Unimolecular Logic Gate with Classical Input by Single Gold Atoms.
Skidin, Dmitry; Faizy, Omid; Krüger, Justus; Eisenhut, Frank; Jancarik, Andrej; Nguyen, Khanh-Hung; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Gourdon, Andre; Moresco, Francesca; Joachim, Christian
2018-02-27
By a combination of solution and on-surface chemistry, we synthesized an asymmetric starphene molecule with two long anthracenyl input branches and a short naphthyl output branch on the Au(111) surface. Starting from this molecule, we could demonstrate the working principle of a single molecule NAND logic gate by selectively contacting single gold atoms by atomic manipulation to the longer branches of the molecule. The logical input "1" ("0") is defined by the interaction (noninteraction) of a gold atom with one of the input branches. The output is measured by scanning tunneling spectroscopy following the shift in energy of the electronic tunneling resonances at the end of the short branch of the molecule.
Field-Programmable Logic Devices with Optical Input Output
Szymanski, Ted H.; Saint-Laurent, Martin; Tyan, Victor; Au, Albert; Supmonchai, Boonchuay
2000-02-01
A field-programmable logic device (FPLD) with optical I O is described. FPLD s with optical I O can have their functionality specified in the field by means of downloading a control-bit stream and can be used in a wide range of applications, such as optical signal processing, optical image processing, and optical interconnects. Our device implements six state-of-the-art dynamically programmable logic arrays (PLA s) on a 2 mm 2 mm die. The devices were fabricated through the Lucent Technologies Advanced Research Projects Agency Consortium for Optical and Optoelectronic Technologies in Computing (Lucent ARPA COOP) workshop by use of 0.5- m complementary metal-oxide semiconductor self-electro-optic device technology and were delivered in 1998. All devices are fully functional: The electronic data paths have been verified at 200 MHz, and optical tests are pending. The device has been programmed to implement a two-stage optical switching network with six 4 4 crossbar switches, which can realize more than 190 10 6 unique programmable input output permutations. The same device scaled to a 2 cm 2 cm substrate could support as many as 4000 optical I O and 1 Tbit s of optical I O bandwidth and offer fully programmable digital functionality with approximately 110,000 programmable logic gates. The proposed optoelectronic FPLD is also ideally suited to realizing dense, statically reconfigurable crossbar switches. We describe an attractive application area for such devices: a rearrangeable three-stage optical switch for a wide-area-network backbone, switching 1000 traffic streams at the OC-48 data rate and supporting several terabits of traffic.
Divide and control: split design of multi-input DNA logic gates.
Gerasimova, Yulia V; Kolpashchikov, Dmitry M
2015-01-18
Logic gates made of DNA have received significant attention as biocompatible building blocks for molecular circuits. The majority of DNA logic gates, however, are controlled by the minimum number of inputs: one, two or three. Here we report a strategy to design a multi-input logic gate by splitting a DNA construct.
A new quantum flux parametron logic gate with large input margin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hioe, W.; Hosoya, M.; Goto, E.
1991-01-01
This paper reports on the Quantum Flux Parametron (QFP) which is a flux transfer, flux activated Josephson logic device which realizes much lower power dissipation than other Josephson logic devices. Being a two-terminal device its correct operation may be affected by coupling to other QFPs. The problems include backcoupling from active QFPs through inactive QFPs (relay noise), coupling between QFPs activated at different times because of clock skew (homophase noise), and interaction between active QFPs (reaction hazard). Previous QFP circuits worked by wired-majority, which being a linear input logic, has low input margin. A new logic gate (D-gate) using a QFP to perform logic operations has been analyzed and tested by computer simulation. Relay noise, homophase noise and reaction hazard are substantially reduced. Moreover, the input have little interaction hence input margin is greatly improved
Logic analysis and verification of n-input genetic logic circuits
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Baig, Hasan; Madsen, Jan
2017-01-01
. In this paper, we present an approach to analyze and verify the Boolean logic of a genetic circuit from the data obtained through stochastic analog circuit simulations. The usefulness of this analysis is demonstrated through different case studies illustrating how our approach can be used to verify the expected......Nature is using genetic logic circuits to regulate the fundamental processes of life. These genetic logic circuits are triggered by a combination of external signals, such as chemicals, proteins, light and temperature, to emit signals to control other gene expressions or metabolic pathways...... accordingly. As compared to electronic circuits, genetic circuits exhibit stochastic behavior and do not always behave as intended. Therefore, there is a growing interest in being able to analyze and verify the logical behavior of a genetic circuit model, prior to its physical implementation in a laboratory...
Two- and three-input TALE-based AND logic computation in embryonic stem cells.
Lienert, Florian; Torella, Joseph P; Chen, Jan-Hung; Norsworthy, Michael; Richardson, Ryan R; Silver, Pamela A
2013-11-01
Biological computing circuits can enhance our ability to control cellular functions and have potential applications in tissue engineering and medical treatments. Transcriptional activator-like effectors (TALEs) represent attractive components of synthetic gene regulatory circuits, as they can be designed de novo to target a given DNA sequence. We here demonstrate that TALEs can perform Boolean logic computation in mammalian cells. Using a split-intein protein-splicing strategy, we show that a functional TALE can be reconstituted from two inactive parts, thus generating two-input AND logic computation. We further demonstrate three-piece intein splicing in mammalian cells and use it to perform three-input AND computation. Using methods for random as well as targeted insertion of these relatively large genetic circuits, we show that TALE-based logic circuits are functional when integrated into the genome of mouse embryonic stem cells. Comparing construct variants in the same genomic context, we modulated the strength of the TALE-responsive promoter to improve the output of these circuits. Our work establishes split TALEs as a tool for building logic computation with the potential of controlling expression of endogenous genes or transgenes in response to a combination of cellular signals.
Near-Threshold Computing and Minimum Supply Voltage of Single-Rail MCML Circuits
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ruiping Cao
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In high-speed applications, MOS current mode logic (MCML is a good alternative. Scaling down supply voltage of the MCML circuits can achieve low power-delay product (PDP. However, the current almost all MCML circuits are realized with dual-rail scheme, where the NMOS configuration in series limits the minimum supply voltage. In this paper, single-rail MCML (SRMCML circuits are described, which can avoid the devices configuration in series, since their logic evaluation block can be realized by only using MOS devices in parallel. The relationship between the minimum supply voltage of the SRMCML circuits and the model parameters of MOS transistors is derived, so that the minimum supply voltage can be estimated before circuit designs. An MCML dynamic flop-flop based on SRMCML is also proposed. The optimization algorithm for near-threshold sequential circuits is presented. A near-threshold SRMCML mode-10 counter based on the optimization algorithm is verified. Scaling down the supply voltage of the SRMCML circuits is also investigated. The power dissipation, delay, and power-delay products of these circuits are carried out. The results show that the near-threshold SRMCML circuits can obtain low delay and small power-delay product.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mistri, Tarun; Bhowmick, Rahul; Katarkar, Atul; Chaudhuri, Keya; Ali, Mahammad
2017-01-01
Methodological synthesis of a new biocompatible bi-compartmental rhodamine based probe (L 3 ) provides a multi-inputs and multi-outputs molecular logic circuit based on simple chemosensing phenomena. Spectroscopic responses of Cu 2+ and Hg 2+ towards L 3 together with reversible binding of S 2- with L 3 -Cu 2+ and L 3 -Hg 2+ complexes help us to construct a thee-input molecular circuit on their control and sequential addition to a solution of L 3 in a mixed organo-aqueous medium. We have further successfully encoded binary digits out of these inputs and outputs which may convert a three-digit input string into a two-digit output string resulting a simple monomolecular logic circuit. Such a molecular ‘Boolean’ logic operation may improve the complexity of logic gate circuitry and computational speed and may be useful to employ in potential biocompatible molecular logic platforms. - Graphical abstract: A new bi-compartmental molecular system equipped with Rhodamine fluorophore unit provides a Multi-inputs and Multi-outputs Molecular Logic Circuit based on a very simple observation of chemosensing activities.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mistri, Tarun; Bhowmick, Rahul [Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, 188 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032 (India); Katarkar, Atul; Chaudhuri, Keya [Molecular & Human Genetics Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, 4 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032 (India); Ali, Mahammad, E-mail: mali@chemistry.jdvu.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, 188 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032 (India)
2017-05-15
Methodological synthesis of a new biocompatible bi-compartmental rhodamine based probe (L{sup 3}) provides a multi-inputs and multi-outputs molecular logic circuit based on simple chemosensing phenomena. Spectroscopic responses of Cu{sup 2+} and Hg{sup 2+} towards L{sup 3} together with reversible binding of S{sup 2-} with L{sup 3}-Cu{sup 2+} and L{sup 3}-Hg{sup 2+} complexes help us to construct a thee-input molecular circuit on their control and sequential addition to a solution of L{sup 3} in a mixed organo-aqueous medium. We have further successfully encoded binary digits out of these inputs and outputs which may convert a three-digit input string into a two-digit output string resulting a simple monomolecular logic circuit. Such a molecular ‘Boolean’ logic operation may improve the complexity of logic gate circuitry and computational speed and may be useful to employ in potential biocompatible molecular logic platforms. - Graphical abstract: A new bi-compartmental molecular system equipped with Rhodamine fluorophore unit provides a Multi-inputs and Multi-outputs Molecular Logic Circuit based on a very simple observation of chemosensing activities.
Soe, We-Hyo; Manzano, Carlos; Renaud, Nicolas; de Mendoza, Paula; De Sarkar, Abir; Ample, Francisco; Hliwa, Mohamed; Echavarren, Antonio M; Chandrasekhar, Natarajan; Joachim, Christian
2011-02-22
Quantum states of a trinaphthylene molecule were manipulated by putting its naphthyl branches in contact with single Au atoms. One Au atom carries 1-bit of classical information input that is converted into quantum information throughout the molecule. The Au-trinaphthylene electronic interactions give rise to measurable energy shifts of the molecular electronic states demonstrating a NOR logic gate functionality. The NOR truth table of the single molecule logic gate was characterized by means of scanning tunnelling spectroscopy.
Bhowmik, Panchatapa; Roy, Jitendra Nath; Chattopadhyay, Tanay
2014-11-01
This paper presents a generalized all optical circuit of two-input logical operation (both binary and multi-valued), using an optical nonlinear material (OPNLM) based switch. The inputs of the logic gates are represented by different polarization states of light. This model is simple, practical and very much useful for future all optical information processing. Proposed scheme can work for different wavelengths and for different materials. The simulation result with the nonlinear material gold nanoparticle embedded in optically transparent matrices alumina (Al2O3) is also presented in the paper.
Majima, Yutaka; Hackenberger, Guillaume; Azuma, Yasuo; Kano, Shinya; Matsuzaki, Kosuke; Susaki, Tomofumi; Sakamoto, Masanori; Teranishi, Toshiharu
2017-01-01
Single-electron transistors (SETs) are sub-10-nm scale electronic devices based on conductive Coulomb islands sandwiched between double-barrier tunneling barriers. Chemically assembled SETs with alkanethiol-protected Au nanoparticles show highly stable Coulomb diamonds and two-input logic operations. The combination of bottom-up and top-down processes used to form the passivation layer is vital for realizing multi-gate chemically assembled SET circuits, as this combination enables us to connect conventional complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technologies via planar processes. Here, three-input gate exclusive-OR (XOR) logic operations are demonstrated in passivated chemically assembled SETs. The passivation layer is a hybrid bilayer of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and pulsed laser deposited (PLD) aluminum oxide (AlO[Formula: see text]), and top-gate electrodes were prepared on the hybrid passivation layers. Top and two-side-gated SETs showed clear Coulomb oscillation and diamonds for each of the three available gates, and three-input gate XOR logic operation was clearly demonstrated. These results show the potential of chemically assembled SETs to work as logic devices with multi-gate inputs using organic and inorganic hybrid passivation layers.
Discussion on stochastic braking for a single-rail rope-driven lifter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1987-02-01
This paper discusses the braking and control of a A-2/73 clip type friction brake system made in FRG - a clamp type brake system made in USSR and an eccentric wheel type brake system made in Poland. Then it analyses a ZGZ auto increasing force type braking system of a single-rail rope driven lifter. The braking principle of the ZGZ system is that the braking blocks insert along the brake base and contact with the ribs of the single-rail. Then the braking would be realized as a function of increasing frictional force.
The effect of output-input isolation on the scaling and energy consumption of all-spin logic devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu, Jiaxi; Haratipour, Nazila; Koester, Steven J.
2015-01-01
All-spin logic (ASL) is a novel approach for digital logic applications wherein spin is used as the state variable instead of charge. One of the challenges in realizing a practical ASL system is the need to ensure non-reciprocity, meaning the information flows from input to output, not vice versa. One approach described previously, is to introduce an asymmetric ground contact, and while this approach was shown to be effective, it remains unclear as to the optimal approach for achieving non-reciprocity in ASL. In this study, we quantitatively analyze techniques to achieve non-reciprocity in ASL devices, and we specifically compare the effect of using asymmetric ground position and dipole-coupled output/input isolation. For this analysis, we simulate the switching dynamics of multiple-stage logic devices with FePt and FePd perpendicular magnetic anisotropy materials using a combination of a matrix-based spin circuit model coupled to the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation. The dipole field is included in this model and can act as both a desirable means of coupling magnets and a source of noise. The dynamic energy consumption has been calculated for these schemes, as a function of input/output magnet separation, and the results show that using a scheme that electrically isolates logic stages produces superior non-reciprocity, thus allowing both improved scaling and reduced energy consumption
The effect of output-input isolation on the scaling and energy consumption of all-spin logic devices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hu, Jiaxi; Haratipour, Nazila; Koester, Steven J., E-mail: skoester@umn.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, 200 Union St. SE, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)
2015-05-07
All-spin logic (ASL) is a novel approach for digital logic applications wherein spin is used as the state variable instead of charge. One of the challenges in realizing a practical ASL system is the need to ensure non-reciprocity, meaning the information flows from input to output, not vice versa. One approach described previously, is to introduce an asymmetric ground contact, and while this approach was shown to be effective, it remains unclear as to the optimal approach for achieving non-reciprocity in ASL. In this study, we quantitatively analyze techniques to achieve non-reciprocity in ASL devices, and we specifically compare the effect of using asymmetric ground position and dipole-coupled output/input isolation. For this analysis, we simulate the switching dynamics of multiple-stage logic devices with FePt and FePd perpendicular magnetic anisotropy materials using a combination of a matrix-based spin circuit model coupled to the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation. The dipole field is included in this model and can act as both a desirable means of coupling magnets and a source of noise. The dynamic energy consumption has been calculated for these schemes, as a function of input/output magnet separation, and the results show that using a scheme that electrically isolates logic stages produces superior non-reciprocity, thus allowing both improved scaling and reduced energy consumption.
Lin, Jia-Hui; Tseng, Wei-Lung
2014-03-21
This study presents a single, resettable, and sensitive molecular beacon (MB) used to operate molecular-scale logic gates. The MB consists of a random DNA sequence, a fluorophore at the 5'-end, and a quencher at the 3'-end. The presence of Hg(2+), Ag(+), and coralyne promoted the formation of stable T-Hg(2+)-T, C-Ag(+)-C, and A2-coralyne-A2 coordination in the MB probe, respectively, thereby driving its conformational change. The metal ion or small molecule-mediated coordination of mismatched DNA brought the fluorophore and the quencher into close proximity, resulting in collisional quenching of fluorescence between the two organic dyes. Because thiol can bind Hg(2+) and remove it from the T-Hg(2+)-T-based MB, adding thiol to a solution of the T-Hg(2+)-T-based MB allowed the fluorophore and the quencher to be widely separated. A similar phenomenon was observed when replacing Hg(2+) with Ag(+). Because Ag(+) strongly binds to iodide, cyanide, and cysteine, they were capable of removing Ag(+) from the C-Ag(+)-C-based MB, restoring the fluorescence of the MB. Moreover, the fluorescence of the A2-coralyne-A2-based MB could be switched on by adding polyadenosine. Using these analytes as inputs and the MB as a signal transducer, we successfully developed a series of two-input, three-input, and set-reset logic gates at the molecular level.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rashidifar, Mohammed Amin [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, SHADEGAN (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rashidifar, Ali Amin, E-mail: rashidifar_58@yahoo.com [Computer Science, Islamic Azad University, SHADEGAN (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2014-07-01
Conventional model-based control strategies are very complex and difficult to synthesize due to high complexity of the dynamics of robots manipulator considering joint elasticity. This paper presents investigations into the development of hybrid control schemes for trajectory tracking and vibration control of a flexible joint manipulator. To study the effectiveness of the controllers, initially a collocated proportional-derivative (P D)-type Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) is developed for tip angular position control of a flexible joint manipulator. This is then extended to incorporate a non-collocated Fuzzy Logic Controller and input shaping scheme for vibration reduction of the flexible joint system. The positive zero-vibration-derivative-derivative (ZVDD) shaper is designed based on the properties of the system. Simulation results of the response of the flexible joint manipulator with the controllers are presented in time and frequency domains. The performances of the hybrid control schemes are examined in terms of input tracking capability, level of vibration reduction and time response specifications. Finally, a comparative assessment of the control techniques is presented and discussed. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Derrouazin, A.; Aillerie, M.; Mekkakia-Maaza, N.; Charles, J.-P.
2017-01-01
Highlights: • We present a fuzzy smart controller for hybrid renewable and conventional energy system. • The rules are based on human intelligence and implemented in the smart controller. • Efficient tracking capability of the proposed controller is proofed in this paper by an example. • Excess produced renewable energy is converted to hydrogen for household use . • Considerable electric grid energy saving is highlighted in the proposed controller system. - Abstract: This study concerns the conception and development of an efficient multi input-output fuzzy logic smart controller, to manage the energy flux of a sustainable hybrid power system, based on renewable power sources, integrating solar panels and a wind turbine associated with storage, applied to a typical residential habitat. In the suggested topology, the energy surplus is redirected to an electrolysis system to produce hydrogen suitable for household utilities. To assume a constant access to electricity in case of consumption peak, connection to the grid is also considered as an exceptional rescue resource. The objective of the presented controller is to exploit instantaneously the produced renewable electric energy and insure savings of electric grid energy. The proposed multi input-output fuzzy logic smart controller has been achieved and verified, outcome switches command signals are discussed and the renewable energy system integration ratio is highlighted.
Tajaldini, Mehdi; Jafri, Mohd Zubir Mat
2015-04-01
The theory of Nonlinear Modal Propagation Analysis Method (NMPA) have shown significant features of nonlinear multimode interference (MMI) coupler with compact dimension and when launched near the threshold of nonlinearity. Moreover, NMPA have the potential to allow studying the nonlinear MMI based the modal interference to explorer the phenomenon that what happen due to the natural of multimode region. Proposal of all-optical switch based NMPA has approved its capability to achieving the all-optical gates. All-optical gates have attracted increasing attention due to their practical utility in all-optical signal processing networks and systems. Nonlinear multimode interference devices could apply as universal all-optical gates due to significant features that NMPA introduce them. In this Paper, we present a novel Ultra-compact MMI coupler based on NMPA method in low intensity compared to last reports either as a novel design method and potential application for optical NAND, NOR as universal gates on single structure for Boolean logic signal processing devices and optimize their application via studding the contrast ratio between ON and OFF as a function of output width. We have applied NMPA for several applications so that the miniaturization in low nonlinear intensities is their main purpose.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kato, A.; Tsuji, H.; Okamoto, Y.
1984-01-01
A plant diagnostic method using Cause Consequence Tree (CCT) has been recognized as a powerful means to identify and analyze plant fault events. The off-line support program called the 'CCT diagram editor' was developed and it could generate the computer object program by inputting the CCT diagram itself using the CRT display, tablet and key-board just as the computer aided design (CAD). The CCT diagram editor has improved the problems of the programming error, difficulty of correction or modification and productivity of the program. The system can be used also for safety analysis of nuclear power plants. (author)
Lu, Bin; Cheng, Xiaomin; Feng, Jinlong; Guan, Xiawei; Miao, Xiangshui
2016-07-01
Nonvolatile memory devices or circuits that can implement both storage and calculation are a crucial requirement for the efficiency improvement of modern computer. In this work, we realize logic functions by using [GeTe/Sb2Te3]n super lattice phase change memory (PCM) cell in which higher threshold voltage is needed for phase change with a magnetic field applied. First, the [GeTe/Sb2Te3]n super lattice cells were fabricated and the R-V curve was measured. Then we designed the logic circuits with the super lattice PCM cell verified by HSPICE simulation and experiments. Seven basic logic functions are first demonstrated in this letter; then several multi-input logic gates are presented. The proposed logic devices offer the advantages of simple structures and low power consumption, indicating that the super lattice PCM has the potential in the future nonvolatile central processing unit design, facilitating the development of massive parallel computing architecture.
No-go theorem for passive single-rail linear optical quantum computing.
Wu, Lian-Ao; Walther, Philip; Lidar, Daniel A
2013-01-01
Photonic quantum systems are among the most promising architectures for quantum computers. It is well known that for dual-rail photons effective non-linearities and near-deterministic non-trivial two-qubit gates can be achieved via the measurement process and by introducing ancillary photons. While in principle this opens a legitimate path to scalable linear optical quantum computing, the technical requirements are still very challenging and thus other optical encodings are being actively investigated. One of the alternatives is to use single-rail encoded photons, where entangled states can be deterministically generated. Here we prove that even for such systems universal optical quantum computing using only passive optical elements such as beam splitters and phase shifters is not possible. This no-go theorem proves that photon bunching cannot be passively suppressed even when extra ancilla modes and arbitrary number of photons are used. Our result provides useful guidance for the design of optical quantum computers.
Liu, Shuang; Wang, Lei; Lian, Wenjing; Liu, Hongyun; Li, Chen-Zhong
2015-01-01
A logic-gate system with three outputs and three inputs was developed based on the bioelectrocatalysis of glucose by glucose oxidase (GOx) entrapped in chitosan films on the electrode surface by means of ferrocenedicarboxylic acid (Fc(COOH)2 ). Cyclic voltammetric (CV) signals of Fc(COOH)2 exhibited pH-triggered on/off behavior owing to electrostatic interactions between the film and the probe at different pH levels. The addition of glucose greatly increased the oxidation peak current (Ipa ) through the electrocatalytic reaction. pH and glucose were selected as two inputs. As a reversible inhibitor of GOx, Cu(2+) was chosen as the third input. The combination of three inputs led to Ipa with different values according to different mechanisms, which were defined as three outputs with two thresholds. The logic gate with three outputs by using one type of enzyme provided a novel model to build logic circuits based on biomacromolecules, which might be applied to the intelligent medical diagnostics as smart biosensors in the future. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Taeed, Fazel; Salam, Z.; Ayob, S.
2012-01-01
converter (ADC). Instead, a simple analog-to-digital conversion scheme is implemented using the FPGA itself. Due to the simplicity of the SIFLC algorithm and the absence of an external ADC, the overall implementation requires only 408 logic elements and five input-output pins of the FPGA.......) and applied on a 50-W boost converter. The SIFLC is compared to the proportional-integral controller; the simulation and practical results indicate that SIFLC exhibits excellent performance for step load and input reference changes. Another feature of this work is the absence of an external analog-to-digital...
A dansyl group modified SBA-15 INHIBIT logic gate with [Hg2+ and Cl-] or [Hg2+ and Br-] as inputs
Wang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Honglei
2013-07-01
We developed a SBA-15-based INHIBIT logic gate (DA-SBA-15) which was prepared by covalent immobilization of a dansylamide derivative into the channels of the mesoporous silica material (SBA-15) via (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) groups. A series of characteristic results proved that the fluorescent ligand was successfully grafted into the mesopores of SBA-15. The fluorescent characterization revealed excellent selectivity of DA-SBA-15 to the Hg2+ ion. Moreover, DA-SBA-15 can be considered as a selective fluorescent probe for Cl- and Br-. The fluorescent changes of DA-SBA-15 upon the addition of ions (Hg2+, Cl- and Br-) were utilized as an INH logic gate at the molecular level, using [Hg2+ and Cl-] or [Hg2+ and Br-] as chemical inputs and the fluorescence intensity signal as output.
Yu, Xue; Lian, Wenjing; Zhang, Jiannan; Liu, Hongyun
2016-06-15
Herein, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-N,N'-dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate) copolymer films were polymerized on electrode surface with a simple one-step method, and the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was embedded in the films simultaneously, which were designated as P(NiPAAm-co-DMEM)-HRP. The films exhibited a reversible structure change with the external stimuli, such as pH, CO2, temperature and SO4(2-), causing the cyclic voltammetric (CV) response of electroactive K3Fe(CN)6 at the film electrodes to display the corresponding multi-stimuli sensitive ON-OFF behavior. Based on the switchable CV property of the system and the electrochemical reduction of H2O2 catalyzed by HRP in the films and mediated by Fe(CN)6(3-) in solution, a 5-input/3-output logic gate was established. To further increase the complexity of the logic system, another enzyme glucose oxidase (GOD) was added into the films, designated as P(NiPAAm-co-DMEM)-HRP-GOD. In the presence of oxygen, the oxidation of glucose in the solution was catalyzed by GOD in the films, and the produced H2O2 in situ was recognized and electrocatalytically reduced by HRP and mediated by Fe(CN)6(3-). Based on the bienzyme films, a cascaded or concatenated 4-input/3-output logic gate system was proposed. The present work combined the multi-responsive interface with bioelectrocatalysis to construct cascaded logic circuits, which might open a new avenue to develop biocomputing elements with more sophisticated functions and design novel glucose biosensors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Feby Agung Pamuji
2015-09-01
Full Text Available this paper describes a hybrid system that consist of Wind Turbines and Photovoltaic to supply electricity continuously for load. Output of Wind Turbines and Photovoltaic is controlled in order to generate maximum power. Multiple-input dc-dc converters is used to control power flow in order to have MPP (Maximum Power Point. Converter control using Fuzzy logic controller to control the output in order to be obtained MPP (Maximum Power Point from Wind Turbines and Photovoltaic, so the efficiency of wind turbines and photovoltaic can be improved.
THRESHOLD LOGIC IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
COMPUTER LOGIC, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE , BIONICS, GEOMETRY, INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES, LINEAR PROGRAMMING, MATHEMATICAL LOGIC, MATHEMATICAL PREDICTION, NETWORKS, PATTERN RECOGNITION, PROBABILITY, SWITCHING CIRCUITS, SYNTHESIS
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Henning; Dahl, Veronica
2009-01-01
By extending logic grammars with constraint logic, we give them the ability to create knowledge bases that represent the meaning of an input string. Semantic information is thus defined through extra-grammatical means, and a sentence's meaning logically follows as a by-product of string rewriting....... We formalize these ideas, and exemplify them both within and outside first-order logic, and for both fixed and dynamic knowledge bases. Within the latter variety, we consider the usual left-to-right derivations that are traditional in logic grammars, but also -- in a significant departure from...
Lu, Guo-Wei; Qin, Jun; Wang, Hongxiang; Ji, XuYuefeng; Sharif, Gazi Mohammad; Yamaguchi, Shigeru
2016-02-08
Optical logic gate, especially exclusive-or (XOR) gate, plays important role in accomplishing photonic computing and various network functionalities in future optical networks. On the other hand, optical multicast is another indispensable functionality to efficiently deliver information in optical networks. In this paper, for the first time, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a flexible optical three-input XOR gate scheme for multiple input phase-modulated signals with a 1-to-2 multicast functionality for each XOR operation using four-wave mixing (FWM) effect in single piece of highly-nonlinear fiber (HNLF). Through FWM in HNLF, all of the possible XOR operations among input signals could be simultaneously realized by sharing a single piece of HNLF. By selecting the obtained XOR components using a followed wavelength selective component, the number of XOR gates and the participant light in XOR operations could be flexibly configured. The re-configurability of the proposed XOR gate and the function integration of the optical logic gate and multicast in single device offer the flexibility in network design and improve the network efficiency. We experimentally demonstrate flexible 3-input XOR gate for four 10-Gbaud binary phase-shift keying signals with a multicast scale of 2. Error-free operations for the obtained XOR results are achieved. Potential application of the integrated XOR and multicast function in network coding is also discussed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer
A Gentle introduction to logical languages, logical modeling, formal reasoning and computational logic for computer science and software engineering students......A Gentle introduction to logical languages, logical modeling, formal reasoning and computational logic for computer science and software engineering students...
Diagnosable structured logic array
Whitaker, Sterling (Inventor); Miles, Lowell (Inventor); Gambles, Jody (Inventor); Maki, Gary K. (Inventor)
2009-01-01
A diagnosable structured logic array and associated process is provided. A base cell structure is provided comprising a logic unit comprising a plurality of input nodes, a plurality of selection nodes, and an output node, a plurality of switches coupled to the selection nodes, where the switches comprises a plurality of input lines, a selection line and an output line, a memory cell coupled to the output node, and a test address bus and a program control bus coupled to the plurality of input lines and the selection line of the plurality of switches. A state on each of the plurality of input nodes is verifiably loaded and read from the memory cell. A trusted memory block is provided. The associated process is provided for testing and verifying a plurality of truth table inputs of the logic unit.
Fuzzy Logic vs. Neutrosophic Logic: Operations Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Salah Bouzina
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The goal of this research is first to show how different, thorough, widespread and effective are the operations logic of the neutrosophic logic compared to the fuzzy logic’s operations logical. The second aim is to observe how a fully new logic, the neutrosophic logic, is established starting by changing the previous logical perspective fuzzy logic, and by changing that, we mean changing changing the truth values from the truth and falsity degrees membership in fuzzy logic, to the truth, falsity and indeterminacy degrees membership in neutrosophic logic; and thirdly, to observe that there is no limit to the logical discoveries - we only change the principle, then the system changes completely.
Radiation tolerant combinational logic cell
Maki, Gary R. (Inventor); Gambles, Jody W. (Inventor); Whitaker, Sterling (Inventor)
2009-01-01
A system has a reduced sensitivity to Single Event Upset and/or Single Event Transient(s) compared to traditional logic devices. In a particular embodiment, the system includes an input, a logic block, a bias stage, a state machine, and an output. The logic block is coupled to the input. The logic block is for implementing a logic function, receiving a data set via the input, and generating a result f by applying the data set to the logic function. The bias stage is coupled to the logic block. The bias stage is for receiving the result from the logic block and presenting it to the state machine. The state machine is coupled to the bias stage. The state machine is for receiving, via the bias stage, the result generated by the logic block. The state machine is configured to retain a state value for the system. The state value is typically based on the result generated by the logic block. The output is coupled to the state machine. The output is for providing the value stored by the state machine. Some embodiments of the invention produce dual rail outputs Q and Q'. The logic block typically contains combinational logic and is similar, in size and transistor configuration, to a conventional CMOS combinational logic design. However, only a very small portion of the circuits of these embodiments, is sensitive to Single Event Upset and/or Single Event Transients.
Optically controllable molecular logic circuits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishimura, Takahiro; Fujii, Ryo; Ogura, Yusuke; Tanida, Jun
2015-01-01
Molecular logic circuits represent a promising technology for observation and manipulation of biological systems at the molecular level. However, the implementation of molecular logic circuits for temporal and programmable operation remains challenging. In this paper, we demonstrate an optically controllable logic circuit that uses fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) for signaling. The FRET-based signaling process is modulated by both molecular and optical inputs. Based on the distance dependence of FRET, the FRET pathways required to execute molecular logic operations are formed on a DNA nanostructure as a circuit based on its molecular inputs. In addition, the FRET pathways on the DNA nanostructure are controlled optically, using photoswitching fluorescent molecules to instruct the execution of the desired operation and the related timings. The behavior of the circuit can thus be controlled using external optical signals. As an example, a molecular logic circuit capable of executing two different logic operations was studied. The circuit contains functional DNAs and a DNA scaffold to construct two FRET routes for executing Input 1 AND Input 2 and Input 1 AND NOT Input 3 operations on molecular inputs. The circuit produced the correct outputs with all possible combinations of the inputs by following the light signals. Moreover, the operation execution timings were controlled based on light irradiation and the circuit responded to time-dependent inputs. The experimental results demonstrate that the circuit changes the output for the required operations following the input of temporal light signals
Embedding Logics into Product Logic
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Baaz, M.; Hájek, Petr; Krajíček, Jan; Švejda, David
1998-01-01
Roč. 61, č. 1 (1998), s. 35-47 ISSN 0039-3215 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030601 Grant - others:COST(XE) Action 15 Keywords : fuzzy logic * Lukasiewicz logic * Gödel logic * product logic * computational complexity * arithmetical hierarchy Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bialkowski, J.; Moszynski, M.; Zagorski, A.
1981-01-01
The logic diagram principle of operation and some details of the design of the multiplicity logic unit are presented. This unit was specially designed to fulfil the requirements of a multidetector arrangement for gamma-ray multiplicity measurements. The unit is equipped with 16 inputs controlled by a common coincidence gate. It delivers a linear output pulse with the height proportional to the multiplicity of coincidences and logic pulses corresponding to 0, 1, ... up to >= 5-fold coincidences. These last outputs are used to steer the routing unit working with the multichannel analyser. (orig.)
Smullyan, Raymond
2008-01-01
This book features a unique approach to the teaching of mathematical logic by putting it in the context of the puzzles and paradoxes of common language and rational thought. It serves as a bridge from the author's puzzle books to his technical writing in the fascinating field of mathematical logic. Using the logic of lying and truth-telling, the author introduces the readers to informal reasoning preparing them for the formal study of symbolic logic, from propositional logic to first-order logic, a subject that has many important applications to philosophy, mathematics, and computer science. T
Superconducting digital logic amplifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Przybysz, J.X.
1989-01-01
This paper describes a superconducting digital logic amplifier for interfacing between a Josephson junction logic circuit having output current and a higher voltage semiconductor circuit input. The amplifier comprising: an input terminal for connection to a; an output terminal for connection to a semiconductor circuit input; an input, lower critical current, Josephson junction having first and second terminals; a first series string of at least three lower critical current Josephson junctions. The first series string being connected to the first terminal of the input Josephson junction such that the first series string is in series with the input Josephson junction to provide a series combination. The input terminal being connected to the first terminal of the input Josephson junction, and with the critical current of the lower critical current Josephson junctions of the input Josephson junction and the first series Josephson junctions being less than the output current of the low voltage Josephson junction circuit; a second series string of at least four higher critical current Josephson junctions. The second string being connected in parallel with the series combination to provide parallel strings having an upper common connection and a lower common connection. The lower common connection being connected to the second terminal of the input Josephson junction and the upper common connection being connected to the output terminal; and a pulsed DC current source connected the parallel strings at the upper common connection. The DC current source having a current at least equal to the critical current of the higher critical current Josephson junctions
Kleene, Stephen Cole
1967-01-01
Undergraduate students with no prior instruction in mathematical logic will benefit from this multi-part text. Part I offers an elementary but thorough overview of mathematical logic of 1st order. Part II introduces some of the newer ideas and the more profound results of logical research in the 20th century. 1967 edition.
Meyer, J.J.Ch.; Broersen, J.M.; Herzig, A.
2015-01-01
This paper presents an overview of so-called BDI logics, logics where the notion of Beliefs, Desires and Intentions play a central role. Starting out from the basic ideas about BDI by Bratman, we consider various formalizations in logic, such as the approach of Cohen and Levesque, slightly
Reprogammable universal logic device based on mems technology
Hafiz, Md Adbdullah Al
2017-06-15
Various examples of reprogrammable universal logic devices are provided. In one example, the device can include a tunable AC input (206) to an oscillator/resonator; a first logic input and a second logic input to the oscillator/resonator, the first and second logic inputs provided by separate DC voltage sources (VA, VB), each of the first and second logic inputs including an on/off switch (A, B); and the oscillator/resonator including an output terminal (215). The tunable oscillator/resonator can be a MEMS/NEMS resonator. Switching of one or both of the first or second logic inputs on or off in association with the tuning of the AC input (206) can provide logic gate operation. The device can easily be extended to a 3-bit or n-bit device by providing additional logic inputs. Binary comparators and encoders can be implemented using a plurality of oscillators/resonators.
Design and experimentation of BSFQ logic devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hosoki, T.; Kodaka, H.; Kitagawa, M.; Okabe, Y.
1999-01-01
Rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) logic needs synchronous pulses for each gate, so the clock-wiring problem is more serious when designing larger scale circuits with this logic. So we have proposed a new SFQ logic which follows Boolean algebra perfectly by using set and reset pulses. With this logic, the level information of current input is transmitted with these pulses generated by level-to-pulse converters, and each gate calculates logic using its phase level made by these pulses. Therefore, our logic needs no clock in each gate. We called this logic 'Boolean SFQ (BSFQ) logic'. In this paper, we report design and experimentation for an AND gate with inverting input based on BSFQ logic. The experimental results for OR and XOR gates are also reported. (author)
Reprogammable universal logic device based on mems technology
Hafiz, Md Adbdullah Al; Kosuru, Lakshmoji; Younis, Mohammad I.
2017-01-01
Various examples of reprogrammable universal logic devices are provided. In one example, the device can include a tunable AC input (206) to an oscillator/resonator; a first logic input and a second logic input to the oscillator/resonator, the first
Le Balleur, J. C.
1988-01-01
The applicability of conventional mathematical analysis (based on the combination of two-valued logic and probability theory) to problems in which human judgment, perception, or emotions play significant roles is considered theoretically. It is shown that dispositional logic, a branch of fuzzy logic, has particular relevance to the common-sense reasoning typical of human decision-making. The concepts of dispositionality and usuality are defined analytically, and a dispositional conjunctive rule and dispositional modus ponens are derived.
Quantum design rules for single molecule logic gates.
Renaud, N; Hliwa, M; Joachim, C
2011-08-28
Recent publications have demonstrated how to implement a NOR logic gate with a single molecule using its interaction with two surface atoms as logical inputs [W. Soe et al., ACS Nano, 2011, 5, 1436]. We demonstrate here how this NOR logic gate belongs to the general family of quantum logic gates where the Boolean truth table results from a full control of the quantum trajectory of the electron transfer process through the molecule by very local and classical inputs practiced on the molecule. A new molecule OR gate is proposed for the logical inputs to be also single metal atoms, one per logical input.
Optical programmable Boolean logic unit.
Chattopadhyay, Tanay
2011-11-10
Logic units are the building blocks of many important computational operations likes arithmetic, multiplexer-demultiplexer, radix conversion, parity checker cum generator, etc. Multifunctional logic operation is very much essential in this respect. Here a programmable Boolean logic unit is proposed that can perform 16 Boolean logical operations from a single optical input according to the programming input without changing the circuit design. This circuit has two outputs. One output is complementary to the other. Hence no loss of data can occur. The circuit is basically designed by a 2×2 polarization independent optical cross bar switch. Performance of the proposed circuit has been achieved by doing numerical simulations. The binary logical states (0,1) are represented by the absence of light (null) and presence of light, respectively.
Tugué, Tosiyuki; Slaman, Theodore
1989-01-01
These proceedings include the papers presented at the logic meeting held at the Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Kyoto University, in the summer of 1987. The meeting mainly covered the current research in various areas of mathematical logic and its applications in Japan. Several lectures were also presented by logicians from other countries, who visited Japan in the summer of 1987.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sambasivan, S. Ilango
2004-01-01
Full text : PFBR is provided with two independent, fast acting and diverse shutdown systems to detect any abnormalities and to initiate safety action. Each system consists of sensors, signal processing systems, logics, drive mechanisms and absorber rods. The absorber rods of the first system are Control and Safety Rods (CSR) and that of the second are called as Diverse Safety Rods (DSR). There are nine CSR and three DSR. While CSR are used for startup, control of reactor power, controlled shutdown and SCRAM, the DSR are used only for SCRAM. The respective drive mechanisms are called as CSRDM and DSRDM. Each of these two systems is capable of executing the shutdown satisfactorily with single failure criteria. Two independent safety logic systems based on diverse principles have been designed for the two shut down systems. The analog outputs of the sensors of Core Monitoring Systems comprising of reactor flux monitoring, core temperature monitoring, failed fuel detection and core flow monitoring systems are processed and converted into binary signals depending on their instantaneous values. Safety logic systems receive the binary signals from these core-monitoring systems and process them logically to protect the reactor against postulated initiating events. Neutronic and power to flow (P/Q) signals form the inputs to safety logic system-I and temperature signals are inputs to the safety logic system II. Failed fuel detection signals are processed by both the shut down systems. The two logic systems to actuate the safety rods are also based on two diverse designs and implemented with solid-state devices to meet all the requirements of safety systems. Safety logic system I that caters to neutronic and P/Q signals is designed around combinational logic and has an on-line test facility to detect struck at faults. The second logic system is based on dynamic logic and hence is inherently safe. This paper gives an overview of the two logic systems that have been
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawashima, Hideo.
