WorldWideScience

Sample records for single-site multipole model

  1. Atomic forces for geometry-dependent point multipole and gaussian multipole models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elking, Dennis M; Perera, Lalith; Duke, Robert; Darden, Thomas; Pedersen, Lee G

    2010-11-30

    In standard treatments of atomic multipole models, interaction energies, total molecular forces, and total molecular torques are given for multipolar interactions between rigid molecules. However, if the molecules are assumed to be flexible, two additional multipolar atomic forces arise because of (1) the transfer of torque between neighboring atoms and (2) the dependence of multipole moment on internal geometry (bond lengths, bond angles, etc.) for geometry-dependent multipole models. In this study, atomic force expressions for geometry-dependent multipoles are presented for use in simulations of flexible molecules. The atomic forces are derived by first proposing a new general expression for Wigner function derivatives partial derivative D(m'm)(l)/partial derivative Omega. The force equations can be applied to electrostatic models based on atomic point multipoles or gaussian multipole charge density. Hydrogen-bonded dimers are used to test the intermolecular electrostatic energies and atomic forces calculated by geometry-dependent multipoles fit to the ab initio electrostatic potential. The electrostatic energies and forces are compared with their reference ab initio values. It is shown that both static and geometry-dependent multipole models are able to reproduce total molecular forces and torques with respect to ab initio, whereas geometry-dependent multipoles are needed to reproduce ab initio atomic forces. The expressions for atomic force can be used in simulations of flexible molecules with atomic multipoles. In addition, the results presented in this work should lead to further development of next generation force fields composed of geometry-dependent multipole models. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Transferable Atomic Multipole Machine Learning Models for Small Organic Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereau, Tristan; Andrienko, Denis; von Lilienfeld, O Anatole

    2015-07-14

    Accurate representation of the molecular electrostatic potential, which is often expanded in distributed multipole moments, is crucial for an efficient evaluation of intermolecular interactions. Here we introduce a machine learning model for multipole coefficients of atom types H, C, O, N, S, F, and Cl in any molecular conformation. The model is trained on quantum-chemical results for atoms in varying chemical environments drawn from thousands of organic molecules. Multipoles in systems with neutral, cationic, and anionic molecular charge states are treated with individual models. The models' predictive accuracy and applicability are illustrated by evaluating intermolecular interaction energies of nearly 1,000 dimers and the cohesive energy of the benzene crystal.

  3. United polarizable multipole water model for molecular mechanics simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Rui; Wang, Qiantao; Ren, Pengyu, E-mail: pren@mail.utexas.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Wang, Lee-Ping; Pande, Vijay S. [Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2015-07-07

    We report the development of a united AMOEBA (uAMOEBA) polarizable water model, which is computationally 3–5 times more efficient than the three-site AMOEBA03 model in molecular dynamics simulations while providing comparable accuracy for gas-phase and liquid properties. In this coarse-grained polarizable water model, both electrostatic (permanent and induced) and van der Waals representations have been reduced to a single site located at the oxygen atom. The permanent charge distribution is described via the molecular dipole and quadrupole moments and the many-body polarization via an isotropic molecular polarizability, all located at the oxygen center. Similarly, a single van der Waals interaction site is used for each water molecule. Hydrogen atoms are retained only for the purpose of defining local frames for the molecular multipole moments and intramolecular vibrational modes. The parameters have been derived based on a combination of ab initio quantum mechanical and experimental data set containing gas-phase cluster structures and energies, and liquid thermodynamic properties. For validation, additional properties including dimer interaction energy, liquid structures, self-diffusion coefficient, and shear viscosity have been evaluated. The results demonstrate good transferability from the gas to the liquid phase over a wide range of temperatures, and from nonpolar to polar environments, due to the presence of molecular polarizability. The water coordination, hydrogen-bonding structure, and dynamic properties given by uAMOEBA are similar to those derived from the all-atom AMOEBA03 model and experiments. Thus, the current model is an accurate and efficient alternative for modeling water.

  4. Geometry-dependent atomic multipole models for the water molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loboda, O; Millot, C

    2017-10-28

    Models of atomic electric multipoles for the water molecule have been optimized in order to reproduce the electric potential around the molecule computed by ab initio calculations at the coupled cluster level of theory with up to noniterative triple excitations in an augmented triple-zeta quality basis set. Different models of increasing complexity, from atomic charges up to models containing atomic charges, dipoles, and quadrupoles, have been obtained. The geometry dependence of these atomic multipole models has been investigated by changing bond lengths and HOH angle to generate 125 molecular structures (reduced to 75 symmetry-unique ones). For several models, the atomic multipole components have been fitted as a function of the geometry by a Taylor series of fourth order in monomer coordinate displacements.

  5. Cardiac magnetic source imaging based on current multipole model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Fa-Kuan; Wang Qian; Hua Ning; Lu Hong; Tang Xue-Zheng; Ma Ping

    2011-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the heart current source can be reduced into a current multipole. By adopting three linear inverse methods, the cardiac magnetic imaging is achieved in this article based on the current multipole model expanded to the first order terms. This magnetic imaging is realized in a reconstruction plane in the centre of human heart, where the current dipole array is employed to represent realistic cardiac current distribution. The current multipole as testing source generates magnetic fields in the measuring plane, serving as inputs of cardiac magnetic inverse problem. In the heart-torso model constructed by boundary element method, the current multipole magnetic field distribution is compared with that in the homogeneous infinite space, and also with the single current dipole magnetic field distribution. Then the minimum-norm least-squares (MNLS) method, the optimal weighted pseudoinverse method (OWPIM), and the optimal constrained linear inverse method (OCLIM) are selected as the algorithms for inverse computation based on current multipole model innovatively, and the imaging effects of these three inverse methods are compared. Besides, two reconstructing parameters, residual and mean residual, are also discussed, and their trends under MNLS, OWPIM and OCLIM each as a function of SNR are obtained and compared. (general)

  6. The Multipole Plasma Trap-PIC Modeling Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Nathaniel; Bowman, Amanda; Godden, Katarina

    2017-10-01

    A radio-frequency (RF) multipole structure is studied via particle-in-cell computer modeling, to assess the response of quasi-neutral plasma to the imposed RF fields. Several regimes, such as pair plasma, antimatter plasma, and conventional (ion-electron) plasma are considered. In the case of equal charge-to-mass ratio of plasma species, the effects of the multipole field are symmetric between positive and negative particles. In the case of a charge-to-mass disparity, the multipole RF parameters (frequency, voltage, structure size) may be chosen such that the light species (e.g. electrons) is strongly confined, while the heavy species (e.g. positive ions) does not respond to the RF field. In this case, the trapped negative space charge creates a potential well that then traps the positive species. 2D and 3D particle-in-cell simulations of this concept are presented, to assess plasma response and trapping dependences on multipole order, consequences of the formation of an RF plasma sheath, and the effects of an axial magnetic field. The scalings of trapped plasma parameters are explored in each of the mentioned regimes, to guide the design of prospective experiments investigating each. Supported by U.S. NSF/DOE Partnership in Basic Plasma Science and Engineering Grant PHY-1619615.

  7. Giant resonance of electrical multipole from droplet model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauhata, L.

    1984-01-01

    The formalism of the electrical multipole resonance developed from the Droplet nuclear model is presented. It combines the approaches of Goldhaber-Teller (GT) and Steinwedel-Jensen (SJ) and it shows the relative contribution of Coulomb, superficial and neutron excess energies. It also discusses the calculation of half-width. The model evaluates correctly the resonance energies as a function of nuclear mass and allows, through the Mixture Index, the prediction of the complementary participation of modes SJ and GT in the giant nuclear resonance. Values of the mixture index, for each multipolarity, reproduce well the form factors obtained from experiments of charged particle inelastic scattering. The formalism presented for the calculation of the half-width gives a macroscopic description of the friction mechanism. The establishment of the macroscopic structure of the Dissipation Function is used as a reference in the comparison of microscopic calculations. (Author) [pt

  8. Revised Parameters for the AMOEBA Polarizable Atomic Multipole Water Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laury, Marie L; Wang, Lee-Ping; Pande, Vijay S; Head-Gordon, Teresa; Ponder, Jay W

    2015-07-23

    A set of improved parameters for the AMOEBA polarizable atomic multipole water model is developed. An automated procedure, ForceBalance, is used to adjust model parameters to enforce agreement with ab initio-derived results for water clusters and experimental data for a variety of liquid phase properties across a broad temperature range. The values reported here for the new AMOEBA14 water model represent a substantial improvement over the previous AMOEBA03 model. The AMOEBA14 model accurately predicts the temperature of maximum density and qualitatively matches the experimental density curve across temperatures from 249 to 373 K. Excellent agreement is observed for the AMOEBA14 model in comparison to experimental properties as a function of temperature, including the second virial coefficient, enthalpy of vaporization, isothermal compressibility, thermal expansion coefficient, and dielectric constant. The viscosity, self-diffusion constant, and surface tension are also well reproduced. In comparison to high-level ab initio results for clusters of 2-20 water molecules, the AMOEBA14 model yields results similar to AMOEBA03 and the direct polarization iAMOEBA models. With advances in computing power, calibration data, and optimization techniques, we recommend the use of the AMOEBA14 water model for future studies employing a polarizable water model.

  9. Multipole correction of atomic monopole models of molecular charge distribution. I. Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokalski, W. A.; Keller, D. A.; Ornstein, R. L.; Rein, R.

    1993-01-01

    The defects in atomic monopole models of molecular charge distribution have been analyzed for several model-blocked peptides and compared with accurate quantum chemical values. The results indicate that the angular characteristics of the molecular electrostatic potential around functional groups capable of forming hydrogen bonds can be considerably distorted within various models relying upon isotropic atomic charges only. It is shown that these defects can be corrected by augmenting the atomic point charge models by cumulative atomic multipole moments (CAMMs). Alternatively, sets of off-center atomic point charges could be automatically derived from respective multipoles, providing approximately equivalent corrections. For the first time, correlated atomic multipoles have been calculated for N-acetyl, N'-methylamide-blocked derivatives of glycine, alanine, cysteine, threonine, leucine, lysine, and serine using the MP2 method. The role of the correlation effects in the peptide molecular charge distribution are discussed.

  10. Single-site Lennard-Jones models via polynomial chaos surrogates of Monte Carlo molecular simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Kadoura, Ahmad Salim

    2016-06-01

    In this work, two Polynomial Chaos (PC) surrogates were generated to reproduce Monte Carlo (MC) molecular simulation results of the canonical (single-phase) and the NVT-Gibbs (two-phase) ensembles for a system of normalized structureless Lennard-Jones (LJ) particles. The main advantage of such surrogates, once generated, is the capability of accurately computing the needed thermodynamic quantities in a few seconds, thus efficiently replacing the computationally expensive MC molecular simulations. Benefiting from the tremendous computational time reduction, the PC surrogates were used to conduct large-scale optimization in order to propose single-site LJ models for several simple molecules. Experimental data, a set of supercritical isotherms, and part of the two-phase envelope, of several pure components were used for tuning the LJ parameters (ε, σ). Based on the conducted optimization, excellent fit was obtained for different noble gases (Ar, Kr, and Xe) and other small molecules (CH4, N2, and CO). On the other hand, due to the simplicity of the LJ model used, dramatic deviations between simulation and experimental data were observed, especially in the two-phase region, for more complex molecules such as CO2 and C2 H6.

  11. Performance analysis of high frequency single-site-location antenna arrays using numerical electromagnetic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiantarelli, Harry T.

    1990-09-01

    Electronic support measures (ESM) systems play an increasingly important role in modern warfare and can influence the outcome of a military engagement. The application of ESM can be extended to anti-guerrilla and anti-drug operations where law enforcement agencies can exploit the fact that their presence is inducing the outlaw to depend more on radio communications to coordinate their activities. When a propagation path of no more than one reflection at the ionosphere (1-hop) can be assumed, position of an HF emitter can be determined by a single observing site using vertical triangulation, provided that the height of the ionosphere at the point where the radio wave is reflected, can be determined. This technique is known as high frequency direction finding single-site-location (HFDF SSL). This thesis analyzes the HFDF SSL error in measuring the direction of arrival of the signal, how this error is generated by the antenna array and its effect on emitter location. The characteristics of the two antenna arrays used by a specific HFDF SSL system that implements the phase-interferometer techniques were studied using electromagnetic modeling.

  12. Ex-vivo training model for laparoendoscopic single-site surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kommu Sashi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS has recently been applied successfully in the performance of a host of surgical procedures. Preliminary consensus from the experts is that this mode of surgery is technically challenging and requires expertise. The transition from trainee to practicing surgeon, especially in complex procedures with challenging learning curves, takes time and mentor-guided nurturing. However, the trainee needs to use platforms of training to gain the skills that are deemed necessary for undertaking the live human case. Objective: This article aims to demonstrate a step-by-step means of how to acquire the necessary instrumentation and build a training model for practicing steeplechase exercises in LESS for urological surgeons and trainees. The tool built as a result of this could set the platform for performance of basic and advanced skills uptake using conventional, bent and articulated instruments. A preliminary construct validity of the platform was conducted. Materials and Methods: A box model was fitted with an R-Port™ and camera. Articulated and conventional instruments were used to demonstrate basic exercises (e.g. glove pattern cutting, loop stacking and suturing and advanced exercises (e.g. pyeloplasty. The validation included medical students (M, final year laparoscopic fellows (F and experienced consultant laparoscopic surgeons (C with at least 50 LESS cases experience in total, were tested on eight basic skill tasks (S including manipulation of the flexible cystoscope (S1, hand eye coordination (S2, cutting with flexible scissors (S3, grasping with flexible needle holders (S4, two-handed maneuvers (S5, object translocation (S6, cross hand suturing with flexible instruments (S7 and conduction of an ex-vivo pyeloplasty. Results: The successful application of the box model was demonstrated by trainee based exercises. The cost of the kit with circulated materials was less than £150 (Pounds Sterling

  13. Volumetric fast multipole method for modeling Schroedinger's equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Zhiqin; Kovvali, Narayan; Lin, Wenbin; Ahn, Chang-Hoi; Couchman, Luise; Carin, Lawrence

    2007-01-01

    A volume integral equation method is presented for solving Schroedinger's equation for three-dimensional quantum structures. The method is applicable to problems with arbitrary geometry and potential distribution, with unknowns required only in the part of the computational domain for which the potential is different from the background. Two different Green's functions are investigated based on different choices of the background medium. It is demonstrated that one of these choices is particularly advantageous in that it significantly reduces the storage and computational complexity. Solving the volume integral equation directly involves O(N 2 ) complexity. In this paper, the volume integral equation is solved efficiently via a multi-level fast multipole method (MLFMM) implementation, requiring O(N log N) memory and computational cost. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this method for rectangular and spherical quantum wells, and the quantum harmonic oscillator, and present preliminary results of interest for multi-atom quantum phenomena

  14. Extended gamma sources modelling using multipole expansion: Application to the Tunisian gamma source load planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loussaief, Abdelkader

    2007-01-01

    In this work we extend the use of multipole moments expansion to the case of inner radiation fields. A series expansion of the photon flux was established. The main advantage of this approach is that it offers the opportunity to treat both inner and external radiation field cases. We determined the expression of the inner multipole moments in both spherical harmonics and in cartesian coordinates. As an application we applied the analytical model to a radiation facility used for small target irradiation. Theoretical, experimental and simulation studies were performed, in air and in a product, and good agreement was reached.Conventional dose distribution study for gamma irradiation facility involves the use of isodose maps. The establishment of these maps requires the measurement of the absorbed dose in many points, which makes the task expensive experimentally and very long by simulation. However, a lack of points of measurement can distort the dose distribution cartography. To overcome these problems, we present in this paper a mathematical method to describe the dose distribution in air. This method is based on the multipole expansion in spherical harmonics of the photon flux emitted by the gamma source. The determination of the multipole coefficients of this development allows the modeling of the radiation field around the gamma source. (Author)

  15. Multipole giant resonances of 12C nucleus electro excitation in intermediate coupling model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharova, N.G.; Zhivopistsev, F.A.

    1977-01-01

    Multipole giant resonances in 12 C electroexcitation are considered using the shell model with coupling. Cross sections are calculated for the states of 1 - , 2 - , 3 - , 4 - , at T=1. The distributions of the transverse form factor at transferred momenta equal to q approximately 0.75, 1.04, 1.22 and 1.56 Fm -1 and the longitudinal form factor for q = 0.75, 1.04, 1.56 Fm -1 are presented. For the excitation energies in the range from 18 to 28 MeV positive-parity states have a small contribution in the cross section. The distribution of the total form factor in the excitation energies is given. It is concluded that the multipole giant resonances of anomalous parity levels calculated within the interatomic-coupling shell model show a satisfactorily close agreement with the behavior of experimental form factors in the excitation energy range from 18 to 28 MeV

  16. Multipole electron-density modelling of synchrotron powder diffraction data: the case of diamond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, H.; Overgaard, J.; Busselez, R.

    2010-01-01

    encountered in single-crystal studies of small-unit-cell inorganic structures can be overcome with synchrotron powder diffraction. It is shown that the standard Hansen-Coppens multipole model is not flexible enough to fit the static theoretical structure factors, whereas fitting of thermally smeared structure...... parameter. This directly exposes a correlation between electron density and thermal parameters even for a light atom such as carbon, and it also underlines that in organic systems proper deconvolution of thermal motion is important for obtaining correct static electron densities....

  17. Cumulative atomic multipole moments complement any atomic charge model to obtain more accurate electrostatic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokalski, W. A.; Shibata, M.; Ornstein, R. L.; Rein, R.

    1992-01-01

    The quality of several atomic charge models based on different definitions has been analyzed using cumulative atomic multipole moments (CAMM). This formalism can generate higher atomic moments starting from any atomic charges, while preserving the corresponding molecular moments. The atomic charge contribution to the higher molecular moments, as well as to the electrostatic potentials, has been examined for CO and HCN molecules at several different levels of theory. The results clearly show that the electrostatic potential obtained from CAMM expansion is convergent up to R-5 term for all atomic charge models used. This illustrates that higher atomic moments can be used to supplement any atomic charge model to obtain more accurate description of electrostatic properties.

  18. A comparison of least squares linear regression and measurement error modeling of warm/cold multipole correlation in SSC prototype dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, D.; Kim, K.; Gunst, R.; Schucany, W.

    1993-05-01

    Linear estimation of cold magnetic field quality based on warm multipole measurements is being considered as a quality control method for SSC production magnet acceptance. To investigate prediction uncertainties associated with such an approach, axial-scan (Z-scan) magnetic measurements from SSC Prototype Collider Dipole Magnets (CDM's) have been studied. This paper presents a preliminary evaluation of the explanatory ability of warm measurement multipole variation on the prediction of cold magnet multipoles. Two linear estimation methods are presented: least-squares regression, which uses the assumption of fixed independent variable (xi) observations, and the measurement error model, which includes measurement error in the xi's. The influence of warm multipole measurement errors on predicted cold magnet multipole averages is considered. MSD QA is studying warm/cold correlation to answer several magnet quality control questions. How well do warm measurements predict cold (2kA) multipoles? Does sampling error significantly influence estimates of the linear coefficients (slope, intercept and residual standard error)? Is estimation error for the predicted cold magnet average small compared to typical variation along the Z-Axis? What fraction of the multipole RMS tolerance is accounted for by individual magnet prediction uncertainty?

  19. Oblique mid ocean ridge subduction modelling with the parallel fast multipole boundary element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, L.; Hansra, B.; Morra, G.; Butterworth, N.; Müller, R. D.

    2013-04-01

    Geodynamic models describe the thermo-mechanical evolution of rheologically intricate structures spanning different length scales, yet many of their most relevant dynamic features can be studied in terms of low Reynolds number multiphase creep flow of isoviscous and isopycnic structures. We use the BEM-E arth code to study the interaction of the lithosphere and mantle within the solid earth system in this approximation. BEM-E arth overcomes the limitations of traditional FD/FEM for this problem by considering only the dynamics of Boundary Integral Elements at fluid interfaces, and employing a parallel multipole solver accelerated with a hashed octtree. As an application example, we self-consistently model the processes controlling the subduction of an oblique mid-ocean ridge in a global 3D spherical setting in a variety of cases, and find a critical angle characterising the transition between an extensional strain regime related to tectonic plate necking and a compressive regime related to Earth curvature effects.

  20. A performance model for the communication in fast multipole methods on high-performance computing platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Ibeid, Huda

    2016-03-04

    Exascale systems are predicted to have approximately 1 billion cores, assuming gigahertz cores. Limitations on affordable network topologies for distributed memory systems of such massive scale bring new challenges to the currently dominant parallel programing model. Currently, there are many efforts to evaluate the hardware and software bottlenecks of exascale designs. It is therefore of interest to model application performance and to understand what changes need to be made to ensure extrapolated scalability. The fast multipole method (FMM) was originally developed for accelerating N-body problems in astrophysics and molecular dynamics but has recently been extended to a wider range of problems. Its high arithmetic intensity combined with its linear complexity and asynchronous communication patterns make it a promising algorithm for exascale systems. In this paper, we discuss the challenges for FMM on current parallel computers and future exascale architectures, with a focus on internode communication. We focus on the communication part only; the efficiency of the computational kernels are beyond the scope of the present study. We develop a performance model that considers the communication patterns of the FMM and observe a good match between our model and the actual communication time on four high-performance computing (HPC) systems, when latency, bandwidth, network topology, and multicore penalties are all taken into account. To our knowledge, this is the first formal characterization of internode communication in FMM that validates the model against actual measurements of communication time. The ultimate communication model is predictive in an absolute sense; however, on complex systems, this objective is often out of reach or of a difficulty out of proportion to its benefit when there exists a simpler model that is inexpensive and sufficient to guide coding decisions leading to improved scaling. The current model provides such guidance.

  1. RF multipole implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Latina, A

    2012-01-01

    The electromagnetic radio-frequency (RF) field of accelerating structures and crab-cavities can exhibit transverse field components due to asymmetries in the azimuthal direction of the element geometry. Tracking simulations must be performed to evaluate the impact of such transverse RF deflections on the beam dynamics. In an ultra-relativistic regime where the Panofsky-Wenzel theorem is applicable, these RF deflections can be modeled via a multipolar expansion of the generating RF field similarly to what is done with static magnetic elements. The element implementing such RF multipolar fields has been called RF multipole. In this note we present an analytical formulation of a thin RF multipole Hamiltonian, and we explicitly calculate the RF kick and the elements of its first- and second- order transfer matrices. Also, we present the implementation of the corresponding code in MAD-X, plus some tests of tracking, simplecticity, consistency, and reflected maps that we successfully applied to verify the correctne...

  2. Wegner estimate and localization for alloy-type models with sign-changing exponentially decaying single-site potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Karsten; Peyerimhoff, Norbert; Tautenhahn, Martin; Veselić, Ivan

    2015-05-01

    We study Schrödinger operators on L2(ℝd) and ℓ2(ℤd) with a random potential of alloy-type. The single-site potential is assumed to be exponentially decaying but not necessarily of fixed sign. In the continuum setting, we require a generalized step-function shape. Wegner estimates are bounds on the average number of eigenvalues in an energy interval of finite box restrictions of these types of operators. In the described situation, a Wegner estimate, which is polynomial in the volume of the box and linear in the size of the energy interval, holds. We apply the established Wegner estimate as an ingredient for a localization proof via multiscale analysis.

  3. Statistical multipole formulations for shielding problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Körber

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A multipole-based method is presented for modelling an electromagnetic field with small statistical variations inside an arbitrary enclosure. The accurate computation of the statistics of the field components from the statistical moments of the multipole amplitudes is demonstrated for two- and three-dimensional examples. To obtain the statistics of quantities which depend non-linearly on the field components, higher-order statistical moments of the latter are required.

  4. Laproendoscopic single site oesophageal diverticulectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinnusamy Palanivelu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Epiphrenic divericula are uncommon disorders of the lower oesophagus, which are symptomatic in only 15-20% of cases. The optimum treatment modality for such cases remains an oesophageal diverticulectomy with long myotomy with or without an antireflux operation. Recently, this is increasingly being done through the laparoscopic approach. Here we describe the first reported case of oesophageal diverticulectomy through the laparoendoscopic single site approach. A 57-year-old man presented to us with 6 months history of dysphagia and regurgitation. Patient was investigated with upper gastrointestinal (UGI endoscopy, barium swallow, CECT chest and abdomen, oesophageal manometry and 24 hour pH study. He was diagnosed to have lower oesophageal diverticulum with mildly elevated pressure readings in manometric studies with normal peristalsis. Based on his symptoms, he was taken up for surgery. A laparoscopic transhiatal oesophageal diverticulectomy with myotomy was done through laparoendoscopic single site technique. The procedure lasted 160 min. There was no intraoperative complication. Gastrograffin study was done on postoperative day 2 following which he was started on liquids. He made an uneventful recovery and was discharged on fourth day. He remained asymptomatic on follow up. Oesophageal diverticulectomy is possible through laparoendoscopic single site approach if necessary expertise is available.

  5. Modeling of piezoelectric energy extraction in a thermoacoustic engine with multi-pole time-domain impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jeffrey; Scalo, Carlo; Hesselink, Lambertus

    2015-11-01

    We have carried out the first high-fidelity Navier-Stokes simulation of a complete thermoacoustic engine with piezoelectric energy extraction. The standing-wave thermoacoustic piezoelectric (TAP) engine model comprises a 51 cm long cylindrical resonator, containing a thermoacoustic stack on one end and capped by a PZT-5A piezoelectric diaphragm on the other end, tuned to the frequency of the thermoacoustically-amplified mode (388 Hz). A multi-pole broadband time-domain impedance model has been adopted to accurately simulate the measured electromechanical properties of the piezoelectric diaphragm. Simulations are first carried out from quasi-quiescent conditions to a limit cycle, with varying temperature gradients and stack configurations. Stack geometry and boundary layers are fully resolved. Acoustic energy extraction is then activated, achieving a new limit cycle at lower pressure amplitudes. The scaling of the modeled electrical power output and attainable thermal-to-electric energy conversion efficiencies are discussed. Limitations of extending a quasi-one-dimensional linear approximation based on Rott's theory to a (low amplitude) limit cycle are discussed, as well as nonlinear effects such as thermoacoustic energy transport and viscous dissipation.

  6. Suppressing CMB low multipoles with ISW effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Santanu; Souradeep, Tarun

    2014-02-01

    Recent results of Planck data reveal that the power [1,2] in the low multipoles of the CMB angular power spectrum, approximately up to l = 30, is significantly lower than the theoretically predicted in the best fit ΛCDM model. There are different known physical effects that can affect the power at low multipoles, such as features in the primordial power spectrum (PPS) in some models of inflation and ISW effect. In this paper we investigate the possibility of invoking the Integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect to explain the power deficit at low multipoles. The ISW effect that originates from the late time expansion history of the universe is rich in possibilities given the limited understanding of the origin of dark energy (DE). It is a common understanding that the ISW effect adds to the power at the low multipoles of the CMB angular power spectrum. In this paper we carry out an analytic study to show that there are some expansion histories in which the ISW effect, instead of adding power, provides negative contribution to the power at low multipoles. Guided by the analytic study, we present examples of the features required in the late time expansion history of the universe that could explain the power deficiency through the ISW effect. We also show that an ISW origin of power deficiency is consistent, at present, with other cosmological observations that probe the expansion history such as distance modulus, matter power spectrum and the evolution of cluster number count. We also show that the ISW effect may be distinguished from power deficit originating from features in the PPS using the measurements of the CMB polarization spectrum at low multipoles expected from Planck. We conclude that the power at low multipoles of the CMB anisotropy could well be closely linked to Dark Energy puzzle in cosmology and this observation could be actually pointing to richer phenomenology of DE beyond the cosmological constant Λ.

  7. Molecule-specific determination of atomic polarizabilities with the polarizable atomic multipole model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo Kim, Hyun; Rhee, Young Min

    2012-07-30

    Recently, many polarizable force fields have been devised to describe induction effects between molecules. In popular polarizable models based on induced dipole moments, atomic polarizabilities are the essential parameters and should be derived carefully. Here, we present a parameterization scheme for atomic polarizabilities using a minimization target function containing both molecular and atomic information. The main idea is to adopt reference data only from quantum chemical calculations, to perform atomic polarizability parameterizations even when relevant experimental data are scarce as in the case of electronically excited molecules. Specifically, our scheme assigns the atomic polarizabilities of any given molecule in such a way that its molecular polarizability tensor is well reproduced. We show that our scheme successfully works for various molecules in mimicking dipole responses not only in ground states but also in valence excited states. The electrostatic potential around a molecule with an externally perturbing nearby charge also exhibits a near-quantitative agreement with the reference data from quantum chemical calculations. The limitation of the model with isotropic atoms is also discussed to examine the scope of its applicability. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Resonant spectra of malignant breast cancer tumors using the three-dimensional electromagnetic fast multipole model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shenawee, Magda

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an intensive numerical study of the resonance scattering of malignant breast cancer tumors. The three-dimensional electromagnetic model, based on the equivalence theorem, is used to obtain induced electric and magnetic currents on breast and tumor surfaces. The results show that the nonspherical malignant tumor can be characterized, based on its spectra, regardless of orientation, incident polarization, or incident or scattered directions. The spectra of the tumor depend solely upon its physical characteristics (i.e., shape and electrical properties); however, their locations are not functions of the depth of the tumor beneath the breast surface. This paper can be a guide in the selection of the frequency range at which the tumor resonates to produce the maximum signature at the receiver.

  9. A pragmatic overview of fast multipole methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, J.H.; Baty, R.S.

    1995-12-01

    A number of physics problems can be modeled by a set of N elements which have pair-wise interactions with one another. A direct solution technique requires computational effort which is O(N{sup 2}). Fast multipole methods (FMM) have been widely used in recent years to obtain solutions to these problems requiring a computational effort of only 0 (N lnN) or O (N). In this paper we present an overview of several variations of the fast multipole method along with examples of its use in solving a variety of physical problems.

  10. A multipole acceptability criterion for electronic structure theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwegler, E.; Challacombe, M.; Head-Gordon, M.

    1998-01-01

    Accurate and computationally inexpensive estimates of multipole expansion errors are crucial to the success of several fast electronic structure methods. In this paper, a new nonempirical multipole acceptability criterion is described that is directly applicable to expansions of high order moments. Several model calculations typical of electronic structure theory are presented to demonstrate its performance. For cases involving small translation distances, accuracies are increased by up to five orders of magnitude over an empirical criterion. The new multipole acceptance criterion is on average within an order of magnitude of the exact expansion error. Use of the multipole acceptance criterion in hierarchical multipole based methods as well as in traditional electronic structure methods is discussed. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  11. Robotic single-site pelvic lymphadenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateo, Saverio; Nozza, Arrigo; Del Pezzo, Chiara; Mereu, Liliana

    2014-09-01

    To examine the feasibility of performing pelvic lymphadenectomy with robotic single site approach. Recent papers described the feasibility of robotic-single site hysterectomy [1-3] for benign and malign pathologies but only with the development of new single site 5mm instruments as the bipolar forceps, robotic single site platform can be safely utilized also for lymphadenectomy. A 65 year-old, multiparous patient with a body mass index of 22.5 and diagnosed with well differentiated adenocarcinoma of the endometrium underwent a robotic single-site peritoneal washing, total hysterectomy, bilateral adnexectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. The procedure was performed using the da Vinci Si Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA) through a single 2,5 cm umbilical incision, with a multi-channel system and two single site robotic 5mm instruments. A 3-dimensional, HD 8.5mm endoscope and a 5mm accessory instrument were also utilized. Type I lymphonodes dissection for external iliac and obturator regions was performed [4]. Total operative time was 210 min; incision, trocar placement and docking time occurring in 12 min. Total console time was 183 min, estimated blood loss was 50 ml, no intra-operative or post-operative complications occurred. Hospital discharge occurred on post operative day 2 and total number of lymphnodes removed was 33. Difficulties in term of instrument's clashing and awkward motions have been encountered. Robotic single-site pelvic lymphadenectomy using bipolar forceps and monopolar hook is feasible. New developments are needed to improve surgical ergonomics and additional studies should be performed to explore possible benefits of this procedure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Electric multipole moments, topological multipole moment pumping, and chiral hinge states in crystalline insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benalcazar, Wladimir A.; Bernevig, B. Andrei; Hughes, Taylor L.

    2017-12-01

    We extend the theory of dipole moments in crystalline insulators to higher multipole moments. As first formulated in Benalcazar et al. [Science 357, 61 (2017), 10.1126/science.aah6442], we show that bulk quadrupole and octupole moments can be realized in crystalline insulators. In this paper, we expand in great detail the theory presented previously [Benalcazar et al., Science 357, 61 (2017), 10.1126/science.aah6442] and extend it to cover associated topological pumping phenomena, and a class of three-dimensional (3D) insulator with chiral hinge states. We start by deriving the boundary properties of continuous classical dielectrics hosting only bulk dipole, quadrupole, or octupole moments. In quantum mechanical crystalline insulators, these higher multipole bulk moments manifest themselves by the presence of boundary-localized moments of lower dimension, in exact correspondence with the electromagnetic theory of classical continuous dielectrics. In the presence of certain symmetries, these moments are quantized, and their boundary signatures are fractionalized. These multipole moments then correspond to new symmetry-protected topological phases. The topological structure of these phases is described by "nested" Wilson loops, which we define. These Wilson loops reflect the bulk-boundary correspondence in a way that makes evident a hierarchical classification of the multipole moments. Just as a varying dipole generates charge pumping, a varying quadrupole generates dipole pumping, and a varying octupole generates quadrupole pumping. For nontrivial adiabatic cycles, the transport of these moments is quantized. An analysis of these interconnected phenomena leads to the conclusion that a new kind of Chern-type insulator exists, which has chiral, hinge-localized modes in 3D. We provide the minimal models for the quantized multipole moments, the nontrivial pumping processes, and the hinge Chern insulator, and describe the topological invariants that protect them.

  13. Advanced multipoles for accelerator magnets theoretical analysis and their measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Schnizer, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    This monograph presents research on the transversal beam dynamics of accelerators and evaluates and describes the respective magnetic field homogeneity.  The widely used cylindrical circular multipoles have disadvantages for elliptical apertures or curved trajectories, and the book also introduces new types of advanced multipole magnets, detailing their application, as well as the numerical data and measurements obtained. The research presented here provides more precise descriptions of the field and better estimates of the beam dynamics. Moreover, the effects of field inhomogeneity can be estimated with higher precision than before. These findings are further elaborated to demonstrate their usefulness for real magnets and accelerator set ups, showing their advantages over cylindrical circular multipoles. The research findings are complemented with data obtained from the new superconducting beam guiding magnet models (SIS100) for the FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) project.  Lastly, the book...

  14. Screened Coulomb interactions in metallic alloys. II. Screening beyond the single-site and atomic-sphere approximations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruban, Andrei; Simak, S.I.; Korzhavyi, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    -electron potential and energy. In the case of a random alloy such interactions can be accounted for only by lifting the atomic-sphere and single-site approximations, in order to include the polarization due to local environment effects. Nevertheless, a simple parametrization of the screened Coulomb interactions......A quantitative description of the configurational part of the total energy of metallic alloys with substantial atomic size difference cannot be achieved in the atomic-sphere approximation: It needs to be corrected at least for the multipole-moment interactions in the Madelung part of the one...

  15. Neutron scattering by Dirac multipoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovesey, S. W.; Khalyavin, D. D.

    2017-06-01

    Scattering by magnetic charge formed by Dirac multipoles that are magnetic and polar is examined in the context of materials with properties that challenge conventional concepts. An order parameter composed of Dirac quadrupoles has been revealed in the pseudo-gap phase of ceramic, high-T c superconductors on the basis of Kerr effect and magnetic neutron Bragg diffraction measurements. Construction of Dirac quadrupoles that emerge from centrosymmetric sites used by Cu ions in the ceramic superconductor Hg1201 is illustrated, together with selection rules for excitations that will feature in neutron inelastic scattering, and RIXS experiments. We report magnetic scattering amplitudes for diffraction by polar multipoles that have universal value, because they are not specific to ceramic superconductors. To illustrate this attribute, we consider neutron Bragg diffraction from a magnetically ordered iridate (Sr2IrO4) and discuss shortcomings in published interpretations of diffraction data.

  16. Neutron scattering by Dirac multipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovesey, S W; Khalyavin, D D

    2017-01-01

    Scattering by magnetic charge formed by Dirac multipoles that are magnetic and polar is examined in the context of materials with properties that challenge conventional concepts. An order parameter composed of Dirac quadrupoles has been revealed in the pseudo-gap phase of ceramic, high- T c superconductors on the basis of Kerr effect and magnetic neutron Bragg diffraction measurements. Construction of Dirac quadrupoles that emerge from centrosymmetric sites used by Cu ions in the ceramic superconductor Hg1201 is illustrated, together with selection rules for excitations that will feature in neutron inelastic scattering, and RIXS experiments. We report magnetic scattering amplitudes for diffraction by polar multipoles that have universal value, because they are not specific to ceramic superconductors. To illustrate this attribute, we consider neutron Bragg diffraction from a magnetically ordered iridate (Sr 2 IrO 4 ) and discuss shortcomings in published interpretations of diffraction data. (paper)

  17. Neutron scattering by Dirac multipoles

    OpenAIRE

    Lovesey, S. W.; Khalyavin, D. D.

    2016-01-01

    Ordered magnetic charge created by Dirac multipoles that are magnetic and polar is examined. It has previously been revealed in the pseudo-gap phase of high-Tc materials by use of the Kerr effect and magnetic neutron Bragg diffraction. There are several forms of the polar operator for magnetic neutron scattering built from spin and electric dipole operators of unpaired electrons. Construction of Dirac quadrupoles that emerge from centrosymmetric sites used by Cu ions in the ceramic supercondu...

  18. Electromagnetic multipole fields of neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    A formalism is developed for treating general multipole electromagnetic fields of neutron stars. The electric multipoles induced in a neutron star by its rotation with an arbitrary magnetic multipole at its center are presented. It is shown how to express a family of off-centered multipoles having the same l weight as an infinite array of centered multipoles of increasing l weight referred to the rotational axis. General expressions are given for the linear momentum present in the superposition of arbitrary multipole fields, and the results are combined to compute the radiation rate of linear momentum by an off-centered dipole to zeroth order in the parameter Omega x R/c. The general Deutsch (1955) solution is then rederived in a clear consistent manner, and some minor additions and corrections are provided.

  19. Strain and stress of the ASDEX multipole magnetic coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jandl, O.; Pillsticker, M.

    1978-01-01

    A brief description of the technical concept of the multipole magnetic field coils for the ASDEX tokamak is given. The various loads of the coils are explained in quality. To compute displacement and stress of the coils FEM computer programs are used. The computing models applied to this problem are founded and the results and the conclusions are reported. (orig.) [de

  20. Macroscopic description of isoscalar giant multipole resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nix, J.R.; Sierk, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    On the basis of a simple macroscopic model, we calculate the isoscalar giant-resonance energy as a function of mass number and multipole degree. The restoring force is determined from the distortion of the Fermi surface, and the inertia is determined for the incompressible, irrotational flow of nucleons with unit effective mass. With no adjustable parameters, the resulting closed expression reproduces correctly the available experimental data, namely the magnitude and dependence upon mass number of the giant quadrupole energy and the magnitude of the giant octupole energy for 208 Pb. We also calculate the isoscalar giant-resonance width as a function of mass number and multipole degree for various macroscopic damping mechanisms, including two-body viscosity, one-body dissipation, and modified one-body dissipation. None of these damping mechanisms reproduces correctly all features of the available experimental data, namely the magnitude and dependence upon mass number of the giant quadrupole width and the magnitude of the giant octupole width for 208 Pb

  1. Resonant Spectra of Malignant Breast Cancer Tumors Using the Three-Dimensional Electromagnetic Fast Multipole Model. Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shenawee, Magda

    2003-01-01

    An intensive numerical study for the resonance scattering of malignant breast cancer tumors is presented. The rigorous three-dimensional electromagnetic model, based on the equivalence theorem, is used to obtain the induced electric and magnetic currents on the breast and tumor surfaces. The results show that a non-spherical malignant tumor can be characterized based its spectra regardless of its orientation, the incident polarization, or the incident or scattered directions. The tumor's spectra depend solely on its physical characteristics (i.e., the shape and the electrical properties), however, their locations are not functions of its burial depth. This work provides a useful guidance to select the appropriate frequency range for the tumor's size.

  2. Single-site robotic cholecystectomy: efficiency and cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzad, Francis A; Corne, Louis M; Brown, Thomas C; Fagin, Randy S; Hebert, April E; Kaczmarek, Charles A; Pack, Angie N; Payne, Thomas N

    2013-09-01

    Single-incision surgery has gained in popularity, and the recent development of specialized robotic and laparoscopic instruments may remove some of the ergonomic and technical difficulties associated with this approach. However, questions of cost and efficiency remain. We prospectively collected perioperative outcome and efficiency (operative time, case volume) data for our single-site robotic cholecystectomy cases and retrospectively reviewed data for our single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy cases. There were no differences in patient characteristics or perioperative outcomes between the robotic (n = 20) and laparoscopic (n = 10) groups; operative times were equivalent (84.6 vs 85.5 min; p = 0.8737) and blood loss and complications were minimal. There was a higher robotic case volume, with an average of two robotic cases (range 1-4)/day vs one/day for laparoscopic cases (range 1-1; p = 0.0306). Streamlined instrument costs were essentially equivalent. Robotic single-site cholecystectomy is a safe, cost-effective alternative to single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a robot-existing model. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Direct partial oxidation of methane via single-site chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakekhani, Arvin; Norskov, Jens

    Methane (CH4), the cheapest source of hydrocarbons, is a difficult-to-store and hard-to-convert chemical, due to strong and isotropic C-H bonds. Having a selective and efficient method to partially oxidize methane into more useful chemicals including methanol, formaldehyde and alkenes has long been an open challenge for catalysis community. The main challenge is selectivity: if a catalytic material interacts strongly with methane, sufficient to break one C-H bond, it breaks all other bonds of the derivative molecules, as well. This leads to over-oxidization to CO2. Here using density functional theory (DFT) modelings, we discuss the possibility of using defective (vacancy rich) 2-d materials e.g., MoS2 to effectively trap single transition metal atoms; thereby, creating a single-site chemistry to enhance the selectivity of methane oxidation process. A single-site chemistry leads to competition between intermediates and products for limited active sites. Our strategy is to use this as an effective means to block unwanted reaction pathways leading to over-oxidization. United States department of energy.

  4. Smooth Teeth: Why Multipoles Are Perfect Gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönke, Johannes

    2015-12-01

    A type of gear is proposed based on the interaction of individual multipoles. The underlying principle relies on previously unknown continuous degenerate ground states for pairs of interacting multipoles which are free to rotate around specific axes. These special rotation axes, in turn, form a one-parameter family of possible configurations. This allows for the construction of magnetic bevel gears with any desired inclination angle between the in- and output axes. Further, the design of gear systems with more than two multipoles is possible and facilitates tailored applications. Ultimately, an analogy between multipoles and mechanical gears is revealed. In contrast to the mechanical case, the multipole "teeth" mesh smoothly. As an illustrative application, the example of a quadrupole-dipole interaction is then used to construct a 1 ∶2 gear ratio.

  5. Analytical study of the conjecture rule for the combination of multipole effects in LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Guignard, Gilbert

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes the analytical investigation done on the conjecture law found by tracking for the effect on the dynamic aperture of the combination of two multipoles of various order. A one-dimensional model leading to an integrable system has been used to find closed formulae for the dynamic aperture associated with a fully distributed multipole. The combination has then been studied and the resulting expression compared with the assumed conjecture law. For integrated multipoles small with respect to the focusing strength, the conjecture appears to hold, though with an exponent different from the one expected by crude reasoning.

  6. Wegner Estimates for Sign-Changing Single Site Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselić, Ivan

    2010-12-01

    We study Anderson and alloy-type random Schrödinger operators on ℓ2(ℤ d ) and L 2(ℝ d ). Wegner estimates are bounds on the average number of eigenvalues in an energy interval of finite box restrictions of these types of operators. For a certain class of models we prove a Wegner estimate which is linear in the volume of the box and the length of the considered energy interval. The single site potential of the Anderson/alloy-type model does not need to have fixed sign, but it needs be of a generalised step function form. The result implies the Lipschitz continuity of the integrated density of states.

  7. Modeling the fields of magneto-optical devices, including fringe field effects and higher order multipole contributions, with application to charged particle optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. G. M. Trines

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A new method for the calculation of the magnetic field of beam guiding elements is presented. The method relates the calculation to measurement data of the magnetic field in a direct way. It can be applied to single beam guiding elements as well as to clusters of elements. The presented description of the magnetic field differs from the classical approach in that it does not rely on power series approximations. It is also both divergence free and curl free, and takes fringe field effects up to any desired order into account. In the field description, pseudodifferential operators described by Bessel functions are used to obtain the various multipole contributions. Magnetic field data on a two-dimensional surface, e.g., a cylindrical surface or median plane, serve as input for the calculation of the three-dimensional magnetic field. A boundary element method is presented to fit the fields to a discrete set of field data, obtained, for instance, from field measurements, on the two-dimensional surface. Relative errors in the field approximation do not exceed the maximal relative errors in the input data. Methods for incorporating the obtained field in both analytical and numerical computation of transfer functions are outlined. Applications include easy calculation of the transfer functions of clusters of beam guiding elements and of generalized field gradients for any multipole contribution up to any order.

  8. Asynchronous Execution of the Fast Multipole Method Using Charm++

    OpenAIRE

    AbdulJabbar, Mustafa; Yokota, Rio; Keyes, David

    2014-01-01

    Fast multipole methods (FMM) on distributed mem- ory have traditionally used a bulk-synchronous model of com- municating the local essential tree (LET) and overlapping it with computation of the local data. This could be perceived as an extreme case of data aggregation, where the whole LET is communicated at once. Charm++ allows a much finer control over the granularity of communication, and has a asynchronous execution model that fits well with the structure of our FMM code. Unlike previous ...

  9. Electroexcitation of giant multipole resonances in 208Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasao, M.; Torizuka, Y.

    1977-01-01

    Electroexcitation of the nuclear continuum for 208 Pb at excitation energies up to 100 MeV has been measured at momentum transfers in the range from 0.45 to 1.2 fm -1 . Unfolding of the radiation tail was performed using a tail function which takes into account the multiple-photon emission effect. The spectra at these momentum transfers deviate significantly from the prediction of the Fermi-gas model but are consistent with the sum of the multipole strengths of the random-phase approximation; the excess cross section on the low excitation energy side indicates the excitation of multipole resonances. A series of 208 Pb spectra at low momentum transfers was expanded into E1, E2 (E0), E3, and higher multipole components using the q dependence of the Tassie model for isoscalar modes and the Goldhaber-Teller or Steinwedel-Jensen model for isovector modes. The giant dipole resonance thus obtained is consistent with that from photoreactions. Isoscalar and isovector giant quadrupole resonances are seen, respectively, at 11 and 22.5 MeV and an octupole resonance at 16 MeV. A monopole resonance is suggested at 13.5 MeV. The reduced 2 > 2 , B (E1), B (E2), and B (E3) consume most of the corresponding energy weighted sum rule if the q dependences of the Tassie and Goldhaber-Teller models are assumed. The results with these models are consistent with the random-phase approximation

  10. Maxwell's Multipole Vectors and the CMB

    OpenAIRE

    Weeks, Jeffrey R.

    2004-01-01

    The recently re-discovered multipole vector approach to understanding the harmonic decomposition of the cosmic microwave background traces its roots to Maxwell's Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism. Taking Maxwell's directional derivative approach as a starting point, the present article develops a fast algorithm for computing multipole vectors, with an exposition that is both simpler and better motivated than in the author's previous work. Tests show the resulting algorithm, coded up as a ...

  11. On the multipole moments of charge distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khare, P.L.

    1977-01-01

    There are two different standard methods for showing the equivalence of a charge distribution in a small volume tau surrounding a point O, to the superposition of a monopole, a dipole, a quadrupole and poles of higher moments at the point O: (a) to show that the electrostatic potential due to the charge distribution at an outside point is the same as due to these superposed multipoles (including a monopole). (b) to show that the energy of interaction of an external field with the charge distribution is the same as with the superposed equivalent monopole and multipoles. Neither of these methods gives a physical picture of the equivalence of a charge distribution to the superposition of different multipoles. An attempt is made to interpret in physical terms the emergence of the multipoles of different order, that are equivalent to a charge distribution and to show that the magnitudes of the moments of these multipoles are in agreement with the results of both the approaches (a) and (b). This physical interpretation also helps to understand, in a simple manner, some of the wellknown properties of the multipole moments of atoms and nuclei. (K.B.)

  12. Prediction of conformationally dependent atomic multipole moments in carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardamone, Salvatore; Popelier, Paul L A

    2015-12-15

    The conformational flexibility of carbohydrates is challenging within the field of computational chemistry. This flexibility causes the electron density to change, which leads to fluctuating atomic multipole moments. Quantum Chemical Topology (QCT) allows for the partitioning of an "atom in a molecule," thus localizing electron density to finite atomic domains, which permits the unambiguous evaluation of atomic multipole moments. By selecting an ensemble of physically realistic conformers of a chemical system, one evaluates the various multipole moments at defined points in configuration space. The subsequent implementation of the machine learning method kriging delivers the evaluation of an analytical function, which smoothly interpolates between these points. This allows for the prediction of atomic multipole moments at new points in conformational space, not trained for but within prediction range. In this work, we demonstrate that the carbohydrates erythrose and threose are amenable to the above methodology. We investigate how kriging models respond when the training ensemble incorporating multiple energy minima and their environment in conformational space. Additionally, we evaluate the gains in predictive capacity of our models as the size of the training ensemble increases. We believe this approach to be entirely novel within the field of carbohydrates. For a modest training set size of 600, more than 90% of the external test configurations have an error in the total (predicted) electrostatic energy (relative to ab initio) of maximum 1 kJ mol(-1) for open chains and just over 90% an error of maximum 4 kJ mol(-1) for rings. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Tensor spherical harmonics and tensor multipoles. II. Minkowski space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daumens, M.; Minnaert, P.

    1976-01-01

    The bases of tensor spherical harmonics and of tensor multipoles discussed in the preceding paper are generalized in the Hilbert space of Minkowski tensor fields. The transformation properties of the tensor multipoles under Lorentz transformation lead to the notion of irreducible tensor multipoles. We show that the usual 4-vector multipoles are themselves irreducible, and we build the irreducible tensor multipoles of the second order. We also give their relations with the symmetric tensor multipoles defined by Zerilli for application to the gravitational radiation

  14. Simulation of Monopole and Multipole Seismoelectric Logging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwen Cui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In a fluid-saturated porous formation, acoustics and electromagnetic waves are coupled based on Pride seismoelectric theory. An exact treatment of the nonaxisymmetric seismoelectric field excited by acoustic multipole sources is presented. The frequency wavenumber domain representations of the acoustic field and associated seismoelectric field due to acoustic multipole sources are formulated. The full waveforms of acoustic waves and electric and magnetic fields in the time domain propagation in borehole are simulated by using discrete wave number integration, and frequency versus axial-wave number responses are presented and analyzed.

  15. Reconstruction of real-space linear matter power spectrum from multipoles of BOSS DR12 results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seokcheon

    2018-02-01

    Recently, the power spectrum (PS) multipoles using the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) Data Release 12 (DR12) sample are analyzed [1]. The based model for the analysis is the so-called TNS quasi-linear model and the analysis provides the multipoles up to the hexadecapole [2]. Thus, one might be able to recover the real-space linear matter PS by using the combinations of multipoles to investigate the cosmology [3]. We provide the analytic form of the ratio of quadrupole (hexadecapole) to monopole moments of the quasi-linear PS including the Fingers-of-God (FoG) effect to recover the real-space PS in the linear regime. One expects that observed values of the ratios of multipoles should be consistent with those of the linear theory at large scales. Thus, we compare the ratios of multipoles of the linear theory, including the FoG effect with the measured values. From these, we recover the linear matter power spectra in real-space. These recovered power spectra are consistent with the linear matter power spectra.

  16. Rovibrational matrix elements of the multipole moments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rovibrational matrix elements of the multipole moments ℓ up to rank 10 and of the linear polarizability of the H2 molecule in the condensed phase have been computed taking into account the effect of the intermolecular potential. Comparison with gas phase matrix elements shows that the effect of solid state interactions is ...

  17. Multipole Analysis of Circular Cylindircal Magnetic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvaggi, Jerry P. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2005-12-01

    This thesis deals with an alternate method for computing the external magnetic field from a circular cylindrical magnetic source. The primary objective is to characterize the magnetic source in terms of its equivalent multipole distribution. This multipole distribution must be valid at points close to the cylindrical source and a spherical multipole expansion is ill-equipped to handle this problem; therefore a new method must be introduced. This method, based upon the free-space Green's function in cylindrical coordinates, is developed as an alternative to the more familiar spherical harmonic expansion. A family of special functions, called the toroidal functions or Q-functions, are found to exhibit the necessary properties for analyzing circular cylindrical geometries. In particular, the toroidal function of zeroth order, which comes from the integral formulation of the free-space Green's function in cylindrical coordinates, is employed to handle magnetic sources which exhibit circular cylindrical symmetry. The toroidal functions, also called Q-functions, are the weighting coefficients in a ''Fourier series-like'' expansion which represents the free-space Green's function. It is also called a toroidal expansion. This expansion can be directly employed in electrostatic, magnetostatic, and electrodynamic problems which exhibit cylindrical symmetry. Also, it is shown that they can be used as an alternative to the Elliptic integral formulation. In fact, anywhere that an Elliptic integral appears, one can replace it with its corresponding Q-function representation. A number of problems, using the toroidal expansion formulation, are analyzed and compared to existing known methods in order to validate the results. Also, the equivalent multipole distribution is found for most of the solved problems along with its corresponding physical interpretation. The main application is to characterize the external magnetic field due to a six

  18. Metal–organic and covalent organic frameworks as single-site catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogge, S. M. J.; Bavykina, A.; Hajek, J.; Garcia, H.; Olivos-Suarez, A. I.; Sepúlveda-Escribano, A.; Vimont, A.; Clet, G.; Bazin, P.; Kapteijn, F.

    2017-01-01

    Heterogeneous single-site catalysts consist of isolated, well-defined, active sites that are spatially separated in a given solid and, ideally, structurally identical. In this review, the potential of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) and covalent organic frameworks (COFs) as platforms for the development of heterogeneous single-site catalysts is reviewed thoroughly. In the first part of this article, synthetic strategies and progress in the implementation of such sites in these two classes of materials are discussed. Because these solids are excellent playgrounds to allow a better understanding of catalytic functions, we highlight the most important recent advances in the modelling and spectroscopic characterization of single-site catalysts based on these materials. Finally, we discuss the potential of MOFs as materials in which several single-site catalytic functions can be combined within one framework along with their potential as powerful enzyme-mimicking materials. The review is wrapped up with our personal vision on future research directions. PMID:28338128

  19. A Multipole Expansion Method for Analyzing Lightning Field Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshak, William J.; Krider, E. Philip; Murphy, Martin J.

    1998-01-01

    Changes in the surface electric field are frequently used to infer the locations and magnitudes of lightning-caused changes in thundercloud charge distributions. The traditional procedure is to assume that the charges that are effectively deposited by the flash can be modeled either as a single point charge (the Q-model) or a point dipole (the P-model). The Q-model has 4 unknown parameters and provides a good description of many cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes. The P-model has 6 unknown parameters and describes many intracloud (IC) discharges. In this paper, we introduce a new analysis method that assumes that the change in the cloud charge can be described by a truncated multipole expansion, i.e., there are both monopole and dipole terms in the unknown source distribution, and both terms are applied simultaneously. This method can be used to analyze CG flashes that are accompanied by large changes in the cloud dipole moment and complex IC discharges. If there is enough information content in the measurements, the model can also be generalized to include quadrupole and higher order terms. The parameters of the charge moments are determined using a 3-dimensional grid search in combination with a linear inversion, and because of this, local minima in the error function and the associated solution ambiguities are avoided. The multipole method has been tested on computer simulated sources and on natural lightning at the NASA Kennedy Space Center and USAF Eastern Range.

  20. First case of robotic laparoendoscopic single-site radical prostatectomy with single-site VesPa platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattevi, D; Luciani, L G; Vattovani, V; Chiodini, S; Puglisi, M; Malossini, G

    2017-07-07

    This study aimed at reporting our first experience with robotic laparoendoscopic single-site radical prostatectomy (R-LESS-RP) with single-site VesPa platform (Intuitive Surgical Inc.). A 68-year-old-man presenting with a cT1c adenocarcinoma Gleason Score 3 + 4 = 7 in 4/12 bilateral cores underwent a transperitoneal robotic LESS-RP with a single-site Vespa platform. Initial PSA, prostate weight, and body mass index (BMI) were 4.4 ng/ml, 45 g, and 25, respectively. Instruments and camera cross within the Single-Site port; the da Vinci System software detects and reassigns the user's hands with the instruments position. The single-site port is inserted through a 2-cm intraumbilical incision. The robotic 8.5 mm scope and two surgical curved instruments (fenestrated bipolar forceps and cautery hook) are introduced through the ports and used for most of the procedure, whereas a wristed needle driver on the right hand is used for the reconstructive steps. An additional 12 mm port (Air Seal, SurgiQuest) is placed in a midline between the umbilicus and the right iliac spine in order to facilitate table assistance during surgery and to place a drain at the end of the procedure.Operative time and blood loss were 300 min and 400 mL, respectively. The postoperative course was uneventful. The drain and the catheter were removed on days 1 and 6, respectively. The patient experienced a temporary mild stress incontinence (one pad at sixth month) and erectile dysfunction.Our first robotic laparoendoscopic single-site radical prostatectomy (R-LESS-RP) with the single-site VesPa platform was associated with acceptable operative times and perioperative outcome. This procedure is feasible without complications, provided that a proper patient selection has occurred. Limited movements together with the lack of the fourth robotic arm require a considerable expertise in robotic surgery. Some tricks can help overcome technical limitations. The Robotic LESS-RP reduces in some

  1. An overview of fast multipole methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, J.H.; Baty, R.S.

    1995-11-01

    A number of physics problems may be cast in terms of Hilbert-Schmidt integral equations. In many cases, the integrals tend to be zero over a large portion of the domain of interest. All of the information is contained in compact regions of the domain which renders their use very attractive from the standpoint of efficient numerical computation. Discrete representation of these integrals leads to a system of N elements which have pair-wise interactions with one another. A direct solution technique requires computational effort which is O(N{sup 2}). Fast multipole methods (FMM) have been widely used in recent years to obtain solutions to these problems requiring a computational effort of only O(Nln N) or O(N). In this paper we present an overview of several variations of the fast multipole method along with examples of its use in solving a variety of physical problems.

  2. Self energy QED: Multipole spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamin, Y.I.

    1990-08-01

    Within the context of Barut's self-field approach, we write the exact expression of the spontaneous atomic decay rate (Phys. Rev. A37, 2284 (1988)), in the long wavelength approximation, in terms of electric- and magnetic-like multipole contributions which are related to the matrix elements of the transition charge and current distributions of the relativistic electron. A number of features of these expressions are discussed and their generalization to interacting composite systems is also pointed out. (author). 8 refs

  3. Single-site neural tube closure in human embryos revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bakker, Bernadette S; Driessen, Stan; Boukens, Bastiaan J D; van den Hoff, Maurice J B; Oostra, Roelof-Jan

    2017-10-01

    Since the multi-site closure theory was first proposed in 1991 as explanation for the preferential localizations of neural tube defects, the closure of the neural tube has been debated. Although the multi-site closure theory is much cited in clinical literature, single-site closure is most apparent in literature concerning embryology. Inspired by Victor Hamburgers (1900-2001) statement that "our real teacher has been and still is the embryo, who is, incidentally, the only teacher who is always right", we decided to critically review both theories of neural tube closure. To verify the theories of closure, we studied serial histological sections of 10 mouse embryos between 8.5 and 9.5 days of gestation and 18 human embryos of the Carnegie collection between Carnegie stage 9 (19-21 days) and 13 (28-32 days). Neural tube closure was histologically defined by the neuroepithelial remodeling of the two adjoining neural fold tips in the midline. We did not observe multiple fusion sites in neither mouse nor human embryos. A meta-analysis of case reports on neural tube defects showed that defects can occur at any level of the neural axis. Our data indicate that the human neural tube fuses at a single site and, therefore, we propose to reinstate the single-site closure theory for neural tube closure. We showed that neural tube defects are not restricted to a specific location, thereby refuting the reasoning underlying the multi-site closure theory. Clin. Anat. 30:988-999, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Laparoendoscopic single-site cholecystectomy in a pregnant patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya Ranjan Behera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Feasibility and safety of laparoscopic cholecystectomy during pregnancy for patients with symptomatic or complicated gallstone disease is well established. Laparoendoscopic single-site cholecystectomy (LESS-chole is a new modality in which the entire surgery is undertaken via a transumbilical incision. We describe a 33-year-old patient who underwent a LESS-chole in the 20 th week of pregnancy for gallstone disease complicated by episodes of obstructive jaundice and acute pancreatitis. This is the first reported case of LESS-chole performed using conventional laparoscopic instruments. The technical aspects as well as the various perioperative measures utilized to undertake this procedure safely are outlined.

  5. Dynamical electromagnetic fields near black holes and multipole moments of stationary, general relativistic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suen, W.M.

    1985-01-01

    This dissertation contains two works: one on the behavior of dynamical electromagnetic fields in the stationary spacetime generated by a black hole, and the other on the structure of a general stationary vacuum spacetime itself. The study of electromagnetic field is carried out in terms of the membrane formalism for black holes; and it is part of a series of papers with the aim of developing that formalism into a complete, self consistent description of electromagnetic and gravitational fields in a black hole background. Various model problems are presented as aids in understanding the interactions of electromagnetic fields with a black hole, and special attention is paid to the concept of the stretched horizon which is vital for the membrane formalism. The second work develops a multipole moment formalism for a general stationary system in general relativity. The multipole moments are defined in terms of a general formal series solution of the stationary Einstein equation, in analogy to multipole moments in the Newtonian theory of gravity. A model calculation applying the formalism too a black hole interacting with an external multipole field shows that the interaction can be understood in terms of elastic moduli of the black-hole horizon

  6. Dynamical Aperture Control in Accelerator Lattices With Multipole Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, I

    2017-01-01

    We develop tools for symbolic representation of a non-linear accelerator model and analytical methods for description of non-linear dynamics. Information relevant to the dynamic aperture (DA) is then obtained from this model and can be used for indirect DA control or as a complement to direct numerical optimization. We apply two analytical methods and use multipole magnets to satisfy derived analytical constraints. The accelerator model is represented as a product of unperturbed and perturbed exponential operators with the exponent of the perturbed operator given as a power series in the perturbation parameter. Normal forms can be applied to this representation and the lattice parameters are used to control the normal form Hamiltonian and normal form transformation. Hamiltonian control is used to compute a control term or controlled operator. Lattice parameters are then fitted to satisfy the imposed control constraints. Theoretical results, as well as illustrative examples, are presented.

  7. Housing retention in single-site housing first for chronically homeless individuals with severe alcohol problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Susan E; Malone, Daniel K; Clifasefi, Seema L

    2013-12-01

    We studied housing retention and its predictors in the single-site Housing First model. Participants (n = 111) were chronically homeless people with severe alcohol problems who lived in a single-site Housing First program and participated in a larger nonrandomized controlled trial (2005-2008) conducted in Seattle, Washington. At baseline, participants responded to self-report questionnaires assessing demographic, illness burden, alcohol and other drug use, and psychiatric variables. Housing status was recorded over 2 years. Participants were interested in housing, although a sizable minority did not believe they would be able to maintain abstinence-based housing. Only 23% of participants returned to homelessness during the 2-year follow-up. Commonly cited risk factors--alcohol and other drug use, illness burden, psychiatric symptoms, and homelessness history--did not predict resumed homelessness. Active drinkers were more likely to stay in this housing project than nondrinkers. We found that single-site Housing First programming fills a gap in housing options for chronically homeless people with severe alcohol problems.

  8. Housing Retention in Single-Site Housing First for Chronically Homeless Individuals With Severe Alcohol Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Daniel K.; Clifasefi, Seema L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We studied housing retention and its predictors in the single-site Housing First model. Methods. Participants (n = 111) were chronically homeless people with severe alcohol problems who lived in a single-site Housing First program and participated in a larger nonrandomized controlled trial (2005–2008) conducted in Seattle, Washington. At baseline, participants responded to self-report questionnaires assessing demographic, illness burden, alcohol and other drug use, and psychiatric variables. Housing status was recorded over 2 years. Results. Participants were interested in housing, although a sizable minority did not believe they would be able to maintain abstinence-based housing. Only 23% of participants returned to homelessness during the 2-year follow-up. Commonly cited risk factors—alcohol and other drug use, illness burden, psychiatric symptoms, and homelessness history—did not predict resumed homelessness. Active drinkers were more likely to stay in this housing project than nondrinkers. Conclusions. We found that single-site Housing First programming fills a gap in housing options for chronically homeless people with severe alcohol problems. PMID:24148063

  9. Isotopic dependence of giant multipole resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar Touv, J.; Moalem, A.; Shlomo, S.

