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Sample records for single-shot paravertebral blocks

  1. Comparative study between ultrasound guided TAP block and paravertebral block in upper abdominal surgeries

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    Ruqaya M Elsayed Goda

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: We concluded that ultrasound guided transverses abdominis plane block and thoracic paravertebral block were safe and effective anesthetic technique for upper abdominal surgery with longer and potent postoperative analgesia in thoracic paravertebral block than transverses abdominis block.

  2. Temporary quadriplegia following continuous thoracic paravertebral block.

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    Calenda, Emile; Baste, Jean Marc; Danielou, Eric; Michelin, Paul

    2012-05-01

    A case of temporary quadriplegia following a continuous thoracic paravertebral block in an adult patient scheduled for video-assisted thoracoscopy is presented. An 18-gauge Tuohy needle was inserted under direct vision by the surgeon but the tip of the catheter was not localized. Postoperatively, the patient developed temporary quadriplegia 90 minutes after the start of a continuous infusion of ropivacaine 0.2%. Imaging studies showed that the catheter was localized in the intrathecal space. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinical application of thoracic paravertebral anesthetic block in breast surgeries

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    Sara Socorro Faria

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Optimum treatment for postoperative pain has been of fundamental importance in surgical patient care. Among the analgesic techniques aimed at this group of patients, thoracic paravertebral block combined with general anesthesia stands out for the good results and favorable risk-benefit ratio. Many local anesthetics and other adjuvant drugs are being investigated for use in this technique, in order to improve the quality of analgesia and reduce adverse effects. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effectiveness and safety of paravertebral block compared to other analgesic and anesthetic regimens in women undergoing breast cancer surgeries. METHODS: Integrative literature review from 1966 to 2012, using specific terms in computerized databases of articles investigating the clinical characteristics, adverse effects, and beneficial effects of thoracic paravertebral block. RESULTS: On the selected date, 16 randomized studies that met the selection criteria established for this literature review were identified. Thoracic paravertebral block showed a significant reduction of postoperative pain, as well as decreased pain during arm movement after surgery. CONCLUSION: Thoracic paravertebral block reduced postoperative analgesic requirement compared to placebo group, markedly within the first 24 h. The use of this technique could ensure postoperative analgesia of clinical relevance. Further studies with larger populations are necessary, as paravertebral block seems to be promising for preemptive analgesia in breast cancer surgery.

  4. Paravertebral Block Plus Thoracic Wall Block versus Paravertebral Block Alone for Analgesia of Modified Radical Mastectomy: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

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    Nai-Liang Li

    Full Text Available Paravertebral block placement was the main anesthetic technique for modified radical mastectomy in our hospital until February 2014, when its combination with blocks targeting the pectoral musculature was initiated. We compared the analgesic effects of paravertebral blocks with or without blocks targeting the pectoral musculature for modified radical mastectomy.We retrospectively collected data from a single surgeon and anesthesiologist from June 1, 2012, to May 31, 2015. Intraoperative sedatives and analgesic requirements, time to the first analgesic request, postoperative analgesic doses, patient satisfaction, and complications were compared.Fifty-four patients received a paravertebral block alone (PECS 0, and 46 received a paravertebral block combined with blocks targeting the pectoral musculature (PECS 1. The highest intraoperative effect-site concentration of propofol was significantly lower in the PECS 1 group than in the PECS 0 group [2.3 (1.5, 2.8 vs 2.5 (1.5, 4 μg/mL, p = 0.0014]. The intraoperative rescue analgesic dose was significantly lower in the PECS 1 group [0 (0, 25 vs 0 (0, 75 mg of ketamine, p = 0.0384]. Furthermore, the PECS 1 group had a significantly longer time to the first analgesic request [636.5 (15, 720 vs 182.5 (14, 720 min, p = 0.0001]. After further adjustment for age, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status classification, chronic pain history, incidence of a superficial cervical plexus block placement, and operation duration, blocks targeting the pectoral musculature were determined to be the only significant factor (hazard ratio, 0.36; 95% confidence interval, 0.23-0.58; p < 0.0001. Very few patients used potent analgesics including morphine and ketorolac; the cumulative use of morphine or ketorolac was similar in the study groups. However, the incidence of all analgesic use, namely morphine, ketorolac, acetaminophen, and celecoxib, was significantly lower in the PECS 1 group [3

  5. Comparative study between ultrasound guided tap block and paravertebral block in upper abdominal surgeries. Randomized controlled trial

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    Ruqaya M. Elsayed

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: We concluded that ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane block and thoracic paravertebral block were safe and effective anesthetic technique for upper abdominal surgery with longer and potent postoperative analgesia in thoracic paravertebral block than transversus abdominis block.

  6. Ankle Block vs Single-Shot Popliteal Fossa Block as Primary Anesthesia for Forefoot Operative Procedures: Prospective, Randomized Comparison.

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    Schipper, Oliver N; Hunt, Kenneth J; Anderson, Robert B; Davis, W Hodges; Jones, Carroll P; Cohen, Bruce E

    2017-11-01

    Postoperative pain is often difficult to control with oral medications, requiring large doses of opioid analgesia. Regional anesthesia may be used for primary anesthesia, reducing the need for general anesthetic and postoperative pain medication requirements in the immediate postoperative period. The purpose of this study was to compare the analgesic effects of an ankle block (AB) to a single-shot popliteal fossa block (PFB) for patients undergoing orthopedic forefoot procedures. All patients having elective outpatient orthopedic forefoot procedures were invited to participate in the study. Patients were prospectively randomized to receive either an ultrasound-guided AB or PFB by a board-certified anesthesiologist prior to their procedure. Intraoperative conversion to general anesthesia and postanesthesia care unit (PACU) opioid requirements were recorded. Postoperative pain was assessed using the visual analog scale (VAS) at regular time intervals until 8 am on postoperative day (POD) 2. Patients rated the effectiveness of the block on a 1 to 5 scale, with 5 being very effective. A total of 167 patients participated in the study with 88 patients (53%) receiving an AB and 79 (47%) receiving a single-shot PFB. There was no significant difference in the rate of conversion to general anesthesia between the 2 groups (13.6% [12/88] AB vs 12.7% [10/79] PFB). PACU morphine requirements and doses were significantly reduced in the PFB group ( P = .004) when compared to the AB group. The VAS was also significantly lower for the PFB patients at 10 pm on POD 0 (4.6 vs 1.6, P block site pain and/or erythema (AB 6.9% [6/88] vs PFB 5.1% [4/79], P = .44). The analgesic effect of the PFB lasted significantly longer when compared to the ankle block (AB 14.5 hours vs PFB 20.9 hours, P block between the 2 groups, with both blocks being highly effective (AB 4.79/5 vs PFB 4.82/5, P = .68). Regional anesthesia was a safe and reliable adjunct to perioperative pain management and highly

  7. Ipsilateral Brachial Plexus Block and Hemidiaphragmatic Paresis as Adverse Effect of a High Thoracic Paravertebral Block

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    Renes, Steven H.; van Geffen, Geert J.; Snoeren, Miranda M.; Gielen, Matthieu J.; Groen, Gerbrand J.

    Background: Thoracic paravertebral block is regularly used for unilateral chest and abdominal surgery and is associated with a low complication rate. Case Reports: We describe 2 patients with an ipsilateral brachial plexus block with Horner syndrome after a high continuous thoracic paravertebral

  8. Urinary retention in unilateral total knee arthroplasty: comparison between continuous epidural analgesia and single-shot femoral nerve block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.A.; Khan, R.I.

    2018-01-01

    To compare the frequency of urinary retention and requirement of bladder catheterization in patients undergoing toatal knee arthroplasty while receiving either continuous epidural analgesia or single-shot femoral nerve block. Study Design: Randomized controlled study. Place and Duration of Study:Operating Rooms of Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January 2014 to January 2015. Methodology:Patients were randomized in two groups of 30 each, i.e. epidural group (group E) or femoral nerve block group (group F). Baseline parameters were recorded. Postoperatively, patients were followed for upto 24 hours to collect the data regarding urinary retention. Final outcome was taken at 24 hours postoperatively. Data was analyzed to compare the frequency of urinary retention between the two groups. Results:The average age of the patients was 59.58 +-5.85 years. There were 28 (46.7%) male and 32 (53.3%) female patients. Frequency of urinary retention was significantly high in Group E than Group F (46.7% vs. 6.7%; p=0.0005). Conclusion: Single-shot femoral nerve block offers a more favorable profile in terms of postoperative urinary retention when compared to continuous epidural analgesia. (author)

  9. A comparison of oblique subcostal transversus abdominis plane block versus thoracic paravertebral block for postoperative analgesia after open cholecystectomy

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    Ghada Kamhawy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: A major challenge in the postoperative period is pain management which, if not adequately controlled, may contribute to patient discomfort and decreased patient satisfaction, and possibly increased morbidity and mortality. Both Thoracic paravertebral block and oblique subcostal transversus abdominis plane block can be used as analgesic techniques for abdominal surgeries. Our aim in this research was comparison of cumulative 24-h post-operative morphine consumption between ultrasound-guided oblique subcostal transversus abdominis plane block and ultrasound-guided thoracic paravertebral block in patients who underwent an open cholecystectomy under general anesthesia. Patients and methods: This study was performed on 46 patients who underwent open cholecystectomy under general anesthesia. All patients were randomly allocated alternatively to one of two equal groups to either undergo ultrasound-guided unilateral oblique subcostal transversus abdominis plane block Group (I or to undergo ultrasound-guided unilateral thoracic paravertebral block Group (II. Both groups were subjected to a similar analgesic regimen in the immediate post-operative period that involved intravenous patient-controlled morphine analgesia which was used in both groups. Results: The total morphine consumption in the first postoperative 24 h was lower in thoracic paravertebral block Group (II (9.9 mg in thoracic paravertebral block group vs. 15.4 mg in oblique subcostal transversus abdominis plane block Group (I with p < 0.001. The mean time of first request of analgesia in Group (I was 248.7 min compared to 432.1 for Group (II with p < 0.001. Conclusions: Both ultrasound-guided oblique subcostal transversus abdominis plain block and single injection ultrasound guided thoracic paravertebral block are effective analgesic techniques for upper abdominal surgeries and reduces postoperative opioid requirements. However, thoracic paravertebral block is more

  10. Will the Real Benefits of Single-Shot Interscalene Block Please Stand Up? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

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    Abdallah, Faraj W; Halpern, Stephen H; Aoyama, Kazuyoshi; Brull, Richard

    2015-05-01

    Interscalene block (ISB) can provide pain relief after shoulder surgery, but a reliable quantification of its analgesic benefits is lacking. This meta-analysis examines the effect of single-shot ISB on analgesic outcomes during the first 48 hours after shoulder surgery. We retrieved randomized and quasirandomized controlled trials examining the analgesic benefits of ISB compared with none in shoulder surgery. Severity of postoperative pain measured on a visual analog scale (10 cm scale, 0 = no pain, 10 = worst pain) at rest at 24 hours was the designated primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included pain severity at rest and with motion at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 32, 36, 40, and 48 hours postoperatively. Opioid consumption, postoperative nausea and vomiting, patient satisfaction with pain relief, and postanesthesia care unit and hospital discharge time were also assessed. A total of 23 randomized controlled trials, including 1090 patients, were analyzed. Patients in the ISB group had more severe postoperative pain at rest by a weighed mean difference (95% confidence interval) of 0.96 cm (0.08-1.83; P = 0.03) at 24 hours compared with no ISB, but there was no difference in pain severity beyond that point. The duration of pain relief at rest and with motion after ISB were 8 and 6 hours, respectively, with a corresponding weighed mean difference in visual analog scale pain scores (99% confidence interval) of -1.59 cm (-2.60 to -0.58) and -2.20 cm (-4.34 to -0.06), respectively, with no additional pain relief benefits beyond these points. ISB reduced postoperative opioid consumption up to 12 hours, decreased postoperative nausea and vomiting at 24 hours, and expedited postanesthesia care unit and hospital discharge. The type, dose, and volume of local anesthetic used did not affect the results. ISB can provide effective analgesia up to 6 hours with motion and 8 hours at rest after shoulder surgery, with no demonstrable benefits thereafter. Patients who receive an ISB can

  11. Single-shot pectoral plane (PECs I and PECs II) blocks versus continuous local anaesthetic infusion analgesia or both after non-ambulatory breast-cancer surgery: a prospective, randomised, double-blind trial.

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    O'Scanaill, P; Keane, S; Wall, V; Flood, G; Buggy, D J

    2018-04-01

    Pectoral plane blocks (PECs) are increasingly used in analgesia for patients undergoing breast surgery, and were recently found to be at least equivalent to single-shot paravertebral anaesthesia. However, there are no data comparing PECs with the popular practice of continuous local anaesthetic wound infusion (LA infusion) analgesia for breast surgery. Therefore, we compared the efficacy and safety of PECs blocks with LA infusion, or a combination of both in patients undergoing non-ambulatory breast-cancer surgery. This single-centre, prospective, randomised, double-blind trial analysed 45 women to receive either PECs blocks [levobupivacaine 0.25%, 10 ml PECs I and levobupivacaine 0.25%, 20 ml PECs II (PECs group); LA infusion catheter (levobupivacaine 0.1% at 10 ml h -1 for 24 h (LA infusion group); or both (PECs and LA infusion)]. The primary outcome measure was area under the curve of the pain verbal rating score whilst moving vs time (AUC) over 24 h. Secondary outcomes included total opioid consumption at 24 h. AUC moving was mean (SD) 71 (34) mm h -1 vs 58 (41) vs 23 (20) in PECs, LA infusion, and both, respectively; P=0.002. AUC at rest was also significantly lower in patients receiving both. The total 24 h opioid consumption [median (25-75%)] was 14 mg (9-26) vs 11 (8-24) vs 9 (5-11); P=0.4. No adverse events were observed. The combination of both pre-incisional PECs blocks and postoperative LA infusion provides better analgesia over 24 h than either technique alone after non-ambulatory breast-cancer surgery. NCT 03024697. Copyright © 2018 British Journal of Anaesthesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical observation on thoracic paravertebral nerve block with ozone treatment in patients with postherpetic neuralgia

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    GUO Xiang-fei

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the clinical efficacy of thoracic paravertebral nerve block with ozone in the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia. Methods Eighty-five patients suffered postherpetic neuralgia were divided into 4 groups: Group A (oral drugs + intramuscular injection of vitamin B12 + local nerve block of lesion area, Group B (oral drugs + intramuscular injection of compound trivitamin B + local nerve block of lesion area, Group C (oral drugs + intramuscular injection of compound trivitamin B + thoracic paravertebral nerve block + local nerve block of lesion area, Group D (oral drugs + intramuscular injection of compound trivitamin B + thoracic paravertebral nerve block with ozone + local nerve block of lesion area. Treatment outcomes were evaluated by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, Quality of Sleep (QS, Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS and C-reactive protein (CRP before treatment and 4 weeks after treatment. Results After treatment, VAS, QS and SDS scores of 4 groups were lower than that before treatment, and the differences were statistically significant (P 0.05, for all, while a significant change in CRP was observed in patients of group D between before and after treatment (P < 0.05. The improvement of VAS, QS and SDS scores of group D was significantly better than other 3 groups (P < 0.05, for all. Conclusion Thoracic paravertebral nerve block combined with ozone is a quick and effective method for postherpetic neuralgia patients.

  13. Paravertebral and Brachial plexus block for Abdominal flap to cover the upper limb wound

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    Narendra kumar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a case report where thoracic paravertebral block and brachial plexus block were used in a sick elderly patient with poor cardiopulmonary reserve, to cover a post traumatic raw area of the upper limb by raising flap from lateral abdominal wall. The residual raw area of abdomen was then covered with the split skin graft taken from thigh.

  14. Single‑shot lamina technique of paravertebral block as an adjunct to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thoracic paravertebral block can be employed as an alternative or an adjunct to general anesthesia (GA) for breast cancer surgery. There is no report of this new lamina technique for catheter placement in our environment. In low‑resource settings, potent opioids are lacking and the extended postoperative analgesia it ...

  15. Single injection thoracic paravertebral block (TPVB for breast surgery in morbidly obese patient

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    Anita Kulkarni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Morbidly obese (MO patients with associated restrictive airway disease, obstructive sleep apnea, and coronary artery disease pose challenge to an anesthesiologist. Regional block combined with general anesthesia (GA is the anesthetic technique of choice as it will decrease the requirement of opioids, anesthetics, and postoperative respiratory depression. A MO patient for modified radical mastectomy was successfully managed with single-injection thoracic paravertebral block and conventional GA.

  16. Case report: ultrasound-guided continuous thoracic paravertebral block for outpatient acute pain management of multilevel unilateral rib fractures.

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    Murata, Hiroaki; Salviz, Emine Aysu; Chen, Stephanie; Vandepitte, Catherine; Hadzic, Admir

    2013-01-01

    A 61-year-old man with multiple unilateral rib fractures (T3-T8) gained the ability to breathe deeply and to ambulate after ultrasound-guided continuous thoracic paravertebral block and was discharged home after being observed for 15 hours after the block. The ultrasound guidance was helpful in determining the site of rib fractures and the optimal level for catheter placement. This report also discusses the management of analgesia using continuous paravertebral block in an outpatient with trauma.

  17. Paravertebral block catheter breakage by electrocautery during thoracic surgery.

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    Saeki, Noboru; Sugimoto, Yuki; Mori, Yoko; Kato, Takahiro; Miyoshi, Hirotsugu; Nakamura, Ryuji; Koga, Tomomichi

    2017-06-01

    Advantages of thoracic paravertebral analgesia (TPA) include placement of the catheter closer to the surgical field; however, the catheter can become damaged during the operation. We experienced a case of intraoperative TPA catheter breakage that prompted us to perform an experiment to investigate possible causes. A 50-year-old male underwent a thoracoscopic lower lobectomy under general anesthesia with TPA via an intercostal approach. Following surgery, it was discovered that the catheter had become occluded, as well as cut and fused, so we reopened the incision and removed the residual catheter. From that experience, we performed an experiment to examine electrocautery-induced damage in normal (Portex™, Smith's Medical), radiopaque (Perifix SoftTip™, BBraun), and reinforced (Perifix FX™, BBraun) epidural catheters (n = 8 each). Chicken meat was penetrated by each catheter and then cut by electrocautery. In the normal group, breakage occurred in 8 and occlusion in 6 of the catheters, and in the radiopaque group breakage occurred in 8 and occlusion in 7. In contrast, breakage occurred in only 3 and occlusion in none in the reinforced group, with the 5 without breakage remaining connected only by the spring coil. Furthermore, in 7 of the reinforced catheters, electric arc-induced thermal damage was observed at the tip of the catheter. A TPA catheter for thoracic surgery should be inserted via the median approach, or it should be inserted after surgery to avoid catheter damage during surgery.

  18. Pectoralis-serratus interfascial plane block vs thoracic paravertebral block for unilateral radical mastectomy with axillary evacuation.

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    Hetta, Diab Fuad; Rezk, Khalid Mohammed

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic efficacy and safety of pectoralis-serratus interfascial plane block in comparison with thoracic paravertebral block for postmastectomy pain. A prospective randomized controlled study. Tertiary center, university hospital. Sixty-four adult women, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classes I, II, and III, scheduled for unilateral modified radical mastectomy with axillary evacuation. Patients were randomized to receive either pectoralis-serratus interfascial plane block, PS group (n=32), or thoracic paravertebral block, PV group (n=32). Twenty-four-hour morphine consumption and the time to rescue analgesic were recorded. The pain intensity evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS) score at 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 24hours postoperatively was also recorded. The median (interquartile range) postoperative 24-hour morphine consumption was significantly increased in PS group in comparison to PV group (PS vs PV), 20 mg (16-23 mg) vs 12 mg (10-14 mg) (Pplane block was safe and easy to perform and decreased intensity of postmastectomy pain, but it was inferior to thoracic paravertebral block. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Bioelectronic block of paravertebral sympathetic nerves mitigates post-myocardial infarction ventricular arrhythmias.

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    Chui, Ray W; Buckley, Una; Rajendran, Pradeep S; Vrabec, Tina; Shivkumar, Kalyanam; Ardell, Jeffrey L

    2017-11-01

    Autonomic dysfunction contributes to induction of ventricular tachyarrhythmia (VT). To determine the efficacy of charge-balanced direct current (CBDC), applied to the T1-T2 segment of the paravertebral sympathetic chain, on VT inducibility post-myocardial infarction (MI). In a porcine model, CBDC was applied in acute animals (n = 7) to optimize stimulation parameters for sympathetic blockade and in chronic MI animals (n = 7) to evaluate the potential for VTs. Chronic MI was induced by microsphere embolization of the left anterior descending coronary artery. At termination, in anesthetized animals and following thoracotomy, an epicardial sock array was placed over both ventricles and a quadripolar carousel electrode positioned underlying the right T1-T2 paravertebral chain. In acute animals, the efficacy of CBDC carousel (CBDCC) block was assessed by evaluating cardiac function during T2 paravertebral ganglion stimulation with and without CBDCC. In chronic MI animals, VT inducibility was assessed by extrasystolic (S1-S2) stimulations at baseline and under >66% CBDCC blockade of T2-evoked sympathoexcitation. CBDCC demonstrated a current-dependent and reversible block without impacting basal cardiac function. VT was induced at baseline in all chronic MI animals. One animal died after baseline induction. Of the 6 remaining animals, only 1 was reinducible with simultaneous CBDCC application (P block of the T1-T2 paravertebral chain with CBDCC reduced VT in a chronic MI model. CBDCC prolonged VERP, without altering baseline cardiac function, resulting in improved electrical stability. Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Paravertebral Block: An Improved Method of Pain Control in Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culp, William C.; McCowan, Timothy C.; DeValdenebro, Miguel; Wright, Lonnie B.; Workman, James L.; Culp, William C.

    2006-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage remains a painful procedure in many cases despite the routine use of large amounts of intravenous sedation. We present a feasibility study of thoracic paravertebral blocks in an effort to reduce pain during and following the procedure and reduce requirements for intravenous sedation. Methods. Ten consecutive patients undergoing biliary drainage procedures received fluoroscopically guided paravertebral blocks and then had supplemental intravenous sedation as required to maintain patient comfort. Levels T8-T9 and T9-T10 on the right were targeted with 10-20 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine. Sedation requirements and pain levels were recorded. Results. Ten biliary drainage procedures in 8 patients were performed for malignancy in 8 cases and for stones in 2. The mean midazolam use was 1.13 mg IV, and the mean fentanyl requirement was 60.0 μg IV in the block patients. Two episodes of hypotension, which responded promptly to volume replacement, may have been related to the block. No serious complications were encountered. The mean pain score when traversing the chest wall, liver capsule, and upon entering the bile ducts was 0.1 on a scale of 0 to 10, with 1 patient reporting a pain level of 1 and 9 reporting 0. The mean peak pain score, encountered when manipulating at the common bile duct level or when addressing stones there, was 5.4 and ranged from 0 to 10. Conclusions. Thoracic paravertebral block with intravenous sedation supplementation appears to be a feasible method of pain control during biliary interventions

  1. Effect of adding magnesium sulphate to bupivacaine on the clinical profile of ultrasound-guided thoracic paravertebral block in patients undergoing modified radical mastectomy

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    Mohamed Elsayed Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Adding magnesium sulphate to bupivacaine in ultrasound-guided paravertebral block resulted in more efficient analgesia and opioid-sparing in female patients undergoing modified radical mastectomy.

  2. Thoracic paravertebral block versus transversus abdominis plane block in major gynecological surgery: a prospective, randomized, controlled, observer-blinded study

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    Melnikov AL

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Andrey L Melnikov,1 Steinar Bjoergo,1 Ulf E Kongsgaard21Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Emergencies and Critical Care, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; 2Department of Research and Development, Division of Emergencies and Critical Care, Oslo University Hospital and Medical Faculty, University of Oslo, Oslo, NorwayBackground and objectives: Patients undergoing abdominal surgery often receive an epidural infusion for postoperative analgesia. However, when epidural analgesia is contraindicated or unwanted, the administration of opioids is the usual means used to relieve pain. Various regional analgesia techniques used in conjunction with systemic analgesia have been reported to reduce the cumulative postoperative opioid consumption and opioid-induced side effects. The objective of this trial was to assess the effectiveness of transversus abdominis plane block and paravertebral block in women undergoing major gynecological surgery.Methods: We analyzed 58 patients scheduled for a midline vertical laparatomy due to gynecological cancer. They were all equipped with a patient-controlled postoperative analgesia pump that delivered ketobemidon. In addition, some patients were randomized to receive either a bilateral transversus abdominis plane block (n = 19 or a bilateral paravertebral block at the level of Th10 (n = 19. Both blocks were performed preoperatively as a single injection of bupivacaine.Results: Cumulative ketobemidon consumption, postoperative pain scores at rest and while coughing, and postoperative nausea and vomiting scores were assessed by a blinded observer at 2, 4, 6, 24, and 48 hours postoperatively. Both blocks were associated with significant reductions in opioid consumption and pain scores throughout the study period compared with the control patients. Postoperative nausea and vomiting scores were low in all groups, but during the early postoperative period more control group patients needed antiemetics

  3. Ultrasound-guided paravertebral block for pyloromyotomy in 3 neonates with congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis

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    Javier Mata-Gómez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis is a relatively common affection of gastrointestinal tract in childhood that results in symptoms, such as projectile vomiting and metabolic disorders that imply a high risk of aspiration during anesthetic induction. In this way, the carrying out of a technique with general anesthesia and intravenous rapid sequence induction, preoxygenation and cricoid pressure are recommended. After the correction of systemic metabolic alkalosis and pH normalization, cerebrospinal fluid can keep a state of metabolic alkalosis. This circumstance, in addition to the residual effect of neuromuscular blocking agents, inhalant anesthetics and opioids could increase the risk of postoperative apnea after a general anesthesia.CASE REPORT: We present the successful management in 3 neonates in those a pyloromyotomy was carried out because they had presented congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. This procedure was done under general anesthesia with orotracheal intubation and rapid sequence induction. Then, ultrasound-guided paravertebral block was performed as analgesic method without the need for administrating opioids within intraoperative period and keeping an appropriate analgesic level.CONCLUSIONS: Local anesthesia has demonstrated to be safe and effective in pediatric practice. We consider the ultrasound-guided paravertebral block with one dose as a possible alternative for other local techniques described, avoiding the use of opioids and neuromuscular blocking agents during general anesthesia, and reducing the risk of central apnea within postoperative period.

  4. Toxic plasma concentration of ropivacaine after a paravertebral block in a patient suffering from severe hypoalbuminemia.

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    Calenda, Emile; Baste, Jean Marc; Hajjej, Ridha; Danielou, Eric; Peillon, Christophe

    2014-03-01

    A case of systemic ropivacaine toxicity from a continuous thoracic paravertebral block in an adult patient who received a lobectomy is presented. The catheter was placed by the surgeon. Eleven hours after the start of the infusion, the patient experienced an arrhythmia leading to death. The total venous plasma concentration of ropivacaine was high (3.2 μg/mL). Furthermore, the patient had severe hypoalbuminemia (albumin 24 g/L), which resulted in the increase of the unbound ropivacaine plasma concentration that was responsible for the toxic side effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of Paravertebral Block by Anatomic Landmark Technique to Ultrasound-Guided Paravertebral Block for Breast Surgery Anesthesia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

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    Patnaik, Rupali; Chhabra, Anjolie; Subramaniam, Rajeshwari; Arora, Mahesh K; Goswami, Devalina; Srivastava, Anurag; Seenu, Vuthaluru; Dhar, Anita

    2018-05-01

    Paravertebral block (PVB) is an established technique for providing anesthesia for breast surgery. The primary objective was to compare anatomical landmark technique (ALT) to the ultrasound-guided (USG) PVB block for providing surgical anesthesia. Secondary objectives included comparison of perioperative analgesia and complications. This randomized, controlled, observer-blinded study included 72 females, aged 18 to 65 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II, undergoing elective unilateral breast surgery. Study participants were randomized to the ALT group or USG group. Ipsilateral PVB was performed with the respective technique from T1 to T6. Five milliliters of local anesthetic mixture (0.5% ropivacaine, 5 μg/mL adrenaline, 1 μg/kg clonidine) was administered at each level. Paravertebral catheter was inserted at T4/T3 level. After confirming sensory loss, patients were taken up for surgery with propofol sedation (20-50 μg/kg per minute). More patients in the USG group (34/36 [94.44%]) had a successful block as compared with the ALT group (26/36 [72.22%]) (P = 0.024). Difference in proportion was 18.1 (95% confidence interval, 0.15-36.0) (P = 0.024) after adjustment for age. More dermatomes were blocked in the USG group (P = 0.0018) with less sparing of upper T2 and T3 dermatomes (P = 0.003, P = 0.006, respectively). Median time to first postoperative analgesic requirement was 502.5 minutes (range, 195-1440 minutes) in the USG group versus 377.5 minutes (range, 215-1440 minutes) in the ALT group. Pain at rest and movement 2 and 4 hours postoperatively and number of catheter top-ups in 24 hours postoperatively were lesser in the USG group (P = 0.012). Complications were comparable. Ultrasound-guided PVB provided better anesthesia and perioperative analgesia than the landmark technique for breast surgery. The trial was registered retrospectively at the Clinical Trial Registry of India, CTRI/2015/05/005774.

  6. Surgical anesthesia with a combination of T12 paravertebral block and lumbar plexus, sacral plexus block for hip replacement in ankylosing spondylitis: CARE-compliant 4 case reports.

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    Ke, Xijian; Li, Ji; Liu, Yong; Wu, Xi; Mei, Wei

    2017-06-26

    Anesthesia management for patients with severe ankylosing spondylitis scheduled for total hip arthroplasty is challenging due to a potential difficult airway and difficult neuraxial block. We report 4 cases with ankylosing spondylitis successfully managed with a combination of lumbar plexus, sacral plexus and T12 paravertebral block. Four patients were scheduled for total hip arthroplasty. All of them were diagnosed as severe ankylosing spondylitis with rigidity and immobilization of cervical and lumbar spine and hip joints. A combination of T12 paravertebral block, lumbar plexus and sacral plexus block was successfully used for the surgery without any additional intravenous anesthetic or local anesthetics infiltration to the incision, and none of the patients complained of discomfort during the operations. The combination of T12 paravertebral block, lumbar plexus and sacral plexus block, which may block all nerves innervating the articular capsule, surrounding muscles and the skin involved in total hip arthroplasty, might be a promising alternative for total hip arthroplasty in ankylosing spondylitis.

  7. Preoperative paravertebral blocks for the management of acute pain following mastectomy: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offodile, Anaeze C; Sheckter, Clifford C; Tucker, Austin; Watzker, Anna; Ottino, Kevin; Zammert, Martin; Padula, William V

    2017-10-01

    Preoperative paravertebral blocks (PPVBs) are routinely used for treating post-mastectomy pain, yet uncertainties remain about the cost-effectiveness of this modality. We aim to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of PPVBs at common willingness-to-pay (WTP) thresholds. A decision analytic model compared two strategies: general anesthesia (GA) alone versus GA with multilevel PPVB. For the GA plus PPVB limb, patients were subjected to successful block placement versus varying severity of complications based on literature-derived probabilities. The need for rescue pain medication was the terminal node for all postoperative scenarios. Patient-reported pain scores sourced from published meta-analyses measured treatment effectiveness. Costing was derived from wholesale acquisition costs, the Medicare fee schedule, and publicly available hospital charge masters. Charges were converted to costs and adjusted for 2016 US dollars. A commercial payer perspective was adopted. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were evaluated against WTP thresholds of $500 and $50,000 for postoperative pain control. The ICER for preoperative paravertebral blocks was $154.49 per point reduction in pain score. 15% variation in inpatient costs resulted in ICER values ranging from $124.40-$180.66 per pain point score reduction. Altering the probability of block success by 5% generated ICER values of $144.71-$163.81 per pain score reduction. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis yielded cost-effective trials 69.43% of the time at $500 WTP thresholds. Over a broad range of probabilities, PPVB in mastectomy reduces postoperative pain at an acceptable incremental cost compared to GA. Commercial payers should be persuaded to reimburse this technique based on convincing evidence of cost-effectiveness.

  8. A comparative randomized study of paravertebral block versus wound infiltration of bupivacaine in modified radical mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Bansal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Paravertebral block (PVB has the potential to offer long-lasting pain relief because it can uniquely eliminate cortical responses to thoracic dermatomal stimulation. Benefits include a reduction in postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV, prolonged postoperative pain relief, and potential for ambulatory discharge. Aims: To compare PVB with local infiltration for postoperative analgesia following modified radical mastectomy (MRM. Methods: Forty patients undergoing MRM with axillary dissection were randomly allocated into two groups. Following induction of general anesthesia in group P, a catheter was inserted in the paravertebral space and 0.3 ml/kg of 0.25 % of bupivacaine was administered followed by continuous infusion, while in group L, the surgical incision was infiltrated with 0.3 ml/kg of 0.25 % bupivacaine. Statistical Analysis: The statistical tests were applied as unpaired student ′t′ test/nonparametric test Wilcoxon Mann Whitney test for comparing different parameters such as VAS score and consumption of drugs. The categorical variables such as nausea and vomiting scores, sedation score, and patient satisfaction score were computed by Chi square test/Fisher exact test. Results: VAS score was significantly lower in group P than in group L throughout the postoperative period. The mean alertness score (i.e., less sedation was higher in group P in the postoperative period than group L. The incidence of PONV was less in PVB group. Conclusion: PVB at the end of the surgery results in better postoperative analgesia, lesser incidence of PONV, and better alertness score.

  9. The application of paravertebral block in high-risk patient with cardiorespiratory, liver and kidney problems: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    ŽUPČIĆ, MIROSLAV; GRAF ŽUPČIĆ, SANDRA; BRUNDULA, ANA; ZRINJŠČAK, IVA KOREČIĆ; PERŠEC, JASMINKA; HUSEDŽINOVIĆ1, INO

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: We present a case report of a patient of the American Society of Anesthesiologists’ (ASA) IV scheduled for a modified radical mastectomy (MRM) due to malignant disease. The patient was a high risk patient for general anesthesia and we opted for the application of unilateral paravertebral block on several levels. Case report. A 86-year-old female was scheduled for a surgery due to recurrent malignant process on her right breast. She was an ASA IV patie...

  10. Combined Continuous Paravertebral and TAP Blocks for Pain Management after TRAM Flap Breast Reconstruction: A Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. RaoKadam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Transverse Rectus Abdominis Musculocutaneous (TRAM flap surgery is a prolonged and extensive procedure that requires multiple incisions. Recently, Transverse Abdominis Plane (TAP blocks have been found to be reliable method of providing regional analgesia for lower abdominal surgery and paravertebral block for pain management after breast surgery. Since the TRAM flap surgery involves both abdomen and thorax, the combination of these two blocks to manage post operative pain could be effective. This manuscript is one of the initial cases reporting of the use of these techniques in which triple catheters with ropivacaine infusion in breast reconstruction surgery were successfully used with reduced pain scores and opioid consumption.

  11. Analgesic Choice in Management of Rib Fractures: Paravertebral Block or Epidural Analgesia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekpour, Mahdi; Hashmi, Ammar; Dove, James; Torres, Denise; Wild, Jeffrey

    2017-06-01

    Rib fractures are commonly encountered in the setting of trauma. The aim of this study was to assess the association between the clinical outcome of rib fracture and epidural analgesia (EA) versus paravertebral block (PVB) using the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB). Using the 2011 and 2012 versions of the NTDB, we retrieved completed records for all patients above 18 years of age who were admitted with rib fractures. Primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were length of stay (LOS), intensive care unit (ICU) admission, ICU LOS, mechanical ventilation, duration of mechanical ventilation, development of pneumonia, and development of any other complication. Clinical outcomes were first compared between propensity score-matched EA and PVB patients. Then, EA and PVB patients were combined into the procedure group and the outcomes were compared with propensity score-matched patients that received neither intervention (no-procedure group). A total of 194,766 patients were included in the study with 1073 patients having EA, 1110 patients having PVB, and 192,583 patients having neither procedure. After propensity score matching, comparison of primary and secondary outcomes between EA and PVB patients showed no difference. Comparison of propensity score-matched procedure and no-procedure patients showed prolonged LOS and more frequent ICU admissions in patients receiving a procedure (both P rib fractures. There was an association between use of a block and improved outcome, but this could be explained by selection of healthier patients to receive a block. Prospective study of this association is recommended.

  12. Analgesic efficacy of ultrasound-guided paravertebral block versus serratus plane block for modified radical mastectomy: A randomised, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Modified radical mastectomy (MRM may be associated with severe post-operative pain, leading to chronic pain syndrome. We compared the post-operative analgesic profile of two ultrasound-guided nerve blocks: Paravertebral block (PVB and serratus plane block (SPB. Methods: This double-blind, randomised study was conducted on fifty adult females, scheduled for MRM with axillary dissection. After inducing general anaesthesia with intravenous midazolam 1 mg, fentanyl 1.5 mcg/kg, propofol 1–2 mg/kg and vecuronium 0.1 mg/kg, patients were administered either ultrasound-guided thoracic PVB at T4 (n = 25 or SPB at 5th rib (n = 25 with 20 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine, both as a single level injection. Time to first rescue analgesia and morphine consumption in 4, 6, 24, 48 and 72 h by PCA pump, visual analogue scale score and any adverse effects were recorded. Quantitative variables were compared using the unpaired t-test or the Mann–Whitney U test between the two groups. Qualitative variables were compared using the Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. Results: The duration of analgesia (mean ± Standard deviation [SD] was significantly longer in the PVB group compared to SPB group (346 ± 57 min vs. 245.6 ± 58 min, P< 0.001. The post-operative 24 h morphine consumption (mean ± SD was significantly higher in the SPB group (9.7 ± 2.1 mg compared to PVB group (6.5 ± 1.5 mg (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided SPB is an alternative analgesic technique to thoracic PVB for MRM although PVB provides a longer duration of analgesia.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of Lidocaine Hydrochloride Administered with or without Adrenaline for the Paravertebral Brachial Plexus Block in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choquette, Amélie; Troncy, Eric; Guillot, Martin; Varin, France; Del Castillo, Jérôme R E

    2017-01-01

    Adrenaline is known to prolong the duration of local anesthesia but its effects on the pharmacokinetic processes of local anesthetic drugs are not fully understood. Our objective was to develop a compartmental model for quantification of adrenaline's impact on the pharmacokinetics of perineurally-injected lidocaine in the dog. Dogs were subjected to paravertebral brachial plexus block using lidocaine alone or adrenalinated lidocaine. Data was collected through a prospective, randomised, blinded crossover protocol performed over three periods. Blood samples were collected during 180 minutes following block execution. Compartmental pharmacokinetic models were developed and their goodness-of-fit were compared. The lowering effects of adrenaline on the absorption of lidocaine were statistically determined with one-sided tests. A one-compartment disposition model with two successive zero-order absorption processes best fitted our experimental data. Adrenaline decreased the peak plasma lidocaine concentration by approximately 60% (P Adrenaline decreased the absorption rate of lidocaine and prolonged the duration of its absorption.

  14. In-plane ultrasound-guided thoracic paravertebral block: a preliminary report of 36 cases with radiologic confirmation of catheter position.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renes, S.H.; Bruhn, J.; Gielen, M.J.M.; Scheffer, G.J.; Geffen, G.J. van

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Thoracic paravertebral block (TPVB) can be used for unilateral surgical procedures. Modifications of the classic approach have been proposed to minimize the risk of pleural puncture. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility and success rate of a transverse in-plane

  15. Thoracic paravertebral block versus intravenous patient-controlled analgesia for pain treatment in patients with multiple rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeying, Ge; Liyong, Yuan; Yuebo, Chen; Yu, Zhang; Guangao, Ye; Weihu, Ma; Liujun, Zhao

    2017-12-01

    Objectives To assess the effect of thoracic paravertebral block (PVB) on pain management and preservation of pulmonary function compared with intravenous, patient-controlled analgesia (IVPCA) in patients with multiple rib fractures (MRFs). Methods Ninety patients with unilateral MRFs were included in this prospective study and randomly assigned to the TPVB or IVPCA group. The visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score, blood gas analysis, and bedside spirometry were measured and recorded at different time points after analgesia. Results TPVB and IVPCA provided good pain relief. VAS scores were significantly lower in the TPVB group than in the IVPCA group at rest and during coughing ( P pain relief and preservation of pulmonary function in patients with MRFs.

  16. The evaluation of efficacy and safety of paravertebral block for perioperative analgesia in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Agarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Paravertebral block is a popular regional anesthetic technique used for perioperative analgesia in multiple surgical procedures. There are very few randomized trials of its use in laparoscopic cholecystectomy in medical literature. This study was aimed at assessing its efficacy and opioid-sparing potential in this surgery. Methods: Fifty patients were included in this prospective randomized study and allocated to two groups: Group A (25 patients receiving general anesthesia alone and Group B (25 patients receiving nerve-stimulator-guided bilateral thoracic Paravertebral Block (PVB at T6 level with 0.3 ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine prior to induction of general anesthesia. Intraoperative analgesia was supplemented with fentanyl (0.5 μg/kg based on hemodynamic and clinical parameters. Postoperatively, patients in both the groups received Patient-Controlled Analgesia (PCA morphine for the first 24 hours. The efficacy of PVB was assessed by comparing intraoperative fentanyl requirements, postoperative VAS scores at rest, and on coughing and PCA morphine consumption between the two groups. Results: Intraoperative supplemental fentanyl was significantly less in Group B compared to Group A (17.6 μg and 38.6 μg, respectively, P =0.001. PCA morphine requirement was significantly low in the PVB group at 2, 6, 12, and 24 hours postoperatively compared to that in Group A (4.4 mg vs 6.9 mg, 7.6 mg vs 14.2 mg, 11.6 mg vs 20.0 mg, 16.8 mg vs 27.2 mg, respectively; P <0.0001 at all intervals. Conclusion: Pre-induction PVB resulted in improved analgesia for 24 hours following laparoscopic cholecystectomy in this study, along with a significant reduction in perioperative opioid consumption and opioid-related side effects.

  17. Post-operative analgesia following total knee arthroplasty: comparison of low-dose intrathecal morphine and single-shot ultrasound-guided femoral nerve block: a randomized, single blinded, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassanito, L; Vergari, A; Zanghi, F; Messina, A; Bitondo, M; Antonelli, M

    2010-07-01

    .7 mg vs 13.6 mg. However, the difference in the opiate consumption was not statistically different (p value = 0.06). Thirteen patients in ITM group experienced itching, only 5 in FNB group. We did not find any difference in the two treatment groups in the use of antiemetic and antipruritic medication. No cases of respiratory depression was recorded. Our results show that low dose of intrathecal morphine may be safe and more efficient than single-shot femoral nerve block for post-operative analgesia after total knee arthroplasty.

  18. Ultrasound-Assisted Thoracic Paravertebral Block Reduces Intraoperative Opioid Requirement and Improves Analgesia after Breast Cancer Surgery: A Randomized, Controlled, Single-Center Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijian Pei

    Full Text Available The contribution of ultrasound-assisted thoracic paravertebral block to postoperative analgesia remains unclear. We compared the effect of a combination of ultrasound assisted-thoracic paravertebral block and propofol general anesthesia with opioid and sevoflurane general anesthesia on volatile anesthetic, propofol and opioid consumption, and postoperative pain in patients having breast cancer surgery.Patients undergoing breast cancer surgery were randomly assigned to ultrasound-assisted paravertebral block with propofol general anesthesia (PPA group, n = 121 or fentanyl with sevoflurane general anesthesia (GA group, n = 126. Volatile anesthetic, propofol and opioid consumption, and postoperative pain intensity were compared between the groups using noninferiority and superiority tests.Patients in the PPA group required less sevoflurane than those in the GA group (median [interquartile range] of 0 [0, 0] vs. 0.4 [0.3, 0.6] minimum alveolar concentration [MAC]-hours, less intraoperative fentanyl requirements (100 [50, 100] vs. 250 [200, 300]μg,, less intense postoperative pain (median visual analog scale score 2 [1, 3.5] vs. 3 [2, 4.5], but more propofol (median 529 [424, 672] vs. 100 [100, 130] mg. Noninferiority was detected for all four outcomes; one-tailed superiority tests for each outcome were highly significant at P<0.001 in the expected directions.The combination of propofol anesthesia with ultrasound-assisted paravertebral block reduces intraoperative volatile anesthetic and opioid requirements, and results in less post operative pain in patients undergoing breast cancer surgery.ClinicalTrial.gov NCT00418457.

  19. Comparison of the post-operative analgesic effect of paravertebral block, pectoral nerve block and local infiltration in patients undergoing modified radical mastectomy: A randomised double-blind trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartik Syal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Paravertebral block, pectoral nerve (Pecs block and wound infiltration are three modalities for post-operative analgesia following breast surgery. This study compares the analgesic efficacy of these techniques for post-operative analgesia. Methods: Sixty-five patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists' physical status 1 or 2 undergoing modified radical mastectomy with axillary dissection were recruited for the study. All patients received 21 mL 0.5% bupivacaine with adrenaline in the technique which was performed at the end of the surgery prior to extubation. Patients in Group 1 (local anaesthetic [LA], n = 22 received infiltration at the incision site after surgery, Group 2 patients (paravertebral block [PVB], n = 22 received ultrasound-guided ipsilateral paravertebral block while Group 3 patients [PECT] (n = 21 received ultrasound-guided ipsilateral Pecs blocks I and II. Patients were evaluated for pain scores at 0, 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 h, duration of post-operative analgesia and rescue analgesic doses required. Non-normally distributed data were analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Analysis of variance for normal distribution. Results: The post-operative visual analogue scale scores were lower in PVB group compared with others at 0, 2, 4, 12 and 24 h (P < 0.05. Mean duration of analgesia was significantly prolonged in PVB group (P < 0.001 with lesser rescue analgesic consumption up to 24 h. Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided paravertebral block reduces post-operative pain scores, prolongs the duration of analgesia and decreases demands for rescue analgesics in the first 24 h of post-operative period compared to ultrasound-guided Pecs block and local infiltration block.

  20. Comparative Study on the Efficacy of Two Regimens of Single-Shot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess and compare the satisfaction and efficacy of two regimens of single-shot spinal blocks for the relief of labor pain in women who present in active phase of labour. Design: A prospective randomised single-blind observational study. Setting: Labour ward of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. Subjects: All ...

  1. Effects of thoracic paravertebral block with bupivacaine versus combined thoracic epidural block with bupivacaine and morphine on pain and pulmonary function after cholecystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigler, D; Dirkes, W; Hansen, R

    1989-01-01

    Twenty patients undergoing elective cholecystectomy via a subcostal incision were randomized in a double-blind study to either thoracic paravertebral blockade with bupivacaine 0.5% (15 ml followed by 5 ml/h) or thoracic epidural blockade with bupivacaine 7 ml 0.5% + morphine 2 mg followed by 5 ml...... by forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume and peak expiratory flow rate decreased about 50% postoperatively in both groups. In conclusion, the continuous paravertebral bupivacaine infusion used here was insufficient as the only analgesic after cholecystectomy. In contrast, epidural blockade...... with combined bupivacaine and low dose morphine produced total pain relief in six of ten patients....

  2. The single-shot opto-digitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nail, M.; Gibert, Ph.

    2000-01-01

    Laser-plasma experiments need to measure signals provided either by X-ray, photonic or neutronic detector. The measurement should have 50 GHz bandwidth and up to several hundred of Giga-Hertz for sub picosecond plasmas. For this purpose, a 35 GHz single shot opto-digitizer (10 ps risetime) has been studied and built. The device is made up of a 50 ohms microstrip propagation line, periodically lined by 100 sampled gates. The propagation line is long enough to measure a 400 ps duration. The sampling rate is 250 Gsa/s (every 4 ps). The sampled gates are made with fast recombining photo-material and turn on by a subpicosecond laser pulse which is synchronized exactly with the analysed phenomena. Every gate is recording to a storing capacitor. After the recording, every capacitor charge is needed to built the signal that was displayed on the propagation line. The dynamic range of measurement is 47 for the entire device. The device can measure positive or negative signals from 1.5 to 70 Volts. To increase the bandwidth, two another kinds of opto-digitizer were studied: one is a buried stripline with 56 GHz band width, the other a 70 GHz coplanar transmission line. For the purpose of subpicosecond plasmas, a 30 coplanar waveguide opto-digitizer was studied. Characteristics are as followed: window of measurement 40 ps, sampling rate 1 ps, bandwidth 230 GHz. Finally, a bundle of optical fibers was used to propagate the laser beam on semiconductor gates. If the gates are lighted at the same time, i.e. if the optical fibers have the same length, we get a simultaneous addressing. By using different lengths of optical fibers, we can do a sequential addressing. So, the sampling rate becomes a combination of the distance between two adjacent sampled channels, and the difference in length of optical fibers. (author)

  3. Single-shot measurement of nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabalan, J; Singh, Asha; Oak, Shrikant M

    2006-06-01

    A single-shot method for measurement of nonlinear optical absorption and refraction is described and analyzed. A spatial intensity variation of an elliptical Gaussian beam in conjugation with an array detector is the key element of this method. The advantages of this single-shot technique were demonstrated by measuring the two-photon absorption and free-carrier absorption in GaAs as well as the nonlinear refractive index of CS2 using a modified optical Kerr setup.

  4. Effects of Thoracic Paravertebral Block on Postoperative Analgesia and Serum Level of Tumor Marker in Lung Cancer Patients Undergoing Video-assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiheng CHEN

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Perioperative management of pain associated with the prognosis of cancer patients. Optimization of perio-perative analgesia method, then reduce perioperative stress response, reduce opioiddosage, to reduce or even avoid systemic adverse reactions and elevated levels of tumor markers. Serum levels of tumor markers in patients with lung cancer are closely related to tumor growth. Clinical research reports on regional anesthesia effect on tumor markers for lung cancer are still very little in domesticliterature. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of thoracic paraverte-bral block on postoperative analgesia and serum level of tumor marker in lung cancer patients undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. Methods Lung cancer patients undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery were randomly divided into 2 groups (n=20 in each group. The patients in group G were given only general anesthesia. The thoracic paravertebral blockade (PVB was performed before general anesthesia in patients of group GP. The effect of PVB was judged by testing area of block. Patient controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA pump started before the end of surgery in 2 groups. Visual analogue scale (VAS score was recorded after extubation 2 h (T1, 24 h (T2 and 48 h (T3 after surgery and the times of PCIA and the volume of analgesic drugs used were recorded during 48 h after surgery. The serum levels of carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA, carbohydrate antigen 199 (CA199, carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125, neuron-specific enolase (NSE, cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA21-1 and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC in 40 lung cancer cases undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy were measured before operation and 24 h after operation. Results Forty American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA physical status I or II patients, aged 20 yr-70 yr, body mass index (BMI 18 kg/m2-25 kg/m2, scheduled for elective video-assisted thoraeoscopic lobectomy

  5. Effects of adding dexamethasone or ketamine to bupivacaine for ultrasound-guided thoracic paravertebral block in patients undergoing modified radical mastectomy: A prospective randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Blough El Mourad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Pain after modified radical mastectomy (MRM has been successfully managed with thoracic paravertebral block (TPVB. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding dexamethasone or ketamine as adjuncts to bupivacaine in TPVB on the quality of postoperative analgesia in participants undergoing MRM. Methods: This prospective randomised controlled study enrolled ninety adult females scheduled for MRM. Patients were randomised into three groups (30 each to receive ultrasound-guided TPVB before induction of general anaesthesia. Group B received bupivacaine 0.5% + 1 ml normal saline, Group D received bupivacaine 0.5% + 1 ml dexamethasone (4 mg and Group K received bupivacaine 0.5% + 1 ml ketamine (50 mg. Patients were observed for 24 h postoperatively to record time to first analgesic demand as a primary outcome, pain scores, total rescue morphine consumption and incidence of complications. Results: Group K had significantly longer time to first analgesic demand than group D and control group (18.0 ± 6.0, 10.3 ± 4.5 and 5.3 ± 3.1 hours respectively; P = 0.0001. VAS scores were significantly lower in group D and group K compared to control group at 6h and 12 h postoperative (p 0.0001 and 0.0001 respectively while group K had lower VAS at 18 hours compared to other two groups (P = 0.0001. Control group showed the highest mean 24 h opioid consumption (8.9 ± 7.9 mg compared to group D and group K (3.60 ± 6.92 and 2.63 ± 5.24 mg, P = 0.008,0.001 respectively. No serious adverse events were observed. Conclusion: Ketamine 50 mg or dexamethasone 4 mg added to bupivacaine 0.5% in TPVB for MRM prolonged the time to first analgesic request with no serious side effects.

  6. Single-shot spiral imaging at 7 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Maria; Kasper, Lars; Barmet, Christoph; Schmid, Thomas; Vionnet, Laetitia; Wilm, Bertram; Pruessmann, Klaas P

    2018-03-25

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility and performance of single-shot spiral MRI at 7 T, using an expanded signal model for reconstruction. Gradient-echo brain imaging is performed on a 7 T system using high-resolution single-shot spiral readouts and half-shot spirals that perform dual-image acquisition after a single excitation. Image reconstruction is based on an expanded signal model including the encoding effects of coil sensitivity, static off-resonance, and magnetic field dynamics. The latter are recorded concurrently with image acquisition, using NMR field probes. The resulting image resolution is assessed by point spread function analysis. Single-shot spiral imaging is achieved at a nominal resolution of 0.8 mm, using spiral-out readouts of 53-ms duration. High depiction fidelity is achieved without conspicuous blurring or distortion. Effective resolutions are assessed as 0.8, 0.94, and 0.98 mm in CSF, gray matter and white matter, respectively. High image quality is also achieved with half-shot acquisition yielding image pairs at 1.5-mm resolution. Use of an expanded signal model enables single-shot spiral imaging at 7 T with unprecedented image quality. Single-shot and half-shot spiral readouts deploy the sensitivity benefit of high field for rapid high-resolution imaging, particularly for functional MRI and arterial spin labeling. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  7. Single-shot positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy with LYSO scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, A. M.; Cooper, B. S.; Deller, A.; Cassidy, D. B.

    2016-08-01

    We have evaluated the application of a lutetium yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) based detector to single-shot positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. We compare this detector directly with a similarly configured PbWO4 scintillator, which is the usual choice for such measurements. We find that the signal to noise ratio obtained using LYSO is around three times higher than that obtained using PbWO4 for measurements of Ps excited to longer-lived (Rydberg) levels, or when they are ionized soon after production. This is due to the much higher light output for LYSO (75% and 1% of NaI for LYSO and PbWO4 respectively). We conclude that LYSO is an ideal scintillator for single-shot measurements of positronium production and excitation performed using a low-intensity pulsed positron beam.

  8. Single-shot positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy with LYSO scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, A.M., E-mail: a.alonso@ucl.ac.uk; Cooper, B.S.; Deller, A.; Cassidy, D.B.

    2016-08-21

    We have evaluated the application of a lutetium yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) based detector to single-shot positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. We compare this detector directly with a similarly configured PbWO{sub 4} scintillator, which is the usual choice for such measurements. We find that the signal to noise ratio obtained using LYSO is around three times higher than that obtained using PbWO{sub 4} for measurements of Ps excited to longer-lived (Rydberg) levels, or when they are ionized soon after production. This is due to the much higher light output for LYSO (75% and 1% of NaI for LYSO and PbWO{sub 4} respectively). We conclude that LYSO is an ideal scintillator for single-shot measurements of positronium production and excitation performed using a low-intensity pulsed positron beam.

  9. Comparison of ropivacaine and bupivacaine as single-shot epidural anaesthesia for orthopaedic surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, A.; Khan, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    To compare the efficacy and side-effects of 0.5% ropivacaine with that of 0.5% bupivacaine when used for single-shot epidural anaesthesia for orthopaedic surgery. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anesthesiology, Combined Military Hospital Rawalpindi, over a period of eight months from June 2013 to January 2014. Patients and Methods: The study was carried out in 60 ASA physical status I, II or III patients undergoing elective lower extremity orthopedic surgery. Two groups of 30 patients each received single-shot epidural anaesthesia either with ropivacaine 0.5% (ropivacaine group) or bupivacaine 0.5% (bupivacaine group). Onset, time for maximum height and median height of sensory block was assessed as well as time to two segment recession. Modified Bromage scale was used for motor blockade. Total duration of motor block and common side effects were also recorded. Results: The patients in both groups were similar in age, height, weight, gender and ASA status. There was no significant difference in onset of sensory block and time for maximum height of sensory block. The median heighest level of sensory block was T6 (T5-T8) for ropivacaine group and T5 (T4-T7) for bupivacaine group. Time for two segment regression and duration of sensory block were also comparable for both groups. The total duration of motor block was significantly more in bupivacaine group (159 min vs 134.2 min, p< 0.001). Modified Bromage scale was also significantly higher in bupivacaine group (2.86 vs 1.96 min, p<0.001). Side effects like hypotension, bradycardia, nausea, vomiting and shivering were similar in both groups. Conclusion: Epidural administration of 0.5% ropivacaine provided effective and good quality anaesthesia. Motor blockade was of less duration as compared to equivalent dose of 0.5% bupivacaine, which may offer potential benefit of early patient mobilization after orthopaedic surgery. (author)

  10. Single-shot positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy with LYSO scintillators

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso, A. M.; Cooper, B. S.; Deller, A.; Cassidy, D. B.

    2016-01-01

    We have evaluated the application of a lutetium yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) based detector to single-shot positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. We compare this detector directly with a similarly configured PbWO4 scintillator, which is the usual choice for such measurements. We find that the signal to noise ratio obtained using LYSO is around three times higher than that obtained using PbWO4 for measurements of Ps excited to longer-lived (Rydberg) levels, or when they are ionized so...

  11. Single-shot 35 fs temporal resolution electron shadowgraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scoby, C. M.; Li, R. K.; Threlkeld, E.; To, H.; Musumeci, P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2013-01-14

    We obtain single-shot time-resolved shadowgraph images of the electromagnetic fields resulting from the interaction of a high intensity ultrashort laser pulse with a metal surface. Using a high brightness relativistic electron beam and a high streaking speed radiofrequency deflector, we report <35 fs temporal resolution enabling a direct visualization of the retarded-time dominated field evolution which follows the laser-induced charge emission. A model including the finite signal propagation speed well reproduces the data and yields measurements of fundamental parameters in short pulse laser-matter interaction such as the amount of emitted charge and the emission time scale.

  12. Single-shot 35 fs temporal resolution electron shadowgraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoby, C. M.; Li, R. K.; Threlkeld, E.; To, H.; Musumeci, P.

    2013-01-01

    We obtain single-shot time-resolved shadowgraph images of the electromagnetic fields resulting from the interaction of a high intensity ultrashort laser pulse with a metal surface. Using a high brightness relativistic electron beam and a high streaking speed radiofrequency deflector, we report <35 fs temporal resolution enabling a direct visualization of the retarded-time dominated field evolution which follows the laser-induced charge emission. A model including the finite signal propagation speed well reproduces the data and yields measurements of fundamental parameters in short pulse laser-matter interaction such as the amount of emitted charge and the emission time scale.

