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Sample records for single-stranded dna recombineering

  1. MEIOB targets single-strand DNA and is necessary for meiotic recombination.

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    Benoit Souquet

    Full Text Available Meiotic recombination is a mandatory process for sexual reproduction. We identified a protein specifically implicated in meiotic homologous recombination that we named: meiosis specific with OB domain (MEIOB. This protein is conserved among metazoan species and contains single-strand DNA binding sites similar to those of RPA1. Our studies in vitro revealed that both recombinant and endogenous MEIOB can be retained on single-strand DNA. Those in vivo demonstrated the specific expression of Meiob in early meiotic germ cells and the co-localization of MEIOB protein with RPA on chromosome axes. MEIOB localization in Dmc1 (-/- spermatocytes indicated that it accumulates on resected DNA. Homologous Meiob deletion in mice caused infertility in both sexes, due to a meiotic arrest at a zygotene/pachytene-like stage. DNA double strand break repair and homologous chromosome synapsis were impaired in Meiob (-/- meiocytes. Interestingly MEIOB appeared to be dispensable for the initial loading of recombinases but was required to maintain a proper number of RAD51 and DMC1 foci beyond the zygotene stage. In light of these findings, we propose that RPA and this new single-strand DNA binding protein MEIOB, are essential to ensure the proper stabilization of recombinases which is required for successful homology search and meiotic recombination.

  2. Overproduction of single-stranded-DNA-binding protein specifically inhibits recombination of UV-irradiated bacteriophage DNA in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, P.L.

    1988-01-01

    Overproduction of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding protein (SSB) in uvr Escherichia coli mutants results in a wide range of altered phenotypes. (i) Cell survival after UV irradiation is decreased; (ii) expression of the recA-lexA regulon is slightly reduced after UV irradiation, whereas it is increased without irradiation; and (iii) recombination of UV-damaged lambda DNA is inhibited, whereas recombination of nonirradiated DNA is unaffected. These results are consistent with the idea that in UV-damaged bacteria, SSB is first required to allow the formation of short complexes of RecA protein and ssDNA that mediate cleavage of the LexA protein. However, in a second stage, SSB should be displaced from ssDNA to permit the production of longer RecA-ssDNA nucleoprotein filaments that are required for strand pairing and, hence, recombinational repair. Since bacteria overproducing SSB appear identical in physiological respects to recF mutant bacteria, it is suggested that the RecF protein (alone or with other proteins of the RecF pathway) may help RecA protein to release SSB from ssDNA

  3. Effects of DNA double-strand and single-strand breaks on intrachromosomal recombination events in cell-cycle-arrested yeast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galli, A.; Schiestl, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    Intrachromosomal recombination between repeated elements can result in deletion (DEL recombination) events. We investigated the inducibility of such intrachromosomal recombination events at different stages of the cell cycle and the nature of the primary DNA lesions capable of initiating these events. Two genetic systems were constructed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that select for DEL recombination events between duplicated alleles of CDC28 and TUB2. We determined effects of double-strand breaks (DSBs) and single-strand breaks (SSBs) between the duplicated alleles on DEL recombination when induced in dividing cells or cells arrested in G1 or G2. Site-specific DSBs and SSBs were produced by overexpression of the I-Sce I endonuclease and the gene II protein (gIIp), respectively. I-Sce I-induced DSBs caused an increase in DEL recombination frequencies in both dividing and cell-cycle-arrested cells, indicating that G1- and G2-arrested cells are capable of completing DSB repair. In contrast, gIIp-induced SSBs caused an increase in DEL recombination frequency only in dividing cells. To further examine these phenomena we used both γ-irradiation, inducing DSBs as its most relevant lesion, and UV, inducing other forms of DNA damage. UV irradiation did not increase DEL recombination frequencies in G1 or G2, whereas γ-rays increased DEL recombination frequencies in both phases. Both forms of radiation, however, induced DEL recombination in dividing cells. The results suggest that DSBsbut not SSBs induce DEL recombination, probably via the single-strand annealing pathway. Further, DSBs in dividing cells may result from the replication of a UV or SSB-damaged template. Alternatively, UV induced events may occur by replication slippage after DNA polymerase pausing in front of the damage. (author)

  4. Ca2+ improves organization of single-stranded DNA bases in human Rad51 filament, explaining stimulatory effect on gene recombination.

    KAUST Repository

    Fornander, Louise H

    2012-02-22

    Human RAD51 protein (HsRad51) catalyses the DNA strand exchange reaction for homologous recombination. To clarify the molecular mechanism of the reaction in vitro being more effective in the presence of Ca(2+) than of Mg(2+), we have investigated the effect of these ions on the structure of HsRad51 filament complexes with single- and double-stranded DNA, the reaction intermediates. Flow linear dichroism spectroscopy shows that the two ionic conditions induce significantly different structures in the HsRad51/single-stranded DNA complex, while the HsRad51/double-stranded DNA complex does not demonstrate this ionic dependence. In the HsRad51/single-stranded DNA filament, the primary intermediate of the strand exchange reaction, ATP/Ca(2+) induces an ordered conformation of DNA, with preferentially perpendicular orientation of nucleobases relative to the filament axis, while the presence of ATP/Mg(2+), ADP/Mg(2+) or ADP/Ca(2+) does not. A high strand exchange activity is observed for the filament formed with ATP/Ca(2+), whereas the other filaments exhibit lower activity. Molecular modelling suggests that the structural variation is caused by the divalent cation interfering with the L2 loop close to the DNA-binding site. It is proposed that the larger Ca(2+) stabilizes the loop conformation and thereby the protein-DNA interaction. A tight binding of DNA, with bases perpendicularly oriented, could facilitate strand exchange.

  5. Viral recombination blurs taxonomic lines: examination of single-stranded DNA viruses in a wastewater treatment plant

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    Victoria M. Pearson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the structure and dynamics of microbial communities, especially those of economic concern, is of paramount importance to maintaining healthy and efficient microbial communities at agricultural sites and large industrial cultures, including bioprocessors. Wastewater treatment plants are large bioprocessors which receive water from multiple sources, becoming reservoirs for the collection of many viral families that infect a broad range of hosts. To examine this complex collection of viruses, full-length genomes of circular ssDNA viruses were isolated from a wastewater treatment facility using a combination of sucrose-gradient size selection and rolling-circle amplification and sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq. Single-stranded DNA viruses are among the least understood groups of microbial pathogens due to genomic biases and culturing difficulties, particularly compared to the larger, more often studied dsDNA viruses. However, the group contains several notable well-studied examples, including agricultural pathogens which infect both livestock and crops (Circoviridae and Geminiviridae, and model organisms for genetics and evolution studies (Microviridae. Examination of the collected viral DNA provided evidence for 83 unique genotypic groupings, which were genetically dissimilar to known viral types and exhibited broad diversity within the community. Furthermore, although these genomes express similarities to known viral families, such as Circoviridae, Geminiviridae, and Microviridae, many are so divergent that they may represent new taxonomic groups. This study demonstrated the efficacy of the protocol for separating bacteria and large viruses from the sought after ssDNA viruses and the ability to use this protocol to obtain an in-depth analysis of the diversity within this group.

  6. Yeast Srs2 Helicase Promotes Redistribution of Single-Stranded DNA-Bound RPA and Rad52 in Homologous Recombination Regulation

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    Luisina De Tullio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Srs2 is a super-family 1 helicase that promotes genome stability by dismantling toxic DNA recombination intermediates. However, the mechanisms by which Srs2 remodels or resolves recombination intermediates remain poorly understood. Here, single-molecule imaging is used to visualize Srs2 in real time as it acts on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA bound by protein factors that function in recombination. We demonstrate that Srs2 is highly processive and translocates rapidly (∼170 nt per second in the 3′→5′ direction along ssDNA saturated with replication protein A (RPA. We show that RPA is evicted from DNA during the passage of Srs2. Remarkably, Srs2 also readily removes the recombination mediator Rad52 from RPA-ssDNA and, in doing so, promotes rapid redistribution of both Rad52 and RPA. These findings have important mechanistic implications for understanding how Srs2 and related nucleic acid motor proteins resolve potentially pathogenic nucleoprotein intermediates.

  7. Yeast Srs2 Helicase Promotes Redistribution of Single-Stranded DNA-Bound RPA and Rad52 in Homologous Recombination Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Tullio, Luisina; Kaniecki, Kyle; Kwon, Youngho; Crickard, J Brooks; Sung, Patrick; Greene, Eric C

    2017-10-17

    Srs2 is a super-family 1 helicase that promotes genome stability by dismantling toxic DNA recombination intermediates. However, the mechanisms by which Srs2 remodels or resolves recombination intermediates remain poorly understood. Here, single-molecule imaging is used to visualize Srs2 in real time as it acts on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) bound by protein factors that function in recombination. We demonstrate that Srs2 is highly processive and translocates rapidly (∼170 nt per second) in the 3'→5' direction along ssDNA saturated with replication protein A (RPA). We show that RPA is evicted from DNA during the passage of Srs2. Remarkably, Srs2 also readily removes the recombination mediator Rad52 from RPA-ssDNA and, in doing so, promotes rapid redistribution of both Rad52 and RPA. These findings have important mechanistic implications for understanding how Srs2 and related nucleic acid motor proteins resolve potentially pathogenic nucleoprotein intermediates. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Regions of incompatibility in single-stranded DNA bacteriophages phi X174 and G4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Avoort, H. G.; van der Ende, A.; van Arkel, G. A.; Weisbeek, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    The intracellular presence of a recombinant plasmid containing the intercistronic region between the genes H and A of bacteriophage phi X174 strongly inhibits the conversion of infecting single-stranded phi X DNA to parental replicative-form DNA. Also, transfection with single-stranded or

  9. Ca2+ improves organization of single-stranded DNA bases in human Rad51 filament, explaining stimulatory effect on gene recombination.

    KAUST Repository

    Fornander, Louise H; Frykholm, Karolin; Reymer, Anna; Renodon-Corniè re, Axelle; Takahashi, Masayuki; Nordé n, Bengt

    2012-01-01

    Human RAD51 protein (HsRad51) catalyses the DNA strand exchange reaction for homologous recombination. To clarify the molecular mechanism of the reaction in vitro being more effective in the presence of Ca(2+) than of Mg(2+), we have investigated

  10. DNA single strand break in fibroblast from Down syndrome patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozga, B.

    1992-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of tree trisomic (trisomia +21) strains of human fibroblasts to gamma radiation has been investigated in vitro and the causes of induction and repair of single strand DNA breaks in these cells have been estimated. The single strand breaks in DNA of normal and trisomic cells have been found to be ameliorated with an approximately equal efficiency. Repair has been found to be three times slower in trisomic cells compared to their normal relevant, most likely due to their elevated sensitivity to ionizing radiation and the following mortality of trisomic cells, and/or the potential occurrence of a great number of chromosome aberrations in cells irradiated in vitro. (author). 28 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  11. Single-strand DNA molecule translocation through nanoelectrode gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiongce; Payne, Christina M; Cummings, Peter T; Lee, James W

    2007-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the translocation of single-strand DNA through nanoscale electrode gaps under the action of a constant driving force. The application behind this theoretical study is a proposal to use nanoelectrodes as a screening gap as part of a rapid genomic sequencing device. Preliminary results from a series of simulations using various gap widths and driving forces suggest that the narrowest electrode gap that a single-strand DNA can pass is ∼1.5 nm. The minimum force required to initiate the translocation within nanoseconds is ∼0.3 nN. Simulations using DNA segments of various lengths indicate that the minimum initiation force is insensitive to the length of DNA. However, the average threading velocity of DNA varies appreciably from short to long DNA segments. We attribute such variation to the different nature of drag force experienced by the short and long DNA segments in the environment. It is found that DNA molecules deform significantly to fit in the shape of the nanogap during the translocation

  12. Enzymatic production of 'monoclonal stoichiometric' single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducani, Cosimo; Kaul, Corinna; Moche, Martin; Shih, William M; Högberg, Björn

    2013-07-01

    Single-stranded oligonucleotides are important as research tools, as diagnostic probes, in gene therapy and in DNA nanotechnology. Oligonucleotides are typically produced via solid-phase synthesis, using polymer chemistries that are limited relative to what biological systems produce. The number of errors in synthetic DNA increases with oligonucleotide length, and the resulting diversity of sequences can be a problem. Here we present the 'monoclonal stoichiometric' (MOSIC) method for enzyme-mediated production of DNA oligonucleotides. We amplified oligonucleotides from clonal templates derived from single bacterial colonies and then digested cutter hairpins in the products, which released pools of oligonucleotides with precisely controlled relative stoichiometric ratios. We prepared 14-378-nucleotide MOSIC oligonucleotides either by in vitro rolling-circle amplification or by amplification of phagemid DNA in Escherichia coli. Analyses of the formation of a DNA crystal and folding of DNA nanostructures confirmed the scalability, purity and stoichiometry of the produced oligonucleotides.

  13. Enzymatic Production of Monoclonal Stoichiometric Single-Stranded DNA Oligonucleotides

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    Ducani, Cosimo; Kaul, Corinna; Moche, Martin; Shih, William M.; Högberg, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Single-stranded oligonucleotides are important as research tools as probes for diagnostics and gene therapy. Today, production of oligonucleotides is done via solid-phase synthesis. However, the capabilities of current polymer chemistry are limited in comparison to what can be produced in biological systems. The errors in synthetic DNA increases with oligonucleotide length, and sequence diversity can often be a problem. Here, we present the Monoclonal Stoichiometric (MOSIC) method for enzymatic DNA oligonucleotide production. Using this method, we amplify oligonucleotides from clonal templates followed by digestion of a cutter-hairpin, resulting in pools of monoclonal oligonucleotides with precisely controlled relative stoichiometric ratios. We present data where MOSIC oligonucleotides, 14–378 nt long, were prepared either by in vitro rolling-circle amplification, or by amplification in Escherichia coli in the form of phagemid DNA. The formation of a DNA crystal and folding of DNA nanostructures confirmed the scalability, purity and stoichiometry of the produced oligonucleotides. PMID:23727986

  14. Expression, purification and biochemical characterization of a single-stranded DNA binding protein from Herbaspirillum seropedicae.

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    Vernal, Javier; Serpa, Viviane I; Tavares, Carolina; Souza, Emanuel M; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Terenzi, Hernán

    2007-05-01

    An open reading frame encoding a protein similar in size and sequence to the Escherichia coli single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB protein) was identified in the Herbaspirillum seropedicae genome. This open reading frame was cloned into the expression plasmid pET14b. The SSB protein from H. seropedicae, named Hs_SSB, was overexpressed in E. coli strain BL21(DE3) and purified to homogeneity. Mass spectrometry data confirmed the identity of this protein. The apparent molecular mass of the native Hs_SSB was estimated by gel filtration, suggesting that the native protein is a tetramer made up of four similar subunits. The purified protein binds to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) in a similar manner to other SSB proteins. The production of this recombinant protein in good yield opens up the possibility of obtaining its 3D-structure and will help further investigations into DNA metabolism.

  15. Programmable autonomous synthesis of single-stranded DNA

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    Kishi, Jocelyn Y.; Schaus, Thomas E.; Gopalkrishnan, Nikhil; Xuan, Feng; Yin, Peng

    2018-02-01

    DNA performs diverse functional roles in biology, nanotechnology and biotechnology, but current methods for autonomously synthesizing arbitrary single-stranded DNA are limited. Here, we introduce the concept of primer exchange reaction (PER) cascades, which grow nascent single-stranded DNA with user-specified sequences following prescribed reaction pathways. PER synthesis happens in a programmable, autonomous, in situ and environmentally responsive fashion, providing a platform for engineering molecular circuits and devices with a wide range of sensing, monitoring, recording, signal-processing and actuation capabilities. We experimentally demonstrate a nanodevice that transduces the detection of a trigger RNA into the production of a DNAzyme that degrades an independent RNA substrate, a signal amplifier that conditionally synthesizes long fluorescent strands only in the presence of a particular RNA signal, molecular computing circuits that evaluate logic (AND, OR, NOT) combinations of RNA inputs, and a temporal molecular event recorder that records in the PER transcript the order in which distinct RNA inputs are sequentially detected.

  16. Genetic and biochemical identification of a novel single-stranded DNA binding complex in Haloferax volcanii

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    Amy eStroud

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Single-stranded DNA binding proteins play an essential role in DNA replication and repair. They use oligosaccharide-binding folds, a five-stranded ß-sheet coiled into a closed barrel, to bind to single-stranded DNA thereby protecting and stabilizing the DNA. In eukaryotes the single-stranded DNA binding protein is known as replication protein A (RPA and consists of three distinct subunits that function as a heterotrimer. The bacterial homolog is termed single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB and functions as a homotetramer. In the archaeon Haloferax volcanii there are three genes encoding homologs of RPA. Two of the rpa genes (rpa1 and rpa3 exist in operons with a novel gene specific to Euryarchaeota, this gene encodes a protein that we have termed rpa-associated protein (RPAP. The rpap genes encode proteins belonging to COG3390 group and feature oligosaccharide-binding folds, suggesting that they might cooperate with RPA in binding to single-stranded DNA. Our genetic analysis showed that rpa1 and rpa3 deletion mutants have differing phenotypes; only ∆rpa3 strains are hypersensitive to DNA damaging agents. Deletion of the rpa3-associated gene rpap3 led to similar levels of DNA damage sensitivity, as did deletion of the rpa3 operon, suggesting that RPA3 and RPAP3 function in the same pathway. Protein pull-downs involving recombinant hexahistidine-tagged RPAs showed that RPA3 co-purifies with RPAP3, and RPA1 co-purifies with RPAP1. This indicates that the RPAs interact only with their respective associated proteins; this was corroborated by the inability to construct rpa1 rpap3 and rpa3 rpap1 double mutants. This is the first report investigating the individual function of the archaeal COG3390 RPA-associated proteins. We have shown genetically and biochemically that the RPAPs interact with their respective RPAs, and have uncovered a novel single-stranded DNA binding complex that is unique to Euryarchaeota.

  17. Defective processing of methylated single-stranded DNA by E. coli alkB mutants

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    Dinglay, Suneet; Trewick, Sarah C.; Lindahl, Tomas; Sedgwick, Barbara

    2000-01-01

    Escherichia coli alkB mutants are very sensitive to DNA methylating agents. Despite these mutants being the subject of many studies, no DNA repair or other function has been assigned to the AlkB protein or to its human homolog. Here, we report that reactivation of methylmethanesulfonate (MMS)-treated single-stranded DNA phages, M13, f1, and G4, was decreased dramatically in alkB mutants. No such decrease occurred when using methylated λ phage or M13 duplex DNA. These data show that alkB mutants have a marked defect in processing methylation damage in single-stranded DNA. Recombinant AlkB protein bound more efficiently to single- than double-stranded DNA. The single-strand damage processed by AlkB was primarily cytotoxic and not mutagenic and was induced by SN2 methylating agents, MMS, DMS, and MeI but not by SN1 agent N-methyl-N-nitrosourea or by γ irradiation. Strains lacking other DNA repair activities, alkA tag, xth nfo, uvrA, mutS, and umuC, were not defective in reactivation of methylated M13 phage and did not enhance the defect of an alkB mutant. A recA mutation caused a small but additive defect. Thus, AlkB functions in a novel pathway independent of these activities. We propose that AlkB acts on alkylated single-stranded DNA in replication forks or at transcribed regions. Consistent with this theory, stationary phase alkB cells were less MMS sensitive than rapidly growing cells. PMID:10950872

  18. Molecular investigation of evaporation of biodroplets containing single-strand DNA on graphene surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Fahimeh; Foroutan, Masumeh

    2018-02-14

    In this study, the water droplet behaviour of four different types of single-strand DNA with homogeneous base sequence on a graphene substrate during evaporation of the droplet was investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The simulation results indicated that the evaporation depended on the DNA sequence. The observed changes can be divided into four parts: (i) vaporization mode, (ii) evaporation flux, (iii) mechanism of single-strand placement on the surface, and (iv) consideration of remaining single strands after evaporation. Our simulation observations indicated different evaporation modes for thymine biodroplets as compared to those for other biodroplets. The evaporation of the thymine biodroplets occurred with an increase in the contact angle, while that of the other biodroplets occur in a constant contact angle mode. Moreover, thymine biodroplets generate the lowest contact line compared to other single strands, and it is always placed far away from the centre of the droplets during evaporation. Investigating variations in the evaporation flux shows that thymine has the highest evaporation flux and guanine has the lowest. Moreover, during initial evaporation, the flux of evaporation increases at the triple point of the biodroplets containing thymine single strands, while it decreases in the other biodroplets. The following observation was obtained from the study of the placement of single strands on the substrate: guanine and thymine interacted slower than other single strands during evaporation with graphene, adenine single strand had a higher folding during evaporation, and guanine single strand showed the lowest end-to-end distance. The investigation of single-strand DNA after evaporation shows that adenine produces the most stable structure at the end of evaporation. In addition, cytosine is the most stretched single-strand DNA due to its lack of internal π-π stacking and hydrogen bonding. Therefore, cytosine single strand is more

  19. Viral interference with DNA repair by targeting of the single-stranded DNA binding protein RPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Pubali; DeJesus, Rowena; Gjoerup, Ole; Schaffhausen, Brian S

    2013-10-01

    Correct repair of damaged DNA is critical for genomic integrity. Deficiencies in DNA repair are linked with human cancer. Here we report a novel mechanism by which a virus manipulates DNA damage responses. Infection with murine polyomavirus sensitizes cells to DNA damage by UV and etoposide. Polyomavirus large T antigen (LT) alone is sufficient to sensitize cells 100 fold to UV and other kinds of DNA damage. This results in activated stress responses and apoptosis. Genetic analysis shows that LT sensitizes via the binding of its origin-binding domain (OBD) to the single-stranded DNA binding protein replication protein A (RPA). Overexpression of RPA protects cells expressing OBD from damage, and knockdown of RPA mimics the LT phenotype. LT prevents recruitment of RPA to nuclear foci after DNA damage. This leads to failure to recruit repair proteins such as Rad51 or Rad9, explaining why LT prevents repair of double strand DNA breaks by homologous recombination. A targeted intervention directed at RPA based on this viral mechanism could be useful in circumventing the resistance of cancer cells to therapy.

  20. Helical filaments of human Dmc1 protein on single-stranded DNA: a cautionary tale

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    Yu, Xiong; Egelman, Edward H.

    2010-01-01

    Proteins in the RecA/Rad51/RadA family form nucleoprotein filaments on DNA that catalyze a strand exchange reaction as part of homologous genetic recombination. Because of the centrality of this system to many aspects of DNA repair, the generation of genetic diversity, and cancer when this system fails or is not properly regulated, these filaments have been the object of many biochemical and biophysical studies. A recent paper has argued that the human Dmc1 protein, a meiotic homolog of bacterial RecA and human Rad51, forms filaments on single stranded DNA with ∼ 9 subunits per turn in contrast to the filaments formed on double stranded DNA with ∼ 6.4 subunits per turn, and that the stoichiometry of DNA binding is different between these two filaments. We show using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) that the Dmc1 filament formed on single stranded DNA has a mass per unit length expected from ∼ 6.5 subunits per turn. More generally, we show how ambiguities in helical symmetry determination can generate incorrect solutions, and why one sometimes must use other techniques, such as biochemistry, metal shadowing, or STEM to resolve these ambiguities. While three-dimensional reconstruction of helical filaments from EM images is a powerful tool, the intrinsic ambiguities that may be present with limited resolution are not sufficiently appreciated. PMID:20600108

  1. Genetic analysis of RPA single-stranded DNA binding protein in Haloferax volcanii

    OpenAIRE

    Stroud, A. L.

    2012-01-01

    Replication protein A (RPA) is a single-stranded DNA-binding protein that is present in all three domains of life. The roles of RPA include stabilising and protecting single- stranded DNA from nuclease degradation during DNA replication and repair. To achieve this, RPA uses an oligosaccharide-binding fold (OB fold) to bind single- stranded DNA. Haloferax volcanii encodes three RPAs – RPA1, RPA2 and RPA3, of which rpa1 and rpa3 are in operons with genes encoding associated proteins (APs). ...

  2. Single-strand breaks in supercoiled DNA induced by vacuum-UV radiation in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takakura, Kaoru; Ishikawa, Mitsuo; Hieda, Kotaro; Kobayashi, Katsumi; Ito, Atsushi; Ito, Takashi

    1986-09-01

    The induction of single-strand breaks in the DNA of plasmid pBR 322 by vacuum-UV radiation above 145 nm in aqueous solutions was studied in relation to the production of OH-radicals in water. The similarity and dissimilarity were examined on the wavelength dependence between the two effects. The maximum of single strand breaks at 150 nm could be explained by the action of OH-radicals derived from direct water photolysis: the maximum at 180 nm remains unexplained. There was no indication that the direct absorption of photon by the DNA molecule plays an important role in the production of single-strand breaks.

  3. Single-strand breaks in supercoiled DNA induced by vacuum-UV radiation in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takakura, Kaoru; Ishikawa, Mitsuo; Hieda, Kotaro; Kobayashi, Katsumi; Ito, Atsushi; Ito, Takashi

    1986-01-01

    The induction of single-strand breaks in the DNA of plasmid pBR 322 by vacuum-UV radiation above 145 nm in aqueous solutions was studied in relation to the production of OH-radicals in water. The similarity and dissimilarity were examined on the wavelength dependence between the two effects. The maximum of single strand breaks at 150 nm could be explained by the action of OH-radicals derived from direct water photolysis: the maximum at 180 nm remains unexplained. There was no indication that the direct absorption of photon by the DNA molecule plays an important role in the production of single-strand breaks. (author)

  4. Managing Single-Stranded DNA during Replication Stress in Fission Yeast

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    Sarah A. Sabatinos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Replication fork stalling generates a variety of responses, most of which cause an increase in single-stranded DNA. ssDNA is a primary signal of replication distress that activates cellular checkpoints. It is also a potential source of genome instability and a substrate for mutation and recombination. Therefore, managing ssDNA levels is crucial to chromosome integrity. Limited ssDNA accumulation occurs in wild-type cells under stress. In contrast, cells lacking the replication checkpoint cannot arrest forks properly and accumulate large amounts of ssDNA. This likely occurs when the replication fork polymerase and helicase units are uncoupled. Some cells with mutations in the replication helicase (mcm-ts mimic checkpoint-deficient cells, and accumulate extensive areas of ssDNA to trigger the G2-checkpoint. Another category of helicase mutant (mcm4-degron causes fork stalling in early S-phase due to immediate loss of helicase function. Intriguingly, cells realize that ssDNA is present, but fail to detect that they accumulate ssDNA, and continue to divide. Thus, the cellular response to replication stalling depends on checkpoint activity and the time that replication stress occurs in S-phase. In this review we describe the signs, signals, and symptoms of replication arrest from an ssDNA perspective. We explore the possible mechanisms for these effects. We also advise the need for caution when detecting and interpreting data related to the accumulation of ssDNA.

  5. Mammalian DNA single-strand break repair: an X-ra(y)ted affair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldecott, K W

    2001-05-01

    The genetic stability of living cells is continuously threatened by the presence of endogenous reactive oxygen species and other genotoxic molecules. Of particular threat are the thousands of DNA single-strand breaks that arise in each cell, each day, both directly from disintegration of damaged sugars and indirectly from the excision repair of damaged bases. If un-repaired, single-strand breaks can be converted into double-strand breaks during DNA replication, potentially resulting in chromosomal rearrangement and genetic deletion. Consequently, cells have adopted multiple pathways to ensure the rapid and efficient removal of single-strand breaks. A general feature of these pathways appears to be the extensive employment of protein-protein interactions to stimulate both the individual component steps and the overall repair reaction. Our current understanding of DNA single-strand break repair is discussed, and testable models for the architectural coordination of this important process are presented. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. Excess single-stranded DNA inhibits meiotic double-strand break repair.

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    Rebecca Johnson

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available During meiosis, self-inflicted DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs are created by the protein Spo11 and repaired by homologous recombination leading to gene conversions and crossovers. Crossover formation is vital for the segregation of homologous chromosomes during the first meiotic division and requires the RecA orthologue, Dmc1. We analyzed repair during meiosis of site-specific DSBs created by another nuclease, VMA1-derived endonuclease (VDE, in cells lacking Dmc1 strand-exchange protein. Turnover and resection of the VDE-DSBs was assessed in two different reporter cassettes that can repair using flanking direct repeat sequences, thereby obviating the need for a Dmc1-dependent DNA strand invasion step. Access of the single-strand binding complex replication protein A, which is normally used in all modes of DSB repair, was checked in chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments, using antibody against Rfa1. Repair of the VDE-DSBs was severely inhibited in dmc1Delta cells, a defect that was associated with a reduction in the long tract resection required to initiate single-strand annealing between the flanking repeat sequences. Mutants that either reduce Spo11-DSB formation or abolish resection at Spo11-DSBs rescued the repair block. We also found that a replication protein A component, Rfa1, does not accumulate to expected levels at unrepaired single-stranded DNA (ssDNA in dmc1Delta cells. The requirement of Dmc1 for VDE-DSB repair using flanking repeats appears to be caused by the accumulation of large quantities of ssDNA that accumulate at Spo11-DSBs when Dmc1 is absent. We propose that these resected DSBs sequester both resection machinery and ssDNA binding proteins, which in wild-type cells would normally be recycled as Spo11-DSBs repair. The implication is that repair proteins are in limited supply, and this could reflect an underlying mechanism for regulating DSB repair in wild-type cells, providing protection from potentially harmful effects

  7. RPA Stabilization of Single-Stranded DNA Is Critical for Break-Induced Replication.

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    Ruff, Patrick; Donnianni, Roberto A; Glancy, Eleanor; Oh, Julyun; Symington, Lorraine S

    2016-12-20

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are cytotoxic lesions that must be accurately repaired to maintain genome stability. Replication protein A (RPA) plays an important role in homology-dependent repair of DSBs by protecting the single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) intermediates formed by end resection and by facilitating Rad51 loading. We found that hypomorphic mutants of RFA1 that support intra-chromosomal homologous recombination are profoundly defective for repair processes involving long tracts of DNA synthesis, in particular break-induced replication (BIR). The BIR defects of the rfa1 mutants could be partially suppressed by eliminating the Sgs1-Dna2 resection pathway, suggesting that Dna2 nuclease attacks the ssDNA formed during end resection when not fully protected by RPA. Overexpression of Rad51 was also found to suppress the rfa1 BIR defects. We suggest that Rad51 binding to the ssDNA formed by excessive end resection and during D-loop migration can partially compensate for dysfunctional RPA. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Interactive Roles of DNA Helicases and Translocases with the Single-Stranded DNA Binding Protein RPA in Nucleic Acid Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awate, Sanket; Brosh, Robert M

    2017-06-08

    Helicases and translocases use the energy of nucleoside triphosphate binding and hydrolysis to unwind/resolve structured nucleic acids or move along a single-stranded or double-stranded polynucleotide chain, respectively. These molecular motors facilitate a variety of transactions including replication, DNA repair, recombination, and transcription. A key partner of eukaryotic DNA helicases/translocases is the single-stranded DNA binding protein Replication Protein A (RPA). Biochemical, genetic, and cell biological assays have demonstrated that RPA interacts with these human molecular motors physically and functionally, and their association is enriched in cells undergoing replication stress. The roles of DNA helicases/translocases are orchestrated with RPA in pathways of nucleic acid metabolism. RPA stimulates helicase-catalyzed DNA unwinding, enlists translocases to sites of action, and modulates their activities in DNA repair, fork remodeling, checkpoint activation, and telomere maintenance. The dynamic interplay between DNA helicases/translocases and RPA is just beginning to be understood at the molecular and cellular levels, and there is still much to be learned, which may inform potential therapeutic strategies.

  9. Functional characterization of a conserved archaeal viral operon revealing single-stranded DNA binding, annealing and nuclease activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yang; Kragelund, Birthe Brandt; White, Malcolm F.

    2015-01-01

    encoding proteins of unknown function and forming an operon with ORF207 (gp19). SIRV2 gp17 was found to be a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein different in structure from all previously characterized ssDNA binding proteins. Mutagenesis of a few conserved basic residues suggested a U......-shaped binding path for ssDNA. The recombinant gp18 showed an ssDNA annealing activity often associated with helicases and recombinases. To gain insight into the biological role of the entire operon, we characterized SIRV2 gp19 and showed it to possess a 5'→3' ssDNA exonuclease activity, in addition...... for rudiviruses and the close interaction among the ssDNA binding, annealing and nuclease proteins strongly point to a role of the gene operon in genome maturation and/or DNA recombination that may function in viral DNA replication/repair....

  10. Chemo-mechanical pushing of proteins along single-stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokoloski, Joshua E; Kozlov, Alexander G; Galletto, Roberto; Lohman, Timothy M

    2016-05-31

    Single-stranded (ss)DNA binding (SSB) proteins bind with high affinity to ssDNA generated during DNA replication, recombination, and repair; however, these SSBs must eventually be displaced from or reorganized along the ssDNA. One potential mechanism for reorganization is for an ssDNA translocase (ATP-dependent motor) to push the SSB along ssDNA. Here we use single molecule total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to detect such pushing events. When Cy5-labeled Escherichia coli (Ec) SSB is bound to surface-immobilized 3'-Cy3-labeled ssDNA, a fluctuating FRET signal is observed, consistent with random diffusion of SSB along the ssDNA. Addition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pif1, a 5' to 3' ssDNA translocase, results in the appearance of isolated, irregularly spaced saw-tooth FRET spikes only in the presence of ATP. These FRET spikes result from translocase-induced directional (5' to 3') pushing of the SSB toward the 3' ssDNA end, followed by displacement of the SSB from the DNA end. Similar ATP-dependent pushing events, but in the opposite (3' to 5') direction, are observed with EcRep and EcUvrD (both 3' to 5' ssDNA translocases). Simulations indicate that these events reflect active pushing by the translocase. The ability of translocases to chemo-mechanically push heterologous SSB proteins along ssDNA provides a potential mechanism for reorganization and clearance of tightly bound SSBs from ssDNA.

  11. Viral single-strand DNA induces p53-dependent apoptosis in human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Matthew L; Fagan, B Matthew; Dumitru, Raluca; Bower, Jacquelyn J; Yadav, Swati; Porteus, Matthew H; Pevny, Larysa H; Samulski, R Jude

    2011-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are primed for rapid apoptosis following mild forms of genotoxic stress. A natural form of such cellular stress occurs in response to recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) single-strand DNA genomes, which exploit the host DNA damage response for replication and genome persistence. Herein, we discovered a unique DNA damage response induced by rAAV transduction specific to pluripotent hESCs. Within hours following rAAV transduction, host DNA damage signaling was elicited as measured by increased gamma-H2AX, ser15-p53 phosphorylation, and subsequent p53-dependent transcriptional activation. Nucleotide incorporation assays demonstrated that rAAV transduced cells accumulated in early S-phase followed by the induction of apoptosis. This lethal signaling sequalae required p53 in a manner independent of transcriptional induction of Puma, Bax and Bcl-2 and was not evident in cells differentiated towards a neural lineage. Consistent with a lethal DNA damage response induced upon rAAV transduction of hESCs, empty AAV protein capsids demonstrated no toxicity. In contrast, DNA microinjections demonstrated that the minimal AAV origin of replication and, in particular, a 40 nucleotide G-rich tetrad repeat sequence, was sufficient for hESC apoptosis. Our data support a model in which rAAV transduction of hESCs induces a p53-dependent lethal response that is elicited by a telomeric sequence within the AAV origin of replication.

  12. Viral single-strand DNA induces p53-dependent apoptosis in human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L Hirsch

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs are primed for rapid apoptosis following mild forms of genotoxic stress. A natural form of such cellular stress occurs in response to recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV single-strand DNA genomes, which exploit the host DNA damage response for replication and genome persistence. Herein, we discovered a unique DNA damage response induced by rAAV transduction specific to pluripotent hESCs. Within hours following rAAV transduction, host DNA damage signaling was elicited as measured by increased gamma-H2AX, ser15-p53 phosphorylation, and subsequent p53-dependent transcriptional activation. Nucleotide incorporation assays demonstrated that rAAV transduced cells accumulated in early S-phase followed by the induction of apoptosis. This lethal signaling sequalae required p53 in a manner independent of transcriptional induction of Puma, Bax and Bcl-2 and was not evident in cells differentiated towards a neural lineage. Consistent with a lethal DNA damage response induced upon rAAV transduction of hESCs, empty AAV protein capsids demonstrated no toxicity. In contrast, DNA microinjections demonstrated that the minimal AAV origin of replication and, in particular, a 40 nucleotide G-rich tetrad repeat sequence, was sufficient for hESC apoptosis. Our data support a model in which rAAV transduction of hESCs induces a p53-dependent lethal response that is elicited by a telomeric sequence within the AAV origin of replication.

  13. Bacillus subtilis single-stranded DNA-binding protein SsbA is phosphorylated at threonine 38 by the serine/threonine kinase YabT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derouiche, Abderahmane; Petranovic, Dina; Macek, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose: Single-stranded DNA-binding proteins participate in all stages of DNA metabolism that involve single-stranded DNA, from replication, recombination, repair of DNA damage, to natural competence in species such as Bacillus subtilis. B. subtilis single-stranded DNA......-binding proteins have previously been found to be phosphorylated on tyrosine and arginine residues. While tyrosine phosphorylation was shown to enhance the DNA-binding properties of SsbA, arginine phosphorylation was not functionally characterized.Materials and methods: We used mass spectrometry analysis to detect...... phosphorylation of SsbA purified from B. subtilis cells. The detected phosphorylation site was assessed for its influence on DNA-binding in vitro, using electrophoretic mobility shift assays. The ability of B. subtilis serine/threonine kinases to phosphorylate SsbA was assessed using in vitro phosphorylation...

  14. Interaction with Single-stranded DNA-binding Protein Stimulates Escherichia coli Ribonuclease HI Enzymatic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Christine; Marceau, Aimee H; Miller, Katherine H; Marqusee, Susan; Keck, James L

    2015-06-05

    Single-stranded (ss) DNA-binding proteins (SSBs) bind and protect ssDNA intermediates formed during replication, recombination, and repair reactions. SSBs also directly interact with many different genome maintenance proteins to stimulate their enzymatic activities and/or mediate their proper cellular localization. We have identified an interaction formed between Escherichia coli SSB and ribonuclease HI (RNase HI), an enzyme that hydrolyzes RNA in RNA/DNA hybrids. The RNase HI·SSB complex forms by RNase HI binding the intrinsically disordered C terminus of SSB (SSB-Ct), a mode of interaction that is shared among all SSB interaction partners examined to date. Residues that comprise the SSB-Ct binding site are conserved among bacterial RNase HI enzymes, suggesting that RNase HI·SSB complexes are present in many bacterial species and that retaining the interaction is important for its cellular function. A steady-state kinetic analysis shows that interaction with SSB stimulates RNase HI activity by lowering the reaction Km. SSB or RNase HI protein variants that disrupt complex formation nullify this effect. Collectively our findings identify a direct RNase HI/SSB interaction that could play a role in targeting RNase HI activity to RNA/DNA hybrid substrates within the genome. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Interaction with Single-stranded DNA-binding Protein Stimulates Escherichia coli Ribonuclease HI Enzymatic Activity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Christine; Marceau, Aimee H.; Miller, Katherine H.; Marqusee, Susan; Keck, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Single-stranded (ss) DNA-binding proteins (SSBs) bind and protect ssDNA intermediates formed during replication, recombination, and repair reactions. SSBs also directly interact with many different genome maintenance proteins to stimulate their enzymatic activities and/or mediate their proper cellular localization. We have identified an interaction formed between Escherichia coli SSB and ribonuclease HI (RNase HI), an enzyme that hydrolyzes RNA in RNA/DNA hybrids. The RNase HI·SSB complex forms by RNase HI binding the intrinsically disordered C terminus of SSB (SSB-Ct), a mode of interaction that is shared among all SSB interaction partners examined to date. Residues that comprise the SSB-Ct binding site are conserved among bacterial RNase HI enzymes, suggesting that RNase HI·SSB complexes are present in many bacterial species and that retaining the interaction is important for its cellular function. A steady-state kinetic analysis shows that interaction with SSB stimulates RNase HI activity by lowering the reaction Km. SSB or RNase HI protein variants that disrupt complex formation nullify this effect. Collectively our findings identify a direct RNase HI/SSB interaction that could play a role in targeting RNase HI activity to RNA/DNA hybrid substrates within the genome. PMID:25903123

  16. Solubilization of Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes with Single- stranded DNA Generated from Asymmetric PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhai Fan

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs can be effectively dispersed and functionalized bywrapping with long single-stranded DNA (ssDNA synthesized by asymmetric PCR. ThessDNA-CNTs attached on surface of glass carbon electrode made it possible forelectrochemical analysis and sensing, which was demonstrated by reduction of H2O2 onhemoglobin/ssDNA-CNTs modified electrodes. This research showed the potentialapplication of DNA-functionalised CNTs in construction of future electrochemicalbiosensors.

  17. Electron attachment to DNA single strands: gas phase and aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jiande; Xie, Yaoming; Schaefer, Henry F

    2007-01-01

    The 2'-deoxyguanosine-3',5'-diphosphate, 2'-deoxyadenosine-3',5'-diphosphate, 2'-deoxycytidine-3',5'-diphosphate and 2'-deoxythymidine-3',5'-diphosphate systems are the smallest units of a DNA single strand. Exploring these comprehensive subunits with reliable density functional methods enables one to approach reasonable predictions of the properties of DNA single strands. With these models, DNA single strands are found to have a strong tendency to capture low-energy electrons. The vertical attachment energies (VEAs) predicted for 3',5'-dTDP (0.17 eV) and 3',5'-dGDP (0.14 eV) indicate that both the thymine-rich and the guanine-rich DNA single strands have the ability to capture electrons. The adiabatic electron affinities (AEAs) of the nucleotides considered here range from 0.22 to 0.52 eV and follow the order 3',5'-dTDP > 3',5'-dCDP > 3',5'-dGDP > 3',5'-dADP. A substantial increase in the AEA is observed compared to that of the corresponding nucleic acid bases and the corresponding nucleosides. Furthermore, aqueous solution simulations dramatically increase the electron attracting properties of the DNA single strands. The present investigation illustrates that in the gas phase, the excess electron is situated both on the nucleobase and on the phosphate moiety for DNA single strands. However, the distribution of the extra negative charge is uneven. The attached electron favors the base moiety for the pyrimidine, while it prefers the 3'-phosphate subunit for the purine DNA single strands. In contrast, the attached electron is tightly bound to the base fragment for the cytidine, thymidine and adenosine nucleotides, while it almost exclusively resides in the vicinity of the 3'-phosphate group for the guanosine nucleotides due to the solvent effects. The comparatively low vertical detachment energies (VDEs) predicted for 3',5'-dADP(-) (0.26 eV) and 3',5'-dGDP(-) (0.32 eV) indicate that electron detachment might compete with reactions having high activation barriers

  18. Interaction of bacteriophage T4 and T7 single-stranded DNA-binding proteins with DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shokri, Leila; Williams, Mark C; Rouzina, Ioulia

    2009-01-01

    Bacteriophages T4 and T7 are well-studied model replication systems, which have allowed researchers to determine the roles of many proteins central to DNA replication, recombination and repair. Here we summarize and discuss the results from two recently developed single-molecule methods to determine the salt-dependent DNA-binding kinetics and thermodynamics of the single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding proteins (SSBs) from these systems. We use these methods to characterize both the equilibrium double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and ssDNA binding of the SSBs T4 gene 32 protein (gp32) and T7 gene 2.5 protein (gp2.5). Despite the overall two-orders-of-magnitude weaker binding of gp2.5 to both forms of DNA, we find that both proteins exhibit four-orders-of-magnitude preferential binding to ssDNA relative to dsDNA. This strong preferential ssDNA binding as well as the weak dsDNA binding is essential for the ability of both proteins to search dsDNA in one dimension to find available ssDNA-binding sites at the replication fork

  19. Sites of termination of in vitro DNA synthesis on psoralen phototreated single-stranded templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piette, J.; Hearst, J.

    1985-01-01

    Single-stranded DNA has been photochemically induced to react with 4'-hydroxymethyl-4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen (HMT) and used as substrate for DNA replication with E. coli DNA polymerase I large fragment. By using the dideoxy sequencing procedure, it is possible to map the termination sites on the template photoreacted with HMT. These sites occur at the nucleotides preceding each thymine residue (and a few cytosine residues), emphasizing the fact that in a single-stranded stretch of DNA, HMT reacts with each thymine residue without any specificity regarding the flanking base sequence of the thymine residues. In addition, termination of DNA synthesis due to psoralen-adducted thymine is not influenced by the efficiency of the 3'-5' exonuclease proof-reading activity of the DNA polymerase. (author)

  20. RADX interacts with single-stranded DNA to promote replication fork stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, Lisa; Ho, Teresa; Hoffmann, Saskia

    2017-01-01

    Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) regions form as an intermediate in many DNA-associated transactions. Multiple cellular proteins interact with ssDNA via the oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB) fold domain. The heterotrimeric, multi-OB fold domain-containing Replication Protein A (RPA) complex...... ssDNA-binding activities is critical for avoiding these defects. Our findings establish RADX as an important component of cellular pathways that promote DNA replication integrity under basal and stressful conditions by means of multiple ssDNA-binding proteins....

  1. Temporary electron localization and scattering in disordered single strands of DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caron, Laurent; Sanche, Leon

    2006-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of the effect of structural and base sequence disorders on the transport properties of nonthermal electron scattering within and from single strands of DNA. The calculations are based on our recently developed formalism to treat multiple elastic scattering from simplified pseudomolecular DNA subunits. Structural disorder is shown to increase both the elastic scattering cross section and the attachment probability on the bases at low energy. Sequence disorder, however, has no significant effect

  2. RPA-coated single-stranded DNA as a platform for post-translational modifications in the DNA damage response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maréchal, Alexandre; Zou, Lee

    2015-01-01

    The Replication Protein A (RPA) complex is an essential regulator of eukaryotic DNA metabolism. RPA avidly binds to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) through multiple oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding folds and coordinates the recruitment and exchange of genome maintenance factors to regulate DNA replication, recombination and repair. The RPA-ssDNA platform also constitutes a key physiological signal which activates the master ATR kinase to protect and repair stalled or collapsed replication forks during replication stress. In recent years, the RPA complex has emerged as a key target and an important regulator of post-translational modifications in response to DNA damage, which is critical for its genome guardian functions. Phosphorylation and SUMOylation of the RPA complex, and more recently RPA-regulated ubiquitination, have all been shown to control specific aspects of DNA damage signaling and repair by modulating the interactions between RPA and its partners. Here, we review our current understanding of the critical functions of the RPA-ssDNA platform in the maintenance of genome stability and its regulation through an elaborate network of covalent modifications.

  3. A neutral glyoxal gel electrophoresis method for the detection and semi-quantitation of DNA single-strand breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachkowski, Brian; Nakamura, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Single-strand breaks are among the most prevalent lesions found in DNA. Traditional electrophoretic methods (e.g., the Comet assay) used for investigating these lesions rely on alkaline conditions to denature DNA prior to electrophoresis. However, the presence of alkali-labile sites in DNA can result in the introduction of additional single-strand breaks upon alkali treatment during DNA sample processing. Herein, we describe a neutral glyoxal gel electrophoresis assay which is based on alkali-free DNA denaturation and is suitable for qualitative and semi-quantitative analyses of single-strand breaks in DNA isolated from different organisms.

  4. Base damage within single-strand DNA underlies in vivo hypermutability induced by a ubiquitous environmental agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kin Chan

    Full Text Available Chromosomal DNA must be in single-strand form for important transactions such as replication, transcription, and recombination to occur. The single-strand DNA (ssDNA is more prone to damage than double-strand DNA (dsDNA, due to greater exposure of chemically reactive moieties in the nitrogenous bases. Thus, there can be agents that damage regions of ssDNA in vivo while being inert toward dsDNA. To assess the potential hazard posed by such agents, we devised an ssDNA-specific mutagenesis reporter system in budding yeast. The reporter strains bear the cdc13-1 temperature-sensitive mutation, such that shifting to 37°C results in telomere uncapping and ensuing 5' to 3' enzymatic resection. This exposes the reporter region, containing three closely-spaced reporter genes, as a long 3' ssDNA overhang. We validated the ability of the system to detect mutagenic damage within ssDNA by expressing a modified human single-strand specific cytosine deaminase, APOBEC3G. APOBEC3G induced a high density of substitutions at cytosines in the ssDNA overhang strand, resulting in frequent, simultaneous inactivation of two reporter genes. We then examined the mutagenicity of sulfites, a class of reactive sulfur oxides to which humans are exposed frequently via respiration and food intake. Sulfites, at a concentration similar to that found in some foods, induced a high density of mutations, almost always as substitutions at cytosines in the ssDNA overhang strand, resulting in simultaneous inactivation of at least two reporter genes. Furthermore, sulfites formed a long-lived adducted 2'-deoxyuracil intermediate in DNA that was resistant to excision by uracil-DNA N-glycosylase. This intermediate was bypassed by error-prone translesion DNA synthesis, frequently involving Pol ζ, during repair synthesis. Our results suggest that sulfite-induced lesions in DNA can be particularly deleterious, since cells might not possess the means to repair or bypass such lesions

  5. Towards quantitative viromics for both double-stranded and single-stranded DNA viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Roux

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Viruses strongly influence microbial population dynamics and ecosystem functions. However, our ability to quantitatively evaluate those viral impacts is limited to the few cultivated viruses and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA viral genomes captured in quantitative viral metagenomes (viromes. This leaves the ecology of non-dsDNA viruses nearly unknown, including single-stranded DNA (ssDNA viruses that have been frequently observed in viromes, but not quantified due to amplification biases in sequencing library preparations (Multiple Displacement Amplification, Linker Amplification or Tagmentation. Methods Here we designed mock viral communities including both ssDNA and dsDNA viruses to evaluate the capability of a sequencing library preparation approach including an Adaptase step prior to Linker Amplification for quantitative amplification of both dsDNA and ssDNA templates. We then surveyed aquatic samples to provide first estimates of the abundance of ssDNA viruses. Results Mock community experiments confirmed the biased nature of existing library preparation methods for ssDNA templates (either largely enriched or selected against and showed that the protocol using Adaptase plus Linker Amplification yielded viromes that were ±1.8-fold quantitative for ssDNA and dsDNA viruses. Application of this protocol to community virus DNA from three freshwater and three marine samples revealed that ssDNA viruses as a whole represent only a minor fraction (<5% of DNA virus communities, though individual ssDNA genomes, both eukaryote-infecting Circular Rep-Encoding Single-Stranded DNA (CRESS-DNA viruses and bacteriophages from the Microviridae family, can be among the most abundant viral genomes in a sample. Discussion Together these findings provide empirical data for a new virome library preparation protocol, and a first estimate of ssDNA virus abundance in aquatic systems.

  6. Genomic mapping of single-stranded DNA in hydroxyurea-challenged yeasts identifies origins of replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wenyi; Collingwood, David; Boeck, Max E; Fox, Lindsay A; Alvino, Gina M; Fangman, Walton L; Raghuraman, Mosur K; Brewer, Bonita J

    2006-02-01

    During DNA replication one or both strands transiently become single stranded: first at the sites where initiation of DNA synthesis occurs (known as origins of replication) and subsequently on the lagging strands of replication forks as discontinuous Okazaki fragments are generated. We report a genome-wide analysis of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) formation in the presence of hydroxyurea during DNA replication in wild-type and checkpoint-deficient rad53 Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. In wild-type cells, ssDNA was first observed at a subset of replication origins and later 'migrated' bi-directionally, suggesting that ssDNA formation is associated with continuously moving replication forks. In rad53 cells, ssDNA was observed at virtually every known origin, but remained there over time, suggesting that replication forks stall. Telomeric regions seemed to be particularly sensitive to the loss of Rad53 checkpoint function. Replication origins in Schizosaccharomyces pombe were also mapped using our method.

  7. The impact of base stacking on the conformations and electrostatics of single-stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumridge, Alex; Meisburger, Steve P; Andresen, Kurt; Pollack, Lois

    2017-04-20

    Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) is notable for its interactions with ssDNA binding proteins (SSBs) during fundamentally important biological processes including DNA repair and replication. Previous work has begun to characterize the conformational and electrostatic properties of ssDNA in association with SSBs. However, the conformational distributions of free ssDNA have been difficult to determine. To capture the vast array of ssDNA conformations in solution, we pair small angle X-ray scattering with novel ensemble fitting methods, obtaining key parameters such as the size, shape and stacking character of strands with different sequences. Complementary ion counting measurements using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy are employed to determine the composition of the ion atmosphere at physiological ionic strength. Applying this combined approach to poly dA and poly dT, we find that the global properties of these sequences are very similar, despite having vastly different propensities for single-stranded helical stacking. These results suggest that a relatively simple mechanism for the binding of ssDNA to non-specific SSBs may be at play, which explains the disparity in binding affinities observed for these systems. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  8. Purification of Single-Stranded cDNA Based on RNA Degradation Treatment and Adsorption Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Esquivel, Elías; Franco, Bernardo; Flores-Martínez, Alberto; Ponce-Noyola, Patricia; Mora-Montes, Héctor M

    2016-08-02

    Analysis of gene expression is a common research tool to study networks controlling gene expression, the role of genes with unknown function, and environmentally induced responses of organisms. Most of the analytical tools used to analyze gene expression rely on accurate cDNA synthesis and quantification to obtain reproducible and quantifiable results. Thus far, most commercial kits for isolation and purification of cDNA target double-stranded molecules, which do not accurately represent the abundance of transcripts. In the present report, we provide a simple and fast method to purify single-stranded cDNA, exhibiting high purity and yield. This method is based on the treatment with RNase H and RNase A after cDNA synthesis, followed by separation in silica spin-columns and ethanol precipitation. In addition, our method avoids the use of DNase I to eliminate genomic DNA from RNA preparations, which improves cDNA yield. As a case report, our method proved to be useful in the purification of single-stranded cDNA from the pathogenic fungus Sporothrix schenckii.

  9. Strand Displacement by DNA Polymerase III Occurs through a τ-ψ-χ Link to Single-stranded DNA-binding Protein Coating the Lagging Strand Template*

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Quan; McHenry, Charles S.

    2009-01-01

    In addition to the well characterized processive replication reaction catalyzed by the DNA polymerase III holoenzyme on single-stranded DNA templates, the enzyme possesses an intrinsic strand displacement activity on flapped templates. The strand displacement activity is distinguished from the single-stranded DNA-templated reaction by a high dependence upon single-stranded DNA binding protein and an inability of γ-complex to support the reaction in the absence of τ. However, if γ-complex is p...

  10. In Vitro Selection of a Single-Stranded DNA Molecular Recognition Element Specific for Bromacil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M. Williams

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bromacil is a widely used herbicide that is known to contaminate environmental systems. Due to the hazards it presents and inefficient detection methods, it is necessary to create a rapid and efficient sensing device. Towards this end, we have utilized a stringent in vitro selection method to identify single-stranded DNA molecular recognition elements (MRE specific for bromacil. We have identified one MRE with high affinity (Kd=9.6 nM and specificity for bromacil compared to negative targets of selection and other pesticides. The selected ssDNA MRE will be useful as the sensing element in a field-deployable bromacil detection device.

  11. Influence of DNA conformation on radiation-induced single-strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barone, F.; Belli, M.; Mazzei, F.

    1994-01-01

    We performed experiments on two DNA fragments of about 300 bp having different conformation to test whether radiation-induced single-strand breakage is dependent on DNA conformation. Breakage analysis was carried out by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, which allows determination of the broken site at single nucleotide resolution. We found uniform cutting patterns in B-form regions. On the contrary, X- or γ-irradiation of curved fragments of kinetoplast DNA showed that the distribution of single-strand breaks was not uniform along the fragment, as the cleavage pattern was modulated in phase with the runs of A-T pairs. This modulation likely reflected the reduced accessibility of the sites which on hydroxyl-radical attack give rise to strand breaks. The cleavage pattern was phased with the runs of A-T pairs. Moreover, the overall yield of strand breaks was considerably lower in curved DNA fragments than in those with extended straight regions. The conformation effect found here indicates that the cleavage pattern reflects the fine structural features of DNA. (orig./MG)

  12. Biophysical characterization of the association of histones with single-stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; van Merwyk, Luis; Tönsing, Katja; Walhorn, Volker; Anselmetti, Dario; Fernàndez-Busquets, Xavier

    2017-11-01

    Despite the profound current knowledge of the architecture and dynamics of nucleosomes, little is known about the structures generated by the interaction of histones with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), which is widely present during replication and transcription. Non-denaturing gel electrophoresis, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, magnetic tweezers. Histones have a high affinity for ssDNA in 0.15M NaCl ionic strength, with an apparent binding constant similar to that calculated for their association with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). The length of DNA (number of nucleotides in ssDNA or base pairs in dsDNA) associated with a fixed core histone mass is the same for both ssDNA and dsDNA. Although histone-ssDNA complexes show a high tendency to aggregate, nucleosome-like structures are formed at physiological salt concentrations. Core histones are able to protect ssDNA from digestion by micrococcal nuclease, and a shortening of ssDNA occurs upon its interaction with histones. The purified (+) strand of a cloned DNA fragment of nucleosomal origin has a higher affinity for histones than the purified complementary (-) strand. At physiological ionic strength histones have high affinity for ssDNA, possibly associating with it into nucleosome-like structures. In the cell nucleus histones may spontaneously interact with ssDNA to facilitate their participation in the replication and transcription of chromatin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. On the Formation of Thymine Photodimers in Thymine Single Strands and Calf Thymus DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Lisbeth Munksgård; Hoffmann, S.V.; Nielsen, Steen Brøndsted

    2014-01-01

    a principal component analysis of the CD spectra, we extract fingerprint spectra of both the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and the pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoadduct (64PP). Extending the CD measurements to the vacuum ultraviolet region in combination with systematic examinations of size effects...... of terminal thymines, i.e., the reaction does not occur preferentially at the extremities of the single strands as previously stated. It is even possible to form two dimers with only two bridging thymines. Finally, experiments conducted on calf thymus DNA provided a similar signature of the photodimer...

  14. Single-strand breaks induced in Bacillus subtilis DNA by ultraviolet light: action spectrum and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peak, M.J.; Peak, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    The induction of single-strand breaks (alkali-labile bonds plus frank breaks) in the DNA of Bacillus subtilis irradiated in vivo by monochromatic UV light at wavelengths from 254 to 434nm was measured. The spectrum consists of a major far-UV (below 320nm) component and a minor near-UV shoulder. A mutant deficient in DNA polymerase I accumulates breaks caused by near-UV (above 320nm) wavelengths faster than the wild-type strain proficient in polymerase I. Measurable breaks in extracted DNA are induced at a higher frequency than those induced in vivo. Anoxia, glycerol, and diazobicyclo (2.2.2.) octane inhibit break formation in extracted DNA. Alkali-labile bonds induced by 365-nm UV radiation are largely (78%) covalent bond chain breaks, the remainder consists of true alkali-labile bonds, probably apurinic and apyrimidinic sites. (author)

  15. CdS nanowires formed by chemical synthesis using conjugated single-stranded DNA molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangi, S. N.; Sahu, S. N.; Nozaki, S.

    2018-03-01

    CdS nanowires were successfully grown by chemical synthesis using two conjugated single-stranded (ss) DNA molecules, poly G (30) and poly C (30), as templates. During the early stage of the synthesis with the DNA molecules, the Cd 2+ interacts with Poly G and Poly C and produces the (Cd 2+)-Poly GC complex. As the growth proceeds, it results in nanowires. The structural analysis by grazing angle x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy confirmed the zinc-blende CdS nanowires with the growth direction of . Although the nanowires are well surface-passivated with the DNA molecules, the photoluminescence quenching was caused by the electron transfer from the nanowires to the DNA molecules. The quenching can be used to detect and label the DNAs.

  16. Induction and repair of double- and single-strand DNA breaks in bacteriophage lambda superinfecting Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boye, E.; Krisch, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    Induction and repair of double-and single-strand DNA breaks have been measured after decays of 125 I and 3 H incorporated into the DNA and after external irradiation with 4 MeV electrons. For the decay experiments, cells of wild type Escherichia coli K-12 were superinfected with bacteriophage lambda DNA labelled with 5'-( 125 I)iodo-2'-deoxyuridine or with (methyl- 3 H)thymidine and frozen in liquid nitrogen. Aliquots were thawed at intervals and lysed at neutral pH, and the phage DNA was assayed for double- and single-strand breakage by neutral sucrose gradient centrifugation. The gradients used allowed measurements of both kinds of breaks in the same gradient. Decays of 125 I induced 0.39 single-strand breaks per double-strand break. No repair of either break type could be detected. Each 3 H disintegration caused 0.20 single-strand breaks and very few double-strand breaks. The single-strand breaks were rapidly rejoined after the cells were thawed. For irradiation with 4 MeV electrons, cells of wild type E. coli K-12 were superinfected with phage lambda and suspended in growth medium. Irradiation induced 42 single-strand breaks per double-strand break. The rates of break induction were 6.75 x 10 -14 (double-strand breaks) and 2.82 x 10 -12 (single-strand breaks) per rad and per dalton. The single-strand breaks were rapidly repaired upon incubation whereas the double-strand breaks seemed to remain unrepaired. It is concluded that double-strand breaks in superinfecting bacteriophage lambda DNA are repaired to a very small extent, if at all. (Author)

  17. Transcription blockage by homopurine DNA sequences: role of sequence composition and single-strand breaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belotserkovskii, Boris P.; Neil, Alexander J.; Saleh, Syed Shayon; Shin, Jane Hae Soo; Mirkin, Sergei M.; Hanawalt, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of DNA to adopt non-canonical structures can affect transcription and has broad implications for genome functioning. We have recently reported that guanine-rich (G-rich) homopurine-homopyrimidine sequences cause significant blockage of transcription in vitro in a strictly orientation-dependent manner: when the G-rich strand serves as the non-template strand [Belotserkovskii et al. (2010) Mechanisms and implications of transcription blockage by guanine-rich DNA sequences., Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 107, 12816–12821]. We have now systematically studied the effect of the sequence composition and single-stranded breaks on this blockage. Although substitution of guanine by any other base reduced the blockage, cytosine and thymine reduced the blockage more significantly than adenine substitutions, affirming the importance of both G-richness and the homopurine-homopyrimidine character of the sequence for this effect. A single-strand break in the non-template strand adjacent to the G-rich stretch dramatically increased the blockage. Breaks in the non-template strand result in much weaker blockage signals extending downstream from the break even in the absence of the G-rich stretch. Our combined data support the notion that transcription blockage at homopurine-homopyrimidine sequences is caused by R-loop formation. PMID:23275544

  18. Radioimmunoassay of single-stranded DNA antibodies for control of diagnosis and therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meffert, H; Boehm, F; Soennichsen, N; Gens, J [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (German Democratic Republic). Bereich Medizin (Charite)

    1980-10-01

    Several years experience in quantitative determination of single-stranded DNA antibodies is reported and the normal range as well as the diagnostic hit rate of the method is outlined. In the controls the mean DNA attachment rate was 1.5% and the upper normal range limit was 12.8%, the risk of erroneous rejection being 1%. The DNA binding rate was greater than 12.8% in 74.7% of untreated patients suffering from lupus erythematodes visceralis, in 47.6% of patients with circumscribed sclerodermia, in 14.4% of patients with progressive sclerodermia, and in 10.3% of those suffering from lupus erythematodes chronicus. The findings emphasize the importance of regulatory mechanisms of the immune system to the process of autosensitization.

  19. Radioimmunoassay of single-stranded DNA antibodies for control of diagnosis and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meffert, H.; Boehm, F.; Soennichsen, N.; Gens, J.

    1980-01-01

    Several years experience in quantitative determination of single-stranded DNA antibodies is reported and the normal range as well as the diagnostic hit rate of the method is outlined. In the controls the mean DNA attachment rate was 1.5% and the upper normal range limit was 12.8%, the risk of erroneous rejection being 1%. The DNA binding rate was greater than 12.8% in 74.7% of untreated patients suffering from lupus erythematodes visceralis, in 47.6% of patients with circumscribed sclerodermia, in 14.4% of patients with progressive sclerodermia, and in 10.3% of those suffering from lupus erythematodes chronicus. The findings emphasize the importance of regulatory mechanisms of the immune system to the process of autosensitization

  20. Accurate quantification of microRNA via single strand displacement reaction on DNA origami motif.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhu

    Full Text Available DNA origami is an emerging technology that assembles hundreds of staple strands and one single-strand DNA into certain nanopattern. It has been widely used in various fields including detection of biological molecules such as DNA, RNA and proteins. MicroRNAs (miRNAs play important roles in post-transcriptional gene repression as well as many other biological processes such as cell growth and differentiation. Alterations of miRNAs' expression contribute to many human diseases. However, it is still a challenge to quantitatively detect miRNAs by origami technology. In this study, we developed a novel approach based on streptavidin and quantum dots binding complex (STV-QDs labeled single strand displacement reaction on DNA origami to quantitatively detect the concentration of miRNAs. We illustrated a linear relationship between the concentration of an exemplary miRNA as miRNA-133 and the STV-QDs hybridization efficiency; the results demonstrated that it is an accurate nano-scale miRNA quantifier motif. In addition, both symmetrical rectangular motif and asymmetrical China-map motif were tested. With significant linearity in both motifs, our experiments suggested that DNA Origami motif with arbitrary shape can be utilized in this method. Since this DNA origami-based method we developed owns the unique advantages of simple, time-and-material-saving, potentially multi-targets testing in one motif and relatively accurate for certain impurity samples as counted directly by atomic force microscopy rather than fluorescence signal detection, it may be widely used in quantification of miRNAs.

  1. Accurate Quantification of microRNA via Single Strand Displacement Reaction on DNA Origami Motif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jingyu; Li, Weidong; Li, Sheng; Zhu, Hongxin; Yang, Lun; Zhang, Aiping; He, Lin; Li, Can

    2013-01-01

    DNA origami is an emerging technology that assembles hundreds of staple strands and one single-strand DNA into certain nanopattern. It has been widely used in various fields including detection of biological molecules such as DNA, RNA and proteins. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in post-transcriptional gene repression as well as many other biological processes such as cell growth and differentiation. Alterations of miRNAs' expression contribute to many human diseases. However, it is still a challenge to quantitatively detect miRNAs by origami technology. In this study, we developed a novel approach based on streptavidin and quantum dots binding complex (STV-QDs) labeled single strand displacement reaction on DNA origami to quantitatively detect the concentration of miRNAs. We illustrated a linear relationship between the concentration of an exemplary miRNA as miRNA-133 and the STV-QDs hybridization efficiency; the results demonstrated that it is an accurate nano-scale miRNA quantifier motif. In addition, both symmetrical rectangular motif and asymmetrical China-map motif were tested. With significant linearity in both motifs, our experiments suggested that DNA Origami motif with arbitrary shape can be utilized in this method. Since this DNA origami-based method we developed owns the unique advantages of simple, time-and-material-saving, potentially multi-targets testing in one motif and relatively accurate for certain impurity samples as counted directly by atomic force microscopy rather than fluorescence signal detection, it may be widely used in quantification of miRNAs. PMID:23990889

  2. Accurate quantification of microRNA via single strand displacement reaction on DNA origami motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Feng, Xiaolu; Lou, Jingyu; Li, Weidong; Li, Sheng; Zhu, Hongxin; Yang, Lun; Zhang, Aiping; He, Lin; Li, Can

    2013-01-01

    DNA origami is an emerging technology that assembles hundreds of staple strands and one single-strand DNA into certain nanopattern. It has been widely used in various fields including detection of biological molecules such as DNA, RNA and proteins. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in post-transcriptional gene repression as well as many other biological processes such as cell growth and differentiation. Alterations of miRNAs' expression contribute to many human diseases. However, it is still a challenge to quantitatively detect miRNAs by origami technology. In this study, we developed a novel approach based on streptavidin and quantum dots binding complex (STV-QDs) labeled single strand displacement reaction on DNA origami to quantitatively detect the concentration of miRNAs. We illustrated a linear relationship between the concentration of an exemplary miRNA as miRNA-133 and the STV-QDs hybridization efficiency; the results demonstrated that it is an accurate nano-scale miRNA quantifier motif. In addition, both symmetrical rectangular motif and asymmetrical China-map motif were tested. With significant linearity in both motifs, our experiments suggested that DNA Origami motif with arbitrary shape can be utilized in this method. Since this DNA origami-based method we developed owns the unique advantages of simple, time-and-material-saving, potentially multi-targets testing in one motif and relatively accurate for certain impurity samples as counted directly by atomic force microscopy rather than fluorescence signal detection, it may be widely used in quantification of miRNAs.