1977-01-01
A fast-slow logic system has been made for use in multi-detector experiments in nuclear physics such as particle-gamma and particle-particle coincidence experiments. The system consists of a fast logic system and a slow logic system. The fast logic system has a function of fast coincidences and provides timing signals for the slow logic system. The slow logic system has a function of slow coincidences and a routing control of input analog signals to the ADCs. (auth.)
Areces, Carlos; Hoffmann, Guillaume; Denis, Alexandre
We present a modal language that includes explicit operators to count the number of elements that a model might include in the extension of a formula, and we discuss how this logic has been previously investigated under different guises. We show that the language is related to graded modalities and to hybrid logics. We illustrate a possible application of the language to the treatment of plural objects and queries in natural language. We investigate the expressive power of this logic via bisimulations, discuss the complexity of its satisfiability problem, define a new reasoning task that retrieves the cardinality bound of the extension of a given input formula, and provide an algorithm to solve it.
Propositional Logics of Dependence
Yang, F.; Väänänen, J.
2016-01-01
In this paper, we study logics of dependence on the propositional level. We prove that several interesting propositional logics of dependence, including propositional dependence logic, propositional intuitionistic dependence logic as well as propositional inquisitive logic, are expressively complete
MEMS Logic Using Mixed-Frequency Excitation
Ilyas, Saad
2017-06-22
We present multi-function microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) logic device that can perform the fundamental logic gate AND, OR, universal logic gates NAND, NOR, and a tristate logic gate using mixed-frequency excitation. The concept is based on exciting combination resonances due to the mixing of two or more input signals. The device vibrates at two steady states: a high state when the combination resonance is activated and a low state when no resonance is activated. These vibration states are assigned to logical value 1 or 0 to realize the logic gates. Using ac signals to drive the resonator and to execute the logic inputs unifies the input and output wave forms of the logic device, thereby opening the possibility for cascading among logic devices. We found that the energy consumption per cycle of the proposed logic resonator is higher than those of existing technologies. Hence, integration of such logic devices to build complex computational system needs to take into consideration lowering the total energy consumption. [2017-0041
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Braüner, Torben
2011-01-01
Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area.......Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area....
Smets, P
1995-01-01
We start by describing the nature of imperfect data, and giving an overview of the various models that have been proposed. Fuzzy sets theory is shown to be an extension of classical set theory, and as such has a proeminent role or modelling imperfect data. The mathematic of fuzzy sets theory is detailled, in particular the role of the triangular norms. The use of fuzzy sets theory in fuzzy logic and possibility theory,the nature of the generalized modus ponens and of the implication operator for approximate reasoning are analysed. The use of fuzzy logic is detailled for application oriented towards process control and database problems.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reynolds, John C.
2002-01-01
In joint work with Peter O'Hearn and others, based on early ideas of Burstall, we have developed an extension of Hoare logic that permits reasoning about low-level imperative programs that use shared mutable data structure. The simple imperative programming language is extended with commands (not...... with the inductive definition of predicates on abstract data structures, this extension permits the concise and flexible description of structures with controlled sharing. In this paper, we will survey the current development of this program logic, including extensions that permit unrestricted address arithmetic...
Dynamic logic architecture based on piecewise-linear systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peng Haipeng; Liu Fei; Li Lixiang; Yang Yixian; Wang Xue
2010-01-01
This Letter explores piecewise-linear systems to construct dynamic logic architecture. The proposed schemes can discriminate the two input signals and obtain 16 kinds of logic operations by different combinations of parameters and conditions for determining the output. Each logic cell performs more flexibly, that makes it possible to achieve complex logic operations more simply and construct computing architecture with less logic cells. We also analyze the various performances of our schemes under different conditions and the characteristics of these schemes.
Synthesizing biomolecule-based Boolean logic gates.
Miyamoto, Takafumi; Razavi, Shiva; DeRose, Robert; Inoue, Takanari
2013-02-15
One fascinating recent avenue of study in the field of synthetic biology is the creation of biomolecule-based computers. The main components of a computing device consist of an arithmetic logic unit, the control unit, memory, and the input and output devices. Boolean logic gates are at the core of the operational machinery of these parts, and hence to make biocomputers a reality, biomolecular logic gates become a necessity. Indeed, with the advent of more sophisticated biological tools, both nucleic acid- and protein-based logic systems have been generated. These devices function in the context of either test tubes or living cells and yield highly specific outputs given a set of inputs. In this review, we discuss various types of biomolecular logic gates that have been synthesized, with particular emphasis on recent developments that promise increased complexity of logic gate circuitry, improved computational speed, and potential clinical applications.
Synthesizing Biomolecule-based Boolean Logic Gates
Miyamoto, Takafumi; Razavi, Shiva; DeRose, Robert; Inoue, Takanari
2012-01-01
One fascinating recent avenue of study in the field of synthetic biology is the creation of biomolecule-based computers. The main components of a computing device consist of an arithmetic logic unit, the control unit, memory, and the input and output devices. Boolean logic gates are at the core of the operational machinery of these parts, hence to make biocomputers a reality, biomolecular logic gates become a necessity. Indeed, with the advent of more sophisticated biological tools, both nucleic acid- and protein-based logic systems have been generated. These devices function in the context of either test tubes or living cells and yield highly specific outputs given a set of inputs. In this review, we discuss various types of biomolecular logic gates that have been synthesized, with particular emphasis on recent developments that promise increased complexity of logic gate circuitry, improved computational speed, and potential clinical applications. PMID:23526588
Zhang, Lina; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Mei; Dong, Bin
2016-06-22
In this paper, we report a polymer-based raspberry-like micromotor. Interestingly, the resulting micromotor exhibits multistimuli-responsive motion behavior. Its on-off-on motion can be regulated by the application of stimuli such as H2O2, near-infrared light, NH3, or their combinations. Because of the versatility in motion control, the current micromotor has great potential in the application field of logic gate and logic circuit. With use of different stimuli as the inputs and the micromotor motion as the output, reprogrammable OR and INHIBIT logic gates or logic circuit consisting of OR, NOT, and AND logic gates can be achieved.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Carbone, Marco; Montesi, Fabrizio; Schürmann, Carsten
2014-01-01
In Choreographic Programming, a distributed system is programmed by giving a choreography, a global description of its interactions, instead of separately specifying the behaviour of each of its processes. Process implementations in terms of a distributed language can then be automatically...... projected from a choreography. We present Linear Compositional Choreographies (LCC), a proof theory for reasoning about programs that modularly combine choreographies with processes. Using LCC, we logically reconstruct a semantics and a projection procedure for programs. For the first time, we also obtain...... a procedure for extracting choreographies from process terms....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mittelstaedt, P.
1979-01-01
The subspaces of Hilbert space constitute an orthocomplemented quasimodular lattice Lsub(q) for which neither a two-valued function nor generalized truth function exist. A generalisation of the dialogic method can be used as an interpretation of a lattice Lsub(qi), which may be considered as the intuitionistic part of Lsub(q). Some obvious modifications of the dialogic method are introduced which come from the possible incommensurability of propositions about quantum mechanical systems. With the aid of this generalized dialogic method a propositional calculus Qsub(eff) is derived which is similar to the calculus of effective (intuitionistic) logic, but contains a few restrictions which are based on the incommensurability of quantum mechanical propositions. It can be shown within the framework of the calculus Qsub(eff) that the value-definiteness of the elementary propositions which are proved by quantum mechanical propositions is inherited by all finite compund propositions. In this way one arrives at the calculus Q of full quantum logic which incorporates the principle of excluded middle for all propositions and which is a model for the lattice Lsub(q). (Auth.)
Carlton, David Bryan
The exponential improvements in speed, energy efficiency, and cost that the computer industry has relied on for growth during the last 50 years are in danger of ending within the decade. These improvements all have relied on scaling the size of the silicon-based transistor that is at the heart of every modern CPU down to smaller and smaller length scales. However, as the size of the transistor reaches scales that are measured in the number of atoms that make it up, it is clear that this scaling cannot continue forever. As a result of this, there has been a great deal of research effort directed at the search for the next device that will continue to power the growth of the computer industry. However, due to the billions of dollars of investment that conventional silicon transistors have received over the years, it is unlikely that a technology will emerge that will be able to beat it outright in every performance category. More likely, different devices will possess advantages over conventional transistors for certain applications and uses. One of these emerging computing platforms is nanomagnetic logic (NML). NML-based circuits process information by manipulating the magnetization states of single-domain nanomagnets coupled to their nearest neighbors through magnetic dipole interactions. The state variable is magnetization direction and computations can take place without passing an electric current. This makes them extremely attractive as a replacement for conventional transistor-based computing architectures for certain ultra-low power applications. In most work to date, nanomagnetic logic circuits have used an external magnetic clocking field to reset the system between computations. The clocking field is then subsequently removed very slowly relative to the magnetization dynamics, guiding the nanomagnetic logic circuit adiabatically into its magnetic ground state. In this dissertation, I will discuss the dynamics behind this process and show that it is greatly
Chaplin, J C; Russell, N A; Krasnogor, N
2012-07-01
In this paper we detail experimental methods to implement registers, logic gates and logic circuits using populations of photochromic molecules exposed to sequences of light pulses. Photochromic molecules are molecules with two or more stable states that can be switched reversibly between states by illuminating with appropriate wavelengths of radiation. Registers are implemented by using the concentration of molecules in each state in a given sample to represent an integer value. The register's value can then be read using the intensity of a fluorescence signal from the sample. Logic gates have been implemented using a register with inputs in the form of light pulses to implement 1-input/1-output and 2-input/1-output logic gates. A proof of concept logic circuit is also demonstrated; coupled with the software workflow describe the transition from a circuit design to the corresponding sequence of light pulses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Modal logic is a subject with ancient roots in the western logical tradition. Up until the last few generations, it was pursued mainly as a branch of philosophy. But in recent years, the subject has taken new directions with connections to topics in computer science and mathematics. This volume...... is the proceedings of the conference of record in its fi eld, Advances in Modal Logic. Its contributions are state-of-the-art papers. The topics include decidability and complexity results for specifi c modal logics, proof theory of modal logic, logics for reasoning about time and space, provability logic, dynamic...... epistemic logic, and the logic of evidence....
Simultaneous G-Quadruplex DNA Logic.
Bader, Antoine; Cockroft, Scott L
2018-04-03
A fundamental principle of digital computer operation is Boolean logic, where inputs and outputs are described by binary integer voltages. Similarly, inputs and outputs may be processed on the molecular level as exemplified by synthetic circuits that exploit the programmability of DNA base-pairing. Unlike modern computers, which execute large numbers of logic gates in parallel, most implementations of molecular logic have been limited to single computing tasks, or sensing applications. This work reports three G-quadruplex-based logic gates that operate simultaneously in a single reaction vessel. The gates respond to unique Boolean DNA inputs by undergoing topological conversion from duplex to G-quadruplex states that were resolved using a thioflavin T dye and gel electrophoresis. The modular, addressable, and label-free approach could be incorporated into DNA-based sensors, or used for resolving and debugging parallel processes in DNA computing applications. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Orthogonal Algorithm of Logic Probability and Syndrome-Testable Analysis
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
1990-01-01
A new method,orthogonal algoritm,is presented to compute the logic probabilities(i.e.signal probabilities)accurately,The transfer properties of logic probabilities are studied first,which are useful for the calculation of logic probability of the circuit with random independent inputs.Then the orthogonal algoritm is described to compute the logic probability of Boolean function realized by a combinational circuit.This algorithm can make Boolean function “ORTHOGONAL”so that the logic probabilities can be easily calculated by summing up the logic probabilities of all orthogonal terms of the Booleam function.
Paraconsistent Computational Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Villadsen, Jørgen
2012-01-01
In classical logic everything follows from inconsistency and this makes classical logic problematic in areas of computer science where contradictions seem unavoidable. We describe a many-valued paraconsistent logic, discuss the truth tables and include a small case study....
Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device
Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al; Kosuru, Lakshmoji; Younis, Mohammad I.
2016-01-01
on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance
Doberkat, Ernst-Erich
2009-01-01
Combining coalgebraic reasoning, stochastic systems and logic, this volume presents the principles of coalgebraic logic from a categorical perspective. Modal logics are also discussed, including probabilistic interpretations and an analysis of Kripke models.
Pulse coded safety logic for PFBR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anwer, Md. Najam; Satheesh, N.; Nagaraj, C.P.; Krishnakumar, B.
2002-01-01
Full text: Reactor safety logic is designed to initiate safety action against design basis events. The reactor is shutdown by de-energizing electromagnets and dropping the absorber rods under gravity. In prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR), shutdown is affected by two independent shutdown systems, viz., control and safety rod drive mechanism (CSRDM) and diverse safety rod drive mechanism (DSRDM). Two separate safety logics are proposed for CSRDM and DSRDM, i.e. solid state logic with on-line fine impulse test (FIT) for CSRDM and pulse coded safety logic (PCSL) for DSRDM. The PCSL primarily utilizes the fact that the vast majority of faults in the logic circuitry result in static conditions at the output. It is arranged such that the presence of pulses are required to hold the shutdown actuators and any DC logic state, either logic 0 or logic 1 releases them. It is a dynamic, self-testing logic and used in a number of reactors. This paper describes the principle of operation of PCSL, its advantages, the concept of guard line logic (GLL), detection of stuck at 0 and stuck at 1 faults, fail safe and diversity features. The implementation of PCSL using Altera Max+Plus II software for PFBR trip signals and the results of simulation are discussed. This paper also describes a test jig using 80186 based system for testing PCSL for various input parameter's combinations and monitoring the outputs
Classical logic and logicism in human thought
Elqayam, Shira
2012-01-01
This chapter explores the role of classical logic as a theory of human reasoning. I distinguish between classical logic as a normative, computational and algorithmic system, and review its role is theories of human reasoning since the 1960s. The thesis I defend is that psychological theories have been moving further and further away from classical logic on all three levels. I examine some prominent example of logicist theories, which incorporate logic in their psychological account, includin...
Logic programming extensions of Horn clause logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ron Sigal
1988-11-01
Full Text Available Logic programming is now firmly established as an alternative programming paradigm, distinct and arguably superior to the still dominant imperative style of, for instance, the Algol family of languages. The concept of a logic programming language is not precisely defined, but it is generally understood to be characterized buy: a declarative nature; foundation in some well understood logical system, e.g., first order logic.
Three-valued logics in modal logic
Kooi, Barteld; Tamminga, Allard
2013-01-01
Every truth-functional three-valued propositional logic can be conservatively translated into the modal logic S5. We prove this claim constructively in two steps. First, we define a Translation Manual that converts any propositional formula of any three-valued logic into a modal formula. Second, we
A parity checker circuit based on microelectromechanical resonator logic elements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al, E-mail: abdullah.hafiz@kaust.edu.sa [CEMSE Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia); Li, Ren [CEMSE Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia); Younis, Mohammad I. [PSE Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia); Fariborzi, Hossein [CEMSE Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia)
2017-03-03
Micro/nano-electromechanical resonator based logic computation has attracted significant attention in recent years due to its dynamic mode of operation, ultra-low power consumption, and potential for reprogrammable and reversible computing. Here we demonstrate a 4-bit parity checker circuit by utilizing recently developed logic gates based on MEMS resonators. Toward this, resonance frequencies of shallow arch shaped micro-resonators are electrothermally tuned by the logic inputs to constitute the required logic gates for the proposed parity checker circuit. This study demonstrates that by utilizing MEMS resonator based logic elements, complex digital circuits can be realized. - Highlights: • A 4-bit parity checker circuit is proposed and demonstrated based on MEMS resonator based logic elements. • Multiple copies of MEMS resonator based XOR logic gates are used to construct a complex logic circuit. • Functionality and feasibility of micro-resonator based logic platform is demonstrated.
Heunen, Chris
2008-01-01
We consider categorical logic on the category of Hilbert spaces. More generally, in fact, any pre-Hilbert category suffices. We characterise closed subobjects, and prove that they form orthomodular lattices. This shows that quantum logic is just an incarnation of categorical logic, enabling us to establish an existential quantifier for quantum logic, and conclude that there cannot be a universal quantifier.
Classical Boolean logic gates with quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Renaud, N; Joachim, C
2011-01-01
An analytical method is proposed to implement any classical Boolean function in a small quantum system by taking the advantage of its electronic transport properties. The logical input, α = {α 1 , ..., α N }, is used to control well-identified parameters of the Hamiltonian of the system noted H 0 (α). The logical output is encoded in the tunneling current intensity passing through the quantum system when connected to conducting electrodes. It is demonstrated how to implement the six symmetric two-input/one-output Boolean functions in a quantum system. This system can be switched from one logic function to another by changing its structural parameters. The stability of the logic gates is discussed, perturbing the Hamiltonian with noise sources and studying the effect of decoherence.
Optical reversible programmable Boolean logic unit.
Chattopadhyay, Tanay
2012-07-20
Computing with reversibility is the only way to avoid dissipation of energy associated with bit erase. So, a reversible microprocessor is required for future computing. In this paper, a design of a simple all-optical reversible programmable processor is proposed using a polarizing beam splitter, liquid crystal-phase spatial light modulators, a half-wave plate, and plane mirrors. This circuit can perform 16 logical operations according to three programming inputs. Also, inputs can be easily recovered from the outputs. It is named the "reversible programmable Boolean logic unit (RPBLU)." The logic unit is the basic building block of many complex computational operations. Hence the design is important in sense. Two orthogonally polarized lights are defined here as two logical states, respectively.
Metamathematics of fuzzy logic
Hájek, Petr
1998-01-01
This book presents a systematic treatment of deductive aspects and structures of fuzzy logic understood as many valued logic sui generis. Some important systems of real-valued propositional and predicate calculus are defined and investigated. The aim is to show that fuzzy logic as a logic of imprecise (vague) propositions does have well-developed formal foundations and that most things usually named `fuzzy inference' can be naturally understood as logical deduction.
Berg Johansen, Christina; Bock Waldorff, Susanne
2015-01-01
This study presents new insights into the explanatory power of the institutional logics perspective. With outset in a discussion of seminal theory texts, we identify two fundamental topics that frame institutional logics: overarching institutional orders guided by institutional logics, as well as change and agency generated by friction between logics. We use these topics as basis for an analysis of selected empirical papers, with the aim of understanding how institutional logics contribute to...
Logic-programming language enriches design processes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kitson, B.; Ow-Wing, K.
1984-03-22
With the emergence of a set of high-level CAD tools for programmable logic devices, designers can translate logic into functional custom devices simply and efficiently. The core of the package is a blockstructured hardware description language called PLPL, for ''programmable-logic programming language.'' The cheif advantage of PLPL lies in its multiple input formats, which permit different design approaches for a variety of design problems. The higher the level of the approach, the closer PLPL will come to directly specifying the desired function. Intermediate steps in the design process can be eliminated, along with the errors that might have been generated during those steps.
Manipulating potential wells in Logical Stochastic Resonance to obtain XOR logic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Storni, Remo; Ando, Hiroyasu; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Murali, K.; Sinha, Sudeshna
2012-01-01
Logical Stochastic Resonance (LSR) is the application of Stochastic Resonance to logic computation, namely the phenomenon where a nonlinear system driven by weak signals representing logic inputs, under optimal noise, can yield logic outputs. We extend the existing results, obtained in the context of bistable systems, to multi-stable dynamical systems, allowing us to obtain XOR logic, in addition to the AND (NAND) and OR (NOR) logic observed in earlier studies. This strategy widens the scope of LSR from the application point of view, as XOR forms the basis of ubiquitous bit-by-bit addition, and conceptually, showing the ability to yield non-monotonic input–output logic associations. -- Highlights: ► We generalize Logical Stochastic Resonance from bistable to multi-stable systems. ► We propose a tristable dynamical system formed of piecewise linear functions. ► The system can correctly reproduce XOR logic behavior using the LSR principle. ► The system yields different logic behavior without the need to change the dynamics.
Connections among quantum logics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lock, P.F.; Hardegree, G.M.
1985-01-01
In this paper, a theory of quantum logics is proposed which is general enough to enable us to reexamine a previous work on quantum logics in the context of this theory. It is then easy to assess the differences between the different systems studied. The quantum logical systems which are incorporated are divided into two groups which we call ''quantum propositional logics'' and ''quantum event logics''. The work of Kochen and Specker (partial Boolean algebras) is included and so is that of Greechie and Gudder (orthomodular partially ordered sets), Domotar (quantum mechanical systems), and Foulis and Randall (operational logics) in quantum propositional logics; and Abbott (semi-Boolean algebras) and Foulis and Randall (manuals) in quantum event logics, In this part of the paper, an axiom system for quantum propositional logics is developed and the above structures in the context of this system examined. (author)
A parity checker circuit based on microelectromechanical resonator logic elements
Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al
2017-01-11
Micro/nano-electromechanical resonator based logic computation has attracted significant attention in recent years due to its dynamic mode of operation, ultra-low power consumption, and potential for reprogrammable and reversible computing. Here we demonstrate a 4-bit parity checker circuit by utilizing recently developed logic gates based on MEMS resonators. Toward this, resonance frequencies of shallow arch shaped micro resonators are electrothermally tuned by the logic inputs to constitute the required logic gates for the proposed parity checker circuit. This study demonstrates that by utilizing MEMS resonator based logic elements, complex digital circuits can be realized.
A parity checker circuit based on microelectromechanical resonator logic elements
Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al; Li, Ren; Younis, Mohammad I.; Fariborzi, Hossein
2017-01-01
Micro/nano-electromechanical resonator based logic computation has attracted significant attention in recent years due to its dynamic mode of operation, ultra-low power consumption, and potential for reprogrammable and reversible computing. Here we demonstrate a 4-bit parity checker circuit by utilizing recently developed logic gates based on MEMS resonators. Toward this, resonance frequencies of shallow arch shaped micro resonators are electrothermally tuned by the logic inputs to constitute the required logic gates for the proposed parity checker circuit. This study demonstrates that by utilizing MEMS resonator based logic elements, complex digital circuits can be realized.
Enzymatic AND logic gates operated under conditions characteristic of biomedical applications.
Melnikov, Dmitriy; Strack, Guinevere; Zhou, Jian; Windmiller, Joshua Ray; Halámek, Jan; Bocharova, Vera; Chuang, Min-Chieh; Santhosh, Padmanabhan; Privman, Vladimir; Wang, Joseph; Katz, Evgeny
2010-09-23
Experimental and theoretical analyses of the lactate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase based enzymatic AND logic gates in which the enzymes and their substrates serve as logic inputs are performed. These two systems are examples of the novel, previously unexplored class of biochemical logic gates that illustrate potential biomedical applications of biochemical logic. They are characterized by input concentrations at logic 0 and 1 states corresponding to normal and pathophysiological conditions. Our analysis shows that the logic gates under investigation have similar noise characteristics. Both significantly amplify random noise present in inputs; however, we establish that for realistic widths of the input noise distributions, it is still possible to differentiate between the logic 0 and 1 states of the output. This indicates that reliable detection of pathophysiological conditions is indeed possible with such enzyme logic systems.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schürmann, Carsten; Sarnat, Jeffrey
2008-01-01
Tait's method (a.k.a. proof by logical relations) is a powerful proof technique frequently used for showing foundational properties of languages based on typed lambda-calculi. Historically, these proofs have been extremely difficult to formalize in proof assistants with weak meta-logics......, such as Twelf, and yet they are often straightforward in proof assistants with stronger meta-logics. In this paper, we propose structural logical relations as a technique for conducting these proofs in systems with limited meta-logical strength by explicitly representing and reasoning about an auxiliary logic...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berg Johansen, Christina; Waldorff, Susanne Boch
This study presents new insights into the explanatory power of the institutional logics perspective. With outset in a discussion of seminal theory texts, we identify two fundamental topics that frame institutional logics: overarching institutional orders guides by institutional logics, as well...... as change and agency generated by friction between logics. We use these topics as basis for an analysis of selected empirical papers, with the aim of understanding how institutional logics contribute to institutional theory at large, and which social matters institutional logics can and cannot explore...
Indeterministic Temporal Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trzęsicki Kazimierz
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The questions od determinism, causality, and freedom have been the main philosophical problems debated since the beginning of temporal logic. The issue of the logical value of sentences about the future was stated by Aristotle in the famous tomorrow sea-battle passage. The question has inspired Łukasiewicz’s idea of many-valued logics and was a motive of A. N. Prior’s considerations about the logic of tenses. In the scheme of temporal logic there are different solutions to the problem. In the paper we consider indeterministic temporal logic based on the idea of temporal worlds and the relation of accessibility between them.
Valve system incorporating single failure protection logic
Ryan, Rodger; Timmerman, Walter J. H.
1980-01-01
A valve system incorporating single failure protective logic. The system consists of a valve combination or composite valve which allows actuation or de-actuation of a device such as a hydraulic cylinder or other mechanism, integral with or separate from the valve assembly, by means of three independent input signals combined in a function commonly known as two-out-of-three logic. Using the input signals as independent and redundant actuation/de-actuation signals, a single signal failure, or failure of the corresponding valve or valve set, will neither prevent the desired action, nor cause the undesired action of the mechanism.
Generic physical protection logic trees
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paulus, W.K.
1981-10-01
Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle
Generic physical protection logic trees
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paulus, W.K.
1981-10-01
Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle.
Cosmic logic: a computational model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vanchurin, Vitaly
2016-01-01
We initiate a formal study of logical inferences in context of the measure problem in cosmology or what we call cosmic logic. We describe a simple computational model of cosmic logic suitable for analysis of, for example, discretized cosmological systems. The construction is based on a particular model of computation, developed by Alan Turing, with cosmic observers (CO), cosmic measures (CM) and cosmic symmetries (CS) described by Turing machines. CO machines always start with a blank tape and CM machines take CO's Turing number (also known as description number or Gödel number) as input and output the corresponding probability. Similarly, CS machines take CO's Turing number as input, but output either one if the CO machines are in the same equivalence class or zero otherwise. We argue that CS machines are more fundamental than CM machines and, thus, should be used as building blocks in constructing CM machines. We prove the non-computability of a CS machine which discriminates between two classes of CO machines: mortal that halts in finite time and immortal that runs forever. In context of eternal inflation this result implies that it is impossible to construct CM machines to compute probabilities on the set of all CO machines using cut-off prescriptions. The cut-off measures can still be used if the set is reduced to include only machines which halt after a finite and predetermined number of steps
Quantum Logic as a Dynamic Logic
Baltag, A.; Smets, S.
We address the old question whether a logical understanding of Quantum Mechanics requires abandoning some of the principles of classical logic. Against Putnam and others (Among whom we may count or not E. W. Beth, depending on how we interpret some of his statements), our answer is a clear “no”.
Quantum logic as a dynamic logic
Baltag, Alexandru; Smets, Sonja
We address the old question whether a logical understanding of Quantum Mechanics requires abandoning some of the principles of classical logic. Against Putnam and others (Among whom we may count or not E. W. Beth, depending on how we interpret some of his statements), our answer is a clear "no".
Transforming equality logic to propositional logic
Zantema, H.; Groote, J.F.
2003-01-01
Abstract We investigate and compare various ways of transforming equality formulas to propositional formulas, in order to be able to solve satisfiability in equality logic by means of satisfiability in propositional logic. We propose equality substitution as a new approach combining desirable
Bolc, Leonard
1992-01-01
Many-valued logics were developed as an attempt to handle philosophical doubts about the "law of excluded middle" in classical logic. The first many-valued formal systems were developed by J. Lukasiewicz in Poland and E.Post in the U.S.A. in the 1920s, and since then the field has expanded dramatically as the applicability of the systems to other philosophical and semantic problems was recognized. Intuitionisticlogic, for example, arose from deep problems in the foundations of mathematics. Fuzzy logics, approximation logics, and probability logics all address questions that classical logic alone cannot answer. All these interpretations of many-valued calculi motivate specific formal systems thatallow detailed mathematical treatment. In this volume, the authors are concerned with finite-valued logics, and especially with three-valued logical calculi. Matrix constructions, axiomatizations of propositional and predicate calculi, syntax, semantic structures, and methodology are discussed. Separate chapters deal w...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P N Johnson-Laird
2010-10-01
Full Text Available An old view in logic going back to Aristotle is that an inference is valid in virtue of its logical form. Many psychologists have adopted the same point of view about human reasoning: the first step is to recover the logical form of an inference, and the second step is to apply rules of inference that match these forms in order to prove that the conclusion follows from the premises. The present paper argues against this idea. The logical form of an inference transcends the grammatical forms of the sentences used to express it, because logical form also depends on context. Context is not readily expressed in additional premises. And the recovery of logical form leads ineluctably to the need for infinitely many axioms to capture the logical properties of relations. An alternative theory is that reasoning depends on mental models, and this theory obviates the need to recover logical form.
Newton-Smith, WH
2003-01-01
A complete introduction to logic for first-year university students with no background in logic, philosophy or mathematics. In easily understood steps it shows the mechanics of the formal analysis of arguments.
Anticoincidence logic using PALs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bolanos, L.; Arista Romeu, E.
1997-01-01
This paper describes the functioning principle of an anticoincidence logic and a design of this based on programing logic. The circuit was included in a discriminator of an equipment for single-photon absorptiometry
Nanowire NMOS Logic Inverter Characterization.
Hashim, Yasir
2016-06-01
This study is the first to demonstrate characteristics optimization of nanowire N-Channel Metal Oxide Semiconductor (NW-MOS) logic inverter. Noise margins and inflection voltage of transfer characteristics are used as limiting factors in this optimization. A computer-based model used to produce static characteristics of NW-NMOS logic inverter. In this research two circuit configuration of NW-NMOS inverter was studied, in first NW-NMOS circuit, the noise margin for (low input-high output) condition was very low. For second NMOS circuit gives excellent noise margins, and results indicate that optimization depends on applied voltage to the inverter. Increasing gate to source voltage with (2/1) nanowires ratio results better noise margins. Increasing of applied DC load transistor voltage tends to increasing in decreasing noise margins; decreasing this voltage will improve noise margins significantly.
Connections among quantum logics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lock, P.F.; Hardegree, G.M.
1985-01-01
This paper gives a brief introduction to the major areas of work in quantum event logics: manuals (Foulis and Randall) and semi-Boolean algebras (Abbott). The two theories are compared, and the connection between quantum event logics and quantum propositional logics is made explicit. In addition, the work on manuals provides us with many examples of results stated in Part I. (author)
Manca, V.; Salibra, A.; Scollo, Giuseppe
1990-01-01
Equational type logic is an extension of (conditional) equational logic, that enables one to deal in a single, unified framework with diverse phenomena such as partiality, type polymorphism and dependent types. In this logic, terms may denote types as well as elements, and atomic formulae are either
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xue, Bingtian; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mardare, Radu Iulian
2015-01-01
We introduce Concurrent Weighted Logic (CWL), a multimodal logic for concurrent labeled weighted transition systems (LWSs). The synchronization of LWSs is described using dedicated functions that, in various concurrency paradigms, allow us to encode the compositionality of LWSs. To reflect these......-completeness results for this logic. To complete these proofs we involve advanced topological techniques from Model Theory....
Bergstra, J.A.
2011-01-01
Four options for assigning a meaning to Islamic Logic are surveyed including a new proposal for an option named "Real Islamic Logic" (RIL). That approach to Islamic Logic should serve modern Islamic objectives in a way comparable to the functionality of Islamic Finance. The prospective role of RIL
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bentzen, Martin Mose
2014-01-01
A new deontic logic, Action Type Deontic Logic, is presented. To motivate this logic, a number of benchmark cases are shown, representing inferences a deontic logic should validate. Some of the benchmark cases are singled out for further comments and some formal approaches to deontic reasoning...... are evaluated with respect to the benchmark cases. After that follows an informal introduction to the ideas behind the formal semantics, focussing on the distinction between action types and action tokens. Then the syntax and semantics of Action Type Deontic Logic is presented and it is shown to meet...
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Horčík, Rostislav; Cintula, Petr
2004-01-01
Roč. 43, - (2004), s. 477-503 ISSN 1432-0665 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030004; GA ČR GA201/02/1540 Grant - others:GA CTU(CZ) project 0208613; net CEEPUS(SK) SK-042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1030915 Keywords : fuzzy logic * many-valued logic * Lukasiewicz logic * Lpi logic * Takeuti-Titani logic * MV-algebras * product MV-algebras Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.295, year: 2004
Integration of biomolecular logic gates with field-effect transducers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Poghossian, A., E-mail: a.poghossian@fz-juelich.de [Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies, Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Campus Juelich, Heinrich-Mussmann-Str. 1, D-52428 Juelich (Germany); Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems, Research Centre Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Malzahn, K. [Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies, Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Campus Juelich, Heinrich-Mussmann-Str. 1, D-52428 Juelich (Germany); Abouzar, M.H. [Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies, Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Campus Juelich, Heinrich-Mussmann-Str. 1, D-52428 Juelich (Germany); Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems, Research Centre Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Mehndiratta, P. [Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies, Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Campus Juelich, Heinrich-Mussmann-Str. 1, D-52428 Juelich (Germany); Katz, E. [Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Science, NanoBio Laboratory (NABLAB), Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5810 (United States); Schoening, M.J. [Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies, Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Campus Juelich, Heinrich-Mussmann-Str. 1, D-52428 Juelich (Germany); Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems, Research Centre Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)
2011-11-01
Highlights: > Enzyme-based AND/OR logic gates are integrated with a capacitive field-effect sensor. > The AND/OR logic gates compose of multi-enzyme system immobilised on sensor surface. > Logic gates were activated by different combinations of chemical inputs (analytes). > The logic output (pH change) produced by the enzymes was read out by the sensor. - Abstract: The integration of biomolecular logic gates with field-effect devices - the basic element of conventional electronic logic gates and computing - is one of the most attractive and promising approaches for the transformation of biomolecular logic principles into macroscopically useable electrical output signals. In this work, capacitive field-effect EIS (electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor) sensors based on a p-Si-SiO{sub 2}-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} structure modified with a multi-enzyme membrane have been used for electronic transduction of biochemical signals processed by enzyme-based OR and AND logic gates. The realised OR logic gate composes of two enzymes (glucose oxidase and esterase) and was activated by ethyl butyrate or/and glucose. The AND logic gate composes of three enzymes (invertase, mutarotase and glucose oxidase) and was activated by two chemical input signals: sucrose and dissolved oxygen. The developed integrated enzyme logic gates produce local pH changes at the EIS sensor surface as a result of biochemical reactions activated by different combinations of chemical input signals, while the pH value of the bulk solution remains unchanged. The pH-induced charge changes at the gate-insulator (Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}) surface of the EIS transducer result in an electronic signal corresponding to the logic output produced by the immobilised enzymes. The logic output signals have been read out by means of a constant-capacitance method.
Integration of biomolecular logic gates with field-effect transducers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poghossian, A.; Malzahn, K.; Abouzar, M.H.; Mehndiratta, P.; Katz, E.; Schoening, M.J.
2011-01-01
Highlights: → Enzyme-based AND/OR logic gates are integrated with a capacitive field-effect sensor. → The AND/OR logic gates compose of multi-enzyme system immobilised on sensor surface. → Logic gates were activated by different combinations of chemical inputs (analytes). → The logic output (pH change) produced by the enzymes was read out by the sensor. - Abstract: The integration of biomolecular logic gates with field-effect devices - the basic element of conventional electronic logic gates and computing - is one of the most attractive and promising approaches for the transformation of biomolecular logic principles into macroscopically useable electrical output signals. In this work, capacitive field-effect EIS (electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor) sensors based on a p-Si-SiO 2 -Ta 2 O 5 structure modified with a multi-enzyme membrane have been used for electronic transduction of biochemical signals processed by enzyme-based OR and AND logic gates. The realised OR logic gate composes of two enzymes (glucose oxidase and esterase) and was activated by ethyl butyrate or/and glucose. The AND logic gate composes of three enzymes (invertase, mutarotase and glucose oxidase) and was activated by two chemical input signals: sucrose and dissolved oxygen. The developed integrated enzyme logic gates produce local pH changes at the EIS sensor surface as a result of biochemical reactions activated by different combinations of chemical input signals, while the pH value of the bulk solution remains unchanged. The pH-induced charge changes at the gate-insulator (Ta 2 O 5 ) surface of the EIS transducer result in an electronic signal corresponding to the logic output produced by the immobilised enzymes. The logic output signals have been read out by means of a constant-capacitance method.
Logical provenance in data-oriented workflows?
Ikeda, R.
2013-04-01
We consider the problem of defining, generating, and tracing provenance in data-oriented workflows, in which input data sets are processed by a graph of transformations to produce output results. We first give a new general definition of provenance for general transformations, introducing the notions of correctness, precision, and minimality. We then determine when properties such as correctness and minimality carry over from the individual transformations\\' provenance to the workflow provenance. We describe a simple logical-provenance specification language consisting of attribute mappings and filters. We provide an algorithm for provenance tracing in workflows where logical provenance for each transformation is specified using our language. We consider logical provenance in the relational setting, observing that for a class of Select-Project-Join (SPJ) transformations, logical provenance specifications encode minimal provenance. We have built a prototype system supporting the features and algorithms presented in the paper, and we report a few preliminary experimental results. © 2013 IEEE.
Wave Pipelining Using Self Reset Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miguel E. Litvin
2008-01-01
Full Text Available This study presents a novel design approach combining wave pipelining and self reset logic, which provides an elegant solution at high-speed data throughput with significant savings in power and area as compared with other dynamic CMOS logic implementations. To overcome some limitations in SRL art, we employ a new SRL family, namely, dual-rail self reset logic with input disable (DRSRL-ID. These gates depict fairly constant timing parameters, specially the width of the output pulse, for varying fan-out and logic depth, helping accommodate process, supply voltage, and temperature variations (PVT. These properties simplify the implementation of wave pipelined circuits. General timing analysis is provided and compared with previous implementations. Results of circuit implementation are presented together with conclusions and future work.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia; Manzano, Maria
2014-01-01
Leon Henkin was not a modal logician, but there is a branch of modal logic that has been deeply influenced by his work. That branch is hybrid logic, a family of logics that extend orthodox modal logic with special proposition symbols (called nominals) that name worlds. This paper explains why...... Henkin’s techniques are so important in hybrid logic. We do so by proving a completeness result for a hybrid type theory called HTT, probably the strongest hybrid logic that has yet been explored. Our completeness result builds on earlier work with a system called BHTT, or basic hybrid type theory...... is due to the first-order perspective, which lies at the heart of Henin’s best known work and hybrid logic....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Newton C. A. da Costa
2002-12-01
Full Text Available In view of the present state of development of non classical logic, especially of paraconsistent logic, a new stand regarding the relations between logic and ontology is defended In a parody of a dictum of Quine, my stand May be summarized as follows. To be is to be the value of a variable a specific language with a given underlying logic Yet my stand differs from Quine’s, because, among other reasons, I accept some first order heterodox logics as genuine alternatives to classical logic I also discuss some questions of non classical logic to substantiate my argument, and suggest that may position complements and extends some ideas advanced by L Apostel.