  13. Single-Shot MR Spectroscopic Imaging with Partial Parallel Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posse, Stefan; Otazo, Ricardo; Tsai, Shang-Yueh; Yoshimoto, Akio Ernesto; Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2010-01-01

    An MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) pulse sequence based on Proton-Echo-Planar-Spectroscopic-Imaging (PEPSI) is introduced that measures 2-dimensional metabolite maps in a single excitation. Echo-planar spatial-spectral encoding was combined with interleaved phase encoding and parallel imaging using SENSE to reconstruct absorption mode spectra. The symmetrical k-space trajectory compensates phase errors due to convolution of spatial and spectral encoding. Single-shot MRSI at short TE was evaluated in phantoms and in vivo on a 3 T whole body scanner equipped with 12-channel array coil. Four-step interleaved phase encoding and 4-fold SENSE acceleration were used to encode a 16×16 spatial matrix with 390 Hz spectral width. Comparison with conventional PEPSI and PEPSI with 4-fold SENSE acceleration demonstrated comparable sensitivity per unit time when taking into account g-factor related noise increases and differences in sampling efficiency. LCModel fitting enabled quantification of Inositol, Choline, Creatine and NAA in vivo with concentration values in the ranges measured with conventional PEPSI and SENSE-accelerated PEPSI. Cramer-Rao lower bounds were comparable to those obtained with conventional SENSE-accelerated PEPSI at the same voxel size and measurement time. This single-shot MRSI method is therefore suitable for applications that require high temporal resolution to monitor temporal dynamics or to reduce sensitivity to tissue movement. PMID:19097245

  14. Single-shot polarimetry imaging of multicore fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivankutty, Siddharth; Andresen, Esben Ravn; Bouwmans, Géraud; Brown, Thomas G; Alonso, Miguel A; Rigneault, Hervé

    2016-05-01

    We report an experimental test of single-shot polarimetry applied to the problem of real-time monitoring of the output polarization states in each core within a multicore fiber bundle. The technique uses a stress-engineered optical element, together with an analyzer, and provides a point spread function whose shape unambiguously reveals the polarization state of a point source. We implement this technique to monitor, simultaneously and in real time, the output polarization states of up to 180 single-mode fiber cores in both conventional and polarization-maintaining fiber bundles. We demonstrate also that the technique can be used to fully characterize the polarization properties of each individual fiber core, including eigen-polarization states, phase delay, and diattenuation.

  15. Ship Detection Using Transfer Learned Single Shot Multi Box Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nie Gu-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ship detection in satellite images is a challenging task. In this paper, we introduce a transfer learned Single Shot MultiBox Detector (SSD for ship detection. To this end, a state-of-the-art object detection model pre-trained from a large number of natural images was transfer learned for ship detection with limited labeled satellite images. To the best of our knowledge, this could be one of the first studies which introduce SSD into ship detection on satellite images. Experiments demonstrated that our method could achieve 87.9% AP at 47 FPS using NVIDIA TITAN X. In comparison with Faster R-CNN, 6.7% AP improvement could be achieved. Effects of the observation resolution has also been studied with the changing input sizes among 300 × 300, 600 × 600 and 900 × 900. It has been noted that the detection accuracy declined sharply with the decreasing resolution that is mainly caused by the missing small ships.

  16. Time-resolved single-shot terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for ultrafast irreversible processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Zhao-Hui; Zhong, Sen-Cheng; Li, Jun; Zhu, Li-Guo; Meng, Kun; Li, Jiang; Liu, Qiao; Peng, Qi-Xian; Li, Ze-Ren; Zhao, Jian-Heng

    2016-09-01

    Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy is suitable for spectroscopic diagnostics of ultrafast events. However, the study of irreversible or single shot ultrafast events requires ability to record transient properties at multiple time delays, i.e., time resolved at single shot level, which is not available currently. Here by angular multiplexing use of femtosecond laser pulses, we developed and demonstrated a time resolved, transient terahertz time domain spectroscopy technique, where burst mode THz pulses were generated and then detected in a single shot measurement manner. The burst mode THz pulses contain 2 sub-THz pulses, and the time gap between them is adjustable up to 1 ns with picosecond accuracy, thus it can be used to probe the single shot event at two different time delays. The system can detect the sub-THz pulses at 0.1 THz-2.5 THz range with signal to noise ratio (SNR) of ˜400 and spectrum resolution of 0.05 THz. System design was described here, and optimizations of single shot measurement of THz pulses were discussed in detail. Methods to improve SNR were also discussed in detail. A system application was demonstrated where pulsed THz signals at different time delays of the ultrafast process were successfully acquired within single shot measurement. This time resolved transient terahertz time domain spectroscopy technique provides a new diagnostic tool for irreversible or single shot ultrafast events where dynamic information can be extracted at terahertz range within one-shot experiment.

  17. High-Fidelity Single-Shot Toffoli Gate via Quantum Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedinejad, Ehsan; Ghosh, Joydip; Sanders, Barry C

    2015-05-22

    A single-shot Toffoli, or controlled-controlled-not, gate is desirable for classical and quantum information processing. The Toffoli gate alone is universal for reversible computing and, accompanied by the Hadamard gate, forms a universal gate set for quantum computing. The Toffoli gate is also a key ingredient for (nontopological) quantum error correction. Currently Toffoli gates are achieved by decomposing into sequentially implemented single- and two-qubit gates, which require much longer times and yields lower overall fidelities compared to a single-shot implementation. We develop a quantum-control procedure to construct a single-shot Toffoli gate for three nearest-neighbor-coupled superconducting transmon systems such that the fidelity is 99.9% and is as fast as an entangling two-qubit gate under the same realistic conditions. The gate is achieved by a nongreedy quantum control procedure using our enhanced version of the differential evolution algorithm.

  18. Single-Shot Spectrometry for X-Ray Free-Electron Lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabashi, Makina; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Hastings, Jerome B.; Zolotorev, Max S.; Mimura, Hidekazu; Yumoto, Hirokatsu; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Kazuto

    2006-01-01

    An experimental scheme to realize single-shot spectrometry for the diagnostics of x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) is presented. The combination of an ultraprecisely figured mirror and a perfect crystal form a simple, high-precision spectrometer that can cover an energy range from a few eV to a hundred eV with high resolution. The application of the spectrometer to determine XFEL pulse widths was investigated theoretically and experimentally. It has been shown that the present system can determine pulse widths from sub-fs to ps in a single shot even for spontaneous radiation. The system can be easily extended to even shorter pulses

  19. Single-shot self-interference incoherent digital holography using off-axis configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jisoo; Kim, Myung K

    2013-12-01

    We propose a single-shot incoherent holographic imaging technique that adopts self-interference incoherent digital holography (SIDH) with slight tilt of the plane mirror in the optical configuration. The limited temporal coherence length of the illumination leads the guide-star hologram of the proposed system to have a Gaussian envelope of elliptical ring shape. The observation shows that the reconstruction by cross correlation with the guide-star hologram achieves better quality than the usual propagation methods. Experimentally, we verify that the hologram and 3D reconstruction can be implemented incoherently with the proposed single-shot off-axis SIDH.

  20. Single-shot LIBS spectral quality for waste particles in open air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, H.; Bakker, M.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the ability of LIBS to produce quality spectra from small particles of concrete demolition waste using single-shot spectra collected in open air. The 2–8?mm materials are rounded river gravel, green glass shards, and plastic flakes. Considered are focal length, air, moisture,

  1. Single-shot spiral imaging enabled by an expanded encoding model: Demonstration in diffusion MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilm, Bertram J; Barmet, Christoph; Gross, Simon; Kasper, Lars; Vannesjo, S Johanna; Haeberlin, Max; Dietrich, Benjamin E; Brunner, David O; Schmid, Thomas; Pruessmann, Klaas P

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to improve the quality of single-shot spiral MRI and demonstrate its application for diffusion-weighted imaging. Image formation is based on an expanded encoding model that accounts for dynamic magnetic fields up to third order in space, nonuniform static B 0 , and coil sensitivity encoding. The encoding model is determined by B 0 mapping, sensitivity mapping, and concurrent field monitoring. Reconstruction is performed by iterative inversion of the expanded signal equations. Diffusion-tensor imaging with single-shot spiral readouts is performed in a phantom and in vivo, using a clinical 3T instrument. Image quality is assessed in terms of artefact levels, image congruence, and the influence of the different encoding factors. Using the full encoding model, diffusion-weighted single-shot spiral imaging of high quality is accomplished both in vitro and in vivo. Accounting for actual field dynamics, including higher orders, is found to be critical to suppress blurring, aliasing, and distortion. Enhanced image congruence permitted data fusion and diffusion tensor analysis without coregistration. Use of an expanded signal model largely overcomes the traditional vulnerability of spiral imaging with long readouts. It renders single-shot spirals competitive with echo-planar readouts and thus deploys shorter echo times and superior readout efficiency for diffusion imaging and further prospective applications. Magn Reson Med 77:83-91, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  2. In vivo single-shot (13)C spectroscopic imaging of hyperpolarized metabolites by spatiotemporal encoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Rita; Laustsen, Christoffer; Dumez, Jean-Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    are necessary. Several approaches have been customized for hyperpolarized (13)C MRI, including CSI with a center-out k-space encoding, EPSI, and spectrally selective pulses in combination with spiral EPI acquisitions. Recent studies have described the potential of single-shot alternatives based...... temporal) data sets were obtained at 7T from a murine lymphoma tumor model....

  3. From single-shot towards general work extraction in a quantum thermodynamic framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemmer, Jochen; Anders, Janet

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers work extraction from a quantum system to a work storage system (or weight) following Horodecki and Oppenheim (2013 Nat. Commun. 4 2059). An alternative approach is here developed that relies on the comparison of subspace dimensions without a need to introduce thermo-majorization used previously. Optimal single shot work for processes where a weight transfers from (a) a single energy level to another single energy level is then re-derived. In addition we discuss the final state of the system after work extraction and show that the system typically ends in its thermal state, while there are cases where the system is only close to it. The work of formation in the single level transfer setting is also re-derived. The approach presented now allows the extension of the single shot work concept to work extraction (b) involving multiple final levels of the weight. A key conclusion here is that the single shot work for case (a) is appropriate only when a resonance of a particular energy is required. When wishing to identify ‘work extraction’ with finding the weight in a specific available energy or any higher energy a broadening of the single shot work concept is required. As a final contribution we consider transformations of the system that (c) result in general weight state transfers. Introducing a transfer-quantity allows us to formulate minimum requirements for transformations to be at all possible in a thermodynamic framework. We show that choosing the free energy difference of the weight as the transfer-quantity one recovers various single shot results including single level transitions (a), multiple final level transitions (b), and recent results on restricted sets of multi-level to multi-level weight transfers. (paper)

  4. Single-shot readout of accumulation mode Si/SiGe spin qubits using RF reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Christian; Martins, Frederico; Malinowski, Filip; Marcus, Charles M.; Kuemmeth, Ferdinand

    Spin qubits based on gate-defined quantum dots are promising systems for realizing quantum computation. Due to their low concentration of nuclear-spin-carrying isotopes, Si/SiGe heterostructures are of particular interest. While high fidelities have been reported for single-qubit and two-qubit gate operations, qubit initialization and measurement times are relatively slow. In order to develop fast read-out techniques compatible with the operation of spin qubits, we characterize double and triple quantum dots confined in undoped Si/Si0.7Ge0.3 heterostructures using accumulation and depletion gates and a nearby RF charge sensor dot. We implement a RF reflectometry technique that allows single-shot charge read-out at integration times on the order of a few μs. We show our recent advancement towards implementing spin qubits in these structures, including spin-selective single-shot read-out.

  5. Algorithms for image recovery calculation in extended single-shot phase-shifting digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Shin-ya; Hirata, Ryo

    2018-04-01

    The single-shot phase-shifting method of image recovery using an inclined reference wave has the advantages of reducing the effects of vibration, being capable of operating in real time, and affording low-cost sensing. In this method, relatively low reference angles compared with that in the conventional method using phase shift between three or four pixels has been required. We propose an extended single-shot phase-shifting technique which uses the multiple-step phase-shifting algorithm and the corresponding multiple pixels which are the same as that of the period of an interference fringe. We have verified the theory underlying this recovery method by means of Fourier spectral analysis and its effectiveness by evaluating the visibility of the image using a high-resolution pattern. Finally, we have demonstrated high-contrast image recovery experimentally using a resolution chart. This method can be used in a variety of applications such as color holographic interferometry.

  6. Single-shot and single-spot measurement of laser ablation threshold for carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Lednev, Vasily N.; Pershin, Sergey M.; Obraztsova, Elena D.; Kudryashov, Sergey I.; Bunkin, Alexey F.

    2013-01-01

    A simple and convenient procedure for single-shot, single-spot ablation threshold measurement has been developed. It is based on the employment of cylindrical lens to obtain elliptical Gaussian laser spot. The ablated spot chords which are parallel to the minor axis were measured across the spot major axis which is proportional to the fluence cross-section thus providing wide range dependence of damaged spot size versus fluence in one spot measurement. For both conventional and new-developed ...

  7. Infrared single shot diagnostics for the longitudinal profile of the electron bunches at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delsim-Hashemi, Hossein

    2008-09-01

    The longitudinal profile of electron bunches plays an important role in the design of single-pass free electron lasers and future linear e + e - colliders. For the free electron laser FLASH in Hamburg, a longitudinal compression scheme is used which results in an asymmetric longitudinal bunch profile with a 'spike'. This 'spike', which has a very high peak current, is used in a high-gain SASE-FEL process to produce high intensity (about 70 μJ) femtosecond photon pulses in the XUV wavelength range. The required high peak current of the electron bunch is realized by confining a large number of electrons in a width, measured in time units, of few tens of femtosecond, making the diagnostics of such bunches a challenge. Furthermore, the operation of facilities such as FLASH shows that single-shot diagnostics is indispensable. It is intuitive to use a time domain method to measure the electron bunch length. However, when the structures present in the bunch profile fall in the femtoseconds range, this is beyond the resolution of time-resolved methods developed so far. In this thesis, a wavelength-domain technique is described that can fulfill both requirements of single shot and high resolution reaching to the femtoseconds range. The amount of charge that is confined in a typical length of several femtoseconds (FWHM of the spike) can be determined by a novel single-shot spectrometer that resolves the coherent radiation (e.g. coherent transition radiation) in the far-infrared and mid-infrared range. Furthermore the extension of this single-shot spectroscopy to shorter wavelengths reaching the near-infrared, makes it possible to investigate the presence of structures in the bunch profile that might correlate or anti-correlate to the SASE intensity. (orig.)

  8. Single-shot speckle reduction in numerical reconstruction of digitally recorded holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hincapie, Diego; Herrera-Ramírez, Jorge; Garcia-Sucerquia, Jorge

    2015-04-15

    A single-shot method to reduce the speckle noise in the numerical reconstructions of electronically recorded holograms is presented. A recorded hologram with the dimensions N×M is split into S=T×T sub-holograms. The uncorrelated superposition of the individually reconstructed sub-holograms leads to an image with the speckle noise reduced proportionally to the 1/S law. The experimental results are presented to support the proposed methodology.

  9. Infrared single shot diagnostics for the longitudinal profile of the electron bunches at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delsim-Hashemi, Hossein

    2008-09-15

    The longitudinal profile of electron bunches plays an important role in the design of single-pass free electron lasers and future linear e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders. For the free electron laser FLASH in Hamburg, a longitudinal compression scheme is used which results in an asymmetric longitudinal bunch profile with a 'spike'. This 'spike', which has a very high peak current, is used in a high-gain SASE-FEL process to produce high intensity (about 70 {mu}J) femtosecond photon pulses in the XUV wavelength range. The required high peak current of the electron bunch is realized by confining a large number of electrons in a width, measured in time units, of few tens of femtosecond, making the diagnostics of such bunches a challenge. Furthermore, the operation of facilities such as FLASH shows that single-shot diagnostics is indispensable. It is intuitive to use a time domain method to measure the electron bunch length. However, when the structures present in the bunch profile fall in the femtoseconds range, this is beyond the resolution of time-resolved methods developed so far. In this thesis, a wavelength-domain technique is described that can fulfill both requirements of single shot and high resolution reaching to the femtoseconds range. The amount of charge that is confined in a typical length of several femtoseconds (FWHM of the spike) can be determined by a novel single-shot spectrometer that resolves the coherent radiation (e.g. coherent transition radiation) in the far-infrared and mid-infrared range. Furthermore the extension of this single-shot spectroscopy to shorter wavelengths reaching the near-infrared, makes it possible to investigate the presence of structures in the bunch profile that might correlate or anti-correlate to the SASE intensity. (orig.)

  10. Single shot diffraction of picosecond 8.7-keV x-ray pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. H. O’Shea

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate multiphoton, single shot diffraction images of x rays produced by inverse Compton scattering a high-power CO_{2} laser from a relativistic electron beam, creating a pulse of 8.7 keV x rays. The tightly focused, relatively high peak brightness electron beam and high photon density from the 2 J CO_{2} laser yielded 6×10^{7} x-ray photons over the full opening angle in a single shot. Single shot x-ray diffraction is performed by passing the x rays though a vertical slit and on to a flat silicon (111 crystal. 10^{2} diffracted photons were detected. The spectrum of the detected x rays is compared to simulation. The diffraction and detection of 10^{2} x rays is a key step to a more efficient time resolved diagnostic in which the number of observed x rays might reach 10^{4}; enabling a unique, flexible x-ray source as a sub-ps resolution diagnostic for studying the evolution of chemical reactions, lattice deformation and melting, and magnetism.

  11. Single-shot echo-planar imaging of multiple sclerosis: effects of varying echo time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolansky, L.J.; Chong, S.; Liu, W.C.; Kang, E.; Simpson, S.W.; Karimi, S.; Akbari, H.

    1999-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the relative merits of short and long echo times (TE) with single-shot echo-planar imaging for imaging cerebral lesions such as multiple sclerosis. We examined seven patients with clinically definite multiple sclerosis were imaged at 1.5 T. Patients were scanned with spin-echo, single-shot echo-planar imaging, using TEs of 45, 75, 105, and 135 ms. Region of interest (ROI) measurements were performed on 36 lesions at or above the level of the corona radiata. The mean image contrast (IC) was highest (231.1) for a TE of 45 ms, followed by 75 ms (218.9), 105 ms (217.9), and 135 ms (191.6). When mean contrast-to-noise ratios (C/N) were compared, the value was again highest (29.7) for TE 45 ms, followed by 75 ms (28.9), 105 ms (28.5), and 135 ms (26.3). In a lesion-by-lesion comparison, TE 45 ms had the highest IC and C/N in the largest number of cases (50 % and 47.2 %, respectively). IC and C/N for TE 45 ms were superior to those of 75 ms in 64 % and 58 %, respectively. These results support the use of relatively short TEs for single-shot echo-planar imaging in the setting of cerebral lesions such as multiple sclerosis. (orig.) (orig.)

  12. Partial Fourier techniques in single-shot cross-term spatiotemporal encoded MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Frydman, Lucio

    2018-03-01

    Cross-term spatiotemporal encoding (xSPEN) is a single-shot approach with exceptional immunity to field heterogeneities, the images of which faithfully deliver 2D spatial distributions without requiring a priori information or using postacquisition corrections. xSPEN, however, suffers from signal-to-noise ratio penalties due to its non-Fourier nature and due to diffusion losses-especially when seeking high resolution. This study explores partial Fourier transform approaches that, acting along either the readout or the spatiotemporally encoded dimensions, reduce these penalties. xSPEN uses an orthogonal (e.g., z) gradient to read, in direct space, the low-bandwidth (e.g., y) dimension. This substantially changes the nature of partial Fourier acquisitions vis-à-vis conventional imaging counterparts. A suitable theoretical analysis is derived to implement these procedures, along either the spatiotemporally or readout axes. Partial Fourier single-shot xSPEN images were recorded on preclinical and human scanners. Owing to their reduction in the experiments' acquisition times, this approach provided substantial sensitivity gains vis-à-vis previous implementations for a given targeted in-plane resolution. The physical origins of these gains are explained. Partial Fourier approaches, particularly when implemented along the low-bandwidth spatiotemporal dimension, provide several-fold sensitivity advantages at minimal costs to the execution and processing of the single-shot experiments. Magn Reson Med 79:1506-1514, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  13. Ultrafast bold fMRI using single-shot spin-echo echo planar imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boujraf Said

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The choice of imaging parameters for functional MRI can have an impact on the accuracy of functional localization by affecting the image quality and the degree of blood oxygenation-dependent (BOLD contrast achieved. By improving sampling efficiency, parallel acquisition techniques such as sensitivity encoding (SENSE have been used to shorten readout trains in single-shot (SS echo planar imaging (EPI. This has been applied to susceptibility artifact reduction and improving spatial resolution. SENSE together with single-shot spin-echo (SS-SE imaging may also reduce off-resonance artifacts. The goal of this work was to investigate the BOLD response of a SENSE-adapted SE-EPI on a three Tesla scanner. Whole-brain fMRI studies of seven healthy right hand-dominant volunteers were carried out in a three Tesla scanner. fMRI was performed using an SS-SE EPI sequence with SENSE. The data was processed using statistical parametric mapping. Both, group and individual subject data analyses were performed. Individual average percentage and maximal percentage signal changes attributed to the BOLD effect in M1 were calculated for all the subjects as a function of echo time. Corresponding activation maps and the sizes of the activated clusters were also calculated. Our results show that susceptibility artifacts were reduced with the use of SENSE; and the acquired BOLD images were free of the typical quadrature artifacts of SS-EPI. Such measures are crucial at high field strengths. SS SE-EPI with SENSE offers further benefits in this regard and is more specific for oxygenation changes in the microvasculature bed. Functional brain activity can be investigated with the help of single-shot spin echo EPI using SENSE at high magnetic fields.

  14. A Shack-Hartmann Sensor for Single-Shot Multi-Contrast Imaging with Hard X-rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomy dos Santos Rolo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available An array of compound refractive X-ray lenses (CRL with 20 × 20 lenslets, a focal distance of 20cm and a visibility of 0.93 is presented. It can be used as a Shack-Hartmann sensor for hard X-rays (SHARX for wavefront sensing and permits for true single-shot multi-contrast imaging the dynamics of materials with a spatial resolution in the micrometer range, sensitivity on nanosized structures and temporal resolution on the microsecond scale. The object’s absorption and its induced wavefront shift can be assessed simultaneously together with information from diffraction channels. In contrast to the established Hartmann sensors the SHARX has an increased flux efficiency through focusing of the beam rather than blocking parts of it. We investigated the spatiotemporal behavior of a cavitation bubble induced by laser pulses. Furthermore, we validated the SHARX by measuring refraction angles of a single diamond CRL, where we obtained an angular resolution better than 4 μ rad.

  15. Single-shot secure quantum network coding on butterfly network with free public communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owari, Masaki; Kato, Go; Hayashi, Masahito

    2018-01-01

    Quantum network coding on the butterfly network has been studied as a typical example of quantum multiple cast network. We propose a secure quantum network code for the butterfly network with free public classical communication in the multiple unicast setting under restricted eavesdropper’s power. This protocol certainly transmits quantum states when there is no attack. We also show the secrecy with shared randomness as additional resource when the eavesdropper wiretaps one of the channels in the butterfly network and also derives the information sending through public classical communication. Our protocol does not require verification process, which ensures single-shot security.

  16. Single-shot femtosecond-pulsed phase-shifting digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakue, Takashi; Itoh, Seiya; Xia, Peng; Tahara, Tatsuki; Awatsuji, Yasuhiro; Nishio, Kenzo; Ura, Shogo; Kubota, Toshihiro; Matoba, Osamu

    2012-08-27

    Parallel phase-shifting digital holography is capable of three-dimensional measurement of a dynamically moving object with a single-shot recording. In this letter, we demonstrated a parallel phase-shifting digital holography using a single femtosecond light pulse whose central wavelength and temporal duration were 800 nm and 96 fs, respectively. As an object, we set spark discharge in atmospheric pressure air induced by applying a high voltage to between two electrodes. The instantaneous change in phase caused by the spark discharge was clearly reconstructed. The reconstructed phase image shows the change of refractive index of air was -3.7 × 10(-4).

  17. Single-shot magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging with partial parallel imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posse, Stefan; Otazo, Ricardo; Tsai, Shang-Yueh; Yoshimoto, Akio Ernesto; Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2009-03-01

    A magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) pulse sequence based on proton-echo-planar-spectroscopic-imaging (PEPSI) is introduced that measures two-dimensional metabolite maps in a single excitation. Echo-planar spatial-spectral encoding was combined with interleaved phase encoding and parallel imaging using SENSE to reconstruct absorption mode spectra. The symmetrical k-space trajectory compensates phase errors due to convolution of spatial and spectral encoding. Single-shot MRSI at short TE was evaluated in phantoms and in vivo on a 3-T whole-body scanner equipped with a 12-channel array coil. Four-step interleaved phase encoding and fourfold SENSE acceleration were used to encode a 16 x 16 spatial matrix with a 390-Hz spectral width. Comparison with conventional PEPSI and PEPSI with fourfold SENSE acceleration demonstrated comparable sensitivity per unit time when taking into account g-factor-related noise increases and differences in sampling efficiency. LCModel fitting enabled quantification of inositol, choline, creatine, and N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) in vivo with concentration values in the ranges measured with conventional PEPSI and SENSE-accelerated PEPSI. Cramer-Rao lower bounds were comparable to those obtained with conventional SENSE-accelerated PEPSI at the same voxel size and measurement time. This single-shot MRSI method is therefore suitable for applications that require high temporal resolution to monitor temporal dynamics or to reduce sensitivity to tissue movement.

  18. Single shot trajectory design for region-specific imaging using linear and nonlinear magnetic encoding fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Kelvin J; Gallichan, Daniel; Testud, Frederik; Cocosco, Chris A; Welz, Anna M; Barmet, Christoph; Pruessmann, Klaas P; Hennig, Jürgen; Zaitsev, Maxim

    2013-09-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that nonlinear encoding fields result in a spatially varying resolution. This work develops an automated procedure to design single-shot trajectories that create a local resolution improvement in a region of interest. The technique is based on the design of optimized local k-space trajectories and can be applied to arbitrary hardware configurations that employ any number of linear and nonlinear encoding fields. The trajectories designed in this work are tested with the currently available hardware setup consisting of three standard linear gradients and two quadrupolar encoding fields generated from a custom-built gradient insert. A field camera is used to measure the actual encoding trajectories up to third-order terms, enabling accurate reconstructions of these demanding single-shot trajectories, although the eddy current and concomitant field terms of the gradient insert have not been completely characterized. The local resolution improvement is demonstrated in phantom and in vivo experiments. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Optimization And Single-Shot Characterization Of Ultrashort Thz Pulses From A Laser Wakefield Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plateau, G.R.; Matlis, N.H.; van Tilborg, J.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Toth, Cs.; Schroeder, C.B.; Leemans, W.P.

    2009-01-01

    We present spatiotemporal characterization of μJ-class ultrashort THz pulses generated from a laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA). Accelerated electrons, resulting from the interaction of a high-intensity laser pulse with a plasma, emit high-intensity THz pulses as coherent transition radiation. Such high peak-power THz pulses, suitable for high-field (MV/cm) pump-probe experiments, also provide a non-invasive bunch-length diagnostic and thus feedback for the accelerator. The characterization of the THz pulses includes energy measurement using a Golay cell, 2D sign-resolved electro-optic measurement and single-shot spatiotemporal electric-field distribution retrieval using a new technique, coined temporal electric-field cross-Correlation (TEX). All three techniques corroborate THz pulses of ∼ 5 μJ, with peak fields of 100's of kV/cm and ∼ 0.4 ps rms duration.

  20. Single-Shot Quantum Nondemolition Detection of Individual Itinerant Microwave Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besse, Jean-Claude; Gasparinetti, Simone; Collodo, Michele C.; Walter, Theo; Kurpiers, Philipp; Pechal, Marek; Eichler, Christopher; Wallraff, Andreas

    2018-04-01

    Single-photon detection is an essential component in many experiments in quantum optics, but it remains challenging in the microwave domain. We realize a quantum nondemolition detector for propagating microwave photons and characterize its performance using a single-photon source. To this aim, we implement a cavity-assisted conditional phase gate between the incoming photon and a superconducting artificial atom. By reading out the state of this atom in a single shot, we reach an external (internal) photon-detection fidelity of 50% (71%), limited by transmission efficiency between the source and the detector (75%) and the coherence properties of the qubit. By characterizing the coherence and average number of photons in the field reflected off the detector, we demonstrate its quantum nondemolition nature. We envisage applications in generating heralded remote entanglement between qubits and for realizing logic gates between propagating microwave photons.

  1. Single-shot parallel full range complex Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Bingjie; Bu Peng; Nan Nan; Wang Xiangzhao

    2011-01-01

    We present a method of parallel full range complex Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FDOCT) that is capable of acquiring an artifacts-free two-dimensional (2-D) cross-sectional image, i.e. a full range B-scan tomogram, by a single shot of 2-D CCD camera. This method is based on a spatial carrier technique, in which the spatial carrier-frequency is instantaneously introduced into the 2-D spectral interferogram registered in parallel FDOCT by using a grating-generated reference beam. The spatial-carrier-contained 2-D spectral interferogram is processed through Fourier transformation to obtain a complex 2-D spectral interferogram. From the 2-D complex spectral interferomgram, a full range B-scan tomogram is reconstructed. The principle of our method is confirmed by imaging an onion sample.

  2. Single-shot and single-spot measurement of laser ablation threshold for carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lednev, Vasily N; Pershin, Sergey M; Bunkin, Alexey F; Obraztsova, Elena D; Kudryashov, Sergey I

    2013-01-01

    A simple and convenient procedure for single-shot, single-spot ablation threshold measurement is developed. It is based on the employment of cylindrical lens to obtain an elliptical Gaussian laser spot. The ablated spot chords that are parallel to the minor axis are measured across the spot major axis, which is proportional to the fluence cross-section, thus providing wide range dependence of damaged spot size versus fluence in one spot measurement. For both conventional and newly developed procedures the ablation threshold for typical Nd:YAG laser parameters (1064 nm, 10 ns) is measured as 50 ± 5 mJ cm -2 , which is one order of magnitude lower than that for bulk graphite.

  3. Kinematic MRI using short TR single shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) in evaluating swallowing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isogai, Satoshi; Takehara, Yasuo; Isoda, Haruo; Kodaira, Nami; Masunaga, Hatsuko; Ozawa, Fukujirou; Kaneko, Masao [Hamamatsu Univ. School of Medicine, Shizuoka (Japan); Nozaki, Atsushi; Kabasawa, Hiroyuki

    1999-03-01

    The utility of short TR single shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) MR imaging for evaluating swallowing was determined. Five healthy volunteers underwent kinematic MR imaging of swallowing with a 1.5 T MR scanner using the short TR (300 ms) SSFSE sequence. Twenty phases of sagittal sections were acquired within 6 sec, where the temporal resolution was 300 ms. For oral contrast medium, we used prune yogurt juice with Fe added. The image contrast of short TR SSFSE was found to be somewhere like that of T1-weighted images. In all cases, both the buccal and pharyngeal stages of swallowing were successfully depicted. The Fe-added prune yogurt juice performed as a positive contrast medium and helped determine anatomical structures in the buccal stage. Short TR (300 ms) SSFSE was useful in evaluating swallowing. The combined use of Fe-added prune yogurt juice was helpful in enhancing the surface of the oropharynx. (author)

  4. Kinematic MRI using short TR single shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) in evaluating swallowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isogai, Satoshi; Takehara, Yasuo; Isoda, Haruo; Kodaira, Nami; Masunaga, Hatsuko; Ozawa, Fukujirou; Kaneko, Masao; Nozaki, Atsushi; Kabasawa, Hiroyuki

    1999-01-01

    The utility of short TR single shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) MR imaging for evaluating swallowing was determined. Five healthy volunteers underwent kinematic MR imaging of swallowing with a 1.5 T MR scanner using the short TR (300 ms) SSFSE sequence. Twenty phases of sagittal sections were acquired within 6 sec, where the temporal resolution was 300 ms. For oral contrast medium, we used prune yogurt juice with Fe added. The image contrast of short TR SSFSE was found to be somewhere like that of T1-weighted images. In all cases, both the buccal and pharyngeal stages of swallowing were successfully depicted. The Fe-added prune yogurt juice performed as a positive contrast medium and helped determine anatomical structures in the buccal stage. Short TR (300 ms) SSFSE was useful in evaluating swallowing. The combined use of Fe-added prune yogurt juice was helpful in enhancing the surface of the oropharynx. (author)

  5. Fast Detection of Airports on Remote Sensing Images with Single Shot MultiBox Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Fei; Li, HuiZhou

    2018-01-01

    This paper introduces a method for fast airport detection on remote sensing images (RSIs) using Single Shot MultiBox Detector (SSD). To our knowledge, this could be the first study which introduces an end-to-end detection model into airport detection on RSIs. Based on the common low-level features between natural images and RSIs, a convolution neural network trained on large amounts of natural images was transferred to tackle the airport detection problem with limited annotated data. To deal with the specific characteristics of RSIs, some related parameters in the SSD, such as the scales and layers, were modified for more accurate and rapider detection. The experiments show that the proposed method could achieve 83.5% Average Recall at 8 FPS on RSIs with the size of 1024*1024. In contrast to Faster R-CNN, an improvement on AP and speed could be obtained.

  6. Compressive sensing sectional imaging for single-shot in-line self-interference incoherent holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jiawen; Clark, David C.; Kim, Myung K.

    2016-05-01

    A numerical reconstruction method based on compressive sensing (CS) for self-interference incoherent digital holography (SIDH) is proposed to achieve sectional imaging by single-shot in-line self-interference incoherent hologram. The sensing operator is built up based on the physical mechanism of SIDH according to CS theory, and a recovery algorithm is employed for image restoration. Numerical simulation and experimental studies employing LEDs as discrete point-sources and resolution targets as extended sources are performed to demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the method. The intensity distribution and the axial resolution along the propagation direction of SIDH by angular spectrum method (ASM) and by CS are discussed. The analysis result shows that compared to ASM the reconstruction by CS can improve the axial resolution of SIDH, and achieve sectional imaging. The proposed method may be useful to 3D analysis of dynamic systems.

  7. Method for single-shot measurement of picosecond laser pulse-lengths without electronic time dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyrala, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    A two-source shear pattern recording is proposed as a method for single-shot measurement of the pulse shape from nearly monochromatic sources whose pulse lengths are shorter than their coherence times. The basis of this method relies on the assertion that if two identical electromagnetic pulses are recombined with a time delay greater than the sum of their pulse widths, the recordable spatial pattern has no fringes in it. At an arbitrary delay, translated into an actual spatial recording position, the recorded modulated intensity will sample the corresponding laser intensity at that delay time, but with a modulation due to the coherence function of the electromagnetic pulse. Two arrangements are proposed for recording the pattern. The principles, the design parameters, and the methodologies of these arrangements are presented. Resolutions of the configurations and their limitations are given as well

  8. Development of a single-shot-imaging thin film for an online Thomson parabola spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaki, H.; Fukuda, Y.; Nishiuchi, M.; Hori, T.; Yogo, A.; Jinno, S.; Kanasaki, M.; Niita, K.

    2013-01-01

    A single-shot-imaging thin scintillator film was developed for an online Thomson parabola (TP) spectrometer and the first analysis of laser accelerated ions, using the online TP spectrometer, was demonstrated at the JAEA-Kansai Advanced Relativistic Engineering Laser System (J-KAREN). An energy spectrum of ∼4.0 MeV protons is obtained using only this imaging film without the need of a microchannel plate that is typically utilized in online ion analyses. A general-purpose Monte Carlo particle and heavy ion-transport code system, which consists of various quantum dynamics models, was used for the prediction of the luminescent properties of the scintillator. The simulation can reasonably predict not only the ion trajectories detected by the spectrometer, but also luminescence properties.

  9. Single-shot electro-optic experiments for electron bunch diagnostics at Tsinghua Accelerator Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Du, Yingchao; Yan, Lixin; Hua, Jianfei; Zhang, Zhen; Zhou, Zheng [Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Huang, Wenhui, E-mail: huangwh@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Tang, Chuanxiang [Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Li, Ming [Institute of Applied Electronics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2016-10-21

    The electro-optic (EO) technique detects the Coulomb electric field distribution of relativistic electron bunches to obtain the associated longitudinal profile. This diagnostic method allows the direct time-resolved single-shot measurement and thus the real-time monitoring of the bunch profile and beam arrival time in a non-destructive way with sub-picosecond temporal resolution. In this paper, we report the measurement of the longitudinal profile of an electron bunch through electro-optic spectral decoding detection, in which the bunch profile is encoded into the spectra of the linearly chirped laser pulse. The experimental setup and measurement results of a 40 MeV electron bunch are presented, with a temporal profile length of 527 fs rms (~1.24 ps FWHM) and a beam arrival time jitter of 471 fs rms. Temporal resolution and future experimental improvement are also discussed.

  10. Radiography simulation on single-shot dual-spectrum X-ray for cargo inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, Youngmi; Oh, Youngdo; Cho, Moohyun; Namkung, Won

    2011-01-01

    We propose a method to identify materials in the dual energy X-ray (DeX) inspection system. This method identifies materials by combining information on the relative proportions T of high-energy and low-energy X-rays transmitted through the material, and the ratio R of the attenuation coefficient of the material when high-energy are used to that when low energy X-rays are used. In Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNPX) simulations using the same geometry as that of the real container inspection system, this T vs. R method successfully identified tissue-equivalent plastic and several metals. In further simulations, the single-shot mode of operating the accelerator led to better distinguishing of materials than the dual-shot system.

  11. 3 ns single-shot read-out in a quantum dot-based memory structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowozin, T.; Bimberg, D.; Beckel, A.; Lorke, A.; Geller, M.

    2014-01-01

    Fast read-out of two to six charges per dot from the ground and first excited state in a quantum dot (QD)-based memory is demonstrated using a two-dimensional electron gas. Single-shot measurements on modulation-doped field-effect transistor structures with embedded InAs/GaAs QDs show read-out times as short as 3 ns. At low temperature (T = 4.2 K) this read-out time is still limited by the parasitics of the setup and the device structure. Faster read-out times and a larger read-out signal are expected for an improved setup and device structure

  12. Hyperspectral interferometry for single-shot absolute measurement of 3-D shape and displacement fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz P. D.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose a method that we call Hyperspectral Interferometry (HSI to resolve the 2π phase unwrapping problem in the analysis of interferograms recorded with a narrow-band light source. By using a broad-band light source and hyperspectral imaging system, a set of interferograms at different wavenumbers are recorded simultaneously on a high resolution image sensor. These are then assembled to form a three-dimensional intensity distribution. By Fourier transformation along the wavenumber axis, an absolute optical path difference is obtained for each pixel independently of the other pixels in the field of view. As a result, interferograms with spatially distinct regions are analysed as easily as continuous ones. The approach is illustrated with a HSI system to measure 3-D profiles of optically smooth or rough surfaces. Compared to existing profilometers able to measure absolute path differences, the single shot nature of the approach provides greater immunity from environmental disturbance.

  13. Single-shot quantitative phase microscopy with color-multiplexed differential phase contrast (cDPC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary F Phillips

    Full Text Available We present a new technique for quantitative phase and amplitude microscopy from a single color image with coded illumination. Our system consists of a commercial brightfield microscope with one hardware modification-an inexpensive 3D printed condenser insert. The method, color-multiplexed Differential Phase Contrast (cDPC, is a single-shot variant of Differential Phase Contrast (DPC, which recovers the phase of a sample from images with asymmetric illumination. We employ partially coherent illumination to achieve resolution corresponding to 2× the objective NA. Quantitative phase can then be used to synthesize DIC and phase contrast images or extract shape and density. We demonstrate amplitude and phase recovery at camera-limited frame rates (50 fps for various in vitro cell samples and c. elegans in a micro-fluidic channel.

  14. Single-shot dual-wavelength in-line and off-axis hybrid digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengpeng; Wang, Dayong; Rong, Lu; Wang, Yunxin; Zhao, Jie

    2018-02-01

    We propose an in-line and off-axis hybrid holographic real-time imaging technique. The in-line and off-axis digital holograms are generated simultaneously by two lasers with different wavelengths, and they are recorded using a color camera with a single shot. The reconstruction is carried using an iterative algorithm in which the initial input is designed to include the intensity of the in-line hologram and the approximate phase distributions obtained from the off-axis hologram. In this way, the complex field in the object plane and the output by the iterative procedure can produce higher quality amplitude and phase images compared to traditional iterative phase retrieval. The performance of the technique has been demonstrated by acquiring the amplitude and phase images of a green lacewing's wing and a living moon jellyfish.

  15. A versatile diffractive maskless lithography for single-shot and serial microfabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenness, Nathan J; Hill, Ryan T; Hucknall, Angus; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; Clark, Robert L

    2010-05-24

    We demonstrate a diffractive maskless lithographic system that is capable of rapidly performing both serial and single-shot micropatterning. Utilizing the diffractive properties of phase holograms displayed on a spatial light modulator, arbitrary intensity distributions were produced to form two and three dimensional micropatterns/structures in a variety of substrates. A straightforward graphical user interface was implemented to allow users to load templates and change patterning modes within the span of a few minutes. A minimum resolution of approximately 700 nm is demonstrated for both patterning modes, which compares favorably to the 232 nm resolution limit predicted by the Rayleigh criterion. The presented method is rapid and adaptable, allowing for the parallel fabrication of microstructures in photoresist as well as the fabrication of protein microstructures that retain functional activity.

  16. Ultrafast T2-weighted single shot spin-echo sequences: applications on abdominal and pelvic pathologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.; Martin, C.; Falco, J.; Esteban, L.

    1999-01-01

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences that obtain all the data using a sole excitation pulse of 90 degree centigrade, filling the K space in a single repetition time (TR) is known as snap shot or single shot (SS). The SS sequence based on the rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement (SS-RARE) method, designed by Hening (1) and a variation of it with a half-Fourier reconstruction (SS-HF-RARE (HASTEL)) (2, 3) are capable of obtaining high contrast images in T2, in very short times, that oscillate between one to several seconds. The clinical application of these sequences to abdominal and pelvic pathologies is increasing, providing and improvement in the contrast resolution, but also in the spatial resolution, with a high relation signal/noise ratio, high contrast and absence of movement artifacts. (Author)

  17. Single-shot beam size measurements using visible-light interferometry at CESR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.T., E-mail: sw565@cornell.edu [Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-based Science and Education, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Holtzapple, R. [Physics Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407 (United States); Rubin, D.L. [Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-based Science and Education, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    A new primary mirror for a visible-light beam size monitor (vBSM) was designed and installed in the Cornell Electron-Positron Storage Ring (CESR). The vertical angular acceptance of the mirror was doubled to allow double-slit interferometry with large slit separation (>12 mm). In addition, the diffraction associated with the first generation mirror has been eliminated. The resolution of the vertical beam size measurements has been dramatically improved but is ultimately limited by the beam motion. Two fast-response detectors, a Photomultiplier Tube (PMT) array and a gated camera, were employed to study the beam motion. The advantages and limitations of both devices are discussed in this paper. The gated camera was also used to measure single-shot beam width and motion of each bunch in a multi-bunch train. We measured significantly more horizontal motion of electron as compared to positron bunch trains in otherwise identical machine condition. This difference may be a signature for the difference between electron cloud build-up for positron bunch trains versus ions effects characteristic of electron bunch trains. - Highlights: • A new extraction mirror for synchrotron radiation was designed and installed in CESR. • The sensitivity of interferometer was increased and the diffraction effect was eliminated. • Two fast-response detectors were employed to study the effect of beam motion. • First time single-shot bunch-by-bunch horizontal beam size measurements using interferometry was observed from gated camera. • The difference in single bunch horizontal dynamics was observed between a positron and an electron train.

  18. Fourier Analysis of Single-Shot Dual-Energy X-ray Imaging Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Woo; Kim, Dong Woon; Kim, Ho Kyung

    2016-01-01

    The sandwich detector was realized by stacking two scintillator-based flat-panel detectors (FPDs) between which an intermediate copper (Cu) filter layer was placed to further enhance spectral energy separation. As a result, the proper selection of filter material and its thickness could be a trade-off between the extent of energy separation (hence, DE image quality) and image noise due to reduction in the number of x-ray quanta reaching the rear FPD. Although the conventional kVp-switching dual-shot method showed better image qualities than the single-shot method because of larger spectral energy separation, the motion-artifact-free DE image with reasonably good image quality was a potential prospect of the single-shot method. For the reliable and better use of the sandwich detector for specific imaging applications, the sandwich detector should be optimally designed with a proper selection of scintillator material and thickness in each detector layer (i.e. the front and rear detectors), and aforementioned intermediate filter material and thickness. It is noted that glue is used to adhere the fragile photodiode array onto the ceramic substrate and these glue patterns are apparent in the rear and DE images. The glue pattern in the rear image comes from the front FPD. Unlike the conventional ESF as shown in Fig. 3(a), the ESF obtained from the subtracted image showed an enhancement as shown in Fig. 3(b). Consequently, the MTF obtained from the subtraction ESF showed a bandpass filter characteristic, as shown in Fig. 3(c), unlike the conventional low-pass filter characteristic (i.e., monotonic decrease of MTF value with increasing the spatial frequency). This MTF characteristic is due to the subtraction of two images with different spatial resolving powers (i.e., different thicknesses of phosphors between the front and rear detectors) as can be seen in unsharp masking digital image processing, which subtracts Gaussian-blurred image from the original image

  19. Fourier Analysis of Single-Shot Dual-Energy X-ray Imaging Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Woo; Kim, Dong Woon; Kim, Ho Kyung [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The sandwich detector was realized by stacking two scintillator-based flat-panel detectors (FPDs) between which an intermediate copper (Cu) filter layer was placed to further enhance spectral energy separation. As a result, the proper selection of filter material and its thickness could be a trade-off between the extent of energy separation (hence, DE image quality) and image noise due to reduction in the number of x-ray quanta reaching the rear FPD. Although the conventional kVp-switching dual-shot method showed better image qualities than the single-shot method because of larger spectral energy separation, the motion-artifact-free DE image with reasonably good image quality was a potential prospect of the single-shot method. For the reliable and better use of the sandwich detector for specific imaging applications, the sandwich detector should be optimally designed with a proper selection of scintillator material and thickness in each detector layer (i.e. the front and rear detectors), and aforementioned intermediate filter material and thickness. It is noted that glue is used to adhere the fragile photodiode array onto the ceramic substrate and these glue patterns are apparent in the rear and DE images. The glue pattern in the rear image comes from the front FPD. Unlike the conventional ESF as shown in Fig. 3(a), the ESF obtained from the subtracted image showed an enhancement as shown in Fig. 3(b). Consequently, the MTF obtained from the subtraction ESF showed a bandpass filter characteristic, as shown in Fig. 3(c), unlike the conventional low-pass filter characteristic (i.e., monotonic decrease of MTF value with increasing the spatial frequency). This MTF characteristic is due to the subtraction of two images with different spatial resolving powers (i.e., different thicknesses of phosphors between the front and rear detectors) as can be seen in unsharp masking digital image processing, which subtracts Gaussian-blurred image from the original image.

  20. Paravertebral Abscess Caused by Bukholderia Pseudomallei in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ahmad

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A 53-year-old Malay man was admitted with intestinal obstruction, fever and lower limb weakness. Initial clinical impression was myelitis causing paralytic ilues and paraperesis. Blood culture showed Burkholderia pseudomallei infection and subsequent MRI showed paravertebral abscess. This case highlights a rare manifestation of melioidosis involving the spine and difficulties in establishing the diagnosis.

  1. Modelling single shot damage thresholds of multilayer optics for high-intensity short-wavelength radiation sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loch, R.A.; Sobierajski, R.; Louis, Eric; Bosgra, J.; Bosgra, J.; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    The single shot damage thresholds of multilayer optics for highintensity short-wavelength radiation sources are theoretically investigated, using a model developed on the basis of experimental data obtained at the FLASH and LCLS free electron lasers. We compare the radiation hardness of commonly

  2. Single-shot Thomson scattering on argon plasmas created by the Microwave Plasma Torch; evidence for a new plasma class

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.; Sande, van de M.J.; Vries, de N.; Broks, B.H.P.; Iordanova, E.I.; Gamero, A.; Torres, J.; Sola, A.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the fine-structure size of plasmas created by a Microwave Plasma Torch (MPT), single-shot Thomson scattering (TS) measurements were performed. The aim was to find a solution for the long-standing discrepancy between experiments and Global Plasma Models (GPMs). Since these GPMs are based

  3. A TV camera system for digitizing single shot oscillograms at sweep rate of 0.1 ns/cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kienlen, M.; Knispel, G.; Miehe, J.A.; Sipp, B.

    1976-01-01

    A TV camera digitizing system associated with a 5 GHz photocell-oscilloscope apparatus allows the digitizing of single shot oscillograms; with an oscilloscope sweep rate of 0.1 ns/cm an accuracy on time measurements of 4 ps is obtained [fr

  4. Frequency-Domain Tomography for Single-shot, Ultrafast Imaging of Evolving Laser-Plasma Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengyan; Zgadzaj, Rafal; Wang, Xiaoming; Downer, Michael

    2011-10-01

    Intense laser pulses propagating through plasma create plasma wakefields that often evolve significantly, e.g. by expanding and contracting. However, such dynamics are known in detail only through intensive simulations. Laboratory visualization of evolving plasma wakes in the ``bubble'' regime is important for optimizing and scaling laser-plasma accelerators. Recently snap-shots of quasi-static wakes were recorded using frequency-domain holography (FDH). To visualize the wake's evolution, we have generalized FDH to frequency-domain tomography (FDT), which uses multiple probes propagating at different angles with respect to the pump pulse. Each probe records a phase streak, imprinting a partial record of the evolution of pump-created structures. We then topographically reconstruct the full evolution from all phase streaks. To prove the concept, a prototype experiment visualizing nonlinear index evolution in glass is demonstrated. Four probes propagating at 0, 0.6, 2, 14 degrees to the index ``bubble'' are angularly and temporally multiplexed to a single spectrometer to achieve cost-effective FDT. From these four phase streaks, an FDT algorithm analogous to conventional CT yields a single-shot movie of the pump's self-focusing dynamics.

  5. Single shot imaging through turbid medium and around corner using coherent light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guowei; Li, Dayan; Situ, Guohai

    2018-01-01

    Optical imaging through turbid media and around corner is a difficult challenge. Even a very thin layer of a turbid media, which randomly scatters the probe light, can appear opaque and hide any objects behind it. Despite many recent advances, no current method can image the object behind turbid media with single record using coherent laser illumination. Here we report a method that allows non-invasive single-shot optical imaging through turbid media and around corner via speckle correlation. Instead of being as an obstacle in forming diffractionlimited images, speckle actually can be a carrier that encodes sufficient information to imaging through visually opaque layers. Optical imaging through turbid media and around corner is experimentally demonstrated using traditional imaging system with the aid of iterative phase retrieval algorithm. Our method require neither scan of illumination nor two-arm interferometry or long-time exposure in acquisition, which has new implications in optical sensing through common obscurants such as fog, smoke and haze.

  6. Single-shot femtosecond laser ablation of gold surface in air and isopropyl alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryashov, S. I.; Saraeva, I. N.; Lednev, V. N.; Pershin, S. M.; Rudenko, A. A.; Ionin, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    Single-shot IR femtosecond-laser ablation of gold surfaces in ambient air and liquid isopropyl alcohol was studied by scanning electron microscopy characterization of crater topographies and time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy of ablative plumes in regimes, typical for non-filamentary and non-fragmentation laser production of nanoparticle sols. Despite one order of magnitude shorter (few nanoseconds) lifetimes and almost two orders of magnitude lower intensities of the quenched ablative plume emission in the alcohol ambient at the same peak laser fluence, craters for the dry and wet conditions appeared with rather similar nanofoam-like spallative topographies and the same thresholds. These facts envision the underlying surface spallation as one of the basic ablation mechanisms relevant for both dry and wet advanced femtosecond laser surface nano/micro-machining and texturing, as well as for high-throughput femtosecond laser ablative production of colloidal nanoparticles by MHz laser-pulse trains via their direct nanoscale jetting from the nanofoam in air and fluid environments.

  7. Thalassemia paravertebral tumors and bone marrow scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huglo, D.; Rose, C.; Deveaux, M.; Bauters, F.; Marchandise, X.

    1995-01-01

    Two first cousins with thalassemia and with a paravertebral mass had had an indium 111 chloride bone marrow scan. Result of scan influenced therapy: medical treatment in one case where an extramedullary erythropoiesis was confirmed, surgical treatment in the other case. The use of dual-isotope SPECT (indium 111 chloride, HDP -99 Tc) constitutes a contribution to the establishment of diagnosis of extramedullary erythropoiesis, giving to bone marrow scintigraphy a merited importance, avoiding the biopsy. (authors). 15 refs., 5 figs

  8. The single-shot opto-digitizer; L'optoechantillonneur monocoup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nail, M.; Gibert, Ph. [CEA/DAM-Ile de France, Dept. de Conception et Realisation des Experimentations (DCRE), 91 - Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); CEA/DAM-Ile de France, Dept. Laser Puissance, DLP, 91 - Bruyeres-Le-Chatel (France)

    2000-07-01

    Laser-plasma experiments need to measure signals provided either by X-ray, photonic or neutronic detector. The measurement should have 50 GHz bandwidth and up to several hundred of Giga-Hertz for sub picosecond plasmas. For this purpose, a 35 GHz single shot opto-digitizer (10 ps risetime) has been studied and built. The device is made up of a 50 ohms microstrip propagation line, periodically lined by 100 sampled gates. The propagation line is long enough to measure a 400 ps duration. The sampling rate is 250 Gsa/s (every 4 ps). The sampled gates are made with fast recombining photo-material and turn on by a subpicosecond laser pulse which is synchronized exactly with the analysed phenomena. Every gate is recording to a storing capacitor. After the recording, every capacitor charge is needed to built the signal that was displayed on the propagation line. The dynamic range of measurement is 47 for the entire device. The device can measure positive or negative signals from 1.5 to 70 Volts. To increase the bandwidth, two another kinds of opto-digitizer were studied: one is a buried stripline with 56 GHz band width, the other a 70 GHz coplanar transmission line. For the purpose of subpicosecond plasmas, a 30 coplanar waveguide opto-digitizer was studied. Characteristics are as followed: window of measurement 40 ps, sampling rate 1 ps, bandwidth 230 GHz. Finally, a bundle of optical fibers was used to propagate the laser beam on semiconductor gates. If the gates are lighted at the same time, i.e. if the optical fibers have the same length, we get a simultaneous addressing. By using different lengths of optical fibers, we can do a sequential addressing. So, the sampling rate becomes a combination of the distance between two adjacent sampled channels, and the difference in length of optical fibers. (author)

  9. Self-Calibrating Wave-Encoded Variable-Density Single-Shot Fast Spin Echo Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feiyu; Taviani, Valentina; Tamir, Jonathan I; Cheng, Joseph Y; Zhang, Tao; Song, Qiong; Hargreaves, Brian A; Pauly, John M; Vasanawala, Shreyas S

    2018-04-01

    It is highly desirable in clinical abdominal MR scans to accelerate single-shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) imaging and reduce blurring due to T 2 decay and partial-Fourier acquisition. To develop and investigate the clinical feasibility of wave-encoded variable-density SSFSE imaging for improved image quality and scan time reduction. Prospective controlled clinical trial. With Institutional Review Board approval and informed consent, the proposed method was assessed on 20 consecutive adult patients (10 male, 10 female, range, 24-84 years). A wave-encoded variable-density SSFSE sequence was developed for clinical 3.0T abdominal scans to enable high acceleration (3.5×) with full-Fourier acquisitions by: 1) introducing wave encoding with self-refocusing gradient waveforms to improve acquisition efficiency; 2) developing self-calibrated estimation of wave-encoding point-spread function and coil sensitivity to improve motion robustness; and 3) incorporating a parallel imaging and compressed sensing reconstruction to reconstruct highly accelerated datasets. Image quality was compared pairwise with standard Cartesian acquisition independently and blindly by two radiologists on a scale from -2 to 2 for noise, contrast, confidence, sharpness, and artifacts. The average ratio of scan time between these two approaches was also compared. A Wilcoxon signed-rank tests with a P value under 0.05 considered statistically significant. Wave-encoded variable-density SSFSE significantly reduced the perceived noise level and improved the sharpness of the abdominal wall and the kidneys compared with standard acquisition (mean scores 0.8, 1.2, and 0.8, respectively, P variable-density sampling SSFSE achieves improved image quality with clinically relevant echo time and reduced scan time, thus providing a fast and robust approach for clinical SSFSE imaging. 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 6 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018;47:954-966. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  10. Hardware for quasi-single-shot multifrequency magnetic induction tomography (MIT): the Graz Mk2 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharfetter, H; Köstinger, A; Issa, S

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic induction tomography (MIT) has been suggested by several groups for the contact-less mapping of the passive electrical properties of tissues via AC magnetic fields in the frequency range between several tens of kHz and several tens of MHz. Multifrequency MIT as an analog to multifrequency EIT has been tried and first image reconstructions have been demonstrated with phantoms. MIT appears to yield comparable images to EIT but offers the advantage of being non-contacting. In the beta-dispersion range of most tissues the method is challenging because the signals are very small and buried in noise. In order to minimize drifts and systematic errors fast data acquisition is therefore pivotal. This paper presents a method for single-shot MIT which allows us to acquire the data for a multifrequency image with an analog bandwidth of 50 kHz–1.5 MHz which covers a good part of the β-dispersion of many tissues. The transmit (TX) coils are simultaneously driven by individual power amplifiers with a multisinus pattern with up to 3 A pp . The amplifiers are configured as current sources so as not to perturb the excitation fields by inappropriately terminated coils. The separation of the different TX channels after reception is achieved by splitting up the carrier frequencies into individual subcarriers with a narrow spacing of at most 300 Hz. In this way every TX coil is identifiable by its own subcarrier but the whole excitation band is contained within a few kHz. The real and imaginary parts of the received signals are extracted efficiently with FFT. The system noise and the sources for low-frequency perturbations are analyzed and characterized

  11. Magnetic resonance urography in pediatrics: utilization of ultrafast single-shot spin echo sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, C.; Martin, J.; Duran, C.; Rigol, S.; Rojo, J. C.

    1999-01-01

    To determine the value of magnetic resonance urography (MRU) using ultrafast single-shot (SS) rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement (RARE) and half-Fourier (HF) SS-RARE (SS-HF-RARE or HASTE) in the evaluation of congenital urinary tract anomalies in pediatric patients, and their possible application as alternatives to intravenous urography (IVU). Eighteen children (11 boys and 7 girls) aged 2 months to 15 years (mean: 5 years) with a total of 19 congenital urinary tract anomalies were studies by MU using SS-RARE and HASTE sequences in a 1 Tesla scanner. All the patients had previously been studies by ultrasound (US) and IVU. Twelve patients required anesthesia. The images were acquired by means of a HASTE sequence with multisection technique (TR, infinite; TE e f, 87 msec; echo train, 128; interval between echoes, 10.9 msec; total acquisition time, 13 sections/12 seconds), and SS-RARE (TR, infinite; TE e f, 1.100 msec; echo train, 240, and acquisition time, 7 seconds). Four radiologists evaluated the images independently; two who reviewed the IV images in consensus and two who reviewed the MRU images in consensus. The images were evaluated to assess the dilatation of the urinary tract and their utility in detecting the level and cause of the obstruction. MRU images revealed the urinary tract dilation, the level of the obstruction and the type of anomaly in 18 patients (100%), while IVU provided this information in only 10 [ sensitivity, 53%, 95% confidence interval (29%, 76%)]. The mean time required for MRU was 20 minutes (range: 7 to 30 minutes), while that of IVU was 1,242 minutes (range: 45 to 1,440 minutes). MRU using ultrafast single-short spin echo sequences is a rapid and effective technique that permits and excellent evaluation of congenital urinary tract anomalies in pediatric patients and does not require the administration of contrast media or ionizing radiation. (Author) 10 refs

  12. Comparison of caudal ropivacaine-morphine and paravertebral catheter for major upper abdominal surgery in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Makoto; Iida, Takafumi; Kikuchi, Chika; Sasakawa, Tomoki; Kunisawa, Takayuki

    2017-05-01

    The caudal epidural block is one of the most commonly used regional anesthetic techniques in children. Administration of morphine via caudal injection enables analgesia, even for upper abdominal surgery. The thoracic paravertebral block has also been successfully used to treat perioperative pain during upper abdominal procedures in pediatric patients. In the current study, we compared the two regional techniques for upper abdominal surgery in infants to determine whether one of them was preferable to the other. Consecutive patients under 12 months of age who underwent upper abdominal surgery were retrospectively divided according to the chosen postoperative analgesia: Group C, caudal ropivacaine-morphine; Group P, paravertebral catheter. We analyzed the following outcomes: requirement for additional analgesics, pain scores, need for mechanical ventilation and oxygen dosage, postoperative blood pressure and heart rate, time to pass first stool, time until first full meal, and complications. Twenty-one consecutive patients were included: 10 in Group C and 11 in Group P. Median age at surgery was 80 (47.5-270.0) and 84.5 (34.3-287.5) days, respectively. No difference was found between the two groups in requirement for additional analgesics at 24 h after surgery (median 1 in Group C vs 1 in Group P, P = 0.288, 95% CI: -2 to 1). BOPS pain scores were only lower in Group P when compared to Group C at 24 h after surgery (median 1 vs 2, P = 0.041, 95% CI: -2 to 0). None of the patients had perioperative complications. In this small series, there was no significant difference between caudal ropivacaine-morphine and paravertebral catheter for postoperative care in infants undergoing upper abdominal surgery. Further prospective studies are needed to compare the efficacy and incidence of complications of caudal block and paravertebral catheter for postoperative analgesia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Reference-free unwarping of single-shot spatiotemporally encoded MRI using asymmetric self-refocused echoes acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Chen, Song; Zhong, Jianhui; Chen, Zhong

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a phase evolution rewinding algorithm for correcting the geometric and intensity distortions in single-shot spatiotemporally encoded (SPEN) MRI with acquisition of asymmetric self-refocused echo trains. Using the field map calculated from the phase distribution of the source image, the off-resonance induced phase errors are successfully rewound through deconvolution. The alias-free partial Fourier transform reconstruction helps improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the field maps and the output images. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm was validated through 7 T MRI experiments on a lemon, a water phantom, and in vivo rat head. SPEN imaging was evaluated using rapid acquisition by sequential excitation and refocusing (RASER) which produces uniform T2 weighting. The results indicate that the new technique can more robustly deal with the cases in which the images obtained with conventional single-shot spin-echo EPI are difficult to be restored due to serious field variations.