    1980-01-01

    A procedure is presented which allows the application of linear response theory and the random phase approximation to an open shell. The procedure is applied to Ca isotopes. The general features of giant multipole resonances are found to vary smoothly with the mass. The resonances exhibit more structure in the open lfsub(7/2) shell nuclei. While the energy-weighted dipole sum is practically constant in all isotopes, the isoscalar quadrupole and octupole energy weighted sums increase continuously by approx. 30% from 40 Ca to 48 Ca. (orig.)

  10. Photon decay of giant multipole resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, F.E.; Beene, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    A brief review of the excitation of giant multipole resonances via Coulomb excitation is given which emphasizes the very large cross sections that can be realized through this reaction for both isoscalar and isovector resonances. Discussion and results where available, are provided for the measurement of the photon decay of one and two phonon giant resonances. It is pointed out throughout the presentation that the use of E1 photons as a tag'' provides a means to observe weakly excited resonances that cannot be observed in the shingles spectra. 26 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Planar Multipol-Resonance-Probe: A Spectral Kinetic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrichs, Michael; Gong, Junbo; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter; Oberrath, Jens; Wilczek, Sebastian

    2016-09-01

    Measuring plasma parameters, e.g. electron density and electron temperature, is an important procedure to verify the stability and behavior of a plasma process. For this purpose the multipole resonance probe (MRP) represents a satisfying solution to measure the electron density. However the influence of the probe on the plasma through its physical presence makes it unattractive for some processes in industrial application. A solution to combine the benefits of the spherical MRP with the ability to integrate the probe into the plasma reactor is introduced by the planar model of the MRP (pMRP). Introducing the spectral kinetic formalism leads to a reduced simulation-circle compared to particle-in-cell simulations. The model of the pMRP is implemented and first simulation results are presented.

  12. Rovibrational matrix elements of the multipole moments and of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Comparison with gas phase matrix elements shows that the effect of solid state interactions is marginal. Keywords. Multipole moments; linear polarizability; solid hydrogen, matrix elements. PACS Nos 33.15.Kr; 33.70.-w; 34.20.Gj. 1. Introduction. The rovibrational matrix elements of the multipole moments and polarizability of.

  13. Multipole stack for the 4 rings of the PS Booster

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    The PS Booster (originally 800 MeV, now 1.4 GeV) saw first beam in 1972, routine operation began in 1973. The strive for ever higher intensities required the addition of multipoles. Manufacture of 8 stacks of multipoles was launched in 1974, for installation in 1976. For details, see 7511120X.

  14. Multipole charge conservation and implications on electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraj, Ali

    2017-06-01

    It is shown that conserved charges associated with a specific subclass of gauge symmetries of Maxwell electrodynamics are proportional to the well known electric mul-tipole moments. The symmetries are residual gauge transformations surviving the Lorenz gauge, with nontrivial conserved charge at spatial infinity. These "Multipole charges" receive contributions both from the charged matter and electromagnetic fields. The former is nothing but the electric multipole moment of the source. In a stationary configuration, there is a novel equipartition relation between the two contributions. The multipole charge, while conserved, can freely interpolate between the source and the electromagnetic field, and therefore can be propagated with the radiation. Using the multipole charge conservation, we obtain infinite number of constraints over the radiation produced by the dynamics of charged matter.

  15. Multipole Stack for the 800 MeV PS Booster

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    The 800 MeV PS Booster had seen first beam in its 4 superposed rings in 1972, routine operation began in 1973. In the strive for ever higher beam intensities, the need for additional multipole lenses became evident. After detailed studies, the manufacture of 8 stacks of multipoles was launched in 1974. Each stack consists of 4 superposed multipoles and each multipole has 4 concentric shells. From the innermost to the outermost shell, Type A contains octupole, skew-octupole, sextupole, skew-sextupole. Type B contains skew-octupole, skew-sextupole, vertical dipole, horizontal dipole. Completion of installation in 1976 opened the way to higher beam intensities. M. Battiaz is seen here with a multipole stack and its many electrical connections.

  16. Intramolecular electron transfer in single-site-mutated azurins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Skov, L K; Pascher, T

    1993-01-01

    . Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86, 6968-6972]. The RSSR- radical produced in the above reaction was reoxidized in a slower intramolecular electron-transfer process (30-70 s-1 at 298 K) concomitant with a further reduction of the Cu(II) ion. The temperature dependence of the latter rates was determined...... and used to derive information on the possible effects of the mutations. The substitution of residue Phe114, situated on the opposite side of Cu relative to the disulfide, by Ala resulted in a rate increase by a factor of almost 2. By assuming that this effect is only due to an increase in driving force......Single-site mutants of the blue, single-copper protein, azurin, from Pseudomonas aeruginosa were reduced by CO2- radicals in pulse radiolysis experiments. The single disulfide group was reduced directly by CO2- with rates similar to those of the native protein [Farver, O., & Pecht, I. (1989) Proc...

  17. Poloidal ohmic heating in a multipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holly, D.J.; Prager, S.C.; Sprott, J.C.

    1982-07-01

    The feasibility of using poloidal currents to heat plasmas confined by a multipole field has been examined experimentally in Tokapole II, operating the machine as a toroidal octupole. The plasma resistivity ranges from Spitzer to about 1500 times Spitzer resistivity, as predicted by mirror-enhanced resistivity theory. This allows large powers (approx. 2 MW) to be coupled to the plasma at modest current levels. However, the confinement time is reduced by the heating, apparently due to a combination of the input power location (near the walls of the vacuum tank) and fluctuation-enhanced transport. Current-driven drift instabilities and resistive MHD instabilities appear to be the most likely causes for the fluctuations

  18. Dipole-sheet multipole magnets for accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walstrom, P.L.

    1993-01-01

    The dipole-sheet formalism can be used to describe both cylindrical current-sheet multipole magnets and cylindrical-bore magnets made up of permanent magnet blocks. For current sheets, the formalism provides a natural way of finding a finite set of turns that approximate a continuous distribution. The formalism is especially useful In accelerator applications where large-bore, short, high-field-quality magnets that are dominated by fringe fields are needed. A further advantage of the approach is that in systems with either open or cylindrically symmetric magnetic boundaries, analytical expressions for the three-dimensional fields that are suitable for rapid numerical evaluation can be derived. This development is described in some detail. Also, recent developments in higher-order particle-beam optics codes based on the formalism are described briefly

  19. On multi-site damage identification using single-site training data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthorpe, R. J.; Manson, G.; Worden, K.

    2017-11-01

    This paper proposes a methodology for developing multi-site damage location systems for engineering structures that can be trained using single-site damaged state data only. The methodology involves training a sequence of binary classifiers based upon single-site damage data and combining the developed classifiers into a robust multi-class damage locator. In this way, the multi-site damage identification problem may be decomposed into a sequence of binary decisions. In this paper Support Vector Classifiers are adopted as the means of making these binary decisions. The proposed methodology represents an advancement on the state of the art in the field of multi-site damage identification which require either: (1) full damaged state data from single- and multi-site damage cases or (2) the development of a physics-based model to make multi-site model predictions. The potential benefit of the proposed methodology is that a significantly reduced number of recorded damage states may be required in order to train a multi-site damage locator without recourse to physics-based model predictions. In this paper it is first demonstrated that Support Vector Classification represents an appropriate approach to the multi-site damage location problem, with methods for combining binary classifiers discussed. Next, the proposed methodology is demonstrated and evaluated through application to a real engineering structure - a Piper Tomahawk trainer aircraft wing - with its performance compared to classifiers trained using the full damaged-state dataset.

  20. Platonic topology and CMB fluctuations: homotopy, anisotropy and multipole selection rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background (CMB) originates from an early stage in the history of the universe. Observations show low-multipole contributions of CMB fluctuations. A possible explanation is given by a non-trivial topology of the universe and has motivated the search for topological selection rules. Harmonic analysis on a topological manifold must provide basis sets for all functions compatible with a given topology and so is needed to model the CMB fluctuations. We analyze the fundamental groups of Platonic tetrahedral, cubic and octahedral manifolds using deck transformations. From them we construct the appropriate harmonic analysis and boundary conditions. We provide the algebraic means for modeling the multipole expansion of incoming CMB radiation. From the assumption of randomness, we derive selection rules, depending on the point symmetry of the manifold.

  1. Laparoendoscopic single-site adnexal surgery: Preliminary Indian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smitha Balusamy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS is an emerging technique in gynaecology. The proposed advantages of the LESS include better cosmesis and reduction in pain. We report our preliminary experience with LESS in the treatment of adnexal pathology. Materials and Methods: After a preoperative workup, LESS was offered to 37 patients between July 2009 and April 2015. All the procedures were carried out through a 2–2.5 cm transumbilical incision using conventional laparoscopic instruments. A single-incision, multiport (SIMP approach (utilising one 7 mm and two 5 mm ports was used in 27 patients and a homemade glove port (HMGP was utilised in ten patients. All the specimens were extracted after placement in a plastic bag or inside the glove port avoiding contact with the wound. Umbilical fascial incisions were meticulously closed with non-absorbable sutures. Results: Two patients with a history of previous abdominal surgery required omental adhesiolysis. Seventeen patients with breast cancer underwent bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, ten had ovarian cystectomy (6 had cystadenoma, 2 had endometriotic cysts and 2 had dermoid cyst, six had excision of paraovarian cysts (one along with partial salpingectomy and four with ruptured ectopic pregnancy underwent salpingectomy. LESS was completed in all but one patient, who required insertion of an additional 5 mm port. There were no intra- or post-operative complications. Conclusions: Our experience confirms the feasibility and safety of LESS in a variety of benign adnexal pathology. Both the SIMP and HMGP approaches seem comparable. Performing LESS without the use of specialised access ports or instruments makes it cost effective and suitable for wider application.

  2. Development of imaging energy analyzer using multipole Wien filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, H.; Kato, M.; Tsutsumi, T.; Kawasaki, T.; Matsudaira, H.; Suzuki, S.; Chun, W.-J.; Kitajima, Y.; Kudo, M.; Asakura, K.

    2005-02-01

    We discussed a new design of a Wien filter energy analyzer for an energy-filtered X-ray photoemission electron microscopy system. We have demonstrated that the second-order aberration and the third-order aperture aberration can be corrected by the multipole Wien filter by adjusting multipole components of electric and magnetic fields up to octupole components. The three-dimensional charge simulation method indicated that 12 electrodes and magnetic poles can effectively reproduce these ideal electric and magnetic fields.

  3. Development of imaging energy analyzer using multipole Wien filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niimi, H. [Catalysis Research Center, Hokkaido University, 21-10 Kita, Kita-ku, Sapporo 001-0021 (Japan)]. E-mail: hironobu@cat.hokudai.ac.jp; Kato, M. [JEOL Ltd., 3-1-2 Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Tsutsumi, T. [Catalysis Research Center, Hokkaido University, 21-10 Kita, Kita-ku, Sapporo 001-0021 (Japan); Kawasaki, T. [Catalysis Research Center, Hokkaido University, 21-10 Kita, Kita-ku, Sapporo 001-0021 (Japan); Matsudaira, H. [Catalysis Research Center, Hokkaido University, 21-10 Kita, Kita-ku, Sapporo 001-0021 (Japan); Suzuki, S. [Catalysis Research Center, Hokkaido University, 21-10 Kita, Kita-ku, Sapporo 001-0021 (Japan); Chun, W.-J. [Catalysis Research Center, Hokkaido University, 21-10 Kita, Kita-ku, Sapporo 001-0021 (Japan); Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Corporation (Japan); Kitajima, Y. [Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Kudo, M. [JEOL Ltd., 3-1-2 Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Asakura, K. [Catalysis Research Center, Hokkaido University, 21-10 Kita, Kita-ku, Sapporo 001-0021 (Japan)

    2005-02-28

    We discussed a new design of a Wien filter energy analyzer for an energy-filtered X-ray photoemission electron microscopy system. We have demonstrated that the second-order aberration and the third-order aperture aberration can be corrected by the multipole Wien filter by adjusting multipole components of electric and magnetic fields up to octupole components. The three-dimensional charge simulation method indicated that 12 electrodes and magnetic poles can effectively reproduce these ideal electric and magnetic fields.

  4. Sintering-resistant Single-Site Nickel Catalyst Supported by Metal-Organic Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhanyong; Schweitzer, Neil; League, Aaron; Bernales Candia, Sandra Varinia; Peters, Aaron; Getsoian, Andrew G.; Wang, Timothy; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Vjunov, Aleksei; Fulton, John L.; Lercher, Johannes A.; Cramer, Christopher J.; Gagliardi, Laura; Hupp, Joseph; Farha, Omar

    2016-02-17

    Developing supported single-site catalysts is an important goal in heterogeneous catalysis, since the well-defined active sites afford opportunities for detailed mechanistic studies, thereby facilitating the design of improved catalysts. We present herein a method for installing Ni ions uniformly and precisely on the node of a Zr-based MOF, NU-1000, in high density and large quantity (denoted as Ni-AIM) using atomic layer deposition (ALD) in a metal–organic framework (MOF) (AIM). Ni-AIM is demonstrated to be an efficient gas-phase hydrogenation catalyst upon activation. The structure of the active sites in Ni-AIM is proposed, revealing its single-site nature. More importantly, due to the organic linker used to construct the MOF support, the Ni ions stay isolated throughout the hydrogenation catalysis, in accord with its long-term stability. A quantum chemical characterization of the catalyst and the catalytic process complements the experimental results. With validation of computational modeling protocols, we further targeted ethylene oligomerization catalysis by Ni-AIM guided by theoretical prediction. Given the generality of the AIM methodology, this emerging class of materials should prove ripe for the discovery of new catalysts for the transformation of volatile substrates.

  5. Sintering-Resistant Single-Site Nickel Catalyst Supported by Metal-Organic Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanyong; Schweitzer, Neil M; League, Aaron B; Bernales, Varinia; Peters, Aaron W; Getsoian, Andrew Bean; Wang, Timothy C; Miller, Jeffrey T; Vjunov, Aleksei; Fulton, John L; Lercher, Johannes A; Cramer, Christopher J; Gagliardi, Laura; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K

    2016-02-17

    Developing supported single-site catalysts is an important goal in heterogeneous catalysis since the well-defined active sites afford opportunities for detailed mechanistic studies, thereby facilitating the design of improved catalysts. We present herein a method for installing Ni ions uniformly and precisely on the node of a Zr-based metal-organic framework (MOF), NU-1000, in high density and large quantity (denoted as Ni-AIM) using atomic layer deposition (ALD) in a MOF (AIM). Ni-AIM is demonstrated to be an efficient gas-phase hydrogenation catalyst upon activation. The structure of the active sites in Ni-AIM is proposed, revealing its single-site nature. More importantly, due to the organic linker used to construct the MOF support, the Ni ions stay isolated throughout the hydrogenation catalysis, in accord with its long-term stability. A quantum chemical characterization of the catalyst and the catalytic process complements the experimental results. With validation of computational modeling protocols, we further targeted ethylene oligomerization catalysis by Ni-AIM guided by theoretical prediction. Given the generality of the AIM methodology, this emerging class of materials should prove ripe for the discovery of new catalysts for the transformation of volatile substrates.

  6. An implementation of multiple multipole method in the analyse of elliptical objects to enhance backscattering light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, T.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we present dielectric elliptical shapes modelling with respect to a highly confined power distribution in the resulting nanojet, which has been parameterized according to the beam waist and its beam divergence. The method is based on spherical bessel function as a basis function, which is adapted to standard multiple multipole method. This method can handle elliptically shaped particles due to the change of size and refractive indices, which have been studied under plane wave illumination in two and three dimensional multiple multipole method. Because of its fast and good convergence, the results obtained from simulation are highly accurate and reliable. The simulation time is less than minute for two and three dimension. Therefore, the proposed method is found to be computationally efficient, fast and accurate.

  7. Olefin polymerization from single site catalysts confined within porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasi, Rajeswari M.

    Single Site Catalysts (SSCs) have been utilized for olefin polymerization. Altering the metal-ligand architecture in the SSCs, polyolefin properties can be enhanced in a rational manner. This influence of the ligands in the SSC on the property of polyolefins prepared can be referred to as the primary ligand influence. Extending this understanding and subsequent control of the metal-ligand framework to the interaction of SSCs within organic and inorganic supports is vital for the synthesis of polyolefins with tailored properties. The motivation behind this thesis was to explore the support influence on the reactivity of the SSC tethered to a support matrix during ethylene homo and copolymerization. In order to address this question of the support influence on the final polyolefin properties, synthetic routes to covalently bind SSCs on different matrices have been explored. Two distinct supported SSCs have been used to prepare branched polyethylenes. Branched polyethylenes can be prepared by either copolymerization (ethylene and alpha-olefin) or oligomerization/copolymerization processes (ethylene and in situ generated alpha-olefin). Synthetic routes to prepare precursor catalysts to Constrained Geometry Catalysts (CGCs) by silyl elimination chemistry have been developed (Chapter 2). Efficient synthetic protocols to assemble CGCs on aminomethylpolysytrene matrices (Chapter 3) and amine-functionalized mesoporous silica (Chapter 4) are also reported. These supported catalysts, with appropriate cocatalysts have been used to prepare ethylene homo and copolymers, the polymer thermal properties and microstructures were analyzed by various analytical techniques. Branched polyethylenes (LLDPE) can be prepared by copolymerization chemistry. It has been observed is that the influence of the support is seen in the production of lower crystalline forms of high density polyethylene (HDPE, 20--50% crystalline), while homogeneous polymerization of analogous soluble CGCs afford HDPE

  8. Fast Multipole-Based Elliptic PDE Solver and Preconditioner

    KAUST Repository

    Ibeid, Huda

    2016-12-07

    Exascale systems are predicted to have approximately one billion cores, assuming Gigahertz cores. Limitations on affordable network topologies for distributed memory systems of such massive scale bring new challenges to the currently dominant parallel programing model. Currently, there are many efforts to evaluate the hardware and software bottlenecks of exascale designs. It is therefore of interest to model application performance and to understand what changes need to be made to ensure extrapolated scalability. Fast multipole methods (FMM) were originally developed for accelerating N-body problems for particle-based methods in astrophysics and molecular dynamics. FMM is more than an N-body solver, however. Recent efforts to view the FMM as an elliptic PDE solver have opened the possibility to use it as a preconditioner for even a broader range of applications. In this thesis, we (i) discuss the challenges for FMM on current parallel computers and future exascale architectures, with a focus on inter-node communication, and develop a performance model that considers the communication patterns of the FMM for spatially quasi-uniform distributions, (ii) employ this performance model to guide performance and scaling improvement of FMM for all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of uniformly distributed particles, and (iii) demonstrate that, beyond its traditional use as a solver in problems for which explicit free-space kernel representations are available, the FMM has applicability as a preconditioner in finite domain elliptic boundary value problems, by equipping it with boundary integral capability for satisfying conditions at finite boundaries and by wrapping it in a Krylov method for extensibility to more general operators. Compared with multilevel methods, FMM is capable of comparable algebraic convergence rates down to the truncation error of the discretized PDE, and it has superior multicore and distributed memory scalability properties on commodity

  9. Single-site robotic surgery in gynecologic cancer: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Ha-Na; Kim, Tae-Joong; Lee, Yoo-Young; Choi, Chel Hun; Lee, Jeong-Won; Bae, Duk-Soo; Kim, Byoung-Gie

    2015-01-01

    Objective To discuss the feasibility of single-site robotic surgery for benign gynecologic tumors and early stage gynecologic cancers. Methods In this single institution, prospective analysis, we analyzed six patients who had undergone single-site robotic surgery between December 2013 and August 2014. Surgery was performed using the da Vinci Si Surgical System. Patient characteristics and surgical outcomes were analyzed. Results Single-site robotic surgery was performed successfully in all si...

  10. From Mie to Fresnel through effective medium approximation with multipole contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malasi, Abhinav; Kalyanaraman, Ramki; Garcia, Hernando

    2014-01-01

    The Mie theory gives the exact solution to scattering from spherical particles while the Fresnel theory provides the solution to optical behavior of multilayer thin film structures. Often, the bridge between the two theories to explain the behavior of materials such as nanoparticles in a host dielectric matrix, is done by effective medium approximation (EMA) models which exclusively rely on the dipolar response of the scattering objects. Here, we present a way to capture multipole effects using EMA. The effective complex dielectric function of the composite is derived using the Clausius–Mossotti relation and the multipole coefficients of the approximate Mie theory. The optical density (OD) of the dielectric slab is then calculated using the Fresnel approach. We have applied the resulting equation to predict the particle size dependent dipole and quadrupole behavior for spherical Ag nanoparticles embedded in glass matrix. This dielectric function contains the relevant properties of EMA and at the same time predicts the multipole contributions present in the single particle Mie model. (papers)

  11. Scalable fast multipole accelerated vortex methods

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Qi

    2014-05-01

    The fast multipole method (FMM) is often used to accelerate the calculation of particle interactions in particle-based methods to simulate incompressible flows. To evaluate the most time-consuming kernels - the Biot-Savart equation and stretching term of the vorticity equation, we mathematically reformulated it so that only two Laplace scalar potentials are used instead of six. This automatically ensuring divergence-free far-field computation. Based on this formulation, we developed a new FMM-based vortex method on heterogeneous architectures, which distributed the work between multicore CPUs and GPUs to best utilize the hardware resources and achieve excellent scalability. The algorithm uses new data structures which can dynamically manage inter-node communication and load balance efficiently, with only a small parallel construction overhead. This algorithm can scale to large-sized clusters showing both strong and weak scalability. Careful error and timing trade-off analysis are also performed for the cutoff functions induced by the vortex particle method. Our implementation can perform one time step of the velocity+stretching calculation for one billion particles on 32 nodes in 55.9 seconds, which yields 49.12 Tflop/s.

  12. Multipole moments of water molecules in clusters and ice Ih from first principles calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, E.R.; Xantheas, S.S.; Jonsson, H.

    1999-01-01

    We have calculated molecular multipole moments for water molecules in clusters and in ice Ih by partitioning the charge density obtained from first principles calculations. Various schemes for dividing the electronic charge density among the water molecules were used. They include Bader close-quote s zero flux surfaces and Voronoi partitioning schemes. A comparison was also made with an induction model including dipole, dipole-quadrupole, quadrupole-quadrupole polarizability and first hyperpolarizability as well as fixed octopole and hexadecapole moments. We have found that the different density partitioning schemes lead to widely different values for the molecular multipoles, illustrating how poorly defined molecular multipoles are in clusters and condensed environments. For instance, the magnitude of the molecular dipole moment in ice Ih ranges between 2.3 D and 3.1 D depending on the partitioning scheme used. Within each scheme, though, the value for the molecular dipole moment in ice is larger than in the hexamer. The magnitude of the molecular dipole moment in the clusters shows a monotonic increase from the gas phase value to the one in ice Ih, with the molecular dipole moment in the water ring hexamer being smaller than the one in ice Ih for all the partitioning schemes used. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  13. Multipole analysis of redshift-space distortions around cosmic voids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaus, Nico; Weller, Jochen; Cousinou, Marie-Claude; Pisani, Alice; Aubert, Marie; Escoffier, Stéphanie

    2017-01-01

    We perform a comprehensive redshift-space distortion analysis based on cosmic voids in the large-scale distribution of galaxies observed with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. To this end, we measure multipoles of the void-galaxy cross-correlation function and compare them with standard model predictions in cosmology. Merely considering linear-order theory allows us to accurately describe the data on the entire available range of scales and to probe void-centric distances down to about 2 h −1 Mpc. Common systematics, such as the Fingers-of-God effect, scale-dependent galaxy bias, and nonlinear clustering do not seem to play a significant role in our analysis. We constrain the growth rate of structure via the redshift-space distortion parameter β at two median redshifts, β( z-bar =0.32)=0.599 +0.134 −0.124 and β( z-bar =0.54)=0.457 +0.056 −0.054 , with a precision that is competitive with state-of-the-art galaxy-clustering results. While the high-redshift constraint perfectly agrees with model expectations, we observe a mild 2σ deviation at z-bar =0.32, which increases to 3σ when the data is restricted to the lowest available redshift range of 0.15< z <0.33.

  14. Electron inelastic scattering by compound nuclei and giant multipole resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhavadov, A.V.; Mukhtarov, A.I.; Mirabutalybov, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    Multipole giant resonances in heavy nuclei have been investigated with the application of the Danos-Greiner dynamic collective theory to the Tassi model. The monopole giant resonance has been studied in 158 Gd, 166 Er, 184 W, 232 Th and 238 V nuclei at the incident electron energy E=200 MeV. Dependences of the form factor square of electron scattering by a 166 Er nucleus on the scattering angle obtained in the distorted-wave high-energy approximation (DWHEA) are presented. Giant dipole and quadrupole resonances in 60 Ni and 90 Zr nuclei have been studied. A comparison has been made of theoretical results obtained in the DWHEA for the dependence of the form factor square on the effective momentum transfer with the experimental data. The analysis of the obtained results led to the following conclusions. To draw a conclusion about the validity of one or another nuclear model and methods for calculating form factors, it is necessary to investigate, both theoretically and experimentally, electron scattering at great angles (THETA>=70 deg). To obtain a good agreement it is necessary to take account of the actual proton and neutron distributions in the ground state and their dynamic properties in an excited state [ru

  15. Multipole analysis of redshift-space distortions around cosmic voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaus, Nico; Cousinou, Marie-Claude; Pisani, Alice; Aubert, Marie; Escoffier, Stéphanie; Weller, Jochen

    2017-07-01

    We perform a comprehensive redshift-space distortion analysis based on cosmic voids in the large-scale distribution of galaxies observed with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. To this end, we measure multipoles of the void-galaxy cross-correlation function and compare them with standard model predictions in cosmology. Merely considering linear-order theory allows us to accurately describe the data on the entire available range of scales and to probe void-centric distances down to about 2 h-1Mpc. Common systematics, such as the Fingers-of-God effect, scale-dependent galaxy bias, and nonlinear clustering do not seem to play a significant role in our analysis. We constrain the growth rate of structure via the redshift-space distortion parameter β at two median redshifts, β(bar z=0.32)=0.599+0.134-0.124 and β(bar z=0.54)=0.457+0.056-0.054, with a precision that is competitive with state-of-the-art galaxy-clustering results. While the high-redshift constraint perfectly agrees with model expectations, we observe a mild 2σ deviation at bar z=0.32, which increases to 3σ when the data is restricted to the lowest available redshift range of 0.15

  16. Efficient fast multipole method for low-frequency scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darve, Eric; Have, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    The solution of the Helmholtz and Maxwell equations using integral formulations requires to solve large complex linear systems. A direct solution of those problems using a Gauss elimination is practical only for very small systems with few unknowns. The use of an iterative method such as GMRES can reduce the computational expense. Most of the expense is then computing large complex matrix vector products. The cost can be further reduced by using the fast multipole method which accelerates the matrix vector product. For a linear system of size N, the use of an iterative method combined with the fast multipole method reduces the total expense of the computation to NlogN. There exist two versions of the fast multipole method: one which is based on a multipole expansion of the interaction kernel expιkr/r and which was first proposed by V. Rokhlin and another based on a plane wave expansion of the kernel, first proposed by W.C. Chew. In this paper, we propose a third approach, the stable plane wave expansion (SPW-FMM), which has a lower computational expense than the multipole expansion and does not have the accuracy and stability problems of the plane wave expansion. The computational complexity is NlogN as with the other methods

  17. A task parallel implementation of fast multipole methods

    KAUST Repository

    Taura, Kenjiro

    2012-11-01

    This paper describes a task parallel implementation of ExaFMM, an open source implementation of fast multipole methods (FMM), using a lightweight task parallel library MassiveThreads. Although there have been many attempts on parallelizing FMM, experiences have almost exclusively been limited to formulation based on flat homogeneous parallel loops. FMM in fact contains operations that cannot be readily expressed in such conventional but restrictive models. We show that task parallelism, or parallel recursions in particular, allows us to parallelize all operations of FMM naturally and scalably. Moreover it allows us to parallelize a \\'\\'mutual interaction\\'\\' for force/potential evaluation, which is roughly twice as efficient as a more conventional, unidirectional force/potential evaluation. The net result is an open source FMM that is clearly among the fastest single node implementations, including those on GPUs; with a million particles on a 32 cores Sandy Bridge 2.20GHz node, it completes a single time step including tree construction and force/potential evaluation in 65 milliseconds. The study clearly showcases both programmability and performance benefits of flexible parallel constructs over more monolithic parallel loops. © 2012 IEEE.

  18. Atom-partitioned multipole expansions for electrostatic potential boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M., E-mail: michael.s.lee131.civ@mail.mil [Simulation Sciences Branch, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 (United States); Leiter, K. [Simulation Sciences Branch, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 (United States); Eisner, C. [Secure Mission Solutions, a Parsons Company (United States); Simulation Sciences Branch, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 (United States); Knap, J. [Simulation Sciences Branch, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Applications such as grid-based real-space density functional theory (DFT) use the Poisson equation to compute electrostatics. However, the expected long tail of the electrostatic potential requires either the use of a large and costly outer domain or Dirichlet boundary conditions estimated via multipole expansion. We find that the oft-used single-center spherical multipole expansion is only appropriate for isotropic mesh domains such as spheres and cubes. In this work, we introduce a method suitable for high aspect ratio meshes whereby the charge density is partitioned into atomic domains and multipoles are computed for each domain. While this approach is moderately more expensive than a single-center expansion, it is numerically stable and still a small fraction of the overall cost of a DFT calculation. The net result is that when high aspect ratio systems are being studied, form-fitted meshes can now be used in lieu of cubic meshes to gain computational speedup.

  19. An electromagnetic multipole expansion beyond the long-wavelength approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaee, Rasoul; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Fernandez-Corbaton, I.

    2018-01-01

    The multipole expansion is a key tool in the study of light-matter interactions. All the information about the radiation of and coupling to electromagnetic fields of a given charge-density distribution is condensed into few numbers: The multipole moments of the source. These numbers are frequently computed with expressions obtained after the long-wavelength approximation. Here, we derive exact expressions for the multipole moments of dynamic sources that resemble in their simplicity their approximate counterparts. We validate our new expressions against analytical results for a spherical source, and then use them to calculate the induced moments for some selected sources with a non-trivial shape. The comparison of the results to those obtained with approximate expressions shows a considerable disagreement even for sources of subwavelength size. Our expressions are relevant for any scientific area dealing with the interaction between the electromagnetic field and material systems.

  20. The generalized multipole technique for light scattering recent developments

    CERN Document Server

    Eremin, Yuri

    2018-01-01

    This book presents the Generalized Multipole Technique as a fast and powerful theoretical and computation tool to simulate light scattering by nonspherical particles. It also demonstrates the considerable potential of the method. In recent years, the concept has been applied in new fields, such as simulation of electron energy loss spectroscopy and has been used to extend other methods, like the null-field method, making it more widely applicable. The authors discuss particular implementations of the GMT methods, such as the Discrete Sources Method (DSM), Multiple Multipole Program (MMP), the Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS), the Filamentary Current Method (FCM), the Method of Fictitious Sources (MFS) and the Null-Field Method with Discrete Sources (NFM-DS). The Generalized Multipole Technique is a surface-based method to find the solution of a boundary-value problem for a given differential equation by expanding the fields in terms of fundamental or other singular solutions of this equation. The amplitudes ...

  1. Insufficient joint forces of first-generation articulating instruments for laparoendoscopic single-site surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chang Wook; Kim, Sung Hoon; Kim, Hyung Tae; Jeong, Seong Jin; Hong, Sung Kyu; Byun, Seok-Soo; Lee, Sang Eun

    2013-10-01

    The current articulating instruments used in laparoendoscopic single-site surgery do not appear to provide the joint forces required. Thus, we measured the joint forces of first-generation articulating laparoscopic instruments. To compare these forces with those necessary in the surgical context, we evaluated the forces sufficient to produce secure surgical ties in an animal model. The articulating instruments tested were Laparo-Angle (Cambridge Endoscopic Devices Inc, Framingham, MA), RealHand (Novare Surgical Systems Inc, Cupertino, CA), and Roticulator (Covidien Inc, Mansfield, MA). For each, we measured the angle between the end-effector and the shaft in proportion to the articulating force using a push-pull gauge. Two fixed-position configurations of the instruments were predetermined: the neutral and the fully articulated positions. The forces required to secure surgical ties for the ureter, renal artery, and renal vein were evaluated using kidneys harvested from a female pig. The bending forces required to bend from the neutral position to 30° were 5.6 ± 1.2 and 4.7 ± 1.0 N with the Laparo-Angle and RealHand, respectively. Furthermore, the slippage forces in the fully articulated state were 1.8 ± 0.3, 1.6 ± 0.2, and 1.5 ± 0.2 N in the above order. In contrast, the mean forces to produce surgical ties of the ureter, renal artery, and renal vein were 14.5 ± 2.3, 11.5 ± 0.8, and 10.3 ± 2.3 N, respectively. The joint forces of first-generation articulating instruments for laparoendoscopic single-site surgery are not sufficient to meet the usual operative needs. Improved articulating instruments with greater articulating forces should be developed.

  2. Novel multipole Wien filter as three-dimensional spin manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasue, T.; Suzuki, M.; Tsuno, K.; Goto, S.; Arai, Y.; Koshikawa, T.

    2014-04-01

    Spin polarized electron beam is often used in material characterizations which relates to magnetism as well as in the high energy particle physics. The manipulation of the spin polarization toward the arbitrary direction is indispensable in such studies. In the present work, a novel multipole Wien filter is proposed as the three-dimensional spin manipulator, and a prototype 8-pole Wien filter is developed. It is applied to spin polarized low energy electron microscopy, and the variation of the magnetic contrast with managing the spin polarization is evaluated. It is confirmed that the novel multipole Wien filter can manipulate the spin polarization three-dimensionally.

  3. Novel multipole Wien filter as three-dimensional spin manipulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasue, T., E-mail: yasue@isc.osakac.ac.jp; Suzuki, M.; Koshikawa, T. [Fundamental Electronics Research Institute, Osaka Electro-Communication University, 18-8 Hatsu-cho, Neyagawa, Osaka 572-8530 (Japan); Tsuno, K. [Electron Optics Solutions Tsuno, 10-11 Mihori, Akishima, Tokyo 196-0001 (Japan); Goto, S. [Sanyu Electron Co., Ltd., 1-22-6 Hyakunin-cho, Shinjyuku, Tokyo 169-0073 (Japan); Arai, Y. [Terabase Inc., Myodaiji, Okazaki, Aichi 444-8787 (Japan)

    2014-04-15

    Spin polarized electron beam is often used in material characterizations which relates to magnetism as well as in the high energy particle physics. The manipulation of the spin polarization toward the arbitrary direction is indispensable in such studies. In the present work, a novel multipole Wien filter is proposed as the three-dimensional spin manipulator, and a prototype 8-pole Wien filter is developed. It is applied to spin polarized low energy electron microscopy, and the variation of the magnetic contrast with managing the spin polarization is evaluated. It is confirmed that the novel multipole Wien filter can manipulate the spin polarization three-dimensionally.

  4. Gaussian translation operator for Multi-Level Fast Multipole Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borries, Oscar Peter; Hansen, Per Christian; Sorensen, Stig B.

    2014-01-01

    Results using a new translation operator for the Multi-Level Fast Multipole Method are presented. Based on Gaussian beams, the translation operator allows a significant portion of the plane-wave directions to be neglected, resulting in a much faster translation step.......Results using a new translation operator for the Multi-Level Fast Multipole Method are presented. Based on Gaussian beams, the translation operator allows a significant portion of the plane-wave directions to be neglected, resulting in a much faster translation step....

  5. Energy-independent multipole analysis of single-pion photoproduction from protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Get' man, V.A.; Sanin, V.M.; Telegin, Y.N.; Shalatskii, S.V.

    1983-08-01

    For the first time photoproduction multipole amplitudes are evaluated unambiguously on the basis of new experimental data on pion photoproduction from protons and the latest ..pi..N scattering phase shifts. The multipole amplitudes obtained are compared with the results of previous multipole analyses and dispersion-relation predictions.

  6. Energy-independent multipole analysis of single-pion photoproduction from protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Get'man, V.A.; Sanin, V.M.; Telegin, Y.N.; Shalatskii, S.V.

    1983-01-01

    For the first time photoproduction multipole amplitudes are evaluated unambiguously on the basis of new experimental data on pion photoproduction from protons and the latest πN scattering phase shifts. The multipole amplitudes obtained are compared with the results of previous multipole analyses and dispersion-relation predictions

  7. Performance Benchmarking of Fast Multipole Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Harthi, Noha A.

    2013-06-01

    The current trends in computer architecture are shifting towards smaller byte/flop ratios, while available parallelism is increasing at all levels of granularity – vector length, core count, and MPI process. Intel’s Xeon Phi coprocessor, NVIDIA’s Kepler GPU, and IBM’s BlueGene/Q all have a Byte/flop ratio close to 0.2, which makes it very difficult for most algorithms to extract a high percentage of the theoretical peak flop/s from these architectures. Popular algorithms in scientific computing such as FFT are continuously evolving to keep up with this trend in hardware. In the meantime it is also necessary to invest in novel algorithms that are more suitable for computer architectures of the future. The fast multipole method (FMM) was originally developed as a fast algorithm for ap- proximating the N-body interactions that appear in astrophysics, molecular dynamics, and vortex based fluid dynamics simulations. The FMM possesses have a unique combination of being an efficient O(N) algorithm, while having an operational intensity that is higher than a matrix-matrix multiplication. In fact, the FMM can reduce the requirement of Byte/flop to around 0.01, which means that it will remain compute bound until 2020 even if the cur- rent trend in microprocessors continues. Despite these advantages, there have not been any benchmarks of FMM codes on modern architectures such as Xeon Phi, Kepler, and Blue- Gene/Q. This study aims to provide a comprehensive benchmark of a state of the art FMM code “exaFMM” on the latest architectures, in hopes of providing a useful reference for deciding when the FMM will become useful as the computational engine in a given application code. It may also serve as a warning to certain problem size domains areas where the FMM will exhibit insignificant performance improvements. Such issues depend strongly on the asymptotic constants rather than the asymptotics themselves, and therefore are strongly implementation and hardware

  8. Concept of multipole magnetic field rotation in ECRIS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The conventional type of magnetic well is formed by superposition of two types of magnetic field, axial bumpy field and radial multipole field. It is used to contain plasma that consists of neutrals, ions and electrons. These particles are in constant motion in the well and energetic electrons create plasma by violent collisions ...

  9. Electron density distribution in Si and Ge using multipole, maximum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The local, average and electronic structure of the semiconducting materials Si and Ge has been studied using multipole, maximum entropy method (MEM) and pair distribution function (PDF) analyses, using X-ray powder data. The covalent nature of bonding and the interaction between the atoms are clearly revealed by the ...

  10. Multipole interactions of charged particles with the electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burzynski, A.

    1982-01-01

    The full multipole expansion for the lagrangian and hamiltonian of a system of point charges interacting with the electromagnetic field is studied in detail. Both classical and quantum theory are described for external and dynamical fields separately. One improvement with respect to the known Fiutak's paper is made. (author)

  11. Rovibrational matrix elements of the multipole moments and of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The rovibrational matrix elements of the multipole moments and polarizability of molecules find applications in the study of infrared spectra, intermolecular potential and collision-induced absorption phenomena, especially in homonuclear molecules. Because of its simplicity and fundamental importance, the hydrogen ...

  12. Electron density distribution in Si and Ge using multipole, maximum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Collin's [19] formalism is based on the entropy expression S, given by. S = −. ∑ ρ (r) ln ρ (r) τ (r). ,. (4) .... were collected using X'PERT PRO (Philips, The Netherlands) X-ray diffractometer. The wavelength used for .... described by Dawson [36] and Stewart [37], the multipole deformation functions allowed for the tetrahedral ...

  13. Concept of multipole magnetic field rotation in ECRIS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The confined electrons are constantly heated by ECR technique in the presence of magnetic field. In this paper it has been shown theoretically that how the electron motion is influenced in terms of heating, containment and azimuthal uniformity of plasma, by the axial rotation of the multipole magnetic field [1,2]. Afterwards ...

  14. Miniature in vivo robot for laparoendoscopic single-site surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolghi, Oleg; Strabala, Kyle W; Wortman, Tyler D; Goede, Matthew R; Farritor, Shane M; Oleynikov, Dmitry

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a multidexterous robot capable of generating the required forces and speeds to perform surgical tasks intra-abdominally. Current laparoscopic surgical robots are expensive, bulky, and fundamentally constrained by a small entry incision. A new approach to minimally invasive surgery places the robot completely within the patient. Miniature in vivo robots may allow surgeons to overcome current laparoscopic constraints such as dexterity, orientation, and visualization. A collaborative research group from the Department of Surgery at the University of Nebraska Medical Center and the College of Engineering at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln designed and built a surgical robot prototype capable of performing specific surgical tasks within the peritoneal cavity. The basic robotic design consists of two arms each connected to a central body. Each arm has three degrees of freedom and rotational shoulder and elbow joints. This combination allows a surgeon to grasp, manipulate, cauterize, and perform intracorporeal suturing. The robot's workspace is a hollow hemisphere with an inner radius of 75 mm and an outer radius of 205 mm. Its versatility was demonstrated in four procedures performed in a porcine model: cholecystectomy, partial colectomy, abdominal exploration, and intracorporeal suturing. Miniature in vivo robots have the potential to address the limitations of using articulated instrumentation to perform advanced laparoscopic surgical procedures. Once inserted into the peritoneal cavity, the robot provides a stable platform for visualization with sufficient dexterity and speed to perform surgical tasks from multiple orientations and workspaces.

  15. The Analytical Evaluation Of Three-Center Magnetic Multipole Moment Integrals By Using Slater Type Orbitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oztekin, E.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, magnetic multipole moment integrals are calculated by using Slater type orbitals (STOs), Fourier transform and translation formulas. Firstly, multipole moment operators which appear in the three-center magnetic multipole moment integrals are translated to b-center from 0-center. So, three-center magnetic multipole moment integrals have been reduced to the two-center. Then, the obtained analytical expressions have been written in terms of overlap integrals. When the magnetic multipole moment integrals calculated, matrix representations for x-, y- and z-components of multipole moments was composed and every component was separately calculated to analytically. Consequently, magnetic multipole moment integrals are also given in terms of the same and different screening parameters.

  16. Point charges optimally placed to represent the multipole expansion of charge distributions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramu Anandakrishnan

    Full Text Available We propose an approach for approximating electrostatic charge distributions with a small number of point charges to optimally represent the original charge distribution. By construction, the proposed optimal point charge approximation (OPCA retains many of the useful properties of point multipole expansion, including the same far-field asymptotic behavior of the approximate potential. A general framework for numerically computing OPCA, for any given number of approximating charges, is described. We then derive a 2-charge practical point charge approximation, PPCA, which approximates the 2-charge OPCA via closed form analytical expressions, and test the PPCA on a set of charge distributions relevant to biomolecular modeling. We measure the accuracy of the new approximations as the RMS error in the electrostatic potential relative to that produced by the original charge distribution, at a distance 2x the extent of the charge distribution--the mid-field. The error for the 2-charge PPCA is found to be on average 23% smaller than that of optimally placed point dipole approximation, and comparable to that of the point quadrupole approximation. The standard deviation in RMS error for the 2-charge PPCA is 53% lower than that of the optimal point dipole approximation, and comparable to that of the point quadrupole approximation. We also calculate the 3-charge OPCA for representing the gas phase quantum mechanical charge distribution of a water molecule. The electrostatic potential calculated by the 3-charge OPCA for water, in the mid-field (2.8 Å from the oxygen atom, is on average 33.3% more accurate than the potential due to the point multipole expansion up to the octupole order. Compared to a 3 point charge approximation in which the charges are placed on the atom centers, the 3-charge OPCA is seven times more accurate, by RMS error. The maximum error at the oxygen-Na distance (2.23 Å is half that of the point multipole expansion up to the octupole

  17. Design and optimization of multipole lens and Wien filter systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Haoning, E-mail: haoning@mebs.co.uk [Munro' s Electron Beam Software Ltd., 14 Cornwall Gardens, London SW7 4AN (United Kingdom); Wang Liping; Rouse, John; Munro, Eric [Munro' s Electron Beam Software Ltd., 14 Cornwall Gardens, London SW7 4AN (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-21

    The differential algebra (DA) method has been employed to compute the optical properties and aberrations up to the fifth order of multipole systems containing electrostatic and magnetic round, quadrupole, hexapole and octopole lenses, and Wien filters. A new software package has been developed, which computes the geometrical and chromatic aberrations up to the fifth order by using a single DA ray trace. It also has an optimization module where a weighted set of aberrations can be minimized by the automatic adjustment of a set of user-defined system variables. In this paper, we present our new method for designing and optimizing multipole systems including Wien filters, and illustrate its application with three relevant examples.

  18. Design and optimization of multipole lens and Wien filter systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haoning; Wang, Liping; Rouse, John; Munro, Eric

    2011-07-01

    The differential algebra (DA) method has been employed to compute the optical properties and aberrations up to the fifth order of multipole systems containing electrostatic and magnetic round, quadrupole, hexapole and octopole lenses, and Wien filters. A new software package has been developed, which computes the geometrical and chromatic aberrations up to the fifth order by using a single DA ray trace. It also has an optimization module where a weighted set of aberrations can be minimized by the automatic adjustment of a set of user-defined system variables. In this paper, we present our new method for designing and optimizing multipole systems including Wien filters, and illustrate its application with three relevant examples.

  19. Form factors and radiation widths of the giant multipole resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, V.Yu.

    1990-01-01

    Simple analytic relations for the form factors of inelastic electron scattering in the Born approximation and radiation widths of the isovector and isoscalar giant multipole resonances are derived. The dynamic relationship between the volume and surface density vibrations were taken into account in this calculation. The form factors in the Born approximation were found to be in satisfactory agreement with experimental data in the region of small transferred momenta. The radiation widths of isoscalar multipole resonances increase when the number of nucleons increase as A 1/3 , and for isovector resonances this dependence has the form f(A)A 1/3 , where f(A) is a slowly increasing function of A. Radiation widths well fit the experimental data

  20. Harmonic Decomposition of Orbit Data for Multipole Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Yang Ming Jen

    2005-01-01

    The unprecedented position resolution provided by the newly commissioned Recycer BPM system is opening up a new chapter of beam based multipole analysis at Fermilab. The closed orbit data, taken with circulating beam and averaged over many consecutive turns, has been shown to have the resolution of a few microns. The result of polynomial fit to BPM position data, as a function of dipole kick sizes, is used to separate orbit data into first, second, and third order. Combining both the in-plane and cross-plane orbit data it is possible to determine the multipole content within each half cell. This paper presents the algorithm behind the procedure, the data collected from the Fermilab Recycler Ring, and the final analysis result.

  1. Proof of a multipole conjecture due to Geroch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beig, R.; Simon, W.

    1980-01-01

    A result, first conjectured by Geroch, is proved to the extent, that the multipole moments of a static space-time characterize this space-time uniquely. As an offshoot of the proof one obtains an essentially coordinate-free algorithm for explicitly writing down a geometry in terms of it's moments in a purely algebraic manner. This algorithm seems suited for symbolic manipulation on a computer. (orig.)

  2. Extension of the Multipole Approach to Random Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chipouline

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of the short-range lateral disorder in the meta-atoms positioning on the effective parameters of the metamaterials is investigated theoretically using the multipole approach. Random variation of the near field quasi-static interaction between metaatoms in form of double wires is shown to be the reason for the effective permittivity and permeability changes. The obtained analytical results are compared with the known experimental ones.

  3. Single-Site Palladium(II) Catalyst for Oxidative Heck Reaction: Catalytic Performance and Kinetic Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Hui; Li, Mengyang; Zhang, Guanghui; Gallagher, James R.; Huang, Zhiliang; Sun, Yu; Luo, Zhong; Chen, Hongzhong; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Zou, Ruqiang; Lei, Aiwen; Zhao, Yanli

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The development of organometallic single-site catalysts (SSCs) has inspired the designs of new heterogeneous catalysts with high efficiency. Nevertheless, the application of SSCs in certain modern organic reactions, such as C-C bond formation reactions, has still been less investigated. In this study, a single-site Pd(II) catalyst was developed, where 2,2'-bipyridine-grafted periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) was employed as the support of a Pd(II) complex. The overall performance of the single-site Pd(II) catalyst in the oxidative Heck reaction was then investigated. The investigation results show that the catalyst displays over 99% selectivity for the product formation with high reaction yield. Kinetic profiles further confirm its high catalytic efficiency, showing that the rate constant is nearly 40 times higher than that for the free Pd(II) salt. X-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals that the catalyst has remarkable lifetime and recyclability.

  4. Transumbilical laparoendoscopic single-site surgery versus conventional laparoscopy for the resection of retroperitoneal paragangliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weifeng; Li, Hanzhong; Ji, Zhigang; Yan, Weigang; Zhang, Yushi; Zhang, Xuebin; Li, Qian

    2015-09-01

    To compare transumbilical laparoendoscopic single-site surgery with conventional laparoscopy for the resection of retroperitoneal paragangliomas. In the present case-control study, we compared 11 transumbilical laparoendoscopic single-site surgery procedures with 22 conventional laparoscopy procedures carried out to treat retroperitoneal paragangliomas between June 2004 and October 2013 at Peking Union Medical Hospital, Beijing, China. Operative time, estimated intraoperative blood loss, blood transfusions, intraoperative hypertension, intraoperative hypotension, highest intraoperative systolic blood pressure, lowest intraoperative systolic blood pressure, postoperative fatigue time, postoperative systematic inflammation reaction syndrome, 24-h postoperative visual analog scale scores, postoperative hospital stay duration, and postoperative complications were recorded and analyzed. There were no significant differences in patient characteristics. All surgical procedures were successfully completed in both groups. Minor complications occurred in one case in the laparoendoscopic single-site surgery group and in two cases in the conventional laparoscopy group. In the laparoendoscopic single-site surgery group, the operative time was longer than that in the conventional laparoscopy group (P = 0.001). There were no significant differences in terms of intraoperative hypertension, intraoperative hypotension, highest intraoperative systolic blood pressure, lowest intraoperative systolic blood pressure, estimated blood loss, postoperative fatigue time, postoperative hospital stay or systematic inflammation reaction syndrome between the two groups. The 24-h postoperative visual analog scale score was lower in the laparoendoscopic single-site surgery group (P = 0.002). No recurrence or metastases were observed over the duration of the postoperative follow up. In properly selected patients, transumbilical laparoendoscopic single-site surgery is a feasible, safe and effective

  5. Cluster-Based Multipolling Sequencing Algorithm for Collecting RFID Data in Wireless LANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo-Yong; Chatterjee, Mainak

    2015-03-01

    With the growing use of RFID (Radio Frequency Identification), it is becoming important to devise ways to read RFID tags in real time. Access points (APs) of IEEE 802.11-based wireless Local Area Networks (LANs) are being integrated with RFID networks that can efficiently collect real-time RFID data. Several schemes, such as multipolling methods based on the dynamic search algorithm and random sequencing, have been proposed. However, as the number of RFID readers associated with an AP increases, it becomes difficult for the dynamic search algorithm to derive the multipolling sequence in real time. Though multipolling methods can eliminate the polling overhead, we still need to enhance the performance of the multipolling methods based on random sequencing. To that extent, we propose a real-time cluster-based multipolling sequencing algorithm that drastically eliminates more than 90% of the polling overhead, particularly so when the dynamic search algorithm fails to derive the multipolling sequence in real time.

  6. Design, simulation and testing of a novel radial multi-pole multi-layer magnetorheological brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Li, Hua; Jiang, Xuezheng; Yao, Jin

    2018-02-01

    This paper deals with design, simulation and experimental testing of a novel radial multi-pole multi-layer magnetorheological (MR) brake. This MR brake has an innovative structural design with superposition principle of two magnetic fields generated by the inner coils and the outer coils. The MR brake has several media layers of magnetorheological (MR) fluid located between the inner coils and the outer coils, and it can provide higher torque and higher torque density than conventional single-disk or multi-disk or multi-pole single-layer MR brakes can. In this paper, a brief introduction to the structure of the proposed MR brake was given first. Then, theoretical analysis of the magnetic circuit and the braking torque was conducted. In addition, a 3D electromagnetic model of the MR brake was developed to simulate and examine the magnetic flux intensity and corresponding braking torque. A prototype of the brake was fabricated and several tests were carried out to validate its torque capacity. The results show that the proposed MR brake can produce a maximum braking torque of 133 N m and achieve a high torque density of 25.0 kN m‑2, a high torque range of 42 and a high torque-to-power ratio of 0.95 N m W‑1.

  7. Impedance loading and radiation of finite aperture multipole sources in fluid filled boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerits, Tim W.; Kranz, Burkhard

    2017-04-01

    In the exploration of oil and gas finite aperture multipole borehole acoustic sources are commonly used to excite borehole modes in a fluid-filled borehole surrounded by a (poro-) elastic formation. Due to the mutual interaction of the constituent sources and their immediate proximity to the formation it has been unclear how and to what extent these effects influence radiator performance. We present a theory, based on the equivalent surface source formulation for fluid-solid systems that incorporates these 'loading' effects and allows for swift computation of the multipole source dimensionless impedance, the associated radiator motion and the resulting radiated wave field in borehole fluid and formation. Dimensionless impedance results are verified through a comparison with finite element modeling results in the cases of a logging while drilling tool submersed in an unbounded fluid and a logging while drilling tool submersed in a fluid filled borehole surrounded by a fast and a slow formation. In all these cases we consider a monopole, dipole and quadrupole excitation, as these cases are relevant to many borehole acoustic applications. Overall, we obtain a very good agreement.

  8. Microscopic Description of Electric and Magnetic Toroidal Multipoles in Hybrid Orbitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayami, Satoru; Kusunose, Hiroaki

    2018-03-01

    We derive the quantum-mechanical operator expressions of multipoles under the space-time inversion group. We elucidate that electric and magnetic toroidal multipoles, in addition to ordinary non-toroidal ones, are fundamental pieces to express arbitrary electronic degrees of freedom. We show that electric (magnetic) toroidal multipoles higher than the dipole (monopole) can become active in a hybridized-orbital system. We also demonstrate emergent cross-correlated couplings between the electric, magnetic, and elastic degrees of freedom, such as magneto-electric and magneto(electro)-elastic coupling, under toroidal multipole orders.

  9. Compensation of the Persistent Current Multipoles in the LHC Dipoles by making the Coil Protection Sheet from Soft Magnetic Material

    CERN Document Server

    Völlinger, C

    2000-01-01

    This note presents a scheme for compensating the persistent current multipole errors of the LHC dipoles by making the coil protection sheets from soft magnetic material of 0.5 mm thickness. The material properties assumed in this study are those of iron sheets with a very low content of impurities (99.99% pure Fe). The non-linearities in the upramp cycle on the b3 multipole component can be reduced by the factor of four (while decreasing the b5 variation by the factor of two. Using sheets of slightly different thicknesses offers a tuning possibility for the series magnet coils and can compensate deviations arising from cables of different suppliers. The calculation method is based on a semi-analytical hysteresis model for hard superconductors and an M(B) - iteration using the method of coupled boundary elements - finite elements (BEM - FEM). It is now possible to compute persistent current multipole errors of geometries with arbitrarily shaped iron yokes and thin layers of soft magnetic material such as tunin...

  10. Understanding the role of aluminum-based activators in single site iron catalysts for ethylene oligomerization.

    OpenAIRE

    Boudene , Zoubeyr; Boudier , Adrien; Breuil , Pierre-Alain; Olivier-Bourbigou , Hélène; Raybaud , Pascal; Toulhoat , Hervé; De Bruin , Theodorus

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In a combined experimental and theoretical study, the activation process of a single site ethylene oligomerization catalyst with aluminum-based activators has been studied. The results put forward a plausible deactivation reaction path of the catalyst for trimethylaluminum, while for methylaluminoxane and a novel phenoxyaluminum-based activator, the experimental catalyst's activity correlates with the energy barrier for the ethylene insertion.

  11. Error bounds in MEG (Magnetoencephalography) multipole localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerbi, K. (Karim); Mosher, J. C. (John C.); Baillet, S. (Sylvain); Leahy, R. M. (Richard M.)

    2001-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a non-invasive method that enables the measurement of the magnetic field produced by neural current sources within the human brain. Unfortunately, MEG source estimation is a severely ill-posed inverse problem. The two major approaches used to tackle this problem are 'imaging' and 'model-based' methods. The first class of methods relies on a tessellation of the cortex, assigning an elemental current source to each area element and solving the linear inverse problem. Accurate tessellations lead to a highly underdetermined problem, and regularized linear methods lead to very smooth current distributions. An alternative approach widely used is a parametric representation of the neural source. Such model-based methods include the classic equivalent current dipole (ECD) and its multiple current dipole extension [1]. The definition of such models has been based on the assumption that the underlying sources are focal and small in number. An alternative approach reviewed in [4], [5] is to extend the parametric source representations within the model-based framework to allow for distributed sources. The multipolar expansion of the magnetic field about the centroid of a distributed source readily offers an elegant parametric model, which collapses to a dipole model in the limiting case and includes higher order terms in the case of a spatially extended source. While multipolar expansions have been applied to magnetocardiography (MCG) source modeling [2], their use in MEG has been restricted to simplified models [7]. The physiological interpretation of these higher-order components in non-intuitive, therefore limiting their application in this community (cf. [8]). In this study we investigate both the applicability of dipolar and multipolar models to cortical patches, and the accuracy with which we can locate these sources. We use a combination of Monte Carlo analyses and Cramer-Rao lower bounds (CRLBs), paralleling the work

  12. Calculations of the second virial coefficients of protein solutions with an extended fast multipole method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bongkeun; Song, Xueyu

    2011-01-01

    The osmotic second virial coefficients B2 are directly related to the solubility of protein molecules in electrolyte solutions and can be useful to narrow down the search parameter space of protein crystallization conditions. Using a residue level model of protein-protein interaction in electrolyte solutions B2 of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor and lysozyme in various solution conditions such as salt concentration, pH and temperature are calculated using an extended fast multipole method in combination with the boundary element formulation. Overall, the calculated B2 are well correlated with the experimental observations for various solution conditions. In combination with our previous work on the binding affinity calculations it is reasonable to expect that our residue level model can be used as a reliable model to describe protein-protein interaction in solutions.

  13. Multipole plasmon excitations of C{sub 60} dimers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradi, Afshin, E-mail: a.moradi@kut.ac.ir [Department of Engineering Physics, Kermanshah University of Technology, Kermanshah, Iran and Department of Nano Sciences, Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-07-14

    We study the multipole plasmon mode frequencies of a pair of C{sub 60} molecules by means of the linearized hydrodynamic theory for electronic excitations on the each C{sub 60} surface. We apply the two-center spherical coordinate system for mathematical convenience and find an explicit form of the surface plasmon energies. Numerical result shows when approaching the two C{sub 60} molecules, the coupling between the bare plasmon modes leads to the appearance of additional modes having energies that are different from those of the isolated C{sub 60} molecules.

  14. Multilevel Fast Multipole Method for Higher Order Discretizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borries, Oscar Peter; Meincke, Peter; Jorgensen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    The multi-level fast multipole method (MLFMM) for a higher order (HO) discretization is demonstrated on high-frequency (HF) problems, illustrating for the first time how an efficient MLFMM for HO can be achieved even for very large groups. Applying several novel ideas, beneficial to both lower...... order and higher order discretizations, results from a low-memory, high-speed MLFMM implementation of a HO hierarchical discretization are shown. These results challenge the general view that the benefits of HO and HF-MLFMM cannot be combined....

  15. Improved Multilevel Fast Multipole Method for Higher-Order discretizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borries, Oscar Peter; Meincke, Peter; Jorgensen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    The Multilevel Fast Multipole Method (MLFMM) allows for a reduced computational complexity when solving electromagnetic scattering problems. Combining this with the reduced number of unknowns provided by Higher-Order discretizations has proven to be a difficult task, with the general conclusion...... being that going above 2nd order is not worthwhile. In this paper, we challenge this conclusion, providing results that demonstrate the potential performance gains with Higher-Order MLFMM and showing some modifications to the traditional MLFMM that can benefit both Higher-Order and standard...

  16. Multipole giant resonances in highly excited nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Keding; Cai Yanhuang

    1989-01-01

    The isoscalar giant surface resonance and giant dipole resonance in highly excited nuclei are discussed. Excitation energies of the giant modes in 208 Pb are calculated in a simplified model, using the concept of energy wieghted sum rule (EWSR), and the extended Thomas-Fermi approximation at the finite temperature is employed to describe the finite temperature is employed to describe the finite temperature equilibrium state. It is shown that EWSR and the energy of the resonance depend only weakly on temperature in the system. This weak dependence is analysed

  17. Neutron diffraction study of multipole order in light rare-earth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 71; Issue 4. Neutron diffraction study of multipole order in light rare-earth hexaborides. J-M Mignat J ... Multipole interactions are known to play a central role in the unconventional properties of light rare-earth hexaborides and especially of CeB6. Substituting Pr at the ...

  18. The Formation of Multipoles during the High-Temperature Creep of Austenitic Stainless Steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howell, J.; Nielsson, O.; Horsewell, Andy

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that multipole dislocation configurations can arise during power-law creep of certain austenitic stainless steels. These multipoles have been analysed in some detail for two particular steels (Alloy 800 and a modified AISI 316L) and it is suggested that they arise either during...

  19. Corrections and comments on the multipole moments of axisymmetric electrovacuum spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotiriou, Thomas P; Apostolatos, Theocharis A [Section of Astrophysics, Astronomy, and Mechanics Department of Physics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos GR-15783, Athens (Greece)

    2004-12-21

    Following the method of Hoenselaers and Perjes, we present a new corrected and dimensionally consistent set of multipole gravitational and electromagnetic moments for stationary axisymmetric spacetimes. Furthermore, we use our results to compute the multipole moments, both gravitational and electromagnetic, of a Kerr-Newman black hole.

  20. Single-site catalyst promoters accelerate metal-catalyzed nitroarene hydrogenation

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Liang

    2018-04-04

    Atomically dispersed supported metal catalysts are drawing wide attention because of the opportunities they offer for new catalytic properties combined with efficient use of the metals. We extend this class of materials to catalysts that incorporate atomically dispersed metal atoms as promoters. The catalysts are used for the challenging nitroarene hydrogenation and found to have both high activity and selectivity. The promoters are single-site Sn on TiO2 supports that incorporate metal nanoparticle catalysts. Represented as M/Sn-TiO2 (M = Au, Ru, Pt, Ni), these catalysts decidedly outperform the unpromoted supported metals, even for hydrogenation of nitroarenes substituted with various reducible groups. The high activity and selectivity of these catalysts result from the creation of oxygen vacancies on the TiO2 surface by single-site Sn, which leads to efficient, selective activation of the nitro group coupled with a reaction involving hydrogen atoms activated on metal nanoparticles.

  1. Theoretical study of catalytic mechanism for single-site water oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiangsong; Hu, Xiangqian; Concepcion, Javier J; Chen, Zuofeng; Liu, Shubin; Meyer, Thomas J; Yang, Weitao

    2012-09-25

    Water oxidation is a linchpin in solar fuels formation, and catalysis by single-site ruthenium complexes has generated significant interest in this area. Combining several theoretical tools, we have studied the entire catalytic cycle of water oxidation for a single-site catalyst starting with [Ru(II)(tpy)(bpm)(OH(2))](2+) (i.e., [Ru(II)-OH(2)](2+); tpy is 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine and bpm is 2,2'-bypyrimidine) as a representative example of a new class of single-site catalysts. The redox potentials and pK(a) calculations for the first two proton-coupled electron transfers (PCETs) from [Ru(II)-OH(2)](2+) to [Ru(IV) = O](2+) and the following electron-transfer process to [Ru(V) = O](3+) suggest that these processes can proceed readily in acidic or weakly basic conditions. The subsequent water splitting process involves two water molecules, [Ru(V) = O](3+) to generate [Ru(III)-OOH](2+), and H(3)O(+) with a low activation barrier (~10 kcal/mol). After the key O-O bond forming step in the single-site Ru catalysis, another PECT process oxidizes [Ru(III)-OOH](2+) to [Ru(IV)-OO](2+) when the pH is lower than 3.7. Two possible forms of [Ru(IV)-OO](2+), open and closed, can exist and interconvert with a low activation barrier (catalytic cycle. This understanding is helpful in the design of new catalysts for water oxidation.

  2. Well-defined single-site monohydride silica-supported zirconium from azazirconacyclopropane

    KAUST Repository

    Hamzaoui, Bilel

    2015-01-13

    The silica-supported azazirconacyclopropane ≡SiOZr(HNMe2)(η2-NMeCH2)(NMe2) (1) leads exclusively under hydrogenolysis conditions (H2, 150°C) to the single-site monopodal monohydride silica-supported zirconium species ≡SiOZr(HNMe2)(NMe2)2H (2). Reactivity studies by contacting compound 2 with ethylene, hydrogen/ethylene, propene, or hydrogen/propene, at a temperature of 200°C revealed alkene hydrogenation.