  3. Cdc45-induced loading of human RPA onto single-stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szambowska, Anna; Tessmer, Ingrid; Prus, Piotr; Schlott, Bernhard; Pospiech, Helmut; Grosse, Frank

    2017-04-07

    Cell division cycle protein 45 (Cdc45) is an essential component of the eukaryotic replicative DNA helicase. We found that human Cdc45 forms a complex with the single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein RPA. Moreover, it actively loads RPA onto nascent ssDNA. Pull-down assays and surface plasmon resonance studies revealed that Cdc45-bound RPA complexed with ssDNA in the 8-10 nucleotide binding mode, but dissociated when RPA covered a 30-mer. Real-time analysis of RPA-ssDNA binding demonstrated that Cdc45 catalytically loaded RPA onto ssDNA. This placement reaction required physical contacts of Cdc45 with the RPA70A subdomain. Our results imply that Cdc45 controlled stabilization of the 8-nt RPA binding mode, the subsequent RPA transition into 30-mer mode and facilitated an ordered binding to ssDNA. We propose that a Cdc45-mediated loading guarantees a seamless deposition of RPA on newly emerging ssDNA at the nascent replication fork. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  4. Single-stranded DNA cleavage by divergent CRISPR-Cas9 enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Enbo; Harrington, Lucas B.; O’Connell, Mitchell R.; Zhou, Kaihong; Doudna, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) cleavage by Cas9 is a hallmark of type II CRISPR-Cas immune systems. Cas9–guide RNA complexes recognize 20-base-pair sequences in DNA and generate a site-specific double-strand break, a robust activity harnessed for genome editing. DNA recognition by all studied Cas9 enzymes requires a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) next to the target site. We show that Cas9 enzymes from evolutionarily divergent bacteria can recognize and cleave single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) by an RNA-guided, PAM-independent recognition mechanism. Comparative analysis shows that in contrast to the type II-A S. pyogenes Cas9 that is widely used for genome engineering, the smaller type II-C Cas9 proteins have limited dsDNA binding and unwinding activity and promiscuous guide-RNA specificity. These results indicate that inefficiency of type II-C Cas9 enzymes for genome editing results from a limited ability to cleave dsDNA, and suggest that ssDNA cleavage was an ancestral function of the Cas9 enzyme family. PMID:26545076

  5. A conserved MCM single-stranded DNA binding element is essential for replication initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froelich, Clifford A; Kang, Sukhyun; Epling, Leslie B; Bell, Stephen P; Enemark, Eric J

    2014-04-01

    The ring-shaped MCM helicase is essential to all phases of DNA replication. The complex loads at replication origins as an inactive double-hexamer encircling duplex DNA. Helicase activation converts this species to two active single hexamers that encircle single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). The molecular details of MCM DNA interactions during these events are unknown. We determined the crystal structure of the Pyrococcus furiosus MCM N-terminal domain hexamer bound to ssDNA and define a conserved MCM-ssDNA binding motif (MSSB). Intriguingly, ssDNA binds the MCM ring interior perpendicular to the central channel with defined polarity. In eukaryotes, the MSSB is conserved in several Mcm2-7 subunits, and MSSB mutant combinations in S. cerevisiae Mcm2-7 are not viable. Mutant Mcm2-7 complexes assemble and are recruited to replication origins, but are defective in helicase loading and activation. Our findings identify an important MCM-ssDNA interaction and suggest it functions during helicase activation to select the strand for translocation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01993.001.

  6. Mapping yeast origins of replication via single-stranded DNA detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wenyi; Raghuraman, M K; Brewer, Bonita J

    2007-02-01

    Studies in th Saccharomyces cerevisiae have provided a framework for understanding how eukaryotic cells replicate their chromosomal DNA to ensure faithful transmission of genetic information to their daughter cells. In particular, S. cerevisiae is the first eukaryote to have its origins of replication mapped on a genomic scale, by three independent groups using three different microarray-based approaches. Here we describe a new technique of origin mapping via detection of single-stranded DNA in yeast. This method not only identified the majority of previously discovered origins, but also detected new ones. We have also shown that this technique can identify origins in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, illustrating the utility of this method for origin mapping in other eukaryotes.

  7. Zinc(II) and the single-stranded DNA binding protein of bacteriophage T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauss, P.; Krassa, K.B.; McPheeters, D.S.; Nelson, M.A.; Gold, L.

    1987-01-01

    The DNA binding domain of the gene 32 protein of the bacteriophage T4 contains a single zinc-finger sequence. The gene 32 protein is an extensively studied member of a class of proteins that bind relatively nonspecifically to single-stranded DNA. The authors have sequenced and characterized mutations in gene 32 whose defective proteins are activated by increasing the Zn(II) concentration in the growth medium. The results identify a role for the gene 32 protein in activation of T4 late transcription. Several eukaryotic proteins with zinc fingers participate in activation of transcription, and the gene 32 protein of T4 should provide a simple, well-characterized system in which genetics can be utilized to study the role of a zinc finger in nucleic acid binding and gene expression

  8. Repair of single-strand breaks induced in the DNA of Proteus mirabilis by excision repair after UV-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoerl, K.; Mund, C.

    1977-01-01

    Single-strand breaks have been produced in the DNA of P. mirabilis after UV-irradiation in dependence on the incident UV-doses. It has been found that there exists a discrepancy between the single-strand breaks estimated from sedimentation in alkaline sucrose gradients and the expected single-strand breaks approximated from measurements of dimer excision. The low number in incision breaks observed by sedimentation experiments is an indication that the cells are able to repair the excision-induced breaks as fast as they are formed. Toluenized cells have been used for investigation of the incision step independently of subsequent repair processes. In presence of NMN the appearance of more single-strand breaks in the DNA has been observed. Furthermore, the number of incision breaks in toluenized cells increased in presence of exogenous ATP. The completion of the excision repair process has been investigated by observing the rejoining of incision breaks. After irradiation with UV-doses higher than approximately 240 erg/mm 2 the number of single-strand breaks remaining unrepaired in the DNA increased. Studies of the influence of nutrition conditions on the repair process have shown approximately the same capacity for repair of single-strand breaks in growth medium as well as in buffer. Progress in the excision repair was also followed by investigation of the DNA synthesized at the template-DNA containing the pyrimidine dimers. In comparison with E. coli, P. mirabilis showed a somewhat lower efficiency for the repair of single-strand breaks during the excision repair. (author)

  9. Reconstitution of RPA-covered single-stranded DNA-activated ATR-Chk1 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jun-Hyuk; Lindsey-Boltz, Laura A; Kemp, Michael; Mason, Aaron C; Wold, Marc S; Sancar, Aziz

    2010-08-03

    ATR kinase is a critical upstream regulator of the checkpoint response to various forms of DNA damage. Previous studies have shown that ATR is recruited via its binding partner ATR-interacting protein (ATRIP) to replication protein A (RPA)-covered single-stranded DNA (RPA-ssDNA) generated at sites of DNA damage where ATR is then activated by TopBP1 to phosphorylate downstream targets including the Chk1 signal transducing kinase. However, this critical feature of the human ATR-initiated DNA damage checkpoint signaling has not been demonstrated in a defined system. Here we describe an in vitro checkpoint system in which RPA-ssDNA and TopBP1 are essential for phosphorylation of Chk1 by the purified ATR-ATRIP complex. Checkpoint defective RPA mutants fail to activate ATR kinase in this system, supporting the conclusion that this system is a faithful representation of the in vivo reaction. Interestingly, we find that an alternative form of RPA (aRPA), which does not support DNA replication, can substitute for the checkpoint function of RPA in vitro, thus revealing a potential role for aRPA in the activation of ATR kinase. We also find that TopBP1 is recruited to RPA-ssDNA in a manner dependent on ATRIP and that the N terminus of TopBP1 is required for efficient recruitment and activation of ATR kinase.

  10. Genetic and Biochemical Identification of a Novel Single-Stranded DNA-Binding Complex in Haloferax volcanii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Amy; Liddell, Susan; Allers, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding proteins play an essential role in DNA replication and repair. They use oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB)-folds, a five-stranded β-sheet coiled into a closed barrel, to bind to ssDNA thereby protecting and stabilizing the DNA. In eukaryotes the ssDNA-binding protein (SSB) is known as replication protein A (RPA) and consists of three distinct subunits that function as a heterotrimer. The bacterial homolog is termed SSB and functions as a homotetramer. In the archaeon Haloferax volcanii there are three genes encoding homologs of RPA. Two of the rpa genes (rpa1 and rpa3) exist in operons with a novel gene specific to Euryarchaeota; this gene encodes a protein that we have termed RPA-associated protein (rpap). The rpap genes encode proteins belonging to COG3390 group and feature OB-folds, suggesting that they might cooperate with RPA in binding to ssDNA. Our genetic analysis showed that rpa1 and rpa3 deletion mutants have differing phenotypes; only Δrpa3 strains are hypersensitive to DNA damaging agents. Deletion of the rpa3-associated gene rpap3 led to similar levels of DNA damage sensitivity, as did deletion of the rpa3 operon, suggesting that RPA3 and RPAP3 function in the same pathway. Protein pull-downs involving recombinant hexahistidine-tagged RPAs showed that RPA3 co-purifies with RPAP3, and RPA1 co-purifies with RPAP1. This indicates that the RPAs interact only with their respective associated proteins; this was corroborated by the inability to construct rpa1 rpap3 and rpa3 rpap1 double mutants. This is the first report investigating the individual function of the archaeal COG3390 RPA-associated proteins (RPAPs). We have shown genetically and biochemically that the RPAPs interact with their respective RPAs, and have uncovered a novel single-stranded DNA-binding complex that is unique to Euryarchaeota.

  11. Delayed repair of DNA single-strand breaks does not increase cytogenetic damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, W.F.; Djordjevic, M.C.; Jostes, R.F.; Pantelias, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    DNA damage and cytogenetic effects of ionizing radiation were investigated in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and unstimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes. DNA damage and repair were analysed by alkaline elution under conditions that predominantly measured DNA single-strand breaks (ssb). X-radiation (2.5 Gy) induced ssb in both CHO cells and unstimulated lymphocytes, and the breaks were repaired within 30 and 90 min, respectively. This rapid repair was delayed by the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor, 3-aminobenzamide (3AB). The cytogenetic effects of the 3AB-induced delay in DNA repair were examined by analysing sister chromatid exchange (SCE) frequency in CHO cells and fragmentation of prematurely condensed chromosomes (PCC) in unstimulated human lymphocytes after 2.5 Gy of X-rays. Although 3AB delayed the rejoining of DNA ssb, this delay did not result in increased cytogenetic damage manifested as either SCE or fragmentation of PCC. These results indicate that the rapidly rejoining DNA ssb are not important in the production of chromosome damage. (author)

  12. Automated methods for single-stranded DNA isolation and dideoxynucleotide DNA sequencing reactions on a robotic workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardis, E.R.; Roe, B.A.

    1989-01-01

    Automated procedures have been developed for both the simultaneous isolation of 96 single-stranded M13 chimeric template DNAs in less than two hours, and for simultaneously pipetting 24 dideoxynucleotide sequencing reactions on a commercially available laboratory workstation. The DNA sequencing results obtained by either radiolabeled or fluorescent methods are consistent with the premise that automation of these portions of DNA sequencing projects will improve the reproducibility of the DNA isolation and the procedures for these normally labor-intensive steps provides an approach for rapid acquisition of large amounts of high quality, reproducible DNA sequence data

  13. The effects of radioprotective agents on the radiation-induced DNA single strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhiu, Sung Ryul; Ko, Kyung Hwan; Jung, In Yong; Cho, Chul Ku; Kim, Tae Hwan; Park, Woo Wiun; Kim, Sung Ho; Ji, Young Hoon; Kim, Kyung Jung; Bang, Hio Chang; Jung, Young Suk; Choi, Moon Sik

    1992-04-01

    With the increased use of atomic energy in science, industry, medicine and public power production, the probability of nuclear accidents certainly appears to be on the increase. Therefore, early medical diagnosis and first-aid are needed urgently to establish an efficient treatment. We carried out the studies of radiation protector such as DDC, MEA, WR-2721 and variety of decontaminator with a view to establishing the protective measure and diagnostic standards for safety of worker and neighbors living around the radiation area in case of occurring the accidental contamination. In this experiment, we examined radiation-induced DNA single strand breaks as one of the study on molecular biology of the response of cells to radiation because an understanding of the radiation-induced damage in molecular level would add to our knowledge of radiation protection and treatment. (Author)

  14. Bacterial single-stranded DNA-binding proteins are phosphorylated on tyrosine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijakovic, Ivan; Petranovic, Dina; Macek, B

    2006-01-01

    for phosphotyrosine-containing proteins in Streptomyces griseus by immunoaffinity chromatography identified bacterial SSBs as a novel target of bacterial tyrosine kinases. Since genes encoding protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs) have not been recognized in streptomycetes, and SSBs from Streptomyces coelicolor (Sc......SSB) and Bacillus subtilis (BsSSB) share 38.7% identity, we used a B.subtilis protein-tyrosine kinase YwqD to phosphorylate two cognate SSBs (BsSSB and YwpH) in vitro. We demonstrate that in vivo phosphorylation of B.subtilis SSB occurs on tyrosine residue 82, and this reaction is affected antagonistically...... by kinase YwqD and phosphatase YwqE. Phosphorylation of B.subtilis SSB increased binding almost 200-fold to single-stranded DNA in vitro. Tyrosine phosphorylation of B.subtilis, S.coelicolor and Escherichia coli SSBs occured while they were expressed in E.coli, indicating that tyrosine phosphorylation...

  15. Interaction with Single-stranded DNA-binding Protein Stimulates Escherichia coli Ribonuclease HI Enzymatic Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzold, Christine; Marceau, Aimee H.; Miller, Katherine H.; Marqusee, Susan; Keck, James L. (UW-MED); (UCB)

    2015-04-22

    Single-stranded (ss) DNA-binding proteins (SSBs) bind and protect ssDNA intermediates formed during replication, recombination, and repair reactions. SSBs also directly interact with many different genome maintenance proteins to stimulate their enzymatic activities and/or mediate their proper cellular localization. We have identified an interaction formed between Escherichia coli SSB and ribonuclease HI (RNase HI), an enzyme that hydrolyzes RNA in RNA/DNA hybrids. The RNase HI·SSB complex forms by RNase HI binding the intrinsically disordered C terminus of SSB (SSB-Ct), a mode of interaction that is shared among all SSB interaction partners examined to date. Residues that comprise the SSB-Ct binding site are conserved among bacterial RNase HI enzymes, suggesting that RNase HI·SSB complexes are present in many bacterial species and that retaining the interaction is important for its cellular function. A steady-state kinetic analysis shows that interaction with SSB stimulates RNase HI activity by lowering the reaction Km. SSB or RNase HI protein variants that disrupt complex formation nullify this effect. Collectively our findings identify a direct RNase HI/SSB interaction that could play a role in targeting RNase HI activity to RNA/DNA hybrid substrates within the genome.

  16. Novel Single-Stranded DNA Virus Genomes Recovered from Chimpanzee Feces Sampled from the Mambilla Plateau in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Matthew; Bawuro, Musa; Christopher, Alfred; Knight, Alexander; Kraberger, Simona; Stainton, Daisy; Chapman, Hazel

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Metagenomic approaches are rapidly expanding our knowledge of the diversity of viruses. In the fecal matter of Nigerian chimpanzees we recovered three gokushovirus genomes, one circular replication-associated protein encoding single-stranded DNA virus (CRESS), and a CRESS DNA molecule. PMID:28254982

  17. Multicopy Single-Stranded DNA Directs Intestinal Colonization of Enteric Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elfenbein, Johanna R.; Knodler, Leigh A.; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Ansong, Charles; Brewer, Heather M.; Bogomolnaya, Lydia; Adams, L. Garry; McClelland, Michael; Adkins, Joshua N.; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene L.; Fang, Ferric C.

    2015-09-14

    Multicopy single-stranded DNAs (msDNAs) are hybrid RNA-DNA molecules encoded on retroelements called retrons and produced by the action of retron reverse transcriptases. Retrons are widespread in bacteria but the natural function of msDNA has remained elusive despite 30 years of study. The major roadblock to elucidation of the function of these unique molecules has been the lack of any identifiable phenotypes for mutants unable to make msDNA. We report that msDNA of the zoonotic pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium is necessary for colonization of the intestine. Similarly, we observed a defect in intestinal persistence in an enteropathogenic E. coli mutant lacking its retron reverse transcriptase. Under anaerobic conditions in the absence of msDNA, proteins of central anaerobic metabolism needed for Salmonella colonization of the intestine are dysregulated. We show that the msDNA-deficient mutant can utilize nitrate but not other alternate electron acceptors in anaerobic conditions. Consistent with the availability of nitrate in the inflamed gut, a neutrophilic inflammatory response partially rescued the ability of a mutant lacking msDNA to colonize the intestine. These findings together indicate that the mechanistic basis of msDNA function during Salmonella colonization of the intestine is proper production of proteins needed for anaerobic metabolism. We further conclude that a natural function of msDNA is to regulate protein abundance, the first attributable function for any msDNA. Our data provide novel insight into the function of this mysterious molecule that likely represents a new class of regulatory molecules.

  18. Leishmania replication protein A-1 binds in vivo single-stranded telomeric DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neto, J.L. Siqueira; Lira, C.B.B.; Giardini, M.A.; Khater, L.; Perez, A.M.; Peroni, L.A.; Reis, J.R.R. dos; Freitas-Junior, L.H.; Ramos, C.H.I.; Cano, M.I.N.

    2007-01-01

    Replication protein A (RPA) is a highly conserved heterotrimeric single-stranded DNA-binding protein involved in different events of DNA metabolism. In yeast, subunits 1 (RPA-1) and 2 (RPA-2) work also as telomerase recruiters and, in humans, the complex unfolds G-quartet structures formed by the 3' G-rich telomeric strand. In most eukaryotes, RPA-1 and RPA-2 bind DNA using multiple OB fold domains. In trypanosomatids, including Leishmania, RPA-1 has a canonical OB fold and a truncated RFA-1 structural domain. In Leishmania amazonensis, RPA-1 alone can form a complex in vitro with the telomeric G-rich strand. In this work, we show that LaRPA-1 is a nuclear protein that associates in vivo with Leishmania telomeres. We mapped the boundaries of the OB fold DNA-binding domain using deletion mutants. Since Leishmania and other trypanosomatids lack homologues of known telomere end binding proteins, our results raise questions about the function of RPA-1 in parasite telomeres

  19. Molecular dynamics simulation of a DNA containing a single strand break

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, H.; Siebers, G.; Furukawa, A.; Otagiri, N.; Osman, R

    2002-07-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed for a dodecamer DNA containing a single strand break (SSB), which has been represented by a 3'-OH deoxyribose and 5'-OH phosphate in the middle of the strand. Molecular force field parameters of the 5'-OH phosphate region were determined from an ab initio calculation at the HF/6-31G level using the program package GAMESS. The DNA was placed in a periodic boundary box with water molecules and Na+ counter-ions to produce a neutralised system. After minimisation, the system was heated to 300 K, equilibrated and a production run at constant NTP was executed for 1 ns using AMBER 4.1. Snapshots of the SSB-containing DNA and a detailed analysis of the equilibriated average structure revealed surprisingly small conformational changes compared to normal DNA. However, dynamic properties calculated using the essential dynamics method showed some features that may be important for the recognition of this damage by repair enzymes. (author)

  20. DNA translocation by human uracil DNA glycosylase: the case of single-stranded DNA and clustered uracils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonhoft, Joseph D; Stivers, James T

    2013-04-16

    Human uracil DNA glycosylase (hUNG) plays a central role in DNA repair and programmed mutagenesis of Ig genes, requiring it to act on sparsely or densely spaced uracil bases located in a variety of contexts, including U/A and U/G base pairs, and potentially uracils within single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). An interesting question is whether the facilitated search mode of hUNG, which includes both DNA sliding and hopping, changes in these different contexts. Here we find that hUNG uses an enhanced local search mode when it acts on uracils in ssDNA, and also, in a context where uracils are densely clustered in duplex DNA. In the context of ssDNA, hUNG performs an enhanced local search by sliding with a mean sliding length larger than that of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). In the context of duplex DNA, insertion of high-affinity abasic product sites between two uracil lesions serves to significantly extend the apparent sliding length on dsDNA from 4 to 20 bp and, in some cases, leads to directionally biased 3' → 5' sliding. The presence of intervening abasic product sites mimics the situation where hUNG acts iteratively on densely spaced uracils. The findings suggest that intervening product sites serve to increase the amount of time the enzyme remains associated with DNA as compared to nonspecific DNA, which in turn increases the likelihood of sliding as opposed to falling off the DNA. These findings illustrate how the search mechanism of hUNG is not predetermined but, instead, depends on the context in which the uracils are located.

  1. QUANTITATION OF INTRACELLULAR NAD(P)H IN LIVING CELLS CAN MONITOR AN IMBALANCE OF DNA SINGLE STRAND BREAK REPAIR IN REAL TIME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantitation of intracellular NAD(P)H in living cells can monitor an imbalance of DNA single strand break repair in real time.ABSTRACTDNA single strand breaks (SSBs) are one of the most frequent DNA lesions in genomic DNA generated either by oxidative stress or du...

  2. Selection and characterization of single stranded DNA aptamers recognizing fumonisin B1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiujuan; Huang, Yukun; Duan, Nuo; Wu, Shijia; Xia, Yu; Ma, Xiaoyuan; Ding, Zhansheng; Wang, Zhouping; Zhu, Changqing; Jiang, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    We present an improved method for the selection of single-stranded DNA aptamers that can recognize fumonisin B 1 (FB 1 ). FB 1 is a carcinogenic mycotoxin mainly found in corn and corn-based food products worldwide, posing a global threat to feed and food safety. Selection was based on the mag-SELEX (magnetic bead systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) technology modified by adopting free analogs of targets rather than immobilized targets for counter selections. Firstly, aptamer candidates for FB 1 were selected from an 80 nt random DNA library after 13 rounds of selection. Next, binding assays were performed for affinity evaluation, and circular dichroism spectroscopy was used to investigate their conformation. A high-affinity aptamer designated as F10 (with a dissociation constant of 62 ± 5 nM) was identified and tested for its specificity by competitive binding assays. The results demonstrate that this improved mag-SELEX technology facilitates aptamer screening because it avoids the tedious immobilization of counter-selection molecules on magnetic beads. The aptamers obtained by this technique open new possibilities for the detection of FB 1 via aptasensors. (author)

  3. Selection and characterization of single stranded DNA aptamers recognizing fumonisin B{sub 1}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiujuan; Huang, Yukun; Duan, Nuo; Wu, Shijia; Xia, Yu; Ma, Xiaoyuan; Ding, Zhansheng; Wang, Zhouping [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Synergetic Innovation Center of Food Safety and Nutrition, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, 214122 (China); Zhu, Changqing; Jiang, Yuan [Animal, Plant and Food Inspection Centre, Jiangsu Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, Nanjing, 210001 (China)

    2014-08-01

    We present an improved method for the selection of single-stranded DNA aptamers that can recognize fumonisin B{sub 1} (FB{sub 1}). FB{sub 1} is a carcinogenic mycotoxin mainly found in corn and corn-based food products worldwide, posing a global threat to feed and food safety. Selection was based on the mag-SELEX (magnetic bead systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) technology modified by adopting free analogs of targets rather than immobilized targets for counter selections. Firstly, aptamer candidates for FB{sub 1} were selected from an 80 nt random DNA library after 13 rounds of selection. Next, binding assays were performed for affinity evaluation, and circular dichroism spectroscopy was used to investigate their conformation. A high-affinity aptamer designated as F10 (with a dissociation constant of 62 ± 5 nM) was identified and tested for its specificity by competitive binding assays. The results demonstrate that this improved mag-SELEX technology facilitates aptamer screening because it avoids the tedious immobilization of counter-selection molecules on magnetic beads. The aptamers obtained by this technique open new possibilities for the detection of FB{sub 1} via aptasensors. (author)

  4. Replication protein A (RPA) hampers the processive action of APOBEC3G cytosine deaminase on single-stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lada, Artem G; Waisertreiger, Irina S-R; Grabow, Corinn E; Prakash, Aishwarya; Borgstahl, Gloria E O; Rogozin, Igor B; Pavlov, Youri I

    2011-01-01

    Editing deaminases have a pivotal role in cellular physiology. A notable member of this superfamily, APOBEC3G (A3G), restricts retroviruses, and Activation Induced Deaminase (AID) generates antibody diversity by localized deamination of cytosines in DNA. Unconstrained deaminase activity can cause genome-wide mutagenesis and cancer. The mechanisms that protect the genomic DNA from the undesired action of deaminases are unknown. Using the in vitro deamination assays and expression of A3G in yeast, we show that replication protein A (RPA), the eukaryotic single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein, severely inhibits the deamination activity and processivity of A3G. We found that mutations induced by A3G in the yeast genomic reporter are changes of a single nucleotide. This is unexpected because of the known property of A3G to catalyze multiple deaminations upon one substrate encounter event in vitro. The addition of recombinant RPA to the oligonucleotide deamination assay severely inhibited A3G activity. Additionally, we reveal the inverse correlation between RPA concentration and the number of deaminations induced by A3G in vitro on long ssDNA regions. This resembles the "hit and run" single base substitution events observed in yeast. Our data suggest that RPA is a plausible antimutator factor limiting the activity and processivity of editing deaminases in the model yeast system. Because of the similar antagonism of yeast RPA and human RPA with A3G in vitro, we propose that RPA plays a role in the protection of the human genome cell from A3G and other deaminases when they are inadvertently diverged from their natural targets. We propose a model where RPA serves as one of the guardians of the genome that protects ssDNA from the destructive processive activity of deaminases by non-specific steric hindrance.

  5. Replication protein A (RPA hampers the processive action of APOBEC3G cytosine deaminase on single-stranded DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem G Lada

    Full Text Available Editing deaminases have a pivotal role in cellular physiology. A notable member of this superfamily, APOBEC3G (A3G, restricts retroviruses, and Activation Induced Deaminase (AID generates antibody diversity by localized deamination of cytosines in DNA. Unconstrained deaminase activity can cause genome-wide mutagenesis and cancer. The mechanisms that protect the genomic DNA from the undesired action of deaminases are unknown. Using the in vitro deamination assays and expression of A3G in yeast, we show that replication protein A (RPA, the eukaryotic single-stranded DNA (ssDNA binding protein, severely inhibits the deamination activity and processivity of A3G.We found that mutations induced by A3G in the yeast genomic reporter are changes of a single nucleotide. This is unexpected because of the known property of A3G to catalyze multiple deaminations upon one substrate encounter event in vitro. The addition of recombinant RPA to the oligonucleotide deamination assay severely inhibited A3G activity. Additionally, we reveal the inverse correlation between RPA concentration and the number of deaminations induced by A3G in vitro on long ssDNA regions. This resembles the "hit and run" single base substitution events observed in yeast.Our data suggest that RPA is a plausible antimutator factor limiting the activity and processivity of editing deaminases in the model yeast system. Because of the similar antagonism of yeast RPA and human RPA with A3G in vitro, we propose that RPA plays a role in the protection of the human genome cell from A3G and other deaminases when they are inadvertently diverged from their natural targets. We propose a model where RPA serves as one of the guardians of the genome that protects ssDNA from the destructive processive activity of deaminases by non-specific steric hindrance.

  6. Selection and Characterization of Single Stranded DNA Aptamers for the Hormone Abscisic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Victor M.; Millo, Enrico; Sturla, Laura; Vigliarolo, Tiziana; Bagnasco, Luca; Guida, Lucrezia; D'Arrigo, Cristina; De Flora, Antonio; Salis, Annalisa; Martin, Elena M.; Bellotti, Marta; Zocchi, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is a small molecule involved in pivotal physiological functions in higher plants. Recently, ABA has been also identified as an endogenous hormone in mammals, regulating different cell functions including inflammatory processes, stem cell expansion, insulin release, and glucose uptake. Aptamers are short, single-stranded (ss) oligonucleotidesable to recognize target molecules with high affinity. The small size of the ABA molecule represented a challenge for aptamer development and the aim of this study was to develop specific anti-ABA DNA aptamers. Biotinylated abscisic acid (bio-ABA) was immobilized on streptavidin-coated magnetic beads. DNA aptamers against bio-ABA were selected with 7 iterative rounds of the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment method (SELEX), each round comprising incubation of the ABA-binding beads with the ssDNA sequences, DNA elution, electrophoresis, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. The PCR product was cloned and sequenced. The binding affinity of several clones was determined using bio-ABA immobilized on streptavidin-coated plates. Aptamer 2 and aptamer 9 showed the highest binding affinity, with dissociation constants values of 0.98±0.14 μM and 0.80±0.07 μM, respectively. Aptamers 2 and 9 were also able to bind free, unmodified ABA and to discriminate between different ABA enantiomers and isomers. Our findings indicate that ssDNA aptamers can selectively bind ABA and could be used for the development of ABA quantitation assays. PMID:23971905

  7. Radiation-induced DNA single-strand scission and its rejoining in spermatogonia and spermatozoa of mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, T.; Okada, S.

    1977-01-01

    Gamma-ray-induced DNA single-strand scissions and the ability to repair the scissions in spermatogonia from young mice and in spermatozoa from adult mice were studied quantitatively by an alkaline sucrose density-gradient centrifugation method. The average size of DNAs in non-irradiated spermatogonia was 2.6-3.0xx10 8 daltons, similar to those of a spermatid-rich population, and the size of DNA in non-irradiated spermatozoa was 1.2x10 8 daltons. In spermatogonia, the radiosensitivity of DNA was 0.42 single-strand breaks/10 12 daltons of DNA/rad in oxic conditions and only 0.24 under anoxic conditions. In spermatozoa the break efficiency of DNA was 0.22 single-strand breaks/10 12 daltons of DNA/rad under oxic conditions and altered little under anoxic irradiation. The DNA scissions were efficiently repaired in spermatogonia within 10 min, whereas the breaks in spermatozoa were not rejoined at all even after two days of post-irradiation time. The radiosensitivities of DNA, repair capability and non- and/or slowreparable DNA scissions were compared in spermatogonium-rich, spermatid-rich and spermatozoanrich populations

  8. Stabilization of Pt nanoparticles by single stranded DNA and the binary assembly of Au and Pt nanoparticles without hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J.; Lee, Jim Yang; Too, Heng-Phon; Chow, Gan-Moog; Gan, Leong M.

    2006-01-01

    The non-specific interaction between single stranded DNA (ssDNA) and 12 nm Pt nanoparticles is investigated in this work. The data show a strong and non-specific interaction between the two which can be exploited for the stabilization of Pt nanoparticles in aqueous solutions. Based on the experimental findings, a non-hybridization based protocol to assemble 17 nm Au and Pt nanoparticles (12 nm cubic and 3.6 nm spherical) by single-stranded DNA was developed. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-visible spectroscopy confirmed that Au and Pt nanoparticles could be assembled by the non-specific interaction in an orderly manner. The experimental results also caution against the potential pitfalls in using DNA melting point analysis to infer metal nanoparticle assembly by DNA hybridization

  9. Kinetics of repair of DNA single-strand breaks in cultured mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vexler, F.B.; Eidus, L.Kh.; Vexler, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    Postirradiation treatment of Chinese hamster cells with cysteamine (MEA), caffeine-benzoate (CB) and caffeine sharply inhibits the repair of DNA single-strand breaks in the first five minutes. This inhibition is reversible since removing of the agent leads immediately to the resumption of the repair. The rate of the repair is decreased with prolongation of treatment and increasing concentration of the modifying agent. The efficiency of the substances studied depends not only on their concentration in the medium. For MEA and CB, which are weak electrolytes, it is also pH-dependent. This is explained by the theory of dissociation of weak electrolytes and their distribution between the cell and medium. It is shown that intracellular concentration of the substances is the most important factor determining their efficiency. All the three substances exert practically the same effect when compared at equal intracellular concentration. The above presented data serve as evidence for the existence of an unspecific mechanism of the effect of the substances studied. (author)

  10. Carboplatin enhances the production and persistence of radiation-induced DNA single-strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, L.; Douple, E.B.; O'Hara, J.A.; Wang, H.J.

    1995-01-01

    Fluorometric analysis of DNA unwinding and alkaline elution were used to investigate the production and persistence of DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) in Chinese hamster V79 and xrs-5 cells treated with the chemotherapeutic agent carboplatin in combination with radiation. Carboplatin was administered to cells before irradiation in hypoxic conditions, or the drug was added immediately after irradiation during the postirradiation recovery period in air. The results of DNA unwinding studies suggest that carboplatin enhances the production of radiation-induced SSBs in hypoxic V79 cells and xrs-5 cells by a factor of 1.86 and 1.83, respectively, when combined with radiation compared to the SSBs produced by irradiation alone. Carboplatin alone did not produce a measureable number of SSBs. Alkaline elution profiles also indicated that the rate of elution of SSBs was higher in cells treated with the carboplatin is present after irradiation and during the postirradiation recovery period, the rejoining of radiation-induced SSBs by a factor of 1.46 in V79 cells with 20 Gy irradiation and by a factor of 2.02 in xrs-5 cells with 20 Gy irradiation. When carboplatin is present after irradiation and during the postirradiation recovery period, the rejoining of radiation-induced SSBs is inhibited during this postirradiation incubation period (radiopotentiation) with a relative inhibition factor at 1 h postirradiation of 1.25 in V79 cells and 1.15 in xrs-5 cells. An increased production and persistence of SSBs resulting from the interaction of carboplatin with radiation may be an important step in the mechanism responsible for the potentiated cell killing previously from studies in animal tumors and in cultured cells. 31 refs., 7 figs

  11. Explanation for excessive DNA single-strand breaks and endogenous repair foci in pluripotent mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banáth, J P; Bañuelos, C A; Klokov, D; MacPhail, S M; Lansdorp, P M; Olive, P L

    2009-05-01

    Pluripotent mouse embryonic stem cells (mES cells) exhibit approximately 100 large gammaH2AX repair foci in the absence of measurable numbers of DNA double-strand breaks. Many of these cells also show excessive numbers of DNA single-strand breaks (>10,000 per cell) when analyzed using the alkaline comet assay. To understand the reasons for these unexpected observations, various methods for detecting DNA strand breaks were applied to wild-type mES cells and to mES cells lacking H2AX, ATM, or DNA-PKcs. H2AX phosphorylation and expression of other repair complexes were measured using flow and image analysis of antibody-stained cells. Results indicate that high numbers of endogenous gammaH2AX foci and single-strand breaks in pluripotent mES cells do not require ATM or DNA-PK kinase activity and appear to be associated with global chromatin decondensation rather than pre-existing DNA damage. This will limit applications of gammaH2AX foci analysis in mES cells to relatively high levels of initial or residual DNA damage. Excessive numbers of single-strand breaks in the alkaline comet assay can be explained by the vulnerability of replicating chromatin in mES cells to osmotic shock. This suggests that caution is needed in interpreting results with the alkaline comet assay when applied to certain cell types or after treatment with agents that make chromatin vulnerable to osmotic changes. Differentiation of mES cells caused a reduction in histone acetylation, gammaH2AX foci intensity, and DNA single-strand breakage, providing a link between chromatin structural organization, excessive gammaH2AX foci, and sensitivity of replicating mES cell chromatin to osmotic shock.

  12. Alterations in the nuclear matrix protein mass correlate with heat-induced inhibition of DNA single-strand-break repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warters, R.L.; Brizgys, L.M.; Lyons, B.W.

    1987-01-01

    The total protein mass co-isolating with the nuclear matrix or nucleoid from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells was observed to increase in heated cells as a function of increasing exposure temperature between 43 0 C and 45 0 C or of exposure time at any temperature. The sedimentation distance of the CHO cell nucleoid in sucrose gradients increased with increasing exposure time at 45 0 C. Both these nuclear alterations correlated in a log-linear manner with heat-induced inhibition of DNA strand break repair. A two-fold threshold increase in nuclear matrix protein mass preceded any substantial inhibition of repair of DNA single-strand breaks. When preheated cells were incubated at 37 0 C the nuclear matrix protein mass and nucleoid sedimentation recovered with a half-time of about 5 h, while DNA single-strand-break repair recovered with a half-time of about 2 h. When preheated cells were placed at 41 0 C a further increase was observed in the nuclear matrix protein mass and the half-time of DNA strand break repair, while nucleoid sedimentation recovered toward control values. These results implicate alterations in the protein mass of the nuclear matrix in heat-induced inhibition of repair of DNA single-strand breaks. (author)

  13. Yield of single-strand breaks in the DNA of E. coli 10 msec after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, R A; Fielden, E M; Sapora, O [Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton (UK). Surrey Branch

    1976-04-01

    The rapid mixing of 0.3M alkali with a suspension of E.coli B/r 6 +- 3 and 144 +- 3 msec after irradiation with electrons (4.3 MeV, 0 to 50 krad) has been used to make a comparison of the yields of single strand breaks in the presence and absence of oxygen. No significant difference was observed between the numbers of single strand breaks appearing at 6 and 144 msec after irradiation. Assuming that mixing with alkali inactivates the cellular repair enzymes within several milliseconds, these results indicate that enzymic repair does not operate within this time scale. It seems probable that radiation chemical processes are responsible for the initial oxygen effect on single strand breaks.

  14. The single-strand DNA binding activity of human PC4 preventsmutagenesis and killing by oxidative DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jen-Yeu; Sarker, Altaf Hossain; Cooper, Priscilla K.; Volkert, Michael R.

    2004-02-01

    Human positive cofactor 4 (PC4) is a transcriptional coactivator with a highly conserved single-strand DNA (ssDNA) binding domain of unknown function. We identified PC4 as a suppressor of the oxidative mutator phenotype of the Escherichia coli fpg mutY mutant and demonstrate that this suppression requires its ssDNA binding activity. Yeast mutants lacking their PC4 ortholog Sub1 are sensitive to hydrogen peroxide and exhibit spontaneous and peroxide induced hypermutability. PC4 expression suppresses the peroxide sensitivity of the yeast sub l{Delta} mutant, suggesting that the human protein has a similar function. A role for yeast and human proteins in DNA repair is suggested by the demonstration that Sub1 acts in a peroxide-resistance pathway involving Rad2 and by the physical interaction of PC4 with the human Rad2 homolog XPG. We show XPG recruits PC4 to a bubble-containing DNA substrate with resulting displacement of XPG and formation of a PC4-DNA complex. We discuss the possible requirement for PC4 in either global or transcription-coupled repair of oxidative DNA damage to mediate the release of XPG bound to its substrate.

  15. Molecular Genetic Characterization of Mutagenesis Using a Highly Sensitive Single-Stranded DNA Reporter System in Budding Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kin

    2018-01-01

    Mutations are permanent alterations to the coding content of DNA. They are starting material for the Darwinian evolution of species by natural selection, which has yielded an amazing diversity of life on Earth. Mutations can also be the fundamental basis of serious human maladies, most notably cancers. In this chapter, I describe a highly sensitive reporter system for the molecular genetic analysis of mutagenesis, featuring controlled generation of long stretches of single-stranded DNA in budding yeast cells. This system is ~100- to ~1000-fold more susceptible to mutation than conventional double-stranded DNA reporters, and is well suited for generating large mutational datasets to investigate the properties of mutagens.

  16. Electroporation and microinjection successfully deliver single-stranded and duplex DNA into live cells as detected by FRET measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary A Bamford

    Full Text Available Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET technology relies on the close proximity of two compatible fluorophores for energy transfer. Tagged (Cy3 and Cy5 complementary DNA strands forming a stable duplex and a doubly-tagged single strand were shown to demonstrate FRET outside of a cellular environment. FRET was also observed after transfecting these DNA strands into fixed and live cells using methods such as microinjection and electroporation, but not when using lipid based transfection reagents, unless in the presence of the endosomal acidification inhibitor bafilomycin. Avoiding the endocytosis pathway is essential for efficient delivery of intact DNA probes into cells.

  17. Single Strand Annealing Plays a Major Role in RecA-Independent Recombination between Repeated Sequences in the Radioresistant Deinococcus radiodurans Bacterium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solenne Ithurbide

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans is one of the most radioresistant organisms known. It is able to reconstruct a functional genome from hundreds of radiation-induced chromosomal fragments. Our work aims to highlight the genes involved in recombination between 438 bp direct repeats separated by intervening sequences of various lengths ranging from 1,479 bp to 10,500 bp to restore a functional tetA gene in the presence or absence of radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks. The frequency of spontaneous deletion events between the chromosomal direct repeats were the same in recA+ and in ΔrecA, ΔrecF, and ΔrecO bacteria, whereas recombination between chromosomal and plasmid DNA was shown to be strictly dependent on the RecA and RecF proteins. The presence of mutations in one of the repeated sequence reduced, in a MutS-dependent manner, the frequency of the deletion events. The distance between the repeats did not influence the frequencies of deletion events in recA+ as well in ΔrecA bacteria. The absence of the UvrD protein stimulated the recombination between the direct repeats whereas the absence of the DdrB protein, previously shown to be involved in DNA double strand break repair through a single strand annealing (SSA pathway, strongly reduces the frequency of RecA- (and RecO- independent deletions events. The absence of the DdrB protein also increased the lethal sectoring of cells devoid of RecA or RecO protein. γ-irradiation of recA+ cells increased about 10-fold the frequencies of the deletion events, but at a lesser extend in cells devoid of the DdrB protein. Altogether, our results suggest a major role of single strand annealing in DNA repeat deletion events in bacteria devoid of the RecA protein, and also in recA+ bacteria exposed to ionizing radiation.

  18. Fusion of Taq DNA polymerase with single-stranded DNA binding-like protein of Nanoarchaeum equitans-Expression and characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Olszewski

    Full Text Available DNA polymerases are present in all organisms and are important enzymes that synthesise DNA molecules. They are used in various fields of science, predominantly as essential components for in vitro DNA syntheses, known as PCR. Modern diagnostics, molecular biology and genetic engineering need DNA polymerases which demonstrate improved performance. This study was aimed at obtaining a new NeqSSB-TaqS fusion DNA polymerase from the Taq DNA Stoffel domain and a single-stranded DNA binding-like protein of Nanoarchaeum equitans in order to significantly improve the properties of DNA polymerase. The DNA coding sequence of Taq Stoffel DNA polymerase and the nonspecific DNA-binding protein of Nanoarchaeum equitans (NeqSSB-like protein were fused. A novel recombinant gene was obtained which was cloned into the pET-30 Ek/LIC vector and introduced into E. coli for expression. The recombinant enzyme was purified and its enzymatic properties including DNA polymerase activity, PCR amplification rate, thermostability, processivity and resistance to inhibitors, were tested. The yield of the target protein reached approximately 18 mg/l after 24 h of the IPTG induction. The specific activity of the polymerase was 2200 U/mg. The recombinant NeqSSB-TaqS exhibited a much higher extension rate (1000 bp template in 20 s, processivity (19 nt, thermostability (half-life 35 min at 95°C and higher tolerance to PCR inhibitors (0.3-1.25% of whole blood, 0.84-13.5 μg of lactoferrin and 4.7-150 ng of heparin than Taq Stoffel DNA polymerase. Furthermore, our studies show that NeqSSB-TaqS DNA polymerase has a high level of flexibility in relation to Mg2+ ions (from 1 to 5 mM and KCl or (NH42SO4 salts (more than 60 mM and 40 mM, respectively. Using NeqSSB-TaqS DNA polymerase instead of the Taq DNA polymerase could be a better choice in many PCR applications.

  19. Dissociation of single-strand DNA: single-walled carbon nanotube hybrids by Watson-Crick base-pairing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seungwon; Cha, Misun; Park, Jiyong; Jeong, Namjo; Kim, Gunn; Park, Changwon; Ihm, Jisoon; Lee, Junghoon

    2010-08-18

    It has been known that single-strand DNA wraps around a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) by pi-stacking. In this paper it is demonstrated that such DNA is dissociated from the SWNT by Watson-Crick base-pairing with a complementary sequence. Measurement of field effect transistor characteristics indicates a shift of the electrical properties as a result of this "unwrapping" event. We further confirm the suggested process through Raman spectroscopy and gel electrophoresis. Experimental results are verified in view of atomistic mechanisms with molecular dynamics simulations and binding energy analyses.

  20. Mechanism of replication of ultraviolet-irradiated single-stranded DNA by DNA polymerase III holoenzyme of Escherichia coli. Implications for SOS mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livneh, Z.

    1986-01-01

    Replication of UV-irradiated oligodeoxynucleotide-primed single-stranded phi X174 DNA with Escherichia coli DNA polymerase III holoenzyme in the presence of single-stranded DNA-binding protein was investigated. The extent of initiation of replication on the primed single-stranded DNA was not altered by the presence of UV-induced lesions in the DNA. The elongation step exhibited similar kinetics when either unirradiated or UV-irradiated templates were used. Inhibition of the 3'----5' proofreading exonucleolytic activity of the polymerase by dGMP or by a mutD mutation did not increase bypass of pyrimidine photodimers, and neither did purified RecA protein influence the extent of photodimer bypass as judged by the fraction of full length DNA synthesized. Single-stranded DNA-binding protein stimulated bypass since in its absence the fraction of full length DNA decreased 5-fold. Termination of replication at putative pyrimidine dimers involved dissociation of the polymerase from the DNA, which could then reinitiate replication at other available primer templates. Based on these observations a model for SOS-induced UV mutagenesis is proposed

  1. [Expression and purification of a novel thermophilic bacterial single-stranded DNA-binding protein and enhancement the synthesis of DNA and cDNA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiao-Wei; Zhang, Guo-Hui; Shi, Hai-Yan

    2012-12-01

    Express a novel species of single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB) derived from Thermococcus kodakarensis KOD1, abbreviated kod-ssb. And evaluate the effect of kod-ssb on PCR-based DNA amplification and reverse transcription. We express kod-ssb with the Transrtta (DE3), and kod-ssb was purified by affinity chromatography on a Ni2+ Sepharose column, detected by SDS-PAGE. To evaluate the effect of kod-ssb on PCR-based DNA amplification, the human beta globin gene was used as template to amplify a 5-kb, 9-kb and 13-kb. And to detect the effect of kod-ssb on reverse transcription, we used RNA from flu cell culture supernatant extraction as templates to implement qRT-PCR reaction. The plasmid pET11a-kod was transformed into Transetta (DE3) and the recombinant strain Transetta (pET11 a-kod) was obtained. The kod-ssb was highly expressed when the recombinant strain Transetta(pET11a-kod) was induced by IPTG. The specific protein was detected by SDS-PAGE. To confirm that kod-ssb can enhance target DNA synthesis and reduce PCR by-products, 5-, 9-, and 13-kb human beta globin gene fragments were used as templates for PCR. When PCR reactions did not include SSB proteins, the specific PCR product was contaminated with non-specific products. When kod -ssb was added, kod-ssb significantly enhanced amplification of the 5-, 9-and 13-kb target product and minimised the non-specific PCR products. To confirm that kod-ssb can enhance target cDNA synthesis, RNA from flu cell culture supernatant extraction was used as templates for qRT-PCR reaction. The results was that when kod-ssb was added, kod-ssb significantly enhanced the synthesis of cDNA, average Ct value is 19.42, and the average Ct value without kod-ssb is 22.15. kod-ssb may in future be used to enhance DNA and cDNA amplification.

  2. Micronuclei, DNA single-strand breaks and DNA-repair activity in mice exposed to 1,3-butadiene by inhalation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vodička, Pavel; Štětina, R.; Šmerák, P.; Vodičková, Ludmila; Naccarati, Alessio; Bárta, I.; Hemminki, K.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 608, - (2006), s. 49-57 ISSN 1383-5718 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA310/01/0802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Single-strand DNA breaks * Micronucleus formation * DNA-repair activity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.122, year: 2006

  3. Alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (AAG) localizes to mitochondria and interacts with mitochondrial single-stranded binding protein (mtSSB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Barbara; Samson, Leona D

    2013-03-01

    Due to a harsh environment mitochondrial genomes accumulate high levels of DNA damage, in particular oxidation, hydrolytic deamination, and alkylation adducts. While repair of alkylated bases in nuclear DNA has been explored in detail, much less is known about the repair of DNA alkylation damage in mitochondria. Alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (AAG) recognizes and removes numerous alkylated bases, but to date AAG has only been detected in the nucleus, even though mammalian mitochondria are known to repair DNA lesions that are specific substrates of AAG. Here we use immunofluorescence to show that AAG localizes to mitochondria, and we find that native AAG is present in purified human mitochondrial extracts, as well as that exposure to alkylating agent promotes AAG accumulation in the mitochondria. We identify mitochondrial single-stranded binding protein (mtSSB) as a novel interacting partner of AAG; interaction between mtSSB and AAG is direct and increases upon methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) treatment. The consequence of this interaction is specific inhibition of AAG glycosylase activity in the context of a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), but not a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) substrate. By inhibiting AAG-initiated processing of damaged bases, mtSSB potentially prevents formation of DNA breaks in ssDNA, ensuring that base removal primarily occurs in dsDNA. In summary, our findings suggest the existence of AAG-initiated BER in mitochondria and further support a role for mtSSB in DNA repair. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Alkali-labile sites and post-irradiation effects in single-stranded DNA induced by H radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafleur, M.V.M.; Heuvel, N. van; Woldhuis, J.; Loman, H.

    1978-01-01

    Single-stranded phiX174 DNA in aqueous solutions has been irradiated in the absence of oxygen, under conditions in which H radicals react with the DNA. It was shown that H radical reactions result in breaks, which contribute approximately 10 per cent inactivation. Further, two types of alkali-labile sites were formed. One was lethal and gave rise to single-strand breaks by alkali and was most probably identical with post-irradiation heat damage and contributed about 33 per cent to the inactivation mentioned above. The other consisted of non-lethal damage, partly dihydropyrimidine derivatives, and was converted to lethal damage by alkali. This followed from experiments in which the DNA was treated with osmium-tetroxide, which oxidized thymine to 5,6-dihydroxydihydrothymine. Treatment with alkali of this DNA gave the same temperature dependence as found for the non-lethal alkali-labile sites in irradiated DNA. A similar temperature dependence was found for dihydrothymine and irradiated pyrimidines with alkali. (author)

  5. Non-uniform binding of single-stranded DNA binding proteins to hybrids of single-stranded DNA and single-walled carbon nanotubes observed by atomic force microscopy in air and in liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umemura, Kazuo, E-mail: meicun2006@163.com; Ishizaka, Kei; Nii, Daisuke; Izumi, Katsuki

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Conjugates of protein, DNA, and SWNTs were observed by AFM in liquid. • Non-uniform binding of proteins was visualized in liquid. • Thickness of DNA molecules on SWNT surfaces was well characterized in liquid. - Abstract: Using atomic force spectroscopy (AFM), we observed hybrids of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with or without protein molecules in air and in an aqueous solution. This is the first report of ssDNA–SWNT hybrids with proteins in solution analyzed by AFM. In the absence of protein, the height of the ssDNA–SWNT hybrids was 1.1 ± 0.3 nm and 2.4 ± 0.6 nm in air and liquid, respectively, suggesting that the ssDNA molecules adopted a flexible structure on the SWNT surface. In the presence of single-stranded DNA binding (SSB) proteins, the heights of the hybrids in air and liquid increased to 6.4 ± 3.1 nm and 10.0 ± 4.5 nm, respectively. The AFM images clearly showed binding of the SSB proteins to the ssDNA–SWNT hybrids. The morphology of the SSB–ssDNA–SWNT hybrids was non-uniform, particularly in aqueous solution. The variance of hybrid height was quantitatively estimated by cross-section analysis along the long-axis of each hybrid. The SSB–ssDNA–SWNT hybrids showed much larger variance than the ssDNA–SWNT hybrids.

  6. Strand displacement by DNA polymerase III occurs through a tau-psi-chi link to single-stranded DNA-binding protein coating the lagging strand template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Quan; McHenry, Charles S

    2009-11-13

    In addition to the well characterized processive replication reaction catalyzed by the DNA polymerase III holoenzyme on single-stranded DNA templates, the enzyme possesses an intrinsic strand displacement activity on flapped templates. The strand displacement activity is distinguished from the single-stranded DNA-templated reaction by a high dependence upon single-stranded DNA binding protein and an inability of gamma-complex to support the reaction in the absence of tau. However, if gamma-complex is present to load beta(2), a truncated tau protein containing only domains III-V will suffice. This truncated protein is sufficient to bind both the alpha subunit of DNA polymerase (Pol) III and chipsi. This is reminiscent of the minimal requirements for Pol III to replicate short single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB)-coated templates where tau is only required to serve as a scaffold to hold Pol III and chi in the same complex (Glover, B., and McHenry, C. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 23476-23484). We propose a model in which strand displacement by DNA polymerase III holoenzyme depends upon a Pol III-tau-psi-chi-SSB binding network, where SSB is bound to the displaced strand, stabilizing the Pol III-template interaction. The same interaction network is probably important for stabilizing the leading strand polymerase interactions with authentic replication forks. The specificity constant (k(cat)/K(m)) for the strand displacement reaction is approximately 300-fold less favorable than reactions on single-stranded templates and proceeds with a slower rate (150 nucleotides/s) and only moderate processivity (approximately 300 nucleotides). PriA, the initiator of replication restart on collapsed or misassembled replication forks, blocks the strand displacement reaction, even if added to an ongoing reaction.

  7. Epidermal growth factor stimulating reparation of γ-ray-induced single-strand breaks predominantly in untranscribed DNA of HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igusheva, O.A.; Bil'din, V.N.; Zhestyanikov, V.D.

    1994-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggest that genomic DNA undergoes reparation unevenly because of different transcription activities of its particular sequence. It is highly probably that transcriptional factors are necessary for postion stages of excision reparation and for reparation of single-strand DNA breaks caused by ionizing radiation. There is evidence suggesting that DNA lesions inflicted by γ-radiation is preferentially initiated in transcribed rather than in untranscribed DNA species. This paper looks at the relationship between stimulatory effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on reparation of single-strand DNA breaks and reparation of the damage done to active and inert fragments of chromatin. The results show that EGF stimulates reparation of single-strand DNA breaks induced by γ-radiation more effectively in untranscribed than in transcribed DNA. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  8. Initiation and termination of the bacteriophage phi X174 rolling circle DNA replication in vivo: packaging of plasmid single-stranded DNA into bacteriophage phi X174 coats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ende, A.; Teertstra, R.; Weisbeek, P. J.

    1982-01-01

    The bacteriophage phi X174 viral (+) origin when inserted in a plasmid can interact in vivo with the A protein produced by infecting phi X174 phages. A consequence of this interaction is packaging of single-stranded plasmid DNA into preformed phage coats resulting in infective particles (1). This

  9. Changes in the infrared microspectroscopic characteristics of DNA caused by cationic elements, different base richness and single-stranded form.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza S Mello

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The infrared (IR analysis of dried samples of DNA and DNA-polypeptide complexes is still scarce. Here we have studied the FT-IR profiles of these components to further the understanding of the FT-IR signatures of chromatin and cell nuclei. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Calf thymus and salmon testis DNA, and complexes of histone H1, protamine, poly-L-lysine and poly-L-arginine (histone-mimic macromolecules with DNA were analyzed in an IR microspectroscope equipped with an attenuated total reflection diamond objective and Grams software. Conditions including polypeptides bound to the DNA, DNA base composition, and single-stranded form were found to differently affect the vibrational characteristics of the chemical groups (especially, PO(2(- in the nucleic acid. The antisymmetric stretching (ν(as of the DNA PO(2(- was greater than the symmetric stretching (ν(s of these groups and increased in the polypeptide-DNA complexes. A shift of the ν(as of the DNA PO(2(- to a lower frequency and an increased intensity of this vibration were induced especially by lysine-rich histones. Lysine richness additionally contributed to an increase in the vibrational stretching of the amide I group. Even in simple molecules such as inorganic phosphates, the vibrational characteristics of the phosphate anions were differently affected by different cations. As a result of the optimization of the DNA conformation by binding to arginine-rich polypeptides, enhancements of the vibrational characteristics in the FT-IR fingerprint could be detected. Although different profiles were obtained for the DNA with different base compositions, this situation was no longer verified in the polypeptide-DNA complexes and most likely in isolated chromatin or cell nuclei. However, the ν(as PO(2(-/ν(s PO(2(- ratio could discriminate DNA with different base compositions and DNA in a single-stranded form. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: FT-IR spectral profiles are a valuable tool

  10. Formation of double-strand breaks in DNA of γ-irradiated bacteria depending on the function of fast repair processes of DNA single-strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, S.I.; Gaziev, A.I.

    1980-01-01

    The formation of double-strand breaks in DNA of γ-irradiated ( 60 Co)Ex coli bacteria depending on the function of fast repair processes of DNA single-strand breaks, is investigated. The profiles of sedimentation of DNA Ex coli cells, irradiated at 0-2 deg C in the salt medium and in EDTA-borate buffer, are presented. It is shown that when irradiating cells in EDTA-borate buffer, the output of single- and double strand breaks in DNA is much higher than in the case of their irradiation in the minimum salt medium. The dependence of output of single-strand and double-strand breaks depending on the radiatier doze of E coli cells in the salt medium and EDTA-borate buffer, is studied. The supposition is made on the presence of a regulative interaction between the accumulation of DNA single-breaks and their repair with the formation of double-strand breaks. The functionating of fast and superfast repair processes considerably affects the formation of double-strand breaks in DNA of a bacterium cell. A considerable amount of double-breaks registered immediately after irradiation forms due to a close position of single-strand breaks on the opposite DNA strands

  11. Structural Basis of Mec1-Ddc2-RPA Assembly and Activation on Single-Stranded DNA at Sites of Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Ishan; Seeber, Andrew; Shimada, Kenji; Keusch, Jeremy J; Gut, Heinz; Gasser, Susan M

    2017-10-19

    Mec1-Ddc2 (ATR-ATRIP) is a key DNA-damage-sensing kinase that is recruited through the single-stranded (ss) DNA-binding replication protein A (RPA) to initiate the DNA damage checkpoint response. Activation of ATR-ATRIP in the absence of DNA damage is lethal. Therefore, it is important that damage-specific recruitment precedes kinase activation, which is achieved at least in part by Mec1-Ddc2 homodimerization. Here, we report a structural, biochemical, and functional characterization of the yeast Mec1-Ddc2-RPA assembly. High-resolution co-crystal structures of Ddc2-Rfa1 and Ddc2-Rfa1-t11 (K45E mutant) N termini and of the Ddc2 coiled-coil domain (CCD) provide insight into Mec1-Ddc2 homodimerization and damage-site targeting. Based on our structural and functional findings, we present a Mec1-Ddc2-RPA-ssDNA composite structural model. By way of validation, we show that RPA-dependent recruitment of Mec1-Ddc2 is crucial for maintaining its homodimeric state at ssDNA and that Ddc2's recruitment domain and CCD are important for Mec1-dependent survival of UV-light-induced DNA damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. DNA single-strand breaks during repair of uv damage in human fibroblasts and abnormalities of repair in xeroderma pigmentosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornace, A.J. Jr.; Kohn, K.W.; Kann, H.E. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The method of DNA alkaline elution was applied to a study of the formation and resealing of DNA single-strand breaks after irradiation of human fibroblasts with ultraviolet light (UV). The general features of the results were consistent with current concepts of DNA excision repair, in that breaks appeared rapidly after uv, and resealed slowly in normal fibroblasts, whereas breaks did not appear in those cells of patients with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) that are known to have defects in DNA repair synthesis. The appearance of breaks required a short post-uv incubation, consistent with the expected action of an endonuclease. Cells of the variant form of XP characterized by normal DNA repair synthesis exhibited normal production of breaks after uv, but were slower than normal cells in resealing these breaks. This difference was enhanced by caffeine. A model is proposed to relate this finding with a previously described defect in post-replication repair in these XP variant cells. DNA crosslinking appears to cause an underestimate in the measurement of DNA breakage after uv

  13. Thermodynamic characterization of binding Oxytricha nova single strand telomere DNA with the alpha protein N-terminal domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczek, Pawel; Horvath, Martin P

    2006-06-23

    The Oxytricha nova telemere binding protein alpha subunit binds single strand DNA and participates in a nucleoprotein complex that protects the very ends of chromosomes. To understand how the N-terminal, DNA binding domain of alpha interacts with DNA we measured the stoichiometry, enthalpy (DeltaH), entropy (DeltaS), and dissociation constant (K(D-DNA)) for binding telomere DNA fragments at different temperatures and salt concentrations using native gel electrophoresis and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). About 85% of the total free energy of binding corresponded with non-electrostatic interactions for all DNAs. Telomere DNA fragments d(T(2)G(4)), d(T(4)G(4)), d(G(3)T(4)G(4)), and d(G(4)T(4)G(4)) each formed monovalent protein complexes. In the case of d(T(4)G(4)T(4)G(4)), which has two tandemly repeated d(TTTTTGGGG) telomere motifs, two binding sites were observed. The high-affinity "A site" has a dissociation constant, K(D-DNA(A)) = 13(+/-4) nM, while the low-affinity "B site" is characterized by K(D-DNA(B)) = 5600(+/-600) nM at 25 degrees C. Nucleotide substitution variants verified that the A site corresponds principally with the 3'-terminal portion of d(T(4)G(4)T(4)G(4)). The relative contributions of entropy (DeltaS) and enthalpy (DeltaH) for binding reactions were DNA length-dependent as was heat capacity (DeltaCp). These trends with respect to DNA length likely reflect structural transitions in the DNA molecule that are coupled with DNA-protein association. Results presented here are important for understanding early intermediates and subsequent stages in the assembly of the full telomere nucleoprotein complex and how binding events can prepare the telomere DNA for extension by telomerase, a critical event in telomere biology.

  14. Effect of nalidixic acid on repair of single-strand breaks in DNA induced by ionizing irradiation in Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francia, I [Debreceni Orvostudomanyi Egyetem (Hungary); Okos, A; Hernadi, F J [Institute of Pharmacology, Debrecen (Hungary)

    1978-09-30

    The incidence of DNA single-strand breaks induced by /sup 60/Co irradiation and their repair in E.coli K12 (AB 1157) rec/sup +/ cells were studied by the alkaline sucrose gradient sedimentation method described by McGrath and Williams. For the quantitative analysis of sedimentation profiles we used the s 1/2 values described by Veatch and Okada. The s 1/2 value of non-irradiated controls was 22.4, and after 20 krads irradiation it was found to be 11.7. A postirradiation incubation at 37 /sup 0/C for 60 min increasedthe s 1/2 value from 11.7 to 22.1. Nalidixic acid at low concentration (20-50 ..mu..g/ml) did not block, but at 100 ..mu..g/ml extensively inhibited the above repair process, exhibiting an s 1/2 value of 14.4.

  15. Assembly of presynaptic filaments. Factors affecting the assembly of RecA protein onto single-stranded DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thresher, RJ; Christiansen, Gunna; Griffith, JD

    1988-01-01

    We have previously shown that the assembly of RecA protein onto single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) facilitated by SSB protein occurs in three steps: (1) rapid binding of SSB protein to the ssDNA; (2) nucleation of RecA protein onto this template; and (3) co-operative polymerization of additional Rec......M in the presence of 12 mM-Mg2+), and relatively low concentrations of SSB protein (1 monomer per 18 nucleotides). Assembly was depressed threefold when SSB protein was added to one monomer per nine nucleotides. These effects appeared to be exerted at the nucleation step. Following nucleation, RecA protein...... assembled onto ssDNA at net rates that varied from 250 to 900 RecA protein monomers per minute, with the rate inversely related to the concentration of SSB protein. Combined sucrose sedimentation and electron microscope analysis established that SSB protein was displaced from the ssDNA during RecA protein...

  16. TERRA and hnRNPA1 orchestrate an RPA-to-POT1 switch on telomeric single-stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Rachel Litman; Centore, Richard C; O'Sullivan, Roderick J; Rai, Rekha; Tse, Alice; Songyang, Zhou; Chang, Sandy; Karlseder, Jan; Zou, Lee

    2011-03-24

    Maintenance of telomeres requires both DNA replication and telomere 'capping' by shelterin. These two processes use two single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding proteins, replication protein A (RPA) and protection of telomeres 1 (POT1). Although RPA and POT1 each have a critical role at telomeres, how they function in concert is not clear. POT1 ablation leads to activation of the ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) checkpoint kinase at telomeres, suggesting that POT1 antagonizes RPA binding to telomeric ssDNA. Unexpectedly, we found that purified POT1 and its functional partner TPP1 are unable to prevent RPA binding to telomeric ssDNA efficiently. In cell extracts, we identified a novel activity that specifically displaces RPA, but not POT1, from telomeric ssDNA. Using purified protein, here we show that the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNPA1) recapitulates the RPA displacing activity. The RPA displacing activity is inhibited by the telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) in early S phase, but is then unleashed in late S phase when TERRA levels decline at telomeres. Interestingly, TERRA also promotes POT1 binding to telomeric ssDNA by removing hnRNPA1, suggesting that the re-accumulation of TERRA after S phase helps to complete the RPA-to-POT1 switch on telomeric ssDNA. Together, our data suggest that hnRNPA1, TERRA and POT1 act in concert to displace RPA from telomeric ssDNA after DNA replication, and promote telomere capping to preserve genomic integrity.

  17. Analysis of the substrate recognition state of TDP-43 to single-stranded DNA using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Kitamura

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal function and abnormal aggregation of transactivation response (TAR DNA/RNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43 are directly associated with the lethal genetic diseases: cystic fibrosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD. The binding of TDP-43 to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA or RNA is involved in transcriptional repression, regulation of RNA splicing, and RNA stabilization. Equilibrium dissociation constants (Kd of TDP-43 and ssDNA or RNA have been determined using various methods; however, methods that can measure Kd with high sensitivity in a short time using a small amount of TDP-43 in solution would be advantageous. Here, in order to determine the Kd of TDP-43 and fluorescence-labeled ssDNA as well as the binding stoichiometry, we use fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS, which detects the slowed diffusion of molecular interactions in solution with single-molecule sensitivity, in addition to electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA. Using tandem affinity chromatography of TDP-43 dually tagged with glutathione-S-transferase and poly-histidine tags, highly purified protein was obtained. FCS successfully detected specific interaction between purified TDP-43 and TG ssDNA repeats, with a Kd in the nanomolar range. The Kd of the TDP-43 mutant was not different from the wild type, although mutant oligomers, which did not bind ssDNA, were observed. Analysis of the fluorescence brightness per dimerized TDP-43/ssDNA complex was used to evaluate their binding stoichiometry. The results suggest that an assay combining FCS and EMSA can precisely analyze ssDNA recognition mechanisms, and that FCS may be applied for the rapid and quantitative determination of the interaction strength between TDP-43 and ssDNA or RNA. These methods will aid in the elucidation of the substrate recognition mechanism of ALS- and FTLD-associated variants of TDP-43.

  18. DNA polymerase I-mediated repair of 365 nm-induced single-strand breaks in the DNA of Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ley, R D; Sedita, B A; Boye, E [Argonne National Lab., Ill. (USA)

    1978-03-01

    Irradiation of closed circular phage lambda DNA in vivo at 365 nm results in the induction of single-strand breaks and alkali-labile lesions at rates of 1.1 x 10/sup -14/ and 0.2 x 10/sup -14//dalton/J/m/sup 2/, respectively. The sum of the induction rates is similar to the rate of induction of single-strand breaks plus alkali-labile lesions (1 x 10/sup -14//dalton/J/m/sup 2/) observed in the E. coli genome. Postirradiation incubation of wild-type cells in buffer results in rapid repair of the breaks (up to 80% repaired in 10 min). No repair was observed in a DNA polymerase I-deficient mutant of E.coli.

  19. Role of DNA repair in repair of cytogenetic damages. Contribution of repair of single-strand DNA breaks to cytogenetic damages repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozanova, O.M.; Zaichkina, S.I.; Aptikaev, G.F.; Ganassi, E.Eh.

