food image sets vary considerably across laboratories and image characteristics (contrast, brightness, etc.) and food composition (calories, macronutrients, etc.) are often unspecified. These factors might have contributed to some of the inconsistencies of this research. To remedy this, we developed food-pics, a picture database comprising 568 food images and 315 non-food images along with detailed meta-data. A total of N = 1988 individuals with large variance in age and weight from German speaking countries and North America provided normative ratings of valence, arousal, palatability, desire to eat, recognizability and visual complexity. Furthermore, data on macronutrients (g), energy density (kcal), and physical image characteristics (color composition, contrast, brightness, size, complexity) are provided. The food-pics image database is freely available under the creative commons license with the hope that the set will facilitate standardization and comparability across studies and advance experimental research on the determinants of eating behavior.

  3. EXPERIMENTAL AND COMPUTATIONAL ACTIVITIES AT THE OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY NEES TSUNAMI RESEARCH FACILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. Yim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A diverse series of research projects have taken place or are underway at the NEES Tsunami Research Facility at Oregon State University. Projects range from the simulation of the processes and effects of tsunamis generated by sub-aerial and submarine landslides (NEESR, Georgia Tech., model comparisons of tsunami wave effects on bottom profiles and scouring (NEESR, Princeton University, model comparisons of wave induced motions on rigid and free bodies (Shared-Use, Cornell, numerical model simulations and testing of breaking waves and inundation over topography (NEESR, TAMU, structural testing and development of standards for tsunami engineering and design (NEESR, University of Hawaii, and wave loads on coastal bridge structures (non-NEES, to upgrading the two-dimensional wave generator of the Large Wave Flume. A NEESR payload project (Colorado State University was undertaken that seeks to improve the understanding of the stresses from wave loading and run-up on residential structures. Advanced computational tools for coupling fluid-structure interaction including turbulence, contact and impact are being developed to assist with the design of experiments and complement parametric studies. These projects will contribute towards understanding the physical processes that occur during earthquake generated tsunamis including structural stress, debris flow and scour, inundation and overland flow, and landslide generated tsunamis. Analytical and numerical model development and comparisons with the experimental results give engineers additional predictive tools to assist in the development of robust structures as well as identification of hazard zones and formulation of hazard plans.

  4. General physiology, experimental psychology, and evolutionism. Unicellular organisms as objects of psychophysiological research, 1877-1918.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloegel, Judy Johns; Schmidgen, Henning

    2002-12-01

    This essay aims to shed new light on the relations between physiology and psychology in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries by focusing on the use of unicellular organisms as research objects during that period. Within the frameworks of evolutionism and monism advocated by Ernst Haeckel, protozoa were perceived as objects situated at the borders between organism and cell and individual and society. Scholars such as Max Verworn, Alfred Binet, and Herbert Spencer Jennings were provoked by these organisms to undertake experimental investigations situated between general physiology and psychology that differed from the physiological psychology advocated by Wilhelm Wundt. Some of these investigations sought to locate psychological properties in the molecular structure of protoplasm; others stressed the existence of organic and psychological individuality in protozoa. In the following decades, leading philosophers such as Friedrich Nietzsche, Charles Sanders Peirce, and Henri Bergson, as well as psychological researchers like Sigmund Freud, integrated the results of these investigations into their reflections on such problems as the nature of the will, the structure of the ego, and the holistic nature of the reactions of organisms to their environment.

  5. Experimental research of joint influence of salinization and petroleum pollution on thermal capacity of frozen ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motenko, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    Most gas and petroleum fields are located in permafrost zones, with some being on saline territories. Oil pollution of soils can occur in different ways and at different points such as during the extraction, processing and storage, and during transportation of oil and petroleum products. Oil producing pollution and salinization of soil often happen together. In this case, the sources of salts are the formation fluid, commercial waste water, the contents of the granaries and other geochemically active substances used for the extraction and desalting of crude oil. Joint salinization and contamination can also happen during the rupture of oil pipelines in saline areas. Although there is research available on the properties of saline soils and on properties of soils polluted with petroleum, there are no studies that describe changes of ground properties with joint pollution of salt and petroleum. This paper presented a study that examined the joint influence of salinization and petroleum pollution on the thermal characteristics of thawed and frozen grounds, particularly on thermal capacity. The paper outlined the purpose of the research and described the experimental methods. It was concluded that an increase of salinization increases the heat capacity of frozen soil because the amount of unfrozen water increases with increasing salinization. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Experimental research of joint influence of salinization and petroleum pollution on thermal capacity of frozen ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motenko, R.G. [Moscow State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Dept. of Geocryology; Grechishcheva, E.S. [Fundamentproek, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-01

    Most gas and petroleum fields are located in permafrost zones, with some being on saline territories. Oil pollution of soils can occur in different ways and at different points such as during the extraction, processing and storage, and during transportation of oil and petroleum products. Oil producing pollution and salinization of soil often happen together. In this case, the sources of salts are the formation fluid, commercial waste water, the contents of the granaries and other geochemically active substances used for the extraction and desalting of crude oil. Joint salinization and contamination can also happen during the rupture of oil pipelines in saline areas. Although there is research available on the properties of saline soils and on properties of soils polluted with petroleum, there are no studies that describe changes of ground properties with joint pollution of salt and petroleum. This paper presented a study that examined the joint influence of salinization and petroleum pollution on the thermal characteristics of thawed and frozen grounds, particularly on thermal capacity. The paper outlined the purpose of the research and described the experimental methods. It was concluded that an increase of salinization increases the heat capacity of frozen soil because the amount of unfrozen water increases with increasing salinization. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Experimental study on the safety of Kyoto University Research Reactor at natural circulation cooling mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jian; Shen, Xiuzhong; Fujihara, Yasuyuki; Sano, Tadafumi; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Nakajima, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The natural circulation cooling capacity of Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR) was experimentally investigated. • The distributions of the outlet temperature of the fuel elements under natural circulation operations were measured. • The average temperature rise and the average natural circulation flow velocity in core were calculated. • The safety of KUR under all of the normal operations with natural circulation cooling mode has been analyzed. • The natural circulation flow after the reactor shutdown was confirmed. - Abstract: In this study, the natural circulation cooling capacity of Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR) is experimentally investigated by measuring the inlet and outlet temperatures of the core under natural circulation operation at various thermal powers ranging from 10 kW to 100 kW and the shutdown state. In view of the uneven power distribution and the resultant inconsistent coolant outlet temperature in the core, eight measuring points located separately in the outlet of the fuel elements were chosen to investigate the distribution of the outlet temperature of the core. The natural circulation cooling capacity represented by the average natural circulation flow velocity in the core is calculated from the temperature difference between the outlet and inlet temperature of the core. The measured outlet temperature of the fuel elements shows a cross-sectional distribution agreeing with the distribution of the thermal output of the fuel elements in the core. Since the measured outlet temperatures decrease quickly in the flow direction in a small local region above the outlet of the core, the mixing of the hot water out of the core with the cold water around the core outlet is found to happen in the small region not more than 5 cm far from the core outlet. The natural circulation flow velocity in the core increases non-linearly with the thermal power. The safety of KUR has been analysed by conservatively estimating the

  8. Artist Concept of X-43A/Hyper-X Hypersonic Experimental Research Vehicle in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    An artist's conception of the X-43A Hypersonic Experimental Vehicle, or 'Hyper-X' in flight. The X-43A was developed to flight test a dual-mode ramjet/scramjet propulsion system at speeds from Mach 7 up to Mach 10 (7 to 10 times the speed of sound, which varies with temperature and altitude). Hyper-X, the flight vehicle for which is designated as X-43A, is an experimental flight-research program seeking to demonstrate airframe-integrated, 'air-breathing' engine technologies that promise to increase payload capacity for future vehicles, including hypersonic aircraft (faster than Mach 5) and reusable space launchers. This multiyear program is currently underway at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Hyper-X schedule calls for its first flight later this year (2000). Hyper-X is a joint program, with Dryden sharing responsibility with NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Dryden's primary role is to fly three unpiloted X-43A research vehicles to validate engine technologies and hypersonic design tools as well as the hypersonic test facility at Langley. Langley manages the program and leads the technology development effort. The Hyper-X Program seeks to significantly expand the speed boundaries of air-breathing propulsion by being the first aircraft to demonstrate an airframe-integrated, scramjet-powered free flight. Scramjets (supersonic-combustion ramjets) are ramjet engines in which the airflow through the whole engine remains supersonic. Scramjet technology is challenging because only limited testing can be performed in ground facilities. Long duration, full-scale testing requires flight research. Scramjet engines are air-breathing, capturing their oxygen from the atmosphere. Current spacecraft, such as the Space Shuttle, are rocket powered, so they must carry both fuel and oxygen for propulsion. Scramjet technology-based vehicles need to carry only fuel. By eliminating the need to carry oxygen, future hypersonic vehicles will

  9. Research in nuclear reactor theory and experimental reactors; Istrazivanja u teoriji nuklearnih reaktora i ekspeimentalni reaktori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pop-Jordanov, J [Elektrotehnicki fakultet, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1978-05-15

    The paper is devoted to the possibilities of using experimental reactors for scientific research in nuclear power with a stress on problems in nuclear reactor theory. The stationary and nonstationary neutron fields, burnup prediction and analyses as well as fuel element development and the corresponding role of test-reactors were dealt with. It was shown that the investigations in nuclear reactor theory in Yugoslavia were developing continuously and in a useful interaction with experiments on research reactors. The needs for continuing the work on fundamental problems in neutron transport theory and on improving the calculation methods for thermal power reactors, together with the improvement of performances of existing research systems, were pointed out. A new quality in scientific work could be obtained dealing with the problems connected to a possible introduction of test-reactors, and fast systems later on. It was also pleaded for the corresponding orientations in fundamental sciences. (author) Rad je posvecen mogucnostima koriscenja eksperimentalnih reaktora za naucna istrazivanja u nuklearnoj energetici, sa akcentom na probleme teorije nuklearnih reaktora. Obradjena su stacionarna i nestacionarna neutronska polja, predikcija i analize sagorevanja, kao i razvoj gorivnih elemenata te uloga test-reaktora u osvajanju njihove tehnologije. Pokazano je da su se istrazivanja u teoriji nuklearnih reaktora u nas odvijala kontinualno i u korisnoj interakciji sa eksperimentima na istrazivackim reaktorima. Istaknuta je potreba nastavljanja rada na fundamentalnim problemima transportne teorije neutrona i na usavrsavanju metoda proracuna termalnih enerrgetskih reaktora, uz poboljsanje performansi postojecih istrazivackih sistema. Novi kvalitet u naucnom radu bi predstavljala orijentacija na probleme vezane sa eventualnim uvodjenjem test-reaktora, a zatim i brzih sistema. Pledirano je i za odgovarajuca usmeravanja u fundamentalnim naukama. (author)

  10. Single-subject-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Xiong Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a leading cause of sustained impairment in military and civilian populations. However, mild TBI (mTBI can be difficult to detect using conventional MRI or CT. Injured brain tissues in mTBI patients generate abnormal slow-waves (1–4 Hz that can be measured and localized by resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG. In this study, we develop a voxel-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mTBI on a single-subject basis. A normative database of resting-state MEG source magnitude images (1–4 Hz from 79 healthy control subjects was established for all brain voxels. The high-resolution MEG source magnitude images were obtained by our recent Fast-VESTAL method. In 84 mTBI patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms (36 from blasts, and 48 from non-blast causes, our method detected abnormalities at the positive detection rates of 84.5%, 86.1%, and 83.3% for the combined (blast-induced plus with non-blast causes, blast, and non-blast mTBI groups, respectively. We found that prefrontal, posterior parietal, inferior temporal, hippocampus, and cerebella areas were particularly vulnerable to head trauma. The result also showed that MEG slow-wave generation in prefrontal areas positively correlated with personality change, trouble concentrating, affective lability, and depression symptoms. Discussion is provided regarding the neuronal mechanisms of MEG slow-wave generation due to deafferentation caused by axonal injury and/or blockages/limitations of cholinergic transmission in TBI. This study provides an effective way for using MEG slow-wave source imaging to localize affected areas and supports MEG as a tool for assisting the diagnosis of mTBI.

  11. Integrating Language, Pragmatics, and Social Intervention in a Single-Subject Case Study of a Child With a Developmental Social Communication Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine; Gaile, Jacqueline; Lockton, Elaine; Freed, Jenny

    2015-10-01

    This clinical focus article presents an illustration of a complex communication intervention, the Social Communication Intervention Programme (SCIP), as delivered to a child who has a social communication disorder (SCD). The SCIP intervention combined language processing and pragmatic and social understanding therapies in a program of individualized therapy activities and in close liaison with families. The study used an enhanced AB single-subject design in which an 8-year-old child with an SCD participated in 20 therapy sessions with a specialist speech-language pathologist. A procedure of matching assessment findings to intervention choices was followed to construct an individualized treatment program. Examples of intervention content and the embedded structure of SCIP are illustrated. Observational and formal measurements of receptive and expressive language, conversation, and parent-teacher ratings of social communication were completed before therapy, after therapy, and at a 6-month follow-up session. Outcomes revealed change in total and receptive language scores but not in expressive language. Conversation showed marked improvement in responsiveness, appreciation of listener knowledge, turn taking, and adaptation of discourse style. Teacher-reported outcomes included improved classroom behavior and enhanced literacy skills. Parent-reported outcomes included improved verbal interactions with family members and personal narratives. This clinical focus article demonstrates the complexity of needs in a child with an SCD and how these can be addressed in individualized intervention. Findings are discussed in relation to the essential nature of language support including pragmatic therapy for children with SCDs. Discussion of the role of formal and functional outcome measurement as well as the proximity of chosen outcomes to the intervention is included.

  12. Outcomes of experimental researches on stainless steel decontamination from radioactive contamination using electric slag remelting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vurim, A.D.; Pakhnitz, A.V.; Trukhachev, A.G.; Bukhtoyarov, O.I.; Goncharov, A.Ye.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Institute of Atomic Energy prepared and conducted the experiments the purpose of researching a possibility of applying of stainless steel electric slag remelting for its decontamination from radioactive contamination. The activities were conducted at participating of the specialists of Kurgan State University, Kurgan (Russian Federation). A stand, which includes the electroslag furnace (power - 150 kW, current - to 3000 A) and auxiliary equipment (the system of common and special ventilation, system of remote control, system of parameters measuring and registering and others) was created to conduct the experiments. The properties of slag compositions were researched in the course of experiments preparation. Oxide (CaO-Al 2 O 3 - CaO-SiO 2 - MgO-B 2 O 3 ) and fluoride-oxide (CaF 2 -SiO 2 - MgF 2 -SiO 2 ) slag systems and some their modifications were chosen to research physical and chemical properties. Physical and chemical properties of the slag systems were experimentally researched and it included: measuring of surface tension using the method of maximum pressure in a gas bubble (at the same time density was measured); measuring of slag alloys electrical conductivity; measuring of melt volt-ampere characteristics. The flue tubes of high temperature reactor gas cooling KET technological channels were chosen as a source of radioactive contaminated stainless steel. This reactor is meant for testing of the fuel pin and FA of the nuclear pulse propulsion. Decontamination effect for all the remelted flue tubes was indirectly confirmed by the outcomes of measuring of radioactive radiation dose rate of the materials, extracted of the crystallizer after experiments finishing. The outcomes of the experiments show that the following processes pass at electroslag remelting of radioactively contaminated steel: uranium extraction from steel; uranium transfer from steel to slag; saving or insignificant modification of steel initial composition; radionuclides deposing

  13. Experimental Research on Dreaming: State of the Art and Neuropsychoanalytic Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, Perrine M.