  3. Ligand-tailored single-site silica supported titanium catalysts: Synthesis, characterization and towards cyanosilylation reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Wei; Li, Yani; Yu, Bo; Yang, Jindou; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Guofang; Gao, Ziwei

    2015-01-01

    A successive anchoring of Ti(NMe 2 ) 4 , cyclopentadiene and a O-donor ligand, 1-hydroxyethylbenzene (PEA), 1,1′-bi-2-naphthol (Binol) or 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid diethyl ester (Tartrate), on silica was conducted by SOMC strategy in moderate conditions. The silica, monitored by in-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (in-situ FT-IR), was pretreated at different temperatures (200, 500 and 800 °C). The ligand tailored silica-supported titanium complexes were characterized by in-situ FT-IR, 13 C CP MAS-NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and elemental analysis in detail, verifying that the surface titanium species are single sited. The catalytic activity of the ligand tailored single-site silica supported titanium complexes was evaluated by a cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. The results showed that the catalytic activity is dependent strongly on the dehydroxylation temperatures of silica and the configuration of the ligands. - Graphical abstract: The ligand-tailored silica supported “single site” titanium complexes were synthesized by SOMC strategy and fully characterized. Their catalytic activity were evaluated by benzaldehyde silylcyanation. - Highlights: • Single-site silica supported Ti active species was prepared by SOMC technique. • O-donor ligand tailored Ti surface species was synthesized. • The surface species was characterized by XPS, 13 C CP-MAS NMR, XANES etc. • Catalytic activity of the Ti active species in silylcyanation reaction was evaluated

  4. Tunisian gamma source load planning using multipole moment method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loussaief, Abdelkader; Mannai, Kais; Trabelsi, Adel

    2005-01-01

    Many methods, especially Monte Carlo simulation technique and Point Kernel method are idely used for radiation profile studies. However, these methods are either time consuming or fairly accurate when dealing with extended gamma sources particularly for optimization studies. Furthermore, while the buildup factor and the attenuation effects were well investigated in the literature, little work was done about the systematic influence of the source extension. In this work we focus on the effect of the source geometry using the generalized Laplace's expansion. We express the bare gamma photon flux rate in terms of the standard Cartesian multipole moments. Using the properties of these moments we establish a close relationship between the radiation profile and the geometrical features of the source. As applications we propose to use the multipole expansion method to investigate the radiation profile isotropy of the source. A detailed study of the arrangement of the unit pencil sources of the tunisian irradiation facility is performed. Using this method, millions of possible configurations for various load plans investigated, in few minutes and even multisteps scenarios were considered. As a result, the current configuration of the source was found to be not optimized. Furthermore, using these analytical method it was possible to optimize the activity of each new unit source

  5. Acoustic scattering by multiple elliptical cylinders using collocation multipole method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Wei-Ming

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the collocation multipole method for the acoustic scattering induced by multiple elliptical cylinders subjected to an incident plane sound wave. To satisfy the Helmholtz equation in the elliptical coordinate system, the scattered acoustic field is formulated in terms of angular and radial Mathieu functions which also satisfy the radiation condition at infinity. The sound-soft or sound-hard boundary condition is satisfied by uniformly collocating points on the boundaries. For the sound-hard or Neumann conditions, the normal derivative of the acoustic pressure is determined by using the appropriate directional derivative without requiring the addition theorem of Mathieu functions. By truncating the multipole expansion, a finite linear algebraic system is derived and the scattered field can then be determined according to the given incident acoustic wave. Once the total field is calculated as the sum of the incident field and the scattered field, the near field acoustic pressure along the scatterers and the far field scattering pattern can be determined. For the acoustic scattering of one elliptical cylinder, the proposed results match well with the analytical solutions. The proposed scattered fields induced by two and three elliptical–cylindrical scatterers are critically compared with those provided by the boundary element method to validate the present method. Finally, the effects of the convexity of an elliptical scatterer, the separation between scatterers and the incident wave number and angle on the acoustic scattering are investigated.

  6. Electromagnetic multipole fields in a finite, spherically symmetric region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiger, A.D.

    1980-01-01

    The electromagnetic eigenfields for the region bounded by two concentric spheres are discussed and compared with the corresponding eigenfields of a spherical cavity. These characteristic fields are the solenoidal and irrotational multiple solutions of the vector Helmholtz equation that satisfy the source-free boundary conditions. They constitute a complete set for the expansion of an arbitrary, square-integrable electromagnetic field, which may be generated by surface and volume sources. The frequencies of the solenoidal and irrotational eigenfields for the angular region are analyzed as functions of the radius ratio, α=r 1 /r 2 (r 1 2 =constant), of the two concentric spheres. The results are illustrated by graphs and tables. Two relations obtained by applying the implicit function theorem to the transcendental eigenfrequency equations are also derived by calculating the work performed against the radiation pressure as the electromagnetic field is compressed adiabatically. The multipoles. Two formulas for the reduction of vector products of multipole fields to sums of vector spherical harmonics are derived

  7. Scalable force directed graph layout algorithms using fast multipole methods

    KAUST Repository

    Yunis, Enas Abdulrahman

    2012-06-01

    We present an extension to ExaFMM, a Fast Multipole Method library, as a generalized approach for fast and scalable execution of the Force-Directed Graph Layout algorithm. The Force-Directed Graph Layout algorithm is a physics-based approach to graph layout that treats the vertices V as repelling charged particles with the edges E connecting them acting as springs. Traditionally, the amount of work required in applying the Force-Directed Graph Layout algorithm is O(|V|2 + |E|) using direct calculations and O(|V| log |V| + |E|) using truncation, filtering, and/or multi-level techniques. Correct application of the Fast Multipole Method allows us to maintain a lower complexity of O(|V| + |E|) while regaining most of the precision lost in other techniques. Solving layout problems for truly large graphs with millions of vertices still requires a scalable algorithm and implementation. We have been able to leverage the scalability and architectural adaptability of the ExaFMM library to create a Force-Directed Graph Layout implementation that runs efficiently on distributed multicore and multi-GPU architectures. © 2012 IEEE.

  8. Yukawa multipole electrostatics and nontrivial coupling between electrostatic and dispersion interactions in electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjellander, Roland; Ramirez, Rosa

    2008-01-01

    An exact treatment of screened electrostatics in electrolyte solutions is presented. In electrolytes the anisotropy of the exponentially decaying electrostatic potential from a molecule extends to the far field region. The full directional dependence of the electrostatic potential from a charged or uncharged molecule remains in the longest range tail (i.e. from all multipole moments). In particular, the range of the potential from an ion and that from an electroneutral polar particle is generally exactly the same. This is in contrast to the case in vacuum or pure polar liquids, where the potential from a single charge is longer ranged than that from a dipole, which is, itself, longer ranged than the one from a quadrupole etc. The orientational dependence of the exponentially screened electrostatic interaction between two molecules in electrolytes is therefore rather complex even at long distances. These facts are formalized in Yukawa multipole expansions of the electrostatic potential and the pair interaction free energy based on the Yukawa function family exp(-κr)/r m , where r is the distance, κ is a decay parameter and m is a positive integer. The expansion is formally exact for electrolytes with molecular solvent and in the primitive model, provided the non-Coulombic interactions between the particles are sufficiently short ranged. The results can also be applied in the Poisson-Boltzmann approximation. Differences and similarities to the ordinary multipole expansion of electrostatics are pointed out. On the other hand, when the non-Coulombic interactions between the constituent particles of the electrolyte solution contain a dispersion 1/r 6 potential, the electrostatic potential from a molecule decays like a power law for long distances rather than as a Yukawa function. This is due to nontrivial coupling between the electrostatic and dispersion interactions. There remains an exponentially decaying component in the electrostatic potential, but it becomes

  9. The use of expanding ports in laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery may cause more pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dressler, Jannie; Jorgensen, Lars N

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous meta-analyses on the clinical outcome after laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) versus conventional laparoscopic surgery (CLS) have not revealed any major differences in postoperative pain between the two procedures. This meta-analysis aims to evaluate the difference...... for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on LESS versus CLS for general abdominal procedures. Weighted mean difference (WMD) and Odds ratios (OR) were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: A total of 29 RCTs with 2999 procedures were included. Pain (VAS 0-10) 6 h after surgery was significantly...... in LESSex procedures compared to CLS, OR = 1.94 (1.03-3.63). CONCLUSION: The present meta-analysis indirectly indicates that the type of access device that is used for an abdominal LESS procedure may contribute to the development of early postoperative pain as the use of a non-expanding model was associated...

  10. General expressions for divergence relations and multipole expansions for arbitrary scalar functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, K.T.R.; Becker, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    In theories of the cohesion of a system whose matter density is constant (e.g., classical liquid drops) or nearly constant except in a thin surface region (e.g., nuclei or neutron stars), there occur computationally difficult single and double volume integrals of energy densities. Such integrals have been important in recent dynamical calculations of fission and heavy-ion reactions. Even if the matter density is diffuse, the integrals can be written as integrals over finite volumes by modeling the density as the convolution of a step function and a diffuseness function. If the integrands can be written as divergences of tensor fields, the integrals over finite volumes can be reduced to surface integrals by Gauss' theorem. We have found general expressions, which we call divergence relations, for a vector field whose divergence is a given scalar function and for a second-rank tensor field whose double divergence is the scalar. The equations derived are much easier to use and apply to a wider class of functions than formulas previously obtained in the literature. The generalization to nth order for application to many-body forces is included, and for all orders the dimensionality is arbitrary. The interaction energy of two nonoverlapping systems is often most simply evaluated by using the generalized Slater multipole expansion of the two-body interaction. A new expression is derived for the radial factor G/sub l/(r 1 ,r 2 ) appearing in the multipole expansion of an arbitrary scalar, two-body function. This G/sub l/ is expressed as an integral involving the product of the Fourier transform of the interaction and two Bessel functions. For some cases this integral can easily be evaluated by contour integration

  11. Reactivity of a Carbon-Supported Single-Site Molybdenum Dioxo Catalyst for Biodiesel Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouat, Aidan R.; Lohr, Tracy L.; Wegener, Evan C.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Delferro, Massimiliano; Stair, Peter C.; Marks, Tobin J.

    2016-08-23

    A single-site molybdenum dioxo catalyst, (Oc)2Mo(=O)2@C, was prepared via direct grafting of MoO2Cl2(dme) (dme = 1,2-dimethoxyethane) on high-surface- area activated carbon. The physicochemical and chemical properties of this catalyst were fully characterized by N2 physisorption, ICP-AES/OES, PXRD, STEM, XPS, XAS, temperature-programmed reduction with H2 (TPR-H2), and temperature-programmed NH3 desorption (TPD-NH3). The single-site nature of the Mo species is corroborated by XPS and TPR-H2 data, and it exhibits the lowest reported MoOx Tmax of reduction reported to date, suggesting a highly reactive MoVI center. (Oc)2Mo(=O)2@C catalyzes the transesterification of a variety of esters and triglycerides with ethanol, exhibiting high activity at moderate temperatures (60-90 °C) and with negligible deactivation. (Oc)2Mo(=O)2@C is resistant to water and can be recycled at least three times with no loss of activity. The transesterification reaction is determined experimentally to be first order in [ethanol] and first order in [Mo] with ΔH = 10.5(8) kcal mol-1 and ΔS = -32(2) eu. The low energy of activation is consistent with the moderate conditions needed to achieve rapid turnover. This highly active carbon-supported single-site molybdenum dioxo species is thus an efficient, robust, and lowcost catalyst with significant potential for transesterification processes.

  12. Ligand-tailored single-site silica supported titanium catalysts: Synthesis, characterization and towards cyanosilylation reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Wei; Li, Yani; Yu, Bo; Yang, Jindou; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Guofang, E-mail: gfzhang@snnu.edu.cn; Gao, Ziwei, E-mail: zwgao@snnu.edu.cn

    2015-01-15

    A successive anchoring of Ti(NMe{sub 2}){sub 4}, cyclopentadiene and a O-donor ligand, 1-hydroxyethylbenzene (PEA), 1,1′-bi-2-naphthol (Binol) or 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid diethyl ester (Tartrate), on silica was conducted by SOMC strategy in moderate conditions. The silica, monitored by in-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (in-situ FT-IR), was pretreated at different temperatures (200, 500 and 800 °C). The ligand tailored silica-supported titanium complexes were characterized by in-situ FT-IR, {sup 13}C CP MAS-NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and elemental analysis in detail, verifying that the surface titanium species are single sited. The catalytic activity of the ligand tailored single-site silica supported titanium complexes was evaluated by a cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. The results showed that the catalytic activity is dependent strongly on the dehydroxylation temperatures of silica and the configuration of the ligands. - Graphical abstract: The ligand-tailored silica supported “single site” titanium complexes were synthesized by SOMC strategy and fully characterized. Their catalytic activity were evaluated by benzaldehyde silylcyanation. - Highlights: • Single-site silica supported Ti active species was prepared by SOMC technique. • O-donor ligand tailored Ti surface species was synthesized. • The surface species was characterized by XPS, {sup 13}C CP-MAS NMR, XANES etc. • Catalytic activity of the Ti active species in silylcyanation reaction was evaluated.

  13. Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Surgery (LESS for a Large Ovarian Tumour: First Clinical Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Dong Chua

    2011-01-01

    Main Outcome Measure(s. Conversion to standard laparoscopic technique or laparotomy, estimated blood loss, operative time , extent of scarring, occurrence of intra- and perioperative surgical complications, technical adequacy, and clinical outcome. Result(s. No conversion to standard laparoscopic technique or laparotomy, and no intraoperative or postoperative complications were observed. Total operative time was 99 minutes. The patient was discharged home on postoperative day one. Conclusion(s. Laparoendoscopic single-site bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy of a large ovarian tumour is feasible with standard laparoscopic instruments. It is safe and effective, with good results in terms of excellent cosmesis and minimal postoperative pain.

  14. Magnetic x-ray measurements using the elliptical multipole wiggler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montano, P. A.; Li, Y.; Beno, M. A.; Jennings, G.; Kimball, C. W.

    1999-10-26

    The EMW at the BESSRC beam lines at the APS provides high photon flux at high energies with the capability of producing circular polarization on axis. The authors observe a high degree of circularly polarized x-rays at such energies. The polarization and frequency tunability of the elliptical multipole wiggler (EMW) is an ideal source for many magnetic measurements from X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD) to Compton scattering experiments. They performed Compton scattering measurements to determine the polarization and photon flux at the sample as a function of the deflection parameters K{sub y} and K{sub x}. They used for their measurements a Si (220) Laue monochromator providing simultaneous photon energies at 50 keV, 100 keV and 150 keV. Magnetic Compton Profiles were determined by either switching the magnet polarity or the photon helicity. The results obtained using Fe(110) single crystals were very similar.

  15. Fourier-Based Fast Multipole Method for the Helmholtz Equation

    KAUST Repository

    Cecka, Cris

    2013-01-01

    The fast multipole method (FMM) has had great success in reducing the computational complexity of solving the boundary integral form of the Helmholtz equation. We present a formulation of the Helmholtz FMM that uses Fourier basis functions rather than spherical harmonics. By modifying the transfer function in the precomputation stage of the FMM, time-critical stages of the algorithm are accelerated by causing the interpolation operators to become straightforward applications of fast Fourier transforms, retaining the diagonality of the transfer function, and providing a simplified error analysis. Using Fourier analysis, constructive algorithms are derived to a priori determine an integration quadrature for a given error tolerance. Sharp error bounds are derived and verified numerically. Various optimizations are considered to reduce the number of quadrature points and reduce the cost of computing the transfer function. © 2013 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  16. Checking the Polarity of Superconducting Multipole LHC Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Buzio, M; Brun, G; Fievez, G; Galbraith, P; García-Pérez, J; López, R; Masi, A; Russenschuck, Stephan; Smirnov, N; Tikhov, A

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the design and operation of the â€ワPolarity Checker”, a scanning probe designed to check multipole field order, type and polarity of superconducting LHC magnets. First we introduce the measurement method, based on the harmonic analysis of the radial field component picked up by a rotating Hall sensor at different current levels. Then we describe the hardware and the software of the system, which features automatic powering, data acquisition and treatment, discussing the achieved sensitivity and performance. Finally we provide a summary of the test results on the first 505 cryoassemblies, showing how the system was usefully employed to detect some potentially harmful connection errors.

  17. On some orthogonality properties of Maxwell's multipole vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gramada, Apostol

    2007-01-01

    We determine the location of the expansion points with respect to which the two Maxwell's multipole vectors of the quadrupole moment and the dipole vector of a distribution of charge form an orthogonal trihedron. We find that with respect to these 'orthogonality centres' both the dipole and the quadrupole moments are each characterized by a single real parameter. We further show that the orthogonality centres coincide with the stationary points of the magnitude of the quadrupole moment and, therefore, they can be seen as an extension of the concept of centre of the dipole moment of a neutral system introduced previously in the literature. The nature of the stationary points then provides the means for the classification of a distribution of charge in two different categories

  18. An adaptive fast multipole accelerated Poisson solver for complex geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askham, T.; Cerfon, A. J.

    2017-09-01

    We present a fast, direct and adaptive Poisson solver for complex two-dimensional geometries based on potential theory and fast multipole acceleration. More precisely, the solver relies on the standard decomposition of the solution as the sum of a volume integral to account for the source distribution and a layer potential to enforce the desired boundary condition. The volume integral is computed by applying the FMM on a square box that encloses the domain of interest. For the sake of efficiency and convergence acceleration, we first extend the source distribution (the right-hand side in the Poisson equation) to the enclosing box as a C0 function using a fast, boundary integral-based method. We demonstrate on multiply connected domains with irregular boundaries that this continuous extension leads to high accuracy without excessive adaptive refinement near the boundary and, as a result, to an extremely efficient "black box" fast solver.

  19. Point sources and multipoles in inverse scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Potthast, Roland

    2001-01-01

    Over the last twenty years, the growing availability of computing power has had an enormous impact on the classical fields of direct and inverse scattering. The study of inverse scattering, in particular, has developed rapidly with the ability to perform computational simulations of scattering processes and led to remarkable advances in a range of applications, from medical imaging and radar to remote sensing and seismic exploration. Point Sources and Multipoles in Inverse Scattering Theory provides a survey of recent developments in inverse acoustic and electromagnetic scattering theory. Focusing on methods developed over the last six years by Colton, Kirsch, and the author, this treatment uses point sources combined with several far-reaching techniques to obtain qualitative reconstruction methods. The author addresses questions of uniqueness, stability, and reconstructions for both two-and three-dimensional problems.With interest in extracting information about an object through scattered waves at an all-ti...

  20. Parallel fast multipole boundary element method applied to computational homogenization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptaszny, Jacek

    2018-01-01

    In the present work, a fast multipole boundary element method (FMBEM) and a parallel computer code for 3D elasticity problem is developed and applied to the computational homogenization of a solid containing spherical voids. The system of equation is solved by using the GMRES iterative solver. The boundary of the body is dicretized by using the quadrilateral serendipity elements with an adaptive numerical integration. Operations related to a single GMRES iteration, performed by traversing the corresponding tree structure upwards and downwards, are parallelized by using the OpenMP standard. The assignment of tasks to threads is based on the assumption that the tree nodes at which the moment transformations are initialized can be partitioned into disjoint sets of equal or approximately equal size and assigned to the threads. The achieved speedup as a function of number of threads is examined.

  1. Fast Multipole-Based Preconditioner for Sparse Iterative Solvers

    KAUST Repository

    Ibeid, Huda

    2014-05-04

    Among optimal hierarchical algorithms for the computational solution of elliptic problems, the Fast Multipole Method (FMM) stands out for its adaptability to emerging architectures, having high arithmetic intensity, tunable accuracy, and relaxed global synchronization requirements. We demonstrate that, beyond its traditional use as a solver in problems for which explicit free-space kernel representations are available, the FMM has applicability as a preconditioner in finite domain elliptic boundary value problems, by equipping it with boundary integral capability for finite boundaries and by wrapping it in a Krylov method for extensibility to more general operators. Compared with multilevel methods, it is capable of comparable algebraic convergence rates down to the truncation error of the discretized PDE, and it has superior multicore and distributed memory scalability properties on commodity architecture supercomputers.

  2. Modified multipole structure for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suominen, P.

    2006-07-01

    Highly-charged heavy-ion beams are usually produced with Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS) where the microwave heated plasma is confined in a strong magnetic field. The magnetic field is divided into an axial part (produced by solenoid magnets) and to a radial part (produced by multipole magnet). Experiments have shown that the radial magnetic field component plays a crucial role in the production of highly-charged ions. However, in several modern ECRIS the radial magnetic field strength is below the optimum value, mainly due to the limits in permanent magnet technology. Unfortunately, methods to increase the radial magnetic field strength while still using permanent magnets are often limited. In this thesis work new techniques to improve the radial magnetic field have been studied by simulations and experiments. Due to the computer simulations performed a remarkable radial magnetic field improvement was reached with a relatively simple and cost-effective idea called the Modified MultiPole Structure (MMPS). The MMPS differs strongly from former studies as here the magnetic field is increased only locally without affecting the plasma size. It was not known how this would affect the properties of the plasma and production of highly-charged heavy ions. Consequently, the idea had to be studied experimentally and a new MMPS plasma chamber prototype was designed and constructed for the JYFL 6.4 GHz ECRIS. The new construction is versatile and made it possible to perform several new types of measurements. These showed that the MMPS works well and is especially applicable to increase very high charge-state ion production. Typically the ion current increases by a factor of 2 - 3 in the case of highly charged ions such as Ar16+. (orig.)

  3. Modified multipole structure for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suominen, P.

    2006-01-01

    Highly-charged heavy-ion beams are usually produced with Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS) where the microwave heated plasma is confined in a strong magnetic field. The magnetic field is divided into an axial part (produced by solenoid magnets) and to a radial part (produced by multipole magnet). Experiments have shown that the radial magnetic field component plays a crucial role in the production of highly-charged ions. However, in several modern ECRIS the radial magnetic field strength is below the optimum value, mainly due to the limits in permanent magnet technology. Unfortunately, methods to increase the radial magnetic field strength while still using permanent magnets are often limited. In this thesis work new techniques to improve the radial magnetic field have been studied by simulations and experiments. Due to the computer simulations performed a remarkable radial magnetic field improvement was reached with a relatively simple and cost-effective idea called the Modified MultiPole Structure (MMPS). The MMPS differs strongly from former studies as here the magnetic field is increased only locally without affecting the plasma size. It was not known how this would affect the properties of the plasma and production of highly-charged heavy ions. Consequently, the idea had to be studied experimentally and a new MMPS plasma chamber prototype was designed and constructed for the JYFL 6.4 GHz ECRIS. The new construction is versatile and made it possible to perform several new types of measurements. These showed that the MMPS works well and is especially applicable to increase very high charge-state ion production. Typically the ion current increases by a factor of 2 - 3 in the case of highly charged ions such as Ar 16+ . (orig.)

  4. Ligand-tailored single-site silica supported titanium catalysts: Synthesis, characterization and towards cyanosilylation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Li, Yani; Yu, Bo; Yang, Jindou; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Guofang; Gao, Ziwei

    2015-01-01

    A successive anchoring of Ti(NMe2)4, cyclopentadiene and a O-donor ligand, 1-hydroxyethylbenzene (PEA), 1,1‧-bi-2-naphthol (Binol) or 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid diethyl ester (Tartrate), on silica was conducted by SOMC strategy in moderate conditions. The silica, monitored by in-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (in-situ FT-IR), was pretreated at different temperatures (200, 500 and 800 °C). The ligand tailored silica-supported titanium complexes were characterized by in-situ FT-IR, 13C CP MAS-NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and elemental analysis in detail, verifying that the surface titanium species are single sited. The catalytic activity of the ligand tailored single-site silica supported titanium complexes was evaluated by a cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. The results showed that the catalytic activity is dependent strongly on the dehydroxylation temperatures of silica and the configuration of the ligands.

  5. A stable rhodium single-site catalyst encapsulated within dendritic mesoporous nanochannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jun; Yang, Dali; Wen, Jianguo; Filatov, Alexander S; Liu, Yuzi; Lei, Aiwen; Lin, Xiao-Min

    2018-01-18

    Catalysis plays an essential role in the modern chemical industry. However, it still remains a great challenge to improve the efficiency of many heterogeneous catalysts based on a per metal atom basis. Single-site catalysts (SsCs) with isolated metal atoms/ions anchored to the supports are thus highly desirable, providing an innovative solution towards highly efficient usage of precious metal atoms in heterogeneous catalysts. Creating SsCs with high metal loading proves to be challenging because, without robust anchoring, atoms tend to diffuse to form large aggregates during catalytic reactions. We report a facile ligand exchange method to anchor a single-site Rh catalyst inside the individual channels of three-dimensional dendritic mesoporous silica nanospheres (MSNSs). The short porous channels inside MSNSs provide an easy access of reactants and the strong binding of the ligand prevents the aggregation of catalyst sites. The as-synthesized Rh 1 @MSNS-NH 2 catalyst shows excellent activity, stability and reusability in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. The same catalyst shows high regioselectivity in the hydrosilylation of terminal alkynes to yield α-vinylsilanes through the Markovnikov addition.

  6. Single-Site Heterogeneous Catalysts: Innovations, Advantages, and Future Potential in Green Chemistry and Sustainable Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Robert; Thomas, John Meurig

    The advantages that flow from the availability of single-site heterogeneous catalysts are many. They facilitate the determination of the kinetics and mechanism of catalytic turnover and render accessible the energetics of various intermediates. More importantly, it is possible to prepare soluble molecular fragments that circumscribe the single site, thus enabling a direct comparison to be made between the catalytic performance of the same active site when functioning as a heterogeneous or a homogeneous catalyst. Our approach adopts the principles and practices of solid-state chemistry, augmented by lessons derived from enzymology, as well as computational chemistry. We have succeeded in designing a range of new catalysts to effect, inter alia, shape-selective, regioselective, bifunctional, and enantioselective catalytic conversions. In particular, large fractions of these catalysts are ideally suited for the era of clean technology in which single-step and/or solvent-free processes abound, and in which benign oxidants such as air or oxygen and inexpensive nanoporous materials are employed.

  7. Anti-de-Sitter regular electric multipoles: towards Einstein-Maxwell-AdS solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Herdeiro, Carlos; Radu, Eugen

    2015-01-01

    We discuss electrostatics in Anti-de-Sitter ($AdS$) spacetime, in global coordinates. We observe that the multipolar expansion has two crucial differences to that in Minkowski spacetime. First, there are everywhere regular solutions, with finite energy, for every multipole moment except for the monopole. Second, all multipole moments decay with the same inverse power of the areal radius, $1/r$, as spatial infinity is approached. The first observation suggests there may be regular, self-gravit...

  8. Static spacetimes with prescribed multipole moments: a proof of a conjecture by Geroch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herberthson, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we give sufficient conditions on a sequence of multipole moments for a static spacetime to exist with precisely these moments. The proof is constructive in the sense that a metric having prescribed multipole moments up to a given order can be calculated. Since these sufficient conditions agree with already known necessary conditions, this completes the proof of a long standing conjecture due to Geroch.

  9. Single-site ventricular pacing via the coronary sinus in patients with tricuspid valve disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noheria, Amit; van Zyl, Martin; Scott, Luis R; Srivathsan, Komandoor; Madhavan, Malini; Asirvatham, Samuel J; McLeod, Christopher J

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate coronary sinus single-site (CSSS) left ventricular pacing in adult patients with normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) when traditional right ventricular lead implantation is not feasible or is contraindicated. We performed a retrospective analysis of 23 patients with tricuspid valve surgery/disease who received a CSSS ventricular pacing lead to avoid crossing the tricuspid valve. Two matched control populations were obtained from patients receiving (i) conventional right ventricular single-site (RVSS) leads and (ii) coronary sinus leads for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CSCRT). Main outcomes of interest were lead stability, electrical lead parameters and change in LVEF during long-term follow-up. Successful CSSS pacing was accomplished in all 23 patients without any procedural complications. During the 5.3 ± 2.8-year follow-up 22/23 (95.7%) leads were functional with stable pacing and sensing parameters, and 1/23 (4.3%) was extracted for unrelated reasons. Compared to CSSS leads, the lead revision/abandonment was similar with RVSS leads (Hazard ratio (HR) 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.03, 22.0), but was higher with CSCRT leads (HR 7.41, 95% CI 1.30, 139.0). There was no difference in change in LVEF between CSSS and RVSS groups (-2.4 ± 11.0 vs. 1.5 ± 12.8, P = 0.76), but LVEF improved in CSCRT group (11.2 ± 16.5%, P = 0.002). Fluoroscopy times were longer during implantation of CSSS compared to RVSS leads (25.6 ± 24.6 min vs. 12.3 ± 18.6 min, P = 0.049). In patients with normal LVEF, single-site ventricular pacing via the coronary sinus is a feasible, safe and reliable alternative to right ventricular pacing. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Higher magnetic field multipoles generated by superconductor magnetization within a set of nested superconducting correction coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Correction elements in colliding beam accelerators such as the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) can be the source of undesirable higher magnetic field multipoles due to magnetization of the superconductor within the corrector. Quadrupole and sextupole correctors located within the main dipole will produce sextupole and decapole due to magnetization of the superconductor within the correction coils. Lumped nested correction coils can produce a large number of skew and normal magnetization multipoles which may have an adverse effect on a stored beam at injection into a high energy colliding beam machine such as the SSC. Multipole magnetization field components have been measured within the HERA storage ring dipole magnets. Calculations of these components using the SCMAG04 code, which agree substantially with the measured multipoles, are presented in the report. As a result, in the proposed continuous correction winding for the SSC, dipoles have been replaced with lumped correction elements every six dipole magnets (about 120 meters apart). Nested lumped correction elements will also produce undesirable higher magnetization multipoles. This report shows a method by which the higher multipole generated by nested correction elements can be identified. (author)

  11. Left Transperitoneal Adrenalectomy with a Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Surgery Combined Technique: Initial Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Sumino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS is a step toward the development of minimally invasive surgery. It is initially difficult for surgeons with limited experience to perform the surgery. We describe two cases of left adrenalectomy with a LESS combined with the addition of an accessory port. After a 2.5-cm skin incision was made at the level of the paraumbilicus to insert the primary 12-mm trocar for the laparoscope, a 5-mm nonbladed trocar was placed through the skin incision side-by-side with the primary trocar. A second 3-mm nonbladed trocar was then placed along the anterior axillary line; a multichannel trocar was not used as a single port. Both adrenalectomies were completed successfully. In patients with a minor adrenal tumor, a combined technique using LESS and an additional port is easier than LESS alone and may, therefore, be a bridge between the conventional laparoscopic approach and LESS.

  12. Chemoselective single-site Earth-abundant metal catalysts at metal–organic framework nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manna, Kuntal; Ji, Pengfei; Lin, Zekai; Greene, Francis X.; Urban, Ania; Thacker, Nathan C.; Lin, Wenbin (UC)

    2016-08-30

    Earth-abundant metal catalysts are critically needed for sustainable chemical synthesis. Here we report a simple, cheap and effective strategy of producing novel earth-abundant metal catalysts at metal–organic framework (MOF) nodes for broad-scope organic transformations. The straightforward metalation of MOF secondary building units (SBUs) with cobalt and iron salts affords highly active and reusable single-site solid catalysts for a range of organic reactions, including chemoselective borylation, silylation and amination of benzylic C–H bonds, as well as hydrogenation and hydroboration of alkenes and ketones. Our structural, spectroscopic and kinetic studies suggest that chemoselective organic transformations occur on site-isolated, electron-deficient and coordinatively unsaturated metal centres at the SBUs via σ-bond metathesis pathways and as a result of the steric environment around the catalytic site. MOFs thus provide a novel platform for the development of highly active and affordable base metal catalysts for the sustainable synthesis of fine chemicals.

  13. Management of gallbladder duplication using a single-site robotic-assisted approach: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Melanie Adams; Kaplin, Aviva Wallace; Kushnir, Leon; Montero-Pearson, Per

    2016-06-01

    Gallbladder duplication is a rare congenital anomaly. Here, we describe a 29-year-old female who presents with classic symptoms of biliary colic. A duplicated gallbladder was recognized on preoperative ultrasound. This case report reviews a single-site robotic-assisted cholecystectomy with a cystic duct duplication. The patient underwent the surgery without complication. Due to the aberrant anatomy of the cystic triangle, it was decided to mobilize the gallbladder in a dome-down fashion. True gallbladder duplication can be categorized according to cystic duct orientation based on Boyden's classification. Preoperative diagnosis is essential to prevent surgical complications. A laparoscopic approach can be carried out safely in the hands of a skilled surgeon. This case report shows that the robotic-assisted surgical approach is a viable and safe alternative.

  14. Single-Site Tetracoordinated Aluminum Hydride Supported on Mesoporous Silica. From Dream to Reality!

    KAUST Repository

    Werghi, Baraa

    2016-09-26

    The reaction of mesoporous silica (SBA15) dehydroxylated at 700 °C with diisobutylaluminum hydride, i-Bu2AlH, gives after thermal treatment a single-site tetrahedral aluminum hydride with high selectivity. The starting aluminum isobutyl and the final aluminum hydride have been fully characterized by FT-IR, advanced SS NMR spectroscopy (1H, 13C, multiple quanta (MQ) 2D 1H-1H, and 27Al), and elemental analysis, while DFT calculations provide a rationalization of the occurring reactivity. Trimeric i-Bu2AlH reacts selectively with surface silanols without affecting the siloxane bridges. Its analogous hydride catalyzes ethylene polymerization. Indeed, catalytic tests show that this single aluminum hydride site is active in the production of a high-density polyethylene (HDPE). © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  15. Chemoselective single-site Earth-abundant metal catalysts at metal-organic framework nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Kuntal; Ji, Pengfei; Lin, Zekai; Greene, Francis X; Urban, Ania; Thacker, Nathan C; Lin, Wenbin

    2016-08-30

    Earth-abundant metal catalysts are critically needed for sustainable chemical synthesis. Here we report a simple, cheap and effective strategy of producing novel earth-abundant metal catalysts at metal-organic framework (MOF) nodes for broad-scope organic transformations. The straightforward metalation of MOF secondary building units (SBUs) with cobalt and iron salts affords highly active and reusable single-site solid catalysts for a range of organic reactions, including chemoselective borylation, silylation and amination of benzylic C-H bonds, as well as hydrogenation and hydroboration of alkenes and ketones. Our structural, spectroscopic and kinetic studies suggest that chemoselective organic transformations occur on site-isolated, electron-deficient and coordinatively unsaturated metal centres at the SBUs via σ-bond metathesis pathways and as a result of the steric environment around the catalytic site. MOFs thus provide a novel platform for the development of highly active and affordable base metal catalysts for the sustainable synthesis of fine chemicals.

  16. Patients' perceptions of laparoendoscopic single-site surgery: the cosmetic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golkar, Farhaad C; Ross, Sharona B; Sperry, Steffanie; Vice, Michelle; Luberice, Kenneth; Donn, Natalie; Morton, Connor; Hernandez, Jonathan M; Rosemurgy, Alexander S

    2012-11-01

    Laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) surgery can be performed without apparent scarring, while maintaining the salutary benefits of conventional laparoscopic surgery. The purpose of this study was to compare patients' preoperative and postoperative perceptions of LESS surgery. Before and after undergoing LESS surgery, 120 patients were given questionnaires; their responses were assimilated and analyzed. Of 120 patients, 62% were female (age, 52 ± 16.6 y), and 54% had prior abdominal surgery. Preoperatively, women and older patients reported heightened appearance dissatisfaction. Preoperatively, most patients would not accept more risk, pain, surgery/recovery times, and/or costs than associated with standard laparoscopy. Postoperatively, patients reported increased satisfaction in their overall and abdominal region appearance. Satisfaction was noted by 92%; satisfaction was related significantly to scar appearance and cosmesis. Preoperatively, patients were most concerned with safety; postoperatively, patients' concerns shifted to cosmetic outcome. LESS surgery provides an opportunity for improved patient satisfaction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Minimal invasive single-site surgery in colorectal procedures: Current state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Michele

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Minimally invasive single-site (MISS surgery has recently been applied to colorectal surgery. We aimed to assess the current state of the art and the adequacy of preliminary oncological results. Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature using Pubmed, Medline, SCOPUS and Web of Science databases. Keywords used were "Single Port" or "Single-Incision" or "LaparoEndoscopic Single Site" or "SILS™" and "Colon" or "Colorectal" and "Surgery". Results: Twenty-nine articles on colorectal MISS surgery have been published from July 2008 to July 2010, presenting data on 149 patients. One study reported analgesic requirement. The final incision length ranged from 2.5 to 8 cm. Only two studies reported fascial incision length. There were two port site hernias in a series of 13 patients (15.38%. Two "fully laparoscopic" MISS procedures with preparation and achievement of the anastomosis completely intracorporeally are reported. Future site of ileostomy was used as the sole access for the procedures in three studies. Lymph node harvesting, resection margins and length of specimen were sufficient in oncological cases. Conclusions: MISS colorectal surgery is a challenging procedure that seems to be safe and feasible, but the existing clinical evidence is limited. In selected cases, and especially when an ileostomy is planned, colorectal surgery may be an ideal indication for MISS surgery leading to a no-scar surgery. Despite preliminary oncological results showing the feasibility of MISS surgery, we want to stress the need to standardize the technique and carefully evaluate its application in oncosurgery under ethical committee control.

  18. Single-site SBA-15 supported zirconium catalysts. Synthesis, characterization and toward cyanosilylation reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Wei; Yu, Bo; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Guofang; Gao, Ziwei

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Ligand-modified signal-site SBA-15 supported zirconium catalysts were synthesized by SOMC method and characterized by a variety of techniques. The zirconium surface complexes show high catalytic efficiency for cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. - Highlights: • Some Zr active species have been anchored on the surface of SBA-15 by SOMC technique. • The structures of the Zr species have been characterized by a variety of techniques. • The anchored Zr species are single-sited surface complexes. • The Zr surface complexes are catalytic active for cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. - Abstract: A successive anchoring of Zr(NMe 2 ) 4 , cyclopentadiene and a O-donor ligand, 1-hydroxyethylbenzene (PEA), 1,1′-bi-2-naphthol (Binol) or 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid diethyl ester (Tartrate), on dehydroxylated SBA-15 pretreated at 500 °C for 16 h (SBA-15 -500 ) was conducted by SOMC strategy in moderate conditions. The dehydoxylation of SBA-15 was monitored by in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (in situ FT-IR). The ligand-modified SBA-15 -500 supported zirconium complexes were characterized by in situ FT-IR, 13 C CP MAS-NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MAS) and elemental analysis in detail, verifying that the surface zirconium species are single-sited. The catalytic activity of these complexes was evaluated by cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. The results showed that the catalytic activity is dependent strongly on the structure of surface species and the configuration of the ligands

  19. Single-site SBA-15 supported zirconium catalysts. Synthesis, characterization and toward cyanosilylation reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Wei; Yu, Bo; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Guofang, E-mail: gfzhang@snnu.edu.cn; Gao, Ziwei, E-mail: zwgao@snnu.edu.cn

    2015-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Ligand-modified signal-site SBA-15 supported zirconium catalysts were synthesized by SOMC method and characterized by a variety of techniques. The zirconium surface complexes show high catalytic efficiency for cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. - Highlights: • Some Zr active species have been anchored on the surface of SBA-15 by SOMC technique. • The structures of the Zr species have been characterized by a variety of techniques. • The anchored Zr species are single-sited surface complexes. • The Zr surface complexes are catalytic active for cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. - Abstract: A successive anchoring of Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 4}, cyclopentadiene and a O-donor ligand, 1-hydroxyethylbenzene (PEA), 1,1′-bi-2-naphthol (Binol) or 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid diethyl ester (Tartrate), on dehydroxylated SBA-15 pretreated at 500 °C for 16 h (SBA-15{sub -500}) was conducted by SOMC strategy in moderate conditions. The dehydoxylation of SBA-15 was monitored by in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (in situ FT-IR). The ligand-modified SBA-15{sub -500} supported zirconium complexes were characterized by in situ FT-IR, {sup 13}C CP MAS-NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MAS) and elemental analysis in detail, verifying that the surface zirconium species are single-sited. The catalytic activity of these complexes was evaluated by cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. The results showed that the catalytic activity is dependent strongly on the structure of surface species and the configuration of the ligands.

  20. Data-driven execution of fast multipole methods

    KAUST Repository

    Ltaief, Hatem

    2013-09-17

    Fast multipole methods (FMMs) have O (N) complexity, are compute bound, and require very little synchronization, which makes them a favorable algorithm on next-generation supercomputers. Their most common application is to accelerate N-body problems, but they can also be used to solve boundary integral equations. When the particle distribution is irregular and the tree structure is adaptive, load balancing becomes a non-trivial question. A common strategy for load balancing FMMs is to use the work load from the previous step as weights to statically repartition the next step. The authors discuss in the paper another approach based on data-driven execution to efficiently tackle this challenging load balancing problem. The core idea consists of breaking the most time-consuming stages of the FMMs into smaller tasks. The algorithm can then be represented as a directed acyclic graph where nodes represent tasks and edges represent dependencies among them. The execution of the algorithm is performed by asynchronously scheduling the tasks using the queueing and runtime for kernels runtime environment, in a way such that data dependencies are not violated for numerical correctness purposes. This asynchronous scheduling results in an out-of-order execution. The performance results of the data-driven FMM execution outperform the previous strategy and show linear speedup on a quad-socket quad-core Intel Xeon system.Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Collisionless spectral-kinetic Simulation of the Multipole Resonance Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrygin, Wladislaw; Szeremley, Daniel; Schilling, Christian; Oberrath, Jens; Eremin, Denis; Mussenbrock, Thomas; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter

    2012-10-01

    Plasma resonance spectroscopy is a well established plasma diagnostic method realized in several designs. One of these designs is the multipole resonance probe (MRP). In its idealized - geometrically simplified - version it consists of two dielectrically shielded, hemispherical electrodes to which an RF signal is applied. A numerical tool is under development, which is capable of simulating the dynamics of the plasma surrounding the MRP in electrostatic approximation. In the simulation the potential is separeted in an inner and a vacuum potential. The inner potential is influenced by the charged partilces and is calculated by a specialized Poisson solver. The vacuum potential fulfills Laplace's equetion and consists of the applied voltage of the probe as boundary condition. Both potentials are expanded in spherical harmonics. For a practical particle pusher implementation, the expansion must be appropriately truncated. Compared to a PIC simulation a grid is unnecessary to calculate the force on the particles. This work purpose is a collisionless kinetic simulation, which can be used to investigate kinetic effects on the resonance behavior of the MRP.[4pt] [1] M. Lapke et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 2008, 051502.

  2. Internal conversion coefficients of high multipole transitions: Experiment and theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerl, J.; Vijay Sai, K.; Sainath, M.; Gowrishankar, R.; Venkataramaniah, K.

    2008-01-01

    A compilation of the available experimental internal conversion coefficients (ICCs), α T , α K , α L , and ratios K/L and K/LM of high multipole (L > 2) transitions for a number of elements in the range 21 ≤ Z ≤ 94 is presented. Our listing of experimental data includes 194 data sets on 110 E3 transitions, 10 data sets on 6 E4 transitions, 11 data sets on 7 E5 transitions, 38 data sets on 21 M3 transitions, and 132 data sets on 68 M4 transitions. Data with less than 10% experimental uncertainty have been selected for comparison with the theoretical values of Hager and Seltzer [R.S. Hager, E.C. Seltzer, Nucl. Data Tables A 4 (1968) 1], Rosel et al. [F. Roesel, H.M. Fries, K. Alder, H.C. Pauli, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 21 (1978) 91], and BRICC. The relative percentage deviations (%Δ) have been calculated for each of the above theories and the averages (%Δ-bar) are estimated. The Band et al. [I.M. Band, M.B. Trzhaskovskaya, C.W. Nestor Jr., P.O. Tikkanen, S. Raman, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 81 (2002) 1] tables, using the BRICC interpolation code, are seen to give theoretical ICCs closest to experimental values

  3. Wind turbine integrated multipole permanent magnet generator (PMG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilsboell, N.; Pinegin, A.; Goussarov, D.

    1996-01-01

    Designed permanent magnet generator (PMG - 20 kW) possesses a number of advantages: it makes possible to replace gearbox, the generator and possibly the hub of the wind turbine by combining wind rotor with external rotor of the generator; use of rare earth magnets Nd-Fe-B allows to reduce mass and dimensions of the generator; use of the PMG for wind turbines increases the reliability of the construction during the life time, comparing to the conventional design (gearbox, asynchronous generator). The test of the PMG -20 kW informs that design method, developed for calculation of multipole permanent magnet generators is correct in general and meets engineering requirements. The calculation uncertainty of the magnetic system and output characteristics does not exceed 2-3%. The test shows, that the maximum efficiency of the PGM - 20 kW with full load can be achieved as high as 90-91.5% and excels the efficiency of the traditional system `generator-gearbox` by 4-5.5%. Designing permanent magnet generator, it is recommended to take into account voltage stabilization (capacitance). Efficiency is expected to be higher, mass and production cost of the generator can be reduced by 25-30%. The frequency converter shall be used not only for control of rotational speed, but also to obtain sinusoidal capacitive current on the generator side. For PMG - 20 kW the angle between voltage and current should be within the range 0-23%. (au)

  4. Scalable fast multipole methods for vortex element methods

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Qi

    2012-11-01

    We use a particle-based method to simulate incompressible flows, where the Fast Multipole Method (FMM) is used to accelerate the calculation of particle interactions. The most time-consuming kernelsâ\\'the Biot-Savart equation and stretching term of the vorticity equationâ\\'are mathematically reformulated so that only two Laplace scalar potentials are used instead of six, while automatically ensuring divergence-free far-field computation. Based on this formulation, and on our previous work for a scalar heterogeneous FMM algorithm, we develop a new FMM-based vortex method capable of simulating general flows including turbulence on heterogeneous architectures, which distributes the work between multi-core CPUs and GPUs to best utilize the hardware resources and achieve excellent scalability. The algorithm also uses new data structures which can dynamically manage inter-node communication and load balance efficiently but with only a small parallel construction overhead. This algorithm can scale to large-sized clusters showing both strong and weak scalability. Careful error and timing trade-off analysis are also performed for the cutoff functions induced by the vortex particle method. Our implementation can perform one time step of the velocity+stretching for one billion particles on 32 nodes in 55.9 seconds, which yields 49.12 Tflop/s. © 2012 IEEE.

  5. A critical appraisal of the zero-multipole method: Structural, thermodynamic, dielectric, and dynamical properties of a water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Han, E-mail: wang-han@iapcm.ac.cn [CAEP Software Center for High Performance Numerical Simulation, Huayuan Road 6, 100088 Beijing, China and Zuse Institute Berlin (ZIB), Berlin (Germany); Nakamura, Haruki [Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, 3-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Fukuda, Ikuo, E-mail: ifukuda@protein.osaka-u.ac.jp [Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, 3-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); RIKEN (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2016-03-21

    We performed extensive and strict tests for the reliability of the zero-multipole (summation) method (ZMM), which is a method for estimating the electrostatic interactions among charged particles in a classical physical system, by investigating a set of various physical quantities. This set covers a broad range of water properties, including the thermodynamic properties (pressure, excess chemical potential, constant volume/pressure heat capacity, isothermal compressibility, and thermal expansion coefficient), dielectric properties (dielectric constant and Kirkwood-G factor), dynamical properties (diffusion constant and viscosity), and the structural property (radial distribution function). We selected a bulk water system, the most important solvent, and applied the widely used TIP3P model to this test. In result, the ZMM works well for almost all cases, compared with the smooth particle mesh Ewald (SPME) method that was carefully optimized. In particular, at cut-off radius of 1.2 nm, the recommended choices of ZMM parameters for the TIP3P system are α ≤ 1 nm{sup −1} for the splitting parameter and l = 2 or l = 3 for the order of the multipole moment. We discussed the origin of the deviations of the ZMM and found that they are intimately related to the deviations of the equilibrated densities between the ZMM and SPME, while the magnitude of the density deviations is very small.

  6. Catalysis by Design: Well-Defined Single-Site Heterogeneous Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Pelletier, Jeremie

    2016-03-09

    ConspectusHeterogeneous catalysis, a field important industrially and scientifically, is increasingly seeking and refining strategies to render itself more predictable. The main issue is due to the nature and the population of catalytically active sites. Their number is generally low to very low, their "acid strengths" or " redox properties" are not homogeneous, and the material may display related yet inactive sites on the same material. In many heterogeneous catalysts, the discovery of a structure-activity reationship is at best challenging. One possible solution is to generate single-site catalysts in which most, if not all, of the sites are structurally identical. Within this context and using the right tools, the catalyst structure can be designed and well-defined, to reach a molecular understanding. It is then feasible to understand the structure-activity relationship and to develop predictable heterogeneous catalysis. Single-site well-defined heterogeneous catalysts can be prepared using concepts and tools of surface organometallic chemistry (SOMC). This approach operates by reacting organometallic compounds with surfaces of highly divided oxides (or of metal nanoparticles). This strategy has a solid track record to reveal structure-activity relationship to the extent that it is becoming now quite predictable. Almost all elements of the periodical table have been grafted on surfaces of oxides (from simple oxides such as silica or alumina to more sophisticated materials regarding composition or porosity).Considering catalytic hydrocarbon transformations, heterogeneous catalysis outcome may now be predicted based on existing mechanistic proposals and the rules of molecular chemistry (organometallic, organic) associated with some concepts of surface sciences. A thorough characterization of the grafted metal centers must be carried out using tools spanning from molecular organometallic or surface chemistry. By selection of the metal, its ligand set, and the

  7. Catalysis by Design: Well-Defined Single-Site Heterogeneous Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jérémie D A; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2016-04-19

    Heterogeneous catalysis, a field important industrially and scientifically, is increasingly seeking and refining strategies to render itself more predictable. The main issue is due to the nature and the population of catalytically active sites. Their number is generally low to very low, their "acid strengths" or " redox properties" are not homogeneous, and the material may display related yet inactive sites on the same material. In many heterogeneous catalysts, the discovery of a structure-activity reationship is at best challenging. One possible solution is to generate single-site catalysts in which most, if not all, of the sites are structurally identical. Within this context and using the right tools, the catalyst structure can be designed and well-defined, to reach a molecular understanding. It is then feasible to understand the structure-activity relationship and to develop predictable heterogeneous catalysis. Single-site well-defined heterogeneous catalysts can be prepared using concepts and tools of surface organometallic chemistry (SOMC). This approach operates by reacting organometallic compounds with surfaces of highly divided oxides (or of metal nanoparticles). This strategy has a solid track record to reveal structure-activity relationship to the extent that it is becoming now quite predictable. Almost all elements of the periodical table have been grafted on surfaces of oxides (from simple oxides such as silica or alumina to more sophisticated materials regarding composition or porosity). Considering catalytic hydrocarbon transformations, heterogeneous catalysis outcome may now be predicted based on existing mechanistic proposals and the rules of molecular chemistry (organometallic, organic) associated with some concepts of surface sciences. A thorough characterization of the grafted metal centers must be carried out using tools spanning from molecular organometallic or surface chemistry. By selection of the metal, its ligand set, and the support taken

  8. Well-defined silica supported aluminum hydride: another step towards the utopian single site dream?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werghi, Baraa; Bendjeriou-Sedjerari, Anissa; Sofack-Kreutzer, Julien; Jedidi, Abdesslem; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Cavallo, Luigi; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2015-10-01

    processes occur by opening of a strained siloxane bridge, Si-O-Si but with two different mechanisms, showing that the reality of "single site" catalyst may be an utopia: DFT calculations indicate that isobutyl transfer occurs via a simple metathesis between the Al-isobutyl and O-Si bonds, while hydride transfer occurs via a two steps mechanism, the first one is a β-H elimination to Al with elimination of isobutene, whereas the second is a metathesis step between the formed Al-H bond and a O-Si bond. Thermal treatment of 1a (at 250 °C) under high vacuum (10 -5 mbar) generates Al-H through a β-H elimination of isobutyl fragment. These supported well-defined Al-H which are highly stable with time, are tetra, penta and octa coordinated as demonstrated by IR and 27 Al- 1 H J-HMQC NMR spectroscopy. All these observations indicate that surfaces atoms around the site of grafting play a considerable role in the reactivity of a single site system.

  9. A Polarizable Atomic Multipole-Based Force Field for Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Anionic Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Huiying; Peng, Xiangda; Li, Yan; Zhang, Yuebin; Li, Guohui

    2017-12-31

    In all of the classical force fields, electrostatic interaction is simply treated and explicit electronic polarizability is neglected. The condensed-phase polarization, relative to the gas-phase charge distributions, is commonly accounted for in an average way by increasing the atomic charges, which remain fixed throughout simulations. Based on the lipid polarizable force field DMPC and following the same framework as Atomic Multipole Optimized Energetics for BiomoleculAr (AMOEBA) simulation, the present effort expands the force field to new anionic lipid models, in which the new lipids contain DMPG and POPS. The parameters are compatible with the AMOEBA force field, which includes water, ions, proteins, etc. The charge distribution of each atom is represented by the permanent atomic monopole, dipole and quadrupole moments, which are derived from the ab initio gas phase calculations. Many-body polarization including the inter- and intramolecular polarization is modeled in a consistent manner with distributed atomic polarizabilities. Molecular dynamics simulations of the two aqueous DMPG and POPS membrane bilayer systems, consisting of 72 lipids with water molecules, were then carried out to validate the force field parameters. Membrane width, area per lipid, volume per lipid, deuterium order parameters, electron density profile, electrostatic potential difference between the center of the bilayer and water are all calculated, and compared with limited experimental data.

  10. The Effect of Fiber Collisions on the Galaxy Power Spectrum Multipoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, ChangHoon; Scoccimarro, Roman; Blanton, Michael R.; Tinker, Jeremy L.; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio A.

    2017-05-01

    Fibre-fed multi-object spectroscopic surveys, with their ability to collect an unprecedented number of redshifts, currently dominate large-scale structure studies. However, physical constraints limit these surveys from successfully collecting redshifts from galaxies too close to each other on the focal plane. This ultimately leads to significant systematic effects on galaxy clustering measurements. Using simulated mock catalogues, we demonstrate that fibre collisions have a significant impact on the power spectrum, P(k), monopole and quadrupole that exceeds sample variance at scales smaller than k ˜ 0.1 h Mpc-1. We present two methods to account for fibre collisions in the power spectrum. The first, statistically reconstructs the clustering of fibre-collided galaxy pairs by modelling the distribution of the line-of-sight displacements between them. It also properly accounts for fibre collisions in the shot-noise correction term of the P(k) estimator. Using this method, we recover the true P(k) monopole of the mock catalogues with residuals of nuisance parameters. Using this method, we reliably model the effect of fibre collisions on the monopole and quadrupole down to the scale limits of theoretical predictions. The methods we present in this paper will allow us to robustly analyse galaxy power spectrum multipole measurements to much smaller scales than previously possible.

  11. MULTIPOLE GRAVITATIONAL LENSING AND HIGH-ORDER PERTURBATIONS ON THE QUADRUPOLE LENS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Z.; Lin, W. P. [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Li, G. L. [Purple Mountain Observatory, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Kang, X., E-mail: chuzhe@shao.ac.cn, E-mail: linwp@shao.ac.cn [Partner Group of MPI for Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2013-03-10

    An arbitrary surface mass density of the gravitational lens can be decomposed into multipole components. We simulate the ray tracing for the multipolar mass distribution of the generalized Singular Isothermal Sphere model based on deflection angles, which are analytically calculated. The magnification patterns in the source plane are then derived from an inverse shooting technique. As has been found, the caustics of odd mode lenses are composed of two overlapping layers for some lens models. When a point source traverses this kind of overlapping caustics, the image numbers change by {+-}4, rather than {+-}2. There are two kinds of caustic images. One is the critical curve and the other is the transition locus. It is found that the image number of the fold is exactly the average value of image numbers on two sides of the fold, while the image number of the cusp is equal to the smaller one. We also focus on the magnification patterns of the quadrupole (m = 2) lenses under the perturbations of m = 3, 4, and 5 mode components and found that one, two, and three butterfly or swallowtail singularities can be produced, respectively. With the increasing intensity of the high-order perturbations, the singularities grow up to bring sixfold image regions. If these perturbations are large enough to let two or three of the butterflies or swallowtails make contact, then eightfold or tenfold image regions can be produced as well. The possible astronomical applications are discussed.

  12. a Detailed Proof of the Fundamental Theorem of STF Multipole Expansion in Linearized Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschocke, Sven

    2014-10-01

    The linearized field equations of general relativity in harmonic coordinates are given by an inhomogeneous wave equation. In the region exterior to the matter field, the retarded solution of this wave equation can be expanded in terms of 10 Cartesian symmetric and tracefree (STF) multipoles in post-Minkowskian approximation. For such a multipole decomposition only three and rather weak assumptions are required: (1) No-incoming-radiation condition. (2) The matter source is spatially compact. (3) A spherical expansion for the metric outside the matter source is possible. During the last decades, the STF multipole expansion has been established as a powerful tool in several fields of gravitational physics: celestial mechanics, theory of gravitational waves and in the theory of light propagation and astrometry. But despite its formidable importance, an explicit proof of the fundamental theorem of STF multipole expansion has not been presented so far, while only some parts of it are distributed into several publications. In a technical but more didactical form, an explicit and detailed mathematical proof of each individual step of this important theorem of STF multipole expansion is represented.

  13. Evidence that adaptation in Drosophila is not limited by mutation at single sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talia Karasov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation in eukaryotes is generally assumed to be mutation-limited because of small effective population sizes. This view is difficult to reconcile, however, with the observation that adaptation to anthropogenic changes, such as the introduction of pesticides, can occur very rapidly. Here we investigate adaptation at a key insecticide resistance locus (Ace in Drosophila melanogaster and show that multiple simple and complex resistance alleles evolved quickly and repeatedly within individual populations. Our results imply that the current effective population size of modern D. melanogaster populations is likely to be substantially larger (> or = 100-fold than commonly believed. This discrepancy arises because estimates of the effective population size are generally derived from levels of standing variation and thus reveal long-term population dynamics dominated by sharp--even if infrequent--bottlenecks. The short-term effective population sizes relevant for strong adaptation, on the other hand, might be much closer to census population sizes. Adaptation in Drosophila may therefore not be limited by waiting for mutations at single sites, and complex adaptive alleles can be generated quickly without fixation of intermediate states. Adaptive events should also commonly involve the simultaneous rise in frequency of independently generated adaptive mutations. These so-called soft sweeps have very distinct effects on the linked neutral polymorphisms compared to the standard hard sweeps in mutation-limited scenarios. Methods for the mapping of adaptive mutations or association mapping of evolutionarily relevant mutations may thus need to be reconsidered.

  14. Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Plus One-Port Donor Nephrectomy: Analysis of 169 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyuk Jin; Choi, Sae Woong; Kim, Kang Sup; Park, Yong Hyun; Bae, Woong Jin; Hong, Sung-Hoo; Lee, Ji Youl; Kim, Sae Woong; Hwang, Tae-Kon

    2015-08-01

    To present our experience with laparoendoscopic single-site plus one-port donor nephrectomy (LESSOP-DN) and compare the outcomes with laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN). Prospectively collected data from 169 consecutive LESSOP-DNs and 83 LDNs performed by a single surgeon in the same time period were analyzed retrospectively. No differences in mean operative time (136 versus 130 minutes; P=.15), warm ischemia time (3.4 versus 3.5 minutes; P=.42), blood loss (50 versus 45 mL; P=.41), transfusion rates (0 versus 1 case), hospital stay (4.0 versus 3.9 days; P=.48), or overall complication rate (12.0% versus 7.7%; P=.25) were observed between the LDN and LESSOP-DN groups. The LESSOP-DN group had a shorter time to return to 100% recovery (39 versus 74 days; Pa smaller surgical incision (5.5 versus 8.2 cm; Pgroup. Renal function of the recipient based on estimated glomerular filtration rate at 1 and 3 months was similar between the groups. Health-related quality of life (QOL) was significantly higher in the LESSOP-DN group in four domains of the health survey than in the LDN group. LESSOP-DN might be associated with smaller surgical incision, improved cosmetic satisfaction, less time to recovery, less analgesic requirement, improved donor QOL, and equivalent recipient graft function.

  15. A comparative study of multiport versus laparoendoscopic single-site adrenalectomy for benign adrenal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Victor Chia-Hsiang; Tsai, Yao-Chou; Chung, Shiu-Dong; Li, Tin Chou; Ho, Chen-Hsun; Jaw, Fu-Shan; Tai, Huai-Ching; Yu, Hong-Jeng

    2012-04-01

    The safety and feasibility of laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) adrenalectomy for benign adrenal lesions was proved in early clinical series. However, the advantages of LESS over multiport laparoscopic adrenalectomy still are under investigation. Since October 2009, the authors have prospectively performed LESS retroperitoneal adrenalectomy for 21 consecutive patients with benign adrenal tumors (LESS group). Another 28 patients with benign adrenal tumors were prospectively collected between June 2006 and October 2009 and served as a multiport laparoscopic adrenalectomy group. The patients' demographic data, operating time, estimated blood loss, peri- and postoperative complications, and short-term outcome were collected for further analysis. The demographic data were comparable between the two groups in terms of the patient age, gender, body mass index (BMI), laterality, diagnosis, and resected specimen weight. No major complication or mortality occurred in either group. Neither group had any conversions. No differences were observed between the two groups in terms of intraoperative hemodynamic status or peri- or postoperative complications. The LESS patients had quicker resumption of oral intake (0.18 vs 1 day; p benign adrenal tumors. In addition, LESS adrenalectomy provides short-term convalescence advantages over multiport laparoscopic adrenalectomy.

  16. Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery in gynaecology: A new frontier in minimally invasive surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fader Amanda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Review Objective: To review the recent developments and published literature on laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS surgery in gynaecology. Recent Findings: Minimally invasive surgery has become a standard of care for the treatment of many benign and malignant gynaecological conditions. Recent advances in conventional laparoscopy and robotic-assisted surgery have favorably impacted the entire spectrum of gynaecological surgery. With the goal of improving morbidity and cosmesis, continued efforts towards refinement of laparoscopic techniques have lead to minimization of size and number of ports required for these procedures. LESS surgery is a recently proposed surgical term used to describe various techniques that aim at performing laparoscopic surgery through a single, small-skin incision concealed within the umbilicus. In the last 5 years, there has been a surge in the developments in surgical technology and techniques for LESS surgery, which have resulted in a significant increase in utilisation of LESS across many surgical subspecialties. Recently published outcomes data demonstrate feasibility, safety and reproducibility for LESS in gynaecology. The contemporary LESS literature, extent of gynaecological procedures utilising these techniques and limitations of current technology will be reviewed in this manuscript. Conclusions: LESS surgery represents the newest frontier in minimally invasive surgery. Comparative data and prospective trials are necessary in order to determine the clinical impact of LESS in treatment of gynaecological conditions.

  17. Induction of prophage lambda by chlorinated organics: Detection of some single-species/single-site carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMarini, D.M.; Brooks, H.G. (Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-eight chlorinated organic compounds were evaluated for their ability to induce DNA damage using the Microscreen prophage-induction assay in Escherichia coli. Comparison of the performance characteristics of the prophage-induction and Salmonella assays to rodent carcinogenicity assays showed that the prophage-induction assay had a somewhat higher specificity than did the Salmonella assay (70% vs. 50%); sensitivity, concordance, and positive and negative predictivity were similar for the two microbial assays. The Microscreen prophage-induction assay failed to detect eight carcinogens, perhaps due to toxicity or other unknown factors; five of these eight carcinogens were detected by the Salmonella assay. However, the prophage-induction assay did detect six carcinogens that were not detected by the Salmonella assay, and five of these were single-species, single-site carcinogens, mostly mouse liver carcinogens. Some of these carcinogens, such as the chloroethanes, produce free radicals, which may be the basis for their carcinogenicity and ability to induce prophage. The prophage-induction (or other SOS) assay may be useful in identifying some genotoxic chlorinated carcinogens that induce DNA damage that do not revert the standard Salmonella tester strains.