  14. High quality single shot diffraction patterns using ultrashort megaelectron volt electron beams from a radio frequency photoinjector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musumeci, P.; Moody, J. T.; Scoby, C. M.; Gutierrez, M. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Bender, H. A.; Wilcox, N. S. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Los Alamos Operations, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Single shot diffraction patterns using a 250-fs-long electron beam have been obtained at the UCLA Pegasus laboratory. High quality images with spatial resolution sufficient to distinguish closely spaced peaks in the Debye-Scherrer ring pattern have been recorded by scattering the 1.6 pC 3.5 MeV electron beam generated in the rf photoinjector off a 100-nm-thick Au foil. Dark current and high emittance particles are removed from the beam before sending it onto the diffraction target using a 1 mm diameter collimating hole. These results open the door to the study of irreversible phase transformations by single shot MeV electron diffraction.

  15. High quality single shot diffraction patterns using ultrashort megaelectron volt electron beams from a radio frequency photoinjector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, P; Moody, J T; Scoby, C M; Gutierrez, M S; Bender, H A; Wilcox, N S

    2010-01-01

    Single shot diffraction patterns using a 250-fs-long electron beam have been obtained at the UCLA Pegasus laboratory. High quality images with spatial resolution sufficient to distinguish closely spaced peaks in the Debye-Scherrer ring pattern have been recorded by scattering the 1.6 pC 3.5 MeV electron beam generated in the rf photoinjector off a 100-nm-thick Au foil. Dark current and high emittance particles are removed from the beam before sending it onto the diffraction target using a 1 mm diameter collimating hole. These results open the door to the study of irreversible phase transformations by single shot MeV electron diffraction.

  16. High quality single shot diffraction patterns using ultrashort megaelectron volt electron beams from a radio frequency photoinjector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musumeci, P.; Moody, J. T.; Scoby, C. M.; Gutierrez, M. S.; Bender, H. A.; Wilcox, N. S.

    2010-01-01

    Single shot diffraction patterns using a 250-fs-long electron beam have been obtained at the UCLA Pegasus laboratory. High quality images with spatial resolution sufficient to distinguish closely spaced peaks in the Debye-Scherrer ring pattern have been recorded by scattering the 1.6 pC 3.5 MeV electron beam generated in the rf photoinjector off a 100-nm-thick Au foil. Dark current and high emittance particles are removed from the beam before sending it onto the diffraction target using a 1 mm diameter collimating hole. These results open the door to the study of irreversible phase transformations by single shot MeV electron diffraction.

  17. Single-Shot, Volumetrically Illuminated, Three-Dimensional, Tomographic Laser-Induced-Fluorescence Imaging in a Gaseous Free Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-28

    Single-shot, volumetrically illuminated, three- dimensional, tomographic laser-induced- fluorescence imaging in a gaseous free jet Benjamin R. Halls...acquisition; (110.6955) Tomographic imaging ; (110.6960) Tomography; (280.2490) Flow diagnostics; (300.2530) Fluorescence , laser-induced...84 (1983). 2. I. van Cruyningen, A. Lozano, and R. K. Hanson, “Quantitative imaging of concentration by planar laser-induced fluorescence ,” Exp

  18. Clinical evaluation of single-shot and readout-segmented diffusion-weighted imaging in stroke patients at 3 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morelli, John; Porter, David; Ai, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is most commonly performed utilizing a single-shot echo-planar imaging technique (ss-EPI). Susceptibility artifact and image blur are severe when this sequence is utilized at 3 T. Purpose: To evaluate a readout-segmented approach to DWI MR in comparison with single-shot echo planar imaging for brain MRI. Material and Methods: Eleven healthy volunteers and 14 patients with acute and early subacute infarctions underwent DWI MR examinations at 1.5 and 3T with ss-EPI and readout-segmented echo-planar (rs-EPI) DWI at equal nominal spatial resolutions. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) calculations were made, and two blinded readers ranked the scans in terms of high signal intensity bulk susceptibility artifact, spatial distortions, image blur, overall preference, and motion artifact. Results: SNR and CNR were greatest with rs-EPI (8.1 ± 0.2 SNR vs. 6.0 ± 0.2; P -4 at 3T). Spatial distortions were greater with single-shot (0.23 ± 0.03 at 3T; P <0.001) than with rs-EPI (0.12 ± 0.02 at 3T). Combined with blur and artifact reduction, this resulted in a qualitative preference for the readout-segmented scans overall. Conclusion: Substantial image quality improvements are possible with readout-segmented vs. single-shot EPI - the current clinical standard for DWI - regardless of field strength (1.5 or 3 T). This results in improved image quality secondary to greater real spatial resolution and reduced artifacts from susceptibility in MR imaging of the brain

  19. Accelerator-based Single-shot Ultrafast Transmission Electron Microscope with Picosecond Temporal Resolution and Nanometer Spatial Resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, D.; Fu, F.; Zhang, J.; Huang, X.; Wang, L.; Wang, X.; Wan, W.

    2014-01-01

    We present feasibility study of an accelerator-based ultrafast transmission electron microscope (u-TEM) capable of producing a full field image in a single-shot with simultaneous picosecond temporal resolution and nanometer spatial resolution. We study key physics related to performance of u-TEMs, and discuss major challenges as well as possible solutions for practical realization of u-TEMs. The feasibility of u-TEMs is confirmed through simulations using realistic electron beam parameters. W...

  20. Multishot versus single-shot pulse sequences in very high field fMRI: a comparison using retinotopic mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jascha D Swisher

    Full Text Available High-resolution functional MRI is a leading application for very high field (7 Tesla human MR imaging. Though higher field strengths promise improvements in signal-to-noise ratios (SNR and BOLD contrast relative to fMRI at 3 Tesla, these benefits may be partially offset by accompanying increases in geometric distortion and other off-resonance effects. Such effects may be especially pronounced with the single-shot EPI pulse sequences typically used for fMRI at standard field strengths. As an alternative, one might consider multishot pulse sequences, which may lead to somewhat lower temporal SNR than standard EPI, but which are also often substantially less susceptible to off-resonance effects. Here we consider retinotopic mapping of human visual cortex as a practical test case by which to compare examples of these sequence types for high-resolution fMRI at 7 Tesla. We performed polar angle retinotopic mapping at each of 3 isotropic resolutions (2.0, 1.7, and 1.1 mm using both accelerated single-shot 2D EPI and accelerated multishot 3D gradient-echo pulse sequences. We found that single-shot EPI indeed led to greater temporal SNR and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR than the multishot sequences. However, additional distortion correction in postprocessing was required in order to fully realize these advantages, particularly at higher resolutions. The retinotopic maps produced by both sequence types were qualitatively comparable, and showed equivalent test/retest reliability. Thus, when surface-based analyses are planned, or in other circumstances where geometric distortion is of particular concern, multishot pulse sequences could provide a viable alternative to single-shot EPI.

  1. Single-shot echo-planar MR sequences in the diagnosis of intracranial infectious diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Kazuhiro; Katase, Shichiro; Yoshino, Ayako; Yamakami, Norio; Hachiya, Junichi

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to present our preliminary experience in the application of echo-planar-imaging (EPI) MR sequences for the diagnosis of intracranial infectious diseases and to assess the value of these sequences. We reviewed single-shot EPI MR images obtained at 1.5 T in 17 patients and compared these images with conventional or fast spin-echo (SE) or fluid attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) images. The clinical diagnoses for the 17 patients were meningitis (2 patients), encephalitis or meningoencephalitis (7 patients), brain abscess (5 patients), epidural empyema (2 patients) and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (1 patient). We obtained EPI-T 2 -weighted (T 2 W) images in 8 patients, EPI-FLAIR images in 13 patients and EPI-diffusion-weighted (DW) images in 14 patients. Among the 8 patients for whom EPI-T 2 W imaging was performed, EPI-T 2 W imaging yielded superior results compared with SE-T 2 W imaging in 3 patients as a consequence of patient motion and equal results compared with SE-T 2 W imaging in 5 patients. Among the 13 patients for whom EPI-FLAIR imaging was performed, the EPI-FLAIR images were superior to conventional FLAIR images in 3 unstable patients. In the remaining 10 patients for whom EPI-FLAIR imaging was performed, EPI-FLAIR images were equivalent or inferior to conventional FLAIR images. In 6 patients with encephalitis or meningoencephalitis, the encephalitic lesions showed hyperintensity in EPI-DW images to a greater extent than in images obtained with the other techniques. In 3 patients, EPI-DW images also demonstrated hyperintensity for the contents of abscesses or areas of empyema that was not seen with the other imaging techniques. The value of EPI-T 2 W and EPI-FLAIR imaging is limited in uncooperative patients. EPI-DW imaging was found to be of value for the evaluation of several intracranial infectious diseases. (author)

  2. Single-shot echo-planar MR sequences in the diagnosis of intracranial infectious diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Kazuhiro; Katase, Shichiro; Yoshino, Ayako; Yamakami, Norio; Hachiya, Junichi [Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to present our preliminary experience in the application of echo-planar-imaging (EPI) MR sequences for the diagnosis of intracranial infectious diseases and to assess the value of these sequences. We reviewed single-shot EPI MR images obtained at 1.5 T in 17 patients and compared these images with conventional or fast spin-echo (SE) or fluid attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) images. The clinical diagnoses for the 17 patients were meningitis (2 patients), encephalitis or meningoencephalitis (7 patients), brain abscess (5 patients), epidural empyema (2 patients) and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (1 patient). We obtained EPI-T{sub 2}-weighted (T{sub 2}W) images in 8 patients, EPI-FLAIR images in 13 patients and EPI-diffusion-weighted (DW) images in 14 patients. Among the 8 patients for whom EPI-T{sub 2}W imaging was performed, EPI-T{sub 2}W imaging yielded superior results compared with SE-T{sub 2}W imaging in 3 patients as a consequence of patient motion and equal results compared with SE-T{sub 2}W imaging in 5 patients. Among the 13 patients for whom EPI-FLAIR imaging was performed, the EPI-FLAIR images were superior to conventional FLAIR images in 3 unstable patients. In the remaining 10 patients for whom EPI-FLAIR imaging was performed, EPI-FLAIR images were equivalent or inferior to conventional FLAIR images. In 6 patients with encephalitis or meningoencephalitis, the encephalitic lesions showed hyperintensity in EPI-DW images to a greater extent than in images obtained with the other techniques. In 3 patients, EPI-DW images also demonstrated hyperintensity for the contents of abscesses or areas of empyema that was not seen with the other imaging techniques. The value of EPI-T{sub 2}W and EPI-FLAIR imaging is limited in uncooperative patients. EPI-DW imaging was found to be of value for the evaluation of several intracranial infectious diseases. (author)

  3. X-Ray Emission Spectrometer Design with Single-Shot Pump-Probe and Resonant Excitation Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spoth, Katherine; /SUNY, Buffalo /SLAC

    2012-08-28

    Core-level spectroscopy in the soft X-ray regime is a powerful tool for the study of chemical bonding processes. The ultrafast, ultrabright X-ray pulses generated by the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) allow these reactions to be studied in greater detail than ever before. In this study, we investigated a conceptual design of a spectrometer for the LCLS with imaging in the non-dispersive direction. This would allow single-shot collection of X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) measurements with varying laser pump X-ray probe delay or a variation of incoming X-ray energy over the illuminated area of the sample. Ray-tracing simulations were used to demonstrate how the components of the spectrometer affect its performance, allowing a determination of the optimal final design. These simulations showed that the spectrometer's non-dispersive focusing is extremely sensitive to the size of the sample footprint; the spectrometer is not able to image a footprint width larger than one millimeter with the required resolution. This is compatible with a single shot scheme that maps out the laser pump X-ray probe delay in the non-dispersive direction as well as resonant XES applications at normal incidence. However, the current capabilities of the Soft X-Ray (SXR) beamline at the LCLS do not produce the required energy range in a small enough sample footprint, hindering the single shot resonant XES application at SXR for chemical dynamics studies at surfaces. If an upgraded or future beamline at LCLS is developed with lower monochromator energy dispersion the width can be made small enough at the required energy range to be imaged by this spectrometer design.

  4. A single-shot nonlinear autocorrelation approach for time-resolved physics in the vacuum ultraviolet spectral range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rompotis, Dimitrios

    2016-02-01

    In this work, a single-shot temporal metrology scheme operating in the vacuum-extreme ultraviolet spectral range has been designed and experimentally implemented. Utilizing an anti-collinear geometry, a second-order intensity autocorrelation measurement of a vacuum ultraviolet pulse can be performed by encoding temporal delay information on the beam propagation coordinate. An ion-imaging time-of-flight spectrometer, offering micrometer resolution has been set-up for this purpose. This instrument enables the detection of a magnified image of the spatial distribution of ions exclusively generated by direct two-photon absorption in the combined counter-propagating pulse focus and thus obtain the second-order intensity autocorrelation measurement on a single-shot basis. Additionally, an intense VUV light source based on high-harmonic generation has been experimentally realized. It delivers intense sub-20 fs Ti:Sa fifth-harmonic pulses utilizing a loose-focusing geometry in a long Ar gas cell. The VUV pulses centered at 161.8 nm reach pulse energies of 1.1 μJ per pulse, while the corresponding pulse duration is measured with a second-order, fringe-resolved autocorrelation scheme to be 18 ± 1 fs on average. Non-resonant, two-photon ionization of Kr and Xe and three-photon ionization of Ne verify the fifth-harmonic pulse intensity and indicate the feasibility of multi-photon VUV pump/VUV probe studies of ultrafast atomic and molecular dynamics. Finally, the extended functionally of the counter-propagating pulse metrology approach is demonstrated by a single-shot VUV pump/VUV probe experiment aiming at the investigation of ultrafast dissociation dynamics of O 2 excited in the Schumann-Runge continuum at 162 nm.

  5. Simultaneous single-shot readout of multi-qubit circuits using a traveling-wave parametric amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kevin

    Observing and controlling the state of ever larger quantum systems is critical for advancing quantum computation. Utilizing a Josephson traveling wave parametric amplifier (JTWPA), we demonstrate simultaneous multiplexed single shot readout of 10 transmon qubits in a planar architecture. We employ digital image sideband rejection to eliminate noise at the image frequencies. We quantify crosstalk and infidelity due to simultaneous readout and control of multiple qubits. Based on current amplifier technology, this approach can scale to simultaneous readout of at least 20 qubits. This work was supported by the Army Research Office.

  6. Real time quantitative phase microscopy based on single-shot transport of intensity equation (ssTIE) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Tian, Xiaolin; He, Xiaoliang; Song, Xiaojun; Xue, Liang; Liu, Cheng; Wang, Shouyu

    2016-08-01

    Microscopy based on transport of intensity equation provides quantitative phase distributions which opens another perspective for cellular observations. However, it requires multi-focal image capturing while mechanical and electrical scanning limits its real time capacity in sample detections. Here, in order to break through this restriction, real time quantitative phase microscopy based on single-shot transport of the intensity equation method is proposed. A programmed phase mask is designed to realize simultaneous multi-focal image recording without any scanning; thus, phase distributions can be quantitatively retrieved in real time. It is believed the proposed method can be potentially applied in various biological and medical applications, especially for live cell imaging.

  7. Single shot fringe pattern phase demodulation using Hilbert-Huang transform aided by the principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusiak, Maciej; Służewski, Łukasz; Patorski, Krzysztof

    2016-02-22

    Hybrid single shot algorithm for accurate phase demodulation of complex fringe patterns is proposed. It employs empirical mode decomposition based adaptive fringe pattern enhancement (i.e., denoising, background removal and amplitude normalization) and subsequent boosted phase demodulation using 2D Hilbert spiral transform aided by the Principal Component Analysis method for novel, correct and accurate local fringe direction map calculation. Robustness to fringe pattern significant noise, uneven background and amplitude modulation as well as local fringe period and shape variations is corroborated by numerical simulations and experiments. Proposed automatic, adaptive, fast and comprehensive fringe analysis solution compares favorably with other previously reported techniques.

  8. Femtosecond Single-Shot Imaging of Nanoscale Ferromagnetic Order in Co/Pd Multilayers using Resonant X-ray Holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tianhan; Zhu, Diling; Benny Wu,; Graves, Catherine; Schaffert, Stefan; Rander, Torbjorn; Muller, leonard; Vodungbo, Boris; Baumier, Cedric; Bernstein, David P.; Brauer, Bjorn; Cros, Vincent; Jong, Sanne de; Delaunay, Renaud; Fognini, Andreas; Kukreja, Roopali; Lee, Sooheyong; Lopez-Flores, Victor; Mohanty, Jyoti; Pfau, Bastian; Popescu, 5 Horia

    2012-05-15

    We present the first single-shot images of ferromagnetic, nanoscale spin order taken with femtosecond x-ray pulses. X-ray-induced electron and spin dynamics can be outrun with pulses shorter than 80 fs in the investigated fluence regime, and no permanent aftereffects in the samples are observed below a fluence of 25 mJ/cm{sup 2}. Employing resonant spatially-muliplexed x-ray holography results in a low imaging threshold of 5 mJ/cm{sup 2}. Our results open new ways to combine ultrafast laser spectroscopy with sequential snapshot imaging on a single sample, generating a movie of excited state dynamics.

  9. Accelerator-based single-shot ultrafast transmission electron microscope with picosecond temporal resolution and nanometer spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, D.; Fu, F.; Zhang, J.; Huang, X.; Wang, L.; Wang, X.; Wan, W.

    2014-09-01

    We present feasibility study of an accelerator-based ultrafast transmission electron microscope (u-TEM) capable of producing a full field image in a single-shot with simultaneous picosecond temporal resolution and nanometer spatial resolution. We study key physics related to performance of u-TEMs and discuss major challenges as well as possible solutions for practical realization of u-TEMs. The feasibility of u-TEMs is confirmed through simulations using realistic electron beam parameters. We anticipate that u-TEMs with a product of temporal and spatial resolution beyond 10-19 ms will open up new opportunities in probing matter at ultrafast temporal and ultrasmall spatial scales.

  10. Development and Characterization of Two-Dimensional Gratings for Single-Shot X-ray Phase-Contrast Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Zakharova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Single-shot grating-based phase-contrast imaging techniques offer additional contrast modalities based on the refraction and scattering of X-rays in a robust and versatile configuration. The utilization of a single optical element is possible in such methods, allowing the shortening of the acquisition time and increasing flux efficiency. One of the ways to upgrade single-shot imaging techniques is to utilize customized optical components, such as two-dimensional (2D X-ray gratings. In this contribution, we present the achievements in the development of 2D gratings with UV lithography and gold electroplating. Absorption gratings represented by periodic free-standing gold pillars with lateral structure sizes from 5 µm to 25 µm and heights from 5 µm to 28 µm have shown a high degree of periodicity and defect-free patterns. Grating performance was tested in a radiographic setup using a self-developed quality assessment algorithm based on the intensity distribution histograms. The algorithm allows the final user to estimate the suitability of a specific grating to be used in a particular setup.

  11. Optimization of laser energy deposition for single-shot high aspect-ratio microstructuring of thick BK7 glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garzillo, Valerio; Grigutis, Robertas [Dipartimento di Scienza e Alta Tecnologia, University of Insubria, Via Valleggio 11, I-22100 Como (Italy); Jukna, Vytautas [Centre de Physique Theorique, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); LOA, ENSTA-ParisTech, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, Université Paris Saclay, F-91762 Palaiseau (France); Couairon, Arnaud [Centre de Physique Theorique, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Di Trapani, Paolo [Dipartimento di Scienza e Alta Tecnologia, University of Insubria and CNISM UdR Como, Via Valleggio 11, I-22100 Como (Italy); Jedrkiewicz, Ottavia, E-mail: ottavia.jedrkiewicz@ifn.cnr.it [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, CNR and CNISM UdR Como, Via Valleggio 11, I-22100 Como (Italy)

    2016-07-07

    We investigate the generation of high aspect ratio microstructures across 0.7 mm thick glass by means of single shot Bessel beam laser direct writing. We study the effect on the photoinscription of the cone angle, as well as of the energy and duration of the ultrashort laser pulse. The aim of the study is to optimize the parameters for the writing of a regular microstructure due to index modification along the whole sample thickness. By using a spectrally resolved single pulse transmission diagnostics at the output surface of the glass, we correlate the single shot material modification with observations of the absorption in different portions of the retrieved spectra, and with the absence or presence of spectral modulation. Numerical simulations of the evolution of the Bessel pulse intensity and of the energy deposition inside the sample help us interpret the experimental results that suggest to use picosecond pulses for an efficient and more regular energy deposition. Picosecond pulses take advantage of nonlinear plasma absorption and avoid temporal dynamics effects which can compromise the stationarity of the Bessel beam propagation.

  12. Single-shot imaging with higher-dimensional encoding using magnetic field monitoring and concomitant field correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testud, Frederik; Gallichan, Daniel; Layton, Kelvin J; Barmet, Christoph; Welz, Anna M; Dewdney, Andrew; Cocosco, Chris A; Pruessmann, Klaas P; Hennig, Jürgen; Zaitsev, Maxim

    2015-03-01

    PatLoc (Parallel Imaging Technique using Localized Gradients) accelerates imaging and introduces a resolution variation across the field-of-view. Higher-dimensional encoding employs more spatial encoding magnetic fields (SEMs) than the corresponding image dimensionality requires, e.g. by applying two quadratic and two linear spatial encoding magnetic fields to reconstruct a 2D image. Images acquired with higher-dimensional single-shot trajectories can exhibit strong artifacts and geometric distortions. In this work, the source of these artifacts is analyzed and a reliable correction strategy is derived. A dynamic field camera was built for encoding field calibration. Concomitant fields of linear and nonlinear spatial encoding magnetic fields were analyzed. A combined basis consisting of spherical harmonics and concomitant terms was proposed and used for encoding field calibration and image reconstruction. A good agreement between the analytical solution for the concomitant fields and the magnetic field simulations of the custom-built PatLoc SEM coil was observed. Substantial image quality improvements were obtained using a dynamic field camera for encoding field calibration combined with the proposed combined basis. The importance of trajectory calibration for single-shot higher-dimensional encoding is demonstrated using the combined basis including spherical harmonics and concomitant terms, which treats the concomitant fields as an integral part of the encoding. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Paravertebral block as a sole technique for the anaesthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kinsley Enohumah

    2016-04-11

    Apr 11, 2016 ... anaesthetic management of a ME patient who underwent breast cancer surgery. ... some minor discomfort in the axillary area. Since the patient ... postoperative analgesia without increased toxicity in healthy adults.

  14. Single-shot full resolution region-of-interest (ROI) reconstruction in image plane digital holographic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mandeep; Khare, Kedar

    2018-05-01

    We describe a numerical processing technique that allows single-shot region-of-interest (ROI) reconstruction in image plane digital holographic microscopy with full pixel resolution. The ROI reconstruction is modelled as an optimization problem where the cost function to be minimized consists of an L2-norm squared data fitting term and a modified Huber penalty term that are minimized alternately in an adaptive fashion. The technique can provide full pixel resolution complex-valued images of the selected ROI which is not possible to achieve with the commonly used Fourier transform method. The technique can facilitate holographic reconstruction of individual cells of interest from a large field-of-view digital holographic microscopy data. The complementary phase information in addition to the usual absorption information already available in the form of bright field microscopy can make the methodology attractive to the biomedical user community.

  15. Single-shot spectro-temporal characterization of XUV pulses from a seeded free-electron laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ninno, Giovanni; Gauthier, David; Mahieu, Benoît; Ribič, Primož Rebernik; Allaria, Enrico; Cinquegrana, Paolo; Danailov, Miltcho Bojanov; Demidovich, Alexander; Ferrari, Eugenio; Giannessi, Luca; Penco, Giuseppe; Sigalotti, Paolo; Stupar, Matija

    2015-08-01

    Intense ultrashort X-ray pulses produced by modern free-electron lasers (FELs) allow one to probe biological systems, inorganic materials and molecular reaction dynamics with nanoscale spatial and femtoscale temporal resolution. These experiments require the knowledge, and possibly the control, of the spectro-temporal content of individual pulses. FELs relying on seeding have the potential to produce spatially and temporally fully coherent pulses. Here we propose and implement an interferometric method, which allows us to carry out the first complete single-shot spectro-temporal characterization of the pulses, generated by an FEL in the extreme ultraviolet spectral range. Moreover, we provide the first direct evidence of the temporal coherence of a seeded FEL working in the extreme ultraviolet spectral range and show the way to control the light generation process to produce Fourier-limited pulses. Experiments are carried out at the FERMI FEL in Trieste.

  16. Single-shot mega-electronvolt ultrafast electron diffraction for structure dynamic studies of warm dense matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo, M. Z., E-mail: mmo09@slac.stanford.edu; Shen, X.; Chen, Z.; Li, R. K.; Dunning, M.; Zheng, Q.; Weathersby, S. P.; Reid, A. H.; Coffee, R.; Makasyuk, I.; Edstrom, S.; McCormick, D.; Jobe, K.; Hast, C.; Glenzer, S. H.; Wang, X. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Sokolowski-Tinten, K. [Faculty of Physics and Centre for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Lotharstrasse 1, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    We have developed a single-shot mega-electronvolt ultrafast-electron-diffraction system to measure the structural dynamics of warm dense matter. The electron probe in this system is featured by a kinetic energy of 3.2 MeV and a total charge of 20 fC, with the FWHM pulse duration and spot size at sample of 350 fs and 120 μm respectively. We demonstrate its unique capability by visualizing the atomic structural changes of warm dense gold formed from a laser-excited 35-nm freestanding single-crystal gold foil. The temporal evolution of the Bragg peak intensity and of the liquid signal during solid-liquid phase transition are quantitatively determined. This experimental capability opens up an exciting opportunity to unravel the atomic dynamics of structural phase transitions in warm dense matter regime.

  17. Value of selective MIP reconstructions of respiratory triggered 3D-TSE-MR cholangiography on a workstation versus standard MIP reconstructions and single-shot MRCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaible, R.; Textor, J.; Kreft, B.; Schild, H.; Neubrand, M.

    2001-01-01

    Comparison of anatomical visualisation and diagnostic value of selective MIP reconstructions of respiratory triggered 3D-TSE-MRCP versus standard MIP reconstructions and single-shot MRCP. Material and Methods: 50 patients with pancreaticobiliary disease were examined at 1.5 Tesla (ACS NT II, Philips Medical Systems) using a breath-hold single-shot (SS) and a respiratory triggered 3D-TSE-MRCP technique in 12 standard MIP projections. Additional selective MIP reconstructions with different slice thickness (2, 4, 10 cm) and projections were performed on a workstation. Visualization of the pancreaticobiliary system and the diagnostic value of the examinations were analysed. Results: Single-shot and 3D-TSE in standard projections showed comparable anatomical visualisation. On selective MIP reconstructions the biliary system (SS p [de

  18. Cardiocirculatory intraoperative assessment during single-shot caudal anaesthesia in children: comparison between levobupivacaine and ropivacaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gentili

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caudal block with levobupivacaine or ropivacaine is the most commonly used regional anaesthesia in children. Methods: The aim of study was to compare the cardiocirculatory profile induced in two matched groups of young patients, submitted to caudal anaesthesia with levobupivacaine or ropivacaine for an elective subumbilical surgery. Sixty children were enrolled: thirty received levopubivacaine 0.25% and thirty ropivacaine 0.2%. Intraoperative heart rate (HR, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP were monitored at following times: Ta0 (after anaesthesia induction, Ta1 (after caudal anaesthesia, Ta2 (five minutes later, Ta3 (ten minutes later, Ts1 (at surgical incision, Ts2, Ts3, Ts4, Ts5 (every 10 minutes during surgery, Taw (at the awakening. Results: In both groups the cardiocirculatory trend remained within normal ranges at all times considered, demonstrating the safety of the method with both drugs. Both groups showed a similar trend at the different monitoring times: low decrease in HR, SBP and DBP after caudal block, slight increase in parameters after skin incision, slight decrease during surgery, increase at awakening. Regarding SBP and DBP, the levobupivacaine group children generally showed higher levels compared to the ropivacaine group, especially for DBP. Conclusions: Paediatric caudal anaesthesia is an effective method with an very infrequent complication rate. Possible hypotheses for differing haemodynamic behaviour could include a stronger vasoconstriction reflex of innervated areas during caudal anaesthesia with levobupivacaine and a lower levobupivacaine induced block of the sympathetic fibers, related to different pharmacokinetic profile of low concentrations of the local anaesthetics used in paediatric epidural space.

  19. Clinical application of Half Fourier Acquisition Single Shot Turbo Spin Echo (HASTE) imaging accelerated by simultaneous multi-slice acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Jenni; P Marques, José; Ter Telgte, Annemieke; van Dorst, Anouk; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik; Meijer, Frederick J A; Norris, David G

    2018-01-01

    As a single-shot sequence with a long train of refocusing pulses, Half-Fourier Acquisition Single-Shot Turbo-Spin-Echo (HASTE) suffers from high power deposition limiting use at high resolutions and high field strengths, particularly if combined with acceleration techniques such as simultaneous multi-slice (SMS) imaging. Using a combination of multiband (MB)-excitation and PINS-refocusing pulses will effectively accelerate the acquisition time while staying within the SAR limitations. In particular, uncooperative and young patients will profit from the speed of the MB-PINS HASTE sequence, as clinical diagnosis can be possible without sedation. Materials and MethodsMB-excitation and PINS-refocusing pulses were incorporated into a HASTE-sequence with blipped CAIPIRINHA and TRAPS including an internal FLASH reference scan for online reconstruction. Whole brain MB-PINS HASTE data were acquired on a Siemens 3T-Prisma system from 10 individuals and compared to a clinical HASTE protocol. ResultsThe proposed MB-PINS HASTE protocol accelerates the acquisition by about a factor 2 compared to the clinical HASTE. The diagnostic image quality proved to be comparable for both sequences for the evaluation of the overall aspect of the brain, the detection of white matter changes and areas of tissue loss, and for the evaluation of the CSF spaces although artifacts were more frequently encountered with MB-PINS HASTE. ConclusionsMB-PINS HASTE enables acquisition of slice accelerated highly T2-weighted images and provides good diagnostic image quality while reducing acquisition time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Single-shot antithymocyte globulin (ATG) induction for pancreas/kidney transplantation: ATG-Fresenius versus Thymoglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, T; Papapostolou, G; Schenker, P; Kapischke, M

    2005-03-01

    Single-shot antithymocyte globulin (ATG) prior to reperfusion followed by tacrolimus (TAC), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), and prednisolone (PRD) is an established induction therapy in simultaneous pancreas kidney transplant (SPK) recipients. We retrospectively analyzed 6-month data from 105 patients who received their first SPK. From January 1996 to December 2000, ATG-Fresenius was used. Since January 2001, Thymoglobulin has been administered. In the first group, 58 patients were treated with ATG-Fresenius (4-6 mg/kg body weight). In the second group, 47 patients received Thymoglobulin (1.5-2.5 mg/kg body weight). HLA-mismatch was comparable. After an observation period of 6 months, patients, kidney, and pancreas graft survival is 98.3%, 96.6%, and 93.1% in group I and 97.9%, 97.9%, and 85.1% in group II, respectively. In each group, one death with functioning graft (DWFG) was observed. Twenty (34.5%) acute rejection episodes (AR) were observed (18 patients) in group I. They were treated with steroids (n = 16) or steroids/OKT3 (n = 4). One kidney graft failure was observed due to rejection and one due to DWFG. Four pancreas grafts were lost (thrombosis, n = 2; AR, n = 1; DWFG, n = 1). In group II, 15 AR (31.9%) were seen in 12 patients and were treated with steroids (n = 12), steroids/ATG (n = 1), or steroids/OKT3 (n = 2). Seven pancreas (thrombosis, n = 5; rejection, n = 1; DWFG, n = 1) and one kidney (DWFG, n = 1) graft losses occurred. These data clearly establish that single-shot ATG prior to reperfusion, followed by TAC, MMF, and PRD results in a low incidence of AR (34.5% in group I and 31.9% in group II) after SPK. Only 6.9% (group I) and 6.4% (group II) of the patients received antibodies for rejection treatment.

  1. High-speed single-shot optical focusing through dynamic scattering media with full-phase wavefront shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Ashton S.; Shen, Yuecheng; Liu, Yan; Wang, Lihong V.

    2017-11-01

    In biological applications, optical focusing is limited by the diffusion of light, which prevents focusing at depths greater than ˜1 mm in soft tissue. Wavefront shaping extends the depth by compensating for phase distortions induced by scattering and thus allows for focusing light through biological tissue beyond the optical diffusion limit by using constructive interference. However, due to physiological motion, light scattering in tissue is deterministic only within a brief speckle correlation time. In in vivo tissue, this speckle correlation time is on the order of milliseconds, and so the wavefront must be optimized within this brief period. The speed of digital wavefront shaping has typically been limited by the relatively long time required to measure and display the optimal phase pattern. This limitation stems from the low speeds of cameras, data transfer and processing, and spatial light modulators. While binary-phase modulation requiring only two images for the phase measurement has recently been reported, most techniques require at least three frames for the full-phase measurement. Here, we present a full-phase digital optical phase conjugation method based on off-axis holography for single-shot optical focusing through scattering media. By using off-axis holography in conjunction with graphics processing unit based processing, we take advantage of the single-shot full-phase measurement while using parallel computation to quickly reconstruct the phase map. With this system, we can focus light through scattering media with a system latency of approximately 9 ms, on the order of the in vivo speckle correlation time.

  2. Characterization of temporal coherence of hard X-ray free-electron laser pulses with single-shot interferograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taito Osaka

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Temporal coherence is one of the most fundamental characteristics of light, connecting to spectral information through the Fourier transform relationship between time and frequency. Interferometers with a variable path-length difference (PLD between the two branches have widely been employed to characterize temporal coherence properties for broad spectral regimes. Hard X-ray interferometers reported previously, however, have strict limitations in their operational photon energies, due to the specific optical layouts utilized to satisfy the stringent requirement for extreme stability of the PLD at sub-ångström scales. The work presented here characterizes the temporal coherence of hard X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL pulses by capturing single-shot interferograms. Since the stability requirement is drastically relieved with this approach, it was possible to build a versatile hard X-ray interferometer composed of six separate optical elements to cover a wide photon energy range from 6.5 to 11.5 keV while providing a large variable delay time of up to 47 ps at 10 keV. A high visibility of up to 0.55 was observed at a photon energy of 10 keV. The visibility measurement as a function of time delay reveals a mean coherence time of 5.9 ± 0.7 fs, which agrees with that expected from the single-shot spectral information. This is the first result of characterizing the temporal coherence of XFEL pulses in the hard X-ray regime and is an important milestone towards ultra-high energy resolutions at micro-electronvolt levels in time-domain X-ray spectroscopy, which will open up new opportunities for revealing dynamic properties in diverse systems on timescales from femtoseconds to nanoseconds, associated with fluctuations from ångström to nanometre spatial scales.

  3. Diffusion-weighted single shot echo planar imaging of colorectal cancer using a sensitivity-encoding technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasu, Katsuhiro; Kuroki, Yoshihumi; Murakami, Koji; Nawano, Shigeru; Kuroki, Seiko; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2004-01-01

    We wanted to determine the feasibility of diffusion-weighted single shot echo planar imaging using a sensitivity encoding diffusion weighted imaging (SENSE-DWI) technique in depicting colorectal cancer. Forty-two patients with sigmoid colon cancer and rectal cancer, all proven pathologically, were examined on T2-turbo spin echo (TSE) and SENSE-DWI. No bowel preparation was performed before examination. The b-factors used in SENSE-DWI were zero and 1000 s/mm 2 . In 10 randomly selected cases, the images whose b-factors were 250 and 500 s/mm 2 were also obtained. The reduction factor of SENSE was 2.0 in all sequences. Two radiologists evaluated the obtained images from the viewpoints of tumor detectability, image distortion and misregistration of the tumors. The apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of the tumors and urine in the urinary bladders in each patient were measured to evaluate the correlation between ADC and pathological classification of each tumor. All tumors were depicted hyperintensely on SENSE-DWI. Even though single shot echo planar imaging (EPI) was used, the image distortion and misregistration was quite pronounced because of simultaneous use of SENSE. On SENSE-DWI whose b-factor was 1000 s/mm 2 , the normal colon wall and feces were always hypointense and easily differentiated from the tumors. The mean ADC value of each tumor was 1.02±0.1 (x 10 -3 ) mm 2 /s. No overt correlation can be pointed out between ADC and pathological classification of each tumor. SENSE-DWI is a feasible method for depicting colorectal cancer. SENSE-DWI provides strong contrast among colorectal cancers, normal rectal wall and feces. (authors)

  4. Dyskospondylitis and paravertebral abscesses in a calf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testoni, S.

    2006-01-01

    A case of progressive spastic paraparesis due to a dyskospondylitis at the level of T9-T10 is described in a four-month old Holstein female calf. The calf was recumbent, but bright, alert and willing to suckle. Despite repeated attempts, the calf was not able to assume the sternal recumbency. The radiological findings were decisive for the in life diagnosis. Spinal radiography of the thoraco-lumbar region revealed lysis and collapse of T9 and T10 vertebral bodies; irregular proliferative new bone was evident. Lumbo-sacral myelography showed a narrowing and dorsal displacement of the ventral contrast column at the same spinal level, indicating a severe ventral extradural compression of the spinal cord. At the level of the thoracic cavity, a 20 x 15 cm diameter opacity extending ventrally to T8-T13 and caudo-dorsally to the heart was also evident. At gross necroscopy, two approximately 15 cm diameter encapsulated paravertebral abscesses were evident in the thoracis cavity just below the spinal column. A pure culture of Fusobacterium necrophorum was obtained from them. A saggital section of the spine showed an erosive suppurative process of T9 and T10 vertebral bodies that provoked the compression of the thoracic tract of the spinal cord [it

  5. Effect of Single Shot Intrathecal Sufentanil on Delivery Time and Analgesia in Nuliparae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Khoshraftar

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective : The objective of this study was to determine the evaluation of intrathecal sufentanil for labor analgesia with respect to duration of labor stages and relief of pain during labor.Materials & Methods : In a clinical trial 60 subjects with ASA class I were selected and randomly divided in two equal groups. 30 subjects had received sufentanil 10 gr in 1 ml of saline during active phase of first stage of labor. The other group as controls, did not receive anything for analgesia. Parturient visual analog scale (VAS , HR, RR, BP, sensory and motor block, FHR and complications such as nausea, vomiting, pruritus and duration of stage I been monitored recorded and compared among those two groups.Results : Comparison of results in two groups have showed that sufentanil does not prolong the duration of labor in stage 1 and 2. We observed lack of hypotension and respiratory depression in sufentanil group FHR changes that had been associated with adverse neonatal out come had not occurred. The apgar scores in two groups were identical. There was itching in majority of parturient who had received sufentanil (83.3%. The pruritus were defined as mild and moderate. Conclusion : Intrathecal sufentanil provide a good analgesia in stage I labor and does not prolong the duration of labor with minimum adverse effects on parturient and fetus.

  6. Silicon-Vacancy Spin Qubit in Diamond: A Quantum Memory Exceeding 10 ms with Single-Shot State Readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukachev, D. D.; Sipahigil, A.; Nguyen, C. T.; Bhaskar, M. K.; Evans, R. E.; Jelezko, F.; Lukin, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    The negatively charged silicon-vacancy (SiV- ) color center in diamond has recently emerged as a promising system for quantum photonics. Its symmetry-protected optical transitions enable the creation of indistinguishable emitter arrays and deterministic coupling to nanophotonic devices. Despite this, the longest coherence time associated with its electronic spin achieved to date (˜250 ns ) has been limited by coupling to acoustic phonons. We demonstrate coherent control and suppression of phonon-induced dephasing of the SiV- electronic spin coherence by 5 orders of magnitude by operating at temperatures below 500 mK. By aligning the magnetic field along the SiV- symmetry axis, we demonstrate spin-conserving optical transitions and single-shot readout of the SiV- spin with 89% fidelity. Coherent control of the SiV- spin with microwave fields is used to demonstrate a spin coherence time T2 of 13 ms and a spin relaxation time T1 exceeding 1 s at 100 mK. These results establish the SiV- as a promising solid-state candidate for the realization of quantum networks.

  7. Flexible Low-power SiGe HBT Amplifier Circuits for Fast Single-shot Spin Readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Troy; Lilly, Michael; Curry, Matthew; Carr, Stephen; Carroll, Malcolm

    Fast, low-power quantum state readout is one of many challenges facing quantum information processing. Single electron transistors (SETs) are potentially fast, sensitive detectors for performing spin readout of electrons bound to Si:P donors. From a circuit perspective, however, their output impedance and nonlinear conductance are ill suited to drive the parasitic capacitance of coaxial conductors used in cryogenic environments, necessitating a cryogenic amplification stage. We will introduce two new amplifier topologies that provide excellent gain versus power tradeoffs using silicon-germanium (SiGe) heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs). The AC HBT allows in-situ adjustment of power dissipation during an experiment and can provide gain in the millikelvin temperature regime while dissipating less than 500 nW. The AC Current Amplifier maximizes gain at nearly 800 A/A. We will also show results of using these amplifiers with SETs at 4 K. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000. Flexible Low-power SiGe HBT Amplifier Circuits for Fast Single-shot Spin Readout.

  8. Single-shot T2 mapping using overlapping-echo detachment planar imaging and a deep convolutional neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Congbo; Wang, Chao; Zeng, Yiqing; Cai, Shuhui; Liang, Dong; Wu, Yawen; Chen, Zhong; Ding, Xinghao; Zhong, Jianhui

    2018-04-24

    An end-to-end deep convolutional neural network (CNN) based on deep residual network (ResNet) was proposed to efficiently reconstruct reliable T 2 mapping from single-shot overlapping-echo detachment (OLED) planar imaging. The training dataset was obtained from simulations that were carried out on SPROM (Simulation with PRoduct Operator Matrix) software developed by our group. The relationship between the original OLED image containing two echo signals and the corresponding T 2 mapping was learned by ResNet training. After the ResNet was trained, it was applied to reconstruct the T 2 mapping from simulation and in vivo human brain data. Although the ResNet was trained entirely on simulated data, the trained network was generalized well to real human brain data. The results from simulation and in vivo human brain experiments show that the proposed method significantly outperforms the echo-detachment-based method. Reliable T 2 mapping with higher accuracy is achieved within 30 ms after the network has been trained, while the echo-detachment-based OLED reconstruction method took approximately 2 min. The proposed method will facilitate real-time dynamic and quantitative MR imaging via OLED sequence, and deep convolutional neural network has the potential to reconstruct maps from complex MRI sequences efficiently. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  9. Single-shot quantum nondemolition measurement of a quantum-dot electron spin using cavity exciton-polaritons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Shruti; McMahon, Peter L.; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2014-10-01

    We propose a scheme to perform single-shot quantum nondemolition (QND) readout of the spin of an electron trapped in a semiconductor quantum dot (QD). Our proposal relies on the interaction of the QD electron spin with optically excited, quantum well (QW) microcavity exciton-polaritons. The spin-dependent Coulomb exchange interaction between the QD electron and cavity polaritons causes the phase and intensity response of left circularly polarized light to be different than that of right circularly polarized light, in such a way that the QD electron's spin can be inferred from the response to a linearly polarized probe reflected or transmitted from the cavity. We show that with careful device design it is possible to essentially eliminate spin-flip Raman transitions. Thus a QND measurement of the QD electron spin can be performed within a few tens of nanoseconds with fidelity ˜99.95%. This improves upon current optical QD spin readout techniques across multiple metrics, including speed and scalability.

  10. Cavity Exciton-Polariton mediated, Single-Shot Quantum Non-Demolition measurement of a Quantum Dot Electron Spin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Shruti; McMahon, Peter; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2014-03-01

    The quantum non-demolition (QND) measurement of a single electron spin is of great importance in measurement-based quantum computing schemes. The current single-shot readout demonstrations exhibit substantial spin-flip backaction. We propose a QND readout scheme for quantum dot (QD) electron spins in Faraday geometry, which differs from previous proposals and implementations in that it relies on a novel physical mechanism: the spin-dependent Coulomb exchange interaction between a QD spin and optically-excited quantum well (QW) microcavity exciton-polaritons. The Coulomb exchange interaction causes a spin-dependent shift in the resonance energy of the polarized polaritons, thus causing the phase and intensity response of left circularly polarized light to be different to that of the right circularly polarized light. As a result the QD electron's spin can be inferred from the response to a linearly polarized probe. We show that by a careful design of the system, any spin-flip backaction can be eliminated and a QND measurement of the QD electron spin can be performed within a few 10's of nanoseconds with fidelity 99:95%. This improves upon current optical QD spin readout techniques across multiple metrics, including fidelity, speed and scalability. National Institute of Informatics, 2-1-2 Hitotsubashi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8430, Japan.

  11. MR imaging of the gastrointestinal tract with half-fourier single-shot fast spin echo (SSFSE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boku, Houjun; Takehara, Yasuo; Isoda, Haruo; Isogai, Satoshi; Kaneko, Masao

    1999-01-01

    Our objective was to implement a non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique combined with concentrated milk ingestion for depicting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and detecting gastrointestinal motility and transit. The half-Fourier SSFSE (single-shot fast spin echo) sequence was optimized on the basis of a phantom study. In order to determine the feasibility of milk ingestion as a substitute for contrast medium, ten human volunteers were examined with SSFSE after two types of liquid ingestion (i.e., milk and water). The snapshot images provided subsecond data acquisition for each coronal plane, allowing visualization of peristalsis in the gastrointestinal tract in an almost real-time fashion, without motion-related image degradation, as would normally be seen using conventional MRI. There was no significant difference between concentrated milk and water in terms of depiction of the upper gastrointestinal tract; however, 10 min and 30 min after ingestion, concentrated milk showed better delineation of the intestine than that observed after water ingestion (p<0.01). MR gastrointestinal imaging is a non-invasive method that allows gastrointestinal depiction as well as analysis of motility and passage. Especially with concentrated milk ingestion, the distal intestines were well depicted with adequate contrast filling and distention. (author)

  12. Real-Time, Single-Shot Temporal Measurements of Short Electron Bunches, Terahertz CSR and FEL Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Berden, G; Van der Meer, A F G

    2005-01-01

    Electro-optic detection of the Coulomb field of electron bunches is a promising technique for single-shot measurements of the bunch length and shape in the sub-picosecond time domain. This technique has been applied to the measurement of 50 MeV electron bunches in the FELIX free electron laser, showing the longitudinal profile of single bunches of around 650 fs FWHM [Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 114802 (2004)]. The method is non-destructive and real-time, and therefore ideal for online monitoring of the longitudinal shape of single electron bunches. At FELIX we have used it for real-time optimization of sub-picosecond electron bunches. Electro-optic detection has also been used to measure the electric field profiles of far-infrared (or terahertz) optical pulses generated by the relativistic electrons. We have characterised the far-infrared output of the free electron laser, and more recently, we have measured the temporal profile of terahertz optical pulses generated at one of the bending magnets.

  13. Single-shot T1 mapping of the corpus callosum: A rapid characterization of fiber bundle anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eHofer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Using diffusion-tensor MRI and fiber tractography the topographic organization of the corpus callosum (CC has been described to comprise 5 segments with fibers projecting into prefrontal (I, premotor and supplementary motor (II, primary motor (III, and primary sensory areas (IV, as well as into parietal, temporal, and occipital cortical areas (V. In order to more rapidly characterize the underlying anatomy of these segments, this study used a novel single-shot T1 mapping method to quantitatively determine T1 relaxation times in the human CC. A region-of-interest analysis revealed a tendency for the lowest T1 relaxation times in the genu and the highest T1 relaxation times in the somatomotor region of the CC. This observation separates regions dominated by myelinated fibers with large diameters (somatomotor area from densely packed smaller axonal bundles (genu with less myelin. The results indicate that characteristic T1 relaxation times in callosal profiles provide an additional means to monitor differences in fiber anatomy, fiber density, and gray matter in respective neocortical areas. In conclusion, rapid T1 mapping allows for a characterization of the axonal architecture in an individual CC in less than 10 s. The approach emerges as a valuable means for studying neocortical brain anatomy with possible implications for the diagnosis of neurodegenerative processes.

  14. Anti-spoof touchless 3D fingerprint recognition system using single shot fringe projection and biospeckle analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Amit; Bhatia, Vimal; Prakash, Shashi

    2017-08-01

    Fingerprint is a unique, un-alterable and easily collected biometric of a human being. Although it is a 3D biological characteristic, traditional methods are designed to provide only a 2D image. This touch based mapping of 3D shape to 2D image losses information and leads to nonlinear distortions. Moreover, as only topographic details are captured, conventional systems are potentially vulnerable to spoofing materials (e.g. artificial fingers, dead fingers, false prints, etc.). In this work, we demonstrate an anti-spoof touchless 3D fingerprint detection system using a combination of single shot fringe projection and biospeckle analysis. For fingerprint detection using fringe projection, light from a low power LED source illuminates a finger through a sinusoidal grating. The fringe pattern modulated because of features on the fingertip is captured using a CCD camera. Fourier transform method based frequency filtering is used for the reconstruction of 3D fingerprint from the captured fringe pattern. In the next step, for spoof detection using biospeckle analysis a visuo-numeric algorithm based on modified structural function and non-normalized histogram is proposed. High activity biospeckle patterns are generated because of interaction of collimated laser light with internal fluid flow of the real finger sample. This activity reduces abruptly in case of layered fake prints, and is almost absent in dead or fake fingers. Furthermore, the proposed setup is fast, low-cost, involves non-mechanical scanning and is highly stable.

  15. Continuous paravertebral infusion of ropivacaine with or without fentanyl for pain relief in unilateral multiple fractured ribs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medha Mohta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Continuous thoracic paravertebral block (TPVB provides effective analgesia for unilateral multiple fractured ribs (MFR. However, prolonged infusion of local anaesthetic (LA in high doses can predispose to risk of LA toxicity, which may be reduced by using safer drugs or drug combinations. This study was conducted to assess efficacy and safety of paravertebral infusion of ropivacaine and adrenaline with or without fentanyl to provide analgesia to patients with unilateral MFR. Methods: Thirty adults, having ≥3 unilateral MFR, with no significant trauma outside chest wall, were studied. All received bolus of 0.5% ropivacaine 0.3 ml/kg through paravertebral catheter, followed by either 0.1-0.2 ml/kg/hr infusion of ropivacaine 0.375% with adrenaline 5 μg/ml in group RA or ropivacaine 0.2% with adrenaline 5 μg/ml and fentanyl 2 μg/ml in group RAF. Rescue analgesia was provided by IV morphine. Results: Statistical analysis was performed using unpaired Student t-test, Chi-square test and repeated measures ANOVA. After TPVB, VAS scores, respiratory rate and PEFR improved in both groups with no significant inter-group differences. Duration of ropivacaine infusion, morphine requirements, length of ICU and hospital stay, incidence of pulmonary complications and opioid-related side-effects were similar in both groups. Ropivacaine requirement was higher in group RA than group RAF. No patient showed signs of LA toxicity. Conclusion: Continuous paravertebral infusion of ropivacaine 0.375% with adrenaline 5 μg/ml at 0.1-0.2 ml/kg/hr provided effective and safe analgesia to patients with unilateral MFR. Addition of fentanyl 2 μg/ml allowed reduction of ropivacaine concentration to 0.2% without decreasing efficacy or increasing opioid-related side-effects.

  16. Single-shot measurements of low emittance beams from laser-plasma accelerators comparing two triggered injection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilborg, Jeroen

    2017-10-01

    The success of laser plasma accelerator (LPA) based applications, such as a compact x-ray free electron laser (FEL), relies on the ability to produce electron beams with excellent 6D brightness, where brightness is defined as the ratio of charge to the product of the three normalized emittances. As such, parametric studies of the emittance of LPA generated electron beams are essential. Profiting from a stable and tunable LPA setup, combined with a carefully designed single-shot energy-dispersed emittance diagnostic, we present a direct comparison of charge dependent emittance measurements of electron beams generated by two different injection mechanisms: ionization injection and shock-induced density down-ramp injection. Both injection mechanisms have gained in popularity in recent years due to their demonstrated stable LPA performance. For the down-ramp injection configuration, normalized emittances a factor of two lower were recorded: less than 1 micron at spectral charge densities up to 2 pC/MeV. For both injection mechanisms, a contributing correlation of space charge to the emittance was identified. This measurement technique in general, and these results specifically, are critical to the evaluation of LPA injection methods and development of high-quality LPA beam lines worldwide. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231, by the U.S. DOE NNSA, DNN R&D (NA22), by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1415596, and by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation under Grant ID GBMF4898.

  17. Non-contrast-enhanced imaging of haemodialysis fistulas using quiescent-interval single-shot (QISS) MRA: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okur, A.; Kantarci, M.; Karaca, L.; Yildiz, S.; Sade, R.; Pirimoglu, B.; Keles, M.; Avci, A.; Çankaya, E.; Schmitt, P.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess the efficiency of a novel quiescent-interval single-shot (QISS) technique for non-contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of haemodialysis fistulas. Materials and methods: QISS MRA and colour Doppler ultrasound (CDU) images were obtained from 22 haemodialysis patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). A radiologist with extensive experience in vascular imaging initially assessed the fistulas using CDU. Two observers analysed each QISS MRA data set in terms of image quality, using a five-point scale ranging from 0 (non-diagnostic) to 4 (excellent), and lumen diameters of all segments were measured. Results: One hundred vascular segments were analysed for QISS MRA. Two anastomosis segments were considered non-diagnostic. None of the arterial or venous segments were evaluated as non-diagnostic. The image quality was poorer for the anastomosis level compared to the other segments (p<0.001 for arterial segments, and p<0.05 for venous segments), while no significant difference was determined for other vascular segments. Conclusion: QISS MRA has the potential to provide valuable complementary information to CDU regarding the imaging of haemodialysis fistulas. In addition, QISS non-enhanced MRA represents an alternative for assessment of haemodialysis fistulas, in which the administration of iodinated or gadolinium-based contrast agents is contraindicated. - Highlights: • Close monitoring and early intervention in hemodialysis fistulas may prolong longevity fistulas. • DopplerUS, contrast enhanced CT and MRI are using assessment of hemodialysis fistulas. • QISS nonenhanced MR angiography represents an alternative for assessment of hemodialysis fistulas.

  18. Utility of single shot fast spin echo technique in evaluating pancreaticobiliary diseases: T2-weighted image and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byoung Wook; Kim, Myeong Jin; Chung, Jae Bok; Ko, Heung Kyu; Kim, Dong Joon; Kim, Joo Hee; Chung, Jae Joon; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Lee, Jong Tae

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of T2-weighted imaging an MR cholangiopancreatography using the single shot fast spin-echo technique for evaluating pancreaticobiliary disease. Between March and July 1997, axial and coronal T2-weighted images(TE: 80-200 msec) and MR cholangiopancreatograms (TE: 800-1200 msec) were obtained in two ways [single slab (thickness: 30-50 mm) and multislice acquisition under chemical fat saturation] using SSFSE pulse sequencing in 131 cases of suspected pancreati-cobiliary disease. The accuracy of SSFSE MR imaging was assessed in 89 lesions of 74 patients [male, 48; female, 26; age range, 30-86 (mean, 59) years] confirmed surgicopathologically (50 lesions in 39 patients) and clinically (39 lesions in 35 patients). Two radiologists reviewed the MR images and diagnosis was determined by consensus. Correct diagnosis was confirmed in 84 of 89 lesions (94%). Seven lesions were falsely interpreted, false positive and false negative results accounting for two and five cases, respectively. Two pancreatic cancers were misdiagnosed as pancreatitis and a cancer of the proximal common bile duct(CBD) was interpreted as a distal CBD cancer. The sensitivity of SSFSE MR imaging for malignancy was 93 %. One CBD stone revealed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was not detected on MR images. In contrast, a stone in the CBD seen on MR images was not apparent on subsequent ERCP. Sensitivity and specificity for calculous disease were 96% and 99.7%, respectively. A benign stricture of the ampulla of Vater was falsely interpreted as normal, and correct diagnosis was possible in two falsely diagnosed cases when MR images were reviewed retrospectively. The combination of T2-weighted and cholangiographic images using SSFSE is an accurate method for diagnosing pancreatcobiliary diseases

  19. Ultrafast Single-Shot Optical Oscilloscope based on Time-to-Space Conversion due to Temporal and Spatial Walk-Off Effects in Nonlinear Mixing Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Yoshifumi; Ishikawa, Kiyoshi; Shimizu, Seiji; Sakabe, Shuji

    2005-09-01

    A simple method for single-shot sub-picosecond optical pulse diagnostics has been demonstrated by imaging the time evolution of the optical mixing onto the beam cross section of the sum-frequency wave when the interrogating pulse passes over the tested pulse in the mixing crystal as a result of the combined effect of group-velocity difference and walk-off beam propagation. A high linearity of the time-to-space projection is deduced from the process solely dependent upon the spatial uniformity of the refractive indices. A snap profile of the accidental coincidence between asynchronous pulses from separate mode-locked lasers has been detected, which demonstrates the single-shot ability.

  20. Moderately T2-weighted images obtained with the single-shot fast spin-echo technique. Differentiating between malignant and benign urinary obstructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obuchi, Masao; Sugimoto, Hideharu; Kubota, Hayato; Yamamoto, Wakako; Kinebuchi, Yuko; Honda, Minoru; Takahara, Taro

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a distinction could be made between benign and malignant urinary obstructions in moderately T 2 -weighted images obtained with the single-shot fast spin-echo technique. Forty-four lesions in 39 patients with urinary obstruction were evaluated with the single-shot fast spin-echo (SSFSE) technique with an effective TE of 90-100 ms and without fat saturation. Benign and malignant lesions were compared for the presence of ureteral wall thickening and a signal intensity relative to the proximal ureteral wall. Statistically significant differences were found between benign and malignant lesions in both morphologic change (P 2 -weighted SSFSE technique without fat saturation can accurately distinguish between benign and malignant urinary obstructions. (author)

  1. Single shot “3-in-1” femoral nerve blockade with 0.25% or 0.375% levobupivacaine provides similar postoperative analgesia for total knee replacement

    OpenAIRE

    APAN, Alpaslan; SARI, Filiz; EKMEKÇİ, Alp Burak

    2010-01-01

    To compare postoperative analgesia provided by single shot "3-in-1" femoral nerve blockade using 0.25% or 0.375% levobupivacaine in preceding with spinal anesthesia for unilateral total knee replacement surgery. Materials and methods: Forty consenting patients undergoing unilateral total knee arthroplasty were included in this prospective randomized study. Spinal anesthesia was achieved with 15 mg plain bupivacaine at the L3-4 or L4-5 interspace. After resolution of the sp...