Institutional Logics in Action
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lounsbury, Michael; Boxenbaum, Eva
2013-01-01
This double volume presents state-of-the-art research and thinking on the dynamics of actors and institutional logics. In the introduction, we briefly sketch the roots and branches of institutional logics scholarship before turning to the new buds of research on the topic of how actors engage...... institutional logics in the course of their organizational practice. We introduce an exciting line of new works on the meta-theoretical foundations of logics, institutional logic processes, and institutional complexity and organizational responses. Collectively, the papers in this volume advance the very...... prolific stream of research on institutional logics by deepening our insight into the active use of institutional logics in organizational action and interaction, including the institutional effects of such (inter)actions....
Efficient fuzzy logic controller for magnetic levitation systems | Shu ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper magnetic levitation controller using fuzzy logic is proposed. The proposed Fuzzy logic controller (FLC) is designed, and developed using triangular membership function with 7×7 rules. The system model was implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK and the system responses to Fuzzy controller with different input ...
A high-speed interconnect network using ternary logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Jens Kargaard; Long, S. I.
1995-01-01
This paper describes the design and implementation of a high-speed interconnect network (ICN) for a multiprocessor system using ternary logic. By using ternary logic and a fast point-to-point communication technique called STARI (Self-Timed At Receiver's Input), the communication between...
A transition calculus for Boolean functions. [logic circuit analysis
Tucker, J. H.; Bennett, A. W.
1974-01-01
A transition calculus is presented for analyzing the effect of input changes on the output of logic circuits. The method is closely related to the Boolean difference, but it is more powerful. Both differentiation and integration are considered.
Logic elements for reactor period meter
McDowell, William P.; Bobis, James P.
1976-01-01
Logic elements are provided for a reactor period meter trip circuit. For one element, first and second inputs are applied to first and second chopper comparators, respectively. The output of each comparator is O if the input applied to it is greater than or equal to a trip level associated with each input and each output is a square wave of frequency f if the input applied to it is less than the associated trip level. The outputs of the comparators are algebraically summed and applied to a bandpass filter tuned to f. For another element, the output of each comparator is applied to a bandpass filter which is tuned to f to give a sine wave of frequency f. The outputs of the filters are multiplied by an analog multiplier whose output is 0 if either input is 0 and a sine wave of frequency 2f if both inputs are a frequency f.
Dalen, Dirk
1983-01-01
A book which efficiently presents the basics of propositional and predicate logic, van Dalen’s popular textbook contains a complete treatment of elementary classical logic, using Gentzen’s Natural Deduction. Propositional and predicate logic are treated in separate chapters in a leisured but precise way. Chapter Three presents the basic facts of model theory, e.g. compactness, Skolem-Löwenheim, elementary equivalence, non-standard models, quantifier elimination, and Skolem functions. The discussion of classical logic is rounded off with a concise exposition of second-order logic. In view of the growing recognition of constructive methods and principles, one chapter is devoted to intuitionistic logic. Completeness is established for Kripke semantics. A number of specific constructive features, such as apartness and equality, the Gödel translation, the disjunction and existence property have been incorporated. The power and elegance of natural deduction is demonstrated best in the part of proof theory cal...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Schang Fabien
2017-03-01
Full Text Available An analogy is made between two rather different domains, namely: logic, and football (or soccer. Starting from a comparative table between the two activities, an alternative explanation of logic is given in terms of players, ball, goal, and the like. Our main thesis is that, just as the task of logic is preserving truth from premises to the conclusion, footballers strive to keep the ball as far as possible until the opposite goal. Assuming this analogy may help think about logic in the same way as in dialogical logic, but it should also present truth-values in an alternative sense of speech-acts occurring in a dialogue. The relativity of truth-values is focused by this way, thereby leading to an additional way of logical pluralism.
Symmetric Logic Synthesis with Phase Assignment
Benschop, N. F.
2001-01-01
Decomposition of any Boolean Function BF_n of n binary inputs into an optimal inverter coupled network of Symmetric Boolean functions SF_k (k \\leq n) is described. Each SF component is implemented by Threshold Logic Cells, forming a complete and compact T-Cell Library. Optimal phase assignment of input polarities maximizes local symmetries. The "rank spectrum" is a new BF_n description independent of input ordering, obtained by mapping its minterms onto an othogonal n \\times n grid of (transi...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wall, M.J.W.
1992-01-01
The notion of open-quotes probabilityclose quotes is generalized to that of open-quotes likelihood,close quotes and a natural logical structure is shown to exist for any physical theory which predicts likelihoods. Two physically based axioms are given for this logical structure to form an orthomodular poset, with an order-determining set of states. The results strengthen the basis of the quantum logic approach to axiomatic quantum theory. 25 refs
Logical database design principles
Garmany, John; Clark, Terry
2005-01-01
INTRODUCTION TO LOGICAL DATABASE DESIGNUnderstanding a Database Database Architectures Relational Databases Creating the Database System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)Systems Planning: Assessment and Feasibility System Analysis: RequirementsSystem Analysis: Requirements Checklist Models Tracking and Schedules Design Modeling Functional Decomposition DiagramData Flow Diagrams Data Dictionary Logical Structures and Decision Trees System Design: LogicalSYSTEM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION The ER ApproachEntities and Entity Types Attribute Domains AttributesSet-Valued AttributesWeak Entities Constraint
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Peliš, Michal
2017-01-01
Roč. 26, č. 3 (2017), s. 357-381 ISSN 1425-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC16-07954J Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : epistemic logic * erotetic implication * erotetic logic * logic of questions Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Philosophy, History and Philosophy of science and technology http://apcz.umk.pl/czasopisma/index.php/LLP/article/view/LLP.2017.007
Pereyra, Nicolas A.
2018-06-01
This book gives a rigorous yet 'physics-focused' introduction to mathematical logic that is geared towards natural science majors. We present the science major with a robust introduction to logic, focusing on the specific knowledge and skills that will unavoidably be needed in calculus topics and natural science topics in general (rather than taking a philosophical-math-fundamental oriented approach that is commonly found in mathematical logic textbooks).
Circuit of synchronous logic for the transmission of safety commands
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uberschlag, J.
1969-01-01
The author reports the development of a control-command circuit for the transmission of binary commands related to the safety of nuclear reactors. He presents the main design criteria (operation safety, provided safety level, flexibility, technical adaptation), the definition of the operation principle (inputs, logical outputs), the properties of a logic system. He evokes redundancy issues, and presents the system structure, proposes a possible sketch of the logic circuit. He describes the possible options for intermediate circuits and logic outputs, and tests to be performed
Crossley, J N; Brickhill, CJ; Stillwell, JC
2010-01-01
Although mathematical logic can be a formidably abstruse topic, even for mathematicians, this concise book presents the subject in a lively and approachable fashion. It deals with the very important ideas in modern mathematical logic without the detailed mathematical work required of those with a professional interest in logic.The book begins with a historical survey of the development of mathematical logic from two parallel streams: formal deduction, which originated with Aristotle, Euclid, and others; and mathematical analysis, which dates back to Archimedes in the same era. The streams beg
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin
2012-01-01
In this paper we explore the logic of now, yesterday, today and tomorrow by combining the semantic approach to indexicality pioneered by Hans Kamp [9] and refined by David Kaplan [10] with hybrid tense logic. We first introduce a special now nominal (our @now corresponds to Kamp’s original now...... operator N) and prove completeness results for both logical and contextual validity. We then add propositional constants to handle yesterday, today and tomorrow; our system correctly treats sentences like “Niels will die yesterday” as contextually unsatisfiable. Building on our completeness results for now......, we prove completeness for the richer language, again for both logical and contextual validity....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lopez, Hugo Andres; Carbone, Marco; Hildebrandt, Thomas
2010-01-01
We explore logical reasoning for the global calculus, a coordination model based on the notion of choreography, with the aim to provide a methodology for speciﬁcation and veriﬁcation of structured communications. Starting with an extension of Hennessy-Milner logic, we present the global logic (GL...... ), a modal logic describing possible interactions among participants in a choreography. We illustrate its use by giving examples of properties on service speciﬁcations. Finally, we show that, despite GL is undecidable, there is a signiﬁcant decidable fragment which we provide with a sound and complete proof...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andronov, A.A.; Kurin, V.V.; Levichev, M.Yu.; Ryndyk, D.A.; Vostokov, V.I.
1993-01-01
In recent years there has been much interest in superconductor logical devices. Our paper is devoted to the analysis of some new possibilities in this field. The main problems here are: minimization of time of logical operations and reducing of device scale. Josephson systems are quite appropriate for this purpose because of small size, short characteristic time and also small energy losses. Two different types of Josephson logic have been investigated during last years. The first type is based on hysteretic V-A characteristic of a single Josephson junction. Superconducting and resistive (with nonzero voltage) states are considered as logical zero and logical unit. The second one - rapid single flux quantum logic, has been developed recently and is based on SQUID-like bistability. Different logical states are the states with different number of magnetic flux quanta inside closed superconducting contour. Information is represented by voltage pulses with fixed ''area'' (∫ V(t)/dt). This pulses are generated when logical state of SQUID-like elementary cell changes. The fundamental role of magnetic flux quantization in this type of logic leads to the necessity of large enough self-inductance of superconductor contour and thus to limitations on minimal device dimensions. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marco Carbone
2011-10-01
Full Text Available We explore logical reasoning for the global calculus, a coordination model based on the notion of choreography, with the aim to provide a methodology for specification and verification of structured communications. Starting with an extension of Hennessy-Milner logic, we present the global logic (GL, a modal logic describing possible interactions among participants in a choreography. We illustrate its use by giving examples of properties on service specifications. Finally, we show that, despite GL is undecidable, there is a significant decidable fragment which we provide with a sound and complete proof system for checking validity of formulae.
Introduction to mathematical logic
Mendelson, Elliott
2015-01-01
The new edition of this classic textbook, Introduction to Mathematical Logic, Sixth Edition explores the principal topics of mathematical logic. It covers propositional logic, first-order logic, first-order number theory, axiomatic set theory, and the theory of computability. The text also discusses the major results of Gödel, Church, Kleene, Rosser, and Turing.The sixth edition incorporates recent work on Gödel's second incompleteness theorem as well as restoring an appendix on consistency proofs for first-order arithmetic. This appendix last appeared in the first edition. It is offered in th
A circuit design for multi-inputs stateful OR gate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Qiao; Wang, Xiaoping, E-mail: wangxiaoping@hust.edu.cn; Wan, Haibo; Yang, Ran; Zheng, Jian
2016-09-07
The in situ logic operation on memristor memory has attracted researchers' attention. In this brief, a new circuit structure that performs a stateful OR logic operation is proposed. When our OR logic is operated in series with other logic operations (IMP, AND), only two voltages should to be changed while three voltages are necessary in the previous one-step OR logic operation. In addition, this circuit structure can be extended to multi-inputs OR operation to perfect the family of logic operations on memristive memory in nanocrossbar based networks. The proposed OR gate can enable fast logic operation, reduce the number of required memristors and the sequential steps. Through analysis and simulation, the feasibility of OR operation is demonstrated and the appropriate parameters are obtained.
A circuit design for multi-inputs stateful OR gate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Qiao; Wang, Xiaoping; Wan, Haibo; Yang, Ran; Zheng, Jian
2016-01-01
The in situ logic operation on memristor memory has attracted researchers' attention. In this brief, a new circuit structure that performs a stateful OR logic operation is proposed. When our OR logic is operated in series with other logic operations (IMP, AND), only two voltages should to be changed while three voltages are necessary in the previous one-step OR logic operation. In addition, this circuit structure can be extended to multi-inputs OR operation to perfect the family of logic operations on memristive memory in nanocrossbar based networks. The proposed OR gate can enable fast logic operation, reduce the number of required memristors and the sequential steps. Through analysis and simulation, the feasibility of OR operation is demonstrated and the appropriate parameters are obtained.
A reconfigurable NAND/NOR genetic logic gate.
Goñi-Moreno, Angel; Amos, Martyn
2012-09-18
Engineering genetic Boolean logic circuits is a major research theme of synthetic biology. By altering or introducing connections between genetic components, novel regulatory networks are built in order to mimic the behaviour of electronic devices such as logic gates. While electronics is a highly standardized science, genetic logic is still in its infancy, with few agreed standards. In this paper we focus on the interpretation of logical values in terms of molecular concentrations. We describe the results of computational investigations of a novel circuit that is able to trigger specific differential responses depending on the input standard used. The circuit can therefore be dynamically reconfigured (without modification) to serve as both a NAND/NOR logic gate. This multi-functional behaviour is achieved by a) varying the meanings of inputs, and b) using branch predictions (as in computer science) to display a constrained output. A thorough computational study is performed, which provides valuable insights for the future laboratory validation. The simulations focus on both single-cell and population behaviours. The latter give particular insights into the spatial behaviour of our engineered cells on a surface with a non-homogeneous distribution of inputs. We present a dynamically-reconfigurable NAND/NOR genetic logic circuit that can be switched between modes of operation via a simple shift in input signal concentration. The circuit addresses important issues in genetic logic that will have significance for more complex synthetic biology applications.
Understanding Social Media Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José van Dijck
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Over the past decade, social media platforms have penetrated deeply into the mechanics of everyday life, affecting people's informal interactions, as well as institutional structures and professional routines. Far from being neutral platforms for everyone, social media have changed the conditions and rules of social interaction. In this article, we examine the intricate dynamic between social media platforms, mass media, users, and social institutions by calling attention to social media logic—the norms, strategies, mechanisms, and economies—underpinning its dynamics. This logic will be considered in light of what has been identified as mass media logic, which has helped spread the media's powerful discourse outside its institutional boundaries. Theorizing social media logic, we identify four grounding principles—programmability, popularity, connectivity, and datafication—and argue that these principles become increasingly entangled with mass media logic. The logic of social media, rooted in these grounding principles and strategies, is gradually invading all areas of public life. Besides print news and broadcasting, it also affects law and order, social activism, politics, and so forth. Therefore, its sustaining logic and widespread dissemination deserve to be scrutinized in detail in order to better understand its impact in various domains. Concentrating on the tactics and strategies at work in social media logic, we reassess the constellation of power relationships in which social practices unfold, raising questions such as: How does social media logic modify or enhance existing mass media logic? And how is this new media logic exported beyond the boundaries of (social or mass media proper? The underlying principles, tactics, and strategies may be relatively simple to identify, but it is much harder to map the complex connections between platforms that distribute this logic: users that employ them, technologies that
A logical treatment of secondary storage
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foster, I.T.; Kusalik, A.J.
1986-01-01
Existing logic programming environments usually rely on highly imperative primitives and side-effects to achieve I/O with peripheral devices such as disks. This paper describes an alternate approach where the concepts of information input and output are described declarativley. Using a model of a logic-based open system, independent logic systems communicate their beliefs by means of ground logic clauses. The interface to a physical disk is defined as a node in such a system. The contents of the disk are treated as a knowledge base. The model provides the disk with a simple inference mechanism that allows it to assimilate (or reject) assertions made to it by other nodes of the logic system. This disk can also process queries about its contents. An executable specification for such a storage model is given in the parallel logic programming language PARLOG, as well as an actual implementation that uses very low-level term I/O primitives. It is also shown how this model can be extended so that the disk records entity histories, rather than simple clauses. This enables file systems to be constructed very naturally, and allows garbage collection of ''old'' knowledge
Memristive Perceptron for Combinational Logic Classification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lidan Wang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The resistance of the memristor depends upon the past history of the input current or voltage; so it can function as synapse in neural networks. In this paper, a novel perceptron combined with the memristor is proposed to implement the combinational logic classification. The relationship between the memristive conductance change and the synapse weight update is deduced, and the memristive perceptron model and its synaptic weight update rule are explored. The feasibility of the novel memristive perceptron for implementing the combinational logic classification (NAND, NOR, XOR, and NXOR is confirmed by MATLAB simulation.
Weakly Intuitionistic Quantum Logic
Hermens, Ronnie
2013-01-01
In this article von Neumann's proposal that in quantum mechanics projections can be seen as propositions is followed. However, the quantum logic derived by Birkhoff and von Neumann is rejected due to the failure of the law of distributivity. The options for constructing a distributive logic while
Kuusisto, Antti
2013-01-01
In recent years, research into the mathematical foundations of modal logic has become increasingly popular. One of the main reasons for this is the fact that modal logic seems to adapt well to the requirements of a wide range of different fields of application. This paper is a summary of some of the author’s contributions to the understanding of modal definability theory.
Cirstea, C.; Kurz, A.; Pattinson, D.; Schröder, L.; Venema, Y.
2011-01-01
Applications of modal logics are abundant in computer science, and a large number of structurally different modal logics have been successfully employed in a diverse spectrum of application contexts. Coalgebraic semantics, on the other hand, provides a uniform and encompassing view on the large
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Klarman, S
2013-05-01
Full Text Available We introduce Description Logics of Context (DLCs) - an extension of Description Logics (DLs) for context-based reasoning. Our approach descends from J. McCarthy's tradition of treating contexts as formal objects over which one can quantify...
Criteria for logical formalization
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Peregrin, Jaroslav; Svoboda, Vladimír
2013-01-01
Roč. 190, č. 14 (2013), s. 2897-2924 ISSN 0039-7857 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/10/1279 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : logic * logical form * formalization * reflective equilibrium Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.637, year: 2013
NEVEN, Frank
2002-01-01
We survey some recent developments in the broad area of automata and logic which are motivated by the advent of XML. In particular, we consider unranked tree automata, tree-walking automata, and automata over infinite alphabets. We focus on their connection with logic and on questions imposed by XML.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Evandro Agazzi
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Humans have used arguments for defending or refuting statements long before the creation of logic as a specialized discipline. This can be interpreted as the fact that an intuitive notion of "logical consequence" or a psychic disposition to articulate reasoning according to this pattern is present in common sense, and logic simply aims at describing and codifying the features of this spontaneous capacity of human reason. It is well known, however, that several arguments easily accepted by common sense are actually "logical fallacies", and this indicates that logic is not just a descriptive, but also a prescriptive or normative enterprise, in which the notion of logical consequence is defined in a precise way and then certain rules are established in order to maintain the discourse in keeping with this notion. Yet in the justification of the correctness and adequacy of these rules commonsense reasoning must necessarily be used, and in such a way its foundational role is recognized. Moreover, it remains also true that several branches and forms of logic have been elaborated precisely in order to reflect the structural features of correct argument used in different fields of human reasoning and yet insufficiently mirrored by the most familiar logical formalisms.
A. Ponse (Alban); M.B. van der Zwaag
2002-01-01
textabstractWe distinguish two interpretations for the truth value `undefined' in Kleene's three-valued logic. Combining these two interpretations leads to a four-valued propositional logic that characterizes two particular ingredients of process algebra: ``choice' and ``inaction'. We study two
Uckelman, S.L.
2009-01-01
The origins of treating agency as a modal concept go back at least to the 11th century when Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, provided a modal explication of the Latin facere ‘to do’, which can be formalized within the context of modern modal logic and neighborhood semantics. The agentive logic
Temporalized Epistemic Default Logic
van der Hoek, W.; Meyer, J.J.; Treur, J.; Gabbay, D.
2001-01-01
The nonmonotonic logic Epistemic Default Logic (EDL) [Meyer and van der Hoek, 1993] is based on the metaphore of a meta-level architecture. It has already been established [Meyer and van der Hoek, 1993] how upward reflection can be formalized by a nonmonotonic entailment based on epistemic states,
Lopez, Antonio M., Jr.
1989-01-01
Provides background material on logic programing and presents PROLOG as a high-level artificial intelligence programing language that borrows its basic constructs from logic. Suggests the language is one which will help the educator to achieve various goals, particularly the promotion of problem solving ability. (MVL)
W. van der Hoek (Wiebe); J.O.M. Jaspars; E. Thijsse
1995-01-01
textabstractWe propose an epistemic logic in which knowledge is fully introspective and implies truth, although truth need not imply epistemic possibility. The logic is presented in sequential format and is interpreted in a natural class of partial models, called balloon models. We examine the
Toward spin-based Magneto Logic Gate in Graphene
Wen, Hua; Dery, Hanan; Amamou, Walid; Zhu, Tiancong; Lin, Zhisheng; Shi, Jing; Zutic, Igor; Krivorotov, Ilya; Sham, Lu; Kawakami, Roland
Graphene has emerged as a leading candidate for spintronic applications due to its long spin diffusion length at room temperature. A universal magnetologic gate (MLG) based on spin transport in graphene has been recently proposed as the building block of a logic circuit which could replace the current CMOS technology. This MLG has five ferromagnetic electrodes contacting a graphene channel and can be considered as two three-terminal XOR logic gates. Here we demonstrate this XOR logic gate operation in such a device. This was achieved by systematically tuning the injection current bias to balance the spin polarization efficiency of the two inputs, and offset voltage in the detection circuit to obtain binary outputs. The output is a current which corresponds to different logic states: zero current is logic `0', and nonzero current is logic `1'. We find improved performance could be achieved by reducing device size and optimizing the contacts.
Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device
Hafiz, M. A. A.; Kosuru, L.; Younis, M. I.
2016-01-01
In modern computing, the Boolean logic operations are set by interconnect schemes between the transistors. As the miniaturization in the component level to enhance the computational power is rapidly approaching physical limits, alternative computing methods are vigorously pursued. One of the desired aspects in the future computing approaches is the provision for hardware reconfigurability at run time to allow enhanced functionality. Here we demonstrate a reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance frequency of the resonator operated at room temperature and under modest vacuum conditions, reprogrammable by the a.c.-driving frequency. The device is fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible mass fabrication process, suitable for on-chip integration, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme. PMID:27021295
Amplifying genetic logic gates.
Bonnet, Jerome; Yin, Peter; Ortiz, Monica E; Subsoontorn, Pakpoom; Endy, Drew
2013-05-03
Organisms must process information encoded via developmental and environmental signals to survive and reproduce. Researchers have also engineered synthetic genetic logic to realize simpler, independent control of biological processes. We developed a three-terminal device architecture, termed the transcriptor, that uses bacteriophage serine integrases to control the flow of RNA polymerase along DNA. Integrase-mediated inversion or deletion of DNA encoding transcription terminators or a promoter modulates transcription rates. We realized permanent amplifying AND, NAND, OR, XOR, NOR, and XNOR gates actuated across common control signal ranges and sequential logic supporting autonomous cell-cell communication of DNA encoding distinct logic-gate states. The single-layer digital logic architecture developed here enables engineering of amplifying logic gates to control transcription rates within and across diverse organisms.
Heterogeneous logics of competition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mossin, Christiane
2015-01-01
of competition are only realized as particular forms of social organization by virtue of interplaying with other kinds of logics, like legal logics. (2) Competition logics enjoy a peculiar status in-between constructedness and givenness; although competition depends on laws and mechanisms of socialization, we...... still experience competition as an expression of spontaneous human activities. On the basis of these perspectives, a study of fundamental rights of EU law, springing from the principle of ‘free movement of people’, is conducted. The first part of the empirical analysis seeks to detect the presence...... of a presumed logic of competition within EU law, whereas the second part focuses on particular legal logics. In this respect, the so-called ‘real link criterion’ (determining the access to transnational social rights for certain groups of unemployed people) is given special attention. What is particularly...
Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device
Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al
2016-03-29
In modern computing, the Boolean logic operations are set by interconnect schemes between the transistors. As the miniaturization in the component level to enhance the computational power is rapidly approaching physical limits, alternative computing methods are vigorously pursued. One of the desired aspects in the future computing approaches is the provision for hardware reconfigurability at run time to allow enhanced functionality. Here we demonstrate a reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance frequency of the resonator operated at room temperature and under modest vacuum conditions, reprogrammable by the a.c.-driving frequency. The device is fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible mass fabrication process, suitable for on-chip integration, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme.
Explicit logic circuits discriminate neural states.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lane Yoder
Full Text Available The magnitude and apparent complexity of the brain's connectivity have left explicit networks largely unexplored. As a result, the relationship between the organization of synaptic connections and how the brain processes information is poorly understood. A recently proposed retinal network that produces neural correlates of color vision is refined and extended here to a family of general logic circuits. For any combination of high and low activity in any set of neurons, one of the logic circuits can receive input from the neurons and activate a single output neuron whenever the input neurons have the given activity state. The strength of the output neuron's response is a measure of the difference between the smallest of the high inputs and the largest of the low inputs. The networks generate correlates of known psychophysical phenomena. These results follow directly from the most cost-effective architectures for specific logic circuits and the minimal cellular capabilities of excitation and inhibition. The networks function dynamically, making their operation consistent with the speed of most brain functions. The networks show that well-known psychophysical phenomena do not require extraordinarily complex brain structures, and that a single network architecture can produce apparently disparate phenomena in different sensory systems.
Reliability concerns with logical constants in Xilinx FPGA designs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Quinn, Heather M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Graham, Paul [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morgan, Keith [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ostler, Patrick [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Allen, Greg [JPL; Swift, Gary [XILINX; Tseng, Chen W [XILINX
2009-01-01
In Xilinx Field Programmable Gate Arrays logical constants, which ground unused inputs and provide constants for designs, are implemented in SEU-susceptible logic. In the past, these logical constants have been shown to cause the user circuit to output bad data and were not resetable through off-line rcconfiguration. In the more recent devices, logical constants are less problematic, though mitigation should still be considered for high reliability applications. In conclusion, we have presented a number of reliability concerns with logical constants in the Xilinx Virtex family. There are two main categories of logical constants: implicit and explicit logical constants. In all of the Virtex devices, the implicit logical constants are implemented using half latches, which in the most recent devices are several orders of magnitudes smaller than configuration bit cells. Explicit logical constants are implemented exclusively using constant LUTs in the Virtex-I and Virtex-II, and use a combination of constant LUTs and architectural posts to the ground plane in the Virtex-4. We have also presented mitigation methods and options for these devices. While SEUs in implicit and some types of explicit logical constants can cause data corrupt, the chance of failure from these components is now much smaller than it was in the Virtex-I device. Therefore, for many cases, mitigation might not be necessary, except under extremely high reliability situations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mittelstaedt, P.
1983-01-01
on the basis of the well-known quantum logic and quantum probability a formal language of relativistic quantum physics is developed. This language incorporates quantum logical as well as relativistic restrictions. It is shown that relativity imposes serious restrictions on the validity regions of propositions in space-time. By an additional postulate this relativistic quantum logic can be made consistent. The results of this paper are derived exclusively within the formal quantum language; they are, however, in accordance with well-known facts of relativistic quantum physics in Hilbert space. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Finkelstein, D.
1987-01-01
The von Neumann quantum logic lacks two basic symmetries of classical logic, that between sets and classes, and that between lower and higher order predicates. Similarly, the structural parallel between the set algebra and linear algebra of Grassmann and Peano was left incomplete by them in two respects. In this work a linear algebra is constructed that completes this correspondence and is interpreted as a new quantum logic that restores these invariances, and as a quantum set theory. It applies to experiments with coherent quantum phase relations between the quantum and the apparatus. The quantum set theory is applied to model a Lorentz-invariant quantum time-space complex
Logical inference and evaluation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perey, F.G.
1981-01-01
Most methodologies of evaluation currently used are based upon the theory of statistical inference. It is generally perceived that this theory is not capable of dealing satisfactorily with what are called systematic errors. Theories of logical inference should be capable of treating all of the information available, including that not involving frequency data. A theory of logical inference is presented as an extension of deductive logic via the concept of plausibility and the application of group theory. Some conclusions, based upon the application of this theory to evaluation of data, are also given
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Filipiuk, Piotr; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis
2012-01-01
We present a logic for the specification of static analysis problems that goes beyond the logics traditionally used. Its most prominent feature is the direct support for both inductive computations of behaviors as well as co-inductive specifications of properties. Two main theoretical contributions...... are a Moore Family result and a parametrized worst case time complexity result. We show that the logic and the associated solver can be used for rapid prototyping of analyses and illustrate a wide variety of applications within Static Analysis, Constraint Satisfaction Problems and Model Checking. In all cases...
Fisher, Michael; Gabbay, Dov; Gough, Graham
2000-01-01
Time is a fascinating subject that has captured mankind's imagination from ancient times to the present. It has been, and continues to be studied across a wide range of disciplines, from the natural sciences to philosophy and logic. More than two decades ago, Pnueli in a seminal work showed the value of temporal logic in the specification and verification of computer programs. Today, a strong, vibrant international research community exists in the broad community of computer science and AI. This volume presents a number of articles from leading researchers containing state-of-the-art results in such areas as pure temporal/modal logic, specification and verification, temporal databases, temporal aspects in AI, tense and aspect in natural language, and temporal theorem proving. Earlier versions of some of the articles were given at the most recent International Conference on Temporal Logic, University of Manchester, UK. Readership: Any student of the area - postgraduate, postdoctoral or even research professor ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Gierasimczuk, Nina; de Jong, Dick
2014-01-01
Learning and learnability have been long standing topics of interests within the linguistic, computational, and epistemological accounts of inductive in- ference. Johan van Benthem’s vision of the “dynamic turn” has not only brought renewed life to research agendas in logic as the study of inform......Learning and learnability have been long standing topics of interests within the linguistic, computational, and epistemological accounts of inductive in- ference. Johan van Benthem’s vision of the “dynamic turn” has not only brought renewed life to research agendas in logic as the study...... of information processing, but likewise helped bring logic and learning in close proximity. This proximity relation is examined with respect to learning and belief revision, updating and efficiency, and with respect to how learnability fits in the greater scheme of dynamic epistemic logic and scientific method....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khitun, Alexander; Bao Mingqiang; Wang, Kang L
2010-01-01
We describe and analyse possible approaches to magnonic logic circuits and basic elements required for circuit construction. A distinctive feature of the magnonic circuitry is that information is transmitted by spin waves propagating in the magnetic waveguides without the use of electric current. The latter makes it possible to exploit spin wave phenomena for more efficient data transfer and enhanced logic functionality. We describe possible schemes for general computing and special task data processing. The functional throughput of the magnonic logic gates is estimated and compared with the conventional transistor-based approach. Magnonic logic circuits allow scaling down to the deep submicrometre range and THz frequency operation. The scaling is in favour of the magnonic circuits offering a significant functional advantage over the traditional approach. The disadvantages and problems of the spin wave devices are also discussed.
Parametric Analysis of Flexible Logic Control Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lihua Fu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Based on deep analysis about the essential relation between two input variables of normal two-dimensional fuzzy controller, we used universal combinatorial operation model to describe the logic relationship and gave a flexible logic control method to realize the effective control for complex system. In practical control application, how to determine the general correlation coefficient of flexible logic control model is a problem for further studies. First, the conventional universal combinatorial operation model has been limited in the interval [0,1]. Consequently, this paper studies a kind of universal combinatorial operation model based on the interval [a,b]. And some important theorems are given and proved, which provide a foundation for the flexible logic control method. For dealing reasonably with the complex relations of every factor in complex system, a kind of universal combinatorial operation model with unequal weights is put forward. Then, this paper has carried out the parametric analysis of flexible logic control model. And some research results have been given, which have important directive to determine the values of the general correlation coefficients in practical control application.
Characterization of quantum logics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lahti, P.J.
1980-01-01
The quantum logic approach to axiomatic quantum mechanics is used to analyze the conceptual foundations of the traditional quantum theory. The universal quantum of action h>0 is incorporated into the theory by introducing the uncertainty principle, the complementarity principle, and the superposition principle into the framework. A characterization of those quantum logics (L,S) which may provide quantum descriptions is then given. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer
1999-01-01
Conceptual spaces have been proposed as topological or geometric means for establishing conceptual structures and models. This paper, after briey reviewing conceptual spaces, focusses on the relationship between conceptual spaces and logical concept languages with operations for combining concepts...... to form concepts. Speci cally is introduced an algebraic concept logic, for which conceptual spaces are installed as semantic domain as replacement for, or enrichment of, the traditional....
Molecular sensors and molecular logic gates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Georgiev, N.; Bojinov, V.
2013-01-01
Full text: The rapid grow of nanotechnology field extended the concept of a macroscopic device to the molecular level. Because of this reason the design and synthesis of (supra)-molecular species capable of mimicking the functions of macroscopic devices are currently of great interest. Molecular devices operate via electronic and/or nuclear rearrangements and, like macroscopic devices, need energy to operate and communicate between their elements. The energy needed to make a device work can be supplied as chemical energy, electrical energy, or light. Luminescence is one of the most useful techniques to monitor the operation of molecular-level devices. This fact determinates the synthesis of novel fluorescence compounds as a considerable and inseparable part of nanoscience development. Further miniaturization of semiconductors in electronic field reaches their limit. Therefore the design and construction of molecular systems capable of performing complex logic functions is of great scientific interest now. In semiconductor devices the logic gates work using binary logic, where the signals are encoded as 0 and 1 (low and high current). This process is executable on molecular level by several ways, but the most common are based on the optical properties of the molecule switches encoding the low and high concentrations of the input guest molecules and the output fluorescent intensities with binary 0 and 1 respectively. The first proposal to execute logic operations at the molecular level was made in 1988, but the field developed only five years later when the analogy between molecular switches and logic gates was experimentally demonstrated by de Silva. There are seven basic logic gates: AND, OR, XOR, NOT, NAND, NOR and XNOR and all of them were achieved by molecules, the fluorescence switching as well. key words: fluorescence, molecular sensors, molecular logic gates
Logic circuits from zero forcing.
Burgarth, Daniel; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Hogben, Leslie; Severini, Simone; Young, Michael
We design logic circuits based on the notion of zero forcing on graphs; each gate of the circuits is a gadget in which zero forcing is performed. We show that such circuits can evaluate every monotone Boolean function. By using two vertices to encode each logical bit, we obtain universal computation. We also highlight a phenomenon of "back forcing" as a property of each function. Such a phenomenon occurs in a circuit when the input of gates which have been already used at a given time step is further modified by a computation actually performed at a later stage. Finally, we show that zero forcing can be also used to implement reversible computation. The model introduced here provides a potentially new tool in the analysis of Boolean functions, with particular attention to monotonicity. Moreover, in the light of applications of zero forcing in quantum mechanics, the link with Boolean functions may suggest a new directions in quantum control theory and in the study of engineered quantum spin systems. It is an open technical problem to verify whether there is a link between zero forcing and computation with contact circuits.
Moral Particularism and Deontic Logic
Parent, Xavier
The aim of this paper is to strengthen the point made by Horty about the relationship between reason holism and moral particularism. In the literature prima facie obligations have been considered as the only source of reason holism. I strengthen Horty's point in two ways. First, I show that contrary-to-duties provide another independent support for reason holism. Next I outline a formal theory that is able to capture these two sources of holism. While in simple settings the proposed account coincides with Horty's one, this is not true in more complicated or "realistic" settings in which more than two norms collide. My chosen formalism is so-called input/output logic.
Extending Value Logic Thinking to Value Logic Portfolios
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Poul Houman; Ritter, Thomas
2014-01-01
Based on value creation logic theory (Stabell & Fjeldstad, 1998), this paper suggests an extension of the original Stabell & Fjeldstad model by an additional fourth value logic, the value system logic. Furthermore, instead of only allowing one dominant value creation logic for a given firm...... or transaction, an understanding of firms and transactions as a portfolio of value logics (i.e. an interconnected coexistence of different value creation logics) is proposed. These additions to the original value creation logic theory imply interesting avenues for both, strategic decision making in firms...
Towards a Formal Occurrence Logic based on Predicate Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Badie, Farshad; Götzsche, Hans
2015-01-01
In this discussion we will concentrate on the main characteristics of an alternative kind of logic invented by Hans Götzsche: Occurrence Logic, which is not based on truth functionality. Our approach is based on temporal logic developed and elaborated by A. N. Prior. We will focus on characterising...... argumentation based on formal Occurrence Logic concerning events and occurrences, and illustrate the relations between Predicate Logic and Occurrence Logic. The relationships (and dependencies) is conducive to an approach that can analyse the occurrences of ”logical statements based on different logical...... principles” in different moments. We will also conclude that the elaborated Götzsche’s Occurrence Logic could be able to direct us to a truth-functional independent computer-based logic for analysing argumentation based on events and occurrences....
Modern logic and quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garden, R.W.
1984-01-01
The book applies the methods of modern logic and probabilities to ''interpreting'' quantum mechanics. The subject is described and discussed under the chapter headings: classical and quantum mechanics, modern logic, the propositional logic of mechanics, states and measurement in mechanics, the traditional analysis of probabilities, the probabilities of mechanics and the model logic of predictions. (U.K.)
Semantic theory for logic programming
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brown, F M
1981-01-01
The author axiomatizes a number of meta theoretic concepts which have been used in logic programming, including: meaning, logical truth, nonentailment, assertion and erasure, thus showing that these concepts are logical in nature and need not be defined as they have previously been defined in terms of the operations of any particular interpreter for logic programs. 10 references.
Relational Parametricity and Separation Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Birkedal, Lars; Yang, Hongseok
2008-01-01
Separation logic is a recent extension of Hoare logic for reasoning about programs with references to shared mutable data structures. In this paper, we provide a new interpretation of the logic for a programming language with higher types. Our interpretation is based on Reynolds's relational...... parametricity, and it provides a formal connection between separation logic and data abstraction. Udgivelsesdato: 2008...
Prospects of luminescence based molecular scale logic gates and logic circuits
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Speiser, Shammai, E-mail: speiser@technion.ac.il
2016-01-15
In recent years molecular electronics has emerged as a rapidly growing research field. The aim of this review is to introduce this subject as a whole with special emphasis on molecular scale potential devices and applications. As a particular example we will discuss all optical molecular scale logic gates and logic circuits based on molecular fluorescence and electronic excitation transfer processes. Charge and electronic energy transfers (ET and EET) are well-studied examples whereby different molecules can signal their state from one (the donor, D) to the other (the acceptor, A). We show how a half-adder logic circuit can be implemented on one molecule that can communicate its logic output as input to another half-adder molecule. This is achieved as an electronic energy transfer from a donor to an acceptor, thus implementing a molecular full adder. We discuss a specific pair, the rhodamine–azulene, for which there is considerable spectroscopic data, but the scheme is general enough to allow a wide choice of D and A pairs. We present results based on this pair, in which, for the first time, an all optical half-adder and full-adder logic circuits are implemented. - Highlights: • Molecular scale logic • Photoquenching • Full adder.
Prospects of luminescence based molecular scale logic gates and logic circuits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Speiser, Shammai
2016-01-01
In recent years molecular electronics has emerged as a rapidly growing research field. The aim of this review is to introduce this subject as a whole with special emphasis on molecular scale potential devices and applications. As a particular example we will discuss all optical molecular scale logic gates and logic circuits based on molecular fluorescence and electronic excitation transfer processes. Charge and electronic energy transfers (ET and EET) are well-studied examples whereby different molecules can signal their state from one (the donor, D) to the other (the acceptor, A). We show how a half-adder logic circuit can be implemented on one molecule that can communicate its logic output as input to another half-adder molecule. This is achieved as an electronic energy transfer from a donor to an acceptor, thus implementing a molecular full adder. We discuss a specific pair, the rhodamine–azulene, for which there is considerable spectroscopic data, but the scheme is general enough to allow a wide choice of D and A pairs. We present results based on this pair, in which, for the first time, an all optical half-adder and full-adder logic circuits are implemented. - Highlights: • Molecular scale logic • Photoquenching • Full adder
Orbach, Ron; Remacle, Françoise; Levine, R D; Willner, Itamar
2012-12-26
The Toffoli and Fredkin gates were suggested as a means to exhibit logic reversibility and thereby reduce energy dissipation associated with logic operations in dense computing circuits. We present a construction of the logically reversible Toffoli and Fredkin gates by implementing a library of predesigned Mg(2+)-dependent DNAzymes and their respective substrates. Although the logical reversibility, for which each set of inputs uniquely correlates to a set of outputs, is demonstrated, the systems manifest thermodynamic irreversibility originating from two quite distinct and nonrelated phenomena. (i) The physical readout of the gates is by fluorescence that depletes the population of the final state of the machine. This irreversible, heat-releasing process is needed for the generation of the output. (ii) The DNAzyme-powered logic gates are made to operate at a finite rate by invoking downhill energy-releasing processes. Even though the three bits of Toffoli's and Fredkin's logically reversible gates manifest thermodynamic irreversibility, we suggest that these gates could have important practical implication in future nanomedicine.