  18. Compact teleoperated laparoendoscopic single-site robotic surgical system: Kinematics, control, and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac-Lowry, Oran Jacob; Okamoto, Steele; Pedram, Sahba Aghajani; Woo, Russell; Berkelman, Peter

    2017-12-01

    To date a variety of teleoperated surgical robotic systems have been developed to improve a surgeon's ability to perform demanding single-port procedures. However typical large systems are bulky, expensive, and afford limited angular motion, while smaller designs suffer complications arising from limited motion range, speed, and force generation. This work was to develop and validate a simple, compact, low cost single site teleoperated laparoendoscopic surgical robotic system, with demonstrated capability to carry out basic surgical procedures. This system builds upon previous work done at the University of Hawaii at Manoa and includes instrument and endoscope manipulators as well as compact articulated instruments designed to overcome single incision geometry complications. A robotic endoscope holder was used for the base, with an added support frame for teleoperated manipulators and instruments fabricated mostly from 3D printed parts. Kinematics and control methods were formulated for the novel manipulator configuration. Trajectory following results from an optical motion tracker and sample task performance results are presented. Results indicate that the system has successfully met the goal of basic surgical functionality while minimizing physical size, complexity, and cost. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Single-site SBA-15 supported zirconium catalysts. Synthesis, characterization and toward cyanosilylation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Yu, Bo; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Guofang; Gao, Ziwei

    2015-01-01

    A successive anchoring of Zr(NMe2)4, cyclopentadiene and a O-donor ligand, 1-hydroxyethylbenzene (PEA), 1,1‧-bi-2-naphthol (Binol) or 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid diethyl ester (Tartrate), on dehydroxylated SBA-15 pretreated at 500 °C for 16 h (SBA-15-500) was conducted by SOMC strategy in moderate conditions. The dehydoxylation of SBA-15 was monitored by in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (in situ FT-IR). The ligand-modified SBA-15-500 supported zirconium complexes were characterized by in situ FT-IR, 13C CP MAS-NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MAS) and elemental analysis in detail, verifying that the surface zirconium species are single-sited. The catalytic activity of these complexes was evaluated by cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. The results showed that the catalytic activity is dependent strongly on the structure of surface species and the configuration of the ligands.

  20. Single-site Green function of the Dirac equation for full-potential electron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kordt, Pascal

    2012-05-30

    I present an elaborated analytical examination of the Green function of an electron scattered at a single-site potential, for both the Schroedinger and the Dirac equation, followed by an efficient numerical solution, in both cases for potentials of arbitrary shape without an atomic sphere approximation. A numerically stable way to calculate the corresponding regular and irregular wave functions and the Green function is via the angular Lippmann-Schwinger integral equations. These are solved based on an expansion in Chebyshev polynomials and their recursion relations, allowing to rewrite the Lippmann-Schwinger equations into a system of algebraic linear equations. Gonzales et al. developed this method for the Schroedinger equation, where it gives a much higher accuracy compared to previous perturbation methods, with only modest increase in computational effort. In order to apply it to the Dirac equation, I developed relativistic Lippmann-Schwinger equations, based on a decomposition of the potential matrix into spin spherical harmonics, exploiting certain properties of this matrix. The resulting method was embedded into a Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker code for density functional calculations. As an example, the method is applied by calculating phase shifts and the Mott scattering of a tungsten impurity. (orig.)

  1. Hanford Site Welding Program Successfully Providing A Single Site Function For Use By Multiple Contractors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannell, G.R.

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Energy, Richland Operations (DOE-RL) recently restructured its Hanford work scope, awarding two new contracts over the past several months for a total of three contracts to manage the sites cleanup efforts. DOE-RL met with key contractor personnel prior to and during contract transition to ensure site welding activities had appropriate oversight and maintained code compliance. The transition also provided an opportunity to establish a single site-wide function that would provide welding and materials engineering services to the Hanford site contractors: CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC); Mission Support Alliance (MSA); Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS); and Washington Closure Hanford (WCH). Over the years, multiple and separate welding programs (amongst the several contractors) existed at the Hanford site leading to inefficiencies resulting from duplication of administrative efforts, maintenance of welding procedures, welder performance certifications, etc. The new, single program eliminates these inefficiencies. The new program, co-managed by two of the sites' new contractors, the CHPRC ('owner' of the program and responsible for construction welding services) and the MSA (provides maintenance welding services), provides more than just the traditional construction and maintenance welding services. Also provided, are welding engineering, specialty welding development/qualification for the closure of radioactive materials containers and materials evaluation/failure analysis. The following describes the new Hanford site welding program.

  2. Defining the learning curve of laparoendoscopic single-site Heller myotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Sharona B; Luberice, Kenneth; Kurian, Tony J; Paul, Harold; Rosemurgy, Alexander S

    2013-08-01

    Initial outcomes suggest laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) Heller myotomy with anterior fundoplication provides safe, efficacious, and cosmetically superior outcomes relative to conventional laparoscopy. This study was undertaken to define the learning curve of LESS Heller myotomy with anterior fundoplication. One hundred patients underwent LESS Heller myotomy with anterior fundoplication. Symptom frequency and severity were scored using a Likert scale (0 = never/not bothersome to 10 = always/very bothersome). Symptom resolution, additional trocars, and complications were compared among patient quartiles. Median data are presented. Preoperative frequency/severity scores were: dysphagia = 10/8 and regurgitation = 8/7. Additional trocars were placed in 12 patients (10%), of whom all were in the first two quartiles. Esophagotomy/gastrotomy occurred in three patients. Postoperative complications occurred in 9 per cent. No conversions to "open" operations occurred. Length of stay was 1 day. Postoperative frequency/severity scores were: dysphagia = 2/0 and regurgitation = 0/0; scores were less than before myotomy (P learning curve of LESS Heller myotomy with anterior fundoplication is short and safe, because proficiency is quickly attained.

  3. Fast multipole preconditioners for sparse matrices arising from elliptic equations

    KAUST Repository

    Ibeid, Huda

    2017-11-09

    Among optimal hierarchical algorithms for the computational solution of elliptic problems, the fast multipole method (FMM) stands out for its adaptability to emerging architectures, having high arithmetic intensity, tunable accuracy, and relaxable global synchronization requirements. We demonstrate that, beyond its traditional use as a solver in problems for which explicit free-space kernel representations are available, the FMM has applicability as a preconditioner in finite domain elliptic boundary value problems, by equipping it with boundary integral capability for satisfying conditions at finite boundaries and by wrapping it in a Krylov method for extensibility to more general operators. Here, we do not discuss the well developed applications of FMM to implement matrix-vector multiplications within Krylov solvers of boundary element methods. Instead, we propose using FMM for the volume-to-volume contribution of inhomogeneous Poisson-like problems, where the boundary integral is a small part of the overall computation. Our method may be used to precondition sparse matrices arising from finite difference/element discretizations, and can handle a broader range of scientific applications. It is capable of algebraic convergence rates down to the truncation error of the discretized PDE comparable to those of multigrid methods, and it offers potentially superior multicore and distributed memory scalability properties on commodity architecture supercomputers. Compared with other methods exploiting the low-rank character of off-diagonal blocks of the dense resolvent operator, FMM-preconditioned Krylov iteration may reduce the amount of communication because it is matrix-free and exploits the tree structure of FMM. We describe our tests in reproducible detail with freely available codes and outline directions for further extensibility.

  4. Seismic equivalents of volcanic jet scaling laws and multipoles in acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Matthew M.; Matoza, Robin S.; Fee, David; Aldridge, David F.

    2018-04-01

    We establish analogies between equivalent source theory in seismology (moment-tensor and single-force sources) and acoustics (monopoles, dipoles and quadrupoles) in the context of volcanic eruption signals. Although infrasound (acoustic waves seismic sources. By considering the radiated power of a harmonic force source at the surface of an elastic half-space, we show that a volcanic jet or plume modelled as a seismic force has similar scaling with respect to eruption parameters (e.g. exit velocity and vent area) as an acoustic dipole. We support this by demonstrating, from first principles, a fundamental relationship that ties together explosion, torque and force sources in seismology and highlights the underlying dipole nature of seismic forces. This forges a connection between the multipole expansion of equivalent sources in acoustics and the use of forces and moments as equivalent sources in seismology. We further show that volcanic infrasound monopole and quadrupole sources exhibit scalings similar to seismicity radiated by volume injection and moment sources, respectively. We describe a scaling theory for seismic tremor during volcanic eruptions that agrees with observations showing a linear relation between radiated power of tremor and eruption rate. Volcanic tremor over the first 17 hr of the 2016 eruption at Pavlof Volcano, Alaska, obeyed the linear relation. Subsequent tremor during the main phase of the eruption did not obey the linear relation and demonstrates that volcanic eruption tremor can exhibit other scalings even during the same eruption.

  5. WinTRAX: A raytracing software package for the design of multipole focusing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grime, G. W.

    2013-07-01

    The software package TRAX was a simulation tool for modelling the path of charged particles through linear cylindrical multipole fields described by analytical expressions and was a development of the earlier OXRAY program (Grime and Watt, 1983; Grime et al., 1982) [1,2]. In a 2005 comparison of raytracing software packages (Incerti et al., 2005) [3], TRAX/OXRAY was compared with Geant4 and Zgoubi and was found to give close agreement with the more modern codes. TRAX was a text-based program which was only available for operation in a now rare VMS workstation environment, so a new program, WinTRAX, has been developed for the Windows operating system. This implements the same basic computing strategy as TRAX, and key sections of the code are direct translations from FORTRAN to C++, but the Windows environment is exploited to make an intuitive graphical user interface which simplifies and enhances many operations including system definition and storage, optimisation, beam simulation (including with misaligned elements) and aberration coefficient determination. This paper describes the program and presents comparisons with other software and real installations.

  6. Arc cells to minimise the effects of the systematic multipoles in LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Verdier, A

    1998-01-01

    In LHC the main contribution to the dynamic aperture is presently (September 1998) that of the ``systematic multipole component per octant''. These components originate from the existence of several fabrication lines which can have different systematic manufacturing errors. It was decided at the Montreux workshop (list of participants in reference [1] that the dipoles belonging to a given octant come from a single given fabrication line. It is shown in this note that, for this kind of perturbation, a certain choice of the phase advances per cell allows a cancellation of most of the non-linear resonances to first order in multipole strengths, whatever the multipole index. This is the meaning of the word ``minimise'' in the title of the note. The efficiency of the method is established by means of a simple tracking test.

  7. Single-site robotic cholecystectomy and robotics training: should we start in the junior years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayabe, Reed I; Parrish, Aaron B; Dauphine, Christine E; Hari, Danielle M; Ozao-Choy, Junko J

    2018-04-01

    It has become increasingly important to expose surgical residents to robotic surgery as its applications continue to expand. Single-site robotic cholecystectomy (SSRC) is an excellent introductory case to robotics. Resident involvement in SSRC is known to be feasible. Here, we sought to determine whether it is safe to introduce SSRC to junior residents. A total of 98 SSRC cases were performed by general surgery residents between August 2015 and August 2016. Cases were divided into groups based on resident level: second- and third-years (juniors) versus fourth- and fifth-years (seniors). Patient age, gender, race, body mass index, and comorbidities were recorded. The number of prior laparoscopic cholecystectomies completed by participating residents was noted. Outcomes including operative time, console time, rate of conversion to open cholecystectomy, and complication rate were compared between groups. Juniors performed 54 SSRC cases, whereas seniors performed 44. There were no significant differences in patient age, gender, race, body mass index, or comorbidities between the two groups. Juniors had less experience with laparoscopic cholecystectomy. There was no significant difference in mean operative time (92.7 min versus 98.0 min, P = 0.254), console time (48.7 min versus 50.8 min, P = 0.639), or complication rate (3.7% versus 2.3%, P = 0.68) between juniors and seniors. SSRC is an excellent way to introduce general surgery residents to robotics. This study shows that with attending supervision, SSRC is feasible and safe for both junior and senior residents with very low complication rates and no adverse effect on operative time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Port site infiltration of local anesthetic after laparoendoscopic single site surgery for benign adnexal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Eun; Shim, Seung-Hyuk; Dong, Meari; Lee, Hyojin; Hwang, Han Sung; Kwon, Han Sung; Lee, Sun Joo; Lee, Ji Young; Sohn, In Sook; Kim, Soo-Nyung; Kang, Soon-Beom

    2017-09-01

    To determine whether local bupivacaine injection into the incision site after gynecologic laparoendoscopic single site surgery (LESS) improves postoperative pain. This prospective cohort study included consecutive 158 patients who had LESS for benign adnexal disease from March 2013 to December 2015. Chronologically, 82 patients (March 2013 to August 2014) received no bupivacaine (group 1) and 76 (August 2014 to December 2015) received a bupivacaine block (group 2). For group 2, 10 mL 0.25% bupivacaine was injected into the 20 mm-incision site through all preperitoneal layers after LESS completion. Primary outcome is postoperative pain score using the visual analog scale (VAS). There was no difference in clinicopathological characteristics between the groups. Operating time (expressed as median [range], 92 [55-222] vs. 100 [50-185] minutes, P =0.137) and estimated blood loss (50 [30-1,500] vs. 125 [30-1,000] mL, P =0.482) were similar between the groups. Post-surgical VAS pain scores after 3 hours (3.5 [2-6] vs. 3.5 [2-5], P =0.478), 6 to 8 hours (3.5 [2-6] vs. 3 [1-8], P =0.478), and 16 to 24 hours (3 [2-4] vs. 3 [1-7], P =0.664) did not differ between groups. Bupivacaine injection into the trocar site did not improve postoperative pain after LESS. Randomized trials are needed to evaluate the benefits of local bupivacaine anesthetic for postoperative pain reduction.

  9. Laparo-endoscopic single-site (LESS) cholecystectomy with epidural vs. general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Sharona B; Mangar, Devanand; Karlnoski, Rachel; Camporesi, Enrico; Downes, Katheryne; Luberice, Kenneth; Haines, Krista; Rosemurgy, Alexander S

    2013-05-01

    Laparo-endoscopic single-site (LESS) surgery involves a single umbilical incision, lending itself to epidural anesthesia. This prospective, randomized study was undertaken to evaluate epidural anesthesia for patients undergoing LESS cholecystectomy, to assess the feasibility, and to analyze all intraoperative and postoperative complications. The secondary objectives were to determine differences in postoperative pain and time until PACU discharge-to-home readiness between patients. With institutional review board approval, 20 patients with chronic cholecystitis, cholelithiasis, and/or biliary dyskinesia were randomized to receive spinal epidural anesthesia (n = 10) or general anesthesia (n = 10). Postoperative pain at rest was recorded in the PACU every 10 min, and at rest and walking at discharge using the visual analog scale (VAS). Operative time and time until PACU discharge-to-home readiness were recorded. Results are expressed as mean ± SD. Patient age, American Society of Anesthesiologists class, and body mass index were similar. There were no additional ports/incisions, conversions to "open" operations, or conversions to general anesthesia. There were no differences in operative duration. Time until postanesthesia care unit discharge-to-home ready was not significantly different. The most common postoperative adverse event was urinary retention (1 epidural and 3 general anesthesia patients). Resting postoperative VAS pain score at discharge was 4.7 ± 2.5 vs. 2.2 ± 1.6 (p = 0.02, general versus epidural anesthesia respectively); the stressed VAS pain score at discharge was 6.1 ± 2.3 vs. 3.1 ± 2.8 (p = 0.02, general versus epidural anesthesia respectively). LESS cholecystectomy with epidural anesthesia was completed with no operative or anesthetic conversions, and less postoperative pain at discharge. Epidural anesthesia appears to be a preferable alternative to general anesthesia for patients undergoing LESS cholecystectomy.

  10. Comparative study of hybrid laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) partial nephrectomy and conventional multiport laparoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, C; Esquinas, C; Meilán, E; García-Tello, A; Arance, I; Angulo, J C

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the surgical and oncological outcomes of hybrid laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) in partial nephrectomy with reusable components compared with multiport laparoscopy. Hybrid LESS technique with auxiliary 3.5mm trocar (n=20) was compared with conventional multiport laparoscopy (n=26) by a prospective, paired, nonrandomized, and comparative study in partially nephrectomized patients. Follow-up average was 31±18.6 months. In one case, LESS was converted to laparoscopy. No differences were found regarding age, sex, body mass index, laterality, localization, tumor size or use of double J stent. Dominance of Loop-I (P=0.09) and benign histology (P=0.05) were observed in the LESS group. Neither there were differences regarding operating time, ischemia time, use of hemostatic materials, estimated blood loss, postoperative hemoglobin levels, transfusion or other complications. In any case, to extend the skin incision for specimen extraction was not necessary. Drainage time (P=0.006) and hospital stay (P=0.003) were better in LESS patients. Concerning complications, no significant differences were observed according Clavien-Dindo scale. In laparoscopic group one patient died of pulmonary embolism after hospital discharge. No positive margins were observed in any case. During follow-up neither tumor recurrence nor disease progression were observed. Regarding surgical outcomes, partial nephrectomy by LESS technique does not imply improvements, excepting shorter hospital stay, probably due to accurate surgical hemostasis and/or selection of cases. No surgical and oncological risks are involved, as well as no improvement in ischemia time, blood loss or transfusion rate. We find no significant difference in cosmetic outcomes. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantifying the cognitive cost of laparo-endoscopic single-site surgeries: Gaze-based indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stasi, Leandro L; Díaz-Piedra, Carolina; Ruiz-Rabelo, Juan Francisco; Rieiro, Héctor; Sanchez Carrion, Jose M; Catena, Andrés

    2017-11-01

    Despite the growing interest concerning the laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) procedure, LESS presents multiple difficulties and challenges that are likely to increase the surgeon's cognitive cost, in terms of both cognitive load and performance. Nevertheless, there is currently no objective index capable of assessing the surgeon cognitive cost while performing LESS. We assessed if gaze-based indices might offer unique and unbiased measures to quantify LESS complexity and its cognitive cost. We expect that the assessment of surgeon's cognitive cost to improve patient safety by measuring fitness-for-duty and reducing surgeons overload. Using a wearable eye tracker device, we measured gaze entropy and velocity of surgical trainees and attending surgeons during two surgical procedures (LESS vs. multiport laparoscopy surgery [MPS]). None of the participants had previous experience with LESS. They performed two exercises with different complexity levels (Low: Pattern Cut vs. High: Peg Transfer). We also collected performance and subjective data. LESS caused higher cognitive demand than MPS, as indicated by increased gaze entropy in both surgical trainees and attending surgeons (exploration pattern became more random). Furthermore, gaze velocity was higher (exploration pattern became more rapid) for the LESS procedure independently of the surgeon's expertise. Perceived task complexity and laparoscopic accuracy confirmed gaze-based results. Gaze-based indices have great potential as objective and non-intrusive measures to assess surgeons' cognitive cost and fitness-for-duty. Furthermore, gaze-based indices might play a relevant role in defining future guidelines on surgeons' examinations to mark their achievements during the entire training (e.g. analyzing surgical learning curves). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. High magnetic field multipoles generated by superconductor magnetization within a set of nested superconducting correction coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1990-04-01

    Correction elements in colliding beam accelerators such as the SSC can be the source of undesirable higher magnetic field multipoles due to magnetization of the superconductor within the corrector. Quadrupole and sextupole correctors located within the main dipole will produce sextupole and decapole due to magnetization of the superconductor within the correction coils. Lumped nested correction coils can produce a large number of skew and normal magnetization multipoles which may have an adverse effect on a stored beam at injection into a high energy colliding beam machine such as the SSC. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Effects of Crab Cavities' Multipole Content in an Electron-Ion Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satogata, Todd J. [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States); Morozov, Vasiliy [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States); Delayen, Jean R. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States); Castillo, Alejandro [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The impact on the beam dynamics of the Medium Energy Electron-Ion Colider (MEIC) due to the multipole content of the 750 MHz crab cavity was studied using thin multipole elements for 6D phase space particle tracking in ELEGANT. Target values of the sextupole component for the cavity’s field expansion were used to perform preliminary studies on the proton beam stability when compared to the case of pure dipole content of the rf kicks. Finally, important effects on the beam sizes due to non-linear components of the crab cavities’ fields were identified, and some criteria for their future study were proposed.

  14. Efficient Compression of Far Field Matrices in Multipole Algorithms based on Spherical Harmonics and Radiating Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schroeder

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a compression of far field matrices in the fast multipole method and its multilevel extension for electromagnetic problems. The compression is based on a spherical harmonic representation of radiation patterns in conjunction with a radiating mode expression of the surface current. The method is applied to study near field effects and the far field of an antenna placed on a ship surface. Furthermore, the electromagnetic scattering of an electrically large plate is investigated. It is demonstrated, that the proposed technique leads to a significant memory saving, making multipole algorithms even more efficient without compromising the accuracy.

  15. High-resolution crystal structures of protein helices reconciled with three-centered hydrogen bonds and multipole electrostatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Daniel J; Liu, Chengyu; Fang, Zheng; Ponder, Jay W; Marshall, Garland R

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental evidence for non-linear hydrogen bonds in protein helices is ubiquitous. In particular, amide three-centered hydrogen bonds are common features of helices in high-resolution crystal structures of proteins. These high-resolution structures (1.0 to 1.5 Å nominal crystallographic resolution) position backbone atoms without significant bias from modeling constraints and identify Φ = -62°, ψ = -43 as the consensus backbone torsional angles of protein helices. These torsional angles preserve the atomic positions of α-β carbons of the classic Pauling α-helix while allowing the amide carbonyls to form bifurcated hydrogen bonds as first suggested by Némethy et al. in 1967. Molecular dynamics simulations of a capped 12-residue oligoalanine in water with AMOEBA (Atomic Multipole Optimized Energetics for Biomolecular Applications), a second-generation force field that includes multipole electrostatics and polarizability, reproduces the experimentally observed high-resolution helical conformation and correctly reorients the amide-bond carbonyls into bifurcated hydrogen bonds. This simple modification of backbone torsional angles reconciles experimental and theoretical views to provide a unified view of amide three-centered hydrogen bonds as crucial components of protein helices. The reason why they have been overlooked by structural biologists depends on the small crankshaft-like changes in orientation of the amide bond that allows maintenance of the overall helical parameters (helix pitch (p) and residues per turn (n)). The Pauling 3.6(13) α-helix fits the high-resolution experimental data with the minor exception of the amide-carbonyl electron density, but the previously associated backbone torsional angles (Φ, Ψ) needed slight modification to be reconciled with three-atom centered H-bonds and multipole electrostatics. Thus, a new standard helix, the 3.6(13/10)-, Némethy- or N-helix, is proposed. Due to the use of constraints from

  16. A Hybrid Technique Based on the Combination of Multilevel Fast Multipole Algorithm and the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Jesús Algar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a hybrid technique for treating electromagnetic problems of scattering and radiation in which the source structure is described as an array of antennas. This strategy is based on the combination of the rigorous method multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA and the high frequency technique geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD. Thanks to the use of MLFMA, the source can be discretized into several cubic regions considering each of them as a source point in order to reduce the number of times required to compute the ray tracing when GTD is applied to obtain the scatter field. In this analysis, objects with complex shapes are described by using nonuniform rational B-splines (NURBS which is a very common way to model geometrical bodies. Numerical results that demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency in terms of CPU time are shown.

  17. Density functional theory for molecular and periodic systems using density fitting and continuous fast multipole method: Analytical gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łazarski, Roman; Burow, Asbjörn Manfred; Grajciar, Lukáš; Sierka, Marek

    2016-10-30

    A full implementation of analytical energy gradients for molecular and periodic systems is reported in the TURBOMOLE program package within the framework of Kohn-Sham density functional theory using Gaussian-type orbitals as basis functions. Its key component is a combination of density fitting (DF) approximation and continuous fast multipole method (CFMM) that allows for an efficient calculation of the Coulomb energy gradient. For exchange-correlation part the hierarchical numerical integration scheme (Burow and Sierka, Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation 2011, 7, 3097) is extended to energy gradients. Computational efficiency and asymptotic O(N) scaling behavior of the implementation is demonstrated for various molecular and periodic model systems, with the largest unit cell of hematite containing 640 atoms and 19,072 basis functions. The overall computational effort of energy gradient is comparable to that of the Kohn-Sham matrix formation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The giant multipole resonance collisional widths in heated nuclei based on the Vlasov-Landau kinetic equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolomietz, V.M.; Plujko, V.A.

    1994-01-01

    Damping of nuclear collective vibration is studied within the framework of the Vlasov-Landau equation including retardation (memory) effects in the collision integral. The expressions for the nuclear viscosity and the width of the giant multipole resonances in a heated nucleus are obtained by taking into account quadrupole dynamic distortion of the Fermi surface. These expressions allow for a transition between the regimes of rare and frequent two-body collisions. An interpolation formula for the width is proposed in which allowance for all multipolarities of the distortion of the Fermi sphere is made. The width of the giant dipole resonance as a function of excitation energy is calculated using this formula for the Sn nuclei region. The results for the width variation with temperature are in a qualitative agreement with the experimental data. They show a smoother behavior with increasing temperature compared to that of the zero sound model

  19. Well-Defined Silica Supported Aluminum Hydride: Another Step Towards the Utopian Single Site Dream?

    KAUST Repository

    Werghi, Baraa

    2015-07-17

    Reaction of triisobutylaluminum with SBA15700 at room temperature occurs by two parallel pathways involving either silanol or siloxane bridges. It leads to the formation of a well-defined bipodal [(≡SiO)2Al-CH2CH(CH3)2] 1a, silicon isobutyl [≡Si-CH2CH(CH3)2] 1b and a silicon hydride [≡Si-H] 1c. Their structural identity was characterized by FT-IR and advance solid-state NMR spectroscopies (1H, 13C, 29Si, 27Al and 2D multiple quantum), elemental and gas phase analysis, and DFT calculations. The reaction involves the formation of a highly reactive monopodal intermediate: [≡SiO-Al-[CH2CH(CH3)2]2], with evolution of isobutane. This intermediate undergoes two parallel routes: Transfer of either one isobutyl fragment or of one hydride to an adjacent silicon atom. Both processes occur by opening of a strained siloxane bridge, ≡Si-O-Si≡ but with two different mechanisms, showing that the reality of “single site” catalyst may be an utopia: DFT calculations indicate that isobutyl transfer occurs via a simple metathesis between the Al-isobutyl and O-Si bonds, while hydride transfer occurs via a two steps mechanism, the first one is a ß-H elimination to Al with elimination of isobutene, whereas the second is a metathesis step between the formed Al-H bond and a O-Si bond. Thermal treatment of 1a (at 250 °C) under high vacuum (10-5 mbar) generates Al-H through a ß-H elimination of isobutyl fragment. These supported well-defined Al-H which are highly stable with time, are tetra, penta and octa coordinated as demonstrated by IR and 27Al–1H J-HMQC NMR spectroscopy. All these observations indicate that surfaces atoms around the site of grafting play a considerable role in the reactivity of a single site system.

  20. Aberration-corrected multipole Wien filter for energy-filtered x-ray photoemission electron microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Niimi, Hironobu; Chun, Wang-Jae; Suzuki, Shushi; Asakura, Kiyotaka; Kato, Makoto

    2007-01-01

    The aberration of a multipole Wien filter for energy-filtered x-ray photoemission electron microscopy was analyzed and the optimized Fourier components of the electric and magnetic fields for the third-order aperture aberration corrections were obtained. It was found that the third-order aperture aberration correction requires 12 electrodes and magnetic poles. ©2007 American Institute of Physics

  1. Aberration-corrected multipole Wien filter for energy-filtered x-ray photoemission electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, Hironobu; Chun, Wang-Jae; Suzuki, Shushi; Asakura, Kiyotaka; Kato, Makoto

    2007-06-01

    The aberration of a multipole Wien filter for energy-filtered x-ray photoemission electron microscopy was analyzed and the optimized Fourier components of the electric and magnetic fields for the third-order aperture aberration corrections were obtained. It was found that the third-order aperture aberration correction requires 12 electrodes and magnetic poles.

  2. Adaptive grouping for the higher-order multilevel fast multipole method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borries, Oscar Peter; Jørgensen, Erik; Meincke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    An alternative parameter-free adaptive approach for the grouping of the basis function patterns in the multilevel fast multipole method is presented, yielding significant memory savings compared to the traditional Octree grouping for most discretizations, particularly when using higher-order basis...

  3. Analytical transition-matrix treatment of electric multipole polarizabilities of hydrogen-like atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharchenko, V.F.

    2015-01-01

    The direct transition-matrix approach to the description of the electric polarization of the quantum bound system of particles is used to determine the electric multipole polarizabilities of the hydrogen-like atoms. It is shown that in the case of the bound system formed by the Coulomb interaction the corresponding inhomogeneous integral equation determining an off-shell scattering function, which consistently describes virtual multiple scattering, can be solved exactly analytically for all electric multipole polarizabilities. Our method allows to reproduce the known Dalgarno–Lewis formula for electric multipole polarizabilities of the hydrogen atom in the ground state and can also be applied to determine the polarizability of the atom in excited bound states. - Highlights: • A new description for electric polarization of hydrogen-like atoms. • Expression for multipole polarizabilities in terms of off-shell scattering functions. • Derivation of integral equation determining the off-shell scattering function. • Rigorous analytic solving the integral equations both for ground and excited states. • Study of contributions of virtual multiple scattering to electric polarizabilities

  4. Multipole expansion of the retarded interatomic potential energy: induction energy for degenerate ground-state atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michels, M.A.J.; Suttorp, L.G.

    1972-01-01

    The inductive contribution to the retarded interatomic potential energy of two atoms in degenerate ground states is calculated up to all multipole orders on the basis of quantum electrodynamics. The result, which is found to have nonretarded character, is written in such a way as to show the

  5. Multipole expansion of the retarded interatomic potential energy: dispersion and induction energy for relativistic hydrogen atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michels, M.A.J.; Suttorp, L.G.

    1973-01-01

    The inductive and dispersive retarded interaction energies of two ground- state hydrogen atoms described by Dirac theory are derived up to all multipole orders. The results are obtained by evaluation of Feynman diagrams and with the help of dispersion-relation methods. the nonrelativistic and

  6. Electron self-energy calculation using a general multi-pole approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Soininen, J A; Shirley, E L

    2003-01-01

    We present a method for calculating the inverse of the dielectric matrix in a solid using a band Lanczos algorithm. The method produces a multi-pole approximation for the inverse dielectric matrix with an arbitrary number of poles. We discuss how this approximation can be used to calculate the screened Coulomb interaction needed for electron self-energy calculations in solids.

  7. The fast multipole boundary element methods (FMBEM) and its applications in rolling engineering analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zejun; Xiao, Hong

    2012-11-01

    Fast multipole boundary element methods (FMBEMs) are developed based on the couple of fast multipole algorithm and generalized minimal residual algorithm. The FMBEMs improve the efficiency of conventional BEMs, accelerate the computing, enlarge the solving scale, and it is applied in various engineering fields. The paper tried to do a brief review for the FMBEMs, and focus on the description of basic principles and applications in rolling engineering. The basic principles and main frameworks of two typical methods of FMBEMs (sphere harmonic function multipole BEM and Taylor series multipole BEM) are briefly described, and then the key numerical iterative and preconditioning techniques suitable for the FMBEMs are introduced. The typical numerical examples are presented, including the elasticity problems, the elastic contact problems and the elastoplasticity problems, etc. The validity and effectiveness of FMBEMs are effectively illustrated by engineering analysis examples. The numerical results suggest that the FMBEMs are suitable for the analysis and solution of large scale rolling engineering problems. The implementation process of numerical analysis can provide useful reference for the applications in other engineering fields.

  8. The Generalized Multipole Technique for the Simulation of Low-Loss Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiewidt, Lars; Karamehmedovic, Mirza

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the use of a Generalized Multipole Technique (GMT) to simulate low-loss Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) spectra of isolated spheriodal nanoparticles. The GMT provides certain properties, such as semi-analytical description of the electromagnetic fields...

  9. Multipole expansion of the retarded interatomic dispersion energy: the long and the short range behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michels, M.A.J.; Suttorp, L.G.

    1972-01-01

    The long-range asymptotic expression for the multipole expansion of the retarded interatomic dispersion energy is shown to consist of contributions from electric dipole-dipole, dipole-quadrupole and quadrupole-quadrupole interactions, all varying as the inverse seventh power of the interatomic

  10. Higher-order multipole amplitude measurement in psi ' -> gamma chi(c2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Alberto, D.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; An, Z. H.; Bai, J. Z.; Baldini, R.; Ban, Y.; Becker, J.; Berger, N.; Bertani, M.; Bian, J. M.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Bytev, V.; Cai, X.; Calcaterra, A. C.; Cao, G. F.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, Y. P.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; Ding, Y.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Feng, C. Q.; Fu, C. D.; Fu, J. L.; Gao, Y.; Geng, C.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y. P.; Han, Y. L.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, M.; He, Z. Y.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Huang, B.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y. P.; Hussain, T.; Ji, C. S.; Ji, Q.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jia, L. K.; Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Jing, F. F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Kuehn, W.; Lai, W.; Lange, J. S.; Leung, J. K. C.; Li, C. H.; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, N. B.; Li, Q. J.; Li, S. L.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, X. R.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, X. T.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. L.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, C. Y.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H.; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, H. W.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, K.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, X. H.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Y. W.; Liu, Yong; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lu, G. R.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Q. W.; Lu, X. R.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lv, M.; Ma, C. L.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, S.; Ma, T.; Ma, X.; Ma, X. Y.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, H.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Muchnoi, N. Yu; Nefedov, Y.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Park, J. W.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Pun, C. S. J.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, X. S.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Schulze, J.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, X. Y.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Sun, D. H.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. D.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tian, H. L.; Toth, D.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. Q.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q.; Wang, Q. J.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wei, D. H.; Wen, Q. G.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, N.; Wu, W.; Wu, Z.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, G. M.; Xu, H.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, X. P.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z. R.; Xu, Z. Z.; Xue, Z.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, T.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, H.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, S. P.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, T. R.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. S.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, H. S.; Zhao, Jiawei; Zhao, Jingwei; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, X. H.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhao, Z. L.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zheng, Z. P.; Zhong, B.; Zhong, J.; Zhong, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhu, C.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, X. W.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Zuo, J. X.

    2011-01-01

    Using 106 x 10(6) psi' events collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII storage ring, the higher-order multipole amplitudes in the radiative transition psi' -> gamma chi(c2) -> gamma pi(+)pi(-)/gamma K+K- are measured. A fit to the chi(c2) production and decay angular distributions yields M2

  11. Bis(benzimidazole)amine vanadium catalysts for olefin polymerisation and co-polymerisation: thermally robust, single-site catalysts activated by simple alkylaluminium reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomov, Atanas K; Gibson, Vernon C; Zaher, Damien; Elsegood, Mark R J; Dale, Sophie H

    2004-09-07

    Vanadium complexes containing bis(benzimidazole)amine ligands, upon activation by simple alkylaluminium reagents, give unusually robust, single-site, catalysts for olefin polymerisation/co-polymerisation.

  12. Real-Time Visualization of Active Species in a Single-Site Metal–Organic Framework Photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Sizhuo [Department of Chemistry, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201, United States; Pattengale, Brian [Department of Chemistry, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201, United States; Lee, Sungsik [X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60349, United States; Huang, Jier [Department of Chemistry, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201, United States

    2018-02-06

    In this work, we report a new single-site photocatalyst (Co-Ru-UIO- 67(bpy)) based on a metal-organic framework platform with incorporated molecular photosensitizer and catalyst. We show that this catalyst not only demonstrates exceptional activity for light-driven H2 production but also can be recycled without loss of activity. Using the combination of optical transient absorption spectroscopy and in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we not only captured the key CoI intermediate species formed after ultrafast charge transfer from the incorporated photosensitizer but also identified the rate-limiting step in the catalytic cycle, providing insight into the catalysis mechanism of these single-site metal-organic framework photocatalysts.

  13. Highly efficient one-step conversion of cyclohexane to adipic acid using single-site heterogeneous catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Robert; Thomas, John Meurig; Xu, Mingcan; Harris, Kenneth D M; Greenhill-Hooper, Michael; Quill, Kieran

    2006-01-28

    A solid source of 'active' oxygen (acetylperoxyborate, APB), when dissolved in aqueous solution in the presence of a single-site microporous catalyst containing redox centres (Fe(III)AlPO-31, Mn(III)AlPO-5, Fe(III)AlPO-5), converts cyclohexane with high efficiency (ca. 88%) and exceptionally high selectivity (ca. 81%) to adipic acid at 383 K; this procedure is also effective in converting styrene to styrene oxide and -pinene and (+)-limonene to their corresponding epoxides.

  14. Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Surgery (LESS) for Excision of a Seminal Vesicle Cyst Associated with Ipsilateral Renal Agenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Ki Don; Choi, Kyung Hwa; Yang, Seung Choul; Jang, Won Sik; Jang, Ji Young; Han, Woong Kyu

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) for a symptomatic left seminal vesicular cyst and ipsilateral renal agenesis. A 49-year-old man presented with a 1-year history of severe irritation upon voiding and intractable, recurrent hematospermia. A computed tomography scan showed a 68×41×38 mm sized left seminal vesicular cyst with ipsilateral renal agenesis. LESS was performed successfully to treat the seminal vesicle cyst. The total operative time was 125 minutes, and b...

  15. Beam-beam interaction and Pacman effects in the SSC with random nonlinear multipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goderre, G.P.; Ohnuma, S.

    1988-01-01

    In order to find the combined effects of beam-beam interaction (head-on and long-range) and random nonlinear multipoles in dipole magnets, transverse tunes and smears have been calculated as a function of oscillation amplitudes. Two types of particles, ''regular'' and ''Pacman,'' have been investigated using a modified version of tracking code TEAPOT. Regular particles experience beam-beam interactions in all four interaction regions (IR's), both head-on and long range, while pacman particles interact with bunches of the other beam in one medium-beta and one low-beta IR's only. The model for the beam-beam interaction is of weak-strong type and the strong beam is assumed to have a round Gaussian charge distribution. Furthermore, it is assumed that the vertical closed orbit deviation arising from the finite crossing angle of 70 μrad is perfectly compensated for regular particles. The same compensation applied to pacman particles creates a closed orbit distortion. Linear tunes are adjusted for regular particles to the design values but there are no nonlinear corrections except for chromaticity correcting sextupoles in two families. Results obtained in this study do not show any reduction of dynamic or linear aperture for pacman particles but some doubts exist regarding the validity of defining the linear aperture from the smear alone. Preliminary results are given for regular particles when (Δp/p) is modulated by the synchrotron oscillation. For these, fifty oscillations corresponding to 26,350 revolutions have been tracked. A very slow increase in the horizontal amplitude, /approximately/4 /times/ 10/sup /minus/4//oscillation (relative), is a possibility but this should be confirmed by trackings of larger number of revolutions. 11 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Homogeneity of Surface Sites in Supported Single-Site Metal Catalysts: Assessment with Band Widths of Metal Carbonyl Infrared Spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Adam S; Fang, Chia-Yu; Gates, Bruce C

    2016-10-06

    Determining and controlling the uniformity of isolated metal sites on surfaces of supports are central goals in investigations of single-site catalysts because well-defined species provide opportunities for fundamental understanding of the surface sites. CO is a useful probe of surface metal sites, often reacting with them to form metal carbonyls, the infrared spectra of which provide insights into the nature of the sites and the metal-support interface. Metals bonded to various support surface sites give broad bands in the spectra, and when narrow bands are observed, they indicate a high degree of uniformity of the metal sites. Much recent work on single-site catalysts has been done with supports that are inherently nonuniform, giving supported metal species that are therefore nonuniform. Herein we summarize values of ν CO data characterizing supported iridium gem-dicarbonyls, showing that the most nearly uniform of them are those supported on zeolites and the least uniform are those supported on metal oxides. Guided by ν CO data of supported iridium gem-dicarbonyls, we have determined new, general synthesis methods to maximize the degree of uniformity of iridium species on zeolites and on MgO. We report results for a zeolite HY-supported iridium gem-dicarbonyl with full width at half-maximum values of only 4.6 and 5.2 cm -1 characterizing the symmetric and asymmetric CO stretches and implying that this is the most nearly uniform supported single-site metal catalyst.

  17. Multipole analysis in the radiation field for linearized f (R ) gravity with irreducible Cartesian tensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bofeng; Huang, Chao-Guang

    2018-04-01

    The 1 /r expansion in the distance to the source is applied to the linearized f (R ) gravity, and its multipole expansion in the radiation field with irreducible Cartesian tensors is presented. Then, the energy, momentum, and angular momentum in the gravitational waves are provided for linearized f (R ) gravity. All of these results have two parts, which are associated with the tensor part and the scalar part in the multipole expansion of linearized f (R ) gravity, respectively. The former is the same as that in General Relativity, and the latter, as the correction to the result in General Relativity, is caused by the massive scalar degree of freedom and plays an important role in distinguishing General Relativity and f (R ) gravity.

  18. Fast multipole accelerated boundary element method for the Helmholtz equation in acoustic scattering problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, ShanDe; Gao, GuiBing; Huang, QiBai; Liu, WeiQi; Chen, Jun

    2011-08-01

    We apply the fast multipole method (FMM) accelerated boundary element method (BEM) for the three-dimensional (3D) Helmholtz equation, and as a result, large-scale acoustic scattering problems involving 400000 elements are solved efficiently. This is an extension of the fast multipole BEM for two-dimensional (2D) acoustic problems developed by authors recently. Some new improvements are obtained. In this new technique, the improved Burton-Miller formulation is employed to overcome non-uniqueness difficulties in the conventional BEM for exterior acoustic problems. The computational efficiency is further improved by adopting the FMM and the block diagonal preconditioner used in the generalized minimum residual method (GMRES) iterative solver to solve the system matrix equation. Numerical results clearly demonstrate the complete reliability and efficiency of the proposed algorithm. It is potentially useful for solving large-scale engineering acoustic scattering problems.

  19. From geodesics of the multipole solutions to the perturbed Kepler problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Pastora, J. L.; Ospino, J.

    2010-01-01

    A static and axisymmetric solution of the Einstein vacuum equations with a finite number of relativistic multipole moments (RMM) is written in multipole symmetry adapted (MSA) coordinates up to certain order of approximation, and the structure of its metric components is explicitly shown. From the equation of equatorial geodesics, we obtain the Binet equation for the orbits and it allows us to determine the gravitational potential that leads to the equivalent classical orbital equations of the perturbed Kepler problem. The relativistic corrections to Keplerian motion are provided by the different contributions of the RMM of the source starting from the monopole (Schwarzschild correction). In particular, the perihelion precession of the orbit is calculated in terms of the quadrupole and 2 4 -pole moments. Since the MSA coordinates generalize the Schwarzschild coordinates, the result obtained allows measurement of the relevance of the quadrupole moment in the first order correction to the perihelion frequency-shift.

  20. Advanced Photon Source insertion device field quality and multipole error specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Yong-Chul; Decker, G.

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring is a 7-GeV light source with forty straight sections. Intense x-ray beams will be delivered by insertion devices installed in these straight sections. Installation of insertion devices in the APS storage ring produces several effects which can degrade overall performance. Rigid ring performance requirements exist which can be used to set limits on insertion device field quality, i.e. the first- and second-field integrals of the transverse magnetic field. Individual multipole error specifications can be determined by considering the lifetime of the beam. For nominal operation of the APS storage ring, the vertical aperture corresponding to a 10-hour lifetime is approximately 3.35 mm, which limits the level of multipole error. We find that the skew-octupole error has the most significant effect on the reduction of the aperture; the reasons are discussed in this paper

  1. A new Fast Multipole formulation for the elastodynamic half-space Green's tensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaillat, Stéphanie; Bonnet, Marc

    2014-02-01

    In this article, a version of the frequency-domain elastodynamic Fast Multipole-Boundary Element Method (FM-BEM) for semi-infinite media, based on the half-space Green's tensor (and hence avoiding any discretization of the planar traction-free surface), is presented. The half-space Green's tensor is often used (in non-multipole form until now) for computing elastic wave propagation in the context of soil-structure interaction, with applications to seismology or civil engineering. However, unlike the full-space Green's tensor, the elastodynamic half-space Green's tensor cannot be expressed using derivatives of the Helmholtz fundamental solution. As a result, multipole expansions of that tensor cannot be obtained directly from known expansions, and are instead derived here by means of a partial Fourier transform with respect to the spatial coordinates parallel to the free surface. The obtained formulation critically requires an efficient quadrature for the Fourier integral, whose integrand is both singular and oscillatory. Under these conditions, classical Gaussian quadratures would perform poorly, fail or require a large number of points. Instead, a version custom-tailored for the present needs of a methodology proposed by Rokhlin and coauthors, which generates generalized Gaussian quadrature rules for specific types of integrals, has been implemented. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed formulation is demonstrated through numerical experiments on single-layer elastodynamic potentials involving up to about N=6×105 degrees of freedom. In particular, a complexity significantly lower than that of the non-multipole version is shown to be achieved.

  2. Neutron diffraction study of multipole order in light rare-earth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    discussed in connection with recent non-resonant X-ray results by Tanaka et al. Keywords. Multipole; quadrupole; CeB6; neutron diffraction. PACS Nos 61.05.fm; 75.25.+z; 75.30.Kz. 1. Introduction. Orbital degrees of freedom are known to play a central role in the physics of tran- sition metal oxides. Well-known examples ...

  3. The multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA) for solving large-scale computational electromagnetics problems

    CERN Document Server

    Ergul, Ozgur

    2014-01-01

    The Multilevel Fast Multipole Algorithm (MLFMA) for Solving Large-Scale Computational Electromagnetic Problems provides a detailed and instructional overview of implementing MLFMA. The book: Presents a comprehensive treatment of the MLFMA algorithm, including basic linear algebra concepts, recent developments on the parallel computation, and a number of application examplesCovers solutions of electromagnetic problems involving dielectric objects and perfectly-conducting objectsDiscusses applications including scattering from airborne targets, scattering from red

  4. Precise measurements of magnetic field parameters of the multipoles for the SLS storage ring

    CERN Document Server

    Antohin, E I; Demenev, V V; Golubenko, O B; Korchuganov, V N; Mikhailov, S F; Ogurtsov, A B; Rivkin, L; Semenov, E P; Steshov, A G; Vollenweider, C; Zichy, J A

    2001-01-01

    The quadrupoles and sextupoles for the Swiss Light Source, a 2.4 GeV electron storage ring, had severe requirements on the manufacturing tolerances and the alignment of their magnetic axis. The 306 multipoles were manufactured, and magnetically measured at BINP and after delivery also at Paul Scherrer Institute. In this paper, the Rotating Coil Systems for precise magnetic measurements is described, and for the series magnets the main results of the magnetic measurements are also presented.

  5. Numerical solution of the relativistic single-site scattering problem for the Coulomb and the Mathieu potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geilhufe, Matthias; Achilles, Steven; Köbis, Markus Arthur; Arnold, Martin; Mertig, Ingrid; Hergert, Wolfram; Ernst, Arthur

    2015-11-01

    For a reliable fully-relativistic Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green function method, an accurate solution of the underlying single-site scattering problem is necessary. We present an extensive discussion on numerical solutions of the related differential equations by means of standard methods for a direct solution and by means of integral equations. Our implementation is tested and exemplarily demonstrated for a spherically symmetric treatment of a Coulomb potential and for a Mathieu potential to cover the full-potential implementation. For the Coulomb potential we include an analytic discussion of the asymptotic behaviour of irregular scattering solutions close to the origin (r\\ll 1 ).

  6. A Single-Site Iron(III-Salan Catalyst for Converting COS to Sulfur-Containing Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge-Ge Gu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An iron(III complex of tetradentate N,N′-disubstituted bis(aminophenoxide (designated as salan, a saturated version of the corresponding salen ligand with a sterically hindered organic base anchored on the ligand framework, can selectively mediate the conversion of carbonyl sulfide to sulfur-containing polymers by the copolymerization with epoxides. This single-site catalyst exhibits broad substrate scope, and the resultant copolymers have completely alternating structures. In addition, this catalyst is efficient in producing diblock copolymers, suggesting a living polymerization nature.

  7. Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) for excision of a seminal vesicle cyst associated with ipsilateral renal agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ki Don; Choi, Kyung Hwa; Yang, Seung Choul; Jang, Won Sik; Jang, Ji Young; Han, Woong Kyu

    2011-06-01

    We report a case of laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) for a symptomatic left seminal vesicular cyst and ipsilateral renal agenesis. A 49-year-old man presented with a 1-year history of severe irritation upon voiding and intractable, recurrent hematospermia. A computed tomography scan showed a 68×41×38 mm sized left seminal vesicular cyst with ipsilateral renal agenesis. LESS was performed successfully to treat the seminal vesicle cyst. The total operative time was 125 minutes, and blood loss was minimal. The patient was discharged from the hospital on the second postoperative day.

  8. An analytical method based on multipole moment expansion to calculate the flux distribution in Gammacell-220

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, P.; Ataenia, V.; Shafiei, S.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the flux of photons inside the irradiation cell of the Gammacell-220 is calculated using an analytical method based on multipole moment expansion. The flux of the photons inside the irradiation cell is introduced as the function of monopole, dipoles and quadruples in the Cartesian coordinate system. For the source distribution of the Gammacell-220, the values of the multipole moments are specified by direct integrating. To confirm the validation of the presented methods, the flux distribution inside the irradiation cell was determined utilizing MCNP simulations as well as experimental measurements. To measure the flux inside the irradiation cell, Amber dosimeters were employed. The calculated values of the flux were in agreement with the values obtained by simulations and measurements, especially in the central zones of the irradiation cell. In order to show that the present method is a good approximation to determine the flux in the irradiation cell, the values of the multipole moments were obtained by fitting the simulation and experimental data using Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. The present method leads to reasonable results for the all source distribution even without any symmetry which makes it a powerful tool for the source load planning.

  9. Isospecific propylene polymerization with in situ generated bis(phenoxy-amine)zirconium and hafnium single site catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makio, Haruyuki; Prasad, Aitha Vishwa; Terao, Hiroshi; Saito, Junji; Fujita, Terunori

    2013-07-07

    Bis(phenoxy-imine) Zr and Hf complexes were activated with (i)Bu3Al or (i)Bu2AlH in conjunction with Ph3CB(C6F5)4 and tested as catalysts for propylene polymerization with emphasis on the enantioselectivity of the isospecific species and the single site polymerization characteristics. The isoselective species was identified as the in situ generated bis(phenoxy-amine) complex whose isoselectivity was sensitive to subtle changes in ligand structure. By employing specific substituents at certain key positions the isotacticity reached an extremely high level comparable to high-end commercial isotactic polypropylenes (Tm > 160 °C). Single site polymerization characteristics depended upon the efficiency and selectivity of the in situ imine reduction which is sensitive to the substituent on the imine nitrogen and the reaction conditions. By using (i)Bu2AlH as a reducing agent, quantitative imine reduction can be achieved with a stoichiometric amount of the reducing agent. This lower alkylaluminum loading is beneficial for the catalyst and significantly enhances the polymerization activity and the molecular weight of the resultant polymer.

  10. Robotic-assisted laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (R-LESS) in urology: an evidence-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, E; Sanchez-Salas, R; Ercolani, M; Forgues, A; Rozet, F; Galiano, M; Cathelineau, X

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this manuscript is to provide an evidence-based analysis of the current status and future perspectives of robotic laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (R-LESS). A PubMed search has been performed for all relevant urological literature regarding natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) and laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS). All clinical and investigative reports for robotic LESS and NOTES procedures in the urological literature have been considered. A significant number of clinical urological procedures have been successfully completed utilizing R-LESS procedures. The available experience is limited to referral centers, where the case volume is sufficient to help overcome the challenges and learning curve of LESS surgery. The robotic interface remains the best fit for LESS procedures but its mode of use continues to evolve in attempts to improve surgical technique. We stand today at the dawn of R-LESS surgery, but this approach may well become the standard of care in the near future. Further technological development is needed to allow widespread adoption of the technique.

  11. Safety and Efficacy of Single-site Phacotrabeculectomy With Mitomicin C Using Nylon and Polyglactin Suture for Scleral Tunnel Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaya, Lingam; David, Rathini L

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of polyglactin use along with nylon suture in scleral tunnel closure after single-site phacotrabeculectomy. This retrospective case series included 139 eyes of 139 patients who had scleral tunnel closure with 1 polyglactin and 1 nylon suture after single-site phacotrabeculectomy with a low dose of mitomycin C between 2002 and 2005. The intraocular pressure (IOP), the visual acuity, the number of glaucoma medications, postoperative complications, and interventions were the outcomes measured. The majority of them had primary open-angle glaucoma (93 eyes, 67%), 93 eyes (67%) had severe glaucomatous optic neuropathy, and 77 eyes (55.3%) had severe visual-field loss. The IOP decreased from a mean preoperative value of 18.1±5.3 mm Hg on a mean number of 1.8±0.8 glaucoma medications to mean IOPs of 13.3±4.6, 14.0±4.3, and 11.8±3.9 mm Hg on a mean number of 0.2±0.6, 0.3±0.7, 0.5±1.0 glaucoma medications (PNylon suturelysis with laser was performed in 16 eyes (11.5%). The technique used here seems to be effective in controlling the IOP and has very minimal associated complications.

  12. Single-Site Active Cobalt-Based Photocatalyst with a Long Carrier Lifetime for Spontaneous Overall Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Cao, Linlin; Cheng, Weiren; Cao, Yuanjie; Liu, Xiaokang; Zhang, Wei; Mou, Xiaoli; Jin, Lili; Zheng, Xusheng; Che, Wei; Liu, Qinghua; Yao, Tao; Wei, Shiqiang

    2017-08-01

    An active and stable photocatalyst to directly split water is desirable for solar-energy conversion. However, it is difficult to accomplish overall water splitting without sacrificial electron donors. Herein, we demonstrate a strategy via constructing a single site to simultaneously promote charge separation and catalytic activity for robust overall water splitting. A single Co 1 -P 4 site confined on g-C 3 N 4 nanosheets was prepared by a facile phosphidation method, and identified by electron microscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. This coordinatively unsaturated Co site can effectively suppress charge recombination and prolong carrier lifetime by about 20 times relative to pristine g-C 3 N 4 , and boost water molecular adsorption and activation for oxygen evolution. This single-site photocatalyst exhibits steady and high water splitting activity with H 2 evolution rate up to 410.3 μmol h -1  g -1 , and quantum efficiency as high as 2.2 % at 500 nm. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Cosmetic outcomes of laparoendoscopic single-site hysterectomy compared with multi-port surgery: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Taejong; Cho, Juhee; Kim, Tae-Joong; Kim, Im-Ryung; Hahm, Tae Soo; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Bae, Duk-Soo

    2013-01-01

    To compare cosmetic satisfaction with laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) compared with multi-port surgery. Randomized controlled trial (Canadian Task Force classification I). University hospital. Twenty women who underwent laparoscopically-assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH) via LESS or multi-port surgery. Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery or multi-port surgery. Cosmetic satisfaction was assessed using the Body Image Questionnaire at baseline and at 1, 4, and 24 weeks after surgery. Of the 20 LESS procedures, 1 was converted to multi-port surgery because of severe adhesions, and 1 woman assigned to undergo multi-port surgery was lost to follow-up. The 2 surgery groups did not differ in clinical demographic data and surgical results or postoperative pain scores at 12, 24, and 36 hours. Compared with the multi-port group, the LESS group reported significantly higher cosmetic satisfaction at 1, 4, and 24 weeks after surgery (p surgery, LESS is not only a feasible approach with comparable operative outcomes but also has an advantage insofar as cosmetic outcome. Copyright © 2013 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Blackbody radiation shift, multipole polarizabilities, oscillator strengths, lifetimes, hyperfine constants, and excitation energies in Ca+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safronova, M. S.; Safronova, U. I.

    2011-01-01

    A systematic study of Ca + atomic properties is carried out using a high-precision relativistic all-order method where all single, double, and partial triple excitations of the Dirac-Fock wave functions are included to all orders of perturbation theory. Reduced matrix elements, oscillator strengths, transition rates, and lifetimes are determined for the levels up to n=7. Recommended values and estimates of their uncertainties are provided for a large number of electric-dipole transitions. Electric-dipole scalar polarizabilities for the 5s, 6s, 7s, 8s, 4p j , 5p j , 3d j , and 4d j states and tensor polarizabilities for the 4p 3/2 , 5p 3/2 , 3d j , and 4d j states in Ca + are calculated. Methods are developed to accurately treat the contributions from highly excited states, resulting in significant (factor of 3) improvement in the accuracy of the 3d 5/2 static polarizability value, 31.8(3)a 0 3 , in comparison with the previous calculation [Arora et al., Phys. Rev. A 76, 064501 (2007).]. The blackbody radiation shift of the 4s-3d 5/2 clock transition in Ca + is calculated to be 0.381(4) Hz at room temperature, T=300 K. Electric-quadrupole 4s-nd and electric-octupole 4s-nf matrix elements are calculated to obtain the ground-state multipole E2 and E3 static polarizabilities. Excitation energies of the ns, np, nd, nf, and ng states with n≤ 7 in are evaluated and compared with experiment. Recommended values are provided for the 7p 1/2 , 7p 3/2 , 8p 1/2 , and 8p 3/2 removal energies for which experimental measurements are not available. The hyperfine constants A are determined for the low-lying levels up to n=7. The quadratic Stark effect on hyperfine structure levels of 43 Ca + ground state is investigated. These calculations provide recommended values critically evaluated for their accuracy for a number of Ca + atomic properties for use in planning and analysis of various experiments as well as theoretical modeling.

  15. Ovarian Suspension With Adjustable Sutures: An Easy and Helpful Technique for Facilitating Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Gynecologic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuo-Hu; Chen, Li-Ru; Seow, Kok-Min

    2015-01-01

    To describe a method of ovarian suspension with adjustable sutures (OSAS) for facilitating laparoendoscopic single-site gynecologic surgery (LESS) and to investigate the effect of OSAS on LESS. Prospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification: II-2). University teaching hospital. One hundred seventy-eight patients with benign 5- to 15-cm cystic ovarian tumors who underwent LESS with OSAS (suspension group, n = 90) and without OSAS (control group, n = 88). For patients who underwent OSAS (suspension group), 1 end of double-head straight needles with a polypropylene suture was inserted into the pelvic cavity through the abdominal skin to penetrate the cyst or ovarian parenchyma and puncture outside the abdominal skin. After cutting off the needles, both sides of the remaining suture were held together by a clamp, without knotting, so that the manipulator could "lift," "loosen," or "fix" the stitches to adjust the tension. The average time to create OSAS was 2.9 min. For the suspension and control groups, the average blood loss was 81.4 and 131.8 mL (p < .001), and the operative time was 42.0 and 61.3 min (p < .001), respectively. There were no significant differences in the incidence of complications (5.6% vs 9.1%; p = .365), but there were significant differences in conversions to standard non-single-site laparoscopy (5.6% vs 15.9%; p = .025) and laparotomy (1.1% vs 6.8%; p = .040). Logistic regression analysis revealed that the ratios of conversion to standard non-single-site laparoscopy (odds ratio [OR], 0.126; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.311-0.508) and laparotomy (OR, 0.032; 95% CI, 0.002-0.479) were much lower in the suspension group; the risk of complications was comparable (OR, 0.346; 95% CI, 0.085-1.403). OSAS is an easy, safe, and feasible method that offers advantages during LESS. Although routine use of OSAS is not necessary, OSAS can be considered during LESS to facilitate the surgery. Copyright © 2015 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  16. Wide aperture multipole magnets of the kinematic separator COMBAS. Correcting pair of multipole magnets M3M4 (M5M6) with compensation for higher order aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artyukh, A.G.; Gridnev, G.F.; Teterev, Yu.G.

    1999-01-01

    The high-resolving large aperture separator COMBAS has been created and commissioned. The magneto-optical structure of the separator is based on the strong focusing principle. The separator consists of eight wide aperture multipole magnets M1-M8. The magnets M1, M2, M7, M8 forming the 1 st order optics together with some higher order optical corrections and M3-M6 being dedicated to higher order corrections of the chromatic and spherical aberrations at the intermediate and exit foci of the separator. The multipole correctors M3-M6 contain the dipolar, sextupole and octupole components in their magnetic field distributions. It was the use of the rectangular dipoles M3-M6 as carriers of sextupole and octupole field components that let achieve high values of the separator angular and momentum acceptances. Measurements of the magnetic field distributions in the median planes of the pairs of magnets M3M6 (M4M5) have been performed. These measurements allowed one to analyze the magnets manufacturing quality. Based on the analysis, shimming of pole pieces of the pair of magnets M3M6 have been done. Pole surface correcting coils for the magnets M4M5 have been foreseen to compensate for small deviations (within a few percents) of the 2 nd and 3 rd order field components from the design values, which are probable due to manufacturing errors in all the magnets M1-M8. The measured magnetic field distributions are supposed to be used for particle trajectory simulations throughout the entire separator

  17. Current status and future perspectives in laparoendoscopic single-site and natural orifice transluminal endoscopic urological surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autorino, Riccardo; Stein, Robert J; Lima, Estevão; Damiano, Rocco; Khanna, Rakesh; Haber, Georges-Pascal; White, Michael A; Kaouk, Jihad H

    2010-05-01

    Objective of this study is to provide an evidence-based analysis of the current status and future perspectives of scarless urological surgery. A PubMed search has been performed for all relevant urological literature regarding natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) and laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS). In addition, experience with LESS and NOTES at our own institution has been considered. All clinical and investigative reports for LESS and NOTES procedures in the urological literature have been considered. A wide variety of clinical procedures in urology have been successfully completed by using LESS techniques. Thus far, experience with NOTES has largely been investigational, although early clinical reports are emerging. Further development of instrumentation and platforms is necessary for both techniques to become more widely adopted throughout the urological community.

  18. Design and Use of Nanostructured Single-Site Heterogeneous Catalysts for the Selective Transformation of Fine Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimiro Dal Santo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured single-site heterogeneous catalysts possess the advantages of classical solid catalysts, in terms of easy recovery and recycling, together with a defined tailored chemical and steric environment around the catalytically active metal site. The use of inorganic oxide supports with selected shape and porosity at a nanometric level may have a relevant impact on the regio- and stereochemistry of the catalytic reaction. Analogously, by choosing the optimal preparation techniques to obtain spatially isolated and well-characterised active sites, it is possible to achieve performances that are comparable to (or, in the most favourable cases, better than those obtained with homogeneous systems. Such catalysts are therefore particularly suitable for the transformation of highly-functionalised fine chemicals and some relevant examples where high chemo-, regio- and stereoselectivity are crucial will be described.

  19. Single-Site Active Iron-Based Bifunctional Oxygen Catalyst for a Compressible and Rechargeable Zinc-Air Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Longtao; Chen, Shengmei; Pei, Zengxia; Huang, Yan; Liang, Guojin; Mo, Funian; Yang, Qi; Su, Jun; Gao, Yihua; Zapien, Juan Antonio; Zhi, Chunyi

    2018-02-27

    The exploitation of a high-efficient, low-cost, and stable non-noble-metal-based catalyst with oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) simultaneously, as air electrode material for a rechargeable zinc-air battery is significantly crucial. Meanwhile, the compressible flexibility of a battery is the prerequisite of wearable or/and portable electronics. Herein, we present a strategy via single-site dispersion of an Fe-N x species on a two-dimensional (2D) highly graphitic porous nitrogen-doped carbon layer to implement superior catalytic activity toward ORR/OER (with a half-wave potential of 0.86 V for ORR and an overpotential of 390 mV at 10 mA·cm -2 for OER) in an alkaline medium. Furthermore, an elastic polyacrylamide hydrogel based electrolyte with the capability to retain great elasticity even under a highly corrosive alkaline environment is utilized to develop a solid-state compressible and rechargeable zinc-air battery. The creatively developed battery has a low charge-discharge voltage gap (0.78 V at 5 mA·cm -2 ) and large power density (118 mW·cm -2 ). It could be compressed up to 54% strain and bent up to 90° without charge/discharge performance and output power degradation. Our results reveal that single-site dispersion of catalytic active sites on a porous support for a bifunctional oxygen catalyst as cathode integrating a specially designed elastic electrolyte is a feasible strategy for fabricating efficient compressible and rechargeable zinc-air batteries, which could enlighten the design and development of other functional electronic devices.

  20. Magnetic-field design of the accumulator multipole magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleksiuk, L.

    1983-01-01

    A multiple magnet using the FFAG graded coil technique has been designed with the aid of the two dimensional magnet modelling code Poisson. Rapid design interaction in problem formulation has been achieved with a new finite element mesh generator in which mesh densities can be manipulated to overcome difficulties in mesh topologies when spanning the grid over the problem domain

  1. An evaluation of single-site statistical downscaling techniques in terms of indices of climate extremes for the Midwest of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, M.; Oji, R.; Cannon, A. J.; Ghavidel, Y.; Massah Bavani, A.

    2015-04-01

    Seven single-site statistical downscaling methods for daily temperature and precipitation, including four deterministic algorithms [analog model (ANM), quantile mapping with delta method extrapolation (QMD), cumulative distribution function transform (CDFt), and model-based recursive partitioning (MOB)] and three stochastic algorithms [generalized linear model (GLM), Conditional Density Estimation Network Creation and Evaluation (CaDENCE), and Statistical Downscaling Model-Decision Centric (SDSM-DC] are evaluated at nine stations located in the mountainous region of Iran's Midwest. The methods are of widely varying complexity, with input requirements that range from single-point predictors of temperature and precipitation to multivariate synoptic-scale fields. The period 1981-2000 is used for model calibration and 2001-2010 for validation, with performance assessed in terms of 27 Climate Extremes Indices (CLIMDEX). The sensitivity of the methods to large-scale anomalies and their ability to replicate the observed data distribution in the validation period are separately tested for each index by Pearson correlation and Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) tests, respectively. Combined tests are used to assess overall model performances. MOB performed best, passing 14.5 % (49.6 %) of the combined (single) tests, respectively, followed by SDSM, CaDENCE, and GLM [14.5 % (46.5 %), 13.2 % (47.1 %), and 12.8 % (43.2 %), respectively], and then by QMD, CDFt, and ANM [7 % (45.7 %), 4.9 % (45.3 %), and 1.6 % (37.9 %), respectively]. Correlation tests were passed less frequently than KS tests. All methods downscaled temperature indices better than precipitation indices. Some indices, notably R20, R25, SDII, CWD, and TNx, were not successfully simulated by any of the methods. Model performance varied widely across the study region.