  2. Ultrasound-guided approach to the paravertebral space for catheter insertion in infants and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boretsky, Karen; Visoiu, Mihaela; Bigeleisen, Paul

    2013-12-01

    Paravertebral perineural blocks are used to prevent pain in the thoracoabdominal dermatomes. Traditionally, a landmark-based technique is used in children, while ultrasound-guided (UG) techniques are being employed in adult patients. To describe an UG technique for placement of thoracic paravertebral nerve block (TPVNB) catheters in pediatric patients. Retrospective chart review of a series of 22 pediatric patients' ages 6 months to 17 years with weights from 6.25 kg to 135 kg using a transverse in-plane technique. Catheters were placed both bilateral and unilateral for a variety of thoracic and abdominal procedures. A linear ultrasound transducer was used in all cases with frequency of oscillation and transducer length chosen based on individual patient characteristics of age, weight, and BMI. The median pain scores at 12, 24, 36, and 48 h were 1.2 (interquartile range, 4.5), 0.84 (interquartile range 3.0), 1.6 (interquartile range 2.9), and 0.83 (interquartile range 1.74), respectively. The median dose of opioid expressed as morphine equivalents consumed during the first 24 h after surgery was 0.14 mg·kg(-1) (interquartile range, 0.78 mg·kg(-1) ) and from 24 to 48 h the median dose was 0.11 mg·kg(-1) (interquartile range 0.44 mg·kg(-1) ). No complications were noted, and catheters were left an average of 3 days with a range of 1-5 days with good pain relief. This technical description demonstrates the feasibility of placing PVNB catheters using a transverse in-line ultrasound-guided technique in a wide range of pediatric patients. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Calculation of T2 relaxation time from ultrafast single shot sequences for differentiation of liver tumors. Comparison of echo-planar, HASTE, and spin-echo sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Yasuko; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Tang, Yi; Namimoto, Tomohiro; Takahashi, Mutsumasa

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of T2 calculation from single shot imaging sequences such as echo-planar imaging (EPI) and half-Fourier single shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE) imaging. For the phantom study, we prepared vials containing different concentrations of agarose, copper sulfate, and nickel chloride. The temperature of the phantom was kept at 22 deg C. MR images were obtained with a 1.5-Tesla superconductive magnet. Spin-echo (SE)-type EPI and HASTE sequences with different TEs were obtained for T2 calculation, and the T2 values were compared with those obtained from the Carr-Purcell-Meiborm-Gill (CPMG) sequence. The clinical study group consisted of 30 consecutive patients referred for MR imaging to characterize focal liver lesions. A total of 40 focal liver lesions were evaluated, including 25 primary or metastatic solid masses and 15 non-solid lesions. Single shot SE-type EPI and HASTE were both performed with TEs of 64 and 90 msec. In the phantom study, the T2 values obtained from both single shot sequences showed significant correlations with those from the CPMG sequence (T2 on EPI vs. T2 on CPMG: r=0.98, p<0.01; T2 on HASTE vs. T2 on CPMG: r=0.99, p<0.01). In the clinical study, mean T2 values for liver calculated from EPI (42 msec) were significantly shorter than those calculated from the HASTE sequence (58 msec) (p<0.001). Mean T2 values for solid tumors were 95 msec with HASTE and 72 msec with EPI, and mean T2 values for non-solid lesions were 128 msec with HASTE and 159 msec with EPI. Although mean T2 values between solid and non-solid lesions were significantly different for both EPI and HASTE sequences (p=0.01 for HASTE, p<0.001 for EPI), the overlap of solid and non-solid lesions was less frequent in EPI than in HASTE. With single shot sequences, it is possible to obtain the T2 values that show excellent correlation with the CPMG sequence. Although both HASTE and EPI are useful to calculate T2 values, EPI appears to be more

  4. Paravertebral Burkitt's Lymphoma in a Child: An Unusual Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hoyoux

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paravertebral malignant tumors constitute 4.8% of cancer cases in pediatric oncology and are mostly composed of neuroblastoma (46.4% and soft tissue sarcomas (35.7%. We describe the case of a Caucasian 6-year-old boy who was admitted for middle back pain radiated to limbs and progressively increasing weakness of the legs, suggesting a spinal cord disease. The exploration revealed two paravertebral masses extending through the neural foraminae into the epidural space. The association with elevated serum neuron specific enolase suggested at first the diagnosis of neuroblastoma, but the pathological examination revealed a Burkitt's lymphoma. This is a rare location of sporadic Burkitt's lymphoma with neurologic syndrome as first symptoms.

  5. Centrically reordered inversion recovery half-Fourier single-shot turbo spin-echo sequence: improvement of the image quality of oxygen-enhanced MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Yoshiharu; Hatabu, Hiroto; Higashino, Takanori; Kawamitsu, Hideaki; Watanabe, Hirokazu; Takenaka, Daisuke; Cauteren, Marc van; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study presented here was to determine the improvement in image quality of oxygen-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) subtraction imaging obtained with a centrically reordered inversion recovery half-Fourier single-shot turbo spin-echo (c-IR-HASTE) sequence compared with that obtained with a conventional sequentially reordered inversion recovery single-shot HASTE (s-IR-HASTE) sequence for pulmonary imaging. Materials and methods: Oxygen-enhanced MR imaging using a 1.5 T whole body scanner was performed on 12 healthy, non-smoking volunteers. Oxygen-enhanced MR images were obtained with the coronal two-dimensional (2D) c-IR-HASTE sequence and 2D s-IR-HASTE sequence combined with respiratory triggering. For a 256x256 matrix, 132 phase-encoding steps were acquired including four steps for phase correction. Inter-echo spacing for each sequence was 4.0 ms. The effective echo time (TE) for c-IR-HASTE was 4.0 ms, and 16 ms for s-IR-HASTE. The inversion time (TI) was 900 ms. To determine the improvement in oxygen-enhanced MR subtraction imaging by c-IR-HASTE, CNRs of subtraction image, overall image quality, and image degradation of the c-IR-HASTE and s-IR-HASTE techniques were statistically compared. Results: CNR, overall image quality, and image degradation of c-IR-HASTE images showed significant improvement compared to those s-IR-HASTE images (P<0.05). Conclusion: Centrically reordered inversion recovery half-Fourier single-shot turbo spin-echo (c-IR-HASTE) sequence enhanced the signal from the lung and improved the image quality of oxygen-enhanced MR subtraction imaging

  6. LiNbO/sub 3/:Ti directional-coupler modulators for high-bandwidth, single-shot instrumentation systems operating at 800 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, M.; Jander, D.; Lancaster, G.; Kwiat, P.; McWright, G.; Peterson, R.T.; Tindall, W.; Roeske, F.

    1987-01-01

    The authors update their work on optical directional-coupler modulators (ODCMs) for single-shot, analog instrumentation systems operating at -- 800 nm. They can now fabricate directional-coupler devices that have one input and two output pigtails with insertion losses of 8.9 dB on average. Data for the ODCMs indicate an impulse response of less than 40 ps. They have implemented these devices in an ultrafast, x-ray measurement system. They discuss our data from this implementation and their implications for continued ODCM development

  7. Disorders of paravertebral lumbar muscles: from pathology to cross-sectional imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierry, Guillaume; Kremer, Stephane; Abu Eid, Maher; Bogorin, Adriana; Dietemann, Jean-Louis [University Hospital, Hautepierre Hospital, Department of Radiology 2, Strasbourg (France); Kellner, Frauke [Inselspital Bern, Department of Radiology, Berne (Switzerland)

    2008-11-15

    Paravertebral lumbar muscles are important for spine stabilization and mobility. They may be abnormal in several disorders that may be associated with pain or functional impairment. Special attention should be paid to the paravertebral muscles during imaging, so that a possible muscular disease is not overlooked, especially in patients with low back pain. This article reviews such imaging abnormalities. (orig.)

  8. Disorders of paravertebral lumbar muscles: from pathology to cross-sectional imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierry, Guillaume; Kremer, Stephane; Abu Eid, Maher; Bogorin, Adriana; Dietemann, Jean-Louis; Kellner, Frauke

    2008-01-01

    Paravertebral lumbar muscles are important for spine stabilization and mobility. They may be abnormal in several disorders that may be associated with pain or functional impairment. Special attention should be paid to the paravertebral muscles during imaging, so that a possible muscular disease is not overlooked, especially in patients with low back pain. This article reviews such imaging abnormalities. (orig.)

  9. Brucellaspondylodiscitis and Paravertebral Abscess with Negative Serology: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farazi A.A.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Brucellosis is a common zoonosis which still remains as a major health problem in certain parts of the world. Osteoarticular involvement is the most frequent complication of brucellosis, in which the diagnosis of brucellarspondylodiscitis is often difficult, since the clinical presentation may be obscured by many other conditions.Case Report: We report an uncommon case of spondylodiscitis with paravertebral abscess. The diagnosis was established by using magnetic resonance imaging that was also confirmed by positive culture. This report describes a case of a 42-year-old woman. Serodiagnosis for brucella carried out at the onset of symptoms 4 months and 1.5 months before admission were negative. When the patient was admitted to our hospital, laboratory tests showed negative agglutination, and ELISA test for brucella and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the presence of a paravertebral abscess around the affected disc and tissue edema. Culture of needle aspiration of abscess tissue was positive for brucella melitensis.

  10. Effects of electric paravertebral muscle relaxation processes in the athletes heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Syshko

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Influence of paravertebrals miorelaxation on electric processes in a heart at sportsmen is studied. Paravertebrals miorelaxation was the complex of exercises in a water environment directed on the decline of tone of paravertebral muscles. Before and after it was used of paravertebrals miorelaxation registered the indexes of electrocardiography at the sportsmen engaged in the Greek-Roman fight (n=22 by football (n=24 and heavy athletics (n=25. It is got, that at the sportsmen of engaged in the Greek -Roman fight after paravertebrals miorelaxation QRS and QT were it was increased, and R-R and PQ went down. At the sportsmen of engaged in heavy athletics HR and PQ went down after paravertebrals miorelaxation, R-R, QRS and QT were it was increased. At the sportsmen of getting busy by football the PQ interval shortened, and QRS and QT has multiplied. Findings testify to the presence of different mechanisms of adaptation of the conducting system of heart in the conditions of influencing of paravertebrals miorelaxation. These distinctions are fated by two basic factors: by the functional being of the cardio-vessels system on the whole and functional being of sine knot and conducting system of heart in particular.

  11. Lowering of L10 phase transition temperature of FePt thin films by single shot H+ ion exposure using plasma focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Z.Y.; Lin, J.J.; Zhang, T.; Karamat, S.; Tan, T.L.; Lee, P.; Springham, S.V.; Ramanujan, R.V.; Rawat, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    FePt thin films are exposed to pulsed energetic H + ion beam from plasma focus. In irradiated films, the phase transition from the low K u disordered face-centered-cubic structure to high K u ordered face-centered-tetragonal phase was achieved at 400 deg. C with the order parameter S ranging from 0.73 to 0.83, high coercivity of about 5356 kA/m, high negative nucleation field of about 7700 kA/m and high squareness ratio ranging from 0.73 to 0.79. The advantage of using plasma focus device is that it can lower phase transition temperature and significantly enhance the magnetic properties by a pulsed single shot exposure

  12. Anterior chamber configuration in patients with glaucoma: MR gonioscopy evaluation with half-Fourier single-shot RARE sequence and microscopy coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanitame, Keizo; Sasaki, Ko; Sone, Takashi; Uyama, Shinji; Sumida, Masumi; Ichiki, Toshio; Ito, Katsuhide

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the accuracy of half-Fourier single-shot rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement high-spatial-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) imaging performed with a microscopy coil in the diagnosis of narrow anterior chamber angle in patients with glaucoma. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy served as the reference standard. The institutional review board approved this study, and written informed consent was obtained from the 20 recruited patients. There was excellent agreement between MR gonioscopy and slit-lamp biomicroscopy in the classification of anterior chamber angles as narrow or open (kappa = 0.89 [95% confidence interval: 0.69, 1.10]). MR gonioscopy has substantial potential as a technique used to evaluate glaucoma. (c) RSNA, 2008.

  13. Single-shot full strain tensor determination with microbeam X-ray Laue diffraction and a two-dimensional energy-dispersive detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, A; Kirchlechner, C; Keckes, J; Conka Nurdan, T; Send, S; Micha, J S; Ulrich, O; Hartmann, R; Strüder, L; Pietsch, U

    2017-06-01

    The full strain and stress tensor determination in a triaxially stressed single crystal using X-ray diffraction requires a series of lattice spacing measurements at different crystal orientations. This can be achieved using a tunable X-ray source. This article reports on a novel experimental procedure for single-shot full strain tensor determination using polychromatic synchrotron radiation with an energy range from 5 to 23 keV. Microbeam X-ray Laue diffraction patterns were collected from a copper micro-bending beam along the central axis (centroid of the cross section). Taking advantage of a two-dimensional energy-dispersive X-ray detector (pnCCD), the position and energy of the collected Laue spots were measured for multiple positions on the sample, allowing the measurement of variations in the local microstructure. At the same time, both the deviatoric and hydrostatic components of the elastic strain and stress tensors were calculated.

  14. Distortion-free diffusion tensor imaging for evaluation of lumbar nerve roots: Utility of direct coronal single-shot turbo spin-echo diffusion sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Takayuki; Doi, Kunio; Yoneyama, Masami; Watanabe, Atsuya; Miyati, Tosiaki; Yanagawa, Noriyuki

    2018-06-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) based on a single-shot echo planer imaging (EPI-DTI) is an established method that has been used for evaluation of lumbar nerve disorders in previous studies, but EPI-DTI has problems such as a long acquisition time, due to a lot of axial slices, and geometric distortion. To solve these problems, we attempted to apply DTI based on a single-shot turbo spin echo (TSE-DTI) with direct coronal acquisition. Our purpose in this study was to investigate whether TSE-DTI may be more useful for evaluation of lumbar nerve disorders than EPI-DTI. First, lumbar nerve roots of five healthy volunteers were evaluated for optimization of imaging parameters with TSE-DTI including b-values and the number of motion proving gradient (MPG) directions. Subsequently, optimized TSE-DTI was quantitatively compared with conventional EPI-DTI by using fractional anisotropy (FA) values and visual scores in subjective visual evaluation of tractography. Lumbar nerve roots of six patients, who had unilateral neurologic symptoms in one leg, were evaluated by the optimized TSE-DTI. TSE-DTI with b-value of 400 s/mm 2 and 32 diffusion-directions could reduce the image distortion compared with EPI-DTI, and showed that the average FA values on the symptomatic side for six patients were significantly lower than those on the non-symptomatic side (P DTI might show damaged areas of lumbar nerve roots without severe image distortion. TSE-DTI might improve the reproducibility in measurements of FA values for quantification of a nerve disorder, and would become a useful tool for diagnosis of low back pain. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Optimization of mass spectrometric parameters improve the identification performance of capillary zone electrophoresis for single-shot bottom-up proteomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenbin; Dovichi, Norman J

    2018-02-25

    The effects of MS1 injection time, MS2 injection time, dynamic exclusion time, intensity threshold, and isolation width were investigated on the numbers of peptide and protein identifications for single-shot bottom-up proteomics analysis using CZE-MS/MS analysis of a Xenopus laevis tryptic digest. An electrokinetically pumped nanospray interface was used to couple a linear-polyacrylamide coated capillary to a Q Exactive HF mass spectrometer. A sensitive method that used a 1.4 Th isolation width, 60,000 MS2 resolution, 110 ms MS2 injection time, and a top 7 fragmentation produced the largest number of identifications when the CZE loading amount was less than 100 ng. A programmable autogain control method (pAGC) that used a 1.4 Th isolation width, 15,000 MS2 resolution, 110 ms MS2 injection time, and top 10 fragmentation produced the largest number of identifications for CZE loading amounts greater than 100 ng; 7218 unique peptides and 1653 protein groups were identified from 200 ng by using the pAGC method. The effect of mass spectrometer conditions on the performance of UPLC-MS/MS was also investigated. A fast method that used a 1.4 Th isolation width, 30,000 MS2 resolution, 45 ms MS2 injection time, and top 12 fragmentation produced the largest number of identifications for 200 ng UPLC loading amount (6025 unique peptides and 1501 protein groups). This is the first report where the identification number for CZE surpasses that of the UPLC at the 200 ng loading level. However, more peptides (11476) and protein groups (2378) were identified by using UPLC-MS/MS when the sample loading amount was increased to 2 μg with the fast method. To exploit the fast scan speed of the Q-Exactive HF mass spectrometer, higher sample loading amounts are required for single-shot bottom-up proteomics analysis using CZE-MS/MS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Nonenhanced ECG-gated quiescent-interval single-shot MRA (QISS-MRA) of the lower extremities: Comparison with contrast-enhanced MRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasen, J. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Duesseldorf (Germany); Blondin, D., E-mail: blondin@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Duesseldorf (Germany); Schmitt, P. [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Erlangen (Germany); Bi, X. [Siemens Healthcare, Chicago, IL (United States); Sansone, R. [Department of Cardiology, University of Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Duesseldorf (Germany); Wittsack, H.-J.; Kroepil, P.; Quentin, M.; Kuhlemann, J.; Miese, F. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Duesseldorf (Germany); Heiss, C.; Kelm, M. [Department of Cardiology, University of Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Duesseldorf (Germany); Antoch, G.; Lanzman, R.S. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    Aim: To evaluate electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated quiescent-interval single-shot magnetic resonance angiography (QISS-MRA) for nonenhanced assessment of peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD) using contrast-enhanced MRA (CE-MRA) as the reference standard. Materials and methods: Twenty-seven patients (mean age 66.6 {+-} 10.8 years) with PAOD were included in the study. QISS-MRA and CE-MRA of the lower extremity were performed using a 1.5 T MR scanner. In each patient, subjective image quality and the degree of stenosis were evaluated on a four-point scale for 15 predefined arterial segments. Results: Twenty-five of the 27 patients were considered for analysis. Subjective image quality of QISS-MRA was significantly lower for the distal aorta, pelvic arteries, and femoral arteries as compared to CE-MRA (p < 0.01), while no significant difference was found for other vascular segments. The degree of stenosis was overestimated with QISS-MRA in 23 of 365 (6.3%) segments and underestimated in two of 365 (0.5%) segments. As compared to CE-MRA, QISS-MRA had a high sensitivity (98.6%), specificity (96%) as well as positive and negative predictive value (88.7 and 99.6%, respectively) for the detection of significant stenosis ({>=}50%). Conclusion: ECG-gated QISS-MRA is a promising imaging technique for reliable assessment of PAOD without the use of contrast material.

  17. Differential diagnosis of pituitary adenomas and Rathke's cleft cysts by diffusion-weighted MRI using single-shot fast spin echo technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Takumi; Izumiyama, Hitoshi; Fukuda, Ataru; Tanioka, Daisuke; Kunii, Norihiko; Komatsu, Daisuke; Fujita, Shogo; Ukisu, Ryutaro; Moritani, Toshio

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to prospectively evaluate the diagnostic ability of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) using single-shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) technique to discriminate pituitary adenomas from Rathke's cleft cysts. DWIs were obtained from 40 patients with pathologically proven pituitary macroadenomas and 15 patients with proven Rathke's cleft cysts. Pituitary adenomas were divided into 27 cases with solid components alone, five with non-hemorrhagic large cysts, and eight with intratumoral hemorrhage. On SSFSE DWI, solid components of pituitary adenomas revealed iso or slightly increased intensity and intratumoral hemorrhage showed higher intensity than normal brain parenchyma, whereas Rathke's cleft cysts and intratumoral cysts demonstrated very low intensity. SSFSE DWI did not display the susceptibility artifacts that are seen close to the skull base and sinonasal cavities on echo planar diffusion imaging. On the basis of our preliminary findings, DWI may enable us to differentiate pituitary adenomas with only solid components and hemorrhagic pituitary adenomas appearing hyperintense on T1-weighted images from Rathke's cleft cysts without administration of gadolinium-DTPA. SSFSE DWI appears to be a useful technique for characterizing pituitary diseases without the susceptibility artifacts. Our study is the first report to demonstrate the identification of pituitary disorders on SSFSE DWI. (author)

  18. Differential diagnosis of pituitary adenomas and Rathke's cleft cysts by diffusion-weighted MRI using single-shot fast spin echo technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Takumi; Izumiyama, Hitoshi; Fukuda, Ataru; Tanioka, Daisuke; Kunii, Norihiko; Komatsu, Daisuke; Fujita, Shogo; Ukisu, Ryutaro; Moritani, Toshio [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to prospectively evaluate the diagnostic ability of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) using single-shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) technique to discriminate pituitary adenomas from Rathke's cleft cysts. DWIs were obtained from 40 patients with pathologically proven pituitary macroadenomas and 15 patients with proven Rathke's cleft cysts. Pituitary adenomas were divided into 27 cases with solid components alone, five with non-hemorrhagic large cysts, and eight with intratumoral hemorrhage. On SSFSE DWI, solid components of pituitary adenomas revealed iso or slightly increased intensity and intratumoral hemorrhage showed higher intensity than normal brain parenchyma, whereas Rathke's cleft cysts and intratumoral cysts demonstrated very low intensity. SSFSE DWI did not display the susceptibility artifacts that are seen close to the skull base and sinonasal cavities on echo planar diffusion imaging. On the basis of our preliminary findings, DWI may enable us to differentiate pituitary adenomas with only solid components and hemorrhagic pituitary adenomas appearing hyperintense on T1-weighted images from Rathke's cleft cysts without administration of gadolinium-DTPA. SSFSE DWI appears to be a useful technique for characterizing pituitary diseases without the susceptibility artifacts. Our study is the first report to demonstrate the identification of pituitary disorders on SSFSE DWI. (author)

  19. Readout-Segmented Echo-Planar Imaging in Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging in Breast Cancer: Comparison with Single-Shot Echo-Planar Imaging in Image Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yun Ju; Kim, Sung Hun; Kang, Bong Joo; Park, Chang Suk; Kim, Hyeon Sook; Son, Yo Han; Porter, David Andrew; Song, Byung Joo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the image quality of standard single-shot echo-planar imaging (ss-EPI) and that of readout-segmented EPI (rs-EPI) in patients with breast cancer. Seventy-one patients with 74 breast cancers underwent both ss-EPI and rs-EPI. For qualitative comparison of image quality, three readers independently assessed the two sets of diffusion-weighted (DW) images. To evaluate geometric distortion, a comparison was made between lesion lengths derived from contrast enhanced MR (CE-MR) images and those obtained from the corresponding DW images. For assessment of image parameters, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), lesion contrast, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. The rs-EPI was superior to ss-EPI in most criteria regarding the qualitative image quality. Anatomical structure distinction, delineation of the lesion, ghosting artifact, and overall image quality were significantly better in rs-EPI. Regarding the geometric distortion, lesion length on ss-EPI was significantly different from that of CE-MR, whereas there were no significant differences between CE-MR and rs-EPI. The rs-EPI was superior to ss-EPI in SNR and CNR. Readout-segmented EPI is superior to ss-EPI in the aspect of image quality in DW MR imaging of the breast

  20. Nonenhanced ECG-gated quiescent-interval single-shot MRA (QISS-MRA) of the lower extremities: Comparison with contrast-enhanced MRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasen, J.; Blondin, D.; Schmitt, P.; Bi, X.; Sansone, R.; Wittsack, H.-J.; Kröpil, P.; Quentin, M.; Kuhlemann, J.; Miese, F.; Heiss, C.; Kelm, M.; Antoch, G.; Lanzman, R.S.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated quiescent-interval single-shot magnetic resonance angiography (QISS-MRA) for nonenhanced assessment of peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD) using contrast-enhanced MRA (CE-MRA) as the reference standard. Materials and methods: Twenty-seven patients (mean age 66.6 ± 10.8 years) with PAOD were included in the study. QISS-MRA and CE-MRA of the lower extremity were performed using a 1.5 T MR scanner. In each patient, subjective image quality and the degree of stenosis were evaluated on a four-point scale for 15 predefined arterial segments. Results: Twenty-five of the 27 patients were considered for analysis. Subjective image quality of QISS-MRA was significantly lower for the distal aorta, pelvic arteries, and femoral arteries as compared to CE-MRA (p < 0.01), while no significant difference was found for other vascular segments. The degree of stenosis was overestimated with QISS-MRA in 23 of 365 (6.3%) segments and underestimated in two of 365 (0.5%) segments. As compared to CE-MRA, QISS-MRA had a high sensitivity (98.6%), specificity (96%) as well as positive and negative predictive value (88.7 and 99.6%, respectively) for the detection of significant stenosis (≥50%). Conclusion: ECG-gated QISS-MRA is a promising imaging technique for reliable assessment of PAOD without the use of contrast material.

  1. Development of Compton X-ray spectrometer for high energy resolution single-shot high-flux hard X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, Sadaoki, E-mail: kojima-s@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: sfujioka@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp; Ikenouchi, Takahito; Arikawa, Yasunobu; Sakata, Shohei; Zhang, Zhe; Abe, Yuki; Nakai, Mitsuo; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Fujioka, Shinsuke, E-mail: kojima-s@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: sfujioka@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp; Azechi, Hiroshi [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ozaki, Tetsuo [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Miyamoto, Shuji; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Takemoto, Akinori [Laboratory of Advanced Science and Technology for Industry, University of Hyogo, 3-1-2 Kouto, Kamigori-cho, Ako-gun, Hyogo 678-1205 (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    Hard X-ray spectroscopy is an essential diagnostics used to understand physical processes that take place in high energy density plasmas produced by intense laser-plasma interactions. A bundle of hard X-ray detectors, of which the responses have different energy thresholds, is used as a conventional single-shot spectrometer for high-flux (>10{sup 13} photons/shot) hard X-rays. However, high energy resolution (Δhv/hv < 0.1) is not achievable with a differential energy threshold (DET) X-ray spectrometer because its energy resolution is limited by energy differences between the response thresholds. Experimental demonstration of a Compton X-ray spectrometer has already been performed for obtaining higher energy resolution than that of DET spectrometers. In this paper, we describe design details of the Compton X-ray spectrometer, especially dependence of energy resolution and absolute response on photon-electron converter design and its background reduction scheme, and also its application to the laser-plasma interaction experiment. The developed spectrometer was used for spectroscopy of bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by intense laser-plasma interactions using a 200 μm thickness SiO{sub 2} converter. The X-ray spectrum obtained with the Compton X-ray spectrometer is consistent with that obtained with a DET X-ray spectrometer, furthermore higher certainly of a spectral intensity is obtained with the Compton X-ray spectrometer than that with the DET X-ray spectrometer in the photon energy range above 5 MeV.

  2. Faster pediatric 3-T abdominal magnetic resonance imaging: comparison between conventional and variable refocusing flip-angle single-shot fast spin-echo sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruangwattanapaisarn, Nichanan [Mahidol University, Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Radiology, Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok (Thailand); Stanford University, LPCH Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Loening, Andreas M.; Saranathan, Manojkumar; Vasanawala, Shreyas S. [Stanford University, LPCH Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Litwiller, Daniel V. [GE Healthcare, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Single-shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) is particularly appealing in pediatric patients because of its motion robustness. However radiofrequency energy deposition at 3 tesla forces long pauses between slices, leading to longer scans, longer breath-holds and more between-slice motion. We sought to learn whether modulation of the SSFSE refocusing flip-angle train could reduce radiofrequency energy deposition without degrading image quality, thereby reducing inter-slice pauses and overall scan times. We modulated the refocusing flip-angle train for SSFSE to minimize energy deposition while minimizing blurring and motion-related signal loss. In a cohort of 50 consecutive patients (25 boys, mean age 5.5 years, range 1 month to 17 years) referred for abdominal MRI we obtained standard SSFSE and variable refocusing flip-angle (vrfSSFSE) images and recorded sequence scan times. Two readers independently scored the images in blinded, randomized order for noise, tissue contrast, sharpness, artifacts and left lobe hepatic signal uniformity on a four-point scale. The null hypothesis of no difference between SSFSE and vrfSSFSE image-quality was assessed with a Mann-Whitney U test, and the null hypothesis of no scan time difference was assessed with the paired t-test. SSFSE and vrfSSFSE mean acquisition times were 54.3 and 26.2 s, respectively (P-value <0.0001). For each reader, SSFSE and vrfSSFSE noise, tissue contrast, sharpness and artifacts were not significantly different (P-values 0.18-0.86). However, SSFSE had better left lobe hepatic signal uniformity (P < 0.01, both readers). vrfSSFSE is twice as fast as SSFSE, with equivalent image quality with the exception of left hepatic lobe signal heterogeneity. (orig.)

  3. Highly Resolved Mg/Ca Depth Profiles of Planktic Foraminifer test Walls Using Single shot Measurements of fs-LA-ICPMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochum, K. P.; Schiebel, R.; Stoll, B.; Weis, U.; Haug, G. H.

    2017-12-01

    Foraminifers are sensitive archives of changes in climate and marine environment. It has been shown that the Mg/Ca signal is a suitable proxy of seawater temperature, because the incorporation of Mg depends on ambient water temperature. In contrast to most former studies, where this ratio is determined by solution-based bulk analysis of 20 - 30 specimens, we have investigated Mg/Ca in single specimens and single chambers at high resolution. A new fs-200 nm-LA-ICPMS technique was developed for the µm-sized layered calcite shells. To generate depth profiles with a resolution of about 50 nm/shot, we chose a low fluence of about 0.3 Jcm-2 and performed single shot measurements of the double charged 44Ca++ and the single charged 25Mg+ ions together. Precision (RSD) of the Mg/Ca data is about 5 %. Calibration was performed with the carbonate reference material MACS-3 from the USGS. Our results for different species from the Arabian Sea and Caribbean Sea demonstrate that Mg/Ca of different chambers vary and indicate that the foraminifer individuals built their chambers in different water depths and/or experienced seasonal changes in seawater temperature caused, for example, by upwelling (cold) versus stratified (warm) conditions. Typically, the Mg/Ca ratios of the final two chambers of the planktic foraminifer Globorotalia menardii from a sediment core of the Arabian Sea differ by about 5 mmol/mol from earlier chambers (2 mmol/mol) corresponding to seawater temperatures of 28 °C and 18 °C, respectively. In addition, mass fractions of other elements like Sr, Mn, Fe, Ba, and U have been determined with fs-LA-ICPMS using fast line scans, and thus provide further insights in the ecology of foraminifers.

  4. Non-contrast-enhanced MR angiography in critical limb ischemia: performance of quiescent-interval single-shot (QISS) and TSE-based subtraction techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altaha, Mustafa A. [University Health Network, Department of Medical Imaging, Peter Munk Cardiac Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Jaskolka, Jeffrey D.; Tan, Kongteng; Menezes, Ravi J. [University Health Network, Department of Medical Imaging, Peter Munk Cardiac Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Rick, Manuela; Schmitt, Peter [Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen (Germany); Wintersperger, Bernd J. [University Health Network, Department of Medical Imaging, Peter Munk Cardiac Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Toronto General Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2017-03-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic performance of non-contrast-enhanced 2D quiescent-interval single-shot (QISS) and 3D turbo spin-echo (TSE)-based subtraction magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in the assessment of peripheral arteries in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI). Nineteen consecutive patients (74 % male, 72.8 ± 9.9 years) with CLI underwent 2D QISS and 3D TSE-based subtraction MRA at 1.5 T. Axial-overlapping QISS MRA (3 mm/2 mm; 1 x 1 mm{sup 2}) covered from the toes to the aortic bifurcation while coronal 3D TSE-based subtraction MRA (1.3 x 1.2 x 1.3 mm{sup 3}) was restricted to the calf only. MRA data sets (two readers) were evaluated for stenosis (≥50 %) and image quality. Results were compared with digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Two hundred and sixty-seven (267) segments were available for MRA-DSA comparison, with a prevalence of stenosis ≥50 % of 41.9 %. QISS MRA was rated as good to excellent in 79.5-96.0 % of segments without any nondiagnostic segments; 89.8-96.1 % of segments in 3D TSE-based subtraction MRA were rated as nondiagnostic or poor. QISS MRA sensitivities and specificities (segmental) were 92 % and 95 %, respectively, for reader one and 81-97 % for reader two. Due to poor image quality of 3D TSE-based subtraction MRA, diagnostic performance measures were not calculated. QISS MRA demonstrates excellent diagnostic performance and higher robustness than 3D TSE-based subtraction MRA in the challenging patient population with CLI. (orig.)

  5. Comparison of respiratory-triggered 3-D fast spin-echo and single-shot fast spin-echo radial slab MR cholangiopancreatography images in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavhan, Govind B.; Almehdar, Abeer; Gupta, Sumeet [The Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Moineddin, Rahim [University of Toronto, Department of Family and Community Medicine, Toronto (Canada); Babyn, Paul S. [Royal University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Saskatoon (Canada)

    2013-09-15

    The two most commonly performed magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) sequences, 3-D fast spin-echo (3-D FSE) and single-shot fast spin-echo radial slabs (radial slabs), have not been compared in children. The purpose of this study was to compare 3-D FSE and radial slabs MRCP sequences on a 3-T scanner to determine their ability to show various segments of pancreaticobiliary tree and presence of artifacts in children. We reviewed 79 consecutive MRCPs performed in 74 children on a 3-T scanner. We noted visibility of major ducts on 3-D FSE and radial slabs. We noted the order of branching of ducts in the right and left hepatic ducts and the degree of visibility of the pancreatic duct. Statistical analysis was performed using McNemar and signed rank tests. There was no significant difference in the visibility of major bile ducts and the order of branching in the right hepatic lobe between sequences. A higher order of branching in the left lobe was seen on radial slabs than 3-D FSE (mean order of branching 2.82 versus 2.27; P-value = 0.0002). The visibility of pancreatic duct was better on radial slabs as compared to 3-D FSE (mean value of 1.53 vs. 0.90; P-value < 0.0001). 3-D FSE sequence was artifact-free in 25/79 (31.6%) MRCP exams as compared to radial slabs, which were artifact-free in 18/79 (22.8%) MRCP exams (P-value = 0.0001). There is no significant difference in the visibility of major bile ducts between 3-D FSE and radial slab MRCP sequences at 3-T in children. However, radial slab MRCP shows a higher order of branching in the left hepatic lobe and superior visibility of the pancreatic duct than 3-D FSE. (orig.)

  6. Diffusion tensor trace mapping in normal adult brain using single-shot EPI technique: A methodological study of the aging brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.G.; Hindmarsh, T.; Li, T.Q.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify age-related changes of the average diffusion coefficient value in normal adult brain using orientation-independent diffusion tensor trace mapping and to address the methodological influences on diffusion quantification. Material and Methods: Fifty-four normal subjects (aged 20-79 years) were studied on a 1.5-T whole-body MR medical unit using a diffusion-weighted single-shot echo-planar imaging technique. Orientation-independent diffusion tensor trace maps were constructed for each subject using diffusion-weighted MR measurements in four different directions using a tetrahedral gradient combination pattern. The global average (including cerebral spinal fluid) and the tissue average of diffusion coefficients in adult brains were determined by analyzing the diffusion coefficient distribution histogram for the entire brain. Methodological influences on the measured diffusion coefficient were also investigated by comparing the results obtained using different experimental settings. Results: Both global and tissue averages of the diffusion coefficient are significantly correlated with age (p<0.03). The global average of the diffusion coefficient increases 3% per decade after the age of 40, whereas the increase in the tissue average of diffusion coefficient is about 1% per decade. Experimental settings for self-diffusion measurements, such as data acquisition methods and number of b-values, can slightly influence the statistical distribution histogram of the diffusion tensor trace and its average value. Conclusion: Increased average diffusion coefficient in adult brains with aging are consistent with findings regarding structural changes in the brain that have been associated with aging. The study also demonstrates that it is desirable to use the same experimental parameters for diffusion coefficient quantification when comparing between different subjects and groups of interest

  7. The role of MR imaging with Half Fourier Acquired Single Shot Turbo Spin Echo sequence in the diagnosis of lung lesions in comparison with multislice CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hekimoglu, B.; Gurgen, F.; Tatar, I.G.; Aydin, H.; Kizilgoz, V.; Keyik, B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the diagnostic values of magnetic resonance imaging using Half Fourier Acquired Single Shot Turbo Spin Echo sequence and multidetector computed tomography in patients with pathologically examined pulmonary lesions. Methods: The retrospective, descriptive study was conducted at Radiology Department, Diskapi Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, and comprised records of patients with pathologically examined pulmonary lesions between May 2009 and March 2012. Patients were divided into three groups and examined by both multi dedector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. During the imaging, patients were not administered any intravenous contrast medium. Electrocardiogram gating and breath holding were not performed in echo sequence. Pulmonary lesions were evaluated on the basis of their dimensions, numbers, differentiation from atelectasis and consolidation, invasion to the thoracic wall-mediastinal structures and presence of lymphadenopathies. Results: Sensitivity of all patients was 50% (p=0.214) and specificity of CT and MRI were 82.5% (p=0.134) for the detectability of submilimetric nodules . For differentiation of the mass from atelectasis and consolidation, the sensitivity of computed tomography was statistically more significant compared to magnetic resonance imaging (86.6%; p=0.035). For the invasion of the mass to the mediastinal structures and the thoracic wall, the sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging was statistically more significant compared to tomography (86.6%; p=0.035). Conclusion: HASTE sequence can be used to determine the invasion of the pulmonary mass to the mediastinal structures and the thoracic wall since it is more sensitive than computed tomography. It can also be used to detect submilimetric nodules. It has equal sensitivity and specificity compared to computed tomography. But computed tomography is superior for the differentiation of the mass from atelectasis and consolidation. (author)

  8. Non-contrast-enhanced MR angiography in critical limb ischemia: performance of quiescent-interval single-shot (QISS) and TSE-based subtraction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altaha, Mustafa A.; Jaskolka, Jeffrey D.; Tan, Kongteng; Menezes, Ravi J.; Rick, Manuela; Schmitt, Peter; Wintersperger, Bernd J.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic performance of non-contrast-enhanced 2D quiescent-interval single-shot (QISS) and 3D turbo spin-echo (TSE)-based subtraction magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in the assessment of peripheral arteries in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI). Nineteen consecutive patients (74 % male, 72.8 ± 9.9 years) with CLI underwent 2D QISS and 3D TSE-based subtraction MRA at 1.5 T. Axial-overlapping QISS MRA (3 mm/2 mm; 1 x 1 mm 2 ) covered from the toes to the aortic bifurcation while coronal 3D TSE-based subtraction MRA (1.3 x 1.2 x 1.3 mm 3 ) was restricted to the calf only. MRA data sets (two readers) were evaluated for stenosis (≥50 %) and image quality. Results were compared with digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Two hundred and sixty-seven (267) segments were available for MRA-DSA comparison, with a prevalence of stenosis ≥50 % of 41.9 %. QISS MRA was rated as good to excellent in 79.5-96.0 % of segments without any nondiagnostic segments; 89.8-96.1 % of segments in 3D TSE-based subtraction MRA were rated as nondiagnostic or poor. QISS MRA sensitivities and specificities (segmental) were 92 % and 95 %, respectively, for reader one and 81-97 % for reader two. Due to poor image quality of 3D TSE-based subtraction MRA, diagnostic performance measures were not calculated. QISS MRA demonstrates excellent diagnostic performance and higher robustness than 3D TSE-based subtraction MRA in the challenging patient population with CLI. (orig.)

  9. Comparison of single-shot fast spin-echo sequence and T2-weighted fast spin-echo sequence in MR imaging of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Sung Ho; Seo, Jeong Jin; Jeong, Gwang Woo; Kim, Jae Kyu; Kim, Yun Hyeon; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kang, Heoung Keun; Oh, Hee Yeon; Yoon, Jong Hoon

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the single-shot fast spinecho (SS-FSE) sequence in comparison with the T2-weighted fast spin-echo (T2-FSE) sequence in brain MR imaging. In 41 patients aged 15-75 years with intracranial lesion, both SS-FSE and T2-FES images were obtained using a 1.5-T MR system. Lesions included cerebral ischemia or infarcts (n=3D23), tumors (n=3D10), hemorrhages (n=3D3), inflammatory diseases (n=3D2), arachnoid cysts(n=3D2), and vascular disease (n=3D1), and the MR images were retrospectively evaluated. To calculate contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), percentage contrast, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)-and thus make a quantitative comparison-the mean signal intensities of lesions, normal brain tissue, and noise out-side the patient were measured. For qualitative comparison, the visibility, margin, and extent of the lesions were rated using a five-grade system, and the degree of MR artifacts was also evaluated. Wilcoxon's signed ranks test was used for statistical analysis. The mean CNR of lesions was significantly higher on SS-FSE (31.3) than on T2-FSE images (27.5) (p=3D0.0131). Mean percentage contrast was also higher on SS-FSE (159.0) than on T2-FSE images (108.5) (p=3D0.0222), but mean SNR was higher on T2-FSE (80.3) than on SS-FSE images (53.5) (p=3D0.0000). No significant differences in lesion visibility were observed between the two imaging sequences, though margin and extent of the lesion were worse on SS-FSE images. For MR artifacts, no significant differences were demonstrated. For the evaluation of most intracranial lesions, MR imaging using the SS-FSE sequence appears to be slightly inferior to the T2-FSE sequence, but may be useful where patients are ill or uncooperative, or where children require sedation.=20

  10. ECG-gated quiescent-interval single-shot MR angiography of the lower extremities: Initial experience at 3 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knobloch, G.; Gielen, M.; Lauff, M.-T.; Romano, V.C.; Schmitt, P.; Rick, M.; Kröncke, T.J.; Huppertz, A.; Hamm, B.; Wagner, M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the feasibility of unenhanced electrocardiography (ECG)-gated quiescent-interval single-shot magnetic resonance angiography (QISS-MRA) of the lower extremities at 3 T. Materials and methods: Twenty-five patients with known or suspected peripheral arterial disease underwent ECG-gated QISS-MRA and contrast-enhanced MRA (CE-MRA) at 3 T. Two independent readers performed a per-segment evaluation of the MRA datasets. Image quality was rated on a four-point scale (1 = excellent to 4 = non-diagnostic; presented as medians with interquartile range). Diagnostic performance of QISS-MRA was evaluated using CE-MRA as the reference standard. Results: QISS-MRA and CE-MRA of all patients were considered for analysis, resulting in 807 evaluated vessel segments for each MRA technique. Readers 1 and 2 rated image quality of QISS-MRA as diagnostic in 97.3% and 97% of the vessel segments, respectively. CE-MRA was rated diagnostic in all vessel segments. Image quality of the proximal vessel segments, including the infrarenal aorta, iliac arteries, and common femoral artery, was significantly lower on QISS-MRA compared to CE-MRA [image quality score across readers: 2 (1,3) versus 1 (1,1) p < 0.001]. In the more distal vessel segments, image quality of QISS-MRA was excellent and showed no significant difference compared to CE-MRA [image quality score across readers: 1 (1,1) versus 1 (1,1) p = 0.036]. Diagnostic performance of QISS-MRA was as follows (across readers): sensitivity: 87.5% (95% CI: 80.2–92.4%); specificity: 96.1% (95% CI: 93.6–97.6%); diagnostic accuracy: 94.9% (95% CI: 92.6–96.5%). Conclusions: QISS-MRA of the lower extremities is feasible at 3 T and provides high image quality, especially in the distal vessel segments

  11. Thoracic Paravertebral Mass as an Infrequent Manifestation of IgG4-Related Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Matzumura Kuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Case. A 50-year-old African American male presented with abdominal pain and significant weight loss. On physical examination, he had parotid and submandibular gland enlargement associated with right eye proptosis. Computed tomography showed a thoracic paravertebral soft tissue mass, enlarged lymph nodes, and ascending aortic aneurysm. Laboratory results were remarkable for elevated total IgG and IgG4 subclass. The submandibular gland pathology revealed chronic sclerosing sialadenitis, with a large subset of inflammatory cells positively staining for IgG4. The histology of the paravertebral mass demonstrated fibrosclerosis with increased lymphocytic infiltrate, associated with increased IgG4 plasma cells. He was diagnosed with immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD. Steroid therapy initially yielded improvement; however, after steroids were stopped, there was disease recurrence. Prednisone was restarted, and the plan was to start him on rituximab. Interestingly, the patient’s brother also had IgG4-RD. Conclusion. IgG4-RD can present as a paravertebral mass which is usually responsive to steroids; however, recurrent and resistant disease can be seen for which steroid-sparing agents such as rituximab should be considered. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of IgG4-RD in two family members presenting as a paravertebral mass, highlighting an exciting area for more research in the future.

  12. Treatment with hydroxyurea in thalassemia intermedia with paravertebral pseudotumors of extramedullary hematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cario, H; Wegener, M; Debatin, K-M; Kohne, E

    2002-08-01

    Excessive ineffective erythropoiesis in thalassemia intermedia may cause paravertebral pseudotumors of extramedullary hematopoiesis. Due to the proximity to the spinal canal, these paravertebral masses carry the risk of severe neurological damage. Treatment strategies include hypertransfusion, radiotherapy, and laminectomy. Hydroxyurea, stimulating fetal hemoglobin synthesis, may represent an alternative therapeutic approach. We report on a 26-year-old patient suffering from thalassemia intermedia with progressive anemia symptoms and presenting multiple intrathoracic paravertebral pseudotumors of extramedullary hematopoiesis. Hypertransfusion therapy and splenectomy were followed by regular transfusion (baseline hemoglobin 10 g/dl) and chelation with desferrioxamine. With this treatment, clinical symptoms disappeared, paravertebral hematopoietic masses did not progress, but severe hemosiderosis developed within a few years. Hydroxyurea therapy was initiated to increase the efficacy of erythropoiesis, thereby reducing the required transfusion volume but suppressing concomitantly further expansion of extramedullary hematopoiesis, and finally leading to a reduction of transfusional iron load. Treatment was started with 4 mg/kg per day and stepwise increased to 12.5 mg/kg per day. The fetal hemoglobin concentration increased from 4.5 to 5.5 g/dl after 1 year and to 9.9 g/dl after 2 years of treatment. The yearly transfusion volume was halved during the 1st year of treatment. At present, after 26 months of treatment, the patient has been transfusion-independent for 10 months. Serum ferritin levels decreased from 2844 to 1335 ng/ml. Size and shape of paravertebral hematopoietic pseudotumors remained stable. No side effects of hydroxyurea have been observed. In thalassemia intermedia patients with extramedullary hematopoiesis, hydroxyurea may lead to independence from regular transfusion therapy without further expansion of ectopic hematopoietic tissue.

  13. 1.5 T augmented reality navigated interventional MRI: paravertebral sympathetic plexus injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, David R; U Thainual, Paweena; Ungi, Tamas; Flammang, Aaron J; Fichtinger, Gabor; Iordachita, Iulian I; Carrino, John A; Fritz, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The high contrast resolution and absent ionizing radiation of interventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be advantageous for paravertebral sympathetic nerve plexus injections. We assessed the feasibility and technical performance of MRI-guided paravertebral sympathetic injections utilizing augmented reality navigation and 1.5 T MRI scanner. A total of 23 bilateral injections of the thoracic (8/23, 35%), lumbar (8/23, 35%), and hypogastric (7/23, 30%) paravertebral sympathetic plexus were prospectively planned in twelve human cadavers using a 1.5 Tesla (T) MRI scanner and augmented reality navigation system. MRI-conditional needles were used. Gadolinium-DTPA-enhanced saline was injected. Outcome variables included the number of control magnetic resonance images, target error of the needle tip, punctures of critical nontarget structures, distribution of the injected fluid, and procedure length. Augmented-reality navigated MRI guidance at 1.5 T provided detailed anatomical visualization for successful targeting of the paravertebral space, needle placement, and perineural paravertebral injections in 46 of 46 targets (100%). A mean of 2 images (range, 1-5 images) were required to control needle placement. Changes of the needle trajectory occurred in 9 of 46 targets (20%) and changes of needle advancement occurred in 6 of 46 targets (13%), which were statistically not related to spinal regions (P = 0.728 and P = 0.86, respectively) and cadaver sizes (P = 0.893 and P = 0.859, respectively). The mean error of the needle tip was 3.9±1.7 mm. There were no punctures of critical nontarget structures. The mean procedure length was 33±12 min. 1.5 T augmented reality-navigated interventional MRI can provide accurate imaging guidance for perineural injections of the thoracic, lumbar, and hypogastric sympathetic plexus.

  14. Single‑shot lamina technique of paravertebral block as an adjunct to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-08-28

    Aug 28, 2014 ... adjunct to GA for modified radical mastectomy with axillary dissection for breast cancer. The total ... treatment modality in many parts of the world, especially ... postoperative pain, reduced opioid consumption and.

  15. Ultrasound-guided paravertebral block for pyloromyotomy in 3 neonates with congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mata-Gómez, Javier; Guerrero-Domínguez, Rosana; García-Santigosa, Marta; Ontanilla, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis is a relatively common affection of gastrointestinal tract in childhood that results in symptoms, such as projectile vomiting and metabolic disorders that imply a high risk of aspiration during anesthetic induction. In this way, the carrying out of a technique with general anesthesia and intravenous rapid sequence induction, preoxygenation and cricoid pressure are recommended. After the correction of systemic metabolic alkalosis and pH ...

  16. Intra-Articular, Single-Shot Hylan G-F 20 Hyaluronic Acid Injection Compared with Corticosteroid in Knee Osteoarthritis: A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammachote, Nattapol; Kanitnate, Supakit; Yakumpor, Thanasak; Panichkul, Phonthakorn

    2016-06-01

    The treatment of knee osteoarthritis with hyaluronic acid or corticosteroid injection has been widely used. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of hyaluronic acid (hylan G-F 20) with triamcinolone acetonide as a single intra-articular injection for knee osteoarthritis. This study was a prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Participants with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis were recruited. They were randomized to receive a single-shot, intra-articular injection of either 6 mL of hylan G-F 20 or 6 mL of a solution comprising 1 mL of 40-mg triamcinolone acetonide and 5 mL of 1% lidocaine with epinephrine. The primary outcomes were knee pain severity, knee function, and range of motion at 6 months. Ninety-nine patients were assessed before injection and underwent a 6-month follow-up. Patients and evaluators were blinded. Multilevel regression models were used to estimate differences between the groups. At the 6-month follow-up, compared with patients who took hylan G-F 20, patients who took triamcinolone acetonide had similar improvement in knee pain, knee function, and range of motion. The difference in mean outcome scores between groups was, with regard to knee pain, a visual analog scale (VAS) score of 3 points (95% confidence interval [95% CI], -6 to 11 points); with regard to knee function, a modified Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) score of 0 points (95% CI, -8 to 6 points); and, with regard to range of motion, flexion of -1° (95% CI, -5° to 2°) and extension of 0° (95% CI, -0.5° to 0.5°). However, patients who took triamcinolone acetonide had better pain improvement from 24 hours until 1 week after injection; the mean difference between groups with regard to the VAS score was 12 points (95% CI, 5 to 20 points; p = 0.002) at 24 hours and 9 points (95% CI, 1 to 15 points; p = 0.018) at 1 week. At 2 weeks after injection, patients who took triamcinolone acetonide also had better knee

  17. Sequential interactions-in which one player plays first and another responds-promote cooperation in evolutionary-dynamical simulations of single-shot Prisoner's Dilemma and Snowdrift games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Robert A

    2018-05-21

    Cooperation is a central topic in evolutionary biology because (a) it is difficult to reconcile why individuals would act in a way that benefits others if such action is costly to themselves, and (b) it underpins many of the 'major transitions of evolution', making it essential for explaining the origins of successively higher levels of biological organization. Within evolutionary game theory, the Prisoner's Dilemma and Snowdrift games are the main theoretical constructs used to study the evolution of cooperation in dyadic interactions. In single-shot versions of these games, wherein individuals play each other only once, players typically act simultaneously rather than sequentially. Allowing one player to respond to the actions of its co-player-in the absence of any possibility of the responder being rewarded for cooperation or punished for defection, as in simultaneous or sequential iterated games-may seem to invite more incentive for exploitation and retaliation in single-shot games, compared to when interactions occur simultaneously, thereby reducing the likelihood that cooperative strategies can thrive. To the contrary, I use lattice-based, evolutionary-dynamical simulation models of single-shot games to demonstrate that under many conditions, sequential interactions have the potential to enhance unilaterally or mutually cooperative outcomes and increase the average payoff of populations, relative to simultaneous interactions-benefits that are especially prevalent in a spatially explicit context. This surprising result is attributable to the presence of conditional strategies that emerge in sequential games that can't occur in the corresponding simultaneous versions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. CT-Guided Biopsy in Suspected Spondylodiscitis--The Association of Paravertebral Inflammation with Microbial Pathogen Detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Spira

    Full Text Available To search for imaging characteristics distinguishing patients with successful from those with futile microbiological pathogen detection by CT-guided biopsy in suspected spondylodiscitis.34 consecutive patients with suspected spondylodiscitis underwent CT-guided biopsy for pathogen detection. MR-images were assessed for inflammatory infiltration of disks, adjacent vertebrae, epidural and paravertebral space. CT-images were reviewed for arrosion of adjacent end plates and reduced disk height. Biopsy samples were sent for microbiological examination in 34/34 patients, and for additional histological analysis in 28/34 patients.Paravertebral infiltration was present in all 10/10 patients with positive microbiology and occurred in only 12/24 patients with negative microbiology, resulting in a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 50% for pathogen detection. Despite its limited sensitivities, epidural infiltration and paravertebral abscesses showed considerably higher specificities of 83.3% and 90.9%, respectively. Paravertebral infiltration was more extensive in patients with positive as compared to negative microbiology (p = 0.002. Even though sensitivities for pathogen detection were also high in case of vertebral and disk infiltration, or end plate arrosion, specificities remained below 10%.Inflammatory infiltration of the paravertebral space indicated successful pathogen detection by CT-guided biopsy. Specificity was increased by the additional occurrence of epidural infiltration or paravertebral abscesses.

  19. [Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma of the paravertebral column. Case report and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerta Roldán, Patricia; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Rodrigo; Bagué Rossell, Silvia; de Juan Delago, Manel; Molet Teixidó, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) is a rare variant of low-grade fibrosarcoma, with specific histological and immunohistochemical features and a poor prognosis. We report a case of SEF of the paravertebral column in a 49-year old male who presented a paraspinal mass with extension into the L4-L5 neural foramen and invasion of the L5 nerve root. Histology of the tumourectomy specimen and its immunohistochemical study led to the diagnosis of SEF. This case was particularly unusual due to its paravertebral column location and, despite its low grade, illustrates the malignant potential of SEF. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. Continuous bilateral thoracic paravertebral blockade for analgesia after cardiac surgery: a randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Geoff G; Cabreros, Leilani; Banach, Dorota; Punjabi, Prakash P

    2017-10-01

    Continuous bilateral thoracic paravertebral blockade has been used for analgesia after cardiac surgery, but its efficacy has never been formally tested. Fifty adult patients were enrolled in a double-blind, randomised, controlled study of continuous bilateral thoracic paravertebral infusion of 0.5% lidocaine (1 mg.kg -1 .hr -1 ) for analgesia after coronary surgery. Control patients received a subcutaneous infusion of lidocaine at the same rate through catheters inserted at the same locations as the study group. The primary outcome was morphine consumption at 48 hours using patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). Secondary outcomes included pain, respiratory function, nausea and vomiting. Serum lidocaine concentrations were measured on the first two post-operative days. There was no difference in morphine consumption or in any other outcome measure between the groups. Serum lidocaine concentrations increased during the study, with a maximum of 5.9 mg.l -1 . There were no adverse events as a consequence of the study. Bilateral paravertebral infusion of lidocaine confers no advantage over systemic lidocaine infusion after cardiac surgery. ISRCTN13424423 ( https://www.isrctn.com ).

  1. Comparison of the effect of sevoflurane and halothane anesthesia on the fall in hear rate as a predictor of successful single shot caudal epidural in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercan, A.; Ture, H.; Sayin, Murat M.; Koner, O.; Aykac, B.; Sozubir, S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective was to investigate the effect of sevoflurane anesthesia on heart rate (HR) fall with the injection of the initial drug in caudal space to confirm the correct needle placement. After the ethical approval was obtained from the hospital's ethics committee, a prospective randomized, clinical study was designed in Yeditepe University Hospital, in 2007. Children aged 1-12 years, scheduled for infraumblical surgery under general anesthesia and caudal block were included in the study. Anesthesia was induced and maintained by sevoflurane in group S (n=8) and by halothane in group H (n=82). Baseline HR was recorded before the caudal block was performed. The HR changes during the initial dose and total drug injection was recorded followed by 2 more HR recordings taken 5 and 10 minutes after caudal injection. The success of the block was recorded by a blind observer. There were 167 children included in the study. Caudal block success was 96.5% in group S and 97.6% in group H. Basal HR was 110.9+-10.9 in group S and 105.9+-10.1 in group H. Following the initial drug injection, mean HR was 109.8+-10.9 in group S and 102.9+-9.9 in group H. It was significantly lower than the baseline in group. The only significant decrease in the HR of the patients in group S was at the tenth minute following caudal injection. The decrease in HR with drug injection has no value to predict the success of caudal block under sevoflurane anesthesia. (author)

  2. Strategies to improve phase-stability of ultrafast swept source optical coherence tomography for single shot imaging of transient mechanical waves at 16 kHz frame rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Shaozhen; Wei, Wei; Hsieh, Bao-Yu; Pelivanov, Ivan; O' Donnell, Matthew [Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Shen, Tueng T.; Wang, Ruikang K., E-mail: wangrk@uw.edu [Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Department of Ophthalmology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98104 (United States)

    2016-05-09

    We present single-shot phase-sensitive imaging of propagating mechanical waves within tissue, enabled by an ultrafast optical coherence tomography (OCT) system powered by a 1.628 MHz Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) swept laser source. We propose a practical strategy for phase-sensitive measurement by comparing the phases between adjacent OCT B-scans, where the B-scan contains a number of A-scans equaling an integer number of FDML buffers. With this approach, we show that micro-strain fields can be mapped with ∼3.0 nm sensitivity at ∼16 000 fps. The system's capabilities are demonstrated on porcine cornea by imaging mechanical wave propagation launched by a pulsed UV laser beam, promising non-contact, real-time, and high-resolution optical coherence elastography.

  3. Value of MR cisternography using three-dimensional half-fourier single-shot fast spin-echo sequences in the diagnosis of diseases related to cranial nerves VII and VIII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamakami, Norio [Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the value of MR cisternography using three-dimensional half-Fourier single-shot fast spin-echo sequences in the diagnosis of diseasea related to cranial nerves VII and VIII. With a 0.5-T imager, the most appropriate setting of echo time and section thickness was first assessed in five volunteers. This resulted in echo time of 250 msec and section thickness of 2 mm as the most effective parameters. Second, using echo time of 120 msec and section thickness of 1.5 mm that were available from the beginning of this study, the demonstration of four nerves within the audistory canal was assessed in seven volunteers. In all of the volunteers, the facial, cochlear, and vestibular nerves were determined with demonstration of each of superior and inferior vestibular nerves in four of them. Next, MR cisternography using the same echo time and section thickness was applied in 368 patients with suspicion of acoustic neurinoma and 14 with hemifacial spasm. In 28 of the 368 patients, MR cisternograms depicted an acoustic neurinoma that was confirmed on postcontrast T1-weighted images. Meanwhile, in five of the 14 patients with hemifacial spasm, MR cisternograms revealed a vessel compressing the root exit zone of the affected facial nerve. It is concluded that MR cisternography using three-dimensional half-Fourier single-shot fast spin-echo sequences can be a useful means for demonstrating nerves within the auditory nerve as well as for the screening of acoustic neurionoma. (author)

  4. Value of MR cisternography using three-dimensional half-fourier single-shot fast spin-echo sequences in the diagnosis of diseases related to cranial nerves VII and VIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakami, Norio

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the value of MR cisternography using three-dimensional half-Fourier single-shot fast spin-echo sequences in the diagnosis of diseasea related to cranial nerves VII and VIII. With a 0.5-T imager, the most appropriate setting of echo time and section thickness was first assessed in five volunteers. This resulted in echo time of 250 msec and section thickness of 2 mm as the most effective parameters. Second, using echo time of 120 msec and section thickness of 1.5 mm that were available from the beginning of this study, the demonstration of four nerves within the audistory canal was assessed in seven volunteers. In all of the volunteers, the facial, cochlear, and vestibular nerves were determined with demonstration of each of superior and inferior vestibular nerves in four of them. Next, MR cisternography using the same echo time and section thickness was applied in 368 patients with suspicion of acoustic neurinoma and 14 with hemifacial spasm. In 28 of the 368 patients, MR cisternograms depicted an acoustic neurinoma that was confirmed on postcontrast T1-weighted images. Meanwhile, in five of the 14 patients with hemifacial spasm, MR cisternograms revealed a vessel compressing the root exit zone of the affected facial nerve. It is concluded that MR cisternography using three-dimensional half-Fourier single-shot fast spin-echo sequences can be a useful means for demonstrating nerves within the auditory nerve as well as for the screening of acoustic neurionoma. (author)

  5. An unusual case of lumbar paravertebral miositis ossificans mimicking muscular skeletal tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccali, C; Chichierchia, G; Covello, R

    2013-12-01

    Several lesions have clinical and radiological characteristics mimicking muscular skeletal tumor. Myositis ossificans usually presents a typical pattern making biopsy unnecessary; nevertheless, in rare cases, neoplasm must be ruled out. Biopsy is often sufficient to allow a diagnosis and a correct related treatment, but, unfortunately, sometimes it may lead to erroneous treatment. We report an unusual case of a lumbar paravertebral mass that had an MRI aspect similar to a chondrosarcoma, a histology pattern based on biopsy compatible with neurinoma and a definitive diagnosis of myosistis ossificans.