    2011-01-01

    Dreaming is still a mystery of human cognition, although it has been studied experimentally for more than a century. Experimental psychology first investigated dream content and frequency. The neuroscientific approach to dreaming arose at the end of the 1950s and soon proposed a physiological substrate of dreaming: rapid eye movement sleep. Fifty years later, this hypothesis was challenged because it could not explain all of the characteristics of dream reports. Therefore, the neurophysiological correlates of dreaming are still unclear, and many questions remain unresolved. Do the representations that constitute the dream emerge randomly from the brain, or do they surface according to certain parameters? Is the organization of the dream’s representations chaotic or is it determined by rules? Does dreaming have a meaning? What is/are the function(s) of dreaming? Psychoanalysis provides hypotheses to address these questions. Until now, these hypotheses have received minimal attention in cognitive neuroscience, but the recent development of neuropsychoanalysis brings new hopes of interaction between the two fields. Considering the psychoanalytical perspective in cognitive neuroscience would provide new directions and leads for dream research and would help to achieve a comprehensive understanding of dreaming. Notably, several subjective issues at the core of the psychoanalytic approach, such as the concept of personal meaning, the concept of unconscious episodic memory and the subject’s history, are not addressed or considered in cognitive neuroscience. This paper argues that the focus on singularity and personal meaning in psychoanalysis is needed to successfully address these issues in cognitive neuroscience and to progress in the understanding of dreaming and the psyche. PMID:22121353

  14. Progress of recent experimental research on the J-TEXT tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, G.; Gentle, K. W.; Chen, Z. Y.; Chen, Z. P.; Yang, Z. J.; Zheng, Wei; Hu, Q. M.; Chen, J.; Rao, B.; Zhong, W. L.; Zhao, K. J.; Gao, L.; Cheng, Z. F.; Zhang, X. Q.; Wang, L.; Jiang, Z. H.; Xu, T.; Zhang, M.; Wang, Z. J.; Ding, Y. H.; Yu, K. X.; Hu, X. W.; Pan, Y.; Huang, H.; the J-TEXT Team

    2017-10-01

    The progress of experimental research over the last two years on the J-TEXT tokamak is reviewed and reported in this paper, including: investigations of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) on the J-TEXT operation region show that moderate amplitude of applied RMPs either increases the density limit from less than 0.7n G to 0.85n G (n G is the Greenwald density, {{n}\\text{G}}={{I}\\text{p}}/π {{a}2} ) or lowers edge safety factor q a from 2.15 to nearly 2.0; observations of influence of RMPs with a large m/n  =  3/1 dominant component (where m and n are the toroidal and poloidal mode numbers respectively) on electron density indicate electron density first increases (decreases) inside (around/outside) of the 3/1 rational surface, and it is increased globally later together with enhanced edge recycling; investigations of the effect of RMPs on the behavior of runaway electrons/current show that application of RMPs with m/n  =  2/1 dominant component during disruptions can reduce runaway production. Furthermore, its application before the disruption can reduce both the amplitude and the length of runaway current; experimental results in the high-density disruption plasmas confirm that local current shrinkage during a multifaceted asymmetric radiation from the edge can directly terminate the discharge; measurements by a multi-channel Doppler reflectometer show that the quasi-coherent modes in the electron diamagnetic direction occur in the J-TEXT ohmic confinement regime in a large plasma region (r/a ~ 0.3-0.8) with frequency of 30-140 kHz.

  15. Testing for Questionable Research Practices in a Meta-Analysis: An Example from Experimental Parapsychology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick J Bierman

    Full Text Available We describe a method of quantifying the effect of Questionable Research Practices (QRPs on the results of meta-analyses. As an example we simulated a meta-analysis of a controversial telepathy protocol to assess the extent to which these experimental results could be explained by QRPs. Our simulations used the same numbers of studies and trials as the original meta-analysis and the frequencies with which various QRPs were applied in the simulated experiments were based on surveys of experimental psychologists. Results of both the meta-analysis and simulations were characterized by 4 metrics, two describing the trial and mean experiment hit rates (HR of around 31%, where 25% is expected by chance, one the correlation between sample-size and hit-rate, and one the complete P-value distribution of the database. A genetic algorithm optimized the parameters describing the QRPs, and the fitness of the simulated meta-analysis was defined as the sum of the squares of Z-scores for the 4 metrics. Assuming no anomalous effect a good fit to the empirical meta-analysis was found only by using QRPs with unrealistic parameter-values. Restricting the parameter space to ranges observed in studies of QRP occurrence, under the untested assumption that parapsychologists use comparable QRPs, the fit to the published Ganzfeld meta-analysis with no anomalous effect was poor. We allowed for a real anomalous effect, be it unidentified QRPs or a paranormal effect, where the HR ranged from 25% (chance to 31%. With an anomalous HR of 27% the fitness became F = 1.8 (p = 0.47 where F = 0 is a perfect fit. We conclude that the very significant probability cited by the Ganzfeld meta-analysis is likely inflated by QRPs, though results are still significant (p = 0.003 with QRPs. Our study demonstrates that quantitative simulations of QRPs can assess their impact. Since meta-analyses in general might be polluted by QRPs, this method has wide applicability outside the domain of

  16. Testing for Questionable Research Practices in a Meta-Analysis: An Example from Experimental Parapsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, Dick J; Spottiswoode, James P; Bijl, Aron

    2016-01-01

    We describe a method of quantifying the effect of Questionable Research Practices (QRPs) on the results of meta-analyses. As an example we simulated a meta-analysis of a controversial telepathy protocol to assess the extent to which these experimental results could be explained by QRPs. Our simulations used the same numbers of studies and trials as the original meta-analysis and the frequencies with which various QRPs were applied in the simulated experiments were based on surveys of experimental psychologists. Results of both the meta-analysis and simulations were characterized by 4 metrics, two describing the trial and mean experiment hit rates (HR) of around 31%, where 25% is expected by chance, one the correlation between sample-size and hit-rate, and one the complete P-value distribution of the database. A genetic algorithm optimized the parameters describing the QRPs, and the fitness of the simulated meta-analysis was defined as the sum of the squares of Z-scores for the 4 metrics. Assuming no anomalous effect a good fit to the empirical meta-analysis was found only by using QRPs with unrealistic parameter-values. Restricting the parameter space to ranges observed in studies of QRP occurrence, under the untested assumption that parapsychologists use comparable QRPs, the fit to the published Ganzfeld meta-analysis with no anomalous effect was poor. We allowed for a real anomalous effect, be it unidentified QRPs or a paranormal effect, where the HR ranged from 25% (chance) to 31%. With an anomalous HR of 27% the fitness became F = 1.8 (p = 0.47 where F = 0 is a perfect fit). We conclude that the very significant probability cited by the Ganzfeld meta-analysis is likely inflated by QRPs, though results are still significant (p = 0.003) with QRPs. Our study demonstrates that quantitative simulations of QRPs can assess their impact. Since meta-analyses in general might be polluted by QRPs, this method has wide applicability outside the domain of experimental

  17. Progress report of a research program in experimental and theoretical high energy physics, 1 January 1992--31 May 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandenberger, R.; Cutts, D.; Fried, H.M.; Guralnik, G.; Jevicki, A.; King, K.; Lanou, R.E.; Partridge, R.; Tan, C.I.; Widgoff, M.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses research at Brown University in experimental and theoretical high energy physics. Some of the research programs conducted are: interactions of leptons and hadrons form accelerator and astrophysical sources; hadron interactions with hydrogen and heavier nuclei; large volume detector at the Gran Sasso Laboratory; GEM collaboration at SSC; and hadron colliders and neutrino physics

  18. Avian studies and research opportunities in the Luquillo Experimental Forest: a tropical rain forest in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Wunderle, Jr; Wayne J. Arendt

    2011-01-01

    The Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF) located on the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico has a rich history of ecological research, including a variety of avian studies, and is one of the most active ecological research sites in the Neotropics. The LEF spans an elevational range from 100 to 1075mover which five life zones and four forest types are found in a warm, humid...

  19. Experimental Research of Machineless Energy Separation Effect Influenced by Shock Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Popovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents experimental research results of machineless energy separation effect with transversal ribs in supersonic channel. The energy separation effect assumes a physical division of the inlet flow into two or more flows, each having different stagnation temperature. Among well-known energy separation effects noted there are Ranque-Hilsch vortex tubes, Hartmann-Sprenger resonance tubes, pulsating tubes and some others.A working principle of device under study is based on thermal interaction between subsonic and supersonic gas flows through a heat-conducting division wall. This energy separation method was proposed by academician Leontiev and was patented in 1998. A number of references for PhD theses, articles, and conference proceedings devoted to the research of “Leontiev tube” have been mentioned in the paper. Efficiency factors for energy separation device performability have been analyzed in detail. The main attention was focused on the phenomenon of shock waves generation in supersonic channel of Leontiev tube.Experiment was carried out in the air prototype of energy separation device with supersonic flow Mach numbers 1.9 and 2.5, stagnation temperatures 40°С and 70°С, and for uni-flow and counter-flow air moving direction in subsonic and supersonic channels. Shock waves have been generated by means of circular ribs in supersonic channel of energy separation device. The research was carried out by means of infrared thermal imaging, thermocouples, total and static pressure probes, and modern National Insturments automation equipment. The work shows that shock waves have no negative influence on energy separation effect. A conclusion is made that unexpected shock wave generation in supersonic channel will not cause operability loss. It was gained that counter-flow regime is more efficient than uni-flow. Energy separation effect also appears to be higher with the rise of Mach number and flow initial stagnation temperature

  20. Research Methods in Healthcare Epidemiology and Antimicrobial Stewardship – Quasi-Experimental Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Marin L.; Braun, Barbara I.; Milstone, Aaron M.

    2016-01-01

    Quasi-experimental studies evaluate the association between an intervention and an outcome using experiments in which the intervention is not randomly assigned. Quasi-experimental studies are often used to evaluate rapid responses to outbreaks or other patient safety problems requiring prompt non-randomized interventions. Quasi-experimental studies can be categorized into three major types: interrupted time series designs, designs with control groups, and designs without control groups. This methods paper highlights key considerations for quasi-experimental studies in healthcare epidemiology and antimicrobial stewardship including study design and analytic approaches to avoid selection bias and other common pitfalls of quasi-experimental studies. PMID:27267457

  1. Experimental research progress on passive safety systems of Chinese advanced PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Zejun; Zhuo Wenbin; Zheng Hua; Chen Bingde; Zong Guifang; Jia Dounan

    2003-01-01

    TMI and Chernobyl accidents, having pronounced impact on nuclear industries, triggered the governments as well as interested institutions to devote much attention to the safety of nuclear power plant and public's requirements on nuclear power plant safety were also going to be stricter and stricter. It is obvious that safety level of an ordinary light water reactor is no longer satisfactory to these requirements. Recently, the safety authorities have recommended the implementation of passive system to improve the safety of nuclear reactors. Passive safety system is one of the main differences between Chinese advanced PWR and other conventional PWR. The working principle of passive safety system is to utilize the gravity, natural convection (natural circulation) and stored energy to implement the system's safety function. Reactors with passive safety systems are not only safer, but also more economical. The passive safety system of Chinese advanced PWR is composed of three independent systems, i.e. passive containment cooling system, passive residual heat removal system and passive core makeup tank injection system. This paper is a summary of experimental research progress on passive containment cooling system, passive residual heat removal system and passive core makeup tank injection system

  2. Experimental research of crucible steel: a new insight and historical reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaas Remmen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes experimental archaeo-metallurgical research on crucible steel, executed as a master project to obtain the master degree in conservation.  After evaluating the results of different manufacturing techniques, the so-called Georgian crucible steel technique showed results that were remarkably similar to archaeological evidence from Merv, Turkmenistan. An objective historical reflection was made.Cet article décrit une étude expérimentale archéo-métallurgique sur l'acier creuset, menée en tant que projet maîtrise pour l’obtention du grade de master en conservation et restauration. Après avoir évalué les résultats des techniques différentes de fabrication, la technique de l’acier au creuset géorgien a montré des résultats similaires aux preuves archéologiques de Merv, au Turkménistan. Une réflexion historique a été menée à ce sujet.

  3. Signal Simulation and Experimental Research on Acoustic Emission using LS-DYNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jianchao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To calculate sound wave velocity, we performed the Hsu-Nielsen lead break experiment using the ANSYS/LS-DYNA finite element software. First, we identified the key problems in the finite element analysis, such as selecting the exciting force, dividing the grid density, and setting the calculation steps. Second, we established the finite element model of the sound wave transmission in a plate under the lead break simulation. Results revealed not only the transmission characteristics of the sound wave but also the simulation and calculation of the transmission velocity of the longitudinal and transverse waves through the time travel curve of the vibration velocity of the sound wave at various nodes. Finally, the Hsu-Nielsen lead break experiment was implemented. The results of the theoretical calculation and simulation analysis were consistent with the experimental results, thus demonstrating that the research method using the ANSYS/LS-DYNA software to simulate sound wave transmissions in acoustic emission experiments is feasible and effective.

  4. Experimental and Analytical Research on Resonance Phenomena of Vibrating Head with MRE Regulating Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miedzińska, D.; Gieleta, R.; Osiński, J.

    2015-02-01

    A vibratory pile hammer (VPH) is a mechanical device used to drive steel piles as well as tube piles into soil to provide foundation support for buildings or other structures. In order to increase the stability and the efficiency of the VPH work in the over-resonance frequency, a new VPH construction was developed at the Military University of Technology. The new VPH contains a system of counter-rotating eccentric weights, powered by hydraulic motors, and designed in such a way that horizontal vibrations cancel out, while vertical vibrations are transmitted into the pile. This system is suspended in the static parts by the adaptive variable stiffness pillows based on a smart material, magnetorheological elastomer (MRE), whose rheological and mechanical properties can be reversibly and rapidly controlled by an external magnetic field. The work presented in the paper is a part of the modified VPH construction design process. It concerns the experimental research on the vibrations during the piling process and the analytical analyses of the gained signal. The results will be applied in the VPH control system.