Non-logic devices in logic processes
Ma, Yanjun
2017-01-01
This book shows readers how to design semiconductor devices using the most common and lowest cost logic CMOS processes. Readers will benefit from the author’s extensive, industrial experience and the practical approach he describes for designing efficiently semiconductor devices that typically have to be implemented using specialized processes that are expensive, time-consuming, and low-yield. The author presents an integrated picture of semiconductor device physics and manufacturing techniques, as well as numerous practical examples of device designs that are tried and true.
Design of synthetic biological logic circuits based on evolutionary algorithm.
Chuang, Chia-Hua; Lin, Chun-Liang; Chang, Yen-Chang; Jennawasin, Tanagorn; Chen, Po-Kuei
2013-08-01
The construction of an artificial biological logic circuit using systematic strategy is recognised as one of the most important topics for the development of synthetic biology. In this study, a real-structured genetic algorithm (RSGA), which combines general advantages of the traditional real genetic algorithm with those of the structured genetic algorithm, is proposed to deal with the biological logic circuit design problem. A general model with the cis-regulatory input function and appropriate promoter activity functions is proposed to synthesise a wide variety of fundamental logic gates such as NOT, Buffer, AND, OR, NAND, NOR and XOR. The results obtained can be extended to synthesise advanced combinational and sequential logic circuits by topologically distinct connections. The resulting optimal design of these logic gates and circuits are established via the RSGA. The in silico computer-based modelling technology has been verified showing its great advantages in the purpose.
Rushton, Andrew
2011-01-01
Many engineers encountering VHDL (very high speed integrated circuits hardware description language) for the first time can feel overwhelmed by it. This book bridges the gap between the VHDL language and the hardware that results from logic synthesis with clear organisation, progressing from the basics of combinational logic, types, and operators; through special structures such as tristate buses, register banks and memories, to advanced themes such as developing your own packages, writing test benches and using the full range of synthesis types. This third edition has been substantially rewritten to include the new VHDL-2008 features that enable synthesis of fixed-point and floating-point hardware. Extensively updated throughout to reflect modern logic synthesis usage, it also contains a complete case study to demonstrate the updated features. Features to this edition include: * a common VHDL subset which will work across a range of different synthesis systems, targeting a very wide range of technologies...
Carlsson, Christer; Fullér, Robert
2004-01-01
Fuzzy Logic in Management demonstrates that difficult problems and changes in the management environment can be more easily handled by bringing fuzzy logic into the practice of management. This explicit theme is developed through the book as follows: Chapter 1, "Management and Intelligent Support Technologies", is a short survey of management leadership and what can be gained from support technologies. Chapter 2, "Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic", provides a short introduction to fuzzy sets, fuzzy relations, the extension principle, fuzzy implications and linguistic variables. Chapter 3, "Group Decision Support Systems", deals with group decision making, and discusses methods for supporting the consensus reaching processes. Chapter 4, "Fuzzy Real Options for Strategic Planning", summarizes research where the fuzzy real options theory was implemented as a series of models. These models were thoroughly tested on a number of real life investments, and validated in 2001. Chapter 5, "Soft Computing Methods for Reducing...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mardare, Radu Iulian; Cardelli, Luca; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand
2012-01-01
Continuous Markovian Logic (CML) is a multimodal logic that expresses quantitative and qualitative properties of continuous-time labelled Markov processes with arbitrary (analytic) state-spaces, henceforth called continuous Markov processes (CMPs). The modalities of CML evaluate the rates...... of the exponentially distributed random variables that characterize the duration of the labeled transitions of a CMP. In this paper we present weak and strong complete axiomatizations for CML and prove a series of metaproperties, including the finite model property and the construction of canonical models. CML...... characterizes stochastic bisimilarity and it supports the definition of a quantified extension of the satisfiability relation that measures the "compatibility" between a model and a property. In this context, the metaproperties allows us to prove two robustness theorems for the logic stating that one can...
Claude Ziad Bayeh
2015-01-01
The “Manual Logic Controller” also called MLC, is an electronic circuit invented and designed by the author in 2008, in order to replace the well known PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) in many applications for its advantages and its low cost of fabrication. The function of the MLC is somewhat similar to the well known PLC, but instead of doing it by inserting a written program into the PLC using a computer or specific software inside the PLC, it will be manually programmed in a manner to h...
Stoll, Robert R
1979-01-01
Set Theory and Logic is the result of a course of lectures for advanced undergraduates, developed at Oberlin College for the purpose of introducing students to the conceptual foundations of mathematics. Mathematics, specifically the real number system, is approached as a unity whose operations can be logically ordered through axioms. One of the most complex and essential of modern mathematical innovations, the theory of sets (crucial to quantum mechanics and other sciences), is introduced in a most careful concept manner, aiming for the maximum in clarity and stimulation for further study in
Introduction to mathematical logic
Mendelson, Elliott
2009-01-01
The Propositional CalculusPropositional Connectives. Truth TablesTautologies Adequate Sets of Connectives An Axiom System for the Propositional Calculus Independence. Many-Valued LogicsOther AxiomatizationsFirst-Order Logic and Model TheoryQuantifiersFirst-Order Languages and Their Interpretations. Satisfiability and Truth. ModelsFirst-Order TheoriesProperties of First-Order Theories Additional Metatheorems and Derived Rules Rule C Completeness Theorems First-Order Theories with EqualityDefinitions of New Function Letters and Individual Constants Prenex Normal Forms Isomorphism of Interpretati
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramli, Carroline Dewi Puspa Kencana; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming
2011-01-01
We study the international standard XACML 3.0 for describing security access control policy in a compositional way. Our main contribution is to derive a logic that precisely captures the idea behind the standard and to formally define the semantics of the policy combining algorithms of XACML....... To guard against modelling artefacts we provide an alternative way of characterizing the policy combining algorithms and we formally prove the equivalence of these approaches. This allows us to pinpoint the shortcoming of previous approaches to formalization based either on Belnap logic or on D -algebra....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yun, Gil Jung; Yang, Hong Young
2011-03-15
This book is about digital logic circuit test, which lists the digital basic theory, basic gate like and, or And Not gate, NAND/NOR gate such as NAND gate, NOR gate, AND and OR, logic function, EX-OR gate, adder and subtractor, decoder and encoder, multiplexer, demultiplexer, flip-flop, counter such as up/down counter modulus N counter and Reset type counter, shift register, D/A and A/D converter and two supplements list of using components and TTL manual and CMOS manual.
Gibson, J
2013-01-01
Most branches of organizing utilize digital electronic systems. This book introduces the design of such systems using basic logic elements as the components. The material is presented in a straightforward manner suitable for students of electronic engineering and computer science. The book is also of use to engineers in related disciplines who require a clear introduction to logic circuits. This third edition has been revised to encompass the most recent advances in technology as well as the latest trends in components and notation. It includes a wide coverage of application specific integrate
Evens, Aden
2015-01-01
Building a foundational understanding of the digital, Logic of the Digital reveals a unique digital ontology. Beginning from formal and technical characteristics, especially the binary code at the core of all digital technologies, Aden Evens traces the pathways along which the digital domain of abstract logic encounters the material, human world. How does a code using only 0s and 1s give rise to the vast range of applications and information that constitutes a great and growing portion of our world? Evens' analysis shows how any encounter between the actual and the digital must cross an ontolo
Programmable Array Logic Design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Demon Handoyo; Djen Djen Djainal
2007-01-01
Good digital circuit design that part of a complex system, often becoming a separate problem. To produce finishing design according to wanted performance is often given on to considerations which each other confuse, hence thereby analyse optimization become important in this case. To realization is made design logic program, the first are determined global diagram block, then are decided contents of these block diagram, and then determined its interconnection in the form of logic expression, continued with election of component. These steps are done to be obtained the design with low price, easy in its interconnection, minimal volume, low power and certainty god work. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vester, Steen
2015-01-01
We study the complexity of the model-checking problem for the branching-time logic CTL ∗ and the alternating-time temporal logics ATL/ATL ∗ in one-counter processes and one-counter games respectively. The complexity is determined for all three logics when integer weights are input in unary (non...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan Sen-Lin
2014-01-01
The parallel synchronization of three chaotic lasers is used to emulate optoelectronic logic NOR and XNOR gates via modulating the light and the current. We deduce a logical computational equation that governs the chaotic synchronization, logical input, and logical output. We construct fundamental gates based on the three chaotic lasers and define the computational principle depending on the parallel synchronization. The logic gate can be implemented by appropriately synchronizing two chaotic lasers. The system shows practicability and flexibility because it can emulate synchronously an XNOR gate, two NOR gates, and so on. The synchronization can still be deteceted when mismatches exist with a certain range. (general)
Quantum logics with existence property
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schindler, C.
1991-01-01
A quantum logic (σ-orthocomplete orthomodular poset L with a convex, unital, and separating set Δ of states) is said to have the existence property if the expectation functionals on lin(Δ) associated with the bounded observables of L form a vector space. Classical quantum logics as well as the Hilbert space logics of traditional quantum mechanics have this property. The author shows that, if a quantum logic satisfies certain conditions in addition to having property E, then the number of its blocks (maximal classical subsystems) must either be one (classical logics) or uncountable (as in Hilbert space logics)
GOAL Agents Instantiate Intention Logic
Hindriks, Koen; van der Hoek, Wiebe
2008-01-01
It is commonly believed there is a big gap between agent logics and computational agent frameworks. In this paper, we show that this gap is not as big as believed by showing that GOAL agents instantiate Intention Logic of Cohen and Levesque. That is, we show that GOAL agent programs can be formally related to Intention Logic.We do so by proving that the GOAL Verification Logic can be embedded into Intention Logic. It follows that (a fragment of) Intention Logic can be used t...
Querying Natural Logic Knowledge Bases
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik; Jensen, Per Anker
2017-01-01
This paper describes the principles of a system applying natural logic as a knowledge base language. Natural logics are regimented fragments of natural language employing high level inference rules. We advocate the use of natural logic for knowledge bases dealing with querying of classes...... in ontologies and class-relationships such as are common in life-science descriptions. The paper adopts a version of natural logic with recursive restrictive clauses such as relative clauses and adnominal prepositional phrases. It includes passive as well as active voice sentences. We outline a prototype...... for partial translation of natural language into natural logic, featuring further querying and conceptual path finding in natural logic knowledge bases....
A Program Transformation for Backwards Analysis of Logic Programs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gallagher, John Patrick
2003-01-01
The input to backwards analysis is a program together with properties that are required to hold at given program points. The purpose of the analysis is to derive initial goals or pre-conditions that guarantee that, when the program is executed, the given properties hold. The solution for logic...... programs presented here is based on a transformation of the input program, which makes explicit the dependencies of the given program points on the initial goals. The transformation is derived from the resultants semantics of logic programs. The transformed program is then analysed using a standard...
Some relationships between logic programming and multiple-valued logic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rine, D.C.
1986-01-01
There have been suggestions in the artificial intelligence literature that investigations into relationships between logic programming and multiple-valued logic may be helpful. This paper presents some of these relationships through equivalent algebraic evaluations
Integrated plant automation using programmable logic controllers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qureshi, S.A.
2002-01-01
In the world of automation the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) has became for control. It now not only replaces the earlier relay logic controls but also has taken over many additional control functions. Initially the PLC was used to replace relay logic, but is ever-increasing range of functions means that it is found in many and more complex applications. As the structure of the PLC is based on the same principles as those employed in computer architecture, it is capable of performance not only relay switching tasks, but also other applications such as counting, calculating, comparing and the processing of analogue signals. Due to the simplicity of entering and modifying the programmed instructions to suit the requirements of the process under control, the PLC is truly a versatile and flexible device that can be employed easily and efficiently to repeatedly control tasks that vary in nature and complexes. A photograph of the Siemens S-5 95U. To illustrate the advantage of using a PLC over a traditional relay logic system, consider a control system with 20 input/output points. This assembly could comprise 60-80 relays, some counter/timers and a great deal of wiring. This assembly would be cumbersome with a power consumption of 30-40VA. A considerable time would be required to design, test and commission the assembly and once it is in full working order any desired modification, even of minor nature, could require major hardware changes. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramli, Carroline Dewi Puspa Kencana; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming
2014-01-01
We study the international standard XACML 3.0 for describing security access control policies in a compositional way. Our main contributions are (i) to derive a logic that precisely captures the intentions of the standard, (ii) to formally define a semantics for the XACML 3.0 component evaluation...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramli, Carroline Dewi Puspa Kencana; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming
2011-01-01
We study the international standard XACML 3.0 for describing security access control policy in a compositional way. Our main contribution is to derive a logic that precisely captures the idea behind the standard and to formally define the semantics of the policy combining algorithms of XACML...
Klev, Ansten Morch
2014-01-01
The notions of category and type are here studied through the lens of logical syntax: Aristotle's as well as Kant's categories through the traditional form of proposition `S is P', and modern doctrines of type through the Fregean form of proposition `F(a)', function applied to argument. Topics
Structures for Epistemic Logic
Bezhanishvili, N.; Hoek, W. van der
2013-01-01
Epistemic modal logic in a narrow sense studies and formalises reasoning about knowledge. In a wider sense, it gives a formal account of the informational attitude that agents may have, and covers notions like knowledge, belief, uncertainty, and hence incomplete or partial information. As is so
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Øhrstrøm, Peter
2009-01-01
's notion of branching time is analysed. It is argued that Prior can be criticized for identifying 'plain future'. Finally, Prior's four grades of tense-logical involvement are introduced and discussed. It is argued that the third grade is the most attractive form a philosophical point of view....
Expressivist Perspective on Logicality
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Arazim, Pavel
2017-01-01
Roč. 11, č. 4 (2017), s. 409-419 ISSN 1661-8297 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-15645S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : logical constant * expressivism * topic-neutrality * proof- theory * conservativity Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Philosophy, History and Philosophy of science and technology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jonas Buhrkal; Birkedal, Lars
2012-01-01
, separation means physical separation. In this paper, we introduce \\emph{fictional separation logic}, which includes more general forms of fictional separating conjunctions P * Q, where "*" does not require physical separation, but may also be used in situations where the memory resources described by P and Q...
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Klev, Ansten
2017-01-01
Roč. 25, č. 3 (2017), s. 341-368 ISSN 0031-8019 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Philosophy of mathematics * logicism * Richard Dedekind Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Philosophy, History and Philosophy of science and technology Impact factor: 0.419, year: 2016
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Klose, Karl; Ostermann, Klaus
2010-01-01
In logic metaprogramming, programs are not stored as plain textfiles but rather derived from a deductive database. While the benefits of this approach for metaprogramming are obvious, its incompatibility with separate checking limits its applicability to large-scale projects. We analyze the probl...
LOGICAL SEMANTICS OF MODULARIZATION
DELAVALETTE, GRR
1992-01-01
An algebra of theories, signatures, renamings and the operations import and export is investigated. A normal form theorem for terms of this algebra is proved. Another algebraic approach and the relation with a fragment of second order logic are also considered.
Duration Calculus: Logical Foundations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Michael Reichhardt; Chaochen, Zhou
1997-01-01
The Duration Calculus (abbreviated DC) represents a logical approach to formal design of real-time systems, where real numbers are used to model time and Boolean valued functions over time are used to model states and events of real-time systems. Since it introduction, DC has been applied to many...
Logicism, intuitionism, and formalism
Symons, John
2008-01-01
Aims to review the programmes in the foundations of mathematics from the classical period and to assess their possible relevance for contemporary philosophy of mathematics. This work is suitable for researchers and graduate students of philosophy, logic, mathematics and theoretical computer science.
Foundations of mathematical logic
Curry, Haskell B
2010-01-01
Written by a pioneer of mathematical logic, this comprehensive graduate-level text explores the constructive theory of first-order predicate calculus. It covers formal methods, including algorithms and epitheory, and offers a brief treatment of Markov's approach to algorithms, explains elementary facts about lattices and similar algebraic systems, and more. 1963 edition.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Svoboda, Vladimír; Peregrin, Jaroslav
2016-01-01
Roč. 30, č. 3 (2016), s. 263-287 ISSN 0920-427X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-21076S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : argumentation * logical form * incorrect argument * correct arguments Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.689, year: 2016
Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.
2010-01-01
Short-circuit evaluation denotes the semantics of propositional connectives in which the second argument is only evaluated if the first argument does not suffice to determine the value of the expression. In programming, short-circuit evaluation is widely used. A short-circuit logic is a variant of
Parametric Linear Dynamic Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Faymonville
2014-08-01
Full Text Available We introduce Parametric Linear Dynamic Logic (PLDL, which extends Linear Dynamic Logic (LDL by temporal operators equipped with parameters that bound their scope. LDL was proposed as an extension of Linear Temporal Logic (LTL that is able to express all ω-regular specifications while still maintaining many of LTL's desirable properties like an intuitive syntax and a translation into non-deterministic Büchi automata of exponential size. But LDL lacks capabilities to express timing constraints. By adding parameterized operators to LDL, we obtain a logic that is able to express all ω-regular properties and that subsumes parameterized extensions of LTL like Parametric LTL and PROMPT-LTL. Our main technical contribution is a translation of PLDL formulas into non-deterministic Büchi word automata of exponential size via alternating automata. This yields a PSPACE model checking algorithm and a realizability algorithm with doubly-exponential running time. Furthermore, we give tight upper and lower bounds on optimal parameter values for both problems. These results show that PLDL model checking and realizability are not harder than LTL model checking and realizability.
Temporal logic motion planning
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Seotsanyana, M
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a critical review on temporal logic motion planning is presented. The review paper aims to address the following problems: (a) In a realistic situation, the motion planning problem is carried out in real-time, in a dynamic, uncertain...
Logic Programming for Linguistics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Henning
2010-01-01
This article gives a short introduction on how to get started with logic pro- gramming in Prolog that does not require any previous programming expe- rience. The presentation is aimed at students of linguistics, but it does not go deeper into linguistics than any student who has some ideas of what...
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Peregrin, Jaroslav
2010-01-01
Roč. 4, č. 2 (2010), s. 207-223 ISSN 1661-8297 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/10/1279 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z9009908 Keywords : logic * natural selection * modus potens * inferentialism Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion
Quantum probabilistic logic programming
Balu, Radhakrishnan
2015-05-01
We describe a quantum mechanics based logic programming language that supports Horn clauses, random variables, and covariance matrices to express and solve problems in probabilistic logic. The Horn clauses of the language wrap random variables, including infinite valued, to express probability distributions and statistical correlations, a powerful feature to capture relationship between distributions that are not independent. The expressive power of the language is based on a mechanism to implement statistical ensembles and to solve the underlying SAT instances using quantum mechanical machinery. We exploit the fact that classical random variables have quantum decompositions to build the Horn clauses. We establish the semantics of the language in a rigorous fashion by considering an existing probabilistic logic language called PRISM with classical probability measures defined on the Herbrand base and extending it to the quantum context. In the classical case H-interpretations form the sample space and probability measures defined on them lead to consistent definition of probabilities for well formed formulae. In the quantum counterpart, we define probability amplitudes on Hinterpretations facilitating the model generations and verifications via quantum mechanical superpositions and entanglements. We cast the well formed formulae of the language as quantum mechanical observables thus providing an elegant interpretation for their probabilities. We discuss several examples to combine statistical ensembles and predicates of first order logic to reason with situations involving uncertainty.
Temporalizing Epistemic Default Logic
van der Hoek, Wiebe; Meyer, John Jules; Treur, Jan
1998-01-01
We present an epistemic default logic, based on the metaphore of a meta-level architecture. Upward reflection is formalized by a nonmonotonic entailment relation, based on the objective facts that are either known or unknown at the object level. Then, the meta (monotonic) reasoning process generates
Logic Programming with Requests
De Schreye, Danny; Etalle, Sandro; van Raamsdonk, Femke
1999-01-01
We propose an extension of logic programming where the user can specify, together with the initial query, the information he is interested in by means of a request. This allows one to extract a result from an incomplete computation, such as the prefix of an infinite derivation. The classical
Multi-valued logic gates based on ballistic transport in quantum point contacts.
Seo, M; Hong, C; Lee, S-Y; Choi, H K; Kim, N; Chung, Y; Umansky, V; Mahalu, D
2014-01-22
Multi-valued logic gates, which can handle quaternary numbers as inputs, are developed by exploiting the ballistic transport properties of quantum point contacts in series. The principle of a logic gate that finds the minimum of two quaternary number inputs is demonstrated. The device is scalable to allow multiple inputs, which makes it possible to find the minimum of multiple inputs in a single gate operation. Also, the principle of a half-adder for quaternary number inputs is demonstrated. First, an adder that adds up two quaternary numbers and outputs the sum of inputs is demonstrated. Second, a device to express the sum of the adder into two quaternary digits [Carry (first digit) and Sum (second digit)] is demonstrated. All the logic gates presented in this paper can in principle be extended to allow decimal number inputs with high quality QPCs.
Multi-Valued Logic Gates based on Ballistic Transport in Quantum Point Contacts
Seo, M.; Hong, C.; Lee, S.-Y.; Choi, H. K.; Kim, N.; Chung, Y.; Umansky, V.; Mahalu, D.
2014-01-01
Multi-valued logic gates, which can handle quaternary numbers as inputs, are developed by exploiting the ballistic transport properties of quantum point contacts in series. The principle of a logic gate that finds the minimum of two quaternary number inputs is demonstrated. The device is scalable to allow multiple inputs, which makes it possible to find the minimum of multiple inputs in a single gate operation. Also, the principle of a half-adder for quaternary number inputs is demonstrated. First, an adder that adds up two quaternary numbers and outputs the sum of inputs is demonstrated. Second, a device to express the sum of the adder into two quaternary digits [Carry (first digit) and Sum (second digit)] is demonstrated. All the logic gates presented in this paper can in principle be extended to allow decimal number inputs with high quality QPCs.
Complex cellular logic computation using ribocomputing devices.
Green, Alexander A; Kim, Jongmin; Ma, Duo; Silver, Pamela A; Collins, James J; Yin, Peng
2017-08-03
Synthetic biology aims to develop engineering-driven approaches to the programming of cellular functions that could yield transformative technologies. Synthetic gene circuits that combine DNA, protein, and RNA components have demonstrated a range of functions such as bistability, oscillation, feedback, and logic capabilities. However, it remains challenging to scale up these circuits owing to the limited number of designable, orthogonal, high-performance parts, the empirical and often tedious composition rules, and the requirements for substantial resources for encoding and operation. Here, we report a strategy for constructing RNA-only nanodevices to evaluate complex logic in living cells. Our 'ribocomputing' systems are composed of de-novo-designed parts and operate through predictable and designable base-pairing rules, allowing the effective in silico design of computing devices with prescribed configurations and functions in complex cellular environments. These devices operate at the post-transcriptional level and use an extended RNA transcript to co-localize all circuit sensing, computation, signal transduction, and output elements in the same self-assembled molecular complex, which reduces diffusion-mediated signal losses, lowers metabolic cost, and improves circuit reliability. We demonstrate that ribocomputing devices in Escherichia coli can evaluate two-input logic with a dynamic range up to 900-fold and scale them to four-input AND, six-input OR, and a complex 12-input expression (A1 AND A2 AND NOT A1*) OR (B1 AND B2 AND NOT B2*) OR (C1 AND C2) OR (D1 AND D2) OR (E1 AND E2). Successful operation of ribocomputing devices based on programmable RNA interactions suggests that systems employing the same design principles could be implemented in other host organisms or in extracellular settings.
Logical Characterisation of Ontology Construction using Fuzzy Description Logics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Badie, Farshad; Götzsche, Hans
had the extension of ontologies with Fuzzy Logic capabilities which plan to make proper backgrounds for ontology driven reasoning and argumentation on vague and imprecise domains. This presentation conceptualises learning from fuzzy classes using the Inductive Logic Programming framework. Then......, employs Description Logics in characterising and analysing fuzzy statements. And finally, provides a conceptual framework describing fuzzy concept learning in ontologies using the Inductive Logic Programming....
Greek, Indian and Arabic logic
Gabbay, Dov M
2004-01-01
Greek, Indian and Arabic Logic marks the initial appearance of the multi-volume Handbook of the History of Logic. Additional volumes will be published when ready, rather than in strict chronological order. Soon to appear are The Rise of Modern Logic: From Leibniz to Frege. Also in preparation are Logic From Russell to Gödel, Logic and the Modalities in the Twentieth Century, and The Many-Valued and Non-Monotonic Turn in Logic. Further volumes will follow, including Mediaeval and Renaissance Logic and Logic: A History of its Central. In designing the Handbook of the History of Logic, the Editors have taken the view that the history of logic holds more than an antiquarian interest, and that a knowledge of logic's rich and sophisticated development is, in various respects, relevant to the research programmes of the present day. Ancient logic is no exception. The present volume attests to the distant origins of some of modern logic's most important features, such as can be found in the claim by the authors of t...
Quantum Logic and Quantum Reconstruction
Stairs, Allen
2015-01-01
Quantum logic understood as a reconstruction program had real successes and genuine limitations. This paper offers a synopsis of both and suggests a way of seeing quantum logic in a larger, still thriving context.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Braüner, Torben
2011-01-01
Hybrid logic is an extension of modal logic which allows us to refer explicitly to points of the model in the syntax of formulas. It is easy to justify interest in hybrid logic on applied grounds, with the usefulness of the additional expressive power. For example, when reasoning about time one...... often wants to build up a series of assertions about what happens at a particular instant, and standard modal formalisms do not allow this. What is less obvious is that the route hybrid logic takes to overcome this problem often actually improves the behaviour of the underlying modal formalism....... For example, it becomes far simpler to formulate proof-systems for hybrid logic, and completeness results can be proved of a generality that is simply not available in modal logic. That is, hybridization is a systematic way of remedying a number of known deficiencies of modal logic. First-order hybrid logic...
Logical analysis of biological systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mardare, Radu Iulian
2005-01-01
R. Mardare, Logical analysis of biological systems. Fundamenta Informaticae, N 64:271-285, 2005.......R. Mardare, Logical analysis of biological systems. Fundamenta Informaticae, N 64:271-285, 2005....
Probabilistic logics and probabilistic networks
Haenni, Rolf; Wheeler, Gregory; Williamson, Jon; Andrews, Jill
2014-01-01
Probabilistic Logic and Probabilistic Networks presents a groundbreaking framework within which various approaches to probabilistic logic naturally fit. Additionally, the text shows how to develop computationally feasible methods to mesh with this framework.
Wansing, Heinrich; Willkommen, Caroline; Recent Trends in Philosophical Logic
2014-01-01
This volume presents recent advances in philosophical logic with chapters focusing on non-classical logics, including paraconsistent logics, substructural logics, modal logics of agency and other modal logics. The authors cover themes such as the knowability paradox, tableaux and sequent calculi, natural deduction, definite descriptions, identity, truth, dialetheism, and possible worlds semantics. The developments presented here focus on challenging problems in the specification of fundamental philosophical notions, as well as presenting new techniques and tools, thereby contributing to the development of the field. Each chapter contains a bibliography, to assist the reader in making connections in the specific areas covered. Thus this work provides both a starting point for further investigations into philosophical logic and an update on advances, techniques and applications in a dynamic field. The chapters originate from papers presented during the Trends in Logic XI conference at the Ruhr University ...
Preferential reasoning for modal logics
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Britz, K
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Modal logic is the foundation for a versatile and well-established class of knowledge representation formalisms in artificial intelligence. Enriching modal logics with non-monotonic reasoning capabilities such as preferential reasoning as developed...
From Logical to Distributional Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anne Preller
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The paper relates two variants of semantic models for natural language, logical functional models and compositional distributional vector space models, by transferring the logic and reasoning from the logical to the distributional models. The geometrical operations of quantum logic are reformulated as algebraic operations on vectors. A map from functional models to vector space models makes it possible to compare the meaning of sentences word by word.
Modal Logics for Cryptographic Processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frendrup, U.; Huttel, Hans; Jensen, N. J.
2002-01-01
We present three modal logics for the spi-calculus and show that they capture strong versions of the environment sensitive bisimulation introduced by Boreale et al. Our logics differ from conventional modal logics for process calculi in that they allow us to describe the knowledge of an attacker ...
Combining Paraconsistent Logic with Argumentation
Grooters, Diana; Prakken, Hendrik
2014-01-01
One tradition in the logical study of argumentation is to allow for arguments that combine strict and defeasible inference rules, and to derive the strict inference rules from a logic at least as strong as classical logic. An unsolved problem in this tradition is how the trivialising effect of the
Lectures on Logic and Computation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
The European Summer School in Logic, Language and Information (ESSLLI) is organized every year by the Association for Logic, Language and Information (FoLLI) in different sites around Europe. The main focus of ESSLLI is on the interface between linguistics, logic and computation. ESSLLI offers fo...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn
This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...
Strong Completeness for Markovian Logics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kozen, Dexter; Mardare, Radu Iulian; Panangaden, Prakash
2013-01-01
In this paper we present Hilbert-style axiomatizations for three logics for reasoning about continuous-space Markov processes (MPs): (i) a logic for MPs defined for probability distributions on measurable state spaces, (ii) a logic for MPs defined for sub-probability distributions and (iii) a log...
Designable DNA-binding domains enable construction of logic circuits in mammalian cells.
Gaber, Rok; Lebar, Tina; Majerle, Andreja; Šter, Branko; Dobnikar, Andrej; Benčina, Mojca; Jerala, Roman
2014-03-01
Electronic computer circuits consisting of a large number of connected logic gates of the same type, such as NOR, can be easily fabricated and can implement any logic function. In contrast, designed genetic circuits must employ orthogonal information mediators owing to free diffusion within the cell. Combinatorial diversity and orthogonality can be provided by designable DNA- binding domains. Here, we employed the transcription activator-like repressors to optimize the construction of orthogonal functionally complete NOR gates to construct logic circuits. We used transient transfection to implement all 16 two-input logic functions from combinations of the same type of NOR gates within mammalian cells. Additionally, we present a genetic logic circuit where one input is used to select between an AND and OR function to process the data input using the same circuit. This demonstrates the potential of designable modular transcription factors for the construction of complex biological information-processing devices.
Canonical multi-valued input Reed-Muller trees and forms
Perkowski, M. A.; Johnson, P. D.
1991-01-01
There is recently an increased interest in logic synthesis using EXOR gates. The paper introduces the fundamental concept of Orthogonal Expansion, which generalizes the ring form of the Shannon expansion to the logic with multiple-valued (mv) inputs. Based on this concept we are able to define a family of canonical tree circuits. Such circuits can be considered for binary and multiple-valued input cases. They can be multi-level (trees and DAG's) or flattened to two-level AND-EXOR circuits. Input decoders similar to those used in Sum of Products (SOP) PLA's are used in realizations of multiple-valued input functions. In the case of the binary logic the family of flattened AND-EXOR circuits includes several forms discussed by Davio and Green. For the case of the logic with multiple-valued inputs, the family of the flattened mv AND-EXOR circuits includes three expansions known from literature and two new expansions.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Friche, Nanna; Normann Andersen, Vibeke
unintended consequences. Theoretically, we draw on different management and governance theories, e.g. performance management. Empirically, the study is based on surveys to teachers and students at all Danish vocational colleges and interviews with school leaders, teachers and students at six colleges (cases...... and well-being of students enrolled in the VETs must be strengthened. We focus on target 1, 2 and 4. The reform is being implemented in a field of VET that can be characterized by four logics of governance. Firstly, a governance logic characterized by institutional independence of vocational colleges......For the last fifteen years completion rates in Danish vocational education and training (VET) has stayed on a rather low level. In 2014, only half of the students enrolled in a vocational program on upper secondary level, graduated from the program (Flarup et al 2016). In Denmark, like in other...
Modern Logical Frameworks Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Murawska, Agata Anna
2017-01-01
lack support for reasoning about, or programming with, the mechanised systems. Our main motivation is to eventually make it possible to model and reason about complex concurrent systems and protocols. No matter the application, be it the development of a logic for multiparty session types...... or a cryptographic protocol used in a voting system, we need the ability to model and reason about both the building blocks of these systems and the intricate connections between them. To this end, this dissertation is an investigation into LF-based formalisms that might help address the aforementioned issues. We...... design and provide the meta-theory of two new frameworks, HyLF and Lincx. The former aims to extend the expressiveness of LF to include proof irrelevance and some user-defined behaviours, using ideas from hybrid logics. The latter is a showcase for an easier to implement framework, while also allowing...
Competing Logics and Healthcare
Saks, Mike
2018-01-01
This paper offers a short commentary on the editorial by Mannion and Exworthy. The paper highlights the positive insights offered by their analysis into the tensions between the competing institutional logics of standardization and customization in healthcare, in part manifested in the conflict between managers and professionals, and endorses the plea of the authors for further research in this field. However, the editorial is criticized for its lack of a strong societal reference point, the comparative absence of focus on hybridization, and its failure to highlight structural factors impinging on the opposing logics in a broader neo-institutional framework. With reference to the Procrustean metaphor, it is argued that greater stress should be placed on the healthcare user in future health policy. Finally, the case of complementary and alternative medicine is set out which – while not explicitly mentioned in the editorial – most effectively concretizes the tensions at the heart of this analysis of healthcare. PMID:29626406
Conventions and Institutional Logics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Westenholz, Ann
Two theoretical approaches – Conventions and Institutional Logics – are brought together and the similarities and differences between the two are explored. It is not the intention to combine the approaches, but I would like to open both ‘boxes’ and make them available to each other with the purpose...... of creating a space for dialog. Both approaches were developed in the mid-1980s as a reaction to rational-choice economic theory and collectivistic sociological theory. These two theories were oversimplifying social life as being founded either in actor-micro level analyses or in structure-macro level...... analyses. The theoretical quest of both Conventions and Institutional Logics has been to understand the increasing indeterminacy, uncertainty and ambiguity in people’s lives where a sense of reality, of value, of moral, of feelings is not fixed. Both approaches have created new theoretical insights...
Implementation of trinary logic in a polarization encoded optical shadow-casting scheme.
Rizvi, R A; Zaheer, K; Zubairy, M S
1991-03-10
The design of various multioutput trinary combinational logic units by a polarization encoded optical shadow-casting (POSC) technique is presented. The POSC modified algorithm is employed to design and implement these logic elements in a trinary number system with separate and simultaneous generation of outputs. A detailed solution of the POSC logic equations for a fixed source plane and a fixed decoding mask is given to obtain input pixel coding for a trinary half-adder, full adder, and subtractor.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Douglas Walton
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a formalization of informal logic using the Carneades Argumentation System (CAS, a formal, computational model of argument that consists of a formal model of argument graphs and audiences. Conflicts between pro and con arguments are resolved using proof standards, such as preponderance of the evidence. CAS also formalizes argumentation schemes. Schemes can be used to check whether a given argument instantiates the types of argument deemed normatively appropriate for the type of dialogue.
Probabilistic Logical Characterization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hermanns, Holger; Parma, Augusto; Segala, Roberto
2011-01-01
Probabilistic automata exhibit both probabilistic and non-deterministic choice. They are therefore a powerful semantic foundation for modeling concurrent systems with random phenomena arising in many applications ranging from artificial intelligence, security, systems biology to performance...... modeling. Several variations of bisimulation and simulation relations have proved to be useful as means to abstract and compare different automata. This paper develops a taxonomy of logical characterizations of these relations on image-finite and image-infinite probabilistic automata....
Bisimulations, games, and logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Mogens; Clausen, Christian
1994-01-01
In a recent paper by Joyal, Nielsen, and Winskel, bisimulation is defined in an abstract and uniform way across a wide range of different models for concurrency. In this paper, following a recent trend in theoretical computer science, we characterize their abstract definition game-theoretically a......-theoretically and logically in a non-interleaving model. Our characterizations appear as surprisingly simple extensions of corresponding characterizations of interleaving bisimulation....
Stereotypical Reasoning: Logical Properties
Lehmann, Daniel
2002-01-01
Stereotypical reasoning assumes that the situation at hand is one of a kind and that it enjoys the properties generally associated with that kind of situation. It is one of the most basic forms of nonmonotonic reasoning. A formal model for stereotypical reasoning is proposed and the logical properties of this form of reasoning are studied. Stereotypical reasoning is shown to be cumulative under weak assumptions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mukhanov, O.A.; Rylov, S.V.; Semenov, V.K.; Vyshenskii, S.V.
1989-01-01
Several ways of local timing of the Josephson-junction RSFQ (Rapid Single Flux Quantum) logic elements are proposed, and their peculiarities are discussed. Several examples of serial and parallel pipelined arithmetic blocks using various types of timing are suggested and their possible performance is discussed. Serial devices enable one to perform n-bit functions relatively slowly but using integrated circuits of a moderate integration scale, while parallel pipelined devices are more hardware-wasteful but promise extremely high productivity
1981-01-01
Rapport, Groupe Intelligence Pasero, R., Artificielle , Universite d’Aix-Marseille, Roussel, P. Luminy, France, 1973. [Kowalski 1974] Kowalski, R. A...THIS PAGZ(Whan Doee Es tMord) Item 20 (Cont’d) ------ work in the area of artificial intelligence and those used in general program development into a...logic programming with LISP for implementing intelligent data base query systems. Continued developments will allow for enhancements to be made to the
Magnetoresistive logic and biochip
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brueckl, Hubert; Brzeska, Monika; Brinkmann, Dirk; Schotter, J.Joerg; Reiss, Guenter; Schepper, Willi; Kamp, P.-B.; Becker, Anke
2004-01-01
While some magnetoresistive devices based on giant magnetoresistance or spin-dependent tunneling are already commercialized, a new branch of development is evolving towards magnetoresistive logic with magnetic tunnel junctions. Furthermore, the new magnetoelectronic effects show promising properties in magnetoresistive biochips, which are capable of detecting even single molecules (e.g. DNA) by functionalized magnetic markers. The unclear limits of this approach are discussed with two model systems
Transcending binary logic by gating three coupled quantum dots.
Klein, Michael; Rogge, S; Remacle, F; Levine, R D
2007-09-01
Physical considerations supported by numerical solution of the quantum dynamics including electron repulsion show that three weakly coupled quantum dots can robustly execute a complete set of logic gates for computing using three valued inputs and outputs. Input is coded as gating (up, unchanged, or down) of the terminal dots. A nanosecond time scale switching of the gate voltage requires careful numerical propagation of the dynamics. Readout is the charge (0, 1, or 2 electrons) on the central dot.
A Paraconsistent Higher Order Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Villadsen, Jørgen
2004-01-01
of paraconsistent logics in knowledge-based systems, logical semantics of natural language, etc. Higher order logics have the advantages of being expressive and with several automated theorem provers available. Also the type system can be helpful. We present a concise description of a paraconsistent higher order...... of the logic is examined by a case study in the domain of medicine. Thus we try to build a bridge between the HOL and MVL communities. A sequent calculus is proposed based on recent work by Muskens. Many non-classical logics are, at the propositional level, funny toys which work quite good, but when one wants...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kimlinger, J.R.; Plechaty, E.F.
1982-01-01
The TART code is a Monte Carlo neutron/photon transport code that is only on the CRAY computer. All the input cards for the TART code are listed, and definitions for all input parameters are given. The execution and limitations of the code are described, and input for two sample problems are given
Synthesizing genetic sequential logic circuit with clock pulse generator.