  6. Ultrasound-guided bilateral dual transversus abdominis plane block: a new four-point approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neimann, Jens Dupont Børglum; Maschmann, C; Belhage, B

    2011-01-01

    scale 0–10) from a mean of 8.2 to a mean of 2.2 10 min after block performance (Pcare unit after an average of 34 min. Twenty-one patients (84%) did not require any i.v. opioids in the following 6 h. Sixteen patients (64%) were mobilized within 6 h...... after the block. Data were similar irrespective of open or laparoscopic surgery (P=0.68). Conclusion: This new four-point single-shot technique was effective in decreasing severe pain after a major abdominal surgery. The block, although short-lived, facilitated discharge from the post-anaesthesia care...

  7. A Rare Cause of Chronic Low Back Pain: Paravertebral Hydatid Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Atar

    2016-05-01

                A 48-year-old man was admitted to our outpatient clinic with low back and right leg pain for 1 year. Lumbar spinal movements were painful and the pain radiated to his right posterolateral thigh. There was no weakness and numbness in both lower limbs but he had difficulty in load transfer during walking and therefore had ambulation difficulty. Tendon reflexes, and muscle strength examinations were normal. There was a slightly swelling at the right lumbar paravertebral region of spine by palpation. Routine blood tests were normal. Lumbar magnetic resonance examination (MRI was requested for clear evaluation of lower back structures. In MRI, we found a 8 × 5 cm multicystic mass at the level of L3–S3 located at the right paravertebral muscle. After this diagnosis, the patient began receiving albendazol.  Total cyst resection was performed and the histopathological examination confirmed hydatic cyst. 

  8. Extrapleural paravertebral CT guided fine needle biopsy of subcarinal lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tantawy, Wahid H.; El-Gemeie, Emad H.; Ibrahim, Ahmed S.; Mohamed, Mona A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To report our experience in CT guided extrapleural paravertebral subcarinal lymph biopsy using a thin 25 gauge (25 G) thin needle without the need of injection of saline to widen the mediastinum. Materials and methods: Biopsy was performed using a 25 G needle which was advanced lateral to the vertebral body between the endothoracic fascia and the parietal pleura to gain access to subcarinal lymph nodes. One hundred and forty one patients were included in the study (74 females, 57 males). No artificial widening of the mediastinum using saline injection was required. The study was performed in the presence of a cytopathologist; sensitivity and specificity rates were calculated. Complications were documented for each case especially for pneumothorax and haemorrhage. Results: Cytopathological diagnosis was reached in all cases. All re-aspirations were done in the same session to reach a primary diagnosis at the time of the biopsy. Imunophenotyping study was done in 94 cases to confirm the primary diagnosis and to classify the malignant lesions. No pneumothorax was encountered. Small haematomas were noted in 5 cases (3.5%). Cytopathology showed a sensitivity of 97.2% and specificity of 100%. By adding immunophenotyping a 100% sensitivity and specificity was achieved. Conclusion: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) using a 25 gauge needle for subcarinal lymph nodes via a percutaneous extrapleural paravertebral CT guided approach is a safe, minimally invasive, and tolerable procedure yielding a high sensitivity and specificity rates without the need of artificial widening

  9. Extrapleural paravertebral CT guided fine needle biopsy of subcarinal lymph nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tantawy, Wahid H., E-mail: tantawyw@yahoo.com [Radiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Egypt Abbassyia square, Cairo (Egypt); El-Gemeie, Emad H. [Pathology Department, National Cancer Institute, Fom El Khalige Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University (Egypt); Ibrahim, Ahmed S., E-mail: asibrahima@gmail.com [Radiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Egypt Abbassyia square, Cairo (Egypt); Mohamed, Mona A. [Radiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Egypt Abbassyia square, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To report our experience in CT guided extrapleural paravertebral subcarinal lymph biopsy using a thin 25 gauge (25 G) thin needle without the need of injection of saline to widen the mediastinum. Materials and methods: Biopsy was performed using a 25 G needle which was advanced lateral to the vertebral body between the endothoracic fascia and the parietal pleura to gain access to subcarinal lymph nodes. One hundred and forty one patients were included in the study (74 females, 57 males). No artificial widening of the mediastinum using saline injection was required. The study was performed in the presence of a cytopathologist; sensitivity and specificity rates were calculated. Complications were documented for each case especially for pneumothorax and haemorrhage. Results: Cytopathological diagnosis was reached in all cases. All re-aspirations were done in the same session to reach a primary diagnosis at the time of the biopsy. Imunophenotyping study was done in 94 cases to confirm the primary diagnosis and to classify the malignant lesions. No pneumothorax was encountered. Small haematomas were noted in 5 cases (3.5%). Cytopathology showed a sensitivity of 97.2% and specificity of 100%. By adding immunophenotyping a 100% sensitivity and specificity was achieved. Conclusion: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) using a 25 gauge needle for subcarinal lymph nodes via a percutaneous extrapleural paravertebral CT guided approach is a safe, minimally invasive, and tolerable procedure yielding a high sensitivity and specificity rates without the need of artificial widening.

  10. Evidence of peripheral nerve blocks for cancer-related pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klepstad, P; Kurita, G P; Mercadante, S

    2015-01-01

    The European Association for Palliative Care has initiated a comprehensive program to achieve an over-all review of the evidence of multiple cancer pain management strategies in order to extend the current guideline for treatment of cancer pain. The present systematic review analyzed the existing...... evidence of analgesic efficacy for peripheral nerve blocks in adult patients with cancer. A search strategy was elaborated with words related to cancer, pain, peripheral nerve and block. The search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane for the period until February 2014. The number of abstracts...... retrieved was 155. No controlled studies were identified. Sixteen papers presented a total of 79 cases. The blocks applied were paravertebral blocks (10 cases), blocks in the head region (2 cases), plexus blocks (13 cases), intercostal blocks (43 cases) and others (11 cases). In general, most cases reported...

  11. Quantitative evaluation of benign and malignant vertebral fractures with diffusion-weighted MRI: what is the optimum combination of b values for ADC-based lesion differentiation with the single-shot turbo spin-echo sequence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geith, Tobias; Schmidt, Gerwin; Biffar, Andreas; Dietrich, Olaf; Duerr, Hans Roland; Reiser, Maximilian; Baur-Melnyk, Andrea

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the optimum combination of b values for calculating the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) using a diffusion-weighted (DW) single-shot turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequence in the differentiation between acute benign and malignant vertebral body fractures. Twenty-six patients with osteoporotic (mean age, 69 years; range, 31.5-86.2 years) and 20 patients with malignant vertebral fractures (mean age, 63.4 years; range, 24.7-86.4 years) were studied. T1-weighted, STIR, and T2-weighted sequences were acquired at 1.5 T. A DW single-shot TSE sequence at different b values (100, 250, 400, and 600 s/mm(2)) was applied. On the DW images for each evaluated fracture, an ROI was manually adapted to the area of hyperintense signal intensity on STIR-hypointense signal on T1-weighted images. For each ROI, nine different combinations of two, three, and four b values were used to calculate the ADC using a least-squares algorithm. The Student t test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to determine significant differences between benign and malignant fractures. An ROC analysis and the Youden index were used to determine cutoff values for assessment of the highest sensitivity and specificity for the different ADC values. The positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were also determined. All calculated ADCs (except the combination of b = 400 s/mm(2) and b = 600 s/mm(2)) showed statistically significant differences between benign and malignant vertebral body fractures, with benign fractures having higher ADCs than malignant ones. The use of higher b values resulted in lower ADCs than those calculated with low b values. The highest AUC (0.85) showed the ADCs calculated with b = 100 and 400 s/mm(2), and the second highest AUC (0.829) showed the ADCs calculated with b = 100, 250, and 400 s/mm(2). The Youden index with equal weight given to sensitivity and specificity suggests use of an ADC calculated with b = 100, 250, and 400 s/mm(2) (cutoff

  12. Comparison of single-injection ultrasound-guided approach versus multilevel landmark-based approach for thoracic paravertebral blockade for breast tumor resection: a retrospective analysis at a tertiary care teaching institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saran JS

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Jagroop Singh Saran,1 Amie L Hoefnagel,1 Kristin A Skinner,2 Changyong Feng,3 Daryl Irving Smith1 1Acute Pain Service, Department of Anesthesiology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, 2Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester Medical Center, 3Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA Background: The role of thoracic paravertebral blockade (TPVB in decreasing opioid requirements in breast cancer surgery is well documented, and there is mounting evidence that this may improve survival and reduce the rate of malignancy recurrence following cancer-related mastectomy. We compared the two techniques currently in use at our institution, the anatomic landmark-guided (ALG multilevel versus an ultrasound-guided (USG single injection, to determine an optimal technique.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed records of patients who received TPVB from January 2013 to December 2014. Perioperative opioid use, post anesthesia care unit (PACU pain scores and length of stay, block performance, and complications were compared between the two groups.Results: We found no statistical difference between the two approaches in the studied outcomes. We did find that the number of times attending physicians in the ALG group took over the blocks from residents was significantly greater than that of the USG group (p=0.006 and more local anesthetic was used in the USG group (p=0.04.Conclusion: This study compared the ALG approach with the USG approach for patients undergoing mastectomy for breast cancer. Based on our observations, an attending physician is more likely to take over an ALG injection, and more local anesthetic is administered during USG single injection. Keywords: thoracic paravertebral block, regional anesthesia, mastectomy, breast cancer 

  13. Differentiation between hepatic haemangiomas and cysts with an inversion recovery single-shot turbo spin-echo (SSTSE) sequence using the TI nulling value of hepatic haemangioma with sensitivity encoding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katada, Yoshiaki; Nozaki, Miwako; Yasumoto, Mayumi; Ishii, Chikako; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Nakamoto, Kazuya; Ohashi, Isamu

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the additional value of inversion recovery (IR) single-shot turbo spin-echo (SSTSE) imaging with sensitivity encoding (SENSE) using the inversion time (TI) value of hepatic haemangioma as a supplement to conventional T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) imaging for the discrimination of hepatic haemangiomas and cysts. A total of 134 lesions (77 hepatic haemangiomas, 57 hepatic cysts) in 59 patients were evaluated. Three readers evaluated these images and used a five-point scale to evaluate the lesion status. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and 2 x 2 table analysis were used. The ROC analysis for all the readers and all the cases revealed a significantly higher area under the curve (AUC) for the combination of moderately and heavily T2-weighted TSE with IR-SSTSE images (0.945) than for moderately and heavily T2-weighted TSE images alone (0.894) (P < 0.001). For the combination of T2-weighted TSE with IR-SSTSE versus T2-weighted TSE alone, the 2 x 2 table analysis revealed a higher true-positive rate; this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). The introduction of IR-SSTSE with SENSE sequences significantly improves the diagnostic accuracy of the differentiation of hepatic haemangioma and cysts while increasing the time required for routine abdominal imaging by only 20 s. (orig.)

  14. The Use of Liposomal Bupivacaine in Erector Spinae Plane Block to Minimize Opioid Consumption for Breast Surgery: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amanda; Hulsey, Alina; Martinez-Wilson, Hector; Kim, James; Gadsden, Jeff

    2018-05-01

    The erector spinae plane block is a novel interfascial plane block that can provide thoracic and abdominal analgesia. We describe a patient with opioid intolerance scheduled for breast surgery who received an erector spinae plane block with liposomal bupivacaine as well as a supplemental T1 paravertebral block resulting in profound analgesia throughout her postoperative course. This case report demonstrates that use of liposomal bupivacaine in the erector spinae plane block can be successful in providing extended duration postoperative analgesia and minimizing systemic opioid requirements.

  15. Single-Shot Echo-Planar Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging at 3T and 1.5T for Differentiation of Benign Vertebral Fracture Edema and Tumor Infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee Jin; Lee, So Yeon; Rho, Myung Ho; Chung, Eun Chul; Kim, Mi Sung; Kwon, Heon Ju; Youn, In Young [Department of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 03181 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    To compare the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value using single-shot echo-planar imaging sequences at 3T and 1.5T for differentiation of benign fracture edema and tumor infiltration of the vertebral body. A total of 46 spinal examinations were included in the 1.5T MRI group, and a total of 40 spinal examinations were included in the 3T MRI group. The ADC values of the lesion were measured and calculated. The diagnostic performance of the conventional MR image containing sagittal T2-weighted fat saturated image and each diffusion weighted image (DWI) with an ADC value with different b values were evaluated. The mean ADC value of the benign lesions was higher than that of the malignant lesions on 1.5T and 3T (p < 0.05). The sensitivity of the diagnostic performance was higher with an additional DWI in both 1.5T and 3T, but the sensitivities were similar with the addition of b values of 400 and 1000. The specificities of the diagnostic performances did not show significant differences (p value > 0.05). The diagnostic accuracies were higher when either of the DWIs (b values of 400 and 1000) was added to routine MR image for 1.5T and 3T. Statistical differences between 1.5T and 3T or between b values of 400 and 1000 were not seen. The ADC values of the benign lesions were significantly higher than those of the malignant lesions on 1.5T and 3T. There was no statistically significant difference in the diagnostic performances when either of the DWIs (b values of 400 and 1000) was added to the routine MR image for 1.5T and 3T.

  16. What is the most suitable MR signal index for quantitative evaluation of placental function using Half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo compared with T2-relaxation time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameyama, Kyoko Nakao; Kido, Aki; Himoto, Yuki; Moribata, Yusaku; Minamiguchi, Sachiko; Konishi, Ikuo; Togashi, Kaori

    2018-06-01

    Background Half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE) imaging is now widely used for placental and fetal imaging because of its rapidity and low sensitivity to fetal movement. If placental dysfunction is also predicted by quantitative value obtained from HASTE image, then it might be beneficial for evaluating placental wellbeing. Purpose To ascertain the most suitable magnetic resonance (MR) signal indexes reflecting placental function using HASTE imaging. Material and Methods This retrospective study included 37 consequent patients who had given informed consent to MR imaging (MRI) examinations. All had undergone MRI examinations between February 2014 and June 2015. First, the correlation between T2-relaxation time of normal placenta and gestational age (GA) was examined. Second, correlation between signal intensity ratios (SIRs) using HASTE imaging and placental T2-relaxation time were assessed. The SIRs were calculated using placental signal intensity (SI) relative to the SI of the amniotic fluid, fetal ocular globes, gastric fluid, bladder, maternal psoas major muscles, and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. Results Among the 37 patients, the correlation between T2-relaxation time of the 25 normal placentas and GA showed a moderately strong correlation (Spearman rho = -0.447, P = 0.0250). The most significant correlation with placental T2-relaxation time was observed with the placental SIR relative to the maternal psoas major muscles (SIR pl./psoas muscle ) (Spearman rho = -0.531, P = 0.0007). Conclusion This study revealed that SIR pl./psoas muscle showed the best correlation to placental T2-relaxation time. Results show that SIR pl./psoas muscle might be optimal as a clinically available quantitative index of placental function.

  17. Nerve Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Nerve Blocks A nerve block is an injection to ... the limitations of Nerve Block? What is a Nerve Block? A nerve block is an anesthetic and/ ...

  18. Readout-segmented echo-planar imaging improves the image quality of diffusion-weighted MR imaging in rectal cancer: Comparison with single-shot echo-planar diffusion-weighted sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Chun-chao; Liu, Xi; Peng, Wan-lin; Li, Lei; Zhang, Jin-ge [Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, 37# Guo Xue Xiang, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Meng, Wen-jian; Deng, Xiang-bing [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, 37# Guo Xue Xiang, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Zuo, Pan-li [Siemens Healthcare, MR Collaborations NE Asia, 100010, Beijing (China); Li, Zhen-lin, E-mail: lzlcd01@126.com [Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, 37# Guo Xue Xiang, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China)

    2016-10-15

    Purpose: To determine whether readout-segmented echo-planar imaging (rs-EPI) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can improve the image quality in patients with rectal cancer compared with single-shot echo-planar imaging (ss-EPI) DWI using 3.0 T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and methods: This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. Seventy-one patients with rectal cancer were enrolled in this study. For all patients, both rs-EPI and ss-EPI DWI were performed using a 3T MR scanner. Two radiologists independently assessed the overall image quality, lesion conspicuity, geometric distortion and distinction of anatomical structures. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), lesion contrast, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were also measured. Comparisons of the quantitative and qualitative parameters between the two sequences were performed using the paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: The scores of overall image quality, lesion conspicuity, geometric distortion and distinction of anatomical structures of rs-EPI were all significantly higher than those of ss-EPI (all p < 0.05). The SNR and CNR were higher in rs-EPI than those in ss-EPI (all p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between ss-EPI and rs-EPI with regard to ROI size and mean ADCs of the tumour (p = 0.574 and p = 0.479, respectively), but the mean ADC of the normal tissue was higher in rs-EPI than in ss-EPI (1.73 ± 0.30 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s vs. 1.60 ± 0.31 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s, p = 0.001). Conclusions: DW imaging based on readout-segmented echo-planar imaging is a clinically useful technique to improve the image quality for the purpose of evaluating lesions in patients with rectal tumours.

  19. Can a single-shot black-blood T2-weighted spin-echo echo-planar imaging sequence with sensitivity encoding replace the respiratory-triggered turbo spin-echo sequence for the liver? An optimization and feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shahid M; De Becker, Jan; Hop, Wim C J; Dwarkasing, Soendersing; Wielopolski, Piotr A

    2005-03-01

    To optimize and assess the feasibility of a single-shot black-blood T2-weighted spin-echo echo-planar imaging (SSBB-EPI) sequence for MRI of the liver using sensitivity encoding (SENSE), and compare the results with those obtained with a T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequence. Six volunteers and 16 patients were scanned at 1.5T (Philips Intera). In the volunteer study, we optimized the SSBB-EPI sequence by interactively changing the parameters (i.e., the resolution, echo time (TE), diffusion weighting with low b-values, and polarity of the phase-encoding gradient) with regard to distortion, suppression of the blood signal, and sensitivity to motion. The influence of each change was assessed. The optimized SSBB-EPI sequence was applied in patients (N = 16). A number of items, including the overall image quality (on a scale of 1-5), were used for graded evaluation. In addition, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the liver was calculated. Statistical analysis was carried out with the use of Wilcoxon's signed rank test for comparison of the SSBB-EPI and TSE sequences, with P = 0.05 considered the limit for significance. The SSBB-EPI sequence was improved by the following steps: 1) less frequency points than phase-encoding steps, 2) a b-factor of 20, and 3) a reversed polarity of the phase-encoding gradient. In patients, the mean overall image quality score for the optimized SSBB-EPI (3.5 (range: 1-4)) and TSE (3.6 (range: 3-4)), and the SNR of the liver on SSBB-EPI (mean +/- SD = 7.6 +/- 4.0) and TSE (8.9 +/- 4.6) were not significantly different (P > .05). Optimized SSBB-EPI with SENSE proved to be feasible in patients, and the overall image quality and SNR of the liver were comparable to those achieved with the standard respiratory-triggered T2-weighted TSE sequence. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Lumbar paravertebral blockade as intractable pain management method in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaporowska-Stachowiak, Iwona; Kotlinska-Lemieszek, Aleksandra; Kowalski, Grzegorz; Kosicka, Katarzyna; Hoffmann, Karolina; Główka, Franciszek; Luczak, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Optimal symptoms control in advanced cancer disease, with refractory to conventional pain treatment, needs an interventional procedure. This paper presents coadministration of local anesthetic (LA) via paravertebral blockade (PVB) as the alternative to an unsuccessful subcutaneous fentanyl pain control in a 71-year old cancer patient with pathological fracture of femoral neck, bone metastases, and contraindications to morphine. Bupivacaine in continuous infusion (0.25%, 5 mL · hour(-1)) or in boluses (10 mL of 0.125%-0.5% solution), used for lumbar PVB, resulted in pain relief, decreased demand for opioids, and led to better social interactions. The factors contributing to an increased risk of systemic toxicity from LA in the patient were: renal impairment; heart failure; hypoalbuminemia; hypocalcemia; and a complex therapy with possible drug-drug interactions. These factors were taken into consideration during treatment. Bupivacaine's side effects were absent. Coadministered drugs could mask LA's toxicity. Elevated plasma α1-acid glycoprotein levels were a protective factor. To evaluate the benefit-risk ratio of the PVB treatment in boluses and in constant infusion, bupivacaine serum levels were determined and the drug plasma half-lives were calculated. Bupivacaine's elimination was slower when administered in constant infusion than in boluses (t½ = 7.80 hours versus 2.64 hours). Total drug serum concentrations remained within the safe ranges during the whole treatment course (22.9-927.4 ng mL(-1)). In the case presented, lumbar PVB with bupivacaine in boluses (≤ 137.5 mg · 24 hours(-1)) was an easy to perform, safe, effective method for pain control. Bupivacaine in continuous infusion (≤150 mg · 12 hours(-1)) had an acceptable risk-benefits ratio, but was ineffective.

  1. Ablation of lumbar sympathetic ganglia by absolute ethanol injection and paravertebral catheter placement under CT guidance: evaluation of the efficacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hua; Xiong Yuanchang; Shao Chengwei; Zuo Changjing; Sheng Jing; Tian Jianming

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the ablation of lumbar sympathetic ganglia by using single injection of absolute ethanol and retaining a paravertebral catheter under CT guidance for the treatment of lower extremity ischemia. Methods: Single absolute ethanol injection of L2 sympathetic ganglia was done in 25 cases (group B), single absolute ethanol injection of L2 sympathetic ganglia together with placement of a paravertebral catheter at L3 was carried out in 23 cases (group BT). All the procedures were performed under CT guidance. Three days after the procedure, the pain severity of the lower limbs was evaluated based on VAS method. If the patient in group BT still had a VAS score ≥4 on the third day, 3 ml of 1% lidocaine was infected via the retained catheter in the prone position. If VAS score became ≤3 at 5 min after the injection, additional 5 ml of ethanol was given through the catheter. The pain severity was evaluated again one week later. VAS score, analgesic dose and temperature of lower limbs were recorded. Results: One week after the procedure the excellent rate and effective rate for group B were 32% and 80% respectively, while for group BT were 60.9% and 95.7% respectively, with a significant difference between two groups (P<0.01). Conclusion: For the ablation of lumbar sympathetic ganglia the combination of single absolute ethanol injection with paravertebral catheter placement under CT guidance is superior to the single absolute ethanol injection. This technique is more individual with better results and is more likely to be accepted by the patients. (authors)

  2. Comparison of Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in the Human Brain Using Readout-Segmented EPI and PROPELLER Turbo Spin Echo With Single-Shot EPI at 7 T MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Ikuhiro; Ueguchi, Takashi; Matsuoka, Yuichiro; Zhou, Kun; Stemmer, Alto; Porter, David

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction-type turbo spin echo diffusion-weighted imaging (pTSE-DWI) and readout-segmented echo planar imaging (rsEPI-DWI) with single-shot echo planar imaging (ssEPI-DWI) in a 7 T human MR system. We evaluated the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), image distortion, and apparent diffusion coefficient values in the human brain. Six healthy volunteers were included in this study. The study protocol was approved by our institutional review board. All measurements were performed at 7 T using pTSE-DWI, rsEPI-DWI, and ssEPI-DWI sequences. The spatial resolution was 1.2 × 1.2 mm in-plane with a 3-mm slice thickness. Signal-to-noise ratio was measured using 2 scans. The ssEPI-DWI sequence showed significant image blurring, whereas pTSE-DWI and rsEPI-DWI sequences demonstrated high image quality with low geometrical distortion compared with reference T2-weighted, turbo spin echo images. Signal loss in ventral regions near the air-filled paranasal sinus/nasal cavity was found in ssEPI-DWI and rsEPI-DWI but not pTSE-DWI. The apparent diffusion coefficient values for ssEPI-DWI were 824 ± 17 × 10 and 749 ± 25 × 10 mm/s in the gray matter and white matter, respectively; the values obtained for pTSE-DWI were 798 ± 21 × 10 and 865 ± 40 × 10 mm/s; and the values obtained for rsEPI-DWI were 730 ± 12 × 10 and 722 ± 25 × 10 mm/s. The pTSE-DWI images showed no additional distortion comparison to the T2-weighted images, but had a lower SNR than ssEPI-DWI and rsEPI-DWI. The rsEPI-DWI sequence provided high-quality images with minor distortion and a similar SNR to ssEPI-DWI. Our results suggest that the benefits of the rsEPI-DWI and pTSE-DWI sequences, in terms of SNR, image quality, and image distortion, appear to outweigh those of ssEPI-DWI. Thus, pTSE-DWI and rsEPI-DWI at 7 T have great potential use for clinical diagnoses. However, it is noteworthy that both

  3. Efficacy of triplet regimen antiemetic therapy for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in bone and soft tissue sarcoma patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy, and an efficacy comparison of single-shot palonosetron and consecutive-day granisetron for CINV in a randomized, single-blinded crossover study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Norio; Shirai, Toshiharu; Nishida, Hideji; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Tanzawa, Yoshikazu; Takeuchi, Akihiko; Igarashi, Kentaro; Inatani, Hiroyuki; Shimozaki, Shingo; Kato, Takashi; Aoki, Yu; Higuchi, Takashi; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to evaluate combination antiemetic therapy consisting of 5-HT 3 receptor antagonists, neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists (NK-1RAs), and dexamethasone for multiple high emetogenic risk (HER) anticancer agents in bone and soft tissue sarcoma. The second aim was to compare the effectiveness of single-shot palonosetron and consecutive-day granisetron in a randomized, single-blinded crossover study. A single randomization method was used to assign eligible patients to the palonosetron or granisetron arm. Patients in the palonosetron arm received a palonosetron regimen during the first and third chemotherapy courses and a granisetron regimen during the second and fourth courses. All patients received NK-1RA and dexamethasone. Patients receiving the palonosetron regimen were administered 0.75 mg palonosetron on day 1, and patients receiving the granisetron regimen were administered 3 mg granisetron twice daily on days 1 through 5. All 24 patients in this study received at least 4 chemotherapy courses. A total of 96 courses of antiemetic therapy were evaluated. Overall, the complete response CR rate (no emetic episodes and no rescue medication use) was 34%, while the total control rate (a CR plus no nausea) was 7%. No significant differences were observed between single-shot palonosetron and consecutive-day granisetron. Antiemetic therapy with a 3-drug combination was not sufficient to control chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) during chemotherapy with multiple HER agents for bone and soft tissue sarcoma. This study also demonstrated that consecutive-day granisetron was not inferior to single-shot palonosetron for treating CINV

  4. Efficacy of triplet regimen antiemetic therapy for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in bone and soft tissue sarcoma patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy, and an efficacy comparison of single-shot palonosetron and consecutive-day granisetron for CINV in a randomized, single-blinded crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Norio; Shirai, Toshiharu; Nishida, Hideji; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Tanzawa, Yoshikazu; Takeuchi, Akihiko; Igarashi, Kentaro; Inatani, Hiroyuki; Shimozaki, Shingo; Kato, Takashi; Aoki, Yu; Higuchi, Takashi; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-01

    The first aim of this study was to evaluate combination antiemetic therapy consisting of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists (NK-1RAs), and dexamethasone for multiple high emetogenic risk (HER) anticancer agents in bone and soft tissue sarcoma. The second aim was to compare the effectiveness of single-shot palonosetron and consecutive-day granisetron in a randomized, single-blinded crossover study. A single randomization method was used to assign eligible patients to the palonosetron or granisetron arm. Patients in the palonosetron arm received a palonosetron regimen during the first and third chemotherapy courses and a granisetron regimen during the second and fourth courses. All patients received NK-1RA and dexamethasone. Patients receiving the palonosetron regimen were administered 0.75 mg palonosetron on day 1, and patients receiving the granisetron regimen were administered 3 mg granisetron twice daily on days 1 through 5. All 24 patients in this study received at least 4 chemotherapy courses. A total of 96 courses of antiemetic therapy were evaluated. Overall, the complete response CR rate (no emetic episodes and no rescue medication use) was 34%, while the total control rate (a CR plus no nausea) was 7%. No significant differences were observed between single-shot palonosetron and consecutive-day granisetron. Antiemetic therapy with a 3-drug combination was not sufficient to control chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) during chemotherapy with multiple HER agents for bone and soft tissue sarcoma. This study also demonstrated that consecutive-day granisetron was not inferior to single-shot palonosetron for treating CINV. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Lumbar paravertebral blockade as intractable pain management method in palliative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaporowska-Stachowiak I

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Iwona Zaporowska-Stachowiak,1,2 Aleksandra Kotlinska-Lemieszek,3 Grzegorz Kowalski,3 Katarzyna Kosicka,4 Karolina Hoffmann,5 Franciszek Główka,4 Jacek Łuczak2 1Department of Pharmacology, 2Palliative Medicine In-patient Unit, University Hospital of Lord’s Transfiguration, 3Department of Palliative Care, 4Department of Physical Pharmacy and Pharmacokinetics, 5Department of Internal Medicine, Metabolic Disorders and Arterial Hypertension, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland Abstract: Optimal symptoms control in advanced cancer disease, with refractory to conventional pain treatment, needs an interventional procedure. This paper presents coadministration of local anesthetic (LA via paravertebral blockade (PVB as the alternative to an unsuccessful subcutaneous fentanyl pain control in a 71-year old cancer patient with pathological fracture of femoral neck, bone metastases, and contraindications to morphine. Bupivacaine in continuous infusion (0.25%, 5 mL · hour-1 or in boluses (10 mL of 0.125%–0.5% solution, used for lumbar PVB, resulted in pain relief, decreased demand for opioids, and led to better social interactions. The factors contributing to an increased risk of systemic toxicity from LA in the patient were: renal impairment; heart failure; hypoalbuminemia; hypocalcemia; and a complex therapy with possible drug–drug interactions. These factors were taken into consideration during treatment. Bupivacaine’s side effects were absent. Coadministered drugs could mask LA’s toxicity. Elevated plasma α1-acid glycoprotein levels were a protective factor. To evaluate the benefit-risk ratio of the PVB treatment in boluses and in constant infusion, bupivacaine serum levels were determined and the drug plasma half-lives were calculated. Bupivacaine’s elimination was slower when administered in constant infusion than in boluses (t½ = 7.80 hours versus 2.64 hours. Total drug serum concentrations remained within the safe

  6. An Unusual Case of Plasmablastic Lymphoma Presenting as Paravertebral Mass Evaluated by {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treglia, Giorgio; Paone, Gaetano; Stathis, Anastasios; Ceriani, Luca; Giovanella, Luca [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona (Switzerland)

    2014-03-15

    A 60-year-old man underwent radiological investigations due to the onset of back pain. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed the presence of a paravertebral mass located ahead the body of the third thoracic vertebra. Based on these findings the patient underwent biopsy of the paravertebral mass, which showed the presence of a plasmablastic lymphoma. Therefore, the patient underwent fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT) for staging. Before {sup 18}F-FDG injection, the patient had fasted for at least 6 h; at the time of the radiopharmaceutical injection he presented glucose blood levels corresponding to 98 mg/dl. Images were acquired 1 h after intravenous injection of 280 MBq of {sup 18}F-FDG according to the body mass index. PET images were interpreted visually and semiquantitatively by using the maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax). {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT showed moderate radiopharmaceutical uptake corresponding to the paravertebral lesion (SUVmax 3.3) and diffuse uptake in the skeleton suspicious for bone marrow neoplastic involvement, with more evident hypermetabolic areas in the left scapula (SUVmax 3.7), right sixth rib (SUVmax 3.5), and left iliac bone (SUVmax 3.4) (Fig. 1). Subsequent bone marrow biopsy confirmed the bone marrow infiltration by plasmablastic cells. Based on these findings, a final diagnosis of plasmablastic lymphoma with bone marrow involvement was performed and the patient was addressed to chemotherapy. Plasmablastic lymphoma is a rare CD20-negative large-cell lymphoma with plasmablastic features occurring primarily in HIV or Epstein-Barr virus positive individuals. Distinguishing this tumor from myeloma could be challenging. The most frequent site of presentation is the oral cavity, whereas extraoral localizations of plasmablastic lymphoma are considered to be very rare and they should be differentiated from extraosseous localization of

  7. Epidural block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000484.htm Epidural block - pregnancy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An epidural block is a numbing medicine given by injection (shot) ...

  8. Population Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  9. Successful emergency pain control for posterior rib fractures with ultrasound-guided erector spinae plane block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luftig, Josh; Mantuani, Daniel; Herring, Andrew A; Dixon, Brittany; Clattenburg, Eben; Nagdev, Arun

    2017-12-28

    The Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma and Trauma Anesthesiology Society Guidelines recommend prompt and effective multimodal analgesia for rib fractures that combines regional anesthesia (RA) techniques with pharmacotherapy to treat pain, optimize pulmonary function, and reduce opioid related complications. However, RA techniques such as epidurals and paravertebral blocks, are generally underutilized or unavailable for emergency department (ED) patients. The recently described serratus anterior plane block (SAPB) is a promising technique, but failures with posterior rib fractures have been observed. The erector spinae plane block (ESPB) is conceptually similar to the SAPB, but targets the posterior thorax making it likely more effective for ED patients with posterior rib fractures. Our initial experience demonstrates consistent success with the ESPB for traumatic posterior rib fracture analgesia. Herein, we present the first description of the ESPB utilized in the ED. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Transthoracic Arteriovenous Graft Repair With the Pectoralis (PECS) II Nerve Block for Primary Intraoperative Anesthesia and Postoperative Analgesia: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Gabriel; Weber, Garret; Miller, Jonathon; Xu, Jeff

    2018-05-07

    The PECS II nerve block is a relatively new regional anesthetic technique that targets the medial and lateral pectoral nerves, as well as the lateral cutaneous branches of the intercostal nerves. It has been described for surgical cases involving the breast, as an adjunct or alternative to neuraxial or paravertebral techniques. This case report describes the first successful use of the PECS II nerve block placed using ultrasound guidance as the primary anesthetic and postoperative analgesic in a non-breast-related chest wall surgery.

  11. Lumbar plexus block for post-operative analgesia following hip surgery: A comparison of "3 in 1" and psoas compartment block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Srivastava

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a single shot lumbar plexus block by posterior approach (Psoas compartment block- PCB or anterior approach (′3in1′ block for postoperative analgesia in the patients of hip fractures operated under spinal anaesthesia. The blocks were given at the end of operation with 0.25% of bupivacaine and pain was assessed using Verbal Rating scale at 1,6,12 and 24 hours postoperatively both during rest and physiotherapy. We also noted time for first analgesic, need of supplemental analgesics and quality of analgesia during 24 hours. The mean time for first demand of analgesia was 12.4 ±7.9 and 10.7±6.4 hrs in groups PCB and ′3 in 1′ respectively (p>0.05. Requirement of supplemental analgesics was considerably reduced and more than 80% patients in both groups needed only single injection of diclofenac in 24 hrs. It was concluded that both approaches of lumbar plexus block were effective in providing post operative analgesia after hip surgery.

  12. Detection block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezak, A.

    1987-01-01

    A diagram is given of a detection block used for monitoring burnup of nuclear reactor fuel. A shielding block is an important part of the detection block. It stabilizes the fuel assembly in the fixing hole in front of a collimator where a suitable gamma beam is defined for gamma spectrometry determination of fuel burnup. The detector case and a neutron source case are placed on opposite sides of the fixing hole. For neutron measurement for which the water in the tank is used as a moderator, the neutron detector-fuel assembly configuration is selected such that neutrons from spontaneous fission and neutrons induced with the neutron source can both be measured. The patented design of the detection block permits longitudinal travel and rotation of the fuel assembly to any position, and thus more reliable determination of nuclear fuel burnup. (E.S.). 1 fig

  13. Transversus abdominal plane (TAP block for postoperative pain management: a review [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Jakobsson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Transversus abdominal plane (TAP block has a long history and there is currently extensive clinical experience around TAP blocks. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of the present evidence on the effects of TAP block and to provide suggestions for further studies. There are several approaches to performing abdominal wall blocks, with the rapid implementation of ultrasound-guided technique facilitating a major difference in TAP block performance. During surgery, an abdominal wall block may also be applied by the surgeon from inside the abdominal cavity. Today, there are more than 11 meta-analyses providing a compiled evidence base around the effects of TAP block. These analyses include different procedures, different techniques of TAP block administration and, importantly, they compare the TAP block with a variety of alternative analgesic regimes. The effects of TAP block during laparoscopic cholecystectomy seem to be equivalent to local infiltration analgesia and also seem to be beneficial during laparoscopic colon resection. The effects of TAP are more pronounced when it is provided prior to surgery and these effects are local anaesthesia dose-dependent. TAP block seems an interesting alternative in patients with, for example, severe obesity where epidural or spinal anaesthesia/analgesia is technically difficult and/or poses a risk. There is an obvious need for further high-quality studies comparing TAP block prior to surgery with local infiltration analgesia, single-shot spinal analgesia, and epidural analgesia. These studies should be procedure-specific and the effects should be evaluated, both regarding short-term pain and analgesic requirement and also including the effects on postoperative nausea and vomiting, recovery of bowel function, ambulation, discharge, and protracted recovery outcomes (assessed by e.g., postoperative quality of recovery scale.

  14. Transversus abdominal plane (TAP) block for postoperative pain management: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Jan; Wickerts, Liselott; Forsberg, Sune; Ledin, Gustaf

    2015-01-01

    Transversus abdominal plane (TAP) block has a long history and there is currently extensive clinical experience around TAP blocks. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of the present evidence on the effects of TAP block and to provide suggestions for further studies. There are several approaches to performing abdominal wall blocks, with the rapid implementation of ultrasound-guided technique facilitating a major difference in TAP block performance. During surgery, an abdominal wall block may also be applied by the surgeon from inside the abdominal cavity. Today, there are more than 11 meta-analyses providing a compiled evidence base around the effects of TAP block. These analyses include different procedures, different techniques of TAP block administration and, importantly, they compare the TAP block with a variety of alternative analgesic regimes. The effects of TAP block during laparoscopic cholecystectomy seem to be equivalent to local infiltration analgesia and also seem to be beneficial during laparoscopic colon resection. The effects of TAP are more pronounced when it is provided prior to surgery and these effects are local anaesthesia dose-dependent. TAP block seems an interesting alternative in patients with, for example, severe obesity where epidural or spinal anaesthesia/analgesia is technically difficult and/or poses a risk. There is an obvious need for further high-quality studies comparing TAP block prior to surgery with local infiltration analgesia, single-shot spinal analgesia, and epidural analgesia. These studies should be procedure-specific and the effects should be evaluated, both regarding short-term pain and analgesic requirement and also including the effects on postoperative nausea and vomiting, recovery of bowel function, ambulation, discharge, and protracted recovery outcomes (assessed by e.g., postoperative quality of recovery scale).

  15. Comparative Analysis of the Paravertebral Analgesic Pump Catheter with the Epidural Catheter in Elderly Trauma Patients with Multiple Rib Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Brian S; Wasfie, Tarik; Chadwick, Mathew; Barber, Kimberly R; Yapchai, Raquel

    2017-04-01

    Presently, trauma guidelines recommend epidural analgesia as the optimal modality of pain relief from rib fractures. They are not ideally suited for elderly trauma patients and have disadvantages including bleeding risk. The paravertebral analgesic pump (PVP) eliminates such disadvantages and includes ease of placement in the trauma setting. This study compares pain control in patients treated by EPI versus PVP. This is a retrospective, historical cohort study comparing two methods of pain management in the trauma setting. Before 2010, patients who had epidural catheters (EPI) placed for pain control were compared with patients after 2010 in which the PVP was used. All patients had multiple rib fractures as diagnosed by CT scan. Analysis was adjusted for age, number of fractures, and comorbid conditions. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to compare average reported pain. A total of 110 patients, 31 PVP and 79 epidural catheters, were included in the study. Overall mean age was 65 years. The mean Injury Severity Score was 12.0 (EPI) and 11.1 (PVP). Mean number rib fractures was 4.29 (EPI) and 4.71 (PVP). PVP was associated with a 30 per cent greater decrease in pain than that seen with EPI (6.0-1.9 vs 6.4-3.4). After controlling for age, Injury Severity Score, and number of rib fractures, there were no differences in intensive care unit or total length of stay (P = 0.35) or in pain score (3.76 vs 3.56, P = 0.64). In conclusion, the PVP compares well with epidural analgesia in older trauma patients yet is safe, well tolerated, and easily inserted.

  16. Generation and Development of Paravertebral Ossification in Cervical Artificial Disk Replacement: A Detailed Analytic Report Using Coronal Reconstruction CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Wei; Han, Xiao; Liu, Bo; He, Da; Lv, Yanwei; Yue, James

    2017-04-01

    A retrospective follow-up study and review of images in published papers. To determine whether true heterotopic ossification (HO) occurs in artificial disk replacement (ADR); to evaluate the incidence of paravertebral ossification (PO) and its influence on ADR. HO is typically defined as the abnormal formation of true bone within extraskeletal soft tissues. However, HO in ADR does not fit this definition precisely, as it originates from vertebral body, making it hard to distinguish radiologically from preexisting osteophytes. In this study, the term used for bone formation around ADR is PO. First, all images in the published papers were evaluated as to whether the presented PO in ADR fit the classic definition of HO or osteophytes. Second, we studied 37 consecutive patients who underwent ADR and follow-up for minimum 24 months. The preoperative and follow-up incidence of PO and its influence on range of motion were evaluated using x-ray and computed tomography. All 52 images of PO were found adjacent to the disk in 1 segment rather than entire cervical spine. Fifty (96.2%) of the POs were found to originate from the vertebral body rather than in the soft tissue. A total of 31 patients were included in the follow-up study. No significant difference was found in the incidence of PO between the follow-up and preoperation (61.29% vs. 48.39%, P>0.05). The range of motion of the ADR segment in patients with progressed PO (7.44±4.64 degrees) was significantly lower than that of patients with stable PO grade (12.13±4.42 degrees, P<0.01) at last follow-up. A proportion of HO might in fact be the natural development of preoperative osteophytes, which is unrelated to ADR; the remaining HO might be due to changes in biomechanical environment after surgery, which promotes the grade of osteophytes and affects the segment motion.

  17. Paravertebral Well-Differentiated Liposarcoma with Low-Grade Osteosarcomatous Component: Case Report with 11-Year Follow-Up, Radiological, Pathological, and Genetic Data, and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Macagno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite being one of the most frequent soft-tissue sarcomas, well-differentiated liposarcoma has never been reported near the spine. The authors present the case of a 67-year-old man with progressive history of back pain. Physical examination revealed a mass located within the right paravertebral muscles. MR and CT imaging showed a heavily ossified central mass surrounded by a peripheral fatty component. No connection with the underlying bone was detected on imagery and during surgery. After surgical resection, histopathological examination revealed a tumor harboring combined features of well-differentiated liposarcoma and low-grade osteosarcoma. Tumor cells displayed overexpression of MDM2, CDK4, and P16 by immunohistochemistry and CGH revealed amplification of 12q13-15 as the only genetic imbalance. MDM2 FISH analysis was performed but was inconclusive. The pathological, immunohistochemical, and genetic features, the differential diagnoses, and the therapeutic management of this unusual tumor are discussed. No complementary treatment was performed initially. Following first treatment, two recurrences occurred 6 and 9 years later, both displaying histological features similar to the first occurrence. Radiotherapy was started after the second recurrence. Follow-up shows no evidence of disease 11 years after initial diagnosis. This case was unusual due to the paravertebral location of the tumor and its divergent differentiation.

  18. Single-shot fluctuations in waveguided high-harmonic generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goh, S.J.; Tao, Y.; van der Slot, Petrus J.M.; Bastiaens, Hubertus M.J.; Herek, Jennifer Lynn; Biedron, S.G.; Danailov, M.B.; Milton, S.V.; Boller, Klaus J.

    2015-01-01

    For exploring the application potential of coherent soft x-ray (SXR) and extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV) provided by high-harmonic generation, it is important to characterize the central output parameters. Of specific importance are pulse-to-pulse (shot-to-shot) fluctuations of the high-harmonic

  19. Quantitative single shot and spatially resolved plasma wakefield diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Kasim, Muhammad Firmansyah; Ceurvorst, Luke; Levy, Matthew C; Ratan, Naren; Sadler, James; Bingham, Robert; Burrows, Philip N; Trines, Raoul; Wing, Matthew; Norreys, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosing plasma conditions can give great advantages in optimizing plasma wakefield accelerator experiments. One possible method is that of photon acceleration. By propagating a laser probe pulse through a plasma wakefield and extracting the imposed frequency modulation, one can obtain an image of the density modulation of the wakefield. In order to diagnose the wakefield parameters at a chosen point in the plasma, the probe pulse crosses the plasma at oblique angles relative to the wakefield. In this paper, mathematical expressions relating the frequency modulation of the laser pulse and the wakefield density profile of the plasma for oblique crossing angles are derived. Multidimensional particle-in-cell simulation results presented in this paper confirm that the frequency modulation profiles and the density modulation profiles agree to within 10%. Limitations to the accuracy of the measurement are discussed in this paper. This technique opens new possibilities to quantitatively diagnose the plasma wakefie...

  20. The challenges of single-shot spinal anaesthesia for cesearean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An unusual case of morbid obesity, severe hypertension and twin gestation at 36weeks in an unbooked multigravid patient was presented for cesarean section. She was referred from a private clinic to the obstetric emergency unit of the University College Hospital, Ibadan with history of hypertension in pregnancy. She was ...

  1. Single-shot optical conductivity measurement of dense aluminum plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churina, I. V.; Cho, B.-I.; Bernstein, A.; Stoker, D. S.; Dalton, A.; Symes, D. R.; Ditmire, T.

    2009-01-01

    The optical conductivity of a dense femtosecond laser-heated aluminum plasma heated to 0.1-1.5 eV was measured using frequency-domain interferometry with chirped pulses, permitting simultaneous observation of optical probe reflectivity and probe pulse phase shift. Coupled with published models of bound-electron contributions to the conductivity, these two independent experimental data yielded a direct measurement of both real and imaginary components of the plasma conductivity.

  2. Erector spinae plane block may aid weaning from mechanical ventilation in patients with multiple rib fractures: Case report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar Nandhakumar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled pain in patients with rib fracture leads to atelectasis and impaired cough which can progress to pneumonia and respiratory failure necessitating mechanical ventilation. Of the various pain modalities, regional anaesthesia (epidural and paravertebral is better than systemic and oral analgesics. The erector spinae plane block (ESPB is a new modality in the armamentarium for the management of pain in multiple rib fractures, which is simple to perform and without major complications. We report a case series where ESPB helped in weaning the patients from mechanical ventilation. Further randomised controlled studies are warranted in comparing their efficacy in relation to other regional anaesthetic techniques.

  3. Role of ultrasound-guided continuous brachial plexus block in the management of neonatal ischemia in upper limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrushali C Ponde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal upper limb ischemia due to accidental arterial damage remains a major concern, which can lead to devastating complications if untreated. The primary objective of this case report is to emphasize the role of continuous infraclavicular brachial plexus block, the issues related with block performance in an ischemic hand, and the importance of ultrasound guidance in this particular case scenario. A 1.1 kg infant suffered from distal forearm ischemia due to accidental arterial damage, which was treated with brachial plexus block. An ultrasound-guided single shot block with 0.5 mL/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine was followed by ultrasound-guided catheter placement in the target area. A continuous infusion of 0.03% of bupivacaine at the rate of 0.5 mL/kg/hr (approx. 0.15 mg/kg/h of bupivacaine was administered for 36 h. This treatment resulted in reversal of ischemia. Permanent ischemic damage was eventually confined to the tips of 4 fingers. We conclude that ultrasound-guided continuous infraclavicular block has a therapeutic role to play in the treatment of hand ischemia due to arterial damage and subsequent arterial spasm in neonates with added benefits.

  4. An efficient, block-by-block algorithm for inverting a block tridiagonal, nearly block Toeplitz matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, Matthew G; Hill, Judith C

    2012-01-01

    We present an algorithm for computing any block of the inverse of a block tridiagonal, nearly block Toeplitz matrix (defined as a block tridiagonal matrix with a small number of deviations from the purely block Toeplitz structure). By exploiting both the block tridiagonal and the nearly block Toeplitz structures, this method scales independently of the total number of blocks in the matrix and linearly with the number of deviations. Numerical studies demonstrate this scaling and the advantages of our method over alternatives.

  5. Analysis of Block OMP using Block RIP

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jun; Li, Gang; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Xiqin

    2011-01-01

    Orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) is a canonical greedy algorithm for sparse signal reconstruction. When the signal of interest is block sparse, i.e., it has nonzero coefficients occurring in clusters, the block version of OMP algorithm (i.e., Block OMP) outperforms the conventional OMP. In this paper, we demonstrate that a new notion of block restricted isometry property (Block RIP), which is less stringent than standard restricted isometry property (RIP), can be used for a very straightforw...

  6. Sympathetic Blocks Provided Sustained Pain Relief in a Patient with Refractory Painful Diabetic Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The sympathetic nervous system has been implicated in pain associated with painful diabetic neuropathy. However, therapeutic intervention targeted at the sympathetic nervous system has not been established. We thus tested the hypothesis that sympathetic nerve blocks significantly reduce pain in a patient with painful diabetic neuropathy who has failed multiple pharmacological treatments. The diagnosis of small fiber sensory neuropathy was based on clinical presentations and confirmed by skin biopsies. A series of 9 lumbar sympathetic blocks over a 26-month period provided sustained pain relief in his legs. Additional thoracic paravertebral blocks further provided control of the pain in the trunk which can occasionally be seen in severe diabetic neuropathy cases, consequent to extensive involvement of the intercostal nerves. These blocks provided sustained and significant pain relief and improvement of quality of life over a period of more than two years. We thus provided the first clinical evidence supporting the notion that sympathetic nervous system plays a critical role in painful diabetic neuropathy and sympathetic blocks can be an effective management modality of painful diabetic neuropathy. We concluded that the sympathetic nervous system is a valuable therapeutic target of pharmacological and interventional modalities of treatments in painful diabetic neuropathy patients.

  7. A double-blind randomized controlled trial comparing dexamethasone and clonidine as adjuvants to a ropivacaine sciatic popliteal block for foot surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vermeylen K

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Kris Vermeylen,1 Joris De Puydt,2 Stefan Engelen,3 Eva Roofthooft,3 Filiep Soetens,1 Arne Neyrinck,4 Marc Van de Velde4 1Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, AZ Turnhout, Turnhout, 2Department of Anesthesia, University Hospital Antwerp, Antwerp, 3Department of Anesthesia, ZNA Hospital Network Antwerp, Antwerp, 4Department of Cardiovascular Sciences and Anesthesiology, Catholic University Hospitals, Louvain, Belgium Background and aims: A popliteal block is effective in managing postoperative pain for foot surgery, but since the duration of analgesia is limited following a single-shot popliteal fossa block technique, methods to prolong effective postoperative analgesia are mandatory. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of adjuvants to ropivacaine on the duration of sensory and motor block.Methods: In this double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study, we evaluated the analgesic effect of clonidine or dexamethasone (DXM when added to ropivacaine for hallux valgus surgery. After obtaining institutional ethics research board approval and written informed consent, a total of 72 patients were randomly allocated. Fifty-seven of these patients were statistically analyzed. All patients received an ultrasound-guided single-shot popliteal fossa block with 30 mL of ropivacaine 0.75%, supplemented with saline, clonidine 100 µg, or DXM 5 mg. The primary end point was time to first pain sensation. Secondary end points were time to complete sensory and motor block regression.Results: Compared to saline, duration to first pain sensation was prolonged by 9 hours (mean ± standard deviation: 31±9 hours (42% in the DXM group (P=0.024 and by 6 hours (28±10 hours (27% in the clonidine group (P=0.024. Compared to saline, DXM prolonged both complete sensory and motor blockade by 12 hours (25±7 hours (46% and 13 hours (36±6 hours (55%, respectively, while clonidine prolonged complete sensory and motor blockade by 7 hours (30±7 hours (27% and

  8. Examining the Role of Perioperative Nerve Blocks in Hip Arthroscopy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Jeffrey; de Sa, Darren; Memon, Muzammil; Simunovic, Nicole; Paul, James; Ayeni, Olufemi R

    2016-04-01

    This systematic review examined the efficacy of perioperative nerve blocks for pain control after hip arthroscopy. The databases Embase, PubMed, and Medline were searched on June 2, 2015, for English-language studies that reported on the use of perioperative nerve blocks for hip arthroscopy. The studies were systematically screened and data abstracted in duplicate. Nine eligible studies were included in this review (2 case reports, 2 case series, 3 non-randomized comparative studies, and 2 randomized controlled trials). In total, 534 patients (534 hips), with a mean age of 37.2 years, who underwent hip arthroscopy procedures were administered nerve blocks for pain management. Specifically, femoral (2 studies), fascia iliaca (2 studies), lumbar plexus (3 studies), and L1 and L2 paravertebral (2 studies) nerve blocks were used. All studies reported acceptable pain scores after the use of nerve blocks, and 4 studies showed significantly lower postoperative pain scores acutely with the use of nerve blocks over general anesthesia alone. The use of nerve blocks also resulted in a decrease in opioid consumption in 4 studies and provided a higher level of patient satisfaction in 2 studies. No serious acute complications were reported in any study, and long-term complications from lumbar plexus blocks, such as local anesthetic system toxicity (0.9%) and long-term neuropathy (2.8%), were low in incidence. The use of perioperative nerve blocks provides effective pain management after hip arthroscopy and may be more effective in decreasing acute postoperative pain and supplemental opioid consumption than other analgesic techniques. Level IV, systematic review of Level I to Level IV studies. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ultrasound guided supraclavicular block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasound guided regional anaesthesia is becoming increasingly popular. The supraclavicular block has been transformed by ultrasound guidance into a potentially safe superficial block. We reviewed the techniques of performing supraclavicular block with special focus on ultrasound guidance.

  10. Phrenic nerve block with ultrasound-guidance for treatment of hiccups: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyylampi Ville

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Persistent hiccups can be more than a simple and short-lived nuisance and therefore sometimes call for serious consideration. Hiccupping episodes that last only a few minutes may be annoying, but persistent hiccups may initiate many major complications. Case presentation A 72-year-old Caucasian man with spinal stenosis presented for L4-5 laminectomy under spinal anesthesia. The surgery and anesthesia, as well as the perioperative period, passed without any incident, except for persistent postoperative hiccups not responding to conservative and pharmacological treatment. Hiccups resulted in a prolonged hospital stay as they lasted until the seventh postoperative day. On that day, a right-sided ultrasound-guided phrenic nerve block with 5 ml of bupivacaine 5 mg/ml with epinephrine was performed successfully with a single-injection technique. Ten minutes after the procedure the hiccups vanished and a partial sensomotoric block of his right shoulder developed. No adverse effect occurred; our patient could be discharged on the same day and the hiccups did not return. Conclusion Ultrasound provides us with non-invasive information regarding anatomy and allows anesthesiologists to visualize needle insertion, to identify the exact location of the injected solution and to avoid such structures as arteries or veins. As such, this method should be actively utilized. In cases where both pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments prove to be ineffective when treating persistent hiccups, a single-shot ultrasound-guided technique should be considered before the patient becomes exhausted.

  11. Homogeneous bilateral block shifts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Douglas class were classified in [3]; they are unilateral block shifts of arbitrary block size (i.e. dim H(n) can be anything). However, no examples of irreducible homogeneous bilateral block shifts of block size larger than 1 were known until now.

  12. Genuine two-fluid computations of laser-plasma interaction for generation of nonlinear force driven plasma blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nafari, F.; Yazdani, E.; Malekynia, B.; Ghoranneviss, M.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Anomalous interaction of picosecond laser pulses of terawatt to petawatt power is due to suppression of relativistic self-focusing if prepulses are cut-off by a contrast ratio higher than 10 8 . Resulting non-linear ponderomotive forces induced at the skin-layer interaction of a short laser-pulse with a proper preplasma layer produced by the laser prepulse in front of a solid target accelerate two thin (a few μm) quasi-neutral plasma blocks, propagating in forward and backward directions, backward moving against the laser light (ablation) and forward moving into the target. This compressed block produces an ion current density of above 10 11 A/cm 2 . This may support the requirement to produce a fast ignition deuterium tritium fusion at densities not much higher than the solid state by a single shot pw-ps laser pulse. With studying skin-layer subrelativistic interaction of a short (≤ 1 ps) laser pulse with an initial Rayleigh density profile in genuine two-fluid hydrodynamic model, time and spatial distributions of ion block temperature are presented.

  13. Testing block subdivision algorithms on block designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Natalie; Patterson, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Integrated land use-transportation models predict future transportation demand taking into account how households and firms arrange themselves partly as a function of the transportation system. Recent integrated models require parcels as inputs and produce household and employment predictions at the parcel scale. Block subdivision algorithms automatically generate parcel patterns within blocks. Evaluating block subdivision algorithms is done by way of generating parcels and comparing them to those in a parcel database. Three block subdivision algorithms are evaluated on how closely they reproduce parcels of different block types found in a parcel database from Montreal, Canada. While the authors who developed each of the algorithms have evaluated them, they have used their own metrics and block types to evaluate their own algorithms. This makes it difficult to compare their strengths and weaknesses. The contribution of this paper is in resolving this difficulty with the aim of finding a better algorithm suited to subdividing each block type. The proposed hypothesis is that given the different approaches that block subdivision algorithms take, it's likely that different algorithms are better adapted to subdividing different block types. To test this, a standardized block type classification is used that consists of mutually exclusive and comprehensive categories. A statistical method is used for finding a better algorithm and the probability it will perform well for a given block type. Results suggest the oriented bounding box algorithm performs better for warped non-uniform sites, as well as gridiron and fragmented uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel areas and widths. The Generalized Parcel Divider 1 algorithm performs better for gridiron non-uniform sites. The Straight Skeleton algorithm performs better for loop and lollipop networks as well as fragmented non-uniform and warped uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel shapes and patterns.