    1989-01-01

    The comparison was made between the results of the effect of poly(ADP-ribosylation) ingibitors (e.g. nicotinamide and 3-aminobenzamide) and a chromatin proteinase ingibitor, phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride, on the cytogenetic damages repair, by a micronuclear test, and DNA repair in Chinese hamster fibroblasts. The values of the repair half-periods (5-7 min for the cytogenetic damages and 5 min for the rapidly repaired DNA damages) and a similar modyfying effect with regard to radiation cytogenetic damages and kynetics of DNA damages repair were found to be close. This confirms the contribution of repair of DNA single-strand breaks in the initiation of structural damages to chromosomes

  20. Single-strand DNA-binding protein SSB1 facilitates TERT recruitment to telomeres and maintains telomere G-overhangs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandita, Raj K; Chow, Tracy T; Udayakumar, Durga; Bain, Amanda L; Cubeddu, Liza; Hunt, Clayton R; Shi, Wei; Horikoshi, Nobuo; Zhao, Yong; Wright, Woodring E; Khanna, Kum Kum; Shay, Jerry W; Pandita, Tej K

    2015-03-01

    Proliferating mammalian stem and cancer cells express telomerase [telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT)] in an effort to extend chromosomal G-overhangs and maintain telomere ends. Telomerase-expressing cells also have higher levels of the single-stranded DNA-binding protein SSB1, which has a critical role in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Here, we report that SSB1 binds specifically to G-strand telomeric DNA in vitro and associates with telomeres in vivo. SSB1 interacts with the TERT catalytic subunit and regulates its interaction with telomeres. Deletion of SSB1 reduces TERT interaction with telomeres and leads to G-overhang loss. Although SSB1 is recruited to DSB sites, we found no corresponding change in TERT levels at these sites, implying that SSB1-TERT interaction relies upon a specific chromatin structure or context. Our findings offer an explanation for how telomerase is recruited to telomeres to facilitate G-strand DNA extension, a critical step in maintaining telomere ends and cell viability in all cancer cells. Cancer Res; 75(5); 858-69. ©2015 AACR. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Single-strand DNA binding protein SSB1 facilitates TERT recruitment to telomeres and maintains telomere G-overhangs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandita, Raj K.; Chow, Tracy T.; Udayakumar, Durga; Bain, Amanda L.; Cubeddu, Liza; Hunt, Clayton R.; Shi, Wei; Horikoshi, Nobuo; Zhao, Yong; Wright, Woodring E.; Khanna, Kum Kum; Shay, Jerry W.; Pandita, Tej K.

    2015-01-01

    Proliferating mammalian stem and cancer cells express telomerase (TERT) in an effort to extend chromosomal G-overhangs and maintain telomere ends. Telomerase-expressing cells also have higher levels of the single-stranded DNA binding protein SSB1, which has a critical role in DNA double-strand break repair. Here we report that SSB1 binds specifically to G-strand telomeric DNA in vitro and associates with telomeres in vivo. SSB1 interacted with the TERT catalytic subunit and regulates its interaction with telomeres. Deletion of SSB1 reduced TERT interaction with telomeres and lead to G-overhang loss. While SSB1 was recruited to DSB sites, we found no corresponding change in TERT levels at these sites, implying that SSB1-TERT interaction relied upon a specific chromatin structure or context. Our findings offer an explanation for how telomerase is recruited to telomeres to facilitate G-strand DNA extension, a critical step in maintaining telomere ends and cell viability in all cancer cells. PMID:25589350

  2. Charge Enhancement of Single-Stranded DNA in Negative Electrospray Ionization Using the Supercharging Reagent Meta-nitrobenzyl Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahim, Bessem; Alves, Sandra; Cole, Richard B.; Tabet, Jean-Claude

    2013-12-01

    Charge enhancement of single-stranded oligonucleotide ions in negative ESI mode is investigated. The employed reagent, meta-nitrobenzyl alcohol (m-NBA), was found to improve total signal intensity (Itot), increase the highest observed charge states (zhigh), and raise the average charge states (zavg) of all tested oligonucleotides analyzed in negative ESI. To quantify these increases, signal enhancement ratios (SER1%) and charge enhancement coefficients (CEC1%) were introduced. The SER1%, (defined as the quotient of total oligonucleotide ion abundances with 1 % m-NBA divided by total oligonucleotide abundance without m-NBA) was found to be greater than unity for every oligonucleotide tested. The CEC1% values (defined as the average charge state in the presence of 1 % m-NBA minus the average charge state in the absence of m-NBA) were found to be uniformly positive. Upon close inspection, the degree of charge enhancement for longer oligonucleotides was found to be dependent upon thymine density (i.e., the number and the location of phospho-thymidine units). A correlation between the charge enhancement induced by the presence of m-NBA and the apparent gas-phase acidity (largely determined by the sequence of thymine units but also by the presence of protons on other nucleobases) of multiply deprotonated oligonucleotide species, was thus established. Ammonium cations appeared to be directly involved in the m-NBA supercharging mechanism, and their role seems to be consistent with previously postulated ESI mechanisms describing desorption/ionization of single-stranded DNA into the gas phase.

  3. All-atom molecular dynamics simulations of spin labelled double and single-strand DNA for EPR studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, C; Danilāne, L; Oganesyan, V S

    2018-05-16

    We report the first application of fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to the prediction of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of spin labelled DNA. Models for two structurally different DNA spin probes with either the rigid or flexible position of the nitroxide group in the base pair, employed in experimental studies previously, have been developed. By the application of the combined MD-EPR simulation methodology we aimed at the following. Firstly, to provide a test bed against a sensitive spectroscopic technique for the recently developed improved version of the parmbsc1 force field for MD modelling of DNA. The predicted EPR spectra show good agreement with the experimental ones available from the literature, thus confirming the accuracy of the currently employed DNA force fields. Secondly, to provide a quantitative interpretation of the motional contributions into the dynamics of spin probes in both duplex and single-strand DNA fragments and to analyse their perturbing effects on the local DNA structure. Finally, a combination of MD and EPR allowed us to test the validity of the application of the Model-Free (M-F) approach coupled with the partial averaging of magnetic tensors to the simulation of EPR spectra of DNA systems by comparing the resultant EPR spectra with those simulated directly from MD trajectories. The advantage of the M-F based EPR simulation approach over the direct propagation techniques is that it requires motional and order parameters that can be calculated from shorter MD trajectories. The reported MD-EPR methodology is transferable to the prediction and interpretation of EPR spectra of higher order DNA structures with novel types of spin labels.

  4. Evidence of pervasive biologically functional secondary structures within the genomes of eukaryotic single-stranded DNA viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhire, Brejnev Muhizi; Golden, Michael; Murrell, Ben; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Lett, Jean-Michel; Gray, Alistair; Poon, Art Y F; Ngandu, Nobubelo Kwanele; Semegni, Yves; Tanov, Emil Pavlov; Monjane, Adérito Luis; Harkins, Gordon William; Varsani, Arvind; Shepherd, Dionne Natalie; Martin, Darren Patrick

    2014-02-01

    Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses have genomes that are potentially capable of forming complex secondary structures through Watson-Crick base pairing between their constituent nucleotides. A few of the structural elements formed by such base pairings are, in fact, known to have important functions during the replication of many ssDNA viruses. Unknown, however, are (i) whether numerous additional ssDNA virus genomic structural elements predicted to exist by computational DNA folding methods actually exist and (ii) whether those structures that do exist have any biological relevance. We therefore computationally inferred lists of the most evolutionarily conserved structures within a diverse selection of animal- and plant-infecting ssDNA viruses drawn from the families Circoviridae, Anelloviridae, Parvoviridae, Nanoviridae, and Geminiviridae and analyzed these for evidence of natural selection favoring the maintenance of these structures. While we find evidence that is consistent with purifying selection being stronger at nucleotide sites that are predicted to be base paired than at sites predicted to be unpaired, we also find strong associations between sites that are predicted to pair with one another and site pairs that are apparently coevolving in a complementary fashion. Collectively, these results indicate that natural selection actively preserves much of the pervasive secondary structure that is evident within eukaryote-infecting ssDNA virus genomes and, therefore, that much of this structure is biologically functional. Lastly, we provide examples of various highly conserved but completely uncharacterized structural elements that likely have important functions within some of the ssDNA virus genomes analyzed here.

  5. Rolling replication of UV-irradiated duplex DNA in the phi X174 replicative-form----single-strand replication system in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shavitt, O.; Livneh, Z.

    1989-01-01

    Cloning of the phi X174 viral origin of replication into phage M13mp8 produced an M13-phi X174 chimera, the DNA of which directed efficient replicative-form----single-strand rolling replication in vitro. This replication assay was performed with purified phi X174-encoded gene A protein, Escherichia coli rep helicase, single-stranded DNA-binding protein, and DNA polymerase III holoenzyme. The nicking of replicative-form I (RFI) DNA by gene A protein was essentially unaffected by the presence of UV lesions in the DNA. However, unwinding of UV-irradiated DNA by the rep helicase was inhibited twofold as compared with unwinding of the unirradiated substrate. UV irradiation of the substrate DNA caused a strong inhibition in its ability to direct DNA synthesis. However, even DNA preparations that contained as many as 10 photodimers per molecule still supported the synthesis of progeny full-length single-stranded DNA. The appearance of full-length radiolabeled products implied at least two full rounds of replication, since the first round released the unlabeled plus viral strand of the duplex DNA. Pretreatment of the UV-irradiated DNA substrate with purified pyrimidine dimer endonuclease from Micrococcus luteus, which converted photodimer-containing supercoiled RFI DNA into relaxed, nicked RFII DNA and thus prevented its replication, reduced DNA synthesis by 70%. Analysis of radiolabeled replication products by agarose gel electrophoresis followed by autoradiography revealed that this decrease was due to a reduction in the synthesis of progeny full-length single-stranded DNA. This implies that 70 to 80% of the full-length DNA products produced in this system were synthesized on molecules that carried photodimers

  6. Replication of UV-irradiated single-stranded DNA by DNA polymerase III holoenzyme of Escherichia coli: evidence for bypass of pyrimidine photodimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livneh, Z.

    1986-01-01

    Replication of UV-irradiated circular single-stranded phage M13 DNA by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.6) and DNA polymerase III holoenzyme (EC 2.7.7.7) in the presence of single-stranded DNA binding protein yielded full-length as well as partially replicated products. A similar result was obtained with phage G4 DNA primed with E. coli DNA primase, and phage phi X174 DNA primed with a synthetic oligonucleotide. The fraction of full-length DNA was several orders of magnitude higher than predicted if pyrimidine photodimers were to constitute absolute blocks to DNA replication. Recent models have suggested that pyrimidine photodimers are absolute blocks to DNA replication and that SOS-induced proteins are required to allow their bypass. Our results demonstrate that, under in vitro replication conditions, E. coli DNA polymerase III holoenzyme can insert nucleotides opposite pyrimidine dimers to a significant extent, even in the absence of SOS-induced proteins

  7. Sequence-specific RNA Photocleavage by Single-stranded DNA in Presence of Riboflavin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongyun; Chen, Gangyi; Yuan, Yi; Li, Na; Dong, Juan; Huang, Xin; Cui, Xin; Tang, Zhuo

    2015-10-01

    Constant efforts have been made to develop new method to realize sequence-specific RNA degradation, which could cause inhibition of the expression of targeted gene. Herein, by using an unmodified short DNA oligonucleotide for sequence recognition and endogenic small molecue, vitamin B2 (riboflavin) as photosensitizer, we report a simple strategy to realize the sequence-specific photocleavage of targeted RNA. The DNA strand is complimentary to the target sequence to form DNA/RNA duplex containing a G•U wobble in the middle. The cleavage reaction goes through oxidative elimination mechanism at the nucleoside downstream of U of the G•U wobble in duplex to obtain unnatural RNA terminal, and the whole process is under tight control by using light as switch, which means the cleavage could be carried out according to specific spatial and temporal requirements. The biocompatibility of this method makes the DNA strand in combination with riboflavin a promising molecular tool for RNA manipulation.

  8. Electronic Transport in Single-Stranded DNA Molecule Related to Huntington's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmento, R. G.; Silva, R. N. O.; Madeira, M. P.; Frazão, N. F.; Sousa, J. O.; Macedo-Filho, A.

    2018-04-01

    We report a numerical analysis of the electronic transport in single chain DNA molecule consisting of 182 nucleotides. The DNA chains studied were extracted from a segment of the human chromosome 4p16.3, which were modified by expansion of CAG (cytosine-adenine-guanine) triplet repeats to mimics Huntington's disease. The mutated DNA chains were connected between two platinum electrodes to analyze the relationship between charge propagation in the molecule and Huntington's disease. The computations were performed within a tight-binding model, together with a transfer matrix technique, to investigate the current-voltage (I-V) of 23 types of DNA sequence and compare them with the distributions of the related CAG repeat numbers with the disease. All DNA sequences studied have a characteristic behavior of a semiconductor. In addition, the results showed a direct correlation between the current-voltage curves and the distributions of the CAG repeat numbers, suggesting possible applications in the development of DNA-based biosensors for molecular diagnostics.

  9. Change of conformation and internal dynamics of supercoiled DNA upon binding of Escherichia coli single-strand binding protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langowski, J.; Benight, A.S.; Fujimoto, B.S.; Schurr, J.M.; Schomburg, U.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of Escherichia coli single-strand binding (SSB) protein on the conformation and internal dynamics of pBR322 and pUC8 supercoiled DNAs has been investigated by using dynamic light scattering at 632.8 and 351.1 nm and time-resolved fluorescence polarization anisotropy of intercalated ethidium. SSB protein binds to both DNAs up to a stoichiometry that is sufficient to almost completely relax the superhelical turns. Upon saturation binding, the translational diffusion coefficients (D 0 ) of both DNAs decrease by approximately 20%. Apparent diffusion coefficients (D/sub app/) obtained from dynamic light scattering display the well-known increase with K 2 (K = scattering vector), leveling off toward a plateau value (D/sub plat/) at high K 2 . For both DNAs, the difference D/sub plat/ - D 0 increases upon relaxation of supercoils by SSB protein, which indicates a corresponding enhancement of the subunit mobilities in internal motions. Fluorescence polarization anisotropy measurements on free and complexed pBR322 DNA indicate a (predominantly) uniform torsional rigidity for the saturated DNA/SSB protein complex that is significantly reduced compared to the free DNA. These observations are all consistent with the notion that binding of SSB protein is accompanied by a gradual loss of supercoils and saturates when the superhelical twist is largely removed

  10. DFT investigations of phosphotriesters hydrolysis in aqueous solution: a model for DNA single strand scission induced by N-nitrosoureas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingting; Zhao, Lijiao; Zhong, Rugang

    2013-02-01

    DNA phosphotriester adducts are common alkylation products of DNA phosphodiester moiety induced by N-nitrosoureas. The 2-hydroxyethyl phosphotriester was reported to hydrolyze more rapidly than other alkyl phosphotriesters both in neutral and in alkaline conditions, which can cause DNA single strand scission. In this work, DFT calculations have been employed to map out the four lowest activation free-energy profiles for neutral and alkaline hydrolysis of triethyl phosphate (TEP) and diethyl 2-hydroxyethyl phosphate (DEHEP). All the hydrolysis pathways were illuminated to be stepwise involving an acyclic or cyclic phosphorane intermediate for TEP or DEHEP, respectively. The rate-limiting step for all the hydrolysis reactions was found to be the formation of phosphorane intermediate, with the exception of DEHEP hydrolysis in alkaline conditions that the decomposition process turned out to be the rate-limiting step, owing to the extraordinary low formation barrier of cyclic phosphorane intermediate catalyzed by hydroxide. The rate-limiting barriers obtained for the four reactions are all consistent with the available experimental information concerning the corresponding hydrolysis reactions of phosphotriesters. Our calculations performed on the phosphate triesters hydrolysis predict that the lower formation barriers of cyclic phosphorane intermediates compared to its acyclic counter-part should be the dominant factor governing the hydrolysis rate enhancement of DEHEP relative to TEP both in neutral and in alkaline conditions.

  11. Sequence-based separation of single-stranded DNA using nucleotides in capillary electrophoresis: focus on phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueru; McGown, Linda B

    2013-06-01

    DNA analysis has widespread applicability in biology, medicine, biotechnology, and forensics. DNA separation by length is readily achieved using sieving gels in electrophoresis. Separation by sequence is less simple, generally requiring adequate differences in native or induced conformation or differences in thermal or chemical stability of the strands that are hybridized prior to measurement. We previously demonstrated separation of four single-stranded DNA 76-mers that differ by only a few A-G substitutions based solely on sequence using guanosine-5'-monophosphate (GMP) in the running buffer. We attributed separation to the unique self-assembly of GMP to form higher order structures. Here, we examine an expanded set of 76-mers designed to probe the mechanism of the separation and effects of experimental conditions. We were surprised to find that other ribonucleotides achieved the similar separation to GMP, and that some separation was achieved using sodium phosphate instead of GMP. Potassium phosphate achieved almost as good separations as the ribonucleotides. This suggests that the separation medium provides a physicochemical environment for the DNA that effects strand migration in a sequence-selective manner. Further investigation is needed to determine whether the mechanism involves specific interactions between the phosphates and the DNA strands or is a result of other properties of the separation medium. Phosphate generally has been avoided in DNA separations by capillary gel electrophoresis because its high ionic strength exacerbates Joule heating. Our results suggest that phosphate compounds should be examined for separation of DNA based on sequence. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Ultra-fast repair of single-strand breaks in DNA of. gamma. -irradiated Chinese hamster cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leontjeva, G A; Mantzighin, Yu A; Gaziev, A I [AN SSSR, Pushchino-na-Oke. Inst. Biologicheskoj Fiziki

    1976-12-01

    Studies of the effect of thermal treatment of Chinese hamster cells on sedimentation of DNA in the alkaline sucrose gradient showed that heating the cells to 68/sup 0/C for 15 min caused the same degradation as ..gamma..-irradiation with 5 to 7 krad at 37/sup 0/C. The inhibition of cellular repair enzymes by heating was therefore unacceptable. The process of ultra-fast repair is essentially determined by the DNA-ligase reaction, which is activated in the presence of Mg ions, and inhibited in mammalian cells in the presence of EDTA and pyrophosphate. Sedimentation profiles were therefore measured for the DNA of Chinese hamster cells ..gamma..-irradiated (5 krad) at 0/sup 0/C or 22/sup 0/C in the presence of Mg/sup + +/, or EDTA and pyrophosphate, and the results demonstrated ultra-fast repair only at 20 to 37/sup 0/C, in contrast to bacteria. A study was made of the temperature dependence of the activity of the DNA ligases isolated from E.coli and rabbit bone marrow. The NAD-dependent bacterial DNA ligase was active at temperatures from 0 to 40/sup 0/C, whereas ATP-dependent DNA ligase of mammals only showed activity in the range 15 to 40/sup 0/C. The differing temperature dependences of ultra-fast repair in bacterial and mammalian cells are in agreement with the temperature dependences of the activities of isolated enzymes, and the results suggest that the process of ultra-fast repair of single-strand breaks of DNA takes place in both bacterial and mammalian cells.

  13. Electrical signatures of single-stranded DNA with single base mutations in a nanopore capacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gracheva, Maria E; Aksimentiev, Aleksei; Leburton, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the magnitude of the electrical signals produced by DNA translocation through a 1 nm diameter nanopore in a capacitor membrane with a numerical multi-scale approach, and assess the possibility of resolving individual nucleotides as well as their types in the absence of conformational disorder. We show that the maximum recorded voltage caused by the DNA translocation is about 35 mV, while the maximum voltage signal due to the DNA backbone is about 30 mV, and the maximum voltage of a DNA base is about 8 mV. Signals from individual nucleotides can be identified in the recorded voltage traces, suggesting a 1 nm diameter pore in a capacitor can be used to accurately count the number of nucleotides in a DNA strand. Furthermore, we study the effect of a single base substitution on the voltage trace, and calculate the differences among the voltage traces due to a single base mutation for the sequences C 3 AC 7 , C 3 CC 7 , C 3 GC 7 and C 3 TC 7 . The calculated voltage differences are in the 5-10 mV range. The calculated maximum voltage caused by the translocation of individual bases varies from 2 to 9 mV, which is experimentally detectable

  14. Expansion during PCR of short single-stranded DNA fragments carrying nonselfcomplementary dinucleotide or trinucleotide repeats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reichová, Naďa; Kypr, Jaroslav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 3 (2003), s. 155-163 ISSN 0301-4851 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/01/0590 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : DNA * PCR * expansion Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 0.565, year: 2003

  15. Molecular dosimetry of DNA damage caused by alkylation. I. Single-strand breaks induced by ethylating agents in cultured mammalian cells in relation to survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbondandolo, A.; Dogliotti, E.; Lohman, P.H.M.; Berends, F.

    1982-01-01

    Cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells were treated with ethylating agents. DNA lesions giving rise to single-strand breaks (ssb) or alkali-labile sites were measured by centrifugation in alkaline sucrose gradients after lysis in alkali. 4 agents with different tendencies to ethylate preferentially

  16. Theoretical Study of the Transpore Velocity Control of Single-Stranded DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixin Qian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The electrokinetic transport dynamics of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA molecules have recently attracted significant attention in various fields of research. Our group is interested in the detailed examination of the behavior of DNA when confined in micro/nanofluidic channels. In the present study, the translocation mechanism of a DNA-like polymer chain in a nanofluidic channel was investigated using Langevin dynamics simulations. A coarse-grained bead-spring model was developed to simulate the dynamics of a long polymer chain passing through a rectangular cross-section nanopore embedded in a nanochannel, under the influence of a nonuniform electric field. Varying the cross-sectional area of the nanopore was found to allow optimization of the translocation process through modification of the electric field in the flow channel, since a drastic drop in the electric potential at the nanopore was induced by changing the cross-section. Furthermore, the configuration of the polymer chain in the nanopore was observed to determine its translocation velocity. The competition between the strength of the electric field and confinement in the small pore produces various transport mechanisms and the results of this study thus represent a means of optimizing the design of nanofluidic devices for single molecule detection.

  17. Radiation-induced base substitution mutagenesis in single-stranded DNA phage M13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandenburger, A.; Godson, G.N.; Glickman, B.W.; Sluis, C.A. van

    1981-01-01

    To elucidate the relative contributions of targeted and untargeted mutations to γ and UV radiation mutagenesis, the DNA sequences of 174 M13 revertant phages isolated from stocks of irradiated or unirradiated amber mutants grown in irradiated (SOS-induced) or unirradiated (non-induced) host bacteria, have been determined. Differences in the spectra of base change mutations induced in the various conditions were apparent, but no obvious specificity of mutagenesis was detected. In particular, under the present conditions, pyrimidine dimers did not seem to be the principal sites of UV-induced base substitution mutagenesis, suggesting that such mutagenesis occurs at the sites of lesions other than pyrimidine dimers, or is untargeted. (U.K.)

  18. Ion Density Analysis of Single-Stranded DNA in Liquid Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwabata, Kazuki; Seki, Yasutaka; Toizumi, Ryota; Shimada, Yuki; Furue, Hirokazu; Sakaguchi, Kengo

    2013-09-01

    With the widespread use of liquid crystals (LCs) in liquid crystal displays, we have looked into the application of liquid crystals in biotechnology. The purpose of the study described here is to investigate the physical properties of DNA using LCs. Synthetic oligonucleotide molecules were dispersed in MLC6884, the sample injected into antiparallel cells, and the amount of mobile ions was measured. The LC cell doped with oligonucleotide molecules showed a sequence-dependent, specific correlation between oligonucleotide concentration and the amount of mobile ions in the LC cells. In the framework of the Stokes model and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis, we speculate that this result arises from the difference in ion mobility, which is caused by the shape of the oligonucleotide molecule in the LC.

  19. UPregulated single-stranded DNA-binding protein 1 induces cell chemoresistance to cisplatin in lung cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiang; He, Rong; Liu, Yu; Wu, Yongkai; Kang, Leitao

    2017-07-01

    Cisplatin and its analogues are widely used as anti-tumor drugs in lung cancer but many cisplatin-resistant lung cancer cases have been identified in recent years. Single-stranded DNA-binding protein 1 (SSDBP1) can effectively induce H69 cell resistance to cisplatin in our previous identification; thus, it is necessary to explore the mechanism underlying the effects of SSDBP1-induced resistance to cisplatin. First, SSDBP1-overexpressed or silent cell line was constructed and used to analyze the effects of SSDBP1 on chemoresistance of lung cancer cells to cisplatin. SSDBP1 expression was assayed by real-time PCR and Western blot. Next, the effects of SSDBP1 on cisplatin sensitivity, proliferation, and apoptosis of lung cancer cell lines were assayed by MTT and flow cytometry, respectively; ABC transporters, apoptosis-related genes, and cell cycle-related genes by real-time PCR, and DNA wound repair by comet assay. Low expression of SSDBP1 was observed in H69 cells, while increased expression in cisplatin-resistant H69 cells. Upregulated expression of SSDBP1 in H69AR cells was identified to promote proliferation and cisplatin resistance and inhibit apoptosis, while downregulation of SSDBP1 to inhibit cisplatin resistance and proliferation and promoted apoptosis. Moreover, SSDBP1 promoted the expression of P2gp, MRP1, Cyclin D1, and CDK4 and inhibited the expression of caspase 3 and caspase 9. Furthermore, SSDBP1 promoted the DNA wound repair. These results indicated that SSDBP1 may induce cell chemoresistance of cisplatin through promoting DNA repair, resistance-related gene expression, cell proliferation, and inhibiting apoptosis.

  20. UV light-induced DNA synthesis arrest in HeLa cells is associated with changes in phosphorylation of human single-stranded DNA-binding protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carty, M.P.; Zernik-Kobak, M.; McGrath, S.; Dixon, K.

    1994-01-01

    We show that DNA replication activity in extracts of human HeLa cells decreases following UV irradiation. Alterations in replication activity in vitro parallel the UV-induced block in cell cycle progression of these cells in culture. UV irradiation also induces specific changes in the pattern of phosphorylation of the 34 kDa subunit of a DNA replication protein, human single-stranded DNA-binding protein (hSSB). The appearance of a hyperphosphorylated form of hSSB correlates with reduced in vitro DNA replication activity in extracts of UV-irradiated cells. Replication activity can be restored to these extracts in vitro by addition of purified hSSB. These results suggest that UV-induced DNA synthesis arrest may be mediated in part through phosphorylation-related alterations in the activity of hSSB, an essential component of the DNA replication apparatus. (Author)

  1. Genetic effects and reparation of single-stranded DNA breaks in Arabidopsis thaliana populations growing in the vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, V.I.; Sergeeva, S.A.; Ptitsyna, S.N.; Semov, A.B.; Shevchenko, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    The genetic effects and efficiency of repair of single-stranded DNA breaks in natural populations of Arabidopsis growing within a thirty-kilometer zone of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station were studied. A direct relationship was found between the level of radioactive contamination and the frequency of embryonal lethal mutations in the Arabidopsis populations studied. A decrease in the efficiency of reparation of single-stranded DNA breaks was found in Arabidopsis plants growing in the contaminated sites. The level of efficiency of DNA reparation was dependent on the duration for which the Arabidopsis population had been growing in the contaminated sites and on the degree of radioactive contamination of the sites. 9 refs., 4 tabs

  2. Intramolecular binding mode of the C-terminus of Escherichia coli single-stranded DNA binding protein determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Shishmarev, Dmitry; Wang, Yao; Mason, Claire E.; Su, Xun-Cheng; Oakley, Aaron J.; Graham, Bim; Huber, Thomas; Dixon, Nicholas E.; Otting, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein (SSB) is an essential protein to protect ssDNA and recruit specific ssDNA-processing proteins. Escherichia coli SSB forms a tetramer at neutral pH, comprising a structurally well-defined ssDNA binding domain (OB-domain) and a disordered C-terminal domain (C-domain) of ∼64 amino acid residues. The C-terminal eight-residue segment of SSB (C-peptide) has been shown to interact with the OB-domain, but crystal structures failed to reveal any electron den...

  3. Induction of single-strand DNA breaks in human cells by H2O2 formed in near-uv (black light)-irradiated medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, R.J.; Ananthaswamy, H.N.; Nixon, B.T.; Hartman, P.S.; Eisenstark, A.

    1980-01-01

    When Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (depleted of phenol red) was irradiated for up to 3 h by 4 to 5 W/m 2 black light, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) was produced. Generation of H 2 O 2 resulted from riboflavin-sensitized photooxidation of tryptophan and tyrosine. Reagent H 2 O 2 , or hydrogen peroxide generated in black light-exposed aqueous solutions containing riboflavin and tryptophan, induced 2 x 10 4 single-strand breaks per 10 16 daltons of DNA in intact, physiologically viable human D98/AH 2 cells. Concomitant with the single-strand breaks in the cells was loss of cellular reproductive viability. Two classes of photoproducts were identified: H 2 O 2 and non-H 2 O 2 . The H 2 O 2 component of the photoproducts was responsible for all the single-strand break induction but for only partial loss of reproductive viability. The non-H 2 O 2 photoproducts, accountable for the remainder of cell lethality, caused no single-strand breaks

  4. Yield of single-strand breaks in the DNA of E.coli 10 msec after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, R.A.; Fielden, E.M.; Sapora, O.

    1976-01-01

    The rapid mixing of 0.3M alkali with a suspension of E.coli B/r 6 +- 3 and 144 +- 3 msec after irradiation with electrons (4.3 MeV, 0 to 50 krad) has been used to make a comparison of the yields of single strand breaks in the presence and absence of oxygen. No significant difference was observed between the numbers of single strand breaks appearing at 6 and 144 msec after irradiation. Assuming that mixing with alkali inactivates the cellular repair enzymes within several milliseconds, these results indicate that enzymic repair does not operate within this time scale. It seems probable that radiation chemical processes are responsible for the initial oxygen effect on single strand breaks. (U.K.)

  5. Nucleotide fluctuation of radiation-resistant Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 single-stranded DNA-binding protein (RPA) genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Todd; Tremberger, G., Jr.; Cheung, E.; Subramaniam, R.; Gadura, N.; Schneider, P.; Sullivan, R.; Flamholz, A.; Lieberman, D.; Cheung, T. D.

    2009-08-01

    The Single-Stranded DNA-Binding Protein (RPA) Genes in gamma ray radiation-resistant halophilic archaeon Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 were analyzed in terms of their nucleotide fluctuations. In an ATCG sequence, each base was assigned a number equal to its atomic number. The resulting numerical sequence was the basis of the statistical analysis in this study. Fractal analysis using the Higuchi method gave fractal dimensions of 2.04 and 2.06 for the gene sequences VNG2160 and VNG2162, respectively. The 16S rRNA sequence has a fractal dimension of 1.99. The di-nucleotide Shannon entropy values were found to be negatively correlated with the observed fractal dimensions (R2~ 0.992, N=3). Inclusion of Deinococcus radiodurans Rad-A in the regression analysis decreases the R2 slightly to 0.98 (N=4). A third VNG2163 RPA gene of unknown function but with upregulation activity under irradiation was found to have a fractal dimension of 2.05 and a Shannon entropy of 3.77 bits. The above results are similar to those found in bacterial Deinococcus radiodurans and suggest that their high radiation resistance property would have favored selection of CG di-nucleotide pairs. The two transcription factors TbpD (VNG7114) and TfbA (VNG 2184) were also studied. Using VNG7114, VNG2184, and VNG2163; the regression analysis of fractal dimension versus Shannon entropy shows that R2 ~ 0.997 for N =3. The VNG2163 unknown function may be related to the pathways with transcriptions closely regulated to sequences VNG7114 and VNG2184.

  6. The validity of sedimentation data from high molecular weight DNA and the effects of additives on radiation-induced single-strand breakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugle, D.L.

    1979-10-01

    The optimization of many of the factors governing reproducible sedimentation behaviour of high molecular weight single-strand DNA in a particular alkaline sucrose density gradient system is described. A range of angular momenta is defined for which a constant strand breakage efficiency is required, despite a rotor speed effect which increases the measured molecular weights at decreasing rotor speeds for larger DNA molecules. The possibility is discussed that the bimodal control DNA profiles obtained after sedimentation at 11 500 rev/min (12 400 g) or less represent structural subunits of the chromatid. The random induction of single-strand DNA breaks by ionizing radiation is demonstrated by the computer-derived fits to the experimental profiles. The enhancement of single-strand break (SSB) yields in hypoxic cells by oxygen, para-nitroacetophenone (PNAP), or any of the three nitrofuran derivatives used was well correlated with increased cell killing. Furthermore, reductions in SSB yields for known hydroxyl radical (OH.) scavengers correlates with the reactivities of these compounds toward OH.. This supports the contention that some type of OH.-induced initial lesion, which may ultimately be expressed as an unrepaired or misrepaired double-strand break, constitutes a lethal event. (author)

  7. Complementarily addressed modification and cleavage of a single-stranded fragment of DNA with the aid of alkylating derivatives of oligonucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosalina, E.B.; Vlasov, V.V.; Kutyavin, I.V.; Mamaev, S.V.; Pletnev, A.G.; Podyminogin, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The chemical modification of a 303-nucleotide single-stranded fragment of DNA by alkylating oligonucleotide derivatives bearing 4-[N-methyl-N-(2-chloroethyl)amino]benzyl groups in the 5'-terminal phosphate of the 3'-terminal ribose residue has been investigated. It has been shown that under the conditions of the formation of a complex with the DNA fragment both types of derivatives specifically alkylate nucleotides of the DNA fragments that are located directly adjacent to the sections complementary to the oligonucleotides bearing the reactive groups. Alkylation takes place with a high efficiency, and the DNA fragment can be cleaved specifically at the position of the alkylated nucleotides

  8. Coupled aggregation of mitochondrial single-strand DNA-binding protein tagged with Eos fluorescent protein visualizes synchronized activity of mitochondrial nucleoids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Olejár, Tomáš; Pajuelo-Reguera, David; Alán, Lukáš; Dlasková, Andrea; Ježek, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 4 (2015), s. 5185-5190 ISSN 1791-2997 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/10/0346; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0025 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : mitochondrial nucleoid * single-stranded DNA-binding protein * photoconvertible fluorescent protein Eos Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.559, year: 2015

  9. Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of ribosomal DNA for detection of Phytophthora ramorum directly from plant tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping Kong; Patricia A. Richardson; Chuanxue Hong; Thomas L. Kubisiak

    2006-01-01

    At the first Sudden Oak Death Science Symposium, we reported on the use of a single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis for rapid identification of Phytophthora ramorum in culture. We have since assessed and improved the fingerprinting technique for detecting this pathogen directly from plant tissues. The improved SSCP protocol uses a...

  10. SALP, a new single-stranded DNA library preparation method especially useful for the high-throughput characterization of chromatin openness states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Dai, Wei; Wu, Lin; Wang, Jinke

    2018-02-13

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is fundamental to the current biological and biomedical research. Construction of sequencing library is a key step of NGS. Therefore, various library construction methods have been explored. However, the current methods are still limited by some shortcomings. This study developed a new NGS library construction method, Single strand Adaptor Library Preparation (SALP), by using a novel single strand adaptor (SSA). SSA is a double-stranded oligonucleotide with a 3' overhang of 3 random nucleotides, which can be efficiently ligated to the 3' end of single strand DNA by T4 DNA ligase. SALP can be started with any denatured DNA fragments such as those sheared by Tn5 tagmentation, enzyme digestion and sonication. When started with Tn5-tagmented chromatin, SALP can overcome a key limitation of ATAC-seq and become a high-throughput NGS library construction method, SALP-seq, which can be used to comparatively characterize the chromatin openness state of multiple cells unbiasly. In this way, this study successfully characterized the comparative chromatin openness states of four different cell lines, including GM12878, HepG2, HeLa and 293T, with SALP-seq. Similarly, this study also successfully characterized the chromatin openness states of HepG2 cells with SALP-seq by using 10 5 to 500 cells. This study developed a new NGS library construction method, SALP, by using a novel kind of single strand adaptor (SSA), which should has wide applications in the future due to its unique performance.

  11. Dynamics of water around the complex structures formed between the KH domains of far upstream element binding protein and single-stranded DNA molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Kaushik; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjoy, E-mail: sanjoy@chem.iitkgp.ernet.in [Molecular Modeling Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2015-07-28

    Single-stranded DNA (ss-DNA) binding proteins specifically bind to the single-stranded regions of the DNA and protect it from premature annealing, thereby stabilizing the DNA structure. We have carried out atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of the aqueous solutions of two DNA binding K homology (KH) domains (KH3 and KH4) of the far upstream element binding protein complexed with two short ss-DNA segments. Attempts have been made to explore the influence of the formation of such complex structures on the microscopic dynamics and hydrogen bond properties of the interfacial water molecules. It is found that the water molecules involved in bridging the ss-DNA segments and the protein domains form a highly constrained thin layer with extremely retarded mobility. These water molecules play important roles in freezing the conformational oscillations of the ss-DNA oligomers and thereby forming rigid complex structures. Further, it is demonstrated that the effect of complexation on the slow long-time relaxations of hydrogen bonds at the interface is correlated with hindered motions of the surrounding water molecules. Importantly, it is observed that the highly restricted motions of the water molecules bridging the protein and the DNA components in the complexed forms originate from more frequent hydrogen bond reformations.

  12. Construction of a microfluidic chip, using dried-down reagents, for LATE-PCR amplification and detection of single-stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yanwei; Mak, Pui-In; Massey, Conner; Martins, Rui P; Wangh, Lawrence J

    2013-12-07

    LATE-PCR is an advanced form of non-symmetric PCR that efficiently generates single-stranded DNA which can readily be characterized at the end of amplification by hybridization to low-temperature fluorescent probes. We demonstrate here for the first time that monoplex and duplex LATE-PCR amplification and probe target hybridization can be carried out in double layered PDMS microfluidics chips containing dried reagents. Addition of a set of reagents during dry down overcomes the common problem of single-stranded oligonucleotide binding to PDMS. These proof-of-principle results open the way to construction of inexpensive point-of-care devices that take full advantage of the analytical power of assays built using LATE-PCR and low-temperature probes.

  13. The survival and repair of DNA single-strand breaks in gamma-irradiated Escherichia coli adapted to methyl methane sulfonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhestyanikov, V.D.; Savel'eva, G.E.

    1992-01-01

    The survival and repair of single-strand breaks of DNA in gamma-irradiated E.coli adapted to methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) (20 mkg/ml during 3 hours) have been investigated. It is shown that the survival of adapted bacteria of radioresistant strains B/r, H/r30, AB1157 and W3110 pol + increases with DMF (dose modification factor) ranging within 1.4-1.8 and in radiosensitive strains B s-1 , AB1157 recA13 and AB1157 lexA3 with DMF ranging within 1.3-1.4, and does not change in strains with mutation in poLA gene P3478 poLA1 and 016 res-3. The increase in radioresistance during the adaptation to MMS correlates with the acceleration of repair of gamma-ray-induced single-strand breaks in the radioresistant strains B/r and W3110 pol + and with the appearance of the ability to repair some part of DNA single-strand breaks in the mutant B s-1

  14. Histone H3.3 promotes IgV gene diversification by?enhancing formation of AID?accessible single?stranded DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Romanello, Marina; Schiavone, Davide; Frey, Alexander; Sale, Julian E

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Immunoglobulin diversification is driven by activation?induced deaminase (AID), which converts cytidine to uracil within the Ig variable (IgV) regions. Central to the recruitment of AID to the IgV genes are factors that regulate the generation of single?stranded DNA (ssDNA), the enzymatic substrate of AID. Here, we report that chicken DT40 cells lacking variant histone H3.3 exhibit reduced IgV sequence diversification. We show that this results from impairment of the ability of AID t...

  15. Reduction of spontaneous somatic mutation frequency by a low-dose X irradiation of Drosophila larvae and possible involvement of DNA single-strand damage repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koana, Takao; Takahashi, Takashi; Tsujimura, Hidenobu

    2012-03-01

    The third instar larvae of Drosophila were irradiated with X rays, and the somatic mutation frequency in their wings was measured after their eclosion. In the flies with normal DNA repair and apoptosis functions, 0.2 Gy irradiation at 0.05 Gy/min reduced the frequency of the so-called small spot (mutant cell clone with reduced reproductive activity) compared with that in the sham-irradiated flies. When apoptosis was suppressed using the baculovirus p35 gene, the small spot frequency increased four times in the sham-irradiated control group, but the reduction by the 0.2-Gy irradiation was still evident. In a non-homologous end joining-deficient mutant, the small spot frequency was also reduced by 0.2 Gy radiation. In a mutant deficient in single-strand break repair, no reduction in the small spot frequency by 0.2 Gy radiation was observed, and the small spot frequency increased with the radiation dose. Large spot (mutant cell clone with normal reproductive activity) frequency was not affected by suppression of apoptosis and increased monotonically with radiation dose in wild-type larvae and in mutants for single- or double-strand break repair. It is hypothesized that some of the small spots resulted from single-strand damage and, in wild-type larvae, 0.2 Gy radiation activated the normal single-strand break repair gene, which reduced the background somatic mutation frequency.

  16. Direct Binding to Replication Protein A (RPA)-coated Single-stranded DNA Allows Recruitment of the ATR Activator TopBP1 to Sites of DNA Damage*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Julyana; Yan, Shan; Michael, W. Matthew

    2016-01-01

    A critical event for the ability of cells to tolerate DNA damage and replication stress is activation of the ATR kinase. ATR activation is dependent on the BRCT (BRCA1 C terminus) repeat-containing protein TopBP1. Previous work has shown that recruitment of TopBP1 to sites of DNA damage and stalled replication forks is necessary for downstream events in ATR activation; however, the mechanism for this recruitment was not known. Here, we use protein binding assays and functional studies in Xenopus egg extracts to show that TopBP1 makes a direct interaction, via its BRCT2 domain, with RPA-coated single-stranded DNA. We identify a point mutant that abrogates this interaction and show that this mutant fails to accumulate at sites of DNA damage and that the mutant cannot activate ATR. These data thus supply a mechanism for how the critical ATR activator, TopBP1, senses DNA damage and stalled replication forks to initiate assembly of checkpoint signaling complexes. PMID:27129245

  17. Histone H3.3 promotes IgV gene diversification by enhancing formation of AID-accessible single-stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanello, Marina; Schiavone, Davide; Frey, Alexander; Sale, Julian E

    2016-07-01

    Immunoglobulin diversification is driven by activation-induced deaminase (AID), which converts cytidine to uracil within the Ig variable (IgV) regions. Central to the recruitment of AID to the IgV genes are factors that regulate the generation of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), the enzymatic substrate of AID Here, we report that chicken DT40 cells lacking variant histone H3.3 exhibit reduced IgV sequence diversification. We show that this results from impairment of the ability of AID to access the IgV genes due to reduced formation of ssDNA during IgV transcription. Loss of H3.3 also diminishes IgV R-loop formation. However, reducing IgV R-loops by RNase HI overexpression in wild-type cells does not affect IgV diversification, showing that these structures are not necessary intermediates for AID access. Importantly, the reduction in the formation of AID-accessible ssDNA in cells lacking H3.3 is independent of any effect on the level of transcription or the kinetics of RNAPII elongation, suggesting the presence of H3.3 in the nucleosomes of the IgV genes increases the chances of the IgV DNA becoming single-stranded, thereby creating an effective AID substrate. © 2016 MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  18. On-site detection of Phytophthora spp.—single-stranded target DNA as the limiting factor to improve on-chip hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenkbier, Lydia; Pollok, Sibyll; Popp, Jürgen; Weber, Karina; König, Stephan; Wagner, Stefan; Werres, Sabine; Weber, Jörg; Hentschel, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We report on a lab-on-a-chip approach for on-site detection of Phytophthora species that allows visual signal readout. The results demonstrate the significance of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) generation in terms of improving the intensity of the hybridization signal and to improve the reliability of the method. Conventional PCR with subsequent heat denaturation, sodium hydroxide-based denaturation, lambda exonuclease digestion and two asymmetric PCR methods were investigated for the species P. fragariae, P. kernoviae, and P. ramorum. The positioning of the capture probe within the amplified yeast GTP-binding protein (YPT1) target DNA was also of interest because it significantly influences the intensity of the signal. Statistical tests were used to validate the impact of the ssDNA generation methods and the capture-target probe position. The single-stranded target DNA generated by Linear-After-The-Exponential PCR (LATE-PCR) was found to produce signal intensities comparable to post-PCR exonuclease treatment. The LATE-PCR is the best method for the on-site detection of Phytophthora because the enzymatic digestion after PCR is more laborious and time-consuming. (author)

  19. Transcription and recombination: when RNA meets DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Andrés; Gaillard, Hélène

    2014-08-01

    A particularly relevant phenomenon in cell physiology and proliferation is the fact that spontaneous mitotic recombination is strongly enhanced by transcription. The most accepted view is that transcription increases the occurrence of double-strand breaks and/or single-stranded DNA gaps that are repaired by recombination. Most breaks would arise as a consequence of the impact that transcription has on replication fork progression, provoking its stalling and/or breakage. Here, we discuss the mechanisms responsible for the cross talk between transcription and recombination, with emphasis on (1) the transcription-replication conflicts as the main source of recombinogenic DNA breaks, and (2) the formation of cotranscriptional R-loops as a major cause of such breaks. The new emerging questions and perspectives are discussed on the basis of the interference between transcription and replication, as well as the way RNA influences genome dynamics. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  20. Calibration of denaturing agarose gels for molecular weight estimation of DNA: size determination of the single-stranded genomes of parvoviruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, C.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN); Schmoyer, R.L.; Bates, R.C.; Mitra, S.

    1982-01-01

    Vertical slab gel electrophoresis of DNA with CH/sub 3/HgOH-containing agarose produces sharp bands whose mobilities are suitable for size estimation of single-stranded DNA containing 600 to 20,000 bases. The relationship of electrophoretic mobility to size of DNA over this range is a smooth, S-shaped function, and an empirical model was developed to express the relationship. The model involves terms in squared and reciprocal mobilities, and produced excellent fit of known standard markers to measured mobilities. It was used to estimate the sizes of six parvovirus DNAs: Kilham rat virus (KRV), H-1, LuIII, and minute virus of mice (MVM) DNAs had molecular weights of 1.66 to 1.70 x 10/sup 6/, while the molecular weight of bovine parvovirus (BPV) DNA was 1.84 x 10/sup 6/ and that of adenoassociated virus (AAV) DNA was 1.52 x 10/sup 6/.

  1. Cytogenetic Markers, DNA Single-Strand Breaks, Urinary Metabolites, and DNA Repair Rates in Styrene-Exposed Lamination Workers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vodička, Pavel; Tuimala, J.; Štětina, R.; Kumar, R.; Manini, P.; Naccarati, Alessio; Maestri, L.; Vodičková, L.; Kuricová, Miroslava; Jarventaus, H.; Majvalková, Z.; Hirvonen, A.; Imbriani, M.; Mutti, A.; Norppa, H.; Hemminki, K.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 8 (2004), s. 867-871 ISSN 0091-6765 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/03/0437; GA ČR GA310/01/0802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : DNA repair rates * genotoxicity Subject RIV: FM - Hygiene Impact factor: 3.929, year: 2004

  2. Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP)-based mutation scanning approaches to fingerprint sequence variation in ribosomal DNA of ascaridoid nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X Q; Gasser, R B

    1998-06-01

    In this study, we assessed single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP)-based approaches for their capacity to fingerprint sequence variation in ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of ascaridoid nematodes of veterinary and/or human health significance. The second internal transcribed spacer region (ITS-2) of rDNA was utilised as the target region because it is known to provide species-specific markers for this group of parasites. ITS-2 was amplified by PCR from genomic DNA derived from individual parasites and subjected to analysis. Direct SSCP analysis of amplicons from seven taxa (Toxocara vitulorum, Toxocara cati, Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Baylisascaris procyonis, Ascaris suum and Parascaris equorum) showed that the single-strand (ss) ITS-2 patterns produced allowed their unequivocal identification to species. While no variation in SSCP patterns was detected in the ITS-2 within four species for which multiple samples were available, the method allowed the direct display of four distinct sequence types of ITS-2 among individual worms of T. cati. Comparison of SSCP/sequencing with the methods of dideoxy fingerprinting (ddF) and restriction endonuclease fingerprinting (REF) revealed that also ddF allowed the definition of the four sequence types, whereas REF displayed three of four. The findings indicate the usefulness of the SSCP-based approaches for the identification of ascaridoid nematodes to species, the direct display of sequence variation in rDNA and the detection of population variation. The ability to fingerprint microheterogeneity in ITS-2 rDNA using such approaches also has implications for studying fundamental aspects relating to mutational change in rDNA.

  3. Effect of vitamin E on cytotoxicity, DNA single strand breaks, chromosomal aberrations, and mutation in Chinese hamster V-79 cells exposed to ultraviolet-B light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, M.; Tsuzuki, K.; Matsumoto, K.; Ogura, R.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of pretreatment with vitamin E on cytotoxicity, DNA single strand breaks, and chromosomal aberrations as well as on mutation induced by ultraviolet-B light (UV-B) was investigated in Chinese hamster V-79 cells. Cellular pretreatment with non-toxic levels of 25 μM α-tocopherol succinate (vitamin E) for 24h prior to exposure resulted in a 10-fold increase in cellular levels of α-tocopherol. Using a colony-forming assay, this pretreatment decreased the cytotoxicity of UV-B light. However, alkaline elution assays demonstrated that pretreatment with vitamin E did not affect the number of DNA single strand breaks caused by UV-B light. UV-B exposure produced a dose-dependent induction of chromosomal aberrations and mutations at the HGPRT locus, and neither of these actions of UV-B was influenced by pretreatment with the vitamin. These results suggest that vitamin E protects cells from UV-B-induced cytotoxicity, possibly through its ability to scavenge free radicals. The genotoxicity induced by UV-B light may not correlate directly with the cytotoxic action of this wavelength region in sunlight. (author)

  4. Molecular mechanisms of induced mutagenesis. Replication in vivo of bacteriophage phiX174 single-stranded, ultraviolet light-irradiated DNA in intact and irradiated host cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caillet-Fauquet, P; Defais, M; Radman, M [Brussels Univ. (Belgium)

    1977-11-25

    Genetic analysis has revealed that radiation and many chemical mutagens induce in bacteria an error-prone DNA repair process which is responsible for their mutagenic effect. The biochemical mechanism of this inducible error-prone repair has been studied by analysis of the first round of DNA synthesis on ultraviolet light-irradiated phiX174 DNA in both intact and ultraviolet light-irradiated host cells. Intracellular phiX174 DNA was extracted, subjected to isopycnic CsCl density-gradient analysis, hydroxylapatite chromatography and digestion by single-strand-specific endonuclease S/sub 1/. Ultraviolet light-induced photolesions in viral DNA cause a permanent blockage of DNA synthesis in intact Escherichia coli cells. However, when host cells were irradiated and incubated to induce fully the error-prone repair system, a significant fraction of irradiated phiX174 DNA molecules can be fully replicated. Thus, inducible error-prone repair in E.coli is manifested by an increased capacity for DNA synthesis on damaged phiX174 DNA. Chloramphenicol (100 ..mu.. g/ml), which is an inhibitor of the inducible error-prone DNA repair, is also an inhibitor of this particular inducible DNA synthesis.

  5. Localization of specific sequences and DNA single-strand breaks in individual UV-A-irradiated human lymphocytes by COMET FISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Claudia; Rapp, Alexander; Dittmar, Heike; Monajembashi, Shamci; Greulich, Karl-Otto

    1999-01-01

    The COMET assay, a single cell electrophoresis technique which allows to separate electrophoretically fractionated DNA according to size has been combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) which allows to localize specific genes or gene regions. This combination (COMET FISH) allows the detection of DNA single strand breaks in specific regions of the genome of human lymphocytes at the single cell level. Various types of DNA probes, e.g. centromere-, (alpha) - satellite-, telomere-, whole chromosome-, single copy- and region specific DNA probes have been used to investigate whether the UV-A induced DNA single strand breaks are distributed randomly all over the human genome or induced at specific sites ('hot spots'). In the investigated human peripheral blood lymphocytes all but one centromere reveal low sensitivity for UV-A irradiation (500 kJ/m2), while telomeres are randomly distributed over COMET heads and tails. The human chromosome 1 is fractionated by irradiation, but remains in the COMET head, indicating an only moderate degree of fractionation. Among three tested single copy probes, c- myc, p53 and p58, the p53 gene located on chromosome 17p13.1 and the p58 gene (1p36) appear to be located in UV-A stable regions of the human genome in 95% of 65 investigated lymphocytes. In contrast, the c-myc proto-oncogene (8q24) is found in the COMET tail in 90% of the 27 investigated lymphocytes and thus appears to be more sensitive to UV-A irradiation.

  6. Two modes of interaction of the single-stranded DNA-binding protein of bacteriophage T7 with the DNA polymerase-thioredoxin complex

    KAUST Repository

    Ghosh, Sharmistha; Hamdan, Samir; Richardson, Charles C.

    2010-01-01

    The DNA polymerase encoded by bacteriophage T7 has low processivity. Escherichia coli thioredoxin binds to a segment of 76 residues in the thumb subdomain of the polymerase and increases the processivity. The binding of thioredoxin leads to the formation of two basic loops, loops A and B, located within the thioredoxin-binding domain (TBD). Both loops interact with the acidic C terminus of the T7 helicase. A relatively weak electrostatic mode involves the C-terminal tail of the helicase and the TBD, whereas a high affinity interaction that does not involve the C-terminal tail occurs when the polymerase is in a polymerization mode. T7 gene 2.5 single-stranded DNA-binding protein (gp2.5) also has an acidic C-terminal tail. gp2.5 also has two modes of interaction with the polymerase, but both involve the C-terminal tail of gp2.5. An electrostatic interaction requires the basic residues in loops A and B, and gp2.5 binds to both loops with similar affinity as measured by surface plasmon resonance. When the polymerase is in a polymerization mode, the C terminus of gene 2.5 protein interacts with the polymerase in regions outside the TBD.gp2.5 increases the processivity of the polymerase-helicase complex during leading strand synthesis. When loop B of the TBD is altered, abortive DNA products are observed during leading strand synthesis. Loop B appears to play an important role in communication with the helicase and gp2.5, whereas loop A plays a stabilizing role in these interactions. © 2010 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Two modes of interaction of the single-stranded DNA-binding protein of bacteriophage T7 with the DNA polymerase-thioredoxin complex

    KAUST Repository

    Ghosh, Sharmistha

    2010-04-06

    The DNA polymerase encoded by bacteriophage T7 has low processivity. Escherichia coli thioredoxin binds to a segment of 76 residues in the thumb subdomain of the polymerase and increases the processivity. The binding of thioredoxin leads to the formation of two basic loops, loops A and B, located within the thioredoxin-binding domain (TBD). Both loops interact with the acidic C terminus of the T7 helicase. A relatively weak electrostatic mode involves the C-terminal tail of the helicase and the TBD, whereas a high affinity interaction that does not involve the C-terminal tail occurs when the polymerase is in a polymerization mode. T7 gene 2.5 single-stranded DNA-binding protein (gp2.5) also has an acidic C-terminal tail. gp2.5 also has two modes of interaction with the polymerase, but both involve the C-terminal tail of gp2.5. An electrostatic interaction requires the basic residues in loops A and B, and gp2.5 binds to both loops with similar affinity as measured by surface plasmon resonance. When the polymerase is in a polymerization mode, the C terminus of gene 2.5 protein interacts with the polymerase in regions outside the TBD.gp2.5 increases the processivity of the polymerase-helicase complex during leading strand synthesis. When loop B of the TBD is altered, abortive DNA products are observed during leading strand synthesis. Loop B appears to play an important role in communication with the helicase and gp2.5, whereas loop A plays a stabilizing role in these interactions. © 2010 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Thermodynamics of complex structures formed between single-stranded DNA oligomers and the KH domains of the far upstream element binding protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Kaushik; Sinha, Sudipta Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjoy, E-mail: sanjoy@chem.iitkgp.ernet.in [Molecular Modeling Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2016-05-28

    The noncovalent interaction between protein and DNA is responsible for regulating the genetic activities in living organisms. The most critical issue in this problem is to understand the underlying driving force for the formation and stability of the complex. To address this issue, we have performed atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of two DNA binding K homology (KH) domains (KH3 and KH4) of the far upstream element binding protein (FBP) complexed with two single-stranded DNA (ss-DNA) oligomers in aqueous media. Attempts have been made to calculate the individual components of the net entropy change for the complexation process by adopting suitable statistical mechanical approaches. Our calculations reveal that translational, rotational, and configurational entropy changes of the protein and the DNA components have unfavourable contributions for this protein-DNA association process and such entropy lost is compensated by the entropy gained due to the release of hydration layer water molecules. The free energy change corresponding to the association process has also been calculated using the Free Energy Perturbation (FEP) method. The free energy gain associated with the KH4–DNA complex formation has been found to be noticeably higher than that involving the formation of the KH3–DNA complex.

  9. The UNG2 Arg88Cys variant abrogates RPA-mediated recruitment of UNG2 to single-stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torseth, Kathrin; Doseth, Berit; Hagen, Lars; Olaisen, Camilla; Liabakk, Nina-Beate; Græsmann, Heidi; Durandy, Anne; Otterlei, Marit; Krokan, Hans E; Kavli, Bodil; Slupphaug, Geir

    2012-06-01

    In human cell nuclei, UNG2 is the major uracil-DNA glycosylase initiating DNA base excision repair of uracil. In activated B cells it has an additional role in facilitating mutagenic processing of AID-induced uracil at Ig loci and UNG-deficient patients develop hyper-IgM syndrome characterized by impaired class-switch recombination and disturbed somatic hypermutation. How UNG2 is recruited to either error-free or mutagenic uracil processing remains obscure, but likely involves regulated interactions with other proteins. The UNG2 N-terminal domain contains binding motifs for both proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and replication protein A (RPA), but the relative contribution of these interactions to genomic uracil processing is not understood. Interestingly, a heterozygous germline single-nucleotide variant leading to Arg88Cys (R88C) substitution in the RPA-interaction motif of UNG2 has been observed in humans, but with unknown functional relevance. Here we demonstrate that UNG2-R88C protein is expressed from the variant allele in a lymphoblastoid cell line derived from a heterozygous germ line carrier. Enzyme activity as well as localization in replication foci of UNG2-R88C was similar to that of WT. However, binding to RPA was essentially abolished by the R88C substitution, whereas binding to PCNA was unaffected. Moreover, we show that disruption of the PCNA-binding motif impaired recruitment of UNG2 to S-phase replication foci, demonstrating that PCNA is a major factor for recruitment of UNG2 to unperturbed replication forks. Conversely, in cells treated with hydroxyurea, RPA mediated recruitment of UNG2 to stalled replication forks independently of functional PCNA binding. Modulation of PCNA- versus RPA-binding may thus constitute a functional switch for UNG2 in cells subsequent to genotoxic stress and potentially also during the processing of uracil at the immunoglobulin locus in antigen-stimulated B cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  10. Cas3 is a single-stranded DNA nuclease and ATP-dependent helicase in the CRISPR/Cas immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkunas, Tomas; Gasiunas, Giedrius; Fremaux, Christophe; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Horvath, Philippe; Siksnys, Virginijus

    2011-04-06

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) is a recently discovered adaptive prokaryotic immune system that provides acquired immunity against foreign nucleic acids by utilizing small guide crRNAs (CRISPR RNAs) to interfere with invading viruses and plasmids. In Escherichia coli, Cas3 is essential for crRNA-guided interference with virus proliferation. Cas3 contains N-terminal HD phosphohydrolase and C-terminal Superfamily 2 (SF2) helicase domains. Here, we provide the first report of the cloning, expression, purification and in vitro functional analysis of the Cas3 protein of the Streptococcus thermophilus CRISPR4 (Ecoli subtype) system. Cas3 possesses a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-stimulated ATPase activity, which is coupled to unwinding of DNA/DNA and RNA/DNA duplexes. Cas3 also shows ATP-independent nuclease activity located in the HD domain with a preference for ssDNA substrates. To dissect the contribution of individual domains, Cas3 separation-of-function mutants (ATPase(+)/nuclease(-) and ATPase(-)/nuclease(+)) were obtained by site-directed mutagenesis. We propose that the Cas3 ATPase/helicase domain acts as a motor protein, which assists delivery of the nuclease activity to Cascade-crRNA complex targeting foreign DNA.

  11. Chemical shift changes provide evidence for overlapping single-stranded DNA and XPA binding sites on the 70 kDa subunit of human replication protein A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daughdrill, Gary W.; Buchko, Garry W.; Botuyan, Maria V.; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Wold, Marc S.; Kennedy, Michael A.; Lowry, David F.

    2003-07-15

    Replication protein A (RPA) is a heterotrimeric single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein that can form a complex with the xeroderma pigmentosum group A protein (XPA). This complex can preferentially recognize UV damaged DNA over undamaged DNA and has been implicated in the stabilization of open complex formation during nucleotide excision repair. In this report, NMR spectroscopy was used to investigate the interaction between a fragment of the 70 kDa subunit of human RPA, residues 1-326 (hRPA701-326), and a fragment of the human XPA protein, residues 98-219 (XPA-MBD). Intensity changes were observed for amide resonances in the 1H-15N correlation spectrum of uniformly 15N-labeled hRPA701-326 after the addition of unlabeled XPA-MBD. The intensity changes observed were restricted to an ssDNA binding domain that is between residues 183 and 296 of the hRPA701-326 fragment. The hRPA701-326 residues with the largest resonance intensity reductions were mapped onto the structure of the ssDNA binding domain to identify the binding surface with XPA-MBD. The XPA-MBD binding surface showed significant overlap with an ssDNA binding surface that was previously identified using NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography.

  12. Replication stress-induced chromosome breakage is correlated with replication fork progression and is preceded by single-stranded DNA formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wenyi; Di Rienzi, Sara C; Raghuraman, M K; Brewer, Bonita J

    2011-10-01

    Chromosome breakage as a result of replication stress has been hypothesized to be the direct consequence of defective replication fork progression, or "collapsed" replication forks. However, direct and genome-wide evidence that collapsed replication forks give rise to chromosome breakage is still lacking. Previously we showed that a yeast replication checkpoint mutant mec1-1, after transient exposure to replication impediment imposed by hydroxyurea (HU), failed to complete DNA replication, accumulated single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) at the replication forks, and fragmented its chromosomes. In this study, by following replication fork progression genome-wide via ssDNA detection and by direct mapping of chromosome breakage after HU exposure, we have tested the hypothesis that the chromosome breakage in mec1 cells occurs at collapsed replication forks. We demonstrate that sites of chromosome breakage indeed correlate with replication fork locations. Moreover, ssDNA can be detected prior to chromosome breakage, suggesting that ssDNA accumulation is the common precursor to double strand breaks at collapsed replication forks.

  13. The influence of inhibitors on dimer removal and repair of single-strand breaks in normal and bromodeoxyuridine substituted DNA of HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelis, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    The elimination of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers from the nuclear DNA of ultraviolet irradiated HeLa cells has been examined by means of chromatography and immunoautoradiography. The extent and duration of the process was similar when dimers were assayed by both methods, proving that the antisera recognized pyrimidine dimers. The rate of dimer excision did not differ through the cell cycle with the exception of mitosis during which no dimers were removed. Dimer excision is a relatively fast process which is terminated within a few hours, but it leaves many dimers in the DNA. Excision is depressed by inhibitors of semiconservative DNA synthesis that affect the DNA precursor pool or DNA polymerases. Cells whose DNA is partly substituted with bromodeoxyuridine instead of thymidine, repair single-strand breaks and remove dimers at the same rate but to different extents. On the other hand, inhibitors limit repair of breaks and removal of dimers to the same degree suggesting that the repair of the two types of lesion is coordinated. (Auth.)

  14. Alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (AAG) localizes to mitochondria and interacts with mitochondrial single-stranded binding protein (mtSSB)

    OpenAIRE

    van Loon, Barbara; Samson, Leona D.

    2013-01-01

    Due to a harsh environment mitochondrial genomes accumulate high levels of DNA damage, in particular oxidation, hydrolytic deamination, and alkylation adducts. While repair of alkylated bases in nuclear DNA has been explored in detail, much less is known about the repair of DNA alkylation damage in mitochondria. Alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (AAG) recognizes and removes numerous alkylated bases, but to date AAG has only been detected in the nucleus, even though mammalian mitochondria are known...

  15. Examining a DNA Replication Requirement for Bacteriophage λ Red- and Rac Prophage RecET-Promoted Recombination in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, Lynn C; Costantino, Nina; Court, Donald L

    2016-09-13

    Recombineering, in vivo genetic engineering with bacteriophage homologous recombination systems, is a powerful technique for making genetic modifications in bacteria. Two systems widely used in Escherichia coli are the Red system from phage λ and RecET from the defective Rac prophage. We investigated the in vivo dependence of recombineering on DNA replication of the recombining substrate using plasmid targets. For λ Red recombination, when DNA replication of a circular target plasmid is prevented, recombination with single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides is greatly reduced compared to that under replicating conditions. For RecET recombination, when DNA replication of the targeted plasmid is prevented, the recombination frequency is also reduced, to a level identical to that seen for the Red system in the absence of replication. The very low level of oligonucleotide recombination observed in the absence of any phage recombination functions is the same in the presence or absence of DNA replication. In contrast, both the Red and RecET systems recombine a nonreplicating linear dimer plasmid with high efficiency to yield a circular monomer. Therefore, the DNA replication requirement is substrate dependent. Our data are consistent with recombination by both the Red and RecET systems occurring predominately by single-strand annealing rather than by strand invasion. Bacteriophage homologous recombination systems are widely used for in vivo genetic engineering in bacteria. Single- or double-stranded linear DNA substrates containing short flanking homologies to chromosome targets are used to generate precise and accurate genetic modifications when introduced into bacteria expressing phage recombinases. Understanding the molecular mechanism of these recombination systems will facilitate improvements in the technology. Here, two phage-specific systems are shown to require exposure of complementary single-strand homologous targets for efficient recombination; these single-strand

  16. A novel technique using DNA denaturation to detect multiply induced single-strand breaks in a hydrated plasmid DNA molecule by X-ray and 4He2+ ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoya, A.; Shikazono, N.; Fujii, K.; Noguchi, M.; Urushibara, A.

    2011-01-01

    To detect multiple single-strand breaks (SSBs) produced in plasmid DNA molecules by direct energy deposition from radiation tracks, we have developed a novel technique using DNA denaturation by which irradiated DNA is analysed as single-strand DNA (SS-DNA). The multiple SSBs that arise in both strands of DNA, but do not induce a double-strand break, are quantified as loss of SS-DNA using agarose gel electrophoresis. We have applied this method to X-ray and 4 He 2+ ion-irradiated samples of fully hydrated pUC18 plasmid DNA. The fractions of both SS-DNA and closed circular DNA (CC-DNA) exponentially decrease with the increasing dose of X rays and 4 He 2+ ions. The efficiency of the loss of SS-DNA was half that of CC-DNA for both types of irradiation, indicating that one of two strands in DNA is not broken when one SSB is produced in CC-DNA by irradiation. Contrary to our initial expectation, these results indicate that SSBs are not multiply induced even by high linear energy transfer radiation distributed in both strands. (authors)

  17. C-terminal phenylalanine of bacteriophage T7 single-stranded DNA-binding protein is essential for strand displacement synthesis by T7 DNA polymerase at a nick in DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sharmistha; Marintcheva, Boriana; Takahashi, Masateru; Richardson, Charles C

    2009-10-30

    Single-stranded DNA-binding protein (gp2.5), encoded by gene 2.5 of bacteriophage T7, plays an essential role in DNA replication. Not only does it remove impediments of secondary structure in the DNA, it also modulates the activities of the other replication proteins. The acidic C-terminal tail of gp2.5, bearing a C-terminal phenylalanine, physically and functionally interacts with the helicase and DNA polymerase. Deletion of the phenylalanine or substitution with a nonaromatic amino acid gives rise to a dominant lethal phenotype, and the altered gp2.5 has reduced affinity for T7 DNA polymerase. Suppressors of the dominant lethal phenotype have led to the identification of mutations in gene 5 that encodes the T7 DNA polymerase. The altered residues in the polymerase are solvent-exposed and lie in regions that are adjacent to the bound DNA. gp2.5 lacking the C-terminal phenylalanine has a lower affinity for gp5-thioredoxin relative to the wild-type gp2.5, and this affinity is partially restored by the suppressor mutations in DNA polymerase. gp2.5 enables T7 DNA polymerase to catalyze strand displacement DNA synthesis at a nick in DNA. The resulting 5'-single-stranded DNA tail provides a loading site for T7 DNA helicase. gp2.5 lacking the C-terminal phenylalanine does not support this event with wild-type DNA polymerase but does to a limited extent with T7 DNA polymerase harboring the suppressor mutations.

  18. C-terminal Phenylalanine of Bacteriophage T7 Single-stranded DNA-binding Protein Is Essential for Strand Displacement Synthesis by T7 DNA Polymerase at a Nick in DNA*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sharmistha; Marintcheva, Boriana; Takahashi, Masateru; Richardson, Charles C.