  2. Geometry Effects on Multipole Components and Beam Optics in High-Velocity Multi-Spoke Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopper, Christopher S. [ODU, JLAB; Deitrick, Kirsten E. [ODU, JLAB; Delayen, Jean R. [ODU, JLAB

    2013-12-01

    Velocity-of-light, multi-spoke cavities are being proposed to accelerate electrons in a compact light-source. There are strict requirements on the beam quality which require that the linac have only small non-uniformities in the accelerating field. Beam dynamics simulations have uncovered varying levels of focusing and defocusing in the proposed cavities, which is dependent on the geometry of the spoke in the vicinity of the beam path. Here we present results for the influence different spoke geometries have on the multipole components of the accelerating field and how these components, in turn, impact the simulated beam properties.

  3. Multipole expansion of Bessel and Gaussian beams for Mie scattering calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J M; Love, G D

    2009-02-01

    Multipole expansions of Bessel and Gaussian beams, suitable for use in Mie scattering calculations, are derived. These results allow Mie scattering calculations to be carried out considerably faster than existing methods, something that is of particular interest for time evolution simulations where large numbers of scattering calculations must be performed. An analytic result is derived for the Bessel beam that improves on a previously published expression requiring the evaluation of an integral. An analogous expression containing a single integral, similar to existing results quoted, but not derived, in literature, is derived for a Gaussian beam, valid from the paraxial limit all the way to arbitrarily high numerical apertures.

  4. Multipole expansion of acoustical Bessel beams with arbitrary order and location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhixiong; Marston, Philip L; Li, Wei; Chai, Yingbin

    2017-06-01

    An exact solution of expansion coefficients for a T-matrix method interacting with acoustic scattering of arbitrary order Bessel beams from an obstacle of arbitrary location is derived analytically. Because of the failure of the addition theorem for spherical harmonics for expansion coefficients of helicoidal Bessel beams, an addition theorem for cylindrical Bessel functions is introduced. Meanwhile, an analytical expression for the integral of products including Bessel and associated Legendre functions is applied to eliminate the integration over the polar angle. Note that this multipole expansion may also benefit other scattering methods and expansions of incident waves, for instance, partial-wave series solutions.

  5. Enhancing monochromatic multipole emission by a subwavelength enclosure of degenerate Mie resonances

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Jiajun

    2017-07-06

    Sound emission is inefficient at low frequencies as limited by source size. This letter presents enhancing emission of monochromatic monopole and multipole sources by enclosing the source with a subwavelength circular enclosure filled of an anisotropic material of a low radial sound speed. The anisotropy is associated with an infinite tangential density along the azimuth. Numerical simulations show that emission gain is produced at frequencies surrounding degenerate Mie resonant frequencies of the enclosure, and meanwhile the radiation directivity pattern is well preserved. The degeneracy is theoretically analyzed. A realization of the material is suggested by using a space-coiling structure.

  6. Dual Killing-Yano symmetry and multipole moments in electromagnetism and mechanics of continua

    OpenAIRE

    Baleanu, Dumitru; Dubovik, V. M.; Misicu, S.

    1998-01-01

    In this work we introduce the Killing-Yano symmetry on the phase space and we investigate the symplectic structure on the space of Killing-Yano tensors. We perform the detailed analyze of the $n$-dimensional flat space and the Riemaniann manifolds with constant scalar curvature. We investigate the form of some multipole tensors, which arise in the expansion of a system of charges and currents, in terms of second-order Killing-Yano tensors in the phase space of classical mechanics. We find som...

  7. Stability properties of a toroidal z-pinch in an external magnetic multipole field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, H.G.

    1987-01-01

    MHD stability of m=1, axisymmetric, external modes of a toroidal z-pinch immersed in an external multipole field (Extrap configuration) is studied. The description includes the effects of a weak toroidicity, a non-circular plasma cross-section and the influence of induced currents in the external conductors. It is found that the non-circularity of the plasma cross-section always has a destabilizing effect but that the m=1 mode can be stabilized by the external feedback if the non-circularity is small. (author)

  8. Multipole lenses with implicit poles and with harmonic distribution of current density in a coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skachkov, V.S.

    1984-01-01

    General theory of the multipole lense with implicit poles is presented. The thickness of lense coil is finite. Current density distribution in the coil cross section is harmonic in the azimuth direction and arbitrary in the radial one. The calculation of yoke contribution in the lence field is given. Two particular lense variants differing from each other in the method of current density radial distribution are considered and necessary calculated relations for the lense with and without yoke ar presented. A comparative analysis of physical and technological peculiarities of these lenses is performed

  9. Convergence of highly parallel stray field calculation using the fast multipole method on irregular meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmesi, P.; Abert, C.; Bruckner, F.; Suess, D.

    2018-05-01

    Fast stray field calculation is commonly considered of great importance for micromagnetic simulations, since it is the most time consuming part of the simulation. The Fast Multipole Method (FMM) has displayed linear O(N) parallelization behavior on many cores. This article investigates the error of a recent FMM approach approximating sources using linear—instead of constant—finite elements in the singular integral for calculating the stray field and the corresponding potential. After measuring performance in an earlier manuscript, this manuscript investigates the convergence of the relative L2 error for several FMM simulation parameters. Various scenarios either calculating the stray field directly or via potential are discussed.

  10. Magnetic design and measurement of nonlinear multipole magnets for the APT beam expander system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, D.B.; Shafer, R.E.; Martinez, R.P.; Walstrom, P.L.; Kahn, S.; Jain, A.; Wanderer, P.

    1997-01-01

    Two prototype nonlinear multipole magnets have been designed for use in the 800-MeV beam test of the APT beam-expansion concept at LANSCE. The iron-dominated magnets each consist of three independent coils, two for producing a predominantly octupole field with a tunable duodecapole component, and one for canceling the residual quadrupole field. Two such magnets, one for shaping each transverse plane, are required to produce a rectangular, uniform beam current density distribution with sharp edges on the APT target. This report will describe the magnetic design of these magnets, along with field measurements, and a comparison to the magnetic design

  11. Symmetry aspects of multipole moments in electromagnetism and mechanics of continua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baleanu, D.; Dubovik, V.M.; Misiku, S.

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the form of some multipole tensors, which arise in the expansion of a system of charges and currents, in terms of second-order Killing-Yano tensors in the phase space of classical mechanics. We related some of these tensors to the generators of dynamical symmetries like the angular momentum, the mass-inertia tensor, the conformal operator and the momentum conjugate Runge-Lenz vector. In this way we associate a geometrical meaning to such physical observables of the continua

  12. Multi-Pole HTS Generators for Direct Drive Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bogi Bech; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Seiler, Eugen

    In this presentation the feasibility of installing a 5MW direct drive superconducting generator for an offshore wind turbine is presented. The reference turbine is a geared 5MW wind turbine that has been installed offshore and has been documented extensively by the National Renewable Energy...... on two different types of coated conductor. In the specific design the allowable current density was 300A/mm^2 for tape 1 and 70A/mm^2 for tape 2. The design is analytical, based on magnetic circuit analysis, which is validated by finite element modelling. The conclusion is that the either price...... or the performance of the coated conductor has to improve significantly (by a factor of 10 or more) in order for HTS generators to become feasible in direct drive offshore wind turbines. This price/performance improvement is not unrealistic in the coming decade. Additionally the reliability of such machines...

  13. Approximate analytic representations of laws of attenuation in vector-scalar fields of multipole sources in a Pekeris waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, G. N.; Stepanov, A. N.

    2017-11-01

    We obtain, and compare with exact solutions, the approximate analytic relations that determine, for increasing distance, irregularities of attenuation in the regular sound pressure components and orthogonal projections of the oscillation velocity vectors of low-frequency signals formed in a waveguide by various multipoles. We show that the mentioned field characteristics essentially depend on the type of multipole, the distance between the source and receivers, and the specific features of the received scalar or vector field components. It is established that the approximating dependences agree well with the exact laws of attenuation in the field and, despite the variety of dependences, they are divided into three compact groups with uniform characteristics.

  14. Development of an in vivo visual robot system with a magnetic anchoring mechanism and a lens cleaning mechanism for laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Haibo; Dong, Dinghui; Ma, Tengfei; Zhuang, Jinlei; Fu, Yili; Lv, Yi; Li, Liyi

    2017-12-01

    Surgical robot systems which can significantly improve surgical procedures have been widely used in laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS). For a relative complex surgical procedure, the development of an in vivo visual robot system for LESS can effectively improve the visualization for surgical robot systems. In this work, an in vivo visual robot system with a new mechanism for LESS was investigated. A finite element method (FEM) analysis was carried out to ensure the safety of the in vivo visual robot during the movement, which was the most important concern for surgical purposes. A master-slave control strategy was adopted, in which the control model was established by off-line experiments. The in vivo visual robot system was verified by using a phantom box. The experiment results show that the robot system can successfully realize the expected functionalities and meet the demands of LESS. The experiment results indicate that the in vivo visual robot with high manipulability has great potential in clinical application. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Tuning the properties of metal–organic framework nodes as supports of single-site iridium catalysts: node modification by atomic layer deposition of aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Dong [Department of Chemical Engineering; University of California; Davis; USA; Momeni, Mohammad R. [Department of Chemistry; Chemical Theory Center; Supercomputing Institute; University of Minnesota; Minneapolis; Demir, Hakan [Department of Chemistry; Chemical Theory Center; Supercomputing Institute; University of Minnesota; Minneapolis; Pahls, Dale R. [Department of Chemistry; Chemical Theory Center; Supercomputing Institute; University of Minnesota; Minneapolis; Rimoldi, Martino [Department of Chemistry; Northwestern University; Evanston; USA; Wang, Timothy C. [Department of Chemistry; Northwestern University; Evanston; USA; Farha, Omar K. [Department of Chemistry; Northwestern University; Evanston; USA; Department of Chemistry; Hupp, Joseph T. [Department of Chemistry; Northwestern University; Evanston; USA; Cramer, Christopher J. [Department of Chemistry; Chemical Theory Center; Supercomputing Institute; University of Minnesota; Minneapolis; Gates, Bruce C. [Department of Chemical Engineering; University of California; Davis; USA; Gagliardi, Laura [Department of Chemistry; Chemical Theory Center; Supercomputing Institute; University of Minnesota; Minneapolis

    2017-01-01

    The metal–organic framework NU-1000, with Zr6-oxo, hydroxo, and aqua nodes, was modified by incorporation of hydroxylated Al(iii) ions by ALD-like chemistry with [Al(CH3)2(iso-propoxide)]2followed by steam (ALD = atomic layer deposition). Al ions were installed to the extent of approximately 7 per node. Single-site iridium diethylene complexes were anchored to the nodes of the modified and unmodified MOFs by reaction with Ir(C2H4)2(acac) (acac = acetylacetonate) and converted to Ir(CO)2complexes by treatment with CO. Infrared spectra of these supported complexes show that incorporation of Al weakened the electron donor tendency of the MOF. Correspondingly, the catalytic activity of the initial supported iridium complexes for ethylene hydrogenation increased, as did the selectivity for ethylene dimerization. The results of density functional theory calculations with a simplified model of the nodes incorporating Al(iii) ions are in qualitative agreement with some catalyst performance data.

  16. BOOK REVIEW: Multipole Theory in Electromagnetism: Classical, Quantum and Symmetry Aspects, with Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihvola, Ari

    2005-03-01

    `Good reasons must, of force, give place to better', observes Brutus to Cassius, according to William Shakespeare in Julius Caesar. Roger Raab and Owen de Lange seem to agree, as they cite this sentence in the concluding chapter of their new book on the importance of exact multipole analysis in macroscopic electromagnetics. Very true and essential to remember in our daily research work. The two scientists from the University of Natal in Pietermaritzburg, South Africa (presently University of KwaZulu-Natal) have been working for a very long time on the accurate description of electric and magnetic response of matter and have published much of their findings in various physics journals. The present book gives us a clear and coherent exposition of many of these results. The important message of Raab and de Lange is that in the macroscopic description of matter, a correct balance between the various orders of electric and magnetic multipole terms has to be respected. If the inclusion of magnetic dipole terms is not complemented with electric quadrupoles, there is a risk of losing the translational invariance of certain important quantities. This means that the values of these quantities depend on the choice of the origin! `It canÂ't be Nature, for it is not sense' is another of the apt literary citations in the book. Often monographs written by researchers look like they have been produced using a cut-and-paste technique; earlier published articles are included in the same book but, unfortunately, too little additional effort is expended into moulding the totality into a unified story. This is not the case with Raab and de Lange. The structure and the text flow of the book serve perfectly its important message. After the obligatory introduction of material response to electromagnetic fields, constitutive relations, basic quantum theory and spacetime properties, a chapter follows with transmission and scattering effects where everything seems to work well with the `old

  17. Multipole Theory in Electromagnetism: Classical, Quantum and Symmetry Aspects, with Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sihvola, Ari [Helsinki University of Technology (Finland)

    2005-03-11

    'Good reasons must, of force, give place to better', observes Brutus to Cassius, according to William Shakespeare in Julius Caesar. Roger Raab and Owen de Lange seem to agree, as they cite this sentence in the concluding chapter of their new book on the importance of exact multipole analysis in macroscopic electromagnetics. Very true and essential to remember in our daily research work. The two scientists from the University of Natal in Pietermaritzburg, South Africa (presently University of KwaZulu-Natal) have been working for a very long time on the accurate description of electric and magnetic response of matter and have published much of their findings in various physics journals. The present book gives us a clear and coherent exposition of many of these results. The important message of Raab and de Lange is that in the macroscopic description of matter, a correct balance between the various orders of electric and magnetic multipole terms has to be respected. If the inclusion of magnetic dipole terms is not complemented with electric quadrupoles, there is a risk of losing the translational invariance of certain important quantities. This means that the values of these quantities depend on the choice of the origin{exclamation_point} 'It can't be Nature, for it is not sense' is another of the apt literary citations in the book. Often monographs written by researchers look like they have been produced using a cut-and-paste technique; earlier published articles are included in the same book but, unfortunately, too little additional effort is expended into moulding the totality into a unified story. This is not the case with Raab and de Lange. The structure and the text flow of the book serve perfectly its important message. After the obligatory introduction of material response to electromagnetic fields, constitutive relations, basic quantum theory and spacetime properties, a chapter follows with transmission and scattering effects where

  18. Flexibly imposing periodicity in kernel independent FMM: A multipole-to-local operator approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wen; Shelley, Michael

    2018-02-01

    An important but missing component in the application of the kernel independent fast multipole method (KIFMM) is the capability for flexibly and efficiently imposing singly, doubly, and triply periodic boundary conditions. In most popular packages such periodicities are imposed with the hierarchical repetition of periodic boxes, which may give an incorrect answer due to the conditional convergence of some kernel sums. Here we present an efficient method to properly impose periodic boundary conditions using a near-far splitting scheme. The near-field contribution is directly calculated with the KIFMM method, while the far-field contribution is calculated with a multipole-to-local (M2L) operator which is independent of the source and target point distribution. The M2L operator is constructed with the far-field portion of the kernel function to generate the far-field contribution with the downward equivalent source points in KIFMM. This method guarantees the sum of the near-field & far-field converge pointwise to results satisfying periodicity and compatibility conditions. The computational cost of the far-field calculation observes the same O (N) complexity as FMM and is designed to be small by reusing the data computed by KIFMM for the near-field. The far-field calculations require no additional control parameters, and observes the same theoretical error bound as KIFMM. We present accuracy and timing test results for the Laplace kernel in singly periodic domains and the Stokes velocity kernel in doubly and triply periodic domains.

  19. A multipole-expanded effective field theory for vortex ring-sound interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Saenz, Sebastian; Mitsou, Ermis; Nicolis, Alberto

    2018-02-01

    The low-energy dynamics of a zero temperature superfluid or of the compressional modes of an ordinary fluid can be described by a simple effective theory for a scalar field — the superfluid `phase'. However, when vortex lines are present, to describe all interactions in a local fashion one has to switch to a magnetic-type dual two-form description, which comes with six degrees of freedom (in place of one) and an associated gauge redundancy, and is thus considerably more complicated. Here we show that, in the case of vortex rings and for bulk modes that are much longer than the typical ring size, one can perform a systematic multipole expansion of the effective action and recast it into the simpler scalar field language. In a sense, in the presence of vortex rings the non-single valuedness of the scalar can be hidden inside the rings, and thus out of the reach of the multipole expansion. As an application of our techniques, we compute by standard effective field theory methods the sound emitted by an oscillating vortex ring.

  20. Multipole Theory in Electromagnetism: Classical, Quantum and Symmetry Aspects, with Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sihvola, Ari

    2005-01-01

    'Good reasons must, of force, give place to better', observes Brutus to Cassius, according to William Shakespeare in Julius Caesar. Roger Raab and Owen de Lange seem to agree, as they cite this sentence in the concluding chapter of their new book on the importance of exact multipole analysis in macroscopic electromagnetics. Very true and essential to remember in our daily research work. The two scientists from the University of Natal in Pietermaritzburg, South Africa (presently University of KwaZulu-Natal) have been working for a very long time on the accurate description of electric and magnetic response of matter and have published much of their findings in various physics journals. The present book gives us a clear and coherent exposition of many of these results. The important message of Raab and de Lange is that in the macroscopic description of matter, a correct balance between the various orders of electric and magnetic multipole terms has to be respected. If the inclusion of magnetic dipole terms is not complemented with electric quadrupoles, there is a risk of losing the translational invariance of certain important quantities. This means that the values of these quantities depend on the choice of the origin! 'It can't be Nature, for it is not sense' is another of the apt literary citations in the book. Often monographs written by researchers look like they have been produced using a cut-and-paste technique; earlier published articles are included in the same book but, unfortunately, too little additional effort is expended into moulding the totality into a unified story. This is not the case with Raab and de Lange. The structure and the text flow of the book serve perfectly its important message. After the obligatory introduction of material response to electromagnetic fields, constitutive relations, basic quantum theory and spacetime properties, a chapter follows with transmission and scattering effects where everything seems to work well with the 'old

  1. Patterns and plasticity in RNA-protein interactions enable recruitment of multiple proteins through a single site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley, Cary T.; Porter, Douglas F.; Qiu, Chen; Campbell, Zachary T.; Hall, Traci M. Tanaka; Wickens, Marvin

    2012-01-01

    mRNA control hinges on the specificity and affinity of proteins for their RNA binding sites. Regulatory proteins must bind their own sites and reject even closely related noncognate sites. In the PUF [Pumilio and fem-3 binding factor (FBF)] family of RNA binding proteins, individual proteins discriminate differences in the length and sequence of binding sites, allowing each PUF to bind a distinct battery of mRNAs. Here, we show that despite these differences, the pattern of RNA interactions is conserved among PUF proteins: the two ends of the PUF protein make critical contacts with the two ends of the RNA sites. Despite this conserved “two-handed” pattern of recognition, the RNA sequence is flexible. Among the binding sites of yeast Puf4p, RNA sequence dictates the pattern in which RNA bases are flipped away from the binding surface of the protein. Small differences in RNA sequence allow new modes of control, recruiting Puf5p in addition to Puf4p to a single site. This embedded information adds a new layer of biological meaning to the connections between RNA targets and PUF proteins. PMID:22467831

  2. Highly Stereoselective Heterogeneous Diene Polymerization by Co-MFU-4l: A Single-Site Catalyst Prepared by Cation Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Romain J-C; Comito, Robert J; Wu, Zhenwei; Zhang, Guanghui; Rieth, Adam J; Hendon, Christopher H; Miller, Jeffrey T; Dincă, Mircea

    2017-09-13

    Molecular catalysts offer tremendous advantages for stereoselective polymerization because their activity and selectivity can be optimized and understood mechanistically using the familiar tools of organometallic chemistry. Yet, this exquisite control over selectivity comes at an operational price that is generally not justifiable for the large-scale manufacture of polyfolefins. In this report, we identify Co-MFU-4l, prepared by cation exchange in a metal-organic framework, as a solid catalyst for the polymerization of 1,3-butadiene with high stereoselectivity (>99% 1,4-cis). To our knowledge, this is the highest stereoselectivity achieved with a heterogeneous catalyst for this transformation. The polymer's low polydispersity (PDI ≈ 2) and the catalyst's ready recovery and low leaching indicate that our material is a structurally resilient single-site heterogeneous catalyst. Further characterization of Co-MFU-4l by X-ray absorption spectroscopy provided evidence for discrete, tris-pyrazolylborate-like coordination of Co(II). With this information, we identify a soluble cobalt complex that mimics the structure and reactivity of Co-MFU-4l, thus providing a well-defined platform for studying the catalytic mechanism in the solution phase. This work underscores the capacity for small molecule-like tunability and mechanistic tractability available to transition metal catalysis in metal-organic frameworks.

  3. The role of benzodiazepines in breathlessness: a single site, open label pilot of sustained release morphine together with clonazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allcroft, Peter; Margitanovic, Vera; Greene, Aine; Agar, Meera R; Clark, Katherine; Abernethy, Amy P; Currow, David C

    2013-07-01

    Breathlessness at rest or on minimal exertion despite optimal treatment of underlying cause(s) is distressing and prevalent. Opioids can reduce the intensity of chronic refractory breathlessness and an anxiolytic may be of benefit. This pilot aimed to determine the safety and feasibility of conducting a phase III study on the intensity of breathlessness by adding regular benzodiazepine to low-dose opioid. This is a single site, open label phase II study of the addition of regular clonazepam 0.5 mg nocte orally to Kapanol(R) 10 mg (sustained release morphine sulphate) orally mane together with docusate/sennosides in people with modified Medical Research Council Scale ≥2. Breathlessness intensity on day four was the efficacy outcome. Participants could extend for another 10 days if they achieved >15% reduction over their own baseline breathlessness intensity. Eleven people had trial medication (eight males, median age 78 years (68 to 89); all had COPD; median Karnofsky 70 (50 to 80); six were on long-term home oxygen. Ten people completed day four. One person withdrew because of unsteadiness on day four. Five participants reached the 15% reduction, but only three went on to the extension study, all completing without toxicity. This study was safe, feasible and there appears to be a group who derive benefits comparable to titrated opioids. Given the widespread use of benzodiazepines for the symptomatic treatment of chronic refractory breathlessness and its poor evidence base, there is justification for a definitive phase III study.

  4. The effectiveness of laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) compared with conventional laparoscopic surgery for ectopic pregnancy with hemoperitoneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juseok; Na, Yong Jin; Song, Yong Jung; Choi, Ook Hwan; Lee, Sun Kyung; Kim, Hwi Gon

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare clinical outcomes of conventional laparoscopic surgery and laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) in the surgical treatment of tubal ectopic pregnancy. A total of 156 patients were diagnosed with ectopic pregnancies by ultrasonography and serum β-human chorionic gonadotrophin (β-hCG) levels at Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital from January 2009 through December 2013. We excluded 28 patients who only received medical treatment, 15 patients who underwent surgery by laparotomy for severe hypovolemic shock, and 30 patients who presented with less than 1 L of hemoperitoneum. Of the 83 patients with massive hemoperitoneum, 38 patients had LESS performed while the remaining 45 patients underwent conventional laparoscopic surgery. In this study, there were no statistically significant differences in clinical outcomes in either surgical method except for operative time. Operative time of LESS was significantly shorter than conventional surgery for patients with more than 500 mL of hemoperitoneum. LESS is a safe and feasible surgical approach in the treatment of tubal ectopic pregnancy. At the same time, LESS has been shown to be more effective than conventional laparoscopic surgery in handling massive hemoperitoneum of more than 1 L, which is a common complication of ectopic pregnancy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Comparative study of multiport laparoscopy and umbilical laparoendoscopic single-site surgery with reusable platform for treating renal masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantada, C; García-Tello, A; Esquinas, C; Moraga, A; Redondo, C; Angulo, J C

    Umbilical laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) surgery is an increasingly used modality for treating renal masses. We present a prospective comparison between LESS renal surgery and conventional laparoscopy. A comparative paired study was conducted that evaluated the surgical results and complications of patients with renal neoplasia treated with LESS surgery (n=49) or multiport laparoscopy (n=53). The LESS approach was performed with reusable material placed in the navel and double-rotation curved instruments. An additional 3.5-mm port was employed in 69.4% of the cases. We assessed demographic data, the type of technique (nephrectomy, partial nephrectomy and nephroureterectomy), surgical time, blood loss, haemoglobin, need for transfusion, number and severity of complications (Clavien-Dindo), hospital stay, histological data and prognosis. There were no differences in follow-up, age, sex, body mass index, preoperative haemoglobin levels or type of surgery. Conversion occurred in 2 cases (1 in each group). The surgical time was equivalent (P=.6). Intraoperative transfusion (P=.03) and blood loss (Plaparoscopy (P=.0013). Umbilical LESS surgery with reusable platform enables various surgical techniques to be performed when treating renal masses, with time consumption and safety comparable to conventional laparoscopy. The LESS approach is advantageous in terms of blood loss and hospital stay. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Laparoendoscopic Single-site Surgery (LESS) for Prophylactic Salpingo-oophorectomy Improves Cosmetic Satisfaction Compared to Standard Laparoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miailhe, Gregoire; Dauchy, Sarah; Bentivegna, Enrica; Gouy, Sebastien; Charles, Cecile; Delaloge, Suzette; Morice, Philippe; Uzan, Catherine

    2015-11-01

    Less invasive prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (PBSO) may diminish the general consequences of surgery for BRCA mutation carriers. The objective of the present study was to compare the psychological impact and satisfaction following minimal-invasive laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) versus that observed with the standard procedure. This prospective longitudinal study was proposed to all consecutive patients who underwent ambulatory PBSO between January 2012 and January 2014 at our Center. The psychological impact and esthetic satisfaction were prospectively studied. Patients rated their satisfaction using the 4-grade Likert scale. Their emotional state and postoperative pain were explored respectively with validated questionnaires (IES-R, PANAS) and the Verbal Numerical Rating Scale (VNRS). Operative outcomes were also analyzed. Twenty patients underwent LESS PBSO and 10 patients had the standard laparoscopic (SL) PBSO. The mean satisfaction scores were significantly higher in the LESS group one month and six months after surgery. Both groups reported a reduction of intrusive thoughts and negative affects after surgery. Postoperative pain and operative outcomes were similar. A significant improvement of cosmetic satisfaction after LESS compared to SL could help patients accept PBSO. The emotional impact of PBSO is not modified by ambulatory LESS. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  7. Torsion of a Subserosal Myoma Managed by Gasless Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Myomectomy with In-Bag Manual Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Takeda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute torsion of a subserosal myoma is a rare surgical emergency that is infrequently diagnosed preoperatively. Furthermore, laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS myomectomy with in-bag tissue extraction for the management of this disorder has not yet been described. A 43-year-old, gravida 1, para 1 woman was referred to our department due to a solid pelvic mass associated with persistent abdominal pain. A pedunculated subserosal myoma with torsion was strongly suspected based on ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. Emergency LESS surgery showed that the subserosal myoma arising from the posterior uterine wall torted at its pedicle in the cul-de-sac. The twisted myoma node was excised by coagulation and cut using a LigaSure Atlas, followed by in-bag manual morcellation and extraction through an umbilical wound. The present case report emphasizes that LESS myomectomy with in-bag tissue extraction is a feasible minimally invasive surgical option for the management of subserosal myoma with torsion after a precise imaging-based diagnostic evaluation.

  8. Seasonal variation of heavy metals in ambient air and precipitation at a single site in Washington, DC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melaku, Samuel; Morris, Vernon; Raghavan, Dharmaraj; Hosten, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric samples of precipitation and ambient air were collected at a single site in Washington, DC, for 7 months (for ambient air samples) and 1 year (for wet deposition samples) and analyzed for arsenic, cadmium, chromium and lead. The ranges of heavy metal concentrations for 6-day wet deposition samples collected over the 1-year period were 0.20-1.3 μg/l, 0.060-5.1 μg/l, 0.062-4.6 μg/l and 0.11-3.2 μg/l for arsenic, cadmium, chromium and lead, respectively, with a precision better than 5% for more than 95% of the measurements. The ranges of heavy metal concentrations for the 6-day ambient air samples were 0.800-15.7 ng/m 3 , 1.50-30.0 ng/m 3 , 16.8-112 ng/m 3 , and 2.90-137 ng/m 3 for arsenic, cadmium, chromium and lead, respectively, with a precision better than 10%. The spread in the heavy metal concentration over the observation period suggests a high seasonal variability for heavy metal content in both ambient air and wet deposition samples. - High seasonal variability of heavy metals were observed in both ambient air and wet deposition samples

  9. The grid-based fast multipole method--a massively parallel numerical scheme for calculating two-electron interaction energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivanen, Elias A; Losilla, Sergio A; Sundholm, Dage

    2015-12-21

    Algorithms and working expressions for a grid-based fast multipole method (GB-FMM) have been developed and implemented. The computational domain is divided into cubic subdomains, organized in a hierarchical tree. The contribution to the electrostatic interaction energies from pairs of neighboring subdomains is computed using numerical integration, whereas the contributions from further apart subdomains are obtained using multipole expansions. The multipole moments of the subdomains are obtained by numerical integration. Linear scaling is achieved by translating and summing the multipoles according to the tree structure, such that each subdomain interacts with a number of subdomains that are almost independent of the size of the system. To compute electrostatic interaction energies of neighboring subdomains, we employ an algorithm which performs efficiently on general purpose graphics processing units (GPGPU). Calculations using one CPU for the FMM part and 20 GPGPUs consisting of tens of thousands of execution threads for the numerical integration algorithm show the scalability and parallel performance of the scheme. For calculations on systems consisting of Gaussian functions (α = 1) distributed as fullerenes from C20 to C720, the total computation time and relative accuracy (ppb) are independent of the system size.

  10. Building the RHIC tracking lattice model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Y.; Fischer, W.; Tepikian, S.

    2010-01-27

    In this note we outline the procedure to build a realistic lattice model for the RHIC beam-beam tracking simulation. We will install multipole field errors in the arc main dipoles, arc main quadrupols and interaction region magnets (DX, D0, and triplets) and introduce a residual closed orbit, tune ripples, and physical apertures in the tracking lattice model. Nonlinearities such as local IR multipoles, second order chromaticies and third order resonance driving terms are also corrected before tracking.

  11. Efficient broadband simulation of fluid-structure coupling for membrane-type acoustic transducer arrays using the multi-level fast multipole algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Bernard; Sabra, Karim; Degertekin, F. Levent

    2016-01-01

    A boundary element model provides great flexibility for the simulation of membrane-type micromachined ultrasonic transducers (MUTs) in terms of membrane shape, actuating mechanism, and array layout. Acoustic crosstalk is accounted for through a mutual impedance matrix which captures the primary crosstalk mechanism of dispersive-guided modes generated at the fluid-solid interface. However, finding the solution to the fully-populated boundary element matrix equation using standard techniques requires computation time and memory usage which scales by the cube and by the square of the number of nodes, respectively, limiting simulation to a small number of membranes. We implement a solver with improved speed and efficiency through the application of a multi-level fast multipole algorithm (FMA). By approximating the fields of collections of nodes using multipole expansions of the free-space Green’s function, an FMA solver can enable the simulation of hundreds of thousands of nodes while incurring an approximation error that is controllable. Convergence is drastically improved using a problem-specific block-diagonal preconditioner. We demonstrate the solver’s capabilities by simulating a 32-element 7 MHz 1-D CMUT phased array with 2880 membranes. The array is simulated using 233,280 nodes for a very wide frequency band up to 50 MHz. For a simulation with 15,210 nodes, the FMA solver performed 10-times faster and used 32-times less memory than a standard solver based on LU decomposition We investigate the effects of mesh density and phasing on the predicted array response and find that it is necessary to use about 7 nodes over the width of the membrane to observe convergence of the solution–even below the first membrane resonance frequency–due to the influence of higher-order membrane modes. PMID:27824572

  12. Single-site robotic cholecystectomy (SSRC) versus single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC): comparison of learning curves. First European experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinoglio, Giuseppe; Lenti, Luca Matteo; Maglione, Valeria; Lucido, Francesco Saverio; Priora, Fabio; Bianchi, Paolo Pietro; Grosso, Federica; Quarati, Raul

    2012-06-01

    Single-incision laparoscopic surgery is an emerging procedure developed to decrease parietal trauma and improve cosmetic results. However, many technical constraints, such as lack of triangulation, instrument collisions, and cross-handing, hamper this approach. Using a robotic platform may overcome these problems and enable more precise surgical actions by increasing freedom of movement and by restoring intuitive instrument control. We retrospectively collected, under institutional review board approval, data on the first 25 patients who underwent single-site robotic cholecystectomies (SSRC) at our center. Patients enrolled in this study underwent SSRC for symptomatic biliary gallstones or polyposis. Exclusion criteria were: BMI > 33; acute cholecystitis; previous upper abdominal surgery; ASA > II; and age >80 and <18 years. All procedures were performed with the da Vinci Si Surgical System and a dedicated SSRC kit (Intuitive). After discharge, patients were followed for 2 months. These SSRC cases were compared to our first 25 single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomies (SILC) and with the literature. There were no differences in patient characteristics between groups (gender, P = 0.4404; age, P = 0.7423; BMI, P = 0.5699), and there were no conversions or major complications in either cohort. Operative time was significantly longer for the SILC group compared with SSRC (83.2 vs. 62.7 min, P = 0.0006), and SSRC operative times did not change significantly along the series. The majority of patients in each group were discharged within 24 h, with an average length of hospital stay of 1.2 days for the SILC group and 1.1 days for the SSRC group (P = 0.2854). No wound complications (infection, incisional hernia) were observed in the SSRC group and in the SILC. Our preliminary experience shows that SSRC is safe, can easily be learned, and performed in a reproducible manner and is faster than SILC.

  13. A comparative study of standard versus laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) totally extraperitoneal (TEP) inguinal hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Huai-Ching; Lin, Chia-Da; Chung, Shiu-Dong; Chueh, Shih-Chieh Jeff; Tsai, Yao-Chou; Yang, Stephen Shei-Dei

    2011-09-01

    Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair has been around since the 1990s. A novel surgical approach known as laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) has been developed to reduce the port-related morbidities and improve the cosmetic outcomes of laparoscopic surgery, including totally extraperitoneal (TEP) inguinal hernia repair. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of the LESS TEP technique for inguinal hernia repair and compare the outcomes with the standard TEP approach. Between January and May 2009, 54 consecutive healthy patients (48 men and 6 women) underwent LESS TEP inguinal hernia repair at our institute. All procedures were performed using our homemade single port for simultaneous passage of the laparoscope and instruments. The perioperative data, including patient age, sex, body mass index (BMI), hernia characteristics, operative time, complications, length of hospital stay, return to normal activity, pain score, and cosmetic result, were prospectively collected. All LESS TEP procedures were completed successfully without conversion to standard laparoscopic or open surgery. A total of 98 LESS TEP hernia repairs were performed in 54 patients and compared with 152 standard TEP operations. The mean operative time was significantly shorter in the standard TEP series (61.8 ± 26.0 vs. 70.9 ± 23.8 min, p = 0.04). Other perioperative parameters, including the length of hospital stay, time until return to full activity, complication rate, pain score, and cosmetic result, were all comparable between the two techniques. Our short-term experience with LESS TEP inguinal hernia repair has shown that in experienced hands, inguinal hernia repair via the LESS TEP technique is as safe as the standard TEP technique. However, based on our evidence, we currently believe that the LESS TEP technique is not an efficacious surgical alternative to the standard TEP technique for inguinal hernias.

  14. Multi-institutional Experience in Laparoendoscopic Single-site Surgery (LESS): For Major Extirpative and Reconstructive Procedures in Pediatric Urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gor, Ronak A; Long, Christopher J; Shukla, Aseem R; Kirsch, Andrew J; Perez-Brayfield, Marcos; Srinivasan, Arun K

    2016-02-01

    To review peri-procedural outcomes from a large, multi-institutional series of pediatric urology patients treated with laparaendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) for major extirpative and reconstructive procedures. Consecutive LESS cases between January 2011 and May 2014 from three free-standing pediatric referral centers were reviewed. Data include age, sex, operative time, blood loss, length of stay, and complications according to the modified Clavien-Dindo classification. Hasson technique was used for peritoneal entry, GelPOINT advanced access platform was inserted, and standard 5mm laparoscopic instruments were used. Fifty-nine patients (median age 5 years, 4 months-17 years) met inclusion criteria: 29 nephrectomies, 9 nephroureterectomies, 3 bilateral nephrectomies, 5 heminephrectomies, 5 renal cyst decortications, 3 bilateral gonadectomies, 2 Malone antegrade continence enema, 2 calyceal diverticulectomy, and 1 ovarian detorsion with cystectomy. Median operative times for each case type were comparable to published experiences with traditional laparoscopy. Overall mean and median length of stay was 36.2 hours and 1 day, respectively. There were two complications: port site hernia requiring surgical repair (Clavien IIIb) and a superficial port site infection that resolved with antibiotics (Clavien II). Cosmetic outcomes were subjectively well received by patients and their parents. Operative time was significantly shorter between the first half of the experience and the second half (102 vs 70 minutes, P  <  .05). LESS approach can be broadly applied across many major extirpative and reconstructive procedures within pediatric urology. Our series advances our field's utilization of this technique and its safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Stability of detectability over 17 years at a single site and other lizard detection comparisons from Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, Gordon H.; Dean-Bradley, Kathryn; Campbell, Earl W.; Fritts, Thomas H.; Lardner, Bjorn; Yackel Adams, Amy A.; Reed, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    To obtain quantitative information about population dynamics from counts of animals, the per capita detectabilities of each species must remain constant over the course of monitoring. We characterized lizard detection constancy for four species over 17 yr from a single site in northern Guam, a relatively benign situation because detection was relatively easy and we were able to hold constant the site, habitat type, species, season, and sampling method. We monitored two species of diurnal terrestrial skinks (Carlia ailanpalai [Curious Skink], Emoia caeruleocauda [Pacific Bluetailed Skink]) using glueboards placed on the ground in the shade for 3 h on rainless mornings, yielding 10,286 skink captures. We additionally monitored two species of nocturnal arboreal geckos (Hemidactylus frenatus [Common House Gecko]; Lepidodactylus lugubris [Mourning Gecko]) on the basis of 15,212 sightings. We compared these count samples to a series of complete censuses we conducted from four or more total removal plots (everything removed to mineral soil) totaling 400 m2(about 1% of study site) in each of the years 1995, 1999, and 2012, providing time-stamped quantification of detectability for each species. Unfortunately, the actual population trajectories taken by the four species were masked by unexplained variation in detectability. This observation of debilitating latent variability in lizard detectability under nearly ideal conditions undercuts our trust in population estimation techniques that fail to quantify venue-specific detectability, rely on pooled detection probability estimates, or assume that modulation in predefined environmental covariates suffices for estimating detectability.

  16. Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery for the treatment of different urological pathologies: Defining the learning curve of an experienced laparoscopist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Karim, Aly M; Elhenawy, Ibrahim M; Eid, Ahmed A; Yahia, Elsayed; Elsalmy, Salah A

    2017-09-01

    To define the learning curve of laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) of an experienced laparoscopist. Patients who had LESS, since its implementation in December 2009 until December 2014, were retrospectively analysed. Procedures were divided into groups of 10 and scored according to the European Scoring System for Laparoscopic Operations in Urology. Different LESS indications were done by one experienced laparoscopist. Technical feasibility, surgical safety, outcome, as well as the number of patients required to achieve professional competence were assessed. In all, 179 patients were included, with mean (SD) age of 36.3 (17.5) years and 25.4% of the patients had had previous surgeries. Upper urinary tract procedures were done in 65.9% of patients and 54.7% of the procedures were extirpative. Both transperitoneal and retroperitoneal LESS were performed in 92.8% and 7.2% of the patients, respectively. The intraoperative and postoperative complication rates were 2.2% and 5.6% (Clavien-Dindo Grade II 3.9% and IIIa 1.7%), respectively. In all, 75% of intraoperative complications and all conversions were reported during the first 30 LESS procedures; despite the significantly higher difficulty score in the subsequent LESS procedures. One 5-mm extra port, conversion to conventional laparoscopy and open surgery was reported in 14%, 1.7%, and 1.1% of the cases, respectively. At mean (SD) follow-up of 39.7 (11.4) months, all the patients that underwent reconstructive LESS procedures but one were successful. In experienced hands, at least 30 LESS procedures are required to achieve professional competence. Although difficult, both conversion and complication rates of LESS are low in experienced hands.

  17. Lability and Basicity of Bipyridine-Carboxylate-Phosphonate Ligand Accelerate Single-Site Water Oxidation by Ruthenium-Based Molecular Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, David W; Xie, Yan; Szalda, David J; Concepcion, Javier J

    2017-11-01

    A critical step in creating an artificial photosynthesis system for energy storage is designing catalysts that can thrive in an assembled device. Single-site catalysts have an advantage over bimolecular catalysts because they remain effective when immobilized. Hybrid water oxidation catalysts described here, combining the features of single-site bis-phosphonate catalysts and fast bimolecular bis-carboxylate catalysts, have reached turnover frequencies over 100 s -1 , faster than both related catalysts under identical conditions. The new [(bpHc)Ru(L) 2 ] (bpH 2 cH = 2,2'-bipyridine-6-phosphonic acid-6'-carboxylic acid, L = 4-picoline or isoquinoline) catalysts proceed through a single-site water nucleophilic attack pathway. The pendant phosphonate base mediates O-O bond formation via intramolecular atom-proton transfer with a calculated barrier of only 9.1 kcal/mol. Additionally, the labile carboxylate group allows water to bind early in the catalytic cycle, allowing intramolecular proton-coupled electron transfer to lower the potentials for oxidation steps and catalysis. That a single-site catalyst can be this fast lends credence to the possibility that the oxygen evolving complex adopts a similar mechanism.

  18. Lability and Basicity of Bipyridine-Carboxylate-Phosphonate Ligand Accelerate Single-Site Water Oxidation by Ruthenium-Based Molecular Catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaffer, David W.; Xie, Yan; Szalda, David J.; Concepcion, Javier J.

    2017-01-01

    Here, a critical step in creating an artificial photosynthesis system for energy storage is designing catalysts that can thrive in an assembled device. Single-site catalysts have an advantage over bimolecular catalysts because they remain effective when immobilized. Hybrid water oxidation catalysts described here, combining the features of single-site bis-phosphonate catalysts and fast bimolecular bis-carboxylate catalysts, have reached turnover frequencies over 100 s –1 , faster than both related catalysts under identical conditions. The new [(bpHc)Ru(L) 2 ] (bpH 2 cH = 2,2'-bipyridine-6-phosphonic acid-6'-carboxylic acid, L = 4-picoline or isoquinoline) catalysts proceed through a single-site water nucleophilic attack pathway. The pendant phosphonate base mediates O–O bond formation via intramolecular atom-proton transfer with a calculated barrier of only 9.1 kcal/mol. Additionally, the labile carboxylate group allows water to bind early in the catalytic cycle, allowing intramolecular proton-coupled electron transfer to lower the potentials for oxidation steps and catalysis. That a single-site catalyst can be this fast lends credence to the possibility that the oxygen evolving complex adopts a similar mechanism.

  19. Adaptation and performance of the Cartesian coordinates fast multipole method for nanomagnetic simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wen; Haas, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    An implementation of the fast multiple method (FMM) is performed for magnetic systems with long-ranged dipolar interactions. Expansion in spherical harmonics of the original FMM is replaced by expansion of polynomials in Cartesian coordinates, which is considerably simpler. Under open boundary conditions, an expression for multipole moments of point dipoles in a cell is derived. These make the program appropriate for nanomagnetic simulations, including magnetic nanoparticles and ferrofluids. The performance is optimized in terms of cell size and parameter set (expansion order and opening angle) and the trade off between computing time and accuracy is quantitatively studied. A rule of thumb is proposed to decide the appropriate average number of dipoles in the smallest cells, and an optimal choice of parameter set is suggested. Finally, the superiority of Cartesian coordinate FMM is demonstrated by comparison to spherical harmonics FMM and FFT.

  20. Periodic boundary conditions and the error-controlled fast multipole method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabadshow, Ivo

    2012-08-22

    The simulation of pairwise interactions in huge particle ensembles is a vital issue in scientific research. Especially the calculation of long-range interactions poses limitations to the system size, since these interactions scale quadratically with the number of particles. Fast summation techniques like the Fast Multipole Method (FMM) can help to reduce the complexity to O(N). This work extends the possible range of applications of the FMM to periodic systems in one, two and three dimensions with one unique approach. Together with a tight error control, this contribution enables the simulation of periodic particle systems for different applications without the need to know and tune the FMM specific parameters. The implemented error control scheme automatically optimizes the parameters to obtain an approximation for the minimal runtime for a given energy error bound.

  1. Cs 62 DJ Rydberg-atom macrodimers formed by long-range multipole interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaoxuan; Bai, Suying; Jiao, Yuechun; Hao, Liping; Xue, Yongmei; Zhao, Jianming; Jia, Suotang; Raithel, Georg

    2018-03-01

    Long-range macrodimers formed by D -state cesium Rydberg atoms are studied in experiments and calculations. Cesium [62DJ]2 Rydberg-atom macrodimers, bonded via long-range multipole interaction, are prepared by two-color photoassociation in a cesium atom trap. The first color (pulse A) resonantly excites seed Rydberg atoms, while the second (pulse B, detuned by the molecular binding energy) resonantly excites the Rydberg-atom macrodimers below the [62DJ]2 asymptotes. The molecules are measured by extraction of autoionization products and Rydberg-atom electric-field ionization, and ion detection. Molecular spectra are compared with calculations of adiabatic molecular potentials. From the dependence of the molecular signal on the detection delay time, the lifetime of the molecules is estimated to be 3 -6 μ s .

  2. Oxidation of gallium arsenide in a plasma multipole device. Study of the MOS structures obtained

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourrier, S.; Mircea, A.; Simondet, F.

    1980-01-01

    The oxygen plasma oxidation of GaAs was studied in order to obtain extremely high frequency responses with MOS devices. In the multipole system a homogeneous oxygen plasma of high density can easily be obtained in a large volume. This system is thus convenient for the study of plasma oxidation of GaAs. The electrical properties of the MOS diodes obtained in this way are controlled by interface states, located mostly in the upper half of the band gap where densities in the 10 to the 13th power/(sq cm) (eV) range can be estimated. Despite these interface states the possibility of fabricating MOSFET transistors working mostly in the depletion mode for a higher frequency cut-off still exists.

  3. Interpreting angular momentum transfer between electromagnetic multipoles using vector spherical harmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinter, Roger; Jones, Garth A

    2018-02-01

    The transfer of angular momentum between a quadrupole emitter and a dipole acceptor is investigated theoretically. Vector spherical harmonics are used to describe the angular part of the field of the mediating photon. Analytical results are presented for predicting angular momentum transfer between the emitter and absorber within a quantum electrodynamical framework. We interpret the allowability of such a process, which appears to violate conservation of angular momentum, in terms of the breakdown of the isotropy of space at the point of photon absorption (detection). That is, collapse of the wavefunction results in loss of all angular momentum information. This is consistent with Noether's Theorem and demystifies some common misconceptions about the nature of the photon. The results have implications for interpreting the detection of photons from multipole sources and offers insight into limits on information that can be extracted from quantum measurements in photonic systems.

  4. Field analysis and enhancement of multi-pole magnetic components fabricated on printed circuit board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, K.-C.; Chen, C.-S.

    2007-01-01

    A multi-pole magnetic component magnetized with a fine magnetic pole pitch of less than 1 mm is very difficult to achieve by using traditional methods. Moreover, it requires a precise mechanical process and a complicated magnetization system. Different fine magnetic pole pitches of 300, 350 and 400 μm have been accomplished on 9-pole magnetic components through the printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing technology. Additionally, another fine magnetic pole pitch of 500 μm was also fabricated on a dual-layered (DL) wire circuit structure to investigate the field enhancement. After measurements, a gain factor of 1.37 was obtained in the field strength. The field variations among different magnetic pole pitches were analyzed in this paper

  5. Totally Transanal Laparo-Endoscopic Single-Site ProctoColectomy-Ileoanal J-Pouch (TLPC-J: An Experimental Study of a Novel Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Vahdad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES has become a commonly considered novel approach in the surgical field. The NOTES provide possibility of operation through the natural orifice and decreases the intentional puncture of the systemic organ and subsequent complications. Totally transanal laparo-endoscopic single-site proctoColectomy-Ileoanal J-Pouch (TLPC-J is a novel method in minimally invasive surgery for total colectomy. The main goal of this study is to perform this new method on an animal model, to assess probable complication and to resolve probable issues by using patients that are candidate for total colectomy. Method: Five dogs were prepared in lithotomy position. The TLPC-I procedure consists of endorectal technique with full thickness rectal dissection starting 1 cm orally from the dentate line above the peritoneal reflection and the proximal bowel was replaced into the abdominal cavity. Afterwards, the TriPort system was inserted in the anal canal and mesentrial resection of the total colon, mobilization of a distal ileal segment and intracorporeal suture of an ileal J-loop was accomplished by this system. An incision in the J-loop was conducted transanally. The J-pouch was created with an Endo-GIA® and sutured to the rectal wall. Results: All animals survived and passed stool with clear post operation situation. There was no infection in site of anastomosis. Conclusion: The TLPC-I provides the possibility of surgery without abdominal wall incision and decreases post operation complication such as pain, abdominal wound infection and wound dehiscence. This technique increases the quality of life and surgeons can discharge the patients early.

  6. Transumbilical laparoendoscopic single-site radical prostatectomy and cystectomy with the aid of a transurethral port: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jian; Zhu, Qingyi; Yuan, Lin; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Qingling; Wei, Yunfei

    2018-01-01

    To describe the surgical technique and report early outcomes of transurethral assisted laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) radical prostatectomy (RP) and LESS radical cystectomy (RC) in a single institution. Between December 2014 and March 2016, a total of 114 LESS RPs and RCs were performed, comprising 68 LESS RPs, 38 LESS RCs with cutaneous ureterostomy (CU) and eight LESS RCs with orthotopic ileal neobladder (OIN). Access was achieved via a single-port, with four channels placed through a transumblical incision. After the apex of prostate was separated from the urethra, a self-developed port ('Zhu's port') was inserted through the urethra to facilitate resection of prostate and urethrovesical anastomosis. The peri-operative and postoperative data were collected and analysed retrospectively. Patients were followed up postoperatively for evidence of long-term side effects. All the procedures were completed successfully. No conversion to conventional laparoscopic surgery was necessary. For LESS RP, the average operating time was 152 min. Estimated blood loss was 117 mL. The mean hospital stay was 16.4 days after surgery. For LESS RC with CU and LESS RC with OIN, the mean operating times were 215 and 328 min, mean estimated blood loss was 175 and 252 mL, and mean hospital stay was 9.4 and 18.2 days, respectively. Six patients required blood transfusion (5.26%). Intra-operative complications occurred in two patients (1.75%), and postoperative complications in nine (7.89%). Fourteen out of 68 (20.6%) patients who underwent LESS RP had positive surgical margins. Follow-up ranged from 10 to 30.6 months. In the prostate cancer cases, good urinary control was observed in 35.3%, 97.1% and 100% of patients at 1, 6 and 12 months after the operation, respectively, while biochemical recurrence was observed in 11.8% patients. In the bladder cancer cases, two patients had local recurrence and two patients had distant metastasis. Our results showed that LESS RP and LESS RC

  7. Tracking studies on the effects of magnet multipoles on the aperture of the RHIC heavy ion collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dell, G.F.; Parzen, G.

    1985-01-01

    Tracking studies including the effects of random multipoles resulting from construction errors have been made for RHIC with two independent tracking programs at three different tunes. The studies were made using ten different sets of random errors for each of the programs. The aperture was defined as the worst case, and the results of the two programs are in good agreement. A second set of studies was made for which the number of dipoles was doubled to determine whether doubling the number of independent random errors results in a reduction of the effects or random multipoles. The results for the two cases, one dipole per half cell and two dipoles per half cell, indicate there is little difference in dynamic aperture. 3 refs., 3 figs

  8. Measuring our peculiar velocity on the CMB with high-multipole off-diagonal correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amendola, Luca; Catena, Riccardo; Notari, Alessio [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Masina, Isabella [Dip. di Fisica, Università di Ferrara and INFN Sez. di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy); Quartin, Miguel [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CEP 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Quercellini, Claudia, E-mail: l.amendola@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: r.catena@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: masina@fe.infn.it, E-mail: a.notari@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: mquartin@if.ufrj.br, E-mail: Claudia.Quercellini@uniroma2.it [Dip. di Fisica, Università di Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy)

    2011-07-01

    Our peculiar velocity with respect to the CMB rest frame is known to induce a large dipole in the CMB. However, the motion of an observer has also the effect of distorting the anisotropies at all scales, as shown by Challinor and Van Leeuwen (2002), due to aberration and Doppler effects. We propose to measure independently our local motion by using off-diagonal two-point correlation functions for high multipoles. We study the observability of the signal for temperature and polarization anisotropies. We point out that Planck can measure the velocity β with an error of about 30% and the direction with an error of about 20°. This method constitutes a cross-check, which can be useful to verify that our CMB dipole is due mainly to our velocity or to disentangle the velocity from other possible intrinsic sources. Although in this paper we focus on our peculiar velocity, a similar effect would result also from other intrinsic vectorial distortion of the CMB which would induce a dipolar lensing. Measuring the off-diagonal correlation terms is therefore a test for a preferred direction on the CMB sky.

  9. Spin-multipole effects in binary black holes and the test-body limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vines, Justin; Steinhoff, Jan

    2018-03-01

    We discuss the effects of the black holes' spin-multipole structure in the orbital dynamics of binary black holes according to general relativity, focusing on the leading-post-Newtonian-order couplings at each order in an expansion in the black holes' spins. We first review previous widely confirmed results up through fourth order in spin, observe suggestive patterns therein, and discuss how the results can be extrapolated to all orders in spin with minimal information from the test-body limit. We then justify this extrapolation by providing a complete derivation within the post-Newtonian framework of a canonical Hamiltonian for a binary black hole, for generic orbits and spin orientations, which encompasses the leading post-Newtonian orders at all orders in spin. At the considered orders, the results reveal a precise equivalence between arbitrary-mass-ratio two-spinning-black-hole dynamics and the motion of a test black hole in a Kerr spacetime, as well as an intriguing relationship to geodesic motion in a Kerr spacetime.

  10. Revision of FMM-Yukawa: An adaptive fast multipole method for screened Coulomb interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Huang, Jingfang; Pitsianis, Nikos P.; Sun, Xiaobai

    2010-12-01

    FMM-YUKAWA is a mathematical software package primarily for rapid evaluation of the screened Coulomb interactions of N particles in three dimensional space. Since its release, we have revised and re-organized the data structure, software architecture, and user interface, for the purpose of enabling more flexible, broader and easier use of the package. The package and its documentation are available at http://www.fastmultipole.org/, along with a few other closely related mathematical software packages. New version program summaryProgram title: FMM-Yukawa Catalogue identifier: AEEQ_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEEQ_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU GPL 2.0 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 78 704 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 854 265 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN 77, FORTRAN 90, and C. Requires gcc and gfortran version 4.4.3 or later Computer: All Operating system: Any Classification: 4.8, 4.12 Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEEQ_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 180 (2009) 2331 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: To evaluate the screened Coulomb potential and force field of N charged particles, and to evaluate a convolution type integral where the Green's function is the fundamental solution of the modified Helmholtz equation. Solution method: The new version of fast multipole method (FMM) that diagonalizes the multipole-to-local translation operator is applied with the tree structure adaptive to sample particle locations. Reasons for new version: To handle much larger particle ensembles, to enable the iterative use of the subroutines in a solver, and to remove potential contention in assignments for parallelization. Summary of revisions: The software package FMM-Yukawa has been

  11. A cell multipole based domain decomposition algorithm for molecular dynamics simulation of systems of arbitrary shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarasimhulu, Pasupulati; Madura, Jeffry D.

    2002-04-01

    A domain decomposition algorithm for molecular dynamics simulation of atomic and molecular systems with arbitrary shape and non-periodic boundary conditions is described. The molecular dynamics program uses cell multipole method for efficient calculation of long range electrostatic interactions and a multiple time step method to facilitate bigger time steps. The system is enclosed in a cube and the cube is divided into a hierarchy of cells. The deepest level cells are assigned to processors such that each processor has contiguous cells and static load balancing is achieved by redistributing the cells so that each processor has approximately same number of atoms. The resulting domains have irregular shape and may have more than 26 neighbors. Atoms constituting bond angles and torsion angles may straddle more than two processors. An efficient strategy is devised for initial assignment and subsequent reassignment of such multiple-atom potentials to processors. At each step, computation is overlapped with communication greatly reducing the effect of communication overhead on parallel performance. The algorithm is tested on a spherical cluster of water molecules, a hexasaccharide and an enzyme both solvated by a spherical cluster of water molecules. In each case a spherical boundary containing oxygen atoms with only repulsive interactions is used to prevent evaporation of water molecules. The algorithm shows excellent parallel efficiency even for small number of cells/atoms per processor.

  12. Utilizing fast multipole expansions for efficient and accurate quantum-classical molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwörer, Magnus; Lorenzen, Konstantin; Mathias, Gerald; Tavan, Paul, E-mail: paul.tavan@physik.uni-muenchen.de [Lehrstuhl für BioMolekulare Optik, Ludwig–Maximilians Universität München, Oettingenstr. 67, 80538 München (Germany)

    2015-03-14

    Recently, a novel approach to hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations has been suggested [Schwörer et al., J. Chem. Phys. 138, 244103 (2013)]. Here, the forces acting on the atoms are calculated by grid-based density functional theory (DFT) for a solute molecule and by a polarizable molecular mechanics (PMM) force field for a large solvent environment composed of several 10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} molecules as negative gradients of a DFT/PMM hybrid Hamiltonian. The electrostatic interactions are efficiently described by a hierarchical fast multipole method (FMM). Adopting recent progress of this FMM technique [Lorenzen et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 3244 (2014)], which particularly entails a strictly linear scaling of the computational effort with the system size, and adapting this revised FMM approach to the computation of the interactions between the DFT and PMM fragments of a simulation system, here, we show how one can further enhance the efficiency and accuracy of such DFT/PMM-MD simulations. The resulting gain of total performance, as measured for alanine dipeptide (DFT) embedded in water (PMM) by the product of the gains in efficiency and accuracy, amounts to about one order of magnitude. We also demonstrate that the jointly parallelized implementation of the DFT and PMM-MD parts of the computation enables the efficient use of high-performance computing systems. The associated software is available online.

  13. Combining the multilevel fast multipole method with the uniform geometrical theory of diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tzoulis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of arbitrarily shaped and electrically large objects in the same environment leads to hybridization of the Method of Moments (MoM with the Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (UTD. The computation and memory complexity of the MoM solution is improved with the Multilevel Fast Multipole Method (MLFMM. By expanding the k-space integrals in spherical harmonics, further considerable amount of memory can be saved without compromising accuracy and numerical speed. However, until now MoM-UTD hybrid methods are restricted to conventional MoM formulations only with Electric Field Integral Equation (EFIE. In this contribution, a MLFMM-UTD hybridization for Combined Field Integral Equation (CFIE is proposed and applied within a hybrid Finite Element - Boundary Integral (FEBI technique. The MLFMM-UTD hybridization is performed at the translation procedure on the various levels of the MLFMM, using a far-field approximation of the corresponding translation operator. The formulation of this new hybrid technique is presented, as well as numerical results.

  14. Petascale molecular dynamics simulation using the fast multipole method on K computer

    KAUST Repository

    Ohno, Yousuke

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we report all-atom simulations of molecular crowding - a result from the full node simulation on the "K computer", which is a 10-PFLOPS supercomputer in Japan. The capability of this machine enables us to perform simulation of crowded cellular environments, which are more realistic compared to conventional MD simulations where proteins are simulated in isolation. Living cells are "crowded" because macromolecules comprise ∼30% of their molecular weight. Recently, the effects of crowded cellular environments on protein stability have been revealed through in-cell NMR spectroscopy. To measure the performance of the "K computer", we performed all-atom classical molecular dynamics simulations of two systems: target proteins in a solvent, and target proteins in an environment of molecular crowders that mimic the conditions of a living cell. Using the full system, we achieved 4.4 PFLOPS during a 520 million-atom simulation with cutoff of 28 Å. Furthermore, we discuss the performance and scaling of fast multipole methods for molecular dynamics simulations on the "K computer", as well as comparisons with Ewald summation methods. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Using Huygens Multipole Arrays to Realize Unidirectional Needle-Like Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard W. Ziolkowski

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available For nearly a century, the concept of needle radiation has captured the attention of the electromagnetics communities in both physics and engineering, with various types of contributions reoccurring every decade. With the near-term needs for highly directive, electrically small radiators and scatterers for a variety of communications and sensor applications, superdirectivity has again become a topic of interest. While it is well known that superdirective solutions exist and suffer ill-posedness issues in principle, a detailed needle solution has not been reported previously. We demonstrate explicitly, for the first time, how needle radiation can be obtained theoretically from currents driven on an arbitrary spherical surface, and we explain why such a result can only be attained in practice with electrically large spheres. On the other hand, we also demonstrate, more practically, how broadside radiating Huygens source multipoles can be combined into an end-fire array configuration to achieve needle-like radiation performance without suffering the traditional problems that have previously plagued superdirectivity.

  16. Stabilizing Single Sites on Solid Supports: Robust Grafted Ti(IV)-Calixarene Olefin Epoxidation Catalysts via Surface Polymerization and Cross-Linking

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Yijun; Solovyov, Andrew; Grosso-Giordano, Nicolás A.; Hwang, Son-Jong; Katz, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript develops a surface polymerization and cross-linking approach for the stabilization of single-site catalysts on solid surfaces, which is demonstrated here for grafted Ti(IV)-calixarene Lewis acids on silica. Our approach relies on cationic polymerization that is initiated by an adsorbed B(C_6F_5)_3 and uses styrene as the monomer and diisopropenylbenzene as the cross-linking agent. The mildness of this polymerization method is demonstrated by its lack of blocking micropores and...

  17. Nuclear photonics at ultra-high counting rates and higher multipole excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirolf, P. G.; Habs, D.; Filipescu, D.; Gernhäuser, R.; Günther, M. M.; Jentschel, M.; Marginean, N.; Pietralla, N.

    2012-01-01

    Next-generation γ beams from laser Compton-backscattering facilities like ELI-NP (Bucharest)] or MEGa-Ray (Livermore) will drastically exceed the photon flux presently available at existing facilities, reaching or even exceeding 10 13 γ/sec. The beam structure as presently foreseen for MEGa-Ray and ELI-NP builds upon a structure of macro-pulses (∼120 Hz) for the electron beam, accelerated with X-band technology at 11.5 GHz, resulting in a micro structure of 87 ps distance between the electron pulses acting as mirrors for a counterpropagating intense laser. In total each 8.3 ms a γ pulse series with a duration of about 100 ns will impinge on the target, resulting in an instantaneous photon flux of about 10 18 γ/s, thus introducing major challenges in view of pile-up. Novel γ optics will be applied to monochromatize the γ beam to ultimately ΔE/E∼10 −6 . Thus level-selective spectroscopy of higher multipole excitations will become accessible with good contrast for the first time. Fast responding γ detectors, e.g. based on advanced scintillator technology (e.g. LaBr 3 (Ce)) allow for measurements with count rates as high as 10 6 -10 7 γ/s without significant drop of performance. Data handling adapted to the beam conditions could be performed by fast digitizing electronics, able to sample data traces during the micro-pulse duration, while the subsequent macro-pulse gap of ca. 8 ms leaves ample time for data readout. A ball of LaBr 3 detectors with digital readout appears to best suited for this novel type of nuclear photonics at ultra-high counting rates.

  18. High-order Ho multipoles in HoB2C2 observed with soft resonant x-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Princep, A J; Mulders, A M; Schierle, E; Weschke, E; Hester, J; Hutchison, W D; Tanaka, Y; Terada, N; Narumi, Y; Nakamura, T

    2012-02-22

    Soft resonant x-ray Bragg diffraction (SRXD) at the Ho M4,5 edges has been used to study Ho 4f multipoles in the combined magnetic and orbitally ordered phase of HoB2C2. A full description of the energy dependence for both σ and π incident x-rays at two different azimuthal angles, as well as the ratio I(σ)/I(π) as a function of azimuthal angle for a selection of energies, allows a determination of the higher order multipole moments of rank 1 (dipole) to 6 (hexacontatetrapole). The Ho 4f multipole moments have been estimated, indicating a dominant hexadecapole (rank 4) order with an almost negligible influence from either the dipole or the octupole magnetic terms. The analysis incorporates both the intra-atomic magnetic and quadrupolar interactions between the 3d core and 4f valence shells as well as the interference of contributions to the scattering that behave differently under time reversal. Comparison of SRXD, neutron diffraction and non-resonant x-ray diffraction shows that the magnetic and quadrupolar order parameters are distinct. The (00½) component of the magnetic order exhibits a Brillouin type increase below the orbital ordering temperature T(Q), while the quadrupolar order increases more sharply. We conclude that the quadrupolar interaction is strong, but quadrupolar order only occurs when the magnetic order gives rise to a quasi-doublet ground state, which results in a lock-in of the orbitals at T(Q).