  14. Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Versus Wound Infiltration for Analgesia After Cesarean Delivery: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Mohamed Mohamed; Mohamed, Yaser Mohamed; Elbadrawi, Rania Elmohamadi; Abdelkhalek, Mostafa; Mogahed, Maiseloon Mostafa; Ezz, Hanaa Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block and local anesthetic wound infiltration provide analgesia after cesarean delivery. Studies comparing the 2 techniques are scarce, with conflicting results. This double-blind, randomized controlled trial aimed to compare bilateral ultrasound-guided TAP block with single-shot local anesthetic wound infiltration for analgesia after cesarean delivery performed under spinal anesthesia. We hypothesized that the TAP block would decrease postoperative cumulative fentanyl consumption at 24 hours. Eligible subjects were American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status II parturients with full-term singleton pregnancies undergoing elective cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia. Exclusion criteria were: 40 years of age; height consumption at 24 hours. Secondary outcomes were the time to the first postoperative fentanyl dose, cumulative fentanyl consumption at 2, 4, 6, and 12 hours, pain scores at rest and on movement at 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours, the deepest level of sedation, the incidence of side effects (nausea and vomiting and pruritis), and patient satisfaction. Data from 78 patients (39 patients in each group) were analyzed. The mean ± SD of cumulative fentanyl consumption at 24 hours was 157.4 ± 63.4 μg in the infiltration group and 153.3 ± 68.3 μg in the TAP group (difference in means [95% confidence interval] is 4.1 [-25.6 to 33.8] μg; P = .8). There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in the time to the first postoperative fentanyl dose, cumulative fentanyl consumption at 2, 4, 6, and 12 hours, pain scores at rest and on movement at 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours, the deepest level of sedation, and patient satisfaction. The incidence of side effects (nausea and vomiting and pruritis) was low in the 2 groups. TAP block and wound infiltration did not significantly differ regarding postoperative fentanyl consumption, pain scores, and patient satisfaction in parturients undergoing cesarean delivery under

  15. Poly(ferrocenylsilane)-block-Polylactide Block Copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, M.; van Zanten, Thomas S.; Hempenius, Mark A.; Zhong, Zhiyuan; Feijen, Jan; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2007-01-01

    A PFS/PLA block copolymer was studied to probe the effect of strong surface interactions on pattern formation in PFS block copolymer thin films. Successful synthesis of PFS-b-PLA was demonstrated. Thin films of these polymers show phase separation to form PFS microdomains in a PLA matrix, and

  16. Block That Pain!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Block That Pain! Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of ... contrast, most pain relievers used for surgical procedures block activity in all types of neurons. This can ...

  17. Bundle Branch Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... known cause. Causes can include: Left bundle branch block Heart attacks (myocardial infarction) Thickened, stiffened or weakened ... myocarditis) High blood pressure (hypertension) Right bundle branch block A heart abnormality that's present at birth (congenital) — ...

  18. Generalized Block Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    Block tearing is considered in several codes as a pure block tension or a pure block shear failure mechanism. However in many situations the load acts eccentrically and involves the transfer of a substantial moment in combination with the shear force and perhaps a normal force. A literature study...... shows that no readily available tests with a well-defined substantial eccentricity have been performed. This paper presents theoretical and experimental work leading towards generalized block failure capacity methods. Simple combination of normal force, shear force and moment stress distributions along...... yield lines around the block leads to simple interaction formulas similar to other interaction formulas in the codes....

  19. Opioid-sparing effects of the thoracic interfascial plane blocks: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Preet Mohinder; Borle, Anuradha; Kaur, Manpreet; Trikha, Anjan; Sinha, Ashish

    2018-01-01

    Thoracic interfascial plane blocks and modification (PECS) have recently gained popularity for analgesic potential during breast surgery. We evaluate/consolidate the evidence on opioid-sparing effect of PECS blocks in comparison with conventional intravenous analgesia (IVA) and paravertebral block (PVB). Prospective, randomized controlled trials comparing PECS block to conventional IVA or PVB in patients undergoing breast surgery published till June 2017 were searched in the medical database. Comparisons were made for 24-h postoperative morphine consumption and intraoperative fentanyl-equivalent consumption. Final analysis included nine trials (PECS vs. IVA 4 trials and PECS vs. PVB 5 trials). PECS block showed a decreased intraoperative fentanyl consumption over IVA by 49.20 mcg (95% confidence interval [CI] =42.67-55.74) ( I 2 = 98.47%, P consumption with PECS block was lower than IVA by 7.66 mg (95% CI being 6.23-9.10) ( I 2 = 63.15, P < 0.001) but was higher than PVB group by 1.26 mg (95% CI being 0.91-1.62) ( I 2 = 99.53%, P < 0.001). Two cases of pneumothorax were reported with PVB, and no complication was reported in any other group. Use of PECS block and its modifications with general anesthesia for breast surgery has significant opioid-sparing effect intraoperatively and during the first 24 h after surgery. It also has higher intraoperative opioid-sparing effect when compared to PVB. During the 1 st postoperative day, PVB has slightly more morphine sparing potential that may however be associated with higher complication rates. The present PECS block techniques show marked interstudy variations and need standardization.

  20. Blocked Randomization with Randomly Selected Block Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Efird

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  1. 31 CFR 595.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 595.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked...

  2. Uso de toxina botulínica paravertebral para detener la progresión de escoliosis en pollos pinealectomizados: la columna vertebral como sistema de tensegridad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro González-Miranda

    Full Text Available Antecedentes y Objetivos. La escoliosis idiopática infantil no tiene un tratamiento satisfactorio que permita reducir la importante morbilidad y mortalidad asociada a los casos más severos y progresivos de la enfermedad. El desarrollo de procedimientos que puedan ralentizar la progresión de la enfermedad durante el desarrollo del niño puede influir favorablemente en el crecimiento y retrasar el tratamiento definitivo de la deformidad al momento de la madurez músculoesquelética. Presentamos un estudio sobre la influencia de la toxina botulínica en el desarrollo de deformidad en un modelo animal de escoliosis progresiva. Material y método. Utilizamos 52 pollos Broiler hembra, en los que se practicó pinealectomía para producir escoliosis. Comparamos la evolución de la deformidad entre un grupo control y un grupo intervención asignado a recibir toxina botulínica paravertebral en la concavidad de la curva, bajo control electromiográfico. Realizamos estudios radiográficos y anatomopatológicos de los animales para evaluar los resultados. El grado de escoliosis se midió utilizando el método del ángulo de Cobb. Resultados. Cinco animales no sobrevivieron al estudio (1 en el grupo control y 4 en el de intervención. En el grupo control observamos una deformidad media de 32.9º (n= 25 y en el grupo intervención de 18.8º (n=22, encontrando diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p < 0.05. Por tanto, la aplicación de toxina botulínica en la concavidad de la deformidad de pollos pinealectomizados frena la progresión de escoliosis. Conclusiones. La consideración de la columna vertebral y sus tejidos blandos asociados como una estructura de tensegridad puede explicar el fenómeno mediante el desequilibrio generado entre los componentes de tensión (músculos y ligamentos y compresión (vértebras que conforman el sistema. Estos resultados justifican nuevos estudios en investigación clínica para explorar una nueva alternativa

  3. Block Cipher Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miolane, Charlotte Vikkelsø

    ensurethat no attack violatesthe securitybounds specifiedbygeneric attack namely exhaustivekey search and table lookup attacks. This thesis contains a general introduction to cryptography with focus on block ciphers and important block cipher designs, in particular the Advanced Encryption Standard(AES...... on small scale variants of AES. In the final part of the thesis we present a new block cipher proposal Present and examine its security against algebraic and differential cryptanalysis in particular....

  4. The ultrasound-guided retrolaminar block: volume-dependent injectate distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjanovska M

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Marija Damjanovska,1 Tatjana Stopar Pintaric,1,2 Erika Cvetko,2 Kamen Vlassakov3 1Clinical Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Therapy, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia; 2Institute of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia; 3Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Purpose: The ultrasound-guided retrolaminar block is one of the newer and simpler alternatives to the traditional, often technically challenging, paravertebral (PV block. Its feasibility, safety, and efficacy have already been clinically demonstrated in patients with multiple rib fractures using higher volumes of local anesthetic, when compared with the traditional approach. The primary aim of this observational anatomical study was to assess the spread of local anesthetic from the retrolaminar injection point to the PV space and its volume dependence. Second, we assessed the incidence of epidural and contralateral PV spread in the both groups.Methods: Ten fresh porcine cadavers were randomized into 2 groups (n=5 each to receive ultrasound-guided retrolaminar injections at Th4-Th5 level with either 10 mL (low-volume group or 30 mL (high-volume group of 2% lidocaine and methylene blue mixture. After the procedure, the cadavers were dissected and frozen. Cross-section cuts (~1 cm thick were performed to evaluate the injectate spread.Results: In the high-volume group, injectate spread from the retrolaminar to the PV space was observed in all specimens (5 out of 5; 100%, while in the low-volume group, no apparent spread to the PV space was found (0 out of 5; 0%. No epidural or contralateral PV spread was observed in any of the specimens.Conclusion: Following ultrasound-guided retrolaminar injections in fresh porcine cadavers, injectate spread from the retrolaminar tissue plane to the PV space is strongly volume dependent

  5. Related Drupal Nodes Block

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegt, Wim

    2010-01-01

    Related Drupal Nodes Block This module exposes a block that uses Latent Semantic Analysis (Lsa) internally to suggest three nodes that are relevant to the node a user is viewing. This module performs three tasks. 1) It periodically indexes a Drupal site and generates a Lsa Term Document Matrix.

  6. Designers Block 2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickson, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Artiklen indleder med: ved siden aaf Londons etablerede designmesse '100% Design', er der vokset et undergrundsmiljø af designudstillinger op. Det dominerende og mest kendte initiativ er Designers Block, der i år udstillede to steder i byen. Designers Block er et mere uformelt udstillingsforum...

  7. Predictability of blocking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi, E.; Ruti, P.; Tibaldi, S.; D'Andrea, F.

    1994-01-01

    Tibaldi and Molteni (1990, hereafter referred to as TM) had previously investigated operational blocking predictability by the ECMWF model and the possible relationships between model systematic error and blocking in the winter season of the Northern Hemisphere, using seven years of ECMWF operational archives of analyses and day 1 to 10 forecasts. They showed that fewer blocking episodes than in the real atmosphere were generally simulated by the model, and that this deficiency increased with increasing forecast time. As a consequence of this, a major contribution to the systematic error in the winter season was shown to derive from the inability of the model to properly forecast blocking. In this study, the analysis performed in TM for the first seven winter seasons of the ECMWF operational model is extended to the subsequent five winters, during which model development, reflecting both resolution increases and parametrisation modifications, continued unabated. In addition the objective blocking index developed by TM has been applied to the observed data to study the natural low frequency variability of blocking. The ability to simulate blocking of some climate models has also been tested

  8. Efficacy and Safety of Ketamine Added to Local Anesthetic in Modified Pectoral Block for Management of Postoperative Pain in Patients Undergoing Modified Radical Mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Ahmed H; El-Rahman, Ahmad M Abd; El Sherif, Fatma

    2016-01-01

    Breast surgery is an exceedingly common procedure with an increased incidence of acute and chronic pain. Pectoral nerve block is a novel peripheral nerve block alternative to neuro-axial and paravertebral blocks for ambulatory breast surgeries. This study aims to compare the analgesic efficacy and safety of modified Pecs block with ketamine plus bupivacaine versus bupivacaine in patients undergoing breast cancer surgery. A randomized, double-blind, prospective study. Academic medical center. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov under number: (NCT02620371) after approval by the ethics committee of South Egypt Cancer Institute, Assuit University, Assuit, Egypt. Sixty patients aged 18 - 60 years scheduled for modified radical mastectomy were enrolled and randomly assigned into 2 groups (30 patients each): Control group patients were given ultrasound-guided, Pecs block with 30 mL of 0.25% bupivacaine only. Ketamine group patients were given ultrasound-guided, Pecs block with 30 mL of 0.25% bupivacaine plus ketamine hydrochloride (1 mg/kg). Patients were followed up for 48 hours postoperatively for vital signs, VAS score, first request of rescue analgesia and total morphine consumption, sedation score, and side effects. Ketamine plus bupivacaine in Pecs block compared to bupivacaine alone prolonged the mean time of first request of analgesia (18.25 ± 1.98), (12.56 ± 2.64), respectively (P 0.05). This study is limited by its sample size. The addition of ketamine to modified Pecs block prolonged the time to first request of analgesia and reduced total opioid consumption without serious side effects in patients who underwent a modified radical mastectomy. Ketamine, bupivacaine, pecs block, postoperative, pain, breast cancer.

  9. Pre- or postoperative interscalene block and/or general anesthesia for arthroscopic shoulder surgery: a retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Laura; Zhou, Cheng; Murdoch, John A C; Bicknell, Ryan; Hopman, Wilma M; Phelan, Rachel; Shyam, Vidur

    2017-10-01

    Arthroscopic shoulder surgery can be performed with an interscalene brachial plexus block (ISBPB) alone, ISBPB combined with general anesthesia (GA), or GA alone. Postoperative pain is typically managed with opioids; however, both GA and opioids have adverse effects which can delay discharge. This retrospective study compares the efficacy of four methods of anesthesia management for arthroscopic shoulder surgery. Charts of all patients who underwent shoulder surgery by a single surgeon from 2012-2015 were categorized by analgesic regimen: GA only (n = 177), single-shot ISBPB only (n = 124), or pre- vs postoperative ISBPB combined with GA (ISBPB + GA [n = 72] vs GA + ISBPB [n = 52], respectively). The primary outcome measure was the time to discharge from the postanesthesia care unit (PACU). Mean (SD) time in the PACU ranged from 70.5 (39.9) min for ISBPB only to 111.2 (56.9) min for GA only. Use of ISBPB in any combination and regardless of timing resulted in significantly reduced PACU time, with a mean drop of 27.2 min (95% confidence interval [CI], 17.3 to 37.2; P shoulder surgery are confirmed. Postoperative ISBPBs may also be beneficial for reducing pain and opioid requirements and could be targeted for patients in severe pain upon emergence. A sufficiently powered randomized-controlled trial could determine the relative efficacy, safety, and associated financial implications associated with each method.

  10. 31 CFR 594.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 594.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and...

  11. RX for Writer's Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Gail E.; Camp, Donna J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes four prewriting techniques that elementary and middle grade students can use to gather and organize ideas for writing, and by so doing, cure writer's block. Techniques discussed are: (1) brainstorming; (2) clustering; (3) freewriting; and (4) cubing.

  12. Block copolymer battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  13. Blocking in Category Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bott, Lewis; Hoffman, Aaron B.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2007-01-01

    Many theories of category learning assume that learning is driven by a need to minimize classification error. When there is no classification error, therefore, learning of individual features should be negligible. We tested this hypothesis by conducting three category learning experiments adapted from an associative learning blocking paradigm. Contrary to an error-driven account of learning, participants learned a wide range of information when they learned about categories, and blocking effe...

  14. Multi-modal-analgesia for pain management after Hallux Valgus surgery: a prospective randomised study on the effect of ankle block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Christer

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain and emesis are the two major complaints after day case surgery. Local anaesthesia has become an important part of optimizing intra and post-operative pain treatment, but is sometimes not entirely sufficient. The aim of the present study was to study the effect of adding an ankle block to a multi-modal analgesic approach on the first 24-hour-need for rescue analgesia in patients undergoing elective Hallux Valgus surgery. Type of study Prospective, randomized patient-blind study comparing ankle block with levo-bupivacaine, lidocaine and Saline placebo control. Methods Ninety patients were studied comparing ankle block (15 cc using levo-bupivacaine 2.5 mg/ml, lidocaine 10 mg/ml or placebo (saline on day-case elective Hallux Valgus surgery, supported by general anaesthesia in all cases. Primary study endpoint was number of patient's requiring oral analgesics during the first 24 post-operative hours. Results Ankle block had no effect on need for rescue analgesia and pain ratings during the 1st 24 postoperative hours, there was no difference seen between placebo and any of the two active local anaesthesia studied. The only differences seen was that both lidocaine and levo-bupivacaine reduced the intra-operative need for anaesthetic (sevoflurane and that levo-bupivacaine patients had a lower need as compared to the lidocaine patients for oral analgesics during the afternoon of surgery. Conclusion Adding a single shot ankle block to a multi-modal pain management strategy reduces the need for intra-operative anaesthesia but has no major impact of need of rescue analgesics or pain during the first 24-hour after surgery.

  15. Uniaxial backfill block compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskinen, V.

    2012-05-01

    The main parts of the project were: to make a literature survey of the previous uniaxial compaction experiments; do uniaxial compaction tests in laboratory scale; and do industrial scale production tests. Object of the project was to sort out the different factors affecting the quality assurance chain of the backfill block uniaxial production and solve a material sticking to mould problem which appeared during manufacturing the blocks of bentonite and cruched rock mixture. The effect of mineralogical and chemical composition on the long term functionality of the backfill was excluded from the project. However, the used smectite-rich clays have been tested for mineralogical consistency. These tests were done in B and Tech OY according their SOPs. The objective of the Laboratory scale tests was to find right material- and compaction parameters for the industrial scale tests. Direct comparison between the laboratory scale tests and industrial scale tests is not possible because the mould geometry and compaction speed has a big influence for the compaction process. For this reason the selected material parameters were also affected by the previous compaction experiments. The industrial scale tests were done in summer of 2010 in southern Sweden. Blocks were done with uniaxial compaction. A 40 tons of the mixture of bentonite and crushed rock blocks and almost 50 tons of Friedland-clay blocks were compacted. (orig.)

  16. Impression block with orientator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brilin, V I; Ulyanova, O S

    2015-01-01

    Tool review, namely the impression block, applied to check the shape and size of the top of fish as well as to determine the appropriate tool for fishing operation was realized. For multiple application and obtaining of the impress depth of 3 cm and more, the standard volumetric impression blocks with fix rods are used. However, the registered impress of fish is not oriented in space and the rods during fishing are in the extended position. This leads to rods deformation and sinking due to accidental impacts of impression block over the borehole irregularity and finally results in faulty detection of the top end of fishing object in hole. The impression blocks with copy rods and fixed magnetic needle allow estimating the object configuration and fix the position of magnetic needle determining the position of the top end of object in hole. However, the magnetic needle fixation is realized in staged and the rods are in extended position during fishing operations as well as it is in standard design. The most efficient tool is the impression block with copy rods which directs the examined object in the borehole during readings of magnetic needles data from azimuth plate and averaging of readings. This significantly increases the accuracy of fishing toll direction. The rods during fishing are located in the body and extended only when they reach the top of fishing object

  17. Integral-fuel blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, C.; Simpkin, S.D.

    1975-01-01

    A prismatic moderator block is described which has fuel-containing channels and coolant channels disposed parallel to each other and to edge faces of the block. The coolant channels are arranged in rows on an equilateral triangular lattice pattern and the fuel-containing channels are disposed in a regular lattice pattern with one fuel-containing channel between and equidistant from each of the coolant channels in each group of three mutually adjacent coolant channels. The edge faces of the block are parallel to the rows of coolant channels and the channels nearest to each edge face are disposed in two rows parallel thereto, with one of the rows containing only coolant channels and the other row containing only fuel-containing channels. (Official Gazette)

  18. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included...... in the Copenhagen City Heart Study examined in 1976-2003 free from previous myocardial infarction (MI), chronic heart failure, and left bundle branch block through registry linkage until 2009 for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular outcomes. The prevalence of RBBB/IRBBB was higher in men (1.4%/4.7% in men vs. 0.......5%/2.3% in women, P block was associated with significantly...

  19. ["Habitual" left branch block alternating with 2 "disguised" bracnch block].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy, S; Jullien, G; Mathieu, P; Mostefa, S; Gérard, R

    1976-10-01

    Two cases of alternating left bundle branch block and "masquerading block" (with left bundle branch morphology in the stnadard leads and right bundle branch block morphology in the precordial leads) were studied by serial tracings and his bundle electrocardiography. In case 1 "the masquerading" block was associated with a first degree AV block related to a prolongation of HV interval. This case is to our knowledge the first cas of alternating bundle branch block in which his bundle activity was recorded in man. In case 2, the patient had atrial fibrilation and His bundle recordings were performed while differents degrees of left bundle branch block were present: The mechanism of the alternation and the concept of "masquerading" block are discussed. It is suggested that this type of block represents a right bundle branch block associated with severe lesions of the "left system".

  20. E-Block: A Tangible Programming Tool with Graphical Blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Danli Wang; Yang Zhang; Shengyong Chen

    2013-01-01

    This paper designs a tangible programming tool, E-Block, for children aged 5 to 9 to experience the preliminary understanding of programming by building blocks. With embedded artificial intelligence, the tool defines the programming blocks with the sensors as the input and enables children to write programs to complete the tasks in the computer. The symbol on the programming block's surface is used to help children understanding the function of each block. The sequence information is transfer...

  1. Linoleum Block Printing Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetelat, Frank J.

    1980-01-01

    The author discusses practical considerations of teaching linoleum block printing in the elementary grades (tool use, materials, motivation) and outlines a sequence of design concepts in this area for the primary, intermediate and junior high grades. A short list of books and audiovisual aids is appended. (SJL)

  2. Spice Blocks Melanoma Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Curcumin, the pungent yellow spice found in both turmeric and curry powders, blocks a key biological pathway needed for development of melanoma and other cancers, according to a study that appears in the journal Cancer. Researchers from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center demonstrate how curcumin stops laboratory strains of…

  3. Contaminated soil concrete blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Korte, A.C.J.; Brouwers, Jos; Limbachiya, Mukesh C.; Kew, Hsein Y.

    2009-01-01

    According to Dutch law the contaminated soil needs to be remediated or immobilised. The main focus in this article is the design of concrete blocks, containing contaminated soil, that are suitable for large production, financial feasible and meets all technical and environmental requirements. In

  4. Abdominal wall blocks in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børglum, Jens; Gögenür, Ismail; Bendtsen, Thomas F

    2016-01-01

    been introduced with success. Future research should also investigate the effect of specific abdominal wall blocks on neuroendocrine and inflammatory stress response after surgery.  Summary USG abdominal wall blocks in adults are commonplace techniques today. Most abdominal wall blocks are assigned......Purpose of review Abdominal wall blocks in adults have evolved much during the last decade; that is, particularly with the introduction of ultrasound-guided (USG) blocks. This review highlights recent advances of block techniques within this field and proposes directions for future research.......  Recent findings Ultrasound guidance is now considered the golden standard for abdominal wall blocks in adults, even though some landmark-based blocks are still being investigated. The efficiency of USG transversus abdominis plane blocks in relation to many surgical procedures involving the abdominal wall...

  5. SNUPPS power block engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, C A [Bechtel Power Corp., San Francisco, Calif. (USA)

    1975-11-01

    The Standard Power Block is based on a modular concept and consists of the following: turbine building, auxiliary building, fuel building, control building, radwaste building, diesel generators building, and outside storage tanks and transformers. Each power block unit includes a Westinghouse pressurized water reactor and has a thermal power rating of 3425 MW(t). The corresponding General Electric turbine generator net electrical output is 1188 MW(e). This standardization approach results in not only a reduction in the costs of engineering, licensing, procurement, and project planning, but should also result in additional savings by the application of experience gained in the construction of the first unit to the following units and early input of construction data to design.

  6. Change Around the Block?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Joey

    2017-04-01

    Proponents of a block grant or per-capita cap trumpet them as vehicles for the federal government to give the states a capped amount of funding for Medicaid that legislatures would effectively distribute how they see fit. Questions abound as to what capped Medicaid funding would look like, and what effect it would have on the current Medicaid-eligible population, covered services, and physician payments.

  7. SUPERFICIAL CERVICAL PLEXUS BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Mega Puspadisari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superficial cervical plexus block is one of the regional anesthesia in  neck were limited to thesuperficial fascia. Anesthesia is used to relieve pain caused either during or after the surgery iscompleted. This technique can be done by landmark or with ultrasound guiding. The midpointof posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoid was identified and the prosedure done on thatplace or on the level of cartilage cricoid.

  8. E-Block: A Tangible Programming Tool with Graphical Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danli Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper designs a tangible programming tool, E-Block, for children aged 5 to 9 to experience the preliminary understanding of programming by building blocks. With embedded artificial intelligence, the tool defines the programming blocks with the sensors as the input and enables children to write programs to complete the tasks in the computer. The symbol on the programming block's surface is used to help children understanding the function of each block. The sequence information is transferred to computer by microcomputers and then translated into semantic information. The system applies wireless and infrared technologies and provides user with feedbacks on both screen and programming blocks. Preliminary user studies using observation and user interview methods are shown for E-Block's prototype. The test results prove that E-Block is attractive to children and easy to learn and use. The project also highlights potential advantages of using single chip microcomputer (SCM technology to develop tangible programming tools for children.

  9. Block and sub-block boundary strengthening in lath martensite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, C.; Hoefnagels, J.P.M.; Vaes, R.; Geers, M.G.D.

    2016-01-01

    Well-defined uniaxial micro-tensile tests were performed on lath martensite single block specimens and multi-block specimens with different number of block boundaries parallel to the loading direction. Detailed slip trace analyses consistently revealed that in the {110}<111> slip system with the

  10. Habitat Blocks and Wildlife Corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Habitat blocks are areas of contiguous forest and other natural habitats that are unfragmented by roads, development, or agriculture. Vermonts habitat blocks are...

  11. Atrioventricular block, ECG tracing (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an abnormal rhythm (arrhythmia) called an atrioventricular (AV) block. P waves show that the top of the ... wave (and heart contraction), there is an atrioventricular block, and a very slow pulse (bradycardia).

  12. Does intravenous ketamine enhance analgesia after arthroscopic shoulder surgery with ultrasound guided single-injection interscalene block?: a randomized, prospective, double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jae Hee; Kim, Youn Jin; Baik, Hee Jung; Han, Jong In; Chung, Rack Kyung

    2014-07-01

    Ketamine has anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antihyperalgesic effect and prevents pain associated with wind-up. We investigated whether low doses of ketamine infusion during general anesthesia combined with single-shot interscalene nerve block (SSISB) would potentiate analgesic effect of SSISB. Forty adult patients scheduled for elective arthroscopic shoulder surgery were enrolled and randomized to either the control group or the ketamine group. All patients underwent SSISB and followed by general anesthesia. During an operation, intravenous ketamine was infused to the patients of ketamine group continuously. In control group, patients received normal saline in volumes equivalent to ketamine infusions. Pain score by numeric rating scale was similar between groups at 1, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hr following surgery, which was maintained lower than 3 in both groups. The time to first analgesic request after admission on post-anesthesia care unit was also not significantly different between groups. Intraoperative low dose ketamine did not decrease acute postoperative pain after arthroscopic shoulder surgery with a preincisional ultrasound guided SSISB. The preventive analgesic effect of ketamine could be mitigated by SSISB, which remains one of the most effective methods of pain relief after arthroscopic shoulder surgery.

  13. Fermion-scalar conformal blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iliesiu, Luca [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University,Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Kos, Filip [Department of Physics, Yale University,217 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Poland, David [Department of Physics, Yale University,217 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Dr, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Pufu, Silviu S. [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University,Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Simmons-Duffin, David [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Dr, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Yacoby, Ran [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University,Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-04-13

    We compute the conformal blocks associated with scalar-scalar-fermion-fermion 4-point functions in 3D CFTs. Together with the known scalar conformal blocks, our result completes the task of determining the so-called ‘seed blocks’ in three dimensions. Conformal blocks associated with 4-point functions of operators with arbitrary spins can now be determined from these seed blocks by using known differential operators.

  14. Powder wastes confinement block and manufacturing process of this block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagot, L.; Brunel, G.

    1996-01-01

    This invention concerns a powder wastes containment block and a manufacturing process of this block. In this block, the waste powder is encapsulated in a thermo hardening polymer as for example an epoxy resin, the encapsulated resin being spread into cement. This block can contain between 45 and 55% in mass of wastes, between 18 and 36% in mass of polymer and between 14 and 32% in mass of cement. Such a containment block can be used for the radioactive wastes storage. (O.M.). 4 refs

  15. Building Curriculum during Block Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Blocks are not just for play! In this article, Nicole Andrews describes observing the interactions of three young boys enthusiastically engaged in the kindergarten block center of their classroom, using blocks in a building project that displayed their ability to use critical thinking skills, physics exploration, and the development of language…

  16. Isotope heating block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenk, E.

    1976-01-01

    A suggestion is made not to lead the separated nuclear 'waste' from spent nuclear fuel elements directly to end storage, but to make use of the heat produced from the remaining radiation, e.g. for seawater desalination. According to the invention, the activated fission products are to be processed, e.g. by calcination or vitrification, so that one can handle them. They should then be arranged in layers alternately with plate-shaped heat conducting pipes to form a homogeneous block; the heat absorbed by the thermal plates should be further passed on to evaporators or heat exchangers. (UWI) [de

  17. Blocking the Hawking radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autzen, M.; Kouvaris, C.

    2014-01-01

    grows after its formation (and eventually destroys the star) instead of evaporating. The fate of the black hole is dictated by the two opposite mechanics, i.e., accretion of nuclear matter from the center of the star and Hawking radiation that tends to decrease the mass of the black hole. We study how...... the assumptions for the accretion rate can in fact affect the critical mass beyond which a black hole always grows. We also study to what extent degenerate nuclear matter can impede Hawking radiation due to the fact that emitted particles can be Pauli blocked at the core of the star....

  18. LITGS: a new technique for single shot temperature and fuel concentration measurements in turbulent combusting environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantoni, Roberta; Giorgi, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione; De Risi, A.; Laforgia, D. [Lecce Univ., Lecce (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    In the present study the possibility to apply time resolved Laser Induced Thermal Grating Spectroscopy (LITGS) to detect fuel concentration and temperature in mixtures and flames at atmospheric pressure or higher is investigated. The resonant IR single photon absorption of two short pulse pump beams is used to initially generate a population grating, decaying into a thermal grating due to relaxation processes in the gas mixture. The thermal grating evolution is followed by monitoring the scattered signal of a cw visible probe beam after the end of the pump pulse. The use of the IR optical transition of diesel fuel assured a high species selectivity and a negligible influence of the visible emission background due to the presence of electronically excited species in flames. Fuel concentration and temperature measurements in a pressurized cell, with pressure ranging between 0.1 an 1.5 MPa, and in a diffusion turbulent flame generated by a burner feed with diesel fuel operating at atmospheric pressure are presented. The experimental investigation shows that LITGS signal increase linearly with gas density. This characteristic makes LITGS a very interesting technique for fuel distribution and temperature measurements in hostile (high-pressure and turbulent flow) environments. Detection limit for diesel fuel at atmospheric pressure is found to be about 40 ppm and it decreases with the increase of the pressure. The low detection limit which can be reached makes this technique suitable also for monitoring minor species and radicals. [Italian] Nel presente studio si investiga la possibilita' di applicare la tecnica LITGS (Laser Induced Thermal Grating Spectroscopy) per misurare la concentrazione e la temperatura di carburante in miscele e fiamme a pressiona atmosferica o superiore. L'assorbimento risonante di un singolo fotone IR proveniente da uno dei due laser impulsati di pompa e' utilizzato per generare inizialmente un reticolo di popolazione, che decade successivamente in un reticolo termico a causa dei processi di rilassamento nella miscela gassosa. L'evoluzione del reticolo termico e' seguita monitorando il segnale diffuso da un fascio laser cw di probe alla fine degli impulsi di pompa. L'uso delle transizioni ottiche nell'IR per il carburante diesel assicura sia un'alta selettivita per le specie presenti che una trascurabile influenza del fondo di emissione visibile dovuto alla presenza di intermedi elettronicamente eccitati nelle fiamme. Vengono qui presentate le misure di concentrazione e temperatura eseguite in una cella pressurizzata, a pressione variabile tra 0.1 e 1.5 MPa, ed in una fiamma a diffussione turbolenta generata da un bruciatore alimentato con combustibile diesel e operante a pressione atmosferica. L'analisi dei dati sperimentali mostra che il segnale LITGS aumenta linearmente con la densita' del gas. Cio' rende la tecnica particolarmente interessante per misure di temperatura e di distribuzione di carburante in ambienti ostili (alte pressioni, flussi turbolenti). Il limite di rivelazione trovato per il combustibile diesel a pressione atmosferica e' risultato essere pari a 40 ppmm, decrescendo ulteriormente all'aumentare della pressione. La tecnica, raggiungendo limiti di rivelazione estremamente bassi, sarebbe adatta anche per la rivelazione di radicali e di specie minori nelle fiamme.

  19. Single-shot beam-position monitor for x-ray free electron laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tono, Kensuke; Kudo, Togo; Yabashi, Makina; Tachibana, Takeshi; Feng, Yiping; Fritz, David; Hastings, Jerome; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2011-02-01

    We have developed an x-ray beam-position monitor for detecting the radiation properties of an x-ray free electron laser (FEL). It is composed of four PIN photodiodes that detect backscattered x-rays from a semitransparent diamond film placed in the beam path. The signal intensities from the photodiodes are used to compute the beam intensity and position. A proof-of-principle experiment at a synchrotron light source revealed that the error in the beam position is reduced to below 7 μm by using a nanocrystal diamond film prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Owing to high dose tolerance and transparency of the diamond film, the monitor is suitable for routine diagnostics of extremely intense x-ray pulses from the FEL.

  20. Single shot of 17D vaccine may not confer life-long protection against yellow fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Pedro Fc

    2018-02-01

    The yellow fever (YF) vaccine has been used since the 1930s to prevent YF, which is a severe infectious disease caused by the yellow fever virus (YFV), and mainly transmitted by Culicidae mosquitoes from the genera Aedes and Haemagogus . Until 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended the administration of a vaccine dose every ten years. A new recommendation of a single vaccine dose to confer life-long protection against YFV infection has since been established. Recent evidence published elsewhere suggests that at least a second dose is needed to fully protect against YF disease. Here, we discuss the feasibility of administering multiple doses, the necessity for a new and modern vaccine, and recommend that the WHO conveys a meeting to discuss YFV vaccination strategies for people living in or travelling to endemic areas.

  1. Simple and Reproducible Sample Preparation for Single-Shot Phosphoproteomics with High Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jersie-Christensen, Rosa R.; Sultan, Abida; Olsen, Jesper V

    2016-01-01

    The traditional sample preparation workflow for mass spectrometry (MS)-based phosphoproteomics is time consuming and usually requires multiple steps, e.g., lysis, protein precipitation, reduction, alkylation, digestion, fractionation, and phosphopeptide enrichment. Each step can introduce chemical...... artifacts, in vitro protein and peptide modifications, and contaminations. Those often result in sample loss and affect the sensitivity, dynamic range and accuracy of the mass spectrometric analysis. Here we describe a simple and reproducible phosphoproteomics protocol, where lysis, denaturation, reduction......, and alkylation are performed in a single step, thus reducing sample loss and increasing reproducibility. Moreover, unlike standard cell lysis procedures the cell harvesting is performed at high temperatures (99 °C) and without detergents and subsequent need for protein precipitation. Phosphopeptides are enriched...

  2. A megajoule class krypton fluoride amplifier for single shot, high gain ICF application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, E.; Hanson, D.; Krohn, B.; McLeod, J.; Kang, M.

    1988-01-01

    A design study is underway to define the optimal architecture for a KrF laser system which will deliver 10 MJ of 248-nm light to an ICF target. We present one approach which incorporates final power amplifiers in the megajoule class, achieving 10 MJ with four final amplifiers. Each double-pass laser amplifier employs two-sided electron-beam pumping of the laser gas medium. Details of the design are based on a Monte-Carlo electron-beam deposition code, a one-dimensional, time-dependent kinetics code, and pulsed power circuit modeling. Linear dimensions of the amplifier's extracted gain volume are 6.25 m in height and length and 5.12 m in width. Each amplifier handles 160 angularly multiplexed laser channels. The one-amagat, krypton-rich laser medium is e-beam pumped at 60-kW cm/sup /minus/3/ (4-MA at3.3-MV) over the 2-microsecond duration of the laser beam pulse train. 5 refs., 4 figs

  3. Single-Shot Readout of a Superconducting Qubit using a Josephson Parametric Oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-11

    system and ap- ply a strong drive tone, such that the resonator enters a bistable regime, hence enhancing the detection con- trast [10–14]. In this paper ...fidelity of 98.7 ± 1.2%, taking into account known and reparable errors due to qubit initial- isation and decoherence (17.2 ± 1.2 %). A realistically...ωr ≈ ωp/2, which is a practical advantage since it makes the resonator’s entire instantaneous bandwidth available for amplification with no need to

  4. Symptomatic hepatic cyst in a child: treatment with single-shot injection of tetracycline hydrochloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrizzi, Giancarlo; Lanza, Cecilia; Bolli, Valeria; Pieroni, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of hepatic cysts is 0.1% to 0.5% based on autopsy studies, and 2.5% based on US examinations. Percutaneous therapies are a new alternative to surgery. They include simple percutaneous aspiration, catheter drainage alone, and catheter drainage with sclerotherapy. We present an 11-year-old boy admitted to hospital because of abdominal pain. A diagnosis of simple hepatic cyst was made, which was treated with aspiration and tetracycline hydrochloride solution (5%) injection into the cystic cavity. Complete regression was seen on US and MRI examination at 3 months, with total collapse and deflation of the cyst. The cyst regressed totally, leaving a hyperechoic linear scar on US examination at 1 year. On the basis of the clinical and imaging results obtained, percutaneous sclerotherapy of hepatic cysts can be recommended as the treatment of choice and as a valid alternative to laparoscopy in children. (orig.)

  5. UV-Vis as quantification tool for solubilized lignin following a single-shot steam process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Roland A; Bédard, Charles; Berberi, Véronique; Beauchet, Romain; Lavoie, Jean-Michel

    2013-09-01

    In this short communication, UV/Vis was used as an analytical tool for the quantification of lignin concentrations in aqueous mediums. A significant correlation was determined between absorbance and concentration of lignin in solution. For this study, lignin was produced from different types of biomasses (willow, aspen, softwood, canary grass and hemp) using steam processes. Quantification was performed at 212, 225, 237, 270, 280 and 287 nm. UV-Vis quantification of lignin was found suitable for different types of biomass making this a timesaving analytical system that could lead to uses as Process Analytical Tool (PAT) in biorefineries utilizing steam processes or comparable approaches. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Parametric study on single shot peening by dimensional analysis method incorporated with finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xian-Qian; Wang, Xi; Wei, Yan-Peng; Song, Hong-Wei; Huang, Chen-Guang

    2012-06-01

    Shot peening is a widely used surface treatment method by generating compressive residual stress near the surface of metallic materials to increase fatigue life and resistance to corrosion fatigue, cracking, etc. Compressive residual stress and dent profile are important factors to evaluate the effectiveness of shot peening process. In this paper, the influence of dimensionless parameters on maximum compressive residual stress and maximum depth of the dent were investigated. Firstly, dimensionless relations of processing parameters that affect the maximum compressive residual stress and the maximum depth of the dent were deduced by dimensional analysis method. Secondly, the influence of each dimensionless parameter on dimensionless variables was investigated by the finite element method. Furthermore, related empirical formulas were given for each dimensionless parameter based on the simulation results. Finally, comparison was made and good agreement was found between the simulation results and the empirical formula, which shows that a useful approach is provided in this paper for analyzing the influence of each individual parameter.

  7. A second-order autocorrelator for single-shot measurement of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    from a passively mode-locked, diode pumped Nd:glass laser. It can also be used for measurement of ... different mode-locking techniques (Liu et al 1992; Bilinsky et al 1998). Amplification of ..... IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-28: 2097–2122.

  8. Experimental results from CEM-UTS single shot 9 mj railgun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, R.J.; Zowarka, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    The Center for Electromechanics at the University of Texas at Austin (CEM-UT) has designed and fabricated a 10-m long 90 mm bore railgun. During the test program, a number of solid armatures and projectile packages have been tested in a 50 m deep vertical test range. The experiments are powered by six homopolar generator (HPG) charged inductive stores, sequentially staged to provide the desired acceleration profile. Prior to testing, computer simulations are run to determine the preferred current profile and predict system performance. During projectile flight, high speed films, x-rays, muzzle volts, and velocity/acceleration profiles are recorded along with power supply operating parameters. Postshot diagnostics include bore wear analysis and armature and target recovery. Comparisons of predicted and recorded shot performance are also made. On selected tests, an energy balance is performed to determine efficiencies of the various system components. In this paper, a summary of all 90 mm gun shots is presented along with critical data collected from selected tests

  9. Comparing SiGe HBT Amplifier Circuits for Fast Single-shot Spin Readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Troy; Curry, Matthew; Carr, Stephen; Mounce, Andrew; Jock, Ryan; Sharma, Peter; Bureau-Oxton, Chloe; Rudolph, Martin; Hardin, Terry; Carroll, Malcolm

    Fast, low-power quantum state readout is one of many challenges facing quantum information processing. Single electron transistors (SETs) are potentially fast, sensitive detectors for performing spin readout. From a circuit perspective, however, their output impedance and nonlinear conductance are ill suited to drive the parasitic capacitance of coaxial conductors used in cryogenic environments, necessitating a cryogenic amplification stage. We will compare two amplifiers based on single-transistor circuits implemented with silicon germanium heterojunction bipolar transistors. Both amplifiers provide gain at low power levels, but the dynamics of each circuit vary significantly. We will explore the gain mechanisms, linearity, and noise of each circuit and explain the situations in which each amplifier is best used. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  10. EXPERIMENTAL TARGET INJECTION AND TRACKING SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION AND SINGLE SHOT TESTING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PETZOLDT, R.W.; ALEXANDER, N.B.; DRAKE, T.J.; GOODIN, D.T; JONESTRACK, K; VERMILLION, B.A

    2003-01-01

    Targets must be injected into an IFE power plant at a rate of approximately 5 to 10 Hz. Targets must be tracked very accurately to allow driver beams to be aligned with defined points on the targets with accuracy ± 150 (micro)m for indirect drive and ± 20 (micro)m for direct drive. An experimental target injection and tracking system has been constructed at General Atomics. The injector system will be used as a tool for testing the survivability of various target designs and provide feedback to the target designers. Helium gas propels the targets down an 8 m gun barrel up to 400 m/s. Direct-drive targets are protected in the barrel by sabots that are spring loaded to separate into two halves after acceleration. A sabot deflector directs the sabot halves away from the target injection path. Targets will be optically tracked with laser beams and line-scan cameras. Target position and arrival time will be predicted in real time based on early target position measurements. The system installation will be described. System testing to overcome excessive projectile wear and debris in the gun barrel is presented

  11. Development of single shot 1D-Raman scattering measurements for flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biase, Amelia; Uddi, Mruthunjaya

    2017-11-01

    The majority of energy consumption in the US comes from burning fossil fuels which increases the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The increasing concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has negative impacts on the environment. One solution to this problem is to study the oxy-combustion process. A pure oxygen stream is used instead of air for combustion. Products contain only carbon dioxide and water. It is easy to separate water from carbon dioxide by condensation and the carbon dioxide can be captured easily. Lower gas volume allows for easier removal of pollutants from the flue gas. The design of a system that studies the oxy-combustion process using advanced laser diagnostic techniques and Raman scattering measurements is presented. The experiments focus on spontaneous Raman scattering. This is one of the few techniques that can provide quantitative measurements of the concentration and temperature of different chemical species in a turbulent flow. The experimental design and process of validating the design to ensure the data is accurate is described. The Raman data collected form an experimental data base that is used for the validation of spontaneous Raman scattering in high pressure environments for the oxy-combustion process. NSF EEC 1659710.

  12. Single-shot color fringe projection for three-dimensional shape measurement of objects with discontinuities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Meiling; Yang, Fujun; He, Xiaoyuan

    2012-04-20

    A simple but effective fringe projection profilometry is proposed to measure 3D shape by using one snapshot color sinusoidal fringe pattern. One color fringe pattern encoded with a sinusoidal fringe (as red component) and one uniform intensity pattern (as blue component) is projected by a digital video projector, and the deformed fringe pattern is recorded by a color CCD camera. The captured color fringe pattern is separated into its RGB components and division operation is applied to red and blue channels to reduce the variable reflection intensity. Shape information of the tested object is decoded by applying an arcsine algorithm on the normalized fringe pattern with subpixel resolution. In the case of fringe discontinuities caused by height steps, or spatially isolated surfaces, the separated blue component is binarized and used for correcting the phase demodulation. A simple and robust method is also introduced to compensate for nonlinear intensity response of the digital video projector. The experimental results demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

  13. Clinical methods for single-shot instant MR imaging of the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.S.; Weisskoff, R.; Rzedzian, R.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have compared cardiac protocols for instant MR methods that acquire complete images in 32 msec. Four protocols are compared: continuous scanning at a fixed TR with retrospective reordering; pseudogating by using a TR 50 msec greater than the R-R interval; progressive time delay (PTD), in which the delay from the R wave is electronically advanced; and real-time (RT) imaging at 16 images/sec, which enabled complete movies to be obtained in a single heartbeat. Spin-echo techniques have been used for the first three protocols; the RT method used gradient echoes

  14. Single shot damage mechanism of Mo/Si multilayer optics under intense pulsed XUV-exposure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khorsand, A.R.; Sobierajski, R.; Louis, E.; Bruijn, S.; van Hattum, E.D.; van de Kruijs, R.W.E.; Jurek, M.; Klinger, D.; Pelka, J. B.; Juha, Libor; Burian, Tomáš; Chalupský, Jaromír; Cihelka, Jaroslav; Hájková, Věra; Vyšín, Luděk; Jastrow, U.; Stojanovic, N.; Toleikis, S.; Wabnitz, H.; Tiedtke, K.; Sokolowski-Tinten, K.; Shymanovich, U.; Krzywinski, J.; Hau-Riege, S.; London, R.; Gleeson, A.; Gullikson, E.M.; Bijkerk, F.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2010), 700-712 ISSN 1094-4087 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN300100702; GA MŠk LC510; GA MŠk(CZ) LC528; GA MŠk LA08024; GA AV ČR IAA400100701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : laser damage * thermal effects * multilayers * optical design and fabrication * free-electron lasers Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.749, year: 2010

  15. Ultrafast Holographic Image Recording by Single Shot Femtosecond Spectral Hole Burning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rebane, Aleksander

    2001-01-01

    .... This allowed us to record image holograms with 150-fs duration pulses without need to accumulate the SHB effect from many exposures. Results of this research show that it is possible to perform optical recording of data in frequency-domain on ultrafast time scale. These results can be used also as a new diagnostic tool for femtosecond dynamics in various ultrafast optical interactions.

  16. Single-shot speckle reduction in numerical reconstruction of digitally recorded holograms: comment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maycock, Jonathan; Hennelly, Bryan; McDonald, John

    2015-09-01

    We comment on a recent Letter by Hincapie et al. [Opt. Lett.40, 1623 (2015)], in which the authors proposed a method to reduce the speckle noise in digital holograms. This method was previously published by us in Maycock ["Improving reconstructions of digital holograms," Ph.D. thesis (National University of Ireland, 2012)] and Maycock and Hennelly [Improving Reconstructions of Digital Holograms: Speckle Reduction and Occlusions in Digital Holography (Lambert Academic, 2014)]. We also wish to highlight an important limitation of the method resulting from the superposition of different perspectives of the object/scene, which was not addressed in their Letter.

  17. Curing dynamics of photopolymers measured by single-shot heterodyne transient grating method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Mika; Fujii, Tomomi; Inoue, Hayato; Kuwahara, Shota; Katayama, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    The heterodyne transient grating (HD-TG) method was first applied to the curing dynamics measurement of photopolymers. The curing dynamics for various monomers including an initiator (2.5 vol%) was monitored optically via the refractive index change after a single UV pulse irradiation. We could obtain the polymerization time and the final change in the refractive index, and the parameters were correlated with the viscosity, molecular structure, and reaction sites. As the polymerization time was longer, the final refractive change was larger, and the polymerization time was explained in terms of the monomer properties.

  18. Reliability Assessment of a Single-Shot System by Use of Screen Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    I owe a tremendous debt of gratitude to her for her guidance and support during the publication of the journal’s inaugural issue. I am grateful for...Journal of DoD Research & Engineering (JDR&E) would like to extend our sincere gratitude to the authors from U.S. Army Armament Research...debt of gratitude to ARDEC senior scientist, Dr. Don Carlucci, for his assistance and unwavering support of our mission. We deeply appreciate the

  19. A Convolution Tree with Deconvolution Branches: Exploiting Geometric Relationships for Single Shot Keypoint Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Amit; Chellappa, Rama

    2017-01-01

    Recently, Deep Convolution Networks (DCNNs) have been applied to the task of face alignment and have shown potential for learning improved feature representations. Although deeper layers can capture abstract concepts like pose, it is difficult to capture the geometric relationships among the keypoints in DCNNs. In this paper, we propose a novel convolution-deconvolution network for facial keypoint detection. Our model predicts the 2D locations of the keypoints and their individual visibility ...

  20. Astronomy in Denver: Probing Interstellar Circular Polarization with Polvis, a Full Stokes Single Shot Polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Tristan; Stencel, Robert E.

    2018-06-01

    Measurements of optical circular polarization (Stokes V) introduced by dust grains in the ISM are important for two main reasons. First of all, the polarization itself contains information about the metallic versus dielectric composition of the dust grains themselves (H. C. van de Hulst 1957, textbook). Additionally, circular polarization can help constrain the interstellar component of the polarization of any source that may have intrinsic polarization, which needs to be calibrated for astrophysical study. Though interstellar circular polarization has been observed (P. G. Martin 1972, MNRAS 159), most broadband measurements of ISM polarization include linear polarization only (Stokes Q and U), due to the relatively low circular polarization signal and the added instrumentation complexity of including V-measurement capability. Prior circular polarization measurements have also received very little follow-up in the past several decades, even as polarimeters have become more accurate due to advances in technology. The University of Denver is pursuing these studies with POLVIS, a prototype polarimeter that utilizes a stress-engineered optic ("SEO", A. K. Spilman and T. G. Brown 2007, Applied Optics IP 46) to produce polarization-dependent PSFs (A. M. Beckley and T. G. Brown 2010, Proc SPIE 7570). These PSFs are analyzed to provide simultaneous Stokes I, Q, U, and V measurements, in a single beam and single image, along the line-of-sight to point source-like objects. Polvis is the first polarimeter to apply these optics and measurement techniques for astronomical observations. We present the first results of this instrument in B, V, and R wavebands, providing a fresh look at full Stokes interstellar polarization. Importantly, this set of efforts will constrain the ISM contribution to the polarization with respect to intrinsic stellar components. The authors are grateful to the estate of William Herschel Womble for the support of astronomy at the University of Denver, and for funding provided by the Mt. Cuba Astronomical Foundation.

  1. Single-shot, high-dose rabbit ATG for rejection prophylaxis after kidney transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Zietse (Bob); E.P.M. van Steenberge (E. P M); C.J. Hesse (Cees); L.B. Vaessen (L.); J.N.M. IJzermans (Jan); W. Weimar (Willem)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractWe studied the effects of a single intravenous injection of rabbit ATG (RIVM, Bilthoven, The Netherlands) in a dose of 8 mg/kg body weight administered 6 h after kidney transplantation on graft survival, rejection incidence, T-cell subsets, and cost-effectiveness. A total of 58 (37

  2. Tabletop single-shot extreme ultraviolet Fourier transform holography of an extended object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, Erik B; Monserud, Nils C; Brown, Christopher G; Wachulak, Przemyslaw W; Xu, Huiwen; Balakrishnan, Ganesh; Chao, Weilun; Anderson, Erik; Marconi, Mario C

    2013-04-22

    We demonstrate single and multi-shot Fourier transform holography with the use of a tabletop extreme ultraviolet laser. The reference wave was produced by a Fresnel zone plate with a central opening that allowed the incident beam to illuminate the sample directly. The high reference wave intensity allows for larger objects to be imaged compared to mask-based lensless Fourier transform holography techniques. We obtain a spatial resolution of 169 nm from a single laser pulse and a resolution of 128 nm from an accumulation of 20 laser pulses for an object ~11x11μm(2) in size. This experiment utilized a tabletop extreme ultraviolet laser that produces a highly coherent ~1.2 ns laser pulse at 46.9 nm wavelength.

  3. A standard graphite block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivkovic, M; Zdravkovic, Z; Sotic, O [Department of Reactor Physics and Dynamics, Boris Kidric Institute of nuclear sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1966-04-15

    A graphite block was calibrated for the thermal neutron flux of the Ra-Be source using indium foils as detectors. Experimental values of the thermal neutron flux along the central vertical axis of the system were corrected for the self-shielding effect and depression of flux in the detector. The experimental values obtained were compared with the values calculated on the basis of solving the conservation neutron equation by the continuous slowing-down theory. In this theoretical calculation of the flux the Ra-Be source was divided into three resonance energy regions. The measurement of the thermal neutron diffusion length in the standard graphite block is described. The measurements were performed in the thermal neutron region of the system. The experimental results were interpreted by the diffusion theory for point thermal neutron source in the finite system. The thermal neutron diffusion length was calculated to be L= 50.9 {+-}3.1 cm for the following graphite characteristics: density = 1.7 g/cm{sup 3}; boron content = 0.1 ppm; absorption cross section = 3.7 mb.

  4. A standard graphite block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivkovic, M.; Zdravkovic, Z.; Sotic, O.

    1966-04-01

    A graphite block was calibrated for the thermal neutron flux of the Ra-Be source using indium foils as detectors. Experimental values of the thermal neutron flux along the central vertical axis of the system were corrected for the self-shielding effect and depression of flux in the detector. The experimental values obtained were compared with the values calculated on the basis of solving the conservation neutron equation by the continuous slowing-down theory. In this theoretical calculation of the flux the Ra-Be source was divided into three resonance energy regions. The measurement of the thermal neutron diffusion length in the standard graphite block is described. The measurements were performed in the thermal neutron region of the system. The experimental results were interpreted by the diffusion theory for point thermal neutron source in the finite system. The thermal neutron diffusion length was calculated to be L= 50.9 ±3.1 cm for the following graphite characteristics: density = 1.7 g/cm 3 ; boron content = 0.1 ppm; absorption cross section = 3.7 mb

  5. The wild tapered block bootstrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounyo, Ulrich

    In this paper, a new resampling procedure, called the wild tapered block bootstrap, is introduced as a means of calculating standard errors of estimators and constructing confidence regions for parameters based on dependent heterogeneous data. The method consists in tapering each overlapping block...... of the series first, the applying the standard wild bootstrap for independent and heteroscedastic distrbuted observations to overlapping tapered blocks in an appropriate way. Its perserves the favorable bias and mean squared error properties of the tapered block bootstrap, which is the state-of-the-art block......-order asymptotic validity of the tapered block bootstrap as well as the wild tapered block bootstrap approximation to the actual distribution of the sample mean is also established when data are assumed to satisfy a near epoch dependent condition. The consistency of the bootstrap variance estimator for the sample...

  6. Photovoltaic building blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanberg, Peter Jesper; Jørgensen, Anders Michael

    2014-01-01

    efficiency of about 15% for commercial Silicon solar cells there is still much to gain. DTU Danchip provides research facilities, equipment and expertise for the building blocks that comprises fabricating the efficient solar cell. In order to get more of the sun light into the device we provide thin film......Photovoltaics (PV), better known as solar cells, are now a common day sight on many rooftops in Denmark.The installed capacity of PV systems worldwide is growing exponentially1 and is the third most importantrenewable energy source today. The cost of PV is decreasing fast with ~10%/year but to make...... it directcompetitive with fossil energy sources a further reduction is needed. By increasing the efficiency of the solar cells one gain an advantage through the whole chain of cost. So that per produced Watt of power less material is spent, installation costs are lower, less area is used etc. With an average...

  7. Celiac ganglia block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinci, Devrim; Akhan, Okan

    2005-01-01

    Pain occurs frequently in patients with advanced cancers. Tumors originating from upper abdominal viscera such as pancreas, stomach, duodenum, proximal small bowel, liver and biliary tract and from compressing enlarged lymph nodes can cause severe abdominal pain, which do not respond satisfactorily to medical treatment or radiotherapy. Percutaneous celiac ganglia block (CGB) can be performed with high success and low complication rates under imaging guidance to obtain pain relief in patients with upper abdominal malignancies. A significant relationship between pain relief and degree of tumoral celiac ganglia invasion according to CT features was described in the literature. Performing the procedure in the early grades of celiac ganglia invasion on CT can increase the effectiveness of the CGB, which is contrary to World Health Organization criteria stating that CGB must be performed in patients with advanced stage cancer. CGB may also be effectively performed in patients with chronic pancreatitis for pain palliation

  8. Atomic Basic Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheler, Fabian; Mitzlaff, Martin; Schröder-Preikschat, Wolfgang

    Die Entscheidung, einen zeit- bzw. ereignisgesteuerten Ansatz für ein Echtzeitsystem zu verwenden, ist schwierig und sehr weitreichend. Weitreichend vor allem deshalb, weil diese beiden Ansätze mit äußerst unterschiedlichen Kontrollflussabstraktionen verknüpft sind, die eine spätere Migration zum anderen Paradigma sehr schwer oder gar unmöglich machen. Wir schlagen daher die Verwendung einer Zwischendarstellung vor, die unabhängig von der jeweils verwendeten Kontrollflussabstraktion ist. Für diesen Zweck verwenden wir auf Basisblöcken basierende Atomic Basic Blocks (ABB) und bauen darauf ein Werkzeug, den Real-Time Systems Compiler (RTSC) auf, der die Migration zwischen zeit- und ereignisgesteuerten Systemen unterstützt.

  9. Some Blocks from Heliopolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dr.Nageh Omar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available These group of Architectural Fragments have been discovered during Excavations at Souq el – Khamees Site at the end of Mostorod Street in el – Matarya Area by the Supreme Council of Antiquities Mission Season 2003 and none published before . The Site of Excavations is Situated about 500 metres to the west Obelisk of the King Senusert I According to the inscriptions on the block (pl.1.a,fig.1 represents the coronation name of the king Senusret III, the fifth king of the twelfth dynasty within the cartouche .Through This recent discover and his Sphinx statue we Suggest that the king Senusret III built a shrine or Temple at Heliopols which was possibly a part of the great Temple of the universal God of Heliopolis . For block dating to the king Akhenaten and many monuments are discovered in Heliopolis at the same period emphasized that the king Akhenaten built temple for the god Aten in Heliopolis and through Studies about the king Akhenaten, we suggest that the king Akhenaten take his new principles from Heliopolis . The king Ramesses II mentioned from stela which discovered at Manshyt el- Sader, in the second horizontal line that he erected oblesk and some statues at the great Temple in Heliopolis , this recent Discover about Statue of the king Ramesses II emphasized site of excavations perhaps a shrine or open court from temple of the king Ramesses II at the great Temple in Heliopolis For nbt – htpt, we could show that the goddess Hathor take a forward position in Heliopolis and become the Lady of Hetepet in Heliopolis since Eighteenth dynasty at least

  10. Common blocks for ASQS(12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Milazzo

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available An ASQS(v is a particular Steiner system featuring a set of v vertices and two separate families of blocks, B and G, whose elements have a respective cardinality of 4 and 6. It has the property that any three vertices of X belong either to a B-block or to a G-block. The parameter cb is the number of common blocks in two separate ASQSs, both defined on the same set of vertices X . In this paper it is shown that cb ≤ 29 for any pair of ASQSs(12.

  11. Adductor Canal Block versus Femoral Nerve Block and Quadriceps Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Pia Therese; Nielsen, Zbigniew Jerzy Koscielniak; Henningsen, Lene Marianne

    2013-01-01

    : The authors hypothesized that the adductor canal block (ACB), a predominant sensory blockade, reduces quadriceps strength compared with placebo (primary endpoint, area under the curve, 0.5-6 h), but less than the femoral nerve block (FNB; secondary endpoint). Other secondary endpoints were...

  12. The block transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradish, G.J. III; Reid, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    The central instrumentation control and data acquisition (CICADA) computer system is comprised of a functionally distributed hierarchical network of thirteen (13) 32-bit mini-computers that are the heart of the control, monitoring, data collection and data analysis for the tokamak fusion test reactor (TFTR). The CICADA system was designed with the goal of providing complete control, monitoring, and data acquisition for TFTR, which includes the acquisition and storage of 20M points of data within a five-minute shot cycle. It was realized early in the system design that in order to meet this goal an ancillary system would have to be provided to supplement the subsystem CAMAC systems that, due to the relatively slow throughput of the serial highways and the overhead of relaying data to the central facilities within a star network, would not provide the necessary throughput. The authors discuss how the block transfer system provided a means of moving data directly from the CAMAC crate to the application running on the central facility computers

  13. Eficacia de la infiltración de ozono paravertebral lumbar y en puntos gatillos como coadyuvante del tratamiento en pacientes con dolor lumbar crónico y lumbociatalgia crónica en el síndrome doloroso miofascial aislado o acompañado de otras patologías

    OpenAIRE

    E. Silva Jiménez; M. Toro; C. Baíz

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: Posterior al primer episodio de dolor lumbar, la recurrencia persiste durante un año o más en el 25 al 60 %, afectando a población económicamente activa, causando discapacidad y en 80 % ausentismo laboral. Objetivo: Evaluar el grado de eficacia del uso de la técnica de infiltración con ozono paravertebral lumbar y en puntos gatillos junto al tratamiento farmacológico y rehabilitador, en pacientes con dolor lumbar crónico y lumbociatalgia crónica debido al síndrome doloroso miofa...

  14. OPAL Various Lead Glass Blocks

    CERN Multimedia

    These lead glass blocks were part of a CERN detector called OPAL (one of the four experiments at the LEP particle detector). OPAL uses some 12 000 blocks of glass like this to measure particle energies in the electromagnetic calorimeter. This detector measured the energy deposited when electrons and photons were slowed down and stopped.

  15. Writing Blocks and Tacit Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boice, Robert

    1993-01-01

    A review of the literature on writing block looks at two kinds: inability to write in a timely, fluent fashion, and reluctance by academicians to assist others in writing. Obstacles to fluent writing are outlined, four historical trends in treating blocks are discussed, and implications are examined. (MSE)

  16. Block storage subsystem performance analysis

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    You feel that your service is slow because of the storage subsystem? But there are too many abstraction layers between your software and the raw block device for you to debug all this pile... Let's dive on the platters and check out how the block storage sees your I/Os! We can even figure out what those patterns are meaning.

  17. Region 9 Census Block 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geography:The TIGER Line Files are feature classes and related database files (.) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (MAF/TIGER) Database (MTDB). The MTDB represents a seamless national file with no overlaps or gaps between parts, however, each TIGER Line File is designed to stand alone as an independent data set, or they can be combined to cover the entire nation. Census Blocks are statistical areas bounded on all sides by visible features, such as streets, roads, streams, and railroad tracks, and/or by non visible boundaries such as city, town, township, and county limits, and short line-of-sight extensions of streets and roads. Census blocks are relatively small in area; for example, a block in a city bounded by streets. However, census blocks in remote areas are often large and irregular and may even be many square miles in area. A common misunderstanding is that data users think census blocks are used geographically to build all other census geographic areas, rather all other census geographic areas are updated and then used as the primary constraints, along with roads and water features, to delineate the tabulation blocks. As a result, all 2010 Census blocks nest within every other 2010 Census geographic area, so that Census Bureau statistical data can be tabulated at the block level and aggregated up t

  18. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-08-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  19. Harmony of spinning conformal blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomerus, Volker [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Sobko, Evgeny [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Nordita, Stockholm (Sweden); Isachenkov, Mikhail [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovoth (Israel). Dept. of Particle Physics and Astrophysics

    2016-12-07

    Conformal blocks for correlation functions of tensor operators play an increasingly important role for the conformal bootstrap programme. We develop a universal approach to such spinning blocks through the harmonic analysis of certain bundles over a coset of the conformal group. The resulting Casimir equations are given by a matrix version of the Calogero-Sutherland Hamiltonian that describes the scattering of interacting spinning particles in a 1-dimensional external potential. The approach is illustrated in several examples including fermionic seed blocks in 3D CFT where they take a very simple form.

  20. Harmony of spinning conformal blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomerus, Volker [DESY Hamburg, Theory Group,Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Sobko, Evgeny [Nordita and Stockholm University,Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Isachenkov, Mikhail [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science,Rehovot 7610001 (Israel)

    2017-03-15

    Conformal blocks for correlation functions of tensor operators play an increasingly important role for the conformal bootstrap programme. We develop a universal approach to such spinning blocks through the harmonic analysis of certain bundles over a coset of the conformal group. The resulting Casimir equations are given by a matrix version of the Calogero-Sutherland Hamiltonian that describes the scattering of interacting spinning particles in a 1-dimensional external potential. The approach is illustrated in several examples including fermionic seed blocks in 3D CFT where they take a very simple form.

  1. Rolling block mazes are PSPACE-complete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchin, K.; Buchin, M.

    2012-01-01

    In a rolling block maze, one or more blocks lie on a rectangular board with square cells. In most mazes, the blocks have size k × m × n where k, m, n are integers that determine the size of the block in terms of units of the size of the board cells. The task of a rolling block maze is to roll a

  2. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  3. Recursion Relations for Conformal Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Penedones, João; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2016-09-12

    In the context of conformal field theories in general space-time dimension, we find all the possible singularities of the conformal blocks as functions of the scaling dimension $\\Delta$ of the exchanged operator. In particular, we argue, using representation theory of parabolic Verma modules, that in odd spacetime dimension the singularities are only simple poles. We discuss how to use this information to write recursion relations that determine the conformal blocks. We first recover the recursion relation introduced in 1307.6856 for conformal blocks of external scalar operators. We then generalize this recursion relation for the conformal blocks associated to the four point function of three scalar and one vector operator. Finally we specialize to the case in which the vector operator is a conserved current.

  4. Defying gravity using Jenga™ blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yin-Soo; Yap, Kueh-Chin

    2007-11-01

    This paper describes how Jenga™ blocks can be used to demonstrate the physics of an overhanging tower that appears to defy gravity. We also propose ideas for how this demonstration can be adapted for the A-level physics curriculum.

  5. Risking Aggression: Reply to Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Borer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In his paper, “Is There an ‘Anomalous’ Section of the Laffer Curve?”, Walter Block describes some situations in which it appears that a libertarian should violate the non-aggression principle. To rectify this, Block proposes a different perspective on libertarianism which he calls punishment theory. This paper argues that no new theory is needed, as the non-aggression principle can be used to resolve theapparent conundrums.

  6. Risking Aggression: Reply to Block

    OpenAIRE

    Kris Borer

    2010-01-01

    In his paper, “Is There an ‘Anomalous’ Section of the Laffer Curve?”, Walter Block describes some situations in which it appears that a libertarian should violate the non-aggression principle. To rectify this, Block proposes a different perspective on libertarianism which he calls punishment theory. This paper argues that no new theory is needed, as the non-aggression principle can be used to resolve theapparent conundrums.

  7. A Novel Tetrathiafulvalene Building Block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jan Oskar; Takimiya, Kazuo; Thorup, Niels

    1999-01-01

    Efficient synthesis of a novel tetrathiafulvalene building block. 2,3-bis(2-cyanoethylthio)-6,7-bis(thiocyanato-methyl)tetrathiafulv alene (7) useful for stepwise and asymmetrical bis-function-alization is reported.......Efficient synthesis of a novel tetrathiafulvalene building block. 2,3-bis(2-cyanoethylthio)-6,7-bis(thiocyanato-methyl)tetrathiafulv alene (7) useful for stepwise and asymmetrical bis-function-alization is reported....

  8. Various semiclassical limits of torus conformal blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkalaev, Konstantin [I.E. Tamm Department of Theoretical Physics, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute,Leninsky ave. 53, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation); Department of General and Applied Physics, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology,Institutskiy per. 7, Dolgoprudnyi, Moscow region, 141700 (Russian Federation); Geiko, Roman [Mathematics Department, National Research University Higher School of Economics,Usacheva str. 6, Moscow, 119048 (Russian Federation); Rappoport, Vladimir [I.E. Tamm Department of Theoretical Physics, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute,Leninsky ave. 53, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation); Department of Quantum Physics, Institute for Information Transmission Problems,Bolshoy Karetny per. 19, Moscow, 127994 (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-12

    We study four types of one-point torus blocks arising in the large central charge regime. There are the global block, the light block, the heavy-light block, and the linearized classical block, according to different regimes of conformal dimensions. It is shown that the blocks are not independent being connected to each other by various links. We find that the global, light, and heavy-light blocks correspond to three different contractions of the Virasoro algebra. Also, we formulate the c-recursive representation of the one-point torus blocks which is relevant in the semiclassical approximation.

  9. Climatological features of blocking anticyclones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupo, A.R.; Smith, P.J.; Oglesby, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    Several climatological studies have been previously performed using large observational data sets (i.e., 10 years or longer) in order to determine the predominant characteristics of blocking anticyclones, including favored development regions, duration, preferred seasonal occurrence, and frequency of occurrence. These studies have shown that blocking anticyclones occur most frequently from October to April over the eastern Atlantic and Pacific oceans downstream from both the North American and Asian continental regions and the storm track regions to the east of these continents. Some studies have also revealed the presence of a third region block formation in western Russia near 40 degrees E which is associated with another storm track region over the Mediterranean and western Asia

  10. Block ground interaction of rockfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkwein, Axel; Gerber, Werner; Kummer, Peter

    2016-04-01

    During a rockfall the interaction of the falling block with the ground is one of the most important factors that define the evolution of a rockfall trajectory. It steers the rebound, the rotational movement, possibly brake effects, friction losses and damping effects. Therefore, if most reliable rockfall /trajectory simulation software is sought a good understanding of the block ground interaction is necessary. Today's rockfall codes enable the simulation of a fully 3D modelled block within a full 3D surface . However, the details during the contact, i.e. the contact duration, the penetration depth or the dimension of the marks in the ground are usually not part of the simulation. Recent field tests with rocks between 20 and 80 kg have been conducted on a grassy slope in 2014 [1]. A special rockfall sensor [2] within the blocks measured the rotational velocity and the acting accelerations during the tests. External video records and a so-called LocalPositioningSystem deliver information on the travel velocity. With these data not only the flight phases of the trajectories but also the contacts with the ground can be analysed. During the single jumps of a block the flight time, jump length, the velocity, and the rotation are known. During the single impacts their duration and the acting accelerations are visible. Further, the changes of rotational and translational velocity influence the next jump of the block. The change of the rotational velocity over the whole trajectory nicely visualizes the different phases of a rockfall regarding general acceleration and deceleration in respect to the inclination and the topography of the field. References: [1] Volkwein A, Krummenacher B, Gerber W, Lardon J, Gees F, Brügger L, Ott T (2015) Repeated controlled rockfall trajectory testing. [Abstract] Geophys. Res. Abstr. 17: EGU2015-9779. [2] Volkwein A, Klette J (2014) Semi-Automatic Determination of Rockfall Trajectories. Sensors 14: 18187-18210.

  11. Cryptanalysis of Selected Block Ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkhzaimi, Hoda A.

    , pseudorandom number generators, and authenticated encryption designs. For this reason a multitude of initiatives over the years has been established to provide a secure and sound designs for block ciphers as in the calls for Data Encryption Standard (DES) and Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), lightweight...... ciphers initiatives, and the Competition for Authenticated Encryption: Security, Applicability, and Robustness (CAESAR). In this thesis, we first present cryptanalytic results on different ciphers. We propose attack named the Invariant Subspace Attack. It is utilized to break the full block cipher...

  12. Investigation of anatomical landmarks for paravertebral anaesthesia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result of this study showed that the spinal nerve emerges from the intervertebral foramina and bifurcates into dorsal and ventral branches with the dorsal nerve branch passing cranially to the body of the succeeding lumbar transverse process in a caudolateral manner. While the ventral branches of the lumbar nerves ...

  13. Asymmetric PS-block-(PS-co-PB)-block-PS block copolymers: morphology formation and deformation behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, Rameshwar; Huy, Trinh An; Buschnakowski, Matthias; Michler, Goerg H; Knoll, Konrad

    2004-01-01

    Morphology formation and deformation behaviour of asymmetric styrene/butadiene triblock copolymers (total polystyrene (PS) content ∼70%) consisting of PS outer blocks held apart by a styrene-co-butadiene random copolymer block (PS-co-PB) each were investigated. The techniques used were differential scanning calorimetry, transmission electron microscopy, uniaxial tensile testing and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. A significant shift of the phase behaviour relative to that of a neat symmetric triblock copolymer was observed, which can be attributed to the asymmetric architecture and the presence of PS-co-PB as a soft block. The mechanical properties and the microdeformation phenomena were mainly controlled by the nature of their solid-state morphology. Independent of morphology type, the soft phase was found to deform to a significantly higher degree of orientation when compared with the hard phase

  14. Main-chain supramolecular block copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Si Kyung; Ambade, Ashootosh V; Weck, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Block copolymers are key building blocks for a variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to drug delivery. The material properties of block copolymers can be tuned and potentially improved by introducing noncovalent interactions in place of covalent linkages between polymeric blocks resulting in the formation of supramolecular block copolymers. Such materials combine the microphase separation behavior inherent to block copolymers with the responsiveness of supramolecular materials thereby affording dynamic and reversible materials. This tutorial review covers recent advances in main-chain supramolecular block copolymers and describes the design principles, synthetic approaches, advantages, and potential applications.

  15. Smart ampholytic ABC block copolypeptide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schlaad, H.; Sun, J.; Černoch, Peter; Ruokolainen, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 254, 20 August (2017), s. 79 ISSN 0065-7727. [ACS National Meeting & Exposition /254./. 20.08.2017-24.08.2017, Washington] Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : block copolypeptide * smart ampholytic Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science

  16. First Degree Pacemaker Exit Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Francis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Usually atrial and ventricular depolarizations follow soon after the pacemaker stimulus (spike on the ECG. But there can be an exit block due to fibrosis at the electrode - tissue interface at the lead tip. This can increase the delay between the spike and atrial or ventricular depolarization.

  17. Building Blocks for Personal Brands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lisa Carlucci

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the four essential building blocks for personal brands: (1) name; (2) message; (3) channels; and (4) bridges. However, outstanding building materials can only take a person so far. The author emphasizes that vision, determination, faith, a sense of humor, and humility are also required.

  18. Thermo-responsive block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mocan Cetintas, Merve

    2017-01-01

    Block copolymers (BCPs) are remarkable materials because of their self-assembly behavior into nano-sized regular structures and high tunable properties. BCPs are in used various applications such as surfactants, nanolithography, biomedicine and nanoporous membranes. In these thesis, we aimed to

  19. Cervical plexus block for thyroidectomy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    RESEARCH. Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia & Analgesia - November 2003 ... Cervical plexus block has also been found useful for thy- .... lar, transverse cervical and supraclavicular nerves. ... administration of midazolam and pentazocine as required. ... find out if there were postoperative complications specific to.

  20. Blocking sets in Desarguesian planes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokhuis, A.; Miklós, D.; Sós, V.T.; Szönyi, T.

    1996-01-01

    We survey recent results concerning the size of blocking sets in desarguesian projective and affine planes, and implications of these results and the technique to prove them, to related problemis, such as the size of maximal partial spreads, small complete arcs, small strong representative systems

  1. Cutaneous Sensory Block Area, Muscle-Relaxing Effect, and Block Duration of the Transversus Abdominis Plane Block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støving, Kion; Rothe, Christian; Rosenstock, Charlotte V

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a widely used nerve block. However, basic block characteristics are poorly described. The purpose of this study was to assess the cutaneous sensory block area, muscle-relaxing effect, and block duration. METHODS: Sixteen...... healthy volunteers were randomized to receive an ultrasound-guided unilateral TAP block with 20 mL 7.5 mg/mL ropivacaine and placebo on the contralateral side. Measurements were performed at baseline and 90 minutes after performing the block. Cutaneous sensory block area was mapped and separated...... into a medial and lateral part by a vertical line through the anterior superior iliac spine. We measured muscle thickness of the 3 lateral abdominal muscle layers with ultrasound in the relaxed state and during maximal voluntary muscle contraction. The volunteers reported the duration of the sensory block...

  2. On the Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors of Block Triangular Preconditioned Block Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Block lower triangular matrices and block upper triangular matrices are popular preconditioners for 2×2 block matrices. In this note we show that a block lower triangular preconditioner gives the same spectrum as a block upper triangular preconditioner and that the eigenvectors of the two preconditioned matrices are related. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  3. Emplacement of small and large buffer blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, H.; Nikula, M.; Suikki, M.

    2010-05-01

    The report describes emplacement of a buffer structure encircling a spent fuel canister to be deposited in a vertical hole. The report deals with installability of various size blocks and with an emplacement gear, as well as evaluates the achieved quality of emplacement and the time needed for installing the buffer. Two block assembly of unequal size were chosen for examination. A first option involved small blocks, the use of which resulted in a buffer structure consisting of small sector blocks 200 mm in height. A second option involved large blocks, resulting in a buffer structure which consists of eight blocks. In these tests, the material chosen for both block options was concrete instead of bentonite. The emplacement test was a three-phase process. A first phase included stacking a two meter high buffer structure with small blocks for ensuring the operation of test equipment and blocks. A second phase included installing buffer structures with both block options to a height matching that of a canister-encircling cylindrical component. A third phase included testing also the installability of blocks to be placed above the canister by using small blocks. In emplacement tests, special attention was paid to the installability of blocks as well as to the time required for emplacement. Lifters for both blocks worked well. Due to the mass to be lifted, the lifter for large blocks had a more heavy-duty frame structure (and other lifting gear). The employed lifters were suspended in the tests on a single steel wire rope. Stacking was managed with both block sizes at adequate precision and stacked-up towers were steady. The stacking of large blocks was considerably faster. Therefore it is probably that the overall handling of the large blocks will be more convenient at a final disposal site. From the standpoint of reliability in lifting, the small blocks were safer to install above the canister. In large blocks, there are strict shape-related requirements which are

  4. UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY: BLOCK TRIANGULATION COMPARISONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available UAVs systems represent a flexible technology able to collect a big amount of high resolution information, both for metric and interpretation uses. In the frame of experimental tests carried out at Dept. ICA of Politecnico di Milano to validate vector-sensor systems and to assess metric accuracies of images acquired by UAVs, a block of photos taken by a fixed wing system is triangulated with several software. The test field is a rural area included in an Italian Park ("Parco Adda Nord", useful to study flight and imagery performances on buildings, roads, cultivated and uncultivated vegetation. The UAV SenseFly, equipped with a camera Canon Ixus 220HS, flew autonomously over the area at a height of 130 m yielding a block of 49 images divided in 5 strips. Sixteen pre-signalized Ground Control Points, surveyed in the area through GPS (NRTK survey, allowed the referencing of the block and accuracy analyses. Approximate values for exterior orientation parameters (positions and attitudes were recorded by the flight control system. The block was processed with several software: Erdas-LPS, EyeDEA (Univ. of Parma, Agisoft Photoscan, Pix4UAV, in assisted or automatic way. Results comparisons are given in terms of differences among digital surface models, differences in orientation parameters and accuracies, when available. Moreover, image and ground point coordinates obtained by the various software were independently used as initial values in a comparative adjustment made by scientific in-house software, which can apply constraints to evaluate the effectiveness of different methods of point extraction and accuracies on ground check points.

  5. [THE TECHNOLOGY "CELL BLOCK" IN CYTOLOGICAL PRACTICE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volchenko, N N; Borisova, O V; Baranova, I B

    2015-08-01

    The article presents summary information concerning application of "cell block" technology in cytological practice. The possibilities of implementation of various modern techniques (immune cytochemnical analysis. FISH, CISH, polymerase chain reaction) with application of "cell block" method are demonstrated. The original results of study of "cell block" technology made with gelatin, AgarCyto and Shadon Cyoblock set are presented. The diagnostic effectiveness of "cell block" technology and common cytological smear and also immune cytochemical analysis on samples of "cell block" technology and fluid cytology were compared. Actually application of "cell block" technology is necessary for ensuring preservation of cell elements for subsequent immune cytochemical and molecular genetic analysis.

  6. Minimum description length block finder, a method to identify haplotype blocks and to compare the strength of block boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannila, H; Koivisto, M; Perola, M; Varilo, T; Hennah, W; Ekelund, J; Lukk, M; Peltonen, L; Ukkonen, E

    2003-07-01

    We describe a new probabilistic method for finding haplotype blocks that is based on the use of the minimum description length (MDL) principle. We give a rigorous definition of the quality of a segmentation of a genomic region into blocks and describe a dynamic programming algorithm for finding the optimal segmentation with respect to this measure. We also describe a method for finding the probability of a block boundary for each pair of adjacent markers: this gives a tool for evaluating the significance of each block boundary. We have applied the method to the published data of Daly and colleagues. The results expose some problems that exist in the current methods for the evaluation of the significance of predicted block boundaries. Our method, MDL block finder, can be used to compare block borders in different sample sets, and we demonstrate this by applying the MDL-based method to define the block structure in chromosomes from population isolates.

  7. Adductor canal block versus femoral nerve block for analgesia after total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Pia; Zaric, Dusanka; Fomsgaard, Jonna Storm

    2013-01-01

    Femoral nerve block (FNB), a commonly used postoperative pain treatment after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), reduces quadriceps muscle strength essential for mobilization. In contrast, adductor canal block (ACB) is predominately a sensory nerve block. We hypothesized that ACB preserves quadriceps...

  8. Blocking device especially for circulating pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susil, J.; Vychodil, V.; Lorenc, P.

    1976-01-01

    The claim of the invention is a blocking device which blocks reverse flow occurring after the shutdown of circulating pumps, namely in the operation of nuclear power plants or in pumps with a high delivery head. (F.M.)

  9. Reversible chronic acquired complete atrioventricular block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakovec, P; Milcinski, G; Voga, G; Korsic, L

    1982-01-01

    The return of atrioventricular conduction is reported in a case after nearly four years of complete acquired heart block. After recovery from atrioventricular block, right bundle branch block persisted, but P-R interval and H-V interval were normal. Three months later a relapse of second degree infranodal atrioventricular block was noted. A short review of similar cases from the literature is given.

  10. MARINE BOTTOM COMMUNITIES OF BLOCK ISLAND WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sea has long been an integral part of Block Island's natural history, beginning when the rising sea surrounded the high spot on a Pleistocene terminal moraine that became Block Island. The southern New England continental shelf, which lies around Block Island, and the Great S...

  11. Encoders for block-circulant LDPC codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Abbasfar, Aliazam (Inventor); Jones, Christopher R. (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Thorpe, Jeremy C. (Inventor); Andrews, Kenneth S. (Inventor); Yao, Kung (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and apparatus to encode message input symbols in accordance with an accumulate-repeat-accumulate code with repetition three or four are disclosed. Block circulant matrices are used. A first method and apparatus make use of the block-circulant structure of the parity check matrix. A second method and apparatus use block-circulant generator matrices.

  12. Bullet-Block Science Video Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakur, Asif

    2015-01-01

    A science video blog, which has gone viral, shows a wooden block shot by a vertically aimed rifle. The video shows that the block hit dead center goes exactly as high as the one shot off-center. (Fig. 1). The puzzle is that the block shot off-center carries rotational kinetic energy in addition to the gravitational potential energy. This leads a…

  13. 49 CFR 236.708 - Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Block. 236.708 Section 236.708 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.708 Block. A length of track of defined limits, the use of which by trains is governed by block signals, cab signals, or both. ...

  14. 49 CFR 236.804 - Signal, block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signal, block. 236.804 Section 236.804 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Signal, block. A roadway signal operated either automatically or manually at the entrance to a block. ...

  15. Block Play: Practical Suggestions for Common Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunks, Karyn Wellhousen

    2009-01-01

    Learning materials and teaching methods used in early childhood classrooms have fluctuated greatly over the past century. However, one learning tool has stood the test of time: Wood building blocks, often called unit blocks, continue to be a source of pleasure and learning for young children at play. Wood blocks have the unique capacity to engage…

  16. Naming Block Structures: A Multimodal Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lynn; Uhry, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    This study describes symbolic representation in block play in a culturally diverse suburban preschool classroom. Block play is "multimodal" and can allow children to experiment with materials to represent the world in many forms of literacy. Combined qualitative and quantitative data from seventy-seven block structures were collected and analyzed.…

  17. 21 CFR 882.5070 - Bite block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bite block. 882.5070 Section 882.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5070 Bite block. (a) Identification. A bite block...

  18. Large block test status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilder, D.G.; Lin, W.; Blair, S.C.

    1997-01-01

    This report is intended to serve as a status report, which essentially transmits the data that have been collected to date on the Large Block Test (LBT). The analyses of data will be performed during FY98, and then a complete report will be prepared. This status report includes introductory material that is not needed merely to transmit data but is available at this time and therefore included. As such, this status report will serve as the template for the future report, and the information is thus preserved

  19. Block-conjugate-gradient method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that by using the block-conjugate-gradient method several, say s, columns of the inverse Kogut-Susskind fermion matrix can be found simultaneously, in less time than it would take to run the standard conjugate-gradient algorithm s times. The method improves in efficiency relative to the standard conjugate-gradient algorithm as the fermion mass is decreased and as the value of the coupling is pushed to its limit before the finite-size effects become important. Thus it is potentially useful for measuring propagators in large lattice-gauge-theory calculations of the particle spectrum

  20. Isostatic compression of buffer blocks. Middle scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritola, J.; Pyy, E.

    2012-01-01

    Manufacturing of buffer components using isostatic compression method has been studied in small scale in 2008 (Laaksonen 2010). These tests included manufacturing of buffer blocks using different bentonite materials and different compression pressures. Isostatic mould technology was also tested, along with different methods to fill the mould, such as vibration and partial vacuum, as well as a stepwise compression of the blocks. The development of manufacturing techniques has continued with small-scale (30 %) blocks (diameter 600 mm) in 2009. This was done in a separate project: Isostatic compression, manufacturing and testing of small scale (D = 600 mm) buffer blocks. The research on the isostatic compression method continued in 2010 in a project aimed to test and examine the isostatic manufacturing process of buffer blocks at 70 % scale (block diameter 1200 to 1300 mm), and the aim was to continue in 2011 with full-scale blocks (diameter 1700 mm). A total of nine bentonite blocks were manufactured at 70 % scale, of which four were ring-shaped and the rest were cylindrical. It is currently not possible to manufacture full-scale blocks, because there is no sufficiently large isostatic press available. However, such a compression unit is expected to be possible to use in the near future. The test results of bentonite blocks, produced with an isostatic pressing method at different presses and at different sizes, suggest that the technical characteristics, for example bulk density and strength values, are somewhat independent of the size of the block, and that the blocks have fairly homogenous characteristics. Water content and compression pressure are the two most important properties determining the characteristics of the compressed blocks. By adjusting these two properties it is fairly easy to produce blocks at a desired density. The commonly used compression pressure in the manufacturing of bentonite blocks is 100 MPa, which compresses bentonite to approximately

  1. Isostatic compression of buffer blocks. Middle scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritola, J.; Pyy, E. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-01-15

    Manufacturing of buffer components using isostatic compression method has been studied in small scale in 2008 (Laaksonen 2010). These tests included manufacturing of buffer blocks using different bentonite materials and different compression pressures. Isostatic mould technology was also tested, along with different methods to fill the mould, such as vibration and partial vacuum, as well as a stepwise compression of the blocks. The development of manufacturing techniques has continued with small-scale (30 %) blocks (diameter 600 mm) in 2009. This was done in a separate project: Isostatic compression, manufacturing and testing of small scale (D = 600 mm) buffer blocks. The research on the isostatic compression method continued in 2010 in a project aimed to test and examine the isostatic manufacturing process of buffer blocks at 70 % scale (block diameter 1200 to 1300 mm), and the aim was to continue in 2011 with full-scale blocks (diameter 1700 mm). A total of nine bentonite blocks were manufactured at 70 % scale, of which four were ring-shaped and the rest were cylindrical. It is currently not possible to manufacture full-scale blocks, because there is no sufficiently large isostatic press available. However, such a compression unit is expected to be possible to use in the near future. The test results of bentonite blocks, produced with an isostatic pressing method at different presses and at different sizes, suggest that the technical characteristics, for example bulk density and strength values, are somewhat independent of the size of the block, and that the blocks have fairly homogenous characteristics. Water content and compression pressure are the two most important properties determining the characteristics of the compressed blocks. By adjusting these two properties it is fairly easy to produce blocks at a desired density. The commonly used compression pressure in the manufacturing of bentonite blocks is 100 MPa, which compresses bentonite to approximately

  2. Coastal protection using topological interlocking blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternak, Elena; Dyskin, Arcady; Pattiaratchi, Charitha; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2013-04-01

    The coastal protection systems mainly rely on the self-weight of armour blocks to ensure its stability. We propose a system of interlocking armour blocks, which form plate-shape assemblies. The shape and the position of the blocks are chosen in such a way as to impose kinematic constraints that prevent the blocks from being removed from the assembly. The topological interlocking shapes include simple convex blocks such as platonic solids, the most practical being tetrahedra, cubes and octahedra. Another class of topological interlocking blocks is so-called osteomorphic blocks, which form plate-like assemblies tolerant to random block removal (almost 25% of blocks need to be removed for the assembly to loose integrity). Both classes require peripheral constraint, which can be provided either by the weight of the blocks or post-tensioned internal cables. The interlocking assemblies provide increased stability because lifting one block involves lifting (and bending) the whole assembly. We model the effect of interlocking by introducing an equivalent additional self-weight of the armour blocks. This additional self-weight is proportional to the critical pressure needed to cause bending of the interlocking assembly when it loses stability. Using beam approximation we find an equivalent stability coefficient for interlocking. It is found to be greater than the stability coefficient of a structure with similar blocks without interlocking. In the case when the peripheral constraint is provided by the weight of the blocks and for the slope angle of 45o, the effective stability coefficient for a structure of 100 blocks is 33% higher than the one for a similar structure without interlocking. Further increase in the stability coefficient can be reached by a specially constructed peripheral constraint system, for instance by using post-tension cables.

  3. Ganglion block. When and how?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bale, R.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing understanding of the anatomy and physiology of neural structures has led to the development of surgical and percutaneous neurodestructive methods in order to target and destroy various components of afferent nociceptive pathways. The dorsal root ganglia and in particular the ganglia of the autonomous nervous system are targets for radiological interventions. The autonomous nervous system is responsible for the regulation of organ functions, sweating, visceral and blood vessel-associated pain. Ganglia of the sympathetic chain and non-myelinized autonomous nerves can be irreversibly destroyed by chemical and thermal ablation. Computed tomography (CT)-guided sympathetic nerve blocks are well established interventional radiological procedures which lead to vasodilatation, reduction of sweating and reduction of pain associated with the autonomous nervous system. Sympathetic blocks are applied for the treatment of various vascular diseases including critical limb ischemia. Other indications for thoracic and lumbar sympathectomy include complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), chronic tumor associated pain and hyperhidrosis. Neurolysis of the celiac plexus is an effective palliative pain treatment particularly in patients suffering from pancreatic cancer. Percutaneous dorsal root ganglion rhizotomy can be performed in selected patients with radicular pain that is resistant to conventional pharmacological and interventional treatment. (orig.) [de

  4. Randomized Block Cubic Newton Method

    KAUST Repository

    Doikov, Nikita; Richtarik, Peter

    2018-01-01

    We study the problem of minimizing the sum of three convex functions: a differentiable, twice-differentiable and a non-smooth term in a high dimensional setting. To this effect we propose and analyze a randomized block cubic Newton (RBCN) method, which in each iteration builds a model of the objective function formed as the sum of the natural models of its three components: a linear model with a quadratic regularizer for the differentiable term, a quadratic model with a cubic regularizer for the twice differentiable term, and perfect (proximal) model for the nonsmooth term. Our method in each iteration minimizes the model over a random subset of blocks of the search variable. RBCN is the first algorithm with these properties, generalizing several existing methods, matching the best known bounds in all special cases. We establish ${\\cal O}(1/\\epsilon)$, ${\\cal O}(1/\\sqrt{\\epsilon})$ and ${\\cal O}(\\log (1/\\epsilon))$ rates under different assumptions on the component functions. Lastly, we show numerically that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art on a variety of machine learning problems, including cubically regularized least-squares, logistic regression with constraints, and Poisson regression.

  5. Randomized Block Cubic Newton Method

    KAUST Repository

    Doikov, Nikita

    2018-02-12

    We study the problem of minimizing the sum of three convex functions: a differentiable, twice-differentiable and a non-smooth term in a high dimensional setting. To this effect we propose and analyze a randomized block cubic Newton (RBCN) method, which in each iteration builds a model of the objective function formed as the sum of the natural models of its three components: a linear model with a quadratic regularizer for the differentiable term, a quadratic model with a cubic regularizer for the twice differentiable term, and perfect (proximal) model for the nonsmooth term. Our method in each iteration minimizes the model over a random subset of blocks of the search variable. RBCN is the first algorithm with these properties, generalizing several existing methods, matching the best known bounds in all special cases. We establish ${\\\\cal O}(1/\\\\epsilon)$, ${\\\\cal O}(1/\\\\sqrt{\\\\epsilon})$ and ${\\\\cal O}(\\\\log (1/\\\\epsilon))$ rates under different assumptions on the component functions. Lastly, we show numerically that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art on a variety of machine learning problems, including cubically regularized least-squares, logistic regression with constraints, and Poisson regression.

  6. Thyroid blocking after nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rendl, J.; Reiners, C.

    1999-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident a marked increase in thyroid cancer incidence among the children in Belarus, the Ukraine and Russia has been detected, strongly suggesting a causal relationship to the large amounts of radioactive iodine isotopes in the resulting fallout. Taking into account the Chernobyl experience the German Committee on Radiation Protection decided to reduce the intervention levels on the basis of the 1989 WHO recommendations and adopted a new concept concerning thyroid blocking in response to nuclear power plant accidents. Experimental animal studies and theoretical considerations show that thyroid blocking with potassium iodide (KI) in a dose of about 1.4 mg per kg body weight is most effective in reducing irradiation to the thyroid from the intake of radioiodine nuclides, provided KI is given within 2 hours after exposure. According to the new concept, persons over 45 years of age should not take iodine tablets because the drug could cause a greater health risk due to prevalent functional thyroid autonomy in this age group than the radioactive iodine averted by KI. On the basis of accident analysis and the new philosophy suitable distribution strategies and logistics are proposed and discussed. (orig.) [de

  7. [Complete atrioventricular block in Duchenne muscular dystrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuru, Satoshi; Tanahashi, Tamotsu; Matsumoto, Shinjirou; Kitamura, Tetsuya; Konagaya, Masaaki

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of complete atrioventricular (AV) block in a 40-year-old patient with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). While he was bed-ridden and required mechanical ventilation, his cardiac involvement was mild. He had the deletion of exon 45-52 in the dystrophin gene. He underwent transient complete AV block and came to require pacemaker implantation due to recurrence of complete AV block ten days after the first attack. Electrophysiological study revealed mild prolonged AH and HV interval. Although DMD patients with AV block have been rarely reported so far, attention should be paid to AV block for patients who prolonged their lives.

  8. ALS insertion device block measurement and inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, S.; Carrieri, J.; Cook, C.; Hassenzahl, W.V.; Hoyer, E.; Plate, D.

    1991-05-01

    The performance specifications for ALS insertion devices require detailed knowledge and strict control of the Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet blocks incorporated in these devices. This paper describes the measurement and inspection apparatus and the procedures designed to qualify and characterize these blocks. A detailed description of a new, automated Helmholtz coil facility for measurement of the three components of magnetic moment is included. Physical block inspection and magnetic moment measurement procedures are described. Together they provide a basis for qualifying blocks and for specifying placement of blocks within an insertion devices' magnetic structures. 1 ref., 4 figs

  9. How to block and tackle the face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zide, B M; Swift, R

    1998-03-01

    Regional blocking techniques as noted in dentistry, anesthesia, and anatomy texts may result in inconsistent and imperfect analgesia when needed for facial aesthetic surgery. The advent of laser facial surgery and more complicated aesthetic facial procedures has thus increased the demand for anesthesia support. Surgeons should know a fail-safe method of nerve blocks. Fresh cadaver dissections are used to demonstrate a series of eight regional nerve-blocking routes. This sequence of bilateral blocks will routinely provide profound full facial anesthesia. Certain groupings of blocks are effective for perioral or periorbital laser surgery.

  10. Influence of anchor block size on the thickness of adsorbed block copolymer layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belder, G.F; ten Brinke, G.; Hadziioannou, G

    1997-01-01

    We present surface force data on three different polystyrene/poly(2-vinylpyridine) block copolymers (PS/P2VP) with a fixed size of the nonadsorbing PS block but widely varying sizes of the adsorbing P2VP block. With respect to the sizes of the two blocks, they range from moderately to highly

  11. Backfilling of deposition tunnels, block alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keto, P.; Roennqvist, P.-E.

    2007-03-01

    This report presents a preliminary process description of backfilling the deposition tunnels with pre-compacted blocks consisting of a mixture of bentonite and ballast (30:70). The process was modified for the Finnish KBS-3V type repository assuming that the amount of spent fuel canisters disposed of yearly is 40. Backfilling blocks (400 x 300 x 300 mm) are prepared in a block production plant with a hydraulic press with an estimated production capacity of 840 blocks per day. Some of the blocks are modified further to fit the profile of the tunnel roof. Prior to the installation of the blocks, the deposition tunnel floor is levelled with a mixture of bentonite and ballast (15:85). The blocks are placed in the tunnel with a modified reach truck. Centrifugal pellet throwing equipment is used to fill the gap between the blocks and the rock surface with bentonite pellets. Based on a preliminary assessment, the average dry density achieved with block backfill is sufficient to fulfil the criteria set for the backfill in order to ensure long-term safety and radiation protection. However, there are uncertainties concerning saturation, homogenisation, erosion, piping and self-healing of the block backfill that need to be studied further with laboratory and field tests. In addition, development efforts and testing concerning block manufacturing and installation are required to verify the technical feasibility of the concept. (orig.)

  12. Exercising with blocked muscle glycogenolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tue L; Pinós, Tomàs; Brull, Astrid

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: McArdle disease (glycogen storage disease type V) is an inborn error of skeletal muscle metabolism, which affects glycogen phosphorylase (myophosphorylase) activity leading to an inability to break down glycogen. Patients with McArdle disease are exercise intolerant, as muscle glycogen......-derived glucose is unavailable during exercise. Metabolic adaptation to blocked muscle glycogenolysis occurs at rest in the McArdle mouse model, but only in highly glycolytic muscle. However, it is unknown what compensatory metabolic adaptations occur during exercise in McArdle disease. METHODS: In this study, 8......-week old McArdle and wild-type mice were exercised on a treadmill until exhausted. Dissected muscles were compared with non-exercised, age-matched McArdle and wild-type mice for histology and activation and expression of proteins involved in glucose uptake and glycogenolysis. RESULTS: Investigation...

  13. Used, Blocking and Sleeping Patents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torrisi, Salvatore; Gambardella, Alfonso; Giuri, Paola

    2016-01-01

    This paper employs data from a large-scale survey (InnoS&T) of inventors in Europe, the USA, and Japan who were listed in patent applications filed at the European Patent Office with priority years between 2003 and 2005. We provide evidence regarding the reasons for patenting and the ways in which...... patents are being utilized. A substantial share of patents is neither used internally nor for market transactions, which confirms the importance of strategic patenting and inefficiency in the management of intellectual property. We investigate different types of unused patents—unused blocking patents...... and sleeping patents. We also examine the association between used and unused patents and their characteristics such as family size, scope, generality and overlapping claims, technology area, type of applicant, and the competitive environment from where these patents originate. We discuss our results...

  14. LARGE BLOCK TEST STATUS REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D.G. WILDER, W. LIN, S.C. BLAIR, T. BUSCHECK, R.C. CARLSON, K. LEE, A. MEIKE, A.L. RAMIREZ, J.L. WAGONER, AND J. WANG

    1997-01-01

    This report is intended to serve as a status report, which essentially transmits the data that have been collected to date on the Large Block Test (LBT). The analyses of data will be performed during FY98, and then a complete report will be prepared. This status report includes introductory material that is not needed merely to transmit data but is available at this time and therefore included. As such, this status report will serve as the template for the future report, and the information is thus preserved. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is investigatinq the suitability of Yucca Mountain (YM) as a potential site for the nation's first high-level nuclear waste repository. As shown in Fig. 1-1, the site is located about 120 km northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, in an area of uninhabited desert

  15. Vagal Blocking for Obesity Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Helene; Revesz, David; Kodama, Yosuke

    2017-01-01

    : VBLOC reduced body weight and food intake, which was associated with increased satiety but not with decreased hunger. Brain activities in response to VBLOC included increased gene expression of leptin and CCKb receptors, interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor, and transforming growth factor β1......BACKGROUND: Recently, the US FDA has approved "vagal blocking therapy or vBLoc® therapy" as a new treatment for obesity. The aim of the present study was to study the mechanism-of-action of "VBLOC" in rat models. METHODS: Rats were implanted with VBLOC, an intra-abdominal electrical device...... with leads placed around gastric vagal trunks through an abdominal incision and controlled by wireless device. Body weight, food intake, hunger/satiety, and metabolic parameters were monitored by a comprehensive laboratory animal monitoring system. Brain-gut responses were analyzed physiologically. RESULTS...

  16. Treating Acute Insomnia: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a "Single-Shot" of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jason G; Cushing, Toby; Germain, Anne

    2015-06-01

    Despite considerable evidence supporting cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) for chronic insomnia, it remains untested within the context of acute insomnia. This study examined the efficacy of a single session of CBT-I, with an accompanying self-help pamphlet, for individuals with acute insomnia. A pragmatic parallel group randomized controlled trial. Community. Forty adults (mean age 32.9 ± 13.72 y) with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) defined insomnia disorder, except a self-reported duration of less than 3 mo (i.e., acute insomnia), who reported no previous exposure to CBT-I and were not currently taking medication for sleep. A single 60- to 70-min session of CBT-I (n = 20), with an accompanying self-help pamphlet, or wait list control group (n = 20). All subjects were offered a full individual course of CBT-I on completion of the study, regardless of group allocation. Subjects completed sleep diaries and the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) pretreatment and 1 mo following treatment. There were no between-group differences on baseline ISI scores or subjective sleep continuity. The intervention group reported significantly lower ISI scores than controls (t(38) 2.24, P insomnia caseness (i.e., ≥ 10), 60% of those in the CBT-I group had remitted by 1 mo compared to 15% of those in the control group. This single session of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is sufficiently efficacious for a significant proportion of those with acute insomnia. The results are discussed in terms of integrating this brief form of CBT-I into the "stepped care" model of insomnia. Testing the efficacy of an early intervention for acute insomnia (SRCTN05891695) http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN05891695. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  17. Single-shot ultrabroadband two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy of the light-harvesting complex LH2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Elad; Long, Phillip D; Engel, Gregory S

    2011-05-01

    Here we present two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectra of the light-harvesting complex LH2 from purple bacteria using coherent pulses with bandwidth of over 100 nm FWHM. This broadband excitation and detection has allowed the simultaneous capture of both the B800 and B850 bands using a single light source. We demonstrate that one laser pulse is sufficient to capture the entire 2D electronic spectrum with a high signal-to-noise ratio. At a waiting time of 800 fs, we observe population transfer from the B800 to B850 band as manifested by a prominent cross peak. These results will enable observation of the dynamics of biological systems across both ultrafast (1 ms) timescales simultaneously.

  18. Single-shot soft x-ray laser-induced ablative microstructuring of organic polymer with demagnifying projection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mocek, Tomáš; Rus, Bedřich; Kozlová, Michaela; Polan, Jiří; Homer, Pavel; Juha, Libor; Hájková, Věra; Chalupský, Jaromír

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 10 (2008), s. 1087-1089 ISSN 0146-9592 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN300100702; GA ČR GA202/05/2316; GA MŠk LC510; GA MŠk(CZ) LC528; GA MŠk LA08024 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : x-ray lasers * laser ablation * microstructuring Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.772, year: 2008

  19. Single Shot Measurements of the 4-Dimensional Transverse Phase Space Distribution of Intense Ion Beams at the UNILAC at GSI

    CERN Document Server

    Groening, L

    2003-01-01

    The UNILAC is used as an injector for the synchrotron SIS. It is designed to fill the synchrotron up to its space charge limit. The upper limit for the useful beam emittance of the UNILAC is given by the finite acceptance of the SIS during the injection process. In order to remain within this acceptance the emittance growth during beam acceleration and transportation due to space charge effects must be minimized by applying an appropriate beam focusing. Therefore, the influence of the magnetic focusing strength on the beam emittance growth was investigated experimentally for different beam currents. Measurements of transverse phase space distributions were performed before and after the Alvarez accelerator with a periodic focusing channel, respectively. In order to perform such a wide parameter scan within a reasonable time with respect to machine stability, the pepper pot technique was applied. The pepper pot method allows for single-pulse measurements. For comparison several measurements using the slit-grid...

  20. Imaging of the normal and abnormal pancreaticobiliary system with single-shot MR cholangiopancreatography: a pictorial review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, A. F.; Smith, P.J.; Lee, W.K.; Hennessy, O.F.; Lourensz, M.E.; Desmond, P.V.; Banting, S.W.

    1999-01-01

    Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is a rapidly evolving non-invasive imaging modality that produces images of the pancreatic duct and binary tree without the need for intravenous or oral contrast. The images are equivalent to those from endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), but the non-invasive acquisition avoids the morbidity and mortality associated with diagnostic ERCP. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography is indicated in patients who require only a diagnostic ERCP, who fail an ERCP or who are unable to undergo ERCP due to altered post-surgical anatomy. Other evolving indications include triaging of patients with obstructive jaundice into percutaneous or endoscopic management drainage pathways depending on the site, length and nature of the duct obstruction, thereby potentially decreasing the number of failed or unsuccessful ERCP. Preoperative identification of anomalous binary anatomy and choledocholithiasis prior to laparoscopic cholecystectomy promise to modify the pre-operative and operative management of the patient in order to minimize the risk of duct injury and unnecessary intra-operative dissection and cholangiography. The advantages of the technique include its non-invasiveness, the absence of contrast administration, its relative operator independence and the ability to evaluate both sides of an obstructed duct, thereby accurately evaluating stricture morphology and length. The disadvantages of MRCP compared to ERCP include its lack of an immediate therapeutic solution to duct obstruction, procedural cost, unit availability and the inability to evaluate patients with pacemakers or ferromagnetic implants. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  1. Forecasting the quality of water-suppressed 1 H MR spectra based on a single-shot water scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyathanahally, Sreenath P; Kreis, Roland

    2017-08-01

    To investigate whether an initial non-water-suppressed acquisition that provides information about the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and linewidth is enough to forecast the maximally achievable final spectral quality and thus inform the operator whether the foreseen number of averages and achieved field homogeneity is adequate. A large range of spectra with varying SNR and linewidth was simulated and fitted with popular fitting programs to determine the dependence of fitting errors on linewidth and SNR. A tool to forecast variance based on a single acquisition was developed and its performance evaluated on simulated and in vivo data obtained at 3 Tesla from various brain regions and acquisition settings. A strong correlation to real uncertainties in estimated metabolite contents was found for the forecast values and the Cramer-Rao lower bounds obtained from the water-suppressed spectra. It appears to be possible to forecast the best-case errors associated with specific metabolites to be found in model fits of water-suppressed spectra based on a single water scan. Thus, nonspecialist operators will be able to judge ahead of time whether the planned acquisition can possibly be of sufficient quality to answer the targeted clinical question or whether it needs more averages or improved shimming. Magn Reson Med 78:441-451, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  2. Effects of single-shot and steady-state propofol anaesthesia on rocuronium dose-response relationship: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stäuble, C G; Stäuble, R B; Schaller, S J; Unterbuchner, C; Fink, H; Blobner, M

    2015-08-01

    Similar to volatile anaesthetics, propofol may influence neuromuscular transmission. We hypothesised that the administration of propofol influenced the potency of rocuronium depending on the duration of the administration. After consent, patients scheduled for elective surgery randomly received rocuronium either after induction of anaesthesia with propofol (2 min of propofol, n = 36) or after 30 min of propofol infusion (30 min of propofol, n = 36). Remifentanil was given in both groups. Neuromuscular monitoring was performed by calibrated electromyography. The dose-response relationship of rocuronium was determined with a single-bolus technique (0.07, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.45 mg/kg rocuronium). The primary endpoints were the ED50 and ED95 of rocuronium after 2 and 30 min propofol. Data are presented as means with (95% confidence interval). The trial is registered with the Eudra-CT: 2009-012815-16. A total of 72 patients were included. Time to maximal neuromuscular blockade was significantly shorter in patients after 30 min of propofol [3.3 min (2.9-3.7)] compared with patients anaesthetised with 2 min of propofol [4.6 min (4.0-5.2)]. After 30 min of propofol, the slope of the dose-response curve was significantly steeper (30 min of propofol: 4.34 [3.62-5.05]; 2 min of propofol: [3.34 (2.72-3.96)], resulting in lower ED95 values of rocuronium (30 min of propofol: 0.287 mg/kg [0.221-0.368]; 2 min of propofol [0.391 mg/kg (0.296-0.520)]. The ED50 were not different between groups. The potency of rocuronium was significantly enhanced after propofol infusion for 30 min. Estimates of potency those are usually determined during steady-state anaesthesia might underestimate rocuronium requirements for endotracheal intubation at the time of induction. © 2015 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Label-free nanoscale characterization of red blood cell structure and dynamics using single-shot transport of intensity equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poola, Praveen Kumar; John, Renu

    2017-10-01

    We report the results of characterization of red blood cell (RBC) structure and its dynamics with nanometric sensitivity using transport of intensity equation microscopy (TIEM). Conventional transport of intensity technique requires three intensity images and hence is not suitable for studying real-time dynamics of live biological samples. However, assuming the sample to be homogeneous, phase retrieval using transport of intensity equation has been demonstrated with single defocused measurement with x-rays. We adopt this technique for quantitative phase light microscopy of homogenous cells like RBCs. The main merits of this technique are its simplicity, cost-effectiveness, and ease of implementation on a conventional microscope. The phase information can be easily merged with regular bright-field and fluorescence images to provide multidimensional (three-dimensional spatial and temporal) information without any extra complexity in the setup. The phase measurement from the TIEM has been characterized using polymeric microbeads and the noise stability of the system has been analyzed. We explore the structure and real-time dynamics of RBCs and the subdomain membrane fluctuations using this technique.

  4. Single shot DoA estimation for large-array base station systems in multi-user environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bressner, T.A.H.; Johannsen, U.; Smolders, A.B.

    2017-01-01

    The next generation of wireless communications has to deal with the demand for higher data rates and the increase of subscribers. A feasible approach to cope with these challenges is to utilize millimeter waves (mmWaves). To provide at these high frequencies a sufficient high signal to noise ratio

  5. Fabrication of nanoadjuvant with poly-ɛ-caprolactone (PCL for developing a single-shot vaccine providing prolonged immunity [Corrigendum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant CK

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Prashant CK, Bhat M, Srivastava SK, et al. Int J Nanomedicine. 2014;9:937–950.On page 937, the author affiliations have been listed incorrectly. The correct author list is as follows:Chandravilas Keshvan Prashant1Madhusudan Bhat2Sandeep Kumar Srivastava2Ankit Saxena3Manoj Kumar4Amar Singh3Mohammed Samim5Farhan Jalees Ahmad6Amit Kumar Dinda21Faculty of Engineering and Interdisciplinary Sciences, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India; 2Department of Pathology, 3Department of Transplant Immunology and Immunogenetics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India; 4Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi, India; 5Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India; 6Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, IndiaRead the original article

  6. Integration of an Optical Ring Resonator Biosensor into a Self-Contained Microfluidic Cartridge with Active, Single-Shot Micropumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Geidel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available While there have been huge advances in the field of biosensors during the last decade, their integration into a microfluidic environment avoiding external tubing and pumping is still neglected. Herein, we show a new microfluidic design that integrates multiple reservoirs for reagent storage and single-use electrochemical pumps for time-controlled delivery of the liquids. The cartridge has been tested and validated with a silicon nitride-based photonic biosensor incorporating multiple optical ring resonators as sensing elements and an immunoassay as a potential target application. Based on experimental results obtained with a demonstration model, subcomponents were designed and existing protocols were adapted. The newly-designed microfluidic cartridges and photonic sensors were separately characterized on a technical basis and performed well. Afterwards, the sensor was functionalized for a protein detection. The microfluidic cartridge was loaded with the necessary assay reagents. The integrated pumps were programmed to drive the single process steps of an immunoassay. The prototype worked selectively, but only with a low sensitivity. Further work must be carried out to optimize biofunctionalization of the optical ring resonators and to have a more suitable flow velocity progression to enhance the system’s reproducibility.

  7. Minimum Description Length Block Finder, a Method to Identify Haplotype Blocks and to Compare the Strength of Block Boundaries

    OpenAIRE

    Mannila, H.; Koivisto, M.; Perola, M.; Varilo, T.; Hennah, W.; Ekelund, J.; Lukk, M.; Peltonen, L.; Ukkonen, E.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a new probabilistic method for finding haplotype blocks that is based on the use of the minimum description length (MDL) principle. We give a rigorous definition of the quality of a segmentation of a genomic region into blocks and describe a dynamic programming algorithm for finding the optimal segmentation with respect to this measure. We also describe a method for finding the probability of a block boundary for each pair of adjacent markers: this gives a tool for evaluating the ...

  8. A PMT-Block test bench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adragna, P.; Antonaki, A.

    2006-01-01

    The front-end electronics of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter (Tile Cal) is housed in a unit, called PMT-Block. The PMT-Block is a compact instrument comprising a light mixer, a PMT together with its divider and a 3-in-1 card, which provides shaping, amplification and integration for the signals. This instrument needs to be qualified before being assembled on the detector. A PMT-Block test bench has been developed for this purpose. This test bench is a system which allows fast, albeit accurate enough, measurements of the main properties of a complete PMT-Block. The system, both hardware and software, and the protocol used for the PMT-Blocks characterization are described in detail in this report. The results obtained in the test of about 10 000 PMT-Blocks needed for the instrumentation of the ATLAS (LHC-CERN) hadronic Tile Calorimeter are also reported

  9. A PMT-Block test bench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adragna, P [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E.Fermi' , Universita di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, Pisa 56127 (Italy); Universita degli studi di Siena, via Roma 56, 53100 Siena (Italy); Antonaki, A [Institute of Accelerating Systems and Applications, P.O. Box 17214, Athens 10024 (Greece); National Capodistrian University of Athens, 30 Panepistimiou st., Athens 10679 (Greece)] (and others)

    2006-08-01

    The front-end electronics of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter (Tile Cal) is housed in a unit, called PMT-Block. The PMT-Block is a compact instrument comprising a light mixer, a PMT together with its divider and a 3-in-1 card, which provides shaping, amplification and integration for the signals. This instrument needs to be qualified before being assembled on the detector. A PMT-Block test bench has been developed for this purpose. This test bench is a system which allows fast, albeit accurate enough, measurements of the main properties of a complete PMT-Block. The system, both hardware and software, and the protocol used for the PMT-Blocks characterization are described in detail in this report. The results obtained in the test of about 10 000 PMT-Blocks needed for the instrumentation of the ATLAS (LHC-CERN) hadronic Tile Calorimeter are also reported.

  10. Inferior alveolar nerve block: Alternative technique

    OpenAIRE

    Thangavelu, K.; Kannan, R.; Kumar, N. Senthil

    2012-01-01

    Background: Inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) is a technique of dental anesthesia, used to produce anesthesia of the mandibular teeth, gingivae of the mandible and lower lip. The conventional IANB is the most commonly used the nerve block technique for achieving local anesthesia for mandibular surgical procedures. In certain cases, however, this nerve block fails, even when performed by the most experienced clinician. Therefore, it would be advantageous to find an alternative simple techni...

  11. A MAC Mode for Lightweight Block Ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luykx, Atul; Preneel, Bart; Tischhauser, Elmar Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Lightweight cryptography strives to protect communication in constrained environments without sacrificing security. However, security often conflicts with efficiency, shown by the fact that many new lightweight block cipher designs have block sizes as low as 64 or 32 bits. Such low block sizes lead...... no effect on the security bound, allowing an order of magnitude more data to be processed per key. Furthermore, LightMAC is incredibly simple, has almost no overhead over the block cipher, and is parallelizable. As a result, LightMAC not only offers compact authentication for resource-constrained platforms...

  12. Using Interference to Block RFID Tags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Rasmus; Popovski, Petar; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    We propose a novel method to block RFID tags from responding, using intentional interference. We focus on the experimental evaluation, where we impose interference on the download and uplink, respectively. The results are positive, where modulated CCI shows most effective to block a tag.......We propose a novel method to block RFID tags from responding, using intentional interference. We focus on the experimental evaluation, where we impose interference on the download and uplink, respectively. The results are positive, where modulated CCI shows most effective to block a tag....

  13. CAPTURING REALITY AT CENTRE BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Boulanger

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Centre Block of Canada’s Parliament buildings, National Historic Site of Canada is set to undergo a major rehabilitation project that will take approximately 10 years to complete. In preparation for this work, Heritage Conservation Services (HCS of Public Services and Procurement Canada has been completing heritage documentation of the entire site which includes laser scanning of all interior rooms and accessible confined spaces such as attics and other similar areas. Other documentation completed includes detailed photogrammetric documentation of rooms and areas of high heritage value. Some of these high heritage value spaces present certain challenges such as accessibility due to the height and the size of the spaces. Another challenge is the poor lighting conditions, requiring the use of flash or strobe lighting to either compliment or completely eliminate the available ambient lighting. All the spaces captured at this higher level of detail were also captured with laser scanning. This allowed the team to validate the information and conduct a quality review of the photogrammetric data. As a result of this exercise, the team realized that in most, if not all cases, the photogrammetric data was more detailed and at a higher quality then the terrestrial laser scanning data. The purpose and motivation of this paper is to present these findings, as well provide the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods and data sets.

  14. Capturing Reality at Centre Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, C.; Ouimet, C.; Yeomans, N.

    2017-08-01

    The Centre Block of Canada's Parliament buildings, National Historic Site of Canada is set to undergo a major rehabilitation project that will take approximately 10 years to complete. In preparation for this work, Heritage Conservation Services (HCS) of Public Services and Procurement Canada has been completing heritage documentation of the entire site which includes laser scanning of all interior rooms and accessible confined spaces such as attics and other similar areas. Other documentation completed includes detailed photogrammetric documentation of rooms and areas of high heritage value. Some of these high heritage value spaces present certain challenges such as accessibility due to the height and the size of the spaces. Another challenge is the poor lighting conditions, requiring the use of flash or strobe lighting to either compliment or completely eliminate the available ambient lighting. All the spaces captured at this higher level of detail were also captured with laser scanning. This allowed the team to validate the information and conduct a quality review of the photogrammetric data. As a result of this exercise, the team realized that in most, if not all cases, the photogrammetric data was more detailed and at a higher quality then the terrestrial laser scanning data. The purpose and motivation of this paper is to present these findings, as well provide the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods and data sets.

  15. Building blocks of the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malamud, E.; O'Connor, C.; Cooper, A.

    1990-01-01

    COSI [Ohio's Center for Science and Industry], a well established science center, and SciTech, an emerging one, have formed a collaboration to develop a group of original interactive exhibits conveying to a wide audience the nature of the most fundamental features of the Universe, as revealed in the fascinating world of nuclear and particle science. These new exhibits will add to, and be supported by, the basic science exhibits which have already attracted large numbers of visitors to both centers. The new project, called Building Blocks of the Universe, aims to foster an appreciation of the way all features of the Universe arise from simple, basic rules and to lead the visitor from the perceived complexities of our surroundings, to the unperceived, but simpler features of the sub-nuclear world. It has already become apparent from individual prototypes that these simple but immensely far-reaching ideas can indeed be conveyed by hands-on exhibits. These exhibits will be linked and enhanced by an effective museum environment, using pictorial diagrams, accurate non-technical text, and artistic displays to create an atmosphere in which visitors can learn about phenomena beyond the range of direct perception. This paper describes the goals, content and organization of the exhibition. The authors also outline their experience with prototype exhibits, and thereby invite additional input into the development process

  16. Ionization of amphiphilic acidic block copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombani, Olivier; Lejeune, Elise; Charbonneau, Céline; Chassenieux, Christophe; Nicolai, Taco

    2012-06-28

    The ionization behavior of an amphiphilic diblock copolymer poly(n-butyl acrylate(50%)-stat-acrylic acid(50%))(100)-block-poly(acrylic acid)(100) (P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100)-b-PAA(100), DH50) and of its equivalent triblock copolymer P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100)-b-PAA(200)-b-P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100) (TH50) were studied by potentiometric titration either in pure water or in 0.5 M NaCl. These polymers consist of a hydrophilic acidic block (PAA) connected to a hydrophobic block, P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100), whose hydrophobic character has been mitigated by copolymerization with hydrophilic units. We show that all AA units, even those in the hydrophobic block could be ionized. However, the AA units within the hydrophobic block were less acidic than those in the hydrophilic block, resulting in the preferential ionization of the latter block. The preferential ionization of PAA over that of P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100) was stronger at higher ionic strength. Remarkably, the covalent bonds between the PAA and P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100) blocks in the diblock or the triblock did not affect the ionization of each block, although the self-association of the block copolymers into spherical aggregates modified the environment of the PAA blocks compared to when PAA was molecularly dispersed.

  17. Micellar aggregates of amylose-block-polystyrene rod-coil block copolymers in water and THF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, Katja; Böker, Alexander; Zettl, Heiko; Zhang, Mingfu; Krausch, Georg; Müller, Axel H.E.; Boker, A.; Zhang, A.F.

    2005-01-01

    Amylose-block-polystyrenes with various block copolymer compositions were investigated in water and in THF solution. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, dynamic light, scattering (DLS), and asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation with multiangle light scattering detection indicate the presence

  18. Approximate design theory for a simple block design with random block effects

    OpenAIRE

    Christof, Karin

    1985-01-01

    Approximate design theory for a simple block design with random block effects / K. Christof ; F. Pukelsheim. - In: Linear statistical inference / ed. by T. Calinski ... - Berlin u. a. : Springer, 1985. - S. 20-28. - (Lecture notes in statistics ; 35)

  19. Distribution of short block copolymer chains in Binary Blends of Block Copolymers Having Hydrogen Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jongheon; Han, Sunghyun; Kim, Jin Kon

    2014-03-01

    A binary mixture of two block copolymers whose blocks are capable of forming the hydrogen bonding allows one to obtain various microdomains that could not be expected for neat block copolymer. For instance, the binary blend of symmetric polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) copolymer (PS-b-P2VP) and polystyrene-block-polyhydroxystyrene copolymer (PS-b-PHS) blends where the hydrogen bonding occurred between P2VP and PHS showed hexagonally packed (HEX) cylindrical and body centered cubic (BCC) spherical microdomains. To know the exact location of short block copolymer chains at the interface, we synthesized deuterated polystyrene-block-polyhydroxystyrene copolymer (dPS-b-PHS) and prepared a binary mixture with PS-b-P2VP. We investigate, via small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and neutron reflectivity (NR), the exact location of shorter dPS block chain near the interface of the microdomains.

  20. Block Gas Sol Unit in Haderslev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    2000-01-01

    Investigation of a SDHW system based on a Block Gas Sol Unit from Baxi A/S installed by a consumer i Haderslev, Denmark.......Investigation of a SDHW system based on a Block Gas Sol Unit from Baxi A/S installed by a consumer i Haderslev, Denmark....

  1. Ground reaction curve based upon block theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yow, J.L. Jr.; Goodman, R.E.

    1985-09-01

    Discontinuities in a rock mass can intersect an excavation surface to form discrete blocks (keyblocks) which can be unstable. Once a potentially unstable block is identified, the forces affecting it can be calculated to assess its stability. The normal and shear stresses on each block face before displacement are calculated using elastic theory and are modified in a nonlinear way by discontinuity deformations as the keyblock displaces. The stresses are summed into resultant forces to evaluate block stability. Since the resultant forces change with displacement, successive increments of block movement are examined to see whether the block ultimately becomes stable or fails. Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) analytic models for the stability of simple pyramidal keyblocks were evaluated. Calculated stability is greater for 3D analyses than for 2D analyses. Calculated keyblock stability increases with larger in situ stress magnitudes, larger lateral stress ratios, and larger shear strengths. Discontinuity stiffness controls blocks displacement more strongly than it does stability itself. Large keyblocks are less stable than small ones, and stability increases as blocks become more slender

  2. Light extraction block with curved surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levermore, Peter; Krall, Emory; Silvernail, Jeffrey; Rajan, Kamala; Brown, Julia J.

    2016-03-22

    Light extraction blocks, and OLED lighting panels using light extraction blocks, are described, in which the light extraction blocks include various curved shapes that provide improved light extraction properties compared to parallel emissive surface, and a thinner form factor and better light extraction than a hemisphere. Lighting systems described herein may include a light source with an OLED panel. A light extraction block with a three-dimensional light emitting surface may be optically coupled to the light source. The three-dimensional light emitting surface of the block may includes a substantially curved surface, with further characteristics related to the curvature of the surface at given points. A first radius of curvature corresponding to a maximum principal curvature k.sub.1 at a point p on the substantially curved surface may be greater than a maximum height of the light extraction block. A maximum height of the light extraction block may be less than 50% of a maximum width of the light extraction block. Surfaces with cross sections made up of line segments and inflection points may also be fit to approximated curves for calculating the radius of curvature.

  3. On multiple blocking sets in Galois planes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokhuis, A.; Lovász, L.; Storme, L.; Szönyi, T.

    2007-01-01

    This article continues the study of multiple blocking sets in PG(2, q). In [A. Blokhuis, L. Storme, T. Szonyi, Lacunary polynomials, multiple blocking sets and Baer subplanes. J. London Math. Soc. (2) 60 (1999), 321–332. MR1724814 (2000j:05025) Zbl 0940.51007], using lacunary polynomials, it was

  4. CONJUGATED BLOCK-COPOLYMERS FOR ELECTROLUMINESCENT DIODES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilberer, A; Gill, R.E; Herrema, J.K; Malliaras, G.G; Wildeman, J.; Hadziioannou, G

    In this article we review results obtained in our laboratory on the design and study of new light-emitting polymers. We are interested in the synthesis and characterisation of block copolymers with regularly alternating conjugated and non conjugated sequences. The blocks giving rise to luminescence

  5. Programs for the calculi of blocks permeabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Hernandez, J.J.; Sovero Sovero, H.F.

    1993-01-01

    This report studies the stochastic analysis of radionuclide transport. The permeability values of blocks are necessary to do a numeric model for the flux and transport problems in ground soils. The determination of block value by function on grill value is the objective of this program

  6. Substrate tolerant direct block copolymer nanolithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Tao; Wang, Zhongli; Schulte, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Block copolymer (BC) self-assembly constitutes a powerful platform for nanolithography. However, there is a need for a general approach to BC lithography that critically considers all the steps from substrate preparation to the final pattern transfer. We present a procedure that significantly sim...... plasma treatment enables formation of the oxidized PDMS hard mask, PS block removal and polymer or graphene substrate patterning....

  7. Benchmarking Block Ciphers for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, Y.W.; Doumen, J.M.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2004-01-01

    Choosing the most storage- and energy-efficient block cipher specifically for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is not as straightforward as it seems. To our knowledge so far, there is no systematic evaluation framework for the purpose. We have identified the candidates of block ciphers suitable for

  8. Block Study: Learning About Your Local Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckbreth, Catherine

    Designed for 7th- and 8th-grade students, five lessons using a block of houses in an urban neighborhood help students learn about the history of a neighborhood, the owners of the houses, and the style and architectural features of the homes. Although this unit has been developed for a specific neighborhood, a similar block study could be conducted…

  9. Metallo-supramolecular block copolymer micelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gohy, J.M.W.

    2009-01-01

    Supramolecular copolymers have become of increasing interest in recent years in the search for new materials with tunable properties. In particular, metallo-supramolecular block copolymers in which metal-ligand complexes are introduced in block copolymer architectures, have known important progress,

  10. The undesirable effects of neuromuscular blocking drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudius, C; Garvey, L H; Viby-Mogensen, J

    2009-01-01

    Neuromuscular blocking drugs are designed to bind to the nicotinic receptor at the neuromuscular junction. However, they also interact with other acetylcholine receptors in the body. Binding to these receptors causes adverse effects that vary with the specificity for the cholinergic receptor...... in question. Moreover, all neuromuscular blocking drugs may cause hypersensitivity reactions. Often the symptoms are mild and self-limiting but massive histamine release can cause systematic reactions with circulatory and respiratory symptoms and signs. At the end of anaesthesia, no residual effect...... of a neuromuscular blocking drug should be present. However, the huge variability in response to neuromuscular blocking drugs makes it impossible to predict which patient will suffer postoperative residual curarization. This article discusses the undesirable effects of the currently available neuromuscular blocking...

  11. Functional Nanoporous Polymers from Block Copolymer Precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Fengxiao

    Abstract Self-assembly of block copolymers provides well-defined morphologies with characteristic length scales in the nanometer range. Nanoporous polymers prepared by selective removal of one block from self-assembled block copolymers offer great technological promise due to their many potential...... functionalities remains a great challenge due to the limitation of available polymer synthesis and the nanoscale confinement of the porous cavities. The main topic of this thesis is to develop methods for fabrication of functional nanoporous polymers from block copolymer precursors. A method has been developed......, where living anionic polymerization and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) are combined to synthesize a polydimethylsiloxane-b-poly(tert-butyl acrylate)-b-polystyrene (PDMS-b-PtBA-b-PS) triblock copolymer precursor. By using either anhydrous hydrogen fluoride or trifluoroacetic acid, PtBA block...

  12. Thinking Outside the Block: An Innovative Alternative to 4X4 Block Scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Myra

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a 4x1 block scheduling method that was developed as an alternative to 4x4 block scheduling. Schedules Fridays for summer school, test preparation, and enrichment and elective courses. Includes suggestions on how to alleviate drawbacks of the 4x1 block schedule. (YDS)

  13. Block Copolymers: Synthesis and Applications in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Qin

    This study is focused on the synthesis and study of (block) copolymers using reversible deactivation radical polymerizations (RDRPs), including atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. In particular, two primary areas of study are undertaken: (1) a proof-of-concept application of lithographic block copolymers, and (2) the mechanistic study of the deposition of titania into block copolymer templates for the production of well-ordered titania nanostructures. Block copolymers have the ability to undergo microphase separation, with an average size of each microphase ranging from tens to hundreds of nanometers. As such, block copolymers have been widely considered for nanotechnological applications over the past two decades. The development of materials for various nanotechnologies has become an increasingly studied area as improvements in many applications, such as those found in the semiconductor and photovoltaic industries are constantly being sought. Significant growth in developments of new synthetic methods ( i.e. RDRPs) has allowed the production of block copolymers with molecular (and sometimes atomic) definition. In turn, this has greatly expanded the use of block copolymers in nanotechnology. Herein, we describe the synthesis of statistical and block copolymers of 193 nm photolithography methacrylate and acrylate resist monomers with norbornyl and adamantyl moieties using RAFT polymerization.. For these resist (block) copolymers, the phase separation behaviors were examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). End groups were removed from the polymers to avoid complications during the photolithography since RAFT end groups absorb visible light. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate-block-polystyrene) (PGMA-b-PS) was synthesize by ATRP and demonstrated that this block copolymer acts as both a lithographic UV (365 nm) photoresist and a self-assembly material. The PGMA segments can undergo cationic

  14. Masquerading bundle branch block as a presenting manifestation of complete atrioventricular block that caused syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Zhenyu; Tian, Ying; Yang, Xinchun; Liu, Xingpeng

    2017-10-01

    A 59-year-old male patient was admitted with the main complaints of stuffiness and shortness of breath. An ECG from precordial leads on admission showed masquerading bundle branch block. Syncope frequently occurred after admission. During syncope episodes, ECG telemetry showed that the syncope was caused by intermittent complete atrioventricular block, with the longest RR interval lasting for 4.36 s. At the gap of syncope, ECG showed complete right bundle branch block accompanied by alternation of left anterior fascicular block and left posterior fascicular block. The patient was implanted with a dual-chamber permanent pacemaker. Follow-up of 9 months showed no reoccurrence of syncope.

  15. Toward Composable Hardware Agnostic Communications Blocks Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    block-by-block level or on a multi- block level. In the block-by-block pushback approach, queues between each block are small and blocks processing data...medium access, and physical layers of the waveform has limited our ability to take advantage of technology advances in signal processing , rate...pro- cessing functions, and application processing functions as shown in Figure 1 [1]. Transceiver functions are functions associated with transmitting

  16. Inferior alveolar nerve block: Alternative technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangavelu, K; Kannan, R; Kumar, N Senthil

    2012-01-01

    Inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) is a technique of dental anesthesia, used to produce anesthesia of the mandibular teeth, gingivae of the mandible and lower lip. The conventional IANB is the most commonly used the nerve block technique for achieving local anesthesia for mandibular surgical procedures. In certain cases, however, this nerve block fails, even when performed by the most experienced clinician. Therefore, it would be advantageous to find an alternative simple technique. The objective of this study is to find an alternative inferior alveolar nerve block that has a higher success rate than other routine techniques. To this purpose, a simple painless inferior alveolar nerve block was designed to anesthetize the inferior alveolar nerve. This study was conducted in Oral surgery department of Vinayaka Mission's dental college Salem from May 2009 to May 2011. Five hundred patients between the age of 20 years and 65 years who required extraction of teeth in mandible were included in the study. Out of 500 patients 270 were males and 230 were females. The effectiveness of the IANB was evaluated by using a sharp dental explorer in the regions innervated by the inferior alveolar, lingual, and buccal nerves after 3, 5, and 7 min, respectively. This study concludes that inferior alveolar nerve block is an appropriate alternative nerve block to anesthetize inferior alveolar nerve due to its several advantages.

  17. [Conduction block: a notion to let through].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, E

    2012-12-01

    Historical study of electrodiagnosis indicates that nerve conduction block is an old notion, used as early as the second century by Galien and then early in the 19th by physiologists such as Müller and Mateucci. Although introduced into the field of human pathology by Mitchell in 1872, who used it to study nerve injuries, and then by Erb in 1874 to study radial palsy, the contribution of nerve conduction blocks to electrodiagnosis was not exploited until the 1980s. At that time, attempts to improve early diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome showed that among the electrophysiological consequences of demyelination, conduction block was the most appropriate to account for the paralysis. At the same time, descriptions of neuropathies characterized by conduction blocks led to considering conduction block as a major electrophysiological sign. Why was it so difficult for this sign to be retained for electrodiagnosis? Since the notion is not always associated with anatomical lesions, it doesn't fit easily into anatomoclinical reasoning, but has to be thought of in functional terms. Understanding how an uninjured axon could fail to conduct action potentials leads to an examination of the intimate consequences of demyelinations and axonal dysfunctions. But some of the difficulty encountered in adding this new old sign to the armamentarium of electrophysiological diagnosis was related to the technical precautions required to individualize a block. Several pitfalls have to be avoided if a conduction block is to be afforded real diagnostic value. Similar precautions and discussions are also needed to establish an opposing sign, the "excitability block" or "inverse block". Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. CT and fluoroscopy guided celiac ganglion block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Sun Kyung; Kwon, Dae Ik; Ahn, Hyup; Kim, Jong Il; Kim, Byung Young; Lee, Jong Gil

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the effects and usefulness of fluoroscopy guided celiac ganglion block after marking of needle path with CT scan. Celiac ganglion block with 100% ethyl alcohol was performed in 50 cancer patients who were inoperable and had intractable abdominal pain. Duration and degree of pain relief after the procedure and its complication were analyzed. Early pain relief was observed in 98% and long term relief in 68% without serious complication. Fluoroscopy guided celiac ganglion block after marking of needle path with CT scan was a safe and valuable procedure in relieving intractable pain in terminal cancer patients and reduced the time in the CT room

  19. Measurement of soil moisture using gypsum blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Dela, B.

    the building. Consequently, measuring the moisture of the surrounding soil is of great importance for detecting the source of moisture in a building. Up till now, information has been needed to carry out individual calibrations for the different types of gypsum blocks available on the market and to account......For the past 50 years, gypsum blocks have been used to determine soil moisture content. This report describes a method for calibrating gypsum blocks for soil moisture measurements. Moisture conditions inside a building are strongly influenced by the moisture conditions in the soil surrounding...

  20. Evaluative Conditioning is Insensitive to Blocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Beckers

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluative conditioning has been claimed to have a number of functional characteristics that set it apart from other forms of associative learning in humans, such as insensitivity to extinction and contingency, independence of contingency awareness, and insensitivity to modulation. Despite its potential theoretical importance, until now few data are available concerning the susceptibility of evaluative conditioning to cue competition effects such as blocking. In the present study, we assessed the susceptibility of acquired preferences and evaluations to blocking in a candy game. Results suggest that evaluative conditioning is not susceptible to blocking. We discuss this observation in the light of theoretical accounts of evaluative conditioning and associative learning in humans.

  1. Blocks and families for cyclotomic Hecke algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Chlouveraki, Maria

    2009-01-01

    The definition of Rouquier for the families of characters introduced by Lusztig for Weyl groups in terms of blocks of the Hecke algebras has made possible the generalization of this notion to the case of complex reflection groups. The aim of this book is to study the blocks and to determine the families of characters for all cyclotomic Hecke algebras associated to complex reflection groups. This volume offers a thorough study of symmetric algebras, covering topics such as block theory, representation theory and Clifford theory, and can also serve as an introduction to the Hecke algebras of complex reflection groups.

  2. Theory of circuit block switch-off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Henzler

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Switching-off unused circuit blocks is a promising approach to supress static leakage currents in ultra deep sub-micron CMOS digital systems. Basic performance parameters of Circuit Block Switch-Off (CBSO schemes are defined and their dependence on basic circuit parameters is estimated. Therefore the design trade-off between strong leakage suppression in idle mode and adequate dynamic performance in active mode can be supported by simple analytic investigations. Additionally, a guideline for the estimation of the minimum time for which a block deactivation is useful is derived.

  3. Superintegrability of d-dimensional conformal blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isachenkov, Mikhail

    2016-02-01

    We observe that conformal blocks of scalar 4-point functions in a d-dimensional conformal field theory can mapped to eigenfunctions of a 2-particle hyperbolic Calogero-Sutherland Hamiltonian. The latter describes two coupled Poeschl-Teller particles. Their interaction, whose strength depends smoothly on the dimension d, is known to be superintegrable. Our observation enables us to exploit the rich mathematical literature on Calogero-Sutherland models in deriving various results for conformal field theory. These include an explicit construction of conformal blocks in terms of Heckman-Opdam hypergeometric functions and a remarkable duality that relates the blocks of theories in different dimensions.

  4. Productivity assessment of Angola's oil blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Managi, Shunsuke

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the change in productivity as a result of Angola oil policy from 2001 to 2007. Angola oil blocks are the main source of tax receipts and, therefore, strategically important for public finances. A Malmquist index with the input technological bias is applied to measure productivity change. Oil blocks on average became both more efficient and experienced technological progress. Our results indicate that the traditional growth accounting method, which assumes Hicks neutral technological change, is not appropriate for analyzing changes in productivity for Angola oil blocks. Policy implications are derived. (author)

  5. Superintegrability of d-dimensional conformal blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isachenkov, Mikhail [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Particle Physics and Astronomy; Schomerus, Volker [DESY Theory Group, Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    We observe that conformal blocks of scalar 4-point functions in a d-dimensional conformal field theory can mapped to eigenfunctions of a 2-particle hyperbolic Calogero-Sutherland Hamiltonian. The latter describes two coupled Poeschl-Teller particles. Their interaction, whose strength depends smoothly on the dimension d, is known to be superintegrable. Our observation enables us to exploit the rich mathematical literature on Calogero-Sutherland models in deriving various results for conformal field theory. These include an explicit construction of conformal blocks in terms of Heckman-Opdam hypergeometric functions and a remarkable duality that relates the blocks of theories in different dimensions.

  6. Round Gating for Low Energy Block Ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banik, Subhadeep; Bogdanov, Andrey; Regazzoni, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    design techniques for implementing block ciphers in a low energy fashion. We concentrate on round based implementation and we discuss how gating, applied at round level can affect and improve the energy consumption of the most common lightweight block cipher currently used in the internet of things....... Additionally, we discuss how to needed gating wave can be generated. Experimental results show that our technique is able to reduce the energy consumption in most block ciphers by over 60% while incurring only a minimal overhead in hardware....

  7. PEO-related block copolymer surfactants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, K.

    2001-01-01

    Non-ionic block copolymer systems based on hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide) and more hydrophobic co-polymer blocks are used intensively in a variety of industrial and personal applications. A brief description on the applications is presented. The physical properties of more simple model systems...... of such PEG-based block copolymers in aqueous suspensions are reviewed. Based on scattering experiments using either X-ray or neutrons, the phase behavior is characterized, showing that the thermo-reversible gelation is a result of micellar ordering into mesoscopic crystalline phases of cubic, hexagonal...

  8. Seismic proof test of shielding block walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohte, Yukio; Watanabe, Takahide; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Maruyama, Kazuhide

    1989-01-01

    Most of the shielding block walls used for building nuclear facilities are built by dry process. When a nuclear facility is designed, seismic waves specific at each site are set as input seismic motions and they are adopted in the design. Therefore, it is necessary to assure safety of the shielding block walls for earthquake by performing anti-seismic experiments under the conditions at each site. In order to establish the normal form that can be applied to various seismic conditions in various areas, Shimizu Corp. made an actual-size test samples for the shielding block wall and confirmed the safety for earthquake and validity of normalization. (author)

  9. Functionalization of Block Copolymer Vesicle Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Meier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In dilute aqueous solutions certain amphiphilic block copolymers self-assemble into vesicles that enclose a small pool of water with a membrane. Such polymersomes have promising applications ranging from targeted drug-delivery devices, to biosensors, and nanoreactors. Interactions between block copolymer membranes and their surroundings are important factors that determine their potential biomedical applications. Such interactions are influenced predominantly by the membrane surface. We review methods to functionalize block copolymer vesicle surfaces by chemical means with ligands such as antibodies, adhesion moieties, enzymes, carbohydrates and fluorophores. Furthermore, surface-functionalization can be achieved by self-assembly of polymers that carry ligands at their chain ends or in their hydrophilic blocks. While this review focuses on the strategies to functionalize vesicle surfaces, the applications realized by, and envisioned for, such functional polymersomes are also highlighted.

  10. Secure Block Ciphers - Cryptanalysis and Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiessen, Tyge

    be applied to the AES can be transferred to this block cipher, albeit with a higher attack complexity. The second publication introduces a new block cipher family which is targeted for new applications in fully homomorphic encryption and multi-party computation. We demonstrate the soundness of the design...... is encrypted using so-called symmetric ciphers. The security of our digital infrastructure thus rests at its very base on their security. The central topic of this thesis is the security of block ciphers – the most prominent form of symmetric ciphers. This thesis is separated in two parts. The first part...... is an introduction to block ciphers and their cryptanalysis, the second part contains publications written and published during the PhD studies. The first publication evaluates the security of a modification of the AES in which the choice of S-box is unknown to the attacker. We find that some of the attacks that can...

  11. Dynamic code block size for JPEG 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ping-Sing; LeCornec, Yann

    2008-02-01

    Since the standardization of the JPEG 2000, it has found its way into many different applications such as DICOM (digital imaging and communication in medicine), satellite photography, military surveillance, digital cinema initiative, professional video cameras, and so on. The unified framework of the JPEG 2000 architecture makes practical high quality real-time compression possible even in video mode, i.e. motion JPEG 2000. In this paper, we present a study of the compression impact using dynamic code block size instead of fixed code block size as specified in the JPEG 2000 standard. The simulation results show that there is no significant impact on compression if dynamic code block sizes are used. In this study, we also unveil the advantages of using dynamic code block sizes.

  12. EnviroAtlas - Phoenix, AZ - Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is the base layer for the Phoenix, AZ EnviroAtlas area. The block groups are from the US Census Bureau and are included/excluded based on...

  13. EnviroAtlas - Fresno, CA - Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is the base layer for the Fresno, CA EnviroAtlas area. The block groups are from the US Census Bureau and are included/excluded based on...

  14. Readiness for surgery after axillary block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koscielniak-Nielsen, Z J; Stens-Pedersen, H L; Lippert, F K

    1997-01-01

    required less time for block performance (mean 5.5 min) than multiple injections (mean 9.5 min), P requirement for supplemental nerve blocks was greater, after single injections (33 min and 57%) than after multiple injections (15.5 min and 7......We have assessed prospectively the time to readiness for surgery following axillary block (sum of block performance and latency times) in 80 patients. The brachial plexus was identified using a nerve stimulator, and anaesthetized with 45 mL of mepivacaine 1% with adrenaline 5 micrograms mL-1......%, respectively), P effectiveness was 100% in group 1 and 98% in group 2 (NS). The frequency of adverse effects (vessel puncture or paraesthesia) was similar...

  15. Scalable inference for stochastic block models

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chengbin; Zhang, Zhihua; Wong, Ka-Chun; Zhang, Xiangliang; Keyes, David E.

    2017-01-01

    Community detection in graphs is widely used in social and biological networks, and the stochastic block model is a powerful probabilistic tool for describing graphs with community structures. However, in the era of "big data," traditional inference

  16. Second derivative parallel block backward differentiation type ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Second derivative parallel block backward differentiation type formulas for Stiff ODEs. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... and the methods are inherently parallel and can be distributed over parallel processors. They are ...

  17. Compressed normalized block difference for object tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yun; Zhang, Dengzhuo; Cai, Donglan; Zhou, Hao; Lan, Ge

    2018-04-01

    Feature extraction is very important for robust and real-time tracking. Compressive sensing provided a technical support for real-time feature extraction. However, all existing compressive tracking were based on compressed Haar-like feature, and how to compress many more excellent high-dimensional features is worth researching. In this paper, a novel compressed normalized block difference feature (CNBD) was proposed. For resisting noise effectively in a highdimensional normalized pixel difference feature (NPD), a normalized block difference feature extends two pixels in the original formula of NPD to two blocks. A CNBD feature can be obtained by compressing a normalized block difference feature based on compressive sensing theory, with the sparse random Gaussian matrix as the measurement matrix. The comparative experiments of 7 trackers on 20 challenging sequences showed that the tracker based on CNBD feature can perform better than other trackers, especially than FCT tracker based on compressed Haar-like feature, in terms of AUC, SR and Precision.

  18. EnviroAtlas - Cleveland, OH - Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is the base layer for the Cleveland, OH EnviroAtlas community. The block groups are from the US Census Bureau and are included/excluded...

  19. Characterizing permanent magnet blocks with Helmholtz coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie, D. W.; Timpf, J.

    1992-08-01

    Most of the insertion devices to be installed at the Advanced Photon Source will utilize permanent magnets in their magnetic structures. The quality of the spectral output is sensitive to the errors in the field of the device which are related to variations in the magnetic properties of the individual blocks. The Advanced Photon Source will have a measurement facility to map the field in the completed insertion devices and equipment to test and modify the magnetic strength of the individual magnet blocks. One component of the facility, the Helmholtz coil permanent magnet block measurement system, has been assembled and tested. This system measures the total magnetic moment vector of a block with a precision better than 0.01% and a directional resolution of about 0.05°. The design and performance of the system will be presented.

  20. The diagnosis of blocked pulmonary abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinner, M.G.; Khudyakov, L.M.; Mezentsev, I.A.

    1992-01-01

    Only spot bronchography, and if its results are negative, transthoracal puncture permit a correct diagnosis of blocked or partially blocked pulmonary abscess in 2/3 of cases. This result is of importance for the choice of the treatment strategy, in such patients. Use of thin or super-thin needles for puncture helped do without serious complications and obtain reliable diagnostic information in 90 % of cases

  1. Amphiphilic block copolymers for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Monica L; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh; Kwon, Glen S

    2003-07-01

    Amphiphilic block copolymers (ABCs) have been used extensively in pharmaceutical applications ranging from sustained-release technologies to gene delivery. The utility of ABCs for delivery of therapeutic agents results from their unique chemical composition, which is characterized by a hydrophilic block that is chemically tethered to a hydrophobic block. In aqueous solution, polymeric micelles are formed via the association of ABCs into nanoscopic core/shell structures at or above the critical micelle concentration. Upon micellization, the hydrophobic core regions serve as reservoirs for hydrophobic drugs, which may be loaded by chemical, physical, or electrostatic means, depending on the specific functionalities of the core-forming block and the solubilizate. Although the Pluronics, composed of poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(propylene oxide)-block-poly(ethylene oxide), are the most widely studied ABC system, copolymers containing poly(L-amino acid) and poly(ester) hydrophobic blocks have also shown great promise in delivery applications. Because each ABC has unique advantages with respect to drug delivery, it may be possible to choose appropriate block copolymers for specific purposes, such as prolonging circulation time, introduction of targeting moieties, and modification of the drug-release profile. ABCs have been used for numerous pharmaceutical applications including drug solubilization/stabilization, alteration of the pharmacokinetic profile of encapsulated substances, and suppression of multidrug resistance. The purpose of this minireview is to provide a concise, yet detailed, introduction to the use of ABCs and polymeric micelles as delivery agents as well as to highlight current and past work in this area. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  2. Block copolymer membranes for aqueous solution applications

    KAUST Repository

    Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2016-03-22

    Block copolymers are known for their intricate morphology. We review the state of the art of block copolymer membranes and discuss perspectives in this field. The main focus is on pore morphology tuning with a short introduction on non-porous membranes. The two main strategies for pore formation in block copolymer membranes are (i) film casting and selective block sacrifice and (ii) self-assembly and non-solvent induced phase separation (SNIPS). Different fundamental aspects involved in the manufacture of block copolymer membranes are considered, including factors affecting the equilibrium morphology in solid films, self-assembly of copolymer in solutions and macrophase separation by solvent-non-solvent exchange. Different mechanisms are proposed for different depths of the SNIPS membrane. Block copolymer membranes can be prepared with much narrower pore size distribution than homopolymer membranes. Open questions and indications of what we consider the next development steps are finally discussed. They include the synthesis and application of new copolymers and specific functionalization, adding characteristics to respond to stimuli and chemical environment, polymerization-induced phase separation, and the manufacture of organic-inorganic hybrids.

  3. Capacitor blocks for linear transformer driver stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, B M; Kharlov, A V; Kumpyak, E V; Smorudov, G V; Zherlitsyn, A A

    2014-01-01

    In the Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) technology, the low inductance energy storage components and switches are directly incorporated into the individual cavities (named stages) to generate a fast output voltage pulse, which is added along a vacuum coaxial line like in an inductive voltage adder. LTD stages with air insulation were recently developed, where air is used both as insulation in a primary side of the stages and as working gas in the LTD spark gap switches. A custom designed unit, referred to as a capacitor block, was developed for use as a main structural element of the transformer stages. The capacitor block incorporates two capacitors GA 35426 (40 nF, 100 kV) and multichannel multigap gas switch. Several modifications of the capacitor blocks were developed and tested on the life time and self breakdown probability. Blocks were tested both as separate units and in an assembly of capacitive module, consisting of five capacitor blocks. This paper presents detailed design of capacitor blocks, description of operation regimes, numerical simulation of electric field in the switches, and test results.

  4. Direct block scheduling technology: Analysis of Avidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Ribeiro Souza

    Full Text Available Abstract This study is focused on Direct Block Scheduling testing (Direct Multi-Period Scheduling methodology which schedules mine production considering the correct discount factor of each mining block, resulting in the final pit. Each block is analyzed individually in order to define the best target period. This methodology presents an improvement of the classical methodology derived from Lerchs-Grossmann's initial proposition improved by Whittle. This paper presents the differences between these methodologies, specially focused on the algorithms' avidity. Avidity is classically defined by the voracious search algorithms, whereupon some of the most famous greedy algorithms are Branch and Bound, Brutal Force and Randomized. Strategies based on heuristics can accentuate the voracity of the optimizer system. The applied algorithm use simulated annealing combined with Tabu Search. The most avid algorithm can select the most profitable blocks in early periods, leading to higher present value in the first periods of mine operation. The application of discount factors to blocks on the Lerchs-Grossmann's final pit has an accentuated effect with time, and this effect may make blocks scheduled for the end of the mine life unfeasible, representing a trend to a decrease in reported reserves.

  5. Block copolymer membranes for aqueous solution applications

    KAUST Repository

    Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Block copolymers are known for their intricate morphology. We review the state of the art of block copolymer membranes and discuss perspectives in this field. The main focus is on pore morphology tuning with a short introduction on non-porous membranes. The two main strategies for pore formation in block copolymer membranes are (i) film casting and selective block sacrifice and (ii) self-assembly and non-solvent induced phase separation (SNIPS). Different fundamental aspects involved in the manufacture of block copolymer membranes are considered, including factors affecting the equilibrium morphology in solid films, self-assembly of copolymer in solutions and macrophase separation by solvent-non-solvent exchange. Different mechanisms are proposed for different depths of the SNIPS membrane. Block copolymer membranes can be prepared with much narrower pore size distribution than homopolymer membranes. Open questions and indications of what we consider the next development steps are finally discussed. They include the synthesis and application of new copolymers and specific functionalization, adding characteristics to respond to stimuli and chemical environment, polymerization-induced phase separation, and the manufacture of organic-inorganic hybrids.

  6. Combined KHFAC + DC nerve block without onset or reduced nerve conductivity after block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Manfred; Vrabec, Tina; Wainright, Jesse; Bhadra, Niloy; Bhadra, Narendra; Kilgore, Kevin

    2014-10-01

    Objective. Kilohertz frequency alternating current (KHFAC) waveforms have been shown to provide peripheral nerve conductivity block in many acute and chronic animal models. KHFAC nerve block could be used to address multiple disorders caused by neural over-activity, including blocking pain and spasticity. However, one drawback of KHFAC block is a transient activation of nerve fibers during the initiation of the nerve block, called the onset response. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using charge balanced direct current (CBDC) waveforms to temporarily block motor nerve conductivity distally to the KHFAC electrodes to mitigate the block onset-response. Approach. A total of eight animals were used in this study. A set of four animals were used to assess feasibility and reproducibility of a combined KHFAC + CBDC block. A following randomized study, conducted on a second set of four animals, compared the onset response resulting from KHFAC alone and combined KHFAC + CBDC waveforms. To quantify the onset, peak forces and the force-time integral were measured during KHFAC block initiation. Nerve conductivity was monitored throughout the study by comparing muscle twitch forces evoked by supra-maximal stimulation proximal and distal to the block electrodes. Each animal of the randomized study received at least 300 s (range: 318-1563 s) of cumulative dc to investigate the impact of combined KHFAC + CBDC on nerve viability. Main results. The peak onset force was reduced significantly from 20.73 N (range: 18.6-26.5 N) with KHFAC alone to 0.45 N (range: 0.2-0.7 N) with the combined CBDC and KHFAC block waveform (p conductivity was observed after application of the combined KHFAC + CBDC block relative to KHFAC waveforms. Significance. The distal application of CBDC can significantly reduce or even completely prevent the KHFAC onset response without a change in nerve conductivity.

  7. Pectoral nerve block (Pecs block) with sedation for breast conserving surgery without general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Eun-Jin; Kim, Seung-Beom; Chung, Jun-Young; Song, Jeong-Yoon; Yi, Jae-Woo

    2017-09-01

    Most regional anesthesia in breast surgeries is performed as postoperative pain management under general anesthesia, and not as the primary anesthesia. Regional anesthesia has very few cardiovascular or pulmonary side-effects, as compared with general anesthesia. Pectoral nerve block is a relatively new technique, with fewer complications than other regional anesthesia. We performed Pecs I and Pec II block simultaneously as primary anesthesia under moderate sedation with dexmedetomidine for breast conserving surgery in a 49-year-old female patient with invasive ductal carcinoma. Block was uneventful and showed no complications. Thus, Pecs block with sedation could be an alternative to general anesthesia for breast surgeries.

  8. Ultrasound guided TAP block versus ultrasound guided caudal block for pain relief in children undergoing lower abdominal surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafaa Mohamed Alsadek

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: TAP block and caudal block under ultrasound guidance proved to be safe with no recorded complications either intra or postoperatively. Patient and parent satisfaction was markedly observed in case of TAP block.

  9. Photo-Induced Micellization of Block Copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Kuwayama

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We found novel photo-induced micellizations through photolysis, photoelectron transfer, and photo-Claisen rearrangement. The photolysis-induced micellization was attained using poly(4-tert-butoxystyrene-block-polystyrene diblock copolymer (PBSt-b-PSt. BSt-b-PSt showed no self-assembly in dichloromethane and existed as isolated copolymers. Dynamic light scattering demonstrated that the copolymer produced spherical micelles in this solvent due to irradiation with a high-pressure mercury lamp in the presence of photo-acid generators, such as bis(alkylphenyliodonium hexafluorophosphate, diphenyliodonium hexafluorophosphate, and triphenylsulfonium triflate. The 1H NMR analysis confirmed that PBSt-b-PSt was converted into poly(4-vinylphenol-block-PSt by the irradiation, resulting in self-assembly into micelles. The irradiation in the presence of the photo-acid generator also induced the micellization of poly(4-pyridinemethoxymethylstyrene-block-polystyrene diblock copolymer (PPySt-b-PSt. Micellization occurred by electron transfer from the pyridine to the photo-acid generator in their excited states and provided monodispersed spherical micelles with cores of PPySt blocks. Further, the photo-Claisen rearrangement caused the micellization of poly(4-allyloxystyrene-block-polystyrene diblock copolymer (PASt-b-PSt. Micellization was promoted in cyclohexane at room temperature without a catalyst. During micellization, the elimination of the allyl groups competitively occurred along with the photorearrangement of the 4-allyloxystyrene units into the 3-allyl-4-hydroxystyrene units.

  10. Application of multi-block methods in cement production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svinning, K.; Høskuldsson, Agnar

    2008-01-01

    distribution and the two last blocks the superficial microstructure analysed by differential thermo gravimetric analysis. The multi-block method is used to identify the role of each part. The score vectors of each block can be analysed separately or together with score vectors of other blocks. Stepwise......Compressive strength at 1 day of Portland cement as a function of the microstructure of cement was statistically modelled by application of multi-block regression method. The observation X-matrix was partitioned into four blocks, the first block representing the mineralogy, the second particle size...... regression is used to find minimum number of variables of each block. The multi-block method proved useful in determining the modelling strength of each data block and finding minimum number of variables within each data block....

  11. Radial expansion for spinning conformal blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Miguel S.; Penedones, João; Trevisani, Emilio

    2016-07-12

    This paper develops a method to compute any bosonic conformal block as a series expansion in the optimal radial coordinate introduced by Hogervorst and Rychkov. The method reduces to the known result when the external operators are all the same scalar operator, but it allows to compute conformal blocks for external operators with spin. Moreover, we explain how to write closed form recursion relations for the coefficients of the expansions. We study three examples of four point functions in detail: one vector and three scalars; two vectors and two scalars; two spin 2 tensors and two scalars. Finally, for the case of two external vectors, we also provide a more efficient way to generate the series expansion using the analytic structure of the blocks as a function of the scaling dimension of the exchanged operator.

  12. Rapid ordering of block copolymer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majewski, Pawel W; Yager, Kevin G

    2016-01-01

    Block-copolymers self-assemble into diverse morphologies, where nanoscale order can be finely tuned via block architecture and processing conditions. However, the ultimate usage of these materials in real-world applications may be hampered by the extremely long thermal annealing times—hours or days—required to achieve good order. Here, we provide an overview of the fundamentals of block-copolymer self-assembly kinetics, and review the techniques that have been demonstrated to influence, and enhance, these ordering kinetics. We discuss the inherent tradeoffs between oven annealing, solvent annealing, microwave annealing, zone annealing, and other directed self-assembly methods; including an assessment of spatial and temporal characteristics. We also review both real-space and reciprocal-space analysis techniques for quantifying order in these systems. (topical review)

  13. Single molecule magnets from magnetic building blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroener, W.; Paretzki, A.; Cervetti, C.; Hohloch, S.; Rauschenbach, S.; Kern, K.; Dressel, M.; Bogani, L.; M&üLler, P.

    2013-03-01

    We provide a basic set of magnetic building blocks that can be rationally assembled, similar to magnetic LEGO bricks, in order to create a huge variety of magnetic behavior. Using rare-earth centers and multipyridine ligands, fine-tuning of intra and intermolecular exchange interaction is demonstrated. We have investigated a series of molecules with monomeric, dimeric and trimeric lanthanide centers using SQUID susceptometry and Hall bar magnetometry. A home-made micro-Hall-probe magnetometer was used to measure magnetic hysteresis loops at mK temperatures and fields up to 17 T. All compounds show hysteresis below blocking temperatures of 3 to 4 K. The correlation of the assembly of the building blocks with the magnetic properties will be discussed.

  14. GEOMECHANICAL OBSERVATIONS DURING THE LARGE BLOCK TEST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STEPHEN C. BLAIR AND STEPHANIE A. WOOD

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the geomechanical studies conducted at the Large Block Test at Fran Ridge, near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The 3-dimensional geomechanical response of the rock to heating is being monitored using instrumentation mounted in boreholes and on the surface of the block. Results show that thermal expansion of the block began a few hours after the start of heating, and is closely correlated with the thermal history. Horizontal expansion increases as a linear function of height. Comparison of observed deformations with continuum simulations shows that below the heater plane deformation is smaller than predicted, while above the heater plane, observed deformation is larger than predicted, and is consistent with opening of vertical fractures. Fracture monitors indicate that movement on a large horizontal fracture is associated with hydrothermal behavior

  15. Arthroscopic medial meniscus trimming or repair under nerve blocks: Which nerves should be blocked?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, AM; Abd-Elmaksoud, AM

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to determine the role of the sciatic and obturator nerve blocks (in addition to femoral block) in providing painless arthroscopic medial meniscus trimming/repair. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty patients with medial meniscus tear, who had been scheduled to knee arthroscopy, were planned to be included in this controlled prospective double-blind study. The patients were randomly allocated into three equal groups; FSO, FS, and FO. The femoral, sciatic, and obturator nerves were blocked in FSO groups. The femoral and sciatic nerves were blocked in FS group, while the femoral and obturator nerves were blocked in FO group. Intraoperative pain and its causative surgical maneuver were recorded. Results: All the patients (n = 7, 100%) in FO group had intraoperative pain. The research was terminated in this group but completed in FS and FSO groups (40 patients each). During valgus positioning of the knee for surgical management of the medial meniscus tear, the patients in FS group experienced pain more frequently than those in FSO group (P = 0.005). Conclusion: Adding a sciatic nerve block to the femoral nerve block is important for painless knee arthroscopy. Further adding of an obturator nerve block may be needed when a valgus knee position is required to manage the medial meniscus tear. PMID:27375382

  16. Blending of styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene copolymer with sulfonated vinyl aromatic polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruggeri, Giacomo; Passaglia, Elisa; Giorgi, Ivan; Picchioni, Francesco; Aglietto, Mauro

    2001-01-01

    Different polymers containing sulfonic groups attached to the phenyl rings were prepared by sulfonation of polystyrene (PS) and styrene-block-(ethylene-co-1-butene)-block-styrene (SEBS). The sulfonation degree (SD) was varied between 1 and 20 mol% of the styrene units. Polyphase materials containing

  17. Synthesis of amylose-block-polystyrene rod-coil block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, Katja; Stadler, Reimund

    1997-01-01

    In the present communication we demonstrate the synthesis of a hybrid block copolymer based on the combination of a biopolymer (amylose) with a synthetic block (polystyrene). To obtain such materials, amino-functionalized polymers were modified with maltoheptaose moieties that serve as initiators

  18. Fabrication and handling of bentonite blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    In accordance with the project for the final storage of spent nuclear fuel, the waste will be encapsulated into copper canisters, which will be deposited in a final repository located in rock 500 m below ground level. The canisters will be placed in vertical holes in the bottoms of the tunnels, where the copper cylinders will be surrounded by blocks of highly compacted bentonite. When the blocks are saturated with water and expansion is essentially retained as in the actual case, a very high swelling pressure will arise. The bentonite will be extremely impermeable and thus it will form a barrier against transport of corrosive matters to the canister. The blocks are fabricated by means of cold isostatic pressing of bentonite powder. The base material in the form of powder is enclosed in flexible forms, which are introduced into pressure vessels where the forms are surrounded by oil or water. Thus the powder is compacted into rigid bodies with a bulk density of about 2.2 t/m 3 for ''air dry'' bentonite, which might be compared with a specific density of about 2.7 t/m 3 . The placing of a canister is preceded by piling up bentonite blocks to a level just below the canister lid position, after which the slot around the blocks is filled with bentonite powder. The rest of the blocks are mounted after filling bentonite powder into the inner slot around the canister as well. Finally the storage tunnels will be sealed by filling them with a mixture o02067NRM 0000181 45

  19. Peripheral nerve blocks in pediatric anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković Dejan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Most children undergoing surgery can benefit from regional anesthetic techniques, either as the sole anesthetic regimen or, as usual in pediatric practice, in combination with general anesthesia. The use of peripheral nerve blocks (PNBs in pediatric anesthesia is an effective way to decrease the side-effects and complications associated with central blocks. In spite of their many advantages, including easy performance end efficacy, peripheral nerve blocks are still underused. Objective This article discusses a general approach to PNBs in children and provides data concerning the practice of this regional technique in different age groups. Methods Data from 1,650 procedures were prospectively collected during the period from March 1, 2007 to February 29, 2008. The type of PNB, if any, as well as the patient age were noted. Our patients were divided into four groups: 0-3 years, 4-7 years, 8-12 years and 13-18 years. Results During the investigated period, PNBs as a sole technique or in anesthetized children were performed in 7.45% of cases. Ilioingunal/iliohypogastric nerve block and penile block were the most common (70% of all PNBs distributed mainly among the children between 4-7 years of age (p<0.05. In older children, extremity PNBs predominate in regard to other types of blocks. PNBs are most frequently performed under general anesthesia (85%, so the perineural approach requires a safe technique to avoid nerve damage. Conclusion The observed differences in PNB usage seem to be related to patient age and correlate with common pathology and also with technical availability of PNB performance.

  20. Ophthalmic regional blocks: management, challenges, and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palte HD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Howard D Palte Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative Medicine and Pain Management, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA Abstract: In the past decade ophthalmic anesthesia has witnessed a major transformation. The sun has set on the landscape of ophthalmic procedures performed under general anesthesia at in-hospital settings. In its place a new dawn has ushered in the panorama of eye surgeries conducted under regional and topical anesthesia at specialty eye care centers. The impact of the burgeoning geriatric population is that an increasing number of elderly patients will present for eye surgery. In order to accommodate increased patient volumes and simultaneously satisfy administrative initiatives directed at economic frugality, administrators will seek assistance from anesthesia providers in adopting measures that enhance operating room efficiency. The performance of eye blocks in a holding suite meets many of these objectives. Unfortunately, most practicing anesthesiologists resist performing ophthalmic regional blocks because they lack formal training. In future, anesthesiologists will need to block eyes and manage common medical conditions because economic pressures will eliminate routine preoperative testing. This review addresses a variety of topical issues in ophthalmic anesthesia with special emphasis on cannula and needle-based blocks and the new-generation antithrombotic agents. In a constantly evolving arena, the sub-Tenon’s block has gained popularity while the deep angulated intraconal (retrobulbar block has been largely superseded by the shallower extraconal (peribulbar approach. Improvements in surgical technique have also impacted anesthetic practice. For example, phacoemulsification techniques facilitate the conduct of cataract surgery under topical anesthesia, and suture-free vitrectomy ports may cause venous air embolism during air/fluid exchange. Hyaluronidase is a useful adjuvant because it

  1. Wilson loop invariants from WN conformal blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Alekseev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Knot and link polynomials are topological invariants calculated from the expectation value of loop operators in topological field theories. In 3D Chern–Simons theory, these invariants can be found from crossing and braiding matrices of four-point conformal blocks of the boundary 2D CFT. We calculate crossing and braiding matrices for WN conformal blocks with one component in the fundamental representation and another component in a rectangular representation of SU(N, which can be used to obtain HOMFLY knot and link invariants for these cases. We also discuss how our approach can be generalized to invariants in higher-representations of WN algebra.

  2. Identification of critical technology building blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Poul Martin; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars

    2017-01-01

    on competition, the challenge is to know how to identify and prioritize the development tasks. If possible, an effective strategy can be defined. This article suggests a framework for identification and analysis of a product portfolio, with special emphasis on identifying critical technology building blocks...... development steps. The framework is based on methods and theories in literature. The analysis of the portfolio is carried out through the framework in three steps: by creating an overview of the portfolio encompassing product and technology, assessing the elements in the overview with assessment metrics......, and using property chains to identify critical technology building blocks....

  3. Nanoscale freestanding gratings for ultraviolet blocking filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Beek, J.T.; Fleming, R.C.; Hindle, P.S.; Prentiss, J.D.; Schattenburg, M.L. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Ritzau, S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) blocking filters are needed for atomic flux imaging in environments where high levels of ultraviolet radiation are present. Freestanding gratings are a promising candidate for UV filtering. They have a high aspect ratio ({approximately}13), narrow ({approximately}40 nm) slots, and effectively block UV radiation. The grating fabrication process makes use of several etching, electroplating, and lithographic steps and includes an optional step to plug pinholes induced by particles during processing. Gratings were successfully manufactured and tested. Measured UV transmissions of {approximately}10{sup {minus}5} and particle transmissions of {approximately}10{percent} are in agreement with theoretical predictions. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Vacuum Society.}

  4. Infinite-degree-corrected stochastic block model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlau, Tue; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard; Mørup, Morten

    2014-01-01

    In stochastic block models, which are among the most prominent statistical models for cluster analysis of complex networks, clusters are defined as groups of nodes with statistically similar link probabilities within and between groups. A recent extension by Karrer and Newman [Karrer and Newman...... corrected stochastic block model as a nonparametric Bayesian model, incorporating a parameter to control the amount of degree correction that can then be inferred from data. Additionally, our formulation yields principled ways of inferring the number of groups as well as predicting missing links...

  5. [Relevance of nerve blocks in treating and diagnosing low back pain--is the quality decisive?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, J

    2001-12-01

    of cases MRI provide adaequate information, but discography may be superior in early stages of anular tear and in clarifying the relation between imaging data and pain [71]. Selective spinal nerve injection: In patients with complicated radiculopathy, the contribution of root inflammation to pain may not be certain, or the level of pathology may be unclear. Diagnostic root blocks are indicated in the following situations: atypical topography of radicular pain, disc prolapses or central spinal stenosis at more than one level and monoradicular pain, lateral spinal stenosis, postnucleotomysyndrome. Injection of individual spinal nerves by paravertebral approach has to be used to elucidate the mechanism and source of pain in this unclear situations. The premise is that needle contact will identify the nerve that produces the patient's characteristic pain and that local anaesthetic delivered to the pathogenic nerve will be uniquely analgesic. Often, this method is used for surgical planning, such as determining the site of foraminotomy. All diagnostic nerve root blocks have to be done under fluoroscopic guidance. Pain relief with blockade of a spinal nerve cannot distinguish between pathology of the proximal nerve in the intervertebral foramen or pain transmitted from distal sites by that nerve. Besides, the tissue injury in the nerve's distribution and neuropathic pain (for instance as a result of root injury) likewise would be relieved by a proximal block of the nerve. Satisfactory needle placement could not be achieved in 10% of patient's at L4, 15% at L5 and 30% at S1 [28]. The positive predictive value of indicated radiculopathy confirmed by surgery ranged between 87-100% [14, 22]. The negative predictive value is poorly studied, because few patients in the negative test group had surgery. Negative predictive values were 27% and 38% of the small number of patients operated on despite a negative test. Only one prospective study was published, which showed a positive

  6. Phrenic nerve block caused by interscalene brachial plexus block: breathing effects of different sites of injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Lars; Martini, Stefan; Kesselmeier, Miriam; Armbruster, Wolf; Notheisen, Thomas; Adamzik, Michael; Eichholz, Rϋdiger

    2016-07-29

    Interscalene brachial plexus (ISB) block is often associated with phrenic nerve block and diaphragmatic paresis. The goal of our study was to test if the anterior or the posterior ultrasound guided approach of the ISB is associated with a lower incidence of phrenic nerve blocks and impaired lung function. This was a prospective, randomized and single-blinded study of 84 patients scheduled for elective shoulder surgery who fullfilled the inclusion and exclusion critereria. Patients were randomized in two groups to receive either the anterior (n = 42) or the posterior (n = 42) approach for ISB. Clinical data were recorded. In both groups patients received ISB with a total injection volume of 15 ml of ropivacaine 1 %. Spirometry was conducted at baseline (T0) and 30 min (T30) after accomplishing the block. Changes in spirometrical variables between T0 and T30 were investigated by Wilcoxon signed-rank test for each puncture approach. The temporal difference between the posterior and the anterior puncture approach groups were again analyzed by the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. The spirometric results showed a significant decrease in vital capacity, forced expiratory volume per second, and maximum nasal inspiratory breathing after the Interscalene brachial plexus block; indicating a phrenic nerve block (p Wilcoxon signed-rank). A significant difference in the development of the spirometric parameters between the anterior and the posterior group could not be identified (Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test). Despite the changes in spirometry, no cases of dyspnea were reported. A different site of injection (anterior or posterior) did not show an effect in reducing the cervical block spread of the local anesthetic and the incidence of phrenic nerve blocks during during ultrasound guided Interscalene brachial plexus block. Clinical breathing effects of phrenic nerve blocks are, however, usually well compensated, and subjective dyspnea did not occur in our patients. German

  7. 30 CFR 250.611 - Traveling-block safety device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traveling-block safety device. 250.611 Section... Traveling-block safety device. After May 31, 1989, all units being used for well-workover operations which have both a traveling block and a crown block shall be equipped with a safety device which is designed...

  8. 30 CFR 250.511 - Traveling-block safety device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traveling-block safety device. 250.511 Section... Traveling-block safety device. All units being used for well-completion operations that have both a traveling block and a crown block must be equipped with a safety device that is designed to prevent the...

  9. 21 CFR 520.1448a - Monensin blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Limitations. Block to be fed free choice to pasture cattle (slaughter, stocker, feeder, and dairy and beef.... Blocks to be fed free choice to pasture cattle (slaughter, stocker, feeder, and dairy and beef.... Blocks to be fed free choice to pasture cattle (slaughter, stocker, and feeder). Provide at least 1 block...

  10. 21 CFR 882.1925 - Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block. 882... Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic scanner calibration test block is a block of material with known properties used to calibrate ultrasonic scanning devices (e.g., the...

  11. Compaction of bentonite blocks. Development of techniques for production of blocks with different shapes and sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannesson, Lars-Erik; Boergesson, Lennart

    1998-09-01

    In this report useful techniques for producing both smaller blocks manageable by man (10-15 kg) and larger blocks which need special equipment for handling (weight up to 600 kg) are described. Tests for producing blocks with a weight of approximately 10 kg were carried out at Hoeganaes Bjuf AB in Bjuv. This industry is normally producing refractory bricks and other refractory products. The plant has facilities for handling large volumes of clay. It also has machines suitable for producing uniaxially compacted blocks. Tests performed at the plant show that it is possible to compact blocks with good quality. The best quality was reached with a coarsely ground bentonite at a water ratio of 17 %. The compaction rate was high and performed with lubricated form and stepwise loading. Tests, in order to find a technique for producing larger blocks with a diameter of the same size as a deposition hole (about 1.65 m), were also made. The technique was developed in a smaller scale (250 mm). Ring-shaped blocks with the same outer diameter and with an inner diameter of about 156 mm were also compacted. The compaction was made with vacuum in the form. The outer surface of the form was conical and most of the tests were performed with a lubricated form. Tests were performed with different water ratios of the bentonite. All the blocks had a good quality. In consequence of the good test results a form with a 1000 mm diameter was constructed and a number of compaction tests were performed. The same technique was used as for the smaller blocks. The compaction pressure in most tests was 100 MPa (maximum compaction load 80.000 kN). The tests were performed at HYDROWELD in Ystad in a press with a maximum capacity of 300.000 kN. All tests were performed with MX-80. Most of the blocks had a good quality. A small damage close to the upper surface of all blocks was observed but is considered to be of no importance for the possibility to handle the blocks and is not affecting the properties

  12. Compaction of bentonite blocks. Development of techniques for production of blocks with different shapes and sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannesson, Lars-Erik; Boergesson, Lennart [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)

    1998-09-01

    In this report useful techniques for producing both smaller blocks manageable by man (10-15 kg) and larger blocks which need special equipment for handling (weight up to 600 kg) are described. Tests for producing blocks with a weight of approximately 10 kg were carried out at Hoeganaes Bjuf AB in Bjuv. This industry is normally producing refractory bricks and other refractory products. The plant has facilities for handling large volumes of clay. It also has machines suitable for producing uniaxially compacted blocks. Tests performed at the plant show that it is possible to compact blocks with good quality. The best quality was reached with a coarsely ground bentonite at a water ratio of 17 %. The compaction rate was high and performed with lubricated form and stepwise loading. Tests, in order to find a technique for producing larger blocks with a diameter of the same size as a deposition hole (about 1.65 m), were also made. The technique was developed in a smaller scale (250 mm). Ring-shaped blocks with the same outer diameter and with an inner diameter of about 156 mm were also compacted. The compaction was made with vacuum in the form. The outer surface of the form was conical and most of the tests were performed with a lubricated form. Tests were performed with different water ratios of the bentonite. All the blocks had a good quality. In consequence of the good test results a form with a 1000 mm diameter was constructed and a number of compaction tests were performed. The same technique was used as for the smaller blocks. The compaction pressure in most tests was 100 MPa (maximum compaction load 80.000 kN). The tests were performed at HYDROWELD in Ystad in a press with a maximum capacity of 300.000 kN. All tests were performed with MX-80. Most of the blocks had a good quality. A small damage close to the upper surface of all blocks was observed but is considered to be of no importance for the possibility to handle the blocks and is not affecting the properties

  13. Exploring Energy Efficiency of Lightweight Block Ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banik, Subhadeep; Bogdanov, Andrey; Regazzoni, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    is the encryption of one plaintext. By studying the energy consumption model of a CMOS gate, we arrive at the conclusion that the energy consumed per cycle during the encryption operation of an r-round unrolled architecture of any block cipher is a quadratic function in r. We then apply our model to 9 well known...

  14. Block Grants: The View from the Dome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreve, David L.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews characteristics and operations of state legislatures in the context of the current reforms proposed by the federal government and the devolution of authority to the states via block grants. Examines proposed changes related to welfare, Medicaid, workforce training, and taxation, highlighting the impact of these reforms on state…

  15. Block Tridiagonal Matrices in Electronic Structure Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Dan Erik

    in the Landauer–Büttiker ballistic transport regime. These calculations concentrate on determining the so– called Green’s function matrix, or portions thereof, which is the inverse of a block tridiagonal general complex matrix. To this end, a sequential algorithm based on Gaussian elimination named Sweeps...

  16. Building blocks for modular data acquisition systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, B

    1996-12-31

    The principles of building blocks for modular data acquisition systems by means of the VIC bus are discussed. Real time operating systems based on the VME environment for program development drastically reducing the time needed to develop a working system. 4 figs.

  17. Orientation: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Ralph D.

    The first six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in the basic theory and practice of a beginning course at the secondary and post-secondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction…

  18. Iron Blocks of CMS Magnet Barrel Yoke.

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    On the occasion of presenting the CMS Award 2000 to Deggendorfer Werft und Eisenbau GmbH the delivered blocks were inspected at CERN Point 5. From left to right: H. Gerwig (CERN, CMS Magnet Barrel Yoke Coordinator), G. Waurick (CERN), F. Leher (DWE, Project Engineer) and W. Schuster (DWE, Project Manager).

  19. Seismic analysis of fast breeder reactor block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gantenbein, F.

    1990-01-01

    Seismic analysis of LMFBR reactor block is complex due mainly to the fluid structure interaction and the 3D geometry of the structure. Analytical methods which have been developed for this analysis will be briefly described in the paper and applications to a geometry similar to SPX1 will be shown

  20. Laughter-induced left bundle branch block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Grant V; Desai, Dipan; Spragg, David D; Zakaria, Sammy

    2012-10-01

    We present the case of a patient with ischemic heart disease and intermittent left bundle branch block, reproducibly induced by laughter. Following treatment of ischemia with successful deployment of a drug-eluting stent, no further episodes of inducible LBBB were seen. Transient ischemia, exacerbated by elevated intrathoracic pressure during laughter, may have contributed to onset of this phenomenon. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.