    2009-01-01

    Single-stranded DNA-binding protein (gp2.5), encoded by gene 2.5 of bacteriophage T7, plays an essential role in DNA replication. Not only does it remove impediments of secondary structure in the DNA, it also modulates the activities of the other replication proteins. The acidic C-terminal tail of gp2.5, bearing a C-terminal phenylalanine, physically and functionally interacts with the helicase and DNA polymerase. Deletion of the phenylalanine or substitution with a nonaromatic amino acid gives rise to a dominant lethal phenotype, and the altered gp2.5 has reduced affinity for T7 DNA polymerase. Suppressors of the dominant lethal phenotype have led to the identification of mutations in gene 5 that encodes the T7 DNA polymerase. The altered residues in the polymerase are solvent-exposed and lie in regions that are adjacent to the bound DNA. gp2.5 lacking the C-terminal phenylalanine has a lower affinity for gp5-thioredoxin relative to the wild-type gp2.5, and this affinity is partially restored by the suppressor mutations in DNA polymerase. gp2.5 enables T7 DNA polymerase to catalyze strand displacement DNA synthesis at a nick in DNA. The resulting 5′-single-stranded DNA tail provides a loading site for T7 DNA helicase. gp2.5 lacking the C-terminal phenylalanine does not support this event with wild-type DNA polymerase but does to a limited extent with T7 DNA polymerase harboring the suppressor mutations. PMID:19726688

  19. Yield of radiation-induced DNA single-strand breaks in Escherichia coli and superinfecting phage lambda at different dose rates. Repair of strand breaks in different buffers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boye, E.; Johansen, I.; Brustad, T.

    1976-01-01

    Cells of E. coli K-12 strain AB 1886 were irradiated in oxygenated phosphate buffered saline at 2 0 C with electrons from a 4-MeV linear accelerator. The yield of DNA single-strand breaks was determined as a function of the dose rate between 2.5 and 21,000 krad/min. For dose rates over 100 krad/min the yield was found to be constant. Below 10 krad/min the yield of breaks decreases drastically. This is explained by rejoining of breaks during irradiation. Twenty percent of the breaks induced by acute exposure are repaired within 3 min at 2 0 C. Superinfecting phage lambda DNA is repaired at the same rate as chromosomal DNA. In contrast to the results obtained with phosphate-buffered saline, an increase in the number of breaks after irradiation is observed when the bacteria are suspended in tris buffer. It is suggested that buffers of low ionic strength facilitate the leakage through the membrane of a small-molecular-weight component(s) necessary for DNA strand rejoining

  20. Potentiometric sensing of nuclease activities and oxidative damage of single-stranded DNA using a polycation-sensitive membrane electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jiawang; Qin, Wei

    2013-09-15

    A simple, general and label-free potentiometric method to measure nuclease activities and oxidative DNA damage in a homogeneous solution using a polycation-sensitive membrane electrode is reported. Protamine, a linear polyionic species, is used as an indicator to report the cleavage of DNA by nucleases such as restriction and nonspecific nucleases, and the damage of DNA induced by hydroxyl radicals. Measurements can be done with a titration mode or a direct detection mode. For the potentiometric titration mode, the enzymatic cleavage dramatically affects the electrostatical interaction between DNA and protamine and thus shifts the response curve for the potentiometric titration of the DNA with protamine. Under the optimized conditions, the enzyme activities can be sensed potentiometrically with detection limits of 2.7×10(-4)U/µL for S1 nuclease, and of 3.9×10(-4)U/µL for DNase I. For the direct detection mode, a biocomplex between protamine and DNA is used as a substrate. The nuclease of interest cleaves the DNA from the protamine/DNA complex into smaller fragments, so that free protamine is generated and can be detected potentiometrically via the polycation-sensitive membrane electrode. Using a direct measurement, the nuclease activities could be rapidly detected with detection limits of 3.2×10(-4)U/µL for S1 nuclease, and of 4.5×10(-4)U/µL for DNase I. Moreover, the proposed potentiometric assays demonstrate the potential applications in the detection of hydroxyl radicals. It is anticipated that the present potentiometric strategy will provide a promising platform for high-throughput screening of nucleases, reactive oxygen species and the drugs with potential inhibition abilities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cells deficient in PARP-1 show an accelerated accumulation of DNA single strand breaks, but not AP sites, over the PARP-1-proficient cells exposed to MMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pachkowski, Brian F. [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Tano, Keizo [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori (Japan); Afonin, Valeriy [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Elder, Rhoderick H. [School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Greater Manchester (United Kingdom); Takeda, Shunichi [Department of Radiation Genetics, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto (Japan); Watanabe, Masami [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori (Japan); Swenberg, James A. [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Nakamura, Jun, E-mail: ynakamur@email.unc.edu [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a base excision repair (BER) protein that binds to DNA single strand breaks (SSBs) and subsequently synthesizes and transfers poly(ADP-ribose) polymers to various nuclear proteins. Numerous biochemical studies have implicated PARP-1 as a modulator of BER; however, the role of PARP-1 in BER in living cells remains unclear partly due to lack of accurate quantitation of BER intermediates existing in cells. Since DT40 cells, chicken B lymphocytes, naturally lack PARP-2, DT40 cells allow for the investigation of the PARP-1 null phenotype without confounding by PARP-2. To test the hypothesis that PARP-1 is necessary for efficient BER during methylmethane sulfonate (MMS) exposure in vertebrate cells, intact DT40 cells and their isogenic PARP-1 null counterparts were challenged with different exposure scenarios for phenotypic characterization. With chronic exposure, PARP-1 null cells exhibited sensitivity to MMS but with an acute exposure did not accumulate base lesions or AP sites to a greater extent than wild-type cells. However, an increase in SSB content in PARP-1 null cell DNA, as indicated by glyoxal gel electrophoresis under neutral conditions, suggested the presence of BER intermediates. These data suggest that during exposure, PARP-1 impacts the stage of BER after excision of the deoxyribosephosphate moiety from the 5' end of DNA strand breaks by polymerase {beta}.

  2. Cells deficient in PARP-1 show an accelerated accumulation of DNA single strand breaks, but not AP sites, over the PARP-1-proficient cells exposed to MMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachkowski, Brian F; Tano, Keizo; Afonin, Valeriy; Elder, Rhoderick H; Takeda, Shunichi; Watanabe, Masami; Swenberg, James A; Nakamura, Jun

    2009-12-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a base excision repair (BER) protein that binds to DNA single strand breaks (SSBs) and subsequently synthesizes and transfers poly(ADP-ribose) polymers to various nuclear proteins. Numerous biochemical studies have implicated PARP-1 as a modulator of BER; however, the role of PARP-1 in BER in living cells remains unclear partly due to lack of accurate quantitation of BER intermediates existing in cells. Since DT40 cells, chicken B lymphocytes, naturally lack PARP-2, DT40 cells allow for the investigation of the PARP-1 null phenotype without confounding by PARP-2. To test the hypothesis that PARP-1 is necessary for efficient BER during methylmethane sulfonate (MMS) exposure in vertebrate cells, intact DT40 cells and their isogenic PARP-1 null counterparts were challenged with different exposure scenarios for phenotypic characterization. With chronic exposure, PARP-1 null cells exhibited sensitivity to MMS but with an acute exposure did not accumulate base lesions or AP sites to a greater extent than wild-type cells. However, an increase in SSB content in PARP-1 null cell DNA, as indicated by glyoxal gel electrophoresis under neutral conditions, suggested the presence of BER intermediates. These data suggest that during exposure, PARP-1 impacts the stage of BER after excision of the deoxyribosephosphate moiety from the 5' end of DNA strand breaks by polymerase beta.

  3. Single-strand breaks in the DNA of the uvrA and uvrB strains of Escherichia coli K-12 after ultraviolet irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngs, D A; Smith, K C [Stanford Univ., Calif. (USA). Dept. of Radiology

    1976-12-01

    DNA single-strand breaks were produced in uvrA and uvrB strains of E.coli K-12 after UV (254 nm) irradiation. These breaks appeared to be produced both directly by photochemical events, and by a temperature-dependent process. Cyclobutane-type pyrimidine dimers are probably not the photoproducts that lead to the temperature-dependent breaks, since photoreactivation had no detectable effect on the final yield of breaks. The DNA strand breaks appeared to be repairable by a process that requires DNA polymerase I and polynucleotide ligase, but not the recA, recB, recF, lexA101 or uvrD gene products. It is hypothesized that these temperature-dependent breaks occur either as a result of breakdown of a thermolabile photoproduct, or as the initial endonucleolytic event of a uvrA, uvrB-independent excision repair process that acts on a UV photoproduct other than the cyclobutane-type pyrimidine dimer.

  4. Crystal structure of APOBEC3A bound to single-stranded DNA reveals structural basis for cytidine deamination and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouno, Takahide; Silvas, Tania V; Hilbert, Brendan J; Shandilya, Shivender M D; Bohn, Markus F; Kelch, Brian A; Royer, William E; Somasundaran, Mohan; Kurt Yilmaz, Nese; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Schiffer, Celia A

    2017-04-28

    Nucleic acid editing enzymes are essential components of the immune system that lethally mutate viral pathogens and somatically mutate immunoglobulins, and contribute to the diversification and lethality of cancers. Among these enzymes are the seven human APOBEC3 deoxycytidine deaminases, each with unique target sequence specificity and subcellular localization. While the enzymology and biological consequences have been extensively studied, the mechanism by which APOBEC3s recognize and edit DNA remains elusive. Here we present the crystal structure of a complex of a cytidine deaminase with ssDNA bound in the active site at 2.2 Å. This structure not only visualizes the active site poised for catalysis of APOBEC3A, but pinpoints the residues that confer specificity towards CC/TC motifs. The APOBEC3A-ssDNA complex defines the 5'-3' directionality and subtle conformational changes that clench the ssDNA within the binding groove, revealing the architecture and mechanism of ssDNA recognition that is likely conserved among all polynucleotide deaminases, thereby opening the door for the design of mechanistic-based therapeutics.

  5. Role of teh Rad52 Amino-terminal DNA Binding Activity in DNA Strand Capture in Homologous Recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Idina; Hallwyl, Swee Chuang Lim; Seong, Changhyun

    2009-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad52 protein promotes homologous recombination by nucleating the Rad51 recombinase onto replication protein A-coated single-stranded DNA strands and also by directly annealing such strands. We show that the purified rad52-R70A mutant protein, with a compromised amino-ter...

  6. Direct imaging of hexaamine-ruthenium(III) in domain boundaries in monolayers of single-stranded DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grubb, Mikala; Wackerbarth, Hainer; Wengel, J.

    2007-01-01

    We describe adsorption and identification of the binding sites of [Ru(NH3)(6)](3+) (RuHex) molecules in a closely packed monolayer of a 13-base ss-DNA on Au(111) electrodes by electrochemical in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), cyclic voltammetry and interfacial capacitance data. In situ...

  7. Gauging the Nanotoxicity of h2D-C2N toward Single-Stranded DNA: An in Silico Molecular Simulation Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Titas Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Kalishankar; Datta, Ayan

    2018-04-12

    Recent toxicological assessments of graphene, graphene oxides, and some other two-dimensional (2D) materials have shown them to be substantially toxic at the nanoscale, where they inhibit and eventually disrupt biological processes. These shortfalls of graphene and analogs have resulted in a quest for novel biocompatible 2D materials with minimum cytotoxicity. In this article, we demonstrate C 2 N (h2D-C 2 N), a newly synthesized 2D porous graphene analog, to be non-nanotoxic toward genetic materials from an "in-silico" point of view through sequence-dependent binding of different polynucleotide single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) onto it. The calculated binding energy of nucleobases and the free energy of binding of polynucleotides follow the common trait, cytosine > guanine > adenine > thymine, and are well within the limits of physisorption. Ab-initio simulations completely exclude the possibility of any chemical reaction, demonstrating purely noncovalent binding of nucleobases with C 2 N through a crucial interplay between hydrogen bonding and π-stacking interactions with the surface. Further, we show that the extent of distortion inflicted upon ssDNA by C 2 N is negligible. Analysis of the density of states of the nucleobase-C 2 N hybrids confirms minimum electronic perturbation of the bases after adsorption. Most importantly, we demonstrate the potency of C 2 N in nucleic acid transportation via reversible binding of ssDNA. The plausible use of C 2 N as a template for DNA repair is illustrated through an example of C 2 N-assisted complementary ssDNA winding.

  8. Restriction map of the single-stranded DNA genome of Kilham rat virus strain 171, a nondefective parvovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, P.T.; Rathrock, R.; Mitra, S.

    1981-01-01

    A physical map of Kilham rat virus strain 171 DNA was constructed by analyzing the sizes and locations of restriction endonuclease-generated fragments of the replicative-form viral DNA synthesized in vitro. BglI, KpnI, BamHI, SmaI, XhoI, and XorII did not appear to have any cleavage sites, whereas 11 other enzymes cleaved the genome at one to eight sites, and AluI generated more than 12 distinct fragments. The 30 restriction sites that were mapped were distributed randomly in the viral genome. A comparison of the restriction fragments of in vivo- and in vitro-replicated replicative-form DNAs showed that these DNAs were identical except in the size or configuration of the terminal fragments

  9. In Vitro Selection of Single-Stranded DNA Molecular Recognition Elements against S. aureus Alpha Toxin and Sensitive Detection in Human Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ka L. Hong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha toxin is one of the major virulence factors secreted by Staphylococcus aureus, a bacterium that is responsible for a wide variety of infections in both community and hospital settings. Due to the prevalence of S. aureus related infections and the emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus, rapid and accurate diagnosis of S. aureus infections is crucial in benefiting patient health outcomes. In this study, a rigorous Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX variant previously developed by our laboratory was utilized to select a single-stranded DNA molecular recognition element (MRE targeting alpha toxin with high affinity and specificity. At the end of the 12-round selection, the selected MRE had an equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd of 93.7 ± 7.0 nM. Additionally, a modified sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was developed by using the selected ssDNA MRE as the toxin-capturing element and a sensitive detection of 200 nM alpha toxin in undiluted human serum samples was achieved.

  10. Effect of vanillin on methylene blue plus light-induced single-strand breaks in plasmid pBR322 DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S S; Ghosh, A; Devasagayam, T P; Chauhan, P S

    2000-09-20

    The ability of vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde), a naturally occurring food flavouring agent, in inhibiting photosensitization-induced single-strand breaks (ssbs) in plasmid pBR322 DNA has been examined in an in vitro system, independent of DNA repair/replication processes. Photosensitization of DNA with methylene blue, visible light and oxygen, induced ssbs resulting in the production of open circular form (OC form) in a concentration-dependent manner. The yield of OC form induced by photosensitization was increased several-fold by deuteration of the buffer and was found to be inhibited by sodium azide, a scavenger of singlet oxygen (1O(2)). Vanillin, per se, did not induce but inhibited photosensitization-induced ssbs in plasmid DNA, at millimolar concentrations. The inhibitory effect of vanillin was both concentration- and time-dependent. On a molar basis, vanillin was, however, less effective than trolox, a water-soluble analogue of alpha-tocopherol. Photosensitization by methylene blue system generates singlet oxygen, as one of the major components of ROS. Therefore, interaction of singlet oxygen with vanillin was investigated. The rate constant of vanillin with 1O(2) was estimated to be 5.93x10(7)M(-1)s(-1) and that of sodium azide as 2. 7x10(8)M(-1)s(-1). The present investigations show that vanillin can protect against photosensitization-induced ssbs in the plasmid pBR322 DNA, and this effect may partly be due to its ability to scavenge 1O(2).

  11. Single-stranded DNA aptamer targeting and neutralization of anti-D alloantibody: a potential therapeutic strategy for haemolytic diseases caused by Rhesus alloantibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinze; Wu, Fan; Wang, Manni; Zhuang, Naibao; Zhou, Huayou; Xu, Hua

    2018-02-01

    Rhesus (Rh) D antigen is the most important antigen in the Rh blood group system because of its strong immunogenicity. When RhD-negative individuals are exposed to RhD-positive blood, they may produce anti-D alloantibody, potentially resulting in delayed haemolytic transfusion reactions and Rh haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn, which are difficult to treat. Inhibition of the binding of anti-D antibody with RhD antigens on the surface of red blood cells may effectively prevent immune haemolytic diseases. In this study, single-stranded (ss) DNA aptamers, specifically binding to anti-D antibodies, were selected via systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) technology. After 14 rounds of selection, the purified ssDNA was sequenced using a Personal Genome Machine system. Haemagglutination inhibition assays were performed to screen aptamers for biological activity in terms of blocking antigen-antibody reactions: the affinity and specificity of the aptamers were also determined. In addition to high specificity, the aptamers which were selected showed high affinity for anti-D antibodies with dissociation constant (K d ) values ranging from 51.46±14.90 to 543.30±92.59 nM. By the combined use of specific ssDNA aptamer 7 and auxiliary ssDNA aptamer 2, anti-D could be effectively neutralised at low concentrations of the aptamers. Our results demonstrate that ssDNA aptamers may be a novel, promising strategy for the treatment of delayed haemolytic transfusion reactions and Rh haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn.

  12. Genetic recombination in escherichia coli and its relationship with DNA replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, O.

    1974-01-01

    Relationship of DNA replication with genetic recombination in Escherichia Coli was investigated by mating Hfr donors labelled with H 3 -thymine, C 13 and N 15 to C 13 N 15 labelled recipients. The DNA extracted from the zygotes was analysed on CsCl density gradients. The results show that all of the biparentally labelled DNA arises from the single strand insertions of the donor DNA. (M.G.B.)

  13. Pleolipoviridae, a newly proposed family comprising archaeal pleomorphic viruses with single-stranded or double-stranded DNA genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietilä, Maija K; Roine, Elina; Sencilo, Ana; Bamford, Dennis H; Oksanen, Hanna M

    2016-01-01

    Viruses infecting archaea show a variety of virion morphotypes, and they are currently classified into more than ten viral families or corresponding groups. A pleomorphic virus morphotype is very common among haloarchaeal viruses, and to date, several such viruses have been isolated. Here, we propose the classification of eight such viruses and formation of a new family, Pleolipoviridae (from the Greek pleo for more or many and lipos for lipid), containing three genera, Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammapleolipovirus. The proposal is currently under review by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). The members of the proposed family Pleolipoviridae infect halophilic archaea and are nonlytic. They share structural and genomic features and differ from any other classified virus. The virion of pleolipoviruses is composed of a pleomorphic membrane vesicle enclosing the genome. All pleolipoviruses have two major structural protein species, internal membrane and spike proteins. Although the genomes of the pleolipoviruses are single- or double-stranded, linear or circular DNA molecules, they share the same genome organization and gene synteny and show significant similarity at the amino acid level. The canonical features common to all members of the proposed family Pleolipoviridae show that they are closely related and thus form a new viral family.

  14. A biomarker model of sublethal genotoxicity (DNA single-strand breaks and adducts) using the sentinel organism Aporrectodea longa in spiked soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Francis L.; Piearce, Trevor G.; Hewer, Alan; Phillips, David H.; Semple, Kirk T.

    2005-01-01

    There is a need to develop risk biomarkers during the remediation of contaminated land. We employed the earthworm, Aporrectodea longa (Ude), to determine whether genotoxicity measures could be applied to this organism's intestinal tissues. Earthworms were added, for 24 h or 7 days, to soil samples spiked with benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and/or lindane. After exposure, intestinal tissues (crop/gizzard or intestine) were removed prior to the measurement in disaggregated cells of DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) by the alkaline comet assay. Damage was quantified by comet tail length (CTL, μm). B[a]P 24-h exposure induced dose-related increases (P 32 P-postlabelling, showed a two-adduct-spot pattern. This preliminary investigation suggests that earthworm tissues may be incorporated into genotoxicity assays to facilitate hazard identification within terrestrial ecosystems. - Sublethal genotoxicity in the sentinel organism A. longa can be used to monitor the effects of contaminants in soil

  15. Hematopoietic Lineage Transcriptome Stability and Representation in PAXgeneTM Collected Peripheral Blood Utilising SPIA Single-Stranded cDNA Probes for Microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Kennedy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral blood as a surrogate tissue for transcriptome profiling holds great promise for the discovery of diagnostic and prognostic disease biomarkers, particularly when target tissues of disease are not readily available. To maximize the reliability of gene expression data generated from clinical blood samples, both the sample collection and the microarray probe generation methods should be optimized to provide stabilized, reproducible and representative gene expression profiles faithfully representing the transcriptional profiles of the constituent blood cell types present in the circulation. Given the increasing innovation in this field in recent years, we investigated a combination of methodological advances in both RNA stabilisation and microarray probe generation with the goal of achieving robust, reliable and representative transcriptional profiles from whole blood. To assess the whole blood profiles, the transcriptomes of purified blood cell types were measured and compared with the global transcriptomes measured in whole blood. The results demonstrate that a combination of PAXgeneTM RNA stabilising technology and single-stranded cDNA probe generation afforded by the NuGEN Ovation RNA amplification system V2TM enables an approach that yields faithful representation of specific hematopoietic cell lineage transcriptomes in whole blood without the necessity for prior sample fractionation, cell enrichment or globin reduction. Storage stability assessments of the PAXgeneTM blood samples also advocate a short, fixed room temperature storage time for all PAXgeneTM blood samples collected for the purposes of global transcriptional profiling in clinical studies.

  16. Hematopoietic Lineage Transcriptome Stability and Representation in PAXgene Collected Peripheral Blood Utilising SPIA Single-Stranded cDNA Probes for Microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Laura; Vass, J Keith; Haggart, D Ross; Moore, Steve; Burczynski, Michael E; Crowther, Dan; Miele, Gino

    2008-08-25

    Peripheral blood as a surrogate tissue for transcriptome profiling holds great promise for the discovery of diagnostic and prognostic disease biomarkers, particularly when target tissues of disease are not readily available. To maximize the reliability of gene expression data generated from clinical blood samples, both the sample collection and the microarray probe generation methods should be optimized to provide stabilized, reproducible and representative gene expression profiles faithfully representing the transcriptional profiles of the constituent blood cell types present in the circulation. Given the increasing innovation in this field in recent years, we investigated a combination of methodological advances in both RNA stabilisation and microarray probe generation with the goal of achieving robust, reliable and representative transcriptional profiles from whole blood. To assess the whole blood profiles, the transcriptomes of purified blood cell types were measured and compared with the global transcriptomes measured in whole blood. The results demonstrate that a combination of PAXgene() RNA stabilising technology and single-stranded cDNA probe generation afforded by the NuGEN Ovation RNA amplification system V2() enables an approach that yields faithful representation of specific hematopoietic cell lineage transcriptomes in whole blood without the necessity for prior sample fractionation, cell enrichment or globin reduction. Storage stability assessments of the PAXgene() blood samples also advocate a short, fixed room temperature storage time for all PAXgene() blood samples collected for the purposes of global transcriptional profiling in clinical studies.

  17. Hematopoietic Lineage Transcriptome Stability and Representation in PAXgene™ Collected Peripheral Blood Utilising SPIA Single-Stranded cDNA Probes for Microarray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Laura; Vass, J. Keith; Haggart, D. Ross; Moore, Steve; Burczynski, Michael E.; Crowther, Dan; Miele, Gino

    2008-01-01

    Peripheral blood as a surrogate tissue for transcriptome profiling holds great promise for the discovery of diagnostic and prognostic disease biomarkers, particularly when target tissues of disease are not readily available. To maximize the reliability of gene expression data generated from clinical blood samples, both the sample collection and the microarray probe generation methods should be optimized to provide stabilized, reproducible and representative gene expression profiles faithfully representing the transcriptional profiles of the constituent blood cell types present in the circulation. Given the increasing innovation in this field in recent years, we investigated a combination of methodological advances in both RNA stabilisation and microarray probe generation with the goal of achieving robust, reliable and representative transcriptional profiles from whole blood. To assess the whole blood profiles, the transcriptomes of purified blood cell types were measured and compared with the global transcriptomes measured in whole blood. The results demonstrate that a combination of PAXgene™ RNA stabilising technology and single-stranded cDNA probe generation afforded by the NuGEN Ovation RNA amplification system V2™ enables an approach that yields faithful representation of specific hematopoietic cell lineage transcriptomes in whole blood without the necessity for prior sample fractionation, cell enrichment or globin reduction. Storage stability assessments of the PAXgene™ blood samples also advocate a short, fixed room temperature storage time for all PAXgene™ blood samples collected for the purposes of global transcriptional profiling in clinical studies. PMID:19578521

  18. RPA homologs and ssDNA processing during meiotic recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Jonathan; Abby, Emilie; Livera, Gabriel; Martini, Emmanuelle

    2016-06-01

    Meiotic homologous recombination is a specialized process that involves homologous chromosome pairing and strand exchange to guarantee proper chromosome segregation and genetic diversity. The formation and repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) during meiotic recombination differs from those during mitotic recombination in that the homologous chromosome rather than the sister chromatid is the preferred repair template. The processing of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) formed on intermediate recombination structures is central to driving the specific outcomes of DSB repair during meiosis. Replication protein A (RPA) is the main ssDNA-binding protein complex involved in DNA metabolism. However, the existence of RPA orthologs in plants and the recent discovery of meiosis specific with OB domains (MEIOB), a widely conserved meiosis-specific RPA1 paralog, strongly suggest that multiple RPA complexes evolved and specialized to subdivide their roles during DNA metabolism. Here we review ssDNA formation and maturation during mitotic and meiotic recombination underlying the meiotic specific features. We describe and discuss the existence and properties of MEIOB and multiple RPA subunits in plants and highlight how they can provide meiosis-specific fates to ssDNA processing during homologous recombination. Understanding the functions of these RPA homologs and how they interact with the canonical RPA subunits is of major interest in the fields of meiosis and DNA repair.

  19. Genetic polymorphisms in DNA repair genes and possible links with DNA repair rates, chromosomal aberrations and single-strand breaks in DNA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vodička, Pavel; Kumar, R.; Štětina, R.; Sanyal, S.; Souček, P.; Haufroid, V.; Dušinská, M.; Kuricová, M.; Zámečníková, M.; Musak, L.; Buchancová, J.; Norppa, H.; Hirvonen, A.; Vodičková, L.; Naccarati, Alessio; Matoušů, Zora; Hemminki, K.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 5 (2004), s. 757-763 ISSN 0143-3334 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/03/0437; GA ČR GA310/01/0802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : DNA repair rates * genotoxicity Subject RIV: FM - Hygiene Impact factor: 5.375, year: 2004

  20. OligArch: A software tool to allow artificially expanded genetic information systems (AEGIS to guide the autonomous self-assembly of long DNA constructs from multiple DNA single strands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Bradley

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic biologists wishing to self-assemble large DNA (L-DNA constructs from small DNA fragments made by automated synthesis need fragments that hybridize predictably. Such predictability is difficult to obtain with nucleotides built from just the four standard nucleotides. Natural DNA's peculiar combination of strong and weak G:C and A:T pairs, the context-dependence of the strengths of those pairs, unimolecular strand folding that competes with desired interstrand hybridization, and non-Watson–Crick interactions available to standard DNA, all contribute to this unpredictability. In principle, adding extra nucleotides to the genetic alphabet can improve the predictability and reliability of autonomous DNA self-assembly, simply by increasing the information density of oligonucleotide sequences. These extra nucleotides are now available as parts of artificially expanded genetic information systems (AEGIS, and tools are now available to generate entirely standard DNA from AEGIS DNA during PCR amplification. Here, we describe the OligArch (for "oligonucleotide architecting" software, an application that permits synthetic biologists to engineer optimally self-assembling DNA constructs from both six- and eight-letter AEGIS alphabets. This software has been used to design oligonucleotides that self-assemble to form complete genes from 20 or more single-stranded synthetic oligonucleotides. OligArch is therefore a key element of a scalable and integrated infrastructure for the rapid and designed engineering of biology.

  1. Contribution of single-strand breaks and alkali-labile bonds to the loss of infectivity of γ-irradiated phiX174 RF-DNA in E. coli cells mutant in various repair functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, R.H.

    1975-01-01

    Twenty-one radiation sensitive mutants have been examined for their capacity to support gamma-irradiated phiX174 RF-DNA. The survival of phiX174 RF-DNA was reduced in essentially all of the sensitive mutants. The irradiated phiX174 RF-DNA was then separated into populations containing either single-strand breaks or alkali-labile bonds to examine the capacity of the mutants to repair each of the classes of lesions. It was found that all E. coli strains are unable to repair 22 percent of the single-strand breaks and all sensitive mutants are unable to repair an additional 10 percent of the breaks. All the repair functions examined are involved in single-strand break repair and none are more or less necessary than any of the others. PhiX174 RF-DNA is also inactivated by alkali-labile bonds. In the normal strains the inactivation efficiency is 0.16 lethal events per lesion with a threshold dose of 15 to 20 krads. The mutants are divided into two classes by their sensitivity to alkali-labile bonds. Both classes of mutants are also inactivated by alkali-labile bonds with efficiencies of about 0.17 and 0.29 lethal events per lesion, respectively. It is proposed that the differences seen in survival curves of phiX174 measured in the sensitive mutants is due to this difference. Although in normal cells the efficiency of inactivation of phiX174 by single-strand breaks is 50 percent greater than by alkali-labile bonds, alkali-labile bonds are produced at approximately twice the rate of single-strand breaks so alkali-labile bonds account for about 61 percent of the overall inactivation. In the mutants of least sensitivity alkali-labile bonds account for about 54 percent of the inactivating events and in the most sensitive about 67 percent

  2. The application of strand invasion phenomenon, directed by peptide nucleic acid (PNA) and single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) for the recognition of specific sequences of human endogenous retroviral HERV-W family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machnik, Grzegorz; Bułdak, Łukasz; Ruczyński, Jarosław; Gąsior, Tomasz; Huzarska, Małgorzata; Belowski, Dariusz; Alenowicz, Magdalena; Mucha, Piotr; Rekowski, Piotr; Okopień, Bogusław

    2017-05-01

    The HERV-W family of human endogenous retroviruses represents a group of numerous sequences that show close similarity in genetic composition. It has been documented that some members of HERV-W-derived expression products are supposed to play significant role in humans' pathology, such as multiple sclerosis or schizophrenia. Other members of the family are necessary to orchestrate physiological processes (eg, ERVWE1 coding syncytin-1 that is engaged in syncytiotrophoblast formation). Therefore, an assay that would allow the recognition of particular form of HERV-W members is highly desirable. A peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-mediated technique for the discrimination between multiple sclerosis-associated retrovirus and ERVWE1 sequence has been developed. The assay uses a PNA probe that, being fully complementary to the ERVWE1 but not to multiple sclerosis-associated retrovirus (MSRV) template, shows high selective potential. Single-stranded DNA binding protein facilitates the PNA-mediated, sequence-specific formation of strand invasion complex and, consequently, local DNA unwinding. The target DNA may be then excluded from further analysis in any downstream process such as single-stranded DNA-specific exonuclease action. Finally, the reaction conditions have been optimized, and several PNA probes that are targeted toward distinct loci along whole HERV-W env sequences have been evaluated. We believe that PNA/single-stranded DNA binding protein-based application has the potential to selectively discriminate particular HERV-W molecules as they are at least suspected to play pathogenic role in a broad range of medical conditions, from psycho-neurologic disorders (multiple sclerosis and schizophrenia) and cancers (breast cancer) to that of an auto-immunologic background (psoriasis and lupus erythematosus). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Examining a DNA Replication Requirement for Bacteriophage λ Red- and Rac Prophage RecET-Promoted Recombination in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn C. Thomason

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recombineering, in vivo genetic engineering with bacteriophage homologous recombination systems, is a powerful technique for making genetic modifications in bacteria. Two systems widely used in Escherichia coli are the Red system from phage λ and RecET from the defective Rac prophage. We investigated the in vivo dependence of recombineering on DNA replication of the recombining substrate using plasmid targets. For λ Red recombination, when DNA replication of a circular target plasmid is prevented, recombination with single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides is greatly reduced compared to that under replicating conditions. For RecET recombination, when DNA replication of the targeted plasmid is prevented, the recombination frequency is also reduced, to a level identical to that seen for the Red system in the absence of replication. The very low level of oligonucleotide recombination observed in the absence of any phage recombination functions is the same in the presence or absence of DNA replication. In contrast, both the Red and RecET systems recombine a nonreplicating linear dimer plasmid with high efficiency to yield a circular monomer. Therefore, the DNA replication requirement is substrate dependent. Our data are consistent with recombination by both the Red and RecET systems occurring predominately by single-strand annealing rather than by strand invasion.

  4. Protective effects of pulmonary epithelial lining fluid on oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breaks caused by ultrafine carbon black, ferrous sulphate and organic extract of diesel exhaust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Hsiao-Chi [School of Respiratory Therapy, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Yi-Ling; Lei, Yu-Chen [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Hui-Hsien [Institute of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Tsun-Jen, E-mail: tcheng@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2013-02-01

    Pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (ELF) is the first substance to make contact with inhaled particulate matter (PM) and interacts chemically with PM components. The objective of this study was to determine the role of ELF in oxidative stress, DNA damage and the production of proinflammatory cytokines following physicochemical exposure to PM. Ultrafine carbon black (ufCB, 15 nm; a model carbonaceous core), ferrous sulphate (FeSO{sub 4}; a model transition metal) and a diesel exhaust particle (DEP) extract (a model organic compound) were used to examine the acellular oxidative potential of synthetic ELF and non-ELF systems. We compared the effects of exposure to ufCB, FeSO{sub 4} and DEP extract on human alveolar epithelial Type II (A549) cells to determine the levels of oxidative stress, DNA single-strand breaks and interleukin-8 (IL-8) production in ELF and non-ELF systems. The effects of ufCB and FeSO{sub 4} on the acellular oxidative potential, cellular oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breakage were mitigated significantly by the addition of ELF, whereas there was no decrease following treatment with the DEP extract. There was no significant effect on IL-8 production following exposure to samples that were suspended in ELF/non-ELF systems. The results of the present study indicate that ELF plays an important role in the initial defence against PM in the pulmonary environment. Experimental components, such as ufCB and FeSO{sub 4}, induced the production of oxidative stress and led to DNA single-strand breaks, which were moderately prevented by the addition of ELF. These findings suggest that ELF plays a protective role against PM-driven oxidative stress and DNA damage. -- Highlights: ► To determine the role of ELF in ROS, DNA damage and IL-8 after exposure to PM. ► ufCB, FeSO{sub 4} and DEP extract were used to examine the protective effects of ELF. ► PM-driven oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breakage were mitigated by ELF. ► The findings

  5. Hole hopping rates in single strand oligonucleotides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrelli, Raffaele [Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Forestali e Alimentari, Università di Torino, Largo Paolo Braccini 2, I-10095 Grugliasco, TO (Italy); Capobianco, Amedeo [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biologia, Università di Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, I-84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy); Peluso, Andrea, E-mail: apeluso@unisa.it [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biologia, Università di Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, I-84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy)

    2014-08-31

    Highlights: • DNA hole transfer rates have been computed. • Delocalized adenine domains significantly affect hole transfer rates in DNA. • Franck–Condon weighted density of state from DFT normal modes. • DNA application in molecular electronics. - Abstract: The rates of hole transfer between guanine and adenine in single strand DNA have been evaluated by using Fermi’s golden rule and Kubo’s generating function approach for the Franck–Condon weighted density of states. The whole sets of the normal modes and vibrational frequencies of the two nucleobases, obtained at DFT/B3LYP level of calculation, have been considered in computations. The results show that in single strand the pyramidalization/planarization mode of the amino groups of both nucleobases plays the major role. At room temperature, the Franck–Condon density of states extends over a wide range of hole site energy difference, 0–1 eV, giving some hints about the design of oligonucleotides of potential technological interest.

  6. Mechanism of Homologous Recombination and Implications for Aging-Related Deletions in Mitochondrial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Homologous recombination is a universal process, conserved from bacteriophage to human, which is important for the repair of double-strand DNA breaks. Recombination in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was documented more than 4 decades ago, but the underlying molecular mechanism has remained elusive. Recent studies have revealed the presence of a Rad52-type recombination system of bacteriophage origin in mitochondria, which operates by a single-strand annealing mechanism independent of the canonical RecA/Rad51-type recombinases. Increasing evidence supports the notion that, like in bacteriophages, mtDNA inheritance is a coordinated interplay between recombination, repair, and replication. These findings could have profound implications for understanding the mechanism of mtDNA inheritance and the generation of mtDNA deletions in aging cells. PMID:24006472

  7. RecO protein initiates DNA recombination and strand annealing through two alternative DNA binding mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhikov, Mikhail; Gupta, Richa; Glickman, Michael; Korolev, Sergey

    2014-10-17

    Recombination mediator proteins (RMPs) are important for genome stability in all organisms. Several RMPs support two alternative reactions: initiation of homologous recombination and DNA annealing. We examined mechanisms of RMPs in both reactions with Mycobacterium smegmatis RecO (MsRecO) and demonstrated that MsRecO interacts with ssDNA by two distinct mechanisms. Zinc stimulates MsRecO binding to ssDNA during annealing, whereas the recombination function is zinc-independent and is regulated by interaction with MsRecR. Thus, different structural motifs or conformations of MsRecO are responsible for interaction with ssDNA during annealing and recombination. Neither annealing nor recombinase loading depends on MsRecO interaction with the conserved C-terminal tail of single-stranded (ss) DNA-binding protein (SSB), which is known to bind Escherichia coli RecO. However, similarly to E. coli proteins, MsRecO and MsRecOR do not dismiss SSB from ssDNA, suggesting that RMPs form a complex with SSB-ssDNA even in the absence of binding to the major protein interaction motif. We propose that alternative conformations of such complexes define the mechanism by which RMPs initiate the repair of stalled replication and support two different functions during recombinational repair of DNA breaks. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. The early UL31 gene of equine herpesvirus 1 encodes a single-stranded DNA-binding protein that has a nuclear localization signal sequence at the C-terminus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seongman; Chul Ahn, Byung; O' Callaghan, Dennis J. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA 71130-3932 (United States); Kim, Seong Kee, E-mail: skim1@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA 71130-3932 (United States)

    2012-10-25

    The amino acid sequence of the UL31 protein (UL31P) of equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) has homology to that of the ICP8 of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Here we show that the UL31 gene is synergistically trans-activated by the IEP and the UL5P (EICP27). Detection of the UL31 RNA transcript and the UL31P in EHV-1-infected cells at 6 h post-infection (hpi) as well as metabolic inhibition assays indicated that UL31 is an early gene. The UL31P preferentially bound to single-stranded DNA over double-stranded DNA in gel shift assays. Subcellular localization of the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-UL31 fusion proteins revealed that the C-terminal 32 amino acid residues of the UL31P are responsible for the nuclear localization. These findings may contribute to defining the role of the UL31P single-stranded DNA-binding protein in EHV-1 DNA replication.

  9. The early UL31 gene of equine herpesvirus 1 encodes a single-stranded DNA-binding protein that has a nuclear localization signal sequence at the C-terminus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seongman; Chul Ahn, Byung; O’Callaghan, Dennis J.; Kim, Seong Kee

    2012-01-01

    The amino acid sequence of the UL31 protein (UL31P) of equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) has homology to that of the ICP8 of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Here we show that the UL31 gene is synergistically trans-activated by the IEP and the UL5P (EICP27). Detection of the UL31 RNA transcript and the UL31P in EHV-1-infected cells at 6 h post-infection (hpi) as well as metabolic inhibition assays indicated that UL31 is an early gene. The UL31P preferentially bound to single-stranded DNA over double-stranded DNA in gel shift assays. Subcellular localization of the green fluorescent protein (GFP)–UL31 fusion proteins revealed that the C-terminal 32 amino acid residues of the UL31P are responsible for the nuclear localization. These findings may contribute to defining the role of the UL31P single-stranded DNA-binding protein in EHV-1 DNA replication.

  10. Formation of DNA single-strand breaks by near-ultraviolet and gamma-rays in normal and Bloom's syndrome skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschi, M.; Netrawali, M.S.; Remsen, J.F.; Cerutti, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    The formation of single-strand breaks by near-ultraviolet light at 313 nm and by aerobic gamma-rays was compared for skin fibroblast monolayer cultures from 4 normal donors (NF) and 8 patients with Bloom's syndrome (BS) by the alkaline elution method. In 6 of 8 BS strains, the number of breaks induced by near-ultraviolet light, 2.25 kJ/sq m, at 0 degrees was comparable to NF, while elevated breakage was observed in BS strains HG 369 and HG 916. Breakage frequencies were increased substantially in 6 of 8 BS strains relative to NF when the near-ultraviolet light exposure was at 37 degrees. BS strain GM 2520 represents an exception since normal breakage frequencies were induced both at 0 degrees and 37 degrees. Aerobic gamma-rays (75 R) induced comparable numbers of single-strand breaks in BS and NF strains at 0 degrees. The breakage frequencies were reduced an average of 17% in NF when the same dose was given at 30 degrees followed by 6 min incubation. Under the same conditions, the breakage frequencies were on the average reduced by 42% relative to 0 degrees in the BS strains, indicating that they possess normal or possibly slightly increased capacities for the rejoining of gamma-ray-induced breaks

  11. Exploring optimization parameters to increase ssDNA recombineering in Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus reuteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Pijkeren, Jan-Peter; Neoh, Kar Mun; Sirias, Denise; Findley, Anthony S; Britton, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) recombineering is a technology which is used to make subtle changes in the chromosome of several bacterial genera. Cells which express a single-stranded DNA binding protein (RecT or Bet) are transformed with an oligonucleotide which is incorporated via an annealing and replication-dependent mechanism. By in silico analysis we identified ssDNA binding protein homologs in the genus Lactobacillus and Lactococcus lactis. To assess whether we could further improve the recombineering efficiency in Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 we expressed several RecT homologs in this strain. RecT derived from Enterococcus faecalis CRMEN 19 yielded comparable efficiencies compared with a native RecT protein, but none of the other proteins further increased the recombineering efficiency. We successfully improved recombineering efficiency 10-fold in L. lactis by increasing oligonucleotide concentration combined with the use of oligonucleotides containing phosphorothioate-linkages (PTOs). Surprisingly, neither increased oligonucleotide concentration nor PTO linkages enhanced recombineering in L. reuteri 6475. To emphasize the utility of this technology in improving probiotic features we modified six bases in a transcriptional regulatory element region of the pdu-operon of L. reuteri 6475, yielding a 3-fold increase in the production of the antimicrobial compound reuterin. Directed genetic modification of lactic acid bacteria through ssDNA recombineering will simplify strain improvement in a way that, when mutating a single base, is genetically indistinguishable from strains obtained through directed evolution.

  12. Transformation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with UV-irradiated single-stranded plasmid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgaga, Z

    1991-08-01

    UV-irradiated single-stranded replicative plasmids were used to transform different yeast strains. The low doses of UV used in this study (10-75 J/m2) caused a significant decrease in the transforming efficiency of plasmid DNA in the Rad+ strain, while they had no effect on transformation with double-stranded plasmids of comparable size. Neither the rev3 mutation, nor the rad18 or rad52 mutations influenced the efficiency of transformation with irradiated single-stranded plasmid. However, it was found to be decreased in the double rev3 rad52 mutant. Extracellular irradiation of plasmid that contains both URA3 and LEU2 genes (psLU) gave rise to up to 5% Leu- transformants among selected Ura+ ones in the repair-proficient strain. Induction of Leu- transformants was dose-dependent and only partially depressed in the rev3 mutant. These results suggest that both mutagenic and recombinational repair processes operate on UV-damaged single-stranded DNA in yeast.

  13. Reparation in unicellular green algae during chronic exposure to the action of mutagenic factors. II. Restoration of single-stranded DNA breaks following exposure of Chlamydomonas reinchardii to gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergeeva, S.A.; Ptitsina, S.N.; Shevchenko, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    The restoration of single-stranded breaks in the DNA in different strains of unicellular green algae (chlamydomonads) during chronic exposure to the action of mutagenic factors following γ-irradiation was investigated. It was shown that the restoration of DNA breaks was most effective in the case of strain M γ/sup mt + /, which is resistant to radiation. Strains, that were sensitive to UV irradiation showed a similar order of DNA break restoration as the wild-type strain. Strain UVS-1 showed a higher level of restoration than the wild-type strain. The data indicated that chlamydomonads have different pathways of reparation, which lead to the restoration of breaks induced by γ-irradiation and UV-rays

  14. Functional characterization of an alkaline exonuclease and single strand annealing protein from the SXT genetic element of Vibrio cholerae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Jian-dong

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SXT is an integrating conjugative element (ICE originally isolated from Vibrio cholerae, the bacterial pathogen that causes cholera. It houses multiple antibiotic and heavy metal resistance genes on its ca. 100 kb circular double stranded DNA (dsDNA genome, and functions as an effective vehicle for the horizontal transfer of resistance genes within susceptible bacterial populations. Here, we characterize the activities of an alkaline exonuclease (S066, SXT-Exo and single strand annealing protein (S065, SXT-Bet encoded on the SXT genetic element, which share significant sequence homology with Exo and Bet from bacteriophage lambda, respectively. Results SXT-Exo has the ability to degrade both linear dsDNA and single stranded DNA (ssDNA molecules, but has no detectable endonuclease or nicking activities. Adopting a stable trimeric arrangement in solution, the exonuclease activities of SXT-Exo are optimal at pH 8.2 and essentially require Mn2+ or Mg2+ ions. Similar to lambda-Exo, SXT-Exo hydrolyzes dsDNA with 5'- to 3'-polarity in a highly processive manner, and digests DNA substrates with 5'-phosphorylated termini significantly more effectively than those lacking 5'-phosphate groups. Notably, the dsDNA exonuclease activities of both SXT-Exo and lambda-Exo are stimulated by the addition of lambda-Bet, SXT-Bet or a single strand DNA binding protein encoded on the SXT genetic element (S064, SXT-Ssb. When co-expressed in E. coli cells, SXT-Bet and SXT-Exo mediate homologous recombination between a PCR-generated dsDNA fragment and the chromosome, analogous to RecET and lambda-Bet/Exo. Conclusions The activities of the SXT-Exo protein are consistent with it having the ability to resect the ends of linearized dsDNA molecules, forming partially ssDNA substrates for the partnering SXT-Bet single strand annealing protein. As such, SXT-Exo and SXT-Bet may function together to repair or process SXT genetic elements within infected V

  15. The cell pole: the site of cross talk between the DNA uptake and genetic recombination machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidane, Dawit; Ayora, Silvia; Sweasy, Joann B; Graumann, Peter L; Alonso, Juan C

    2012-01-01

    Natural transformation is a programmed mechanism characterized by binding of free double-stranded (ds) DNA from the environment to the cell pole in rod-shaped bacteria. In Bacillus subtilis some competence proteins, which process the dsDNA and translocate single-stranded (ss) DNA into the cytosol, recruit a set of recombination proteins mainly to one of the cell poles. A subset of single-stranded binding proteins, working as "guardians", protects ssDNA from degradation and limit the RecA recombinase loading. Then, the "mediators" overcome the inhibitory role of guardians, and recruit RecA onto ssDNA. A RecA·ssDNA filament searches for homology on the chromosome and, in a process that is controlled by "modulators", catalyzes strand invasion with the generation of a displacement loop (D-loop). A D-loop resolvase or "resolver" cleaves this intermediate, limited DNA replication restores missing information and a DNA ligase seals the DNA ends. However, if any step fails, the "rescuers" will repair the broken end to rescue chromosomal transformation. If the ssDNA does not share homology with resident DNA, but it contains information for autonomous replication, guardian and mediator proteins catalyze plasmid establishment after inhibition of RecA. DNA replication and ligation reconstitute the molecule (plasmid transformation). In this review, the interacting network that leads to a cross talk between proteins of the uptake and genetic recombination machinery will be placed into prospective.

  16. Accumulation of single-strand breaks doses not result in double-strand DNA breaks: peculiarity of transcribing fragment of human ribosomal operon that allows its detection in biological fluids at the death of various cells in organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vejko, N.N.; Spitkovskij, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    The evidences of stability of the human ribosomal gene in the transcribing range (TR-rDNA) to fragmentation are presented in two groups of experiments: 1) in the case of availability of the fragments in the cells of sectional corpse material (necrosis and apoptosis) and by pathologies accompanied by the cells death through the apoptosis or necrosis mechanism; 2) in the model experiments, wherein the separated genomes DNA is subjected to the impact of nucleases initiating single-strand breaks (SB), or chemical introduction with a subsequent comparative analysis of stability to fragmentation of various DNA sequences including TR-rDNA. The DNA solutions were subjected to γ-radiation with the dose rate of 4.8 Gy/min. It is shown that in spite of the great number of the SBs the TR-rDNA is characterized by increased stability to fragmentation, which makes it possible to propose this DNA fragment for application as a cell death marker in biological fluids [ru

  17. Repair of γ-irradiation-induced DNA single-strand breaks in human bone marrow cells. Analysis of unfractionated and CD34+ cells using single-cell gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankinen, Maarit H.; Vilpo, Juhani A.

    1997-01-01

    Human bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) were separated by density gradient centrifugation, and a subpopulation of progenitor cells was further isolated using anti-CD34-coated magnetic beads. The cells were irradiated with γ-rays (0.93-5.43 Gy) from a 137 Cs source. The extent of DNA damage, i.e., single-strand breaks (SSBs) and alkali-labile lesions of individual cells, was investigated using the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis technique. The irradiation resulted in a dose-dependent increase in DNA migration, reflecting the number of detectable DNA lesions. An approximately similar extent of SSB formation was observed in BMMNCs and CD34+ cells. Damage was repaired when the cells were incubated at 37C: a fast initial repair phase was followed by a slower rejoining of SSBs in both BMMNC and CD34+ cell populations. A significantly longer time was required to repair the lesions caused by 5.43 Gy than those caused by 0.93 Gy. In the present work we report, for the first time, the induction and repair of DNA SSBs at the level of single human bone marrow cells when exposed to ionizing radiation at clinically relevant doses. These data, together with our previous results with human blood granulocytes and lymphocytes, indicate an approximately similar extent of formation and repair of γ-irradiation-induced DNA SSBs in immature and mature human hematopoietic cells

  18. Correlation between cell survival and DNA single-strand break repair proficiency in the Chinese hamster ovary cell lines AA8 and EM9 irradiated with 365-nm ultraviolet-A radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churchill, M.E.; Peak, J.G.; Peak, M.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1991-02-01

    Cell survival parameters and the induction and repair of DNA single-strand breaks were measured in two Chinese hamster ovary cell lines after irradiation with monochromatic UVA radiation of wavelength 365 nm. The radiosensitive mutant cell line EM9 is known to repair ionizing-radiation-induced single-strand breaks (SSB) more slowly than the parent line AA8. EM9 was determined to be 1.7-fold more sensitive to killing by 365-nm radiation than AA8 at the 10% survival level, and EM9 had a smaller shoulder region on the survival curve ({alpha} = 1.76) than AA8 ({alpha} = 0.62). No significant differences were found between the cell lines in the initial yields of SSB induced either by {gamma}-radiation (as determined by alkaline sucrose gradient sedimentation) or by 365-nm UVA (as determined by alkaline elution). For measurement of initial SSB, cells were irradiated at 0.5{sup o}C to minimize DNA repair processes. Rejoining of 365-nm induced SSB was measured by irradiating cells at 0.5{sup o}C, allowing them to repair at 37{sup o}C in full culture medium, and then quantitating the remaining SSB by alkaline elution. The repair of these breaks followed biphasic kinetics in both cell lines. EM9 repaired the breaks more slowly (T{sub 1/2} values of 1.3 and 61.3 min) than did AA8 (T{sub 1/2} values of 0.9 and 53.3 min), and EM9 also left more breaks unrepaired 90 min after irradiation (24% vs 8% for AA8). Thus, the sensitivity of EM9 to 365-nm radiation correlated with its deficiency in repairing DNA lesions revealed as SSB in alkaline elution. These results suggest that DNA may be a critical target in 365-nm induced cellular lethality and that the ability of AA8 and EM9 cells to repair DNA strand breaks may be related to their ability to survive 365-nm radiation. (author).

  19. The Rev1 interacting region (RIR) motif in the scaffold protein XRCC1 mediates a low-affinity interaction with polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase (PNKP) during DNA single-strand break repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Claire; Mani, Rajam S; Fanta, Mesfin; Hoch, Nicolas; Weinfeld, Michael; Caldecott, Keith W

    2017-09-29

    The scaffold protein X-ray repair cross-complementing 1 (XRCC1) interacts with multiple enzymes involved in DNA base excision repair and single-strand break repair (SSBR) and is important for genetic integrity and normal neurological function. One of the most important interactions of XRCC1 is that with polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase (PNKP), a dual-function DNA kinase/phosphatase that processes damaged DNA termini and that, if mutated, results in ataxia with oculomotor apraxia 4 (AOA4) and microcephaly with early-onset seizures and developmental delay (MCSZ). XRCC1 and PNKP interact via a high-affinity phosphorylation-dependent interaction site in XRCC1 and a forkhead-associated domain in PNKP. Here, we identified using biochemical and biophysical approaches a second PNKP interaction site in XRCC1 that binds PNKP with lower affinity and independently of XRCC1 phosphorylation. However, this interaction nevertheless stimulated PNKP activity and promoted SSBR and cell survival. The low-affinity interaction site required the highly conserved Rev1-interacting region (RIR) motif in XRCC1 and included three critical and evolutionarily invariant phenylalanine residues. We propose a bipartite interaction model in which the previously identified high-affinity interaction acts as a molecular tether, holding XRCC1 and PNKP together and thereby promoting the low-affinity interaction identified here, which then stimulates PNKP directly. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Correlation of MFOLD-predicted DNA secondary structures with separation patterns obtained by capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism (CE-SSCP) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavac, Damjan; Potocnik, Uros; Podpecnik, Darja; Zizek, Teofil; Smerkolj, Sava; Ravnik-Glavac, Metka

    2002-04-01

    We have studied 57 different mutations within three beta-globin gene promoter fragments with sizes 52 bp, 77 bp, and 193 bp by fluorescent capillary electrophoresis CE-SSCP analysis. For each mutation and wild type, energetically most-favorable predicted secondary structures were calculated for sense and antisense strands using the MFOLD DNA-folding algorithm in order to investigate if any correlation exists between predicted DNA structures and actual CE migration time shifts. The overall CE-SSCP detection rate was 100% for all mutations in three studied DNA fragments. For shorter 52 bp and 77 bp DNA fragments we obtained a positive correlation between the migration time shifts and difference in free energy values of predicted secondary structures at all temperatures. For longer 193 bp beta-globin gene fragments with 46 mutations MFOLD predicted different secondary structures for 89% of mutated strands at 25 degrees C and 40 degrees C. However, the magnitude of the mobility shifts did not necessarily correlate with their secondary structures and free energy values except for the sense strand at 40 degrees C where this correlation was statistically significant (r = 0.312, p = 0.033). Results of this study provided more direct insight into the mechanism of CE-SSCP and showed that MFOLD prediction could be helpful in making decisions about the running temperatures and in prediction of CE-SSCP data patterns, especially for shorter (50-100 bp) DNA fragments. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Conformationally locked aryl C-nucleosides: synthesis of phosphoramidite monomers and incorporation into single-stranded DNA and LNA (locked nucleic acid)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babu, B. Ravindra; Prasad, Ashok K.; Trikha, Smriti

    2002-01-01

    . The phosphoramidite approach was used for automated incorporation of the LNA-type beta-configured C-aryl monomers 17a-17e into short DNA and 2'-OMe-RNA/LNA strands. It is shown that universal hybridization can be obtained with a conformationally restricted monomer as demonstrated most convincingly for the pyrene LNA...... monomer 17d, both in a DNA context and in an RNA-like context. Increased binding affinity of oligonucleotide probes for universal hybridization can be induced by combining the pyrene LNA monomer 17d with affinity-enhancing 2'-OMe-RNA/LNA monomers....

  2. Random, double- and single-strand DNA breaks can be differentiated in the method of Comet assay by the shape of the comet image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, Milena; Zagorchev, Plamen; Miloshev, George

    2015-10-01

    Comet assay is an invaluable tool in DNA research. It is widely used to detect DNA damage as an indicator of exposure to genotoxic stress. A canonical set of parameters and specialized software programs exist for Comet assay data quantification and analysis. None of them so far has proven its potential to employ a computer-based algorithm for assessment of the shape of the comet as an indicator of the exact mechanism by which the studied genotoxins cut in the molecule of DNA. Here, we present 14 unique measurements of the comet image based on the comet morphology. Their mathematical derivation and statistical analysis allowed precise description of the shape of the comet image which in turn discriminated the cause of genotoxic stress. This algorithm led to the development of the "CometShape" software which allowed easy discrimination among different genotoxins depending on the type of DNA damage they induce. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Interaction of Ddc1 and RPA with single-stranded/double-stranded DNA junctions in yeast whole cell extracts: Proteolytic degradation of the large subunit of replication protein A in ddc1Δ strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanova, Maria V; D'Herin, Claudine; Boiteux, Serge; Lavrik, Olga I

    2014-10-01

    To characterize proteins that interact with single-stranded/double-stranded (ss/ds) DNA junctions in whole cell free extracts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we used [(32)P]-labeled photoreactive partial DNA duplexes containing a 3'-ss/ds-junction (3'-junction) or a 5'-ss/ds-junction (5'-junction). Identification of labeled proteins was achieved by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry peptide mass fingerprinting and genetic analysis. In wild-type extract, one of the components of the Ddc1-Rad17-Mec3 complex, Ddc1, was found to be preferentially photocrosslinked at a 3'-junction. On the other hand, RPAp70, the large subunit of the replication protein A (RPA), was the predominant crosslinking product at a 5'-junction. Interestingly, ddc1Δ extracts did not display photocrosslinking of RPAp70 at a 5'-junction. The results show that RPAp70 crosslinked to DNA with a 5'-junction is subject to limited proteolysis in ddc1Δ extracts, whereas it is stable in WT, rad17Δ, mec3Δ and mec1Δ extracts. The degradation of the RPAp70-DNA adduct in ddc1Δ extract is strongly reduced in the presence of the proteasome inhibitor MG 132. We also addressed the question of the stability of free RPA, using anti-RPA antibodies. The results show that RPAp70 is also subject to proteolysis without photocrosslinking to DNA upon incubation in ddc1Δ extract. The data point to a novel property of Ddc1, modulating the turnover of DNA binding proteins such as RPAp70 by the proteasome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A Eu(III) doped metal-organic framework conjugated with fluorescein-labeled single-stranded DNA for detection of Cu(II) and sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Han; Yan, Bing

    2017-10-02

    In this paper, Bio-MOF-1 is prepared as reported and then Eu 3+ is introduced into it via cation exchange method. A FAM-labeled ssDNA is chosen to fabricate with the obtained Eu 3+ @Bio-MOF-1. A luminescent hybrid material is assembled, which can exhibit the fluorescence of Eu 3+ and FAM simultaneously by adjusting the ratio of FAM-ssDNA and Eu 3+ @Bio-MOF-1. The sample is then used for the detecting of metal ions, results shows which has good selectively for Cu 2+ (LOD = 0.14 μM, 0-250 μM). The introduction of Cu 2+ can quench the fluorescence of FAM while the luminescent intensity of Eu 3+ enhancing. After the detection of Cu 2+ , the Cu 2+ involved hybrid system can then be further employed for the detection of S 2- (LOD = 1.3 μM, 0-50 μM). Low concentration of S 2- can make the luminescent intensity of Eu 3+ decrease gradually while high concentration of S 2- can further recover the luminescent of FAM, which is quenched by Cu 2+ . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Repair of X-ray-induced single-strand breaks by a cell-free system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Shuji; Ikeda, Shogo; Tsutui, Ken; Teraoka, Hirobumi

    1990-01-01

    Repair of X-ray-induced single-strand breaks of DNA was studied in vitro using an exonuclease purified from mouse ascites sarcoma (SR-C3H/He) cells. X-ray-dose-dependent unscheduled DNA synthesis was primed by the exonuclease. Repair of X-ray-induced single-strand breaks in pUC19 plasmid DNA was demonstrated by agarose gel electrophoresis after incubating the damaged DNA with the exonuclease, DNA polymerase (Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I or DNA polymerase β purified from SR-C3H/He cells), four deoxynucleoside triphosphates, ATP and DNA ligase (T4 DNA ligase or DNA ligase I purified from calf thymus). The present results suggested that the exonuclease is involved in the initiation of repair of X-ray-induced single-strand breaks in removing 3' ends of X-ray-damaged DNA. (author)

  6. STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL-ANALYSIS OF THE SINGLE-STRAND ORIGIN OF REPLICATION FROM THE LACTOCOCCAL PLASMID PWVO1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SEEGERS, JFML; ZHAO, AC; MEIJER, WJJ; KHAN, SA; VENEMA, G; BRON, S

    1995-01-01

    The single-strand origin (SSO) of the rolling-circle (RC), broad-host-range lactococcal plasmid pWVO1 was functionally characterized. The activity of this SSO in the conversion of single-stranded DNA to double-stranded DNA was tested both in vivo and in vitro. In addition, the effect of this SSO on

  7. One-dimensional TRFLP-SSCP is an effective DNA fingerprinting strategy for soil Archaea that is able to simultaneously differentiate broad taxonomic clades based on terminal fragment length polymorphisms and closely related sequences based on single stranded conformation polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Colby A; Sliwinski, Marek K

    2013-09-01

    DNA fingerprinting methods provide a means to rapidly compare microbial assemblages from environmental samples without the need to first cultivate species in the laboratory. The profiles generated by these techniques are able to identify statistically significant temporal and spatial patterns, correlations to environmental gradients, and biological variability to estimate the number of replicates for clone libraries or next generation sequencing (NGS) surveys. Here we describe an improved DNA fingerprinting technique that combines terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (TRFLP) and single stranded conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) so that both can be used to profile a sample simultaneously rather than requiring two sequential steps as in traditional two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis. For the purpose of profiling Archaeal 16S rRNA genes from soil, the dynamic range of this combined 1-D TRFLP-SSCP approach was superior to TRFLP and SSCP. 1-D TRFLP-SSCP was able to distinguish broad taxonomic clades with genetic distances greater than 10%, such as Euryarchaeota and the Thaumarchaeal clades g_Ca. Nitrososphaera (formerly 1.1b) and o_NRP-J (formerly 1.1c) better than SSCP. In addition, 1-D TRFLP-SSCP was able to simultaneously distinguish closely related clades within a genus such as s_SCA1145 and s_SCA1170 better than TRFLP. We also tested the utility of 1-D TRFLP-SSCP fingerprinting of environmental assemblages by comparing this method to the generation of a 16S rRNA clone library of soil Archaea from a restored Tallgrass prairie. This study shows 1-D TRFLP-SSCP fingerprinting provides a rapid and phylogenetically informative screen of Archaeal 16S rRNA genes in soil samples. © 2013.

  8. DNA degradation, UV sensitivity and SOS-mediated mutagenesis in strains of Escherichia coli deficient in single-strand DNA binding protein: Effects of mutations and treatments that alter levels of exonuclease V or RecA protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieberman, H.B.; Witkin, E.M.

    1983-01-01

    Certain strains suppress the temperature-sensitivity caused by ssb-1, which encodes a mutant ssDNA binding protein (SSB). At 42 0 C, such strains are extremely UV-sensitive, degrade their DNA extensively after UV irradiation, and are defficient in UV mutability and UV induction of recA protein synthesis. We transduced recC22, which eliminates Exonuclease V activity, and recAo281, which causes operator-constitutive synthesis of recA protein, into such an ssb-1 strain. Both double mutants degraded their DNA extensively at 42 0 C after UV irradiation, and both were even more UV-sensitive than the ssb-1 single mutant. We conclude that one or more nucleases other than Exonuclease V degrades DNA in the ssb recC strain, and that recA protein, even if synthesized copiously, can function efficiently in recombinational DNA repair and in control of post-UV DNA degradation only if normal SSB is also present. Pretreatment with nalidixic acid at 30 0 C restored normal UV mutability at 42 0 C, but did not increase UV resistance, in an ssb-1 strain. Another ssb allele, ssb-113, which blocks SOS induction at 30 0 C, increases spontaneous mutability more than tenfold. The ssb-113 allele was transduced into the SOS-constitutive recA730 strain SC30. This double mutant expressed the same elevated spontaneous and UV-induced mutability at 30 0 C as the ssb + recA730 strain, and was three times more UV-resistant than its ssb-113 recA + parent. We conclude that ssb-1 at 42 0 C and ssb-113 at 30 0 C block UV-induced activation of recA protease, but that neither allele interferes with subsequent steps in SOS-mediated mutagenesis. (orig.)

  9. RPA mediates recombination repair during replication stress and is displaced from DNA by checkpoint signalling in human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sleeth, Kate M; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard; Issaeva, Natalia

    2007-01-01

    The replication protein A (RPA) is involved in most, if not all, nuclear metabolism involving single-stranded DNA. Here, we show that RPA is involved in genome maintenance at stalled replication forks by the homologous recombination repair system in humans. Depletion of the RPA protein inhibited...... the formation of RAD51 nuclear foci after hydroxyurea-induced replication stalling leading to persistent unrepaired DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). We demonstrate a direct role of RPA in homology directed recombination repair. We find that RPA is dispensable for checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) activation...... and that RPA directly binds RAD52 upon replication stress, suggesting a direct role in recombination repair. In addition we show that inhibition of Chk1 with UCN-01 decreases dissociation of RPA from the chromatin and inhibits association of RAD51 and RAD52 with DNA. Altogether, our data suggest a direct role...

  10. Single-stranded γPNAs for in vivo site-specific genome editing via Watson-Crick recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahal, Raman; Quijano, Elias; McNeer, Nicole A; Liu, Yanfeng; Bhunia, Dinesh C; Lopez-Giraldez, Francesco; Fields, Rachel J; Saltzman, William M; Ly, Danith H; Glazer, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    Triplex-forming peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) facilitate gene editing by stimulating recombination of donor DNAs within genomic DNA via site-specific formation of altered helical structures that further stimulate DNA repair. However, PNAs designed for triplex formation are sequence restricted to homopurine sites. Herein we describe a novel strategy where next generation single-stranded gamma PNAs (γPNAs) containing miniPEG substitutions at the gamma position can target genomic DNA in mouse bone marrow at mixed-sequence sites to induce targeted gene editing. In addition to enhanced binding, γPNAs confer increased solubility and improved formulation into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles for efficient intracellular delivery. Single-stranded γPNAs induce targeted gene editing at frequencies of 0.8% in mouse bone marrow cells treated ex vivo and 0.1% in vivo via IV injection, without detectable toxicity. These results suggest that γPNAs may provide a new tool for induced gene editing based on Watson-Crick recognition without sequence restriction.

  11. Expression of human DNA polymerase β in Escherichia coli and characterization of the recombinant enzyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbotts, J.; SenGupta, D.N.; Zmudzka, B.; Widen, S.G.; Notario, V.; Wilson, S.H.

    1988-01-01

    The coding region of a human β-polymerase cDNA, predicting a 335 amino acid protein, was subcloned in the Escherichia coli expression plasmid pRC23. After induction of transformed cells, the crude soluble extract was found to contain a new protein immunoreactive with β-polymerase antibody and corresponding in size to the protein deduced from the cDNA. This protein was purified in a yield of 1-2 mg/50 g of cells. The recombinant protein had about the same DNA polymerase specific activity as β-polymerase purified from mammalian tissues, and template-primer specificity and immunological properties of the recombinant polymerase were similar to those of natural β-polymerases. The purified enzyme was free of nuclease activity. The authors studied detailed catalytic properties of the recombinant β-polymerase using defined template-primer systems. The results indicate that this β-polymerase is essentially identical with natural β-polymerases. The recombinant enzyme is distributive in mode of synthesis and is capable of detecting changes in the integrity of the single-stranded template, such as methylated bases and a double-stranded region. The enzyme recognizes a template region four to seven bases downstream of the primer 3' end and utilizes alternative primers if this downstream template region is double stranded. The enzyme is unable to synthesize past methylated bases N 3 -methyl-dT or O 6 -methyl-dG

  12. Systematic Identification of Determinants for Single-Strand Annealing-Mediated Deletion Formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Segura-Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available To ensure genomic integrity, living organisms have evolved diverse molecular processes for sensing and repairing damaged DNA. If improperly repaired, DNA damage can give rise to different types of mutations, an important class of which are genomic structural variants (SVs. In spite of their importance for phenotypic variation and genome evolution, potential contributors to SV formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast, a highly tractable model organism, are not fully recognized. Here, we developed and applied a genome-wide assay to identify yeast gene knockout mutants associated with de novo deletion formation, in particular single-strand annealing (SSA-mediated deletion formation, in a systematic manner. In addition to genes previously linked to genome instability, our approach implicates novel genes involved in chromatin remodeling and meiosis in affecting the rate of SSA-mediated deletion formation in the presence or absence of stress conditions induced by DNA-damaging agents. We closely examined two candidate genes, the chromatin remodeling gene IOC4 and the meiosis-related gene MSH4, which when knocked-out resulted in gene expression alterations affecting genes involved in cell division and chromosome organization, as well as DNA repair and recombination, respectively. Our high-throughput approach facilitates the systematic identification of processes linked to the formation of a major class of genetic variation.