  5. Experimental and numerical modeling research of rubber material during microwave heating process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hailong; Li, Tao; Li, Kunling; Li, Qingling

    2018-05-01

    This paper aims to investigate the heating behaviors of block rubber by experimental and simulated method. The COMSOL Multiphysics 5.0 software was utilized in numerical simulation work. The effects of microwave frequency, power and sample size on temperature distribution are examined. The effect of frequency on temperature distribution is obvious. The maximum and minimum temperatures of block rubber increase first and then decrease with frequency increasing. The microwave heating efficiency is maximum in the microwave frequency of 2450 MHz. However, more uniform temperature distribution is presented in other microwave frequencies. The influence of microwave power on temperature distribution is also remarkable. The smaller the power, the more uniform the temperature distribution on the block rubber. The effect of power on microwave heating efficiency is not obvious. The effect of sample size on temperature distribution is evidently found. The smaller the sample size, the more uniform the temperature distribution on the block rubber. However, the smaller the sample size, the lower the microwave heating efficiency. The results can serve as references for the research on heating rubber material by microwave technology.

  6. Experimental program to stimulate competitive energy research in North Dakota: Summary and significance of DOE Trainee research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudjouk, Philip

    1999-07-01

    The general goals of the North Dakota DOE/EPSCoR Program are to enhance the capabilities of North Dakota's researchers to conduct nationally competitive energy-related research and to develop science and engineering human resources to meet current and future needs in energy-related areas. Doctoral students were trained and energy research was conducted.

  7. Procedures and techniques for the management of experimental fuels from research and test reactors. Proceedings of an advisory group meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    Almost all countries that have undertaken fuel development programs for power, research or military reactors have experimental and exotic fuels, either stored at the original research reactors where they have been tested or at some away-from-reactor storage facility. These spent fuel liabilities cannot follow the standard treatment recognized for modern power reactor fuels. They include experimental and exotic fuels ranging from liquids to coated spheres and in configurations ranging from full test assemblies to post irradiation examination specimens set in resin. This document contains an overview of the extent of the problem of managing experimental and exotic fuels from research and test reactors and an expert evaluation of the overall situation in countries which participated in the meeting

  8. Experimental researches on hydrogen generation by aluminum with adding lithium at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Weijuan; Zhang, Tianyou; Liu, Jianzhong; Wang, Zhihua; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2015-01-01

    In order to recover the released heat of Al–H_2O reaction and promote the reaction itself, the hydrogen production processes of aluminum with lithium addition in molten state are investigated. Experiments are conducted by both a thermogravimetric analyzer and a special experimental facility at high temperature. The results on both apparatuses show that the addition of Li can promote the reactivity of aluminum with water. Compared with pure aluminum, only 5% of Li content can achieve a great improvement: the H_2 yield increases from 8.7% to 53% and the average H_2 generation rate from 15 to 112 mL min"−"1 g"−"1. With the increase of Li content, H_2 yield is improved distinctly and the period with a high H_2 generation rate is prolonged. In the Al–20%Li case, the H_2 yield of 88% is obtained, and it appears a stable period in which the H_2 generation rate keeps high. When adding lithium, LiAlO_2 appears in the products and the products are made of columnar crystals. The pores with an average size of 17–33 nm in the LiAlO_2 products are manyfold bigger than the pores of alumina, which takes an important role in improving the reactivity of aluminum and water. - Highlights: • The Al–H_2O reaction with Li addition in molten state was researched. • Li addition can achieve a great promotion of H_2 yield and H_2 generation rate. • The Al–20%Li case achieved a H_2 yield of 88%. • With Li addition, LiAlO_2 was detected in the reaction products. • XRD and TEM-EDS results indicated the promoting mechanism of Li.

  9. Experimental Research in School Psychology Internationally: An Assessment of Journal Publications and Implications for Internationalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begeny, John C.; Levy, Rebecca A.; Hida, Rahma; Norwalk, Kate

    2018-01-01

    Past studies have examined the contents of journal articles in school psychology, and more recently there has been increased interest in examining the frequency and characteristics of experimental studies appearing in school psychology journals. However, no prior studies have examined the international representation of experimental and…

  10. Research Methods in Healthcare Epidemiology and Antimicrobial Stewardship-Quasi-Experimental Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Marin L; Braun, Barbara I; Milstone, Aaron M

    2016-10-01

    Quasi-experimental studies evaluate the association between an intervention and an outcome using experiments in which the intervention is not randomly assigned. Quasi-experimental studies are often used to evaluate rapid responses to outbreaks or other patient safety problems requiring prompt, nonrandomized interventions. Quasi-experimental studies can be categorized into 3 major types: interrupted time-series designs, designs with control groups, and designs without control groups. This methods paper highlights key considerations for quasi-experimental studies in healthcare epidemiology and antimicrobial stewardship, including study design and analytic approaches to avoid selection bias and other common pitfalls of quasi-experimental studies. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1-6.

  11. Quasi-experimental study designs series-paper 12: strengthening global capacity for evidence synthesis of quasi-experimental health systems research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockers, Peter C; Tugwell, Peter; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Oliver, Sandy; Atun, Rifat; Røttingen, John-Arne; Fretheim, Atle; Ranson, M Kent; Daniels, Karen; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Bärnighausen, Till

    2017-09-01

    Evidence from quasi-experimental studies is often excluded from systematic reviews of health systems research despite the fact that such studies can provide strong causal evidence when well conducted. This article discusses global coordination of efforts to institutionalize the inclusion of causal evidence from quasi-experiments in systematic reviews of health systems research. In particular, we are concerned with identifying opportunities for strengthening capacity at the global and local level for implementing protocols necessary to ensure that reviews that include quasi-experiments are consistently of the highest quality. We first describe the current state of the global infrastructure that facilitates the production of systematic reviews of health systems research. We identify five important types of actors operating within this infrastructure: review authors; synthesis collaborations that facilitate the review process; synthesis interest groups that supplement the work of the larger collaborations; review funders; and end users, including policymakers. Then, we examine opportunities for intervening to build the capacity of each type of actors to support the inclusion of quasi-experiments in reviews. Finally, we suggest practical next steps for proceeding with capacity building efforts. Because of the complexity and relative nascence of the field, we recommend a carefully planned and executed approach to strengthening global capacity for the inclusion of quasi-experimental studies in systematic reviews. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Understanding patients’ decision-making strategies in hospital choice: Literature review and a call for experimental research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Fischer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Insights from psychology and cognitive science have, as yet, barely entered hospital choice research. This conceptual article closes this gap by reviewing and conceptually framing the current literature on hospital choice and patient information behavior and by discussing which tools are needed to advance scientific methodology in the study of patient decision-making strategies in hospital choice. Specifically, we make a call for more experimental research in hospital choice in order to complement existing theories, methods, and tools. This article introduces computerized process-tracing tools in hospital choice research, and also outlines a hands-on example, to provide a basis for future research.

  13. Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Residual Symptoms in Bipolar Disorder Type II: A Single-Subject Design Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holländare, Fredrik; Eriksson, Annsofi; Lövgren, Lisa; Humble, Mats B; Boersma, Katja

    2015-04-23

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic condition with recurring episodes that often lead to suffering, decreased functioning, and sick leave. Pharmacotherapy in the form of mood stabilizers is widely available, but does not eliminate the risk of a new depressive or (hypo)manic episode. One way to reduce the risk of future episodes is to combine pharmacological treatment with individual or group psychological interventions. However, access to such interventions is often limited due to a shortage of trained therapists. In unipolar depression there is now robust evidence of the effectiveness of Internet-based psychological interventions, usually comprising psychoeducation and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Internet-based interventions for persons suffering from bipolar disorder could increase access to psychological treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of an Internet-based intervention, as well as its effect on residual depressive symptoms in persons diagnosed with bipolar disorder type II (BP-II). The most important outcomes were depressive symptoms, treatment adherence, and whether the patient perceived the intervention as helpful. A total of 7 patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder type II at a Swedish psychiatric outpatient clinic were offered the opportunity to participate. Of the 7 patients, 3 (43%) dropped out before treatment began, and 4 (57%) were treated by means of an online, Internet-based intervention based on CBT (iCBT). The intervention was primarily aimed at psychoeducation, treatment of residual depressive symptoms, emotion regulation, and improved sleep. All patients had ongoing pharmacological treatment at recruitment and established contact with a psychiatrist. The duration of BP-II among the treated patients was between 6 and 31 years. A single-subject design was used and the results of the 4 participating patients were presented individually. Initiating treatment was perceived as too demanding under current life

  14. Review of Research Projects on Qualitative and Quantitative Effects of Radiation on Haematopoietic Tissue in Man and Experimental Animal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilberg, A. W. [Division of Radiological Health, Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Rockville, MD (United States)

    1967-07-15

    By way of introduction to a review of Research Projects of the Division of Radiological Health concerned with effects of radiation on the haematopoietic tissue in man and the experimental animal, I should like first to discuss briefly the organization of research. Our research is organized into three major disciplines: (1) Epidemiology, (2) Radiation biology, and (3) Environmental sciences. Briefly, epidemiology is concerned with studies, of populations and effects of radiation in.man; radiation biology is concerned with effects in the experimental animal under controlled situations and also concerned with basic research in cellular and sub-cellular effects; and environmental science is concerned with transport mechanisms in the biosphere and how these mechanisms may operate and be interrupted to reduce radiation hazard to man.

  15. Research on acute and chronic toxity of the experimental drug Аmprolinsyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gutyj

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The drug Amprolinsyl is a is a mixture of hydrochloric amprolium (12.5 g and milled fruits of the milk thistle (up to 100 g, designed to prevent and treat protozoonoses in birds, especially when mixed associative invasions occur. The fruits of the milk thistle contain the natural vitamins (A, C, E, B and the minerals (copper, iron, cobalt and other factors that significantly expand and enhance the pharmacological effect of the drug Amprolinsyl. We found that when the drug Amprolinsyl was administered intra gastrically to white rats at a dose of 5000 mg/kg and higher clinical signs of toxicity occurred after 4–5 hours. Damage to motor activity and tremors of individual muscles of these animals was observed. The rats died after 1–4 days. A direct relationship was found between the drug at a specific dosage and the death of rats. After intra gastric administration of the drug Amprolinsyl to white rats clinical signs of toxicity appeared after 5–6 hours at a dose of 4000 mg/kg body weight. These animals attempted to gather in groups and to hide in the bedding. The death of the mice occured in 1–3 days. Thus, LD50 drug of Amprolinsyl following intra gastric administration to white rats (5917 mg/kg and for white mice (5167 mg/kg. After studying the cumulative properties of Amprolinsyl, it was found that the total drug administered in avarage doses was 831 mg/kg, and the cumulative rate – 8.31. Long-term daily intragastric administration of Amprolinsyl over 24 days affected the functional state of the liver and kidneys. The magnitude of weight ratios of lungs, heart and spleen during the research period was the same as in the control group of rats. Significant changes were found only after analyzing the leukocyte profile. A reduction was observed in the number of neutrophils to 54.7% and an increase in the number of lymphocytes to 9.2%. Following prolonged daily administration of increasing doses Amprolinsyl causes a slight degradation of the

  16. Experimental research on single phase convection heat transfer in micro-fin tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Guangming; Sun Zhongning; Zhu Sheng

    2011-01-01

    An experimental investigation of heat transfer and flow resistance characteristics of single phase water in three micro-fin tubes with different fin height was conducted. At the same time, the efficiency of micro-fin tubes within the experimental scope was evaluated and the optimal working region was determined. Based on the experimental data in the optimal working region, correlations for predicting the heat transfer and flow resistance were also given by multiple regression method. The result indicates that the micro-fin tubes can greatly enhance the single-phase heat transfer in turbulent flow, and the increase of heat transfer coefficient is higher than the increase of flow resistance. The accuracy of the correlation is very high, of which the deviation from the experimental value is very small. (authors)

  17. Comparison of experimental and theoretical reaction rail currents, rail voltages, and airgap fields for the linear induction motor research vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, D. G.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of reaction rail currents, reaction rail voltages, and airgap magnetic fields in tests of the Linear Induction Motor Research Vehicle (LIMRV) were compared with theoretical calculations from the mesh/matrix theory. It was found that the rail currents and magnetic fields predicted by the theory are within 20 percent of the measured currents and fields at most motor locations in most of the runs, but differ by as much as a factor of two in some cases. The most consistent difference is a higher experimental than theoretical magnetic field near the entrance of the motor and a lower experimental than theoretical magnetic field near the exit. The observed differences between the theoretical and experimental magnetic fields and currents do not account for the differences of as much as 26 percent between the theoretical and experimental thrusts.

  18. Breaking Empirical Deadlocks in the Study of Partisanship: An Overview of Experimental Research Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald P. Green

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The vast literature on party identification has gradually become bogged down by disputes about how to interpret observational data. This paper proposes the use of experimental designs to shed light on the responsiveness of party identification to short term forces such as retrospective performance evaluations. Examples of recent field experiments are used to illustrate two types of experimental designs and the assumptions on which they rest.

  19. Breaking empirical deadlocks in the study of partisanship: an overview of experimental research strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Donald P.

    2013-01-01

    The vast literature on party identification has gradually become bogged down by disputes about how to interpret observational data. This paper proposes the use of experimental designs to shed light on the responsiveness of party identification to short term forces such as retrospective performance evaluations. Examples of recent field experiments are used to illustrate two types of experimental designs and the assumptions on which they rest.

  20. Experimental research on the relation between food price changes and food-purchasing patterns: a targeted review1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Leonard H; Jankowiak, Noelle; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Raynor, Hollie A; French, Simone A; Finkelstein, Eric

    2012-01-01

    One way in which to modify food purchases is to change prices through tax policy, subsidy policy, or both. We reviewed the growing body of experimental research conducted in the laboratory and in the field that investigates the following: the extent to which price changes influence purchases of targeted and nontargeted foods, total energy, or macronutrients purchased; the interaction of price changes with adjunctive interventions; and moderators of sensitivity to price changes. After a brief overview of economic principles and observational research that addresses these issues, we present a targeted review of experimental research. Experimental research suggests that price changes modify purchases of targeted foods, but research on the overall nutritional quality of purchases is mixed because of substitution effects. There is mixed support for combining price changes with adjunctive interventions, and there are no replicated findings on moderators to price sensitivity in experiments. Additional focused research is needed to better inform food policy development with the aim of improving eating behavior and preventing obesity. PMID:22378726

  1. Experimental research on the relation between food price changes and food-purchasing patterns: a targeted review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Leonard H; Jankowiak, Noelle; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Raynor, Hollie A; French, Simone A; Finkelstein, Eric

    2012-04-01

    One way in which to modify food purchases is to change prices through tax policy, subsidy policy, or both. We reviewed the growing body of experimental research conducted in the laboratory and in the field that investigates the following: the extent to which price changes influence purchases of targeted and nontargeted foods, total energy, or macronutrients purchased; the interaction of price changes with adjunctive interventions; and moderators of sensitivity to price changes. After a brief overview of economic principles and observational research that addresses these issues, we present a targeted review of experimental research. Experimental research suggests that price changes modify purchases of targeted foods, but research on the overall nutritional quality of purchases is mixed because of substitution effects. There is mixed support for combining price changes with adjunctive interventions, and there are no replicated findings on moderators to price sensitivity in experiments. Additional focused research is needed to better inform food policy development with the aim of improving eating behavior and preventing obesity.

  2. A Decade Remote Sensing River Bathymetry with the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzel, P. J.; Legleiter, C. J.; Nelson, J. M.; Skinner, K.