  19. The polarization observables T, P, and H and their impact on γp→pπ0 multipoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hartmann

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Data on the polarization observables T, P, and H for the reaction γp→pπ0 are reported. Compared to earlier data from other experiments, our data are more precise and extend the covered range in energy and angle substantially. The results were extracted from azimuthal asymmetries measured using a transversely polarized target and linearly polarized photons. The data were taken at the Bonn electron stretcher accelerator ELSA with the CBELSA/TAPS detector. Within the Bonn-Gatchina partial wave analysis, the new polarization data lead to a significant narrowing of the error band for the multipoles for neutral-pion photoproduction.

  20. Solutions of large-scale electromagnetics problems involving dielectric objects with the parallel multilevel fast multipole algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergül, Özgür

    2011-11-01

    Fast and accurate solutions of large-scale electromagnetics problems involving homogeneous dielectric objects are considered. Problems are formulated with the electric and magnetic current combined-field integral equation and discretized with the Rao-Wilton-Glisson functions. Solutions are performed iteratively by using the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA). For the solution of large-scale problems discretized with millions of unknowns, MLFMA is parallelized on distributed-memory architectures using a rigorous technique, namely, the hierarchical partitioning strategy. Efficiency and accuracy of the developed implementation are demonstrated on very large problems involving as many as 100 million unknowns.

  1. Rare-Earth Fourth-Order Multipole Moment in Cubic ErCo2 Probed by Linear Dichroism in Core-Level Photoemission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abozeed, Amina A.; Kadono, Toshiharu; Sekiyama, Akira; Fujiwara, Hidenori; Higashiya, Atsushi; Yamasaki, Atsushi; Kanai, Yuina; Yamagami, Kohei; Tamasaku, Kenji; Yabashi, Makina; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Andreev, Alexander V.; Wada, Hirofumi; Imada, Shin

    2018-03-01

    We developed a method to experimentally quantify the fourth-order multipole moment of the rare-earth 4f orbital. Linear dichroism (LD) in the Er 3d5/2 core-level photoemission spectra of cubic ErCo2 was measured using bulk-sensitive hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. Theoretical calculation reproduced the observed LD, and the result showed that the observed result does not contradict the suggested Γ 83 ground state. Theoretical calculation further showed a linear relationship between the LD size and the size of the fourth-order multipole moment of the Er3+ ion, which is proportional to the expectation value , where Onm are the Stevens operators. These analyses indicate that the LD in 3d photoemission spectra can be used to quantify the average fourth-order multipole moment of rare-earth atoms in a cubic crystal electric field.

  2. Multipole analysis of IceCube data to search for dark matter accumulated in the Galactic halo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aartsen, M.G.; Hill, G.C.; Robertson, S.; Whelan, B.J. [University of Adelaide, School of Chemistry and Physics, Adelaide, SA (Australia); Ackermann, M.; Berghaus, P.; Bernardini, E.; Bretz, H.P.; Cruz Silva, A.H.; Gluesenkamp, T.; Gora, D.; Jacobi, E.; Kaminsky, B.; Karg, T.; Middell, E.; Mohrmann, L.; Nahnhauer, R.; Schoenwald, A.; Shanidze, R.; Spiering, C.; Stoessl, A.; Terliuk, A.; Yanez, J.P. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Adams, J.; Brown, A.M.; Hickford, S.; Macias, O. [University of Canterbury, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Christchurch (New Zealand); Aguilar, J.A.; Altmann, D.; Christov, A.; Montaruli, T.; Rameez, M.; Vallecorsa, S. [Universite de Geneve, Departement de physique nucleaire et corpusculaire, Geneva (Switzerland); Ahlers, M.; Arguelles, C.; BenZvi, S.; Chirkin, D.; Day, M.; Desiati, P.; Diaz-Velez, J.C.; Eisch, J.; Fadiran, O.; Feintzeig, J.; Gladstone, L.; Halzen, F.; Hoshina, K.; Jacobsen, J.; Jero, K.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Kelley, J.L.; Kheirandish, A.; Kopper, C.; Kurahashi, N.; Larsen, D.T.; Maruyama, R.; McNally, F.; Middlemas, E.; Morse, R.; Rees, I.; Riedel, B.; Rodrigues, J.P.; Santander, M.; Tobin, M.N.; Tosi, D.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Van Santen, J.; Weaver, C.; Wellons, M.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N. [University of Wisconsin, Department of Physics, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, Madison, WI (United States); Ahrens, M.; Bohm, C.; Danninger, M.; Finley, C.; Flis, S.; Hulth, P.O.; Hultqvist, K.; Walck, C.; Wolf, M.; Zoll, M. [Stockholm University, Department of Physics, Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm (Sweden); Anderson, T.; Arlen, T.C.; De Andre, J.P.A.M.; DeYoung, T.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Groh, J.C.; Huang, F.; Quinnan, M.; Smith, M.W.E.; Stanisha, N.A.; Tesic, G. [Pennsylvania State University, Department of Physics, University Park, PA (United States); Auffenberg, J.; Bissok, M.; Blumenthal, J.; Gier, D.; Gretskov, P.; Haack, C.; Hallen, P.; Heinen, D.; Hellwig, D.; Jagielski, K.; Koob, A.; Kriesten, A.; Krings, K.; Leuermann, M.; Paul, L.; Penek, Oe.; Puetz, J.; Raedel, L.; Reimann, R.; Rongen, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schukraft, A.; Vehring, M.; Wallraff, M.; Wichary, C.; Wiebusch, C.H.; Zierke, S. [RWTH Aachen University, III. Physikalisches Institut, Aachen (Germany); Bai, X. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Physics Department, Rapid City, SD (United States); Barwick, S.W.; Yodh, G. [University of California, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Irvine, CA (United States); Baum, V.; Eberhardt, B.; Koepke, L.; Kroll, G.; Luenemann, J.; Sander, H.G.; Schatto, K.; Wiebe, K. [University of Mainz, Institute of Physics, Mainz (Germany); Beatty, J.J. [Ohio State University, Department of Physics, Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Columbus, OH (United States); Ohio State University, Department of Astronomy, Columbus, OH (United States); Becker Tjus, J.; Bos, F.; Eichmann, B.; Fedynitch, A.; Kroll, M.; Saba, S.M.; Schoeneberg, S.; Unger, E. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Astronomie, Bochum (Germany); Becker, K.H.; Bindig, D.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Helbing, K.; Hoffmann, R.; Klaes, J.; Kopper, S.; Naumann, U.; Obertacke, A.; Omairat, A.; Posselt, J.; Soldin, D.; Tepe, A. [University of Wuppertal, Department of Physics, Wuppertal (Germany); Berley, D.; Blaufuss, E.; Christy, B.; Felde, J.; Goodman, J.A.; Hellauer, R.; Hoffman, K.D.; Huelsnitz, W.; Meagher, K.; Olivas, A.; Redl, P.; Richman, M.; Schmidt, T.; Sullivan, G.W.; Wissing, H. [University of Maryland, Department of Physics, College Park, MD (United States); Bernhard, A.; Coenders, S.; Gross, A.; Jurkovic, M.; Leute, J.; Resconi, E.; Schulz, O.; Sestayo, Y. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Besson, D.Z. [University of Kansas, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lawrence, KS (United States); Binder, G.; Gerhardt, L.; Ha, C.; Klein, S.R.; Miarecki, S. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Boersma, D.J.; Botner, O.; Euler, S.; Hallgren, A.; Perez de los Heros, C.; Stroem, R.; Taavola, H. [Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala (Sweden); Bose, D.; Rott, C. [Sungkyunkwan University, Department of Physics, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Collaboration: IceCube Collaboration; and others

    2015-01-01

    Dark matter which is bound in the Galactic halo might self-annihilate and produce a flux of stable final state particles, e.g. high energy neutrinos. These neutrinos can be detected with IceCube, a cubic-kilometer sized Cherenkov detector. Given IceCube's large field of view, a characteristic anisotropy of the additional neutrino flux is expected. In this paper we describe a multipole method to search for such a large-scale anisotropy in IceCube data. This method uses the expansion coefficients of a multipole expansion of neutrino arrival directions and incorporates signal-specific weights for each expansion coefficient. We apply the technique to a high-purity muon neutrino sample from the Northern Hemisphere. The final result is compatible with the nullhypothesis. As no signal was observed, we present limits on the self-annihilation cross-section averaged over the relative velocity distribution left angle σ{sub A}υ right angle down to 1.9 x 10{sup -23} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1} for a dark matter particle mass of 700-1,000 GeV and direct annihilation into ν anti ν. The resulting exclusion limits come close to exclusion limits from γ-ray experiments, that focus on the outer Galactic halo, for high dark matter masses of a few TeV and hard annihilation channels. (orig.)

  3. Multipole analysis of IceCube data to search for dark matter accumulated in the Galactic halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; BenZvi, S.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Brown, A. M.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Christy, B.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Clevermann, F.; Coenders, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Danninger, M.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Eberhardt, B.; Eichmann, B.; Eisch, J.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Franckowiak, A.; Frantzen, K.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Gier, D.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Goodman, J. A.; Góra, D.; Grandmont, D. T.; Grant, D.; Gretskov, P.; Groh, J. C.; Groß, A.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallen, P.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hellwig, D.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Jacobsen, J.; Jagielski, K.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jero, K.; Jlelati, O.; Jurkovic, M.; Kaminsky, B.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Kelley, J. L.; Kheirandish, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Koob, A.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Kriesten, A.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kroll, M.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Larsen, D. T.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leute, J.; Lünemann, J.; Macías, O.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meli, A.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Middlemas, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke, A.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Paul, L.; Penek, Ö.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Pütz, J.; Quinnan, M.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Rees, I.; Reimann, R.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Saba, S. M.; Sander, H.-G.; Sandroos, J.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheriau, F.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schulte, L.; Schulz, O.; Seckel, D.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Shanidze, R.; Sheremata, C.; Smith, M. W. E.; Soldin, D.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stanisha, N. A.; Stasik, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Strahler, E. A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Tepe, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallraff, M.; Weaver, Ch.; Wellons, M.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Whitehorn, N.; Wichary, C.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Ziemann, J.; Zierke, S.; Zoll, M.

    2015-01-01

    Dark matter which is bound in the Galactic halo might self-annihilate and produce a flux of stable final state particles, e.g. high energy neutrinos. These neutrinos can be detected with IceCube, a cubic-kilometer sized Cherenkov detector. Given IceCube's large field of view, a characteristic anisotropy of the additional neutrino flux is expected. In this paper we describe a multipole method to search for such a large-scale anisotropy in IceCube data. This method uses the expansion coefficients of a multipole expansion of neutrino arrival directions and incorporates signal-specific weights for each expansion coefficient. We apply the technique to a high-purity muon neutrino sample from the Northern Hemisphere. The final result is compatible with the null-hypothesis. As no signal was observed, we present limits on the self-annihilation cross-section averaged over the relative velocity distribution down to for a dark matter particle mass of 700-1,000 GeV and direct annihilation into . The resulting exclusion limits come close to exclusion limits from -ray experiments, that focus on the outer Galactic halo, for high dark matter masses of a few TeV and hard annihilation channels.

  4. A Correlation Study between Geometry of Collared Coils and Normal Quadrupole Multipole in the Main LHC Dipoles

    CERN Document Server

    Bertinelli, F; Berthollon-Vitte, S; Glaude, D; Vanenkov, I

    2006-01-01

    The quality control implemented at all LHC dipole assemblers includes precise mechanical measurements of the geometry of collared coils. A cross-analysis performed between mechanical and magnetic measurements data shows a correlation between collared coils outer dimensions and the normal quadrupole multipole (b2) for one dipole assembler. The profile geometry of the single collars - as determined from 3D measurements at the collar suppliers and CERN - could not account alone for the significant left – right aperture asymmetry observed. This triggered a deeper investigation on different elements of the geometry of single collars. The results of this work show that the relative positioning of the collaring holes, allowing a small bending deformation of collars under the effect of coil pre-stress, is an important effect that generates a b2 multipole at the limit of specification. The study has deepened the understanding of the factors affecting collared coil geometry and field quality. The precision of 3D m...

  5. Influence of the multipole order of the source on the decay of an inertial wave beam in a rotating fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machicoane, Nathanael; Cortet, Pierre-Philippe; Voisin, Bruno; Moisy, Frederic

    2015-11-01

    Inertial wave beams emitted from localized sources are relevant to a broad range of geo and astrophysical flows. These beams are excited at critical lines, where the local slope of solid boundaries equals the propagation angle of the wave, in rotating fluid domains affected by a global harmonic forcing (e.g. precession, libration, tidal motion). We show here theoretically and experimentally that the decay of the amplitude of such wave beams depends on the multipole order of the source. We analyze the far-field viscous decay of a two-dimensional inertial wave beam emitted by a harmonic line source in a rotating fluid. By identifying the relevant conserved quantities along the wave beam, we show how the beam structure and decay exponent are governed by the multipole order of the source. Two wavemakers are considered experimentally, a pulsating and an oscillating cylinder, aiming to produce a monopole and a dipole source, respectively. The relevant conserved quantity which discriminates between these two sources is the instantaneous flow rate along the wave beam, which is non-zero for the monopole and zero for the dipole. For each source, the beam structure and decay exponent, measured using particle image velocimetry, are found in good agreement with the predictions.

  6. Real-time digital signal recovery for a multi-pole low-pass transfer function system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jhinhwan

    2017-08-01

    In order to solve the problems of waveform distortion and signal delay by many physical and electrical systems with multi-pole linear low-pass transfer characteristics, a simple digital-signal-processing (DSP)-based method of real-time recovery of the original source waveform from the distorted output waveform is proposed. A mathematical analysis on the convolution kernel representation of the single-pole low-pass transfer function shows that the original source waveform can be accurately recovered in real time using a particular moving average algorithm applied on the input stream of the distorted waveform, which can also significantly reduce the overall delay time constant. This method is generalized for multi-pole low-pass systems and has noise characteristics of the inverse of the low-pass filter characteristics. This method can be applied to most sensors and amplifiers operating close to their frequency response limits to improve the overall performance of data acquisition systems and digital feedback control systems.

  7. O-O bond formation in ruthenium-catalyzed water oxidation: single-site nucleophilic attack vs. O-O radical coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, David W; Xie, Yan; Concepcion, Javier J

    2017-10-16

    In this review we discuss at the mechanistic level the different steps involved in water oxidation catalysis with ruthenium-based molecular catalysts. We have chosen to focus on ruthenium-based catalysts to provide a more coherent discussion and because of the availability of detailed mechanistic studies for these systems but many of the aspects presented in this review are applicable to other systems as well. The water oxidation cycle has been divided in four major steps: water oxidative activation, O-O bond formation, oxidative activation of peroxide intermediates, and O 2 evolution. A significant portion of the review is dedicated to the O-O bond formation step as the key step in water oxidation catalysis. The two main pathways to accomplish this step, single-site water nucleophilic attack and O-O radical coupling, are discussed in detail and compared in terms of their potential use in photoelectrochemical cells for solar fuels generation.

  8. Redox-active on-surface polymerization of single-site divalent cations from pure metals by a ketone-functionalized phenanthroline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skomski, Daniel; Tempas, Christopher D.; Bukowski, Gregory S.; Smith, Kevin A.; Tait, Steven L., E-mail: tait@indiana.edu [Department of Chemistry, Indiana University, 800 E. Kirkwood Ave., Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States)

    2015-03-14

    Metallic iron, chromium, or platinum mixing with a ketone-functionalized phenanthroline ligand on a single crystal gold surface demonstrates redox activity to a well-defined oxidation state and assembly into thermally stable, one dimensional, polymeric chains. The diverging ligand geometry incorporates redox-active sub-units and bi-dentate binding sites. The gold surface provides a stable adsorption environment and directs growth of the polymeric chains, but is inert with regard to the redox chemistry. These systems are characterized by scanning tunnelling microscopy, non-contact atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy under ultra-high vacuum conditions. The relative propensity of the metals to interact with the ketone group is examined, and it is found that Fe and Cr more readily complex the ligand than Pt. The formation and stabilization of well-defined transition metal single-sites at surfaces may open new routes to achieve higher selectivity in heterogeneous catalysts.

  9. Correlation and relativistic effects for the 4f-nl and 5p-nl multipole transitions in Er-like tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safronova, U. I.; Safronova, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    Wavelengths, transition rates, and line strengths are calculated for the multipole (E1, M1, E2, M2, E3, and M3) transitions between the excited [Cd]4f 13 5p 6 nl, [Cd]4f 14 5p 5 nl configurations and the ground [Cd]4f 14 5p 6 state in Er-like W 6+ ion ([Cd]=[Kr]4d 10 5s 2 ). In particular, the relativistic many-body perturbation theory (RMBPT), including the Breit interaction, is used to evaluate energies and transition rates for multipole transitions in this hole-particle system. This method is based on the relativistic many-body perturbation theory that agrees with multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) calculations in lowest order, and includes all second-order correlation corrections and corrections from negative-energy states. The calculations start from a [Cd]4f 14 5p 6 Dirac-Fock (DF) potential. First-order perturbation theory is used to obtain intermediate-coupling coefficients, and second-order RMBPT is used to determine the multipole matrix elements needed for calculations of other atomic properties such as line strengths and transition rates. In addition, core multipole polarizability is evaluated in random-phase and DF approximations. The comparison with available data is demonstrated.

  10. Surface integral formulation of Maxwell's equations for simulation of non-destructive testing by eddy currents. Preliminary study on the implementation of the fast multipole method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, T.

    2011-01-01

    To simulate numerically a non-destructive by eddy current testing (NDT-CF), the sensor response can be modeled through a semi-analytical approach by volume integral equations. Faster than the finite element method, this approach is however restricted to the study of plane or cylindrical parts (without taking into account the edge effects) because of the complexity of the expression of the dyadic Green function for more general configurations. However, there is an industrial demand to extend the capabilities of the CF model in complex configurations (deformed plates, edges effects...). We were thus brought to formulate the electromagnetic problem differently, by setting ourselves the goal of maintaining a semi-analytical approach. The surface integral equation (SIE) expresses the volume problem by an equivalent transmission one at the interfaces (2D) between homogeneous sub-domains. This problem is approached by a linear system (by the method of moments), whose number of unknowns is reduced due to the nature of the surfacic mesh. Therefore, this system can be solved by a direct solver for small configurations. That enabled us to treat several various positions of the sensor for only one inversion of the impedance matrix. The numerical results obtained using this formulation involve plates with consideration of edge effects such as edge and corner. They are consistent with results obtained by the finite element method. For larger configurations, we conducted a preliminary study for the adaptation of an acceleration method of the matrix vector product involved in an iterative solver (fast multipole method or FMM) to define the conditions under which the FMM calculation works correctly (accuracy, convergence...) in the NDT's domain. A special attention has been given to the choice of basis functions (which have to satisfy an Hdiv conforming property) and on the evaluation of near interactions (which are weakly singular). (author) [fr

  11. Study of the giant multipole resonances, especially the isoscalar giant E2 resonance in 208Pb by inelastic electron scattering with medium and high energy resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehner, E.G.F.

    1982-01-01

    In the nucleus 208 Pb giant multipole resonances were looked for by inelastic electron scattering up to excitation energies of Esub(x) = 35 MeV. Twelve spectra were taken up at incident energies of Esub(o) = 45-65 MeV under scattering angles from upsilon = 93 0 to 165 0 . The cross sections extracted from this were analyzed by means of DWBA calculations using RPA amplitudes from a model with separable residual interaction. Basing on this analysis for the first time it could be shown that the maximum in the electron scattering cross section at Esub(x) approx.= 14 MeV can be consistently described as a superposition of the Jsup(π) = 1 - , ΔT = 1 with a Jsup(π) = 0 + , ΔT = 0 giant resonance. Furthermore the spectra under backward scattering angles indicate the existence of a magnetic excitation at Esub(x) approx.= 15 MeV which is interpreted as Jsup(π) = 3 + giant resonance. Besides under forwards angles a further weak excitation appears at Esub(x) approx.= 14.6 MeV which is very well compatible with Jsup(π) = 2 + . At Esub(x) = 17.5 MeV a Jsup(π) = 3 - resonance was found which recently is also observed in (α,α') scattering experiments and therefore gets a ΔT = 0 assignment. A further resonance at Esub(x) approx.= 21 MeV has also Jsup(π) = 3 - character but has partly to be assigned to a Jsup(π) = 1 - , ΔT = 0 excitation. At Esub(x) = 23.8 MeV a Jsup(π) = 2 + excitation was found which gels because of model predictions a ΔT = 1 assignment. (orig./HSI) [de

  12. Study of the giant multipole resonances especially of the isoscalar giant E2 resonance in 208Pb by medium and high energy resolution inelastic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehner, G.

    1982-01-01

    In the nucleus 208 Pb giant multipole resonances up to excitation energies of Esub(x) = 35 MeV were looked for by medium resolution inelastic electron scattering. Twelve spectra were taken up at incident energies of E 0 = 45-65 MeV under scattering angles from upsilon = 93 0 to 165 0 . The cross sections extracted from this were analyzed by means of DWBA calculations using RPA amplitudes from a model with separable residual interaction. On the base of this analysis for the first time it could be shown that the maximum in the electron scattering cross section at Esub(x) approx.= 14 MeV can be consistently described as superposition of the Jsup(π) = 1 - , ΔT = 1 with a Jsup(π) = 0 + , ΔT = 0 giant resonance. Furthermore the spectra under backward scattering angles indicate the existence of a magnetic excitation at Esub(x) approx.= 15 MeV which is interpreted as Jsup(π) = 3 + giant resonance. Besides under forward angles a further weak excitation at Esub(x) approx.= 14.6 MeV appears which is very well compatible with Jsup(π) = 2 + . At Esub(x) = 17.5 MeV a Jsup(π) = 3 - resonance was found which recently is observed also in (α, α') experiments and therefore gets a ΔT = 0 assignment. A further resonance at Esub(x) approx.= 21 MeV has also a Jsup(π) = 3 - character but has to be partly assigned to a Jsup(π) = 1 - , ΔT = 0 excitation. At Esub(x) = 23.8 MeV a Jsup(π) = 2 + excitation was found which gets because of model predictions a ΔT = 1 assignment. (orig./HSI) [de

  13. Multi-pole permanent magnet synchronous generator wind turbines' grid support capability in uninterrupted operation during grid faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Michalke, G.

    2009-01-01

    Emphasis in this paper is on the fault ride-through and grid support capabilities of multi-pole permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) wind turbines with a full-scale frequency converter. These wind turbines are announced to be very attractive, especially for large offshore wind farms....... A control strategy is presented, which enhances the fault ride-through and voltage support capability of such wind turbines during grid faults. Its design has special focus on power converters' protection and voltage control aspects. The performance of the presented control strategy is assessed...... to ride through a grid fault, without implementation of any additional ride-through control strategy in the active stall wind farm....

  14. Laparoendoscopic single-site gastric bands versus standard multiport gastric bands: a comparison of technical learning curve measured by surgical time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawart, Matthew; Dupitron, Sabine; Lutfi, Rami

    2012-03-01

    We aimed to evaluate our learning curve comparing surgical time of laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) banding with multiport laparoscopy. We performed a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data comparing our first 48 LESS bands with our first 50 multiport laparoscopic bands at our institution. We then compared the first 24 LESS bands with the last 24 bands. The average body mass index for the LESS group was significantly lower than for the laparoscopic group (43.19 vs 48.3; P < .0001). The surgical time was much faster toward the second half of our experience performing the LESS procedure (85.34 vs 68.8; P = .0055). LESS banding took significantly longer than our early traditional laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (76.85 vs 64.4; P = .0015). We conclude that in experienced hands, single-incision banding is feasible and safe to perform. Long-term data are needed to prove that LESS banding is as good a surgery as traditional laparoscopic surgery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Review and meta-analysis of prospective randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing laparo-endoscopic single site and multiport laparoscopy in gynecologic operative procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontis, Alessandro; Sedda, Federica; Mereu, Liliana; Podda, Mauro; Melis, Gian Benedetto; Pisanu, Adolfo; Angioni, Stefano

    2016-09-01

    To critically appraise published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing laparo-endoscopic single site (LESS) and multi-port laparoscopic (MPL) in gynecologic operative surgery; the aim was to assess feasibility, safety, and potential benefits of LESS in comparison to MPL. A systematic review and meta-analysis of eleven RCTs. Women undergoing operative LESS and MPL gynecologic procedure (hysterectomy, cystectomy, salpingectomy, salpingo-oophorectomy, myomectomy). Outcomes evaluated were as follows: postoperative overall morbidity, postoperative pain evaluation at 6, 12, 24 and 48 h, cosmetic patient satisfaction, conversion rate, body mass index (BMI), operative time, blood loss, hemoglobin drop, postoperative hospital stay. Eleven RCTs comprising 956 women with gynecologic surgical disease randomized to either LESS (477) or MPL procedures (479) were analyzed systematically. The LESS approach is a surgical procedure with longer operative and better cosmetic results time than MPL but without statistical significance. Operative outcomes, postoperative recovery, postoperative morbidity and patient satisfaction are similar in LESS and MPL. LESS may be considered an alternative to MPL with comparable feasibility and safety in gynecologic operative procedures. However, it does not offer the expected advantages in terms of postoperative pain and cosmetic satisfaction.

  16. Multi-pole magnetization of NdFeB magnets for magnetic micro-actuators and its characterization with a magnetic field mapping device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toepfer, J.; Pawlowski, B.; Beer, H.; Ploetner, K.; Hofmann, P.; Herrfurth, J.

    2004-01-01

    Multi-pole magnetization of NdFeB plate magnets of thickness between 0.25 and 2 mm with a stripe pattern and a pole pitch of 2 or 1 mm was performed by pulse magnetization. The experimental conditions of the magnetization process were optimized to give a maximum surface flux density at the poles. The magnetic field distribution above the magnets was measured with a field mapping device that automatically scans the surface of the magnet with a Hall probe. It is demonstrated for different magnet geometries that the field mapping system is a useful device to study the magnetic surface pole structure. The characterization of the pole flux density of multi-pole NdFeB flat magnets is an important prerequisite for the application of these magnets in miniature actuators

  17. The Decline of Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Surgery: A Survey of the Endourological Society to Identify Shortcomings and Guidance for Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Igor; Canvasser, Noah E; Irwin, Brian; Autorino, Riccardo; Liatsikos, Evangelos N; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A; Rane, Abhay

    2017-10-01

    To analyze the most recent temporal trends in the adoption of urologic laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS), to identify the perceived limitations associated with its decline, and to determine factors that might revive the role of LESS in the field of minimally invasive urologic surgery. A 15 question survey was created and sent to members of the Endourological Society in September 2016. Only members who performed LESS procedures in practice were asked to respond. In total, 106 urologists responded to the survey. Most of the respondents were from the United States (35%) and worked in an academic hospital (84.9%). Standard LESS was the most popular approach (78.1%), while 14.3% used robotics, and 7.6% used both. 2009 marked the most popular year to perform the initial (27.6%) and the majority (20%) of LESS procedures. The most common LESS procedure was a radical/simple nephrectomy (51%) followed by pyeloplasty (17.3%). In the past 12 months, 60% of respondents had performed no LESS procedures. Compared to conventional laparoscopy, respondents only believed cosmesis to be better, however, this enthusiasm waned over time. Worsening shifts in enthusiasm for LESS also occurred with patient desire, marketability, cost, safety, and robotic adaptability. The highest rated factor to help LESS regain popularity was a new robotic platform. The decline of LESS is apparent, with few urologists continuing to perform procedures attributed to multiple factors. The availability of a purpose-built robotic platform and better instrumentation might translate into a renewed future interest of LESS.

  18. Six-month visual outcomes for the correction of presbyopia using a small-aperture corneal inlay: single-site experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshirfar, Majid; Quist, Tyler S; Skanchy, David F; Wallace, Ryan T; Linn, Steven H; Hoopes, Phillip C

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to describe 6-month postoperative efficacy and safety outcomes after monocular KAMRA corneal inlay implantation in emmetropic presbyopic patients. Study design This study followed a retrospective chart analysis. Setting This study was performed at Hoopes Vision in Draper, UT, USA. Subjects and methods Fifty-seven patients met the inclusion criteria of this study and underwent KAMRA corneal inlay implantation following the approval of the United States Food and Drug Association between May 2015 and April 2016 at a single site. Surgery involved femtosecond laser-created corneal pockets of various depths. Efficacy, safety, and patient satisfaction reports were analyzed at 3 and 6 months. Results At 6 months follow-up, the monocular uncorrected near visual acuity (UNVA) was Jaeger (J) 4 (20/32), the mean uncorrected distance visual acuity was 20/25, and the mean corrected distance visual acuity was 20/20. At 6 months, 71% of patients with a pocket depth of ≥250 μm had a UNVA of 20/20 or better, whereas only 22% of patients with a shallow pocket depth of inlay recentration, all of which resulted in improved visual acuity. At 6 months, 72% of patients reported some level of satisfaction, 26% of patients reported being “not dependent” on reading glasses, and 62% of patients reported being able to do most things in bright light without reading glasses. Conclusion For patients with emmetropic presbyopia, the KAMRA inlay is a viable treatment option resulting in improved UNVA. Increased pocket depth may be associated with better postoperative outcomes. Safety rates are high, while explantation and recentering rates are low. Overall, patient satisfaction of the KAMRA inlay is good. PMID:27843289

  19. Robotic Single-Site and Conventional Laparoscopic Surgery in Gynecology: Clinical Outcomes and Cost Analysis of a Matched Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hachem, Lena; Andikyan, Vaagn; Mathews, Shyama; Friedman, Kathryn; Poeran, Jashvant; Shieh, Kenneth; Geoghegan, Michael; Gretz, Herbert F

    2016-01-01

    To assess the clinical outcomes and costs associated with robotic single-site (RSS) surgery compared with those of conventional laparoscopy (CL) in gynecology. Retrospective case-control study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). University-affiliated community hospital. Female patients undergoing RSS or CL gynecologic procedures. Comparison of consecutive RSS gynecologic procedures (cases) undertaken between October 2013 and March 2014 with matched CL procedures (controls) completed during the same time period by the same surgeon. Patient demographic data, operative data, and hospital financial data were abstracted from the electronic charts and financial systems. An incremental cost analysis based on the use of disposable equipment was performed. Total hospital charges were determined for matched RSS cases vs CL cases. RSS surgery was completed in 25 out of 33 attempts; 3 cases were aborted before docking, and 5 were converted to a multisite surgery. There were no intraoperative complications or conversions to laparotomy. The completed cases included 11 adnexal cases and 14 hysterectomies, 3 of which included pelvic lymph node dissection. Compared with the CL group, total operative times were higher in the RSS group; however, there were no significant between-group differences in estimated blood loss, length of hospital stay, or complication rates. Disposable equipment cost per case, direct costs, and total hospital charges were evaluated. RSS was associated with an increased disposable cost per case of $248 to $378, depending on the method used for vaginal cuff closure. The average total hospital charges for matched outpatient adnexal surgery were $15,450 for the CL controls and $18,585 for the RSS cases (p total hospital charges for matched outpatient benign hysterectomy were $14,623 for the CL controls and $21,412 for the RSS cases (p cost per case and total hospital charges. Careful case selection and judicious use of equipment are necessary to

  20. Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery with hysterectomy in patients with prior cesarean section: comparison of surgical outcomes with bladder dissection techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Eun Ju; Kim, Tae-Joong; Lee, Yoo-Young; Choi, Chel Hun; Lee, Jeong-Won; Bae, Duk-Soo; Kim, Byoung-Gie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare operative outcomes from 300 patients who underwent laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) with hysterectomy (H) according to previous cesarean section and to describe the bladder dissection technique in detail. Retrospective cohort study (Canadian task classification II-2). A university hospital, research hospital, and a tertiary care center. In total, 300 LESS-H procedures were performed for benign gynecologic disease, cervical disease, and endometrial disease at Samsung Medical Center in Seoul, Korea, between May 2008 and February 2012. Patients were categorized into 2 groups according to previous cesarean history: the previous cesarean section group (n = 98) and the no history of previous cesarean section group (n = 202). LESS-H with vaginal or lateral approach for bladder dissection. Baseline demographics and clinical characteristics, except for age, were generally the same between the 2 groups. The operative outcomes including operative time, uterine weight, estimated blood loss, hemoglobin change, hospital stay, and transfusion rate were not different between the 2 groups. Adhesiolysis was required more in the previous cesarean section group (p = .002). LESS failure requiring additional trocars occurred more often in the previous cesarean section group (p = .041), but the rates of conversion to laparotomy were not different (p = .327). The overall surgical complication rate except transfusion was 2.67% in this study. Two cases of urologic problems with ureter injury or bladder injury were reported in the previous cesarean section group. In the no previous cesarean section group, there were 2 urologic problems. LESS-H is a feasible procedure with a lateral approach or vaginal approach for bladder dissection, even in patients with previous cesarean section. Copyright © 2013 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Hybrid laparoendoscopic single-site surgery of upper urinary tract with the use of mini-laparoscopic instruments: cosmetic outcome and midterm oncological outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallidonis, Panagiotis; Kyriazis, Jason; Kamal, Wissam; Porpiglia, Francesco; Liatsikos, Evangelos

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of mini-laparoscopic instruments in combination with laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) instruments for the performance of oncological urological surgery. Thirty-five patients underwent oncological hybrid LESS either mini-laparoscopic-assisted LESS partial nephrectomy (LESS-PN, n = 12) or mini-laparoscopic-assisted LESS radical nephrectomy (LESS-RN, n = 23). Perioperative data were prospectively collected. The patient and observer scar assessment scale (POSAS) was used for the evaluation of the cosmetic outcome. Mean tumor size treated by LESS-PNs was 28.8 (IQR 20.5-37.3) mm. Average operative time and blood loss were 123 (IQR 112.5-145) min and 158.3 (IQR 100-200) ml, respectively. Renal artery clamping took place in seven cases. LESS-RN was performed in cases with a mean tumor size of 60 (IQR 48-71.5) mm. The average operative time was 116.8 (IQR 100-130) min. Average blood loss was 137 (IQR 100-150) ml. Complications were limited to grade II according to Clavien classification. The oncological outcome, including midterm results, was directly comparable to the literature. Patients reported low pain scores and high satisfaction in terms of postoperative scarring. The POSAS scores confirmed the excellent cosmetic outcome of hybrid LESS. The combination of mini-laparoscopic and LESS instrumentation as routine equipment of oncological surgery provided an efficient option for urologic surgery. The combination of mini-laparoscopic and LESS instruments improves the intraoperative ergonomics of LESS-PN and LESS-RN. The provided surgical and oncological outcome compares favorably to the LESS and conventional laparoscopic literature.

  2. Laparo-Endoscopic Single-Site Surgery for Radical and Cytoreductive Nephrectomy, Renal Vein Thrombectomy, and Partial Nephrectomy: A Prospective Pilot Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ithaar H. Derweesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery (LESS may diminish morbidity of laparoscopic surgery. We prospectively evaluated feasibility and outcomes of LESS-Radical Nephrectomy (LESS-RN and Partial Nephrectomy (LESS-PN. Methods. 10 patients underwent LESS-RN (6 and LESS-PN (4 between 2/2009-5/2009. LESS-RN included 2 with renal vein thrombectomy, one of which was also cytoreductive. Transperitoneal LESS access was obtained by periumbilical incision. Patient/tumor characteristics, oncologic, and quality of life (QoL outcomes were analyzed. Results. 3 Men/7 Women (mean age 58.7 years, median follow-up 9.8 months underwent LESS. 9/10 cases were completed successfully. All had negative margins. Mean operative time was 161 minutes, estimated blood loss was 125 mL, and incision size was 4.4 cm. Median tumor size for LESS-RN and -PN was 5.0 and 1.7 cm (=.045. Median LESS-PN ischemia time was 24 minutes; mean preoperative/postoperative creatinine were 0.7/0.8 mg/dL (=.19. Mean pain score at discharge was 1.3. Mean preoperative, 3-, and 6-month postoperative SF-36 QoL Score was 73.8, 74.4 and 77.1 (=.222. All patients are currently alive. Conclusions. LESS-RN, renal vein thrombectomy, and PN are technically feasible and safe while maintaining adherence to oncologic principles, with excellent QoL preservation and low discharge pain scores. Further study is requisite.

  3. Single-site laparoscopic percutaneous extraperitoneal closure of the internal ring using an epidural and spinal needle: excellent results in 1464 children with inguinal hernia/hydrocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Furan; Zhong, Hongji; Chen, Yi; Zhao, Junfeng; Li, Yan; Chen, Junxian; Dong, Sheng

    2017-07-01

    Laparoscopic percutaneous extraperitoneal closure (LPEC) of the internal ring is a well-developed procedure for pediatric inguinal hernia and hydrocele. To reduce the skin incisions and improve the cosmesis, single-site LPEC (SLPEC) has been developed with numerous techniques and instruments. In this study, we described our modifications of SLPEC using an epidural and spinal needle in a large pediatric population. From February 2013 to February 2016, 1464 pediatric patients who underwent SLPEC in our hospital were retrospectively reviewed. A 5-mm laparoscope was introduced at the subumbilicus. An 18-gauge epidural needle with a silk suture loop was introduced into the corresponding skin of the internal ring. The needle was advanced extraperitoneally on the medial side of the ring. The suture loop was pushed into peritoneal cavity by the spinal needle. The epidural needle was withdrawn to the roof of the internal ring and then kept advancing along the lateral side. Aided by the spinal needle and laparoscope, a long suture loop was sent into the first loop in peritoneal cavity. The long suture loop was pulled out of the abdominal wall by picking up the first loop, and the internal ring was closed by knotting the suture extracorporeally. The contralateral patent processus vaginalis (CPPV) was simultaneously repaired if present. In total, 981 patients presented with inguinal hernia and 483 with hydrocele. A CPPV was present in 483 patients with unilateral pathology and thus simultaneously repaired. The hydrodissection technique and grasping forceps were used in 290 and 113 patients, respectively. The median operation time was 11 min (7-18 min) and 18 min (10-30 min) for unilateral and bilateral inguinal hernias/hydroceles, respectively. There was no development of intra- or postoperative complications. SLPEC using an epidural and spinal needle can be performed with excellent results in pediatric inguinal hernias and hydroceles.

  4. Development of in-lab energy-filtered X-ray photoemission electron microscope using air-core-coil-type multipole Wien filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, H.; Kato, M.; Kawasaki, T.; Miyamoto, T.; Suzuki, S.; Chun, W.-J.; Kudo, M.; Kawahara, N.; Doi, M.; Tsukamoto, K.; Asakura, K.

    2007-10-01

    We have developed an in-lab energy-filtered X-ray photoemission electron microscopy (EXPEEM) combining a high-brilliance X-ray source and a new Wien filter-type energy analyzer, which can accept photoelectrons in a wide angle. To obtain high energy resolution, we enlarged the inner diameter of the filter and reduced aberrations of an analyzer using multipole electrodes and air-core coils. We obtained an energy-filtered image of photoelectrons.

  5. The damping coefficients and a non-expanded multipole analysis of the exact second-order induction energy in H2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnasco, V.; Figari, G.

    1987-01-01

    An exact analytical formula for the coefficients damping each individual multipole in the second-order induction for H 2 + is presented and the first three damping coefficients explicitly evaluated in closed form. Numerical calculation shows that the damped Rsup(-n) series expansion of the induction energy always converges, the first four terms in the expansion accounting for no less than 97 per cent of the exact value over the whole range of internuclear separations. (author)

  6. Minilaparoscopic radical hysterectomy (mLPS-RH) vs laparoendoscopic single-site radical hysterectomy (LESS-RH) in early stage cervical cancer: a multicenter retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagotti, Anna; Ghezzi, Fabio; Boruta, David M; Scambia, Giovanni; Escobar, Pedro; Fader, Amanda N; Malzoni, Mario; Fanfani, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    To compare the perioperative outcomes of laparoendoscopic single-site radical hysterectomy (LESS-RH) and minilaparoscopic radical hysterectomy (mLPS-RH). Retrospective study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Seven institutions in Italy. Forty-six patents with early cervical cancer (FIGO stage IA2-IB1/IIA1) were included in the study. Nineteen patients (41.3%) underwent LESS-RH, and 27 (58.7%) underwent mLPS-RH. Pelvic lymph node dissection was performed in all patients. In the LESS-RH group, all surgical procedures were performed through a single umbilical multichannel port. In the mLPS-RH group, the procedure was completed using a 5-mm umbilical optical trocar and 3 additional 3-mm ancillary trocars, placed suprapubically and in the left and right lower abdominal regions. There was no difference in clinicopathologic characteristics at the time of diagnosis between the LESS-RH and mLPS-RH groups. Median operative time was 270 minutes (range, 149-380 minutes) for LESS-RH, and was 180 minutes (range, 90-240 minutes) for mLPS-RH (p = .001). No further differences were detected between the 2 groups insofar as type of radical hysterectomy, number of lymph nodes removed, or perioperative outcomes. In the LESS-RH group, conversion to laparotomy was necessary in 1 patient (5.3%) because of external iliac vein injury, and in another patient, conversion to standard laparoscopy was required because of truncal obesity. In the mLPS-RH group, no conversions were observed; however, a repeat operation was performed to repair a ureteral injury. The percentage of patients discharged 1 day after surgery was significantly higher in the LESS-RH group (57.9%) compared with the mLPS-RH group (25.0%) (p = .03). After a median follow-up of 27 months (range, 9-73 months), only 1 patient, who had undergone mLPS-RH, experienced pelvic recurrence and died of the disease. Both LESS-RH and mLPS-RH are feasible ultra-minimally invasive approaches for performance of radical hysterectomy

  7. A systematic review and meta-analysis concerning single-site laparoscopic percutaneous extraperitoneal closure for pediatric inguinal hernia and hydrocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Wang, Furan; Zhong, Hongji; Zhao, Junfeng; Li, Yan; Shi, Zhan

    2017-12-01

    Single-site laparoscopic percutaneous extraperitoneal closure (SLPEC) of hernia sac/processus vaginalis has been widely performed for repair of inguinal hernia/hydrocele in children. However, a variety of surgical instruments and techniques were used, and significant differences existed among the SLPEC reports. A literature search was performed for all available studies concerning SLPEC for pediatric inguinal hernia/hydrocele in PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library. The surgical details and operative outcomes were pooled and analyzed with software StataSE 12.0. 49 studies fulfilled the predefined inclusion criteria of this review and 37 studies were finally included in the meta-analysis. The mean incidence of CPPV was 29.1% (range 5.73-43.0%). The average of mean operative time was 19.56 min (range 8.30-41.19 min) for unilateral SLPEC and 27.23 min (range 12.80-48.19 min) for bilateral SLPEC. The total incidence of injury, conversion, recurrence, hydrocele formation, knot reaction, severe pain, and scrotal swelling was 0.32% (range 0-3.24%), 0.05% (range 0-0.89%), 0.70% (range 0-15.5%), 0.23% (range 0-3.57%), 0.33% (range 0-3.33%), 0.05% (range 0-4.55%), and 0.03% (range 0-1.52%), respectively. There was no development of testicular atrophy. Subgroup analyses showed an inverse correlation between the injury incidence and adoption of assisted forceps, hydrodissection, and blunt puncture device, between the conversion rate and adoption of hydrodissection, between the recurrence/hydrocele incidence and adoption of assisted forceps, hydrodissection, nonabsorbable suture and the preventive measures to avoid ligating the unnecessary subcutaneous tissues, and between the rate of knot reaction and adoption of assisted forceps, hydrodissection, and the preventive measures. SLPEC was a well-developed procedure for repair of pediatric inguinal hernia/hydrocele. Adoption of assisted forceps, hydrodissection, nonabsorbable suture, and the preventive measures to avoid

  8. Comparison of surgical effect and postoperative patient experience between laparoendoscopic single-site and conventional laparoscopic varicocelectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present meta-analysis was conducted to compare the clinical effect and patient experience of laparoendoscopic single-site varicocelectomy (LESSV and conventional laparoscopic varicocelectomy. The candidate studies were included after literature search of database Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, and MEDLINE. Related information on essential data and outcome measures was extracted from the eligible studies by two independent authors, and a meta-analysis was conducted using STATA 12.0 software. Subgroup analyses were conducted by study design (RCT and non-RCT. The odds ratio (OR or standardized mean difference (SMD and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs were used to estimate the outcome measures. Seven articles were included in our meta-analysis. The results indicated that patient who had undergone LESSV had a shorter duration of back to work (overall: SMD = −1.454, 95% CI: −2.502-−0.405, P = 0.007; non-RCT: SMD = −2.906, 95% CI: −3.796-−2.017, P = 0.000; and RCT: SMD = −0.841, 95% CI: −1.393-−0.289, P = 0.003 and less pain experience at 3 h or 6 h (SMD = −0.447, 95% CI: −0.754-−0.139, P = 0.004, day 1 (SMD = −0.477, 95% CI: −0.905-−0.05, P = 0.029, and day 2 (SMD = −0.612, 95% CI: −1.099-−0.125, P = 0.014 postoperatively based on RCT studies. However, the meta-analyses based on operation time, clinical effect (improvement of semen quality and scrotal pain relief, and complications (hydrocele and recurrence yielded nonsignificant results. In conclusion, LESSV had a rapid recovery and less pain experience over conventional laparoscopic varicocelectomy. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the two varicocelectomy techniques in terms of the clinical effect and the incidence of hydrocele and varicocele recurrence. More high-quality studies are warranted for a comprehensive conclusion.

  9. REALISTIC NON-LINEAR MODEL AND FIELD QUALITY ANALYSIS IN RHIC INTERACTION REGIONS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEEBE-WANG,J.; JAIN, A.

    2007-06-25

    The existence of multipole components in the dipole and quadrupole magnets is one of the factors limiting the beam stability in the RHIC operations. So, a realistic non-linear model is crucial for understanding the beam behavior and to achieve the ultimate performance in RHIC. A procedure is developed to build a non-linear model using the available multipole component data obtained from measurements of RHIC magnets. We first discuss the measurements performed at different stages of manufacturing of the magnets in relation to their current state in RHIC. We then describe the procedure to implement these measurement data into tracking models, including the implementation of the multipole feed down effect due to the beam orbit offset from the magnet center. Finally, the field quality analysis in the RHIC interaction regions (IR) is presented.

  10. Second Born approximation in elastic-electron scattering from nuclear static electro-magnetic multipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Khamiesi, I.M.; Kerimov, B.K.

    1988-01-01

    Second Born approximation corrections to electron scattering by nuclei with arbitrary spin are considered. Explicit integral expressions for the charge, magnetic dipole and interference differential cross sections are obtained. Magnetic and interference relative corrections are then investigated in the case of backward electron scattering using shell model form factors for nuclear targets 9 Be, 10 B, and 14 N. To understand exponential growth of these corrections with square of the electron energy K 0 2 , the case of electron scattering by 6 Li is considered using monopole model charge form factor with power-law asymptotics. 11 refs., 2 figs. (author)

  11. Ordering and Fluctuation of Quantum Multipoles in CeB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiina, R.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of multipolar fluctuations on the quadrupolar phase transition in CeB 6 is investigated theoretically. It is shown that the fluctuations become strong and field-dependent, reflecting the competition of coupled multipolar interactions. Some unusual phenomena around the transition in CeB 6 are shown to be reasonably explained within the RKKY model. (author)

  12. Searching for a holographic connection between dark energy and the low-l CMB multipoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enqvist, Kari; Hannestad, Steen; Sloth, Martin Snoager

    2004-01-01

    . In such a model there is a cosmic duality relating the dark energy equation of state and the power spectrum, which shows a suppression and oscillatory behaviour that is found to describe the low l features extremely well. However, much of the discussion here will also apply if we actually live inside an expanding...

  13. Neutron transition multipole moment for /sup 88/Sr(. cap alpha. ,. cap alpha. ')/sup 88/Sr (2/sup +/, 1. 84 MeV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, S.K.; Ray, S.; Majumdar, H.; Ghosh, S.K.; Samanta, C.; Dasgupta, P.; Chintalapudi, S.N.; Banerjee, S.R.

    1989-04-01

    The neutron transition multipole moment, M/sub n/, for (0/sup +/..-->..2/sup +/, 1.84 MeV) transition is inferred by measuring the (..cap alpha..,..cap alpha..') angular distribution at E/sub ..cap alpha../ = 50 MeV and comparing it with a microscopic distorted-wave Born approximation calculation. Proton transition densities are taken from electron scattering data. M/sub n//M/sub p/ is found to be substantially less than N/Z in agreement with the (p,p') result.

  14. A geometric analysis of the Maxwell field in a vicinity of a multipole particle and a new family of special functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijowski, Jerzy; Podleś, Piotr

    2009-06-01

    A method of solving Maxwell equations in a vicinity of a multipole particle (moving along an arbitrary trajectory) is proposed. The method is based on a geometric construction of a novel trajectory-adapted coordinate system, which simplifies considerably the equations. The solution is given in terms of a series, where a new family of special functions arises in a natural way. Singular behaviour of the field near to the particle may be analyzed this way up to an arbitrary order. Application to the self-interaction problems in classical electrodynamics is discussed.

  15. Magnetic multipole induced zero-rotation frequency bounce-resonant loss in a Penning–Malmberg trap used for antihydrogen trapping

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, G B; Bray, C; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Fajans, J; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Hardy, W N; Hayano, R S; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Jørgensen, L V; Kerrigan, S J; Keller, J; Kurchaninov, L; Lambo, R; Madsen, N; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Seif El Nasr, S; Silveira, D M; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y

    2009-01-01

    In many antihydrogen trapping schemes, antiprotons held in a short-well Penning–Malmberg trap are released into a longer well. This process necessarily causes the bounce-averaged rotation frequency $\\overline{\\Omega}_r$ of the antiprotons around the trap axis to pass through zero. In the presence of a transverse magnetic multipole, experiments and simulations show that many antiprotons (over 30% in some cases) can be lost to a hitherto unidentified bounce-resonant process when $\\overline{\\Omega}_r$ is close to zero.

  16. Elongation cutoff technique armed with quantum fast multipole method for linear scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchowiec, Jacek; Lewandowski, Jakub; Makowski, Marcin; Gu, Feng Long; Aoki, Yuriko

    2009-11-30

    A linear-scaling implementation of the elongation cutoff technique (ELG/C) that speeds up Hartree-Fock (HF) self-consistent field calculations is presented. The cutoff method avoids the known bottleneck of the conventional HF scheme, that is, diagonalization, because it operates within the low dimension subspace of the whole atomic orbital space. The efficiency of ELG/C is illustrated for two model systems. The obtained results indicate that the ELG/C is a very efficient sparse matrix algebra scheme. Copyright 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program on Reducing the Incidence Rate of Healthcare-Associated Clostridium difficile Infection: A Non-Randomized, Stepped Wedge, Single-Site, Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio DiDiodato

    Full Text Available The incidence rate of healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infection (HA-CDI is estimated at 1 in 100 patients. Antibiotic exposure is the most consistently reported risk factor for HA-CDI. Strategies to reduce the risk of HA-CDI have focused on reducing antibiotic utilization. Prospective audit and feedback is a commonly used antimicrobial stewardship intervention (ASi. The impact of this ASi on risk of HA-CDI is equivocal. This study examines the effectiveness of a prospective audit and feedback ASi on reducing the risk of HA-CDI.Single-site, 339 bed community-hospital in Barrie, Ontario, Canada. Primary outcome is HA-CDI incidence rate. Daily prospective and audit ASi is the exposure variable. ASi implemented across 6 wards in a non-randomized, stepped wedge design. Criteria for ASi; any intravenous antibiotic use for ≥ 48 hrs, any oral fluoroquinolone or oral second generation cephalosporin use for ≥ 48 hrs, or any antimicrobial use for ≥ 5 days. HA-CDI cases and model covariates were aggregated by ward, year and month starting September 2008 and ending February 2016. Multi-level mixed effect negative binomial regression analysis was used to model the primary outcome, with intercept and slope coefficients for ward-level random effects estimated. Other covariates tested for inclusion in the final model were derived from previously published risk factors. Deviance residuals were used to assess the model's goodness-of-fit.The dataset included 486 observation periods, of which 350 were control periods and 136 were intervention periods. After accounting for all other model covariates, the estimated overall ASi incidence rate ratio (IRR was 0.48 (95% 0.30, 0.79. The ASi effect was independent of antimicrobial utilization. The ASi did not seem to reduce the risk of Clostridium difficile infection on the surgery wards (IRR 0.87, 95% CI 0.45, 1.69 compared to the medicine wards (IRR 0.42, 95% CI 0.28, 0.63. The ward-level burden of

  18. Higher-order anisotropies in the Buda-Lund model: Disentangling flow and density field anisotropies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loekoes, Sandor [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Budapest (Hungary); Csanad, Mate [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Budapest (Hungary); Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Tomasik, Boris [Univerzita Mateja Bela, Banska Bystrica (Slovakia); Czech Technical University in Prague, FNSPE, Prague (Czech Republic); Csoergo, Tamas [Wigner RCP, Budapest (Hungary); KRF, Gyoengyoes (Hungary)

    2016-10-15

    The Buda-Lund hydro model describes an expanding ellipsoidal fireball, and fits the observed elliptic flow and oscillating HBT radii successfully. Due to fluctuations in energy depositions, the fireball shape however fluctuates on an event-by-event basis. The transverse plane asymmetry can be translated into a series of multipole anisotropy coefficients. These anisotropies then result in measurable momentum-space anisotropies, to be measured with respect to their respective symmetry planes. In this paper we detail an extension of the Buda-Lund model to multipole anisotropies and investigate the resulting flow coefficients and oscillations of HBT radii. (orig.)

  19. Structure of the giant multipole resonances in 20Ne and 28Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, K.W.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear structure wave functions for the ground and excited states of light deformed nuclei are obtained by diagonalizing a ''realistic'' many nucleon Hamiltonian (kinetic energy plus a Brueckner G matrix based on the Hamada-Johnston potential) in a suitably truncated nonorthogonal space of angular momentum projected deformed Slater determinants being constructed out of self-consistent Hartree-Fock single nucleon orbits. Possible spurious admixtures due to the center of mass motion are eliminated at least approximately by a separate diagonalization of the center of mass Hamiltonian. Taking into account a rather large single particle basis, calculations using this method are performed for the two sd-shell nuclei 20 Ne and 28 Si. Besides energies and wave functions, using alternatively an oscillator and a Woods-Saxon representation, the electromagnetic ground state transitions of both parities and of various multipolarities are also calculated as well as the corresponding spectroscopic amplitudes. The results are compared, where possible, with the experimental data and the results of other calculations. Special attention is paid to the strength distributions obtained for the various multipolarities. Though completely microscopic, the model yields fair qualitative agreement with the available experimental information. Furthermore, possible improvements of the method are discussed

  20. Performance Evaluation of Computation and Communication Kernels of the Fast Multipole Method on Intel Manycore Architecture

    KAUST Repository

    AbdulJabbar, Mustafa Abdulmajeed

    2017-07-31

    Manycore optimizations are essential for achieving performance worthy of anticipated exascale systems. Utilization of manycore chips is inevitable to attain the desired floating point performance of these energy-austere systems. In this work, we revisit ExaFMM, the open source Fast Multiple Method (FMM) library, in light of highly tuned shared-memory parallelization and detailed performance analysis on the new highly parallel Intel manycore architecture, Knights Landing (KNL). We assess scalability and performance gain using task-based parallelism of the FMM tree traversal. We also provide an in-depth analysis of the most computationally intensive part of the traversal kernel (i.e., the particle-to-particle (P2P) kernel), by comparing its performance across KNL and Broadwell architectures. We quantify different configurations that exploit the on-chip 512-bit vector units within different task-based threading paradigms. MPI communication-reducing and NUMA-aware approaches for the FMM’s global tree data exchange are examined with different cluster modes of KNL. By applying several algorithm- and architecture-aware optimizations for FMM, we show that the N-Body kernel on 256 threads of KNL achieves on average 2.8× speedup compared to the non-vectorized version, whereas on 56 threads of Broadwell, it achieves on average 2.9× speedup. In addition, the tree traversal kernel on KNL scales monotonically up to 256 threads with task-based programming models. The MPI-based communication-reducing algorithms show expected improvements of the data locality across the KNL on-chip network.

  1. Conversion of a beta-strand to an alpha-helix induced by a single-site mutation observed in the crystal structure of Fis mutant Pro26Ala.

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, W. Z.; Ko, T. P.; Corselli, L.; Johnson, R. C.; Yuan, H. S.

    1998-01-01

    The conversion from an alpha-helix to a beta-strand has received extensive attention since this structural change may induce many amyloidogenic proteins to self-assemble into fibrils and cause fatal diseases. Here we report the conversion of a peptide segment from a beta-strand to an alpha-helix by a single-site mutation as observed in the crystal structure of Fis mutant Pro26Ala determined at 2.0 A resolution. Pro26 in Fis occurs at the point where a flexible extended beta-hairpin arm leaves...

  2. Accounting of inter-electron correlations in the model of mobile electron shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panov, Yu.D.; Moskvin, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    One studied the basic peculiar features of the model for mobile electron shells for multielectron atom or cluster. One offered a variation technique to take account of the electron correlations where the coordinates of the centre of single-particle atomic orbital served as variation parameters. It enables to interpret dramatically variation of electron density distribution under anisotropic external effect in terms of the limited initial basis. One studied specific correlated states that might make correlation contribution into the orbital current. Paper presents generalization of the typical MO-LCAO pattern with the limited set of single particle functions enabling to take account of additional multipole-multipole interactions in the cluster [ru

  3. Surface integral formulation of Maxwell's equations for simulation of non-destructive testing by eddy currents. Preliminary study on the implementation of the fast multipole method; Formulation integrale surfacique des equations de Maxwell pour la simulation de controles non destructifs par courant de Foucault. Etude preliminaire a la mise en oeuvre de la methode multipole rapide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, T.

    2011-04-28

    To simulate numerically a non-destructive by eddy current testing (NDT-CF), the sensor response can be modeled through a semi-analytical approach by volume integral equations. Faster than the finite element method, this approach is however restricted to the study of plane or cylindrical parts (without taking into account the edge effects) because of the complexity of the expression of the dyadic Green function for more general configurations. However, there is an industrial demand to extend the capabilities of the CF model in complex configurations (deformed plates, edges effects...). We were thus brought to formulate the electromagnetic problem differently, by setting ourselves the goal of maintaining a semi-analytical approach. The surface integral equation (SIE) expresses the volume problem by an equivalent transmission one at the interfaces (2D) between homogeneous sub-domains. This problem is approached by a linear system (by the method of moments), whose number of unknowns is reduced due to the nature of the surfacic mesh. Therefore, this system can be solved by a direct solver for small configurations. That enabled us to treat several various positions of the sensor for only one inversion of the impedance matrix. The numerical results obtained using this formulation involve plates with consideration of edge effects such as edge and corner. They are consistent with results obtained by the finite element method. For larger configurations, we conducted a preliminary study for the adaptation of an acceleration method of the matrix vector product involved in an iterative solver (fast multipole method or FMM) to define the conditions under which the FMM calculation works correctly (accuracy, convergence...) in the NDT's domain. A special attention has been given to the choice of basis functions (which have to satisfy an Hdiv conforming property) and on the evaluation of near interactions (which are weakly singular). (author) [French] Pour simuler

  4. The multipole resonance probe: A concept for simultaneous determination of plasma density, electron temperature, and collision rate in low-pressure plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapke, M.; Mussenbrock, T.; Brinkmann, R. P.

    2008-01-01

    A diagnostic concept is presented which enables the simultaneous determination of plasma density, electron temperature, and collision rate in low-pressure gas discharges. The proposed method utilizes a radio-frequency driven probe of particular spherical design which is immersed in the plasma to excite a family of spatially bounded surface resonances. An analysis of the measured absorption spectrum S(ω) of the probe provides information on the distribution of the plasma in its vicinity, from which the values of the plasma parameters can be inferred. In its simplest realization, the probe consists of two dielectrically shielded, conducting hemispheres, which are symmetrically driven by an radio-frequency source, and the excited resonances can be classified as multipole fields, which allows an analytical evaluation of the measured signal. The proposed method is robust, calibration free, economical, and can be used for ideal and reactive plasmas alike

  5. Airfoil-based electromagnetic energy harvester containing parallel array motion between moving coil and multi-pole magnets towards enhanced power density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Chung Ming; Wang, Ya; Chen, Wusi

    2016-11-01

    In this letter, the airfoil-based electromagnetic energy harvester containing parallel array motion between moving coil and trajectory matching multi-pole magnets was investigated. The magnets were aligned in an alternatively magnetized formation of 6 magnets to explore enhanced power density. In particular, the magnet array was positioned in parallel to the trajectory of the tip coil within its tip deflection span. The finite element simulations of the magnetic flux density and induced voltages at an open circuit condition were studied to find the maximum number of alternatively magnetized magnets that was required for the proposed energy harvester. Experimental results showed that the energy harvester with a pair of 6 alternatively magnetized linear magnet arrays was able to generate an induced voltage (Vo) of 20 V, with an open circuit condition, and 475 mW, under a 30 Ω optimal resistance load operating with the wind speed (U) at 7 m/s and a natural bending frequency of 3.54 Hz. Compared to the traditional electromagnetic energy harvester with a single magnet moving through a coil, the proposed energy harvester, containing multi-pole magnets and parallel array motion, enables the moving coil to accumulate a stronger magnetic flux in each period of the swinging motion. In addition to the comparison made with the airfoil-based piezoelectric energy harvester of the same size, our proposed electromagnetic energy harvester generates 11 times more power output, which is more suitable for high-power-density energy harvesting applications at regions with low environmental frequency.

  6. Building better water models using the shape of the charge distribution of a water molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmawardhana, Chamila Chathuranga; Ichiye, Toshiko

    2017-11-01

    The unique properties of liquid water apparently arise from more than just the tetrahedral bond angle between the nuclei of a water molecule since simple three-site models of water are poor at mimicking these properties in computer simulations. Four- and five-site models add partial charges on dummy sites and are better at modeling these properties, which suggests that the shape of charge distribution is important. Since a multipole expansion of the electrostatic potential describes a charge distribution in an orthogonal basis set that is exact in the limit of infinite order, multipoles may be an even better way to model the charge distribution. In particular, molecular multipoles up to the octupole centered on the oxygen appear to describe the electrostatic potential from electronic structure calculations better than four- and five-site models, and molecular multipole models give better agreement with the temperature and pressure dependence of many liquid state properties of water while retaining the computational efficiency of three-site models. Here, the influence of the shape of the molecular charge distribution on liquid state properties is examined by correlating multipoles of non-polarizable water models with their liquid state properties in computer simulations. This will aid in the development of accurate water models for classical simulations as well as in determining the accuracy needed in quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical studies and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of water. More fundamentally, this will lead to a greater understanding of how the charge distribution of a water molecule leads to the unique properties of liquid water. In particular, these studies indicate that p-orbital charge out of the molecular plane is important.

  7. Transitioning from a single-site pilot project to a state-wide regional telehealth service: The experience from the Victorian Stroke Telemedicine programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagot, Kathleen L; Cadilhac, Dominique A; Kim, Joosup; Vu, Michelle; Savage, Mark; Bolitho, Les; Howlett, Glenn; Rabl, Justin; Dewey, Helen M; Hand, Peter J; Denisenko, Sonia; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Bladin, Christopher F

    2017-12-01

    Scaling of projects from inception to establishment within the healthcare system is rarely formally reported. The Victorian Stroke Telemedicine (VST) programme provided a very useful opportunity to describe how rural hospitals in Victoria were able to access a network of Melbourne-based neurologists via telemedicine. The VST programme was initially piloted at one site in 2010 and has gradually expanded as a state-wide regional service operating with 16 hospitals in 2017. The aim of this paper is to summarise the factors that facilitated the state-wide transition of the VST programme. A naturalistic case-study was used and data were obtained from programme documents, e.g. minutes of governance committees, including the steering committee, the management committee and six working groups; operational and evaluation documentation, interviews and research field-notes taken by project staff. Thematic analysis was undertaken, with results presented in narrative form to provide a summary of the lived experience of developing and scaling the VST programme. The main success factors were attaining funding from various sources, identifying a clinical need and evidence-based solution, engaging stakeholders and facilitating co-design, including embedding the programme within policy, iterative evaluation including performing financial sustainability modelling, and conducting dissemination activities of the interim results, including promotion of early successes.