Chuang, Chia-Hua; Lin, Chun-Liang
2014-05-28
Rhythmic clock widely occurs in biological systems which controls several aspects of cell physiology. For the different cell types, it is supplied with various rhythmic frequencies. How to synthesize a specific clock signal is a preliminary but a necessary step to further development of a biological computer in the future. This paper presents a genetic sequential logic circuit with a clock pulse generator based on a synthesized genetic oscillator, which generates a consecutive clock signal whose frequency is an inverse integer multiple to that of the genetic oscillator. An analogous electronic waveform-shaping circuit is constructed by a series of genetic buffers to shape logic high/low levels of an oscillation input in a basic sinusoidal cycle and generate a pulse-width-modulated (PWM) output with various duty cycles. By controlling the threshold level of the genetic buffer, a genetic clock pulse signal with its frequency consistent to the genetic oscillator is synthesized. A synchronous genetic counter circuit based on the topology of the digital sequential logic circuit is triggered by the clock pulse to synthesize the clock signal with an inverse multiple frequency to the genetic oscillator. The function acts like a frequency divider in electronic circuits which plays a key role in the sequential logic circuit with specific operational frequency. A cascaded genetic logic circuit generating clock pulse signals is proposed. Based on analogous implement of digital sequential logic circuits, genetic sequential logic circuits can be constructed by the proposed approach to generate various clock signals from an oscillation signal.
Automated logic conversion method for plant controller systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wada, Yutaka; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Miyo, Tsunemasa; Okano, Masato.
1990-01-01
An automated method is proposed for logic conversion from functional description diagrams to detailed logic schematics by incorporating expertise knowledge in plant controller systems design. The method uses connection data of function elements in the functional description diagram as input, and synthesizes a detailed logic structure by adding elements to the given connection data incrementally, and to generate detailed logic schematics. In logic synthesis, for building up complex synthesis procedures by combining generally-described knowledge, knowledge is applied by groups. The search order of the groups is given by upper-level knowledge. Furthermore, the knowledge is expressed in terms of two classes of rules; one for generating a hypothesis of individual synthesis operations and the other for considering several hypotheses to determine the connection ordering of elements to be added. In the generation of detailed logic schematics, knowledge is used as rules for deriving various kinds of layout conditions on schematics, and rules for generating two-dimensional coordinates of layout objects. Rules in the latter class use layout conditions to predict intersections among layout objects without their coordinates being fixed. The effectiveness of the method with 150 rules was verified by its experimental application to some logic conversions in a real power plant design. Evaluation of the results showed them to be equivalent to those obtained by well qualified designers. (author)
An external logic architecture for implementing traffic signal system control strategies.
2011-09-01
The built-in logic functions in traffic controllers have very limited capability to store information, to analyze input data, to estimate performance measures, and to adopt control strategy decisions. These capabilities are imperative to support traf...
Redox-Enabled, pH-Disabled Pyrazoline-Ferrocene INHIBIT Logic Gates.
Scerri, Glenn J; Cini, Miriam; Schembri, Jonathan S; da Costa, Paola F; Johnson, Alex D; Magri, David C
2017-07-05
Pyrazoline-ferrocene conjugates with an "electron-donor-spacer-fluorophore-receptor" format are demonstrated as redox-fluorescent two-input INHIBIT logic gates. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
modelling room cooling capacity with fuzzy logic procedure
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The primary aim of this study is to develop a model for estimation of the cooling requirement of residential rooms. Fuzzy logic was employed to model four input variables (window area (m2), roof area (m2), external wall area (m2) and internal load (Watt). The algorithm of the inference engine applied sets of 81 linguistic ...
Application of ANN and fuzzy logic algorithms for streamflow ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The present study focusses on development of models using ANN and fuzzy logic (FL) algorithm for predicting the streamflow for catchment of Savitri River Basin. The input vector to these models were daily rainfall, mean daily evaporation, mean daily temperature and lag streamflow used. In the present study, 20 years ...
Coincidence logic modules for criticality alarming
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schaief, C.C. III.
1977-04-01
A coincidence Logic Module and a companion contact closure Relay Module utilizing the NIM Standard have been developed for criticality alarming. The units provide an ALARM whenever two or more out of N detectors become activated. In addition, an ALERT is generated whenever one or more detectors is activated or when certain electronic component failures occur. The number of detector inputs (N) can be expanded in groups of six by adding modules. Serial and parallel redundancy were used to reduce the probability of system failure
Efficient dynamic optimization of logic programs
Laird, Phil
1992-01-01
A summary is given of the dynamic optimization approach to speed up learning for logic programs. The problem is to restructure a recursive program into an equivalent program whose expected performance is optimal for an unknown but fixed population of problem instances. We define the term 'optimal' relative to the source of input instances and sketch an algorithm that can come within a logarithmic factor of optimal with high probability. Finally, we show that finding high-utility unfolding operations (such as EBG) can be reduced to clause reordering.
Surface confined assemblies and polymers for sensing and molecular logic
de Ruiter, Graham; Altman, Marc; Motiei, Leila; Lahav, Michal; van der Boom, Milko E.
2013-05-01
Since the development of molecule-based sensors and the introduction of molecules mimicking the behavior of the AND gate in solution by de Silva in 1993, molecular (Boolean) Logic and Computing (MBLC) has become increasingly popular. The molecular approach toward Boolean logic resulted in intriguing proofs of concepts in solution including logic gates, half-adders, multiplexers, and flip-flop logic circuits. Molecular assemblies can perform diverse logic tasks by reconfiguring their inputs. Our recent research activities focus on MBLC with electrochromic polymers and immobilized polypyridyl complexes on solid support. We have designed a series of coordination-based thin films that are formed linearly by stepwise wet-chemical deposition or by self-propagating molecular assembly. The electrochromic properties of these films can be used for (i) detecting various analytes in solution and in the air, (ii) MBLC, (iii) electron-transfer studies, and (iv) interlayers for efficient inverted bulk-heterojunction solar cells. Our concept toward MBLC with functionalized surfaces is applicable to electrochemical and chemical inputs coupled with optical readout. Using this approach, we demonstrated various logic architectures with redox-active functionalized surfaces. Electrochemically operated sequential logic systems (e.g., flip-flops), multi-valued logic, and multi-state memory have been designed, which can improve computational power without increasing spatial requirements. Applying multi-valued digits in data storage and information processing could exponentially increase memory capacity. Our approach is applicable to highly diverse electrochromic thin films that operate at practical voltages (< 1.5 V).
Mailloux, Shay; Halámek, Jan; Katz, Evgeny
2014-03-07
A new Sense-and-Act system was realized by the integration of a biocomputing system, performing analytical processes, with a signal-responsive electrode. A drug-mimicking release process was triggered by biomolecular signals processed by different logic networks, including three concatenated AND logic gates or a 3-input OR logic gate. Biocatalytically produced NADH, controlled by various combinations of input signals, was used to activate the electrochemical system. A biocatalytic electrode associated with signal-processing "biocomputing" systems was electrically connected to another electrode coated with a polymer film, which was dissolved upon the formation of negative potential releasing entrapped drug-mimicking species, an enzyme-antibody conjugate, operating as a model for targeted immune-delivery and consequent "prodrug" activation. The system offers great versatility for future applications in controlled drug release and personalized medicine.
Computability, complexity, logic
Börger, Egon
1989-01-01
The theme of this book is formed by a pair of concepts: the concept of formal language as carrier of the precise expression of meaning, facts and problems, and the concept of algorithm or calculus, i.e. a formally operating procedure for the solution of precisely described questions and problems. The book is a unified introduction to the modern theory of these concepts, to the way in which they developed first in mathematical logic and computability theory and later in automata theory, and to the theory of formal languages and complexity theory. Apart from considering the fundamental themes an
T Atanassov, Krassimir
2017-01-01
The book offers a comprehensive survey of intuitionistic fuzzy logics. By reporting on both the author’s research and others’ findings, it provides readers with a complete overview of the field and highlights key issues and open problems, thus suggesting new research directions. Starting with an introduction to the basic elements of intuitionistic fuzzy propositional calculus, it then provides a guide to the use of intuitionistic fuzzy operators and quantifiers, and lastly presents state-of-the-art applications of intuitionistic fuzzy sets. The book is a valuable reference resource for graduate students and researchers alike.
Basavanagowda Nagabhushana, Nandeesh
2014-01-01
Brown plant hopper showed me the way into organic farming. In 2001, I started my practice with logic of legumes just to cut down the 45 percent expenses of my paddy on fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides. Later as I realized each and every plant carries it’s own nutrients, medicinal values and characters. Plants like millets, oil seeds, spices, di-cots, monocots and weeds all being used as a green manure. For all my agriculture problems and crop demands, I look for the answers only thro...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Birkedal, Lars; Sieczkowski, Filip; Thamsborg, Jacob Junker
2012-01-01
We present a logical relation for showing the correctness of program transformations based on a new type-and-eﬀect system for a concurrent extension of an ML-like language with higher-order functions, higher-order store and dynamic memory allocation. We show how to use our model to verify a number....... To the best of our knowledge, this is the ﬁrst such result for a concurrent higher-order language with higher-order store and dynamic memory allocation....
Krötzsch, M
2010-01-01
Ontological modelling today is applied in many areas of science and technology,including the Semantic Web. The W3C standard OWL defines one of the most important ontology languages based on the semantics of description logics. An alternative is to use rule languages in knowledge modelling, as proposed in the W3C's RIF standard. So far, it has often been unclear how to combine both technologies without sacrificing essential computational properties. This book explains this problem and presents new solutions that have recently been proposed. Extensive introductory chapters provide the necessary
Bright, Liam Kofi
2017-10-01
The logical empiricists expressed a consistent attitude to racial categorisation in both the ethical and scientific spheres. Their attitude may be captured in the following slogan: human racial taxonomy is an empirically meaningful mode of classifying persons that we should refrain from deploying. I offer an interpretation of their position that would render coherent their remarks on race with positions they adopted on the scientific status of taxonomy in general, together with their potential moral or political motivations for adopting that position. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Flexible programmable logic module
Robertson, Perry J.; Hutchinson, Robert L.; Pierson, Lyndon G.
2001-01-01
The circuit module of this invention is a VME board containing a plurality of programmable logic devices (PLDs), a controlled impedance clock tree, and interconnecting buses. The PLDs are arranged to permit systolic processing of a problem by offering wide data buses and a plurality of processing nodes. The board contains a clock reference and clock distribution tree that can drive each of the PLDs with two critically timed clock references. External clock references can be used to drive additional circuit modules all operating from the same synchronous clock reference.
Classical Mathematical Logic The Semantic Foundations of Logic
Epstein, Richard L
2011-01-01
In Classical Mathematical Logic, Richard L. Epstein relates the systems of mathematical logic to their original motivations to formalize reasoning in mathematics. The book also shows how mathematical logic can be used to formalize particular systems of mathematics. It sets out the formalization not only of arithmetic, but also of group theory, field theory, and linear orderings. These lead to the formalization of the real numbers and Euclidean plane geometry. The scope and limitations of modern logic are made clear in these formalizations. The book provides detailed explanations of all proo
Logic control of microfluidics with smart colloid
Wang, Limu
2010-01-01
We report the successful realization of a microfluidic chip with switching and corresponding inverting functionalities. The chips are identical logic control components incorporating a type of smart colloid, giant electrorheological fluid (GERF), which possesses reversible characteristics via a liquid-solid phase transition under external electric field. Two pairs of electrodes embedded on the sides of two microfluidic channels serve as signal input and output, respectively. One, located in the GERF micro-channel is used to control the flow status of GERF, while another one in the ither micro-fluidic channel is used to detect the signal generated with a passing-by droplet (defined as a signal droplet). Switching of the GERF from the suspended state (off-state) to the flowing state (on-state) or vice versa in the micro-channel is controlled by the appearance of signal droplets whenever they pass through the detection electrode. The output on-off signals can be easily demonstrated, clearly matching with GERF flow status. Our results show that such a logic switch is also a logic IF gate, while its inverter functions as a NOT gate. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2010.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dupuy, R.
1970-01-01
The input-output supervisor is the program which monitors the flow of informations between core storage and peripheral equipments of a computer. This work is composed of three parts: 1 - Study of a generalized input-output supervisor. With sample modifications it looks like most of input-output supervisors which are running now on computers. 2 - Application of this theory on a magnetic drum. 3 - Hardware requirement for time-sharing. (author) [fr
Quantum logics and convex geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bunce, L.J.; Wright, J.D.M.
1985-01-01
The main result is a representation theorem which shows that, for a large class of quantum logics, a quantum logic, Q, is isomorphic to the lattice of projective faces in a suitable convex set K. As an application we extend our earlier results, which, subject to countability conditions, gave a geometric characterization of those quantum logics which are isomorphic to the projection lattice of a von Neumann algebra or a JBW-algebra. (orig.)
PM 3655 PHILIPS Logic analyzer
A logic analyzer is an electronic instrument that captures and displays multiple signals from a digital system or digital circuit. A logic analyzer may convert the captured data into timing diagrams, protocol decodes, state machine traces, assembly language, or may correlate assembly with source-level software. Logic Analyzers have advanced triggering capabilities, and are useful when a user needs to see the timing relationships between many signals in a digital system.
Popular lectures on mathematical logic
Wang, Hao
2014-01-01
A noted logician and philosopher addresses various forms of mathematical logic, discussing both theoretical underpinnings and practical applications. Author Hao Wang surveys the central concepts and theories of the discipline in a historical and developmental context, and then focuses on the four principal domains of contemporary mathematical logic: set theory, model theory, recursion theory and constructivism, and proof theory.Topics include the place of problems in the development of theories of logic and logic's relation to computer science. Specific attention is given to Gödel's incomplete
Contextual logic for quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Domenech, Graciela; Freytes, Hector
2005-01-01
In this work we build a quantum logic that allows us to refer to physical magnitudes pertaining to different contexts from a fixed one without the contradictions with quantum mechanics expressed in no-go theorems. This logic arises from considering a sheaf over a topological space associated with the Boolean sublattices of the ortholattice of closed subspaces of the Hilbert space of the physical system. Different from standard quantum logics, the contextual logic maintains a distributive lattice structure and a good definition of implication as a residue of the conjunction
Tensor product of quantum logics
Pulmannová, Sylvia
1985-01-01
A quantum logic is the couple (L,M) where L is an orthomodular σ-lattice and M is a strong set of states on L. The Jauch-Piron property in the σ-form is also supposed for any state of M. A ``tensor product'' of quantum logics is defined. This definition is compared with the definition of a free orthodistributive product of orthomodular σ-lattices. The existence and uniqueness of the tensor product in special cases of Hilbert space quantum logics and one quantum and one classical logic are studied.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
A.N. Prior (1914-69) in the course of the 1950s and 1960s founded a new and revolutionary paradigm in philosophy and logic. Its most central feature is the preoccupation with time and the development of the logic of time. However, this was inseparably interwoven with fundamental questions about h...... human freedom, ethics, and existence. This remarkable integration of themes also embodies an original and in fact revolutionary conception of logic. The book series, Logic and Philosophy of Time, is dedicated to a deep investigation and also the further development of Prior’s paradigm. ...
Optimization methods for logical inference
Chandru, Vijay
2011-01-01
Merging logic and mathematics in deductive inference-an innovative, cutting-edge approach. Optimization methods for logical inference? Absolutely, say Vijay Chandru and John Hooker, two major contributors to this rapidly expanding field. And even though ""solving logical inference problems with optimization methods may seem a bit like eating sauerkraut with chopsticks. . . it is the mathematical structure of a problem that determines whether an optimization model can help solve it, not the context in which the problem occurs."" Presenting powerful, proven optimization techniques for logic in
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
By blending historical research with current research, this collection (loosely inspired by themes from the work of Arthur Prior) demonstrates the importance of Prior's writings and helps us to gain a deeper understanding of time, its logic(s), and its language(s).......By blending historical research with current research, this collection (loosely inspired by themes from the work of Arthur Prior) demonstrates the importance of Prior's writings and helps us to gain a deeper understanding of time, its logic(s), and its language(s)....
Framework for Modelling Multiple Input Complex Aggregations for Interactive Installations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Padfield, Nicolas; Andreasen, Troels
2012-01-01
on fuzzy logic and provides a method for variably balancing interaction and user input with the intention of the artist or director. An experimental design is presented, demonstrating an intuitive interface for parametric modelling of a complex aggregation function. The aggregation function unifies...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meyder, R.
1983-12-01
The code system SSYST-3 is designed to analyse the thermal and mechanical behaviour of a fuel rod during a LOCA. The report contains a complete input-list for all modules and several tested inputs for a LOCA analysis. (orig.)
Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Vowell, C. W.; Smith, Byron; Darcy, Jeannette
2006-01-01
This viewgraph presentation reviews the inputs to the MDS Medical Information Communique (MIC) catalog. The purpose of the group is to provide input for updating the MDS MIC Catalog and to request that MMOP assign Action Item to other working groups and FSs to support the MITWG Process for developing MIC-DDs.
Meta-Logical Reasoning in Higher-Order Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Villadsen, Jørgen; Schlichtkrull, Anders; Hess, Andreas Viktor
The semantics of first-order logic (FOL) can be described in the meta-language of higher-order logic (HOL). Using HOL one can prove key properties of FOL such as soundness and completeness. Furthermore, one can prove sentences in FOL valid using the formalized FOL semantics. To aid...
Measuring Input Thresholds on an Existing Board
Kuperman, Igor; Gutrich, Daniel G.; Berkun, Andrew C.
2011-01-01
A critical PECL (positive emitter-coupled logic) interface to Xilinx interface needed to be changed on an existing flight board. The new Xilinx input interface used a CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) type of input, and the driver could meet its thresholds typically, but not in worst-case, according to the data sheet. The previous interface had been based on comparison with an external reference, but the CMOS input is based on comparison with an internal divider from the power supply. A way to measure what the exact input threshold was for this device for 64 inputs on a flight board was needed. The measurement technique allowed an accurate measurement of the voltage required to switch a Xilinx input from high to low for each of the 64 lines, while only probing two of them. Directly driving an external voltage was considered too risky, and tests done on any other unit could not be used to qualify the flight board. The two lines directly probed gave an absolute voltage threshold calibration, while data collected on the remaining 62 lines without probing gave relative measurements that could be used to identify any outliers. The PECL interface was forced to a long-period square wave by driving a saturated square wave into the ADC (analog to digital converter). The active pull-down circuit was turned off, causing each line to rise rapidly and fall slowly according to the input s weak pull-down circuitry. The fall time shows up as a change in the pulse width of the signal ready by the Xilinx. This change in pulse width is a function of capacitance, pulldown current, and input threshold. Capacitance was known from the different trace lengths, plus a gate input capacitance, which is the same for all inputs. The pull-down current is the same for all inputs including the two that are probed directly. The data was combined, and the Excel solver tool was used to find input thresholds for the 62 lines. This was repeated over different supply voltages and
A modeling of fuzzy logic controller on gamma scanning device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arjoni Amir
2010-01-01
Modeling and simulation of controller to set the high position and direction of the source of gamma radiation isotope Co-60 and Nal(TL) detector of gamma scanning device by using fuzzy logic controller FLC have been done. The high positions and in the right direction of gamma radiation and Nal (TI) detector obtained the optimal enumeration. The counting data obtained from gamma scanning device counting system is affected by the instability of high position and direction of the gamma radiation source and Nal(TI) detector or the height and direction are not equal between the gamma radiation source and Nal(TI) detector. Assumed a high position and direction of radiation sources can be fixed while the high position detector h (2, 1,0, -1, -2) can be adjusted up and down and the detector can be changed direction to the left or right angle ω (2, 1 , 0, -1, -2) when the position and direction are no longer aligned with the direction of the source of gamma radiation, the counting results obtained will not be optimal. Movement detector direction towards the left or right and the high detector arranged by the DC motor using fuzzy logic control in order to obtain the amount of output fuzzy logic control which forms the optimal output quantity count. The variation of height difference h between the source position of the gamma radiation detector and change direction with the detector angle ω becomes the input variable membership function (member function) whereas the fuzzy logic for the output variable membership function of fuzzy logic control output is selected scale fuzzy logic is directly proportional to the amount of optimal counting. From the simulation results obtained by the relationship between the amount of data output variable of fuzzy logic controller and the amount of data input variable height h and direction detector ω is depicted in graphical form surface. (author)
Towards an arithmetical logic the arithmetical foundations of logic
Gauthier, Yvon
2015-01-01
This book offers an original contribution to the foundations of logic and mathematics, and focuses on the internal logic of mathematical theories, from arithmetic or number theory to algebraic geometry. Arithmetical logic is the term used to refer to the internal logic of classical arithmetic, here called Fermat-Kronecker arithmetic, and combines Fermat’s method of infinite descent with Kronecker’s general arithmetic of homogeneous polynomials. The book also includes a treatment of theories in physics and mathematical physics to underscore the role of arithmetic from a constructivist viewpoint. The scope of the work intertwines historical, mathematical, logical and philosophical dimensions in a unified critical perspective; as such, it will appeal to a broad readership from mathematicians to logicians, to philosophers interested in foundational questions. Researchers and graduate students in the fields of philosophy and mathematics will benefit from the author’s critical approach to the foundations of l...
Universal logic gates via liquid-electronic hybrid divider
Zhou, Bingpu
2012-01-01
We demonstrated two-input microdroplet-based universal logic gates using a liquid-electronic hybrid divider. All 16 Boolean logic functions have been realized by manipulating the applied voltages. The novel platform consists of a microfluidic chip with integrated microdroplet detectors and external electronic components. The microdroplet detectors act as the communication media for fluidic and electronic information exchange. The presence or absence of microdroplets at the detector translates into the binary signal 1 or 0. The embedded micro-mechanical pneumatically actuated valve (PAV), fabricated using the well-developed multilayer soft lithography technique, offers biocompatibility, flexibility and accuracy for the on-chip realization of different logic functions. The microfluidic chip can be scaled up to construct large-scale microfluidic logic computation. On the other hand, the microfluidic chip with a specific logic function can be applied to droplet-based chemical reactions for on-demand bio or chemical analysis. Our experimental results have presented an autonomously driven, precision-controlled microfluidic chip for chemical reactions based on the IF logic function. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Averkin, A.A.
1994-01-01
A new type of fuzzy expert system for assisting the operator's decisions in nuclear power plant system in non-standard situations is proposed. This expert system is based on new approaches to fuzzy logics acquisition and to fuzzy logics testing. Fuzzy logics can be generated by a T-norms axiomatic system to choose the most suitable to operator's way of thinking. Then the chosen fuzzy logic is tested by simulation of inference process in expert system. The designed logic is the input of inference module of expert system
Cleaveland, Rance; Luettgen, Gerald; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
This paper presents the Logical Process Calculus (LPC), a formalism that supports heterogeneous system specifications containing both operational and declarative subspecifications. Syntactically, LPC extends Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems with operators from the alternation-free linear-time mu-calculus (LT(mu)). Semantically, LPC is equipped with a behavioral preorder that generalizes Hennessy's and DeNicola's must-testing preorder as well as LT(mu's) satisfaction relation, while being compositional for all LPC operators. From a technical point of view, the new calculus is distinguished by the inclusion of: (1) both minimal and maximal fixed-point operators and (2) an unimple-mentability predicate on process terms, which tags inconsistent specifications. The utility of LPC is demonstrated by means of an example highlighting the benefits of heterogeneous system specification.
"Chemical transformers" from nanoparticle ensembles operated with logic.
Motornov, Mikhail; Zhou, Jian; Pita, Marcos; Gopishetty, Venkateshwarlu; Tokarev, Ihor; Katz, Evgeny; Minko, Sergiy
2008-09-01
The pH-responsive nanoparticles were coupled with information-processing enzyme-based systems to yield "smart" signal-responsive hybrid systems with built-in Boolean logic. The enzyme systems performed AND/OR logic operations, transducing biochemical input signals into reversible structural changes (signal-directed self-assembly) of the nanoparticle assemblies, thus resulting in the processing and amplification of the biochemical signals. The hybrid system mimics biological systems in effective processing of complex biochemical information, resulting in reversible changes of the self-assembled structures of the nanoparticles. The bioinspired approach to the nanostructured morphing materials could be used in future self-assembled molecular robotic systems.
Lu, Jiao Yang; Zhang, Xin Xing; Huang, Wei Tao; Zhu, Qiu Yan; Ding, Xue Zhi; Xia, Li Qiu; Luo, Hong Qun; Li, Nian Bing
2017-09-19
The most serious and yet unsolved problems of molecular logic computing consist in how to connect molecular events in complex systems into a usable device with specific functions and how to selectively control branchy logic processes from the cascading logic systems. This report demonstrates that a Boolean logic tree is utilized to organize and connect "plug and play" chemical events DNA, nanomaterials, organic dye, biomolecule, and denaturant for developing the dual-signal electrochemical evolution aptasensor system with good resettability for amplification detection of thrombin, controllable and selectable three-state logic computation, and keypad lock security operation. The aptasensor system combines the merits of DNA-functionalized nanoamplification architecture and simple dual-signal electroactive dye brilliant cresyl blue for sensitive and selective detection of thrombin with a wide linear response range of 0.02-100 nM and a detection limit of 1.92 pM. By using these aforementioned chemical events as inputs and the differential pulse voltammetry current changes at different voltages as dual outputs, a resettable three-input biomolecular keypad lock based on sequential logic is established. Moreover, the first example of controllable and selectable three-state molecular logic computation with active-high and active-low logic functions can be implemented and allows the output ports to assume a high impediment or nothing (Z) state in addition to the 0 and 1 logic levels, effectively controlling subsequent branchy logic computation processes. Our approach is helpful in developing the advanced controllable and selectable logic computing and sensing system in large-scale integration circuits for application in biomedical engineering, intelligent sensing, and control.
Fuzzy Logic and Arithmetical Hierarchy III
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hájek, Petr
2001-01-01
Roč. 68, č. 1 (2001), s. 129-142 ISSN 0039-3215 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030004 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : fuzzy logic * basic fuzzy logic * Lukasiewicz logic * Godel logic * product logic * arithmetical hierarchy Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
Logical entropy of quantum dynamical systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ebrahimzadeh Abolfazl
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces the concepts of logical entropy and conditional logical entropy of hnite partitions on a quantum logic. Some of their ergodic properties are presented. Also logical entropy of a quantum dynamical system is dehned and ergodic properties of dynamical systems on a quantum logic are investigated. Finally, the version of Kolmogorov-Sinai theorem is proved.
Questions and dependency in intuitionistic logic
Ciardelli, Ivano; Iemhoff, Rosalie; Yang, Fan
2017-01-01
In recent years, the logic of questions and dependencies has been investigated in the closely related frameworks of inquisitive logic and dependence logic. These investigations have assumed classical logic as the background logic of statements, and added formulas expressing questions and
Reversible logic gates on Physarum Polycephalum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schumann, Andrew
2015-01-01
In this paper, we consider possibilities how to implement asynchronous sequential logic gates and quantum-style reversible logic gates on Physarum polycephalum motions. We show that in asynchronous sequential logic gates we can erase information because of uncertainty in the direction of plasmodium propagation. Therefore quantum-style reversible logic gates are more preferable for designing logic circuits on Physarum polycephalum
A beginner's guide to mathematical logic
Smullyan, Raymond M
2014-01-01
Combining stories of great philosophers, quotations, and riddles with the fundamentals of mathematical logic, this new textbook for first courses in mathematical logic was written by the subject's creative master. Raymond Smullyan offers clear, incremental presentations of difficult logic concepts with creative explanations and unique problems related to proofs, propositional logic and first-order logic, undecidability, recursion theory, and other topics.
Structural Completeness in Fuzzy Logics
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Cintula, Petr; Metcalfe, G.
2009-01-01
Roč. 50, č. 2 (2009), s. 153-183 ISSN 0029-4527 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : structral logics * fuzzy logics * structural completeness * admissible rules * primitive variety * residuated lattices Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
A tristate optical logic system
Basuray, A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Kumar Ghosh, Hirak; Datta, A. K.
1991-09-01
A method is described to represent data in a tristate logic system which are subsequently replaced by Modified Trinary Numbers (MTN). This system is advantagegeous in parallel processing as carry and borrow free operations in arithmatic computation is possible. The logical operations are also modified according to the three states available. A possible practical application of the same using polarized light is also suggested.
Logic, reasoning, and verbal behavior
Terrell, Dudley J.; Johnston, J. M.
1989-01-01
This paper analyzes the traditional concepts of logic and reasoning from the perspective of radical behaviorism and in the terms of Skinner's treatment of verbal behavior. The topics covered in this analysis include the proposition, premises and conclusions, logicality and rules, and deductive and inductive reasoning.
Flat Coalgebraic Fixed Point Logics
Schröder, Lutz; Venema, Yde
Fixed point logics are widely used in computer science, in particular in artificial intelligence and concurrency. The most expressive logics of this type are the μ-calculus and its relatives. However, popular fixed point logics tend to trade expressivity for simplicity and readability, and in fact often live within the single variable fragment of the μ-calculus. The family of such flat fixed point logics includes, e.g., CTL, the *-nesting-free fragment of PDL, and the logic of common knowledge. Here, we extend this notion to the generic semantic framework of coalgebraic logic, thus covering a wide range of logics beyond the standard μ-calculus including, e.g., flat fragments of the graded μ-calculus and the alternating-time μ-calculus (such as ATL), as well as probabilistic and monotone fixed point logics. Our main results are completeness of the Kozen-Park axiomatization and a timed-out tableaux method that matches ExpTime upper bounds inherited from the coalgebraic μ-calculus but avoids using automata.
Evidence logics with relational evidence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Baltag, Alexandru; Occhipinti, Andrés
2017-01-01
We introduce a family of logics for reasoning about relational evidence: evidence that involves an ordering of states in terms of their relative plausibility. We provide sound and complete axiomatizations for the logics. We also present several evidential actions and prove soundness...
Methods in Logic Based Control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Georg Kronborg
1999-01-01
Desing and theory of Logic Based Control systems.Boolean Algebra, Karnaugh Map, Quine McClusky's algorithm. Sequential control design. Logic Based Control Method, Cascade Control Method. Implementation techniques: relay, pneumatic, TTL/CMOS,PAL and PLC- and Soft_PLC implementation. PLC...
Epistemic logics for sceptical agents
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Bílková, M.; Majer, Ondrej; Peliš, Michal
2016-01-01
Roč. 26, č. 6 (2016), s. 1815-1841 ISSN 0955-792X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-21076S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : epistemic logic * substructural logic * frame semantics Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.909, year: 2016
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zapatrin, R.R.
1992-01-01
Given a finite ortholattice L, the *-semigroup is explicitly built whose annihilator ortholattice is isomorphic to L. Thus, it is shown that any finite quantum logic is the additive part of a binary logic. Some areas of possible applications are outlined. 7 refs
Naqvi, Syed Rameez; Akram, Tallha; Iqbal, Saba; Haider, Sajjad Ali; Kamran, Muhammad; Muhammad, Nazeer
2018-02-01
Considering the lack of optimization support for Quantum-dot Cellular Automata, we propose a dynamically reconfigurable logic cell capable of implementing various logic operations by means of artificial neural networks. The cell can be reconfigured to any 2-input combinational logic gate by altering the strength of connections, called weights and biases. We demonstrate how these cells may appositely be organized to perform multi-bit arithmetic and logic operations. The proposed work is important in that it gives a standard implementation of an 8-bit arithmetic and logic unit for quantum-dot cellular automata with minimal area and latency overhead. We also compare the proposed design with a few existing arithmetic and logic units, and show that it is more area efficient than any equivalent available in literature. Furthermore, the design is adaptable to 16, 32, and 64 bit architectures.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
2017-02-01
The PLEXOS Input Data Generator (PIDG) is a tool that enables PLEXOS users to better version their data, automate data processing, collaborate in developing inputs, and transfer data between different production cost modeling and other power systems analysis software. PIDG can process data that is in a generalized format from multiple input sources, including CSV files, PostgreSQL databases, and PSS/E .raw files and write it to an Excel file that can be imported into PLEXOS with only limited manual intervention.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2013-01-01
This is a very simple program to help you put together input files for use in Gries' (2007) R-based collostruction analysis program. It basically puts together a text file with a frequency list of lexemes in the construction and inserts a column where you can add the corpus frequencies. It requires...... it as input for basic collexeme collostructional analysis (Stefanowitsch & Gries 2003) in Gries' (2007) program. ColloInputGenerator is, in its current state, based on programming commands introduced in Gries (2009). Projected updates: Generation of complete work-ready frequency lists....
Logical independence and quantum randomness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paterek, T; Kofler, J; Aspelmeyer, M; Zeilinger, A; Brukner, C; Prevedel, R; Klimek, P
2010-01-01
We propose a link between logical independence and quantum physics. We demonstrate that quantum systems in the eigenstates of Pauli group operators are capable of encoding mathematical axioms and show that Pauli group quantum measurements are capable of revealing whether or not a given proposition is logically dependent on the axiomatic system. Whenever a mathematical proposition is logically independent of the axioms encoded in the measured state, the measurement associated with the proposition gives random outcomes. This allows for an experimental test of logical independence. Conversely, it also allows for an explanation of the probabilities of random outcomes observed in Pauli group measurements from logical independence without invoking quantum theory. The axiomatic systems we study can be completed and are therefore not subject to Goedel's incompleteness theorem.
Generator of combined logical signals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laviron, Andre; Berard, Claude.
1982-01-01
The invention concerns a generator of combined logical signals to form combinations of two outputs at logical level 1 and N-2 outputs at logical level 0, among N generator outputs. This generator is characterized in that it includes a set of N means for storing combinations. Means enable the N storage means to be loaded with the logical levels corresponding to a pre-set starting combination, to control the operations for shifting the contents of the storage means and to control, by transfer facilities, the transfers of contents between these storage means. Controls enable the storage means to be actuated in order to obtain combinations of logical levels 1 and 0. The generation of combinations can be stopped after another pre-set combination. Application is for testing of safety circuits for nuclear power stations [fr
Reliability evaluation programmable logic devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Srivani, L.; Murali, N.; Thirugnana Murthy, D.; Satya Murty, S.A.V.
2014-01-01
Programmable Logic Devices (PLD) are widely used as basic building modules in high integrity systems, considering their robust features such as gate density, performance, speed etc. PLDs are used to implement digital design such as bus interface logic, control logic, sequencing logic, glue logic etc. Due to semiconductor evolution, new PLDs with state-of-the-art features are arriving to the market. Since these devices are reliable as per the manufacturer's specification, they were used in the design of safety systems. But due to their reduced market life, the availability of performance data is limited. So evaluating the PLD before deploying in a safety system is very important. This paper presents a survey on the use of PLDs in the nuclear domain and the steps involved in the evaluation of PLD using Quantitative Accelerated Life Testing. (author)
Logical independence and quantum randomness
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paterek, T; Kofler, J; Aspelmeyer, M; Zeilinger, A; Brukner, C [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Boltzmanngasse 3, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Prevedel, R; Klimek, P [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: tomasz.paterek@univie.ac.at
2010-01-15
We propose a link between logical independence and quantum physics. We demonstrate that quantum systems in the eigenstates of Pauli group operators are capable of encoding mathematical axioms and show that Pauli group quantum measurements are capable of revealing whether or not a given proposition is logically dependent on the axiomatic system. Whenever a mathematical proposition is logically independent of the axioms encoded in the measured state, the measurement associated with the proposition gives random outcomes. This allows for an experimental test of logical independence. Conversely, it also allows for an explanation of the probabilities of random outcomes observed in Pauli group measurements from logical independence without invoking quantum theory. The axiomatic systems we study can be completed and are therefore not subject to Goedel's incompleteness theorem.
Marketing Logics, Ambidexterity and Influence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tollin, Karin; Schmidt, Marcus
2012-01-01
in four CMOs have taken on this challenge, or adopted a marketing logic which could be referred to as ambidextrous. Furthermore, the study shows that this logic exerts a stronger impact on marketing's influence, compared to logics related to assuring brand consistency and measuring the performance...... of marketing processes. Three other ways to enact marketing management were also revealed, namely: an innovation; a communication; and a supporting marketing logic. This leads us to conclude that the influence of companies' marketing functions show up a heterogeneous picture within which the marketing logics......The duties of companies' chief marketing officers (CMOs) seem incompatible. They are expected to ensure that their company's market assets are properly exploited and recorded, while simultaneously enacting a proactive role in the company's business development. This study shows that about one...
Flow Logic for Process Calculi
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming; Pilegaard, Henrik
2012-01-01
Flow Logic is an approach to statically determining the behavior of programs and processes. It borrows methods and techniques from Abstract Interpretation, Data Flow Analysis and Constraint Based Analysis while presenting the analysis in a style more reminiscent of Type Systems. Traditionally...... developed for programming languages, this article provides a tutorial development of the approach of Flow Logic for process calculi based on a decade of research. We first develop a simple analysis for the π-calculus; this consists of the specification, semantic soundness (in the form of subject reduction......, and finally, we extend it to a relational analysis. A Flow Logic is a program logic---in the same sense that a Hoare’s logic is. We conclude with an executive summary presenting the highlights of the approach from this perspective including a discussion of theoretical properties as well as implementation...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marklund, J.E.; Bergstroem, U.; Edlund, O.
1980-01-01
The computer program BIOPATH describes the flow of radioactivity within a given ecosystem after a postulated release of radioactive material and the resulting dose for specified population groups. The present report accounts for the input data necessary to run BIOPATH. The report also contains descriptions of possible control cards and an input example as well as a short summary of the basic theory.(author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carr, S.; Lane, G.; Rowling, G.
1986-11-01
This document describes the input procedures, input data files and operating instructions for the SYVAC A/C 1.03 computer program. SYVAC A/C 1.03 simulates the groundwater mediated movement of radionuclides from underground facilities for the disposal of low and intermediate level wastes to the accessible environment, and provides an estimate of the subsequent radiological risk to man. (author)
Keates, Simeon; Robinson, Peter
1999-01-01
For users with motion impairments, the standard keyboard and mouse arrangement for computer access often presents problems. Other approaches have to be adopted to overcome this. In this paper, we will describe the development of a prototype multimodal input system based on two gestural input channels. Results from extensive user trials of this system are presented. These trials showed that the physical and cognitive loads on the user can quickly become excessive and detrimental to the interac...
The Logic of Practice in the Practice of Logics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Raviola, Elena; Dubini, Paola
2016-01-01
of logics through a six months full-time ethnographic study at Il Sole-24 Ore, the largest Italian financial newspaper, between 2007 and 2008. An original conceptual framework is developed to analyse how the logic of journalism is enacted vis-à-vis that of advertising in a setting in which an old technology...... for news production – print newspaper – coexists with a new one – website – and thus encounters between new and old technological possibilities make workings of institutional logics particularly visible. The findings point out different mechanisms of institutional work dealing with actions that, made...
Stochastic p -Bits for Invertible Logic
Camsari, Kerem Yunus; Faria, Rafatul; Sutton, Brian M.; Datta, Supriyo
2017-07-01
Conventional semiconductor-based logic and nanomagnet-based memory devices are built out of stable, deterministic units such as standard metal-oxide semiconductor transistors, or nanomagnets with energy barriers in excess of ≈40 - 60 kT . In this paper, we show that unstable, stochastic units, which we call "p -bits," can be interconnected to create robust correlations that implement precise Boolean functions with impressive accuracy, comparable to standard digital circuits. At the same time, they are invertible, a unique property that is absent in standard digital circuits. When operated in the direct mode, the input is clamped, and the network provides the correct output. In the inverted mode, the output is clamped, and the network fluctuates among all possible inputs that are consistent with that output. First, we present a detailed implementation of an invertible gate to bring out the key role of a single three-terminal transistorlike building block to enable the construction of correlated p -bit networks. The results for this specific, CMOS-assisted nanomagnet-based hardware implementation agree well with those from a universal model for p -bits, showing that p -bits need not be magnet based: any three-terminal tunable random bit generator should be suitable. We present a general algorithm for designing a Boltzmann machine (BM) with a symmetric connection matrix [J ] (Ji j=Jj i) that implements a given truth table with p -bits. The [J ] matrices are relatively sparse with a few unique weights for convenient hardware implementation. We then show how BM full adders can be interconnected in a partially directed manner (Ji j≠Jj i) to implement large logic operations such as 32-bit binary addition. Hundreds of stochastic p -bits get precisely correlated such that the correct answer out of 233 (≈8 ×1 09) possibilities can be extracted by looking at the statistical mode or majority vote of a number of time samples. With perfect directivity (Jj i=0 ) a small
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lefebvre, Claude; Therond, J.P.