    2012-12-01

    Since 2002, the first generation of the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research LiDAR (EAARL-A) sensor has been deployed for mapping rivers and streams. We present and summarize the results of comparisons between ground truth surveys and bathymetry collected by the EAARL-A sensor in a suite of rivers across the United States. These comparisons include reaches on the Platte River (NE), Boise and Deadwood Rivers (ID), Blue and Colorado Rivers (CO), Klamath and Trinity Rivers (CA), and the Shenandoah River (VA). In addition to diverse channel morphologies (braided, single thread, and meandering) these rivers possess a variety of substrates (sand, gravel, and bedrock) and a wide range of optical characteristics which influence the attenuation and scattering of laser energy through the water column. Root mean square errors between ground truth elevations and those measured by the EAARL-A ranged from 0.15-m in rivers with relatively low turbidity and highly reflective sandy bottoms to over 0.5-m in turbid rivers with less reflective substrates. Mapping accuracy with the EAARL-A has proved challenging in pools where bottom returns are either absent in waveforms or are of such low intensity that they are treated as noise by waveform processing algorithms. Resolving bathymetry in shallow depths where near surface and bottom returns are typically convolved also presents difficulties for waveform processing routines. The results of these evaluations provide an empirical framework to discuss the capabilities and limitations of the EAARL-A sensor as well as previous generations of post-processing software for extracting bathymetry from complex waveforms. These experiences and field studies not only provide benchmarks for the evaluation of the next generation of bathymetric LiDARs for use in river mapping, but also highlight the importance of developing and standardizing more rigorous methods to characterize substrate reflectance and in-situ optical properties at study sites

  3. [Experimental physics at Yale University: Research proposal and budget Proposal, 1 January 1992--31 December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    This report reviews the following topics: nuclear and quark matter; correlated pairs from heavy ion collisions-search for new low mass resonances coupled to electron-positron collisions; proposed light ion research program; experimental nuclear astrophysics (explosive nucleosynthesis); search for rare decay modes and rare processes in nuclei; and nuclear spectroscopy at the extremes of spin, isospin, and temperature. (LSP).

  4. (Experimental physics at Yale University: Research proposal and budget Proposal, 1 January 1992--31 December 1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This report reviews the following topics: nuclear and quark matter; correlated pairs from heavy ion collisions-search for new low mass resonances coupled to electron-positron collisions; proposed light ion research program; experimental nuclear astrophysics (explosive nucleosynthesis); search for rare decay modes and rare processes in nuclei; and nuclear spectroscopy at the extremes of spin, isospin, and temperature. (LSP).

  5. [Experimental physics at Yale University: Research proposal and budget Proposal, 1 January 1992--31 December 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report reviews the following topics: nuclear and quark matter; correlated pairs from heavy ion collisions-search for new low mass resonances coupled to electron-positron collisions; proposed light ion research program; experimental nuclear astrophysics (explosive nucleosynthesis); search for rare decay modes and rare processes in nuclei; and nuclear spectroscopy at the extremes of spin, isospin, and temperature. (LSP)

  6. Survey of basic medical researchers on the awareness of animal experimental designs and reporting standards in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ma

    Full Text Available To investigate the awareness and use of the Systematic Review Center for Laboratory Animal Experimentation's (SYRCLE risk-of-bias tool, the Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE reporting guidelines, and Gold Standard Publication Checklist (GSPC in China in basic medical researchers of animal experimental studies.A national questionnaire-based survey targeting basic medical researchers was carried in China to investigate the basic information and awareness of SYRCLE's risk of bias tool, ARRIVE guidelines, GSPC, and animal experimental bias risk control factors. The EpiData3.1 software was used for data entry, and Microsoft Excel 2013 was used for statistical analysis in this study. The number of cases (n and percentage (% of classified information were statistically described, and the comparison between groups (i.e., current students vs. research staff was performed using chi-square test.A total of 298 questionnaires were distributed, and 272 responses were received, which included 266 valid questionnaires (from 118 current students and 148 research staff. Among the 266 survey participants, only 15.8% was aware of the SYRCLE's risk of bias tool, with significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.003, and the awareness rates of ARRIVE guidelines and GSPC were only 9.4% and 9.0%, respectively; 58.6% survey participants believed that the reports of animal experimental studies in Chinese literature were inadequate, with significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.004. In addition, only approximately 1/3 of the survey participants had read systematic reviews and meta-analysis reports of animal experimental studies; only 16/266 (6.0% had carried out/participated in and 11/266 (4.1% had published systematic reviews/meta-analysis of animal experimental studies.The awareness and use rates of SYRCLE's risk-of-bias tool, the ARRIVE guidelines, and the GSPC were low among Chinese basic medical researchers. Therefore

  7. Experience of organizing and management of experimental researches on animals in V.I. Shumakov National Medical Research Center of Transplantology and Artificial Organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Shagidulin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This review briefl y discusses the experience of organizing and carrying out experimental studies in our center in order to increase the validity of the researches. The rules of organizational and methodological approaches aimed at increasing the suitability of the results of experimental studies are also given. Each research work in which experiments on laboratory animals are supposed to be carried out should be organized, planned and carried out in accordance with national and international ethical standards. Discussion and publication of both planned and conducted experimental work makes it possible to make the research process more open and objective. The experimental investigation is carried out in the following algorithm: the formulation of the problem and the hypothesis on the basis of the literature data; development of the purpose and objectives of the study with adequate methods and selection of equipment; distribution of material to control and trial groups; creation of a plan for monitoring the indicators during the experiment; processing and interpretation of results; preparation of a scientifi c report. 

  8. Experimental study of heavy flavor physics and SSC research and development at the University of Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reidy, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses research in particle production and decay of charmed particles. The detectors used are discussed as well as data acquisition system. Research on superconducting super collider is also discussed

  9. Calculated and experimental research of WWER-1000 assembly vibration and fretting damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdov, Y.; Afanasyev, A.; Makarov, V.; Tutnov, A.; Tutnov, A.; Alekseev, E.

    2008-01-01

    The report covers the methods and results of the latest analytical and experimental studies of fretting corrosion and natural vibrations of a WWER-1000 reactor fuel assemblies (FA). The process of fretting-corrosion was investigated using a multi-specimen facility that simulated fragments of fuel rod-to-spacer grid and lower support grid mating units. A computational model was developed for vibrations in the mechanical system of a fuel rod fragment and a spacer grid fragment. A calculational and experimental modal analysis of a FA was performed. Natural frequencies, modes and decrements of FA vibrations were determined and a satisfactory coincidence of analytical and experimental results was obtained. The assessment of fretting-corrosion process dynamics was made and its dependences on operational factors were obtained. (authors)

  10. Theoretical and experimental researches of methanol clusters in low - temperature matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernolevs'ka, Je.A.; Doroshenko, Yi.Yu.; Pogorelov, V.Je.; Vas'kyivs'kij, Je.V.; Shablyinskas, V.; Balyavyichus, V.; Yasajev, O.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular vibrational spectra of methanol in argon and nitrogen matrices have been studied. Since methanol belongs to a class of substances with hydrogen bonds, there is a possibility of forming molecular associations and clusters with various numbers of molecules. IR spectra of methanol in Ar and N 2 matrices experimentally obtained in the temperature range from 10 to 50 K are compared with the results of computer simulation using the ab initio Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) method. The results obtained for small clusters in model calculations demonstrate a good correlation with experimental data for various matrices at the corresponding temperatures

  11. Bias and misleading concepts in an Arnica research study. Comments to improve experimental Homeopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Chirumbolo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic experimental models in Homeopathy are of major interest because they could get insightful data about the ability of high dilutions to work in a biological system. Due to the extreme difficulty in the highlighting any possible effect and trusting its reliability, methods should be particularly stringent and highly standardized. Confounders, handling process, pre-analytical errors, misleading statistics and misinterpretations may lead to experimental biases. This article tries to elucidate those factors causing bias, taking into account some recent reported evidence in the field.

  12. Some manufacture and installation problems in experimental assemblies for fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, J.E.; Rappe, G.; Hoare, F.; McDonald, J.

    1976-01-01

    Many of the manufacturing problems encountered when developing specialised items of fusion apparatus are only solved after much experimentation and a good deal of trial and error. After the experiment is built such problems may be forgotten and are often not recorded so that subsequent workers in the same field may start with no past experience on which to build. The paper therefore highlights some of the manufacturing problems which have been solved during the construction of some of the experimental apparatus at Culham

  13. Drug research methodology. Volume 5, Experimentation in drugs and highway safety : the study of drug effects on skills related to driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    This report presents the findings of a workshop on experimental research in the area of drugs and highway safety. Complementing studies of drug use in different driving populations, experimentation here refers to studies performed under controlled co...

  14. Experimental Research on Seismic Performance of Four-Element Variable Cross-Sectional Concrete Filled Steel Tubular Laced Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Zhijing; Lin, Jianmao; Chen, Shengfu; Lin, Wen

    2017-10-01

    A total of 7 experimental tests were conducted to investigate seismic performance of four element variable cross-sectional Concrete Filled Steel Tubular (CFST) laced columns. The experimental parameters are longitudinal slope and arrangement type of lacing tubes. The rules on hysteresis loop, ductility, energy expenditure, and stiffness degradation of specimens are researched. Test results indicate that all specimens have good seismic performance; their hysteresis loops are full without obvious shrinkage. With the increase of longitudinal slope, the horizontal carrying capacity increases, energy dissipation capacity improve, and there is slightly increase in stiffness degradation. The influence of arrangement type of lacing tubes on displacement ductility of specimens is big.

  15. Development of watershed hydrologic research at Santee Experimental Forest, coastal South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra Amatya; Carl Trettin

    2007-01-01

    Managing forested wetland landscapes for water quality improvement and productivity requires a detailed understanding of functional linkages between ecohydrological processes and management practices. Watershed studies are being conducted at USDA Forest Service Santee Experimental Forest, South Carolina, to understand the fundamental hydrologic and biogeochemical...

  16. Numerical/experimental research on welded joints in aluminium truss girders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hove, B.W.E.M.; Soetens, F.; Mazzolani, F.M.; Bellucci, F.; Faggiano, B.; Squillace, A.

    2016-01-01

    Welded joints in a 30 meter span aluminium truss girder were investigated numerically and experimentally. Since aluminium design rules for welded K-and N-joints in CHS truss girders were lacking the joints were checked using steel design rules. Calculations showed that the N-joints were governing

  17. Results of experimental research of the modes of short circuit in a traction network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Ye. Mykhalichenko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article the results, namely oscillograms of the transitional feeder electric values obtained by the experimental tests of the short circuit modes in case of setting off different types of substation fast-acting switches are presented. The experiments were conducted on the operating electrified track sections of the Prydniprovs’ka Railway.

  18. Experimental Research of Moisture Evaporation Process from Biomass in a Drying Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulba E.E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented mass evaporation rate hardwood (birch, aspen, maple, poplar derived from experimental studies. The dependence of temperature on evaporation mass rate and calculated the accommodation coefficient for the respective temperature ranges are obtained. Analyzed the temperature of drying conditions relevant species hardwood.

  19. Experimental and Theoretical Researches of a Resonator Concept of a Dielectric Wakefield Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishchenko, I.N.; Kiselev, V.A.; Linnik, A.F.; Onishchenko, N.I.; Sotnikov, G.V.; Uskov, V.V.

    2006-01-01

    Wakefield excitation in a cylindrical dielectric waveguide or resonator by a regular sequence of electron bunches foe application to high-gradient particle acceleration has been investigated theoretically and experimentally using an electron linac 'ALMAZ-2' (4.5 MeV, 6.10 3 bunches of duration 60 ps and charge 0.32 nC each)

  20. Critical Need for Family-Based, Quasi-Experimental Designs in Integrating Genetic and Social Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Turkheimer, Eric; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have identified environmental risks that predict subsequent psychological and medical problems. Based on these correlational findings, researchers have developed and tested complex developmental models and have examined biological moderating factors (e.g., gene–environment interactions). In this context, we stress the critical need for researchers to use family-based, quasi-experimental designs when trying to integrate genetic and social science research involving environmental variables because these designs rigorously examine causal inferences by testing competing hypotheses. We argue that sibling comparison, offspring of twins or siblings, in vitro fertilization designs, and other genetically informed approaches play a unique role in bridging gaps between basic biological and social science research. We use studies on maternal smoking during pregnancy to exemplify these principles. PMID:23927516

  1. Maximizing potential impact of experimental research into cognitive processes in health psychology: A systematic approach to material development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Alicia M; Gordon, Rola; Chalder, Trudie; Hirsch, Colette R; Moss-Morris, Rona

    2016-11-01

    There is an abundance of research into cognitive processing biases in clinical psychology including the potential for applying cognitive bias modification techniques to assess the causal role of biases in maintaining anxiety and depression. Within the health psychology field, there is burgeoning interest in applying these experimental methods to assess potential cognitive biases in relation to physical health conditions and health-related behaviours. Experimental research in these areas could inform theoretical development by enabling measurement of implicit cognitive processes that may underlie unhelpful illness beliefs and help drive health-related behaviours. However, to date, there has been no systematic approach to adapting existing experimental paradigms for use within physical health research. Many studies fail to report how materials were developed for the population of interest or have used untested materials developed ad hoc. The lack of protocol for developing stimuli specificity has contributed to large heterogeneity in methodologies and findings. In this article, we emphasize the need for standardized methods for stimuli development and replication in experimental work, particularly as it extends beyond its original anxiety and depression scope to other physical conditions. We briefly describe the paradigms commonly used to assess cognitive biases in attention and interpretation and then describe the steps involved in comprehensive/robust stimuli development for attention and interpretation paradigms using illustrative examples from two conditions: chronic fatigue syndrome and breast cancer. This article highlights the value of preforming rigorous stimuli development and provides tools to aid researchers engage in this process. We believe this work is worthwhile to establish a body of high-quality and replicable experimental research within the health psychology literature. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Cognitive

  2. Research exemption/experimental use in the European Union: patents do not block the progress of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenichen, Hans-Rainer; Pitz, Johann

    2014-11-06

    In the public debate about patents, specifically in the area of biotechnology, the position has been taken that patents block the progress of science. As we demonstrate in this review, this is not the case in the European Union (EU). The national patent acts of the EU member states define research and experimental use exemptions from patent infringement that allow sufficient room for research activities to promote innovation. This review provides a comparative overview of the legal requirements and the extent and limitations of experimental use exemptions, including the so-called Bolar provision, in Germany, the United Kingdom, France, Spain, Italy, and The Netherlands. The legal framework in the respective countries is illustrated with reference to practical examples concerning tests on patent-protected genetic targets and antibodies. Specific questions concerning the use of patent-protected research tools, the outsourcing of research activities, and the use of preparatory and supplying acts for experimental purposes that are necessary for conducting experiments are covered. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  3. Research in experimental nuclear physics. Progress report, April 1, 1979-March 31, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    This report summarizes work carried out by the University of Texas at Austin at LAMPF during the period April 1, 1979, to March 31, 1980. Research activities involved experiments done with the Energetic Pion Channel and Spectrometer (EPICS) and the external proton beam. Research activities are described, and lists of publications, abstracts, personnel, and acknowledgements are given. A separate abstract was written for each of the seven research reports

  4. (Experimental development, testing and research work in support of the inertial confinement fusion program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, D.J.; Luckhardt, R.; Moyer, S.; Armentrout, C.J.; Downs, R.L.; Moncur, K. (eds.)