  8. How to easily replace the independent atom model - the example of bergenin, a potential anti-HIV agent of traditional Asian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Birger; Weber, Manuela; Kalinowski, Roman; Grabowsky, Simon; Hübschle, Christian B; Luger, Peter

    2009-12-01

    Bergenin, which has been isolated from a variety of tropical plants, has several pharmacological applications in traditional Asian medicine. Its electron-density distribution was obtained from a room-temperature low-resolution X-ray data set measured with point detection making use of multipole populations from the invariom library. Two refinement models were considered. In a first step, positional parameters and ADPs were refined with fixed library multipoles (model E1). This model was suitable to be input into a second refinement of multipoles (model E2), which converged smoothly although based on Cu Kalpha room-temperature data. Quantitative results of a topological analysis of the electron density from both models were compared with Hartree-Fock and density-functional calculations. With respect to the independent atom model (IAM) more information can be extracted from invariom modelling, including the electrostatic potential and hydrogen-bond energies, which are highly useful, especially for biologically active compounds. The reliability of the applied invariom formalism was assessed by a comparison of bond-topological properties of sucrose, for which high-resolution multipole and invariom densities were available. Since a conventional X-ray diffraction experiment using basic equipment was combined with the easy-to-use invariom formalism, the procedure described here for bergenin illustrates how it can be routinely applied in pharmacological research.

  9. On the Use of Multipole Expansion in Time Evolution of Non-linear Dynamical Systems and Some Surprises Related to Superradiance

    CERN Document Server

    Csizmadia, Peter; Racz, Istvan

    2013-01-01

    A new numerical method is introduced to study the problem of time evolution of generic non-linear dynamical systems in four-dimensional spacetimes. It is assumed that the time level surfaces are foliated by a one-parameter family of codimension two compact surfaces with no boundary and which are conformal to a Riemannian manifold C. The method is based on the use of a multipole expansion determined uniquely by the induced metric structure on C. The approach is fully spectral in the angular directions. The dynamics in the complementary 1+1 Lorentzian spacetime is followed by making use of a fourth order finite differencing scheme with adaptive mesh refinement. In checking the reliability of the introduced new method the evolution of a massless scalar field on a fixed Kerr spacetime is investigated. In particular, the angular distribution of the evolving field in to be superradiant scattering is studied. The primary aim was to check the validity of some of the recent arguments claiming that the Penrose process,...

  10. Robust Diagnosis Method Based on Parameter Estimation for an Interturn Short-Circuit Fault in Multipole PMSM under High-Speed Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jewon; Moon, Seokbae; Jeong, Hyeyun; Kim, Sang Woo

    2015-11-20

    This paper proposes a diagnosis method for a multipole permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) under an interturn short circuit fault. Previous works in this area have suffered from the uncertainties of the PMSM parameters, which can lead to misdiagnosis. The proposed method estimates the q-axis inductance (Lq) of the faulty PMSM to solve this problem. The proposed method also estimates the faulty phase and the value of G, which serves as an index of the severity of the fault. The q-axis current is used to estimate the faulty phase, the values of G and Lq. For this reason, two open-loop observers and an optimization method based on a particle-swarm are implemented. The q-axis current of a healthy PMSM is estimated by the open-loop observer with the parameters of a healthy PMSM. The Lq estimation significantly compensates for the estimation errors in high-speed operation. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can estimate the faulty phase, G, and Lq besides exhibiting robustness against parameter uncertainties.

  11. Dansk udenrigs- og sikkerhedspolitisk aktivisme i en stadig mere multipolær verdensorden. Danmarks håndtering af den nye stormagt Kina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Tenna Nørup Sørensen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dansk udenrigs- og sikkerhedspolitik med dets fokus på at fremme dansk sikkerhed, danske interesser og danske værdier står over for nye betingelser. Det centrale spørgsmål er, hvordan dansk udenrigs- og sikkerhedspolitisk aktivisme skal operere i en stadig mere multipolær verdensorden. I artiklen anvendes en neoklassisk realistisk analyseramme, som muliggør analyse af, hvordan igangværende udviklinger i systemiske og indenrigspolitiske betingelser påvirker dansk udenrigs- og sikkerhedspolitik. Analysen viser, hvordan handlerummet for den danske værdipolitiske udenrigs- og sikkerhedspolitiske aktivisme mindskes særligt som følge af USA's svækkende stormagtsposition og dermed et øget pres på liberale værdier som universelle værdier. Handlerummet mindskes yderligere som følge af øget indenrigspolitisk fokus på varetagelsen af danske økonomiske og kommercielle interesser, som i stigende grad afhænger af stærke og stabile relationer til nye økonomiske og politiske magtcentre, som ikke deler værdier med Danmark. Den ændrede linje i dansk udenrigs- og sikkerhedspolitisk aktivisme viser sig tydeligst i forhold til Danmarks håndtering af den nye stormagt Kina, hvor 1990ernes danske megafondiplomati på det værdipolitiske felt er slut.

  12. Comparison of Langmuir probe and multipole resonance probe measurements in argon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen mixtures in a double ICP discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebrandt, Marcel; Oberberg, Moritz; Awakowicz, Peter

    2017-07-01

    The results of a Multipole Resonance Probe (MRP) are compared to a Langmuir probe in measuring the electron density in Ar, H2, N2, and O2 mixtures. The MRP was designed for measurements in industry processes, i.e., coating or etching. To evaluate a possible influence on the MRP measurement due to molecular gases, different plasmas with increasing molecular gas content in a double inductively coupled plasma at 5 Pa and 10 Pa at 500 W are used. The determined electron densities from the MRP and the Langmuir probe slightly differ in H2 and N2 diluted argon plasmas, but diverge significantly with oxygen. In pure molecular gas plasmas, electron densities measured with the MRP are always higher than those measured with the Langmuir Probe, in particular, in oxygen containing mixtures. The differences can be attributed to etching of the tungsten wire in the Ar:O2 mixtures and rf distortion in the pure molecular discharges. The influence of a non-Maxwellian electron energy distribution function, negative ions or secondary electron emission seems to be of no or only minor importance.

  13. Robust Diagnosis Method Based on Parameter Estimation for an Interturn Short-Circuit Fault in Multipole PMSM under High-Speed Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jewon Lee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a diagnosis method for a multipole permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM under an interturn short circuit fault. Previous works in this area have suffered from the uncertainties of the PMSM parameters, which can lead to misdiagnosis. The proposed method estimates the q-axis inductance (Lq of the faulty PMSM to solve this problem. The proposed method also estimates the faulty phase and the value of G, which serves as an index of the severity of the fault. The q-axis current is used to estimate the faulty phase, the values of G and Lq. For this reason, two open-loop observers and an optimization method based on a particle-swarm are implemented. The q-axis current of a healthy PMSM is estimated by the open-loop observer with the parameters of a healthy PMSM. The Lq estimation significantly compensates for the estimation errors in high-speed operation. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can estimate the faulty phase, G, and Lq besides exhibiting robustness against parameter uncertainties.

  14. Computational study of scattering of a zero-order Bessel beam by large nonspherical homogeneous particles with the multilevel fast multipole algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Minglin; Wu, Yueqian; Sheng, Xinqing; Ren, Kuan Fang

    2017-12-01

    Computation of scattering of shaped beams by large nonspherical particles is a challenge in both optics and electromagnetics domains since it concerns many research fields. In this paper, we report our new progress in the numerical computation of the scattering diagrams. Our algorithm permits to calculate the scattering of a particle of size as large as 110 wavelengths or 700 in size parameter. The particle can be transparent or absorbing of arbitrary shape, smooth or with a sharp surface, such as the Chebyshev particles or ice crystals. To illustrate the capacity of the algorithm, a zero order Bessel beam is taken as the incident beam, and the scattering of ellipsoidal particles and Chebyshev particles are taken as examples. Some special phenomena have been revealed and examined. The scattering problem is formulated with the combined tangential formulation and solved iteratively with the aid of the multilevel fast multipole algorithm, which is well parallelized with the message passing interface on the distributed memory computer platform using the hybrid partitioning strategy. The numerical predictions are compared with the results of the rigorous method for a spherical particle to validate the accuracy of the approach. The scattering diagrams of large ellipsoidal particles with various parameters are examined. The effect of aspect ratios, as well as half-cone angle of the incident zero-order Bessel beam and the off-axis distance on scattered intensity, is studied. Scattering by asymmetry Chebyshev particle with size parameter larger than 700 is also given to show the capability of the method for computing scattering by arbitrary shaped particles.

  15. Well-defined silica supported aluminum hydride: another step towards the utopian single site dream?† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc02276b Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werghi, Baraa; Bendjeriou-Sedjerari, Anissa; Sofack-Kreutzer, Julien; Jedidi, Abdesslem; Abou-Hamad, Edy

    2015-01-01

    of a strained siloxane bridge, Si–O–Si but with two different mechanisms, showing that the reality of “single site” catalyst may be an utopia: DFT calculations indicate that isobutyl transfer occurs via a simple metathesis between the Al-isobutyl and O–Si bonds, while hydride transfer occurs via a two steps mechanism, the first one is a β-H elimination to Al with elimination of isobutene, whereas the second is a metathesis step between the formed Al–H bond and a O–Si bond. Thermal treatment of 1a (at 250 °C) under high vacuum (10–5 mbar) generates Al–H through a β-H elimination of isobutyl fragment. These supported well-defined Al–H which are highly stable with time, are tetra, penta and octa coordinated as demonstrated by IR and 27Al–1H J-HMQC NMR spectroscopy. All these observations indicate that surfaces atoms around the site of grafting play a considerable role in the reactivity of a single site system. PMID:28757945

  16. Developments in magnet modeling and beam optics for the ARIS separator at FRIB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portillo, M., E-mail: portillo@frib.msu.edu; Hausmann, M.; Chouhan, S.

    2016-06-01

    A description is given on the methods used for field analysis of magnets and the extracted parameters used for accurate beam simulations of the fragment separator. For the strong focusing magnets, Fourier decomposition is used in order to extract induced fields associated with higher order multipoles. For dipoles, a 2D field map model is used instead in order to emulate complex field distributions. The theory of the models and the techniques chosen are described, along with results from Monte Carlo beam simulations up to 5th order. The n = 6 multipole induced by the quadrupole is the most significant component. The effects on separator performance with and without this component in the model are demonstrated.

  17. Differential representation of multipole fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, G F Torres del; Mendez-Garrido, A

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that the potential of an electrostatic or magnetostatic 2 l -pole can be expressed as the composition of l directional derivatives of the function 1/r along l directions, not necessarily distinct

  18. Modeling and Control of Direct Driven PMSG for Ultra Large Wind Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed M. Hemeida; Wael A. Farag; Osama A. Mahgoub

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on developing an integrated reliable and sophisticated model for ultra large wind turbines And to study the performance and analysis of vector control on large wind turbines. With the advance of power electronics technology, direct driven multi-pole radial flux PMSG (Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator) has proven to be a good choice for wind turbines manufacturers. To study the wind energy conversion systems, it is important to develop a wind turbin...

  19. Modeling the fields of magneto-optical devices, including fringe field effects and higher order multipole contributions, with application to charged particle optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trines, Rmgm; van Eijndhoven, S. J. L.; Botman, J. I. M.; Schep, T. J.; Hagedoorn, H. L.

    2001-01-01

    A new method for the calculation of the magnetic field of beam guiding elements is presented. The method relates the calculation to measurement data of the magnetic field in a direct way. It can be applied to single beam guiding elements as well as to clusters of elements. The presented description

  20. A New Collinear-Type Energy-Filtered X-ray Photoemission Electron Microscope Equipped with a Multi-Pole Aberration-Corrected Air-Core Coil Wien Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Takeshi; Wada, Takahiro; Niimi, Hironobu; Suzuki, Shushi; Kato, Makoto; Kudo, Masato; Asakura, Kiyotaka

    2012-04-01

    We present the prototype of a new, collinear-type energy-filtered X-ray photoemission electron microscope (EXPEEM) using a multi-pole, aberration-corrected air-core coil Wien filter (WF) analyzer. We have designed the new WF with 12-pole electrodes and magnetic poles to reduce spherical aberrations and fringe effects. We assess the performance of the WF using an electron energy analyzer for PEEM. The sensitivity is enhanced 10-100 fold compared with a simple, two electrodes plus two magnetic poles type WF. Cu 2p3/2 and Au 4f7/2 photoelectron energy selected images are obtained in a laboratory-scale source within several minutes. The energy and spatial resolutions of our prototype EXPEEM are estimated to be 3 eV and 7 µm, respectively.

  1. Limiting assumptions in molecular modeling: electrostatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Garland R

    2013-02-01

    Molecular mechanics attempts to represent intermolecular interactions in terms of classical physics. Initial efforts assumed a point charge located at the atom center and coulombic interactions. It is been recognized over multiple decades that simply representing electrostatics with a charge on each atom failed to reproduce the electrostatic potential surrounding a molecule as estimated by quantum mechanics. Molecular orbitals are not spherically symmetrical, an implicit assumption of monopole electrostatics. This perspective reviews recent evidence that requires use of multipole electrostatics and polarizability in molecular modeling.

  2. Uncertainties in model-independent extractions of amplitudes from complete experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoblit, S.; Sandorfi, A.M.; Kamano, H.; Lee, T.-S.H.

    2012-01-01

    A new generation of over-complete experiments is underway, with the goal of performing a high precision extraction of pseudoscalar meson photo-production amplitudes. Such experimentally determined amplitudes can be used both as a test to validate models and as a starting point for an analytic continuation in the complex plane to search for poles. Of crucial importance for both is the level of uncertainty in the extracted multipoles. We have probed these uncertainties by analyses of pseudo-data for KLambda photoproduction, first for the set of 8 observables that have been published for the K + Lambda channel and then for pseudo-data on a complete set of 16 observables with the uncertainties expected from analyses of ongoing CLAS experiments. In fitting multipoles, we have used a combined Monte Carlo sampling of the amplitude space, with gradient minimization, and have found a shallow X 2 valley pitted with a large number of local minima. This results in bands of solutions that are experimentally indistinguishable. All ongoing experiments will measure observables with limited statistics. We have found a dependence on the particular random choice of values of Gaussian distributed pseudo-data, due to the presence of multiple local minima. This results in actual uncertainties for reconstructed multipoles that are often considerable larger than those returned by gradient minimization routines such as Minuit which find a single local minimum. As intuitively expected, this additional level of uncertainty decreases as larger numbers of observables are included.

  3. Eigenfunction statistics for Anderson model with Hölder continuous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    continuous (0 < α ≤ 1) single site distribution. In localized regime, we study the distri- bution of eigenfunctions in space and energy simultaneously. In a certain scaling limit, we prove limit points are Poisson. Keywords. Anderson model; Hölder continuous measure; Poisson statistics. 2010 Mathematics Subject Classification ...

  4. Heterolytic cleavage of ammonia N-H bond by bifunctional activation in silica-grafted single site Ta(V) imido amido surface complex. Importance of the outer sphere NH3 assistance

    KAUST Repository

    Gouré, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Ammonia N-H bond is cleaved at room temperature by the silica-supported tantalum imido amido complex [(≡SiO)2Ta(NH)(-NH2)], 2, if excess ammonia is present, but requires 150 °C to achieve the same reaction if only one equivalent NH3 is added to 2. MAS solid-state 15N NMR and in situ IR spectroscopic studies of the reaction of either 15N or 2H labeled ammonia with 2 show that initial coordination of the ammonia is followed by scrambling of either 15N or 2H among ammonia, amido and imido groups. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations with a cluster model [{(μ-O)[(H3SiO) 2SiO]2}Ta(NH)(-NH2)(NH3)], 2 q·NH3, show that the intramolecular H transfer from Ta-NH2 to TaNH is ruled out, but the H transfers from the coordinated ammonia to the amido and imido groups have accessible energy barriers. The energy barrier for the ammonia N-H activation by the Ta-amido group is energetically preferred relative to the Ta-imido group. The importance of excess NH3 for getting full isotope scrambling is rationalized by an outer sphere assistance of ammonia acting as proton transfer agent, which equalizes the energy barriers for H transfer from coordinated ammonia to the amido and imido groups. In contrast, additional coordinated ammonia does not favor significantly the H transfer. These results rationalize the experimental conditions used. © The Royal Society of Chemistry and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 2011.

  5. Damping beam displacements through phase mixing: an illustrative model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barletta, W.A.; Briggs, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    We develop a simple model of a beam transported in a hard wall channel (an idealized very-high-order magnetic-multipole channel). The extremely anharmonic nature of the potential leads to damping of coherent transverse displacements of the beam via phase mixing. For the case of small uniform displacements of the beam we can write down by inspection the analytical form of the motion of the beam centroid. The same technique allows us to evaluate the effects of focussing and scattering elements in the transport channel upon the damping of the transverse motion of the beam

  6. Cold dark matter confronts the cosmic microwave background - Large-angular-scale anisotropies in Omega sub 0 + lambda 1 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Krzysztof M.; Silk, Joseph; Vittorio, Nicola

    1992-01-01

    A new technique is used to compute the correlation function for large-angle cosmic microwave background anisotropies resulting from both the space and time variations in the gravitational potential in flat, vacuum-dominated, cold dark matter cosmological models. Such models with Omega sub 0 of about 0.2, fit the excess power, relative to the standard cold dark matter model, observed in the large-scale galaxy distribution and allow a high value for the Hubble constant. The low order multipoles and quadrupole anisotropy that are potentially observable by COBE and other ongoing experiments should definitively test these models.

  7. C. Petrone et al.: "Magnetic measurement of the model magnet QD0 designed for the CLIC final focus beam transport line." CERN TE-MSC Internal Note, EDMS Nr: 1184196

    CERN Document Server

    Arpaia, Pasquale; Petrone, Carlo; Russenschuck, Stephan; Walckiers, Louis

    2012-01-01

    This note presents the results of the magnetic measurements performed on QD0, model magnet for the final focus transport line for CLIC (Fig. 1). This high-gradient, hybrid quadrupole has a yoke length of 0.1 m and an aperture of 8.3 mm. ND2Fe14B Permanent magnet blocks provide a gradient of 150 T/m, which can be further increased to 530 T/m when the four coils are excited to 18.3 A. The request was to measure the strength of the field and the multipole coefficients at different currents. The measurement of the field strength, by means of the single stretched wire system, was done in December 2011 in the I8 laboratory. The measurement of the multipole was done by means of the oscillating wire system [1][2].

  8. Intramolecular electron transfer in single-site-mutated azurins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Skov, L K; Pascher, T

    1993-01-01

    and used to derive information on the possible effects of the mutations. The substitution of residue Phe114, situated on the opposite side of Cu relative to the disulfide, by Ala resulted in a rate increase by a factor of almost 2. By assuming that this effect is only due to an increase in driving force...... is apparently only marginally involved in electron transfer in wild-type azurin. Pathway calculations also suggest that a longer, through-backbone path is more efficient than the shorter one involving Trp48. The former pathway yields an exponential decay factor, beta, of 6.6 nm-1. Another mutation, raising...

  9. Catalytic water oxidation by single-site ruthenium catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concepcion, Javier J; Jurss, Jonah W; Norris, Michael R; Chen, Zuofeng; Templeton, Joseph L; Meyer, Thomas J

    2010-02-15

    A series of monomeric ruthenium polypyridyl complexes have been synthesized and characterized, and their performance as water oxidation catalysts has been evaluated. The diversity of ligand environments and how they influence rates and reaction thermodynamics create a platform for catalyst design with controllable reactivity based on ligand variations.

  10. New Developments in Robotics and Single-site Gynecologic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Catherine A

    2017-06-01

    Within the last 10 years there have been significant advances in minimal-access surgery. Although no emerging technology has demonstrated improved outcomes or fewer complications than standard laparoscopy, the introduction of the robotic surgical platform has significantly lowered abdominal hysterectomy rates. While operative time and cost were higher in robotic-assisted procedures when the technology was first introduced, newer studies demonstrate equivalent or improved robotic surgical efficiency with increased experience. Single-port hysterectomy has not improved postoperative pain or subjective cosmetic results. Emerging platforms with flexible, articulating instruments may increase the uptake of single-port procedures including natural orifice transluminal endoscopic cases.

  11. Crossing symmetry and phenomenological widths in effective Lagrangian models of the pion photoproduction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Ramirez, C. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: cesar@nuc2.fis.ucm.es; Moya de Guerra, E. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Udias, J.M. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-02-21

    We investigate the importance of crossing symmetry in effective field models and the effects of phenomenological nucleon resonance widths on the paradigmatic case of pion photoproduction. We use reaction models containing four star resonances up to 1.8 GeV ({delta}(1232), N(1440), N(1520), N(1535), {delta}(1620), N(1650), {delta}(1700), and N(1720)) with different prescriptions for crossed terms and widths, to fit the latest world database on pion photoproduction. We compare {chi}{sup 2} results from selected multipoles and fits. The {chi}{sup 2} is highly dependent on the fulfillment of crossing symmetry and the inclusion of u channels.

  12. Coupled channel folding model description of α scattering from 9Be

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, S.; Chatterjee, J.M.; Majumdar, H.; Datta, S.K.; Banerjee, S.R.; Chintalapudi, S.N.

    1995-01-01

    Alpha scattering from 9 Be at E α = 65 MeV is described in the coupled channel framework with phenomenological as well as folded potentials. The multipole components of the deformed density of 9 Be are derived from Nilsson model wave functions. Reasonably good agreements are obtained for the angular distributions of 3/2 - (g.s.) and 5/2 - (2.43 MeV) states of the ground state band with folded potentials. The deformation predicted by the model corroborates with that derived from the phenomenological analysis with potentials of different geometries

  13. Coupled channel folding model description of {alpha} scattering from {sup 9}Be

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, S.; Chatterjee, J.M.; Majumdar, H. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Calcutta 700064 (India); Datta, S.K. [Nuclear Science Centre, P.O.10502, New Delhi 110067 (India); Banerjee, S.R. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Calcutta 700064 (India); Chintalapudi, S.N. [Inter-University Consortium, Department of Atomic Energy Facilities, Bidhannagar, Calcutta 700064 (India)

    1995-09-01

    Alpha scattering from {sup 9}Be at {ital E}{sub {alpha}}= 65 MeV is described in the coupled channel framework with phenomenological as well as folded potentials. The multipole components of the deformed density of {sup 9}Be are derived from Nilsson model wave functions. Reasonably good agreements are obtained for the angular distributions of 3/2{sup {minus}}(g.s.) and 5/2{sup {minus}}(2.43 MeV) states of the ground state band with folded potentials. The deformation predicted by the model corroborates with that derived from the phenomenological analysis with potentials of different geometries.

  14. Systematic study of baryons in a three-body quark model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanzadeh, M.; Rajabi, A. A.

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the structure of baryons within a three-body quark model based on hypercentral approach. We considered an SU(6)-invariant potential consisting of the well-known "Coulomb-plus-linear" potential plus some multipole interactions as V ( x) ∝ x - n with n > 2. Then, through an analytical solution, we obtained the energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the three-body problem and evaluated some observables such as the mass spectrum of light baryons and both the electromagnetic elastic form factors, and the charge radii of nucleons. We compared our results with the experimental data and showed that the present model provides a good description of the observed resonances.

  15. Cable Braid Electromagnetic Penetration Model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry K. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Langston, William L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Basilio, Lorena I. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, W. A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The model for penetration of a wire braid is rigorously formulated. Integral formulas are developed from energy principles and reciprocity for both self and transfer immittances in terms of potentials for the fields. The detailed boundary value problem for the wire braid is also setup in a very efficient manner; the braid wires act as sources for the potentials in the form of a sequence of line multipoles with unknown coefficients that are determined by means of conditions arising from the wire surface boundary conditions. Approximations are introduced to relate the local properties of the braid wires to a simplified infinite periodic planar geometry. This is used in a simplified application of reciprocity to be able to treat nonuniform coaxial geometries including eccentric interior coaxial arrangements and an exterior ground plane.

  16. Comparison of three weather generators for crop modeling: a case study for subtropical environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartkamp, A.D.; White, J.W.; Hoogenboom, G.

    2003-01-01

    The use and application of decision support systems (DDS) that consider variation in climate and soil conditions has expanded in recent years. Most of these DSS are based on crop simulation models that require daily weather data, so access to weather data, at single sites as well as large amount of

  17. Gyrofluid turbulence models with kinetic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorland, W.; Hammett, G.W.

    1992-12-01

    Nonlinear gyrofluid equations are derived by taking moments of the nonlinear, electrostatic gyrokinetic equation. The principal model presented includes evolution equations for the guiding center n, u[parallel], T[parallel], and T[perpendicular] along with an equation expressing the quasineutrality constraint. Additional evolution equations for higher moments are derived which may be used if greater accuracy is desired. The moment hierarchy is closed with a Landau-damping model which is equivalent to a multi-pole approximation to the plasma dispersion function, extended to include finite Larmor radius effects. In particular, new dissipative, nonlinear terms are found which model the perpendicular phase-mixing of the distribution function along contours of constant electrostatic potential. These FLR phase-mixing'' terms introduce a hyperviscosity-like damping [proportional to] k[sub [perpendicular

  18. A perturbative approach to the redshift space correlation function: beyond the Standard Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, Benjamin; Koyama, Kazuya, E-mail: benjamin.bose@port.ac.uk, E-mail: kazuya.koyama@port.ac.uk [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, Hampshire, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom)

    2017-08-01

    We extend our previous redshift space power spectrum code to the redshift space correlation function. Here we focus on the Gaussian Streaming Model (GSM). Again, the code accommodates a wide range of modified gravity and dark energy models. For the non-linear real space correlation function used in the GSM we use the Fourier transform of the RegPT 1-loop matter power spectrum. We compare predictions of the GSM for a Vainshtein screened and Chameleon screened model as well as GR. These predictions are compared to the Fourier transform of the Taruya, Nishimichi and Saito (TNS) redshift space power spectrum model which is fit to N-body data. We find very good agreement between the Fourier transform of the TNS model and the GSM predictions, with ≤ 6% deviations in the first two correlation function multipoles for all models for redshift space separations in 50Mpc h ≤ s ≤ 180Mpc/ h . Excellent agreement is found in the differences between the modified gravity and GR multipole predictions for both approaches to the redshift space correlation function, highlighting their matched ability in picking up deviations from GR. We elucidate the timeliness of such non-standard templates at the dawn of stage-IV surveys and discuss necessary preparations and extensions needed for upcoming high quality data.

  19. A perturbative approach to the redshift space correlation function: beyond the Standard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Benjamin; Koyama, Kazuya

    2017-08-01

    We extend our previous redshift space power spectrum code to the redshift space correlation function. Here we focus on the Gaussian Streaming Model (GSM). Again, the code accommodates a wide range of modified gravity and dark energy models. For the non-linear real space correlation function used in the GSM we use the Fourier transform of the RegPT 1-loop matter power spectrum. We compare predictions of the GSM for a Vainshtein screened and Chameleon screened model as well as GR. These predictions are compared to the Fourier transform of the Taruya, Nishimichi and Saito (TNS) redshift space power spectrum model which is fit to N-body data. We find very good agreement between the Fourier transform of the TNS model and the GSM predictions, with <= 6% deviations in the first two correlation function multipoles for all models for redshift space separations in 50Mpch <= s <= 180Mpc/h. Excellent agreement is found in the differences between the modified gravity and GR multipole predictions for both approaches to the redshift space correlation function, highlighting their matched ability in picking up deviations from GR. We elucidate the timeliness of such non-standard templates at the dawn of stage-IV surveys and discuss necessary preparations and extensions needed for upcoming high quality data.

  20. Multipole components of 235U photofission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalheiro, Z.

    1985-01-01

    The absolute electrofission cross section for 235 U has been experimentally obtained in the energy range 5.8 - 18.0 MeV, using the electron beam of the Linear Accelerator of Institute of Physics of the University of Sao Paulo. From a combined analysis of this cross section and a previously measured photofission cross section, using virtual photon spectra calculated in the Distorted Wave Born Approximation (DWBA), the '' non electric dipole photofission'' cross section σ NDE γ,f (ω) has been obtained, which contains all multipolarities allowed by the reaction Kinematics, except El. This cross section presents a resonant shape, probably associated with the Giant Quadrupole Resonance (GQR). Once the fission channel exhausts a great amount of the Energy Weighted Sum Rule (EWSR), it is therefore the major decay mode of the GQR. All these aspects agree with the ones verified for the other Uranium isotopes previously analysed in this Laboratory. (author) [pt

  1. Permanent magnet multipole with adjustable strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbach, Klaus

    1985-01-01

    Two or more magnetically soft pole pieces are symmetrically positioned along a longitudinal axis to provide a magnetic field within a space defined by the pole pieces. Two or more permanent magnets are mounted to an external magnetically-soft cylindrical sleeve which rotates to bring the permanent magnets into closer coupling with the pole pieces and thereby adjustably control the field strength of the magnetic field produced in the space defined by the pole pieces. The permanent magnets are preferably formed of rare earth cobalt (REC) material which has a high remanent magnetic field and a strong coercive force. The pole pieces and the permanent magnets have corresponding cylindrical surfaces which are positionable with respect to each other to vary the coupling therebetween. Auxiliary permanent magnets are provided between the pole pieces to provide additional magnetic flux to the magnetic field without saturating the pole pieces.

  2. Experience with the SLC permanent magnet multipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, G.; Spencer, J.

    1994-06-01

    Permanent magnets have been used in the SLC Damping Rings and their injection and extraction lines since 1985. Recent upgrades of the DR vacuum chambers provided an opportunity to check DR magnets prior to higher beam current operation. Several PM sextupoles downstream of the injection kickers in the electron ring had exceeded their thermal stabilization values of 80 degrees C and some showed serious mechanical deformations and radiation >1 R at contact. We discuss our observations, measurements and a few inexpensive modifications that should improve these magnets under such conditions. A new, block matching algorithm allowed us to use magnet blocks that had been considered unusable because of very different remament field strengths and easy axis errors

  3. Multipole moments using extended coupled cluster method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sayali P.; Vaval, Nayana

    2013-05-01

    Using analytic extended coupled cluster (ECC) response approach quadrupole moments, dipole-quadrupole polarizabilities and dipole polarizabilities are studied. In the current implementation of the functional we have included all the double linked terms within (CCSD) approximation. These terms will be important for the accurate description of properties at the stretched geometries. We report the properties for carbon monoxide and hydrogen fluoride molecules, as a function of bond distance and compare our results for carbon monoxide with the full CI results. We have also reported the properties of methane, tetrafluoromethane, acetylene, difluoroacetylene, water and ammonia.

  4. Photoproduction of pions on nuclear in chiral bag model with account of motion effects of recoil nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorokhov, A.E.; Kanokov, Z.; Musakhanov, M.M.; Rakhimov, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Pion production on a nucleon is studied in the chiral bag model (CBM). A CBM version is investigated in which the pions get into the bag and interact with quarks in a pseudovector way in the entire volume. Charged pion photoproduction amplitudes are found taking into account the recoil nucleon motion effects. Angular and energy distributions of charged pions, polarization of the recoil nucleon, multipoles are calculated. The recoil effects are shon to give an additional contribution to the static approximation of order of 10-20%. At bag radius value R=1 in the calculations are consistent with the experimental data

  5. Hirshfeld atom refinement for modelling strong hydrogen bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woińska, Magdalena; Jayatilaka, Dylan; Spackman, Mark A; Edwards, Alison J; Dominiak, Paulina M; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Nishibori, Eiji; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Grabowsky, Simon

    2014-09-01

    High-resolution low-temperature synchrotron X-ray diffraction data of the salt L-phenylalaninium hydrogen maleate are used to test the new automated iterative Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR) procedure for the modelling of strong hydrogen bonds. The HAR models used present the first examples of Z' > 1 treatments in the framework of wavefunction-based refinement methods. L-Phenylalaninium hydrogen maleate exhibits several hydrogen bonds in its crystal structure, of which the shortest and the most challenging to model is the O-H...O intramolecular hydrogen bond present in the hydrogen maleate anion (O...O distance is about 2.41 Å). In particular, the reconstruction of the electron density in the hydrogen maleate moiety and the determination of hydrogen-atom properties [positions, bond distances and anisotropic displacement parameters (ADPs)] are the focus of the study. For comparison to the HAR results, different spherical (independent atom model, IAM) and aspherical (free multipole model, MM; transferable aspherical atom model, TAAM) X-ray refinement techniques as well as results from a low-temperature neutron-diffraction experiment are employed. Hydrogen-atom ADPs are furthermore compared to those derived from a TLS/rigid-body (SHADE) treatment of the X-ray structures. The reference neutron-diffraction experiment reveals a truly symmetric hydrogen bond in the hydrogen maleate anion. Only with HAR is it possible to freely refine hydrogen-atom positions and ADPs from the X-ray data, which leads to the best electron-density model and the closest agreement with the structural parameters derived from the neutron-diffraction experiment, e.g. the symmetric hydrogen position can be reproduced. The multipole-based refinement techniques (MM and TAAM) yield slightly asymmetric positions, whereas the IAM yields a significantly asymmetric position.

  6. Dynamic wind turbine models in power system simulation tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca D.; Iov, Florin; Sørensen, Poul

    This report presents a collection of models and control strategies developed and implemented in the power system simulation tool PowerFactory DIgSILENT for different wind turbine concepts. It is the second edition of Risø-R-1400(EN) and it gathers and describes a whole wind turbine model database...... speed doubly-fed induction generator wind turbine concept 3. Variable speed multi-pole permanent magnet synchronous generator wind turbine concept These wind turbine concept models can be used and even extended for the study of different aspects, e.g. the assessment of power quality, control strategies......, connection of the wind turbine at different types of grid and storage systems. Different control strategies have been developed and implemented for these wind turbine concepts, their performance in normal or fault operation being assessed and discussed by means of simulations. The described control...

  7. Bayesian model comparison for one-dimensional azimuthal correlations in 200GeV AuAu collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eggers Hans C.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of data modeling and comparisons between different fit models, Bayesian analysis calls that model best which has the largest evidence, the prior-weighted integral over model parameters of the likelihood function. Evidence calculations automatically take into account both the usual chi-squared measure and an Occam factor which quantifies the price for adding extra parameters. Applying Bayesian analysis to projections onto azimuth of 2D angular correlations from 200 GeV AuAu collisions, we consider typical model choices including Fourier series and a Gaussian plus combinations of individual cosine components. We find that models including a Gaussian component are consistently preferred over pure Fourier-series parametrizations, sometimes strongly so. For 0–5% central collisions the Gaussian-plus-dipole model performs better than Fourier Series models or any other combination of Gaussian-plus-multipoles.

  8. Three-dimensional plasma simulation models and their application to magnetically confined plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, H.

    1977-03-01

    Three-dimensional plasma simulation models using particles have been described and applied to the various microscopic processes in a plasma in a magnetic field. The model makes use of the hybrid approach using eigenfunction expansion in one direction and multipole expansion on a two-dimensional spatial grid introduced in the cross section of a plasma. The models for cylindrical and toroidal systems correctly reproduce the expected fluctuation spectrum in thermal equilibrium. Application to the study of anomalous plasma diffusion due to collisionless drift instabilities in a cylindrical plasma is shown. Some considerations are given as to how to construct a quasi-neutral particle simulation model and particle-fluid hybrid plasma model which eliminate the high frequency oscillations associated with the electrons

  9. Efficiency of alternative MCMC strategies illustrated using the reaction norm model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shariati, Mohammad Mahdi; Sørensen, D.

    2008-01-01

    The Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) strategy provides remarkable flexibility for fitting complex hierarchical models. However, when parameters are highly correlated in their posterior distributions and their number is large, a particular MCMC algorithm may perform poorly and the resulting...... norm model with unknown covariates as an example. The six strategies are single-site Gibbs updates (SG), single-site Gibbs sampler for updating transformed (a priori independent) additive genetic values (TSG), pairwise Gibbs updates (PG), blocked (all location parameters are updated jointly) Gibbs...... updates (BG), Langevin-Hastings (LH) proposals, and finally Langevin-Hastings proposals for updating transformed additive genetic values (TLH). The ranking of the methods in terms of asymptotic variance is affected by the degree of the correlation structure of the data and by the true values...

  10. Modeling and design of an X-band rf photoinjector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Marsh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A design for an X-band rf photoinjector that was developed jointly by SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL is presented. The photoinjector is based around a 5.59 cell rf gun that has state-of-the-art features including: elliptical contoured irises; improved mode separation; an optimized initial half cell length; a racetrack input coupler; and coupling that balances pulsed heating with cavity fill time. Radio-frequency and beam dynamics modeling have been done using a combination of codes including PARMELA, HFSS, IMPACT-T, ASTRA, and the ACE3P suite of codes developed at SLAC. The impact of lower gradient operation, magnet misalignment, solenoid multipole errors, beam offset, mode beating, wakefields, and beam line symmetry have been analyzed and are described. Fabrication and testing plans at both LLNL and SLAC are discussed.

  11. Dynamic wind turbine models in power system simulation tool DIgSILENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Iov, F.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    This report presents a collection of models and control strategies developed and implemented in the power system simulation tool PowerFactory DIgSILENT for different wind turbine concepts. It is the second edition of Risø-R-1400(EN) and it gathers and describes a whole wind turbine model database...... speed doubly-fed induction generator wind turbine concept 3. Variable speed multi-pole permanent magnet synchronous generator wind turbine concept These wind turbine concept models can be used and even extended for the study of different aspects, e.g. the assessment of power quality, control strategies......, connection of the wind turbine at different types of grid and storage systems. Different control strategies have been developed and implemented for these wind turbine concepts, their performance in normal or fault operation being assessed and discussed by means of simulations. The described control...

  12. A residue level protein-protein interaction model in electrolyte solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xueyu

    2014-03-01

    The osmotic second virial coefficients B2 are directly related to the solubility of protein molecules in electrolyte solutions and can be useful to narrow down the search parameter space of protein crystallization conditions. Using a residue level model of protein-protein interaction in electrolyte solutions B2 of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor and lysozyme in various solution conditions such as salt concentration, pH and temperature are calculated using an extended Fast Multipole Methods in combination with the boundary element formulation. Overall, the calculated B2 are well correlated with the experimental observations for various solution conditions. In combination with our previous work on the binding affinity calculations of protein complexes it is demonstrated that our residue level model can be used as a reliable model to describe protein-protein interaction in solutions.

  13. Hybrid MEG (Magnetoencephalography) source characterization by cortical remapping and imaging of parametric source models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baillet, S. (Sylvain); Mosher, J. C. (John C.); Jerbi, K. (Karim); Leahy, R. M. (Richard M.)

    2001-01-01

    Reliable estimation of the local spatial extent of neural activity is a key to the quantitative analysis of MEG sources across subjects and conditions. In association with an understanding of the temporal dynamics among multiple areas, this would represent a major advance in electrophysiological source imaging. Parametric current dipole approaches to MEG (and EEG) source localization can rapidly generate a physical model of neural current generators using a limited number of parameters. However, physiological interpretation of these models is often difficult, especially in terms of the spatial extent of the true cortical activity. In new approaches using multipolar source models [3, 5], similar problems remain in the analysis of the higher-order source moments as parameters of cortical extent. Image-based approaches to the inverse problem provide a direct estimate of cortical current generators, but computationally expensive nonlinear methods are required to produce focal sources [1,4]. Recent efforts describe how a cortical patch can be grown until a best fit to the data is reached in the least-squares sense [6], but computational considerations necessitate that the growth be seeded in predefined regions of interest. In a previous study [2], a source obtained using a parametric model was remapped onto the cortex by growing a patch of cortical dipoles in the vicinity of the parametric source until the forward MEG or EEG fields of the parametric and cortical sources matched. The source models were dipoles and first-order multipoles. We propose to combine the parametric and imaging methods for MEG source characterization to take advantage of (i) the parsimonious and computationally efficient nature of parametric source localization methods and (ii) the anatomical and physiological consistency of imaging techniques that use relevant a priori information. By performing the cortical remapping imaging step by matching the multipole expansions of the original parametric

  14. Strongest model-independent bound on the lifetime of Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Audren, Benjamin; Mangano, Gianpiero; Serpico, Pasquale Dario; Tram, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Dark Matter is essential for structure formation in the late Universe so it must be stable on cosmological time scales. But how stable exactly? Only assuming decays into relativistic particles, we report an otherwise model independent bound on the lifetime of Dark Matter using current cosmological data. Since these decays affect only the low-$\\ell$ multipoles of the CMB, the Dark Matter lifetime is expected to correlate with the tensor-to-scalar ratio $r$ as well as curvature $\\Omega_k$. We consider two models, including $r$ and $r+\\Omega_k$ respectively, versus data from Planck, WMAP, WiggleZ and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations, with or without the BICEP2 data (if interpreted in terms of primordial gravitational waves). This results in a lower bound on the lifetime of CDM given by 160Gyr (without BICEP2) or 200Gyr (with BICEP2) at 95% confidence level.

  15. Modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Spädtke, P

    2013-01-01

    Modeling of technical machines became a standard technique since computer became powerful enough to handle the amount of data relevant to the specific system. Simulation of an existing physical device requires the knowledge of all relevant quantities. Electric fields given by the surrounding boundary as well as magnetic fields caused by coils or permanent magnets have to be known. Internal sources for both fields are sometimes taken into account, such as space charge forces or the internal magnetic field of a moving bunch of charged particles. Used solver routines are briefly described and some bench-marking is shown to estimate necessary computing times for different problems. Different types of charged particle sources will be shown together with a suitable model to describe the physical model. Electron guns are covered as well as different ion sources (volume ion sources, laser ion sources, Penning ion sources, electron resonance ion sources, and H$^-$-sources) together with some remarks on beam transport.

  16. Combined cosmological tests of a bivalent tachyonic dark energy scalar field model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keresztes, Zoltán; Gergely, László Á.

    2014-11-01

    A recently investigated tachyonic scalar field dark energy dominated universe exhibits a bivalent future: depending on initial parameters can run either into a de Sitter exponential expansion or into a traversable future soft singularity followed by a contraction phase. We also include in the model (i) a tiny amount of radiation, (ii) baryonic matter (Ωbh2 = 0.022161, where the Hubble constant is fixed as h = 0.706) and (iii) cold dark matter (CDM). Out of a variety of six types of evolutions arising in a more subtle classification, we identify two in which in the past the scalar field effectively degenerates into a dust (its pressure drops to an insignificantly low negative value). These are the evolutions of type IIb converging to de Sitter and type III hitting the future soft singularity. We confront these background evolutions with various cosmological tests, including the supernova type Ia Union 2.1 data, baryon acoustic oscillation distance ratios, Hubble parameter-redshift relation and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) acoustic scale. We determine a subset of the evolutions of both types which at 1σ confidence level are consistent with all of these cosmological tests. At perturbative level we derive the CMB temperature power spectrum to find the best agreement with the Planck data for ΩCDM = 0.22. The fit is as good as for the ΛCDM model at high multipoles, but the power remains slightly overestimated at low multipoles, for both types of evolutions. The rest of the CDM is effectively generated by the tachyonic field, which in this sense acts as a combined dark energy and dark matter model.

  17. Gyrofluid turbulence models with kinetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorland, W.; Hammett, G.W.

    1992-12-01

    Nonlinear gyrofluid equations are derived by taking moments of the nonlinear, electrostatic gyrokinetic equation. The principal model presented includes evolution equations for the guiding center n, u parallel, T parallel, and T perpendicular along with an equation expressing the quasineutrality constraint. Additional evolution equations for higher moments are derived which may be used if greater accuracy is desired. The moment hierarchy is closed with a Landau-damping model which is equivalent to a multi-pole approximation to the plasma dispersion function, extended to include finite Larmor radius effects. In particular, new dissipative, nonlinear terms are found which model the perpendicular phase-mixing of the distribution function along contours of constant electrostatic potential. These ''FLR phase-mixing'' terms introduce a hyperviscosity-like damping ∝ k perpendicular 2 |Φ rvec k rvec k x rvec k'| which should provide a physics-based damping mechanism at high k perpendicular ρ which is potentially as important as the usual polarization drift nonlinearity. The moments are taken in guiding center space to pick up the correct nonlinear FLR terms and the gyroaveraging of the shear. The equations are solved with a nonlinear, three dimensional initial value code. Linear results are presented, showing excellent agreement with linear gyrokinetic theory

  18. Gyrofluid turbulence models with kinetic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorland, W.; Hammett, G.W.

    1992-12-01

    Nonlinear gyrofluid equations are derived by taking moments of the nonlinear, electrostatic gyrokinetic equation. The principal model presented includes evolution equations for the guiding center n, u{parallel}, T{parallel}, and T{perpendicular} along with an equation expressing the quasineutrality constraint. Additional evolution equations for higher moments are derived which may be used if greater accuracy is desired. The moment hierarchy is closed with a Landau-damping model which is equivalent to a multi-pole approximation to the plasma dispersion function, extended to include finite Larmor radius effects. In particular, new dissipative, nonlinear terms are found which model the perpendicular phase-mixing of the distribution function along contours of constant electrostatic potential. These ``FLR phase-mixing`` terms introduce a hyperviscosity-like damping {proportional_to} k{sub {perpendicular}}{sup 2}{vert_bar}{Phi}{sub {rvec k}}{rvec k} {times}{rvec k}{prime}{vert_bar} which should provide a physics-based damping mechanism at high k{perpendicular}{rho} which is potentially as important as the usual polarization drift nonlinearity. The moments are taken in guiding center space to pick up the correct nonlinear FLR terms and the gyroaveraging of the shear. The equations are solved with a nonlinear, three dimensional initial value code. Linear results are presented, showing excellent agreement with linear gyrokinetic theory.

  19. A Parallel, High-Fidelity Radar Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, M.; Fasenfest, B.

    2010-09-01

    Accurate modeling of Space Surveillance sensors is necessary for a variety of applications. Accurate models can be used to perform trade studies on sensor designs, locations, and scheduling. In addition, they can be used to predict system-level performance of the Space Surveillance Network to a collision or satellite break-up event. A high fidelity physics-based radar simulator has been developed for Space Surveillance applications. This simulator is designed in a modular fashion, where each module describes a particular physical process or radar function (radio wave propagation & scattering, waveform generation, noise sources, etc.) involved in simulating the radar and its environment. For each of these modules, multiple versions are available in order to meet the end-users needs and requirements. For instance, the radar simulator supports different atmospheric models in order to facilitate different methods of simulating refraction of the radar beam. The radar model also has the capability to use highly accurate radar cross sections generated by the method of moments, accelerated by the fast multipole method. To accelerate this computationally expensive model, it is parallelized using MPI. As a testing framework for the radar model, it is incorporated into the Testbed Environment for Space Situational Awareness (TESSA). TESSA is based on a flexible, scalable architecture, designed to exploit high-performance computing resources and allow physics-based simulation of the SSA enterprise. In addition to the radar models, TESSA includes hydrodynamic models of satellite intercept and debris generation, orbital propagation algorithms, optical brightness calculations, optical system models, object detection algorithms, orbit determination algorithms, simulation analysis and visualization tools. Within this framework, observations and tracks generated by the new radar model are compared to results from a phenomenological radar model. In particular, the new model will be

  20. The three-point correlation function of the cosmic microwave background in inflationary models

    CERN Document Server

    Gangui, Alejandro; Matarrese, Sabino; Mollerach, Silvia

    1994-01-01

    We analyze the temperature three-point correlation function and the skewness of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), providing general relations in terms of multipole coefficients. We then focus on applications to large angular scale anisotropies, such as those measured by the {\\em COBE} DMR, calculating the contribution to these quantities from primordial, inflation generated, scalar perturbations, via the Sachs--Wolfe effect. Using the techniques of stochastic inflation we are able to provide a {\\it universal} expression for the ensemble averaged three-point function and for the corresponding skewness, which accounts for all primordial second-order effects. These general expressions would moreover apply to any situation where the bispectrum of the primordial gravitational potential has a {\\em hierarchical} form. Our results are then specialized to a number of relevant models: power-law inflation driven by an exponential potential, chaotic inflation with a quartic and quadratic potential and a particular c...

  1. The solvent effect on the aquation processes of the cis-dichloro(ethylenediammine)platinum(II) using continuum solvation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Luiz Antônio S.; Rocha, Willian R.; De Almeida, Wagner B.; Dos Santos, Hélio F.

    2004-03-01

    The present Letter describes a systematic analysis of the solvent effect on the hydrolysis process of an important cisplatin analogue ( cis-DEP). Self-consistent reaction field continuum models were used to include the solvent effect at the HF, DFT and MP2 levels of theory. A disagreement between the gas phase calculated ( k2=1.92×10 -11 M -1 s -1) and experimental ( k2=4.4×10 -5 M -1 s -1) rate constant for the second aquation reaction of cis-DEP was recently reported by us. The value calculated in aqueous solution at the PCM-MP2 level was 2.87 × 10 -5 M -1 s -1 in perfect accordance with experiment. Calculations using spherical cavity SCRF model require inclusion of high order multipole terms (up to octupole).

  2. Entanglement and fidelity signatures of quantum phase transitions in spin liquid models

    OpenAIRE

    Tribedi, Amit; Bose, Indrani

    2008-01-01

    We consider a spin ladder model which is known to have matrix product states as exact ground states with spin liquid characteristics. The model has two critical-point transitions at the parameter values u=0 and infinity. We study the variation of entanglement and fidelity measures in the ground states as a function of u and specially look for signatures of quantum phase transitions at u=0 and infinity. The two different entanglement measures used are S(i) (the single-site von Neumann entropy)...

  3. Entanglement and position-space information entropy: Hubbard model as an approximation to nanostructure systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, J P; D' Amico, I [Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Franca, V V, E-mail: jpc503@york.ac.uk, E-mail: vivian.franca@physik.uni-freiburg.de, E-mail: ida500@york.ac.uk [Physikalisches Institut, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet, Hermann-Herder-Strasse 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)

    2011-07-06

    We consider the position-space information and linear entropies as proxy measures to the average single-site entanglement-quantified using the von Neumann entropy-of the one-dimensional Hubbard model and of a one-dimensional nanostructure system comprised of an array of quantum-dots. Spatial entanglement in the quantum-dot system is also investigated via the three entropies. We appraise the use of the possible proxy measures in the Hubbard model as an approximation to their use for the nanostructure system.

  4. Early Australian experience in robotic sleeve gastrectomy: a single site series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Candice D; Ghusn, Michael A

    2017-05-01

    The use of robotic platforms in bariatric surgery has recently gained relevance. With an increased use of this technology come concerns regarding learning curve effects during the initial implementation phase. The sleeve gastrectomy though may represent an ideal training procedure for introducing the robot into bariatric surgical practice. The present review of the first 10 consecutive robotic sleeve gastrectomy procedures performed in an Australian bariatric programme by a single surgeon describes the evolution of the technique, learning curve and initial patient outcomes. Between 2014 and 2015, robotic sleeve gastrectomies were performed as primary and revisional procedures by a consistent surgeon-assistant team. Technique evolution and theatre set-up were documented. Patient demographics, operative time (robot docking and total operation time), additional operative procedures performed, operative and post-operative complications at 1, 3 and 6 months post-procedure and weight loss achieved at 6 months were retrospectively reviewed from a prospectively maintained database. Ten robotic sleeve gastrectomies were performed without significant operative complications. One patient was treated as an outpatient with oral antibiotics for a superficial wound infection. The median total operative time was 123 min (interquartile range (IQR) 108.8-142.5), with a median incision to docking time of 19 min (IQR 15.0-31.8). Length of stay in hospital was 2-3 days. Median excess weight loss achieved at 6 months was 50% (IQR 33.9-66.5). This study describes a method of safely introducing the da Vinci robot into bariatric surgical practice. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  5. Clinical Appliance of Laparo-Endoscopic Single-Site Surgery (LESS) in Urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liatsikos, Evangelos; Kyriazis, Iason; Kallidonis, Panagiotis; Do, Minh; Anja, Anja; Rigopoulos, Christos; Al-Aown, Abdulrahman; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe

    2010-04-01

    Laparoscopy has gained a place in everyday surgical routine as an alternative surgical approach that decreases morbidity and postoperative hospitalization. Single port laparoscopic surgery has been introduced as a further development of laparoscopy. The feasibility and safety of single port laparoscopy is under extensive evaluation in specialized laparoscopic centers. Nevertheless, wide acceptance of the technique requires adequate documentation of the advantages of the approach over conventional laparoscopy and further refinement of surgical instrumentation to overcome intraoperative ergonomic problems.

  6. The effect of accelerometer location on the classification of single-site forearm mechanomyograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejdić Ervin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, pattern recognition methods have been deployed in the classification of multiple activation states from mechanomyogram (MMG signals for the purpose of controlling switching interfaces. Given the propagative properties of MMG signals, it has been suggested that MMG classification should be robust to changes in sensor placement. Nonetheless, this purported robustness remains speculative to date. This study sought to quantify the change in classification accuracy, if any, when a classifier trained with MMG signals from the muscle belly, is subsequently tested with MMG signals from a nearby location. Methods An arrangement of 5 accelerometers was attached to the flexor carpi radialis muscle of 12 able-bodied participants; a reference accelerometer was located over the muscle belly, two peripheral accelerometers were positioned along the muscle's transverse axis and two more were aligned to the muscle's longitudinal axis. Participants performed three classes of muscle activity: wrist flexion, wrist extension and semi-pronation. A collection of time, frequency and time-frequency features were considered and reduced by genetic feature selection. The classifier, trained using features from the reference accelerometer, was tested with signals from the longitudinally and transversally displaced accelerometers. Results Classification degradation due to accelerometer displacement was significant for all participants, and showed no consistent trend with the direction of displacement. Further, the displaced accelerometer signals showed task-dependent de-correlations with respect to the reference accelerometer. Conclusions These results indicate that MMG signal features vary with spatial location and that accelerometer displacements of only 1-2 cm cause sufficient feature drift to significantly diminish classification accuracy. This finding emphasizes the importance of consistent sensor placement between MMG classifier training and deployment for accurate control of switching interfaces.

  7. Confidence Region for the Evaluation of HF DF Single Site Location Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-02

    34 . so ON=00 -1 )I a0- ft tt XN % nI- 0 110 111- 1- 1 NI L * = .1 of tix N aa NIf "- o I’ N "C4V4 W 9 o N P9- 4Dm>0 O -00W) 1 m m I = =W N ch a 4c 4 OLM5...1110 NO-K7 1120 NEXT K7 1130 L4-LO(NO) 1140 L5mL1(NO) 1150 N-N-i 1160 IF NO’t4+l THEN 1210 1170 FOR C6mNO TO N 1180 LO( C6 )-LO( C6 +1) 1190 L1( C6 )mLl( C6 +1

  8. Editing and methylation at a single site by functionally interdependent activities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rubio, M.A.T.; Gaston, K.W.; McKenney, K. M.; Fleming, I.M.C.; Paris, Zdeněk; Limbach, P.A.; Alfonzo, J. D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 542, č. 7642 (2017), s. 494-497 ISSN 0028-0836 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ15-21450Y Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : encoded transfer-rnas * Leishmania tarentolae * Trypanosoma brucei * DNA deamination * anticodon loop * mitochondria * marsupials * discovery Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 40.137, year: 2016

  9. Transumbilical laparoendoscopic single-site donor nephrectomy: Without the use of a single port access device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Dubey

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions : Transumbilical LESS-DN can be cost-effectively performed using conventional laparoscopy instruments and without the need for a single port access device. Warm ischemia times with this technique are comparable with that during conventional multiport laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.

  10. Design and evaluation of a variable stiffness manual operating platform for laparoendoscopic single site surgery (LESS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhua; Li, Xuejie; Wang, Jianchen; Xing, Yuan; Wang, Shuxin; Ren, Xiangyun

    2017-12-01

    Most of the existing robotic platforms for LESS have workspace and load capacity weaknesses, because of the limitation of one single incision. We have developed a LESS manual operating platform of which the stiffness of the insertion tube is controllable. The system included two dexterous tool manipulators, a stereo-vision module and a variable stiffness insertion tube (VSIT), which was designed using phase-change material (mixed indium, gallium and stannum). Experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of the VSIT were set up. Peg transfer tasks and trajectory tracking tasks were conducted to assess the initial performance of the overall system. The experimental results for stiffness characteristic suggested that the rigidity of the VSIT with a straight-forward pose was considerably increased by about four times in the rigid mode. Peg transfer tasks and trajectory tracking tasks were performed successfully with an average time of 97 s and 52 s, respectively. The experimental results for stiffness characteristic showed that the manual operating platform had great promise for solving large workspace, high manipulation force and stability problems in LESS. The tool manipulators had the ability to achieve basic operations. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. [Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery in gynecology: the situation in 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabischong, B; Compan, C; Savary, D; Bourdel, N; Canis, M; Mage, G; Botchorishvili, R

    2013-09-01

    Single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) is a recent technic of minimally invasive surgery that arouses a growing interest due to its potential benefits in terms of pain and cosmetic. However, in gynecology as well as in other surgical specialties, preliminary results seem to be controversial. Its feasibility and interest by comparison with conventional laparoscopy (CL) have not been confirmed by randomized multicenter studies. Compare in gynecological surgery, feasibility and surgical outcomes (conversion rate and complications, postoperative pain, duration of surgery, length of hospital stay, appearance and cost) between SILS and CL. For this, a review of the literature from a PUBMED and Medline databases was conducted. The clinical cases and series with fewer than 10 patients were excluded. Eligible data were compared and analyzed. A total of 46 studies including five prospective randomized were studied in gynecology. Conversion rates and complications appear identical to those of the CL. The learning curve is also comparable. The technique is not standardized and some ergonomic problems are described. Operating time and duration of hospitalization seems to be comparable. The postoperative pain assessment found conflicting results. The cosmetic results are in favor of the single incision laparoscopy. Finally, the cost is higher. According to the literature, the single incision laparoscopy seems feasible and safe, with better cosmetic results. But the cost is increased and associated with no benefit in terms of pain, operating time and duration of hospitalization. Beyond cosmetics results, further randomized studies are needed to identify a possible benefit. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Observation of the distorted form of Pd-porphin in single site spectra at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starukhin, Aleksander; Kruk, Mikalai; Czerwieniec, Rafal

    2008-01-01

    Highly resolved phosphorescence and excitation of phosphorescence spectra for palladium porphin (PdP) in polycrystalline Shpol'skii matrices at liquid helium temperatures were recorded. Two non-interactive forms of PdP in the ground state have been identified. The energy splitting between the two forms amount up to 78 cm -1 for PdP in an n-octane at 4.2 K. The short-wavelength spectral form is attributed to the structure, where the central Pd(II) ion is in plane of the porphyrin macrocycle, while the long-wavelength form is associated with the nonplanar saddle-type conformation of the PdP. The frequencies of the normal vibrations in the ground electronic state have been measured separately for both forms and the differences in the normal modes of two macrocycle conformations are discussed. The set of temperature activated bands in phosphorescence spectra were found. Analysis of phosphorescence spectra at elevated temperatures and excitation of phosphorescence spectra under direct excitation in the S 0 →T 1 channel make possible the value of zero-field splitting of quasi-degenerate T 1,2 state for two forms to be determined. The splitting value in n-octane matrix amount to 40 and 57 cm -1 for planar and nonplanar conformations of PdP, respectively

  13. Single Site Location with Ionospheric Specification from Oblique-Incidence Sounders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-24

    8217.’ % -’,-’. %.Z ’’O ,.,ZlZ % , """"""’’’’ -’’’""-".." ",2" ", . ’ ’ L , , ’’ segment camot be expected to necessarily predict wll into other

  14. Compact Single Site Resolution Cold Atom Experiment for Adiabatic Quantum Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-03

    Specifically, we will design and construct a set of compact single atom traps with integrated optics, suitable for heralded entanglement and loophole...technical development is to achieve fast loading and qubit manipulation in the single- atom traps, which will enable our scientific investigation. The...goal of our scientific investigation is to demonstrate high fidelity and fast atom - atom entanglement between physically 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4

  15. Rayleigh scattering from single-site polysylane adsorbed on silicon: Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, Christianus M.J.

    1986-01-01

    An ordered set of dipoles with mutual interaction in the close vicinity of a dielectric surface is studied. The solution of that particular theoretical problem is given rigorously both for the static and dynamic case. It can serve as a description of the polysylane molecules formed at the surface of

  16. Ground surface temperature history at a single site in southern Portugal reconstructed from borehole temperatures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Correia, A.; Šafanda, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 29, 3/4 (2001), s. 155-165 ISSN 0921-8181 Grant - others:NATO(XX) CP(CZ)4/D/96/PO; UNESCO(XX) IGCP No.428 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3012916 Keywords : recent climate * global warming * borehole temperatures * Portugal Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.381, year: 2001

  17. Clean Chlorination of Silica Surfaces by a Single-site Substitution Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Maity, Niladri

    2018-02-12

    A chlorination method for the selective substitution of well-defined isolated silanol groups of the silica surface has been developed using the catalytic Appel reaction. Spectroscopic analysis, complemented by elemental microanalysis studies, reveals that a quantitative chlorination could be achieved with highly dehydroxylated silica materials that exclusively possess non-hydrogen bonded silanol groups. The employed method did not leave any carbon or phosphorous residue on the silica surface and can be regarded as a promising tool for the future functionalization of metal oxide surfaces.

  18. Selective alkane activation with single-site atoms on amorphous support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Adam S.; Schweitzer, Neil M.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Hu, Bo

    2015-11-24

    The present invention relates generally to catalysts and methods for use in olefin production. More particularly, the present invention relates to novel amorphously supported single-center, Lewis acid metal ions and use of the same as catalysts.

  19. Assessing FPAR Source and Parameter Optimization Scheme in Application of a Diagnostic Carbon Flux Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, D P; Ritts, W D; Wharton, S; Thomas, C; Monson, R; Black, T A

    2009-02-26

    The combination of satellite remote sensing and carbon cycle models provides an opportunity for regional to global scale monitoring of terrestrial gross primary production, ecosystem respiration, and net ecosystem production. FPAR (the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by the plant canopy) is a critical input to diagnostic models, however little is known about the relative effectiveness of FPAR products from different satellite sensors nor about the sensitivity of flux estimates to different parameterization approaches. In this study, we used multiyear observations of carbon flux at four eddy covariance flux tower sites within the conifer biome to evaluate these factors. FPAR products from the MODIS and SeaWiFS sensors, and the effects of single site vs. cross-site parameter optimization were tested with the CFLUX model. The SeaWiFs FPAR product showed greater dynamic range across sites and resulted in slightly reduced flux estimation errors relative to the MODIS product when using cross-site optimization. With site-specific parameter optimization, the flux model was effective in capturing seasonal and interannual variation in the carbon fluxes at these sites. The cross-site prediction errors were lower when using parameters from a cross-site optimization compared to parameter sets from optimization at single sites. These results support the practice of multisite optimization within a biome for parameterization of diagnostic carbon flux models.

  20. Cheaper Synthesis Of Multipole-Brushless-dc-Motor Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhorn, Dean C.; Howard, David E.

    1994-01-01

    Circuit converts output of single two-phase shaft-angle resolver to that of multi-speed three-phase shaft-angle resolver. Converter circuit applicable to generation of multispeed, multiphase shaft-angle-resolver signals from single two-phase shaft-angle resolver. Combination of converter circuit and single two-phase shaft-angle resolver offer advantages in cost, weight, size, and complexity. Design readily adaptable to two-phase motor.

  1. Tokamak configuration analysis with the method of toroidal multipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micozzi, P.; Alladio, F.; Crisanti, F.; Marinucci, M.; Tanga, A.

    1989-01-01

    In the study of tokamak machines able to sustain plasmas of thermonuclear interest (JIT, IGNITOR, NET, CIT, ET), there is a strong quest for engineering optimization of the circuital components close to the plasma. We have developed a semianalytical axisymmetric MHD equilibrium code based on the technique of the poloidal ψ flux function expansion in toroidal harmonic series. This code is able to optimize the necessary currents in the poloidal circuits in order to sustain a plasma of fixed shape (also x-point configuration), toroidal current and poloidal β. (author) 4 refs., 4 figs

  2. Concept of multipole magnetic field rotation in ECRIS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    parameter and that is why people go for more and more mirror ratio to contain plasma. Movement of a charged particle is restricted in perpendicular direction of a line of force and made to move along it. The particle in a magnetic field gyrates and performs about. 109 cyclotron revolution per second around the line of force.

  3. Design of NSLS-II High Order Multipole Correctors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehak,M.; Danby, G.; Bengtsson, Jo; Jackson, J.; Skaritka, J.; Spataro, C.

    2009-05-04

    Feasibility studies for two families of corrector magnets for NSLS-II are presented. The first family of magnets are generalizations of figure eight quadrupoles using rotationally symmetric breaks in the return yoke to fit in available space. Properties specific to figure eight magnet are identified. The second type of magnet is a combined sextupole/dipole trim.