  13. IDN2 Interacts with RPA and Facilitates DNA Double-Strand Break Repair by Homologous Recombination in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingming; Ba, Zhaoqing; Costa-Nunes, Pedro; Wei, Wei; Li, Lanxia; Kong, Fansi; Li, Yan; Chai, Jijie; Pontes, Olga; Qi, Yijun

    2017-03-01

    Repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is critical for the maintenance of genome integrity. We previously showed that DSB-induced small RNAs (diRNAs) facilitate homologous recombination-mediated DSB repair in Arabidopsis thaliana Here, we show that INVOLVED IN DE NOVO2 (IDN2), a double-stranded RNA binding protein involved in small RNA-directed DNA methylation, is required for DSB repair in Arabidopsis. We find that IDN2 interacts with the heterotrimeric replication protein A (RPA) complex. Depletion of IDN2 or the diRNA binding ARGONAUTE2 leads to increased accumulation of RPA at DSB sites and mislocalization of the recombination factor RAD51. These findings support a model in which IDN2 interacts with RPA and facilitates the release of RPA from single-stranded DNA tails and subsequent recruitment of RAD51 at DSB sites to promote DSB repair. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  14. Recent advances in DNA repair and recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanejko, L A; Jones, N J

    1998-09-11

    The subjects of the talks at this 1-day DNA Repair Network meeting, held at City University, London on December 15, 1997, encompassed a range of topics and reflected some of the current areas of research in the United Kingdom. Topics included DNA double-strand break repair, V(D)J recombination, DNA ligases, the RecQ family of helicases and Bloom's syndrome, UVB and immunosuppression, the repair of oxidative damage and mismatch repair mechanisms.

  15. Intracellular generation of single-strand template increases the knock-in efficiency by combining CRISPR/Cas9 with AAV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qing; Min, Taishan; Ma, Shuangping; Hu, Lingna; Chen, Hongyan; Lu, Daru

    2018-04-18

    Targeted integration of transgenes facilitates functional genomic research and holds prospect for gene therapy. The established microhomology-mediated end-joining (MMEJ)-based strategy leads to the precise gene knock-in with easily constructed donor, yet the limited efficiency remains to be further improved. Here, we show that single-strand DNA (ssDNA) donor contributes to efficient increase of knock-in efficiency and establishes a method to achieve the intracellular linearization of long ssDNA donor. We identified that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is responsible for breaking double-strand DNA (dsDNA) of palindromic structure in inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) region of recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV), leading to the inhibition of viral second-strand DNA synthesis. Combing Cas9 plasmids targeting genome and ITR with AAV donor delivery, the precise knock-in of gene cassette was achieved, with 13-14% of the donor insertion events being mediated by MMEJ in HEK 293T cells. This study describes a novel method to integrate large single-strand transgene cassettes into the genomes, increasing knock-in efficiency by 13.6-19.5-fold relative to conventional AAV-mediated method. It also provides a comprehensive solution to the challenges of complicated production and difficult delivery with large exogenous fragments.

  16. Repair of single-strand breaks in normal and trisomic lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, J.C.; Merz, T.

    1982-01-01

    Recently, Athanasiou and colleagues (1981) reported a deficiency in the capacity of lymphocytes from persons with Down's syndrome to repair single-strand DNA breaks. They found that 1 h after exposure to 160 Gray, repair processes had restored the sedimentation profile of DNA from normal lymphocytes to control values, whereas the relative average molecular weight of DNA from irradiated lymphocytes from persons with Down's syndrome showed no increase during the repair interval. They have suggested that their data, in conjunction with the earlier data concerning the frequencies of induced chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes from persons with Down's syndrome, reflect a decreased efficiency in some aspect of DNA repair in trisomic cells. However, for further studies of this hypothesis, it is more appropriate to study the rejoining of DNA single-strand breaks after doses comparable to those used in tests for chromosomal aberrations. (orig.)

  17. Recombinant DNA. Rifkin's regulatory revivalism runs riot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, P

    Jeremy Rifkin, activist opponent of genetic engineering, has adopted tactics of litigation, persuasion, and confrontation in his campaign to halt genetic experimentation. The Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee of the National Institutes of Health has often been the target of his criticism, most recently for its failure to prepare an environmental risk assessment for some DNA tests it approved. Rifkin has won support for his position from religious organizations in the United States, and in June 1983 persuaded an ecumenical group of religious leaders to ask Congress to ban genetic experiments that would affect the human germ line.

  18. Bacteriophage T5 encodes a homolog of the eukaryotic transcription coactivator PC4 implicated in recombination-dependent DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigemann, Birthe; Schulz, Annina; Werten, Sebastiaan

    2013-11-15

    The RNA polymerase II cofactor PC4 globally regulates transcription of protein-encoding genes through interactions with unwinding DNA, the basal transcription machinery and transcription activators. Here, we report the surprising identification of PC4 homologs in all sequenced representatives of the T5 family of bacteriophages, as well as in an archaeon and seven phyla of eubacteria. We have solved the crystal structure of the full-length T5 protein at 1.9Å, revealing a striking resemblance to the characteristic single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding core domain of PC4. Intriguing novel structural features include a potential regulatory region at the N-terminus and a C-terminal extension of the homodimerisation interface. The genome organisation of T5-related bacteriophages points at involvement of the PC4 homolog in recombination-dependent DNA replication, strongly suggesting that the protein corresponds to the hitherto elusive replicative ssDNA-binding protein of the T5 family. Our findings imply that PC4-like factors intervene in multiple unwinding-related processes by acting as versatile modifiers of nucleic acid conformation and raise the possibility that the eukaryotic transcription coactivator derives from ancestral DNA replication, recombination and repair factors. © 2013.

  19. Recombinational DNA repair and human disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Larry H.; Schild, David

    2002-11-30

    We review the genes and proteins related to the homologous recombinational repair (HRR) pathway that are implicated in cancer through either genetic disorders that predispose to cancer through chromosome instability or the occurrence of somatic mutations that contribute to carcinogenesis. Ataxia telangiectasia (AT), Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS), and an ataxia-like disorder (ATLD), are chromosome instability disorders that are defective in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), NBS, and Mre11 genes, respectively. These genes are critical in maintaining cellular resistance to ionizing radiation (IR), which kills largely by the production of double-strand breaks (DSBs). Bloom syndrome involves a defect in the BLM helicase, which seems to play a role in restarting DNA replication forks that are blocked at lesions, thereby promoting chromosome stability. The Werner syndrome gene (WRN) helicase, another member of the RecQ family like BLM, has very recently been found to help mediate homologous recombination. Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically complex chromosomal instability disorder involving seven or more genes, one of which is BRCA2. FA may be at least partially caused by the aberrant production of reactive oxidative species. The breast cancer-associated BRCA1 and BRCA2 proteins are strongly implicated in HRR; BRCA2 associates with Rad51 and appears to regulate its activity. We discuss in detail the phenotypes of the various mutant cell lines and the signaling pathways mediated by the ATM kinase. ATM's phosphorylation targets can be grouped into oxidative stress-mediated transcriptional changes, cell cycle checkpoints, and recombinational repair. We present the DNA damage response pathways by using the DSB as the prototype lesion, whose incorrect repair can initiate and augment karyotypic abnormalities.

  20. Recombinational DNA repair and human disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Larry H.; Schild, David

    2002-01-01

    We review the genes and proteins related to the homologous recombinational repair (HRR) pathway that are implicated in cancer through either genetic disorders that predispose to cancer through chromosome instability or the occurrence of somatic mutations that contribute to carcinogenesis. Ataxia telangiectasia (AT), Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS), and an ataxia-like disorder (ATLD), are chromosome instability disorders that are defective in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), NBS, and Mre11 genes, respectively. These genes are critical in maintaining cellular resistance to ionizing radiation (IR), which kills largely by the production of double-strand breaks (DSBs). Bloom syndrome involves a defect in the BLM helicase, which seems to play a role in restarting DNA replication forks that are blocked at lesions, thereby promoting chromosome stability. The Werner syndrome gene (WRN) helicase, another member of the RecQ family like BLM, has very recently been found to help mediate homologous recombination. Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically complex chromosomal instability disorder involving seven or more genes, one of which is BRCA2. FA may be at least partially caused by the aberrant production of reactive oxidative species. The breast cancer-associated BRCA1 and BRCA2 proteins are strongly implicated in HRR; BRCA2 associates with Rad51 and appears to regulate its activity. We discuss in detail the phenotypes of the various mutant cell lines and the signaling pathways mediated by the ATM kinase. ATM's phosphorylation targets can be grouped into oxidative stress-mediated transcriptional changes, cell cycle checkpoints, and recombinational repair. We present the DNA damage response pathways by using the DSB as the prototype lesion, whose incorrect repair can initiate and augment karyotypic abnormalities

  1. A Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein A/B-Related Protein Binds to Single-Stranded DNA near the 5′ End or within the Genome of Feline Parvovirus and Can Modify Virus Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dai; Parrish, Colin R.

    1999-01-01

    Phage display of cDNA clones prepared from feline cells was used to identify host cell proteins that bound to DNA-containing feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) capsids but not to empty capsids. One gene found in several clones encoded a heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP)-related protein (DBP40) that was very similar in sequence to the A/B-type hnRNP proteins. DBP40 bound specifically to oligonucleotides representing a sequence near the 5′ end of the genome which is exposed on the outside of the full capsid but did not bind most other terminal sequences. Adding purified DBP40 to an in vitro fill-in reaction using viral DNA as a template inhibited the production of the second strand after nucleotide (nt) 289 but prior to nt 469. DBP40 bound to various regions of the viral genome, including a region between nt 295 and 330 of the viral genome which has been associated with transcriptional attenuation of the parvovirus minute virus of mice, which is mediated by a stem-loop structure of the DNA and cellular proteins. Overexpression of the protein in feline cells from a plasmid vector made them largely resistant to FPV infection. Mutagenesis of the protein binding site within the 5′ end viral genome did not affect replication of the virus. PMID:10438866

  2. A single-stranded architecture for cotranscriptional folding of RNA nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geary, Cody; Rothemund, Paul; Andersen, Ebbe Sloth

    2014-01-01

    Artificial DNA and RNA structures have been used as scaffolds for a variety of nanoscale devices. In comparison to DNA structures, RNA structures have been limited in size, but they also have advantages: RNA can fold during transcription and thus can be genetically encoded and expressed in cells....... We introduce an architecture for designing artificial RNA structures that fold from a single strand, in which arrays of antiparallel RNA helices are precisely organized by RNA tertiary motifs and a new type of crossover pattern. We constructed RNA tiles that assemble into hexagonal lattices...

  3. Genetic recombination induced by DNA double-strand break in bacteriophage T4: nature of the left/right bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, Victor P; Shcherbakova, Tamara; Plugina, Lidiya; Sizova, Svetlana; Kudryashova, Elena; Granovsky, Igor

    2008-06-01

    The experimental system combining double-strand breaks (DSBs), produced site-specifically by SegC endonuclease, with the famous advantages of the bacteriophage T4 rII mutant recombination analysis was used here to elucidate the origin of the recombination bias on two sides of the DSB, especially pronounced in gene 39 (topoisomerase II) and gene 59 (41-helicase loader) mutants. Three sources were found to contribute to the bias: (1) the SegC endonuclease may remain bound to the end of the broken DNA and thus protect it from exonuclease degradation; (2) in heteroduplex heterozygotes (HHs), arising as the recombinant products in the left-hand crosses, the transcribed strands are of rII mutant phenotype, so they, in contrast to the right-hand HHs, do not produce plaques on the lawn of the lambda-lysogenic host; and (3) the intrinsic polarity of T4 chromosome, reflected in transcription, may be a cause for discrimination of promoter-proximal and promoter-distal DNA sequences. It is shown that the apparent recombination bias does not imply one-sidedness of the DSB repair but just reflects a different depth of the end processing. It is inferred that the cause, underlying the "intrinsic" bias, might be interference between strand exchange and transcription. Topoisomerase and helicase functions are necessary to turn the process in favor of strand exchange. The idea is substantiated that the double-stranded to single-stranded DNA transition edge (not ss-DNA tip) serves as an actual recombinogenic element.

  4. Methods for the preparation of large quantities of complex single-stranded oligonucleotide libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgha, Yusuf E; Rouillard, Jean-Marie; Gulari, Erdogan

    2014-01-01

    Custom-defined oligonucleotide collections have a broad range of applications in fields of synthetic biology, targeted sequencing, and cytogenetics. Also, they are used to encode information for technologies like RNA interference, protein engineering and DNA-encoded libraries. High-throughput parallel DNA synthesis technologies developed for the manufacture of DNA microarrays can produce libraries of large numbers of different oligonucleotides, but in very limited amounts. Here, we compare three approaches to prepare large quantities of single-stranded oligonucleotide libraries derived from microarray synthesized collections. The first approach, alkaline melting of double-stranded PCR amplified libraries with a biotinylated strand captured on streptavidin coated magnetic beads results in little or no non-biotinylated ssDNA. The second method wherein the phosphorylated strand of PCR amplified libraries is nucleolyticaly hydrolyzed is recommended when small amounts of libraries are needed. The third method combining in vitro transcription of PCR amplified libraries to reverse transcription of the RNA product into single-stranded cDNA is our recommended method to produce large amounts of oligonucleotide libraries. Finally, we propose a method to remove any primer binding sequences introduced during library amplification.

  5. Recent advances in yeast molecular biology: recombinant DNA. [Lead abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-09-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 25 papers presented at a workshop focusing on chromosomal structure, gene regulation, recombination, DNA repair, and cell type control, that have been obtained by experimental approaches incorporating the new technologies of yeast DNA transformation, molecular cloning, and DNA sequence analysis. (KRM)

  6. Recent advances in yeast molecular biology: recombinant DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 25 papers presented at a workshop focusing on chromosomal structure, gene regulation, recombination, DNA repair, and cell type control, that have been obtained by experimental approaches incorporating the new technologies of yeast DNA transformation, molecular cloning, and DNA sequence analysis

  7. RPA accumulation during class switch recombination represents 5'-3' DNA-end resection during the S-G2/M phase of the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Arito; Robbiani, Davide F; Resch, Wolfgang; Bothmer, Anne; Nakahashi, Hirotaka; Oliveira, Thiago; Rommel, Philipp C; Brown, Eric J; Nussenzweig, Andre; Nussenzweig, Michel C; Casellas, Rafael

    2013-01-31

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) promotes chromosomal translocations by inducing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at immunoglobulin (Ig) genes and oncogenes in the G1 phase. RPA is a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding protein that associates with resected DSBs in the S phase and facilitates the assembly of factors involved in homologous repair (HR), such as Rad51. Notably, RPA deposition also marks sites of AID-mediated damage, but its role in Ig gene recombination remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that RPA associates asymmetrically with resected ssDNA in response to lesions created by AID, recombination-activating genes (RAG), or other nucleases. Small amounts of RPA are deposited at AID targets in G1 in an ATM-dependent manner. In contrast, recruitment in the S-G2/M phase is extensive, ATM independent, and associated with Rad51 accumulation. In the S-G2/M phase, RPA increases in nonhomologous-end-joining-deficient lymphocytes, where there is more extensive DNA-end resection. Thus, most RPA recruitment during class switch recombination represents salvage of unrepaired breaks by homology-based pathways during the S-G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Rogue athletes and recombinant DNA technology: challenges for doping control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzazy, Hassan M E; Mansour, Mai M H

    2007-10-01

    The quest for athletic excellence holds no limit for some athletes, and the advances in recombinant DNA technology have handed these athletes the ultimate doping weapons: recombinant proteins and gene doping. Some detection methods are now available for several recombinant proteins that are commercially available as pharmaceuticals and being abused by dopers. However, researchers are struggling to come up with efficient detection methods in preparation for the imminent threat of gene doping, expected in the 2008 Olympics. This Forum article presents the main detection strategies for recombinant proteins and the forthcoming detection strategies for gene doping as well as the prime analytical challenges facing them.

  9. Recombinant DNA production of spider silk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokareva, Olena; Michalczechen-Lacerda, Valquíria A; Rech, Elíbio L; Kaplan, David L

    2013-11-01

    Spider dragline silk is considered to be the toughest biopolymer on Earth due to an extraordinary combination of strength and elasticity. Moreover, silks are biocompatible and biodegradable protein-based materials. Recent advances in genetic engineering make it possible to produce recombinant silks in heterologous hosts, opening up opportunities for large-scale production of recombinant silks for various biomedical and material science applications. We review the current strategies to produce recombinant spider silks. © 2013 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. The Bipolar Filaments Formed by Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 SSB/Recombination Protein (ICP8) Suggest a Mechanism for DNA Annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhov, A.M.; Simon, M.; Sen, A.; Yu, X.; Griffith, J. D.; Egelman, E. H.

    2009-02-20

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 encodes a multifunctional protein, ICP8, which serves both as a single-strand binding protein and as a recombinase, catalyzing reactions involved in replication and recombination of the viral genome. In the presence of divalent ions and at low temperature, previous electron microscopic studies showed that ICP8 will form long left-handed helical filaments. Here, electron microscopic image reconstruction reveals that the filaments are bipolar, with an asymmetric unit containing two subunits of ICP8 that constitute a symmetrical dimer. This organization of the filament has been confirmed using scanning transmission electron microscopy. The pitch of the filaments is {approx} 250 {angstrom}, with {approx} 6.2 dimers per turn. Docking of a crystal structure of ICP8 into the reconstructed filament shows that the C-terminal domain of ICP8, attached to the body of the subunit by a flexible linker containing {approx} 10 residues, is packed into a pocket in the body of a neighboring subunit in the crystal in a similar manner as in the filament. However, the interactions between the large N-terminal domains are quite different in the filament from that observed in the crystal. A previously proposed model for ICP8 binding single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), based upon the crystal structure, leads to a model for a continuous strand of ssDNA near the filament axis. The bipolar nature of the ICP8 filaments means that a second strand of ssDNA would be running through this filament in the opposite orientation, and this provides a potential mechanism for how ICP8 anneals complementary ssDNA into double-stranded DNA, where each strand runs in opposite directions.

  11. Distinct genetic control of homologous recombination repair of Cas9-induced double-strand breaks, nicks and paired nicks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriend, Lianne E. M.; Prakash, Rohit; Chen, Chun-Chin; Vanoli, Fabio; Cavallo, Francesca; Zhang, Yu; Jasin, Maria; Krawczyk, Przemek M.

    2016-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are known to be powerful inducers of homologous recombination (HR), but single-strand breaks (nicks) have also been shown to trigger HR. Both DSB- and nick-induced HR ((nick)HR) are exploited in advanced genome-engineering approaches based on the bacterial RNA-guided

  12. Construction of recombinant DNA clone for bovine viral diarrhea virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, S.G.; Cho, H.J.; Masri, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    Molecular cloning was carried out on the Danish strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) to construct strategy for the diagnostic tools and effective vaccine of BVD afterwards. A recombinant DNA clone (No. 29) was established successfully from cDNA for viral RNA tailed with adenine homopolymer at 3 -end. 32 P-labeled DNA probes of 300~1, 800bp fragments, originating from the clone 29, directed specific DNA-RNA hybridization results with BVDV RNA. Recombinant DNA of the clone 29 was about 5,200bp representing 41.6% of the full length of Danish strain's RNA, and restriction sites were recognized for EooR I, Sst I, Hind III and Pst I restriction enzymes in the DNA fragment

  13. Single Molecule Study of DNA Organization and Recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Botao

    We have studied five projects related to DNA organization and recombination using mainly single molecule force-spectroscopy and statistical tools. First, HU is one of the most abundant DNA-organizing proteins in bacterial chromosomes and participates in gene regulation. We report experiments that study the dependence of DNA condensation by HU on force, salt and HU concentration. A first important result is that at physiological salt levels, HU only bends DNA, resolving a previous paradox of why a chromosome-compacting protein should have a DNA-stiffening function. A second major result is quantitative demonstration of strong dependencies of HU-DNA dissociation on both salt concentration and force. Second, we have used a thermodynamic Maxwell relation to count proteins driven off large DNAs by tension, an effect important to understanding DNA organization. Our results compare well with estimates of numbers of proteins HU and Fis in previous studies. We have also shown that a semi-flexible polymer model describes our HU experimental data well. The force-dependent binding suggests mechano-chemical mechanisms for gene regulation. Third, the elusive role of protein H1 in chromatin has been clarified with purified H1 and Xenopus extracts. We find that H1 compacts DNA by both bending and looping. Addition of H1 enhances chromatin formation and maintains the plasticity of the chromatin. Fourth, the topology and mechanics of DNA twisting are critical to DNA organization and recombination. We have systematically measured DNA extension as a function of linking number density from 0.08 to -2 with holding forces from 0.2 to 2.4 pN. Unlike previous proposals, the DNA extension decreases with negative linking number. Finally, DNA recombination is a dynamic process starting from enzyme-DNA binding. We report that the Int-DBD domain of lambda integrase binds to DNA without compaction at low Int-DBD concentration. High concentration of Int-DBD loops DNA below a threshold force

  14. Lingering single-strand breaks trigger Rad51-independent homology-directed repair of collapsed replication forks in the polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase mutant of fission yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arancha Sanchez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The DNA repair enzyme polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase (PNKP protects genome integrity by restoring ligatable 5'-phosphate and 3'-hydroxyl termini at single-strand breaks (SSBs. In humans, PNKP mutations underlie the neurological disease known as MCSZ, but these individuals are not predisposed for cancer, implying effective alternative repair pathways in dividing cells. Homology-directed repair (HDR of collapsed replication forks was proposed to repair SSBs in PNKP-deficient cells, but the critical HDR protein Rad51 is not required in PNKP-null (pnk1Δ cells of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Here, we report that pnk1Δ cells have enhanced requirements for Rad3 (ATR/Mec1 and Chk1 checkpoint kinases, and the multi-BRCT domain protein Brc1 that binds phospho-histone H2A (γH2A at damaged replication forks. The viability of pnk1Δ cells depends on Mre11 and Ctp1 (CtIP/Sae2 double-strand break (DSB resection proteins, Rad52 DNA strand annealing protein, Mus81-Eme1 Holliday junction resolvase, and Rqh1 (BLM/WRN/Sgs1 DNA helicase. Coupled with increased sister chromatid recombination and Rad52 repair foci in pnk1Δ cells, these findings indicate that lingering SSBs in pnk1Δ cells trigger Rad51-independent homology-directed repair of collapsed replication forks. From these data, we propose models for HDR-mediated tolerance of persistent SSBs with 3' phosphate in pnk1Δ cells.

  15. Somatic DNA recombination yielding circular DNA and deletion of a genomic region in embryonic brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Toyoki; Chijiiwa, Yoshiharu; Tsuji, Hideo; Sakoda, Saburo; Tani, Kenzaburo; Suzuki, Tomokazu

    2004-01-01

    In this study, a mouse genomic region is identified that undergoes DNA rearrangement and yields circular DNA in brain during embryogenesis. External region-directed inverse polymerase chain reaction on circular DNA extracted from late embryonic brain tissue repeatedly detected DNA of this region containing recombination joints. Wide-range genomic PCR and digestion-circularization PCR analysis showed this region underwent recombination accompanied with deletion of intervening sequences, including the circularized regions. This region was mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization to C1 on mouse chromosome 16, where no gene and no physiological DNA rearrangement had been identified. DNA sequence in the region has segmental homology to an orthologous region on human chromosome 3q.13. These observations demonstrated somatic DNA recombination yielding genomic deletions in brain during embryogenesis

  16. Identification of a Single Strand Origin of Replication in the Integrative and Conjugative Element ICEBs1 of Bacillus subtilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel D Wright

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We identified a functional single strand origin of replication (sso in the integrative and conjugative element ICEBs1 of Bacillus subtilis. Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs, also known as conjugative transposons are DNA elements typically found integrated into a bacterial chromosome where they are transmitted to daughter cells by chromosomal replication and cell division. Under certain conditions, ICEs become activated and excise from the host chromosome and can transfer to neighboring cells via the element-encoded conjugation machinery. Activated ICEBs1 undergoes autonomous rolling circle replication that is needed for the maintenance of the excised element in growing and dividing cells. Rolling circle replication, used by many plasmids and phages, generates single-stranded DNA (ssDNA. In many cases, the presence of an sso enhances the conversion of the ssDNA to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA by enabling priming of synthesis of the second DNA strand. We initially identified sso1 in ICEBs1 based on sequence similarity to the sso of an RCR plasmid. Several functional assays confirmed Sso activity. Genetic analyses indicated that ICEBs1 uses sso1 and at least one other region for second strand DNA synthesis. We found that Sso activity was important for two key aspects of the ICEBs1 lifecycle: 1 maintenance of the plasmid form of ICEBs1 in cells after excision from the chromosome, and 2 stable acquisition of ICEBs1 following transfer to a new host. We identified sequences similar to known plasmid sso's in several other ICEs. Together, our results indicate that many other ICEs contain at least one single strand origin of replication, that these ICEs likely undergo autonomous replication, and that replication contributes to the stability and spread of these elements.

  17. Efficient preparation of shuffled DNA libraries through recombination (Gateway) cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Soili I; Taskinen, Barbara; Ojala, Elina; Kukkurainen, Sampo; Rahikainen, Rolle; Riihimäki, Tiina A; Laitinen, Olli H; Kulomaa, Markku S; Hytönen, Vesa P

    2015-01-01

    Efficient and robust subcloning is essential for the construction of high-diversity DNA libraries in the field of directed evolution. We have developed a more efficient method for the subcloning of DNA-shuffled libraries by employing recombination cloning (Gateway). The Gateway cloning procedure was performed directly after the gene reassembly reaction, without additional purification and amplification steps, thus simplifying the conventional DNA shuffling protocols. Recombination-based cloning, directly from the heterologous reassembly reaction, conserved the high quality of the library and reduced the time required for the library construction. The described method is generally compatible for the construction of DNA-shuffled gene libraries. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Choreography of recombination proteins during the DNA damage response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisby, Michael; Rothstein, Rodney

    2009-01-01

    Genome integrity is frequently challenged by DNA lesions from both endogenous and exogenous sources. A single DNA double-strand break (DSB) is lethal if unrepaired and may lead to loss of heterozygosity, mutations, deletions, genomic rearrangements and chromosome loss if repaired improperly. Such...... research. Here we review the cell biological response to DSBs in mitotically growing cells with an emphasis on homologous recombination pathways in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in mammalian cells....

  19. Capillary Electrophoresis Single-Strand Conformational Polymorphisms as a Method to Differentiate Algal Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Jernigan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformational polymorphism (CE-SSCP was explored as a fast and inexpensive method to differentiate both prokaryotic (blue-green and eukaryotic (green and brown algae. A selection of two blue-green algae (Nostoc muscorum and Anabaena inaequalis, five green algae (Chlorella vulgaris, Oedogonium foveolatum, Mougeotia sp., Scenedesmus quadricauda, and Ulothrix fimbriata, and one brown algae (Ectocarpus sp. were examined and CE-SSCP electropherogram “fingerprints” were compared to each other for two variable regions of either the 16S or 18S rDNA gene. The electropherogram patterns were remarkably stable and consistent for each particular species. The patterns were unique to each species, although some common features were observed between the different types of algae. CE-SSCP could be a useful method for monitoring changes in an algae species over time as potential shifts in species occurred.

  20. Human DNA repair and recombination genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, L.H.; Weber, C.A.; Jones, N.J.

    1988-09-01

    Several genes involved in mammalian DNA repair pathways were identified by complementation analysis and chromosomal mapping based on hybrid cells. Eight complementation groups of rodent mutants defective in the repair of uv radiation damage are now identified. At least seven of these genes are probably essential for repair and at least six of them control the incision step. The many genes required for repair of DNA cross-linking damage show overlap with those involved in the repair of uv damage, but some of these genes appear to be unique for cross-link repair. Two genes residing on human chromosome 19 were cloned from genomic transformants using a cosmid vector, and near full-length cDNA clones of each gene were isolated and sequenced. Gene ERCC2 efficiently corrects the defect in CHO UV5, a nucleotide excision repair mutant. Gene XRCC1 normalizes repair of strand breaks and the excessive sister chromatid exchange in CHO mutant EM9. ERCC2 shows a remarkable /approximately/52% overall homology at both the amino acid and nucleotide levels with the yeast RAD3 gene. Evidence based on mutation induction frequencies suggests that ERCC2, like RAD3, might also be an essential gene for viability. 100 refs., 4 tabs

  1. Mouse RAD54 affects DNA double-strand break repair and sister chromatid exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.B. Beverloo (Berna); R.D. Johnson (Roger); M. Jasin (Maria); R. Kanaar (Roland); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); M.L.G. Dronkert (Mies)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractCells can achieve error-free repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by homologous recombination through gene conversion with or without crossover. In contrast, an alternative homology-dependent DSB repair pathway, single-strand annealing (SSA), results in deletions. In this study, we

  2. DNA repair and its relation to recombination-deficient and other mutations in Bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesan, A.T.

    1975-01-01

    DNA repair processes operating in Bacillus subtilis are similar to other transformable bacterial systems. Radiation-sensitive, recombination-deficient mutants are blocked in distinct steps leading to recombination. DNA polymerase I is essential for the repair of x-ray-induced damage to DNA but not for recombination

  3. Prevention of DNA Rereplication Through a Meiotic Recombination Checkpoint Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole A. Najor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, unnatural stabilization of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Sic1 during meiosis can trigger extra rounds of DNA replication. When programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs are generated but not repaired due to absence of DMC1, a pathway involving the checkpoint gene RAD17 prevents this DNA rereplication. Further genetic analysis has now revealed that prevention of DNA rereplication also requires MEC1, which encodes a protein kinase that serves as a central checkpoint regulator in several pathways including the meiotic recombination checkpoint response. Downstream of MEC1, MEK1 is required through its function to inhibit repair between sister chromatids. By contrast, meiotic recombination checkpoint effectors that regulate gene expression and cyclin-dependent kinase activity are not necessary. Phosphorylation of histone H2A, which is catalyzed by Mec1 and the related Tel1 protein kinase in response to DSBs, and can help coordinate activation of the Rad53 checkpoint protein kinase in the mitotic cell cycle, is required for the full checkpoint response. Phosphorylation sites that are targeted by Rad53 in a mitotic S phase checkpoint response are also involved, based on the behavior of cells containing mutations in the DBF4 and SLD3 DNA replication genes. However, RAD53 does not appear to be required, nor does RAD9, which encodes a mediator of Rad53, consistent with their lack of function in the recombination checkpoint pathway that prevents meiotic progression. While this response is similar to a checkpoint mechanism that inhibits initiation of DNA replication in the mitotic cell cycle, the evidence points to a new variation on DNA replication control.

  4. Molecular anatomy of the recombination mediator function of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad52

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seong, C.; Sehorn, M.G.; Plate, Iben

    2008-01-01

    A helical filament of Rad51 on single-strand DNA (ssDNA), called the presynaptic filament, catalyzes DNA joint formation during homologous recombination. Rad52 facilitates presynaptic filament assembly, and this recombination mediator activity is thought to rely on the interactions of Rad52...... with Rad51, the ssDNA-binding protein RPA, and ssDNA. The N-terminal region of Rad52, which has DNA binding activity and an oligomeric structure, is thought to be crucial for mediator activity and recombination. Unexpectedly, we find that the C-terminal region of Rad52 also harbors a DNA binding function....... Importantly, the Rad52 C-terminal portion alone can promote Rad51 presynaptic filament assembly. The middle portion of Rad52 associates with DNA-bound RPA and contributes to the recombination mediator activity. Accordingly, expression of a protein species that harbors the middle and C-terminal regions of Rad...

  5. Recombinational DNA repair is regulated by compartmentalization of DNA lesions at the nuclear pore complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Géli, Vincent; Lisby, Michael

    2015-01-01

    and colleagues shows that also physiological threats to genome integrity such as DNA secondary structure-forming triplet repeat sequences relocalize to the NPC during DNA replication. Mutants that fail to reposition the triplet repeat locus to the NPC cause repeat instability. Here, we review the types of DNA...... lesions that relocalize to the NPC, the putative mechanisms of relocalization, and the types of recombinational repair that are stimulated by the NPC, and present a model for NPC-facilitated repair....

  6. Jeremy Rifkin challenges recombinant DNA research: A rhetoric of heresy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futrell, W.M.

    1992-01-01

    One significant issue to come before the public in recent years is recombinant DNA research or genetic engineering and its applications. An important spokesman on this issue is Jeremy Rifkin. Rifkin is of rhetorical interest because of his strategies to sustain the dialogue and define the parameters in which it occurs. This dissertation analyzes a broad range of Rifkin's rhetorical artifacts and those of scientists engaged in recombinant DNA research. They are examined against criteria developed to identify and understand heresy. The five areas of analysis are: the nearness/remoteness phenomenon, the social construction of heresy, the social consequences of heresy, the doctrinal consequences of heresy, and the heresy-hunt ritual. The first two criteria focus on the rhetorical strategies of the heretic. The last three concentrate on the rhetorical strategies of the defenders of the institutional orthodoxy. This dissertation examines the rhetorical strategies of a heretical challenge to the scientific establishment and the consequences of that challenge. This dissertation also analyzes the rhetorical strategies employed by the defenders of the scientific orthodoxy. Although an understanding of the rhetorical strategies employed on both sides of this conflict is important, the implications for the role of rhetoric in highly controversial issues such as recombinant DNA are even more critical.

  7. DNA Repair Mechanisms and the Bypass of DNA Damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiteux, Serge; Jinks-Robertson, Sue

    2013-01-01

    DNA repair mechanisms are critical for maintaining the integrity of genomic DNA, and their loss is associated with cancer predisposition syndromes. Studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have played a central role in elucidating the highly conserved mechanisms that promote eukaryotic genome stability. This review will focus on repair mechanisms that involve excision of a single strand from duplex DNA with the intact, complementary strand serving as a template to fill the resulting gap. These mechanisms are of two general types: those that remove damage from DNA and those that repair errors made during DNA synthesis. The major DNA-damage repair pathways are base excision repair and nucleotide excision repair, which, in the most simple terms, are distinguished by the extent of single-strand DNA removed together with the lesion. Mistakes made by DNA polymerases are corrected by the mismatch repair pathway, which also corrects mismatches generated when single strands of non-identical duplexes are exchanged during homologous recombination. In addition to the true repair pathways, the postreplication repair pathway allows lesions or structural aberrations that block replicative DNA polymerases to be tolerated. There are two bypass mechanisms: an error-free mechanism that involves a switch to an undamaged template for synthesis past the lesion and an error-prone mechanism that utilizes specialized translesion synthesis DNA polymerases to directly synthesize DNA across the lesion. A high level of functional redundancy exists among the pathways that deal with lesions, which minimizes the detrimental effects of endogenous and exogenous DNA damage. PMID:23547164

  8. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology: Volume 49, Recombination at the DNA level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This volume contains full papers prepared by the participants to the 1984 Cold Springs Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology. This year's theme is entitled Recombination at the DNA level. The volume consists of 93 articles grouped into subject areas entitled chromosome mechanics, yeast systems, mammalian homologous recombination, transposons, mu, plant transposons/T4 recombination, topoisomerase, resolvase and gyrase, Escherichia coli general recombination, RecA, repair, leukaryotic enzymes, integration and excision of bacteriophage, site-specific recombination, and recombination in vitro

  9. Differences in mutagenic and recombinational DNA repair in enterobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedgwick, S.G.; Goodwin, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    The incidence of recombinational DNA repair and inducible mutagenic DNA repair has been examined in Escherichia coli and 11 related species of enterobacteria. Recombinational repair was found to be a common feature of the DNA repair repertoire of at least 6 genera of enterobacteria. This conclusion is based on observations of (i) damage-induced synthesis of RecA-like proteins, (ii) nucleotide hybridization between E. coli recA sequences and some chromosomal DNAs, and (iii) recA-negative complementation by plasmids showing SOS-inducible expression of truncated E. coli recA genes. The mechanism of DNA damage-induced gene expression is therefore sufficiently conserved to allow non-E. coli regulatory elements to govern expression of these cloned truncated E. coli recA genes. In contrast, the process of mutagenic repair, which uses umuC+ umuD+ gene products in E. coli, appeared less widespread. Little ultraviolet light-induced mutagenesis to rifampicin resistance was detected outside the genus Escherichia, and even within the genus induced mutagenesis was detected in only 3 out of 6 species. Nucleotide hybridization showed that sequences like the E. coli umuCD+ gene are not found in these poorly mutable organisms. Evolutionary questions raised by the sporadic incidence of inducible mutagenic repair are discussed

  10. Structural features of single-stranded integron cassette attC sites and their role in strand selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Bouvier

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We recently showed that cassette integration and deletion in integron platforms were occurring through unconventional site-specific recombination reactions involving only the bottom strand of attC sites. The lack of sequence conservation among attC sites led us to hypothesize that sequence-independent structural recognition determinants must exist within attC sites. The structural data obtained from a synaptic complex of the Vibrio cholerae integrase with the bottom strand of an attC site has shown the importance of extra helical bases (EHB inside the stem-loop structure formed from the bottom strand. Here, we systematically determined the contribution of three structural elements common to all known single-stranded attC site recombination substrates (the EHBs, the unpaired central spacer (UCS, and the variable terminal structure (VTS to strand choice and recombination. Their roles have been evaluated in vivo in the attIxattC reaction context using the suicide conjugation assay we previously developed, but also in an attCxattC reaction using a deletion assay. Conjugation was used to deliver the attC sites in single-stranded form. Our results show that strand choice is primarily directed by the first EHB, but the presence of the two other EHBs also serves to increase this strand selection. We found that the structure of the central spacer is essential to achieve high level recombination of the bottom strand, suggesting a dual role for this structure in active site exclusion and for hindering the reverse reaction after the first strand exchange. Moreover, we have shown that the VTS has apparently no role in strand selectivity.

  11. Recombinant methods for screening human DNA excision repair proficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athas, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    A method for measuring DNA excision repair in response to ultraviolet radiation (UV)-induced DNA damage has been developed, validated, and field-tested in cultured human lymphocytes. The methodology is amenable to population-based screening and should facilitate future epidemiologic studies seeking to investigate associations between excision repair proficiency and cancer susceptibility. The impetus for such endeavors derives from the belief that the high incidence of skin cancer in the genetic disorder xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) primarily is a result of the reduced capacity of patients cells to repair UV-induced DNA damage. For assay, UV-irradiated non-replicating recombinant plasmid DNA harboring a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) indicator gene is introduced into lymphocytes using DEAE-dextran short-term transfection conditions. Exposure to UV induces transcriptionally-inactivating DNA photoproducts in the plasmid DNA which inactivate CAT gene expression. Excision repair of the damaged CAT gene is monitored indirectly as a function of reactivated CAT enzyme activity following a 40 hour repair/expression incubation period

  12. Detection of hepatitis A virus by hybridization with single-stranded RNA probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, J.; Estes, M.K.; Metcalf, T.G.

    1987-01-01

    An improved method of dot-blot hybridization to detect hepatitis A virus (HAV) was developed with single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) probes. Radioactive and nonradioactive ssRNA probes were generated by in vitro transcription of HAV templates inserted into the plasmid pGEM-1. 32 P-labeled ssRNA probes were at least eightfold more sensitive than the 32 P-labeled double-stranded cDNA counterparts, whereas biotin-labeled ssRNA probes showed a sensitivity comparable with that of the 32 P-labeled double-stranded cDNA counterparts. Hybridization of HAV with the ssRNA probes at high stringency revealed specific reactions with a high signal-to-noise ratio. The differential hybridization reactions seen with probes of positive and negative sense (compared with HAV genomic RNA) were used to detect HAV in clinical and field samples. A positive/negative ratio was introduced as an indicator that permitted an semiquantitative expression of a positive HAV reaction. Good agreement of this indicator was observed with normal stool samples and with HAV-seeded samples. By using this system, HAV was detected in estuarine and freshwater samples collected from a sewage-polluted bayou in Houston and a saltwater tributary of Galveston Bay

  13. Toxin MqsR Cleaves Single-Stranded mRNA with Various 5 Ends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-24

    either protein ORIGINAL RESEARCH Toxin MqsR cleaves single- stranded mRNA with various 5’ ends Nityananda Chowdhury1,*, Brian W. Kwan1,*, Louise C...in which a single 5′- GCU site was predicted to be single- stranded (ssRNA), double- stranded (dsRNA), in the loop of a stem - loop (slRNA), or in a...single- stranded 5′- GCU sites since cleavage was approximately 20- fold higher than cleavage seen with the 5′- GCU site in the stem - loop and

  14. Fanconi anemia complementation group A (FANCA) protein has intrinsic affinity for nucleic acids with preference for single-stranded forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fenghua; Qian, Liangyue; Zhao, Xinliang; Liu, Jesse Y; Song, Limin; D'Urso, Gennaro; Jain, Chaitanya; Zhang, Yanbin

    2012-02-10

    The Fanconi anemia complementation group A (FANCA) gene is one of 15 disease-causing genes and has been found to be mutated in ∼60% of Fanconi anemia patients. Using purified protein, we report that human FANCA has intrinsic affinity for nucleic acids. FANCA binds to both single-stranded (ssDNA) and double-stranded (dsDNA) DNAs; however, its affinity for ssDNA is significantly higher than for dsDNA in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. FANCA also binds to RNA with an intriguingly higher affinity than its DNA counterpart. FANCA requires a certain length of nucleic acids for optimal binding. Using DNA and RNA ladders, we determined that the minimum number of nucleotides required for FANCA recognition is ∼30 for both DNA and RNA. By testing the affinity between FANCA and a variety of DNA structures, we found that a 5'-flap or 5'-tail on DNA facilitates its interaction with FANCA. A patient-derived FANCA truncation mutant (Q772X) has diminished affinity for both DNA and RNA. In contrast, the complementing C-terminal fragment of Q772X, C772-1455, retains the differentiated nucleic acid-binding activity (RNA > ssDNA > dsDNA), indicating that the nucleic acid-binding domain of FANCA is located primarily at its C terminus, where most disease-causing mutations are found.

  15. Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group A (FANCA) Protein Has Intrinsic Affinity for Nucleic Acids with Preference for Single-stranded Forms*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fenghua; Qian, Liangyue; Zhao, Xinliang; Liu, Jesse Y.; Song, Limin; D'Urso, Gennaro; Jain, Chaitanya; Zhang, Yanbin

    2012-01-01

    The Fanconi anemia complementation group A (FANCA) gene is one of 15 disease-causing genes and has been found to be mutated in ∼60% of Fanconi anemia patients. Using purified protein, we report that human FANCA has intrinsic affinity for nucleic acids. FANCA binds to both single-stranded (ssDNA) and double-stranded (dsDNA) DNAs; however, its affinity for ssDNA is significantly higher than for dsDNA in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. FANCA also binds to RNA with an intriguingly higher affinity than its DNA counterpart. FANCA requires a certain length of nucleic acids for optimal binding. Using DNA and RNA ladders, we determined that the minimum number of nucleotides required for FANCA recognition is ∼30 for both DNA and RNA. By testing the affinity between FANCA and a variety of DNA structures, we found that a 5′-flap or 5′-tail on DNA facilitates its interaction with FANCA. A patient-derived FANCA truncation mutant (Q772X) has diminished affinity for both DNA and RNA. In contrast, the complementing C-terminal fragment of Q772X, C772–1455, retains the differentiated nucleic acid-binding activity (RNA > ssDNA > dsDNA), indicating that the nucleic acid-binding domain of FANCA is located primarily at its C terminus, where most disease-causing mutations are found. PMID:22194614

  16. New Method for Differentiation of Granuloviruses (Betabaculoviruses Based on Multitemperature Single Stranded Conformational Polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Krejmer-Rabalska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Baculoviruses have been used as biopesticides for decades. Recently, due to the excessive use of chemical pesticides there is a need for finding new agents that may be useful in biological protection. Sometimes few isolates or species are discovered in one host. In the past few years, many new baculovirus species have been isolated from environmental samples, thoroughly characterized and thanks to next generation sequencing methods their genomes are being deposited in the GenBank database. Next generation sequencing (NGS methodology is the most certain way of detection, but it has many disadvantages. During our studies, we have developed a method based on Polymerase chain reaction (PCR followed by Multitemperature Single Stranded Conformational Polymorphism (MSSCP which allows for distinguishing new granulovirus isolates in only a few hours and at low-cost. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis of betabaculoviruses, representative species have been chosen. The alignment of highly conserved genes—granulin and late expression factor-9, was performed and the degenerate primers were designed to amplify the most variable, short DNA fragments flanked with the most conserved sequences. Afterwards, products of PCR reaction were analysed by MSSCP technique. In our opinion, the proposed method may be used for screening of new isolates derived from environmental samples.

  17. Recombination Promoted by DNA Viruses: Phage λ to Herpes Simplex Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Sandra K.; Sawitzke, James A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to explore recombination strategies in DNA viruses. Homologous recombination is a universal genetic process that plays multiple roles in the biology of all organisms, including viruses. Recombination and DNA replication are interconnected, with recombination being essential for repairing DNA damage and supporting replication of the viral genome. Recombination also creates genetic diversity, and viral recombination mechanisms have important implications for understanding viral origins as well as the dynamic nature of viral-host interactions. Both bacteriophage λ and herpes simplex virus (HSV) display high rates of recombination, both utilizing their own proteins and commandeering cellular proteins to promote recombination reactions. We focus primarily on λ and HSV, as they have proven amenable to both genetic and biochemical analysis and have recently been shown to exhibit some surprising similarities that will guide future studies. PMID:25002096

  18. Relative contribution of homologous recombination and non-homologous end-joining to DNA double-strand break repair after oxidative stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letavayová, Lucia; Marková, Eva; Hermanská, Katarína; Vlcková, Viera; Vlasáková, Danusa; Chovanec, Miroslav; Brozmanová, Jela

    2006-05-10

    Oxidative damage to DNA seems to be an important factor in developing many human diseases including cancer. It involves base and sugar damage, base-free sites, DNA-protein cross-links and DNA single-strand (SSB) and double-strand (DSB) breaks. Oxidative DSB can be formed in various ways such as their direct induction by the drug or their generation either through attempted and aborted repair of primary DNA lesions or through DNA replication-dependent conversion of SSB. In general, two main pathways are responsible for repairing DSB, homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), with both of them being potential candidates for the repair of oxidative DSB. We have examined relative contribution of HR and NHEJ to cellular response after oxidative stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, cell survival, mutagenesis and DSB induction and repair in the rad52, yku70 and rad52 yku70 mutants after hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), menadione (MD) or bleomycin (BLM) exposure were compared to those obtained for the corresponding wild type. We show that MD exposure does not lead to observable DSB induction in yeast, suggesting that the toxic effects of this agent are mediated by other types of DNA damage. Although H(2)O(2) treatment generates some DSB, their yield is relatively low and hence DSB may only partially be responsible for toxicity of H(2)O(2), particularly at high doses of the agent. On the other hand, the basis of the BLM toxicity resides primarily in DSB induction. Both HR and NHEJ act on BLM-induced DSB, although their relative participation in the process is not equal. Based on our results we suggest that the complexity and/or the quality of the BLM-induced DSB might represent an obstacle for the NHEJ pathway.

  19. Genetic analysis of yeast RPA1 reveals its multiple functions in DNA metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umezu, K.; Sugawara, N.; Chen, C.; Haber, J.E.; Kolodner, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    Replication protein A (RPA) is a single-stranded DNA-binding protein identified as an essential factor for SV40 DNA replication in vitro. To understand the in vivo functions of RPA, we mutagenized the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RFA1 gene and identified 19 ultraviolet light (UV) irradiation- and methyl methane sulfonate (MMS)-sensitive mutants and 5 temperature-sensitive mutants. The UV- and MMS-sensitive mutants showed up to 10 4 to 10 5 times increased sensitivity to these agents. Some of the UV- and MMSsensitive mutants were killed by an HO-induced double-strand break atMAT. Physical analysis of recombination in one UV- and MMS-sensitive rfa1 mutant demonstrated that it was defective for mating type switching and single-strand annealing recombination. Two temperature-sensitive mutants were characterized in detail, and at the restrictive temperature were found to have an arrest phenotype and DNA content indicative of incomplete DNA replication. DNA sequence analysis indicated that most of the mutations altered amino acids that were conserved between yeast, human, and Xenopus RPA1. Taken together, we conclude that RPA1 has multiple roles in vivo and functions in DNA replication, repair, and recombination, like the single-stranded DNA-binding proteins of bacteria and phages. (author)

  20. Breaks in the 45S rDNA Lead to Recombination-Mediated Loss of Repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniël O. Warmerdam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available rDNA repeats constitute the most heavily transcribed region in the human genome. Tumors frequently display elevated levels of recombination in rDNA, indicating that the repeats are a liability to the genomic integrity of a cell. However, little is known about how cells deal with DNA double-stranded breaks in rDNA. Using selective endonucleases, we show that human cells are highly sensitive to breaks in 45S but not the 5S rDNA repeats. We find that homologous recombination inhibits repair of breaks in 45S rDNA, and this results in repeat loss. We identify the structural maintenance of chromosomes protein 5 (SMC5 as contributing to recombination-mediated repair of rDNA breaks. Together, our data demonstrate that SMC5-mediated recombination can lead to error-prone repair of 45S rDNA repeats, resulting in their loss and thereby reducing cellular viability.

  1. Successful development of recombinant DNA-derived pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, R G; Pommer, C H

    1990-11-01

    Successful development of recombinant DNA-derived pharmaceuticals, a new class of therapeutic agents, is determined by a variety of factors affecting the selection and positioning of the compound under development. For an efficient development it is of utmost importance that the mechanism of action of the compound selected be understood on a molecular level. The compound's potential therapeutical profile and a strong patent position are key positioning considerations, as well as vital elements in shortening the development phase and protecting innovation. Installation of an interdisciplinary project management team, along with a clear definition of team members' responsibilities, is required to avoid delays and improve communication during development. Selection of the organism to be used in production must take into consideration both the structure of the protein and the quality and safety of the final product. New technologies require a considerable investment in new manufacturing facilities and equipment. Often, the decision for such an investment must be made early and with a high degree of uncertainty. Desired product yield, expected dosage, and estimated market potential are the most important considerations in this decision. Following public disclosure of the plan to develop recombinant DNA-derived products, approval of the production plant and expansion or adaptation to the new process and technology may be delayed. For this reason, they should be considered as a critical step in the overall development phase. Recruitment of qualified staff is a time-consuming and critical element of the production process. Its impact on the product timeline should not be underestimated, especially if such technologies are new to the company. The entire production process must be validated in respect to identity, purity, and safety of the product to guarantee constant product quality, as well as for safety aspects in the environment. Adequate in-process and final product

  2. Protein dynamics during presynaptic complex assembly on individual ssDNA molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Gibb, Bryan; Ye, Ling F.; Kwon, YoungHo; Niu, Hengyao; Sung, Patrick; Greene, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    Homologous recombination is a conserved pathway for repairing double?stranded breaks, which are processed to yield single?stranded DNA overhangs that serve as platforms for presynaptic complex assembly. Here we use single?molecule imaging to reveal the interplay between Saccharomyce cerevisiae RPA, Rad52, and Rad51 during presynaptic complex assembly. We show that Rad52 binds RPA?ssDNA and suppresses RPA turnover, highlighting an unanticipated regulatory influence on protein dynamics. Rad51 b...

  3. A high throughput system for the preparation of single stranded templates grown in microculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolner, D E; Guilfoyle, R A; Smith, L M

    1994-01-01

    A high throughput system for the preparation of single stranded M13 sequencing templates is described. Supernatants from clones grown in 48-well plates are treated with a chaotropic agent to dissociate the phage coat protein. Using a semi-automated cell harvester, the free nucleic acid is bound to a glass fiber filter in the presence of chaotrope and then washed with ethanol by aspiration. Individual glass fiber discs are punched out on the cell harvester and dried briefly. The DNA samples are then eluted in water by centrifugation. The processing time from 96 microcultures to sequence quality templates is approximately 1 hr. Assuming the ability to sequence 400 bases per clone, a 0.5 megabase per day genome sequencing facility will require 6250 purified templates a week. Toward accomplishing this goal we have developed a procedure which is a modification of a method that uses a chaotropic agent and glass fiber filter (Kristensen et al., 1987). By exploiting the ability of a cell harvester to uniformly aspirate and wash 96 samples, a rapid system for high quality template preparation has been developed. Other semi-automated systems for template preparation have been developed using commercially available robotic workstations like the Biomek (Mardis and Roe, 1989). Although minimal human intervention is required, processing time is at least twice as long. Custom systems based on paramagnetic beads (Hawkins et al., 1992) produce DNA in insufficient quantity for direct sequencing and therefore require cycle sequencing. These systems require custom programing, have a fairly high initial cost and have not proven to be as fast as the method reported here.

  4. Identification of five novel FBN1 mutations by non-radioactive single-strand conformation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.; Qian, C.; Comeau, K.; Francke, U. [Stanford Univ. Medical Center, Stanford, CA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS), one of the most common genetic disorders of connective tissue, is characterized by variable manifestations in skeletal, cardiovascular and ocular systems. Mutations in the fibrillin gene on chromosome 15 (FBN1) have been shown to cause MFS. To examine the relationship between FBN1 gene mutations, fibrillin protein function and MFS phenotypes, we screened for alternations in the fibrillin coding sequence in fibroblast derived cDNA from MFS patients. To date, abnormally migrating bands in more than 20 unrelated MFS patients have been identified by using non-radioactive single-strand conformation analysis and silver staining. Five altered bands have been directly sequenced. Two missense mutations and three splice site mutations have been identified. Both missense mutations substitute another amino acid for a cysteine residue (C1402W and C1672R) in EGF-like motifs of the fibrillin polypeptide chain. The two splice site mutations are at nucleotide positions 6994+1 (G{yields}A), and 7205-2 (A{yields}G) and result in in-frame skipping of exon 56 and 58, respectively. Skipping of exon 56 occurs in 50% of mutant transcripts. Use of a cryptic splice site 51 bp upstream of the normal donor site results in half of the mutant transcripts containing part of exon 56. Both products contain in-frame deletions. Another splice site mutation, identified by exon screening from patient genomic DNA using intron primers, is at nucleotide position 2293+2 (T{yields}A), but the predicted exon skipping has not been detected at the RT-PCR level. This may be due to instability of the mutant transcript. Including the mutations reported here, a total of 8 out of 36 published FBN1 gene mutations involve exon skipping. It may be inferred that FBN1 exon skipping plays an important pathogenic role in MFS.

  5. A role for recombination junctions in the segregation of mitochondrial DNA in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockshon, D; Zweifel, S G; Freeman-Cook, L L; Lorimer, H E; Brewer, B J; Fangman, W L

    1995-06-16

    In S. cerevisiae, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecules, in spite of their high copy number, segregate as if there were a small number of heritable units. The rapid segregation of mitochondrial genomes can be analyzed using mtDNA deletion variants. These small, amplified genomes segregate preferentially from mixed zygotes relative to wild-type mtDNA. This segregation advantage is abolished by mutations in a gene, MGT1, that encodes a recombination junction-resolving enzyme. We show here that resolvase deficiency causes a larger proportion of molecules to be linked together by recombination junctions, resulting in the aggregation of mtDNA into a small number of cytological structures. This change in mtDNA structure can account for the increased mitotic loss of mtDNA and the altered pattern of mtDNA segregation from zygotes. We propose that the level of unresolved recombination junctions influences the number of heritable units of mtDNA.

  6. Recombinant DNA in Cambridge: lessons for nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federow, H.

    1977-09-01

    The 1976 experience of Cambridge, Massachusetts, in settling the recombinant DNA research issue is unique in recent history as the first instance of essentially lay panels judging the conduct of scientific research. Furthermore, because the panel was composed of citizens who would be affected by the research, the experience suggests a model for conflict resolution in other areas of public controversy. With one of these, nuclear energy, the controversy has two important points in common: although the primary burden of any accident would be borne by the local community, benefits of the DNA research or reactor operation accrue to a much broader range of people; and in both issues there is a need to resolve the question, ''How safe is safe enough.'' It is therefore proposed that a panel similar to the Cambridge one could be established to deal with the controversy surrounding a proposed nuclear plant. In any community where there was such controversy, a panel could be convened to assess whether the plant was acceptable to that community. Such a panel would be composed of members of the community who were not affected directly by the plant. It would also have to have a restricted range of inquiry, oriented toward the specifics of the proposed plant. Such a plant review panel, under properly designed procedures, could change the licensing process to one concerned solely with safety and provide an appropriate forum for issues concerning the acceptability of nuclear power

  7. Roles of Bacillus subtilis DprA and SsbA in RecA-mediated genetic recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Tribhuwan; Carrasco, Begoña; Serrano, Ester; Alonso, Juan C

    2014-10-03

    Bacillus subtilis competence-induced RecA, SsbA, SsbB, and DprA are required to internalize and to recombine single-stranded (ss) DNA with homologous resident duplex. RecA, in the ATP · Mg(2+)-bound form (RecA · ATP), can nucleate and form filament onto ssDNA but is inactive to catalyze DNA recombination. We report that SsbA or SsbB bound to ssDNA blocks the RecA filament formation and fails to activate recombination. DprA facilitates RecA filamentation; however, the filaments cannot engage in DNA recombination. When ssDNA was preincubated with SsbA, but not SsbB, DprA was able to activate DNA strand exchange dependent on RecA · ATP. This work demonstrates that RecA · ATP, in concert with SsbA and DprA, catalyzes DNA strand exchange, and SsbB is an accessory factor in the reaction. In contrast, RecA · dATP efficiently catalyzes strand exchange even in the absence of single-stranded binding proteins or DprA, and addition of the accessory factors marginally improved it. We proposed that the RecA-bound nucleotide (ATP and to a lesser extent dATP) might dictate the requirement for accessory factors. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Screening for mutations in human alpha-globin genes by nonradioactive single-strand conformation polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge S.B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Point mutations and small insertions or deletions in the human alpha-globin genes may produce alpha-chain structural variants and alpha-thalassemia. Mutations can be detected either by direct DNA sequencing or by screening methods, which select the mutated exon for sequencing. Although small (about 1 kb, 3 exons and 2 introns, the alpha-globin genes are duplicate (alpha2 and alpha1 and highy G-C rich, which makes them difficult to denature, reducing sequencing efficiency and causing frequent artifacts. We modified some conditions for PCR and electrophoresis in order to detect mutations in these genes employing nonradioactive single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP. Primers previously described by other authors for radioactive SSCP and phast-SSCP plus denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis were here combined and the resultant fragments (6 new besides 6 original per alpha-gene submitted to silver staining SSCP. Nine structural and one thalassemic mutations were tested, under different conditions including two electrophoretic apparatus (PhastSystem(TM and GenePhor(TM, Amersham Biosciences, different polyacrylamide gel concentrations, run temperatures and denaturing agents, and entire and restriction enzyme cut fragments. One hundred percent of sensitivity was achieved with four of the new fragments formed, using the PhastSystem(TM and 20% gels at 15ºC, without the need of restriction enzymes. This nonradioactive PCR-SSCP approach showed to be simple, rapid and sensitive, reducing the costs involved in frequent sequencing repetitions and increasing the reliability of the results. It can be especially useful for laboratories which do not have an automated sequencer.

  9. Single-stranded nucleic acids promote SAMHD1 complex formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüngler, Victoria; Staroske, Wolfgang; Kind, Barbara; Dobrick, Manuela; Kretschmer, Stefanie; Schmidt, Franziska; Krug, Claudia; Lorenz, Mike; Chara, Osvaldo; Schwille, Petra; Lee-Kirsch, Min Ae

    2013-06-01

    SAM domain and HD domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) is a dGTP-dependent triphosphohydrolase that degrades deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) thereby limiting the intracellular dNTP pool. Mutations in SAMHD1 cause Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS), an inflammatory encephalopathy that mimics congenital viral infection and that phenotypically overlaps with the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus. Both disorders are characterized by activation of the antiviral cytokine interferon-α initiated by immune recognition of self nucleic acids. Here we provide first direct evidence that SAMHD1 associates with endogenous nucleic acids in situ. Using fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy, we demonstrate that SAMHD1 specifically interacts with ssRNA and ssDNA and establish that nucleic acid-binding and formation of SAMHD1 complexes are mutually dependent. Interaction with nucleic acids and complex formation do not require the SAM domain, but are dependent on the HD domain and the C-terminal region of SAMHD1. We finally demonstrate that mutations associated with AGS exhibit both impaired nucleic acid-binding and complex formation implicating that interaction with nucleic acids is an integral aspect of SAMHD1 function.

  10. The Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-Associated Protein SWIB5 Influences mtDNA Architecture and Homologous Recombination

    KAUST Repository

    Blomme, Jonas

    2017-04-19

    In addition to the nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplasts in plant cells also contain genomes. Efficient DNA repair pathways are crucial in these organelles to fix damage resulting from endogenous and exogenous factors. Plant organellar genomes are complex compared with their animal counterparts, and although several plant-specific mediators of organelle DNA repair have been reported, many regulators remain to be identified. Here, we show that a mitochondrial SWI/SNF (nucleosome remodeling) complex B protein, SWIB5, is capable of associating with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Gainand loss-of-function mutants provided evidence for a role of SWIB5 in influencing mtDNA architecture and homologous recombination at specific intermediate-sized repeats both under normal and genotoxic conditions. SWIB5 interacts with other mitochondrial SWIB proteins. Gene expression and mutant phenotypic analysis of SWIB5 and SWIB family members suggests a link between organellar genome maintenance and cell proliferation. Taken together, our work presents a protein family that influences mtDNA architecture and homologous recombination in plants and suggests a link between organelle functioning and plant development.

  11. Evidence of animal mtDNA recombination between divergent populations of the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoolahan, Angelique H; Blok, Vivian C; Gibson, Tracey; Dowton, Mark

    2012-03-01

    Recombination is typically assumed to be absent in animal mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA). However, the maternal mode of inheritance means that recombinant products are indistinguishable from their progenitor molecules. The majority of studies of mtDNA recombination assess past recombination events, where patterns of recombination are inferred by comparing the mtDNA of different individuals. Few studies assess contemporary mtDNA recombination, where recombinant molecules are observed as direct mosaics of known progenitor molecules. Here we use the potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida, to investigate past and contemporary recombination. Past recombination was assessed within and between populations of G. pallida, and contemporary recombination was assessed in the progeny of experimental crosses of these populations. Breeding of genetically divergent organisms may cause paternal mtDNA leakage, resulting in heteroplasmy and facilitating the detection of recombination. To assess contemporary recombination we looked for evidence of recombination between the mtDNA of the parental populations within the mtDNA of progeny. Past recombination was detected between a South American population and several UK populations of G. pallida, as well as between two South American populations. This suggests that these populations may have interbred, paternal mtDNA leakage occurred, and the mtDNA of these populations subsequently recombined. This evidence challenges two dogmas of animal mtDNA evolution; no recombination and maternal inheritance. No contemporary recombination between the parental populations was detected in the progeny of the experimental crosses. This supports current arguments that mtDNA recombination events are rare. More sensitive detection methods may be required to adequately assess contemporary mtDNA recombination in animals.

  12. Mutations affecting RNA polymerase I-stimulated exchange and rDNA recombination in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y.H.; Keil, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    HOT1 is a cis-acting recombination-stimulatory sequence isolated from the rDNA repeat unit of yeast. The ability of HOT1 to stimulate mitotic exchange appears to depend on its ability to promote high levels of RNA polymerase I transcription. A qualitative colony color sectoring assay was developed to screen for trans-acting mutations that alter the activity of HOT1. Both hypo-recombination and hyper-recombination mutants were isolated. Genetic analysis of seven HOT1 recombination mutants (hrm) that decrease HOT1 activity shows that they behave as recessive nuclear mutations and belong to five linkage groups. Three of these mutations, hrm1, hrm2, and hrm3, also decrease rDNA exchange but do not alter recombination in the absence of HOT1. Another mutation, hrm4, decreases HOT1-stimulated recombination but does not affect rDNA recombination or exchange in the absence of HOT1. Two new alleles of RAD52 were also isolated using this screen. With regard to HOT1 activity, rad52 is epistatic to all four hrm mutations indicating that the products of the HRM genes and of RAD52 mediate steps in the same recombination pathway. Finding mutations that decrease both the activity of HOT1 and exchange in the rDNA supports the hypothesis that HOT1 plays a role in rDNA recombination

  13. Data for increase of Lymantria dispar male survival after topical application of single-stranded RING domain fragment of IAP-3 gene of its nuclear polyhedrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberemok, Volodymyr V.; Laikova, Kateryna V.; Zaitsev, Aleksei S.; Gushchin, Vladimir A.; Skorokhod, Oleksii A.

    2016-01-01

    This data article is related to the research article entitled “The RING for gypsy moth control: topical application of fragment of its nuclear polyhedrosis virus anti-apoptosis gene as insecticide” [1]. This article reports on significantly higher survival of gypsy moth Lymantria dispar male individuals in response to topical application of single-stranded DNA, based on RING (really interesting new gene) domain fragment of LdMNPV (L. dispar multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus) IAP-3 (inhibitor of apoptosis) gene and acted as DNA insecticide. PMID:27054151

  14. Breaks in the 45S rDNA Lead to Recombination-Mediated Loss of Repeats

    OpenAIRE

    Warmerdam, Daniël O.; van den Berg, Jeroen; Medema, René H.

    2016-01-01

    rDNA repeats constitute the most heavily transcribed region in the human genome. Tumors frequently display elevated levels of recombination in rDNA, indicating that the repeats are a liability to the genomic integrity of a cell. However, little is known about how cells deal with DNA double-stranded breaks in rDNA. Using selective endonucleases, we show that human cells are highly sensitive to breaks in 45S but not the 5S rDNA repeats. We find that homologous recombination inhibits repair of b...

  15. Methods of introducing nucleic acids into cellular DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lajoie, Marc J.; Gregg, Christopher J.; Mosberg, Joshua A.; Church, George M.

    2017-06-27

    A method of introducing a nucleic acid sequence into a cell is provided where the cell has impaired or inhibited or disrupted DnaG primase activity or impaired or inhibited or disrupted DnaB helicase activity, or larger or increased gaps or distance between Okazaki fragments or lowered or reduced frequency of Okazaki fragment initiation, or the cell has increased single stranded DNA (ssDNA) on the lagging strand of the replication fork including transforming the cell through recombination with a nucleic acid oligomer.

  16. Phenylketonuria in The Netherlands : 93% of the mutations are detected by single-strand conformation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderSijsBos, CJM; Diepstraten, CM; Juyn, JA; Plaisier, M; Giltay, JC; vanSpronsen, FJ; Smit, GPA; Berger, R; Smeitink, JAM; PollThe, BT; vanAmstel, JKP

    1996-01-01

    Single-strand conformational analysis was used to screen for genetic defects in all thirteen exons of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene (PAH) in phenylketonuria and hyperphenylalaninemia patients in the Netherlands. Exons that showed a bandshift were sequenced directly, In this way, we were able to

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF SINGLE-STRAND ORIGINS OF CRYPTIC ROLLING-CIRCLE PLASMIDS FROM BACILLUS-SUBTILIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MEIJER, WJJ; VENEMA, G; BRON, S

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we describe the isolation and characterization of single strand origins (SSOs) of several cryptic Bacillus subtilis plasmids which use the rolling-circle mechanism of replication, The plasmids used in this study involved pTA1015, pTA1020, pTA1030, pTA1040, pTA1050 and pTA1060, The SSO

  18. A single-strand specific lesion drives MMS-induced hyper-mutability at a double-strand break in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Gordenin, Dmitry A; Resnick, Michael A

    2010-08-05

    Localized hyper-mutability (LHM) can be important in evolution, immunity, and genetic diseases. We previously reported that single-strand DNA (ssDNA) can be an important source of damage-induced LHM in yeast. Here, we establish that the generation of LHM by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) during repair of a chromosomal double-strand break (DSB) can result in over 0.2 mutations/kb, which is approximately 20,000-fold higher than the MMS-induced mutation density without a DSB. The MMS-induced mutations associated with DSB repair were primarily due to substitutions via translesion DNA synthesis at damaged cytosines, even though there are nearly 10 times more MMS-induced lesions at other bases. Based on this mutation bias, the promutagenic lesion dominating LHM is likely 3-methylcytosine, which is single-strand specific. Thus, the dramatic increase in mutagenesis at a DSB is concluded to result primarily from the generation of non-repairable lesions in ssDNA associated with DSB repair along with efficient induction of highly mutagenic ssDNA-specific lesions. These findings with MMS-induced LHM have broad biological implications for unrepaired damage generated in ssDNA and possibly ssRNA. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Breaks in the 45S rDNA Lead to Recombination-Mediated Loss of Repeats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warmerdam, Daniel O.; van den Berg, Jeroen; Medema, Rene H.