    1990-02-28

    This report discusses: Cryogenic technology; polymer shell fabrication; glass shell fabrication and characterization; coating technology; development of characterization techniques; laser technology; and plasma research and instrumentation.

  5. Overview of Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) project and Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yujiro

    2008-01-01

    The J-PARC project has been conducted jointly by JAERI and KEK since 2001. This paper reports an overview and current status of the project. The high intensity proton accelerator consists of a 400 MeV Linac, a 3 GeV synchrotron and 50 GeV synchrotron to deliver MW level pulsed proton beam to experimental facilities. The MW proton power will provide an advanced scientific experimental research complex aiming at making breakthroughs in materials and life science with neutron and muon, nuclear and elementary physics, etc. Regarding the project being close to its completion in 2008, this paper describes the overview of J-PARC project with emphasis of the Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility, in which the MW pulsed neutron and muon sources, are placed to provide high quality neutron and muon beams to the world wide users. (author)

  6. The techniques of quality operations computational and experimental researches of the launch vehicles in the drawing-board stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhaeva, K.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the researchis the quality operations of the design process at the stage of research works on the development of active on-Board system of the launch vehicles spent stages descent with liquid propellant rocket engines by simulating the gasification process of undeveloped residues of fuel in the tanks. The design techniques of the gasification process of liquid rocket propellant components residues in the tank to the expense of finding and fixing errors in the algorithm calculation to increase the accuracy of calculation results is proposed. Experimental modelling of the model liquid evaporation in a limited reservoir of the experimental stand, allowing due to the false measurements rejection based on given criteria and detected faults to enhance the results reliability of the experimental studies; to reduce the experiments cost.

  7. Cold Climate Foundation Retrofit Experimental Hygrothermal Performance. Cloquet Residential Research Facility Laboratory Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Louise F. [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States); Harmon, Anna C. [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2015-04-09

    This project was funded jointly by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL focused on developing a full basement wall system experimental database to enable others to validate hygrothermal simulation codes. NREL focused on testing the moisture durability of practical basement wall interior insulation retrofit solutions for cold climates. The project has produced a physically credible and reliable long-term hygrothermal performance database for retrofit foundation wall insulation systems in zone 6 and 7 climates that are fully compliant with the performance criteria in the 2009 Minnesota Energy Code. These data currently span the period from November 10, 2012 through May 31, 2014 and are anticipated to be extended through November 2014. The experimental data were configured into a standard format that can be published online and that is compatible with standard commercially available spreadsheet and database software.

  8. Experimental research of UWB over fiber system employing 128-QAM and ISFA-optimized scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Xiang, Changqing; Long, Fengting; Chen, Zuo

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, an optimized intra-symbol frequency-domain averaging (ISFA) scheme is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in intensity-modulation and direct-detection (IMDD) multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MB-OFDM) ultra-wideband over fiber (UWBoF) system. According to the channel responses of three MB-OFDM UWB sub-bands, the optimal ISFA window size for each sub-band is investigated. After 60-km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) transmission, the experimental results show that, at the bit error rate (BER) of 3.8 × 10-3, the receiver sensitivity of 128-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) can be improved by 1.9 dB using the proposed enhanced ISFA combined with training sequence (TS)-based channel estimation scheme, compared with the conventional TS-based channel estimation. Moreover, the spectral efficiency (SE) is up to 5.39 bit/s/Hz.

  9. Solitons: interactions, theoretical and experimental challenges and perspectives (physics research and technology)

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    In mathematics and physics, a soliton is a self-reinforcing solitary wave (a wave packet or pulse) that maintains its shape while it travels at constant speed. Solitons are caused by a cancellation of non-linear and dispersive effects in the medium. In this book, the authors discuss the interactions and theoretical and experimental challenges of solitons. Topics include soliton motion of electrons and its physical properties in coupled electron-phonon systems and ionic crystals; soliton excitations and its experimental evidence in molecular crystals; shapes and dynamics of semi-discrete solitons in arrayed and stacked waveguiding systems; ion-acoustic super solitons in plasma; diamond-controlled solitons and turbulence in extracellular matrix and lymphatic dynamics; and non-linear waves in strongly interacting relativistic fluids.

  10. Simulated experimental research on flow field near control rod guide tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Ping'an; Shen Xiuzhong; Yang Guanyue; He Fangzheng; Gao Weiguo; Zhang Zhiyi; Tian Ji'an

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents the velocity measurement in the 1/4 scale transparent model of PWR pressure vessel upper plenum of 300 MW nuclear power plant by employing dynamic resistance strain foil velocity measurement technology and laser Doppler velocity measurement technology which have no effect on the flow field. In the experiment water is chosen as the fluid. As a result of the measurement the hydraulic load on the control rods is clarified and the experimental basis is provided for the analysis of whether the control rods are moving upward and downward freely and drop rapidly in emergency case by order. Meantime it also provides the experimental basis for the optical design of the control rod guide tubes and bundles

  11. Numerical simulation and experimental research for the natural convection in an annular space in LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhou; Luo Rui; Yang Xianyong; Liang Taofeng

    1999-01-01

    In a pool fast reactor, the roof structure is penetrated by a number of pumps and heat exchanger units to form some annular spaces with various sizes. The natural convection of argon gas happens in the pool sky and the small annular gaps between those components and the roof containment due to thermosiphonic effects. The natural convection is studied experimentally and numerically to predict the temperature distributions inside the annular space and its surrounding structure. Numerical simulation is performed by using LVEL turbulence model and extending computational domain to the entire pool sky. The predicted results are in fair agreement with the experimental data. In comparison with commonly used k-ε model, LVEL model has better accuracy for the turbulent flow in a gap space

  12. Research technique and experimental device for thermal conductivity measurements of refractory compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishnevetskaya, I.A.; Petrov, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    Proposed is a new axial technique for determining thermal conductivity coefficient of solids at temperatures above 1000 deg C with the use of internal heating of specimens by passing electric current and with experimental determining the thermal flows on the lateral side of the working section of the specimen. This method is usable for investigating the thermal conductivity of materials whose surface radiation characteristics are unknown or unstable and for carrying out experiments not only in vacuum, but also in various atmospheres. The overall fiducial error of the results of the method is evaluated at 4-5 % within the range of temperatures between 1200 and 2300 K. A description of the experimental installation is given

  13. A photocurrent compensation method of bipolar transistors under high dose rate radiation and its experimental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Xuesong; Liu Zhongli; Li Chunji; Yu Fang

    2005-01-01

    Experiment using discrete bipolar transistors has been performed to verify the effect of the photocurrent compensation method. The theory of the dose rate effects of bipolar transistors and the photocurrent compensation method are introduced. The comparison between the response of hardened and unhardened circuits under high dose rate radiation is discussed. The experimental results show instructiveness to the hardness of bipolar integrated circuits under transient radiation. (authors)

  14. Analysis of experimental researches of wood gasification process in a continuous layer

    OpenAIRE

    Lys, Stepan; Rymar, Tetyana; Yurasova, Oksana; Bura, Mykhaylo

    2017-01-01

    For today are known quite a bit methods redoing of wood and its wastes in energy, but one of the most perspective is gasification. The construction of the gazogene, on which the row of experiments is conducted with the aim of determination of conformity to law of influence of entrance factors which influence on the process of gasification and on quality of synthesis-gas, was worked out for this purpose. The statistical processing of experimental data enables to define ...

  15. Progress report of a research program in experimental high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanou, R.E. Jr.; Cutts, D.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental program in strong and electro-weak interaction physics of elementary particles is being carried out using electronic detection techniques. Experiments have been performed at Brown, Brookhaven, and Fermilab. The work described in this report by the Electronic Detector Group addresses the following: neutrino interactions and intrinsic properties, preparations for experiments (''D--ZERO'') at the FNAL 2 TeV bar pp Collider, new detection techniques for neutrino properties

  16. PredPsych: A toolbox for predictive machine learning based approach in experimental psychology research

    OpenAIRE

    Cavallo, Andrea; Becchio, Cristina; Koul, Atesh

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increased interest in machine learning based predictive methods for analysing quantitative behavioural data in experimental psychology. While these methods can achieve relatively greater sensitivity compared to conventional univariate techniques, they still lack an established and accessible software framework. The goal of this work was to build an open-source toolbox – “PredPsych” – that could make these methods readily available to all psychologists. PredPsych is a...

  17. Primary system thermal-hydraulic simulation of a experimental pool type research fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, E.M.; Braz Filho, F.A.

    1993-01-01

    The first step of the Fast Reactor Program (REARA) is the design of an experimental reactor. To this end a 5 MW t pool type reactor was adapted. The objective of this work is to evaluate the reactor behaviour at the on set protected accidents. The program NALAP was used in this study and the results showed the outstanding safety margins that this reactor type presents inherently. (author)

  18. Experimental research of solid waste drying in the process of thermal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhmirov, V. V.; Kolibaba, O. B.; Gabitov, R. N.

    2015-10-01

    The convective drying process of municipal solid waste layer as a polydispersed multicomponent porous structure is studied. On the base of the experimental data criterial equations for calculating heat transfer and mass transfer processes in the layer, depending on the humidity of the material, the speed of the drying agent and the layer height are obtained. These solutions are used in the thermal design of reactors for the thermal processing of multicomponent organic waste.

  19. A research program in experimental high energy physics: Task C, Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanou, R.E. Jr.; Cutts, D.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental program in strong and electro-weak interaction physics of elementary particles is being carried out using electronic detection techniques. Experiments have been performed at Brown, Brookhaven, and Fermilab. The work described in this report by the /electronic Detector Group addresses the following: electroweak parameters via neutrino interactions, preparations for experiments (''D-ZERO'') at the FNAL 2 TeV /bar p/p Collider, new detection techniques for neutrino properties

  20. From meta-omics to causality: experimental models for human microbiome research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Joëlle V; Desai, Mahesh S; Shah, Pranjul; Schneider, Jochen G; Wilmes, Paul

    2013-05-03

    Large-scale 'meta-omic' projects are greatly advancing our knowledge of the human microbiome and its specific role in governing health and disease states. A myriad of ongoing studies aim at identifying links between microbial community disequilibria (dysbiosis) and human diseases. However, due to the inherent complexity and heterogeneity of the human microbiome, cross-sectional, case-control and longitudinal studies may not have enough statistical power to allow causation to be deduced from patterns of association between variables in high-resolution omic datasets. Therefore, to move beyond reliance on the empirical method, experiments are critical. For these, robust experimental models are required that allow the systematic manipulation of variables to test the multitude of hypotheses, which arise from high-throughput molecular studies. Particularly promising in this respect are microfluidics-based in vitro co-culture systems, which allow high-throughput first-pass experiments aimed at proving cause-and-effect relationships prior to testing of hypotheses in animal models. This review focuses on widely used in vivo, in vitro, ex vivo and in silico approaches to study host-microbial community interactions. Such systems, either used in isolation or in a combinatory experimental approach, will allow systematic investigations of the impact of microbes on the health and disease of the human host. All the currently available models present pros and cons, which are described and discussed. Moreover, suggestions are made on how to develop future experimental models that not only allow the study of host-microbiota interactions but are also amenable to high-throughput experimentation.

  1. Strategies, models and biomarkers in experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willebrords, Joost; Pereira, Isabel Veloso Alves; Maes, Michaël; Yanguas, Sara Crespo; Colle, Isabelle; Van Den Bossche, Bert; Da silva, Tereza Cristina; Oliveira, Cláudia P; Andraus, Wellington; Alves, Venâncio Avancini Ferreira; Cogliati, Bruno; Vinken, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease encompasses a spectrum of liver diseases, including simple steatosis, steatohepatitis, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is currently the most dominant chronic liver disease in Western countries due to the fact that hepatic steatosis is associated with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, metabolic syndrome and drug-induced injury. A variety of chemicals, mainly drugs, and diets is known to cause hepatic steatosis in humans and rodents. Experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease models rely on the application of a diet or the administration of drugs to laboratory animals or the exposure of hepatic cell lines to these drugs. More recently, genetically modified rodents or zebrafish have been introduced as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease models. Considerable interest now lies in the discovery and development of novel non-invasive biomarkers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, with specific focus on hepatic steatosis. Experimental diagnostic biomarkers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, such as (epi)genetic parameters and ‘-omics’-based read-outs are still in their infancy, but show great promise. . In this paper, the array of tools and models for the study of liver steatosis is discussed. Furthermore, the current state-of-art regarding experimental biomarkers such as epigenetic, genetic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabonomic biomarkers will be reviewed. PMID:26073454

  2. Experimental research on dynamic mechanical properties of PZT ceramic under hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.; Liu, K.X.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We developed an experimental device to examine dynamic mechanical properties of PZT. → Ductile behavior of PZT was seen when hydrostatic pressure was involved. → Compressive strength was shown sensitive to hydrostatic pressure and strain-rate. → A failure criterion was suggested to explain the failure behavior of PZT. - Abstract: An experimental technique for initially applied hydrostatic pressure in specimens subjected to axial impact has been developed to study the dynamic mechanical properties of materials. The technique was employed for the purpose of examining the dynamic mechanical properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) at zero to 15 MPa hydrostatic pressures. Experimental results unambiguously exhibit the ductile behavior of PZT when hydrostatic pressure is involved. The compressive strength is demonstrated sensitive to the initial hydrostatic pressure and the strain-rate. The fracture modes are analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, a failure criterion based on Mohr-Coulomb failure theory is suggested to explain the brittle and ductile failure of PZT.

  3. Simulation and experimental research of heat leakage of cryogenic transfer lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, B. C.; Xie, X. J.; Pan, W.; Jiang, R. X.; Li, J.; Yang, S. Q.; Li, Q.

    2017-12-01

    The heat leakage of cryogenic transfer lines directly influences the performance of large-scale helium refrigerator. In this paper, a thermal model of cryogenic transfer line considering numerical simulation of support coupled with MLI was established. To validate the model, test platform of cryogenic transfer lines with the merits of disassembly outer pipe and changeable easily multi-layer insulation has been built. The experimental results of heat leakage through overall length of cryogenic transfer lines, support and multi-layer insulation were obtained. The heat leakages of multi-layer insulation, a support and the overall leakage are 1.02 W/m, 0.44 W and 1.46 W/m from experimental data, respectively. The difference of heat leakage of MLI between experiment and simulation were less than 5%. The temperature distribution of support and MLI obtained in presented model in good agreement with experimental data. It is expected to reduce the overall heat leakage of cryogenic transfer lines further by optimizing structure of support based on the above thermal model and test platform in this paper.