  4. The electric multipole expansion for a magic cube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, Adam; Loly, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies of the rotational properties of magic cubes are extended to a corresponding electrical problem. While expecting the dipole moments of magic cubes to vanish, it was a surprise to find their quadrupole moments also vanished. These properties are shown to follow from the RCP (row, column, pillar) symmetry of the orthogonal line sums, namely the semi-magic property of the cubes, which opens up the conclusions to a much wider class of charge distributions

  5. Fluctuation-multipole mechanism of interaction in emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magazu, S; Maisano, G; Malomuzh, NP; Morozov, AN

    1998-01-01

    We investigate an influence of the charge in the diffusive part of the electric double layer on the character of interaction between distant emulsion particles. The first terms in the asymptotic expansion of the binary interparticle potential are found in the explicit form. In certain regions of the

  6. Antimatter plasmas in a multipole trap for antihydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, G; Bertsche, W; Boston, A; Bowe, P D; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Chartier, M; Deutsch, A; Fajans, J; Fujiwara, M C; Funakoshi, R; Gill, D R; Gomberoff, K; Hangst, J S; Hayano, R S; Hydomako, R; Jenkins, M J; Jørgensen, L V; Kurchaninov, L; Madsen, N; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; Storey, J W; Telle, H H; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y

    2007-01-12

    We have demonstrated storage of plasmas of the charged constituents of the antihydrogen atom, antiprotons and positrons, in a Penning trap surrounded by a minimum-B magnetic trap designed for holding neutral antiatoms. The neutral trap comprises a superconducting octupole and two superconducting, solenoidal mirror coils. We have measured the storage lifetimes of antiproton and positron plasmas in the combined Penning-neutral trap, and compared these to lifetimes without the neutral trap fields. The magnetic well depth was 0.6 T, deep enough to trap ground state antihydrogen atoms of up to about 0.4 K in temperature. We have demonstrated that both particle species can be stored for times long enough to permit antihydrogen production and trapping studies.

  7. Process Diagnostics and Monitoring Using the Multipole Resonance Probe (MRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harhausen, J.; Awakowicz, P.; Brinkmann, R. P.; Foest, R.; Lapke, M.; Musch, T.; Mussenbrock, T.; Oberrath, J.; Ohl, A.; Rolfes, I.; Schulz, Ch.; Storch, R.; Styrnoll, T.

    2011-10-01

    In this contribution we present the application of the MRP in an industrial plasma ion assisted deposition (PIAD) chamber (Leybold optics SYRUS-pro). The MRP is a novel plasma diagnostic which is suitable for an industrial environment - which means that the proposed method is robust, calibration free, and economical, and can be used for ideal and reactive plasmas alike. In order to employ the MRP as process diagnostics we mounted the probe on a manipulator to obtain spatially resolved information on the electron density and temperature. As monitoring tool the MRP is installed at a fixed position. Even during the deposition process it provides stable measurement results while other diagnostic methods, e.g. the Langmuir probe, may suffer from dielectric coatings. In this contribution we present the application of the MRP in an industrial plasma ion assisted deposition (PIAD) chamber (Leybold optics SYRUS-pro). The MRP is a novel plasma diagnostic which is suitable for an industrial environment - which means that the proposed method is robust, calibration free, and economical, and can be used for ideal and reactive plasmas alike. In order to employ the MRP as process diagnostics we mounted the probe on a manipulator to obtain spatially resolved information on the electron density and temperature. As monitoring tool the MRP is installed at a fixed position. Even during the deposition process it provides stable measurement results while other diagnostic methods, e.g. the Langmuir probe, may suffer from dielectric coatings. Funded by the German Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF, Fkz. 13N10462).

  8. Passive correction of persistent current multipoles in superconducting accelerator dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, H.E.; Hanft, R.A.; Kuchnir, M.; McInturff, A.D.

    1986-07-01

    Correction of the magnetization sextupole and decapole fields with strips of superconductor placed just inside the coil winding is discussed. Calculations have been carried out for such a scheme, and tests have been conducted on a 4 cm aperture magnet. The calculated sextupole correction at the injection excitation of 330 A, 5% of full field, was expected to be 77% effective, while the measured correction is 83%, thus suggesting the scheme may be useful for future accelerators such as SSC and LHC

  9. Study of giant multipole resonances in 40Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rost, H.

    1979-01-01

    In the present thesis giant resonance states in 40 Ca were studied by scattering of 104 MeV a particles on 40 Ca and by the reactions 39 K(p vector,p') 39 K and 39 K(p,α) 36 Ar. The scattered α-particles were measured at extreme forward angles (THETAsub(L) = 4 0 -16 0 C), because at forward angles the cross sections for the excitation of states with spin 0 and 1 strongly differ from those with higher spin. The aim of this experiment was first of all the study of the giant resonance region in 40 Ca on the contribution to 0 + or 1 - states. Beside the known electric giant quadrupole resonances at Esub(x) approx. equal to 18.5 MeV (25% EWSR) contributions of EO-strength at Esub(x) approx. equal to 21 MeV (6% EWSR) and indications to a (isoscalar) E1-strength at Esub(x) approx. equal to 14 MeV and Esub(x) approx. equal to 16 MeV were found. At the reactions 39 K(p vector,p') 39 K and 39 K(p,α) 36 Ar in the channels (p,p 0 ),(p,p 4 ), (p,αsub(o)), and (p,α 1 ) at incident energies at about 10 MeV (Esub(x)( 40 Ca) approx. equal to 18 MeV) resonant structures were observed. A scattering phase analysis performed for the elastic proton scattering didn't however yield quantitative results about the resonance parameter. An expansion of the cross sections by Legendre polynomials for the remaining reaction channel didn't allow a conclusion about the dominance of a certain L-value. The only indication to the connection of the observed resonant structures with the giant quadrupole resonance in 40 Ca is therefore the energetic position at about Esub(x) approx. equal to 18 MeV. Altogether the observed structures however were not very pronounced, so it can be concluded, that the excitation of the giant quadrupole resonance in 40 Ca by protons via the ground state of 39 K occurs not very strongly. (orig./HSI) [de

  10. Modeling the Performance of Fast Mulipole Method on HPC platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Ibeid, Huda

    2012-04-06

    The current trend in high performance computing is pushing towards exascale computing. To achieve this exascale performance, future systems will have between 100 million and 1 billion cores assuming gigahertz cores. Currently, there are many efforts studying the hardware and software bottlenecks for building an exascale system. It is important to understand and meet these bottlenecks in order to attain 10 PFLOPS performance. On applications side, there is an urgent need to model application performance and to understand what changes need to be made to ensure continued scalability at this scale. Fast multipole methods (FMM) were originally developed for accelerating N-body problems for particle based methods. Nowadays, FMM is more than an N-body solver, recent trends in HPC have been to use FMMs in unconventional application areas. FMM is likely to be a main player in exascale due to its hierarchical nature and the techniques used to access the data via a tree structure which allow many operations to happen simultaneously at each level of the hierarchy. In this thesis , we discuss the challenges for FMM on current parallel computers and future exasclae architecture. Furthermore, we develop a novel performance model for FMM. Our ultimate aim of this thesis is to ensure the scalability of FMM on the future exascale machines.

  11. Forward Modeling of Large-scale Structure: An Open-source Approach with Halotools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearin, Andrew P.; Campbell, Duncan; Tollerud, Erik; Behroozi, Peter; Diemer, Benedikt; Goldbaum, Nathan J.; Jennings, Elise; Leauthaud, Alexie; Mao, Yao-Yuan; More, Surhud; Parejko, John; Sinha, Manodeep; Sipöcz, Brigitta; Zentner, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    We present the first stable release of Halotools (v0.2), a community-driven Python package designed to build and test models of the galaxy-halo connection. Halotools provides a modular platform for creating mock universes of galaxies starting from a catalog of dark matter halos obtained from a cosmological simulation. The package supports many of the common forms used to describe galaxy-halo models: the halo occupation distribution, the conditional luminosity function, abundance matching, and alternatives to these models that include effects such as environmental quenching or variable galaxy assembly bias. Satellite galaxies can be modeled to live in subhalos or to follow custom number density profiles within their halos, including spatial and/or velocity bias with respect to the dark matter profile. The package has an optimized toolkit to make mock observations on a synthetic galaxy population—including galaxy clustering, galaxy-galaxy lensing, galaxy group identification, RSD multipoles, void statistics, pairwise velocities and others—allowing direct comparison to observations. Halotools is object-oriented, enabling complex models to be built from a set of simple, interchangeable components, including those of your own creation. Halotools has an automated testing suite and is exhaustively documented on http://halotools.readthedocs.io, which includes quickstart guides, source code notes and a large collection of tutorials. The documentation is effectively an online textbook on how to build and study empirical models of galaxy formation with Python.

  12. Forward Modeling of Large-scale Structure: An Open-source Approach with Halotools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hearin, Andrew P.; Campbell, Duncan; Tollerud, Erik; Behroozi, Peter; Diemer, Benedikt; Goldbaum, Nathan J.; Jennings, Elise; Leauthaud, Alexie; Mao, Yao-Yuan; More, Surhud; Parejko, John; Sinha, Manodeep; Sipöcz, Brigitta; Zentner, Andrew

    2017-10-18

    We present the first stable release of Halotools (v0.2), a community-driven Python package designed to build and test models of the galaxy-halo connection. Halotools provides a modular platform for creating mock universes of galaxies starting from a catalog of dark matter halos obtained from a cosmological simulation. The package supports many of the common forms used to describe galaxy-halo models: the halo occupation distribution, the conditional luminosity function, abundance matching, and alternatives to these models that include effects such as environmental quenching or variable galaxy assembly bias. Satellite galaxies can be modeled to live in subhalos or to follow custom number density profiles within their halos, including spatial and/or velocity bias with respect to the dark matter profile. The package has an optimized toolkit to make mock observations on a synthetic galaxy population—including galaxy clustering, galaxy–galaxy lensing, galaxy group identification, RSD multipoles, void statistics, pairwise velocities and others—allowing direct comparison to observations. Halotools is object-oriented, enabling complex models to be built from a set of simple, interchangeable components, including those of your own creation. Halotools has an automated testing suite and is exhaustively documented on http://halotools.readthedocs.io, which includes quickstart guides, source code notes and a large collection of tutorials. The documentation is effectively an online textbook on how to build and study empirical models of galaxy formation with Python.

  13. Particle-rotor-model calculations in I

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (i) the assignment of an oblate shape to the yrast positive-parity band and a prolate defor- mation for the. /¾ band, based on the sign of the multipole mixing ratios for theAÁ = 1 in-band transitions; (ii) confirmation of a three quasiparticle configuration to an excited sequence of states depopulating by mixed M1/E2 transitions ...

  14. Current focussing in cochlear implants: an analysis of neural recruitment in a computational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkman, Randy K; Briaire, Jeroen J; Frijns, Johan H M

    2015-04-01

    Several multipolar current focussing strategies are examined in a computational model of the implanted human cochlea. The model includes a realistic spatial distribution of cell bodies of the auditory neurons throughout Rosenthal's canal. Simulations are performed of monopolar, (partial) tripolar and phased array stimulation. Excitation patterns, estimated thresholds, electrical dynamic range, excitation density and neural recruitment curves are determined and compared. The main findings are: (I) Current focussing requires electrical field interaction to induce spatially restricted excitation patterns. For perimodiolar electrodes the distance to the neurons is too small to have sufficient electrical field interaction, which results in neural excitation near non-centre contacts. (II) Current focussing only produces spatially restricted excitation patterns when there is little or no excitation occurring in the peripheral processes, either because of geometrical factors or due to neural degeneration. (III) The model predicts that neural recruitment with electrical stimulation is a three-dimensional process; regions of excitation not only expand in apical and basal directions, but also by penetrating deeper into the spiral ganglion. (IV) At equal loudness certain differences between the spatial excitation patterns of various multipoles cannot be simulated in a model containing linearly aligned neurons of identical morphology. Introducing a form of variability in the neurons, such as the spatial distribution of cell bodies in the spiral ganglion used in this study, is therefore essential in the modelling of spread of excitation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A comparison of updating algorithms for large $N$ reduced models

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, Margarita García; Keegan, Liam; Okawa, Masanori; Ramos, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    We investigate Monte Carlo updating algorithms for simulating $SU(N)$ Yang-Mills fields on a single-site lattice, such as for the Twisted Eguchi-Kawai model (TEK). We show that performing only over-relaxation (OR) updates of the gauge links is a valid simulation algorithm for the Fabricius and Haan formulation of this model, and that this decorrelates observables faster than using heat-bath updates. We consider two different methods of implementing the OR update: either updating the whole $SU(N)$ matrix at once, or iterating through $SU(2)$ subgroups of the $SU(N)$ matrix, we find the same critical exponent in both cases, and only a slight difference between the two.

  16. The transverse spin-1 Ising model with random interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouziane, Touria [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Moulay Ismail, B.P. 11201 Meknes (Morocco)], E-mail: touria582004@yahoo.fr; Saber, Mohammed [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Moulay Ismail, B.P. 11201 Meknes (Morocco); Dpto. Fisica Aplicada I, EUPDS (EUPDS), Plaza Europa, 1, San Sebastian 20018 (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    The phase diagrams of the transverse spin-1 Ising model with random interactions are investigated using a new technique in the effective field theory that employs a probability distribution within the framework of the single-site cluster theory based on the use of exact Ising spin identities. A model is adopted in which the nearest-neighbor exchange couplings are independent random variables distributed according to the law P(J{sub ij})=p{delta}(J{sub ij}-J)+(1-p){delta}(J{sub ij}-{alpha}J). General formulae, applicable to lattices with coordination number N, are given. Numerical results are presented for a simple cubic lattice. The possible reentrant phenomenon displayed by the system due to the competitive effects between exchange interactions occurs for the appropriate range of the parameter {alpha}.

  17. Modelling the fluid mechanics of cilia and flagella in reproduction and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro-Johnson, Thomas D; Smith, Andrew A; Smith, David J; Loghin, Daniel; Blake, John R

    2012-10-01

    Cilia and flagella are actively bending slender organelles, performing functions such as motility, feeding and embryonic symmetry breaking. We review the mechanics of viscous-dominated microscale flow, including time-reversal symmetry, drag anisotropy of slender bodies, and wall effects. We focus on the fundamental force singularity, higher-order multipoles, and the method of images, providing physical insight and forming a basis for computational approaches. Two biological problems are then considered in more detail: 1) left-right symmetry breaking flow in the node, a microscopic structure in developing vertebrate embryos, and 2) motility of microswimmers through non-Newtonian fluids. Our model of the embryonic node reveals how particle transport associated with morphogenesis is modulated by the gradual emergence of cilium posterior tilt. Our model of swimming makes use of force distributions within a body-conforming finite-element framework, allowing the solution of nonlinear inertialess Carreau flow. We find that a three-sphere model swimmer and a model sperm are similarly affected by shear-thinning; in both cases swimming due to a prescribed beat is enhanced by shear-thinning, with optimal Deborah number around 0.8. The sperm exhibits an almost perfect linear relationship between velocity and the logarithm of the ratio of zero to infinite shear viscosity, with shear-thickening hindering cell progress.

  18. Exact boson mappings for nuclear neutron (proton) shell-model algebras having SU(3) subalgebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonatsos, D.; Klein, A.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper the commutation relations of the fermion pair operators of identical nucleons coupled to spin zero are given for the general nuclear major shell in LST coupling. The associated Lie algebras are the unitary symplectic algebras Sp(2M). The corresponding multipole subalgebras are the unitary algebras U(M), which possess SU(3) subalgebras. Number conserving exact boson mappings of both the Dyson and hermitian form are given for the nuclear neutron (proton) s--d, p--f, s--d--g, and p--f--h shells, and their group theoretical structure is emphasized. The results are directly applicable in the case of the s--d shell, while in higher shells the experimentally plausible pseudo-SU(3) symmetry makes them applicable. The final purpose of this work is to provide a link between the shell model and the Interacting Boson Model (IBM) in the deformed limit. As already implied in the work of Draayer and Hecht, it is difficult to associate the boson model developed here with the conventional IBM model. The differences between the two approaches (due mainly to the effects of the Pauli principle) as well as their physical implications are extensively discussed

  19. Analytical solutions for the invariant spin field for model storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mane, S.R.

    2002-01-01

    We present nonperturbative analytical expressions for the invariant spin field for several storage ring models. In particular, we solve the important models of a ring with one Snake and a single resonance driving term, and a ring with two Snakes and a single resonance driving term. We also treat several other models, all of which contain Siberian Snakes. Our solutions contain some novel features, e.g. in some cases the polarization does not point along the direction of the closed-orbit spin quantization axis. We also include vertical resonance driving terms, and consider the contributions of sextupoles and higher order multipoles to the resonance driving terms, and argue that these can play a significant role in some circumstances. We offer some brief remarks on the so-called Snake resonances. We relate our results to observations of higher-order depolarizing spin resonances for polarized proton beams in a real ring, and offer some suggestions as to how our ideas might be verified

  20. Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Method Combined with Hybrid All-Atom and Coarse-Grained Model: Theory and Application on Redox Potential Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lin; Yang, Weitao

    2016-04-12

    We developed a new multiresolution method that spans three levels of resolution with quantum mechanical, atomistic molecular mechanical, and coarse-grained models. The resolution-adapted all-atom and coarse-grained water model, in which an all-atom structural description of the entire system is maintained during the simulations, is combined with the ab initio quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics method. We apply this model to calculate the redox potentials of the aqueous ruthenium and iron complexes by using the fractional number of electrons approach and thermodynamic integration simulations. The redox potentials are recovered in excellent accordance with the experimental data. The speed-up of the hybrid all-atom and coarse-grained water model renders it computationally more attractive. The accuracy depends on the hybrid all-atom and coarse-grained water model used in the combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical method. We have used another multiresolution model, in which an atomic-level layer of water molecules around redox center is solvated in supramolecular coarse-grained waters for the redox potential calculations. Compared with the experimental data, this alternative multilayer model leads to less accurate results when used with the coarse-grained polarizable MARTINI water or big multipole water model for the coarse-grained layer.

  1. Modulating mtDNA heteroplasmy by mitochondria-targeted restriction endonucleases in a ‘differential multiple cleavage-site’ model

    OpenAIRE

    Bacman, SR; Williams, SL; Hernandez, D; Moraes, CT

    2007-01-01

    The ability to manipulate mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) heteroplasmy would provide a powerful tool to treat mitochondrial diseases. Recent studies showed that mitochondria-targeted restriction endonucleases can modify mtDNA heteroplasmy in a predictable and efficient manner if it recognizes a single site in the mutant mtDNA. However, the applicability of such model is limited to mutations that create a novel cleavage site, not present in the wild-type mtDNA. We attempted to extend this approach t...

  2. Modelling of the reactive sputtering process with non-uniform discharge current density and different temperature conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vašina, P; Hytková, T; Eliáš, M

    2009-05-01

    The majority of current models of the reactive magnetron sputtering assume a uniform shape of the discharge current density and the same temperature near the target and the substrate. However, in the real experimental set-up, the presence of the magnetic field causes high density plasma to form in front of the cathode in the shape of a toroid. Consequently, the discharge current density is laterally non-uniform. In addition to this, the heating of the background gas by sputtered particles, which is usually referred to as the gas rarefaction, plays an important role. This paper presents an extended model of the reactive magnetron sputtering that assumes the non-uniform discharge current density and which accommodates the gas rarefaction effect. It is devoted mainly to the study of the behaviour of the reactive sputtering rather that to the prediction of the coating properties. Outputs of this model are compared with those that assume uniform discharge current density and uniform temperature profile in the deposition chamber. Particular attention is paid to the modelling of the radial variation of the target composition near transitions from the metallic to the compound mode and vice versa. A study of the target utilization in the metallic and compound mode is performed for two different discharge current density profiles corresponding to typical two pole and multipole magnetics available on the market now. Different shapes of the discharge current density were tested. Finally, hysteresis curves are plotted for various temperature conditions in the reactor.

  3. Electromagnetic Field Analysis and Modeling of a Relative Position Detection Sensor for High Speed Maglev Trains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Xue

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The long stator track for high speed maglev trains has a tooth-slot structure. The sensor obtains precise relative position information for the traction system by detecting the long stator tooth-slot structure based on nondestructive detection technology. The magnetic field modeling of the sensor is a typical three-dimensional (3-D electromagnetic problem with complex boundary conditions, and is studied semi-analytically in this paper. A second-order vector potential (SOVP is introduced to simplify the vector field problem to a scalar field one, the solution of which can be expressed in terms of series expansions according to Multipole Theory (MT and the New Equivalent Source (NES method. The coefficients of the expansions are determined by the least squares method based on the boundary conditions. Then, the solution is compared to the simulation result through Finite Element Analysis (FEA. The comparison results show that the semi-analytical solution agrees approximately with the numerical solution. Finally, based on electromagnetic modeling, a difference coil structure is designed to improve the sensitivity and accuracy of the sensor.

  4. Electromagnetic Field Analysis and Modeling of a Relative Position Detection Sensor for High Speed Maglev Trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Song; He, Ning; Long, Zhiqiang

    2012-01-01

    The long stator track for high speed maglev trains has a tooth-slot structure. The sensor obtains precise relative position information for the traction system by detecting the long stator tooth-slot structure based on nondestructive detection technology. The magnetic field modeling of the sensor is a typical three-dimensional (3-D) electromagnetic problem with complex boundary conditions, and is studied semi-analytically in this paper. A second-order vector potential (SOVP) is introduced to simplify the vector field problem to a scalar field one, the solution of which can be expressed in terms of series expansions according to Multipole Theory (MT) and the New Equivalent Source (NES) method. The coefficients of the expansions are determined by the least squares method based on the boundary conditions. Then, the solution is compared to the simulation result through Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The comparison results show that the semi-analytical solution agrees approximately with the numerical solution. Finally, based on electromagnetic modeling, a difference coil structure is designed to improve the sensitivity and accuracy of the sensor. PMID:22778652

  5. Historical Datasets Support Genomic Selection Models for the Prediction of Cotton Fiber Quality Phenotypes Across Multiple Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapare, Washington; Liu, Shiming; Conaty, Warren; Zhu, Qian-Hao; Gillespie, Vanessa; Llewellyn, Danny; Stiller, Warwick; Wilson, Iain

    2018-03-20

    Genomic selection (GS) has successfully been used in plant breeding to improve selection efficiency and reduce breeding time and cost. However, there has not been a study to evaluate GS prediction models that may be used for predicting cotton breeding lines across multiple environments. In this study, we evaluated the performance of Bayes Ridge Regression, BayesA, BayesB, BayesC and Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Spaces regression models. We then extended the single-site GS model to accommodate genotype × environment interaction (G×E) in order to assess the merits of multi- over single-environment models in a practical breeding and selection context in cotton, a crop for which this has not previously been evaluated. Our study was based on a population of 215 upland cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum ) breeding lines which were evaluated for fiber length and strength at multiple locations in Australia and genotyped with 13,330 single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers. BayesB, which assumes unique variance for each marker and a proportion of markers to have large effects, while most other markers have zero effect, was the preferred model. GS accuracy for fiber length based on a single-site model varied across sites, ranging from 0.27 to 0.77 (mean = 0.38), while that of fiber strength ranged from 0.19 to 0.58 (mean = 0.35) using randomly selected sub-populations as the training population. Prediction accuracies from the M×E model were higher than those for single-site and across-site models, with an average accuracy of 0.71 and 0.59 for fiber length and strength, respectively. The use of the M×E model could therefore identify which breeding lines have effects that are stable across environments and which ones are responsible for G×E and so reduce the amount of phenotypic screening required in cotton breeding programs to identify adaptable genotypes. Copyright © 2018, G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics.

  6. Fostering Team Awareness in Earth System Modeling Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrook, S. M.; Lawson, A.; Strong, S.

    2009-12-01

    Existing Global Climate Models are typically managed and controlled at a single site, with varied levels of participation by scientists outside the core lab. As these models evolve to encompass a wider set of earth systems, this central control of the modeling effort becomes a bottleneck. But such models cannot evolve to become fully distributed open source projects unless they address the imbalance in the availability of communication channels: scientists at the core site have access to regular face-to-face communication with one another, while those at remote sites have access to only a subset of these conversations - e.g. formally scheduled teleconferences and user meetings. Because of this imbalance, critical decision making can be hidden from many participants, their code contributions can interact in unanticipated ways, and the community loses awareness of who knows what. We have documented some of these problems in a field study at one climate modeling centre, and started to develop tools to overcome these problems. We report on one such tool, TracSNAP, which analyzes the social network of the scientists contributing code to the model by extracting the data in an existing project code repository. The tool presents the results of this analysis to modelers and model users in a number of ways: recommendation for who has expertise on particular code modules, suggestions for code sections that are related to files being worked on, and visualizations of team communication patterns. The tool is currently available as a plugin for the Trac bug tracking system.

  7. Magnetic properties of 2D nano-islands I: Ising spin model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khater, A. [Laboratoire de Physique de L' Etat Condense, UMR 6087, Universite du Maine, 72085 Le Mans (France); Abou Ghantous, M., E-mail: michel.aboughantous@qatar.tamu.edu [Department of Physics, Texas A and M University at Qatar, Education City, PO Box 23874, Doha (Qatar)

    2011-11-15

    An Ising spin effective field theory (EFT) is developed as a framework for a detailed analysis of the magnetic properties of two-dimensional (2D) nano-islands on a nonmagnetic substrate with an out of plane magnetization. The Hamiltonian with nearest neighbor exchange interactions and single-atom magnetic anisotropy defines the ground state. The calculation yields the single site spin correlations, the magnetizations, and the isothermal susceptibilities for the core and periphery domains, and the island core phase diagrams. The choice of a spin S=1 for the atoms permits the analysis of the effects of spin fluctuations via the single site spin correlations. In particular we investigate the effects due to the different anisotropies and reduced dimensionalities for the core and periphery domains. The present model calculations are developed for different 2D nano-islands lattices. Detailed theoretical results are presented for the square and hexagonal lattices, with numerical applications for the 2D Co nano-islands on Pt. The derived transition temperature for the hexagonal lattice nano-islands is in good agreement with the experimental data for Co nano-islands on Pt. Though both the core and the periphery domains have the same order-disorder transition temperature, the magnetization of each domain attains this transition differently. The temperature behavior of the spin correlations is also fundamentally different for the periphery and core sites, which entails distinctly different isothermal susceptibilities, and yields statistically averaged nano-islands susceptibilities that do not correspond to a second order phase transition. The experimental susceptibility results for 2D Co nano-islands on Pt can be interpreted within our EFT Ising model without reference to a transition from a blocking state of the particle to a superparamagnetic behavior. The results for the different lattices are formally comparable, and demonstrate the robustness and general character of the

  8. Semileptonic Decays of Heavy Lambda Baryons in a Quark Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winston Roberts; Muslema Pervin; Simon Capstick

    2005-03-01

    The semileptonic decays of {Lambda}{sub c} and {Lambda}{sub b} are treated in the framework of a constituent quark model. Both nonrelativistic and semirelativistic Hamiltonians are used to obtain the baryon wave functions from a fit to the spectra, and the wave functions are expanded in both the harmonic oscillator and Sturmian bases. The latter basis leads to form factors in which the kinematic dependence on q{sup 2} is in the form of multipoles, and the resulting form factors fall faster as a function of q{sup 2} in the available kinematic ranges. As a result, decay rates obtained in the two models using the Sturmian basis are significantly smaller than those obtained using the harmonic oscillator basis. In the case of the {Lambda}{sub c}, decay rates calculated using the Sturmian basis are closer to the experimentally reported rates. However, we find a semileptonic branching fraction for the {Lambda}{sub c} to decay to excited {Lambda}* states of 11% to 19%, in contradiction with what is assumed in available experimental analyses. Our prediction for the {Lambda}{sub b} semileptonic decays is that decays to the ground state {Lambda}{sub c} provide a little less than 70% of the total semileptonic decay rate. For the decays {Lambda}{sub b} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}, the analytic form factors we obtain satisfy the relations expected from heavy-quark effective theory at the non-recoil point, at leading and next-to-leading orders in the heavy-quark expansion. In addition, some features of the heavy-quark limit are shown to naturally persist as the mass of the heavy quark in the daughter baryon is decreased.

  9. Multi-site calibration, validation, and sensitivity analysis of the MIKE SHE Model for a large watershed in northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Model calibration is essential for hydrologic modeling of large watersheds in a heterogeneous mountain environment. Little guidance is available for model calibration protocols for distributed models that aim at capturing the spatial variability of hydrologic processes. This study used the physically-based distributed hydrologic model, MIKE SHE, to contrast a lumped calibration protocol that used streamflow measured at one single watershed outlet to a multi-site calibration method which employed streamflow measurements at three stations within the large Chaohe River basin in northern China. Simulation results showed that the single-site calibrated model was able to sufficiently simulate the hydrographs for two of the three stations (Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of 0.65–0.75, and correlation coefficient 0.81–0.87 during the testing period, but the model performed poorly for the third station (Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient only 0.44. Sensitivity analysis suggested that streamflow of upstream area of the watershed was dominated by slow groundwater, whilst streamflow of middle- and down- stream areas by relatively quick interflow. Therefore, a multi-site calibration protocol was deemed necessary. Due to the potential errors and uncertainties with respect to the representation of spatial variability, performance measures from the multi-site calibration protocol slightly decreased for two of the three stations, whereas it was improved greatly for the third station. We concluded that multi-site calibration protocol reached a compromise in term of model performance for the three stations, reasonably representing the hydrographs of all three stations with Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient ranging from 0.59–072. The multi-site calibration protocol applied in the analysis generally has advantages to the single site calibration protocol.

  10. Mixed spin Ising model with four-spin interaction and random crystal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benayad, N., E-mail: n.benayad@fsac.ac.ma [Groupe de Mecanique Statistique, Laboratoire de physique theorique et appliquee, Faculte des sciences-Aien Chock, Universite Hassan II-Casablanca, B.P 5366 Maarif, Casablanca 20100 (Morocco); Laboratoire de physique des hautes energies et de la matiere condensee, Faculte des sciences-Aien Chock, Universite Hassan II-Casablanca, B.P 5366 Maarif, Casablanca 20100 (Morocco); Ghliyem, M. [Groupe de Mecanique Statistique, Laboratoire de physique theorique et appliquee, Faculte des sciences-Aien Chock, Universite Hassan II-Casablanca, B.P 5366 Maarif, Casablanca 20100 (Morocco); Laboratoire de physique des hautes energies et de la matiere condensee, Faculte des sciences-Aien Chock, Universite Hassan II-Casablanca, B.P 5366 Maarif, Casablanca 20100 (Morocco)

    2012-01-01

    The effects of fluctuations of the crystal field on the phase diagram of the mixed spin-1/2 and spin-1 Ising model with four-spin interactions are investigated within the finite cluster approximation based on a single-site cluster theory. The state equations are derived for the two-dimensional square lattice. It has been found that the system exhibits a variety of interesting features resulting from the fluctuation of the crystal field interactions. In particular, for low mean value D of the crystal field, the critical temperature is not very sensitive to fluctuations and all transitions are of second order for any value of the four-spin interactions. But for relatively high D, the transition temperature depends on the fluctuation of the crystal field, and the system undergoes tricritical behaviour for any strength of the four-spin interactions. We have also found that the model may exhibit reentrance for appropriate values of the system parameters.

  11. Generalized Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi model with inhomogeneous isotropic dark energy: Observational constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grande, J.; Perivolaropoulos, L.

    2011-01-01

    We consider on-center and off-center observers in an inhomogeneous, spherically symmetric, isocurvature (flat) concentration of dark energy with a typical size of a few Gpc. Such a concentration could be produced e.g. by a recently formed global monopole with core size that approaches the Hubble scale. In this case we would have what may be called ''topological quintessence'' in analogy with the well-known topological inflation. We show that the minimum comoving radius r 0min of such a dark energy inhomogeneity that is consistent with the Union2 type Ia supernovae data at the 3σ level is r 0min ≅1.8 Gpc. As expected, the best-fit fractional dark energy density at the center, Ω X,in , approaches the corresponding ΛCDM value Ω X,in =0.73 for large enough values of the inhomogeneity radius r 0 (r 0 >4 Gpc). Using the Union2 data, we show that the maximum allowed shift r obs-max of the observer from the center of the inhomogeneity is about 0.7r 0 , which respects the Copernican principle. The model naturally predicts the existence of a preferred axis and alignment of the low CMB multipoles. However, the constraints on r obs-max coming from the magnitude of the CMB dipole remain a severe challenge to the Copernican principle and lead to r obs-max 0 =7 Gpc.

  12. A Hybrid Solvers Enhanced Integral Equation Domain Decomposition Method for Modeling of Electromagnetic Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid solvers based on integral equation domain decomposition method (HS-DDM are developed for modeling of electromagnetic radiation. Based on the philosophy of “divide and conquer,” the IE-DDM divides the original multiscale problem into many closed nonoverlapping subdomains. For adjacent subdomains, the Robin transmission conditions ensure the continuity of currents, so the meshes of different subdomains can be allowed to be nonconformal. It also allows different fast solvers to be used in different subdomains based on the property of different subdomains to reduce the time and memory consumption. Here, the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA and hierarchical (H- matrices method are combined in the framework of IE-DDM to enhance the capability of IE-DDM and realize efficient solution of multiscale electromagnetic radiating problems. The MLFMA is used to capture propagating wave physics in large, smooth regions, while H-matrices are used to capture evanescent wave physics in small regions which are discretized with dense meshes. Numerical results demonstrate the validity of the HS-DDM.

  13. Scattering from model nonspherical particles. Theory and applications to environmental physics. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghese, F.; Denti, P.; Saija, R.

    2007-01-01

    The scattering of electromagnetic radiation by nonspherical particles has become an increasingly important research topic over the past 20 years. Instead of handling anisotropic particles of arbitrary shape, the authors consider the more amenable problem of aggregates of spherical particles. This is often a very satisfactory approach as the optical response of nonspherical particles depends more on their general symmetry and the quantity of refractive material than on the precise details of their shape. The book addresses a wide spectrum of applications, ranging from scattering properties of water droplets containing pollutants, atmospheric aerosols and ice crystals to the modeling of cosmic dust grains as aggregates. In this extended second edition the authors have encompassed all the new topics arising from their recent studies of cosmic dust grains. Thus many chapters were deeply revised and new chapters were added. The new material spans the description of the state of polarization of electromagnetic waves of general form, the conservation theorems of combined systems of fields and particles, the appropriate multipole expansion for waves of general wave vector and of general state of polarization, a number of new applications, the effects of radiation pressure and radiation torque on cosmic dust grains, a study of the morphology of cosmic dust grains and of the distribution and polarization of the electromagnetic field in the interior of aggregated dust grains. (orig.)

  14. Geometric algorithms for electromagnetic modeling of large scale structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingenot, James

    With the rapid increase in the speed and complexity of integrated circuit designs, 3D full wave and time domain simulation of chip, package, and board systems becomes more and more important for the engineering of modern designs. Much effort has been applied to the problem of electromagnetic (EM) simulation of such systems in recent years. Major advances in boundary element EM simulations have led to O(n log n) simulations using iterative methods and advanced Fast. Fourier Transform (FFT), Multi-Level Fast Multi-pole Methods (MLFMM), and low-rank matrix compression techniques. These advances have been augmented with an explosion of multi-core and distributed computing technologies, however, realization of the full scale of these capabilities has been hindered by cumbersome and inefficient geometric processing. Anecdotal evidence from industry suggests that users may spend around 80% of turn-around time manipulating the geometric model and mesh. This dissertation addresses this problem by developing fast and efficient data structures and algorithms for 3D modeling of chips, packages, and boards. The methods proposed here harness the regular, layered 2D nature of the models (often referred to as "2.5D") to optimize these systems for large geometries. First, an architecture is developed for efficient storage and manipulation of 2.5D models. The architecture gives special attention to native representation of structures across various input models and special issues particular to 3D modeling. The 2.5D structure is then used to optimize the mesh systems First, circuit/EM co-simulation techniques are extended to provide electrical connectivity between objects. This concept is used to connect independently meshed layers, allowing simple and efficient 2D mesh algorithms to be used in creating a 3D mesh. Here, adaptive meshing is used to ensure that the mesh accurately models the physical unknowns (current and charge). Utilizing the regularized nature of 2.5D objects and

  15. Pion photoproduction in nucleons at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, F.A.B.R. de.

    1983-01-01

    A new semiphenomenological analysis of the multipoles for pion photoproduction from nucleons, in the region of the first π-N resonance is presented. Through an energy dependent model, multipoles with isospin 1/2 and 3/2 and total angular momentum J [pt

  16. Skeletal survey quality in non-accidental injury – A single site evaluation of the effects of imaging checklists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weldon, J.; Price, R.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Evidence suggests ongoing practice variability in the quality of skeletal survey examinations for non-accidental injury. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects on examination quality following the implementation of imaging checklists. Method: A retrospective evaluation of skeletal survey examinations was carried out on studies performed between January 2007 and November 2014 at a large District General Hospital Trust. Longitudinal assessment was undertaken over three periods, before and following the introduction of two versions of imaging checklists, following modifications. Examinations were assessed and scored using three measures for completeness and quality employing a modified established scoring system against a professional body national standards document. Results: A total of 121 examinations met the inclusion criteria, all quality assessment measures showed improvements between each period. Examination completeness increased from median of 13 projections, to 20 throughout the three periods. Mann Whitney u Tests showed significant differences between each period. The mean combined anatomy score reduced from 3.11 to 1.10 throughout the three periods. Independent t Tests and Mann Whitney u Tests showed a significant decrease throughout the study period. Total percentage examination quality increased from median 44–83% throughout the three periods. Independent t Tests also showed significant differences between each period. Conclusion: The use of imaging checklists to improve quality and to support the optimal acquisition of the non-accidental injury skeletal survey shows encouraging results. However, further work is needed to optimise content and the use of checklists in practice. - Highlights: • Skeletal survey examinations for non-accidental practices have been shown to vary in content and in quality. • Checklists have demonstrated improvements in compliance to guidelines across health disciplines and in various settings. • Practice was assessed following the introduction of checklists using a modified scoring system against national standards. • Improvement in the content and quality were observed in all three measures. • Imaging checklists demonstrated improvements to skeletal survey examination content and quality.

  17. Mechanistic studies aimed at the development of single site metal alkoxide catalysts for the production of polyoxygenates from renewable resources.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisholm, Malcolm H. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The work proposed herein follows on directly from the existing 3 year grant and the request for funding is for 12 months to allow completion of this work and graduation of current students supported by DOE. The three primary projects are as follows. 1.) A comparative study of the reactivity of LMg(OR) (solvent), where L= a β-diiminate or pyrromethene ligand, in the ring-opening of cyclic esters. 2.) The homopolymerization of expoxides, particularly propylene oxide and styrene oxide, and their copolymerizations with carbon dioxide or organic anhydrides to yield polycarbonates or polyesters, respectively. 3.) The development of well-defined bismuth (III) complexes for ring-opening polymerizations that are tolerant of both air and water. In each of these topics special emphasis is placed on developing a detailed mechanistic understanding of the ring-opening event and how this is modified by the employment of specific metal and ligand combinations. This document also provides a report on findings of the past grant period that are not yet in the public domain/published and shows how the proposed work will bring the original project to conclusion.

  18. The effect of driving force on intramolecular electron transfer in proteins. Studies on single-site mutated azurins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Skov, L K; van de Kamp, M

    1992-01-01

    these substitutions are not in the microenvironment separating the electron donor and acceptor, they were expected to affect the LRET rate because of their effect on the redox potential of the copper site and thus on the driving force of the reaction, as well as on the reorganization energies of the copper site....... The rate of intramolecular electron transfer from RSSR- to Cu(II) in the wild-type P. aeruginosa azurin (delta G degrees = -68.9 kJ/mol) has previously been determined to be 44 +/- 7 s-1 at 298 K, pH 7.0. The [M44K]azurin mutant (delta G degrees = -75.3 kJ/mol) was now found to react considerably faster (k...... = 134 +/- 12 s-1 at 298 K, pH 7.0) while the [H35Q]azurin mutant (delta G degrees = -65.4 kJ/mol) exhibits, within experimental error, the same specific rate (k = 52 +/- 11 s-1, 298 K, pH 7.0) as that of the wild-type azurin. From the temperature dependence of these LRET rates the following activation...

  19. Two-phase laparoendoscopic single-site cervical ligament-sparing hysterectomy: A novel approach in difficult laparoscopic hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mun-Kun Hong

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: This novel minimal invasive method of hysterectomy makes difficulty laparoscopic hysterectomy easy and safe. Preservation of cervical ligaments retains stability in the pelvic floor and may reduce intraoperative complications and subsequent pelvic floor organ prolapse.

  20. Intraoperative Radiation Using Low-Kilovoltage X-Rays for Early Breast Cancer: A Single Site Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Melvin J; Epstein, Melinda S; Lin, Kevin; Chen, Peter; Khan, Sadia; Snyder, Lincoln; Guerra, Lisa E; De Leon, Cristina; Mackintosh, Ralph; Coleman, Colleen; Lopez, January; Kim, Brian

    2017-10-01

    Two prospective, randomized trials, TARGIT-A and ELIOT, have shown intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) to be a safe alternative to whole breast radiation therapy following breast-conserving surgery for selected low-risk patients. However, minimal data are available about the clinical effectiveness of this modality of treatment using the Xoft ® Axxent ® Electronic Brachytherapy (eBx ® ) System ® . A total of 201 patients with 204 early-stage breast cancers were enrolled in a prospective X-ray IORT trial from June 2010 to September 2013. All tumors were treated with breast-conserving surgery and IORT. Data were collected at 1 week, 1 month, 6 months, 1 year, and yearly thereafter. With a median follow-up of 50 months, there have been seven ipsilateral breast tumor events (IBTE), no regional or distant recurrences, and no breast cancer-related deaths. One IBTE was within the IORT field, four outside of the IORT field but within the same quadrant as the index cancer, and two were new biologically different cancers in different quadrants. Three events were in patients who deviated from the protocol criteria. Kaplan-Meier analysis projects that 2.9% of patients will recur locally at 4 years. Recurrence rates observed in this trial were comparable to those of the TARGIT-A and ELIOT trials as well as the retrospective TARGIT-R trial. The low complication rates previously reported by our group as well as the low recurrence rates reported in this study support the cautious use and continued study of IORT in selected women with low-risk breast cancer.

  1. Fixation method does not affect restoration of rotation center in hip replacements: A single-site retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Wegner, Alexander; Kauther, Max Daniel; Landgraeber, Stefan; von Knoch, Marius

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Aseptic loosening is one of the greatest problems in hip replacement surgery. The rotation center of the hip is believed to influence the longevity of fixation. The aim of this study was to compare the influence of cemented and cementless cup fixation techniques on the position of the center of rotation because cemented cup fixation requires the removal of more bone for solid fixation than the cementless technique. Methods We retrospectively compared pre- and post-operativ...

  2. Fixation method does not affect restoration of rotation center in hip replacements: A single-site retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wegner Alexander

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aseptic loosening is one of the greatest problems in hip replacement surgery. The rotation center of the hip is believed to influence the longevity of fixation. The aim of this study was to compare the influence of cemented and cementless cup fixation techniques on the position of the center of rotation because cemented cup fixation requires the removal of more bone for solid fixation than the cementless technique. Methods We retrospectively compared pre- and post-operative positions of the hip rotation center in 25 and 68 patients who underwent artificial hip replacements in our department in 2007 using cemented or cementless cup fixation, respectively, with digital radiographic image analysis. Results The mean horizontal and vertical distances between the rotation center and the acetabular teardrop were compared in radiographic images taken pre- and post-operatively. The mean horizontal difference was −2.63 mm (range: -11.00 mm to 10.46 mm, standard deviation 4.23 mm for patients who underwent cementless fixation, and −2.84 mm (range: -10.87 to 5.30 mm, standard deviation 4.59 mm for patients who underwent cemented fixation. The mean vertical difference was 0.60 mm (range: -20.15 mm to 10.00 mm, standard deviation 3.93 mm and 0.41 mm (range: -9.26 mm to 6.54 mm, standard deviation 3.58 mm for the cementless and cemented fixation groups, respectively. The two fixation techniques had no significant difference on the position of the hip rotation center in the 93 patients in this study. Conclusions The hip rotation center was similarly restored using either the cemented or cementless fixation techniques in this patient cohort, indicating that the fixation technique itself does not interfere with the position of the center of rotation. To completely answer this question further studies with more patients are needed.

  3. Quasichemical theory and the description of associating fluids relative to a reference: Multiple bonding of a single site solute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Artee; Chapman, Walter G.; Asthagiri, D.

    2017-09-01

    We derive an expression for the chemical potential of an associating solute in a solvent relative to the value in a reference fluid using the quasichemical organization of the potential distribution theorem. The fraction of times the solute is not associated with the solvent, the monomer fraction, is expressed in terms of (a) the statistics of occupancy of the solvent around the solute in the reference fluid and (b) the Widom factors that arise because of turning on solute-solvent association. Assuming pair-additivity, we expand the Widom factor into a product of Mayer f-functions and the resulting expression is rearranged to reveal a form of the monomer fraction that is analogous to that used within the statistical associating fluid theory (SAFT). The present formulation avoids all graph-theoretic arguments and provides a fresh, more intuitive, perspective on Wertheim's theory and SAFT. Importantly, multi-body effects are transparently incorporated into the very foundations of the theory. We illustrate the generality of the present approach by considering examples of multiple solvent association to a colloid solute with bonding domains that range from a small patch on the sphere to a Janus particle to a solute whose entire surface is available for association.

  4. The effect of driving force on intramolecular electron transfer in proteins. Studies on single-site mutated azurins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Skov, L K; van de Kamp, M

    1992-01-01

    An intramolecular electron-transfer process has previously been shown to take place between the Cys3--Cys26 radical-ion (RSSR-) produced pulse radiolytically and the Cu(II) ion in the blue single-copper protein, azurin [Farver, O. & Pecht, I. (1989) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 86, 6868-6972]. To fu...

  5. Supported Single-Site Ti(IV) on a Metal–Organic Framework for the Hydroboration of Carbonyl Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhiyuan [College; amp, Molecular Sciences, Institute of Advanced Studies, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, PR China; Chemical; amp, Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States; Liu, Dong [College; amp, Molecular Sciences, Institute of Advanced Studies, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, PR China; Chemical; amp, Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States; Camacho-Bunquin, Jeffrey [Chemical; amp, Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States; Zhang, Guanghui [Department; Yang, Dali [College; amp, Molecular Sciences, Institute of Advanced Studies, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, PR China; Chemical; amp, Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States; López-Encarnación, Juan M. [Chemical; amp, Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States; Department; Xu, Yunjie [Department; Ferrandon, Magali S. [Chemical; amp, Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States; Niklas, Jens [Chemical; amp, Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States; Poluektov, Oleg G. [Chemical; amp, Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States; Jellinek, Julius [Chemical; amp, Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States; Lei, Aiwen [College; amp, Molecular Sciences, Institute of Advanced Studies, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, PR China; Chemical; amp, Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States; Bunel, Emilio E. [Chemical; amp, Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States; Delferro, Massimiliano [Chemical; amp, Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States

    2017-10-10

    ABSTRACT: A stable and structurally well-defined titanium alkoxide catalyst supported on a metal-organic-framework (MOF) of UiO-67 topology (ANL1-Ti(OiPr)2) was synthesized and fully characterized by a variety of analytical and spectroscopic techniques, including BET, TGA, PXRD, XAS, DRIFT, SEM, and DFT computations. The Ti-functionalized MOF was demonstrated active for the catalytic hydroboration of a wide range of aldehydes and ketones with HBpin as the boron source. Compared to traditional homogeneous and supported hydroboration catalysts, ANL1-Ti(OiPr)2 is completely recyclable and reusable, making it a promising hydroboration catalyst alternative for green and sustainable chemical synthesis. DFT calculations suggest that the catalytic hydroboration proceeds via a (1) hydride transfer between the active Ti-hydride species and a carbonyl moiety (rate determining step), and (2) alkoxide transfer (intramolecular σ-bond metathesis) to generate the boronate ester product.

  6. Single site porphyrine-like structures advantages over metals for selective electrochemical CO2 reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Alexander; Ju, Wen; Varela, Ana Sofia

    2017-01-01

    the competing Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER). The single metal site in a porphyrine-like structure requires an ontop site binding of hydrogen, compared to the hollow site binding of hydrogen on a metal catalyst surface. The difference in binding site structure gives a fundamental energy-shift in the scaling......Currently, no catalysts are completely selective for the electrochemical CO2 Reduction Reaction (CO2RR). Based on trends in density functional theory calculations of reaction intermediates we find that the single metal site in a porphyrine-like structure has a simple advantage of limiting...

  7. Surface structural-chemical characterization of a single-site d0 heterogeneous arene hydrogenation catalyst having 100% active sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Linda A.; Guo, Neng; Motta, Alessandro; Delferro, Massimiliano; Fragalà, Ignazio L.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Marks, Tobin J.

    2013-01-01

    Structural characterization of the catalytically significant sites on solid catalyst surfaces is frequently tenuous because their fraction, among all sites, typically is quite low. Here we report the combined application of solid-state 13C-cross-polarization magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-CPMAS-NMR) spectroscopy, density functional theory (DFT), and Zr X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to characterize the adsorption products and surface chemistry of the precatalysts (η5-C5H5)2ZrR2 (R = H, CH3) and [η5-C5(CH3)5]Zr(CH3)3 adsorbed on Brønsted superacidic sulfated alumina (AlS). The latter complex is exceptionally active for benzene hydrogenation, with ∼100% of the Zr sites catalytically significant as determined by kinetic poisoning experiments. The 13C-CPMAS-NMR, DFT, and XAS data indicate formation of organozirconium cations having a largely electrostatic [η5-C5(CH3)5]Zr(CH3)2+···AlS− interaction with greatly elongated Zr···OAlS distances of ∼2.35(2) Å. The catalytic benzene hydrogenation cycle is stepwise understandable by DFT, and proceeds via turnover-limiting H2 delivery to surface [η5-C5(CH3)5]ZrH2(benzene)+···AlS− species, observable by solid-state NMR and XAS. PMID:23269836

  8. Tuning of the Lethal Response to Multiple Stressors with a Single-Site Mutation during Clinical Infection by Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishan Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The agr system of Staphylococcus aureus promotes invasion of host tissues, and as expected, agents that block agr quorum sensing have anti-infective properties. Paradoxically, agr-defective mutants are frequently recovered from patients, especially those persistently infected with S. aureus. We found that an agr deficiency increased survival of cultured bacteria during severe stress, such as treatment with gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, heat, or low pH. With daptomycin, deletion of agr decreased survival. Therefore, agr activity can be either detrimental or protective, depending on the type of lethal stress. Deletion of agr had no effect on the ability of the antimicrobials to block bacterial growth, indicating that agr effects are limited to lethal action. Thus, the effect of an agr deletion is on bacterial tolerance, not resistance. For gentamicin and daptomycin, activity can be altered by agr-regulated secreted factors. For ciprofloxacin, a detrimental function was downregulation of glutathione peroxidase (bsaA, an enzyme responsible for defense against oxidative stress. Deficiencies in agr and bsaA were epistatic for survival, consistent with agr having a destructive role mediated by reactive oxygen species. Enhanced susceptibility to lethal stress by wild-type agr, particularly antimicrobial stress, helps explain why inactivating mutations in S. aureus agr commonly occur in hospitalized patients during infection. Moreover, the agr quorum-sensing system of S. aureus provides a clinically relevant example in which a single-step change in the response to severe stress alters the evolutionary path of a pathogen during infection.

  9. Organometallic synthesis, reactivity and catalysis in the solid state using well-defined single-site species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Sebastian D.; Weller, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    Acting as a bridge between the heterogeneous and homogeneous realms, the use of discrete, well-defined, solid-state organometallic complexes for synthesis and catalysis is a remarkably undeveloped field. Here, we present a review of this topic, focusing on describing the key transformations that can be observed at a transition-metal centre, as well as the use of well-defined organometallic complexes in the solid state as catalysts. There is a particular focus upon gas–solid reactivity/catalysis and single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformations. PMID:25666064

  10. Development of a novel robotic platform with controllable stiffness manipulation arms for laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianchen; Wang, Shuxin; Li, Jinhua; Ren, Xiangyun; Briggs, Randall Miller

    2018-02-01

    For current LESS robotic systems, the trade-off between dexterity and payload capability is always present. This paper presents a novel LESS robotic platform equipped with controllable stiffness manipulation arms. Each manipulation arm with an articulated section and a controllable stiffness continuum section (CSCS) can be switched between a 7-DoF compliant status and 5-DoF rigid status according to the operation requirement. Screw theory and product exponential formula are used to quantify the kinematic performance. The stiffness of the manipulation arm promotes 3.03 to 4.12 times from compliant to rigid CSCS with maximum payload of 10 N in rigid status. The shortest rigid/compliant switching time is 5 s. The precision of a tracking test and an ex vivo procedure verified the accuracy and effectiveness of the controllable stiffness manipulation arms. This robot could potentially improve the surgical performance and further expand robotic LESS procedures. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. New models for intermolecular repulsion and their application to Van Der Waals complexes and crystals of organic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsui, H.H.Y.

    2001-01-01

    Model intermolecular potentials are required for simulations of molecules in the gas, liquid, or solid phase. The widely used isotropic atom-atom model potentials are empirically fitted and based on the assumptions of transferability, combining rules and that atoms in molecules are spherical. This thesis develops a non-empirical method of modelling repulsion by applying the overlap model, which we show as a general non-empirical method of deriving repulsion potentials for a specific molecule. In this thesis, the repulsion parameters for an exponential atom-atom model potential are obtained from the ab initio charge density of a small organic molecule by making the assumption that the repulsion is proportional to the overlap of a pair of molecules. The proportionality constant is fixed by a limited number of intermolecular perturbation theory (IMPT) calculations. To complete the model potential, the electrostatic interaction is represented by a distributed multipole analysis, and the Slater-Kirkwood formula is used for the dispersion. These non-empirical potentials can reproduce experimental crystal structure when applied to crystal structure prediction of an oxyboryl derivative. A detailed study on further improving the overlap model was carried out for phenol-water, by including other minor intermolecular contributions of charge-transfer and penetration. High quality ab initio calculations on the complex were performed for use in comparison. To compare with experimental data, diffusion Monte Carlo simulations were performed with the potential, so that the effects of anharmonic zero-point motion on structure and energy of the system are included. When the system is too large for an IMPT calculation, the proportionality constant can be determined empirically by fitting the cell volume as shown in our study of crystal structures of chlorothalonil. This is used with an anisotropic repulsion model that has been derived for Cl and N atoms in chlorothalonil. This model

  12. Modeling of light scattering by icy bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolokolova, L.; Mackowski, D.; Pitman, K.; Verbiscer, A.; Buratti, B.; Momary, T.

    2014-07-01

    code, would require enormous computer RAM and CPU. MSTM4 adopts a discrete Fourier convolution (DFC), implemented using a fast Fourier transform (FFT), for the evaluation of the exciting field. This approach is very similar to that used in the discrete-dipole approximation (DDA) codes, with the difference that it considers multipole nature of the translation operators, and does not require that the sphere origins be located on a regular lattice. The MSTM4 code not only allows us to consider a larger number of constituent particles but also is about 100 times faster in wall-clock time than the original version of the MSTM code. Example of MSTM4 modeling is shown in the Figure.

  13. Hydrophobic hydration and the anomalous partial molar volumes in ethanol-water mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ming-Liang; Miller, Benjamin T.; Te, Jerez; Cendagorta, Joseph R.; Brooks, Bernard R.; Ichiye, Toshiko

    2015-02-01

    The anomalous behavior in the partial molar volumes of ethanol-water mixtures at low concentrations of ethanol is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Previous work indicates that the striking minimum in the partial molar volume of ethanol VE as a function of ethanol mole fraction XE is determined mainly by water-water interactions. These results were based on simulations that used one water model for the solute-water interactions but two different water models for the water-water interactions. This is confirmed here by using two more water models for the water-water interactions. Furthermore, the previous work indicates that the initial decrease is caused by association of the hydration shells of the hydrocarbon tails, and the minimum occurs at the concentration where all of the hydration shells are touching each other. Thus, the characteristics of the hydration of the tail that cause the decrease and the features of the water models that reproduce this type of hydration are also examined here. The results show that a single-site multipole water model with a charge distribution that mimics the large quadrupole and the p-orbital type electron density out of the molecular plane has "brittle" hydration with hydrogen bonds that break as the tails touch, which reproduces the deep minimum. However, water models with more typical site representations with partial charges lead to flexible hydration that tends to stay intact, which produces a shallow minimum. Thus, brittle hydration may play an essential role in hydrophobic association in water.

  14. Effective field theory with differential operator technique for dynamic phase transition in ferromagnetic Ising model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Takehiro; Fujiyama, Shinya; Idogaki, Toshihiro; Tokita, Masahiko

    2009-01-01

    The non-equilibrium phase transition in a ferromagnetic Ising model is investigated by use of a new type of effective field theory (EFT) which correctly accounts for all the single-site kinematic relations by differential operator technique. In the presence of a time dependent oscillating external field, with decrease of the temperature the system undergoes a dynamic phase transition, which is characterized by the period averaged magnetization Q, from a dynamically disordered state Q = 0 to the dynamically ordered state Q ≠ 0. The results of the dynamic phase transition point T c determined from the behavior of the dynamic magnetization and the Liapunov exponent provided by EFT are improved than that of the standard mean field theory (MFT), especially for the one dimensional lattice where the standard MFT gives incorrect result of T c = 0 even in the case of zero external field.

  15. Quantum Drude oscillator model of atoms and molecules: Many-body polarization and dispersion interactions for atomistic simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew P.; Crain, Jason; Sokhan, Vlad P.; Whitfield, Troy W.; Martyna, Glenn J.

    2013-04-01

    Treating both many-body polarization and dispersion interactions is now recognized as a key element in achieving the level of atomistic modeling required to reveal novel physics in complex systems. The quantum Drude oscillator (QDO), a Gaussian-based, coarse grained electronic structure model, captures both many-body polarization and dispersion and has linear scale computational complexity with system size, hence it is a leading candidate next-generation simulation method. Here, we investigate the extent to which the QDO treatment reproduces the desired long-range atomic and molecular properties. We present closed form expressions for leading order polarizabilities and dispersion coefficients and derive invariant (parameter-free) scaling relationships among multipole polarizability and many-body dispersion coefficients that arise due to the Gaussian nature of the model. We show that these “combining rules” hold to within a few percent for noble gas atoms, alkali metals, and simple (first-row hydride) molecules such as water; this is consistent with the surprising success that models with underlying Gaussian statistics often exhibit in physics. We present a diagrammatic Jastrow-type perturbation theory tailored to the QDO model that serves to illustrate the rich types of responses that the QDO approach engenders. QDO models for neon, argon, krypton, and xenon, designed to reproduce gas phase properties, are constructed and their condensed phase properties explored via linear scale diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) and path integral molecular dynamics (PIMD) simulations. Good agreement with experimental data for structure, cohesive energy, and bulk modulus is found, demonstrating a degree of transferability that cannot be achieved using current empirical models or fully ab initio descriptions.

  16. Incorporation of local structure into kriging models for the prediction of atomistic properties in the water decamer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davie, Stuart J; Di Pasquale, Nicodemo; Popelier, Paul L A

    2016-10-15

    Machine learning algorithms have been demonstrated to predict atomistic properties approaching the accuracy of quantum chemical calculations at significantly less computational cost. Difficulties arise, however, when attempting to apply these techniques to large systems, or systems possessing excessive conformational freedom. In this article, the machine learning method kriging is applied to predict both the intra-atomic and interatomic energies, as well as the electrostatic multipole moments, of the atoms of a water molecule at the center of a 10 water molecule (decamer) cluster. Unlike previous work, where the properties of small water clusters were predicted using a molecular local frame, and where training set inputs (features) were based on atomic index, a variety of feature definitions and coordinate frames are considered here to increase prediction accuracy. It is shown that, for a water molecule at the center of a decamer, no single method of defining features or coordinate schemes is optimal for every property. However, explicitly accounting for the structure of the first solvation shell in the definition of the features of the kriging training set, and centring the coordinate frame on the atom-of-interest will, in general, return better predictions than models that apply the standard methods of feature definition, or a molecular coordinate frame. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Computational Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Computational Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Shell-model computed cross sections for charged-current scattering of astrophysical neutrinos off 40Ar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostensalo, Joel; Suhonen, Jouni; Zuber, K.

    2018-03-01

    Charged-current (anti)neutrino-40Ar cross sections for astrophysical neutrinos have been calculated. The initial and final nuclear states were calculated using the nuclear shell model. The folded solar-neutrino scattering cross section was found to be 1.78 (23 ) ×10-42cm2 , which is higher than what the previous papers have reported. The contributions from the 1- and 2- multipoles were found to be significant at supernova-neutrino energies, confirming the random-phase approximation (RPA) result of a previous study. The effects of neutrino flavor conversions in dense stellar matter (matter oscillations) were found to enhance the neutrino-scattering cross sections significantly for both the normal and inverted mass hierarchies. For the antineutrino scattering, only a small difference between the nonoscillating and inverted-hierarchy cross sections was found, while the normal-hierarchy cross section was 2-3 times larger than that of the nonoscillating cross section, depending on the adopted parametrization of the Fermi-Dirac distribution. This property of the supernova-antineutrino signal could probably be used to distinguish between the two hierarchies in megaton LAr detectors.

  18. Efficiency of alternative MCMC strategies illustrated using the reaction norm model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, M; Sorensen, D

    2008-06-01

    The Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) strategy provides remarkable flexibility for fitting complex hierarchical models. However, when parameters are highly correlated in their posterior distributions and their number is large, a particular MCMC algorithm may perform poorly and the resulting inferences may be affected. The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency (in terms of the asymptotic variance of features of posterior distributions of chosen parameters, and in terms of computing cost) of six MCMC strategies to sample parameters using simulated data generated with a reaction norm model with unknown covariates as an example. The six strategies are single-site Gibbs updates (SG), single-site Gibbs sampler for updating transformed (a priori independent) additive genetic values (TSG), pairwise Gibbs updates (PG), blocked (all location parameters are updated jointly) Gibbs updates (BG), Langevin-Hastings (LH) proposals, and finally Langevin-Hastings proposals for updating transformed additive genetic values (TLH). The ranking of the methods in terms of asymptotic variance is affected by the degree of the correlation structure of the data and by the true values of the parameters, and no method comes out as an overall winner across all parameters. TSG and BG show very good performance in terms of asymptotic variance especially when the posterior correlation between genetic effects is high. In terms of computing cost, TSG performs best except for dispersion parameters in the low correlation scenario where SG was the best strategy. The two LH proposals could not compete with any of the Gibbs sampling algorithms. In this study it was not possible to find an MCMC strategy that performs optimally across the range of target distributions and across all possible values of parameters. However, when the posterior correlation between parameters is high, TSG, BG and even PG show better mixing than SG.

  19. Magnetic properties of 2D nano-islands II: Ising spin model with out-of-plane magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou Ghantous, M., E-mail: michel.aboughantous@qatar.tamu.edu [Department of Physics, Texas A and M University at Qatar, Education City, PO Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Khater, A. [Laboratoire de Physique de L' Etat Condense, UMR 6087, Universite du Maine, 72085 Le Mans (France)

    2011-10-15

    An Ising effective field theory model is presented to calculate the magnetic properties of 2D nano-islands on a nonmagnetic substrate, subject to an externally out-of-plane applied magnetic field. The system Hamiltonian contains nearest neighbor exchange interactions, single-atom magnetic anisotropies, and the Zeeman term. The calculations yield, in particular, the single site spin correlations, the magnetizations, and the isothermal susceptibilities, for the core and periphery domains of the nano-island. The choice of a spin S=1 for the atoms of the system permits the analysis of local spin fluctuations via the single site spin correlations. We investigate in this respect the effects due to the different magnetocrystalline anisotropies and reduced dimensionalities, for the core and periphery domains, and in particular the critical influence of the applied magnetic field. Detailed theoretical results are presented for the square and hexagonal lattice symmetries, with numerical applications for the 2D monolayer Co nano-islands on a Pt substrate. It is shown that the remarkable differences between the magnetic properties of the core and periphery domains in zero field are washed out when an out-of-plane field is applied. The applied field also provokes critical discontinuities for the spin correlations and magnetization reversals, for the core and periphery domains, which are especially evident for the hexagonal lattice nano-island in the range of fields of interest. The discontinuities and magnetization reversals occur over elementary temperature widths, and shift to lower temperatures with increasing field. The field-dependant isothermal susceptibilities show new features very different from those for the susceptibilities in zero field. The present Ising model does not show any blocking temperature transition to superparamagnetism. - Highlights: > An EFT model is presented to calculate the magnetic properties of 2D nano-islands. > The Hamiltonian contains n

  20. Model selection for local and regional meteorological normalisation of background concentrations of tropospheric ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libiseller, Claudia; Grimvall, Anders

    Meteorological normalisation of time series of air quality data aims to extract anthropogenic signals by removing natural fluctuations in the collected data. We showed that the currently used procedures to select normalisation models can cause over-fitting to observed data and undesirable smoothing of anthropogenic signals. A simulation study revealed that the risk of such effects is particularly large when: (i) the observed data are serially correlated, (ii) the normalisation model is selected by leave-one-out cross-validation, and (iii) complex models, such as artificial neural networks, are fitted to data. When the size of the test sets used in the cross-validation was increased, and only moderately complex linear models were fitted to data, the over-fitting was less pronounced. An empirical study of the predictive ability of different normalisation models for tropospheric ozone in Finland confirmed the importance of using appropriate model selection strategies. Moderately complex regional models involving contemporaneous meteorological data from a network of stations were found to be superior to single-site models as well as more complex regional models involving both contemporaneous and time-lagged meteorological data from a network of stations.