1974-01-01
The present invention relates to a self-powered 'AND' logic circuit of dynamic type with positive safety, which delivers on duty operation an output signal equal to the logic product of the input logic signals. The invention relates also to the use of said 'AND' logic circuits in developing n/m logics also of dynamic types with positive safety, delivering on duty operation a zero valued signal when, at least n of the m input signals have the value zero. This type of logics can be inserted in nuclear reactor protection systems; when the value of the reactor operating physical characteristics go out of the safety margins, or true trouble affects 'AND' circuits the value of the output signal is zero, that triggers off the safety absorber drap, for instance [fr
All-spin logic operations: Memory device and reconfigurable computing
Patra, Moumita; Maiti, Santanu K.
2018-02-01
Exploiting spin degree of freedom of electron a new proposal is given to characterize spin-based logical operations using a quantum interferometer that can be utilized as a programmable spin logic device (PSLD). The ON and OFF states of both inputs and outputs are described by spin state only, circumventing spin-to-charge conversion at every stage as often used in conventional devices with the inclusion of extra hardware that can eventually diminish the efficiency. All possible logic functions can be engineered from a single device without redesigning the circuit which certainly offers the opportunities of designing new generation spintronic devices. Moreover, we also discuss the utilization of the present model as a memory device and suitable computing operations with proposed experimental setups.
Microdroplet-based universal logic gates by electrorheological fluid
Zhang, Mengying
2011-01-01
We demonstrate a uniquely designed microfluid logic gate with universal functionality, which is capable of conducting all 16 logic operations in one chip, with different input voltage combinations. A kind of smart colloid, giant electrorheological (GER) fluid, functions as the translation media among fluidic, electronic and mechanic information, providing us with the capability of performing large integrations either on-chip or off-chip, while the on-chip hybrid circuit is formed by the interconnection of the electric components and fluidic channels, where the individual microdroplets travelling in a channel represents a bit. The universal logic gate reveals the possibilities of achieving a large-scale microfluidic processor with more complexity for on-chip processing for biological, chemical as well as computational experiments. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Axially modulated arch resonator for logic and memory applications
Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al
2018-01-17
We demonstrate reconfigurable logic and random access memory devices based on an axially modulated clamped-guided arch resonator. The device is electrostatically actuated and the motional signal is capacitively sensed, while the resonance frequency is modulated through an axial electrostatic force from the guided side of the microbeam. A multi-physics finite element model is used to verify the effectiveness of the axial modulation. We present two case studies: first, a reconfigurable two-input logic gate based on the linear resonance frequency modulation, and second, a memory element based on the hysteretic frequency response of the resonator working in the nonlinear regime. The energy consumptions of the device for both logic and memory operations are in the range of picojoules, promising for energy efficient alternative computing paradigm.
Noise-assisted morphing of memory and logic function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kohar, Vivek; Sinha, Sudeshna
2012-01-01
We demonstrate how noise allows a bistable system to behave as a memory device, as well as a logic gate. Namely, in some optimal range of noise, the system can operate flexibly, both as a NAND/AND gate and a Set–Reset latch, by varying an asymmetrizing bias. Thus we show how this system implements memory, even for sub-threshold input signals, using noise constructively to store information. This can lead to the development of reconfigurable devices, that can switch efficiently between memory tasks and logic operations. -- Highlights: ► We consider a nonlinear system in a noisy environment. ► We show that the system can function as a robust memory element. ► Further, the response of the system can be easily morphed from memory to logic operations. ► Such systems can potentially act as building blocks of “smart” computing devices.
Basic logic and quantum entanglement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zizzi, P A
2007-01-01
As it is well known, quantum entanglement is one of the most important features of quantum computing, as it leads to massive quantum parallelism, hence to exponential computational speed-up. In a sense, quantum entanglement is considered as an implicit property of quantum computation itself. But... can it be made explicit? In other words, is it possible to find the connective 'entanglement' in a logical sequent calculus for the machine language? And also, is it possible to 'teach' the quantum computer to 'mimic' the EPR 'paradox'? The answer is in the affirmative, if the logical sequent calculus is that of the weakest possible logic, namely Basic logic. - A weak logic has few structural rules. But in logic, a weak structure leaves more room for connectives (for example the connective 'entanglement'). Furthermore, the absence in Basic logic of the two structural rules of contraction and weakening corresponds to the validity of the no-cloning and no-erase theorems, respectively, in quantum computing
Basic logic and quantum entanglement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zizzi, P A [Dipartimento di Matematica Pura ed Applicata, Via Trieste 63, 35121 Padova (Italy)
2007-05-15
As it is well known, quantum entanglement is one of the most important features of quantum computing, as it leads to massive quantum parallelism, hence to exponential computational speed-up. In a sense, quantum entanglement is considered as an implicit property of quantum computation itself. But... can it be made explicit? In other words, is it possible to find the connective 'entanglement' in a logical sequent calculus for the machine language? And also, is it possible to 'teach' the quantum computer to 'mimic' the EPR 'paradox'? The answer is in the affirmative, if the logical sequent calculus is that of the weakest possible logic, namely Basic logic. - A weak logic has few structural rules. But in logic, a weak structure leaves more room for connectives (for example the connective 'entanglement'). Furthermore, the absence in Basic logic of the two structural rules of contraction and weakening corresponds to the validity of the no-cloning and no-erase theorems, respectively, in quantum computing.
Logic regression and its extensions.
Schwender, Holger; Ruczinski, Ingo
2010-01-01
Logic regression is an adaptive classification and regression procedure, initially developed to reveal interacting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genetic association studies. In general, this approach can be used in any setting with binary predictors, when the interaction of these covariates is of primary interest. Logic regression searches for Boolean (logic) combinations of binary variables that best explain the variability in the outcome variable, and thus, reveals variables and interactions that are associated with the response and/or have predictive capabilities. The logic expressions are embedded in a generalized linear regression framework, and thus, logic regression can handle a variety of outcome types, such as binary responses in case-control studies, numeric responses, and time-to-event data. In this chapter, we provide an introduction to the logic regression methodology, list some applications in public health and medicine, and summarize some of the direct extensions and modifications of logic regression that have been proposed in the literature. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kral, M J
1994-01-01
Although suicide is not viewed as a mental disorder per se, it is viewed by many if not most clinicians, researchers, and lay people as a real or natural symptom of depression. It is at least most typically seen as the unfortunate, severe, yet logical end result of a chain of negative self-appraisals, negative events, and hopelessness. Extending an approach articulated by the early French sociologist Gabriel Tarde, in this paper I argue that suicide is merely an idea, albeit a very bad one, having more in common with societal beliefs and norms regarding such things as divorce, abortion, sex, politics, consumer behavior, and fashion. I make a sharp contrast between perturbation and lethality, concepts central to Edwin S. Shneidman's theory of suicide. Evidence supportive of suicide as an idea is discussed based on what we are learning from the study of history and culture, and about contagion/cluster phenomena, media/communication, and choice of method. It is suggested that certain individuals are more vulnerable to incorporate the idea and act of suicide into their concepts of self, based on the same principles by which ideas are spread throughout society. Just as suicide impacts on society, so does society impact on suicide.
Remmel, Jeffrey; Shore, Richard; Sweedler, Moss; Progress in Computer Science and Applied Logic
1993-01-01
The twenty-six papers in this volume reflect the wide and still expanding range of Anil Nerode's work. A conference on Logical Methods was held in honor of Nerode's sixtieth birthday (4 June 1992) at the Mathematical Sciences Institute, Cornell University, 1-3 June 1992. Some of the conference papers are here, but others are from students, co-workers and other colleagues. The intention of the conference was to look forward, and to see the directions currently being pursued, in the development of work by, or with, Nerode. Here is a brief summary of the contents of this book. We give a retrospective view of Nerode's work. A number of specific areas are readily discerned: recursive equivalence types, recursive algebra and model theory, the theory of Turing degrees and r.e. sets, polynomial-time computability and computer science. Nerode began with automata theory and has also taken a keen interest in the history of mathematics. All these areas are represented. The one area missing is Nerode's applied mathematica...
Rethinking logic logic in relation to mathematics, evolution, and method
Cellucci, Carlo
2014-01-01
This book examines the limitations of mathematical logic and proposes a new approach intended to overcome them. Formulates new rules of discovery, such as induction, analogy, generalization, specialization, metaphor, metonymy, definition and diagrams.
The conditional in quantum logic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hardegree, G.M.
1976-01-01
In this article it is argued that orthodox quantum logic, which is represented by the lattice of projections on Hilbert space, does in fact admit an operation which possesses the essential properties of a material conditional. It is proposed that this connective can be interpreted as a Stalnaker (counter factual) conditional, where the nearness ordering among 'worlds' (in this case, QM pure states) derives in a natural way from the Hilbert space inner-product metric. It is a characteristic of the quantum logic conditional that the law of modus ponens is equivalent to the orthomodular law of conventional quantum logic. (B.R.H.)
Handling Pressures of Community Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Minbaeva, Dana; Hotho, Jasper; Muratbekova-Touron, Maral
2013-01-01
The paper aims at investigating how in pluralistic societies, such as emerging economies and countries in transition, organizational decision-makers respond to pressures of community logics in non-community settings, such as the work place. We theorize that in non-community settings, social...... relations and interactions with community members can act as social cues that induce and expose individuals to community logics. We subsequently propose that properties of these relations – immediacy and relatedness - will affect individual response strategies towards community logics. We test these ideas...... with an experimental vignette study of the effects of clan and kinship ties on recruitment and selection decisions in Kazakhstan, followed by qualitative interviews....
Miniaturization of Josephson logic circuits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ko, H.; Van Duzer, T.
1985-01-01
The performances of Current Injection Logic (CIL) and Resistor Coupled Josephson Logic (RCJL) have been evaluated for minimum features sizes ranging from 5 μm to 0.2 μm. The logic delay is limited to about 10 ps for both the CIL AND gate and the RCJL OR gate biased at 70% of maximum bias current. The maximum circuit count on an 6.35 x 6.35 chip is 13,000 for CIL gates and 20,000 for RCJL gates. Some suggestions are given for further improvements
Nanoelectromechanical resonator for logic operations
Kazmi, Syed N. R.
2017-08-29
We report an electro-thermally tunable in-plane doubly-clamped nanoelectromechanical resonator capable of dynamically performing NOR, NOT, XNOR, XOR, and AND logic operations. Toward this, a silicon based resonator is fabricated using standard e-beam lithography and surface nanomachining of a highly conductive device layer of a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. The performance of this logic device is examined at elevated temperatures, ranging from 25 °C to 85 °C, demonstrating its resilience for most of the logic operations; thereby paving the way towards nano-elements-based mechanical computing.
Formalized Epistemology, Logic, and Grammar
Bitbol, Michel
The task of a formal epistemology is defined. It appears that a formal epistemology must be a generalization of "logic" in the sense of Wittgenstein's Tractatus. The generalization is required because, whereas logic presupposes a strict relation between activity and language, this relation may be broken in some domains of experimental enquiry (e.g., in microscopic physics). However, a formal epistemology should also retain a major feature of Wittgenstein's "logic": It must not be a discourse about scientific knowledge, but rather a way of making manifest the structures usually implicit in knowledge-gaining activity. This strategy is applied to the formalism of quantum mechanics.
Use of fuzzy logic in signal processing and validation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heger, A.S.; Alang-Rashid, N.K.; Holbert, K.E.
1993-01-01
The advent of fuzzy logic technology has afforded another opportunity to reexamine the signal processing and validation process (SPV). The features offered by fuzzy logic can lend themselves to a more reliable and perhaps fault-tolerant approach to SPV. This is particularly attractive to complex system operations, where optimal control for safe operation depends on reliable input data. The reason for the use of fuzzy logic as the tool for SPV is its ability to transform information from the linguistic domain to a mathematical domain for processing and then transformation of its result back into the linguistic domain for presentation. To ensure the safe and optimal operation of a nuclear plant, for example, reliable and valid data must be available to the human and computer operators. Based on these input data, the operators determine the current state of the power plant and project corrective actions for future states. This determination is based on available data and the conceptual and mathematical models for the plant. A fault-tolerant SPV based on fuzzy logic can help the operators meet the objective of effective, efficient, and safe operation of the nuclear power plant. The ultimate product of this project will be a code that will assist plant operators in making informed decisions under uncertain conditions when conflicting signals may be present
Analysis of Logic Programs Using Regular Tree Languages
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gallagher, John Patrick
2012-01-01
The eld of nite tree automata provides fundamental notations and tools for reasoning about set of terms called regular or recognizable tree languages. We consider two kinds of analysis using regular tree languages, applied to logic programs. The rst approach is to try to discover automatically...... a tree automaton from a logic program, approximating its minimal Herbrand model. In this case the input for the analysis is a program, and the output is a tree automaton. The second approach is to expose or check properties of the program that can be expressed by a given tree automaton. The input...... to the analysis is a program and a tree automaton, and the output is an abstract model of the program. These two contrasting abstract interpretations can be used in a wide range of analysis and verication problems....
Decision logics in radiotherapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gauwerky, F.
1979-01-01
Decisions in planning procedures can generally, at least for beam therapy to deep seated tumors, be based on a self-consistent system of criteria of optimization, namely: 1. The absorbed dose to the target volume must be applied as uniformly as possible. 2. Absorbed doses to organs (volumes) at risk must be as low as possible, at least below an accepted limit. 3. Radiation effects to outside volumes must be kept as low as possible. Whereas these criteria, as being reduced to the simplest possible requirements, have to be regarded as the stable elements, the radiotherapy parameters, such as geometric arrangements, special techniques, absorbed dose contributions to reference points or systems, have to be taken as the variables within decision processes. The properties of the criteria which have widely proved to be valuable in routine clinical practice, have been investigated in relation to the theoretical system of axioms as it is e.g. offered by Karl Popper's general logics of scientific research. An axiomatic system, as it is demanded (after Popper) must be a) free of discrepancies, i.e. self-consistent (not any sentence can be derived), b) independent, that is, one axiom cannot be derived from another one within the system, c) sufficient for deduction of statements needed, d) necessary, that is complete. All these requirements are fitting also to the offered system of radiotherapy optimization criteria. It has been demonstrated, that Popper's axiomatic system can be regarded as to be the general case for all scientific fields of application, the set of optimization criteria being a special system for radiation therapy, which would have been derivable from Popper's theory. Also practical use could be demonstrated. (orig./ORU) [de
Quantum supports and modal logic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Svetlichny, G.
1986-01-01
Recently Foulis, Piron, and Randall introduced a new interpretation of empirical and quantum logics which substitute for the notion of a probabilistic weight a combinatorial notion called a support. The informal use of the notion of ''possible outcomes of experiments'' suggests that this interpretation can be related to corresponding formal notions as treated by modal logic. The purpose of this paper is to prove that in fact supports are in one-to-one correspondence with the sets of possibly true elementary propositions in Kripke models of a set of modal formulas associated to the empirical or quantum logic. This hopefully provides a sufficiently detailed link between the two rather distinct logical systems to shed useful light on both
Classical Limit and Quantum Logic
Losada, Marcelo; Fortin, Sebastian; Holik, Federico
2018-02-01
The analysis of the classical limit of quantum mechanics usually focuses on the state of the system. The general idea is to explain the disappearance of the interference terms of quantum states appealing to the decoherence process induced by the environment. However, in these approaches it is not explained how the structure of quantum properties becomes classical. In this paper, we consider the classical limit from a different perspective. We consider the set of properties of a quantum system and we study the quantum-to-classical transition of its logical structure. The aim is to open the door to a new study based on dynamical logics, that is, logics that change over time. In particular, we appeal to the notion of hybrid logics to describe semiclassical systems. Moreover, we consider systems with many characteristic decoherence times, whose sublattices of properties become distributive at different times.
Logical Theories for Agent Introspection
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bolander, Thomas
2004-01-01
Artificial intelligence systems (agents) generally have models of the environments they inhabit which they use for representing facts, for reasoning about these facts and for planning actions. Much intelligent behaviour seems to involve an ability to model not only one's external environment...... by self-reference. In the standard approach taken in artificial intelligence, the model that an agent has of its environment is represented as a set of beliefs. These beliefs are expressed as logical formulas within a formal, logical theory. When the logical theory is expressive enough to allow...... introspective reasoning, the presence of self-reference causes the theory to be prone to inconsistency. The challenge therefore becomes to construct logical theories supporting introspective reasoning while at the same time ensuring that consistency is retained. In the thesis, we meet this challenge by devising...
Dependence logic theory and applications
Kontinen, Juha; Väänänen, Jouko; Vollmer, Heribert
2016-01-01
In this volume, different aspects of logics for dependence and independence are discussed, including both the logical and computational aspects of dependence logic, and also applications in a number of areas, such as statistics, social choice theory, databases, and computer security. The contributing authors represent leading experts in this relatively new field, each of whom was invited to write a chapter based on talks given at seminars held at the Schloss Dagstuhl Leibniz Center for Informatics in Wadern, Germany (in February 2013 and June 2015) and an Academy Colloquium at the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (March 2014). Altogether, these chapters provide the most up-to-date look at this developing and highly interdisciplinary field and will be of interest to a broad group of logicians, mathematicians, statisticians, philosophers, and scientists. Topics covered include a comprehensive survey of many propositional, modal, and first-order variants of dependence logic; new results concerning ...
Nanoelectromechanical resonator for logic operations
Kazmi, Syed N. R.; Hafiz, Md A. Al; Chappanda, Karumbaiah N.; Ilyas, Saad; Holguin, Jorge; Da Costa, Pedro M. F. J.; Younis, Mohammad I.
2017-01-01
We report an electro-thermally tunable in-plane doubly-clamped nanoelectromechanical resonator capable of dynamically performing NOR, NOT, XNOR, XOR, and AND logic operations. Toward this, a silicon based resonator is fabricated using standard e
On-line tuning of a fuzzy-logic power system stabilizer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hossein-Zadeh, N.; Kalam, A.
2002-01-01
A scheme for on-line tuning of a fuzzy-logic power system stabilizer is presented. firstly, a fuzzy-logic power system stabilizer is developed using speed deviation and accelerating power as the controller input variables. The inference mechanism of fuzzy-logic controller is represented by a decision table, constructed of linguistic IF-THEN rules. The Linguistic rules are available from experts and the design procedure is based on these rules. It assumed that an exact model of the plant is not available and it is difficult to extract the exact parameters of the power plant. Thus, the design procedure can not be based on an exact model. This is an advantage of fuzzy logic that makes the design of a controller possible without knowing the exact model of the plant. Secondly, two scaling parameters are introduced to tune the fuzzy-logic power system stabilizer. These scaling parameters are the outputs of another fuzzy-logic system, which gets the operating conditions of power system as inputs. These mechanism of tuning the fuzzy-logic power system stabilizer makes the fuzzy-logic power system stabilizer adaptive to changes in the operating conditions. Therefore, the degradation of the system response, under a wide range of operating conditions, is less compared to the system response with a fixed-parameter fuzzy-logic power system stabilizer and a conventional (linear) power system stabilizer. The tuned stabilizer has been tested by performing nonlinear simulations using a synchronous machine-infinite bus model. The responses are compared with a fixed parameters fuzzy-logic power system stabilizer and a conventional (linear) power system stabilizer. It is shown that the tuned fuzzy-logic power system stabilizer is superior to both of them
A fuzzy logic pitch angle controller for power system stabilization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jauch, Clemens; Cronin, Tom; Sorensen, Poul [Wind Energy Department, Riso National Laboratory, PO Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde, (Denmark); Jensen, Birgitte Bak [Institute of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, Pontoppidanstraede 101, DK-9220 Aalborg East, (Denmark)
2006-07-12
In this article the design of a fuzzy logic pitch angle controller for a fixed speed, active-stall wind turbine, which is used for power system stabilization, is presented. The system to be controlled, which is the wind turbine and the power system to which the turbine is connected, is described. The advantages of fuzzy logic control when applied to large-signal control of active-stall wind turbines are outlined. The general steps of the design process for a fuzzy logic controller, including definition of the controller inputs, set-up of the fuzzy rules and the method of defuzzification, are described. The performance of the controller is assessed by simulation, where the wind turbine's task is to dampen power system oscillations. In the scenario simulated for this work, the wind turbine has to ride through a transient short-circuit fault and subsequently contribute to the damping of the grid frequency oscillations that are caused by the transient fault. It is concluded that the fuzzy logic controller enables the wind turbine to dampen power system oscillations. It is also concluded that, owing to the inherent non-linearities in a wind turbine and the unpredictability of the whole system, the fuzzy logic controller is very suitable for this application. (Author).
Model Checking Temporal Logic Formulas Using Sticker Automata
Feng, Changwei; Wu, Huanmei
2017-01-01
As an important complex problem, the temporal logic model checking problem is still far from being fully resolved under the circumstance of DNA computing, especially Computation Tree Logic (CTL), Interval Temporal Logic (ITL), and Projection Temporal Logic (PTL), because there is still a lack of approaches for DNA model checking. To address this challenge, a model checking method is proposed for checking the basic formulas in the above three temporal logic types with DNA molecules. First, one-type single-stranded DNA molecules are employed to encode the Finite State Automaton (FSA) model of the given basic formula so that a sticker automaton is obtained. On the other hand, other single-stranded DNA molecules are employed to encode the given system model so that the input strings of the sticker automaton are obtained. Next, a series of biochemical reactions are conducted between the above two types of single-stranded DNA molecules. It can then be decided whether the system satisfies the formula or not. As a result, we have developed a DNA-based approach for checking all the basic formulas of CTL, ITL, and PTL. The simulated results demonstrate the effectiveness of the new method. PMID:29119114
Empirical logic and quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foulis, D.J.; Randall, C.H.
1976-01-01
This article discusses some of the basic notions of quantum physics within the more general framework of operational statistics and empirical logic (as developed in Foulis and Randall, 1972, and Randall and Foulis, 1973). Empirical logic is a formal mathematical system in which the notion of an operation is primitive and undefined; all other concepts are rigorously defined in terms of such operations (which are presumed to correspond to actual physical procedures). (Auth.)
Logical operations using phenyl ring
Patra, Moumita; Maiti, Santanu K.
2018-02-01
Exploiting the effects of quantum interference we put forward an idea of designing three primary logic gates, OR, AND and NOT, using a benzene molecule. Under a specific molecule-lead interface geometry, anti-resonant states appear which play the crucial role for AND and NOT operations, while for OR gate no such states are required. Our analysis leads to a possibility of designing logic gates using simple molecular structure which might be significant in the area of molecular electronics.
Observation Predicates in Flow Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Sun, Hongyan
2003-01-01
in such a way that the hard constraints are satisfi ed exactly when the observation predicates report no violations. The development is carried out in a large fragment of a first order logic with negation and also takes care of the transformations necessary in order to adhere to the stratification restrictions...... inherent in Alternation-free Least Fixed Point Logic and similar formalisms such as Datalog....
Logically automorphically equivalent knowledge bases
Aladova, Elena; Plotkin, Tatjana
2017-01-01
Knowledge bases theory provide an important example of the field where applications of universal algebra and algebraic logic look very natural, and their interaction with practical problems arising in computer science might be very productive. In this paper we study the equivalence problem for knowledge bases. Our interest is to find out how the informational equivalence is related to the logical description of knowledge. Studying various equivalences of knowledge bases allows us to compare d...
Brünnler, Kai; Flumini, Dandolo; Studer, Thomas
2017-01-01
Blockchains are distributed data structures that are used to achieve consensus in systems for cryptocurrencies (like Bitcoin) or smart contracts (like Ethereum). Although blockchains gained a lot of popularity recently, there is no logic-based model for blockchains available. We introduce BCL, a dynamic logic to reason about blockchain updates, and show that BCL is sound and complete with respect to a simple blockchain model.
Logical Reasoning and Decision Making
Ong, D; Khaddaj, Souheil; Bashroush, Rabih
2011-01-01
Most intelligent systems have some form of \\ud decision making mechanisms built into their \\ud organisations. These normally include a logical \\ud reasoning element into their design. This paper reviews \\ud and compares the different logical reasoning strategies, \\ud and tries to address the accuracy and precision of \\ud decision making by formulating a tolerance to \\ud imprecision view which can be used in conjunction with \\ud the various reasoning strategies.
Flow Logics and Operational Semantics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis
1998-01-01
Flow logic is a “fast prototyping” approach to program analysis that shows great promise of being able to deal with a wide variety of languages and calculi for computation. However, seemingly innocent choices in the flow logic as well as in the operational semantics may inhibit proving the analys...... correct. Our main conclusion is that environment based semantics is more flexible than either substitution based semantics or semantics making use of structural congruences (like alpha-renaming)....
Designing Experiments to Discriminate Families of Logic Models.
Videla, Santiago; Konokotina, Irina; Alexopoulos, Leonidas G; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; Schaub, Torsten; Siegel, Anne; Guziolowski, Carito
2015-01-01
Logic models of signaling pathways are a promising way of building effective in silico functional models of a cell, in particular of signaling pathways. The automated learning of Boolean logic models describing signaling pathways can be achieved by training to phosphoproteomics data, which is particularly useful if it is measured upon different combinations of perturbations in a high-throughput fashion. However, in practice, the number and type of allowed perturbations are not exhaustive. Moreover, experimental data are unavoidably subjected to noise. As a result, the learning process results in a family of feasible logical networks rather than in a single model. This family is composed of logic models implementing different internal wirings for the system and therefore the predictions of experiments from this family may present a significant level of variability, and hence uncertainty. In this paper, we introduce a method based on Answer Set Programming to propose an optimal experimental design that aims to narrow down the variability (in terms of input-output behaviors) within families of logical models learned from experimental data. We study how the fitness with respect to the data can be improved after an optimal selection of signaling perturbations and how we learn optimal logic models with minimal number of experiments. The methods are applied on signaling pathways in human liver cells and phosphoproteomics experimental data. Using 25% of the experiments, we obtained logical models with fitness scores (mean square error) 15% close to the ones obtained using all experiments, illustrating the impact that our approach can have on the design of experiments for efficient model calibration.
Fuzzy Logic Based Autonomous Traffic Control System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad ABBAS
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to design and implement fuzzy logic based traffic light Control system to solve the traffic congestion issues. In this system four input parameters: Arrival, Queue, Pedestrian and Emergency Vehicle and two output parameters: Extension in Green and Pedestrian Signals are used. Using Fuzzy Rule Base, the system extends or terminates the Green Signal according to the Traffic situation at the junction. On the presence of emergency vehicle, the system decides which signal(s should be red and how much an extension should be given to Green Signal for Emergency Vehicle. The system also monitors the density of people and makes decisions accordingly. In order to verify the proposed design algorithm MATLAB simulation is adopted and results obtained show concurrency to the calculated values according to the Mamdani Model of the Fuzzy Control System.
Synthesis of logic circuits with evolutionary algorithms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
JONES,JAKE S.; DAVIDSON,GEORGE S.
2000-01-26
In the last decade there has been interest and research in the area of designing circuits with genetic algorithms, evolutionary algorithms, and genetic programming. However, the ability to design circuits of the size and complexity required by modern engineering design problems, simply by specifying required outputs for given inputs has as yet eluded researchers. This paper describes current research in the area of designing logic circuits using an evolutionary algorithm. The goal of the research is to improve the effectiveness of this method and make it a practical aid for design engineers. A novel method of implementing the algorithm is introduced, and results are presented for various multiprocessing systems. In addition to evolving standard arithmetic circuits, work in the area of evolving circuits that perform digital signal processing tasks is described.
A new fast and programmable trigger logic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fucci, A.; Amendolia, S.R.; Bertolucci, E.; Bottigli, U.; Bradaschia, C.; Foa, L.; Giazotto, A.; Giorgi, M.; Givoletti, M.; Lucardesi, P.; Menzione, A.; Passuello, D.; Quaglia, M.; Ristori, L.; Rolandi, L.; Salvadori, P.; Scribano, A.; Stanga, R.; Stefanini, A.; Vincelli, M.L.
1977-01-01
The NA1 (FRAMM) experiment, under construction for the CERN-SPS North Area, deals with more than 1000 counter signals which have to be combined together in order to build sophisticated and highly selective triggers. These requirements have led to the development of a low cost, combinatorial, fast electronics which can replace, in an advantageous way the standard NIM electronics at the trigger level. The essential performances of the basic circuit are: 1) programmability of any desired logical expression; 2) trigger time independent of the chosen expression; 3) reduced cost and compactness due to the use of commercial RAMs, PROMs, and PLAs; 4) short delay, less than 20 ns, between input and output pulses. (Auth.)
FUZZY LOGIC STATIC SYNCHRONOUS COMPENSATOR (FLSTATCOM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I Made Mataram
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Penerapan teknik fuzzy membawa perubahan yang signifikan khusus pada perhitungan dan analisis sistem konvensional. Peranan peralatan FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission System untuk memperbaiki kualitas tegangan dari pembangkit menuju beban sangat besar. STATCOM merupakan peralatan paling berpengaruh untuk memperbaiki tegangan pada jaringan transmisi tenaga listrik. Pembahasan pada penelitian ini dikhususkan pada FLSTATCOM. Model Fuzzy Logic dengan dua input digunakan sebagai pengontrol IGBT, sehingga mampu meningkatkan unjuk kerja STATCOM konvensional. Sistem Single Machine Infinite Bus menjadi sistem uji coba penggunaan FLSTATCOM.Hasil simulasi menggunakan simulink MATLAB, diperoleh nilai tegangan pada tiap sisi terima tanpa menggunakan STATCOM menghasilkan tegangan sebesar 217,3 kV, menggunakan STATCOM menghasilkan tegangan sebesar 220 kV, dan penggunaan FLSTATCOM mampu meningkatkan tegangan menjadi 228,9 kV (5,34%
Multi-input wide dynamic range ADC system for use with nuclear detectors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Austin, R W [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, Ala. (USA). George C. Marshall Space Flight Center
1976-04-15
A wide dynamic range, eight input analog-to-digital converter system has been developed for use in nuclear experiments. The system consists of eight dual-range sample and hold modules, an eight input multiplexer, a ten-bit analog-to-digital converter, and the associated control logic.
Application of linear logic to simulation
Clarke, Thomas L.
1998-08-01
Linear logic, since its introduction by Girard in 1987 has proven expressive and powerful. Linear logic has provided natural encodings of Turing machines, Petri nets and other computational models. Linear logic is also capable of naturally modeling resource dependent aspects of reasoning. The distinguishing characteristic of linear logic is that it accounts for resources; two instances of the same variable are considered differently from a single instance. Linear logic thus must obey a form of the linear superposition principle. A proportion can be reasoned with only once, unless a special operator is applied. Informally, linear logic distinguishes two kinds of conjunction, two kinds of disjunction, and also introduces a modal storage operator that explicitly indicates propositions that can be reused. This paper discuses the application of linear logic to simulation. A wide variety of logics have been developed; in addition to classical logic, there are fuzzy logics, affine logics, quantum logics, etc. All of these have found application in simulations of one sort or another. The special characteristics of linear logic and its benefits for simulation will be discussed. Of particular interest is a connection that can be made between linear logic and simulated dynamics by using the concept of Lie algebras and Lie groups. Lie groups provide the connection between the exponential modal storage operators of linear logic and the eigen functions of dynamic differential operators. Particularly suggestive are possible relations between complexity result for linear logic and non-computability results for dynamical systems.
On Structural Completeness of Tabular Superintuitionistic Logics
Citkin, Alexander
2015-01-01
As usual, the superintuitionistic (propositional) logics (that is, logics extending intuitionistic logic) are being studied “modulo derivability”, meaning such logics are viewed extensionally — they are identified with the set of formulae that are valid (derivable in the corresponding calculus) in
Temporal logics and real time expert systems
Blom, J.A.
1996-01-01
This paper introduces temporal logics. Due to the eternal compromise between expressive adequacy and reasoning efficiency that must decided upon in any application, full (first order logic or modal logic based) temporal logics are frequently not suitable. This is especially true in real time expert
Breaking the fault tree circular logic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lankin, M.
2000-01-01
Event tree - fault tree approach to model failures of nuclear plants as well as of other complex facilities is noticeably dominant now. This approach implies modeling an object in form of unidirectional logical graph - tree, i.e. graph without circular logic. However, genuine nuclear plants intrinsically demonstrate quite a few logical loops (circular logic), especially where electrical systems are involved. This paper shows the incorrectness of existing practice of circular logic breaking by elimination of part of logical dependencies and puts forward a formal algorithm, which enables the analyst to correctly model the failure of complex object, which involves logical dependencies between system and components, in form of fault tree. (author)
Proposal for the Formalization of Dialectical Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Luis Usó-Doménech
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Classical logic is typically concerned with abstract analysis. The problem for a synthetic logic is to transcend and unify available data to reconstruct the object as a totality. Three rules are proposed to pass from classic logic to synthetic logic. We present the category logic of qualitative opposition using examples from various sciences. This logic has been defined to include the neuter as part of qualitative opposition. The application of these rules to qualitative opposition, and, in particular, its neuter, demonstrated that a synthetic logic allows the truth of some contradictions. This synthetic logic is dialectical with a multi-valued logic, which gives every proposition a truth value in the interval [0,1] that is the square of the modulus of a complex number. In this dialectical logic, contradictions of the neuter of an opposition may be true.
A Resolution Prover for Coalition Logic
Nalon, Cláudia; Zhang, Lan; Dixon, Clare; Hustadt, Ullrich
2014-01-01
We present a prototype tool for automated reasoning for Coalition Logic, a non-normal modal logic that can be used for reasoning about cooperative agency. The theorem prover CLProver is based on recent work on a resolution-based calculus for Coalition Logic that operates on coalition problems, a normal form for Coalition Logic. We provide an overview of coalition problems and of the resolution-based calculus for Coalition Logic. We then give details of the implementation of CLProver and prese...
A vindication of logical necessity against scepticism
Philie, Patrice
2002-01-01
Some philosophers dispute the claim that there is a notion of logical necessity involved in the concept of logical consequence. They are sceptical about logical necessity. They argue that a proper characterisation of logical consequence - of what follows from what - need not and should not appeal to the notion of necessity at all. Quine is the most prominent philosopher holding such a view. In this doctoral dissertation, I argue that scepticism about logical necessity is not successful. Quine...
Acoustic logic gates and Boolean operation based on self-collimating acoustic beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Ting; Xu, Jian-yi; Cheng, Ying; Liu, Xiao-jun; Guo, Jian-zhong
2015-01-01
The reveal of self-collimation effect in two-dimensional (2D) photonic or acoustic crystals has opened up possibilities for signal manipulation. In this paper, we have proposed acoustic logic gates based on the linear interference of self-collimated beams in 2D sonic crystals (SCs) with line-defects. The line defects on the diagonal of the 2D square SCs are actually functioning as a 3 dB splitter. By adjusting the phase difference between two input signals, the basic Boolean logic functions such as XOR, OR, AND, and NOT are achieved both theoretically and experimentally. Due to the non-diffracting property of self-collimation beams, more complex Boolean logic and algorithms such as NAND, NOR, and XNOR can be realized by cascading the basic logic gates. The achievement of acoustic logic gates and Boolean operation provides a promising approach for acoustic signal computing and manipulations
A hybrid nanomemristor/transistor logic circuit capable of self-programming.
Borghetti, Julien; Li, Zhiyong; Straznicky, Joseph; Li, Xuema; Ohlberg, Douglas A A; Wu, Wei; Stewart, Duncan R; Williams, R Stanley
2009-02-10
Memristor crossbars were fabricated at 40 nm half-pitch, using nanoimprint lithography on the same substrate with Si metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOS FET) arrays to form fully integrated hybrid memory resistor (memristor)/transistor circuits. The digitally configured memristor crossbars were used to perform logic functions, to serve as a routing fabric for interconnecting the FETs and as the target for storing information. As an illustrative demonstration, the compound Boolean logic operation (A AND B) OR (C AND D) was performed with kilohertz frequency inputs, using resistor-based logic in a memristor crossbar with FET inverter/amplifier outputs. By routing the output signal of a logic operation back onto a target memristor inside the array, the crossbar was conditionally configured by setting the state of a nonvolatile switch. Such conditional programming illuminates the way for a variety of self-programmed logic arrays, and for electronic synaptic computing.
Realization of a quantum Hamiltonian Boolean logic gate on the Si(001):H surface.
Kolmer, Marek; Zuzak, Rafal; Dridi, Ghassen; Godlewski, Szymon; Joachim, Christian; Szymonski, Marek
2015-08-07
The design and construction of the first prototypical QHC (Quantum Hamiltonian Computing) atomic scale Boolean logic gate is reported using scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) tip-induced atom manipulation on an Si(001):H surface. The NOR/OR gate truth table was confirmed by dI/dU STS (Scanning Tunnelling Spectroscopy) tracking how the surface states of the QHC quantum circuit on the Si(001):H surface are shifted according to the input logical status.
Fuzzy Logic Based The Application of Multi-Microcontroller in Mobile Robot Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nuryono Satya Widodo
2009-12-01
Full Text Available This paper proposed a fuzzy logic based mobile robot as implemented in a multimicrocontroller system. Fuzzy logic controller was developed based on a behavior based approach. The Controller inputs were obtained from seven sonar sensor and three tactile switches. Behavior based approach was implemented in different level priority of behaviors. The behaviors were: obstacle avoidance, wall following and escaping as the emergency behavior. The results show that robot was able to navigate autonomously and avoid the entire obstacle.
A new hierarchy of infinitary logics in abstract algebraic logic
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Lávička, Tomáš; Noguera, Carles
2017-01-01
Roč. 105, č. 3 (2017), s. 521-551 ISSN 0039-3215 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14654S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 689176 - SYSMICS Institutional support: RVO:67985556 ; RVO:67985807 Keywords : Abstract algebraic logic * consequence relations * infinitary logics * completeness properties Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics; BA - General Mathematics (UIVT-O) OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics; Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) (UIVT-O) Impact factor: 0.589, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/MTR/noguera-0469118.pdf
Fuzzy logic of Aristotelian forms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perlovsky, L.I. [Nichols Research Corp., Lexington, MA (United States)
1996-12-31
Model-based approaches to pattern recognition and machine vision have been proposed to overcome the exorbitant training requirements of earlier computational paradigms. However, uncertainties in data were found to lead to a combinatorial explosion of the computational complexity. This issue is related here to the roles of a priori knowledge vs. adaptive learning. What is the a-priori knowledge representation that supports learning? I introduce Modeling Field Theory (MFT), a model-based neural network whose adaptive learning is based on a priori models. These models combine deterministic, fuzzy, and statistical aspects to account for a priori knowledge, its fuzzy nature, and data uncertainties. In the process of learning, a priori fuzzy concepts converge to crisp or probabilistic concepts. The MFT is a convergent dynamical system of only linear computational complexity. Fuzzy logic turns out to be essential for reducing the combinatorial complexity to linear one. I will discuss the relationship of the new computational paradigm to two theories due to Aristotle: theory of Forms and logic. While theory of Forms argued that the mind cannot be based on ready-made a priori concepts, Aristotelian logic operated with just such concepts. I discuss an interpretation of MFT suggesting that its fuzzy logic, combining a-priority and adaptivity, implements Aristotelian theory of Forms (theory of mind). Thus, 2300 years after Aristotle, a logic is developed suitable for his theory of mind.