  4. Fundamentos epistemológicos sobre la formación y desarrollo de la competencia investigación experimental / Training and developing research experimental competence framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez, C.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La formación basada en competencias es en la actualidad una imperiosa necesidad en la formación de profesionales, dadas sus contribuciones conceptuales y metodológicas. Es por ello que se pretende como objetivo analizar los fundamentos teóricos para la formación-desarrollo de la competencia investigación experimental en la Física (IEF, para estudiantes de carreras de ingeniería. En la investigación se aplican los métodos de nivel teórico y empírico para revelar las relaciones esenciales del objeto de investigación, a partir de los métodos lógicos del pensamiento inducción-deducción, en el examen de los hechos los investigadores siguieron tanto una progresión de los hechos singulares a propósitos generales, como de los hechos generales a los singulares y particulares. Competence-based training is now an urgent need in educating professionals for its ir conceptual and methodological contributions. This paper is aimed at constructing a framework for training and developing research experimental competence in engineer students studying physics. The research was carried out by means of theoretical and empirical methods in order to reveal the essential relationships of the object under study, logical procedures such as induction and deduction were also used following both a progression from form examining particular facts to the general and from the general to singular and particular facts.

  5. Progress report of a research program in experimental and theoretical high energy physics, 1 June 1992--May 31, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandenberger, R.; Cutts, D.; Fried, H.M.

    1993-01-01

    The main emphasis in the theoretical program has been in the area of string theory; also investigated were confinement and other aspects of QCD, electroweak symmetry breaking, and electroweak baryogenesis. The research program in computational physics concentrated on the development of the source Galerkin method of numerical quantum field theory. One portion of the experimental program dealt with interactions of leptons and hadrons from accelerator and astrophysics sources. A description of the Large Volume Detector at Gran Sasso and its use as a stellar collapse monitor is given, along with an account of research and development on resistive plate counters. The rest of the experimental program concerns hadron collider and neutrino physics, with major emphasis on the D0 experiment at the TeVatron. The commissioning of the D0 detector and its operation are described, along with D0 analysis. Also reported is a novel cryogenic technique utilizing superfluid helium for neutrino calorimetry. 122 refs., 7 tabs., 23 figs

  6. Plugging into the Umbra: Creative experimentation (in(on the boundaries of knowledge production in ECEC research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikki Fairchild

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Research into Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC policy and practice in the UK is subject to the demand that such research be measurable and achieve impact to provide the basis for evidence-based professional practice. New and creative experimental ways of knowing/thinking/doing ECEC research have been proposed in resistance to this quantified and instrumentalised agenda. Here I focus on posthumanist theorising, which proposes research that does not privilege the human subject but rather opens conditions of possibility for an entanglement with non-human and more-than-human bodies within and between assemblages. This engagement with complexity is a new ethical and political project aiming at re-conceptualising ontology beyond the limits of the human. Posthumanist research does not only challenge quantitative research, but also engages creative ways to challenge the limits of qualitative inquiry. Drawing on my research experience, I explore this de-centring of the human-as-researcher through the notion of the ‘methodological umbra’. This shadow space is one in which traditional thoughts on research open out these new forms of inquiry into thinking-in-movement. My analysis uses my own diary entries as sites in which this ‘umbra’ becomes evident under the pressure of creating new forms of a ‘living’ methodology. This is analysed through the contrast between smooth and striated space proposed by Deleuze and Guattari (1987 to explore what form of life might emerge in the smooth space of the umbra.

  7. Consequences of the conversion of research reactor cores on experimental facilities at the example of a cold neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roegler, H.-J.; Goebs, H.; Stroemich, A.

    1985-01-01

    The consequences for and specifically the potential reduction of the performance of research reactors have been in discussions very often within the last five years as one of the draw-backs which has to be paid for the reduction of the proliferation risk at research reactor plants. Up to now and up to our knowledge the available results are restricted to unperturbated fluxes. Thus, this contribution makes the attempt to demonstrate the consequence of core conversion on an example of a real experimental facility and - at the same time - on one that is going to be used in the next decade a lot, i.e. a cold neutron source (CNS). (author)

  8. Experimental fast reactor safety research program (combined) quarterly report, July--December 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coats, R.L.

    1975-02-01

    Research progress is reported for the following tasks: post-accident heat removal in core debris beds; prompt burst excursion experiment; and feasibility of high-performance fuel elements for the ACPR. (U.S.)

  9. Experimental determination of fuel surface temperature in the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khang, Ngo Phu; Huy, Ngo Quang; An, Tran Khac; Lam, Pham Van [Nuclear Research Inst., Da Lat (Viet Nam)

    1994-10-01

    Measured fuel surface temperatures, obtained at various locations of the core of the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor under normal operating conditions, are presented, and some thermal characteristics of the reactor are discussed. (author). 2 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Co-ordinated experimental research into PV power interaction with the supply network - Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacker, R.; Thornycroft, J.; Munro, D.; Rudkin, E.

    1999-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study examining the integration of photovoltaic systems into the UK electricity supply network. Details of research and development in the UK, and the participants in the research project are given. Information on photovoltaics as embedded generators, power conditioner design and performance, and the effects of photovoltaics on the network are outlined, and AC modules, standards, testing and approval schemes are considered. (UK)

  11. [Experimental research in vitro of TK/GCV system for osteosarcoma MG-63 cell damage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua-Dong; Lu, Zhi; Feng, Yi; Liu, Xiao-Li; Hou, Hui-Ming

    2014-03-01

    To study the killing effects of the liposome-mediated thymidine kinase (TK)/ganciclovir (GCV) system on MG-63 osteosarcoma (OS) cells and its bystander effects. Liposome-mediated TK gene transfected into MG-63 OS cells, the efficiency of transfection was analyzed by flow cytometry and observed under inverted fluorescence microscope. Non-transfected osteosarcoma MG-63 cells were divided into three groups,in the experimental group 1 transfected TK/GCV cells cultured in solutiona liquid mixture by supernatant by 1/10,1/7,1/5,1/2 ratio to original broth; in the experimental group 2 transfected cells cultured in solutiona liquid mixture of supernatant filtered through 0.22 microm filter by 1/10,1/7, 1/5, 1/2 ratio to original broth, in control group the transfection cells cultured in original culture solution. Cell growth inhibition rate and osteosarcoma cell sensitivity to TK/GCV system were measured by MTT assay in each group. The TK gene was transfected into MG-63 OS cells successfully by liposome-mediated, flow cytometry instrument detection TK gene transfection cell transfection efficiency can reach 75.5%. Six days later the MTT assay showed that in the experimental group 1 inhibition rate of all concentration ratio of the mixed culture fluid were statistically significant as compared with the control group (P culture medium was not statistically significant as compared with the control group (P > 0.05). TK gene transfected MG-63 cells increased with the the GCV concentration,the cell apoptosis rate increased. The experiment demonstrated that the MG-63 OS cells are sensitive to the liposome-mediated TK/GCV system and bystander effects are significant.

  12. Experimental research for vacuum gap breakdown in high voltage multi-pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Ziping; He Jialong; Chen Sifu; Deng Jianjun; Wang Liping

    2008-01-01

    Base on the breakdown theory of vacuum gaps, experiments have been done to find out the breakdown electric field intensities in high voltage single-and triple-pulse for 26 vacuum gaps with different shapes. The experimental results match up to the theory and confirm the effect of the pulse-number increase on the breakdown electric field intensity. The key point to decide the macroscopical breakdown electric field intensity of a vacuum gap has been pointed out with some advises about the design of a multi-pulse linear inductive accelerator's accelerate gap. (authors)

  13. Signal Validation: A Survey of Theoretical and Experimental Studies at the KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racz, A.

    1996-07-01

    The aim of this survey paper is to collect the results of the theoretical and experimental work that has been done on early failure and change detection, signal/detector validation, parameter estimation and system identification problems in the Applied Reactor Physics Department of the KFKI-AEI. The present paper reports different applications of the theoretical methods using real and computer simulated data. The final goal is two-sided: 1) to better understand the mathematical/physical background of the applied methods and 2) to integrate the useful algorithms into a large, complex diagnostic software system. The software is under development, a preliminary version (called JEDI) has already been accomplished. (author)

  14. Experimental research and comparison of LDPC and RS channel coding in ultraviolet communication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Menglong; Han, Dahai; Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Min; Yue, Guangxin

    2014-03-10

    We have implemented a modified Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) codec algorithm in ultraviolet (UV) communication system. Simulations are conducted with measured parameters to evaluate the LDPC-based UV system performance. Moreover, LDPC (960, 480) and RS (18, 10) are implemented and experimented via a non-line-of-sight (NLOS) UV test bed. The experimental results are in agreement with the simulation and suggest that based on the given power and 10(-3)bit error rate (BER), in comparison with an uncoded system, average communication distance increases 32% with RS code, while 78% with LDPC code.

  15. The GEKKO XII-HIPER (High Intensity Plasma Experimental Research) system relevant to ignition targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyanaga, N.; Nakatsuka, M.; Azechi, H.

    2001-01-01

    To test high gain targets surrogated in the planar geometry, we have constructed a new experimental system (HIPER) which provides the high ablation pressure with a uniform irradiance profile. These performances were achieved by bundling twelve beams of the existing GEKKO XII into a F/3 focus cone. The partially coherent light is introduced for the beam smoothing of a green foot pulse consisting of three beams, and the three-directional smoothing by spectral dispersion is utilized for residual nine beams delivering a blue main drive pulse. The detail of design concept and results of initial activation of this system are reported. (author)

  16. The experimental research of a field-enhanced multichannel oil switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, R.; Zeng, N.; Yang, D.; Jiang, X.; Wang, X.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the performance of a field enhanced multichannel oil switch which is used as the main switch of HEAVEN-LIGHT II intense pulsed electron beam accelerator at CIAE. The switch experiments have been carried out with different inductance of the solenoid inductor in series with a self-closing axial gap and position and diameter of the trigger disc. The experiments using water as a breakdown medium of the switch have been done to compare with oil switch. These experimental results and conclusions are presented in the paper

  17. Experimental research of plastic scintillation detector loaded 6Li neutron energy response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lizong; Zhang Chuanfei; Peng Taiping; Guo Cun; Yang Hongqiong; Zhang Jianhua

    2005-01-01

    A new plastic scintillator, plastic scintillator loaded 6 Li, is brought forward and developed in this paper in order to increase low energy neutron sensitivity. Neutron sensitivity of several plastic scintillation detectors loaded 6 Li new developed in neutron energy range 0.2 MeV-5.0 MeV are calibrated by direct current at serial accelerator. Energy response curves of the detectors are obtained in this experiment. It is shown that this new plastic scintillation detector can increase low energy neutron sensitivity in experimental results. (authors)

  18. Theoretical analysis and experimental research on dispersed-flow boiling heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhenwan; Jia Dounan; Li Linjiao; Mu Quanhou

    1989-01-01

    Experiment on dispersed-flow boiling heat transfer at low pressure has been done. The hot patch technique has been used to establish post-dryout conditions. The position of the hot patch can be varied along the test section. The superheated vapor temperatures at different elevations after dryout point are obtained. The experimental data are generally in agreement with the models of predictions of existing nonequilibrium film boiling. A heat transfer model for dispersed-flow boiling heat transfer has been developed. And the model can explain the phenomena of heat transfer near the dryout point. (orig./DG)

  19. Experimental Research of Reliability of Plant Stress State Detection by Laser-Induced Fluorescence Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Fedotov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental laboratory investigations of the laser-induced fluorescence spectra of watercress and lawn grass were conducted. The fluorescence spectra were excited by YAG:Nd laser emitting at 532 nm. It was established that the influence of stress caused by mechanical damage, overwatering, and soil pollution is manifested in changes of the spectra shapes. The mean values and confidence intervals for the ratio of two fluorescence maxima near 685 and 740 nm were estimated. It is presented that the fluorescence ratio could be considered a reliable characteristic of plant stress state.

  20. Static analytical and experimental research of shock absorber to safeguard the nuclear fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dundulis, Gintautas [Laboratory of Nuclear Installation Safety, Lithuanian Energy Institute, Breslaujos Street 3, LT-44403 Kaunas (Lithuania)], E-mail: gintas@mail.lei.lt; Grybenas, Albertas [Laboratory of Materials Research and Testing, Lithuanian Energy Institute, Breslaujos Street 3, LT-44403 Kaunas (Lithuania); Karalevicius, Renatas [Laboratory of Nuclear Installation Safety, Lithuanian Energy Institute, Breslaujos Street 3, LT-44403 Kaunas (Lithuania); Makarevicius, Vidas [Laboratory of Materials Research and Testing, Lithuanian Energy Institute, Breslaujos Street 3, LT-44403 Kaunas (Lithuania); Rimkevicius, Sigitas; Uspuras, Eugenijus [Laboratory of Nuclear Installation Safety, Lithuanian Energy Institute, Breslaujos Street 3, LT-44403 Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2009-01-15

    The Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) has two RBMK-1500 graphite-moderated boiling water multi-channel reactors. The Ignalina NPP Unit 1 was shutdown at the end of 2004, while Unit 2 is foreseen to be shutdown at the end of 2009. At the Ignalina NPP Unit 1 remains approximately 1000 spent fuel assemblies with low burn-up depth. A special set of equipment was developed to reuse these assemblies in the reactor of Unit 2. One of most important items of this set is a container, which is used for the transportation of spent fuel assemblies between the reactors of Unit 1 and Unit 2. A special shock absorber was designed to avoid failure of fuel assemblies in case of hypothetical spent fuel assemblies drop accident during uploading/unloading of spent fuel assemblies to/from container. This shock absorber was examined by using scaled experiments. The objective of this article is the estimation whether the proposed design of shock absorber fulfils the function of the absorber and the optimization of its geometrical parameters using the results of the performed investigations. Static analytical and experimental investigations are presented in the article. The finite element code BRIGADE/Plus was used for the analytical analysis. The calculation model was verified by comparing the experimental investigation and simulation results for further employment of this finite element model in the development of an optimum design of shock absorber. Static simulation was used to perform primary optimization of design and dimension of the shock absorber.

  1. Experimental Research on an Active Sting Damper in a Low Speed Acoustic Wind Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind tunnels usually use long cantilever stings to support aerodynamic models in order to reduce support system flow interference on experimental data. However, such support systems are a potential source of vibration problems which limit the test envelope and affect data quality due to the inherently low structural damping of the systems. When exposed to tunnel flow, turbulence and model flow separation excite resonant Eigenmodes of a sting structure causing large vibrations due to low damping. This paper details the development and experimental evaluation of an active damping system using piezoelectric devices with balance signal feedback both in a lab and a low speed acoustic wind tunnel and presents the control algorithm verification tests with a simple cantilever beam. It is shown that the active damper, controlled separately by both PID and BP neural network, has effectively attenuated the vibration. For sting mode only, 95% reduction of displacement response under exciter stimulation and 98% energy elimination of sting mode frequency have been achieved.