    2016-01-01

    rDNA repeats constitute the most heavily transcribed region in the human genome. Tumors frequently display elevated levels of recombination in rDNA, indicating that the repeats are a liability to the genomic integrity of a cell. However, little is known about how cells deal with DNA double-stranded

  20. FBH1 influences DNA replication fork stability and homologous recombination through ubiquitylation of RAD51

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chu, Wai Kit; Payne, Miranda J; Beli, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Unscheduled homologous recombination (HR) can lead to genomic instability, which greatly increases the threat of neoplastic transformation in humans. The F-box DNA helicase 1 (FBH1) is a 3'-5' DNA helicase with a putative function as a negative regulator of HR. It is the only known DNA helicase t...

  1. Normalized cDNA libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marcelo B.; Efstratiadis, Argiris

    1997-01-01

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library.

  2. Choreography of the DNA damage response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisby, Michael; Barlow, Jacqueline H; Burgess, Rebecca C

    2004-01-01

    DNA repair is an essential process for preserving genome integrity in all organisms. In eukaryotes, recombinational repair is choreographed by multiprotein complexes that are organized into centers (foci). Here, we analyze the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and replication...... stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The Mre11 nuclease and the ATM-related Tel1 kinase are the first proteins detected at DSBs. Next, the Rfa1 single-strand DNA binding protein relocalizes to the break and recruits other key checkpoint proteins. Later and only in S and G2 phase, the homologous...... recombination machinery assembles at the site. Unlike the response to DSBs, Mre11 and recombination proteins are not recruited to hydroxyurea-stalled replication forks unless the forks collapse. The cellular response to DSBs and DNA replication stress is likely directed by the Mre11 complex detecting...

  3. Single-Stranded Nucleic Acids Bind to the Tetramer Interface of SAMHD1 and Prevent Formation of the Catalytic Homotetramer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamon, Kyle J; Bumpus, Namandjé N; Stivers, James T

    2016-11-08

    Sterile alpha motif and HD domain protein 1 (SAMHD1) is a unique enzyme that plays important roles in nucleic acid metabolism, viral restriction, and the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and cancer. Although much attention has been focused on its dNTP triphosphohydrolase activity in viral restriction and disease, SAMHD1 also binds to single-stranded RNA and DNA. Here we utilize a UV cross-linking method using 5-bromodeoxyuridine-substituted oligonucleotides coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry to identify the binding site for single-stranded nucleic acids (ssNAs) on SAMHD1. Mapping cross-linked amino acids on the surface of existing crystal structures demonstrated that the ssNA binding site lies largely along the dimer-dimer interface, sterically blocking the formation of the homotetramer required for dNTPase activity. Surprisingly, the disordered C-terminus of SAMHD1 (residues 583-626) was also implicated in ssNA binding. An interaction between this region and ssNA was confirmed in binding studies using the purified SAMHD1 583-626 peptide. Despite a recent report that SAMHD1 possesses polyribonucleotide phosphorylase activity, we did not detect any such activity in the presence of inorganic phosphate, indicating that nucleic acid binding is unrelated to this proposed activity. These data suggest an antagonistic regulatory mechanism in which the mutually exclusive oligomeric state requirements for ssNA binding and dNTP hydrolase activity modulate these two functions of SAMHD1 within the cell.

  4. 75 FR 31795 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Amended Notice of Meeting ACTION: Notice of cancellation of... information. Dated: May 26, 2010. Jacqueline Corrigan-Curay, Acting Director, Office of Biotechnology...

  5. The evolutionary value of recombination is constrained by genome modularity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren P Martin

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Genetic recombination is a fundamental evolutionary mechanism promoting biological adaptation. Using engineered recombinants of the small single-stranded DNA plant virus, Maize streak virus (MSV, we experimentally demonstrate that fragments of genetic material only function optimally if they reside within genomes similar to those in which they evolved. The degree of similarity necessary for optimal functionality is correlated with the complexity of intragenomic interaction networks within which genome fragments must function. There is a striking correlation between our experimental results and the types of MSV recombinants that are detectable in nature, indicating that obligatory maintenance of intragenome interaction networks strongly constrains the evolutionary value of recombination for this virus and probably for genomes in general.

  6. SAMHD1 Promotes DNA End Resection to Facilitate DNA Repair by Homologous Recombination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waaqo Daddacha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available DNA double-strand break (DSB repair by homologous recombination (HR is initiated by CtIP/MRN-mediated DNA end resection to maintain genome integrity. SAMHD1 is a dNTP triphosphohydrolase, which restricts HIV-1 infection, and mutations are associated with Aicardi-Goutières syndrome and cancer. We show that SAMHD1 has a dNTPase-independent function in promoting DNA end resection to facilitate DSB repair by HR. SAMHD1 deficiency or Vpx-mediated degradation causes hypersensitivity to DSB-inducing agents, and SAMHD1 is recruited to DSBs. SAMHD1 complexes with CtIP via a conserved C-terminal domain and recruits CtIP to DSBs to facilitate end resection and HR. Significantly, a cancer-associated mutant with impaired CtIP interaction, but not dNTPase-inactive SAMHD1, fails to rescue the end resection impairment of SAMHD1 depletion. Our findings define a dNTPase-independent function for SAMHD1 in HR-mediated DSB repair by facilitating CtIP accrual to promote DNA end resection, providing insight into how SAMHD1 promotes genome integrity.

  7. Homologous Recombination as a Replication Fork Escort: Fork-Protection and Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Costes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Homologous recombination is a universal mechanism that allows DNA repair and ensures the efficiency of DNA replication. The substrate initiating the process of homologous recombination is a single-stranded DNA that promotes a strand exchange reaction resulting in a genetic exchange that promotes genetic diversity and DNA repair. The molecular mechanisms by which homologous recombination repairs a double-strand break have been extensively studied and are now well characterized. However, the mechanisms by which homologous recombination contribute to DNA replication in eukaryotes remains poorly understood. Studies in bacteria have identified multiple roles for the machinery of homologous recombination at replication forks. Here, we review our understanding of the molecular pathways involving the homologous recombination machinery to support the robustness of DNA replication. In addition to its role in fork-recovery and in rebuilding a functional replication fork apparatus, homologous recombination may also act as a fork-protection mechanism. We discuss that some of the fork-escort functions of homologous recombination might be achieved by loading of the recombination machinery at inactivated forks without a need for a strand exchange step; as well as the consequence of such a model for the stability of eukaryotic genomes.

  8. Distinct DNA-binding surfaces in the ATPase and linker domains of MutLγ determine its substrate specificities and exert separable functions in meiotic recombination and mismatch repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corentin Claeys Bouuaert

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mlh1-Mlh3 (MutLγ is a mismatch repair factor with a central role in formation of meiotic crossovers, presumably through resolution of double Holliday junctions. MutLγ has DNA-binding, nuclease, and ATPase activities, but how these relate to one another and to in vivo functions are unclear. Here, we combine biochemical and genetic analyses to characterize Saccharomyces cerevisiae MutLγ. Limited proteolysis and atomic force microscopy showed that purified recombinant MutLγ undergoes ATP-driven conformational changes. In vitro, MutLγ displayed separable DNA-binding activities toward Holliday junctions (HJ and, surprisingly, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA, which was not predicted from current models. MutLγ bound DNA cooperatively, could bind multiple substrates simultaneously, and formed higher-order complexes. FeBABE hydroxyl radical footprinting indicated that the DNA-binding interfaces of MutLγ for ssDNA and HJ substrates only partially overlap. Most contacts with HJ substrates were located in the linker regions of MutLγ, whereas ssDNA contacts mapped within linker regions as well as the N-terminal ATPase domains. Using yeast genetic assays for mismatch repair and meiotic recombination, we found that mutations within different DNA-binding surfaces exert separable effects in vivo. For example, mutations within the Mlh1 linker conferred little or no meiotic phenotype but led to mismatch repair deficiency. Interestingly, mutations in the N-terminal domain of Mlh1 caused a stronger meiotic defect than mlh1Δ, suggesting that the mutant proteins retain an activity that interferes with alternative recombination pathways. Furthermore, mlh3Δ caused more chromosome missegregation than mlh1Δ, whereas mlh1Δ but not mlh3Δ partially alleviated meiotic defects of msh5Δ mutants. These findings illustrate functional differences between Mlh1 and Mlh3 during meiosis and suggest that their absence impinges on chromosome segregation not only via reduced

  9. Chromosomal aberrations and deoxyribonucleic acid single-strand breaks in adipose-derived stem cells during long-term expansion in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froelich, Katrin; Mickler, Johannes; Steusloff, Gudrun; Technau, Antje; Ramos Tirado, Mario; Scherzed, Agmal; Hackenberg, Stephan; Radeloff, Andreas; Hagen, Rudolf; Kleinsasser, Norbert

    2013-07-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are a promising mesenchymal cell source for tissue engineering approaches. To obtain an adequate cell amount, in vitro expansion of the cells may be required in some cases. To monitor potential contraindications for therapeutic applications in humans, DNA strand breaks and chromosomal aberrations in ASCs during in vitro expansion were examined. After isolation of ASC from human lipoaspirates of seven patients, in vitro expansion over 10 passages was performed. Cells from passages 1, 2, 3, 5 and 10 were used for the alkaline single-cell microgel electrophoresis (comet) assay to detect DNA single-strand breaks and alkali labile as well as incomplete excision repair sites. Chromosomal changes were examined by means of the chromosomal aberration test. During in vitro expansion, ASC showed no DNA single-strand breaks in the comet assay. With the chromosomal aberration test, however, a significant increase in chromosomal aberrations were detected. The study showed that although no DNA fragmentation could be determined, the safety of ASC cannot be ensured with respect to chromosome stability during in vitro expansion. Thus, reliable analyses for detecting ASC populations, which accumulate chromosomal aberrations or even undergo malignant transformation during extensive in vitro expansion, must be implemented as part of the safety evaluation of these cells for stem cell-based therapy. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. DNA secondary structures are associated with recombination in major Plasmodium falciparum variable surface antigen gene families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Adam F.; Lavstsen, Thomas; Rask, Thomas Salhøj

    2014-01-01

    falciparum-erythrocyte membrane protein 1 class on the infected erythrocyte surface. Recombination clearly generates var diversity, but the nature and control of the genetic exchanges involved remain unclear. By experimental and bioinformatic identification of recombination events and genome...... of recombination during DNA replication in P. falciparum sexual stages, and that these DSS-regulated genetic exchanges generate functional and diverse P. falciparum adhesion antigens. DSS-induced recombination may represent a common mechanism for optimizing the evolvability of virulence gene families in pathogens....

  11. The Globular State of the Single-Stranded RNA: Effect of the Secondary Structure Rearrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryan, Zareh A.; Karapetian, Armen T.

    2015-01-01

    The mutual influence of the slow rearrangements of secondary structure and fast collapse of the long single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) in approximation of coarse-grained model is studied with analytic calculations. It is assumed that the characteristic time of the secondary structure rearrangement is much longer than that for the formation of the tertiary structure. A nonequilibrium phase transition of the 2nd order has been observed. PMID:26345143

  12. The Globular State of the Single-Stranded RNA: Effect of the Secondary Structure Rearrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zareh A. Grigoryan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mutual influence of the slow rearrangements of secondary structure and fast collapse of the long single-stranded RNA (ssRNA in approximation of coarse-grained model is studied with analytic calculations. It is assumed that the characteristic time of the secondary structure rearrangement is much longer than that for the formation of the tertiary structure. A nonequilibrium phase transition of the 2nd order has been observed.

  13. Quantification and persistence of recombinant DNA of Roundup Ready corn and soybean in rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerat, Sylvain; Gulden, Robert H; Hart, Miranda M; Powell, Jeff R; England, Laura S; Pauls, K Peter; Swanton, Clarence J; Klironomos, John N; Trevors, Jack T

    2007-12-12

    The presence of the recombinant cp4 epsps gene from Roundup Ready (RR) corn and RR soybean was quantified using real-time PCR in soil samples from a field experiment growing RR and conventional corn and soybean in rotation. RR corn and RR soybean cp4 epsps persisted in soil for up to 1 year after seeding. The concentration of recombinant DNA in soil peaked in July and August in RR corn and RR soybean plots, respectively. A small fraction of soil samples from plots seeded with conventional crops contained recombinant DNA, suggesting transgene dispersal by means of natural process or agricultural practices. This research will aid in the understanding of the persistence of recombinant DNA in agricultural cropping systems.

  14. Self-regulation of recombinant DNA technology in Japan in the 1970s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Hiroyuki; Nukaga, Yoshio; Saeki, Koji; Akabayashi, Akira

    2009-07-01

    Recombinant DNA technology was developed in the United States in the early 1970s. Leading scientists held an international Asilomar Conference in 1975 to examine the self regulation of recombinant DNA technology, followed by the U.S. National Institutes of Health drafting the Recombinant DNA Research Guidelines in 1976. The result of this conference significantly affected many nations, including Japan. However, there have been few historical studies on the self-regulation of recombinant technologies conducted by scientists and government officials in Japan. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how the Science Council of Japan, the Ministry of Education, Science adn Culture, and the Science and Technology Agency developed self-regulation policies for recombinant DNA technology in Japan in the 1970s. Groups of molecular biologist and geneticists played a key role in establishing guidelines in cooperation with government officials. Our findings suggest that self-regulation policies on recombinant DNA technology have influenced safety management for the life sciences and establishment of institutions for review in Japan.

  15. CC1, a novel crenarchaeal DNA binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao; Schwarz-Linek, Uli; Botting, Catherine H; Hensel, Reinhard; Siebers, Bettina; White, Malcolm F

    2007-01-01

    The genomes of the related crenarchaea Pyrobaculum aerophilum and Thermoproteus tenax lack any obvious gene encoding a single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB). SSBs are essential for DNA replication, recombination, and repair and are found in all other genomes across the three domains of life. These two archaeal genomes also have only one identifiable gene encoding a chromatin protein (the Alba protein), while most other archaea have at least two different abundant chromatin proteins. We performed a biochemical screen for novel nucleic acid binding proteins present in cell extracts of T. tenax. An assay for proteins capable of binding to a single-stranded DNA oligonucleotide resulted in identification of three proteins. The first protein, Alba, has been shown previously to bind single-stranded DNA as well as duplex DNA. The two other proteins, which we designated CC1 (for crenarchaeal chromatin protein 1), are very closely related to one another, and homologs are restricted to the P. aerophilum and Aeropyrum pernix genomes. CC1 is a 6-kDa, monomeric, basic protein that is expressed at a high level in T. tenax. This protein binds single- and double-stranded DNAs with similar affinities. These properties are consistent with a role for CC1 as a crenarchaeal chromatin protein.

  16. Breaks in the 45S rDNA Lead to Recombination-Mediated Loss of Repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmerdam, Daniël O; van den Berg, Jeroen; Medema, René H

    2016-03-22

    rDNA repeats constitute the most heavily transcribed region in the human genome. Tumors frequently display elevated levels of recombination in rDNA, indicating that the repeats are a liability to the genomic integrity of a cell. However, little is known about how cells deal with DNA double-stranded breaks in rDNA. Using selective endonucleases, we show that human cells are highly sensitive to breaks in 45S but not the 5S rDNA repeats. We find that homologous recombination inhibits repair of breaks in 45S rDNA, and this results in repeat loss. We identify the structural maintenance of chromosomes protein 5 (SMC5) as contributing to recombination-mediated repair of rDNA breaks. Together, our data demonstrate that SMC5-mediated recombination can lead to error-prone repair of 45S rDNA repeats, resulting in their loss and thereby reducing cellular viability. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Procedure for normalization of cDNA libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaldo, Maria DeFatima; Soares, Marcelo Bento

    1997-01-01

    This invention provides a method to normalize a cDNA library constructed in a vector capable of being converted to single-stranded circles and capable of producing complementary nucleic acid molecules to the single-stranded circles comprising: (a) converting the cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating complementary nucleic acid molecules to the single-stranded circles; (c) hybridizing the single-stranded circles converted in step (a) with complementary nucleic acid molecules of step (b) to produce partial duplexes to an appropriate Cot; (e) separating the unhybridized single-stranded circles from the hybridized single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library.

  18. DNA degradation and reduced recombination following UV irradiation during meiosis in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salts, Y.; Pinon, R.; Simchen, G.

    1976-01-01

    Irradiation of meiotic yeast cells with moderate doses of ultraviolet irradiation (1,600 erg/mm 2 ) leads to the arrest of premeiotic DNA synthesis, massive (5-40%) DNA degradation, and a 40-50% loss of cell viability. In contrast, such doses of UV irradiation had a minor effect on viability (15-20% loss) of logarithmically growing cells, and no comparable DNA degradation was observed in irradiated synchronized vegetative cells. Meiotic recombination is also affected by UV irradiation. When administered at a stage comparable to meiotic prophase, low doses of irradiation result in a reduction in recombination frequency without significantly affecting cell viability. (orig.) [de

  19. mtSSB may sequester UNG1 at mitochondrial ssDNA and delay uracil processing until the dsDNA conformation is restored

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollen Steen, Kristian; Doseth, Berit; westbye, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Single-strand DNA binding proteins protect DNA from nucleolytic damage, prevent formation of secondary structures and prevent premature reannealing of DNA in DNA metabolic transactions. In eukaryotes, the nuclear single-strand DNA binding protein RPA is essential for chromosomal DNA replication...

  20. An att site-based recombination reporter system for genome engineering and synthetic DNA assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Michael J; Ducos-Galand, Magaly; Val, Marie-Eve; Mazel, Didier

    2017-07-14

    Direct manipulation of the genome is a widespread technique for genetic studies and synthetic biology applications. The tyrosine and serine site-specific recombination systems of bacteriophages HK022 and ΦC31 are widely used for stable directional exchange and relocation of DNA sequences, making them valuable tools in these contexts. We have developed site-specific recombination tools that allow the direct selection of recombination events by embedding the attB site from each system within the β-lactamase resistance coding sequence (bla). The HK and ΦC31 tools were developed by placing the attB sites from each system into the signal peptide cleavage site coding sequence of bla. All possible open reading frames (ORFs) were inserted and tested for recombination efficiency and bla activity. Efficient recombination was observed for all tested ORFs (3 for HK, 6 for ΦC31) as shown through a cointegrate formation assay. The bla gene with the embedded attB site was functional for eight of the nine constructs tested. The HK/ΦC31 att-bla system offers a simple way to directly select recombination events, thus enhancing the use of site-specific recombination systems for carrying out precise, large-scale DNA manipulation, and adding useful tools to the genetics toolbox. We further show the power and flexibility of bla to be used as a reporter for recombination.

  1. DNA fragmentation and cytotoxicity by recombinant human tumor necrosis factor in L929 fibroblast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosaka, T.; Kuwabara, M.; Koide, F.

    1992-01-01

    Induction of cell DNA fragmentation by treatment of recombinant human Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (rhTNF alpha) was examined by using mouse L929 cells derived from mouse fibroblast cells. The amount of DNA fragments derived from rhTNF alpha-treated cells, detected by alkaline elution technique, was smaller than that derived from X-irradiated cells. The rhTNF alpha caused the DNA fragmentation depending on its incubation time and concentration. The DNA damage caused by rhTNF alpha treatment correlated with its cytotoxicity. This result suggested that the DNA fragmentation is one of causes of cell death. The treatment with proteinase K of DNA obtained from rhTNF alpha-treated cells did not increase the amount of DNA fragmentation, which indicates that rhTNF alpha causes DNA-fragmentation but not DNA-protein cross-linking

  2. Properties of a mutant recA-encoded protein reveal a possible role for Escherichia coli recF-encoded protein in genetic recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madiraju, M.V.; Templin, A.; Clark, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    A mutation partially suppressing the UV sensitivity caused by recF143 in a uvrA6 background was located at codon 37 of recA where GTG (valine) became ATG (methionine). This mutation, originally named srf-803, was renamed recA803. Little if any suppression of the recF143 defect in UV induction of a lexA regulon promoter was detected. This led to the hypothesis that a defect in recombination repair of UV damage was suppressed by recA803. The mutant RecA protein (RecA803) was purified and compared with wild-type protein (RecA+) as a catalyst of formation of joint molecules. Under suboptimal conditions, RecA803 produces both a higher rate of formation and a higher yield of joint molecules. The suboptimal conditions tested included addition of single-stranded DNA binding protein to single-stranded DNA prior to addition of RecA. We hypothesize that the ability of RecA803 to overcome interference by single-stranded DNA binding protein is the property that allows recA803 to suppress partially the deficiency in repair caused by recF mutations in the uvrA6 background. Implications of this hypothesis for the function of RecF protein in recombination are discussed

  3. Recombination at DNA replication fork barriers is not universal and is differentially regulated by Swi1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryce, David W; Ramayah, Soshila; Jaendling, Alessa; McFarlane, Ramsay J

    2009-03-24

    DNA replication stress has been implicated in the etiology of genetic diseases, including cancers. It has been proposed that genomic sites that inhibit or slow DNA replication fork progression possess recombination hotspot activity and can form potential fragile sites. Here we used the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, to demonstrate that hotspot activity is not a universal feature of replication fork barriers (RFBs), and we propose that most sites within the genome that form RFBs do not have recombination hotspot activity under nonstressed conditions. We further demonstrate that Swi1, the TIMELESS homologue, differentially controls the recombination potential of RFBs, switching between being a suppressor and an activator of recombination in a site-specific fashion.

  4. Regulatory Control of the Resolution of DNA Recombination Intermediates during Meiosis and Mitosis

    OpenAIRE

    Matos, Joao; Blanco, Miguel G.; Maslen, Sarah; Skehel, J. Mark; West, Stephen C.

    2011-01-01

    The efficient and timely resolution of DNA recombination intermediates is essential for bipolar chromosome segregation. Here, we show that the specialized chromosome segregation patterns of meiosis and mitosis, which require the coordination of recombination with cell-cycle progression, are achieved by regulating the timing of activation of two crossover-promoting endonucleases. In yeast meiosis, Mus81-Mms4 and Yen1 are controlled by phosphorylation events that lead to their sequential activa...

  5. Single-Molecule Tethered Particle Motion: Stepwise Analyses of Site-Specific DNA Recombination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Fang Fan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Tethered particle motion/microscopy (TPM is a biophysical tool used to analyze changes in the effective length of a polymer, tethered at one end, under changing conditions. The tether length is measured indirectly by recording the Brownian motion amplitude of a bead attached to the other end. In the biological realm, DNA, whose interactions with proteins are often accompanied by apparent or real changes in length, has almost exclusively been the subject of TPM studies. TPM has been employed to study DNA bending, looping and wrapping, DNA compaction, high-order DNA–protein assembly, and protein translocation along DNA. Our TPM analyses have focused on tyrosine and serine site-specific recombinases. Their pre-chemical interactions with DNA cause reversible changes in DNA length, detectable by TPM. The chemical steps of recombination, depending on the substrate and the type of recombinase, may result in a permanent length change. Single molecule TPM time traces provide thermodynamic and kinetic information on each step of the recombination pathway. They reveal how mechanistically related recombinases may differ in their early commitment to recombination, reversibility of individual steps, and in the rate-limiting step of the reaction. They shed light on the pre-chemical roles of catalytic residues, and on the mechanisms by which accessory proteins regulate recombination directionality.

  6. In vitro recombination of bacteriophage T7 DNA damaged by uv radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masker, W.E.; Kuemmerle, N.B.

    1980-01-01

    A system capable of in vitro packaging of exogenous bacteriophage T7 DNA has been used to monitor the biological activity of DNA replicated in vitro. This system has been used to follow the effects of uv radiation on in vitro replication and recombination. During the in vitro replication process, a considerable exchange of genetic information occurs between T7 DNA molecules present in the reaction mixture. This in vitro recombination is reflected in the genotype of the T7 phage produced after in vitro encapsulation; depending on the genetic markers selected, recombinants can comprise nearly 20% of the total phage production. When uv-irradiated DNA is incubated in this system, the amount of in vitro synthesis is reduced and the total amount of viable phage produced after in vitro packaging is diminished. In vitro recombination rates are also lower when the participating DNA molecules have been exposed to uv. However, biochemical and genetic measurements confirmed that there is little or no transfer of pyrimidine dimers from irradiated DNA into undamaged molecules

  7. DNA hybrids suggesting a recombination process repairing radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks in Ehrlich Ascites tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthel, H.R.

    1984-01-01

    The results presented suggest the possibility of repair of DNA double-strand breaks by recombination, at least in the S and G 2 -phases of the cell cycle, in mammalian cells. Further experiments with synchronized cell cultures will have to show whether this process may also occur in the G 1 -phase of the cell cycle. (orig./AJ) [de

  8. Repair and gamma radiation-induced single- and double-strand breaks in DNA of Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, S.I.

    1981-01-01

    Studies in the kinetics of repair of γ-radiation-induced single- and double-strand breaks in DNA of E. coli cells showed that double-strand DNA breaks are rejoined by the following two ways. The first way is conditioned by repair of single-strand breaks and represents the repair of ''oblique'' double-strand breaks in DNA, whereas the second way is conditioned by functioning of the recombination mechanisms and, to all appearance, represents the repair of ''direct'' double-strand breaks in DNA

  9. PARP inhibition versus PARP-1 silencing: different outcomes in terms of single-strand break repair and radiation susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godon, C.; Cordelieres, F.P.; Giocanti, N.; Megnin-Chanet, F.; Hall, J.; Favaudon, V.; Godon, C.; Giocanti, N.; Megnin-Chanet, F.; Hall, J.; Favaudon, V.; Cordelieres, F.P.; Cordelieres, F.P.; Biard, D.

    2008-01-01

    The consequences of PARP-1 disruption or inhibition on DNA single-strand break repair (SSBR) and radio-induced lethality were determined in synchronized, iso-genic HeLa cells stably silenced or not for poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) (PARP-1(KD)) or XRCC1 (XRCC1(KD)). PARP-1 inhibition prevented XRCC1-YFP recruitment at sites of 405 nm laser micro irradiation, slowed SSBR 10-fold and triggered the accumulation of large persistent foci of GFP-PARP-1 and GFP-PCNA at photo damaged sites. These aggregates are presumed to hinder the recruitment of other effectors of the base excision repair (BER) pathway.PARP-1 silencing also prevented XRCC1-YFP recruitment but did not lengthen the lifetime of GFP-PCNA foci. Moreover, PARP-1(KD) and XRCC1(KD) cells in S phase completed SSBR as rapidly as controls, while SSBR was delayed in G1. Taken together, the data demonstrate that a PARP-1- and XRCC1-independent SSBR pathway operates when the short patch repair branch of the BER is deficient. Long patch repair is the likely mechanism, as GFP-PCNA recruitment at photo-damaged sites was normal in PARP-1(KD) cells. PARP-1 silencing elicited hyper-radiosensitivity, while radiosensitization by a PARP inhibitor reportedly occurs only in those cells treated in S phase. PARP-1 inhibition and deletion thus have different outcomes in terms of SSBR and radiosensitivity. (authors)

  10. Distinct spatio temporal patterns and PARP dependence of XRCC1 recruitment to single-strand break and base excision repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campalans, Anna; Kortulewski, Thierry; Amouroux, Rachel; Radicella, J. Pablo; Menoni, Herve; Vermeulen, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Single-strand break repair (SSBR) and base excision repair (BER) of modified bases and abasic sites share several players. Among them is XRCC1, an essential scaffold protein with no enzymatic activity, required for the coordination of both pathways. XRCC1 is recruited to SSBR by PARP-1, responsible for the initial recognition of the break. The recruitment of XRCC1 to BER is still poorly understood. Here we show by using both local and global induction of oxidative DNA base damage that XRCC1 participation in BER complexes can be distinguished from that in SSBR by several criteria. We show first that XRCC1 recruitment to BER is independent of PARP. Second, unlike SSBR complexes that are assembled within minutes after global damage induction, XRCC1 is detected later in BER patches, with kinetics consistent with the repair of oxidized bases. Third, while XRCC1-containing foci associated with SSBR are formed both in eu- and heterochromatin domains, BER complexes are assembled in patches that are essentially excluded from heterochromatin and where the oxidized bases are detected. (authors)

  11. Room temperature electrocompetent bacterial cells improve DNA transformation and recombineering efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Qiang; Yin, Jia; Fu, Jun; Herrmann, Jennifer; Li, Yuezhong; Yin, Yulong; Stewart, A Francis; Müller, Rolf; Zhang, Youming

    2016-04-20

    Bacterial competent cells are essential for cloning, construction of DNA libraries, and mutagenesis in every molecular biology laboratory. Among various transformation methods, electroporation is found to own the best transformation efficiency. Previous electroporation methods are based on washing and electroporating the bacterial cells in ice-cold condition that make them fragile and prone to death. Here we present simple temperature shift based methods that improve DNA transformation and recombineering efficiency in E. coli and several other gram-negative bacteria thereby economizing time and cost. Increased transformation efficiency of large DNA molecules is a significant advantage that might facilitate the cloning of large fragments from genomic DNA preparations and metagenomics samples.

  12. Analysis of the mycoplasma genome by recombinant DNA technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, C; Frydenberg, Jane; Christiansen, G

    1984-01-01

    A library of DNA fragments from Mycoplasma sp. strain PG50 has been made in the vector pBR325. Analysis in Escherichia coli minicells of randomly picked clones from this library demonstrated that many plasmids can promote synthesis of mycoplasma protein in the E. coli genetic background. Screening....... The DNA sequence of 16S rRNA and the surrounding control regions has been determined....

  13. Meiotic recombination hotspots - a comparative view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyuha; Henderson, Ian R

    2015-07-01

    During meiosis homologous chromosomes pair and undergo reciprocal genetic exchange, termed crossover. Meiotic recombination has a profound effect on patterns of genetic variation and is an important tool during crop breeding. Crossovers initiate from programmed DNA double-stranded breaks that are processed to form single-stranded DNA, which can invade a homologous chromosome. Strand invasion events mature into double Holliday junctions that can be resolved as crossovers. Extensive variation in the frequency of meiotic recombination occurs along chromosomes and is typically focused in narrow hotspots, observed both at the level of DNA breaks and final crossovers. We review methodologies to profile hotspots at different steps of the meiotic recombination pathway that have been used in different eukaryote species. We then discuss what these studies have revealed concerning specification of hotspot locations and activity and the contributions of both genetic and epigenetic factors. Understanding hotspots is important for interpreting patterns of genetic variation in populations and how eukaryotic genomes evolve. In addition, manipulation of hotspots will allow us to accelerate crop breeding, where meiotic recombination distributions can be limiting. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Resistance to radiation, recombination, repair of DNA and chromosome organisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, H.L.

    1981-01-01

    The model advanced here proposes that death is caused by destructive lesions, mainly double-strand breaks, in all the inter-repairable copies so close together that recombination repair cannot function. Death is related to the exponential of dose where r is the number of copies of the genome. A graph of ln(-ln survival) against ln dose is used to produce a linear dose-survival relationship, the slope of which gives the number of inter-repairable copies of the genome (= number of hits per lethal event). In Ustilago maydis it seems that unless all the chromatids are broken within a few thousand base pairs all ds breaks are repaired. The size of this critical target is similar to the size of a gene. Meiotic pairing in fungi starts outside the genes, and it is therefore suggested that specific pairing sites between genes define the ends of the targets. The model also describes the radiation-induced death of Micrococcus radiodurans and Sacchromyces cerevisiae. Cultured mammalian cells also show a linear ln(-ln survival)/ln dose relationship with a slope of 1.5 showing that both 1st and 2nd order killing occured. Sublethal radiation induces recombination in heterozygous diploid U. maydis proportional to the square of the dose. Sister-chromatid repair is preferred. Polyploid yeast can only use pairs of chromosomes for repair, showing that chromosome pairing is required for recombination repair, and mitotic pairing is restricted to bivalents in the same way that meiotic pairing is. (orig./AJ)

  15. Resistance to radiation, recombination, repair of DNA and chromosome organisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, H L [East Anglia Univ., Norwich (UK). School of Biological Sciences

    1981-01-01

    The model advanced here proposes that death is caused by destructive lesions, mainly double-strand breaks, in all the inter-repairable copies so close together that recombination repair cannot function. Death is related to the exponential of dose where r is the number of copies of the genome. A graph of ln(-ln survival) against ln dose is used to produce a linear dose-survival relationship, the slope of which gives the number of inter-repairable copies of the genome (= number of hits per lethal event). In Ustilago maydis it seems that unless all the chromatids are broken within a few thousand base pairs all ds breaks are repaired. The size of this critical target is similar to the size of a gene. Meiotic pairing in fungi starts outside the genes, and it is therefore suggested that specific pairing sites between genes define the ends of the targets. The model also describes the radiation-induced death of Micrococcus radiodurans and Sacchromyces cerevisiae. Cultured mammalian cells also show a linear ln(-ln survival)/ln dose relationship with a slope of 1.5 showing that both 1st and 2nd order killing occured. Sublethal radiation induces recombination in heterozygous diploid U. maydis proportional to the square of the dose. Sister-chromatid repair is preferred. Polyploid yeast can only use pairs of chromosomes for repair, showing that chromosome pairing is required for recombination repair, and mitotic pairing is restricted to bivalents in the same way that meiotic pairing is.

  16. Development of a recombinant DNA assay system for the detection of genetic change in astronauts' cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atchley, S.V.; Chen, D.J.C.; Strniste, G.F.; Walters, R.A.; Moyzis, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    We are developing a new recombinant DNA system for the detection and measurement of genetic change in humans caused by exposure to low level ionizing radiation. A unique feature of the method is the use of cloned repetitive DNA probes to assay human DNA for structural changes during or after irradiation. Repetitive sequences exist in different families. Collectively they constitute over 25% of the DNA in a human cell. Repeat families have between 10 and 500,000 members. We have constructed repetitive DNA sequence libraries using recombinant DNA techniques. From these libraries we have isolated and characterized individual repeats comprising 75 to 90% of the mass of human repetitive DNA. Repeats used in our assay system exist in tandem arrays in the genome. Perturbation of these sequences in a cell, followed by detection with a repeat probe, produces a new, multimeric ''ladder'' pattern on an autoradiogram. The repeat probe used in our initial study is complementary to 1% of human DNA. Therefore, the sensitivity of this method is several orders of magnitude better than existing assays. Preliminary evidence from human skin cells exposed to acute, low-dose x-ray treatments indicates that DNA is affected at a dose as low as 5R. The radiation doses used in this system are well within the range of doses received by astronauts during spaceflight missions. Due to its small material requirements, this technique could easily be adapted for use in space. 16 refs., 1 fig

  17. Absorption by DNA single strands of adenine isolated in vacuo: The role of multiple chromophores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L.M.; Pedersen, S.O.; Kirketerp, M.-B.S.

    2012-01-01

    to that for the adenine molecule and the dAMP mononucleotide. Desolvation has little effect on the bandwidth, which implies that inhomogenous broadening of the absorption bands in aqueous solution is of minor importance compared to, e.g., conformational disorder. Finally, at high photon energies, internal conversion...

  18. Phylogenetic and functional analysis of the bacteriophage P1 single-stranded DNA-binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jannick Dyrløv; Nilsson, A.S.; Lehnherr, H.

    2002-01-01

    and does not represent a recent acquirement of the phage. The P1 and E. coli SSB proteins are fully functionally interchangeable. SSB-P1 is nonessential for phage growth in an exponentially growing E. coli host, and it is sufficient to promote bacterial growth in the absence of the E. coli SSB protein....... Expression studies showed that the P1 ssb gene is transcribed only, in an rpoS-independent fashion, during stationary-phase growth in E. coli. Mixed infection experiments demonstrated that a wild-type phage has a selective advantage over an ssb-null mutant when exposed to a bacterial host in the stationary...

  19. LACK OF DNA SINGLE STRAND BREAKS IN A LUNG EPITHELIAL CELL LINE AFTER EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic (As) is a carcinogen whose most important target organs include the skin and lungs. Exposure can occur via water ingestion, or inhalation, as As is a by-product of fossil fuel combustion and other industrial activities. The carcinogenic mechanism of action for As remains ...

  20. PolyA Single Strand DNA Translocation Through an Alpha-Hemolysin Pore Stem

    Science.gov (United States)

    OKeeffe, James; Cozmuta, Ioana; Stolc, Viktor

    2003-01-01

    A new model for the polymer-pore interaction energy is introduced, based on an atomic-scale description of coulombic polymer-pore interaction. The enhanced drift velocity, experimentally observed for short polymers, is successfully accounted for, using this interaction energy model. For R/R(sub 0)>4 (R(sub 0)=7 angstroms) the translocation velocity approaches the free space drift velocity v(sub 0). This motivates the need to appropriately derivatize artificial nanopores, where R>R(sub 0).

  1. A single-stranded DNA aptamer that selectively binds to Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGrasse, Jeffrey A

    2012-01-01

    The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is a common foodborne pathogen capable of secreting a cocktail of small, stable, and strain-specific, staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs). Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) results when improperly handled food contaminated with SEs is consumed. Gastrointestinal symptoms of SFP include emesis, diarrhea and severe abdominal pain, which manifest within hours of ingesting contaminated food. Immuno-affinity based methods directly detect, identify, and quantify several SEs within a food or clinical sample. However, the success of these assays depends upon the availability of a monoclonal antibody, the development of which is non-trivial and costly. The current scope of the available immuno-affinity based methods is limited to the classical SEs and does not encompass all of the known or emergent SEs. In contrast to antibodies, aptamers are short nucleic acids that exhibit high affinity and specificity for their targets without the high-costs and ethical concerns of animal husbandry. Further, researchers may choose to freely distribute aptamers and develop assays without the proprietary issues that increase the per-sample cost of immuno-affinity assays. This study describes a novel aptamer, selected in vitro, with affinity to staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) that may be used in lieu of antibodies in SE detection assays. The aptamer, designated APT(SEB1), successfully isolates SEB from a complex mixture of SEs with extremely high discrimination. This work sets the foundation for future aptamer and assay development towards the entire family of SEs. The rapid, robust, and low-cost identification and quantification of all of the SEs in S. aureus contaminated food is essential for food safety and epidemiological efforts. An in vitro generated library of SE aptamers could potentially allow for the comprehensive and cost-effective analysis of food samples that immuno-affinity assays currently cannot provide.

  2. A Single-Stranded DNA Aptamer That Selectively Binds to Staphylococcus aureus Enterotoxin B

    OpenAIRE

    DeGrasse, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is a common foodborne pathogen capable of secreting a cocktail of small, stable, and strain-specific, staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs). Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) results when improperly handled food contaminated with SEs is consumed. Gastrointestinal symptoms of SFP include emesis, diarrhea and severe abdominal pain, which manifest within hours of ingesting contaminated food. Immuno-affinity based methods directly detect, identify, and quantify s...

  3. A single-stranded DNA aptamer that selectively binds to Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A DeGrasse

    Full Text Available The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is a common foodborne pathogen capable of secreting a cocktail of small, stable, and strain-specific, staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs. Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP results when improperly handled food contaminated with SEs is consumed. Gastrointestinal symptoms of SFP include emesis, diarrhea and severe abdominal pain, which manifest within hours of ingesting contaminated food. Immuno-affinity based methods directly detect, identify, and quantify several SEs within a food or clinical sample. However, the success of these assays depends upon the availability of a monoclonal antibody, the development of which is non-trivial and costly. The current scope of the available immuno-affinity based methods is limited to the classical SEs and does not encompass all of the known or emergent SEs. In contrast to antibodies, aptamers are short nucleic acids that exhibit high affinity and specificity for their targets without the high-costs and ethical concerns of animal husbandry. Further, researchers may choose to freely distribute aptamers and develop assays without the proprietary issues that increase the per-sample cost of immuno-affinity assays. This study describes a novel aptamer, selected in vitro, with affinity to staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB that may be used in lieu of antibodies in SE detection assays. The aptamer, designated APT(SEB1, successfully isolates SEB from a complex mixture of SEs with extremely high discrimination. This work sets the foundation for future aptamer and assay development towards the entire family of SEs. The rapid, robust, and low-cost identification and quantification of all of the SEs in S. aureus contaminated food is essential for food safety and epidemiological efforts. An in vitro generated library of SE aptamers could potentially allow for the comprehensive and cost-effective analysis of food samples that immuno-affinity assays currently cannot provide.

  4. Recombiner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Nobuo.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To shorten the pre-heating time for a recombiner and obtain a uniform temperature distribution for the charged catalyst layer in a BWR type reactor. Constitution: A pre-heating heater is disposed to the outer periphery of a vessel for a recombiner packed with catalysts for recombining hydrogen and oxygen in gases flowing through a radioactive gaseous wastes processing system. Heat pipes for transmitting the heat applied to said container to the catalyst are disposed vertically and horizontally within the container. Different length of the heat pipes are combined. In this way, pre-heating time for the recombiner before the operation start and before the system switching can be shortened and the uniform pre-heating for the inside of the recombiner is also made possible. Further, heater control in the pre-heating can be carried out effectively and with ease. (Moriyama, K.)

  5. Cre-dependent DNA recombination activates a STING-dependent innate immune response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pépin, Geneviève; Ferrand, Jonathan; Höning, Klara; Jayasekara, W. Samantha N.; Cain, Jason E.; Behlke, Mark A.; Gough, Daniel J.; G. Williams, Bryan R.; Hornung, Veit

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gene-recombinase technologies, such as Cre/loxP-mediated DNA recombination, are important tools in the study of gene function, but have potential side effects due to damaging activity on DNA. Here we show that DNA recombination by Cre instigates a robust antiviral response in mammalian cells, independent of legitimate loxP recombination. This is due to the recruitment of the cytosolic DNA sensor STING, concurrent with Cre-dependent DNA damage and the accumulation of cytoplasmic DNA. Importantly, we establish a direct interplay between this antiviral response and cell–cell interactions, indicating that low cell densities in vitro could be useful to help mitigate these effects of Cre. Taking into account the wide range of interferon stimulated genes that may be induced by the STING pathway, these results have broad implications in fields such as immunology, cancer biology, metabolism and stem cell research. Further, this study sets a precedent in the field of gene-engineering, possibly applicable to other enzymatic-based genome editing technologies. PMID:27166376

  6. Selection of LNA-containing DNA aptamers against recombinant human CD73

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Ida C; Karlsen, Kasper K; Terp, Mikkel G

    2015-01-01

    tested by surface plasmon resonance. Truncated variants of these aptamers and variants where the LNA nucleotides were substituted for the DNA equivalent also exhibited affinity for the recombinant CD73 in the low nanomolar range. In enzyme inhibition assays with recombinant CD73 the aptamer sequences......LNA-containing DNA aptamers against CD73 (human ecto-5'-nucleotidase), a protein frequently overexpressed in solid tumours, were isolated by SELEX. A pre-defined stem-loop library, containing LNA in the forward primer region, was enriched with CD73 binding sequences through six rounds of SELEX...... with recombinant his-tagged CD73 immobilised on anti-his plates. Enriched pools isolated from rounds one, three and six were subjected to next-generation sequencing and analysed for enrichment using custom bioinformatics software. The software identified aptamer sequences via the primers and then performed several...

  7. Are High School Students Ready for Recombinant DNA?: The UOP Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minch, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a three-week summer college honors course for talented high school juniors with three exams, lab six days a week, a research paper, field trips, and student panel discussions. Presents an overview of the course. Describes the lab which uses "E. coli" for DNA recombination. (MVL)

  8. The "Frankenplasmid" Lab: An Investigative Exercise for Teaching Recombinant DNA Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Derek M.; Wilder, Jason A.

    2011-01-01

    We describe an investigative laboratory module designed to give college undergraduates strong practical and theoretical experience with recombinant DNA methods within 3 weeks. After deducing restriction enzyme maps for two different plasmids, students ligate the plasmids together in the same reaction, transform "E. coli" with this mixture of…

  9. A simple DNA recombination screening method by RT-PCR as an alternative to Southern blot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albers, Eliene; Sbroggiò, Mauro; Martin Gonzalez, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The generation of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs), including knock-out (KO) and knock-in (KI) models, often requires genomic screening of many mouse ES cell (mESC) clones by Southern blot. The use of large targeting constructs facilitates the recombination of exogenous DNA in a specific...

  10. Failure to induce a DNA repair gene, RAD54, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not affect DNA repair or recombination phenotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, G.M.; Mortimer, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD54 gene is transcriptionally regulated by a broad spectrum of DNA-damaging agents. Induction of RAD54 by DNA-damaging agents is under positive control. Sequences responsible for DNA damage induction (the DRS element) lie within a 29-base-pair region from -99 to -70 from the most proximal transcription start site. This inducible promoter element is functionally separable from a poly(dA-dT) region immediately downstream which is required for constitutive expression. Deletions which eliminate induction of RAD54 transcription by DNA damage but do not affect constitutive expression have no effect on growth or survival of noninducible strains relative to wild-type strains in the presence of DNA-damaging agents. The DRS element is also not required for homothallic mating type switching, transcriptional induction of RAD54 during meiosis, meiotic recombination, or spontaneous or X-ray-induced mitotic recombination. We find no phenotype for a lack of induction of RAD54 message via the damage-inducible DRS, which raises significant questions about the physiology of DNA damage induction in S. cerevisiae

  11. An unstable donor-recipient DNA complex in transformation of Bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popowski, J.; Venema, G.

    1978-01-01

    In re-extracted DNA obtained shortly after uptake of transforming DNA by Bacillus subtilis, increased amounts of donor DNA radioactivity banding at the position of donor-recipient DNA complex (DRC) are observed in CsCl gradients, if the cells are irradiated with high doses of UV prior to reextraction of the DNA. Qualitatively, the same phenomenon is observed if lysates of transforming cells are irradiated. UV-irradiation of lysates of competent cells to which single-stranded DNA is added after lysis, does not result in linkage of this DNA to the chromosomal DNA. Two observations argue in favour of the formation of a specific labile complex between donor and resident DNA during transformation. Firstly, heterologous donor DNA from Escherichia coli, although being processed to single-stranded DNA in competent B. subtilis, does not seem to be linked to the recipient chromosome upon UV-irradiation, and secondly, the labile complex of donor and recipient DNA can be stabilized by means of treatment of the lysates of transforming cells with 4, 5 1 , 8-trimethylpsoralen in conjuction with long-wave-ultra violet light irradiation. This indicates that basepairing is involved in the formation of the complex. On the basis of these results we assume that the unstable complex of donor and recipient DNA is an early intermediate in genetic recombination during transformation. (orig.) [de

  12. Interaction between HIV-1 Tat and DNA-PKcs modulates HIV transcription and class switch recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shi-Meng; Zhang, He; Yang, Tian-Yi; Ying, Tian-Yi; Yang, Pei-Xiang; Liu, Xiao-Dan; Tang, Sheng-Jian; Zhou, Ping-Kun

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 tat targets a variety of host cell proteins to facilitate viral transcription and disrupts host cellular immunity by inducing lymphocyte apoptosis, but whether it influences humoral immunity remains unclear. Previously, our group demonstrated that tat depresses expression of DNA-PKcs, a critical component of the non-homologous end joining pathway (NHEJ) of DNA double-strand breaks repair, immunoglobulin class switch recombination (CSR) and V(D)J recombination, and sensitizes cells to ionizing radiation. In this study, we demonstrated that HIV-1 Tat down-regulates DNA-PKcs expression by directly binding to the core promoter sequence. In addition, Tat interacts with and activates the kinase activity of DNA-PKcs in a dose-dependent and DNA independent manner. Furthermore, Tat inhibits class switch recombination (CSR) at low concentrations (≤ 4 µg/ml) and stimulates CSR at high concentrations (≥ 8 µg/ml). On the other hand, low protein level and high kinase activity of DNA-PKcs promotes HIV-1 transcription, while high protein level and low kinase activity inhibit HIV-1 transcription. Co-immunoprecipitation results revealed that DNA-PKcs forms a large complex comprised of Cyclin T1, CDK9 and Tat via direct interacting with CDK9 and Tat but not Cyclin T1. Taken together, our results provide new clues that Tat regulates host humoral immunity via both transcriptional depression and kinase activation of DNA-PKcs. We also raise the possibility that inhibitors and interventions directed towards DNA-PKcs may inhibit HIV-1 transcription in AIDS patients.

  13. Recombiner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osumi, Morimichi.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a recombiner which is capable of converting hydrogen gas into water by use of high-frequency heating at comparatively low temperatures and is safe and cheap in cost. Constitution: Hydrogen gas is introduced from an outer pipeline to the main structure of a recombiner, and when it passes through the vicinity of the central part of the recombiner, it is reacted with copper oxide (CuO 2 ) heated to a temperature more than 300 0 C by a high-frequency heater, and converted gently into water by reduction operation (2H 2 + CuO 2 → Cu + 2H 2 O). The thus prepared water is exhausted through the outer pipeline to a suppression pool. A part of hydrogen gas which has not been converted completely into water by the reaction and is remaining as hydrogen is recovered through exhaust nozzles and again introduced into the main structure of the recombiner. (Yoshino, Y.)

  14. Characterization of DNA binding, transcriptional activation, and regulated nuclear association of recombinant human NFATp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seto Anita G

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NFATp is one member of a family of transcriptional activators whose nuclear accumulation and hence transcriptional activity is regulated in mammalian cells. Human NFATp exists as a phosphoprotein in the cytoplasm of naive T cells. Upon antigen stimulation, NFATp is dephosphorylated, accumulates in nuclei, and functions to regulate transcription of genes including those encoding cytokines. While the properties of the DNA binding domain of NFATp have been investigated in detail, biochemical studies of the transcriptional activation and regulated association with nuclei have remained unexplored because of a lack of full length, purified recombinant NFATp. Results We developed methods for expressing and purifying full length recombinant human NFATp that has all of the properties known to be associated with native NFATp. The recombinant NFATp binds DNA on its own and cooperatively with AP-1 proteins, activates transcription in vitro, is phosphorylated, can be dephosphorylated by calcineurin, and exhibits regulated association with nuclei in vitro. Importantly, activation by recombinant NFATp in a reconstituted transcription system required regions of the protein outside of the central DNA binding domain. Conclusions We conclude that NFATp is a bona fide transcriptional activator. Moreover, the reagents and methods that we developed will facilitate future studies on the mechanisms of transcriptional activation and nuclear accumulation by NFATp, a member of an important family of transcriptional regulatory proteins.

  15. Kinetics of end-to-end collision in short single-stranded nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Nau, Werner M

    2004-01-28

    A novel fluorescence-based method, which entails contact quenching of the long-lived fluorescent state of 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]-oct-2-ene (DBO), was employed to measure the kinetics of end-to-end collision in short single-stranded oligodeoxyribonucleotides of the type 5'-DBO-(X)n-dG with X = dA, dC, dT, or dU and n = 2 or 4. The fluorophore was covalently attached to the 5' end and dG was introduced as an efficient intrinsic quencher at the 3' terminus. The end-to-end collision rates, which can be directly related to the efficiency of intramolecular fluorescence quenching, ranged from 0.1 to 9.0 x 10(6) s(-1). They were strongly dependent on the strand length, the base sequence, as well as the temperature. Oligonucleotides containing dA in the backbone displayed much slower collision rates and significantly higher positive activation energies than strands composed of pyrimidine bases, suggesting a higher intrinsic rigidity of oligoadenylate. Comparison of the measured collision rates in short single-stranded oligodeoxyribonucleotides with the previously reported kinetics of hairpin formation indicates that the intramolecular collision is significantly faster than the nucleation step of hairpin closing. This is consistent with the configurational diffusion model suggested by Ansari et al. (Ansari, A.; Kuznetsov, S. V.; Shen, Y. Proc.Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2001, 98, 7771-7776), in which the formation of misfolded loops is thought to slow hairpin formation.

  16. Comparative Genomics of DNA Recombination and Repair in Cyanobacteria: Biotechnological Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassier-Chauvat, Corinne; Veaudor, Théo; Chauvat, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are fascinating photosynthetic prokaryotes that are regarded as the ancestors of the plant chloroplast; the purveyors of oxygen and biomass for the food chain; and promising cell factories for an environmentally friendly production of chemicals. In colonizing most waters and soils of our planet, cyanobacteria are inevitably challenged by environmental stresses that generate DNA damages. Furthermore, many strains engineered for biotechnological purposes can use DNA recombination to stop synthesizing the biotechnological product. Hence, it is important to study DNA recombination and repair in cyanobacteria for both basic and applied research. This review reports what is known in a few widely studied model cyanobacteria and what can be inferred by mining the sequenced genomes of morphologically and physiologically diverse strains. We show that cyanobacteria possess many E. coli-like DNA recombination and repair genes, and possibly other genes not yet identified. E. coli-homolog genes are unevenly distributed in cyanobacteria, in agreement with their wide genome diversity. Many genes are extremely well conserved in cyanobacteria (mutMS, radA, recA, recFO, recG, recN, ruvABC, ssb, and uvrABCD), even in small genomes, suggesting that they encode the core DNA repair process. In addition to these core genes, the marine Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus strains harbor recBCD (DNA recombination), umuCD (mutational DNA replication), as well as the key SOS genes lexA (regulation of the SOS system) and sulA (postponing of cell division until completion of DNA reparation). Hence, these strains could possess an E. coli-type SOS system. In contrast, several cyanobacteria endowed with larger genomes lack typical SOS genes. For examples, the two studied Gloeobacter strains lack alkB, lexA, and sulA; and Synechococcus PCC7942 has neither lexA nor recCD. Furthermore, the Synechocystis PCC6803 lexA product does not regulate DNA repair genes. Collectively, these findings

  17. Torsional regulation of hRPA-induced unwinding of double-stranded DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vlaminck, I.; Vidic, I.; Van Loenhout, M.T.J.; Kanaar, R.; Lebbink, J.H.G.; Dekker, C.

    2010-01-01

    All cellular single-stranded (ss) DNA is rapidly bound and stabilized by single stranded DNA-binding proteins (SSBs). Replication protein A, the main eukaryotic SSB, is able to unwind double-stranded (ds) DNA by binding and stabilizing transiently forming bubbles of ssDNA. Here, we study the

  18. Restoration of X-ray resistance and V(D)J recombination in mutant cells by Ku cDNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smider, V.; Rathmell, W.K.; Chu, G.; Lieber, M.R.

    1994-01-01

    Three genetic complementation groups of rodent cells are defective for both repair of x-ray-induced double-strand breaks and V(D)J recombination. Cells from one group lack a DNA end-binding activity that is biochemically and antigenically similar to the Ku autoantigen. Transfection of complementary DNA (cDNA) that encoded the 86-kilodalton subunit of Ku rescued these mutant cells for DNA end-binding activity, x-ray resistance, and V(D)J recombination activity. These results establish a role for Ku in DNA repair and recombination. Furthermore, as a component of a DNA-dependent protein kinase, Ku may initiate a signaling pathway induced by DNA damage

  19. DNA-PK, ATM and ATR collaboratively regulate p53-RPA interaction to facilitate homologous recombination DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, M A; Li, Z; Dangeti, M; Musich, P R; Patrick, S; Roginskaya, M; Cartwright, B; Zou, Y

    2013-05-09

    Homologous recombination (HR) and nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) are two distinct DNA double-stranded break (DSB) repair pathways. Here, we report that DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), the core component of NHEJ, partnering with DNA-damage checkpoint kinases ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR), regulates HR repair of DSBs. The regulation was accomplished through modulation of the p53 and replication protein A (RPA) interaction. We show that upon DNA damage, p53 and RPA were freed from a p53-RPA complex by simultaneous phosphorylations of RPA at the N-terminus of RPA32 subunit by DNA-PK and of p53 at Ser37 and Ser46 in a Chk1/Chk2-independent manner by ATR and ATM, respectively. Neither the phosphorylation of RPA nor of p53 alone could dissociate p53 and RPA. Furthermore, disruption of the release significantly compromised HR repair of DSBs. Our results reveal a mechanism for the crosstalk between HR repair and NHEJ through the co-regulation of p53-RPA interaction by DNA-PK, ATM and ATR.

  20. Molecular mechanisms of mutagenesis determined by the recombinant DNA technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    A study of the alteration of the DNA in the mutant gene can determine mechanisms of mutation by distinguishing between mutations induced by transition, transversion, frameshifts of a single base and deletions involving many base pairs. The association of a specific pattern of response with a mutagen will permit detecting mutants induced by the mutagen with a reduced background by removing mutations induced by other mechanisms from the pool of potential mutants. From analyses of studies that have been conducted, it is quite apparent that there are substantial differences among mutagens in their modes of action. Of 31 x-ray induced mutants, 20 were large deletions while only 3 showed normal Southern blots. Only one mutant produced a sub-unit polypeptide of normal molecular weight and charge in the in vivo test whereas in vitro synthesis produced a second one. In contrast, nine of thirteen EMS induced mutants produced cross-reacting proteins with sub-unit polypeptide molecular weights equivalent to wild type. Two of three ENU induced mutants recently analyzed in our laboratory produced protein with sub-unit polypeptide molecular weight and electrical charge similar to the wild type stock in which the mutants were induced. One ENU induced mutation is a large deletion. 21 refs., 1 fig

  1. Tomato protoplast DNA transformation : physical linkage and recombination of exogenous DNA sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongsma, Maarten; Koornneef, Maarten; Zabel, Pim; Hille, Jacques

    1987-01-01

    Tomato protoplasts have been transformed with plasmid DNA's, containing a chimeric kanamycin resistance gene and putative tomato origins of replication. A calcium phosphate-DNA mediated transformation procedure was employed in combination with either polyethylene glycol or polyvinyl alcohol. There

  2. Specific modifications of histone tails, but not DNA methylation, mirror the temporal variation of mammalian recombination hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jia; Yi, Soojin V

    2014-10-16

    Recombination clusters nonuniformly across mammalian genomes at discrete genomic loci referred to as recombination hotspots. Despite their ubiquitous presence, individual hotspots rapidly lose their activities, and the molecular and evolutionary mechanisms underlying such frequent hotspot turnovers (the so-called "recombination hotspot paradox") remain unresolved. Even though some sequence motifs are significantly associated with hotspots, multiple lines of evidence indicate that factors other than underlying sequences, such as epigenetic modifications, may affect the evolution of recombination hotspots. Thus, identifying epigenetic factors that covary with recombination at fine-scale is a promising step for this important research area. It was previously reported that recombination rates correlate with indirect measures of DNA methylation in the human genome. Here, we analyze experimentally determined DNA methylation and histone modification of human sperms, and show that the correlation between DNA methylation and recombination in long-range windows does not hold with respect to the spatial and temporal variation of recombination at hotspots. On the other hand, two histone modifications (H3K4me3 and H3K27me3) overlap extensively with recombination hotspots. Similar trends were observed in mice. These results indicate that specific histone modifications rather than DNA methylation are associated with the rapid evolution of recombination hotspots. Furthermore, many human recombination hotspots occupy "bivalent" chromatin regions that harbor both active (H3K4me3) and repressive (H3K27me3) marks. This may explain why human recombination hotspots tend to occur in nongenic regions, in contrast to yeast and Arabidopsis hotspots that are characterized by generally active chromatins. Our results highlight the dynamic epigenetic underpinnings of recombination hotspot evolution. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for

  3. Hands on Group Work Paper Model for Teaching DNA Structure, Central Dogma and Recombinant DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altiparmak, Melek; Nakiboglu Tezer, Mahmure

    2009-01-01

    Understanding life on a molecular level is greatly enhanced when students are given the opportunity to visualize the molecules. Especially understanding DNA structure and function is essential for understanding key concepts of molecular biology such as DNA, central dogma and the manipulation of DNA. Researches have shown that undergraduate…

  4. Quantification and Sequencing of Crossover Recombinant Molecules from Arabidopsis Pollen DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyuha; Yelina, Nataliya E; Serra, Heïdi; Henderson, Ian R

    2017-01-01

    During meiosis, homologous chromosomes undergo recombination, which can result in formation of reciprocal crossover molecules. Crossover frequency is highly variable across the genome, typically occurring in narrow hotspots, which has a significant effect on patterns of genetic diversity. Here we describe methods to measure crossover frequency in plants at the hotspot scale (bp-kb), using allele-specific PCR amplification from genomic DNA extracted from the pollen of F 1 heterozygous plants. We describe (1) titration methods that allow amplification, quantification and sequencing of single crossover molecules, (2) quantitative PCR methods to more rapidly measure crossover frequency, and (3) application of high-throughput sequencing for study of crossover distributions within hotspots. We provide detailed descriptions of key steps including pollen DNA extraction, prior identification of hotspot locations, allele-specific oligonucleotide design, and sequence analysis approaches. Together, these methods allow the rate and recombination topology of plant hotspots to be robustly measured and compared between varied genetic backgrounds and environmental conditions.

  5. Top3 processes recombination intermediates and modulates checkpoint activity after DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mankouri, Hocine W; Hickson, Ian D

    2006-01-01

    Mutation of TOP3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae causes poor growth, hyperrecombination, and a failure to fully activate DNA damage checkpoints in S phase. Here, we report that overexpression of a dominant-negative allele of TOP3, TOP3(Y356F), which lacks the catalytic (decatenation) activity of Top3......, the catalytic activity of Top3 is not required for DNA damage checkpoint activation, but it is required for normal S-phase progression after DNA damage. We also present evidence that the checkpoint-mediated cell cycle delay and persistence of X-shaped DNA molecules resulting from overexpression of TOP3(Y356F......) are downstream of Rad51 function. We propose that Top3 functions in S phase to both process homologous recombination intermediates and modulate checkpoint activity....

  6. The use of recombinant DNA technology for the development of a bluetongue virus subunit vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huismans, H.

    1985-01-01

    The double-standed RNA gene coding for the surface antigen responsible for inducing neutralising anti-bodies has been isolated, converted to DNA, and cloned in the plasmid pBR322. So far, only plasmids containing inserts smaller than the gene have been obtained. The recombinant plasmids were isolated by screening for specific antibiotic resistance markers and characterized by size, restriction enzymes and hybridization with a 32 P-labelled DNA probe made with BTV-m RNA as template. Possible strategies for the development of a bluetongue virus submit vaccine are discussed

  7. Promotion of BRCA2-Dependent Homologous Recombination by DSS1 via RPA Targeting and DNA Mimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weixing; Vaithiyalingam, Sivaraja; San Filippo, Joseph; Maranon, David G; Jimenez-Sainz, Judit; Fontenay, Gerald V; Kwon, Youngho; Leung, Stanley G; Lu, Lucy; Jensen, Ryan B; Chazin, Walter J; Wiese, Claudia; Sung, Patrick

    2015-07-16

    The tumor suppressor BRCA2 is thought to facilitate the handoff of ssDNA from replication protein A (RPA) to the RAD51 recombinase during DNA break and replication fork repair by homologous recombination. However, we find that RPA-RAD51 exchange requires the BRCA2 partner DSS1. Biochemical, structural, and in vivo analyses reveal that DSS1 allows the BRCA2-DSS1 complex to physically and functionally interact with RPA. Mechanistically, DSS1 acts as a DNA mimic to attenuate the affinity of RPA for ssDNA. A mutation in the solvent-exposed acidic domain of DSS1 compromises the efficacy of RPA-RAD51 exchange. Thus, by targeting RPA and mimicking DNA, DSS1 functions with BRCA2 in a two-component homologous recombination mediator complex in genome maintenance and tumor suppression. Our findings may provide a paradigm for understanding the roles of DSS1 in other biological processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Formation of (DNA)2-LNA triplet with recombinant base recognition: A quantum mechanical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mall, Vijaya Shri; Tiwari, Rakesh Kumar

    2018-05-01

    The formation of DNA triple helix offers the verity of new possibilities in molecular biology. However its applications are limited to purine and pyrimidine rich sequences recognized by forming Hoogsteen/Reverse Hoogsteen triplets in major groove sites of DNA duplex. To overcome this drawback modification in bases backbone and glucose of nucleotide unit of DNA have been proposed so that the third strand base recognized by both the bases of DNA duplex by forming Recombinant type(R-type) of bonding in mixed sequences. Here we performed Quanrum Mechanical (Hartree-Fock and DFT) methodology on natural DNA and Locked Nucleic Acids(LNA) triplets using 6-31G and some other new advance basis sets. Study suggests energetically stable conformation has been observed for recombinant triplets in order of G-C*G > A-T*A > G-C*C > T-A*T for both type of triplets. Interestingly LNA leads to more stable conformation in all set of triplets, clearly suggests an important biological tool to overcome above mentioned drawbacks.

  9. Overexpressed of RAD51 suppresses recombination defects: a possible mechanism to reverse genomic instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schild, David; Wiese, Claudia

    2009-10-15

    RAD51, a key protein in the homologous recombinational DNA repair (HRR) pathway, is the major strand-transferase required for mitotic recombination. An important early step in HRR is the formation of single-stranded DNA (ss-DNA) coated by RPA (a ss-DNA binding protein). Displacement of RPA by RAD51 is highly regulated and facilitated by a number of different proteins known as the 'recombination mediators'. To assist these recombination mediators, a second group of proteins also is required and we are defining these proteins here as 'recombination co-mediators'. Defects in either recombination mediators or comediators, including BRCA1 and BRCA2, lead to impaired HRR that can genetically be complemented for (i.e. suppressed) by overexpression of RAD51. Defects in HRR have long been known to contribute to genomic instability leading to tumor development. Since genomic instability also slows cell growth, precancerous cells presumably require genomic restabilization to gain a growth advantage. RAD51 is overexpressed in many tumors, and therefore, we hypothesize that the complementing ability of elevated levels of RAD51 in tumors with initial HRR defects limits genomic instability during carcinogenic progression. Of particular interest, this model may also help explain the high frequency of TP53 mutations in human cancers, since wild-type p53 represses RAD51.

  10. Recombiner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saalfrank, H.

    1985-01-01

    Air containing hydrogen can be oxidized by heating in a container called a recombiner, in order to avoid the collection of hydrogen. The container is long and a large number of straight heating bars are arranged in parallel in it and they are flanged to a lid. The heating bars are surrounded by tubes, in order to obtain good heat transfer by a narrow annular gap. (orig.) [de

  11. Efficient generation of recombinant RNA viruses using targeted recombination-mediated mutagenesis of bacterial artificial chromosomes containing full-length cDNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Risager, Peter Christian; Fahnøe, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    Background Infectious cDNA clones are a prerequisite for directed genetic manipulation of RNA viruses. Here, a strategy to facilitate manipulation and rescue of classical swine fever viruses (CSFVs) from full-length cDNAs present within bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) is described....... This strategy allows manipulation of viral cDNA by targeted recombination-mediated mutagenesis within bacteria. Results A new CSFV-BAC (pBeloR26) derived from the Riems vaccine strain has been constructed and subsequently modified in the E2 coding sequence, using the targeted recombination strategy to enable...

  12. Evaluation of the efficiency and utility of recombinant enzyme-free seamless DNA cloning methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Motohashi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Simple and low-cost recombinant enzyme-free seamless DNA cloning methods have recently become available. In vivo Escherichia coli cloning (iVEC can directly transform a mixture of insert and vector DNA fragments into E. coli, which are ligated by endogenous homologous recombination activity in the cells. Seamless ligation cloning extract (SLiCE cloning uses the endogenous recombination activity of E. coli cellular extracts in vitro to ligate insert and vector DNA fragments. An evaluation of the efficiency and utility of these methods is important in deciding the adoption of a seamless cloning method as a useful tool. In this study, both seamless cloning methods incorporated inserting DNA fragments into linearized DNA vectors through short (15–39 bp end homology regions. However, colony formation was 30–60-fold higher with SLiCE cloning in end homology regions between 15 and 29 bp than with the iVEC method using DH5α competent cells. E. coli AQ3625 strains, which harbor a sbcA gene mutation that activates the RecE homologous recombination pathway, can be used to efficiently ligate insert and vector DNA fragments with short-end homology regions in vivo. Using AQ3625 competent cells in the iVEC method improved the rate of colony formation, but the efficiency and accuracy of SLiCE cloning were still higher. In addition, the efficiency of seamless cloning methods depends on the intrinsic competency of E. coli cells. The competency of chemically competent AQ3625 cells was lower than that of competent DH5α cells, in all cases of chemically competent cell preparations using the three different methods. Moreover, SLiCE cloning permits the use of both homemade and commercially available competent cells because it can use general E. coli recA− strains such as DH5α as host cells for transformation. Therefore, between the two methods, SLiCE cloning provides both higher efficiency and better utility than the iVEC method for seamless DNA plasmid

  13. A BAC-bacterial recombination method to generate physically linked multiple gene reporter DNA constructs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Shiaochin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reporter gene mice are valuable animal models for biological research providing a gene expression readout that can contribute to cellular characterization within the context of a developmental process. With the advancement of bacterial recombination techniques to engineer reporter gene constructs from BAC genomic clones and the generation of optically distinguishable fluorescent protein reporter genes, there is an unprecedented capability to engineer more informative transgenic reporter mouse models relative to what has been traditionally available. Results We demonstrate here our first effort on the development of a three stage bacterial recombination strategy to physically link multiple genes together with their respective fluorescent protein (FP reporters in one DNA fragment. This strategy uses bacterial recombination techniques to: (1 subclone genes of interest into BAC linking vectors, (2 insert desired reporter genes into respective genes and (3 link different gene-reporters together. As proof of concept, we have generated a single DNA fragment containing the genes Trap, Dmp1, and Ibsp driving the expression of ECFP, mCherry, and Topaz FP reporter genes, respectively. Using this DNA construct, we have successfully generated transgenic reporter mice that retain two to three gene readouts. Conclusion The three stage methodology to link multiple genes with their respective fluorescent protein reporter works with reasonable efficiency. Moreover, gene linkage allows for their common chromosomal integration into a single locus. However, the testing of this multi-reporter DNA construct by transgenesis does suggest that the linkage of two different genes together, despite their large size, can still create a positional effect. We believe that gene choice, genomic DNA fragment size and the presence of endogenous insulator elements are critical variables.

  14. A BAC-bacterial recombination method to generate physically linked multiple gene reporter DNA constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maye, Peter; Stover, Mary Louise; Liu, Yaling; Rowe, David W; Gong, Shiaochin; Lichtler, Alexander C

    2009-03-13

    Reporter gene mice are valuable animal models for biological research providing a gene expression readout that can contribute to cellular characterization within the context of a developmental process. With the advancement of bacterial recombination techniques to engineer reporter gene constructs from BAC genomic clones and the generation of optically distinguishable fluorescent protein reporter genes, there is an unprecedented capability to engineer more informative transgenic reporter mouse models relative to what has been traditionally available. We demonstrate here our first effort on the development of a three stage bacterial recombination strategy to physically link multiple genes together with their respective fluorescent protein (FP) reporters in one DNA fragment. This strategy uses bacterial recombination techniques to: (1) subclone genes of interest into BAC linking vectors, (2) insert desired reporter genes into respective genes and (3) link different gene-reporters together. As proof of concept, we have generated a single DNA fragment containing the genes Trap, Dmp1, and Ibsp driving the expression of ECFP, mCherry, and Topaz FP reporter genes, respectively. Using this DNA construct, we have successfully generated transgenic reporter mice that retain two to three gene readouts. The three stage methodology to link multiple genes with their respective fluorescent protein reporter works with reasonable efficiency. Moreover, gene linkage allows for their common chromosomal integration into a single locus. However, the testing of this multi-reporter DNA construct by transgenesis does suggest that the linkage of two different genes together, despite their large size, can still create a positional effect. We believe that gene choice, genomic DNA fragment size and the presence of endogenous insulator elements are critical variables.

  15. Absolute determination of single-stranded and self-complementary adeno-associated viral vector genome titers by droplet digital PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Martin; Alvira, Mauricio R; Chen, Shu-Jen; Wilson, James M

    2014-04-01

    Accurate titration of adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector genome copies is critical for ensuring correct and reproducible dosing in both preclinical and clinical settings. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) is the current method of choice for titrating AAV genomes because of the simplicity, accuracy, and robustness of the assay. However, issues with qPCR-based determination of self-complementary AAV vector genome titers, due to primer-probe exclusion through genome self-annealing or through packaging of prematurely terminated defective interfering (DI) genomes, have been reported. Alternative qPCR, gel-based, or Southern blotting titering methods have been designed to overcome these issues but may represent a backward step from standard qPCR methods in terms of simplicity, robustness, and precision. Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) is a new PCR technique that directly quantifies DNA copies with an unparalleled degree of precision and without the need for a standard curve or for a high degree of amplification efficiency; all properties that lend themselves to the accurate quantification of both single-stranded and self-complementary AAV genomes. Here we compare a ddPCR-based AAV genome titer assay with a standard and an optimized qPCR assay for the titration of both single-stranded and self-complementary AAV genomes. We demonstrate absolute quantification of single-stranded AAV vector genomes by ddPCR with up to 4-fold increases in titer over a standard qPCR titration but with equivalent readout to an optimized qPCR assay. In the case of self-complementary vectors, ddPCR titers were on average 5-, 1.9-, and 2.3-fold higher than those determined by standard qPCR, optimized qPCR, and agarose gel assays, respectively. Droplet digital PCR-based genome titering was superior to qPCR in terms of both intra- and interassay precision and is more resistant to PCR inhibitors, a desirable feature for in-process monitoring of early-stage vector production and for vector genome biodistribution

  16. Characterization of a novel single-stranded RNA mycovirus in pleurotus ostreatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Hyun Jae; Lim, Dongbin; Lee, Hyun-Sook

    2003-01-01

    A mycovirus, named oyster mushroom spherical virus (OMSV), was isolated from cultivated oyster mushrooms with a severe epidemic of oyster mushroom Die-back disease. OMSV was a 27-nm spherical virus encapsidating a single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) of 5.784 kb with a coat protein of approximately 28.5 kDa. The nucleotide sequence of the virus revealed that its genomic RNA was positive strand, containing 5784 bases with seven open reading frames (ORF). ORF1 had the motifs of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRp) and helicase. ORF2 encoded a coat protein. ORF3 to 7 could encode putative polypeptides of approximately 12, 12.5, 21, 14.5, and 23 kDa, respectively, but none of them showed significant similarity to any other known polypeptides. The 5' end of the viral RNA was uncapped and the 3' end was polyadenylated with 74 bases. Genomic structure and organization and the derived amino acid sequence of RdRp and helicase domain were similar to those of tymoviruses, a plant virus group

  17. Fragment-based modelling of single stranded RNA bound to RNA recognition motif containing proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beauchene, Isaure Chauvot; de Vries, Sjoerd J.; Zacharias, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Protein-RNA complexes are important for many biological processes. However, structural modeling of such complexes is hampered by the high flexibility of RNA. Particularly challenging is the docking of single-stranded RNA (ssRNA). We have developed a fragment-based approach to model the structure of ssRNA bound to a protein, based on only the protein structure, the RNA sequence and conserved contacts. The conformational diversity of each RNA fragment is sampled by an exhaustive library of trinucleotides extracted from all known experimental protein–RNA complexes. The method was applied to ssRNA with up to 12 nucleotides which bind to dimers of the RNA recognition motifs (RRMs), a highly abundant eukaryotic RNA-binding domain. The fragment based docking allows a precise de novo atomic modeling of protein-bound ssRNA chains. On a benchmark of seven experimental ssRNA–RRM complexes, near-native models (with a mean heavy-atom deviation of <3 Å from experiment) were generated for six out of seven bound RNA chains, and even more precise models (deviation < 2 Å) were obtained for five out of seven cases, a significant improvement compared to the state of the art. The method is not restricted to RRMs but was also successfully applied to Pumilio RNA binding proteins. PMID:27131381

  18. Packaging signals in single-stranded RNA viruses: nature's alternative to a purely electrostatic assembly mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockley, Peter G; Twarock, Reidun; Bakker, Saskia E; Barker, Amy M; Borodavka, Alexander; Dykeman, Eric; Ford, Robert J; Pearson, Arwen R; Phillips, Simon E V; Ranson, Neil A; Tuma, Roman

    2013-03-01

    The formation of a protective protein container is an essential step in the life-cycle of most viruses. In the case of single-stranded (ss)RNA viruses, this step occurs in parallel with genome packaging in a co-assembly process. Previously, it had been thought that this process can be explained entirely by electrostatics. Inspired by recent single-molecule fluorescence experiments that recapitulate the RNA packaging specificity seen in vivo for two model viruses, we present an alternative theory, which recognizes the important cooperative roles played by RNA-coat protein interactions, at sites we have termed packaging signals. The hypothesis is that multiple copies of packaging signals, repeated according to capsid symmetry, aid formation of the required capsid protein conformers at defined positions, resulting in significantly enhanced assembly efficiency. The precise mechanistic roles of packaging signal interactions may vary between viruses, as we have demonstrated for MS2 and STNV. We quantify the impact of packaging signals on capsid assembly efficiency using a dodecahedral model system, showing that heterogeneous affinity distributions of packaging signals for capsid protein out-compete those of homogeneous affinities. These insights pave the way to a new anti-viral therapy, reducing capsid assembly efficiency by targeting of the vital roles of the packaging signals, and opens up new avenues for the efficient construction of protein nanocontainers in bionanotechnology.

  19. Precise gene modification mediated by TALEN and single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides in human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Wang

    Full Text Available The development of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs facilitates in vitro studies of human disease mechanisms, speeds up the process of drug screening, and raises the feasibility of using cell replacement therapy in clinics. However, the study of genotype-phenotype relationships in ESCs or iPSCs is hampered by the low efficiency of site-specific gene editing. Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs spurred interest due to the ease of assembly, high efficiency and faithful gene targeting. In this study, we optimized the TALEN design to maximize its genomic cutting efficiency. We showed that using optimized TALENs in conjunction with single-strand oligodeoxynucleotide (ssODN allowed efficient gene editing in human cells. Gene mutations and gene deletions for up to 7.8 kb can be accomplished at high efficiencies. We established human tumor cell lines and H9 ESC lines with homozygous deletion of the microRNA-21 (miR-21 gene and miR-9-2 gene. These cell lines provide a robust platform to dissect the roles these genes play during cell differentiation and tumorigenesis. We also observed that the endogenous homologous chromosome can serve as a donor template for gene editing. Overall, our studies demonstrate the versatility of using ssODN and TALEN to establish genetically modified cells for research and therapeutic application.

  20. Quantitation of ultraviolet-induced single-strand breaks using oligonucleotide chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Sukdeb; Kim, Min Jung; Choo, Jaebum; Kang, Seong Ho; Lee, Kyeong-Hee; Song, Joon Myong

    2008-01-01

    A simple, accurate and robust methodology was established for the direct quantification of ultraviolet (UV)-induced single-strand break (SSB) using oligonucleotide chip. Oligonucleotide chips were fabricated by covalently anchoring the fluorescent-labeled ssDNAs onto silicon dioxide chip surfaces. Assuming that the possibility of more than one UV-induced SSB to be generated in a small oligonucleotide is extremely low, SSB formation was investigated quantifying the endpoint probe density by fluorescence measurement upon UV irradiation. The SSB yields obtained based on the highly sensitive laser-induced fluorometric determination of fluorophore-labeled oligonucleotides were found to coincide well with that predicted from a theoretical extrapolation of the results obtained for plasmid DNAs using conventional agarose gel electrophoresis. The developed method has the potential to serve as a high throughput, sample-thrifty, and time saving tool to realize more realistic, and direct quantification of radiation and chemical-induced strand breaks. It will be especially useful for determining the frequency of SSBs or lesions convertible to SSBs by specific cleaving reagents or enzymes

  1. Capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism for the monitoring of gastrointestinal microbiota of chicken flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pissavin, C; Burel, C; Gabriel, I; Beven, V; Mallet, S; Maurice, R; Queguiner, M; Lessire, M; Fravalo, P

    2012-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism (CE-SSCP) to characterize poultry gut microbiota and the ability of this molecular method to detect modifications related to rearing conditions to be used as an epidemiological tool. The V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene was selected as the PCR target. Our results showed that this method provides reproducible data. The microbiota analysis of individuals showed that variability between individual fingerprints was higher for ileum and cloaca than for ceca. However, pooling the samples decreased this variability. To estimate the variability within and between farms, we compared molecular gut patterns of animals from the same hatchery reared under similar conditions and fed the same diet in 2 separate farms. Total aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and lactic acid bacteria were enumerated using conventional bacteriological methods. A significant difference was observed for coliforms present in the ceca and the cloaca depending on the farm. Ileal contents fingerprints were more closely related to those of cloacal contents than to those of ceca contents. When comparing samples from the 2 farms, a specific microbiota was highlighted for each farm. For each gut compartment, the microbiota fingerprints were joined in clusters according to the farm. Thus, this rapid and potentially high-throughput method to obtain gut flora fingerprints is sensitive enough to detect a "farm effect" on the balance of poultry gut microbiota despite the birds being fed the same regimens and reared under similar conditions.

  2. Active site electrostatics protect genome integrity by blocking abortive hydrolysis during DNA recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chien-Hui; Rowley, Paul A; Macieszak, Anna; Guga, Piotr; Jayaram, Makkuni

    2009-01-01

    Water, acting as a rogue nucleophile, can disrupt transesterification steps of important phosphoryl transfer reactions in DNA and RNA. We have unveiled this risk, and identified safeguards instituted against it, during strand cleavage and joining by the tyrosine site-specific recombinase Flp. Strand joining is threatened by a latent Flp endonuclease activity (type I) towards the 3′-phosphotyrosyl intermediate resulting from strand cleavage. This risk is not alleviated by phosphate electrostatics; neutralizing the negative charge on the scissile phosphate through methylphosphonate (MeP) substitution does not stimulate type I endonuclease. Rather, protection derives from the architecture of the recombination synapse and conformational dynamics within it. Strand cleavage is protected against water by active site electrostatics. Replacement of the catalytic Arg-308 of Flp by alanine, along with MeP substitution, elicits a second Flp endonuclease activity (type II) that directly targets the scissile phosphodiester bond in DNA. MeP substitution, combined with appropriate active site mutations, will be useful in revealing anti-hydrolytic mechanisms engendered by systems that mediate DNA relaxation, DNA transposition, site-specific recombination, telomere resolution, RNA splicing and retrohoming of mobile introns. PMID:19440204

  3. Preparation of Phi29 DNA polymerase free of amplifiable DNA using ethidium monoazide, an ultraviolet-free light-emitting diode lamp and trehalose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Takahashi

    Full Text Available We previously reported that multiply-primed rolling circle amplification (MRPCA using modified random RNA primers can amplify tiny amounts of circular DNA without producing any byproducts. However, contaminating DNA in recombinant Phi29 DNA polymerase adversely affects the outcome of MPRCA, especially for negative controls such as non-template controls. The amplified DNA in negative control casts doubt on the result of DNA amplification. Since Phi29 DNA polymerase has high affinity for both single-strand and double-stranded DNA, some amount of host DNA will always remain in the recombinant polymerase. Here we describe a procedure for preparing Phi29 DNA polymerase which is essentially free of amplifiable DNA. This procedure is realized by a combination of host DNA removal using appropriate salt concentrations, inactivation of amplifiable DNA using ethidium monoazide, and irradiation with visible light from a light-emitting diode lamp. Any remaining DNA, which likely exists as oligonucleotides captured by the Phi29 DNA polymerase, is degraded by the 3'-5' exonuclease activity of the polymerase itself in the presence of trehalose, used as an anti-aggregation reagent. Phi29 DNA polymerase purified by this procedure has little amplifiable DNA, resulting in reproducible amplification of at least ten copies of plasmid DNA without any byproducts and reducing reaction volume. This procedure could aid the amplification of tiny amounts DNA, thereby providing clear evidence of contamination from laboratory environments, tools and reagents.

  4. A PHF8 homolog in C. elegans promotes DNA repair via homologous recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changrim Lee

    Full Text Available PHF8 is a JmjC domain-containing histone demethylase, defects in which are associated with X-linked mental retardation. In this study, we examined the roles of two PHF8 homologs, JMJD-1.1 and JMJD-1.2, in the model organism C. elegans in response to DNA damage. A deletion mutation in either of the genes led to hypersensitivity to interstrand DNA crosslinks (ICLs, while only mutation of jmjd-1.1 resulted in hypersensitivity to double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs. In response to ICLs, JMJD-1.1 did not affect the focus formation of FCD-2, a homolog of FANCD2, a key protein in the Fanconi anemia pathway. However, the dynamic behavior of RPA-1 and RAD-51 was affected by the mutation: the accumulations of both proteins at ICLs appeared normal, but their subsequent disappearance was retarded, suggesting that later steps of homologous recombination were defective. Similar changes in the dynamic behavior of RPA-1 and RAD-51 were seen in response to DSBs, supporting a role of JMJD-1.1 in homologous recombination. Such a role was also supported by our finding that the hypersensitivity of jmjd-1.1 worms to ICLs was rescued by knockdown of lig-4, a homolog of Ligase 4 active in nonhomologous end-joining. The hypersensitivity of jmjd-1.1 worms to ICLs was increased by rad-54 knockdown, suggesting that JMJD-1.1 acts in parallel with RAD-54 in modulating chromatin structure. Indeed, the level of histone H3 Lys9 tri-methylation, a marker of heterochromatin, was higher in jmjd-1.1 cells than in wild-type cells. We conclude that the histone demethylase JMJD-1.1 influences homologous recombination either by relaxing heterochromatin structure or by indirectly regulating the expression of multiple genes affecting DNA repair.

  5. Application of Single Strand Conformational Polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) in Identification of Some Beta-Globin Gene Mutations in A Group of Egyptian Beta-Thalassemia Patients and Carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somaya, E.T.; Soliman, M.D

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated whether the single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) method could be employed to identify (rather than simply detect) four of the most common beta-globin gene mutations in the Egyptian population: IVS-I-110, IVS-I-6, the IVS-I-1, and Codon 39. Using DNA from 90 beta-thalassemia patients and carriers, by PCR the appropriate 238-bp region of the human beta-globin gene was amplified, the reaction products (Single-stranded DNA) were analyzed by none denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the bands visualized by silver staining. Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) fragments showed reproducible pattern of bands that were characteristic of the mutations present. With the use of control samples containing six of the 10 possible combinations of the four beta-globin gene mutations under study, we were able to predict the mutations present in 23 out of 90 (26.4%) of the patients studied. These predictions were confirmed independently by the amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) method. It is concluded that this non-radioactive PCR-SSCP method can be used to reliably identify mutations in beta-thalassemia patients, provided that suitable controls are available. However, usefulness of this method for determining the genotype of beta-thalassaemic individuals is obviously limited by the great number of controls required. Moreover, the ability to detect mutations by SSCP is in general lower compared to other methods, ARMS, DGGE or DHPLC, which are reported to detect 49.5% to 73% of the mutations present. The SSCP method is nevertheless much easier to employ than other methods and is especially successful for beta-thalassemia carriers. This method would thus be particularly useful for an initial screening of target groups (prenatal diagnosis)

  6. Competitive repair by naturally dispersed repetitive DNA during non-allelic homologous recombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang, Margaret L.; Tan, Frederick J.; Lai, David C.; Celniker, Sue E.; Hoskins, Roger A.; Dunham, Maitreya J.; Zheng, Yixian; Koshland, Douglas

    2010-08-27

    Genome rearrangements often result from non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR) between repetitive DNA elements dispersed throughout the genome. Here we systematically analyze NAHR between Ty retrotransposons using a genome-wide approach that exploits unique features of Saccharomyces cerevisiae purebred and Saccharomyces cerevisiae/Saccharomyces bayanus hybrid diploids. We find that DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induce NAHR-dependent rearrangements using Ty elements located 12 to 48 kilobases distal to the break site. This break-distal recombination (BDR) occurs frequently, even when allelic recombination can repair the break using the homolog. Robust BDR-dependent NAHR demonstrates that sequences very distal to DSBs can effectively compete with proximal sequences for repair of the break. In addition, our analysis of NAHR partner choice between Ty repeats shows that intrachromosomal Ty partners are preferred despite the abundance of potential interchromosomal Ty partners that share higher sequence identity. This competitive advantage of intrachromosomal Tys results from the relative efficiencies of different NAHR repair pathways. Finally, NAHR generates deleterious rearrangements more frequently when DSBs occur outside rather than within a Ty repeat. These findings yield insights into mechanisms of repeat-mediated genome rearrangements associated with evolution and cancer.

  7. Competitive repair by naturally dispersed repetitive DNA during non-allelic homologous recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret L Hoang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Genome rearrangements often result from non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR between repetitive DNA elements dispersed throughout the genome. Here we systematically analyze NAHR between Ty retrotransposons using a genome-wide approach that exploits unique features of Saccharomyces cerevisiae purebred and Saccharomyces cerevisiae/Saccharomyces bayanus hybrid diploids. We find that DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs induce NAHR-dependent rearrangements using Ty elements located 12 to 48 kilobases distal to the break site. This break-distal recombination (BDR occurs frequently, even when allelic recombination can repair the break using the homolog. Robust BDR-dependent NAHR demonstrates that sequences very distal to DSBs can effectively compete with proximal sequences for repair of the break. In addition, our analysis of NAHR partner choice between Ty repeats shows that intrachromosomal Ty partners are preferred despite the abundance of potential interchromosomal Ty partners that share higher sequence identity. This competitive advantage of intrachromosomal Tys results from the relative efficiencies of different NAHR repair pathways. Finally, NAHR generates deleterious rearrangements more frequently when DSBs occur outside rather than within a Ty repeat. These findings yield insights into mechanisms of repeat-mediated genome rearrangements associated with evolution and cancer.

  8. Polarity of recombination in transformation of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasta, F; Sicard, M A

    1999-03-16

    In transformation of Streptococcus pneumoniae DNA enters the cell as single-strand fragments and integrates into the chromosome by homologous recombination. Deletions and insertions of a few hundred base pairs frequently stop the recombination process of a donor strand. In this work we took advantage of such interruptions of recombination to compare the transformation efficiencies of the segments 5'- and 3'-ward from a deletion. The deletion was created in the center of a fragment of the ami locus, and sites around the deletion were labeled by a frameshift generating a restriction site. Heteroduplexes were constructed containing two restriction sites on one strand and two different ones on the complementary strand. ami+ bacteria were transformed with such heteroduplexes. ami- transformants were isolated and individually underwent amplification of the transformed ami region. We have obtained two kinds of amplification products: short when the deletion was integrated, long when recombination stops at the deletion. Each long fragment was tested by the four restriction enzymes to detect which strand and which side of the deletion had recombined. We found that 80% of the cuts were located 5' to the deletion, showing that, in vivo, the 5' side is strongly favored by recombination. Further results suggest that exchanges occurring from 5' to 3' relative to the donor strand are more efficient than in the opposite direction, thus accounting for the 5' preference.

  9. The use of recombinant DNA techniques to study radiation-induced damage, repair and genetic change in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thacker, J.

    1986-01-01

    A brief introduction is given to appropriate elements of recombinant DNA techniques and applications to problems in radiobiology are reviewed with illustrative detail. Examples are included of studies with both 254 nm ultraviolet light and ionizing radiation and the review progresses from the molecular analysis of DNA damage in vitro through to the nature of consequent cellular responses. The review is dealt with under the following headings: Molecular distribution of DNA damage, The use of DNA-mediated gene transfer to assess damage and repair, The DNA double strand break: use of restriction endonucleases to model radiation damage, Identification and cloning of DNA repair genes, Analysis of radiation-induced genetic change. (UK)

  10. DNA polymerase I is required for premeiotic DNA replication and sporulation but not for X-ray repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budd, M.E.; Wittrup, K.D.; Bailey, J.E.; Campbell, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    We have used a set of seven temperature-sensitive mutants in the DNA polymerase I gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to investigate the role of DNA polymerase I in various aspects of DNA synthesis in vivo. Previously, we showed that DNA polymerase I is required for mitotic DNA replication. Here we extend our studies to several stages of meiosis and repair of X-ray-induced damage. We find that sporulation is blocked in all of the DNA polymerase temperature-sensitive mutants and that premeiotic DNA replication does not occur. Commitment to meiotic recombination is only 2% of wild-type levels. Thus, DNA polymerase I is essential for these steps. However, repair of X-ray-induced single-strand breaks is not defective in the DNA polymerase temperature-sensitive mutants, and DNA polymerase I is therefore not essential for repair of such lesions. These results suggest that DNA polymerase II or III or both, the two other nuclear yeast DNA polymerases for which roles have not yet been established, carry out repair in the absence of DNA polymerase I, but that DNA polymerase II and III cannot compensate for loss of DNA polymerase I in meiotic replication and recombination. These results do not, however, rule out essential roles for DNA polymerase II or III or both in addition to that for DNA polymerase I

  11. Ammonia disinfection of hatchery waste for elimination of single-stranded RNA viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmoth, Eva; Ottoson, Jakob; Albihn, Ann; Belák, Sándor; Vinnerås, Björn

    2011-06-01

    Hatchery waste, an animal by-product of the poultry industry, needs sanitation treatment before further use as fertilizer or as a substrate in biogas or composting plants, owing to the potential presence of opportunistic pathogens, including zoonotic viruses. Effective sanitation is also important in viral epizootic outbreaks and as a routine, ensuring high hygiene standards on farms. This study examined the use of ammonia at different concentrations and temperatures to disinfect hatchery waste. Inactivation kinetics of high-pathogenic avian influenza virus H7N1 and low-pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N3, as representatives of notifiable avian viral diseases, were determined in spiked hatchery waste. Bovine parainfluenza virus type 3, feline coronavirus, and feline calicivirus were used as models for other important avian pathogens, such as Newcastle disease virus, infectious bronchitis virus, and avian hepatitis E virus. Bacteriophage MS2 was also monitored as a stable indicator. Coronavirus was the most sensitive virus, with decimal reduction (D) values of 1.2 and 0.63 h after addition of 0.5% (wt/wt) ammonia at 14 and 25°C, respectively. Under similar conditions, high-pathogenic avian influenza H7N1 was the most resistant, with D values of 3.0 and 1.4 h. MS2 was more resistant than the viruses to all treatments and proved to be a suitable indicator of viral inactivation. The results indicate that ammonia treatment of hatchery waste is efficient in inactivating enveloped and naked single-stranded RNA viruses. Based on the D values and confidence intervals obtained, guidelines for treatment were proposed, and one was successfully validated at full scale at a hatchery, with MS2 added to hatchery waste.

  12. AID-induced decrease in topoisomerase 1 induces DNA structural alteration and DNA cleavage for class switch recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Maki; Aida, Masatoshi; Nagaoka, Hitoshi; Begum, Nasim A; Kitawaki, Yoko; Nakata, Mikiyo; Stanlie, Andre; Doi, Tomomitsu; Kato, Lucia; Okazaki, Il-mi; Shinkura, Reiko; Muramatsu, Masamichi; Kinoshita, Kazuo; Honjo, Tasuku

    2009-12-29

    To initiate class switch recombination (CSR) activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) induces staggered nick cleavage in the S region, which lies 5' to each Ig constant region gene and is rich in palindromic sequences. Topoisomerase 1 (Top1) controls the supercoiling of DNA by nicking, rotating, and religating one strand of DNA. Curiously, Top1 reduction or AID overexpression causes the genomic instability. Here, we report that the inactivation of Top1 by its specific inhibitor camptothecin drastically blocked both the S region cleavage and CSR, indicating that Top1 is responsible for the S region cleavage in CSR. Surprisingly, AID expression suppressed Top1 mRNA translation and reduced its protein level. In addition, the decrease in the Top1 protein by RNA-mediated knockdown augmented the AID-dependent S region cleavage, as well as CSR. Furthermore, Top1 reduction altered DNA structure of the Smu region. Taken together, AID-induced Top1 reduction alters S region DNA structure probably to non-B form, on which Top1 can introduce nicks but cannot religate, resulting in S region cleavage.

  13. Repair of endogenous and ionizing radiation-induced DNA damages: mechanisms and biological functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiteux, S.

    2002-01-01

    The cellular DNA is continuously exposed to endogenous and exogenous stress. Oxidative stress due to cellular metabolism is the major cause of endogenous DNA damage. On the other hand, ionizing radiation (IR) is an important exogenous stress. Both induce similar DNA damages: damaged bases, abasic sites and strand breakage. Most of these lesions are lethal and/or mutagenic. The survival of the cell is managed by efficient and accurate DNA repair mechanisms that remove lesions before their replication or transcription. DNA repair pathways involved in the removal of IR-induced lesions are briefly described. Base excision repair (BER) is mostly involved in the removal of base damage, abasic sites and single strand breaks. In contrast, DNA double strand breaks are mostly repaired by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR). How DNA repair pathways prevent cancer process is also discussed. (author)

  14. DNA Sequence-Mediated, Evolutionarily Rapid Redistribution of Meiotic Recombination Hotspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahls, Wayne P.; Davidson, Mari K.

    2011-01-01

    Hotspots regulate the position and frequency of Spo11 (Rec12)-initiated meiotic recombination, but paradoxically they are suicidal and are somehow resurrected elsewhere in the genome. After the DNA sequence-dependent activation of hotspots was discovered in fission yeast, nearly two decades elapsed before the key realizations that (A) DNA site-dependent regulation is broadly conserved and (B) individual eukaryotes have multiple different DNA sequence motifs that activate hotspots. From our perspective, such findings provide a conceptually straightforward solution to the hotspot paradox and can explain other, seemingly complex features of meiotic recombination. We describe how a small number of single-base-pair substitutions can generate hotspots de novo and dramatically alter their distribution in the genome. This model also shows how equilibrium rate kinetics could maintain the presence of hotspots over evolutionary timescales, without strong selective pressures invoked previously, and explains why hotspots localize preferentially to intergenic regions and introns. The model is robust enough to account for all hotspots of humans and chimpanzees repositioned since their divergence from the latest common ancestor. PMID:22084420

  15. Generating and repairing genetically programmed DNA breaks during immunoglobulin class switch recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Laura; Cols, Montserrat; Choi, Jee Eun; Chaudhuri, Jayanta; Vuong, Bao

    2018-01-01

    Adaptive immune responses require the generation of a diverse repertoire of immunoglobulins (Igs) that can recognize and neutralize a seemingly infinite number of antigens. V(D)J recombination creates the primary Ig repertoire, which subsequently is modified by somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR). SHM promotes Ig affinity maturation whereas CSR alters the effector function of the Ig. Both SHM and CSR require activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) to produce dU:dG mismatches in the Ig locus that are transformed into untemplated mutations in variable coding segments during SHM or DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in switch regions during CSR. Within the Ig locus, DNA repair pathways are diverted from their canonical role in maintaining genomic integrity to permit AID-directed mutation and deletion of gene coding segments. Recently identified proteins, genes, and regulatory networks have provided new insights into the temporally and spatially coordinated molecular interactions that control the formation and repair of DSBs within the Ig locus. Unravelling the genetic program that allows B cells to selectively alter the Ig coding regions while protecting non-Ig genes from DNA damage advances our understanding of the molecular processes that maintain genomic integrity as well as humoral immunity. PMID:29744038

  16. The role of the C-domain of bacteriophage T4 gene 32 protein in ssDNA binding and dsDNA helix-destabilization: Kinetic, single-molecule, and cross-linking studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Kiran; Anderson, Brian; Perdana, Hendrik; Malinowski, Matthew A.; Win, Aye T.; Williams, Mark C.

    2018-01-01

    The model single-stranded DNA binding protein of bacteriophage T4, gene 32 protein (gp32) has well-established roles in DNA replication, recombination, and repair. gp32 is a single-chain polypeptide consisting of three domains. Based on thermodynamics and kinetics measurements, we have proposed that gp32 can undergo a conformational change where the acidic C-terminal domain binds internally to or near the single-stranded (ss) DNA binding surface in the core (central) domain, blocking ssDNA interaction. To test this model, we have employed a variety of experimental approaches and gp32 variants to characterize this conformational change. Utilizing stopped-flow methods, the association kinetics of wild type and truncated forms of gp32 with ssDNA were measured. When the C-domain is present, the log-log plot of k vs. [NaCl] shows a positive slope, whereas when it is absent (*I protein), there is little rate change with salt concentration, as expected for this model.A gp32 variant lacking residues 292–296 within the C-domain, ΔPR201, displays kinetic properties intermediate between gp32 and *I. The single molecule force-induced DNA helix-destabilizing activitiesas well as the single- and double-stranded DNA affinities of ΔPR201 and gp32 truncated at residue 295 also fall between full-length protein and *I. Finally, chemical cross-linking of recombinant C-domain and gp32 lacking both N- and C-terminal domains is inhibited by increasing concentrations of a short single-stranded oligonucleotide, and the salt dependence of cross-linking mirrors that expected for the model. Taken together, these results provide the first evidence in support of this model that have been obtained through structural probes. PMID:29634784

  17. Construction of C35 gene bait recombinants and T47D cell cDNA library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kun; Xu, Chao; Zhao, Gui-Hua; Liu, Ye; Xiao, Ting; Zhu, Song; Yan, Ge

    2017-11-20

    C35 is a novel tumor biomarker associated with metastasis progression. To investigate the interaction factors of C35 in its high expressed breast cancer cell lines, we constructed bait recombinant plasmids of C35 gene and T47D cell cDNA library for yeast two-hybrid screening. Full length C35 sequences were subcloned using RT-PCR from cDNA template extracted from T47D cells. Based on functional domain analysis, the full-length C35 1-348bp was also truncated into two fragments C351-153bp and C35154-348bp to avoid auto-activation. The three kinds of C35 genes were successfully amplified and inserted into pGBKT7 to construct bait recombinant plasmids pGBKT7-C351-348bp, pGBKT7-C351-153bp and pGBKT7-C35154-348bp, then transformed into Y187 yeast cells by the lithium acetate method. Auto-activation and toxicity of C35 baits were detected using nutritional deficient medium and X-α-Gal assays. The T47D cell ds cDNA was generated by SMART TM technology and the library was constructed using in vivo recombination-mediated cloning in the AH109 yeast strain using a pGADT7-Rec plasmid. The transformed Y187/pGBKT7-C351-348bp line was intensively inhibited while the truncated Y187/pGBKT7-C35 lines had no auto-activation and toxicity in yeast cells. The titer of established cDNA library was 2 × 10 7 pfu/mL with high transformation efficiency of 1.4 × 10 6 , and the insert size of ds cDNA was distributed homogeneously between 0.5-2.0 kb. Our research generated a T47D cell cDNA library with high titer, and the constructed two C35 "baits" contained a respective functional immunoreceptor tyrosine based activation motif (ITAM) and the conserved last four amino acids Cys-Ile-Leu-Val (CILV) motif, and therefore laid a foundation for screening the C35 interaction factors in a BC cell line.

  18. A Novel Recombinant DNA System for High Efficiency Affinity Purification of Proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian H. Carrick

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Isolation of endogenous proteins from Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been facilitated by inserting encoding polypeptide affinity tags at the C-termini of chromosomal open reading frames (ORFs using homologous recombination of DNA fragments. Tagged protein isolation is limited by a number of factors, including high cost of affinity resins for bulk isolation and low concentration of ligands on the resin surface, leading to low isolation efficiencies and trapping of contaminants. To address this, we have created a recombinant “CelTag” DNA construct from which PCR fragments can be created to easily tag C-termini of S. cerevisiae ORFs using selection for a nat1 marker. The tag has a C-terminal cellulose binding module to be used in the first affinity step. Microgranular cellulose is very inexpensive and has an effectively continuous ligand on its surface, allowing rapid, highly efficient purification with minimal background. Cellulose-bound proteins are released by specific cleavage of an included site for TEV protease, giving nearly pure product. The tag can be lifted from the recombinant DNA construct either with or without a 13x myc epitope tag between the target ORF and the TEV protease site. Binding of CelTag protein fusions to cellulose is stable to high salt, nonionic detergents, and 1 M urea, allowing stringent washing conditions to remove loosely associated components, as needed, before specific elution. It is anticipated that this reagent could allow isolation of protein complexes from large quantities of yeast extract, including soluble, membrane-bound, or nucleic acid-associated assemblies.

  19. Senataxin plays an essential role with DNA damage response proteins in meiotic recombination and gene silencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier J Becherel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Senataxin, mutated in the human genetic disorder ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 (AOA2, plays an important role in maintaining genome integrity by coordination of transcription, DNA replication, and the DNA damage response. We demonstrate that senataxin is essential for spermatogenesis and that it functions at two stages in meiosis during crossing-over in homologous recombination and in meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI. Disruption of the Setx gene caused persistence of DNA double-strand breaks, a defect in disassembly of Rad51 filaments, accumulation of DNA:RNA hybrids (R-loops, and ultimately a failure of crossing-over. Senataxin localised to the XY body in a Brca1-dependent manner, and in its absence there was incomplete localisation of DNA damage response proteins to the XY chromosomes and ATR was retained on the axial elements of these chromosomes, failing to diffuse out into chromatin. Furthermore persistence of RNA polymerase II activity, altered ubH2A distribution, and abnormal XY-linked gene expression in Setx⁻/⁻ revealed an essential role for senataxin in MSCI. These data support key roles for senataxin in coordinating meiotic crossing-over with transcription and in gene silencing to protect the integrity of the genome.

  20. Dual recombinant Lactococcus lactis for enhanced delivery of DNA vaccine reporter plasmid pPERDBY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagnik, Bhrugu; Sharma, Drashya; Padh, Harish; Desai, Priti

    2017-04-01

    Food grade Lactococcus lactis has been widely used as an antigen and DNA delivery vehicle. We have previously reported the use of non-invasive L. lactis to deliver the newly constructed immunostimulatory DNA vaccine reporter plasmid, pPERDBY. In the present report, construction of dual recombinant L. lactis expressing internalin A of Listeria monocytogenes and harboring pPERDBY (LL InlA + pPERDBY) to enhance the efficiency of delivery of DNA by L. lactis is outlined. After confirmation and validation of LL InlA + pPERDBY, its DNA delivery potential was compared with previously developed non-invasive r- L. lactis::pPERDBY. The use of invasive L. lactis resulted in around threefold increases in the number of enhanced green fluorescent protein-expressing Caco-2 cells. These findings reinforce the prospective application of invasive strain of L. lactis for delivery of DNA/RNA and antigens. © 2017 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Genomic sequences of two novel Levivirus single-stranded RNA coliphages (family Leviviridae): Evidence for recombination in environmental strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacteriophages are likely the most abundant entities in the aquatic environment, yet knowledge of their ecology is limited. During a fecal source-tracking study, two genetically novel Leviviridae strains were discovered. Although the novel strains were isolated from coastal wat...

  2. Near-Complete Genome Sequence of a Novel Single-Stranded RNA Virus Discovered in Indoor Air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Karyna; Fierer, Noah; Breitbart, Mya

    2018-03-22

    Viral metagenomic analysis of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) filters recovered the near-complete genome sequence of a novel virus, named HVAC-associated R NA v irus 1 (HVAC-RV1). The HVAC-RV1 genome is most similar to those of picorna-like viruses identified in arthropods but encodes a small domain observed only in negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses. Copyright © 2018 Rosario et al.

  3. [Effect of endonuclease G depletion on plasmid DNA uptake and levels of homologous recombination in hela cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misic, V; El-Mogy, M; Geng, S; Haj-Ahmad, Y

    2016-01-01

    Endonuclease G (EndoG) is a mitochondrial apoptosis regulator that also has roles outside of programmed cell death. It has been implicated as a defence DNase involved in the degradation of exogenous DNA after transfection of mammalian cells and in homologous recombination of viral and endogenous DNA. In this study, we looked at the effect of EndoG depletion on plasmid DNA uptake and the levels of homologous recombination in HeLa cells. We show that the proposed defence role of EndoG against uptake of non-viral DNA vectors does not extend to the cervical carcinoma HeLa cells, as targeting of EndoG expression by RNA interference failed to increase intracellular plasmid DNA levels. However, reducing EndoG levels in HeLa cells resulted in a statistically significant reduction of homologous recombination between two plasmid DNA substrates. These findings suggest that non-viral DNA vectors are also substrates for EndoG in its role in homologous recombination.

  4. Normal formation and repair of γ-radiation-induced single and double strand DNA breaks in Down syndrome fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, M.E.; Woods, W.G.

    1982-01-01

    Fibroblasts from patients with Down syndrome (Trisomy 21) were examined for repair capability of γ-radiation-induced single strand and double strand DNA breaks. Formation and repair of DNA breaks were determined by DNA alkaline and non-denaturing elution techniques. Down syndrome fibroblasts were found to repair single strand and double strand breaks as well as fibroblasts from normal controls. (orig.)

  5. Conformational Diversity of Single-Stranded DNA from Bacterial Repetitive Extragenic Palindromes: Implications for the DNA Recognition Elements of Transposases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Charnavets, Tatsiana; Nunvář, Jaroslav; Nečasová, Iva; Voelker, J.; Breslauer, K.J.; Schneider, Bohdan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 10 (2015), s. 585-596 ISSN 0006-3525 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA ČR GAP305/12/1801; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0020 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : bacterial repetitive extragenic palindromes (REP) * circular dichroism spectroscopy * REP associated tyrosine transposases (RAYTs) Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.248, year: 2015

  6. Role of electrostatics in the assembly pathway of a single-stranded RNA virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmann, Rees F; Comas-Garcia, Mauricio; Koay, Melissa S T; Cornelissen, Jeroen J L M; Knobler, Charles M; Gelbart, William M

    2014-09-01

    We have recently discovered (R. D. Cadena-Nava et al., J. Virol. 86:3318-3326, 2012, doi:10.1128/JVI.06566-11) that the in vitro packaging of RNA by the capsid protein (CP) of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus is optimal when there is a significant excess of CP, specifically that complete packaging of all of the RNA in solution requires sufficient CP to provide charge matching of the N-terminal positively charged arginine-rich motifs (ARMS) of the CPs with the negatively charged phosphate backbone of the RNA. We show here that packaging results from the initial formation of a charge-matched protocapsid consisting of RNA decorated by a disordered arrangement of CPs. This protocapsid reorganizes into the final, icosahedrally symmetric nucleocapsid by displacing the excess CPs from the RNA to the exterior surface of the emerging capsid through electrostatic attraction between the ARMs of the excess CP and the negative charge density of the capsid exterior. As a test of this scenario, we prepare CP mutants with extra and missing (relative to the wild type) cationic residues and show that a correspondingly smaller and larger excess, respectively, of CP is needed for complete packaging of RNA. Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) has long been studied as a model system for the assembly of single-stranded RNA viruses. While much is known about the electrostatic interactions within the CCMV virion, relatively little is known about these interactions during assembly, i.e., within intermediate states preceding the final nucleocapsid structure. Theoretical models and coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations suggest that viruses like CCMV assemble by the bulk adsorption of CPs onto the RNA driven by electrostatic attraction, followed by structural reorganization into the final capsid. Such a mechanism facilitates assembly by condensing the RNA for packaging while simultaneously concentrating the local density of CP for capsid nucleation. We provide experimental evidence of

  7. LDsplit: screening for cis-regulatory motifs stimulating meiotic recombination hotspots by analysis of DNA sequence polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peng; Wu, Min; Guo, Jing; Kwoh, Chee Keong; Przytycka, Teresa M; Zheng, Jie

    2014-02-17

    As a fundamental genomic element, meiotic recombination hotspot plays important roles in life sciences. Thus uncovering its regulatory mechanisms has broad impact on biomedical research. Despite the recent identification of the zinc finger protein PRDM9 and its 13-mer binding motif as major regulators for meiotic recombination hotspots, other regulators remain to be discovered. Existing methods for finding DNA sequence motifs of recombination hotspots often rely on the enrichment of co-localizations between hotspots and short DNA patterns, which ignore the cross-individual variation of recombination rates and sequence polymorphisms in the population. Our objective in this paper is to capture signals encoded in genetic variations for the discovery of recombination-associated DNA motifs. Recently, an algorithm called "LDsplit" has been designed to detect the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and proximal meiotic recombination hotspots. The association is measured by the difference of population recombination rates at a hotspot between two alleles of a candidate SNP. Here we present an open source software tool of LDsplit, with integrative data visualization for recombination hotspots and their proximal SNPs. Applying LDsplit on SNPs inside an established 7-mer motif bound by PRDM9 we observed that SNP alleles preserving the original motif tend to have higher recombination rates than the opposite alleles that disrupt the motif. Running on SNP windows around hotspots each containing an occurrence of the 7-mer motif, LDsplit is able to guide the established motif finding algorithm of MEME to recover the 7-mer motif. In contrast, without LDsplit the 7-mer motif could not be identified. LDsplit is a software tool for the discovery of cis-regulatory DNA sequence motifs stimulating meiotic recombination hotspots by screening and narrowing down to hotspot associated SNPs. It is the first computational method that utilizes the genetic variation of

  8. Establishment of Cre-mediated HBV recombinant cccDNA (rcccDNA) cell line for cccDNA biology and antiviral screening assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Li, Jin; Yue, Lei; Bai, Lu; Li, Yaming; Chen, Jieliang; Zhang, Xiaonan; Yuan, Zhenghong

    2018-04-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), existing in hepatocyte nuclei as a stable minichromosome, plays a central role in the life cycle of the virus and permits the persistence of infection. Despite being essential for HBV infection, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of cccDNA formation, regulation and degradation, and there is no therapeutic agents directly targeting cccDNA, fore mostly due to the lack of robust, reliable and quantifiable HBV cccDNA models. In this study, combined the Cre/loxP and sleeping beauty transposons system, we established HepG2-derived cell lines integrated with 2-60 copies of monomeric HBV genome flanked by loxP sites (HepG2-HBV/loxP). After Cre expression via adenoviral transduction, 3.3-kb recombinant cccDNA (rcccDNA) bearing a chimeric intron can be produced in the nuclei of these HepG2-HBV/loxP cells. The rcccDNA could be accurately quantified by quantitative PCR using specific primers and cccDNA pool generated in this model could be easily detected by Southern blotting using the digoxigenin probe system. We demonstrated that the rcccDNA was epigenetically organized as the natural minichromosome and served as the template supporting pgRNA transcription and viral replication. As the expression of HBV S antigen (HBsAg) is dependent on the newly generated cccDNA, HBsAg is the surrogate marker of cccDNA. Additionally, the efficacies of 3 classes of anti-HBV agents were evaluated in HepG2-HBV/loxP cells and antiviral activities with different mechanisms were confirmed. These data collectively suggested that HepG2-HBV/loxP cell system will be powerful platform for studying cccDNA related biological mechanisms and developing novel cccDNA targeting drugs. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Obtaining classical swine fever virus E2 recombinant protein and DNA-vaccine on the basis of one subunit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deryabin, O.; Deryabina, O.; Verbitskiy, P.; Kordyum, V.

    2005-01-01

    Three forms of E2 recombinant protein were expressed in E. coli. Swine sera obtained against different forms of the recombinant protein were cross-studied with indirect ELISA. Using individual proteins as an antigen, only 15% of sera against other forms of protein reacted positively, while 100% of heterologous sera showed positive reaction with fused protein. Challenge experiments showed the existence of protective action only from the individual protein. Specificity and activity of sera obtained from the animals after control challenge was confirmed in a blocking variant of ELISA. Genetic construction used a eukaryotic vector that contained the E2 protein gene. Immunization of mice with the resulting DNA induced synthesis of specific antibodies, the titre of which increased considerably after additional single immunization with the E2 recombinant protein, expressed in E. coli. This demonstrated the effectiveness of animal priming by DNA vaccine, and the possibility of using the E2 recombinant protein in E. coli for booster vaccination. (author)

  10. Biotechnology and genetic engineering in the new drug development. Part I. DNA technology and recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryjewska, Agnieszka; Kiepura, Katarzyna; Librowski, Tadeusz; Lochyński, Stanisław

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical biotechnology has a long tradition and is rooted in the last century, first exemplified by penicillin and streptomycin as low molecular weight biosynthetic compounds. Today, pharmaceutical biotechnology still has its fundamentals in fermentation and bioprocessing, but the paradigmatic change affected by biotechnology and pharmaceutical sciences has led to an updated definition. The biotechnology revolution redrew the research, development, production and even marketing processes of drugs. Powerful new instruments and biotechnology related scientific disciplines (genomics, proteomics) make it possible to examine and exploit the behavior of proteins and molecules. Recombinant DNA (rDNA) technologies (genetic, protein, and metabolic engineering) allow the production of a wide range of peptides, proteins, and biochemicals from naturally nonproducing cells. This technology, now approximately 25 years old, is becoming one of the most important technologies developed in the 20(th) century. Pharmaceutical products and industrial enzymes were the first biotech products on the world market made by means of rDNA. Despite important advances regarding rDNA applications in mammalian cells, yeasts still represent attractive hosts for the production of heterologous proteins. In this review we describe these processes.

  11. A fluorescence-based polymerase chain reaction-linked single-strand conformation polymorphism (F-PCR-SSCP) assay for the identification of Fasciola spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasaad, Samer; Soriguer, Ramón C; Abu-Madi, Marawan; El Behairy, Ahmed; Baños, Pablo Díez; Píriz, Ana; Fickel, Joerns; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2011-06-01

    The present study aimed to establish a fluorescence-based polymerase chain reaction-linked single-strand conformation polymorphism (F-PCR-SSCP) assay for the identification of Fasciola spp. Based on the sequences of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA, we designed a set of genus-specific primers for the amplification of Fasciola ITS-2, with an estimated size of 140 bp. These primers were labelled by fluorescence dyes, and the PCR products were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis under non-denaturing conditions (F-PCR-SSCP). Capillary electrophoresis analysis of the fluorescence-labelled DNA fragments displayed three different peak profiles that allowed the accurate identification of Fasciola species: one single peak specific for either Fasciola hepatica or Fasciola gigantica and a doublet peak corresponding to the "intermediate" Fasciola. Validation of our novel method was performed using Fasciola specimens from different host animals from China, Spain, Nigeria, and Egypt. This F-PCR-SSCP assay provides a rapid, simple, and robust tool for the identification and differentiation between Fasciola spp.

  12. A newly identified DNA ligase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae involved in RAD52-independent repair of DNA double-strand breaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schär, Primo; Herrmann, Gernot; Daly, Graham; Lindahl, Tomas

    1997-01-01

    Eukaryotic DNA ligases are ATP-dependent DNA strand-joining enzymes that participate in DNA replication, repair, and recombination. Whereas mammalian cells contain several different DNA ligases, encoded by at least three distinct genes, only one DNA ligase has been detected previously in either budding yeast or fission yeast. Here, we describe a newly identified nonessential Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene that encodes a DNA ligase distinct from the CDC9 gene product. This DNA ligase shares significant amino acid sequence homology with human DNA ligase IV; accordingly, we designate the yeast gene LIG4. Recombinant LIG4 protein forms a covalent enzyme-AMP complex and can join a DNA single-strand break in a DNA/RNA hybrid duplex, the preferred substrate in vitro. Disruption of the LIG4 gene causes only marginally increased cellular sensitivity to several DNA damaging agents, and does not further sensitize cdc9 or rad52 mutant cells. In contrast, lig4 mutant cells have a 1000-fold reduced capacity for correct recircularization of linearized plasmids by illegitimate end-joining after transformation. Moreover, homozygous lig4 mutant diploids sporulate less efficiently than isogenic wild-type cells, and show retarded progression through meiotic prophase I. Spore viability is normal, but lig4 mutants appear to produce a higher proportion of tetrads with only three viable spores. The mutant phenotypes are consistent with functions of LIG4 in an illegitimate DNA end-joining pathway and ensuring efficient meiosis. PMID:9271115

  13. Coevolution between Nuclear-Encoded DNA Replication, Recombination, and Repair Genes and Plastid Genome Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Ruhlman, Tracey A; Sabir, Jamal S M; Blazier, John Chris; Weng, Mao-Lun; Park, Seongjun; Jansen, Robert K

    2016-02-17

    Disruption of DNA replication, recombination, and repair (DNA-RRR) systems has been hypothesized to cause highly elevated nucleotide substitution rates and genome rearrangements in the plastids of angiosperms, but this theory remains untested. To investigate nuclear-plastid genome (plastome) coevolution in Geraniaceae, four different measures of plastome complexity (rearrangements, repeats, nucleotide insertions/deletions, and substitution rates) were evaluated along with substitution rates of 12 nuclear-encoded, plastid-targeted DNA-RRR genes from 27 Geraniales species. Significant correlations were detected for nonsynonymous (dN) but not synonymous (dS) substitution rates for three DNA-RRR genes (uvrB/C, why1, and gyrA) supporting a role for these genes in accelerated plastid genome evolution in Geraniaceae. Furthermore, correlation between dN of uvrB/C and plastome complexity suggests the presence of nucleotide excision repair system in plastids. Significant correlations were also detected between plastome complexity and 13 of the 90 nuclear-encoded organelle-targeted genes investigated. Comparisons revealed significant acceleration of dN in plastid-targeted genes of Geraniales relative to Brassicales suggesting this correlation may be an artifact of elevated rates in this gene set in Geraniaceae. Correlation between dN of plastid-targeted DNA-RRR genes and plastome complexity supports the hypothesis that the aberrant patterns in angiosperm plastome evolution could be caused by dysfunction in DNA-RRR systems. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  14. The Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-Associated Protein SWIB5 Influences mtDNA Architecture and Homologous Recombination

    KAUST Repository

    Blomme, Jonas; Van Aken, Olivier; Van Leene, Jelle; Jé gu, Teddy; De Rycke, Riet Maria; De Bruyne, Michiel; Vercruysse, Jasmien; Nolf, Jonah; Van Daele, Twiggy; De Milde, Liesbeth; Vermeersch, Mattias; Colas des Francs-Small, Catherine; De Jaeger, Geert; Benhamed, Moussa; Millar, A. Harvey; Inzé , Dirk; Gonzalez, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    In addition to the nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplasts in plant cells also contain genomes. Efficient DNA repair pathways are crucial in these organelles to fix damage resulting from endogenous and exogenous factors. Plant organellar genomes

  15. S1-sensitive sites in DNA after γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Bertram, H.

    1981-01-01

    DNA from γ-irradiated T 1 bacteriophages was analyzed for 'single-stranded' sites by cleavage with S1 nuclease from Aspergillus oryzae as lesion probe. The ratio of 'S1-sensitive sites' to the amount of radiation-induced single-strand breaks was about one. Presumably these 'denatured' sites were associated with single-strand breaks. The subsequent check for the persistence of 'single-stranded' sites within the DNA molecule by thermokinetics demonstrated a strong affinity of the nuclease to its substrate, the single-stranded lesion, and a perfect excision. It is assumed that the direct absorption of radiation energy in the DNA gives rise to the formation of such bulky lesions. (Auth.)

  16. Faulty DNA repair following ultraviolet irradiation in Fanconi's anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poon, P.K.; Parker, J.W.; O'Brien, R.L.

    1975-01-01

    Fibroblasts from a patient with Fanconi's anemia were deficient in their ability to excise uv-induced pyrimidine dimers from their DNA but were capable of single-strand break production and unscheduled DNA synthesis

  17. Effect of mutagens, chemotherapeutic agents and defects in DNA repair genes on recombination in F' partial diploid Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norin, A.J.; Goldschmidt, E.P.

    1979-01-01

    The ability of mutagenic agents, nonmutagenic substances and defects in DNA repair to alter the genotype of F' partial diploid (F30) Escherichia coli was determined. The frequency of auxotrophic mutants and histidine requiring (His - ) haploid colonies was increased by mutagen treatment but Hfr colonies were not detected in F30 E. coli even with specific selection techniques. Genotype changes due to nonreciprocal recombination were determined by measuring the frequency of His - homogenotes, eg. F' hisC780, hisI + /hisC780, hisI + , arising from a His + heterogenote, F' hisC780 hisI + /hisC + , his1903. At least 75% of the recombinants were homozygous for histidine alleles which were present on the F' plasmid (exogenote) of the parental hetergenote rather than for histidine alleles on the chromosome. Mutagens, chemotherapeutic agents which block DNA synthesis and a defective DNA polymerase I gene, polA1, were found to increase the frequency of nonreciprocal recombination. A defect in the ability to excise thymine dimers, uvrC34, did not increase spontaneous nonreciprocal recombination. However, UV irradiation but not methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) induced greater recombination in this excision-repair defective mutant than in DNA-repair-proficient strains. (Auth.)

  18. Alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (Aag) in somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longerich, Simonne; Meira, Lisiane; Shah, Dharini; Samson, Leona D; Storb, Ursula

    2007-12-01

    Somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR) of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes require the cytosine deaminase AID, which deaminates cytosine to uracil in Ig gene DNA. Paradoxically, proteins involved normally in error-free base excision repair and mismatch repair, seem to be co-opted to facilitate SHM and CSR, by recruiting error-prone translesion polymerases to DNA sequences containing deoxy-uracils created by AID. Major evidence supports at least one mechanism whereby the uracil glycosylase Ung removes AID-generated uracils creating abasic sites which may be used either as uninformative templates for DNA synthesis, or processed to nicks and gaps that prime error-prone DNA synthesis. We investigated the possibility that deamination at adenines also initiates SHM. Adenosine deamination would generate hypoxanthine (Hx), a substrate for the alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (Aag). Aag would generate abasic sites which then are subject to error-prone repair as above for AID-deaminated cytosine processed by Ung. If the action of an adenosine deaminase followed by Aag were responsible for significant numbers of mutations at A, we would find a preponderance of A:T>G:C transition mutations during SHM in an Aag deleted background. However, this was not observed and we found that the frequencies of SHM and CSR were not significantly altered in Aag-/- mice. Paradoxically, we found that Aag is expressed in B lymphocytes undergoing SHM and CSR and that its activity is upregulated in activated B cells. Moreover, we did find a statistically significant, albeit low increase of T:A>C:G transition mutations in Aag-/- animals, suggesting that Aag may be involved in creating the SHM A>T bias seen in wild type mice.

  19. Methotrexate induces DNA damage and inhibits homologous recombination repair in choriocarcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie L

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lisha Xie,1,* Tiancen Zhao,1,2,* Jing Cai,1 You Su,1 Zehua Wang,1 Weihong Dong1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Central Hospital of Wuhan, Wuhan, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanism of sensitivity to methotrexate (MTX in human choriocarcinoma cells regarding DNA damage response. Methods: Two choriocarcinoma cancer cell lines, JAR and JEG-3, were utilized in this study. An MTX-sensitive osteosarcoma cell line MG63, an MTX-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer cell line A2780 and an MTX-resistant cervical adenocarcinoma cell line Hela served as controls. Cell viability assay was carried out to assess MTX sensitivity of cell lines. MTX-induced DNA damage was evaluated by comet assay. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the mRNA levels of BRCA1, BRCA2, RAD51 and RAD52. The protein levels of γH2AX, RAD 51 and p53 were analyzed by Western blot. Results: Remarkable DNA strand breaks were observed in MTX-sensitive cell lines (JAR, JEG-3 and MG63 but not in MTX-resistant cancer cells (A2780 and Hela after 48 h of MTX treatment. Only in the choriocarcinoma cells, the expression of homologous recombination (HR repair gene RAD51 was dramatically suppressed by MTX in a dose- and time-dependent manner, accompanied with the increase in p53. Conclusion: The MTX-induced DNA strand breaks accompanied by deficiencies in HR repair may contribute to the hypersensitivity to chemotherapy in choriocarcinoma. Keywords: choriocarcinoma, chemotherapy hypersensitivity, DNA double-strand break, RAD51, p53

  20. Inhibitors of the proteasome suppress homologous DNA recombination in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakawa, Yasuhiro; Sonoda, Eiichiro; Barber, Louise J; Zeng, Weihua; Yokomori, Kyoko; Kimura, Hiroshi; Niimi, Atsuko; Lehmann, Alan; Zhao, Guang Yu; Hochegger, Helfrid; Boulton, Simon J; Takeda, Shunichi

    2007-09-15

    Proteasome inhibitors are novel antitumor agents against multiple myeloma and other malignancies. Despite the increasing clinical application, the molecular basis of their antitumor effect has been poorly understood due to the involvement of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in multiple cellular metabolisms. Here, we show that treatment of cells with proteasome inhibitors has no significant effect on nonhomologous end joining but suppresses homologous recombination (HR), which plays a key role in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. In this study, we treat human cells with proteasome inhibitors and show that the inhibition of the proteasome reduces the efficiency of HR-dependent repair of an artificial HR substrate. We further show that inhibition of the proteasome interferes with the activation of Rad51, a key factor for HR, although it does not affect the activation of ATM, gammaH2AX, or Mre11. These data show that the proteasome-mediated destruction is required for the promotion of HR at an early step. We suggest that the defect in HR-mediated DNA repair caused by proteasome inhibitors contributes to antitumor effect, as HR plays an essential role in cellular proliferation. Moreover, because HR plays key roles in the repair of DSBs caused by chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin and by radiotherapy, proteasome inhibitors may enhance the efficacy of these treatments through the suppression of HR-mediated DNA repair pathways.

  1. SV40 host-substituted variants: a new look at the monkey DNA inserts and recombinant junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Maxine; Winocour, Ernest

    2011-04-10

    The available monkey genomic data banks were examined in order to determine the chromosomal locations of the host DNA inserts in 8 host-substituted SV40 variant DNAs. Five of the 8 variants contained more than one linked monkey DNA insert per tandem repeat unit and in all cases but one, the 19 monkey DNA inserts in the 8 variants mapped to different locations in the monkey genome. The 50 parental DNAs (32 monkey and 18 SV40 DNA segments) which spanned the crossover and flanking regions that participated in monkey/monkey and monkey/SV40 recombinations were characterized by substantial levels of microhomology of up to 8 nucleotides in length; the parental DNAs also exhibited direct and inverted repeats at or adjacent to the crossover sequences. We discuss how the host-substituted SV40 variants arose and the nature of the recombination mechanisms involved. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Packaging signals in single-stranded RNA viruses: nature?s alternative to a purely electrostatic assembly mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Stockley, Peter G.; Twarock, Reidun; Bakker, Saskia E.; Barker, Amy M.; Borodavka, Alexander; Dykeman, Eric; Ford, Robert J.; Pearson, Arwen R.; Phillips, Simon E. V.; Ranson, Neil A.; Tuma, Roman

    2013-01-01

    The formation of a protective protein container is an essential step in the life-cycle of most viruses. In the case of single-stranded (ss)RNA viruses, this step occurs in parallel with genome packaging in a co-assembly process. Previously, it had been thought that this process can be explained entirely by electrostatics. Inspired by recent single-molecule fluorescence experiments that recapitulate the RNA packaging specificity seen in vivo for two model viruses, we present an alternative the...

  3. Functional intersection of ATM and DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit in coding end joining during V(D)J recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Baeck-Seung; Gapud, Eric J; Zhang, Shichuan

    2013-01-01

    V(D)J recombination is initiated by the RAG endonuclease, which introduces DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at the border between two recombining gene segments, generating two hairpin-sealed coding ends and two blunt signal ends. ATM and DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) ar......V(D)J recombination is initiated by the RAG endonuclease, which introduces DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at the border between two recombining gene segments, generating two hairpin-sealed coding ends and two blunt signal ends. ATM and DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA......-PKcs) are serine-threonine kinases that orchestrate the cellular responses to DNA DSBs. During V(D)J recombination, ATM and DNA-PKcs have unique functions in the repair of coding DNA ends. ATM deficiency leads to instability of postcleavage complexes and the loss of coding ends from these complexes. DNA...... when ATM is present and its kinase activity is intact. The ability of ATM to compensate for DNA-PKcs kinase activity depends on the integrity of three threonines in DNA-PKcs that are phosphorylation targets of ATM, suggesting that ATM can modulate DNA-PKcs activity through direct phosphorylation of DNA...

  4. Formulation, characterization, and expression of a recombinant MOMP Chlamydia trachomatis DNA vaccine encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cambridge CD

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Chino D Cambridge, Shree R Singh, Alain B Waffo, Stacie J Fairley, Vida A DennisCenter for NanoBiotechnology Research (CNBR, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL, USAAbstract: Chlamydia trachomatis is a bacterial sexually transmitted infection affecting millions of people worldwide. Previous vaccination attempts have employed the recombinant major outer membrane protein (MOMP of C. trachomatis nonetheless, with limited success, perhaps, due to stability, degradation, and delivery issues. In this study we cloned C. trachomatis recombinant MOMP DNA (DMOMP and encapsulated it in chitosan nanoparticles (DMCNP using the complex coacervation technique. Physiochemical characterizations of DMCNP included transmission and scanning electron microcopy, Fourier transform infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and zeta potential. Encapsulated DMOMP was 167–250 nm, with a uniform spherical shape and homogenous morphology, and an encapsulation efficiency > 90%. A slow release pattern of encapsulated DMOMP, especially in acidic solution, was observed over 7 days. The zeta potential of DMCNP was ~8.80 mV, which indicated that it was highly stable. Toxicity studies of DMCNP (25–400 µg/mL to Cos-7 cells using the MTT assay revealed minimal toxicity over 24–72 hours with >90% viable cells. Ultra-violet visible (UV-vis spectra indicated encapsulated DMOMP protection by chitosan, whereas agarose gel electrophoresis verified its protection from enzymatic degradation. Expression of MOMP protein in DMCNP-transfected Cos-7 cells was demonstrated via Western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. Significantly, intramuscular injection of BALB/c mice with DMCNP confirmed the delivery of encapsulated DMOMP, and expression of the MOMP gene transcript in thigh muscles and spleens. Our data show that encapsulation of DMOMP in biodegradable chitosan nanoparticles imparts stability and protection from enzymatic digestion, and enhances delivery and

  5. [Improvement of thermal adaptability and fermentation of industrial ethanologenic yeast by genomic DNA mutagenesis-based genetic recombination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiuying; He, Xiuping; Lu, Ying; Zhang, Borun

    2011-07-01

    Ethanol is an attractive alternative to fossil fuels. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most important ethanol producer. However, in the process of industrial production of ethanol, both cell growth and fermentation of ethanologenic S. cerevisiae are dramatically affected by environmental stresses, such as thermal stress. In this study, we improved both the thermotolerance and fermentation performance of industrial ethanologenic S. cerevisiae by combined usage of chemical mutagenesis and genomic DNA mutagenesis-based genetic recombination method. The recombinant S. cerevisiae strain T44-2 could grow at 44 degrees C, 3 degrees C higher than that of the original strain CE6. The survival rate of T44-2 was 1.84 and 1.87-fold of that of CE6 when heat shock at 48 degrees C and 52 degrees C for 1 h respectively. At temperature higher than 37 degrees C, recombinant strain T44-2 always gave higher cell growth and ethanol production than those of strain CE6. Meanwhile, from 30 degrees C to 40 degrees C, recombinant strain T44-2 produces 91.2-83.8 g/L of ethanol from 200 g/L of glucose, which indicated that the recombinant strain T44-2 had both thermotolerance and broad thermal adaptability. The work offers a novel method, called genomic DNA mutagenesis-based genetic recombination, to improve the physiological functions of S. cerevisiae.

  6. Escherichia coli ArgR mutants defective in cer/Xer recombination, but not in DNA binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sénéchal, Hélène; Delesques, Jérémy; Szatmari, George

    2010-04-01

    The Escherichia coli arginine repressor (ArgR) is an L-arginine-dependent DNA-binding protein that controls the expression of the arginine biosynthetic genes and is required as an accessory factor for Xer site-specific recombination at cer and related recombination sites in plasmids. We used the technique of pentapeptide scanning mutagenesis to isolate a series of ArgR mutants that were considerably reduced in cer recombination, but were still able to repress an argA::lacZ fusion. DNA sequence analysis showed that all of the mutants mapped to the same nucleotide, resulting in a five amino acid insertion between residues 149 and 150 of ArgR, corresponding to the end of the alpha6 helix. A truncated ArgR containing a stop codon at residue 150 displayed the same phenotype as the protein with the five amino acid insertion, and both mutants displayed sequence-specific DNA-binding activity that was L-arginine dependent. These results show that the C-terminus of ArgR is more important in cer/Xer site-specific recombination than in DNA binding.

  7. Detection of circular telomeric DNA without 2D gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlaska, Margit; Anderl, Conrad; Eisterer, Wolfgang; Bechter, Oliver E

    2008-09-01

    The end of linear chromosomes forms a lasso-like structure called the t-loop. Such t-loops resemble a DNA recombination intermediate, where the single-stranded 3' overhang is arrested in a stretch of duplex DNA. Presumably, such a t-loop can also be deleted via a recombination process. This would result in the occurrence of circular extrachromosomal telomeric DNA (t-circles), which are known to be abundantly present in immortal cells engaging the recombination-based alternative lengthening of telomeres pathway (ALT pathway). Little is known about the basic mechanism of telomeric recombination in these cells and what ultimately causes the generation of such t-circles. Current standard procedures for detecting these molecules involve 2D gel electrophoresis or electron microscopy. However, both methods are labor intense and sophisticated to perform. Here, we present a simpler, faster, and equally sensitive method for detecting t-circles. Our approach is a telomere restriction fragment assay that involves the enzymatic preservation of circular DNA with Klenow enzyme followed by Bal31 degradation of the remaining linear DNA molecules. We show that with this approach t-circles can be detected in ALT cell lines, whereas no t-circles are present in telomerase-positive cell lines. We consider our approach a valid method in which t-circle generation is the experimental readout.

  8. Construction, Expression, and Characterization of Recombinant Pfu DNA Polymerase in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wenjun; Wang, Qingsong; Bi, Qun

    2016-04-01

    Pfu DNA polymerase (Pfu) is a DNA polymerase isolated from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. With its excellent thermostability and high fidelity, Pfu is well known as one of the enzymes widely used in the polymerase chain reaction. In this study, the recombinant plasmid pLysS His6-tagged Pfu-pET28a was constructed. His-tagged Pfu was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) competent cells and then successfully purified with the ÄKTAprime plus compact one-step purification system by Ni(2+) chelating affinity chromatography after optimization of the purification conditions. The authenticity of the purified Pfu was further confirmed by peptide mass fingerprinting. A bio-assay indicated that its activity in the polymerase chain reaction was equivalent to that of commercial Pfu and its isoelectric point was found to be between 6.85 and 7.35. These results will be useful for further studies on Pfu and its wide application in the future.

  9. Homologous Recombination DNA Repair Genes Play a Critical Role in Reprogramming to a Pluripotent State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico González

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs hold great promise for personalized regenerative medicine. However, recent studies show that iPSC lines carry genetic abnormalities, suggesting that reprogramming may be mutagenic. Here, we show that the ectopic expression of reprogramming factors increases the level of phosphorylated histone H2AX, one of the earliest cellular responses to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs. Additional mechanistic studies uncover a direct role of the homologous recombination (HR pathway, a pathway essential for error-free repair of DNA DSBs, in reprogramming. This role is independent of the use of integrative or nonintegrative methods in introducing reprogramming factors, despite the latter being considered a safer approach that circumvents genetic modifications. Finally, deletion of the tumor suppressor p53 rescues the reprogramming phenotype in HR-deficient cells primarily through the restoration of reprogramming-dependent defects in cell proliferation and apoptosis. These mechanistic insights have important implications for the design of safer approaches to creating iPSCs.

  10. DNA repair and recombination in higher plants: insights from comparative genomics of arabidopsis and rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhury Swarup

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The DNA repair and recombination (DRR proteins protect organisms against genetic damage, caused by environmental agents and other genotoxic agents, by removal of DNA lesions or helping to abide them. Results We identified genes potentially involved in DRR mechanisms in Arabidopsis and rice using similarity searches and conserved domain analysis against proteins known to be involved in DRR in human, yeast and E. coli. As expected, many of DRR genes are very similar to those found in other eukaryotes. Beside these eukaryotes specific genes, several prokaryotes specific genes were also found to be well conserved in plants. In Arabidopsis, several functionally important DRR gene duplications are present, which do not occur in rice. Among DRR proteins, we found that proteins belonging to the nucleotide excision repair pathway were relatively more conserved than proteins needed for the other DRR pathways. Sub-cellular localization studies of DRR gene suggests that these proteins are mostly reside in nucleus while gene drain in between nucleus and cell organelles were also found in some cases. Conclusions The similarities and dissimilarities in between plants and other organisms' DRR pathways are discussed. The observed differences broaden our knowledge about DRR in the plants world, and raises the potential question of whether differentiated functions have evolved in some cases. These results, altogether, provide a useful framework for further experimental studies in these organisms.

  11. DNA repair and recombination in higher plants: insights from comparative genomics of Arabidopsis and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanjay K; Roy, Sujit; Choudhury, Swarup Roy; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2010-07-21

    The DNA repair and recombination (DRR) proteins protect organisms against genetic damage, caused by environmental agents and other genotoxic agents, by removal of DNA lesions or helping to abide them. We identified genes potentially involved in DRR mechanisms in Arabidopsis and rice using similarity searches and conserved domain analysis against proteins known to be involved in DRR in human, yeast and E. coli. As expected, many of DRR genes are very similar to those found in other eukaryotes. Beside these eukaryotes specific genes, several prokaryotes specific genes were also found to be well conserved in plants. In Arabidopsis, several functionally important DRR gene duplications are present, which do not occur in rice. Among DRR proteins, we found that proteins belonging to the nucleotide excision repair pathway were relatively more conserved than proteins needed for the other DRR pathways. Sub-cellular localization studies of DRR gene suggests that these proteins are mostly reside in nucleus while gene drain in between nucleus and cell organelles were also found in some cases. The similarities and dissimilarities in between plants and other organisms' DRR pathways are discussed. The observed differences broaden our knowledge about DRR in the plants world, and raises the potential question of whether differentiated functions have evolved in some cases. These results, altogether, provide a useful framework for further experimental studies in these organisms.

  12. Double-Strand DNA Break Repair in Mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickman, Michael S

    2014-10-01

    Discontinuity of both strands of the chromosome is a lethal event in all living organisms because it compromises chromosome replication. As such, a diversity of DNA repair systems has evolved to repair double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs). In part, this diversity of DSB repair systems has evolved to repair breaks that arise in diverse physiologic circumstances or sequence contexts, including cellular states of nonreplication or breaks that arise between repeats. Mycobacteria elaborate a set of three genetically distinct DNA repair pathways: homologous recombination, nonhomologous end joining, and single-strand annealing. As such, mycobacterial DSB repair diverges substantially from the standard model of prokaryotic DSB repair and represents an attractive new model system. In addition, the presence in mycobacteria of a DSB repair system that can repair DSBs in nonreplicating cells (nonhomologous end joining) or when DSBs arise between repeats (single-strand annealing) has clear potential relevance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis, although the exact role of these systems in M. tuberculosis pathogenesis is still being elucidated. In this article we will review the genetics of mycobacterial DSB repair systems, focusing on recent insights.

  13. Mixed infection of Sida jamaicensis in Jamaica reveals the presence of three recombinant begomovirus DNA A components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Cheryl; Kon, Tatsuya; Rojas, Maria; Graham, André; Martin, Darren; Gilbertson, Robert; Roye, Marcia

    2014-09-01

    Begomoviruses impose serious constraints on agriculture throughout the temperate, tropical and subtropical regions. Previously, we characterised a sida golden yellow vein virus isolate, SiGYVV-[JM:Lig2:08] (HQ009519-20) from a symptomatic Sida jamaicensis plant. With the aim of establishing whether it was hosting a mixed infection that could facilitate recombination, PCR-RFLP was done on DNA extracted from this plant, and the results suggested the presence of two additional genetically distinct DNA-A molecules. Sequence analysis of these two DNA-A molecules (relying on BLAST searches and the CLUSTAL V algorithm within the DNASTAR MegAlign module) revealed that they belonged to novel species, and we have tentatively named these viruses sida golden mosaic Braco virus-[Jamaica:Liguanea:2008] and sida golden mosaic Liguanea virus-[Jamaica:1:2008]. Using RDP4 (recombination detection program), we determined that all three viruses were recombinant, with bases ~10 to ~440 of both SiGMLigV-[JM:Lig:08] and SiGYVV-[JM:Lig2:08] having been derived from a relative of SiGMBV-[JM:Lig:08] (P<2.070×10(-7) for all seven of the recombination detection methods). SiGMBV-[JM:Lig:08] was itself a product of recombination, deriving bases ~490-1195 from a virus that was ~92% similar to malvastrum yellow mosaic Helshire virus. Phylogenetically, these DNA-A components are most closely related to those of malvaceous weed-infecting begomoviruses from Jamaica, Cuba, Florida and Mexico. The SiGMBV DNA-A was able to elicit symptomatic infection in N. benthamiana.

  14. Total DNA of Glycyrrhiza uralensis transformed into Hansenula anomala by ion implantation:Preparing Glycyrrhizic acid in recombined yeasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Xiang; Mao Peihong; Lu Jie; Ma Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) in Glycyrrhiza uralensis (G. uralensis) is physiologically active. In this study, the total DNA of wild G. uralensis was randomly transformed into Hansenula anomaly by implantation of low-energy Ar + and N + , to produce five recombinant yeast strains relating to biological synthesis of the GA or Glycyrrhetinic acid (GAs). After culturing in liquid medium for 96 h, the resultant GA, 18α-GAs and 18β-Gas were determined by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and the corresponding concentrations were 114.49, 0.56, and 0.81 mg·L -1 . After one hundred primers were analyzed with random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), the seven different DNA fragments were produced by the N7059 strain of recombined yeasts, and, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) verified that one of them came from the genome of G. uralensis, indicating a successful transfer of genetic information by ion implantation. (authors)

  15. Histone dosage regulates DNA damage sensitivity in a checkpoint-independent manner by the homologous recombination pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dun; Burkhart, Sarah Lyn; Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Kabbaj, Marie-Helene Miquel; Gunjan, Akash

    2012-01-01

    In eukaryotes, multiple genes encode histone proteins that package genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and regulate its accessibility. Because of their positive charge, ‘free’ (non-chromatin associated) histones can bind non-specifically to the negatively charged DNA and affect its metabolism, including DNA repair. We have investigated the effect of altering histone dosage on DNA repair in budding yeast. An increase in histone gene dosage resulted in enhanced DNA damage sensitivity, whereas deletion of a H3–H4 gene pair resulted in reduced levels of free H3 and H4 concomitant with resistance to DNA damaging agents, even in mutants defective in the DNA damage checkpoint. Studies involving the repair of a HO endonuclease-mediated DNA double-strand break (DSB) at the MAT locus show enhanced repair efficiency by the homologous recombination (HR) pathway on a reduction in histone dosage. Cells with reduced histone dosage experience greater histone loss around a DSB, whereas the recruitment of HR factors is concomitantly enhanced. Further, free histones compete with the HR machinery for binding to DNA and associate with certain HR factors, potentially interfering with HR-mediated repair. Our findings may have important implications for DNA repair, genomic stability, carcinogenesis and aging in human cells that have dozens of histone genes. PMID:22850743

  16. The PCNA-associated protein PARI negatively regulates homologous recombination via the inhibition of DNA repair synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burkovics, Peter; Dome, Lili; Juhasz, Szilvia

    2016-01-01

    to inhibit homologous recombination (HR) events. Here, we describe a biochemical mechanism in which PARI functions as an HR regulator after replication fork stalling and during double-strand break repair. In our reconstituted biochemical system, we show that PARI inhibits DNA repair synthesis during...... recombination events in a PCNA interaction-dependent way but independently of its UvrD-like helicase domain. In accordance, we demonstrate that PARI inhibits HR in vivo, and its knockdown suppresses the UV sensitivity of RAD18-depleted cells. Our data reveal a novel human regulatory mechanism that limits...

  17. Full mitochondrial genome sequences of two endemic Philippine hornbill species (Aves: Bucerotidae) provide evidence for pervasive mitochondrial DNA recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammler, Svenja; Bleidorn, Christoph; Tiedemann, Ralph

    2011-01-14

    Although nowaday it is broadly accepted that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) may undergo recombination, the frequency of such recombination remains controversial. Its estimation is not straightforward, as recombination under homoplasmy (i.e., among identical mt genomes) is likely to be overlooked. In species with tandem duplications of large mtDNA fragments the detection of recombination can be facilitated, as it can lead to gene conversion among duplicates. Although the mechanisms for concerted evolution in mtDNA are not fully understood yet, recombination rates have been estimated from "one per speciation event" down to 850 years or even "during every replication cycle". Here we present the first complete mt genome of the avian family Bucerotidae, i.e., that of two Philippine hornbills, Aceros waldeni and Penelopides panini. The mt genomes are characterized by a tandemly duplicated region encompassing part of cytochrome b, 3 tRNAs, NADH6, and the control region. The duplicated fragments are identical to each other except for a short section in domain I and for the length of repeat motifs in domain III of the control region. Due to the heteroplasmy with regard to the number of these repeat motifs, there is some size variation in both genomes; with around 21,657 bp (A. waldeni) and 22,737 bp (P. panini), they significantly exceed the hitherto longest known avian mt genomes, that of the albatrosses. We discovered concerted evolution between the duplicated fragments within individuals. The existence of differences between individuals in coding genes as well as in the control region, which are maintained between duplicates, indicates that recombination apparently occurs frequently, i.e., in every generation. The homogenised duplicates are interspersed by a short fragment which shows no sign of recombination. We hypothesize that this region corresponds to the so-called Replication Fork Barrier (RFB), which has been described from the chicken mitochondrial genome. As this RFB

  18. Full mitochondrial genome sequences of two endemic Philippine hornbill species (Aves: Bucerotidae provide evidence for pervasive mitochondrial DNA recombination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bleidorn Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although nowaday it is broadly accepted that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA may undergo recombination, the frequency of such recombination remains controversial. Its estimation is not straightforward, as recombination under homoplasmy (i.e., among identical mt genomes is likely to be overlooked. In species with tandem duplications of large mtDNA fragments the detection of recombination can be facilitated, as it can lead to gene conversion among duplicates. Although the mechanisms for concerted evolution in mtDNA are not fully understood yet, recombination rates have been estimated from "one per speciation event" down to 850 years or even "during every replication cycle". Results Here we present the first complete mt genome of the avian family Bucerotidae, i.e., that of two Philippine hornbills, Aceros waldeni and Penelopides panini. The mt genomes are characterized by a tandemly duplicated region encompassing part of cytochrome b, 3 tRNAs, NADH6, and the control region. The duplicated fragments are identical to each other except for a short section in domain I and for the length of repeat motifs in domain III of the control region. Due to the heteroplasmy with regard to the number of these repeat motifs, there is some size variation in both genomes; with around 21,657 bp (A. waldeni and 22,737 bp (P. panini, they significantly exceed the hitherto longest known avian mt genomes, that of the albatrosses. We discovered concerted evolution between the duplicated fragments within individuals. The existence of differences between individuals in coding genes as well as in the control region, which are maintained between duplicates, indicates that recombination apparently occurs frequently, i.e., in every generation. Conclusions The homogenised duplicates are interspersed by a short fragment which shows no sign of recombination. We hypothesize that this region corresponds to the so-called Replication Fork Barrier (RFB, which has been

  19. Analyses of a whole-genome inter-clade recombination map of hepatitis delta virus suggest a host polymerase-driven and viral RNA structure-promoted template-switching mechanism for viral RNA recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Mei; Wang, Tzu-Chi; Lin, Chia-Chi; Yung-Liang Wang, Robert; Lin, Wen-Bin; Lee, Shang-En; Cheng, Ying-Yu; Yeh, Chau-Ting; Iang, Shan-Bei

    2017-01-01

    The genome of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a 1.7-kb single-stranded circular RNA that folds into an unbranched rod-like structure and has ribozyme activity. HDV redirects host RNA polymerase(s) (RNAP) to perform viral RNA-directed RNA transcription. RNA recombination is known to contribute to the genetic heterogeneity of HDV, but its molecular mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we established a whole-genome HDV-1/HDV-4 recombination map using two cloned sequences coexisting in cultured cells. Our functional analyses of the resulting chimeric delta antigens (the only viral-encoded protein) and recombinant genomes provide insights into how recombination promotes the genotypic and phenotypic diversity of HDV. Our examination of crossover distribution and subsequent mutagenesis analyses demonstrated that ribozyme activity on HDV genome, which is required for viral replication, also contributes to the generation of an inter-clade junction. These data provide circumstantial evidence supporting our contention that HDV RNA recombination occurs via a replication-dependent mechanism. Furthermore, we identify an intrinsic asymmetric bulge on the HDV genome, which appears to promote recombination events in the vicinity. We therefore propose a mammalian RNAP-driven and viral-RNA-structure-promoted template-switching mechanism for HDV genetic recombination. The present findings improve our understanding of the capacities of the host RNAP beyond typical DNA-directed transcription. PMID:28977829

  20. Meiotic recombination breakpoints are associated with open chromatin and enriched with repetitive DNA elements in potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiotic recombination provides the framework for the genetic variation in natural and artificial populations of eukaryotes through the creation of novel haplotypes. Thus, determining the molecular characteristics of meiotic recombination remains essential for future plant breeding efforts, which hea...

  1. BRIT1/MCPH1 is essential for mitotic and meiotic recombination DNA repair and maintaining genomic stability in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Liang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BRIT1 protein (also known as MCPH1 contains 3 BRCT domains which are conserved in BRCA1, BRCA2, and other important molecules involved in DNA damage signaling, DNA repair, and tumor suppression. BRIT1 mutations or aberrant expression are found in primary microcephaly patients as well as in cancer patients. Recent in vitro studies suggest that BRIT1/MCPH1 functions as a novel key regulator in the DNA damage response pathways. To investigate its physiological role and dissect the underlying mechanisms, we generated BRIT1(-/- mice and identified its essential roles in mitotic and meiotic recombination DNA repair and in maintaining genomic stability. Both BRIT1(-/- mice and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs were hypersensitive to gamma-irradiation. BRIT1(-/- MEFs and T lymphocytes exhibited severe chromatid breaks and reduced RAD51 foci formation after irradiation. Notably, BRIT1(-/- mice were infertile and meiotic homologous recombination was impaired. BRIT1-deficient spermatocytes exhibited a failure of chromosomal synapsis, and meiosis was arrested at late zygotene of prophase I accompanied by apoptosis. In mutant spermatocytes, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs were formed, but localization of RAD51 or BRCA2 to meiotic chromosomes was severely impaired. In addition, we found that BRIT1 could bind to RAD51/BRCA2 complexes and that, in the absence of BRIT1, recruitment of RAD51 and BRCA2 to chromatin was reduced while their protein levels were not altered, indicating that BRIT1 is involved in mediating recruitment of RAD51/BRCA2 to the damage site. Collectively, our BRIT1-null mouse model demonstrates that BRIT1 is essential for maintaining genomic stability in vivo to protect the hosts from both programmed and irradiation-induced DNA damages, and its depletion causes a failure in both mitotic and meiotic recombination DNA repair via impairing RAD51/BRCA2's function and as a result leads to infertility and genomic instability in mice.

  2. Plant molecular biology and biotechnology research in the post-recombinant DNA era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Khurana, Jitendra P

    2003-01-01

    After the beginning of the recombinant DNA era in the mid-1970s, researchers in India started to make use of the new technology to understand the structure of plant genes and regulation of their expression. The outcome started to appear in print in early the 1980s and genes for histones, tubulin, photosynthetic membrane proteins, phototransduction components, organelles and those regulated differentially by developmental and extrinsic signals were sequenced and characterized. Some genes of biotechnological importance like those encoding an interesting seed protein and the enzyme glyoxalase were also isolated. While work on the characterization of genome structure and organization was started quite early, it remained largely focused on the identification of DNA markers and genetic variability. In this context, the work on mustard, rice and wheat is worth mentioning. In the year 2000, India became a member of the international consortium to sequence entire rice genome. Several laboratories have also given attention to regulated expression of plastid and nuclear genes as well as to isolate target-specific promoters or design promoters with improved potential. Simultaneously, transgenic systems for crops like mustard, rice, wheat, cotton, legumes and several vegetables have been established. More recently, genes of agronomic importance like those for insect resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, nutritional improvement and male sterility, isolated in India or abroad, have been utilized for raising transgenics for crop improvement. Some of these transgenics have already shown their potential in containment facility or limited field trials conducted under the stipulated guidelines. Plant molecular biology and biotechnology are thus clearly poised to make an impact on research in basic biology and agriculture in the near future.

  3. Excision of HIV-1 proviral DNA by recombinant cell permeable tre-recombinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmikanth Mariyanna

    Full Text Available Over the previous years, comprehensive studies on antiretroviral drugs resulted in the successful introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART into clinical practice for treatment of HIV/AIDS. However, there is still need for new therapeutic approaches, since HAART cannot eradicate HIV-1 from the infected organism and, unfortunately, can be associated with long-term toxicity and the development of drug resistance. In contrast, novel gene therapy strategies may have the potential to reverse the infection by eradicating HIV-1. For example, expression of long terminal repeat (LTR-specific recombinase (Tre-recombinase has been shown to result in chromosomal excision of proviral DNA and, in consequence, in the eradication of HIV-1 from infected cell cultures. However, the delivery of Tre-recombinase currently depends on the genetic manipulation of target cells, a process that is complicating such therapeutic approaches and, thus, might be undesirable in a clinical setting. In this report we demonstrate that E.coli expressed Tre-recombinases, tagged either with the protein transduction domain (PTD from the HIV-1 Tat trans-activator or the translocation motif (TLM of the Hepatitis B virus PreS2 protein, were able to translocate efficiently into cells and showed significant recombination activity on HIV-1 LTR sequences. Tre activity was observed using episomal and stable integrated reporter constructs in transfected HeLa cells. Furthermore, the TLM-tagged enzyme was able to excise the full-length proviral DNA from chromosomal integration sites of HIV-1-infected HeLa and CEM-SS cells. The presented data confirm Tre-recombinase activity on integrated HIV-1 and provide the basis for the non-genetic transient application of engineered recombinases, which may be a valuable component of future HIV eradication strategies.

  4. Characterization of Recombinant Thermococcus kodakaraensis (KOD) DNA Polymerases Produced Using Silkworm-Baculovirus Expression Vector System

    KAUST Repository

    Yamashita, Mami; Xu, Jian; Morokuma, Daisuke; Hirata, Kazuma; Hino, Masato; Mon, Hiroaki; Takahashi, Masateru; Hamdan, Samir; Sakashita, Kosuke; Iiyama, Kazuhiro; Banno, Yutaka; Kusakabe, Takahiro; Lee, Jae Man

    2017-01-01

    The KOD DNA polymerase from Thermococcus kodakarensis (Tkod-Pol) has been preferred for PCR due to its rapid elongation rate, extreme thermostability and outstanding fidelity. Here in this study, we utilized silkworm-baculovirus expression vector system (silkworm-BEVS) to express the recombinant Tkod-Pol (rKOD) with N-terminal (rKOD-N) or C-terminal (rKOD-C) tandem fusion tags. By using BEVS, we produced functional rKODs with satisfactory yields, about 1.1 mg/larva for rKOD-N and 0.25 mg/larva for rKOD-C, respectively. Interestingly, we found that rKOD-C shows higher thermostability at 95 °C than that of rKOD-N, while that rKOD-N is significantly unstable after exposing to long period of heat-shock. We also assessed the polymerase activity as well as the fidelity of purified rKODs under various conditions. Compared with commercially available rKOD, which is expressed in E. coli expression system, rKOD-C exhibited almost the same PCR performance as the commercial rKOD did, while rKOD-N did lower performance. Taken together, our results suggested that silkworm-BEVS can be used to express and purify efficient rKOD in a commercial way.

  5. DNA homologous recombination factor SFR1 physically and functionally interacts with estrogen receptor alpha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxin Feng

    Full Text Available Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα, a ligand-dependent transcription factor, mediates the expression of its target genes by interacting with corepressors and coactivators. Since the first cloning of SRC1, more than 280 nuclear receptor cofactors have been identified, which orchestrate target gene transcription. Aberrant activity of ER or its accessory proteins results in a number of diseases including breast cancer. Here we identified SFR1, a protein involved in DNA homologous recombination, as a novel binding partner of ERα. Initially isolated in a yeast two-hybrid screen, the interaction of SFR1 and ERα was confirmed in vivo by immunoprecipitation and mammalian one-hybrid assays. SFR1 co-localized with ERα in the nucleus, potentiated ER's ligand-dependent and ligand-independent transcriptional activity, and occupied the ER binding sites of its target gene promoters. Knockdown of SFR1 diminished ER's transcriptional activity. Manipulating SFR1 expression by knockdown and overexpression revealed a role for SFR1 in ER-dependent and -independent cancer cell proliferation. SFR1 differs from SRC1 by the lack of an intrinsic activation function. Taken together, we propose that SFR1 is a novel transcriptional modulator for ERα and a potential target in breast cancer therapy.

  6. Characterization of Recombinant Thermococcus kodakaraensis (KOD) DNA Polymerases Produced Using Silkworm-Baculovirus Expression Vector System

    KAUST Repository

    Yamashita, Mami

    2017-05-08

    The KOD DNA polymerase from Thermococcus kodakarensis (Tkod-Pol) has been preferred for PCR due to its rapid elongation rate, extreme thermostability and outstanding fidelity. Here in this study, we utilized silkworm-baculovirus expression vector system (silkworm-BEVS) to express the recombinant Tkod-Pol (rKOD) with N-terminal (rKOD-N) or C-terminal (rKOD-C) tandem fusion tags. By using BEVS, we produced functional rKODs with satisfactory yields, about 1.1 mg/larva for rKOD-N and 0.25 mg/larva for rKOD-C, respectively. Interestingly, we found that rKOD-C shows higher thermostability at 95 °C than that of rKOD-N, while that rKOD-N is significantly unstable after exposing to long period of heat-shock. We also assessed the polymerase activity as well as the fidelity of purified rKODs under various conditions. Compared with commercially available rKOD, which is expressed in E. coli expression system, rKOD-C exhibited almost the same PCR performance as the commercial rKOD did, while rKOD-N did lower performance. Taken together, our results suggested that silkworm-BEVS can be used to express and purify efficient rKOD in a commercial way.

  7. Construction of a trivalent candidate vaccine against Shigella species with DNA recombination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恒樑; 冯尔玲; 林云; 廖翔; 金明; 黄留玉; 苏国富; 黄翠芬

    2002-01-01

    In this work asd gene of Shigella flexneri 2a strain T32 was replaced by Vibrio cholerae toxin B subunit (ctxB) gene with DNA recombination in vivo and in vitro. The resulting derivative of T32, designed as FWL01, could stably express CtxB, but its growth in LB medium depended on the presence of diaminopimelic acid (DAP). Then form I plasmid of Shigella sonnei strain S7 was labeled with strain T32 asd gene and mobilized into FWL01. Thus a trivalent candidate oral vaccine strain, designed as FSW01, was constructed. In this candidate strain, a balanced-lethal system was constituted between the host strain and the form I plasmid expressing S. sonnei O antigen. Therefore the candidate strain can express stably not only its own O antigen but also CtxB and O antigen of S. sonnei in the absence of any antibiotic. Experiments showed that FSW01 did not invade HeLa cells or cause keratoconjunctivitis in guinea pigs. However, rabbits immunized FSW01 can elicit significant immune responses. In mice and rhesus monkey models, vaccinated animals were protected against the challenges of wild S. flexneri 2a strain 2457T and S. sonnei strain S9.

  8. Packaging signals in two single-stranded RNA viruses imply a conserved assembly mechanism and geometry of the packaged genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykeman, Eric C; Stockley, Peter G; Twarock, Reidun

    2013-09-09

    The current paradigm for assembly of single-stranded RNA viruses is based on a mechanism involving non-sequence-specific packaging of genomic RNA driven by electrostatic interactions. Recent experiments, however, provide compelling evidence for sequence specificity in this process both in vitro and in vivo. The existence of multiple RNA packaging signals (PSs) within viral genomes has been proposed, which facilitates assembly by binding coat proteins in such a way that they promote the protein-protein contacts needed to build the capsid. The binding energy from these interactions enables the confinement or compaction of the genomic RNAs. Identifying the nature of such PSs is crucial for a full understanding of assembly, which is an as yet untapped potential drug target for this important class of pathogens. Here, for two related bacterial viruses, we determine the sequences and locations of their PSs using Hamiltonian paths, a concept from graph theory, in combination with bioinformatics and structural studies. Their PSs have a common secondary structure motif but distinct consensus sequences and positions within the respective genomes. Despite these differences, the distributions of PSs in both viruses imply defined conformations for the packaged RNA genomes in contact with the protein shell in the capsid, consistent with a recent asymmetric structure determination of the MS2 virion. The PS distributions identified moreover imply a preferred, evolutionarily conserved assembly pathway with respect to the RNA sequence with potentially profound implications for other single-stranded RNA viruses known to have RNA PSs, including many animal and human pathogens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiation induced asymmetries in mitotic recombination: evidence for a directional bias in the formation of asymmetric hybrid DNA in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, L.R.; Sobell, H.M.

    We have examined radiation-induced mitotic recombination using two alleles (his1-36, his1-49) in the his1 gene. When the haploid containing his1-36 is irradiated with varying doses of γ rays and then mated with the unirradiated strain containing his1-49, analyses of the selected prototrophs show them to be primarily + +/+ 49. If, on the other hand, the haploid strain containing his1-49 is the irradiated parent, the prototrophic diploids are primarily + +/36 +. In control experiments, where either both strains are irradiated or not irradiated, no such asymmetries are found. These data indicate that the irradiated haploid chromosome tends to be the recipient of genetic information. We interpret these results as indicating a directional bias in the formation of hybrid DNA in radiation-induced mitotic recombination, and discuss these results in terms of current models of genetic recombination

  10. The mismatch repair and meiotic recombination endonuclease Mlh1-Mlh3 is activated by polymer formation and can cleave DNA substrates in trans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhart, Carol M; Ni, Xiaodan; White, Martin A; Ortega, Joaquin; Surtees, Jennifer A; Alani, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Crossing over between homologs is initiated in meiotic prophase by the formation of DNA double-strand breaks that occur throughout the genome. In the major interference-responsive crossover pathway in baker's yeast, these breaks are resected to form 3' single-strand tails that participate in a homology search, ultimately forming double Holliday junctions (dHJs) that primarily include both homologs. These dHJs are resolved by endonuclease activity to form exclusively crossovers, which are critical for proper homolog segregation in Meiosis I. Recent genetic, biochemical, and molecular studies in yeast are consistent with the hypothesis of Mlh1-Mlh3 DNA mismatch repair complex acting as the major endonuclease activity that resolves dHJs into crossovers. However, the mechanism by which the Mlh1-Mlh3 endonuclease is activated is unknown. Here, we provide evidence that Mlh1-Mlh3 does not behave like a structure-specific endonuclease but forms polymers required to generate nicks in DNA. This conclusion is supported by DNA binding studies performed with different-sized substrates that contain or lack polymerization barriers and endonuclease assays performed with varying ratios of endonuclease-deficient and endonuclease-proficient Mlh1-Mlh3. In addition, Mlh1-Mlh3 can generate religatable double-strand breaks and form an active nucleoprotein complex that can nick DNA substrates in trans. Together these observations argue that Mlh1-Mlh3 may not act like a canonical, RuvC-like Holliday junction resolvase and support a novel model in which Mlh1-Mlh3 is loaded onto DNA to form an activated polymer that cleaves DNA.

  11. Pleolipoviridae, a newly proposed family comprising archaeal pleomorphic viruses with single-stranded or double-stranded DNA genomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pietilä, M.K.; Roine, E.; Sencilo, Ana; Bamford, D.H.; Oksanen, H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 161, č. 1 (2016), s. 249-256 ISSN 0304-8608 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/1940 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : VIRION ARCHITECTURE * HALOVIRUSES * SPINDLE Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.058, year: 2016

  12. Single-Molecule Kinetics Reveal Cation-Promoted DNA Duplex Formation Through Ordering of Single-Stranded Helices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Nicholas F.; Holmstrom, Erik D.; Nesbitt, David J.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the kinetics of short, fully complementary oligonucleotides are investigated at the single-molecule level. Constructs 6–9 bp in length exhibit single exponential kinetics over 2 orders of magnitude time for both forward (kon, association) and reverse (koff, dissociation) processes. Bimolecular rate constants for association are weakly sensitive to the number of basepairs in the duplex, with a 2.5-fold increase between 9 bp (k′on = 2.1(1) × 106 M−1 s−1) and 6 bp (k′on = 5.0(1) × 106 M−1 s−1) sequences. In sharp contrast, however, dissociation rate constants prove to be exponentially sensitive to sequence length, varying by nearly 600-fold over the same 9 bp (koff = 0.024 s−1) to 6 bp (koff = 14 s−1) range. The 8 bp sequence is explored in more detail, and the NaCl dependence of kon and koff is measured. Interestingly, konincreases by >40-fold (kon = 0.10(1) s−1 to 4.0(4) s−1 between [NaCl] = 25 mM and 1 M), whereas in contrast, koffdecreases by fourfold (0.72(3) s−1 to 0.17(7) s−1) over the same range of conditions. Thus, the equilibrium constant (Keq) increases by ≈160, largely due to changes in the association rate, kon. Finally, temperature-dependent measurements reveal that increased [NaCl] reduces the overall exothermicity (ΔΔH° > 0) of duplex formation, albeit by an amount smaller than the reduction in entropic penalty (−TΔΔS° duplex formation. PMID:23931323

  13. Hybridization-based antibody cDNA recovery for the production of recombinant antibodies identified by repertoire sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Alemán, Javier; Téllez-Sosa, Juan; Ovilla-Muñoz, Marbella; Godoy-Lozano, Elizabeth; Velázquez-Ramírez, Daniel; Valdovinos-Torres, Humberto; Gómez-Barreto, Rosa E; Martinez-Barnetche, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing of the antibody repertoire is enabling a thorough analysis of B cell diversity and clonal selection, which may improve the novel antibody discovery process. Theoretically, an adequate bioinformatic analysis could allow identification of candidate antigen-specific antibodies, requiring their recombinant production for experimental validation of their specificity. Gene synthesis is commonly used for the generation of recombinant antibodies identified in silico. Novel strategies that bypass gene synthesis could offer more accessible antibody identification and validation alternatives. We developed a hybridization-based recovery strategy that targets the complementarity-determining region 3 (CDRH3) for the enrichment of cDNA of candidate antigen-specific antibody sequences. Ten clonal groups of interest were identified through bioinformatic analysis of the heavy chain antibody repertoire of mice immunized with hen egg white lysozyme (HEL). cDNA from eight of the targeted clonal groups was recovered efficiently, leading to the generation of recombinant antibodies. One representative heavy chain sequence from each clonal group recovered was paired with previously reported anti-HEL light chains to generate full antibodies, later tested for HEL-binding capacity. The recovery process proposed represents a simple and scalable molecular strategy that could enhance antibody identification and specificity assessment, enabling a more cost-efficient generation of recombinant antibodies.

  14. Method for construction of normalized cDNA libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marcelo B.; Efstratiadis, Argiris

    1998-01-01

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to appropriate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. This invention also provides normalized cDNA libraries generated by the above-described method and uses of the generated libraries.

  15. Use of homologous recombination in yeast to create chimeric bovine viral diarrhea virus cDNA clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Arenhart

    Full Text Available Abstract The open reading frame of a Brazilian bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV strain, IBSP4ncp, was recombined with the untranslated regions of the reference NADL strain by homologous recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, resulting in chimeric full-length cDNA clones of BVDV (chi-NADL/IBSP4ncp#2 and chi-NADL/IBSP4ncp#3. The recombinant clones were successfully recovered, resulting in viable viruses, having the kinetics of replication, focus size, and morphology similar to those of the parental virus, IBSP4ncp. In addition, the chimeric viruses remained stable for at least 10 passages in cell culture, maintaining their replication efficiency unaltered. Nucleotide sequencing revealed a few point mutations; nevertheless, the phenotype of the rescued viruses was nearly identical to that of the parental virus in all experiments. Thus, genetic stability of the chimeric clones and their phenotypic similarity to the parental virus confirm the ability of the yeast-based homologous recombination to maintain characteristics of the parental virus from which the recombinant viruses were derived. The data also support possible use of the yeast system for the manipulation of the BVDV genome.

  16. Quantitative real-time PCR technique for the identification of E. coli residual DNA in streptokinase recombinant product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazelahi, Mansoureh; Kia, Vahid; Kaghazian, Hooman; Paryan, Mahdi

    2017-11-26

    Recombinant streptokinase is a biopharmaceutical which is usually produced in E. coli. Residual DNA as a contamination and risk factor may remain in the product. It is necessary to control the production procedure to exclude any possible contamination. The aim of the present study was to develop a highly specific and sensitive quantitative real-time PCR-based method to determine the amount of E. coli DNA in recombinant streptokinase. A specific primers and a probe was designed to detect all strains of E. coli. To determine the specificity, in addition to using NCBI BLASTn, 28 samples including human, bacterial, and viral genomes were used. The results confirmed that the assay detects no genomic DNA but E. coli's and the specificity was determined to be 100%. To determine the sensitivity and limit of detection of the assay, a 10-fold serial dilution (10 1 to 10 7 copies/µL) was tested in triplicate. The sensitivity of the test was determined to be 101 copies/µL or 35 fg/µL. Inter-assay and intra-assay were determined to be 0.86 and 1.69%, respectively. Based on the results, this assay can be used as an accurate method to evaluate the contamination of recombinant streptokinase in E. coli.

  17. Redundant function of DNA ligase 1 and 3 in alternative end-joining during immunoglobulin class switch recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masani, Shahnaz; Han, Li; Meek, Katheryn; Yu, Kefei

    2016-02-02

    Nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) is the major DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway in mammals and resolves the DSBs generated during both V(D)J recombination in developing lymphocytes and class switch recombination (CSR) in antigen-stimulated B cells. In contrast to the absolute requirement for NHEJ to resolve DSBs associated with V(D)J recombination, DSBs associated with CSR can be resolved in NHEJ-deficient cells (albeit at a reduced level) by a poorly defined alternative end-joining (A-EJ) pathway. Deletion of DNA ligase IV (Lig4), a core component of the NHEJ pathway, reduces CSR efficiency in a mouse B-cell line capable of robust cytokine-stimulated CSR in cell culture. Here, we report that CSR levels are not further reduced by deletion of either of the two remaining DNA ligases (Lig1 and nuclear Lig3) in Lig4(-/-) cells. We conclude that in the absence of Lig4, Lig1, and Lig3 function in a redundant manner in resolving switch region DSBs during CSR.

  18. DNA gyrase with a single catalytic tyrosine can catalyze DNA supercoiling by a nicking-closing mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubaev, Airat; Weidlich, Daniela; Klostermeier, Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    The topological state of DNA is important for replication, recombination and transcription, and is regulated in vivo by DNA topoisomerases. Gyrase introduces negative supercoils into DNA at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. It is the accepted view that gyrase achieves supercoiling by a strand passage mechanism, in which double-stranded DNA is cleaved, and a second double-stranded segment is passed through the gap, converting a positive DNA node into a negative node. We show here that gyrase with only one catalytic tyrosine that cleaves a single strand of its DNA substrate can catalyze DNA supercoiling without strand passage. We propose an alternative mechanism for DNA supercoiling via nicking and closing of DNA that involves trapping, segregation and relaxation of two positive supercoils. In contrast to DNA supercoiling, ATP-dependent relaxation and decatenation of DNA by gyrase lacking the C-terminal domains require both tyrosines and strand passage. Our results point towards mechanistic plasticity of gyrase and might pave the way for finding novel and specific mechanism-based gyrase inhibitors. PMID:27557712

  19. Interaction of the Chlamydia trachomatis histone H1-like protein (Hc1) with DNA and RNA causes repression of transcription and translation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, LB; Birkelund, Svend; Christiansen, Gunna

    1994-01-01

    and severely affects DNA, RNA and protein synthesis. We have analysed the interaction of Hc1 with single-stranded DNA and RNA by Southwestern and Northwestern blotting. Furthermore, we show that purified, recombinant Hc1 dramatically affects transcription and translation in vitro at physiologically relevant......The 18 kDa histone H1-like protein from Chlamydia trachomatis (Hc1) is a DNA-binding protein thought to be involved in condensation of the chlamydial chromosome during late stages in the chlamydial life cycle. Expression of Hc1 in Escherichia coli results in an overall relaxation of DNA...... concentrations. These results were found to coincide with the formation of condensed Hc1-DNA and Hc1-RNA complexes as revealed by agarose gel electrophoresis and electron microscopy. The implications of these results for possible functions of Hc1 in vivo are discussed....

  20. RING finger and WD repeat domain 3 (RFWD3) associates with replication protein A (RPA) and facilitates RPA-mediated DNA damage response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shangfeng; Chu, Jessica; Yucer, Nur; Leng, Mei; Wang, Shih-Ya; Chen, Benjamin P C; Hittelman, Walter N; Wang, Yi

    2011-06-24

    DNA damage response is crucial for maintaining genomic integrity and preventing cancer by coordinating the activation of checkpoints and the repair of damaged DNA. Central to DNA damage response are the two checkpoint kinases ATM and ATR that phosphorylate a wide range of substrates. RING finger and WD repeat domain 3 (RFWD3) was initially identified as a substrate of ATM/ATR from a proteomic screen. Subsequent studies showed that RFWD3 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that ubiquitinates p53 in vitro and positively regulates p53 levels in response to DNA damage. We report here that RFWD3 associates with replication protein A (RPA), a single-stranded DNA-binding protein that plays essential roles in DNA replication, recombination, and repair. Binding of RPA to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), which is generated by DNA damage and repair, is essential for the recruitment of DNA repair factors to damaged sites and the activation of checkpoint signaling. We show that RFWD3 is physically associated with RPA and rapidly localizes to sites of DNA damage in a RPA-dependent manner. In vitro experiments suggest that the C terminus of RFWD3, which encompass the coiled-coil domain and the WD40 domain, is necessary for binding to RPA. Furthermore, DNA damage-induced phosphorylation of RPA and RFWD3 is dependent upon each other. Consequently, loss of RFWD3 results in the persistent foci of DNA damage marker γH2AX and the repair protein Rad51 in damaged cells. These findings suggest that RFWD3 is recruited to sites of DNA damage and facilitates RPA-mediated DNA damage signaling and repair.

  1. Direct and indirect control of the initiation of meiotic recombination by DNA damage checkpoint mechanisms in budding yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Argunhan

    Full Text Available Meiotic recombination plays an essential role in the proper segregation of chromosomes at meiosis I in many sexually reproducing organisms. Meiotic recombination is initiated by the scheduled formation of genome-wide DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs. The timing of DSB formation is strictly controlled because unscheduled DSB formation is detrimental to genome integrity. Here, we investigated the role of DNA damage checkpoint mechanisms in the control of meiotic DSB formation using budding yeast. By using recombination defective mutants in which meiotic DSBs are not repaired, the effect of DNA damage checkpoint mutations on DSB formation was evaluated. The Tel1 (ATM pathway mainly responds to unresected DSB ends, thus the sae2 mutant background in which DSB ends remain intact was employed. On the other hand, the Mec1 (ATR pathway is primarily used when DSB ends are resected, thus the rad51 dmc1 double mutant background was employed in which highly resected DSBs accumulate. In order to separate the effect caused by unscheduled cell cycle progression, which is often associated with DNA damage checkpoint defects, we also employed the ndt80 mutation which permanently arrests the meiotic cell cycle at prophase I. In the absence of Tel1, DSB formation was reduced in larger chromosomes (IV, VII, II and XI whereas no significant reduction was found in smaller chromosomes (III and VI. On the other hand, the absence of Rad17 (a critical component of the ATR pathway lead to an increase in DSB formation (chromosomes VII and II were tested. We propose that, within prophase I, the Tel1 pathway facilitates DSB formation, especially in bigger chromosomes, while the Mec1 pathway negatively regulates DSB formation. We also identified prophase I exit, which is under the control of the DNA damage checkpoint machinery, to be a critical event associated with down-regulating meiotic DSB formation.

  2. Biochemical studies of DNA strand break repair and molecular characterization of mei-41, a gene involved in DNA break repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveri, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    The ability to repair X-irradiation induced single-strand DNA breaks was examined in mutagen-sensitive mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. This analysis demonstrated that examined stocks possess a normal capacity to repair X-ray induced single-strand breaks. One of the mutants in this study, mei-41, has been shown to be involved in a number of DNA metabolizing functions. A molecular characterization of this mutant is presented. A cDNA hybridizing to genomic DNA both proximal and distal to a P element inducing a mei-41 mutation was isolated from both embryonic and adult female recombinant lambda phage libraries. A 2.2 kilobase embryonic cDNA clone was sequenced; the sequence of an open reading frame was identified which would predict a protein of 384 amino acids with a molecular weight of 43,132 daltons. An examination of homologies to sequences in protein and nucleic acid data bases revealed no sequences with significant homology to mei-41, however, two potential Zinc-finger domains were identified. Analysis of RNA hybridizing to the embryonic cDNA demonstrated the existence of a major 2.2 kilobase transcript expressed primarily in embryos and adult flies. An examination of the transcription of this gene in mei-41 mutants revealed significant variation from wild-type, an indication that the embryonic cDNA does represent a mei-41 transcript. Expression in tissues from adult animals demonstrated that the 2.2 kilobase RNA is expressed primarily in reproductive tissues. A 3.8kb transcript is the major species of RNA in the adult head and thorax. Evidence is presented which implies that expression of the mei-41 gene is strongly induced by exposure of certain cells to mutagens

  3. DNA repair in gamma-and UV-irradiated Escherichia coli treated with caffeine and acriflavine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhestyanikov, V.D.; Savel'eva, G.E.

    1978-01-01

    A study is made of the postradiation effect of caffeine and acriflavine on the survival rate and DNA repair in E. coli exposed to γ- and UV-radiation. When added to postradiation growth medium caffeine and acriflavine lower the survival rate of γ-irradiated radioresistant strains, B/r and Bsub(s-1)γR, and UV-irradiated UV-resistant strain B/r, and do not appreciably influence the survival of strains that are sensitive to γ- and UV-radiation. The survival rate of UV-irradiated mutant BsUb(s-1) somewhat increases in the presence of caffeine. Caffeine and acriflavine inhibit repair of single-stranded DNA breaks induced in strain B/r by γ-radiation (slow repair) and UV light. Acriflavine arrests a recombination branch of postreplication repair of DNA in E. coli Bsub(s-1)γR Whereas caffeine does not influence this process

  4. The 3'-to-5' exonuclease activity of vaccinia virus DNA polymerase is essential and plays a role in promoting virus genetic recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammon, Don B; Evans, David H

    2009-05-01

    Poxviruses are subjected to extraordinarily high levels of genetic recombination during infection, although the enzymes catalyzing these reactions have never been identified. However, it is clear that virus-encoded DNA polymerases play some unknown yet critical role in virus recombination. Using a novel, antiviral-drug-based strategy to dissect recombination and replication reactions, we now show that the 3'-to-5' proofreading exonuclease activity of the viral DNA polymerase plays a key role in promoting recombination reactions. Linear DNA substrates were prepared containing the dCMP analog cidofovir (CDV) incorporated into the 3' ends of the molecules. The drug blocked the formation of concatemeric recombinant molecules in vitro in a process that was catalyzed by the proofreading activity of vaccinia virus DNA polymerase. Recombinant formation was also blocked when CDV-containing recombination substrates were transfected into cells infected with wild-type vaccinia virus. These inhibitory effects could be overcome if CDV-containing substrates were transfected into cells infected with CDV-resistant (CDV(r)) viruses, but only when resistance was linked to an A314T substitution mutation mapping within the 3'-to-5' exonuclease domain of the viral polymerase. Viruses encoding a CDV(r) mutation in the polymerase domain still exhibited a CDV-induced recombination deficiency. The A314T substitution also enhanced the enzyme's capacity to excise CDV molecules from the 3' ends of duplex DNA and to recombine these DNAs in vitro, as judged from experiments using purified mutant DNA polymerase. The 3'-to-5' exonuclease activity appears to be an essential virus function, and our results suggest that this might be because poxviruses use it to promote genetic exchange.

  5. Distinct kinetics of human DNA ligases I, IIIalpha, IIIbeta, and IV reveal direct DNA sensing ability and differential physiological functions in DNA repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xi; Ballin, Jeff D.; Della-Maria, Julie; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; White, Elizabeth J.; Tomkinson, Alan E.; Wilson, Gerald M.

    2009-05-11

    The three human LIG genes encode polypeptides that catalyze phosphodiester bond formation during DNA replication, recombination and repair. While numerous studies have identified protein partners of the human DNA ligases (hLigs), there has been little characterization of the catalytic properties of these enzymes. In this study, we developed and optimized a fluorescence-based DNA ligation assay to characterize the activities of purified hLigs. Although hLigI joins DNA nicks, it has no detectable activity on linear duplex DNA substrates with short, cohesive single-strand ends. By contrast, hLigIII{beta} and the hLigIII{alpha}/XRCC1 and hLigIV/XRCC4 complexes are active on both nicked and linear duplex DNA substrates. Surprisingly, hLigIV/XRCC4, which is a key component of the major non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway, is significantly less active than hLigIII on a linear duplex DNA substrate. Notably, hLigIV/XRCC4 molecules only catalyze a single ligation event in the absence or presence of ATP. The failure to catalyze subsequent ligation events reflects a defect in the enzyme-adenylation step of the next ligation reaction and suggests that, unless there is an in vivo mechanism to reactivate DNA ligase IV/XRCC4 following phosphodiester bond formation, the cellular NHEJ capacity will be determined by the number of adenylated DNA ligaseIV/XRCC4 molecules.

  6. Cloning of human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor cDNA and expression of recombinant soluble TNF-binding protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P.W.; Barrett, K.; Chantry, D.; Turner, M.; Feldmann, M.

    1990-01-01

    The cDNA for one of the receptors for human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has been isolated. This cDNA encodes a protein of 455 amino acids that is divided into an extracellular domain of 171 residues and a cytoplasmic domain of 221 residues. The extracellular domain has been engineered for expression in mammalian cells, and this recombinant derivative binds TNFα with high affinity and inhibits its cytotoxic activity in vitro. The TNF receptor exhibits similarity with a family of cell surface proteins that includes the nerve growth factor receptor, the human B-cell surface antigen CD40, and the rat T-cell surface antigen OX40. The TNF receptor contains four cysteine-rich subdomains in the extracellular portion. Mammalian cells transfected with the entire TNF receptor cDNA bind radiolabeled TNFα with an affinity of 2.5 x 10 -9 M. This binding can be competitively inhibited with unlabeled TNFα or lymphotoxin (TNFβ)

  7. Phosphate-methylated DNA aimed at HIV-1 RNA loops and integrated DNA inhibits viral infectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buck, H. M.; Koole, L. H.; van Genderen, M. H.; Smit, L.; Geelen, J. L.; Jurriaans, S.; Goudsmit, J.

    1990-01-01

    Phosphate-methylated DNA hybridizes strongly and specifically to natural DNA and RNA. Hybridization to single-stranded and double-stranded DNA leads to site-selective blocking of replication and transcription. Phosphate-methylated DNA was used to interrupt the life cycle of the human

  8. Single strand conformation polymorphism based SNP and Indel markers for genetic mapping and synteny analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Marcela

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expressed sequence tags (ESTs are an important source of gene-based markers such as those based on insertion-deletions (Indels or single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Several gel based methods have been reported for the detection of sequence variants, however they have not been widely exploited in common bean, an important legume crop of the developing world. The objectives of this project were to develop and map EST based markers using analysis of single strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCPs, to create a transcript map for common bean and to compare synteny of the common bean map with sequenced chromosomes of other legumes. Results A set of 418 EST based amplicons were evaluated for parental polymorphisms using the SSCP technique and 26% of these presented a clear conformational or size polymorphism between Andean and Mesoamerican genotypes. The amplicon based markers were then used for genetic mapping with segregation analysis performed in the DOR364 × G19833 recombinant inbred line (RIL population. A total of 118 new marker loci were placed into an integrated molecular map for common bean consisting of 288 markers. Of these, 218 were used for synteny analysis and 186 presented homology with segments of the soybean genome with an e-value lower than 7 × 10-12. The synteny analysis with soybean showed a mosaic pattern of syntenic blocks with most segments of any one common bean linkage group associated with two soybean chromosomes. The analysis with Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus presented fewer syntenic regions consistent with the more distant phylogenetic relationship between the galegoid and phaseoloid legumes. Conclusion The SSCP technique is a useful and inexpensive alternative to other SNP or Indel detection techniques for saturating the common bean genetic map with functional markers that may be useful in marker assisted selection. In addition, the genetic markers based on ESTs allowed the construction

  9. Single strand conformation polymorphism based SNP and Indel markers for genetic mapping and synteny analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Carlos H; Fernández, Andrea C; Gómez, Marcela; Blair, Matthew W

    2009-12-23

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are an important source of gene-based markers such as those based on insertion-deletions (Indels) or single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Several gel based methods have been reported for the detection of sequence variants, however they have not been widely exploited in common bean, an important legume crop of the developing world. The objectives of this project were to develop and map EST based markers using analysis of single strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCPs), to create a transcript map for common bean and to compare synteny of the common bean map with sequenced chromosomes of other legumes. A set of 418 EST based amplicons were evaluated for parental polymorphisms using the SSCP technique and 26% of these presented a clear conformational or size polymorphism between Andean and Mesoamerican genotypes. The amplicon based markers were then used for genetic mapping with segregation analysis performed in the DOR364 x G19833 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. A total of 118 new marker loci were placed into an integrated molecular map for common bean consisting of 288 markers. Of these, 218 were used for synteny analysis and 186 presented homology with segments of the soybean genome with an e-value lower than 7 x 10-12. The synteny analysis with soybean showed a mosaic pattern of syntenic blocks with most segments of any one common bean linkage group associated with two soybean chromosomes. The analysis with Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus presented fewer syntenic regions consistent with the more distant phylogenetic relationship between the galegoid and phaseoloid legumes. The SSCP technique is a useful and inexpensive alternative to other SNP or Indel detection techniques for saturating the common bean genetic map with functional markers that may be useful in marker assisted selection. In addition, the genetic markers based on ESTs allowed the construction of a transcript map and given their high conservation

  10. Evidence for the role of Mycobacterium tuberculosis RecG helicase in DNA repair and recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Roshan S; Basavaraju, Shivakumar; Somyajit, Kumar; Jain, Akshatha; Subramanya, Shreelakshmi; Muniyappa, Kalappa; Nagaraju, Ganesh

    2013-04-01

    In order to survive and replicate in a variety of stressful conditions during its life cycle, Mycobacterium tuberculosis must possess mechanisms to safeguard the integrity of the genome. Although DNA repair and recombination related genes are thought to play key roles in the repair of damaged DNA in all organisms, so far only a few of them have been functionally characterized in the tubercle bacillus. In this study, we show that M. tuberculosis RecG (MtRecG) expression was induced in response to different genotoxic agents. Strikingly, expression of MtRecG in Escherichia coli ∆recG mutant strain provided protection against mitomycin C, methyl methane sulfonate and UV induced cell death. Purified MtRecG exhibited higher binding affinity for the Holliday junction (HJ) compared with a number of canonical recombinational DNA repair intermediates. Notably, although MtRecG binds at the core of the mobile and immobile HJs, and with higher binding affinity for the immobile HJ, branch migration was evident only in the case of the mobile HJ. Furthermore, immobile HJs stimulate MtRecG ATPase activity less efficiently than mobile HJs. In addition to HJ substrates, MtRecG exhibited binding affinity for a variety of branched DNA structures including three-way junctions, replication forks, flap structures, forked duplex and a D-loop structure, but demonstrated strong unwinding activity on replication fork and flap DNA structures. Together, these results support that MtRecG plays an important role in processes related to DNA metabolism under normal as well as stress conditions. © 2013 The Authors Journal compilation © 2013 FEBS.

  11. Monitoring Replication Protein A (RPA) dynamics in homologous recombination through site-specific incorporation of non-canonical amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Nilisha; Origanti, Sofia; Davenport, Eric Parker; Gandhi, Disha; Kaniecki, Kyle; Mehl, Ryan A; Greene, Eric C; Dockendorff, Chris; Antony, Edwin

    2017-09-19

    An essential coordinator of all DNA metabolic processes is Replication Protein A (RPA). RPA orchestrates these processes by binding to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and interacting with several other DNA binding proteins. Determining the real-time kinetics of single players such as RPA in the presence of multiple DNA processors to better understand the associated mechanistic events is technically challenging. To overcome this hurdle, we utilized non-canonical amino acids and bio-orthogonal chemistry to site-specifically incorporate a chemical fluorophore onto a single subunit of heterotrimeric RPA. Upon binding to ssDNA, this fluorescent RPA (RPAf) generates a quantifiable change in fluorescence, thus serving as a reporter of its dynamics on DNA in the presence of multiple other DNA binding proteins. Using RPAf, we describe the kinetics of facilitated self-exchange and exchange by Rad51 and mediator proteins during various stages in homologous recombination. RPAf is widely applicable to investigate its mechanism of action in processes such as DNA replication, repair and telomere maintenance. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. When two is not enough: a CtIP tetramer is required for DNA repair by Homologous Recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forment, Josep V; Jackson, Stephen P; Pellegrini, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) is central to the repair of double-strand DNA breaks that occur in S/G2 phases of the cell cycle. HR relies on the CtIP protein (Ctp1 in fission yeast, Sae2 in budding yeast) for resection of DNA ends, a key step in generating the 3'-DNA overhangs that are required for the HR strand-exchange reaction. Although much has been learned about the biological importance of CtIP in DNA repair, our mechanistic insight into its molecular functions remains incomplete. It has been recently discovered that CtIP and Ctp1 share a conserved tetrameric architecture that is mediated by their N-terminal domains and is critical for their function in HR. The specific arrangement of protein chains in the CtIP/Ctp1 tetramer indicates that an ability to bridge DNA ends might be an important feature of CtIP/Ctp1 function, establishing an intriguing similarity with the known ability of the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 complex to link DNA ends. Although the exact mechanism of action remains to be elucidated, the remarkable evolutionary conservation of CtIP/Ctp1 tetramerisation clearly points to its crucial role in HR.

  13. Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent or Embryonic Stem Cells Decreases the DNA Damage Repair by Homologous Recombination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Mujoo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The nitric oxide (NO-cyclic GMP pathway contributes to human stem cell differentiation, but NO free radical production can also damage DNA, necessitating a robust DNA damage response (DDR to ensure cell survival. How the DDR is affected by differentiation is unclear. Differentiation of stem cells, either inducible pluripotent or embryonic derived, increased residual DNA damage as determined by γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci, with increased S-phase-specific chromosomal aberration after exposure to DNA-damaging agents, suggesting reduced homologous recombination (HR repair as supported by the observation of decreased HR-related repair factor foci formation (RAD51 and BRCA1. Differentiated cells also had relatively increased fork stalling and R-loop formation after DNA replication stress. Treatment with NO donor (NOC-18, which causes stem cell differentiation has no effect on double-strand break (DSB repair by non-homologous end-joining but reduced DSB repair by HR. Present studies suggest that DNA repair by HR is impaired in differentiated cells.

  14. LEGO-like DNA Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager

    2012-01-01

    -dimensional (3D) DNA structures by self-assembly of single-stranded DNA “bricks.” The method opens a new route to complex self-assembled (3D) nanostructures that may serve as addressable templates for placing guest molecules with high precision, with possible applications in biophysics, medicine...

  15. Electron microscopic comparison of the sequences of single-stranded genomes of mammalian parvoviruses by heteroduplex mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, P.T.; Olson, W.H.; Allison, D.P.; Bates, R.C.; Snyder, C.E.; Mitra, S.

    1983-01-01

    The sequence homologies among the linear single-stranded genomes of several mammalian parvoviruses have been studied by electron microscopic analysis of tthe heteroduplexes produced by reannealing the complementary strands of their DNAs. The genomes of Kilham rat virus, H-1, minute virus of ice and LuIII, which are antigenically distinct non-defective parvoviruses, have considerable homology: about 70% of their sequences are conserved. The homologous regions map at similar locations in the left halves (from the 3' ends) of the genomes. No sequence homology, however, is observed between the DNAs of these nondefective parvoviruses and that of bovine parvovirus, another non-defective virus, or that of defective adenoassociated virus, nor between the genomes of bovine parvovirus and adenoassociated virus. This suggests that only very short, if any, homologous regions are present. From these results, an evolutionary relationship among Kilham rat virus, H-1, minute virus of mice and LuIII is predicted. It is interesting to note that, although LuIII was originally isolated from a human cell line and is specific for human cells in vitro, its genome has sequences in common only with the rodent viruses Kilham rat virus, minute virus of mice and H-1, and not with the other two mammalian parvoviruses tested.

  16. Structure-spectrophotometric selectivity relationship in interactions of quercetin related flavonoids with double stranded and single stranded RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantanida, Ivo; Mašić, Lozika; Rusak, Gordana

    2009-04-01

    Interactions of five flavonoids with dsRNA and single stranded ssRNA were studied by UV/vis titrations. The results obtained supported the intercalative binding mode as a dominant interaction of studied flavonoids with dsRNA as well as major interaction with ssRNA. Furthermore, changes of the UV/vis spectra of flavonoids induced by addition of poly G or poly C, respectively, are significantly stronger than changes induced by double stranded poly G-poly C, pointing to essential role of the free poly G or poly C sequence (not hydrogen bonded in double helix). Exclusively poly G caused significant batochromic shift of the UV/vis maxima of all studied flavonoids, whereby the intensity of batochromic shift is nicely correlated to the number of OH groups of flavonoid. Unlikely to poly G, addition of poly A and poly U induced measurable changes only in the UV/vis spectra of flavonoids characterised by no OH (galangin) or three OH groups (myricetin) on the phenyl part of the molecule. Consequently, flavonoids with one- or two-OH groups on the phenyl part of the molecule (luteolin, fisetin, kaempferol) specifically differentiate between poly A, poly U (negligible changes in the UV/Vis spectra) and poly G (strong changes in the UV/Vis spectra) as well as poly C (moderate changes in the UV/Vis spectra).

  17. A Novel Single-Strand RNAi Therapeutic Agent Targeting the (Pro)renin Receptor Suppresses Ocular Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Atsuhiro; Ishizuka, Erdal Tan; Shibata, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Toyofuku, Hidekazu; Noda, Kousuke; Namba, Kenichi; Ishida, Susumu

    2017-06-16

    The receptor-associated prorenin system (RAPS) refers to the pathogenic mechanism whereby prorenin binding to the (pro)renin receptor [(P)RR] dually activates the tissue renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and RAS-independent intracellular signaling. Here we revealed significant upregulation of prorenin and soluble (P)RR levels in the vitreous fluid of patients with uveitis compared to non-inflammatory controls, together with a positive correlation between these RAPS components and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 among several upregulated cytokines. Moreover, we developed a novel single-strand RNAi agent, proline-modified short hairpin RNA directed against human and mouse (P)RR [(P)RR-PshRNA], and we determined its safety and efficacy in vitro and in vivo. Application of (P)RR-PshRNA in mice caused significant amelioration of acute (uveitic) and chronic (diabetic) models of ocular inflammation with no apparent adverse effects. Our findings demonstrate the significant implication of RAPS in the pathogenesis of human uveitis and the potential usefulness of (P)RR-PshRNA as a therapeutic agent to reduce ocular inflammation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of radiation chemical and enzymatic processes on single-strand breaks at short times after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapora, O; Loverock, P S; Fielden, E M [Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton (UK). Surrey Branch

    1976-10-01

    A rapid mixing lysis technique has been used to study the effects of irradiation at different temperatures on two strains of E.coli K12, one lacking in the polymerase I activity (W3110), and the other carrying a ligase temperature-sensitive mutation (DY179), which had full ligase activity at 30/sup 0/C and none at 46/sup 0/C. The results provided direct evidence for the absence of any ligase-dependent repair of SSB at short times. The addition of 5 x 10/sup -3/M cysteine to heat-treated W3110 cells before irradiation in anoxic conditions practically removed the increase in yield of SSB per single strand genome shown by the heat-treated cells; the response was very close to that of normal cells in anoxia. The important contribution of sulphydryl compounds to the anoxic radio-biological response is thereby demonstrated. The basic difference in damage obtained by irradiation under oxic or anoxic conditions is due not to preferential enzymic (ligase) repair but to differences in radiation chemical events.

  19. Unveiling novel RecO distant orthologues involved in homologous recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Marsin

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The generation of a RecA filament on single-stranded DNA is a critical step in homologous recombination. Two main pathways leading to the formation of the nucleofilament have been identified in bacteria, based on the protein complexes mediating RecA loading: RecBCD (AddAB and RecFOR. Many bacterial species seem to lack some of the components involved in these complexes. The current annotation of the Helicobacter pylori genome suggests that this highly diverse bacterial pathogen has a reduced set of recombination mediator proteins. While it is now clear that homologous recombination plays a critical role in generating H. pylori diversity by allowing genomic DNA rearrangements and integration through transformation of exogenous DNA into the chromosome, no complete mediator complex is deduced from the sequence of its genome. Here we show by bioinformatics analysis the presence of a RecO remote orthologue that allowed the identification of a new set of RecO proteins present in all bacterial species where a RecR but not RecO was previously identified. HpRecO shares less than 15% identity with previously characterized homologues. Genetic dissection of recombination pathways shows that this novel RecO and the remote RecB homologue present in H. pylori are functional in repair and in RecA-dependent intrachromosomal recombination, defining two initiation pathways with little overlap. We found, however, that neither RecOR nor RecB contributes to transformation, suggesting the presence of a third, specialized, RecA-dependent pathway responsible for the integration of transforming DNA into the chromosome of this naturally competent bacteria. These results provide insight into the mechanisms that this successful pathogen uses to generate genetic diversity and adapt to changing environments and new hosts.

  20. Roles of C-Terminal Region of Yeast and Human Rad52 in Rad51-Nucleoprotein Filament Formation and ssDNA Annealing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh V Khade

    Full Text Available Yeast Rad52 (yRad52 has two important functions at homologous DNA recombination (HR; annealing complementary single-strand DNA (ssDNA molecules and recruiting Rad51 recombinase onto ssDNA (recombination mediator activity. Its human homolog (hRAD52 has a lesser role in HR, and apparently lacks mediator activity. Here we show that yRad52 can load human Rad51 (hRAD51 onto ssDNA complexed with yeast RPA in vitro. This is biochemically equivalent to mediator activity because it depends on the C-terminal Rad51-binding region of yRad52 and on functional Rad52-RPA interaction. It has been reported that the N-terminal two thirds of both yRad52 and hRAD52 is essential for binding to and annealing ssDNA. Although a second DNA binding region has been found in the C-terminal region of yRad52, its role in ssDNA annealing is not clear. In this paper, we also show that the C-terminal region of yRad52, but not of hRAD52, is involved in ssDNA annealing. This suggests that the second DNA binding site is required for the efficient ssDNA annealing by yRad52. We propose an updated model of Rad52-mediated ssDNA annealing.

  1. Recombinant DNA derived monomeric insulin analogue: comparison with soluble human insulin in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, J P; Owens, D R; Dolben, J; Atiea, J A; Dean, J D; Kang, S; Burch, A; Brange, J

    1988-11-12

    To compare the rate of absorption from subcutaneous tissue and the resulting hypoglycaemic effect of iodine-125 labelled soluble human insulin and a monomeric insulin analogue derived by recombinant DNA technology. Single blind randomised comparison of equimolar doses of 125I labelled soluble human insulin and insulin analogue. Study in normal people at a diabetes research unit and a university department of medical physics. Seven healthy male volunteers aged 20-39 not receiving any other drugs. After an overnight fast and a basal period of one hour two doses (0.05 and 0.1 U/kg) of 125I labelled soluble human insulin and insulin analogue were injected subcutaneously into the anterior abdominal wall on four separate days. To find a fast acting insulin for meal related requirements in insulin dependent diabetics. MEASUREMENTS and main results--Residual radioactivity at the injection site was measured continuously for the first two hours after injection of the 125I labelled preparations and thereafter for five minutes simultaneously with blood sampling. Frequent venous blood samples were obtained over six hours for determination of plasma immunoreactive insulin, insulin analogue, glucose, and glucagon values. Time to 50% of initial radioactivity at the injection site for the insulin analogue compared with soluble insulin was 61 v 135 minutes (p less than 0.05) with 0.05 U/kg and 67 v 145 minutes (p less than 0.001) with 0.1 U/kg. Concentrations in plasma increased faster after the insulin analogue compared with soluble insulin, resulting in higher plasma concentrations between 10 and 150 minutes (0.001 less than p less than 0.05) after 0.05 U/kg and between 40 and 360 minutes (0.001 less than p less than 0.05) after 0.1 U/kg. The hypoglycaemic response to insulin analogue was a plasma glucose nadir at 60 minutes with both doses compared with 90 and 120 minutes with soluble insulin at 0.5 and 0.1 U/kg respectively. The response of glucagon substantiated the earlier and

  2. 78 FR 27977 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Proposed Actions Under the NIH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology... Recombinant or Synthetic Nucleic Acid Molecules (NIH Guidelines) SUMMARY: The NIH Office of Biotechnology... of Biotechnology Activities, National Institutes of Health, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 750, Bethesda...

  3. In vitro and in vivo characterization of DNA delivery using recombinant Lactococcus lactis expressing a mutated form of L. monocytogenes Internalin A