Strategies and logics of internationalization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahjouba Ben Salem
2013-07-01
Full Text Available The race between firms to acquire capacities worldwide has evolved in a chronological order which centered at first around products, then around position to move later on to skills and to focus currently on networks. Similarly, when observing the evolution of the different international development strategies, it was found out that they have started by the exportation and the setting up of production subsidiaries to move more recently to such strategies as mergers & acquisitions and international alliances. The present paper investigates the relationship between the internationalization strategies and logics and comes to the conclusion that, a particular logic is behind every choice made. Indeed, the present work was conducted within the Tunisian food enterprises and helped confirm this hypothesis as it was found out that the position logic is behind the choice of exportation and the creation of production subsidiaries while the choice of partnership is based on the logic of skills. The option for merger, on the other hand, is motivated by the networks logic.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iryna Khomenko
2018-04-01
Full Text Available The challenges of the global time require new solutions and up-to-date ways of thinking and communication. These challenges call for the ability to use critical thinking to face the ever-changing world and the ability to maintain a dialog based on the effective skills of communication. Studies in the fields of logic and argumentation theory are of particular importance in this regard. Nowadays they can be presented as a mix of theoretical and practical approaches. In this paper, I will present my reflections on informal logic, which was formed in the late 1970s. Unfortunately, in spite of numerous papers, books, and text-books published over the last forty years, consensus on many issues in this field has not been achieved so far. Therefore, it is difficult to treat informal logic as one of the well-defined approaches to argumentation. The goal of this paper is to take a look at the place of informal logic in state-of-the art study of argumentation by clarifying its subject matter and figuring out the realm to which informal logic belongs.
Notes on stochastic (bio)-logic gates: computing with allosteric cooperativity.
Agliari, Elena; Altavilla, Matteo; Barra, Adriano; Dello Schiavo, Lorenzo; Katz, Evgeny
2015-05-15
Recent experimental breakthroughs have finally allowed to implement in-vitro reaction kinetics (the so called enzyme based logic) which code for two-inputs logic gates and mimic the stochastic AND (and NAND) as well as the stochastic OR (and NOR). This accomplishment, together with the already-known single-input gates (performing as YES and NOT), provides a logic base and paves the way to the development of powerful biotechnological devices. However, as biochemical systems are always affected by the presence of noise (e.g. thermal), standard logic is not the correct theoretical reference framework, rather we show that statistical mechanics can work for this scope: here we formulate a complete statistical mechanical description of the Monod-Wyman-Changeaux allosteric model for both single and double ligand systems, with the purpose of exploring their practical capabilities to express noisy logical operators and/or perform stochastic logical operations. Mixing statistical mechanics with logics, and testing quantitatively the resulting findings on the available biochemical data, we successfully revise the concept of cooperativity (and anti-cooperativity) for allosteric systems, with particular emphasis on its computational capabilities, the related ranges and scaling of the involved parameters and its differences with classical cooperativity (and anti-cooperativity).
Logical foundation of quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stachow, E.W.
1980-01-01
The subject of this article is the reconstruction of quantum mechanics on the basis of a formal language of quantum mechanical propositions. During recent years, research in the foundations of the language of science has given rise to a dialogic semantics that is adequate in the case of a formal language for quantum physics. The system of sequential logic which is comprised by the language is more general than classical logic; it includes the classical system as a special case. Although the system of sequential logic can be founded without reference to the empirical content of quantum physical propositions, it establishes an essential part of the structure of the mathematical formalism used in quantum mechanics. It is the purpose of this paper to demonstrate the connection between the formal language of quantum physics and its representation by mathematical structures in a self-contained way. (author)
Coinductive Logic Programming with Negation
Min, Richard; Gupta, Gopal
We introduce negation into coinductive logic programming (co-LP) via what we term Coinductive SLDNF (co-SLDNF) resolution. We present declarative and operational semantics of co-SLDNF resolution and present their equivalence under the restriction of rationality. Co-LP with co-SLDNF resolution provides a powerful, practical and efficient operational semantics for Fitting's Kripke-Kleene three-valued logic with restriction of rationality. Further, applications of co-SLDNF resolution are also discussed and illustrated where Co-SLDNF resolution allows one to develop elegant implementations of modal logics. Moreover it provides the capability of non-monotonic inference (e.g., predicate Answer Set Programming) that can be used to develop novel and effective first-order modal non-monotonic inference engines.
Logic, probability, and human reasoning.
Johnson-Laird, P N; Khemlani, Sangeet S; Goodwin, Geoffrey P
2015-04-01
This review addresses the long-standing puzzle of how logic and probability fit together in human reasoning. Many cognitive scientists argue that conventional logic cannot underlie deductions, because it never requires valid conclusions to be withdrawn - not even if they are false; it treats conditional assertions implausibly; and it yields many vapid, although valid, conclusions. A new paradigm of probability logic allows conclusions to be withdrawn and treats conditionals more plausibly, although it does not address the problem of vapidity. The theory of mental models solves all of these problems. It explains how people reason about probabilities and postulates that the machinery for reasoning is itself probabilistic. Recent investigations accordingly suggest a way to integrate probability and deduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Classical Syllogisms in Logic Teaching
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Øhrstrøm, Peter; Sandborg-Petersen, Ulrik; Thorvaldsen, Steinar
2013-01-01
This paper focuses on the challenges of introducing classical syllogisms in university courses in elementary logic and human reasoning. Using a program written in Prolog+CG, some empirical studies have been carried out involving three groups of students in Denmark; one group of philosophy students...... have a tendency correctly to assess valid syllogisms as such more often than correctly assessing invalid syllogisms as such. It is also investigated to what extent the students have improved their skills in practical reasoning by attending the logic courses. Finally, some open questions regarding...
The logical foundations of mathematics
Hatcher, William S
1981-01-01
The Logical Foundations of Mathematics offers a study of the foundations of mathematics, stressing comparisons between and critical analyses of the major non-constructive foundational systems. The position of constructivism within the spectrum of foundational philosophies is discussed, along with the exact relationship between topos theory and set theory.Comprised of eight chapters, this book begins with an introduction to first-order logic. In particular, two complete systems of axioms and rules for the first-order predicate calculus are given, one for efficiency in proving metatheorems, and
Symmetric normalisation for intuitionistic logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guenot, Nicolas; Straßburger, Lutz
2014-01-01
We present two proof systems for implication-only intuitionistic logic in the calculus of structures. The first is a direct adaptation of the standard sequent calculus to the deep inference setting, and we describe a procedure for cut elimination, similar to the one from the sequent calculus......, but using a non-local rewriting. The second system is the symmetric completion of the first, as normally given in deep inference for logics with a DeMorgan duality: all inference rules have duals, as cut is dual to the identity axiom. We prove a generalisation of cut elimination, that we call symmetric...
Sequential logic analysis and synthesis
Cavanagh, Joseph
2007-01-01
Until now, there was no single resource for actual digital system design. Using both basic and advanced concepts, Sequential Logic: Analysis and Synthesis offers a thorough exposition of the analysis and synthesis of both synchronous and asynchronous sequential machines. With 25 years of experience in designing computing equipment, the author stresses the practical design of state machines. He clearly delineates each step of the structured and rigorous design principles that can be applied to practical applications. The book begins by reviewing the analysis of combinatorial logic and Boolean a
An exercise in 'anhomomorphic logic'
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sorkin, Rafael D
2007-01-01
A classical logic exhibits a threefold inner structure comprising an algebra of propositions U, a space of 'truth values' V, and a distinguished family of mappings φ from propositions to truth values. Classically U is a Boolean algebra, V = Z 2 , and the admissible maps φ: U Z 2 are homomorphisms. If one admits a larger set of maps, one obtains an anhomomorphic logic that seems better suited to quantal reality (and the needs of quantum gravity). I explain these ideas and illustrate them with three simple examples
Logic programming and metadata specifications
Lopez, Antonio M., Jr.; Saacks, Marguerite E.
1992-01-01
Artificial intelligence (AI) ideas and techniques are critical to the development of intelligent information systems that will be used to collect, manipulate, and retrieve the vast amounts of space data produced by 'Missions to Planet Earth.' Natural language processing, inference, and expert systems are at the core of this space application of AI. This paper presents logic programming as an AI tool that can support inference (the ability to draw conclusions from a set of complicated and interrelated facts). It reports on the use of logic programming in the study of metadata specifications for a small problem domain of airborne sensors, and the dataset characteristics and pointers that are needed for data access.
Pu, Fang; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang
2014-06-25
Molecular logic gates in response to chemical, biological, or optical input signals at a molecular level have received much interest over the past decade. Herein, we construct "plug and play" logic systems based on the fluorescence switching of guest molecules confined in coordination polymer nanoparticles generated from nucleotide and lanthanide ions. In the system, the addition of new modules directly enables new logic functions. PASS 0, YES, PASS 1, NOT, IMP, OR, and AND gates are successfully constructed in sequence. Moreover, different logic gates (AND, INH, and IMP) can be constructed using different guest molecules and the same input combinations. The work will be beneficial to the future logic design and expand the applications of coordination polymers.
Logical space and the origins of pluralism in logic
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Arazim, Pavel
-, č. 2 (2017), s. 7-26 ISSN 0567-8293 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-15645S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : pluralism * expressivism * logical space * geometry * holism Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Philosophy, History and Philosophy of science and technology
Logic gates and antisense DNA devices operating on a translator nucleic Acid scaffold.
Shlyahovsky, Bella; Li, Yang; Lioubashevski, Oleg; Elbaz, Johann; Willner, Itamar
2009-07-28
A series of logic gates, "AND", "OR", and "XOR", are designed using a DNA scaffold that includes four "footholds" on which the logic operations are activated. Two of the footholds represent input-recognition strands, and these are blocked by complementary nucleic acids, whereas the other two footholds are blocked by nucleic acids that include the horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-mimicking DNAzyme sequence. The logic gates are activated by either nucleic acid inputs that hybridize to the respective "footholds", or by low-molecular-weight inputs (adenosine monophosphate or cocaine) that yield the respective aptamer-substrate complexes. This results in the respective translocation of the blocking nucleic acids to the footholds carrying the HRP-mimicking DNAzyme sequence, and the concomitant release of the respective DNAzyme. The released product-strands then self-assemble into the hemin/G-quadruplex-HRP-mimicking DNAzyme that biocatalyzes the formation of a colored product and provides an output signal for the different logic gates. The principle of the logic operation is, then, implemented as a possible paradigm for future nanomedicine. The nucleic acid inputs that bind to the blocked footholds result in the translocation of the blocking nucleic acids to the respective footholds carrying the antithrombin aptamer. The released aptamer inhibits, then, the hydrolytic activity of thrombin. The system demonstrates the regulation of a biocatalytic reaction by a translator system activated on a DNA scaffold.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borgwaldt, H.; Baumann, W.; Willerding, G.
1991-05-01
FLUTAN is a highly vectorized computer code for 3-D fluiddynamic and thermal-hydraulic analyses in cartesian and cylinder coordinates. It is related to the family of COMMIX codes originally developed at Argonne National Laboratory, USA. To a large extent, FLUTAN relies on basic concepts and structures imported from COMMIX-1B and COMMIX-2 which were made available to KfK in the frame of cooperation contracts in the fast reactor safety field. While on the one hand not all features of the original COMMIX versions have been implemented in FLUTAN, the code on the other hand includes some essential innovative options like CRESOR solution algorithm, general 3-dimensional rebalacing scheme for solving the pressure equation, and LECUSSO-QUICK-FRAM techniques suitable for reducing 'numerical diffusion' in both the enthalphy and momentum equations. This report provides users with detailed input instructions, presents formulations of the various model options, and explains by means of comprehensive sample input, how to use the code. (orig.) [de
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zdunek, A.; Soederberg, M. (Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden))
1989-01-01
The input card deck for the finite element program GARFEM version 3.2 is described in this manual. The program includes, but is not limited to, capabilities to handle the following problems: * Linear bar and beam element structures, * Geometrically non-linear problems (bar and beam), both static and transient dynamic analysis, * Transient response dynamics from a catalog of time varying external forcing function types or input function tables, * Eigenvalue solution (modes and frequencies), * Multi point constraints (MPC) for the modelling of mechanisms and e.g. rigid links. The MPC definition is used only in the geometrically linearized sense, * Beams with disjunct shear axis and neutral axis, * Beams with rigid offset. An interface exist that connects GARFEM with the program GAROS. GAROS is a program for aeroelastic analysis of rotating structures. Since this interface was developed GARFEM now serves as a preprocessor program in place of NASTRAN which was formerly used. Documentation of the methods applied in GARFEM exists but is so far limited to the capacities in existence before the GAROS interface was developed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Judit Navracsics
2014-01-01
Full Text Available According to the critical period hypothesis, the earlier the acquisition of a second language starts, the better. Owing to the plasticity of the brain, up until a certain age a second language can be acquired successfully according to this view. Early second language learners are commonly said to have an advantage over later ones especially in phonetic/phonological acquisition. Native-like pronunciation is said to be most likely to be achieved by young learners. However, there is evidence of accentfree speech in second languages learnt after puberty as well. Occasionally, on the other hand, a nonnative accent may appear even in early second (or third language acquisition. Cross-linguistic influences are natural in multilingual development, and we would expect the dominant language to have an impact on the weaker one(s. The dominant language is usually the one that provides the largest amount of input for the child. But is it always the amount that counts? Perhaps sometimes other factors, such as emotions, ome into play? In this paper, data obtained from an EnglishPersian-Hungarian trilingual pair of siblings (under age 4 and 3 respectively is analyzed, with a special focus on cross-linguistic influences at the phonetic/phonological levels. It will be shown that beyond the amount of input there are more important factors that trigger interference in multilingual development.
Implicational (semilinear) logics III: completeness properties
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Cintula, Petr; Noguera, Carles
2018-01-01
Roč. 57, 3-4 (2018), s. 391-420 ISSN 0933-5846 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14654S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 689176 - SYSMICS Institutional support: RVO:67985807 ; RVO:67985556 Keywords : abstract algebraic logic * protoalgebraic logics * implicational logics * disjunctional logics * semilinear logics * non-classical logics * completeness theorems * rational completeness Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics; BA - General Mathematics (UTIA-B) OBOR OECD: Computer science s, information science , bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 0.394, year: 2016
Microelectromechanical resonator based digital logic elements
Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al
2016-10-20
Micro/nano-electromechanical resonator based mechanical computing has recently attracted significant attention. However, its full realization has been hindered by the difficulty in realizing complex combinational logics, in which the logic function is constructed by cascading multiple smaller logic blocks. In this work we report an alternative approach for implementation of digital logic core elements, multiplexer and demultiplexer, which can be used to realize combinational logic circuits by suitable concatenation. Toward this, shallow arch shaped microresonators are electrically connected and their resonance frequencies are tuned based on an electrothermal frequency modulation scheme. This study demonstrates that by reconfiguring the same basic building block, the arch microresonator, complex logic circuits can be realized.
Aspects and modular reasoning in nonmonotonic logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ostermann, Klaus
2008-01-01
Nonmonotonic logic is a branch of logic that has been developed to model situations with incomplete information. We argue that there is a connection between AOP and nonmonotonic logic which deserves further study. As a concrete technical contribution and "appetizer", we outline an AO semantics de...... defined in default logic (a form of nonmonotonic logic), propose a definition of modular reasoning, and show that the default logic version of the language semantics admits modular reasoning whereas a conventional language semantics based on weaving does not....
Implicational (semilinear) logics III: completeness properties
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Cintula, Petr; Noguera, Carles
2018-01-01
Roč. 57, 3-4 (2018), s. 391-420 ISSN 0933-5846 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14654S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 689176 - SYSMICS Institutional support: RVO:67985807 ; RVO:67985556 Keywords : abstract algebraic logic * protoalgebraic logics * implicational logics * disjunctional logics * semilinear logics * non-classical logics * completeness theorems * rational completeness Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics; BA - General Mathematics (UTIA-B) OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 0.394, year: 2016
Microelectromechanical resonator based digital logic elements
Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al; Kosuru, Lakshmoji; Younis, Mohammad I.; Fariborzi, Hossein
2016-01-01
Micro/nano-electromechanical resonator based mechanical computing has recently attracted significant attention. However, its full realization has been hindered by the difficulty in realizing complex combinational logics, in which the logic function is constructed by cascading multiple smaller logic blocks. In this work we report an alternative approach for implementation of digital logic core elements, multiplexer and demultiplexer, which can be used to realize combinational logic circuits by suitable concatenation. Toward this, shallow arch shaped microresonators are electrically connected and their resonance frequencies are tuned based on an electrothermal frequency modulation scheme. This study demonstrates that by reconfiguring the same basic building block, the arch microresonator, complex logic circuits can be realized.
Bicycle Frame Prediction Techniques with Fuzzy Logic Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rafiuddin Syam
2015-03-01
Full Text Available In general, an appropriate size bike frame would get comfort to the rider while biking. This study aims to predict the simulation system on the bike frame sizes with fuzzy logic. Testing method used is the simulation test. In this study, fuzzy logic will be simulated using Matlab language to test their performance. Mamdani fuzzy logic using 3 variables and 1 output variable intake. Triangle function for the input and output. The controller is designed in the type mamdani with max-min composition and the method deffuzification using center of gravity method. The results showed that height, inseam and Crank Size generating appropriate frame size for the rider associated with comfort. Has a height range between 142 cm and 201 cm. Inseam has a range between 64 cm and 97 cm. Crank has a size range between 175 mm and 180 mm. The simulation results have a range of frame sizes between 13 inches and 22 inches. By using the fuzzy logic can be predicted the size frame of bicycle suitable for the biker.
Bicycle Frame Prediction Techniques with Fuzzy Logic Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rafiuddin Syam
2017-03-01
Full Text Available In general, an appropriate size bike frame would get comfort to the rider while biking. This study aims to predict the simulation system on the bike frame sizes with fuzzy logic. Testing method used is the simulation test. In this study, fuzzy logic will be simulated using Matlab language to test their performance. Mamdani fuzzy logic using 3 variables and 1 output variable intake. Triangle function for the input and output. The controller is designed in the type mamdani with max-min composition and the method deffuzification using center of gravity method. The results showed that height, inseam and Crank Size generating appropriate frame size for the rider associated with comfort. Has a height range between 142 cm and 201 cm. Inseam has a range between 64 cm and 97 cm. Crank has a size range between 175 mm and 180 mm. The simulation results have a range of frame sizes between 13 inches and 22 inches. By using the fuzzy logic can be predicted the size frame of bicycle suitable for the biker.
Magnonic interferometric switch for multi-valued logic circuits
Balynsky, Michael; Kozhevnikov, Alexander; Khivintsev, Yuri; Bhowmick, Tonmoy; Gutierrez, David; Chiang, Howard; Dudko, Galina; Filimonov, Yuri; Liu, Guanxiong; Jiang, Chenglong; Balandin, Alexander A.; Lake, Roger; Khitun, Alexander
2017-01-01
We investigated a possible use of the magnonic interferometric switches in multi-valued logic circuits. The switch is a three-terminal device consisting of two spin channels where input, control, and output signals are spin waves. Signal modulation is achieved via the interference between the source and gate spin waves. We report experimental data on a micrometer scale prototype based on the Y3Fe2(FeO4)3 structure. The output characteristics are measured at different angles of the bias magnetic field. The On/Off ratio of the prototype exceeds 13 dB at room temperature. Experimental data are complemented by the theoretical analysis and the results of micro magnetic simulations showing spin wave propagation in a micrometer size magnetic junction. We also present the results of numerical modeling illustrating the operation of a nanometer-size switch consisting of just 20 spins in the source-drain channel. The utilization of spin wave interference as a switching mechanism makes it possible to build nanometer-scale logic gates, and minimize energy per operation, which is limited only by the noise margin. The utilization of phase in addition to amplitude for information encoding offers an innovative route towards multi-state logic circuits. We describe possible implementation of the three-value logic circuits based on the magnonic interferometric switches. The advantages and shortcomings inherent in interferometric switches are also discussed.
Probabilistic Logic and Probabilistic Networks
Haenni, R.; Romeijn, J.-W.; Wheeler, G.; Williamson, J.
2009-01-01
While in principle probabilistic logics might be applied to solve a range of problems, in practice they are rarely applied at present. This is perhaps because they seem disparate, complicated, and computationally intractable. However, we shall argue in this programmatic paper that several approaches
Phonotactics in inductive logic programming
Nerbonne, J.; Konstantopoulos, S.; Klopotek, M.A.; Wierzchon, S.T.; Trojanowski, K.
2004-01-01
We examine the results of applying inductive logic programming (ILP) to a relatively simple linguistic task, that of recognizing monosyllables in one language. ILP is suited to linguistic problems given linguists' preference for formulating their theories in discrete rules, and because of ILP's
Logics of communication and change
van Benthem, Johan; van Eijck, Jan; Kooi, Barteld
2006-01-01
Current dynamic epistemic logics for analyzing effects of informational events often become cumbersome and opaque when common knowledge is added for groups of agents. Still, postconditions involving common knowledge are essential to successful multi-agent communication. We propose new systems that
Testing Superconductor Logic Integrated Circuits
Arun, A.J.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.
2005-01-01
Superconductor logic has the potential of extremely low-power consumption and ultra-fast digital signal processing. Unfortunately, the obtained yield of the present processes is low and specific faults occur. This paper deals with fault-modelling, Design-for-Test structures, and ATPG for these
Hamkins, J.D.; Löwe, B.
2008-01-01
A set theoretical assertion psi is forceable or possible, written lozenge psi, if psi holds in some forcing extension, and necessary, written square psi, if psi holds in all forcing extensions. In this forcing interpretation of modal logic, we establish that if ZFC is consistent, then the
Logical Entity Level Sentiment Analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Niklas Christoffer; Villadsen, Jørgen
2017-01-01
We present a formal logical approach using a combinatory categorial grammar for entity level sentiment analysis that utilizes machine learning techniques for efficient syntactical tagging and performs a deep structural analysis of the syntactical properties of texts in order to yield precise resu...
Management of Industrial Processes with Programmable Logic Controller
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marius Tufoi
2009-10-01
Full Text Available In a modern economy, automation (the control is primarily to raise the competitiveness of a product, either directly through price or quality, or indirectly through the improvement of working conditions of staff productive. The control of industrial processes involves the management of dynamic systems that have continuous states. These systems are described by differential equations and, in general, analog inputs and outputs. Management of these systems is achieved, in general, with classical automation, by automation or with analog computers which contains modules with input / output analog performance. If states, inputs and outputs of a system can be modeled using binary variables, then these systems can be driven with Programmable Logic Controller.
FUZZY LOGIC IN LEGAL EDUCATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. Gonul BALKIR
2011-04-01
Full Text Available The necessity of examination of every case within its peculiar conditions in social sciences requires different approaches complying with the spirit and nature of social sciences. Multiple realities require different and various perceptual interpretations. In modern world and social sciences, interpretation of perception of valued and multi-valued have been started to be understood by the principles of fuzziness and fuzzy logic. Having the verbally expressible degrees of truthness such as true, very true, rather true, etc. fuzzy logic provides the opportunity for the interpretation of especially complex and rather vague set of information by flexibility or equivalence of the variables’ of fuzzy limitations. The methods and principles of fuzzy logic can be benefited in examination of the methodological problems of law, especially in the applications of filling the legal loopholes arising from the ambiguities and interpretation problems in order to understand the legal rules in a more comprehensible and applicable way and the efficiency of legal implications. On the other hand, fuzzy logic can be used as a technical legal method in legal education and especially in legal case studies and legal practice applications in order to provide the perception of law as a value and the more comprehensive and more quality perception and interpretation of value of justice, which is the core value of law. In the perception of what happened as it has happened in legal relationships and formations, the understanding of social reality and sociological legal rules with multi valued sense perspective and the their applications in accordance with the fuzzy logic’s methods could create more equivalent and just results. It can be useful for the young lawyers and law students as a facilitating legal method especially in the materialization of the perception and interpretation of multi valued and variables. Using methods and principles of fuzzy logic in legal
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vollan, A.; Soederberg, M. (Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden))
1989-01-01
This report describes the input for the programs GAROS1 and GAROS2, version 5.8 and later, February 1988. The GAROS system, developed by Arne Vollan, Omega GmbH, is used for the analysis of the mechanical and aeroelastic properties for general rotating systems. It has been specially designed to meet the requirements of aeroelastic stability and dynamic response of horizontal axis wind energy converters. Some of the special characteristics are: * The rotor may have one or more blades. * The blades may be rigidly attached to the hub, or they may be fully articulated. * The full elastic properties of the blades, the hub, the machine house and the tower are taken into account. * With the same basic model, a number of different analyses can be performed: Snap-shot analysis, Floquet method, transient response analysis, frequency response analysis etc.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Czarnitzki, Dirk; Grimpe, Christoph; Pellens, Maikel
2015-01-01
The viability of modern open science norms and practices depends on public disclosure of new knowledge, methods, and materials. However, increasing industry funding of research can restrict the dissemination of results and materials. We show, through a survey sample of 837 German scientists in life...... sciences, natural sciences, engineering, and social sciences, that scientists who receive industry funding are twice as likely to deny requests for research inputs as those who do not. Receiving external funding in general does not affect denying others access. Scientists who receive external funding...... of any kind are, however, 50 % more likely to be denied access to research materials by others, but this is not affected by being funded specifically by industry...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Czarnitzki, Dirk; Grimpe, Christoph; Pellens, Maikel
The viability of modern open science norms and practices depend on public disclosure of new knowledge, methods, and materials. However, increasing industry funding of research can restrict the dissemination of results and materials. We show, through a survey sample of 837 German scientists in life...... sciences, natural sciences, engineering, and social sciences, that scientists who receive industry funding are twice as likely to deny requests for research inputs as those who do not. Receiving external funding in general does not affect denying others access. Scientists who receive external funding...... of any kind are, however, 50% more likely to be denied access to research materials by others, but this is not affected by being funded specifically by industry....
Logical and mathematical structures of quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beltrametti, E.G.; Cassinelli, G.
1976-01-01
The logic associated with a physical system is first analysed, and the general properties of observable and states are discussed. The logic of the Hilbert-space formulation of quantum mechanics and of pure, ideal measurements is described
A superposition principle in quantum logics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pulmannova, S.
1976-01-01
A new definition of the superposition principle in quantum logics is given which enables us to define the sectors. It is shown that the superposition principle holds only in the irreducible quantum logics. (orig.) [de
A Current Logical Framework: The Propositional Fragment
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Watkins, Kevin
2003-01-01
We present the propositional fragment CLF of the Concurrent Logical Framework (CLF). CLF extends the Linear Logical Framework to allow the natural representation of concurrent computations in an object language...
Mathematical logic foundations for information science
Li, Wei
2010-01-01
This book presents the basic principles and formal calculus of mathematical logic. It covers core contents, extensions and developments of classical mathematical logic, and it offers formal proofs and concrete examples for all theoretical results.
Logic functions and equations examples and exercises
Steinbach, Bernd
2009-01-01
With a free, downloadable software package available to help solve the exercises, this book focuses on practical and relevant problems that arise in the field of binary logics, with its two main applications - digital circuit design, and propositional logics.
Semantic foundation for preferential description logics
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Britz, K
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Description logics are a well-established family of knowledge representation formalisms in Artificial Intelligence. Enriching description logics with non-monotonic reasoning capabilities, especially preferential reasoning as developed by Lehmann...
Towards practical defeasible reasoning for description logics
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Casini, G
2013-07-01
Full Text Available The formalisation of defeasible reasoning in automated systems is becoming increasingly important. Description Logics (DLs) are nowadays the main logical formalism in the field of formal ontologies. Our focus in this paper is to devise a practical...
A Logical Characterisation of Static Equivalence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hüttel, Hans; Pedersen, Michael D.
2007-01-01
-order logic for frames with quantification over environment knowledge which, under certain general conditions, characterizes static equivalence and is amenable to construction of characteristic formulae. The logic can be used to reason about environment knowledge and can be adapted to a particular application...... by defining a suitable signature and associated equational theory. The logic can furthermore be extended with modalities to yield a modal logic for e.g. the Applied Pi calculus....
BIO Logical Agents: Norms, Beliefs, Intentions in Defeasible Logic
Governatori, Guido; Rotolo, Antonino
2007-01-01
In this paper we follow the BOID (Belief, Obligation, Intention, Desire) architecture to describe agents and agent types in Defeasible Logic. We argue, in particular, that the introduction of obligations can provide a new reading of the concepts of intention and intentionality. Then we examine the notion of social agent (i.e., an agent where obligations prevail over intentions) and discuss some computational and philosophical issues related to it. We show th...
Complex logic functions implemented with quantum dot bionanophotonic circuits.
Claussen, Jonathan C; Hildebrandt, Niko; Susumu, Kimihiro; Ancona, Mario G; Medintz, Igor L
2014-03-26
We combine quantum dots (QDs) with long-lifetime terbium complexes (Tb), a near-IR Alexa Fluor dye (A647), and self-assembling peptides to demonstrate combinatorial and sequential bionanophotonic logic devices that function by time-gated Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). Upon excitation, the Tb-QD-A647 FRET-complex produces time-dependent photoluminescent signatures from multi-FRET pathways enabled by the capacitor-like behavior of the Tb. The unique photoluminescent signatures are manipulated by ratiometrically varying dye/Tb inputs and collection time. Fluorescent output is converted into Boolean logic states to create complex arithmetic circuits including the half-adder/half-subtractor, 2:1 multiplexer/1:2 demultiplexer, and a 3-digit, 16-combination keypad lock.
Fuzzy Logic Applied to an Oven Temperature Control System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nagabhushana KATTE
2011-10-01
Full Text Available The paper describes the methodology of design and development of fuzzy logic based oven temperature control system. As simple fuzzy logic controller (FLC structure with an efficient realization and a small rule base that can be easily implemented in existing underwater control systems is proposed. The FLC has been designed using bell-shaped membership function for fuzzification, 49 control rules in its rule base and centre of gravity technique for defuzzification. Analog interface card with 16-bits resolution is designed to achieve higher precision in temperature measurement and control. The experimental results of PID and FLC implemented system are drawn for a step input and presented in a comparative fashion. FLC exhibits fast response and it has got sharp rise time and smooth control over conventional PID controller. The paper scrupulously discusses the hardware and software (developed using ‘C’ language features of the system.
Use of Fuzzy Logic Systems for Assessment of Primary Faults
Petrović, Ivica; Jozsa, Lajos; Baus, Zoran
2015-09-01
In electric power systems, grid elements are often subjected to very complex and demanding disturbances or dangerous operating conditions. Determining initial fault or cause of those states is a difficult task. When fault occurs, often it is an imperative to disconnect affected grid element from the grid. This paper contains an overview of possibilities for using fuzzy logic in an assessment of primary faults in the transmission grid. The tool for this task is SCADA system, which is based on information of currents, voltages, events of protection devices and status of circuit breakers in the grid. The function model described with the membership function and fuzzy logic systems will be presented in the paper. For input data, diagnostics system uses information of protection devices tripping, states of circuit breakers and measurements of currents and voltages before and after faults.
Two Influential Primate Classifications Logically Aligned.
Franz, Nico M; Pier, Naomi M; Reeder, Deeann M; Chen, Mingmin; Yu, Shizhuo; Kianmajd, Parisa; Bowers, Shawn; Ludäscher, Bertram
2016-07-01
Classifications and phylogenies of perceived natural entities change in the light of new evidence. Taxonomic changes, translated into Code-compliant names, frequently lead to name:meaning dissociations across succeeding treatments. Classification standards such as the Mammal Species of the World (MSW) may experience significant levels of taxonomic change from one edition to the next, with potential costs to long-term, large-scale information integration. This circumstance challenges the biodiversity and phylogenetic data communities to express taxonomic congruence and incongruence in ways that both humans and machines can process, that is, to logically represent taxonomic alignments across multiple classifications. We demonstrate that such alignments are feasible for two classifications of primates corresponding to the second and third MSW editions. Our approach has three main components: (i) use of taxonomic concept labels, that is name sec. author (where sec. means according to), to assemble each concept hierarchy separately via parent/child relationships; (ii) articulation of select concepts across the two hierarchies with user-provided Region Connection Calculus (RCC-5) relationships; and (iii) the use of an Answer Set Programming toolkit to infer and visualize logically consistent alignments of these input constraints. Our use case entails the Primates sec. Groves (1993; MSW2-317 taxonomic concepts; 233 at the species level) and Primates sec. Groves (2005; MSW3-483 taxonomic concepts; 376 at the species level). Using 402 RCC-5 input articulations, the reasoning process yields a single, consistent alignment and 153,111 Maximally Informative Relations that constitute a comprehensive meaning resolution map for every concept pair in the Primates sec. MSW2/MSW3. The complete alignment, and various partitions thereof, facilitate quantitative analyses of name:meaning dissociation, revealing that nearly one in three taxonomic names are not reliable across treatments
Proof systems for Moss’ coalgebraic logic
Bílková, M.; Palmigiano, A.; Venema, Y.
2014-01-01
We study Gentzen-style proof theory of the finitary version of the coalgebraic logic introduced by L. Moss. The logic captures the behaviour of coalgebras for a large class of set functors. The syntax of the logic, defined uniformly with respect to a finitary coalgebraic type functor T , uses a
The Dynamic Turn in Quantum Logic
Baltag, A.; Smets, S.
2012-01-01
In this paper we show how ideas coming from two areas of research in logic can reinforce each other. The first such line of inquiry concerns the "dynamic turn" in logic and especially the formalisms inspired by Propositional Dynamic Logic (PDL); while the second line concerns research into the
Quantum team logic and Bell's inequalities
Hyttinen, T.; Paolini, G.; Väänänen, J.
2015-01-01
A logical approach to Bell’s Inequalities of quantum mechanics has been introduced by Abramsky and Hardy (Abramsky & Hardy, 2012). We point out that the logical Bell’s Inequalities of Abramsky & Hardy (2012) are provable in the probability logic of Fagin, Halpern and Megiddo (Fagin et al., 1990).
The dynamic turn in quantum logic
Baltag, Alexandru; Smets, Sonja
In this paper we show how ideas coming from two areas of research in logic can reinforce each other. The first such line of inquiry concerns the "dynamic turn" in logic and especially the formalisms inspired by Propositional Dynamic Logic (PDL); while the second line concerns research into the
Translating Dominant Institutional Logics in Practice
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Agger Nielsen, Jeppe; Jensen, Tina Blegind
In this paper we examine the proliferation of a new mobile technology in a structured setting of home care in Denmark, focusing on how actions at multiple levels interact to enable technology diffusion and institutionalization. The case study shows how a dominating field level logic...... that combining an institutional logic perspective with a translation perspective furthers our understanding of the malleability of institutional logics....
An Adequate First Order Logic of Intervals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chaochen, Zhou; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt
1998-01-01
This paper introduces left and right neighbourhoods as primitive interval modalities to define other unary and binary modalities of intervals in a first order logic with interval length. A complete first order logic for the neighbourhood modalities is presented. It is demonstrated how the logic can...... support formal specification and verification of liveness and fairness, and also of various notions of real analysis....
Piaget's Logic of Meanings: Still Relevant Today
Wavering, Michael James
2011-01-01
In his last book, "Toward a Logic of Meanings" (Piaget & Garcia, 1991), Jean Piaget describes how thought can be categorized into a form of propositional logic, a logic of meanings. The intent of this article is to offer this analysis by Piaget as a means to understand the language and teaching of science. Using binary propositions, conjunctions,…
Dialogues as a dynamic framework for logic
Rückert, Helge
2007-01-01
Dialogical logic is a game-theoretical approach to logic. Logic is studied with the help of certain games, which can be thought of as idealized argumentations. Two players, the Proponent, who puts forward the initial thesis and tries to defend it, and the Opponent, who tries to attack the
Petri Nets as Models of Linear Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn
1990-01-01
The chief purpose of this paper is to appraise the feasibility of Girad's linear logic as a specification language for parallel processes. To this end we propose an interpretation of linear logic in Petri nets, with respect to which we investigate the expressive power of the logic...
Hybrid Logical Analyses of the Ambient Calculus
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bolander, Thomas; Hansen, Rene Rydhof
2010-01-01
In this paper, hybrid logic is used to formulate three control flow analyses for Mobile Ambients, a process calculus designed for modelling mobility. We show that hybrid logic is very well-suited to express the semantic structure of the ambient calculus and how features of hybrid logic can...
Mathematical Fuzzy Logic - State of Art 2001
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hájek, Petr
2003-01-01
Roč. 24, - (2003), s. 71-89 ISSN 0103-9059. [WOLLIC'2001. Brasília, 31.07.2001-03.08.2001] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A056 Keywords : fuzzy logic * many valued logic * basic fuzzy logic BL Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.mat.unb.br/~matcont/24_4.pdf
Venema, Y.
This contribution gives a short introduction to arrow logic. We start by explaining the basic idea underlying arrow logic and the motivation for studying it (sections 1 and 2) We discuss some elementary duality theory between arrow logic and the algebraic theory of binary relations (section 3).
Logics of Business Education for Sustainability
Andersson, Pernilla; Öhman, Johan
2016-01-01
This paper explores various kinds of logics of "business education for sustainability" and how these "logics" position the subject business person, based on eight teachers' reasoning of their own practices. The concept of logics developed within a discourse theoretical framework is employed to analyse the teachers' reasoning.…
General Logic-Systems and Consequence Operators
Herrmann, Robert A.
2005-01-01
In this paper, general logic-systems are investigated. It is shown that there are infinitely many finite consequence operators defined on a fixed language L that cannot be generated from a finite logic-system. It is shown that a set map is a finite consequence operator iff it is defined by a general logic-system.
Against All Odds: When Logic Meets Probability
van Benthem, J.; Katoen, J.-P.; Langerak, R.; Rensink, A.
2017-01-01
This paper is a light walk along interfaces between logic and probability, triggered by a chance encounter with Ed Brinksma. It is not a research paper, or a literature survey, but a pointer to issues. I discuss both direct combinations of logic and probability and structured ways in which logic can
Modeling and generating input processes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, M.E.
1987-01-01
This tutorial paper provides information relevant to the selection and generation of stochastic inputs to simulation studies. The primary area considered is multivariate but much of the philosophy at least is relevant to univariate inputs as well. 14 refs.
Applications of Logic Coverage Criteria and Logic Mutation to Software Testing
Kaminski, Garrett K.
2011-01-01
Logic is an important component of software. Thus, software logic testing has enjoyed significant research over a period of decades, with renewed interest in the last several years. One approach to detecting logic faults is to create and execute tests that satisfy logic coverage criteria. Another approach to detecting faults is to perform mutation…
Reprocessing input data validation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Persiani, P.J.; Bucher, R.G.; Pond, R.B.; Cornella, R.J.