  2. Cold Climate Foundation Retrofit Experimental Hygrothermal Performance: Cloquet Residential Research Facility Laboratory Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Louise F. [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States); Harmon, Anna C. [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Thermal and moisture problems in existing basements create a unique challenge because the exterior face of the wall is not easily or inexpensively accessible. This approach addresses thermal and moisture management from the interior face of the wall without disturbing the exterior soil and landscaping. the interior and exterior environments. This approach has the potential for improving durability, comfort, and indoor air quality. This project was funded jointly by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL focused on developing a full basement wall system experimental database to enable others to validate hygrothermal simulation codes. NREL focused on testing the moisture durability of practical basement wall interior insulation retrofit solutions for cold climates. The project has produced a physically credible and reliable long-term hygrothermal performance database for retrofit foundation wall insulation systems in zone 6 and 7 climates that are fully compliant with the performance criteria in the 2009 Minnesota Energy Code. The experimental data were configured into a standard format that can be published online and that is compatible with standard commercially available spreadsheet and database software.

  3. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL PERFORMANCE OF COMPOSITE STEEL AND CONCRETE STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamaliev Farit Sakhapovich

    2012-12-01

    steel-concrete slabs limits their use in the construction of residential housing. This article describes the composition, geometry, reinforcement, and anchors to enable the use of concrete slabs and steel beams. The article contains photographs that illustrate the load distribution model. Methods of testing of fiber strains of concrete slabs and steel profiles, deflections of beams, shear stresses in the layers of the "steel-to-concrete" contact area that may involve slab cracking are analyzed. Dynamics of fiber deformations of concrete slabs, steel beams, and layers of the "steel-to-concrete" contact areas, deflection development patterns, initial cracking and crack development to destruction are analyzed. The author also describes the fracture behavior of the floor model. Results of experimental studies of the three-dimensional overlapping of structural elements are compared to the test data of individual composite beams. Peculiarities of the stress-strain state of composite steel and concrete slabs, graphs of strains and stresses developing in sections of middle and external steel-and-concrete beams, deflection graphs depending on the loading intensity are provided. The findings of the experimental studies of the three-dimensional performance of composite steel-and-concrete slabs are provided, as well.

  4. Experimental Research of a Water-Source Heat Pump Water Heater System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongchao Zhao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The heat pump water heater (HPWH, as a portion of the eco-friendly technologies using renewable energy, has been applied for years in developed countries. Air-source heat pump water heaters and solar-assisted heat pump water heaters have been widely applied and have become more and more popular because of their comparatively higher energy efficiency and environmental protection. Besides use of the above resources, the heat pump water heater system can also adequately utilize an available water source. In order to study the thermal performance of the water-source heat pump water heater (WSHPWH system, an experimental prototype using the cyclic heating mode was established. The heating performance of the water-source heat pump water heater system, which was affected by the difference between evaporator water fluxes, was investigated. The water temperature unfavorably exceeded 55 °C when the experimental prototype was used for heating; otherwise, the compressor discharge pressure was close to the maximum discharge temperature, which resulted in system instability. The evaporator water flux allowed this system to function satisfactorily. It is necessary to reduce the exergy loss of the condenser to improve the energy utilization of the system.

  5. Experimental research of adaptive OFDM and OCT precoding with a high SE for VLLC system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang-ao; He, Jing; Chen, Qinghui; Deng, Rui; Zhou, Zhihua; Chen, Shenghai; Chen, Lin

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, an adaptive orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation scheme with 128/64/32/16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) and orthogonal circulant matrix transform (OCT) precoding is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for a visible laser light communication (VLLC) system with a cost-effective 450-nm blue-light laser diode (LD). The performance of OCT precoding is compared with conventional the adaptive Discrete Fourier Transform-spread (DFT-spread) OFDM scheme, 32 QAM OCT precoding OFDM scheme, 64 QAM OCT precoding OFDM scheme and adaptive OCT precoding OFDM scheme. The experimental results show that OCT precoding can achieve a relatively flat signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) curve, and it can provide performance improvement in bit error rate (BER). Furthermore, the BER of the proposed OFDM signal with a raw bit rate 5.04 Gb/s after 5-m free space transmission is less than 20% of soft-decision forward error correlation (SD-FEC) threshold of 2.4 × 10-2, and the spectral efficiency (SE) of 4.2 bit/s/Hz can be successfully achieved.

  6. Experimental Research on Selective Laser Melting AlSi10Mg Alloys: Process, Densification and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen; Wei, Zhengying; Wei, Pei; Chen, Shenggui; Lu, Bingheng; Du, Jun; Li, Junfeng; Zhang, Shuzhe

    2017-12-01

    In this work, a set of experiments was designed to investigate the effect of process parameters on the relative density of the AlSi10Mg parts manufactured by SLM. The influence of laser scan speed v, laser power P and hatch space H, which were considered as the dominant parameters, on the powder melting and densification behavior was also studied experimentally. In addition, the laser energy density was introduced to evaluate the combined effect of the above dominant parameters, so as to control the SLM process integrally. As a result, a high relative density (> 97%) was obtained by SLM at an optimized laser energy density of 3.5-5.5 J/mm2. Moreover, a parameter-densification map was established to visually select the optimum process parameters for the SLM-processed AlSi10Mg parts with elevated density and required mechanical properties. The results provide an important experimental guidance for obtaining AlSi10Mg components with full density and gradient functional porosity by SLM.

  7. The in-core experimental program at the MIT Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohse, G.E.; Hu, L-W., E-mail: kohse@mit.edu [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Nuclear Reactor Lab., Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the program of in-core experiments at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR), a 6 MW research reactor. The MITR has a neutron flux and spectrum similar to those in water-cooled power reactors and therefore provides a useful test environment for materials and fuels research. In-core facilities include: a water loop operating at pressurized water or boiling water reactor conditions, an inert gas irradiation facility operating at temperature up to 850 {sup o}C and special purpose facilities including fuel irradiation experiments. Recent and ongoing tests include: water loop investigations of corrosion and thermal and mechanical property evolution of SiC/SiC composites for fuel cladding, irradiation of advanced materials and in-core sensors at elevated temperatures, irradiation in molten fluoride salt at 700 {sup o}C of metal alloy, graphite and composite materials for power reactor applications and instrumented irradiations of metal-bonded hydride fuel. (author)

  8. CAD, 3D modeling, engineering analysis, and prototype experimentation industrial and research applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng Li, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    This succinct book focuses on computer aided design (CAD), 3-D modeling, and engineering analysis and the ways they can be applied effectively in research and industrial sectors including aerospace, defense, automotive, and consumer products. These efficient tools, deployed for R&D in the laboratory and the field, perform efficiently three-dimensional modeling of finished products, render complex geometrical product designs, facilitate structural analysis and optimal product design, produce graphic and engineering drawings, and generate production documentation. Written with an eye toward green energy installations and novel manufacturing facilities, this concise volume enables scientific researchers and engineering professionals to learn design techniques, control existing and complex issues, proficiently use CAD tools, visualize technical fundamentals, and gain analytic and technical skills. This book also: ·       Equips practitioners and researchers to handle powerful tools for engineering desi...

  9. How to become a top model: impact of animal experimentation on human Salmonella disease research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsolis, Renée M; Xavier, Mariana N; Santos, Renato L; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2011-05-01

    Salmonella serotypes are a major cause of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Over the past decades, a series of animal models have been developed to advance vaccine development, provide insights into immunity to infection, and study the pathogenesis of human Salmonella disease. The successive introduction of new animal models, each suited to interrogate previously neglected aspects of Salmonella disease, has ushered in important conceptual advances that continue to have a strong and sustained influence on the ideas driving research on Salmonella serotypes. This article reviews important milestones in the use of animal models to study human Salmonella disease and identify research needs to guide future work.

  10. Introducing the Geneva Multimodal expression corpus for experimental research on emotion perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bänziger, Tanja; Mortillaro, Marcello; Scherer, Klaus R

    2012-10-01

    Research on the perception of emotional expressions in faces and voices is exploding in psychology, the neurosciences, and affective computing. This article provides an overview of some of the major emotion expression (EE) corpora currently available for empirical research and introduces a new, dynamic, multimodal corpus of emotion expressions, the Geneva Multimodal Emotion Portrayals Core Set (GEMEP-CS). The design features of the corpus are outlined and justified, and detailed validation data for the core set selection are presented and discussed. Finally, an associated database with microcoded facial, vocal, and body action elements, as well as observer ratings, is introduced.

  11. Experimental and analytical research on the aerodynamics of wind driven turbines. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrbach, C.; Wainauski, H.; Worobel, R.

    1977-12-01

    This aerodynamic research program was aimed at providing a reliable, comprehensive data base on a series of wind turbine models covering a broad range of the prime aerodynamic and geometric variables. Such data obtained under controlled laboratory conditions on turbines designed by the same method, of the same size, and tested in the same wind tunnel had not been available in the literature. Moreover, this research program was further aimed at providing a basis for evaluating the adequacy of existing wind turbine aerodynamic design and performance methodology, for assessing the potential of recent advanced theories and for providing a basis for further method development and refinement.

  12. Kidney Disease and Perinatal Programming of Arterial Hypertension: the Results of Experimental Researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga P. Kovtun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Deterioration of development conditions in the perinatal period (starvation of the mother, excess sodium ions in her diet, exposure to glucocorticosteroids, placental insufficiency programs significant  changes in the excretion of sodium ions in the newborn and leads to the development of hypertension. Studies on experimental animals show  that unfavourable conditions of intrauterine development can reduce the effective area of glomerular filtration and its rate. These circumstances  increase the expression of membrane carriers of sodium ions in the  apical membranes, the production of superoxide radicals and enhance  the reabsorption of sodium. The article discusses the potential mechanisms of perinatal programming of renal hypertension in humans.

  13. Experimental research on Ku-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Jiande; He, Juntao; Li, Zhiqiang; Ling, Junpu [College of Optoelectric Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Hunan 410073 (China)

    2015-10-15

    An improved Ku-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator is proposed and investigated experimentally. In the particle-in-cell simulation, the Ku-band MILO generates the microwave with a power of 1.62 GW and a frequency of 13 GHz at the input voltage of 474 kV. The device is fabricated based on the simulation results, and an experiment system is designed. In the preliminary experiments, output microwave with frequency of 13.02 GHz, power of 150 MW, and pulse width of 17 ns is generated, under the diode voltage of 450 kV. Analysis on the experiment results shows that plasma produced due to the large current hitting to the outside of the collection tank is the essential cause for the low amplitude of the microwave power and short pulse width.

  14. Experimental Research on Optimizing Inlet Airflow of Wet Cooling Towers under Crosswind Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, You Liang; Shi, Yong Feng; Hao, Jian Gang; Chang, Hao; Sun, Feng Zhong

    2018-01-01

    A new approach of installing air deflectors around tower inlet circumferentially was proposed to optimize the inlet airflow and reduce the adverse effect of crosswinds on the thermal performance of natural draft wet cooling towers (NDWCT). And inlet airflow uniformity coefficient was defined to analyze the uniformity of circumferential inlet airflow quantitatively. Then the effect of air deflectors on the NDWCT performance was investigated experimentally. By contrast between inlet air flow rate and cooling efficiency, it has been found that crosswinds not only decrease the inlet air flow rate, but also reduce the uniformity of inlet airflow, which reduce NDWCT performance jointly. After installing air deflectors, the inlet air flow rate and uniformity coefficient increase, the uniformity of heat and mass transfer increases correspondingly, which improve the cooling performance. In addition, analysis on Lewis factor demonstrates that the inlet airflow optimization has more enhancement of heat transfer than mass transfer, but leads to more water evaporation loss.

  15. A note on the history of experimental and theoretical research into molecular attractive forces between solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilova, N P

    2015-01-01

    From the Editorial Board. In a brief followup to the talk by E I Kats on 'Van der Waals, Casimir, and Lifshitz forces in soft matter' (see pp. 892 – 896 of this issue) at the E M Lifshitz centennial session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, an interesting and instructive story was told by Nina Petrovna Danilova (Department of Low Temperature Physics and Superconductivity, Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University) of how E M Lifshitz was enlisted to explain I I Abrikosova's and B V Derjaguin's experimental results. The Editorial Board of Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk (UFN) [Physics-Uspekhi] journal found the story appropriate to be published in the 'Letters to the Editor' section of UFN in a jubilee selection of works marking the centennial of E M Lifshitz' birth. (letters to the editors)

  16. Experimental research data on stress state of salt rock mass around an underground excavation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryshnikov, VD; Baryshnikov, DV

    2018-03-01

    The paper presents the experimental stress state data obtained in surrounding salt rock mass around an excavation in Mir Mine, ALROSA. The deformation characteristics and the values of stresses in the adjacent rock mass are determined. Using the method of drilling a pair of parallel holes in a stressed area, the authors construct linear relationship for the radial displacements of the stress measurement hole boundaries under the short-term loading of the perturbing hole. The resultant elasticity moduli of rocks are comparable with the laboratory core test data. Pre-estimates of actual stresses point at the presence of a plasticity zone in the vicinity of the underground excavation. The stress state behavior at a distance from the excavation boundary disagrees with the Dinnik–Geim hypothesis.

  17. Experimental research on friction coefficient between grain bulk and bamboo clappers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Gan; Sun, Ping; Zhao, Yanqi; Yin, Lingfeng; Zhuang, Hong

    2017-12-01

    A silo is an important piece of storage equipment, especially in the grain industry. The internal friction angle and the friction coefficient between the grain and the silo wall are the main parameters needed for calculating the lateral pressure of the silo wall. Bamboo is used in silo walls, but there are no provisions about the friction coefficient between bulk grain and bamboo clappers in existing codes. In this paper, the material of the silo wall is bamboo. The internal friction of five types of grain and the friction coefficient between the grain and the bamboo clappers were measured with an equal-strain direct shear apparatus. By comparing the experimental result values with the code values, the friction coefficient between the grain bulk and bamboo clappers is lower than that between grain and steel wall and that between grain and concrete wall. The differences in value are 0.21 and 0.09, respectively.

  18. Experimental research on HEL and failure properties of alumina under impact loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-wei Feng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of plate impact experiments on alumina was conducted using a light gas gun in order to further investigate Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL and failure properties of alumina under shock compression. The velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR was used to record the rear-free surface velocity histories of the alumina samples. According to the experimental results, the HELs of tested alumina samples with different thicknesses were measured, and the decay phenomenon of elastic wave in shocked alumina was studied. A phenomenological expression between HEL and thickness of sample was presented, and the causes of the decay phenomenon were discussed. The propagation of failure wave in shocked alumina was probed. The velocity and delayed time of failure wave propagation were obtained. The physical mechanism of the generation and propagation of failure was further discussed.

  19. Experimental research on dispersion parameters of ground water around the area of CIAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jun

    1993-01-01

    The dispersion are important parameters in modeling the migration of pollutant in the ground water. Due to the complexity of geological media, variant dispersion is expected according to the difference of the geological media. Three parts are included in physical simulation in the laboratory column, tracer experiment in the field and the prediction of dispersion using the stochastic model. Experimental results show that the dispersion obtained in the column are three orders of magnitude smaller than that obtained in the field. Using the field values of conductivity and stochastic theory, the calculated asymptotic longitudinal and lateral dispersion are 370 and 0.45 meters respectively and the correlation length is 400 meters approximately. Using the dispersion obtained from the formula in the paper can enhance the precision of the model prediction, the distance heeded to reach the Fick's dispersion is 6 km approximately

  20. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF THE INFLUENCE OF VARIOUS TYPES OF SOLAR COLLECTORS FOR PERFORMANCE SOLAR DESALINATION PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhmatulin I.R.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the possibility of using renewable energy for water purification. Results of analysis of a preferred energy source for a water purification using installed in places where fresh water shortages and a lack of electrical energy. The possibility of desalination of salt water using solar energy for regions with temperate climate. Presented desalination plant working on energy vacuum solar collectors, principles of action developed by the desalination plant. The experimental results of a constructed distiller when working with vacuum glass tubes and vacuum tubes with copper core inside. Conclusions about the possibility of using solar collectors for water desalination, are tips and tricks to improve the performance of solar desalination plant.

  1. Experimental Designs in Sentence Processing Research: A Methodological Review and User's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Gregory D.; Jegerski, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Since the publication of Clahsen and Felser's (2006) keynote article on grammatical processing in language learners, the online study of sentence comprehension in adult second language (L2) learners has quickly grown into a vibrant and prolific subfield of SLA. As online methods begin to establish a foothold in SLA research, it is important…

  2. The Application of Montessori Method in Learning Mathematics: An Experimental Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faryadi, Qais

    2017-01-01

    The prime objective of this research was to investigate whether the Montessori method of learning helped kindergarten pupils improve their mathematical proficiency, critical thinking and problem-solving skills, besides training them to be responsible learners. Quantitative, qualitative, and observational methods were employed in the investigation.…

  3. Experimental study of heavy flavor physics and SSC research and development at The University of Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reidy, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: particle production of charmed particle; progress in the SSC research and development program; CALOR/GEANT integration; the calorimeter simulation effort; scintillating plate/liquid argon calorimeter simulation; liquid scintillator R ampersand D; and funding by the TNRLC

  4. Snapshots of what, exactly? A comment on methodological experimentation and conceptual foundations in place research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Williams; Michael E. Patterson

    2007-01-01

    Place ideas in natural resource management have grown in recent years. But with that growth have come greater complexity and diversity in thinking and mounting confusion about the ontological and epistemological assumptions underlying any specific investigation. Beckley et al. (2007) contribute to place research by proposing a new methodological approach to analyzing...

  5. Status and Plans for the National Spherical Torus Experimental Research Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, M.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Bialek, J.M.; Bigelow, T.; Bitter, M.

    2005-01-01

    An overview of the research capabilities and the future plans on the MA-class National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at Princeton is presented. NSTX research is exploring the scientific benefits of modifying the field line structure from that in more conventional aspect ratio devices, such as the tokamak. The relevant scientific issues pursued on NSTX include energy confinement, MHD stability at high beta, non-inductive sustainment, solenoid-free start-up, and power and particle handling. In support of the NSTX research goal, research tools are being developed by the NSTX team. In the context of the fusion energy development path being formulated in the US, an ST-based Component Test Facility (CTF) and, ultimately a high beta Demo device based on the ST, are being considered. For these, it is essential to develop high performance (high beta and high confinement), steady-state (non-inductively driven) ST operational scenarios and an efficient solenoid-free start-up concept. We will also briefly describe the Next-Step-ST (NSST) device being designed to address these issues in fusion-relevant plasma conditions

  6. Combining Language Corpora with Experimental and Computational Approaches for Language Acquisition Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Padraic; Rowland, Caroline F.

    2017-01-01

    Historically, first language acquisition research was a painstaking process of observation, requiring the laborious hand coding of children's linguistic productions, followed by the generation of abstract theoretical proposals for how the developmental process unfolds. Recently, the ability to collect large-scale corpora of children's language…

  7. Experimental Research Examining how People can Cope with Uncertainty through Soft Haptic Sensations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Horen, F.; Mussweiler, T.

    2015-01-01

    Human beings are constantly surrounded by uncertainty and change. The question arises how people cope with such uncertainty. To date, most research has focused on the cognitive strategies people adopt to deal with uncertainty. However, especially when uncertainty is due to unpredictable societal

  8. Coram Experimental Forest: 50 years of research in a western larch forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond C. Shearer; Madelyn M. Kempf

    1999-01-01

    This publication will enrich public understanding about the important contributions to science made at this and other outdoor laboratories. Coram, and other long-range research sites, provide scientific knowledge to assist resource professionals with the development of sound land management principles. This knowledge ensures healthy, sustainable, and productive...

  9. Ethical Issues Associated with the Use of Animal Experimentation in Behavioral Neuroscience Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohl, Frauke; Meijboom, Franck

    2015-01-01

    This chapter briefly explores whether there are distinct characteristics in the field of Behavioral Neuroscience that demand specific ethical reflection. We argue that although the ethical issues in animal-based Behavioral Neuroscience are not necessarily distinct from those in other research

  10. Status and plans for the national spherical torus experimental research facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Masayuki; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    An overview of the research capabilities and the future plans on the MA-class National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at Princeton is presented. NSTX research is exploring the scientific benefits of modifying the field line structure from that in more conventional aspect ratio devices, such as the tokamak. The relevant scientific issues pursued on NSTX include energy confinement, MHD stability at high β, non-inductive sustainment, solenoid-free start-up, and power and particle handling. In support of the NSTX research goal, research tools are being developed by the NSTX team. In the context of the fusion energy development path being formulated in the US, an ST-based Component Test Facility (CTF) and, ultimately a high β Demo device based on the ST, are being considered. For these, it is essential to develop high performance (high β and high confinement), steady-state (non-inductively driven) ST operational scenarios and an efficient solenoid-free start-up concept. We will also briefly describe the Next-Step-ST (NSST) device being designed to address these issues in fusion-relevant plasma conditions. (author)

  11. Experimental Research of Vibration Transmission in Wooden Junctions with a View Towards Statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickow, Kristoffer Ahrens; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2012-01-01

    for these variations can lead to lowered production costs. Ongoing research is concerned with the transmission of vibration through wooden junctions found in lightweight building structures. In the literature numerous results of different experiments performed on simple junctions can be found. However, these results...

  12. The past, the present and the future of experimental research on myocardial ischemia and protection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ošťádal, Bohuslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 1 (2009), s. 3-12 ISSN 1734-1140 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : myocardial ischemia * protection * cell death Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Disease s incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 2.086, year: 2009

  13. Dynamic analytical and experimental research of shock absorber to safeguard the nuclear fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dundulis, Gintautas, E-mail: gintas@mail.lei.lt [Laboratory of Nuclear Installation Safety, Lithuanian Energy Institute, Breslaujos str. 3, LT-44403 Kaunas (Lithuania); Grybenas, Albertas [Laboratory of Materials Research and Testing, Lithuanian Energy Institute, Breslaujos str. 3, LT-44403 Kaunas (Lithuania); Karalevicius, Renatas [Laboratory of Nuclear Installation Safety, Lithuanian Energy Institute, Breslaujos str. 3, LT-44403 Kaunas (Lithuania); Makarevicius, Vidas [Laboratory of Materials Research and Testing, Lithuanian Energy Institute, Breslaujos str. 3, LT-44403 Kaunas (Lithuania); Rimkevicius, Sigitas; Uspuras, Eugenijus [Laboratory of Nuclear Installation Safety, Lithuanian Energy Institute, Breslaujos str. 3, LT-44403 Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: • Plastical deformation of the shock absorber. • Dynamic testing of the scaled shock absorber. • Dynamic simulation of the shock absorber using finite element method. • Strain-rate evaluation in dynamic analysis. • Variation of displacement, acceleration and velocity during dynamic impact. -- Abstract: The Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) has two RBMK-1500 graphite moderated boiling water multi-channel reactors. The Ignalina NPP Unit 1 was shut down at the end of 2004 while Unit 2 has been in operation for over 5 years. After shutdown at the Unit 1 remained spent fuel assemblies with low burn-up depth. In order to reuse these assemblies in the reactor of Unit 2 a special set of equipment was developed. One of the most important items of this set is a container, which is used for the transportation of spent fuel assemblies between the reactors of Unit 1 and Unit 2. A special shock absorber was designed to avoid failure of fuel assemblies in case of hypothetical spent fuel assemblies drop accident during uploading/unloading of spent fuel assemblies to/from container. This shock absorber was examined using scaled experiments and finite element analysis. Static and dynamic investigations of the shock absorber were performed for the estimation and optimization of its geometrical parameters. The objective of this work is the estimation whether the proposed design of shock absorber can fulfil the stopping function of the spent fuel assemblies and is capable to withstand the dynamics load. Experimental testing of scaled shock absorber models and dynamic analytical investigations using the finite element code ABAQUS/Explicit were performed. The simulation model was verified by comparing the experimental and simulation results and it was concluded that the shock absorber is capable to withstand the dynamic load, i.e. successful force suppression function in case of accident.

  14. IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) on 'Analytical and experimental benchmark analyses of accelerator driven systems'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abanades, Alberto [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain); Aliberti, Gerardo; Gohar, Yousry; Talamo, Alberto [ANL, Argonne (United States); Bornos, Victor; Kiyavitskaya, Anna [Joint Institute of Power Eng. and Nucl. Research ' Sosny' , Minsk (Belarus); Carta, Mario [ENEA, Casaccia (Italy); Janczyszyn, Jerzy [AGH-University of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland); Maiorino, Jose [IPEN, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Pyeon, Cheolho [Kyoto University (Japan); Stanculescu, Alexander [IAEA, Vienna (Austria); Titarenko, Yury [ITEP, Moscow (Russian Federation); Westmeier, Wolfram [Wolfram Westmeier GmbH, Ebsdorfergrund (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    In December 2005, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has started a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Analytical and Experimental Benchmark Analyses of Accelerator Driven Systems'. The overall objective of the CRP, performed within the framework of the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWGFR) of IAEA's Nuclear Energy Department, is to increase the capability of interested Member States in developing and applying advanced reactor technologies in the area of long-lived radioactive waste utilization and transmutation. The specific objective of the CRP is to improve the present understanding of the coupling of an external neutron source (e.g. spallation source) with a multiplicative sub-critical core. The participants are performing computational and experimental benchmark analyses using integrated calculation schemes and simulation methods. The CRP aims at integrating some of the planned experimental demonstration projects of the coupling between a sub-critical core and an external neutron source (e.g. YALINA Booster in Belarus, and Kyoto University's Critical Assembly (KUCA)). The objective of these experimental programs is to validate computational methods, obtain high energy nuclear data, characterize the performance of sub-critical assemblies driven by external sources, and to develop and improve techniques for sub-criticality monitoring. The paper summarizes preliminary results obtained to-date for some of the CRP benchmarks. (authors)

  15. Experimental research on application of mutual-aid teaching method in technique teaching of university’s football elective course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jiarong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the social development and reform of education system, the quality-oriented education and lifelong education gradually become education reform goals of colleges and universities, the physical education of the higher education and university are also developed. This research adopts the literature data method, ques-tionnaire method, experimental method, mathematical statistics or other methods to do experiments for the stu-dents who take the football elective course (a total of 36 class hours per semester in Zhuhai College of Jilin University with the mutual-aid teaching method. The experimental results show that: First, there is a significant difference between achievements of the specific football technique of the students in the experimental group and the students in the control group (P <0.05; second, in the teaching evaluation, the failure rate of the students in the experimental group significantly reduces, and the pass rate and good rate significantly increases after experi-ment; third, the majority of students accept the mutual-aid teaching method; fourth, the mutual-aid teaching method can be used to significantly improve the learning motivation level of the students.

  16. Experimental studies on lung carcinogenesis and their relationship to future research on radiation-induced lung cancer in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.

    1991-03-01

    The usefulness of experimental systems for studying human lung carcinogenesis lies in the ease of studying components of a total problem. As an example, the main thrust of attack on possible synergistic interactions between radiation, cigarette smoke, and other irritants must be by means of research on animals. Because animals can be serially sacrificed, a systematic search can be made for progressive lung changes, thereby improving our understanding of carcinogenesis. The mechanisms of radiation-induced carcinogenesis have not yet been delineated, but modern concepts of molecular and cellular biology and of radiation dosimetry are being increasingly applied to both in vivo and in vitro exposure to determine the mechanisms of radiation-induced carcinogenesis, to elucidate human data, and to aid in extrapolating experimental animal data to human exposures. In addition, biologically based mathematical models of carcinogenesis are being developed to describe the nature of the events leading to malignancy; they are also an essential part of a rational approach to quantitative cancer risk assessment. This paper summarizes recent experimental and modeling data on radon-induced lung cancer and includes the confounding effects of cigarette-smoke exposures. The applicability of these data to understanding human exposures is emphasized, and areas of future research on human radiation-induced carcinogenesis are discussed. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Effectiveness of ACT-Based Parenting Training to Mothers on the Depression of Children with Cleft Lip and Palate: A Single Subject Study

    OpenAIRE

    محمد صالح فقیهی; محمد باقر کجباف

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Parenting Training based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) to mothers on the depression of children with cleft lip and palate. The research method was based on a single case and individual intervention study. The sample was constituted of 65 Isfahanian children with cleft lip and palate. Parenting skills based on ACT were taught to five mothers of children with cleft lip and palate who achieved the minimum score in scree...

  18. The effect of phonation into a straw on the vocal tract adjustments and formant frequencies. A preliminary MRI study on a single subject completed with acoustic results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laukkanen, A. M.; Horáček, Jaromír; Krupa, P.; Švec, J. G.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2012), s. 50-57 ISSN 1746-8094 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/08/1155 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : vocal exercises * semi-occlusions * vocal tract setting Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 1.074, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1746809411000097

  19. CIRCUS and DESIRE: Experimental facilities for research on natural-circulation-cooled boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruijf, W.J.M. de; Haden, T.H.J.J. van der; Zboray, R.; Manera, A.; Mudde, R.F.

    2002-01-01

    At the Delft University of Technology two thermohydraulic test facilities are being used to study the characteristics of Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) with natural circulation core cooling. The focus of the research is on the stability characteristics of the system. DESIRE is a test facility with freon-12 as scaling fluid in which one fuel bundle of a natural-circulation BWR is simulated. The neutronic feedback can be simulated artificially. DESIRE is used to study the stability of the system at nominal and beyond nominal conditions. CIRCUS is a full-height facility with water, consisting of four parallel fuel channels and four parallel bypass channels with a common riser or with parallel riser sections. It is used to study the start-up characteristics of a natural-circulation BWR at low pressures and low power. In this paper a description of both facilities is given and the research items are presented. (author)

  20. Experimental and analytical research on the aerodynamics of wind driven turbines. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrbach, C.; Wainauski, H.; Worobel, R.

    1977-12-01

    The successful development of reliable, cost competitive horizontal axis, propeller-type wind energy conversion systems (WECS) is strongly dependent on the availability of advanced technology for each of the system components. This aerodynamic research program was aimed at providing a reliable, comprehensive data base on a series of wind turbine models covering a broad range of the prime aerodynamic and geometric variables. Such data obtained under controlled laboratory conditions on turbines designed by the same method, of the same size, and tested in the same wind tunnel had not been available in the literature. Moreover, this research program was further aimed at providing a basis for evaluating the adequacy of existing wind turbine aerodynamic design and performance methodology, for assessing the potential of recent advanced theories and for providing a basis for further method development and refinement.