1990-01-01
The Isotope Correlation Technique (ICT), in conjunction with the gravimetric (Pu/U ratio) method for mass determination, provides an independent verification of the input accountancy at the dissolver or accountancy stage of the reprocessing plant. The Isotope Correlation Technique has been applied to many classes of domestic and international reactor systems (light-water, heavy-water, graphite, and liquid-metal) operating in a variety of modes (power, research, production, and breeder), and for a variety of reprocessing fuel cycle management strategies. Analysis of reprocessing operations data based on isotopic correlations derived for assemblies in a PWR environment and fuel management scheme, yielded differences between the measurement-derived and ICT-derived plutonium mass determinations of (-0.02 ± 0.23)% for the measured U-235 and (+0.50 ± 0.31)% for the measured Pu-239, for a core campaign. The ICT analyses has been implemented for the plutonium isotopics in a depleted uranium assembly in a heavy-water, enriched uranium system and for the uranium isotopes in the fuel assemblies in light-water, highly-enriched systems. 7 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs
Chen, Qi; Yoo, Si-Youl; Chung, Yong-Ho; Lee, Ji-Young; Min, Junhong; Choi, Jeong-Woo
2016-10-01
Various bio-logic gates have been studied intensively to overcome the rigidity of single-function silicon-based logic devices arising from combinations of various gates. Here, a simple control tool using electrochemical signals from quantum dots (QDs) was constructed using DNA and organic materials for multiple logic functions. The electrochemical redox current generated from QDs was controlled by the DNA structure. DNA structure, in turn, was dependent on the components (organic materials) and the input signal (pH). Independent electrochemical signals from two different logic units containing QDs were merged into a single analog-type logic gate, which was controlled by two inputs. We applied this electrochemical biodevice to a simple logic system and achieved various logic functions from the controlled pH input sets. This could be further improved by choosing QDs, ionic conditions, or DNA sequences. This research provides a feasible method for fabricating an artificial intelligence system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Programming Games for Logical Thinking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Tsalapatas
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Analytical thinking is a transversal skill that helps learners synthesize knowledge across subject areas; from mathematics, science, and technology to critical reading, critical examination, and evaluation of lessons. While most would not doubt the importance of analytical capacity in academic settings and its growing demand for the skill in professional environments, school curricula do not comprehensively address its development. As a result, the responsibility for structuring related learning activities falls to teachers. This work examines learning paradigms that can be integrated into mathematics and science school education for developing logical thinking through game-based exercises based on programming. The proposed learning design promotes structured algorithmic mindsets, is based on inclusive universal logic present in all cultures, and promotes constructivism educational approaches encouraging learners to drive knowledge building by composing past and emerging experiences.
An Embedded Reconfigurable Logic Module
Tucker, Jerry H.; Klenke, Robert H.; Shams, Qamar A. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
A Miniature Embedded Reconfigurable Computer and Logic (MERCAL) module has been developed and verified. MERCAL was designed to be a general-purpose, universal module that that can provide significant hardware and software resources to meet the requirements of many of today's complex embedded applications. This is accomplished in the MERCAL module by combining a sub credit card size PC in a DIMM form factor with a XILINX Spartan I1 FPGA. The PC has the ability to download program files to the FPGA to configure it for different hardware functions and to transfer data to and from the FPGA via the PC's ISA bus during run time. The MERCAL module combines, in a compact package, the computational power of a 133 MHz PC with up to 150,000 gate equivalents of digital logic that can be reconfigured by software. The general architecture and functionality of the MERCAL hardware and system software are described.
The Relevance of Hegel's Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John W Burbidge
2007-12-01
Full Text Available Hegel defines his Logic as the science that thinks about thinking.nbsp; But when we interpret that work as outlining what happens when we reason we are vulnerable to Fregersquo;s charge of psychologism.nbsp; I use Hegelrsquo;s tripartite distinction among understanding, dialectical and speculative reason as operations of pure thought to suggest how thinking can work with objective concepts.nbsp; In the last analysis, however, our ability to move from the subjective contingency of representations and ideas to the pure concepts we think develops from mechanical memory, which separates sign from sense so hat we can focus simply on the latter.nbsp; By becoming aware of the connections that underlie our thinking processes we may be able to both move beyond the abstractions of symbolic logic and clarify what informal logicians call relevance.
Contextual Validity in Hybrid Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin
2013-01-01
interpretations. Moreover, such indexicals give rise to a special kind of validity—contextual validity—that interacts with ordinary logi- cal validity in interesting and often unexpected ways. In this paper we model these interactions by combining standard techniques from hybrid logic with insights from the work...... of Hans Kamp and David Kaplan. We introduce a simple proof rule, which we call the Kamp Rule, and first we show that it is all we need to take us from logical validities involving now to contextual validities involving now too. We then go on to show that this deductive bridge is strong enough to carry us...... to contextual validities involving yesterday, today and tomorrow as well....
Development of RPS trip logic based on PLD technology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Jong Gyun; Lee, Dong Young
2012-01-01
The majority of instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in today's nuclear power plants (NPPs) are based on analog technology. Thus, most existing I and C systems now face obsolescence problems. Existing NPPs have difficulty in repairing and replacing devices and boards during maintenance because manufacturers no longer produce the analog devices and boards used in the implemented I and C systems. Therefore, existing NPPs are replacing the obsolete analog I and C systems with advanced digital systems. New NPPs are also adopting digital I and C systems because the economic efficiencies and usability of the systems are higher than the analog I and C systems. Digital I and C systems are based on two technologies: a microprocessor based system in which software programs manage the required functions and a programmable logic device (PLD) based system in which programmable logic devices, such as field programmable gate arrays, manage the required functions. PLD based systems provide higher levels of performance compared with microprocessor based systems because PLD systems can process the data in parallel while microprocessor based systems process the data sequentially. In this research, a bistable trip logic in a reactor protection system (RPS) was developed using very high speed integrated circuits hardware description language (VHDL), which is a hardware description language used in electronic design to describe the behavior of the digital system. Functional verifications were also performed in order to verify that the bistable trip logic was designed correctly and satisfied the required specifications. For the functional verification, a random testing technique was adopted to generate test inputs for the bistable trip logic.
Fuzzy Versions of Epistemic and Deontic Logic
Gounder, Ramasamy S.; Esterline, Albert C.
1998-01-01
Epistemic and deontic logics are modal logics, respectively, of knowledge and of the normative concepts of obligation, permission, and prohibition. Epistemic logic is useful in formalizing systems of communicating processes and knowledge and belief in AI (Artificial Intelligence). Deontic logic is useful in computer science wherever we must distinguish between actual and ideal behavior, as in fault tolerance and database integrity constraints. We here discuss fuzzy versions of these logics. In the crisp versions, various axioms correspond to various properties of the structures used in defining the semantics of the logics. Thus, any axiomatic theory will be characterized not only by its axioms but also by the set of properties holding of the corresponding semantic structures. Fuzzy logic does not proceed with axiomatic systems, but fuzzy versions of the semantic properties exist and can be shown to correspond to some of the axioms for the crisp systems in special ways that support dependency networks among assertions in a modal domain. This in turn allows one to implement truth maintenance systems. For the technical development of epistemic logic, and for that of deontic logic. To our knowledge, we are the first to address fuzzy epistemic and fuzzy deontic logic explicitly and to consider the different systems and semantic properties available. We give the syntax and semantics of epistemic logic and discuss the correspondence between axioms of epistemic logic and properties of semantic structures. The same topics are covered for deontic logic. Fuzzy epistemic and fuzzy deontic logic discusses the relationship between axioms and semantic properties for these logics. Our results can be exploited in truth maintenance systems.
The PLC: a logical development
Walker, Mark; Bissell, Christopher; Monk, John
2010-01-01
Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) have been used to control industrial processes and equipment for over 40 years, having their first commercially recognised application in 1969. Since then there have been enormous changes in the design and application of PLCs, yet developments were evolutionary rather than radical. The flexibility of the PLC does not confine it to industrial use and it has been used for disparate non-industrial control applications . This article reviews the history, deve...
Logic Learning in Hopfield Networks
Sathasivam, Saratha; Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin Wan
2008-01-01
Synaptic weights for neurons in logic programming can be calculated either by using Hebbian learning or by Wan Abdullah's method. In other words, Hebbian learning for governing events corresponding to some respective program clauses is equivalent with learning using Wan Abdullah's method for the same respective program clauses. In this paper we will evaluate experimentally the equivalence between these two types of learning through computer simulations.
Admissible Rules of Lukasiewicz Logic
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Jeřábek, Emil
2010-01-01
Roč. 20, č. 2 (2010), s. 425-447 ISSN 0955-792X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA900090703; GA AV ČR IAA100190902; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : linear temporal logic * unification * consecutions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.586, year: 2010 http://logcom.oxfordjournals.org/content/20/2/425
Session Types in Abelian Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yoichi Hirai
2013-12-01
Full Text Available There was a PhD student who says "I found a pair of wooden shoes. I put a coin in the left and a key in the right. Next morning, I found those objects in the opposite shoes." We do not claim existence of such shoes, but propose a similar programming abstraction in the context of typed lambda calculi. The result, which we call the Amida calculus, extends Abramsky's linear lambda calculus LF and characterizes Abelian logic.
Is special relativity logically inconsistent
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prokhovnik, S.J.
1980-01-01
The author gives his view that Special Relativity is logically and mathematically consistent, as well as physically comprehensible if, and only if, it is firmly based on the single assumption of a unique fundamental reference frame for light propagation. The theory and all its results are derivable from this assumption; the Relativity and Light Principles become intelligible consequences of this assumption; the physical significance and source of time dilation and length contraction are made manifest thereby. (Auth.)
Hybrid Logic and its Proof-Theory
Brauner, Torben
2011-01-01
This is the first book-length treatment of hybrid logic and its proof-theory. Hybrid logic is an extension of ordinary modal logic which allows explicit reference to individual points in a model (where the points represent times, possible worlds, states in a computer, or something else). This is useful for many applications, for example when reasoning about time one often wants to formulate a series of statements about what happens at specific times. There is little consensus about proof-theory for ordinary modal logic. Many modal-logical proof systems lack important properties and the relatio
A Resolution Prover for Coalition Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cláudia Nalon
2014-04-01
Full Text Available We present a prototype tool for automated reasoning for Coalition Logic, a non-normal modal logic that can be used for reasoning about cooperative agency. The theorem prover CLProver is based on recent work on a resolution-based calculus for Coalition Logic that operates on coalition problems, a normal form for Coalition Logic. We provide an overview of coalition problems and of the resolution-based calculus for Coalition Logic. We then give details of the implementation of CLProver and present the results for a comparison with an existing tableau-based solver.
All-optical symmetric ternary logic gate
Chattopadhyay, Tanay
2010-09-01
Symmetric ternary number (radix=3) has three logical states (1¯, 0, 1). It is very much useful in carry free arithmetical operation. Beside this, the logical operation using this type of number system is also effective in high speed computation and communication in multi-valued logic. In this literature all-optical circuits for three basic symmetrical ternary logical operations (inversion, MIN and MAX) are proposed and described. Numerical simulation verifies the theoretical model. In this present scheme the different ternary logical states are represented by different polarized state of light. Terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) based interferometric switch has been used categorically in this manuscript.
Logic and discrete mathematics a concise introduction
Conradie, Willem
2015-01-01
A concise yet rigorous introduction to logic and discrete mathematics. This book features a unique combination of comprehensive coverage of logic with a solid exposition of the most important fields of discrete mathematics, presenting material that has been tested and refined by the authors in university courses taught over more than a decade. The chapters on logic - propositional and first-order - provide a robust toolkit for logical reasoning, emphasizing the conceptual understanding of the language and the semantics of classical logic as well as practical applications through the easy
Logical design for computers and control
Dodd, Kenneth N
1972-01-01
Logical Design for Computers and Control Logical Design for Computers and Control gives an introduction to the concepts and principles, applications, and advancements in the field of control logic. The text covers topics such as logic elements; high and low logic; kinds of flip-flops; binary counting and arithmetic; and Boolean algebra, Boolean laws, and De Morgan's theorem. Also covered are topics such as electrostatics and atomic theory; the integrated circuit and simple control systems; the conversion of analog to digital systems; and computer applications and control. The book is recommend
Asynchronous Operators of Sequential Logic Venjunction & Sequention
Vasyukevich, Vadim
2011-01-01
This book is dedicated to new mathematical instruments assigned for logical modeling of the memory of digital devices. The case in point is logic-dynamical operation named venjunction and venjunctive function as well as sequention and sequentional function. Venjunction and sequention operate within the framework of sequential logic. In a form of the corresponding equations, they organically fit analytical expressions of Boolean algebra. Thus, a sort of symbiosis is formed using elements of asynchronous sequential logic on the one hand and combinational logic on the other hand. So, asynchronous
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barocas, Marcel
1974-01-01
The objective of this research thesis is to determine, by simulation, the time response of devices based on MOS transistors. After a theoretical study of the MOS element, the author develops a transistor model based on its physical components. This model is firstly used to obtain the transistor static characteristics. The author then studies the time response of the inverter logic circuit which is the basic operator of these circuits. Theoretical results are verified by simulation and by experiments. The author then reports a detailed study of the inverter input impedance, and the decoupling property between logic operators in cascade. The simulation confirms the obtained results. Based on this decoupling property, the output time response of a logic chain is studied by using a simulation software. A general method of determination of the output time response is developed with application to a logic assembly [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohd Khairulezwan Abdul Manan; Mohd Idris Taib; Mohd Dzul Aiman Aslan
2010-01-01
Reactor Monitoring System is one of very important part of Reactor Instrumentation and Control system. Current monitoring system is using analog system whereby all circuits are discrete circuit and all displays and indicators are not digitalized. The proposed new system will use using a Commercial Off-The-Shelf, state of the art, Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition system such as Programmable Logic Controller as well as Computer System. The implementations of Programmable Logic Controller are used for Data Acquisition System and as a sub-system for Computer System where all the activities involved are stored for operation record and report as well as use for research purposes. Programmable Logic Controller receives galvanised or optically isolated signal from Reactor Protection System. Programmable Logic Controller also receives signal from other parameters as a digital and analog input related to reactor system. (author)
DNAzyme-Based Logic Gate-Mediated DNA Self-Assembly.
Zhang, Cheng; Yang, Jing; Jiang, Shuoxing; Liu, Yan; Yan, Hao
2016-01-13
Controlling DNA self-assembly processes using rationally designed logic gates is a major goal of DNA-based nanotechnology and programming. Such controls could facilitate the hierarchical engineering of complex nanopatterns responding to various molecular triggers or inputs. Here, we demonstrate the use of a series of DNAzyme-based logic gates to control DNA tile self-assembly onto a prescribed DNA origami frame. Logic systems such as "YES," "OR," "AND," and "logic switch" are implemented based on DNAzyme-mediated tile recognition with the DNA origami frame. DNAzyme is designed to play two roles: (1) as an intermediate messenger to motivate downstream reactions and (2) as a final trigger to report fluorescent signals, enabling information relay between the DNA origami-framed tile assembly and fluorescent signaling. The results of this study demonstrate the plausibility of DNAzyme-mediated hierarchical self-assembly and provide new tools for generating dynamic and responsive self-assembly systems.
Introduction to fuzzy logic using Matlab
Sivanandam, SN; Deepa, S N
2006-01-01
Fuzzy Logic, at present is a hot topic, among academicians as well various programmers. This book is provided to give a broad, in-depth overview of the field of Fuzzy Logic. The basic principles of Fuzzy Logic are discussed in detail with various solved examples. The different approaches and solutions to the problems given in the book are well balanced and pertinent to the Fuzzy Logic research projects. The applications of Fuzzy Logic are also dealt to make the readers understand the concept of Fuzzy Logic. The solutions to the problems are programmed using MATLAB 6.0 and the simulated results are given. The MATLAB Fuzzy Logic toolbox is provided for easy reference.
Fan, Daoqing; Zhu, Xiaoqing; Dong, Shaojun; Wang, Erkang
2017-07-05
DNA is believed to be a promising candidate for molecular logic computation, and the fluorogenic/colorimetric substrates of G-quadruplex DNAzyme (G4zyme) are broadly used as label-free output reporters of DNA logic circuits. Herein, for the first time, tyramine-HCl (a fluorogenic substrate of G4zyme) is applied to DNA logic computation and a series of label-free DNA-input logic gates, including elementary AND, OR, and INHIBIT logic gates, as well as a two to one encoder, are constructed. Furthermore, a DNA caliper that can measure the base number of target DNA as low as three bases is also fabricated. This DNA caliper can also perform concatenated AND-AND logic computation to fulfil the requirements of sophisticated logic computing. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
IM-135-562-00 IDIM instruction manual for the isolated digital input module for SLC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kieffer, J.
1983-01-01
This unit is designed as a general purpose digital input module. Each input is opto-isolated, and is designed to operate over a wide range of positive input voltages. The unit is nonlatching, each CAMAC Read of the unit presenting the data as seen at the inputs at the time of the Read command. The manual includes the following sections: specifications; front panel, lights and connectors; reference list; functional description; 82S100 logic equations; test and checkout procedures; appendix A, SLAC 82S100 programming data; and appendix B, JXK-FORTH 135-562 program listing
Stealth low-level manipulation of programmable logic controllers I/O by pin control exploitation
Abbasi, A.; Hashemi, M.; Zambon, E.; Etalle, S.; Havarneanu, G.; Setola, R.; Nassopoulos, H.; Wolthusen, S.
2016-01-01
Input/OutputisthemechanismthroughwhichProgrammable Logic Controllers (PLCs) interact with and control the outside world. Particularly when employed in critical infrastructures, the I/O of PLCs has to be both reliable and secure. PLCs I/O like other embedded devices are controlled by a pin based
A novel data storage logic in the cloud.
Mátyás, Bence; Szarka, Máté; Járvás, Gábor; Kusper, Gábor; Argay, István; Fialowski, Alice
2016-01-01
Databases which store and manage long-term scientific information related to life science are used to store huge amount of quantitative attributes. Introduction of a new entity attribute requires modification of the existing data tables and the programs that use these data tables. The solution is increasing the virtual data tables while the number of screens remains the same. The main objective of the present study was to introduce a logic called Joker Tao (JT) which provides universal data storage for cloud-based databases. It means all types of input data can be interpreted as an entity and attribute at the same time, in the same data table.
Superconducting push-pull flux quantum logic circuits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murphy, J.H.; Daniel, M.R.; Przybysz, J.X.
1993-01-01
A superconducting digital logic circuit is described comprising: a first circuit branch including first and second Josephson junctions electrically connected in series with each other; means for applying a positive bias voltage to a first end of said circuit branch; means for applying a negative bias voltage to a second end of said circuit branch; means for applying a first dual polarity input voltage signal to a first node in said circuit branch; and means for extracting a first output voltage signal from said first node in said circuit branch
A multi-channel scaler designed with programmable logic device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Yongjie; Li Cheng; Xing Tao; Zhang Junjie
2004-01-01
This scaler used programmable logic device is a design for the electronics of telescope system of the beam. The scaler can scale 30 ECL inputs at the same time. With the EPP (Enhanced Parallel Port) modes of the Parallel Port, the transmitted rate of data is 2 MB/s. This scaler can be used in the position system of MWPC (Multi-Wires Proportional Chamber). Tested with particles of 5 x 10 3 /s, the scaler gives a credible and stable result. (authors)
Multi-valued logic in breast cancer detection.
Boiculese, L V; Dimitriu, G
2003-01-01
The aim of this paper is to determine the type of the breast cancer disease. The two classes of separation are malignant respectively benign. A multi-valued logic system (fuzzy system) was develop and applied in this classification. The system uses nine attributes as inputs that were scaled with an integer value in the range between 1 and 10. The attributes represent: 1. Clump Thickness, 2. Uniformity of Cell Size, 3. Uniformity of Cell Shape, 4. Marginal Adhesion, 5. Single Epithelial Cell Size, 6. Bare Nuclei, 7. Bland Chromatin, 8. Normal Nucleoli, 9. Mitoses. After training the system managed to get a good detection with an error less than 5%.
Synthesizing Dynamic Programming Algorithms from Linear Temporal Logic Formulae
Rosu, Grigore; Havelund, Klaus
2001-01-01
The problem of testing a linear temporal logic (LTL) formula on a finite execution trace of events, generated by an executing program, occurs naturally in runtime analysis of software. We present an algorithm which takes an LTL formula and generates an efficient dynamic programming algorithm. The generated algorithm tests whether the LTL formula is satisfied by a finite trace of events given as input. The generated algorithm runs in linear time, its constant depending on the size of the LTL formula. The memory needed is constant, also depending on the size of the formula.
Realization of logical functions by vector programs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lapkin, L Ya
1983-03-01
Recent computing and control applications often require program realization of finite automata in general and of an important particular class of memoryless automata specified by systems of Boolean functions. Logical control and computing machines which receive sequences of discrete signals on the input and convert them into sequences of discrete output signals using finite memory may be described by a finite automation model. However, in distinction from the circuit interpretation of finite automata, the automaton algorithm represents the structure of the automaton program and not the structure of the machine itself. Therefore, the complexity of the computer realization of an automaton is the complexity of the computer program, and not the complexity of the hardware. Two classes of programs currently used to evalute boolean functions are operator programs and binary programs. However, computing machines, including microcomputers, are equipped with additional possibilities for evaluation of Boolean functions, which are not utilized in programs of these two basic classes. In this article, we consider the design of vector programs for program realization of systems of Boolean functions. 3 references.
The logic of relations and the logic of management.
Buntinx, W
2008-07-01
Increasing emphasis on financial and administrative control processes is affecting service culture in support organisations for persons with intellectual disability. This phenomenon is currently obvious in Dutch service organisations that find themselves in transition towards more community care and at the same time under pressure from new administrative and funding managerial bureaucracy. As a result, the logic of management is becoming more dominant in direct support settings and risk to overshadow the logic of relationships between staff and clients. The article presents a reflection on this phenomenon, starting from a description of service team characteristics as found in the literature. Next, findings about direct support staff (DSS) continuity are summarised from four Dutch studies. Following up these findings, the concept of 'microsystems' is explored as a possible answer to the organisational challenges demonstrated in the studies. Team characteristics, especially team size and membership continuity for DSS, appear relevant factors for assuring supportive relationships and service quality in direct support teams. The structure of the primary support team shows to be of special interest. The organisational concept of 'microsystems' is explored with respect to transcending the present conflict between bureaucratic managerial pressure and the need for supportive relationships. Service organisations need to create structural conditions for the efficacy of direct support teams in terms of client relationships and relevant client outcomes. At the same time, the need for administrative and control processes can not be denied. The concept of 'microsystems', application of a Quality of Life framework and the use of new instruments, such as the Supports Intensity Scale, can contribute to an organisational solution for the present conflicting logic of relations and management.
PTL: A Propositional Typicality Logic
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Booth, R
2012-09-01
Full Text Available consequence relations first studied by Lehmann and col- leagues in the 90?s play a central role in nonmonotonic reasoning [13, 14]. This has been the case due to at least three main reasons. Firstly, they are based on semantic constructions that are elegant...) j ; 6j : ^ j PTL: A Propositional Typicality Logic 3 The semantics of (propositional) rational consequence is in terms of ranked models. These are partially ordered structures in which the ordering is modular. Definition 1. Given a set S...
Contributions to Logical Database Design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vitalie COTELEA
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper treats the problems arising at the stage of logical database design. It comprises a synthesis of the most common inference models of functional dependencies, deals with the problems of building covers for sets of functional dependencies, makes a synthesizes of normal forms, presents trends regarding normalization algorithms and provides a temporal complexity of those. In addition, it presents a summary of the most known keys’ search algorithms, deals with issues of analysis and testing of relational schemes. It also summarizes and compares the different features of recognition of acyclic database schemas.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Britz, K
2014-07-01
Full Text Available modulo logical equivalence. This result allows us to write ForgetS(K) for the semantically unique result of forgetting all the atoms in S in the knowledge base K. If K is a singleton set, say K = {α}, we write ForgetS(α) as shorthand for Forget...= ∅}. uunionsq This result allows us to write SForgetnS(K) for the (semantically unique) result of selective forgetting any n atoms from S in K. It then follows from Lemma 1 that SForgetnS(K) arises from a tolerance space 〈U , Ω n〉 in which Ωn has a particular...
Empirical logic and tensor products
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foulis, D.J.; Randall, C.H.
1981-01-01
In our work we are developing a formalism called empirical logic to support a generalization of conventional statistics; the resulting generalization is called operational statistics. We are not attempting to develop or advocate any particular physical theory; rather we are formulating a precision 'language' in which such theories can be expressed, compared, evaluated, and related to laboratory experiments. We believe that only in such a language can the connections between real physical procedures (operations) and physical theories be made explicit and perspicuous. (orig./HSI)
Bacon, John B; McCarty, David Charles; Bacon, John B
1999-01-01
First published in the most ambitious international philosophy project for a generation; the Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Logic from A to Z is a unique glossary of terms used in formal logic and the philosophy of mathematics. Over 500 entries include key terms found in the study of: * Logic: Argument, Turing Machine, Variable * Set and model theory: Isomorphism, Function * Computability theory: Algorithm, Turing Machine * Plus a table of logical symbols. Extensively cross-referenced to help comprehension and add detail, Logic from A to Z provides an indispensable reference source for students of all branches of logic.
How Objects Shape Logics in Construction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tryggestad, Kjell; Georg, Susse
2011-01-01
The notion of institutional logics is a key tenet in institutional theory but few studies have attended to the micro‐foundations of logics. The sociology of associations is used to explore the micro‐foundations of logics, their emergence and temporal–spatial importance. A case study of the constr......The notion of institutional logics is a key tenet in institutional theory but few studies have attended to the micro‐foundations of logics. The sociology of associations is used to explore the micro‐foundations of logics, their emergence and temporal–spatial importance. A case study...... and identities as emergent and contingent outcomes of the material practices of building construction. The argument is concluded by considering the building construction as a materially mediated meaning structure....
5th World Congress of Paraconsistent Logic
Chakraborty, Mihir; Dutta, Soma
2015-01-01
The present book discusses all aspects of paraconsistent logic, including the latest findings, and its various systems. It includes papers by leading international researchers, which address the subject in many different ways: development of abstract paraconsistent systems and new theorems about them; studies of the connections between these systems and other non-classical logics, such as non-monotonic, many-valued, relevant, paracomplete and fuzzy logics; philosophical interpretations of these constructions; and applications to other sciences, in particular quantum physics and mathematics. Reasoning with contradictions is the challenge of paraconsistent logic. The book will be of interest to graduate students and researchers working in mathematical logic, computer science, philosophical logic, linguistics and physics.
Molecular processors: from qubits to fuzzy logic.
Gentili, Pier Luigi
2011-03-14
Single molecules or their assemblies are information processing devices. Herein it is demonstrated how it is possible to process different types of logic through molecules. As long as decoherent effects are maintained far away from a pure quantum mechanical system, quantum logic can be processed. If the collapse of superimposed or entangled wavefunctions is unavoidable, molecules can still be used to process either crisp (binary or multi-valued) or fuzzy logic. The way for implementing fuzzy inference engines is declared and it is supported by the examples of molecular fuzzy logic systems devised so far. Fuzzy logic is drawing attention in the field of artificial intelligence, because it models human reasoning quite well. This ability may be due to some structural analogies between a fuzzy logic system and the human nervous system. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
A Denotational Semantics for Logic Programming
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg
A fully abstract denotational semantics for logic programming has not been constructed yet. In this paper we present a denotational semantics that is almost fully abstract. We take the meaning of a logic program to be an element in a Plotkin power domain of substitutions. In this way our result...... shows that standard domain constructions suffice, when giving a semantics for logic programming. Using the well-known fixpoint semantics of logic programming we have to consider two different fixpoints in order to obtain information about both successful and failed computations. In contrast, our...... semantics is uniform in that the (single) meaning of a logic program contains information about both successful, failed and infinite computations. Finally, based on the full abstractness result, we argue that the detail level of substitutions is needed in any denotational semantics for logic programming....
All optical programmable logic array (PLA)
Hiluf, Dawit
2018-03-01
A programmable logic array (PLA) is an integrated circuit (IC) logic device that can be reconfigured to implement various kinds of combinational logic circuits. The device has a number of AND and OR gates which are linked together to give output or further combined with more gates or logic circuits. This work presents the realization of PLAs via the physics of a three level system interacting with light. A programmable logic array is designed such that a number of different logical functions can be combined as a sum-of-product or product-of-sum form. We present an all optical PLAs with the aid of laser light and observables of quantum systems, where encoded information can be considered as memory chip. The dynamics of the physical system is investigated using Lie algebra approach.
Interdisciplinarity, logic of uncertainty and fuzzy logic in primary school
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luciana Delli Rocili
2015-12-01
Full Text Available On the occasion of the 120th anniversary of Mathesis, this work wants to be a memory, a tribute to two great presidents of Mathesis: Bruno de Finetti and Angelo Fadini. Both have pursued the idea of interdisciplinary teaching and research. Bruno de Finetti, with his books on The invention of truth, (1934, and on Logic and Intuitive Mathematics, (1959, and his very famous "Theory of probability", (1970, shows a rejection of formal education, comfortable, monodisciplinary, made of certainties, and chooses the impervious way of addressing the problems that are to the base of science. Angelo Fadini, with his papers and books on Theory of Fuzzy Sets, shows first in Italy several logical questions which puts as the basis for practical applications in Architecture. This paper is an attempt to experiment, in an interdisciplinary framework, the basic ideas of Bruno de Finetti and Angelo Fadini in primary school, in the belief that in the Primary School are formed ideas and intuitions, while in the secondary school the attention is focused mainly on specific issues of Mathematics. We shows some results of a still ongoing experimentation. Interdisciplinarietà, logica dell'incerto e logica sfumata nella scuola primaria In occasione dei 120 anni della Mathesis, questo lavoro vuole essere un ricordo, un omaggio a due grandi Presidenti della Mathesis: Bruno de Finetti e Angelo Fadini. Entrambi hanno portato avanti l’idea della interdisciplinarietà nell’insegnamento e nella ricerca. Bruno de Finetti, con la sua “Matematica Logico Intuitiva” del 1959, e la sua “Teoria delle probabilità”, del 1970, e ancora prima, con “L’invenzione della verità”, del 1934, mostra un rifiuto dell’insegnamento formale, comodo, monodisciplinare, fatto di certezze, e sceglie la strada impervia dell’affrontare i problemi che sono alla base della scienza. Angelo Fadini, con la sua Teoria degli Insiemi Sfocati, mostra per primo in Italia varie questioni
Analogical proportions: another logical view
Prade, Henri; Richard, Gilles
This paper investigates the logical formalization of a restricted form of analogical reasoning based on analogical proportions, i.e. statements of the form a is to b as c is to d. Starting from a naive set theoretic interpretation, we highlight the existence of two noticeable companion proportions: one states that a is to b the converse of what c is to d (reverse analogy), while the other called paralogical proportion expresses that what a and b have in common, c and d have it also. We identify the characteristic postulates of the three types of proportions and examine their consequences from an abstract viewpoint. We further study the properties of the set theoretic interpretation and of the Boolean logic interpretation, and we provide another light on the understanding of the role of permutations in the modeling of the three types of proportions. Finally, we address the use of these proportions as a basis for inference in a propositional setting, and relate it to more general schemes of analogical reasoning. The differences between analogy, reverse-analogy, and paralogy is still emphasized in a three-valued setting, which is also briefly presented.
Logic and its Pragmatic Aspects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michele Marsonet
2018-03-01
(2 the Platonistic, and (3 the instrumentalistic viewpoints. According to (1 logic is viewed as fundamentally descriptive, and its task is taken to be that of outlining a “theory of reasoning,” i.e. a systematic account of how we humans proceed when reasoning successufully. According to (3, instead, logic’s task is that of constructing rigorous systems codifying not only actual, but also possible instrumentalities for conducting valid inferences, and these would be available (should someone want to avail himself to them for adoption as an organon of reasoning, but no empirical claims are made that anyone has (or will avail himself of this opportunity. The logician devises a tool or instrument for correct reasoning, but does not concern himself about the uses of this instrument. Philosophy and logic cannot be linked so closely, and today the idea that the analytic style of philosophizing is just one style among many others, and not the only possible one, is gaining increasing acceptance.
HDL to verification logic translator
Gambles, J. W.; Windley, P. J.
1992-01-01
The increasingly higher number of transistors possible in VLSI circuits compounds the difficulty in insuring correct designs. As the number of possible test cases required to exhaustively simulate a circuit design explodes, a better method is required to confirm the absence of design faults. Formal verification methods provide a way to prove, using logic, that a circuit structure correctly implements its specification. Before verification is accepted by VLSI design engineers, the stand alone verification tools that are in use in the research community must be integrated with the CAD tools used by the designers. One problem facing the acceptance of formal verification into circuit design methodology is that the structural circuit descriptions used by the designers are not appropriate for verification work and those required for verification lack some of the features needed for design. We offer a solution to this dilemma: an automatic translation from the designers' HDL models into definitions for the higher-ordered logic (HOL) verification system. The translated definitions become the low level basis of circuit verification which in turn increases the designer's confidence in the correctness of higher level behavioral models.
People Like Logical Truth: Testing the Intuitive Detection of Logical Value in Basic Propositions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hiroko Nakamura
Full Text Available Recent studies on logical reasoning have suggested that people are intuitively aware of the logical validity of syllogisms or that they intuitively detect conflict between heuristic responses and logical norms via slight changes in their feelings. According to logical intuition studies, logically valid or heuristic logic no-conflict reasoning is fluently processed and induces positive feelings without conscious awareness. One criticism states that such effects of logicality disappear when confounding factors such as the content of syllogisms are controlled. The present study used abstract propositions and tested whether people intuitively detect logical value. Experiment 1 presented four logical propositions (conjunctive, biconditional, conditional, and material implications regarding a target case and asked the participants to rate the extent to which they liked the statement. Experiment 2 tested the effects of matching bias, as well as intuitive logic, on the reasoners' feelings by manipulating whether the antecedent or consequent (or both of the conditional was affirmed or negated. The results showed that both logicality and matching bias affected the reasoners' feelings, and people preferred logically true targets over logically false ones for all forms of propositions. These results suggest that people intuitively detect what is true from what is false during abstract reasoning. Additionally, a Bayesian mixed model meta-analysis of conditionals indicated that people's intuitive interpretation of the conditional "if p then q" fits better with the conditional probability, q given p.
Program for generating tests for the detection of failures in combinatorial logic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mansour, Mounir
1972-01-01
A method for generating test sequences for detecting failures in combinatorial logic systems, is described. It relies on: the splitting of these systems into elements of NOR and NAND circuits, the propagation of the failure state from the input to the output. Test sequences generation is achieved in two steps: a first one called chaining during which are investigated the propagation paths of an input state able to show off failures, a second one called consistency during which the global state of the circuit related to this input configuration is held to the wanted state so that the propagation takes place. (author) [fr
Formalization of Many-Valued Logics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Villadsen, Jørgen; Schlichtkrull, Anders
2017-01-01
Partiality is a key challenge for computational approaches to artificial intelligence in general and natural language in particular. Various extensions of classical two-valued logic to many-valued logics have been investigated in order to meet this challenge. We use the proof assistant Isabelle...... to formalize the syntax and semantics of many-valued logics with determinate as well as indeterminate truth values. The formalization allows for a concise presentation and makes automated verification possible....
On the Predictability of Classical Propositional Logic
Finger, Marcelo; Reis, Poliana
2013-01-01
In this work we provide a statistical form of empirical analysis of classical propositional logic decision methods called SAT solvers. This work is perceived as an empirical counterpart of a theoretical movement, called the enduring scandal of deduction, that opposes considering Boolean Logic as trivial in any sense. For that, we study the predictability of classical logic, which we take to be the distribution of the runtime of its decision process. We present a series of experiments that det...
A Dynamic Logic for Learning Theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Baltag, Alexandru; Gierasimczuk, Nina; Özgün, Aybüke
2017-01-01
Building on previous work that bridged Formal Learning Theory and Dynamic Epistemic Logic in a topological setting, we introduce a Dynamic Logic for Learning Theory (DLLT), extending Subset Space Logics with dynamic observation modalities, as well as with a learning operator, which encodes the le...... the learner’s conjecture after observing a finite sequence of data. We completely axiomatise DLLT, study its expressivity and use it to characterise various notions of knowledge, belief, and learning. ...
Enhancing programming logic thinking using analogy mapping
Sukamto, R. A.; Megasari, R.
2018-05-01
Programming logic thinking is the most important competence for computer science students. However, programming is one of the difficult subject in computer science program. This paper reports our work about enhancing students' programming logic thinking using Analogy Mapping for basic programming subject. Analogy Mapping is a computer application which converts source code into analogies images. This research used time series evaluation and the result showed that Analogy Mapping can enhance students' programming logic thinking.
Research on Judgment Aggregation Based on Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Dai
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Preference aggregation and judgment aggregation are two basic research models of group decision making. And preference aggregation has been deeply studied in social choice theory. However, researches of social choice theory gradually focus on judgment aggregation which appears recently. Judgment aggregation focuses on how to aggregate many consistent logical formulas into one, from the perspective of logic. We try to start with judgment aggregation model based on logic and then explore different solutions to problem of judgment aggregation.
Ang, Yee Sin; Yang, Shengyuan A.; Zhang, C.; Ma, Zhongshui; Ang, L. K.
2017-12-01
Despite much anticipation of valleytronics as a candidate to replace the aging complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) based information processing, its progress is severely hindered by the lack of practical ways to manipulate valley polarization all electrically in an electrostatic setting. Here, we propose a class of all-electric-controlled valley filter, valve, and logic gate based on the valley-contrasting transport in a merging Dirac cones system. The central mechanism of these devices lies on the pseudospin-assisted quantum tunneling which effectively quenches the transport of one valley when its pseudospin configuration mismatches that of a gate-controlled scattering region. The valley polarization can be abruptly switched into different states and remains stable over semi-infinite gate-voltage windows. Colossal tunneling valley-pseudomagnetoresistance ratio of over 10 000 % can be achieved in a valley-valve setup. We further propose a valleytronic-based logic gate capable of covering all 16 types of two-input Boolean logics. Remarkably, the valley degree of freedom can be harnessed to resurrect logical reversibility in two-input universal Boolean gate. The (2 +1 ) polarization states (two distinct valleys plus a null polarization) reestablish one-to-one input-to-output mapping, a crucial requirement for logical reversibility, and significantly reduce the complexity of reversible circuits. Our results suggest that the synergy of valleytronics and digital logics may provide new paradigms for valleytronic-based information processing and reversible computing.
Microsphere-based immunoassay integrated with a microfluidic network to perform logic operations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sabhachandani, Pooja; Cohen, Noa; Sarkar, Saheli; Konry, Tania
2015-01-01
Lab on a chip (LOC) intelligent diagnostics can be described by molecular logic-based circuits. We report on the development of an LOC approach with logic capability for screening combinations of antigen and antibody in the same sample. A microsphere-based immunoassay was integrated with a microfluidic network device to perform the logic operations AND and INHIBIT. Using the clinically relevant biomarkers TNF-α cytokine and anti-TNF-α antibody, we obtained a fluorescent output in the presence of both inputs. This results in an AND operation, while the presence of only one specific input results in a different fluorescent signal, thereby indicating the INHIBIT operation. This approach demonstrates the effective use of molecular logic computation for developing portable, point-of-care technologies for diagnostic purposes due to fast detection times, minimal reagent consumption and low costs. This model system may be further expanded to screening of multiple disease markers, combinatorial logic applications, and developing “smart” sensors and therapeutic technologies. (author)
Lian, Wenjing; Liang, Jiying; Shen, Li; Jin, Yue; Liu, Hongyun
2018-02-15
The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) films were electropolymerized on the surface of Au electrodes with luminol and pyrrole (PY) as the two monomers and ampicillin (AM) as the template molecule. The electrochemiluminescence (ECL) intensity peak of polyluminol (PL) of the AM-free MIP films at 0.7V vs Ag/AgCl could be greatly enhanced by AM rebinding. In addition, the ECL signals of the MIP films could also be enhanced by the addition of glucose oxidase (GOD)/glucose and/or ferrocenedicarboxylic acid (Fc(COOH) 2 ) in the testing solution. Moreover, Fc(COOH) 2 exhibited cyclic voltammetric (CV) response at the AM-free MIP film electrodes. Based on these results, a binary 3-input/6-output biomolecular logic gate system was established with AM, GOD and Fc(COOH) 2 as inputs and the ECL responses at different levels and CV signal as outputs. Some functional non-Boolean logic devices such as an encoder, a decoder and a demultiplexer were also constructed on the same platform. Particularly, on the basis of the same system, a ternary AND logic gate was established. The present work combined MIP film electrodes, the solid-state ECL, and the enzymatic reaction together, and various types of biomolecular logic circuits and devices were developed, which opened a novel avenue to construct more complicated bio-logic gate systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
From Interpreter to Logic Engine by Defunctionalization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier
2003-01-01
Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied to the lam......Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied...