New Proposal for MCML Based Three-Input Logic Implementation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Neeta Pandey
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a new proposal for three-input logic function implementation in MOS current mode logic (MCML style. The conventional realization of such logic employs three levels of stacked source-coupled transistor pairs. It puts restriction on minimum power supply requirement and results in increased static power. The new proposal presents a circuit element named as quad-tail cell which reduces number of stacked source-coupled transistor levels by two. A three-input exclusive-OR (XOR gate, a vital element in digital system design, is chosen to elaborate the approach. Its behavior is analyzed and SPICE simulations using TSMC 180 nm CMOS technology parameters are included to support the theoretical concept. The performance of the proposed circuit is compared with its counterparts based on CMOS complementary pass transistor logic, conventional MCML, and cascading of existing two input tripple-tail XOR cells and applying triple-tail concept in conventional MCML topology. It is found that the proposed XOR gate performs best in terms of most of the performance parameters. The sensitivity of the proposed XOR gate towards process variation shows a variation of 1.54 between the best and worst case. As an extension, a realization of 4 : 1 multiplexer has also been included.
Logic analysis and verification of n-input genetic logic circuits
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Baig, Hasan; Madsen, Jan
2017-01-01
accordingly. As compared to electronic circuits, genetic circuits exhibit stochastic behavior and do not always behave as intended. Therefore, there is a growing interest in being able to analyze and verify the logical behavior of a genetic circuit model, prior to its physical implementation in a laboratory....... In this paper, we present an approach to analyze and verify the Boolean logic of a genetic circuit from the data obtained through stochastic analog circuit simulations. The usefulness of this analysis is demonstrated through different case studies illustrating how our approach can be used to verify the expected...... behavior of an n-input genetic logic circuit....
Field-Programmable Logic Devices with Optical Input Output
Szymanski, Ted H.; Saint-Laurent, Martin; Tyan, Victor; Au, Albert; Supmonchai, Boonchuay
2000-02-01
A field-programmable logic device (FPLD) with optical I O is described. FPLD s with optical I O can have their functionality specified in the field by means of downloading a control-bit stream and can be used in a wide range of applications, such as optical signal processing, optical image processing, and optical interconnects. Our device implements six state-of-the-art dynamically programmable logic arrays (PLA s) on a 2 mm 2 mm die. The devices were fabricated through the Lucent Technologies Advanced Research Projects Agency Consortium for Optical and Optoelectronic Technologies in Computing (Lucent ARPA COOP) workshop by use of 0.5- m complementary metal-oxide semiconductor self-electro-optic device technology and were delivered in 1998. All devices are fully functional: The electronic data paths have been verified at 200 MHz, and optical tests are pending. The device has been programmed to implement a two-stage optical switching network with six 4 4 crossbar switches, which can realize more than 190 10 6 unique programmable input output permutations. The same device scaled to a 2 cm 2 cm substrate could support as many as 4000 optical I O and 1 Tbit s of optical I O bandwidth and offer fully programmable digital functionality with approximately 110,000 programmable logic gates. The proposed optoelectronic FPLD is also ideally suited to realizing dense, statically reconfigurable crossbar switches. We describe an attractive application area for such devices: a rearrangeable three-stage optical switch for a wide-area-network backbone, switching 1000 traffic streams at the OC-48 data rate and supporting several terabits of traffic.
MoS2 based dual input logic AND gate
Martinez, Luis M.; Pinto, Nicholas J.; Naylor, Carl H.; Johnson, A. T. Charlie
2016-12-01
Crystalline monolayers of CVD MoS2 are used as the active semiconducting channel in a split-gate field effect transistor. The device demonstrates logic AND functionality that is controlled by independently addressing each gate terminal with ±10V. When +10V was simultaneously applied to both gates, the device was conductive (ON), while any other combination of gate voltages rendered the device resistive (OFF). The ON/OFF ratio of the device was ˜ 35 and the charge mobility using silicon nitride as the gate dielectric was 1.2cm2/V-s and 0.1cm2/V-s in the ON and OFF states respectively. Clear discrimination between the two states was observed when a simple circuit containing a load resistor was used to test the device logic AND functionality at 10Hz. One advantage is that split gate technology can reduce the number of devices required in complex circuits, leading to compact electronics and large scale integration based on intrinsic 2-D semiconducting materials.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lei, L.; Da Ros, Francesco; Xu, Jing
2013-01-01
All-optical three-input logic minterms are generated at 42 Gbit/s with a Sagnac interferometer by using cross-phase modulation in a semiconductor optical amplifier. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first time that high-speed logic operations with more than two inputs have been...... experimentally demonstrated in a Sagnac interferometer. Correct and clear temporal waveforms are successfully observed. Bit error ratios and optical signal-to-noise ratios are measured to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. As the basic units of combinational logic operations, logic minterms...... are promising candidates to construct reconfigurable and programmable logic functions....
Near-Threshold Computing and Minimum Supply Voltage of Single-Rail MCML Circuits
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ruiping Cao
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In high-speed applications, MOS current mode logic (MCML is a good alternative. Scaling down supply voltage of the MCML circuits can achieve low power-delay product (PDP. However, the current almost all MCML circuits are realized with dual-rail scheme, where the NMOS configuration in series limits the minimum supply voltage. In this paper, single-rail MCML (SRMCML circuits are described, which can avoid the devices configuration in series, since their logic evaluation block can be realized by only using MOS devices in parallel. The relationship between the minimum supply voltage of the SRMCML circuits and the model parameters of MOS transistors is derived, so that the minimum supply voltage can be estimated before circuit designs. An MCML dynamic flop-flop based on SRMCML is also proposed. The optimization algorithm for near-threshold sequential circuits is presented. A near-threshold SRMCML mode-10 counter based on the optimization algorithm is verified. Scaling down the supply voltage of the SRMCML circuits is also investigated. The power dissipation, delay, and power-delay products of these circuits are carried out. The results show that the near-threshold SRMCML circuits can obtain low delay and small power-delay product.
Low operating bias and matched input-output characteristics in graphene logic inverters.
Li, Song-Lin; Miyazaki, Hisao; Kumatani, Akichika; Kanda, Akinobu; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito
2010-07-14
We developed a simple and novel method to fabricate complementary-like logic inverters based on ambipolar graphene field-effect transistors (FETs). We found that the top gate stacks (with both the metal and oxide layers) can be simply prepared with only one-step deposition process and show high capacitive efficiency. By employing such a top gate as the operating terminal, the operating bias can be lowered within 2 V. In addition, the complementary p- and n-type FET pairs can be also simply fulfilled through potential superposition effect from the drain bias. The inverters can be operated, with up to 4-7 voltage gains, in both the first and third quadrants due to the ambipolarity of graphene FETs. For the first time, a match between the input and output voltages is achieved in graphene logic devices, indicating the potential in direct cascading of multiple devices for future nanoelectronic applications.
Two-Input Enzymatic Logic Gates Made Sigmoid by Modifications of the Biocatalytic Reaction Cascades
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zavalov, Oleksandr [Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY; Bocharova, Vera [ORNL; Halamek, Jan [Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY; Halamkova, Lenka [Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY; Korkmaz, Sevim [Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY; Arugula, Mary [University of Utah; Chinnapareddy, Soujanya [Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY; Katz, Evgeny [Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY; Privman, Vladimir [Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY
2012-01-01
Computing based on biochemical processes is a newest rapidly developing field of unconventional information and signal processing. In this paper we present results of our research in the field of biochemical computing and summarize the obtained numerical and experimental data for implementations of the standard two-input OR and AND gates with double-sigmoid shape of the output signal. This form of response was obtained as a function of the two inputs in each of the realized biochemical systems. The enzymatic gate processes in the first system were activated with two chemical inputs and resulted in optically detected chromogen oxidation, which happens when either one or both of the inputs are present. In this case, the biochemical system is functioning as the OR gate. We demonstrate that the addition of a filtering biocatalytic process leads to a considerable reduction of the noise transmission factor and the resulting gate response has sigmoid shape in both inputs. The second system was developed for functioning as an AND gate, where the output signal was activated only by a simultaneous action of two enzymatic biomarkers. This response can be used as an indicator of liver damage, but only if both of these of the inputs are present at their elevated, pathophysiological values of concentrations. A kinetic numerical model was developed and used to estimate the range of parameters for which the experimentally realized logic gate is close to optimal. We also analyzed the system to evaluate its noise-handling properties.
Bhowmik, Panchatapa; Roy, Jitendra Nath; Chattopadhyay, Tanay
2014-11-01
This paper presents a generalized all optical circuit of two-input logical operation (both binary and multi-valued), using an optical nonlinear material (OPNLM) based switch. The inputs of the logic gates are represented by different polarization states of light. This model is simple, practical and very much useful for future all optical information processing. Proposed scheme can work for different wavelengths and for different materials. The simulation result with the nonlinear material gold nanoparticle embedded in optically transparent matrices alumina (Al2O3) is also presented in the paper.
The effect of output-input isolation on the scaling and energy consumption of all-spin logic devices
Hu, Jiaxi; Haratipour, Nazila; Koester, Steven J.
2015-05-01
All-spin logic (ASL) is a novel approach for digital logic applications wherein spin is used as the state variable instead of charge. One of the challenges in realizing a practical ASL system is the need to ensure non-reciprocity, meaning the information flows from input to output, not vice versa. One approach described previously, is to introduce an asymmetric ground contact, and while this approach was shown to be effective, it remains unclear as to the optimal approach for achieving non-reciprocity in ASL. In this study, we quantitatively analyze techniques to achieve non-reciprocity in ASL devices, and we specifically compare the effect of using asymmetric ground position and dipole-coupled output/input isolation. For this analysis, we simulate the switching dynamics of multiple-stage logic devices with FePt and FePd perpendicular magnetic anisotropy materials using a combination of a matrix-based spin circuit model coupled to the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. The dipole field is included in this model and can act as both a desirable means of coupling magnets and a source of noise. The dynamic energy consumption has been calculated for these schemes, as a function of input/output magnet separation, and the results show that using a scheme that electrically isolates logic stages produces superior non-reciprocity, thus allowing both improved scaling and reduced energy consumption.
A Study on the Fuzzy-Logic-Based Solar Power MPPT Algorithms Using Different Fuzzy Input Variables
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaw-Kuen Shiau
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Maximum power point tracking (MPPT is one of the key functions of the solar power management system in solar energy deployment. This paper investigates the design of fuzzy-logic-based solar power MPPT algorithms using different fuzzy input variables. Six fuzzy MPPT algorithms, based on different input variables, were considered in this study, namely (i slope (of solar power-versus-solar voltage and changes of the slope; (ii slope and variation of the power; (iii variation of power and variation of voltage; (iv variation of power and variation of current; (v sum of conductance and increment of the conductance; and (vi sum of angles of arctangent of the conductance and arctangent of increment of the conductance. Algorithms (i–(iv have two input variables each while algorithms (v and (vi use a single input variable. The fuzzy logic MPPT function is deployed using a buck-boost power converter. This paper presents the details of the determinations, considerations of the fuzzy rules, as well as advantages and disadvantages of each MPPT algorithm based upon photovoltaic (PV cell properties. The range of the input variable of Algorithm (vi is finite and the maximum power point condition is well defined in steady condition and, therefore, it can be used for multipurpose controller design. Computer simulations are conducted to verify the design.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rashidifar, Mohammed Amin; Rashidifar, Ali Amin
2014-01-01
Conventional model-based control strategies are very complex and difficult to synthesize due to high complexity of the dynamics of robots manipulator considering joint elasticity. This paper presents investigations into the development of hybrid control schemes for trajectory tracking and vibration control of a flexible joint manipulator. To study the effectiveness of the controllers, initially a collocated proportional-derivative (P D)-type Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) is developed for tip angular position control of a flexible joint manipulator. This is then extended to incorporate a non-collocated Fuzzy Logic Controller and input shaping scheme for vibration reduction of the flexible joint system. The positive zero-vibration-derivative-derivative (ZVDD) shaper is designed based on the properties of the system. Simulation results of the response of the flexible joint manipulator with the controllers are presented in time and frequency domains. The performances of the hybrid control schemes are examined in terms of input tracking capability, level of vibration reduction and time response specifications. Finally, a comparative assessment of the control techniques is presented and discussed. (Author)
No-go theorem for passive single-rail linear optical quantum computing.
Wu, Lian-Ao; Walther, Philip; Lidar, Daniel A
2013-01-01
Photonic quantum systems are among the most promising architectures for quantum computers. It is well known that for dual-rail photons effective non-linearities and near-deterministic non-trivial two-qubit gates can be achieved via the measurement process and by introducing ancillary photons. While in principle this opens a legitimate path to scalable linear optical quantum computing, the technical requirements are still very challenging and thus other optical encodings are being actively investigated. One of the alternatives is to use single-rail encoded photons, where entangled states can be deterministically generated. Here we prove that even for such systems universal optical quantum computing using only passive optical elements such as beam splitters and phase shifters is not possible. This no-go theorem proves that photon bunching cannot be passively suppressed even when extra ancilla modes and arbitrary number of photons are used. Our result provides useful guidance for the design of optical quantum computers.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Taeed, Fazel; Salam, Z.; Ayob, S.
2012-01-01
In this paper, the single-input fuzzy logic controller (FLC) (SIFLC) for boost converter output-voltage regulation is proposed. The SIFLC utilizes the signed distance method that reduces the multidimensional rule table to 1-D with only one input variable, i.e., distance d. The simplification allows...... for the control surface to be approximated by a piecewise linear. It is shown that, despite the simplicity of SIFLC, its control performance is almost equivalent to that of the conventional FLC. As a proof of concept, the SIFLC is implemented using the Altera EP2C35F672C6N field-programmable gate array (FPGA......) and applied on a 50-W boost converter. The SIFLC is compared to the proportional-integral controller; the simulation and practical results indicate that SIFLC exhibits excellent performance for step load and input reference changes. Another feature of this work is the absence of an external analog...
Fuzzy logic controller optimization
Sepe, Jr., Raymond B; Miller, John Michael
2004-03-23
A method is provided for optimizing a rotating induction machine system fuzzy logic controller. The fuzzy logic controller has at least one input and at least one output. Each input accepts a machine system operating parameter. Each output produces at least one machine system control parameter. The fuzzy logic controller generates each output based on at least one input and on fuzzy logic decision parameters. Optimization begins by obtaining a set of data relating each control parameter to at least one operating parameter for each machine operating region. A model is constructed for each machine operating region based on the machine operating region data obtained. The fuzzy logic controller is simulated with at least one created model in a feedback loop from a fuzzy logic output to a fuzzy logic input. Fuzzy logic decision parameters are optimized based on the simulation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Henning; Dahl, Veronica
2009-01-01
By extending logic grammars with constraint logic, we give them the ability to create knowledge bases that represent the meaning of an input string. Semantic information is thus defined through extra-grammatical means, and a sentence's meaning logically follows as a by-product of string rewriting...
James, A. P.; Francis, L. R. V. J.; Kumar, D.
2013-01-01
We report a resistance based threshold logic family useful for mimicking brain like large variable logic functions in VLSI. A universal Boolean logic cell based on an analog resistive divider and threshold logic circuit is presented. The resistive divider is implemented using memristors and provides output voltage as a summation of weighted product of input voltages. The output of resistive divider is converted into a binary value by a threshold operation implemented by CMOS inverter and/or O...
Lu, Guo-Wei; Qin, Jun; Wang, Hongxiang; Ji, XuYuefeng; Sharif, Gazi Mohammad; Yamaguchi, Shigeru
2016-02-08
Optical logic gate, especially exclusive-or (XOR) gate, plays important role in accomplishing photonic computing and various network functionalities in future optical networks. On the other hand, optical multicast is another indispensable functionality to efficiently deliver information in optical networks. In this paper, for the first time, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a flexible optical three-input XOR gate scheme for multiple input phase-modulated signals with a 1-to-2 multicast functionality for each XOR operation using four-wave mixing (FWM) effect in single piece of highly-nonlinear fiber (HNLF). Through FWM in HNLF, all of the possible XOR operations among input signals could be simultaneously realized by sharing a single piece of HNLF. By selecting the obtained XOR components using a followed wavelength selective component, the number of XOR gates and the participant light in XOR operations could be flexibly configured. The re-configurability of the proposed XOR gate and the function integration of the optical logic gate and multicast in single device offer the flexibility in network design and improve the network efficiency. We experimentally demonstrate flexible 3-input XOR gate for four 10-Gbaud binary phase-shift keying signals with a multicast scale of 2. Error-free operations for the obtained XOR results are achieved. Potential application of the integrated XOR and multicast function in network coding is also discussed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer
A Gentle introduction to logical languages, logical modeling, formal reasoning and computational logic for computer science and software engineering students......A Gentle introduction to logical languages, logical modeling, formal reasoning and computational logic for computer science and software engineering students...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aghakhani, Masood; Ghaderi, Mohammad Reza; Jalilian, Maziar Mahdipour; Derakhshan, Ali Ashraf [Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2013-07-15
Submerged arc welding (SAW) is a high-quality arc welding process used in heavy industries for welding thick plates. In this process, selecting appropriate values for the input parameters is required for high productivity and cost effectiveness. A very important weld quality characteristic affected by welding input parameters is the hardness of melted zone (HMZ). This paper reports the applicability of fuzzy logic (FL) to predict HMZ in the SAW process which is affected by the combined effect of TiO{sub 2} nano-particles and welding input parameters. The arc voltage, welding current, welding speed, contact tip-to-plate distance, and TiO{sub 2} nano-particles were used as input parameters and HMZ as the response to develop FL model. A five-level five-factor central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was used in the experiments to generate experimental data. Experiments were performed, and HMZs were measured. The predicted results from FL were compared with the experimental data. The correlation factor value obtained was 99.99% between the measured and predicted values of HMZ. The results showed that FL is an accurate and reliable technique for predicting HMZ because of its low error rate.
Howard, Ayanna
2005-01-01
The Fuzzy Logic Engine is a software package that enables users to embed fuzzy-logic modules into their application programs. Fuzzy logic is useful as a means of formulating human expert knowledge and translating it into software to solve problems. Fuzzy logic provides flexibility for modeling relationships between input and output information and is distinguished by its robustness with respect to noise and variations in system parameters. In addition, linguistic fuzzy sets and conditional statements allow systems to make decisions based on imprecise and incomplete information. The user of the Fuzzy Logic Engine need not be an expert in fuzzy logic: it suffices to have a basic understanding of how linguistic rules can be applied to the user's problem. The Fuzzy Logic Engine is divided into two modules: (1) a graphical-interface software tool for creating linguistic fuzzy sets and conditional statements and (2) a fuzzy-logic software library for embedding fuzzy processing capability into current application programs. The graphical- interface tool was developed using the Tcl/Tk programming language. The fuzzy-logic software library was written in the C programming language.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bialkowski, J.; Moszynski, M.; Zagorski, A.
1981-01-01
The logic diagram principle of operation and some details of the design of the multiplicity logic unit are presented. This unit was specially designed to fulfil the requirements of a multidetector arrangement for gamma-ray multiplicity measurements. The unit is equipped with 16 inputs controlled by a common coincidence gate. It delivers a linear output pulse with the height proportional to the multiplicity of coincidences and logic pulses corresponding to 0, 1, ... up to >= 5-fold coincidences. These last outputs are used to steer the routing unit working with the multichannel analyser. (orig.)
Embedding Logics into Product Logic
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Baaz, M.; Hájek, Petr; Krajíček, Jan; Švejda, David
1998-01-01
Roč. 61, č. 1 (1998), s. 35-47 ISSN 0039-3215 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030601 Grant - others:COST(XE) Action 15 Keywords : fuzzy logic * Lukasiewicz logic * Gödel logic * product logic * computational complexity * arithmetical hierarchy Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
Smullyan, Raymond
2008-01-01
This book features a unique approach to the teaching of mathematical logic by putting it in the context of the puzzles and paradoxes of common language and rational thought. It serves as a bridge from the author's puzzle books to his technical writing in the fascinating field of mathematical logic. Using the logic of lying and truth-telling, the author introduces the readers to informal reasoning preparing them for the formal study of symbolic logic, from propositional logic to first-order logic, a subject that has many important applications to philosophy, mathematics, and computer science. T
Superconducting digital logic amplifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Przybysz, J.X.
1989-01-01
This paper describes a superconducting digital logic amplifier for interfacing between a Josephson junction logic circuit having output current and a higher voltage semiconductor circuit input. The amplifier comprising: an input terminal for connection to a; an output terminal for connection to a semiconductor circuit input; an input, lower critical current, Josephson junction having first and second terminals; a first series string of at least three lower critical current Josephson junctions. The first series string being connected to the first terminal of the input Josephson junction such that the first series string is in series with the input Josephson junction to provide a series combination. The input terminal being connected to the first terminal of the input Josephson junction, and with the critical current of the lower critical current Josephson junctions of the input Josephson junction and the first series Josephson junctions being less than the output current of the low voltage Josephson junction circuit; a second series string of at least four higher critical current Josephson junctions. The second string being connected in parallel with the series combination to provide parallel strings having an upper common connection and a lower common connection. The lower common connection being connected to the second terminal of the input Josephson junction and the upper common connection being connected to the output terminal; and a pulsed DC current source connected the parallel strings at the upper common connection. The DC current source having a current at least equal to the critical current of the higher critical current Josephson junctions
Kleene, Stephen Cole
1967-01-01
Undergraduate students with no prior instruction in mathematical logic will benefit from this multi-part text. Part I offers an elementary but thorough overview of mathematical logic of 1st order. Part II introduces some of the newer ideas and the more profound results of logical research in the 20th century. 1967 edition.
Reprogammable universal logic device based on mems technology
Hafiz, Md Adbdullah Al
2017-06-15
Various examples of reprogrammable universal logic devices are provided. In one example, the device can include a tunable AC input (206) to an oscillator/resonator; a first logic input and a second logic input to the oscillator/resonator, the first and second logic inputs provided by separate DC voltage sources (VA, VB), each of the first and second logic inputs including an on/off switch (A, B); and the oscillator/resonator including an output terminal (215). The tunable oscillator/resonator can be a MEMS/NEMS resonator. Switching of one or both of the first or second logic inputs on or off in association with the tuning of the AC input (206) can provide logic gate operation. The device can easily be extended to a 3-bit or n-bit device by providing additional logic inputs. Binary comparators and encoders can be implemented using a plurality of oscillators/resonators.
Logic from nonlinear dynamical evolution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Murali, K. [J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6131 (United States); Department of Physics, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)], E-mail: kmurali@annauniv.edu; Miliotis, Abraham; Ditto, William L. [J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6131 (United States); Sinha, Sudeshna [Institute of Mathematical Sciences, C.I.T. Campus, Chennai 600 113 (India)
2009-03-30
We propose a direct and flexible implementation of logic operations using the dynamical evolution of a nonlinear system. The concept involves the observation of the state of the system at different times to obtain different logic outputs. We explicitly implement the basic NAND, AND, NOR, OR and XOR logic gates, as well as multiple-input XOR and XNOR logic gates. Further we demonstrate how the single dynamical system can do more complex operations such as bit-by-bit addition in just a few iterations.
Logic from nonlinear dynamical evolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murali, K.; Miliotis, Abraham; Ditto, William L.; Sinha, Sudeshna
2009-01-01
We propose a direct and flexible implementation of logic operations using the dynamical evolution of a nonlinear system. The concept involves the observation of the state of the system at different times to obtain different logic outputs. We explicitly implement the basic NAND, AND, NOR, OR and XOR logic gates, as well as multiple-input XOR and XNOR logic gates. Further we demonstrate how the single dynamical system can do more complex operations such as bit-by-bit addition in just a few iterations
Tugué, Tosiyuki; Slaman, Theodore
1989-01-01
These proceedings include the papers presented at the logic meeting held at the Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Kyoto University, in the summer of 1987. The meeting mainly covered the current research in various areas of mathematical logic and its applications in Japan. Several lectures were also presented by logicians from other countries, who visited Japan in the summer of 1987.
Copies of classical logic in intuitionistic logic
Gaspar, Jaime
2012-01-01
Classical logic (the logic of non-constructive mathematics) is stronger than intuitionistic logic (the logic of constructive mathematics). Despite this, there are copies of classical logic in intuitionistic logic. All copies usually found in the literature are the same. This raises the question: is the copy unique? We answer negatively by presenting three different copies.
MEMS Logic Using Mixed-Frequency Excitation
Ilyas, Saad
2017-06-22
We present multi-function microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) logic device that can perform the fundamental logic gate AND, OR, universal logic gates NAND, NOR, and a tristate logic gate using mixed-frequency excitation. The concept is based on exciting combination resonances due to the mixing of two or more input signals. The device vibrates at two steady states: a high state when the combination resonance is activated and a low state when no resonance is activated. These vibration states are assigned to logical value 1 or 0 to realize the logic gates. Using ac signals to drive the resonator and to execute the logic inputs unifies the input and output wave forms of the logic device, thereby opening the possibility for cascading among logic devices. We found that the energy consumption per cycle of the proposed logic resonator is higher than those of existing technologies. Hence, integration of such logic devices to build complex computational system needs to take into consideration lowering the total energy consumption. [2017-0041
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Braüner, Torben
2011-01-01
Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area.......Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area....
Smets, P
1995-01-01
We start by describing the nature of imperfect data, and giving an overview of the various models that have been proposed. Fuzzy sets theory is shown to be an extension of classical set theory, and as such has a proeminent role or modelling imperfect data. The mathematic of fuzzy sets theory is detailled, in particular the role of the triangular norms. The use of fuzzy sets theory in fuzzy logic and possibility theory,the nature of the generalized modus ponens and of the implication operator for approximate reasoning are analysed. The use of fuzzy logic is detailled for application oriented towards process control and database problems.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reynolds, John C.
2002-01-01
In joint work with Peter O'Hearn and others, based on early ideas of Burstall, we have developed an extension of Hoare logic that permits reasoning about low-level imperative programs that use shared mutable data structure. The simple imperative programming language is extended with commands (not...... with the inductive definition of predicates on abstract data structures, this extension permits the concise and flexible description of structures with controlled sharing. In this paper, we will survey the current development of this program logic, including extensions that permit unrestricted address arithmetic...
The universal magnetic tunnel junction logic gates representing 16 binary Boolean logic operations
Lee, Junwoo; Suh, Dong Ik; Park, Wanjun
2015-05-01
The novel devices are expected to shift the paradigm of a logic operation by their own nature, replacing the conventional devices. In this study, the nature of our fabricated magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) that responds to the two external inputs, magnetic field and voltage bias, demonstrated seven basic logic operations. The seven operations were obtained by the electric-field-assisted switching characteristics, where the surface magnetoelectric effect occurs due to a sufficiently thin free layer. The MTJ was transformed as a universal logic gate combined with three supplementary circuits: A multiplexer (MUX), a Wheatstone bridge, and a comparator. With these circuits, the universal logic gates demonstrated 16 binary Boolean logic operations in one logic stage. A possible further approach is parallel computations through a complimentary of MUX and comparator, capable of driving multiple logic gates. A reconfigurable property can also be realized when different logic operations are produced from different level of voltages applying to the same configuration of the logic gate.
Dynamic logic architecture based on piecewise-linear systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peng Haipeng; Liu Fei; Li Lixiang; Yang Yixian; Wang Xue
2010-01-01
This Letter explores piecewise-linear systems to construct dynamic logic architecture. The proposed schemes can discriminate the two input signals and obtain 16 kinds of logic operations by different combinations of parameters and conditions for determining the output. Each logic cell performs more flexibly, that makes it possible to achieve complex logic operations more simply and construct computing architecture with less logic cells. We also analyze the various performances of our schemes under different conditions and the characteristics of these schemes.
Fuzzy logic particle tracking velocimetry
Wernet, Mark P.
1993-01-01
Fuzzy logic has proven to be a simple and robust method for process control. Instead of requiring a complex model of the system, a user defined rule base is used to control the process. In this paper the principles of fuzzy logic control are applied to Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV). Two frames of digitally recorded, single exposure particle imagery are used as input. The fuzzy processor uses the local particle displacement information to determine the correct particle tracks. Fuzzy PTV is an improvement over traditional PTV techniques which typically require a sequence (greater than 2) of image frames for accurately tracking particles. The fuzzy processor executes in software on a PC without the use of specialized array or fuzzy logic processors. A pair of sample input images with roughly 300 particle images each, results in more than 200 velocity vectors in under 8 seconds of processing time.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Carbone, Marco; Montesi, Fabrizio; Schürmann, Carsten
2014-01-01
In Choreographic Programming, a distributed system is programmed by giving a choreography, a global description of its interactions, instead of separately specifying the behaviour of each of its processes. Process implementations in terms of a distributed language can then be automatically...... projected from a choreography. We present Linear Compositional Choreographies (LCC), a proof theory for reasoning about programs that modularly combine choreographies with processes. Using LCC, we logically reconstruct a semantics and a projection procedure for programs. For the first time, we also obtain...... a procedure for extracting choreographies from process terms....
Malcolm, Norman; Altuner, Ilyas
2014-01-01
The paper deals exclusively with the doctrine called ‘Logical Behaviorism’. Although this position does not vogue it enjoyed in the 1930s and 1940s, it will always possess a compelling attraction for anyone who is perplexed by the psychological concepts, who has become aware of worthlessness of an appeal to introspection as an account of how we learn those concepts, and he has no inclination to identify mind with brain. There, of course, are other forms of behaviorism, and of reductionism, wh...
Logical consecutions in discrete linear temporal logic
Rybakov, V. V.
2005-01-01
We investigate logical consequence in temporal logics in terms of logical consecutions, i.e., inference rules. First, we discuss the question: what does it mean for a logical consecution to be ’correct’ in a propositional logic. We consider both valid and admissible consecutions in linear temporal logics and discuss the distinction between these two notions. The linear temporal logic LDTL, consisting of all formulas valid in the frame 〈 , ≤, ≥ 〉 of all integer numbers, is the prime object of...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mittelstaedt, P.
1979-01-01
The subspaces of Hilbert space constitute an orthocomplemented quasimodular lattice Lsub(q) for which neither a two-valued function nor generalized truth function exist. A generalisation of the dialogic method can be used as an interpretation of a lattice Lsub(qi), which may be considered as the intuitionistic part of Lsub(q). Some obvious modifications of the dialogic method are introduced which come from the possible incommensurability of propositions about quantum mechanical systems. With the aid of this generalized dialogic method a propositional calculus Qsub(eff) is derived which is similar to the calculus of effective (intuitionistic) logic, but contains a few restrictions which are based on the incommensurability of quantum mechanical propositions. It can be shown within the framework of the calculus Qsub(eff) that the value-definiteness of the elementary propositions which are proved by quantum mechanical propositions is inherited by all finite compund propositions. In this way one arrives at the calculus Q of full quantum logic which incorporates the principle of excluded middle for all propositions and which is a model for the lattice Lsub(q). (Auth.)
DESIGN POWER SYSTEM STABILIZER MENGGUNAKAN FUZZY LOGIC
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ivo Salvador Soares Miranda
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Stabiltas merupakan kemampuan sistem untuk menjaga kondisi operasi seimbang dan kembali kekondisi operasi normal ketika terjadi gangguan. Penerapan power system stabilizer pada sistem tenaga mampu memberikan sinyal respon yang cepat atas berbagai kondisi gangguan dan mengupayakan tidak meluasnya jangkauan gangguan. Dalam mendesign power system stabilizer menggunakan robust fuzzy logic, menggunakan satu sinyal input yaitu kecepatan deviasi rotor. Hasil simulasinya dibandingkan dengan metode fuzzy logic dan kovensional. Studi simulasi menunjukan, design power system stabilizer menggunakan robust fuzzy logic memiliki nilai sinyal peak time dan settling time relatif kecil dibandingkan dengan metode fuzzy logic dan konvensional.
Carlton, David Bryan
The exponential improvements in speed, energy efficiency, and cost that the computer industry has relied on for growth during the last 50 years are in danger of ending within the decade. These improvements all have relied on scaling the size of the silicon-based transistor that is at the heart of every modern CPU down to smaller and smaller length scales. However, as the size of the transistor reaches scales that are measured in the number of atoms that make it up, it is clear that this scaling cannot continue forever. As a result of this, there has been a great deal of research effort directed at the search for the next device that will continue to power the growth of the computer industry. However, due to the billions of dollars of investment that conventional silicon transistors have received over the years, it is unlikely that a technology will emerge that will be able to beat it outright in every performance category. More likely, different devices will possess advantages over conventional transistors for certain applications and uses. One of these emerging computing platforms is nanomagnetic logic (NML). NML-based circuits process information by manipulating the magnetization states of single-domain nanomagnets coupled to their nearest neighbors through magnetic dipole interactions. The state variable is magnetization direction and computations can take place without passing an electric current. This makes them extremely attractive as a replacement for conventional transistor-based computing architectures for certain ultra-low power applications. In most work to date, nanomagnetic logic circuits have used an external magnetic clocking field to reset the system between computations. The clocking field is then subsequently removed very slowly relative to the magnetization dynamics, guiding the nanomagnetic logic circuit adiabatically into its magnetic ground state. In this dissertation, I will discuss the dynamics behind this process and show that it is greatly
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Modal logic is a subject with ancient roots in the western logical tradition. Up until the last few generations, it was pursued mainly as a branch of philosophy. But in recent years, the subject has taken new directions with connections to topics in computer science and mathematics. This volume...... is the proceedings of the conference of record in its fi eld, Advances in Modal Logic. Its contributions are state-of-the-art papers. The topics include decidability and complexity results for specifi c modal logics, proof theory of modal logic, logics for reasoning about time and space, provability logic, dynamic...... epistemic logic, and the logic of evidence....
Simultaneous G-Quadruplex DNA Logic.
Bader, Antoine; Cockroft, Scott L
2018-04-03
A fundamental principle of digital computer operation is Boolean logic, where inputs and outputs are described by binary integer voltages. Similarly, inputs and outputs may be processed on the molecular level as exemplified by synthetic circuits that exploit the programmability of DNA base-pairing. Unlike modern computers, which execute large numbers of logic gates in parallel, most implementations of molecular logic have been limited to single computing tasks, or sensing applications. This work reports three G-quadruplex-based logic gates that operate simultaneously in a single reaction vessel. The gates respond to unique Boolean DNA inputs by undergoing topological conversion from duplex to G-quadruplex states that were resolved using a thioflavin T dye and gel electrophoresis. The modular, addressable, and label-free approach could be incorporated into DNA-based sensors, or used for resolving and debugging parallel processes in DNA computing applications. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Doberkat, Ernst-Erich
2009-01-01
Combining coalgebraic reasoning, stochastic systems and logic, this volume presents the principles of coalgebraic logic from a categorical perspective. Modal logics are also discussed, including probabilistic interpretations and an analysis of Kripke models.
Paraconsistent Computational Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Villadsen, Jørgen
2012-01-01
In classical logic everything follows from inconsistency and this makes classical logic problematic in areas of computer science where contradictions seem unavoidable. We describe a many-valued paraconsistent logic, discuss the truth tables and include a small case study....
Logic programming extensions of Horn clause logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ron Sigal
1988-11-01
Full Text Available Logic programming is now firmly established as an alternative programming paradigm, distinct and arguably superior to the still dominant imperative style of, for instance, the Algol family of languages. The concept of a logic programming language is not precisely defined, but it is generally understood to be characterized buy: a declarative nature; foundation in some well understood logical system, e.g., first order logic.
Analogy: Justification for Logic.
Sacksteder, William
1979-01-01
Presents and defends the thesis that it is analogy which provides justification for any logic, and for any argument to the extent that it depends on logic for justification. Analogy acquires inept support from logic, but logic acquires adroit support from analogy. (JMF)
Metamathematics of fuzzy logic
Hájek, Petr
1998-01-01
This book presents a systematic treatment of deductive aspects and structures of fuzzy logic understood as many valued logic sui generis. Some important systems of real-valued propositional and predicate calculus are defined and investigated. The aim is to show that fuzzy logic as a logic of imprecise (vague) propositions does have well-developed formal foundations and that most things usually named `fuzzy inference' can be naturally understood as logical deduction.
Logical formalization and the formalization of logic(s)
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Peregrin, Jaroslav; Svoboda, Vladimír
2016-01-01
Roč. 59, č. 233 (2016), s. 55-80 ISSN 0024-5836 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-21076S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : logical formalization * logical analysis * reflective equilibrium Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion
Logic-programming language enriches design processes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kitson, B.; Ow-Wing, K.
1984-03-22
With the emergence of a set of high-level CAD tools for programmable logic devices, designers can translate logic into functional custom devices simply and efficiently. The core of the package is a blockstructured hardware description language called PLPL, for ''programmable-logic programming language.'' The cheif advantage of PLPL lies in its multiple input formats, which permit different design approaches for a variety of design problems. The higher the level of the approach, the closer PLPL will come to directly specifying the desired function. Intermediate steps in the design process can be eliminated, along with the errors that might have been generated during those steps.
Manipulating potential wells in Logical Stochastic Resonance to obtain XOR logic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Storni, Remo; Ando, Hiroyasu; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Murali, K.; Sinha, Sudeshna
2012-01-01
Logical Stochastic Resonance (LSR) is the application of Stochastic Resonance to logic computation, namely the phenomenon where a nonlinear system driven by weak signals representing logic inputs, under optimal noise, can yield logic outputs. We extend the existing results, obtained in the context of bistable systems, to multi-stable dynamical systems, allowing us to obtain XOR logic, in addition to the AND (NAND) and OR (NOR) logic observed in earlier studies. This strategy widens the scope of LSR from the application point of view, as XOR forms the basis of ubiquitous bit-by-bit addition, and conceptually, showing the ability to yield non-monotonic input–output logic associations. -- Highlights: ► We generalize Logical Stochastic Resonance from bistable to multi-stable systems. ► We propose a tristable dynamical system formed of piecewise linear functions. ► The system can correctly reproduce XOR logic behavior using the LSR principle. ► The system yields different logic behavior without the need to change the dynamics.
A parity checker circuit based on microelectromechanical resonator logic elements
Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al
2017-01-11
Micro/nano-electromechanical resonator based logic computation has attracted significant attention in recent years due to its dynamic mode of operation, ultra-low power consumption, and potential for reprogrammable and reversible computing. Here we demonstrate a 4-bit parity checker circuit by utilizing recently developed logic gates based on MEMS resonators. Toward this, resonance frequencies of shallow arch shaped micro resonators are electrothermally tuned by the logic inputs to constitute the required logic gates for the proposed parity checker circuit. This study demonstrates that by utilizing MEMS resonator based logic elements, complex digital circuits can be realized.
Learning fuzzy logic control system
Lung, Leung Kam
1994-01-01
The performance of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Control System (LFLCS), developed in this thesis, has been evaluated. The Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller (LFLC) learns to control the motor by learning the set of teaching values that are generated by a classical PI controller. It is assumed that the classical PI controller is tuned to minimize the error of a position control system of the D.C. motor. The Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller developed in this thesis is a multi-input single-output network. Training of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller is implemented off-line. Upon completion of the training process (using Supervised Learning, and Unsupervised Learning), the LFLC replaces the classical PI controller. In this thesis, a closed loop position control system of a D.C. motor using the LFLC is implemented. The primary focus is on the learning capabilities of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller. The learning includes symbolic representation of the Input Linguistic Nodes set and Output Linguistic Notes set. In addition, we investigate the knowledge-based representation for the network. As part of the design process, we implement a digital computer simulation of the LFLCS. The computer simulation program is written in 'C' computer language, and it is implemented in DOS platform. The LFLCS, designed in this thesis, has been developed on a IBM compatible 486-DX2 66 computer. First, the performance of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller is evaluated by comparing the angular shaft position of the D.C. motor controlled by a conventional PI controller and that controlled by the LFLC. Second, the symbolic representation of the LFLC and the knowledge-based representation for the network are investigated by observing the parameters of the Fuzzy Logic membership functions and the links at each layer of the LFLC. While there are some limitations of application with this approach, the result of the simulation shows that the LFLC is able to control the angular shaft position of the
Generic physical protection logic trees
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paulus, W.K.
1981-10-01
Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle.
Generic physical protection logic trees
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paulus, W.K.
1981-10-01
Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle
Cosmic logic: a computational model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vanchurin, Vitaly
2016-01-01
We initiate a formal study of logical inferences in context of the measure problem in cosmology or what we call cosmic logic. We describe a simple computational model of cosmic logic suitable for analysis of, for example, discretized cosmological systems. The construction is based on a particular model of computation, developed by Alan Turing, with cosmic observers (CO), cosmic measures (CM) and cosmic symmetries (CS) described by Turing machines. CO machines always start with a blank tape and CM machines take CO's Turing number (also known as description number or Gödel number) as input and output the corresponding probability. Similarly, CS machines take CO's Turing number as input, but output either one if the CO machines are in the same equivalence class or zero otherwise. We argue that CS machines are more fundamental than CM machines and, thus, should be used as building blocks in constructing CM machines. We prove the non-computability of a CS machine which discriminates between two classes of CO machines: mortal that halts in finite time and immortal that runs forever. In context of eternal inflation this result implies that it is impossible to construct CM machines to compute probabilities on the set of all CO machines using cut-off prescriptions. The cut-off measures can still be used if the set is reduced to include only machines which halt after a finite and predetermined number of steps
Many-valued Logic and Fuzzy Logic
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hájek, Petr
2011-01-01
Roč. 27, č. 2 (2011), s. 315-324 ISSN 0970-7794 R&D Projects: GA ČR GEICC/08/E018 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : many valued logic * fuzzy logic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
Newton-Smith, WH
2003-01-01
A complete introduction to logic for first-year university students with no background in logic, philosophy or mathematics. In easily understood steps it shows the mechanics of the formal analysis of arguments.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mardare, Radu Iulian; Cardelli, Luca; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand
2012-01-01
Continuous Markovian Logic (CML) is a multimodal logic that expresses quantitative and qualitative properties of continuous-time labelled Markov processes with arbitrary (analytic) state-spaces, henceforth called continuous Markov processes (CMPs). The modalities of CML evaluate the rates...
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Bickford, Mark
2008-01-01
.... This report describes the design of an Event Logic Assistant (Elan) that provides powerful automated support for applying event logic to the design and implementation of high-assurance distributed protocols...
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Jaspan, Ciera; Quan, Trisha; Aldrich, Jonathan
2008-01-01
... it. In this paper, we introduce error reporting logic (ERL), an algorithm and tool that produces succinct explanations for why a target system violates a specification expressed in first order predicate logic...
Shalack, V.
2013-01-01
The article offers a look at the combinatorial logic as the logic of signs operating in the most general sense. For this it is proposed slightly reformulate it in terms of introducing and replacement of the definitions.
Institutional Logics in Action
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lounsbury, Michael; Boxenbaum, Eva
2013-01-01
This double volume presents state-of-the-art research and thinking on the dynamics of actors and institutional logics. In the introduction, we briefly sketch the roots and branches of institutional logics scholarship before turning to the new buds of research on the topic of how actors engage ins...... prolific stream of research on institutional logics by deepening our insight into the active use of institutional logics in organizational action and interaction, including the institutional effects of such (inter)actions....
Nanowire NMOS Logic Inverter Characterization.
Hashim, Yasir
2016-06-01
This study is the first to demonstrate characteristics optimization of nanowire N-Channel Metal Oxide Semiconductor (NW-MOS) logic inverter. Noise margins and inflection voltage of transfer characteristics are used as limiting factors in this optimization. A computer-based model used to produce static characteristics of NW-NMOS logic inverter. In this research two circuit configuration of NW-NMOS inverter was studied, in first NW-NMOS circuit, the noise margin for (low input-high output) condition was very low. For second NMOS circuit gives excellent noise margins, and results indicate that optimization depends on applied voltage to the inverter. Increasing gate to source voltage with (2/1) nanowires ratio results better noise margins. Increasing of applied DC load transistor voltage tends to increasing in decreasing noise margins; decreasing this voltage will improve noise margins significantly.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
andoh
1Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Mohali. 2The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai ... Bottomline of this work: One can obtain very reliable Logic Circuit. Elements by exploiting nonlinearity in the presence of ... with the truth tables of the basic logic operations. Sudeshna Sinha. Logical Stochastic ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berg Johansen, Christina; Waldorff, Susanne Boch
as change and agency generated by friction between logics. We use these topics as basis for an analysis of selected empirical papers, with the aim of understanding how institutional logics contribute to institutional theory at large, and which social matters institutional logics can and cannot explore...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lopez, Hugo Andres; Carbone, Marco; Hildebrandt, Thomas
2010-01-01
We explore logical reasoning for the global calculus, a coordination model based on the notion of choreography, with the aim to provide a methodology for speciﬁcation and veriﬁcation of structured communications. Starting with an extension of Hennessy-Milner logic, we present the global logic (GL...
Analysis and Generation of Logical Signals for Discrete Events Behavioral Modeling
Campos-Rebelo, Rogério; Costa, Anikó; Gomes, Luis
2015-01-01
Part 6: Embedded Systems; International audience; This paper presents a proposal for structuring logical signals for discrete events behavioral modeling. Graphical formalisms will be used to illustrate applicability of the proposed techniques. Input logical signals are generated based on the analysis of physical signals coming from the environment and other input logical signals. Their analysis is introduced in the flow of the input signal analysis, defined as pre-processing when using a mode...
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Horčík, Rostislav; Cintula, Petr
2004-01-01
Roč. 43, - (2004), s. 477-503 ISSN 1432-0665 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030004; GA ČR GA201/02/1540 Grant - others:GA CTU(CZ) project 0208613; net CEEPUS(SK) SK-042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1030915 Keywords : fuzzy logic * many-valued logic * Lukasiewicz logic * Lpi logic * Takeuti-Titani logic * MV-algebras * product MV-algebras Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.295, year: 2004
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bentzen, Martin Mose
2014-01-01
A new deontic logic, Action Type Deontic Logic, is presented. To motivate this logic, a number of benchmark cases are shown, representing inferences a deontic logic should validate. Some of the benchmark cases are singled out for further comments and some formal approaches to deontic reasoning...... are evaluated with respect to the benchmark cases. After that follows an informal introduction to the ideas behind the formal semantics, focussing on the distinction between action types and action tokens. Then the syntax and semantics of Action Type Deontic Logic is presented and it is shown to meet...
Integration of biomolecular logic gates with field-effect transducers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poghossian, A.; Malzahn, K.; Abouzar, M.H.; Mehndiratta, P.; Katz, E.; Schoening, M.J.
2011-01-01
Highlights: → Enzyme-based AND/OR logic gates are integrated with a capacitive field-effect sensor. → The AND/OR logic gates compose of multi-enzyme system immobilised on sensor surface. → Logic gates were activated by different combinations of chemical inputs (analytes). → The logic output (pH change) produced by the enzymes was read out by the sensor. - Abstract: The integration of biomolecular logic gates with field-effect devices - the basic element of conventional electronic logic gates and computing - is one of the most attractive and promising approaches for the transformation of biomolecular logic principles into macroscopically useable electrical output signals. In this work, capacitive field-effect EIS (electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor) sensors based on a p-Si-SiO 2 -Ta 2 O 5 structure modified with a multi-enzyme membrane have been used for electronic transduction of biochemical signals processed by enzyme-based OR and AND logic gates. The realised OR logic gate composes of two enzymes (glucose oxidase and esterase) and was activated by ethyl butyrate or/and glucose. The AND logic gate composes of three enzymes (invertase, mutarotase and glucose oxidase) and was activated by two chemical input signals: sucrose and dissolved oxygen. The developed integrated enzyme logic gates produce local pH changes at the EIS sensor surface as a result of biochemical reactions activated by different combinations of chemical input signals, while the pH value of the bulk solution remains unchanged. The pH-induced charge changes at the gate-insulator (Ta 2 O 5 ) surface of the EIS transducer result in an electronic signal corresponding to the logic output produced by the immobilised enzymes. The logic output signals have been read out by means of a constant-capacitance method.
Integration of biomolecular logic gates with field-effect transducers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Poghossian, A., E-mail: a.poghossian@fz-juelich.de [Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies, Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Campus Juelich, Heinrich-Mussmann-Str. 1, D-52428 Juelich (Germany); Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems, Research Centre Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Malzahn, K. [Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies, Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Campus Juelich, Heinrich-Mussmann-Str. 1, D-52428 Juelich (Germany); Abouzar, M.H. [Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies, Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Campus Juelich, Heinrich-Mussmann-Str. 1, D-52428 Juelich (Germany); Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems, Research Centre Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Mehndiratta, P. [Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies, Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Campus Juelich, Heinrich-Mussmann-Str. 1, D-52428 Juelich (Germany); Katz, E. [Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Science, NanoBio Laboratory (NABLAB), Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5810 (United States); Schoening, M.J. [Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies, Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Campus Juelich, Heinrich-Mussmann-Str. 1, D-52428 Juelich (Germany); Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems, Research Centre Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)
2011-11-01
Highlights: > Enzyme-based AND/OR logic gates are integrated with a capacitive field-effect sensor. > The AND/OR logic gates compose of multi-enzyme system immobilised on sensor surface. > Logic gates were activated by different combinations of chemical inputs (analytes). > The logic output (pH change) produced by the enzymes was read out by the sensor. - Abstract: The integration of biomolecular logic gates with field-effect devices - the basic element of conventional electronic logic gates and computing - is one of the most attractive and promising approaches for the transformation of biomolecular logic principles into macroscopically useable electrical output signals. In this work, capacitive field-effect EIS (electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor) sensors based on a p-Si-SiO{sub 2}-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} structure modified with a multi-enzyme membrane have been used for electronic transduction of biochemical signals processed by enzyme-based OR and AND logic gates. The realised OR logic gate composes of two enzymes (glucose oxidase and esterase) and was activated by ethyl butyrate or/and glucose. The AND logic gate composes of three enzymes (invertase, mutarotase and glucose oxidase) and was activated by two chemical input signals: sucrose and dissolved oxygen. The developed integrated enzyme logic gates produce local pH changes at the EIS sensor surface as a result of biochemical reactions activated by different combinations of chemical input signals, while the pH value of the bulk solution remains unchanged. The pH-induced charge changes at the gate-insulator (Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}) surface of the EIS transducer result in an electronic signal corresponding to the logic output produced by the immobilised enzymes. The logic output signals have been read out by means of a constant-capacitance method.
Logical provenance in data-oriented workflows?
Ikeda, R.
2013-04-01
We consider the problem of defining, generating, and tracing provenance in data-oriented workflows, in which input data sets are processed by a graph of transformations to produce output results. We first give a new general definition of provenance for general transformations, introducing the notions of correctness, precision, and minimality. We then determine when properties such as correctness and minimality carry over from the individual transformations\\' provenance to the workflow provenance. We describe a simple logical-provenance specification language consisting of attribute mappings and filters. We provide an algorithm for provenance tracing in workflows where logical provenance for each transformation is specified using our language. We consider logical provenance in the relational setting, observing that for a class of Select-Project-Join (SPJ) transformations, logical provenance specifications encode minimal provenance. We have built a prototype system supporting the features and algorithms presented in the paper, and we report a few preliminary experimental results. © 2013 IEEE.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia; Manzano, Maria
2014-01-01
Leon Henkin was not a modal logician, but there is a branch of modal logic that has been deeply influenced by his work. That branch is hybrid logic, a family of logics that extend orthodox modal logic with special proposition symbols (called nominals) that name worlds. This paper explains why...... Henkin’s techniques are so important in hybrid logic. We do so by proving a completeness result for a hybrid type theory called HTT, probably the strongest hybrid logic that has yet been explored. Our completeness result builds on earlier work with a system called BHTT, or basic hybrid type theory...... is due to the first-order perspective, which lies at the heart of Henin’s best known work and hybrid logic....
A high-speed interconnect network using ternary logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Jens Kargaard; Long, S. I.
1995-01-01
This paper describes the design and implementation of a high-speed interconnect network (ICN) for a multiprocessor system using ternary logic. By using ternary logic and a fast point-to-point communication technique called STARI (Self-Timed At Receiver's Input), the communication between...
Fuzzy Logic Based Automatic Door Control System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Harun SUMBUL
2017-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, fuzzy logic based an automatic door control system is designed to provide for heat energy savings. The heat energy loss usually occurs in where outomotic doors are used. Designed fuzzy logic system’s Input statuses (WS: Walking Speed and DD: Distance Door and the output status (DOS: Door Opening Speed is determined. According to these cases, rule base (25 rules is created; the rules are processed by a fuzzy logic and by appyled to control of an automatic door. An interface program is prepared by using Matlab Graphical User Interface (GUI programming language and some sample results are checked on Matlab using fuzzy logic toolbox. Designed fuzzy logic controller is tested at different speed cases and the results are plotted. As a result; in this study, we have obtained very good results in control of an automatic door with fuzzy logic. The results of analyses have indicated that the controls performed with fuzzy logic provided heat energy savings, less heat energy loss and reliable, consistent controls and that are feasible to in real.
Dalen, Dirk
1983-01-01
A book which efficiently presents the basics of propositional and predicate logic, van Dalen’s popular textbook contains a complete treatment of elementary classical logic, using Gentzen’s Natural Deduction. Propositional and predicate logic are treated in separate chapters in a leisured but precise way. Chapter Three presents the basic facts of model theory, e.g. compactness, Skolem-Löwenheim, elementary equivalence, non-standard models, quantifier elimination, and Skolem functions. The discussion of classical logic is rounded off with a concise exposition of second-order logic. In view of the growing recognition of constructive methods and principles, one chapter is devoted to intuitionistic logic. Completeness is established for Kripke semantics. A number of specific constructive features, such as apartness and equality, the Gödel translation, the disjunction and existence property have been incorporated. The power and elegance of natural deduction is demonstrated best in the part of proof theory cal...
Symmetric Logic Synthesis with Phase Assignment
Benschop, N. F.
2001-01-01
Decomposition of any Boolean Function BF_n of n binary inputs into an optimal inverter coupled network of Symmetric Boolean functions SF_k (k \\leq n) is described. Each SF component is implemented by Threshold Logic Cells, forming a complete and compact T-Cell Library. Optimal phase assignment of input polarities maximizes local symmetries. The "rank spectrum" is a new BF_n description independent of input ordering, obtained by mapping its minterms onto an othogonal n \\times n grid of (transi...
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Peliš, Michal
2017-01-01
Roč. 26, č. 3 (2017), s. 357-381 ISSN 1425-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC16-07954J Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : epistemic logic * erotetic implication * erotetic logic * logic of questions Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Philosophy , History and Philosophy of science and technology http://apcz.umk.pl/czasopisma/index.php/LLP/article/view/LLP.2017.007
Logical database design principles
Garmany, John; Clark, Terry
2005-01-01
INTRODUCTION TO LOGICAL DATABASE DESIGNUnderstanding a Database Database Architectures Relational Databases Creating the Database System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)Systems Planning: Assessment and Feasibility System Analysis: RequirementsSystem Analysis: Requirements Checklist Models Tracking and Schedules Design Modeling Functional Decomposition DiagramData Flow Diagrams Data Dictionary Logical Structures and Decision Trees System Design: LogicalSYSTEM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION The ER ApproachEntities and Entity Types Attribute Domains AttributesSet-Valued AttributesWeak Entities Constraint
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wall, M.J.W.
1992-07-01
The notion of {open_quotes}probability{close_quotes} is generalized to that of {open_quotes}likelihood,{close_quotes} and a natural logical structure is shown to exist for any physical theory which predicts likelihoods. Two physically based axioms are given for this logical structure to form an orthomodular poset, with an order-determining set of states. The results strengthen the basis of the quantum logic approach to axiomatic quantum theory. 25 refs.
Multi-input and binary reproducible, high bandwidth floating point adder in a collective network
Chen, Dong; Eisley, Noel A; Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard
2015-03-10
To add floating point numbers in a parallel computing system, a collective logic device receives the floating point numbers from computing nodes. The collective logic devices converts the floating point numbers to integer numbers. The collective logic device adds the integer numbers and generating a summation of the integer numbers. The collective logic device converts the summation to a floating point number. The collective logic device performs the receiving, the converting the floating point numbers, the adding, the generating and the converting the summation in one pass. One pass indicates that the computing nodes send inputs only once to the collective logic device and receive outputs only once from the collective logic device.
Circuit of synchronous logic for the transmission of safety commands
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uberschlag, J.
1969-01-01
The author reports the development of a control-command circuit for the transmission of binary commands related to the safety of nuclear reactors. He presents the main design criteria (operation safety, provided safety level, flexibility, technical adaptation), the definition of the operation principle (inputs, logical outputs), the properties of a logic system. He evokes redundancy issues, and presents the system structure, proposes a possible sketch of the logic circuit. He describes the possible options for intermediate circuits and logic outputs, and tests to be performed
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jonas Buhrkal; Birkedal, Lars
2012-01-01
, separation means physical separation. In this paper, we introduce \\emph{fictional separation logic}, which includes more general forms of fictional separating conjunctions P * Q, where "*" does not require physical separation, but may also be used in situations where the memory resources described by P and Q...... overlap. We demonstrate, via a range of examples, how fictional separation logic can be used to reason locally and modularly about mutable abstract data types, possibly implemented using sophisticated sharing. Fictional separation logic is defined on top of standard separation logic, and both the meta...
Heterogeneous logics of competition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mossin, Christiane
2015-01-01
The purpose of the article is to demonstrate that in order to understand competition as a socially organizing phenomenon, we should not examine competition in isolation, but as constellations of heterogeneous logics. More precisely, the article is based on two main theoretical points: (1) Logics...... of a presumed logic of competition within EU law, whereas the second part focuses on particular legal logics. In this respect, the so-called ‘real link criterion’ (determining the access to transnational social rights for certain groups of unemployed people) is given special attention. What is particularly...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marco Carbone
2011-10-01
Full Text Available We explore logical reasoning for the global calculus, a coordination model based on the notion of choreography, with the aim to provide a methodology for specification and verification of structured communications. Starting with an extension of Hennessy-Milner logic, we present the global logic (GL, a modal logic describing possible interactions among participants in a choreography. We illustrate its use by giving examples of properties on service specifications. Finally, we show that, despite GL is undecidable, there is a significant decidable fragment which we provide with a sound and complete proof system for checking validity of formulae.
Introduction to mathematical logic
Mendelson, Elliott
2015-01-01
The new edition of this classic textbook, Introduction to Mathematical Logic, Sixth Edition explores the principal topics of mathematical logic. It covers propositional logic, first-order logic, first-order number theory, axiomatic set theory, and the theory of computability. The text also discusses the major results of Gödel, Church, Kleene, Rosser, and Turing.The sixth edition incorporates recent work on Gödel's second incompleteness theorem as well as restoring an appendix on consistency proofs for first-order arithmetic. This appendix last appeared in the first edition. It is offered in th
Crossley, J N; Brickhill, CJ; Stillwell, JC
2010-01-01
Although mathematical logic can be a formidably abstruse topic, even for mathematicians, this concise book presents the subject in a lively and approachable fashion. It deals with the very important ideas in modern mathematical logic without the detailed mathematical work required of those with a professional interest in logic.The book begins with a historical survey of the development of mathematical logic from two parallel streams: formal deduction, which originated with Aristotle, Euclid, and others; and mathematical analysis, which dates back to Archimedes in the same era. The streams beg
Towards a Formal Occurrence Logic based on Predicate Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Badie, Farshad; Götzsche, Hans
2015-01-01
argumentation based on formal Occurrence Logic concerning events and occurrences, and illustrate the relations between Predicate Logic and Occurrence Logic. The relationships (and dependencies) is conducive to an approach that can analyse the occurrences of ”logical statements based on different logical...
Fault-Tolerant Sequencer Using FPGA-Based Logic Designs for Space Applications
2013-12-01
Board PAL programmable array logic PCB printed circuit board PLA programmable logic array PLD programmable logic device PLL phase -locked...FPGA Resources used for three different sequencer designs Sequencer Design Type Resource Single Manual TMR Software TMR Inverters 6 6 6 Two...using a three -input LUT. ........................................................84 Figure 62. RTL schematic produced following synthesis of a timer
A reconfigurable NAND/NOR genetic logic gate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Goñi-Moreno Angel
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Engineering genetic Boolean logic circuits is a major research theme of synthetic biology. By altering or introducing connections between genetic components, novel regulatory networks are built in order to mimic the behaviour of electronic devices such as logic gates. While electronics is a highly standardized science, genetic logic is still in its infancy, with few agreed standards. In this paper we focus on the interpretation of logical values in terms of molecular concentrations. Results We describe the results of computational investigations of a novel circuit that is able to trigger specific differential responses depending on the input standard used. The circuit can therefore be dynamically reconfigured (without modification to serve as both a NAND/NOR logic gate. This multi-functional behaviour is achieved by a varying the meanings of inputs, and b using branch predictions (as in computer science to display a constrained output. A thorough computational study is performed, which provides valuable insights for the future laboratory validation. The simulations focus on both single-cell and population behaviours. The latter give particular insights into the spatial behaviour of our engineered cells on a surface with a non-homogeneous distribution of inputs. Conclusions We present a dynamically-reconfigurable NAND/NOR genetic logic circuit that can be switched between modes of operation via a simple shift in input signal concentration. The circuit addresses important issues in genetic logic that will have significance for more complex synthetic biology applications.
A circuit design for multi-inputs stateful OR gate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Qiao; Wang, Xiaoping; Wan, Haibo; Yang, Ran; Zheng, Jian
2016-01-01
The in situ logic operation on memristor memory has attracted researchers' attention. In this brief, a new circuit structure that performs a stateful OR logic operation is proposed. When our OR logic is operated in series with other logic operations (IMP, AND), only two voltages should to be changed while three voltages are necessary in the previous one-step OR logic operation. In addition, this circuit structure can be extended to multi-inputs OR operation to perfect the family of logic operations on memristive memory in nanocrossbar based networks. The proposed OR gate can enable fast logic operation, reduce the number of required memristors and the sequential steps. Through analysis and simulation, the feasibility of OR operation is demonstrated and the appropriate parameters are obtained.
Understanding Social Media Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José van Dijck
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Over the past decade, social media platforms have penetrated deeply into the mechanics of everyday life, affecting people's informal interactions, as well as institutional structures and professional routines. Far from being neutral platforms for everyone, social media have changed the conditions and rules of social interaction. In this article, we examine the intricate dynamic between social media platforms, mass media, users, and social institutions by calling attention to social media logic—the norms, strategies, mechanisms, and economies—underpinning its dynamics. This logic will be considered in light of what has been identified as mass media logic, which has helped spread the media's powerful discourse outside its institutional boundaries. Theorizing social media logic, we identify four grounding principles—programmability, popularity, connectivity, and datafication—and argue that these principles become increasingly entangled with mass media logic. The logic of social media, rooted in these grounding principles and strategies, is gradually invading all areas of public life. Besides print news and broadcasting, it also affects law and order, social activism, politics, and so forth. Therefore, its sustaining logic and widespread dissemination deserve to be scrutinized in detail in order to better understand its impact in various domains. Concentrating on the tactics and strategies at work in social media logic, we reassess the constellation of power relationships in which social practices unfold, raising questions such as: How does social media logic modify or enhance existing mass media logic? And how is this new media logic exported beyond the boundaries of (social or mass media proper? The underlying principles, tactics, and strategies may be relatively simple to identify, but it is much harder to map the complex connections between platforms that distribute this logic: users that employ them, technologies that
Criteria for logical formalization
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Peregrin, Jaroslav; Svoboda, Vladimír
2013-01-01
Roč. 190, č. 14 (2013), s. 2897-2924 ISSN 0039-7857 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/10/1279 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : logic * logical form * formalization * reflective equilibrium Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.637, year: 2013
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Klarman, S
2013-05-01
Full Text Available We introduce Description Logics of Context (DLCs) - an extension of Description Logics (DLs) for context-based reasoning. Our approach descends from J. McCarthy's tradition of treating contexts as formal objects over which one can quantify...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Evandro Agazzi
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Humans have used arguments for defending or refuting statements long before the creation of logic as a specialized discipline. This can be interpreted as the fact that an intuitive notion of "logical consequence" or a psychic disposition to articulate reasoning according to this pattern is present in common sense, and logic simply aims at describing and codifying the features of this spontaneous capacity of human reason. It is well known, however, that several arguments easily accepted by common sense are actually "logical fallacies", and this indicates that logic is not just a descriptive, but also a prescriptive or normative enterprise, in which the notion of logical consequence is defined in a precise way and then certain rules are established in order to maintain the discourse in keeping with this notion. Yet in the justification of the correctness and adequacy of these rules commonsense reasoning must necessarily be used, and in such a way its foundational role is recognized. Moreover, it remains also true that several branches and forms of logic have been elaborated precisely in order to reflect the structural features of correct argument used in different fields of human reasoning and yet insufficiently mirrored by the most familiar logical formalisms.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin
2012-01-01
In this paper we explore the logic of now, yesterday, today and tomorrow by combining the semantic approach to indexicality pioneered by Hans Kamp [9] and refined by David Kaplan [10] with hybrid tense logic. We first introduce a special now nominal (our @now corresponds to Kamp’s original now...
A. Ponse (Alban); M.B. van der Zwaag
2002-01-01
textabstractWe distinguish two interpretations for the truth value `undefined' in Kleene's three-valued logic. Combining these two interpretations leads to a four-valued propositional logic that characterizes two particular ingredients of process algebra: ``choice' and ``inaction'. We study two
Linear Logical Voting Protocols
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
DeYoung, Henry; Schürmann, Carsten
2012-01-01
. In response, we promote linear logic as a high-level language for both specifying and implementing voting protocols. Our linear logical specifications of the single-winner first-past-the-post (SW- FPTP) and single transferable vote (STV) protocols demonstrate that this approach leads to concise...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
andoh
Our motivation stems from an issue that is receiving considerable attention today: As computational devices and platforms continue to shrink in size .... Changing C changes the symmetry of the potential wells : leads to different logical responses. Morphing Logic Gate. In effect, we are able to obtain the basic ingredients of ...
Toward spin-based Magneto Logic Gate in Graphene
Wen, Hua; Dery, Hanan; Amamou, Walid; Zhu, Tiancong; Lin, Zhisheng; Shi, Jing; Zutic, Igor; Krivorotov, Ilya; Sham, Lu; Kawakami, Roland
Graphene has emerged as a leading candidate for spintronic applications due to its long spin diffusion length at room temperature. A universal magnetologic gate (MLG) based on spin transport in graphene has been recently proposed as the building block of a logic circuit which could replace the current CMOS technology. This MLG has five ferromagnetic electrodes contacting a graphene channel and can be considered as two three-terminal XOR logic gates. Here we demonstrate this XOR logic gate operation in such a device. This was achieved by systematically tuning the injection current bias to balance the spin polarization efficiency of the two inputs, and offset voltage in the detection circuit to obtain binary outputs. The output is a current which corresponds to different logic states: zero current is logic `0', and nonzero current is logic `1'. We find improved performance could be achieved by reducing device size and optimizing the contacts.
Malhas, Othman Qasim
1993-10-01
The concept of “abacus logic” has recently been developed by the author (Malhas, n.d.). In this paper the relation of abacus logic to the concept of fuzziness is explored. It is shown that if a certain “regularity” condition is met, concepts from fuzzy set theory arise naturally within abacus logics. In particular it is shown that every abacus logic then has a “pre-Zadeh orthocomplementation”. It is also shown that it is then possible to associate a fuzzy set with every proposition of abacus logic and that the collection of all such sets satisfies natural conditions expected in systems of fuzzy logic. Finally, the relevance to quantum mechanics is discussed.
Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device
Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al
2016-03-29
In modern computing, the Boolean logic operations are set by interconnect schemes between the transistors. As the miniaturization in the component level to enhance the computational power is rapidly approaching physical limits, alternative computing methods are vigorously pursued. One of the desired aspects in the future computing approaches is the provision for hardware reconfigurability at run time to allow enhanced functionality. Here we demonstrate a reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance frequency of the resonator operated at room temperature and under modest vacuum conditions, reprogrammable by the a.c.-driving frequency. The device is fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible mass fabrication process, suitable for on-chip integration, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme.
Caulfield, H. John
2005-05-01
Progress of optical logic has been anything but uniform or even monotonic. The hope for "all optical computers" was largely abandoned after devastating critiques by Keyes. Over time, optical logic transformed into a very viable niche activity by the needs of optical communication for "all optical" logic and the advent of a critical component: the SOA or Semiconductor Optical Amplifier. I argue that a new phase in this uneven history can be defined - linear (single photon, not multiple entangled photon) quantum optical logic. These can perform conservative, reversible logic operations without energy or time penalties, but cascading requires the irreversible act of measurement, so only single devices or single layers can deliver those advantages.
Explicit Logic Circuits Discriminate Neural States
Yoder, Lane
2009-01-01
The magnitude and apparent complexity of the brain's connectivity have left explicit networks largely unexplored. As a result, the relationship between the organization of synaptic connections and how the brain processes information is poorly understood. A recently proposed retinal network that produces neural correlates of color vision is refined and extended here to a family of general logic circuits. For any combination of high and low activity in any set of neurons, one of the logic circuits can receive input from the neurons and activate a single output neuron whenever the input neurons have the given activity state. The strength of the output neuron's response is a measure of the difference between the smallest of the high inputs and the largest of the low inputs. The networks generate correlates of known psychophysical phenomena. These results follow directly from the most cost-effective architectures for specific logic circuits and the minimal cellular capabilities of excitation and inhibition. The networks function dynamically, making their operation consistent with the speed of most brain functions. The networks show that well-known psychophysical phenomena do not require extraordinarily complex brain structures, and that a single network architecture can produce apparently disparate phenomena in different sensory systems. PMID:19127299
Explicit logic circuits discriminate neural states.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lane Yoder
Full Text Available The magnitude and apparent complexity of the brain's connectivity have left explicit networks largely unexplored. As a result, the relationship between the organization of synaptic connections and how the brain processes information is poorly understood. A recently proposed retinal network that produces neural correlates of color vision is refined and extended here to a family of general logic circuits. For any combination of high and low activity in any set of neurons, one of the logic circuits can receive input from the neurons and activate a single output neuron whenever the input neurons have the given activity state. The strength of the output neuron's response is a measure of the difference between the smallest of the high inputs and the largest of the low inputs. The networks generate correlates of known psychophysical phenomena. These results follow directly from the most cost-effective architectures for specific logic circuits and the minimal cellular capabilities of excitation and inhibition. The networks function dynamically, making their operation consistent with the speed of most brain functions. The networks show that well-known psychophysical phenomena do not require extraordinarily complex brain structures, and that a single network architecture can produce apparently disparate phenomena in different sensory systems.
Superconductive combinational logic circuit using magnetically coupled SQUID array
Yamanashi, Y.; Umeda, K.; Sai, K.
2010-11-01
In this paper, we propose the development of superconductive combinational logic circuits. One of the difficulties in designing superconductive single-flux-quantum (SFQ) digital circuits can be attributed to the fundamental nature of the SFQ circuits, in which all logic gates have latching functions and are based on sequential logic. The design of ultralow-power superconductive digital circuits can be facilitated by the development of superconductive combinational logic circuits in which the output is a function of only the present input. This is because superconductive combinational logic circuits do not require determination of the timing adjustment and clocking scheme. Moreover, semiconductor design tools can be used to design digital circuits because CMOS logic gates are based on combinational logic. The proposed superconductive combinational logic circuits comprise a magnetically coupled SQUID array. By adjusting the circuit parameters and coupling strengths between neighboring SQUIDs, fundamental combinational logic gates, including the AND, OR, and NOT gates, can be built. We have verified the accuracy of the operations of the fundamental logic gates by analog circuit simulations.
Reliability concerns with logical constants in Xilinx FPGA designs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Quinn, Heather M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Graham, Paul [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morgan, Keith [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ostler, Patrick [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Allen, Greg [JPL; Swift, Gary [XILINX; Tseng, Chen W [XILINX
2009-01-01
In Xilinx Field Programmable Gate Arrays logical constants, which ground unused inputs and provide constants for designs, are implemented in SEU-susceptible logic. In the past, these logical constants have been shown to cause the user circuit to output bad data and were not resetable through off-line rcconfiguration. In the more recent devices, logical constants are less problematic, though mitigation should still be considered for high reliability applications. In conclusion, we have presented a number of reliability concerns with logical constants in the Xilinx Virtex family. There are two main categories of logical constants: implicit and explicit logical constants. In all of the Virtex devices, the implicit logical constants are implemented using half latches, which in the most recent devices are several orders of magnitudes smaller than configuration bit cells. Explicit logical constants are implemented exclusively using constant LUTs in the Virtex-I and Virtex-II, and use a combination of constant LUTs and architectural posts to the ground plane in the Virtex-4. We have also presented mitigation methods and options for these devices. While SEUs in implicit and some types of explicit logical constants can cause data corrupt, the chance of failure from these components is now much smaller than it was in the Virtex-I device. Therefore, for many cases, mitigation might not be necessary, except under extremely high reliability situations.
Position-sensing detector for logical operations using incoherent light
Vikram, Chandra S.; Caulfield, Henry J.
2005-11-01
The application of a position-sensing detector to optical logic operations has been introduced and experimentally demonstrated for the first time. We describe some possible architectures for all 16 two-input Boolean gates as well as for multi-input gates.
Robust fuzzy logic stabilization with disturbance elimination.
Danapalasingam, Kumeresan A
2014-01-01
A robust fuzzy logic controller is proposed for stabilization and disturbance rejection in nonlinear control systems of a particular type. The dynamic feedback controller is designed as a combination of a control law that compensates for nonlinear terms in a control system and a dynamic fuzzy logic controller that addresses unknown model uncertainties and an unmeasured disturbance. Since it is challenging to derive a highly accurate mathematical model, the proposed controller requires only nominal functions of a control system. In this paper, a mathematical derivation is carried out to prove that the controller is able to achieve asymptotic stability by processing state measurements. Robustness here refers to the ability of the controller to asymptotically steer the state vector towards the origin in the presence of model uncertainties and a disturbance input. Simulation results of the robust fuzzy logic controller application in a magnetic levitation system demonstrate the feasibility of the control design.
DNA computation in mammalian cells: microRNA logic operations.
Hemphill, James; Deiters, Alexander
2013-07-17
DNA computation can utilize logic gates as modules to create molecular computers with biological inputs. Modular circuits that recognize nucleic acid inputs through strand hybridization activate computation cascades to produce controlled outputs. This allows for the construction of synthetic circuits that can be interfaced with cellular environments. We have engineered oligonucleotide AND gates to respond to specific microRNA (miRNA) inputs in live mammalian cells. Both single and dual-sensing miRNA-based computation devices were synthesized for the cell-specific identification of endogenous miR-21 and miR-122. A logic gate response was observed with miRNA expression regulators, exhibiting molecular recognition of miRNA profile changes. Nucleic acid logic gates that are functional in a cellular environment and recognize endogenous inputs significantly expand the potential of DNA computation to monitor, image, and respond to cell-specific markers.
Logic in elementary mathematics
Exner, Robert M
2011-01-01
This applications-related introductory treatment explores facets of modern symbolic logic useful in the exposition of elementary mathematics. The authors convey the material in a manner accessible to those trained in standard elementary mathematics but lacking any formal background in logic. Topics include the statement calculus, proof and demonstration, abstract mathematical systems, and the restricted predicate calculus. The final chapter draws upon the methods of logical reasoning covered in previous chapters to develop solutions of linear and quadratic equations, definitions of order and
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Gierasimczuk, Nina; de Jong, Dick
2014-01-01
of information processing, but likewise helped bring logic and learning in close proximity. This proximity relation is examined with respect to learning and belief revision, updating and efficiency, and with respect to how learnability fits in the greater scheme of dynamic epistemic logic and scientific method.......Learning and learnability have been long standing topics of interests within the linguistic, computational, and epistemological accounts of inductive in- ference. Johan van Benthem’s vision of the “dynamic turn” has not only brought renewed life to research agendas in logic as the study...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xue, Bingtian; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mardare, Radu Iulian
2015-01-01
We introduce Concurrent Weighted Logic (CWL), a multimodal logic for concurrent labeled weighted transition systems (LWSs). The synchronization of LWSs is described using dedicated functions that, in various concurrency paradigms, allow us to encode the compositionality of LWSs. To reflect these......, CWL contains modal operators indexed with rational numbers to predicate over the numerical labels of LWSs as well as a binary modal operator that encodes properties concerning the (de-) composition of LWSs. We develop a Hilbert-style axiomatic system for CWL and we prove weak- and strong......-completeness results for this logic. To complete these proofs we involve advanced topological techniques from Model Theory....
Logical inference and evaluation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perey, F.G.
1981-01-01
Most methodologies of evaluation currently used are based upon the theory of statistical inference. It is generally perceived that this theory is not capable of dealing satisfactorily with what are called systematic errors. Theories of logical inference should be capable of treating all of the information available, including that not involving frequency data. A theory of logical inference is presented as an extension of deductive logic via the concept of plausibility and the application of group theory. Some conclusions, based upon the application of this theory to evaluation of data, are also given
Fisher, Michael; Gabbay, Dov; Gough, Graham
2000-01-01
Time is a fascinating subject that has captured mankind's imagination from ancient times to the present. It has been, and continues to be studied across a wide range of disciplines, from the natural sciences to philosophy and logic. More than two decades ago, Pnueli in a seminal work showed the value of temporal logic in the specification and verification of computer programs. Today, a strong, vibrant international research community exists in the broad community of computer science and AI. This volume presents a number of articles from leading researchers containing state-of-the-art results in such areas as pure temporal/modal logic, specification and verification, temporal databases, temporal aspects in AI, tense and aspect in natural language, and temporal theorem proving. Earlier versions of some of the articles were given at the most recent International Conference on Temporal Logic, University of Manchester, UK. Readership: Any student of the area - postgraduate, postdoctoral or even research professor ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aiello, Marco; Bezhanishvili, Guram; Bloch, Isabelle
2012-01-01
Since the early days of physics, space has called for means to represent, experiment, and reason about it. Apart from physicists, the concept of space has intrigued also philosophers, mathematicians and, more recently, computer scientists. This longstanding interest has left us with a plethora...... of mathematical tools developed to represent and work with space. Here we take a special look at this evolution by considering the perspective of Logic. From the initial axiomatic efforts of Euclid, we revisit the major milestones in the logical representation of space and investigate current trends. In doing so......, we do not only consider classical logic, but we indulge ourselves with modal logics. These present themselves naturally by providing simple axiomatizations of different geometries, topologies, space-time causality, and vector spaces....
Henson, C Ward; Kechris, Alexander S; Odell, Edward; Finet, Catherine; Michaux, Christian; Cassels, J W S
2003-01-01
This volume comprises articles from four outstanding researchers who work at the cusp of analysis and logic. The emphasis is on active research topics; many results are presented that have not been published before and open problems are formulated.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Monica, Dario Della; Goranko, Valentin; Montanari, Angelo
2011-01-01
We discuss a family of modal logics for reasoning about relational structures of intervals over (usually) linear orders, with modal operators associated with the various binary relations between such intervals, known as Allen’s interval relations. The formulae of these logics are evaluated...... at intervals rather than points and the main eect of that semantic feature is substantially higher expressiveness and computational complexity of the interval logics as compared to point-based ones. Without purporting to provide a comprehensive survey of the field, we take the reader to a journey through...... the main developments in it over the past 10 years and outline some landmark results on expressiveness and (un)decidability of the satisfiability problem for the family of interval logics....
Molecular sensors and molecular logic gates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Georgiev, N.; Bojinov, V.
2013-01-01
Full text: The rapid grow of nanotechnology field extended the concept of a macroscopic device to the molecular level. Because of this reason the design and synthesis of (supra)-molecular species capable of mimicking the functions of macroscopic devices are currently of great interest. Molecular devices operate via electronic and/or nuclear rearrangements and, like macroscopic devices, need energy to operate and communicate between their elements. The energy needed to make a device work can be supplied as chemical energy, electrical energy, or light. Luminescence is one of the most useful techniques to monitor the operation of molecular-level devices. This fact determinates the synthesis of novel fluorescence compounds as a considerable and inseparable part of nanoscience development. Further miniaturization of semiconductors in electronic field reaches their limit. Therefore the design and construction of molecular systems capable of performing complex logic functions is of great scientific interest now. In semiconductor devices the logic gates work using binary logic, where the signals are encoded as 0 and 1 (low and high current). This process is executable on molecular level by several ways, but the most common are based on the optical properties of the molecule switches encoding the low and high concentrations of the input guest molecules and the output fluorescent intensities with binary 0 and 1 respectively. The first proposal to execute logic operations at the molecular level was made in 1988, but the field developed only five years later when the analogy between molecular switches and logic gates was experimentally demonstrated by de Silva. There are seven basic logic gates: AND, OR, XOR, NOT, NAND, NOR and XNOR and all of them were achieved by molecules, the fluorescence switching as well. key words: fluorescence, molecular sensors, molecular logic gates
Characterization of quantum logics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lahti, P.J.
1980-01-01
The quantum logic approach to axiomatic quantum mechanics is used to analyze the conceptual foundations of the traditional quantum theory. The universal quantum of action h>0 is incorporated into the theory by introducing the uncertainty principle, the complementarity principle, and the superposition principle into the framework. A characterization of those quantum logics (L,S) which may provide quantum descriptions is then given. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer
1999-01-01
Conceptual spaces have been proposed as topological or geometric means for establishing conceptual structures and models. This paper, after briey reviewing conceptual spaces, focusses on the relationship between conceptual spaces and logical concept languages with operations for combining concepts...... to form concepts. Speci cally is introduced an algebraic concept logic, for which conceptual spaces are installed as semantic domain as replacement for, or enrichment of, the traditional....
Logic and declarative language
Downward, M
2004-01-01
Logic has acquired a reputation for difficulty, perhaps because many of the approaches adopted have been more suitable for mathematicians than computer scientists. This book shows that the subject is not inherently difficult and that the connections between logic and declarative language are straightforward. Many exercises have been included in the hope that these will lead to a much greater confidence in manual proofs, therefore leading to a greater confidence in automated proofs.
Mapping Shape Geometry And Emotions Using Fuzzy Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Achiche, Sofiane; Ahmed, Saeema
2008-01-01
and the intended emotion using fuzzy logic. To achieve this; 3D objects (shapes) created by design engineering students to match a set of words/emotions were analyzed. The authors identified geometric information as inputs of the fuzzy model and developed a set of fuzzy if/then rules to map the relationships...... between the fuzzy sets on each input premise and the output premise. In our case the output premise of the fuzzy logic model is the level of belonging to the design context (emotion). An evaluation of how users perceived the shapes was conducted to validate the fuzzy logic model and showed a high...... correlation between the fuzzy logic model and user perception....
Philosophical Foundations of Intuitionistic Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L Nabavi
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Intuitionistic logic, as a non-classical logic, encompasses the principles of logical reasoning which were used by L. E. J. Brouwer in developing his intuitionistic mathematics. Brouwer rejected the principle of the excluded middle on the basis of his philosophy. In his philosophical view, logic is the application of mathematics to the language of mathematics. In other words, logic studies the patterns that characterize valid inference. The resulting linguistic system of logic may be studied mathematically, even independently of the mathematical activities that it was originally abstracted from. In this paper, the philosophical basis of Brouwerâs view about Logic and Mathematics is explained.
Philosophical Foundations of Intuitionistic Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L Nabavi
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Intuitionistic logic, as a non-classical logic, encompasses the principles of logical reasoning which were used by L. E. J. Brouwer in developing his intuitionistic mathematics. Brouwer rejected the principle of the excluded middle on the basis of his philosophy. In his philosophical view, logic is the application of mathematics to the language of mathematics. In other words, logic studies the patterns that characterize valid inference. The resulting linguistic system of logic may be studied mathematically, even independently of the mathematical activities that it was originally abstracted from. In this paper, the philosophical basis of Brouwer’s view about Logic and Mathematics is explained.
A Paraconsistent Higher Order Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Villadsen, Jørgen
2004-01-01
of paraconsistent logics in knowledge-based systems, logical semantics of natural language, etc. Higher order logics have the advantages of being expressive and with several automated theorem provers available. Also the type system can be helpful. We present a concise description of a paraconsistent higher order...... logic with countable infinite indeterminacy, where each basic formula can get its own indeterminate truth value (or as we prefer: truth code). The meaning of the logical operators is new and rather different from traditional many-valued logics as well as from logics based on bilattices. The adequacy...
Non-logic devices in logic processes
Ma, Yanjun
2017-01-01
This book shows readers how to design semiconductor devices using the most common and lowest cost logic CMOS processes. Readers will benefit from the author’s extensive, industrial experience and the practical approach he describes for designing efficiently semiconductor devices that typically have to be implemented using specialized processes that are expensive, time-consuming, and low-yield. The author presents an integrated picture of semiconductor device physics and manufacturing techniques, as well as numerous practical examples of device designs that are tried and true.
Uncertain Reasoning in Justification Logic
Kokkinis, Ioannis
2016-01-01
This thesis studies the combination of two well known formal systems for knowledge representation: probabilistic logic and justification logic. Our aim is to design a formal framework that allows the analysis of epistemic situations with incomplete information. In order to achieve this we introduce two probabilistic justification logics, which are defined by adding probability operators to the minimal justification logic J. We prove soundness and completeness theorems for our logics and estab...
Connections among quantum logics. Pt. 1. Quantum propositional logics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lock, P.F. (Saint Lawrence Univ., Canton, New York (USA). Dept. of Mathematics); Hardegree, G.M. (Massachusetts Univ., Amherst (USA). Dept. of Philosophy)
1985-01-01
In this paper, a theory of quantum logics is proposed which is general enough to enable us to reexamine a previous work on quantum logics in the context of this theory. It is then easy to assess the differences between the different systems studied. The quantum logical systems which are incorporated are divided into two groups which we call ''quantum propositional logics'' and ''quantum event logics''. The work of Kochen and Specker (partial Boolean algebras) is included and so is that of Greechie and Gudder (orthomodular partially ordered sets), Domotar (quantum mechanical systems), and Foulis and Randall (operational logics) in quantum propositional logics; and Abbott (semi-Boolean algebras) and Foulis and Randall (manuals) in quantum event logics, In this part of the paper, an axiom system for quantum propositional logics is developed and the above structures in the context of this system examined.
Bicycle Frame Prediction Techniques with Fuzzy Logic Method
Rafiuddin Syam; La Ode Asman Muriman
2017-01-01
In general, an appropriate size bike frame would get comfort to the rider while biking. This study aims to predict the simulation system on the bike frame sizes with fuzzy logic. Testing method used is the simulation test. In this study, fuzzy logic will be simulated using Matlab language to test their performance. Mamdani fuzzy logic using 3 variables and 1 output variable intake. Triangle function for the input and output. The controller is designed in the type mamdani with max-min composit...
Logical reasoning with diagrams
Allwein, Gerard
1996-01-01
PART A: Theoretical Issues. 1. Visual Information and Valid Reasoning, Jon Barwise and John Etchemendy. 2. Operational Constraints in Diagrammatic Reasoning, Atsushi Shimojima. 3. Diagrams and the Concept of Logical System, Jon Barwise and Eric Hammer. PART B: Case Studies. 4. Situation-Theoretic Account of Valid Reasoning with Venn Diagrams, Sun-Joo Shin. 5. Towards a Model Theory of Venn Diagrams, eric Hammer and Norman Danner. 6. Peircean Graphs for Propositional Logic, Eric Hammer. 7. A Diagrammatic Subsystem of Hilbert''s Geometry, Isabel Luengo. PART C: Heterogenous Systems. 8. Heterogenous Logic, Jon Barwise and John Etchemendy. 9. Toward the Rigorous Use of Diagrams in Reasoning about Hardware, Steven D. Johnson, Jon Barwise, and Gerard Allwein. 10. Exploiting the Potential of Diagrams in Guiding Hardware Reasoning, Kathi D. Fisler
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zoltan Erdei
2011-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper the authors present the usefulness of fuzzy logic in controlling engineering processes or applications. Although fuzzy logic does not represent a novelty for the scientific and engineering field, it enjoys a great appreciation from those involved in the two domains. The fact that fuzzy logic uses sentences kindred with the natural language make it easier to comprehend that a complex mathematical model required by the classic control theory. In MatLab software there are dedicated toolboxes to this subject that make the design of a fuzzy controller a facile one. In the paper design methods of a fuzzy controller are being presented both in Simulink and MatLab.
Rushton, Andrew
2011-01-01
Many engineers encountering VHDL (very high speed integrated circuits hardware description language) for the first time can feel overwhelmed by it. This book bridges the gap between the VHDL language and the hardware that results from logic synthesis with clear organisation, progressing from the basics of combinational logic, types, and operators; through special structures such as tristate buses, register banks and memories, to advanced themes such as developing your own packages, writing test benches and using the full range of synthesis types. This third edition has been substantially rewritten to include the new VHDL-2008 features that enable synthesis of fixed-point and floating-point hardware. Extensively updated throughout to reflect modern logic synthesis usage, it also contains a complete case study to demonstrate the updated features. Features to this edition include: * a common VHDL subset which will work across a range of different synthesis systems, targeting a very wide range of technologies...
Duration Calculus: Logical Foundations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Michael Reichhardt; Chaochen, Zhou
1997-01-01
The Duration Calculus (abbreviated DC) represents a logical approach to formal design of real-time systems, where real numbers are used to model time and Boolean valued functions over time are used to model states and events of real-time systems. Since it introduction, DC has been applied to many...... case studies and it has been extended in several directions. The aim of this paper is to provide a thorough presentation of the logic.......The Duration Calculus (abbreviated DC) represents a logical approach to formal design of real-time systems, where real numbers are used to model time and Boolean valued functions over time are used to model states and events of real-time systems. Since it introduction, DC has been applied to many...
Carlsson, Christer; Fullér, Robert
2004-01-01
Fuzzy Logic in Management demonstrates that difficult problems and changes in the management environment can be more easily handled by bringing fuzzy logic into the practice of management. This explicit theme is developed through the book as follows: Chapter 1, "Management and Intelligent Support Technologies", is a short survey of management leadership and what can be gained from support technologies. Chapter 2, "Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic", provides a short introduction to fuzzy sets, fuzzy relations, the extension principle, fuzzy implications and linguistic variables. Chapter 3, "Group Decision Support Systems", deals with group decision making, and discusses methods for supporting the consensus reaching processes. Chapter 4, "Fuzzy Real Options for Strategic Planning", summarizes research where the fuzzy real options theory was implemented as a series of models. These models were thoroughly tested on a number of real life investments, and validated in 2001. Chapter 5, "Soft Computing Methods for Reducing...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vester, Steen
2015-01-01
We study the complexity of the model-checking problem for the branching-time logic CTL ∗ and the alternating-time temporal logics ATL/ATL ∗ in one-counter processes and one-counter games respectively. The complexity is determined for all three logics when integer weights are input in unary (non...
Modern Logical Frameworks Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Murawska, Agata Anna
2017-01-01
Throughout the years, logical frameworks have been a successful tool for prototyping and developing a number of logics and programming languages. However, to use the full power of the LF approach, the behaviour of variables in the system being mechanised must match the behaviour of those used...... or a cryptographic protocol used in a voting system, we need the ability to model and reason about both the building blocks of these systems and the intricate connections between them. To this end, this dissertation is an investigation into LF-based formalisms that might help address the aforementioned issues. We...
Conventions and Institutional Logics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Westenholz, Ann
Two theoretical approaches – Conventions and Institutional Logics – are brought together and the similarities and differences between the two are explored. It is not the intention to combine the approaches, but I would like to open both ‘boxes’ and make them available to each other with the purpose...... analyses. The theoretical quest of both Conventions and Institutional Logics has been to understand the increasing indeterminacy, uncertainty and ambiguity in people’s lives where a sense of reality, of value, of moral, of feelings is not fixed. Both approaches have created new theoretical insights...
Stoll, Robert R
1979-01-01
Set Theory and Logic is the result of a course of lectures for advanced undergraduates, developed at Oberlin College for the purpose of introducing students to the conceptual foundations of mathematics. Mathematics, specifically the real number system, is approached as a unity whose operations can be logically ordered through axioms. One of the most complex and essential of modern mathematical innovations, the theory of sets (crucial to quantum mechanics and other sciences), is introduced in a most careful concept manner, aiming for the maximum in clarity and stimulation for further study in
Gibson, J
2013-01-01
Most branches of organizing utilize digital electronic systems. This book introduces the design of such systems using basic logic elements as the components. The material is presented in a straightforward manner suitable for students of electronic engineering and computer science. The book is also of use to engineers in related disciplines who require a clear introduction to logic circuits. This third edition has been revised to encompass the most recent advances in technology as well as the latest trends in components and notation. It includes a wide coverage of application specific integrate
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Klose, Karl; Ostermann, Klaus
2010-01-01
In logic metaprogramming, programs are not stored as plain textfiles but rather derived from a deductive database. While the benefits of this approach for metaprogramming are obvious, its incompatibility with separate checking limits its applicability to large-scale projects. We analyze the probl......In logic metaprogramming, programs are not stored as plain textfiles but rather derived from a deductive database. While the benefits of this approach for metaprogramming are obvious, its incompatibility with separate checking limits its applicability to large-scale projects. We analyze...
Evens, Aden
2015-01-01
Building a foundational understanding of the digital, Logic of the Digital reveals a unique digital ontology. Beginning from formal and technical characteristics, especially the binary code at the core of all digital technologies, Aden Evens traces the pathways along which the digital domain of abstract logic encounters the material, human world. How does a code using only 0s and 1s give rise to the vast range of applications and information that constitutes a great and growing portion of our world? Evens' analysis shows how any encounter between the actual and the digital must cross an ontolo
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramli, Carroline Dewi Puspa Kencana; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming
2011-01-01
We study the international standard XACML 3.0 for describing security access control policy in a compositional way. Our main contribution is to derive a logic that precisely captures the idea behind the standard and to formally define the semantics of the policy combining algorithms of XACML....... To guard against modelling artefacts we provide an alternative way of characterizing the policy combining algorithms and we formally prove the equivalence of these approaches. This allows us to pinpoint the shortcoming of previous approaches to formalization based either on Belnap logic or on D -algebra....
Progress in Programmable Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jozef Cuntala
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Programmable logic devices (PLD are situated on important place among microelectronic components thanks to the continuing technological development of semiconductor components, due to new architectures and new approaches to digital systems design. Software design of various complicated digital systems becomes advantageous article of many firms. The Department of Electronics and Electrotechnology pays pemanent attention to mentioned components in application field. The collective of authors wants in this article point out on possibilities of design of digital system using the PLD. The paper plan contains the following basic parts: Technological aspects that influence development of configurable logic devices, Methodology od design and implementation and Flexibility of PLD interface.
Top-down RSFQ logic design based on a binary decision diagram
Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki; Koshiyama, J.
2001-01-01
We have proposed a top-down design methodology for RSFQ logic circuits using a binary decision diagram (BDD), The BDD is a way to represent a logical function by a directed graph, which consists of binary switches having one input and two outputs. The important features of the BDD RSFQ logic circuits are a small number of primitives, dual rail and non-clocked logic style, and a small gate count. We have constructed a cell library for the BDD RSFQ logic design, which is composed of five square...
Multifunctional logic gates based on silicon hybrid plasmonic waveguides
Cui, Luna; Yu, Li
2018-01-01
Nano-scale Multifunctional Logic Gates based on Si hybrid plasmonic waveguides (HPWGs) are designed by utilizing the multimode interference (MMI) effect. The proposed device is composed of three input waveguides, three output waveguides and an MMI waveguide. The functional size of the device is only 1000 nm × 3200 nm, which is much smaller than traditional Si-based all-optical logic gates. By setting different input signals and selecting suitable threshold value, OR, AND, XOR and NOT gates are achieved simultaneously or individually in a single device. This may provide a way for ultrahigh speed signal processing and future nanophotonic integrated circuits.
GOAL Agents Instantiate Intention Logic
Hindriks, Koen; van der Hoek, Wiebe
2008-01-01
It is commonly believed there is a big gap between agent logics and computational agent frameworks. In this paper, we show that this gap is not as big as believed by showing that GOAL agents instantiate Intention Logic of Cohen and Levesque. That is, we show that GOAL agent programs can be formally related to Intention Logic.We do so by proving that the GOAL Verification Logic can be embedded into Intention Logic. It follows that (a fragment of) Intention Logic can be used t...
Quantum logics with existence property
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schindler, C. (Univ. Bern (Switzerland))
1991-04-01
A quantum logic ({sigma}-orthocomplete orthomodular poset L with a convex, unital, and separating set {Delta} of states) is said to have the existence property if the expectation functionals on lin({Delta}) associated with the bounded observables of L form a vector space. Classical quantum logics as well as the Hilbert space logics of traditional quantum mechanics have this property. The author shows that, if a quantum logic satisfies certain conditions in addition to having property E, then the number of its blocks (maximal classical subsystems) must either be one (classical logics) or uncountable (as in Hilbert space logics).
Some relationships between logic programming and multiple-valued logic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rine, D.C.
1986-01-01
There have been suggestions in the artificial intelligence literature that investigations into relationships between logic programming and multiple-valued logic may be helpful. This paper presents some of these relationships through equivalent algebraic evaluations
Multi-Valued Logic Gates based on Ballistic Transport in Quantum Point Contacts
Seo, M.; Hong, C.; Lee, S.-Y.; Choi, H. K.; Kim, N.; Chung, Y.; Umansky, V.; Mahalu, D.
2014-01-01
Multi-valued logic gates, which can handle quaternary numbers as inputs, are developed by exploiting the ballistic transport properties of quantum point contacts in series. The principle of a logic gate that finds the minimum of two quaternary number inputs is demonstrated. The device is scalable to allow multiple inputs, which makes it possible to find the minimum of multiple inputs in a single gate operation. Also, the principle of a half-adder for quaternary number inputs is demonstrated. First, an adder that adds up two quaternary numbers and outputs the sum of inputs is demonstrated. Second, a device to express the sum of the adder into two quaternary digits [Carry (first digit) and Sum (second digit)] is demonstrated. All the logic gates presented in this paper can in principle be extended to allow decimal number inputs with high quality QPCs.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Filipiuk, Piotr; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis
2012-01-01
are a Moore Family result and a parametrized worst case time complexity result. We show that the logic and the associated solver can be used for rapid prototyping of analyses and illustrate a wide variety of applications within Static Analysis, Constraint Satisfaction Problems and Model Checking. In all cases...
Temporal logic motion planning
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Seotsanyana, M
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a critical review on temporal logic motion planning is presented. The review paper aims to address the following problems: (a) In a realistic situation, the motion planning problem is carried out in real-time, in a dynamic, uncertain...
Foundations of mathematical logic
Curry, Haskell B
2010-01-01
Written by a pioneer of mathematical logic, this comprehensive graduate-level text explores the constructive theory of first-order predicate calculus. It covers formal methods, including algorithms and epitheory, and offers a brief treatment of Markov's approach to algorithms, explains elementary facts about lattices and similar algebraic systems, and more. 1963 edition.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramli, Carroline Dewi Puspa Kencana; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming
2011-01-01
We study the international standard XACML 3.0 for describing security access control policy in a compositional way. Our main contribution is to derive a logic that precisely captures the idea behind the standard and to formally define the semantics of the policy combining algorithms of XACML. To ...
Quantum probabilistic logic programming
Balu, Radhakrishnan
2015-05-01
We describe a quantum mechanics based logic programming language that supports Horn clauses, random variables, and covariance matrices to express and solve problems in probabilistic logic. The Horn clauses of the language wrap random variables, including infinite valued, to express probability distributions and statistical correlations, a powerful feature to capture relationship between distributions that are not independent. The expressive power of the language is based on a mechanism to implement statistical ensembles and to solve the underlying SAT instances using quantum mechanical machinery. We exploit the fact that classical random variables have quantum decompositions to build the Horn clauses. We establish the semantics of the language in a rigorous fashion by considering an existing probabilistic logic language called PRISM with classical probability measures defined on the Herbrand base and extending it to the quantum context. In the classical case H-interpretations form the sample space and probability measures defined on them lead to consistent definition of probabilities for well formed formulae. In the quantum counterpart, we define probability amplitudes on Hinterpretations facilitating the model generations and verifications via quantum mechanical superpositions and entanglements. We cast the well formed formulae of the language as quantum mechanical observables thus providing an elegant interpretation for their probabilities. We discuss several examples to combine statistical ensembles and predicates of first order logic to reason with situations involving uncertainty.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Svoboda, Vladimír; Peregrin, Jaroslav
2016-01-01
Roč. 30, č. 3 (2016), s. 263-287 ISSN 0920-427X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-21076S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : argumentation * logical form * incorrect argument * correct arguments Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.689, year: 2016
Dynamic epistemic temporal logic
Renne, B.; Sack, Joshua; Yap, Audrey; He, X.; Horty, J.; Pacuit, E.
2009-01-01
We introduce a new type of arrow in the update frames (or "action models") of Dynamic Epistemic Logic in a way that enables us to reason about epistemic temporal dynamics in multi-agent systems that need not be synchronous. Since van Benthem and Pacuit (later joined by Hoshi and Gerbrandy) showed
Duration Calculus: Logical Foundations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Michael Reichhardt; Chaochen, Zhou
1997-01-01
The Duration Calculus (abbreviated DC) represents a logical approach to formal design of real-time systems, where real numbers are used to model time and Boolean valued functions over time are used to model states and events of real-time systems. Since it introduction, DC has been applied to many...
Harding, John; Yang, Taewon
2015-12-01
Since the work of Crown (J. Natur. Sci. Math. 15(1-2), 11-25 1975) in the 1970's, it has been known that the projections of a finite-dimensional vector bundle E form an orthomodular poset ( omp) {P}(E). This result lies in the intersection of a number of current topics, including the categorical quantum mechanics of Abramsky and Coecke (2004), and the approach via decompositions of Harding (Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 348(5), 1839-1862 1996). Moreover, it provides a source of omps for the quantum logic program close to the Hilbert space setting, and admitting a version of tensor products, yet having important differences from the standard logics of Hilbert spaces. It is our purpose here to initiate a basic investigation of the quantum logic program in the vector bundle setting. This includes observations on the structure of the omps obtained as {P}(E) for a vector bundle E, methods to obtain states on these omps, and automorphisms of these omps. Key theorems of quantum logic in the Hilbert setting, such as Gleason's theorem and Wigner's theorem, provide natural and quite challenging problems in the vector bundle setting.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Peregrin, Jaroslav
2010-01-01
Roč. 4, č. 2 (2010), s. 207-223 ISSN 1661-8297 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/10/1279 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z9009908 Keywords : logic * natural selection * modus potens * inferentialism Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion
Expressivist Perspective on Logicality
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Arazim, Pavel
2017-01-01
Roč. 11, č. 4 (2017), s. 409-419 ISSN 1661-8297 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-15645S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : logical constant * expressivism * topic-neutrality * proof-theory * conservativity Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Philosophy, History and Philosophy of science and technology
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Klev, Ansten
2017-01-01
Roč. 25, č. 3 (2017), s. 341-368 ISSN 0031-8019 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Philosophy of mathematics * logicism * Richard Dedekind Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Philosophy, History and Philosophy of science and technology Impact factor: 0.419, year: 2016
Parametric Linear Dynamic Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Faymonville
2014-08-01
Full Text Available We introduce Parametric Linear Dynamic Logic (PLDL, which extends Linear Dynamic Logic (LDL by temporal operators equipped with parameters that bound their scope. LDL was proposed as an extension of Linear Temporal Logic (LTL that is able to express all ω-regular specifications while still maintaining many of LTL's desirable properties like an intuitive syntax and a translation into non-deterministic Büchi automata of exponential size. But LDL lacks capabilities to express timing constraints. By adding parameterized operators to LDL, we obtain a logic that is able to express all ω-regular properties and that subsumes parameterized extensions of LTL like Parametric LTL and PROMPT-LTL. Our main technical contribution is a translation of PLDL formulas into non-deterministic Büchi word automata of exponential size via alternating automata. This yields a PSPACE model checking algorithm and a realizability algorithm with doubly-exponential running time. Furthermore, we give tight upper and lower bounds on optimal parameter values for both problems. These results show that PLDL model checking and realizability are not harder than LTL model checking and realizability.
Logicism, intuitionism, and formalism
Symons, John
2008-01-01
Aims to review the programmes in the foundations of mathematics from the classical period and to assess their possible relevance for contemporary philosophy of mathematics. This work is suitable for researchers and graduate students of philosophy, logic, mathematics and theoretical computer science.
Fuzzy logic control of a nitrogen laser
Tam, Siu Chung; Tan, Siong-Chai; Neo, Wah-Peng; Foong, Sze-Chern; Chan, Choon-Hao; Ho, Anthony T.; Chua, Hock-Chuan; Lee, Sing
2001-02-01
Traditionally, the stability of the output of a laser is controlled through scientific means or by a simple feedback loop. For multiinput multioutput control and for medium- to high-power lasers, however, these control schemes may break down. We report on the use of a fuzzy logic control scheme to improve the stability of a pulsed nitrogen laser. Specifically, the nitrogen laser is modeled as a two-input two-output system. The two input parameters are the discharge voltage (V) and nitrogen pressure (P), and the two output parameters are the pulse energy (E) and pulse width (PW). The performance of the fuzzy logic controller is compared with a decoupled two-channel PID (proportional+integral+derivative) controller. In our experiment, the long-term stabilities of the open-loop system are 1.82% root mean square (rms) for pulse energy and 4.58% rms for pulse width. The PID controller achieves better performance with long-term stabilities of 1.46% rms for pulse energy and 4.46% rms for pulse width. The fuzzy logic controller performs the best with long-term stabilities of 1.02% rms for pulse energy and 4.24% rms for pulse width, respectively.
Complex cellular logic computation using ribocomputing devices.
Green, Alexander A; Kim, Jongmin; Ma, Duo; Silver, Pamela A; Collins, James J; Yin, Peng
2017-08-03
Synthetic biology aims to develop engineering-driven approaches to the programming of cellular functions that could yield transformative technologies. Synthetic gene circuits that combine DNA, protein, and RNA components have demonstrated a range of functions such as bistability, oscillation, feedback, and logic capabilities. However, it remains challenging to scale up these circuits owing to the limited number of designable, orthogonal, high-performance parts, the empirical and often tedious composition rules, and the requirements for substantial resources for encoding and operation. Here, we report a strategy for constructing RNA-only nanodevices to evaluate complex logic in living cells. Our 'ribocomputing' systems are composed of de-novo-designed parts and operate through predictable and designable base-pairing rules, allowing the effective in silico design of computing devices with prescribed configurations and functions in complex cellular environments. These devices operate at the post-transcriptional level and use an extended RNA transcript to co-localize all circuit sensing, computation, signal transduction, and output elements in the same self-assembled molecular complex, which reduces diffusion-mediated signal losses, lowers metabolic cost, and improves circuit reliability. We demonstrate that ribocomputing devices in Escherichia coli can evaluate two-input logic with a dynamic range up to 900-fold and scale them to four-input AND, six-input OR, and a complex 12-input expression (A1 AND A2 AND NOT A1*) OR (B1 AND B2 AND NOT B2*) OR (C1 AND C2) OR (D1 AND D2) OR (E1 AND E2). Successful operation of ribocomputing devices based on programmable RNA interactions suggests that systems employing the same design principles could be implemented in other host organisms or in extracellular settings.
Greek, Indian and Arabic logic
Gabbay, Dov M
2004-01-01
Greek, Indian and Arabic Logic marks the initial appearance of the multi-volume Handbook of the History of Logic. Additional volumes will be published when ready, rather than in strict chronological order. Soon to appear are The Rise of Modern Logic: From Leibniz to Frege. Also in preparation are Logic From Russell to Gödel, Logic and the Modalities in the Twentieth Century, and The Many-Valued and Non-Monotonic Turn in Logic. Further volumes will follow, including Mediaeval and Renaissance Logic and Logic: A History of its Central. In designing the Handbook of the History of Logic, the Editors have taken the view that the history of logic holds more than an antiquarian interest, and that a knowledge of logic's rich and sophisticated development is, in various respects, relevant to the research programmes of the present day. Ancient logic is no exception. The present volume attests to the distant origins of some of modern logic's most important features, such as can be found in the claim by the authors of t...
Extending Value Logic Thinking to Value Logic Portfolios
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ritter, Thomas; Andersen, Poul Houman
or transaction, an understanding of firms and transactions as a portfolio of value logics (i.e. an interconnected coexistence of different value creation logics) is proposed. These additions to the original value creation logic theory imply interesting avenues for both, strategic decision making in firms...... and for research into strategic management....
Wansing, Heinrich; Willkommen, Caroline; Recent Trends in Philosophical Logic
2014-01-01
This volume presents recent advances in philosophical logic with chapters focusing on non-classical logics, including paraconsistent logics, substructural logics, modal logics of agency and other modal logics. The authors cover themes such as the knowability paradox, tableaux and sequent calculi, natural deduction, definite descriptions, identity, truth, dialetheism, and possible worlds semantics. The developments presented here focus on challenging problems in the specification of fundamental philosophical notions, as well as presenting new techniques and tools, thereby contributing to the development of the field. Each chapter contains a bibliography, to assist the reader in making connections in the specific areas covered. Thus this work provides both a starting point for further investigations into philosophical logic and an update on advances, techniques and applications in a dynamic field. The chapters originate from papers presented during the Trends in Logic XI conference at the Ruhr University ...
Logical analysis of biological systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mardare, Radu Iulian
2005-01-01
R. Mardare, Logical analysis of biological systems. Fundamenta Informaticae, N 64:271-285, 2005.......R. Mardare, Logical analysis of biological systems. Fundamenta Informaticae, N 64:271-285, 2005....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Braüner, Torben
2011-01-01
Hybrid logic is an extension of modal logic which allows us to refer explicitly to points of the model in the syntax of formulas. It is easy to justify interest in hybrid logic on applied grounds, with the usefulness of the additional expressive power. For example, when reasoning about time one...... often wants to build up a series of assertions about what happens at a particular instant, and standard modal formalisms do not allow this. What is less obvious is that the route hybrid logic takes to overcome this problem often actually improves the behaviour of the underlying modal formalism....... For example, it becomes far simpler to formulate proof-systems for hybrid logic, and completeness results can be proved of a generality that is simply not available in modal logic. That is, hybridization is a systematic way of remedying a number of known deficiencies of modal logic. First-order hybrid logic...
Information Flow in Logical Environments
Kent, Robert E.
2016-01-01
This paper describes information flow within logical environments. The theory of information flow, the logic of distributed systems, was first defined by Barwise and Seligman (Information Flow: The Logic of Distributed Systems. 1997). Logical environments are a semantic-oriented version of institutions. The theory of institutions, which was initiated by Goguen and Burstall (Institutions: Abstract Model Theory for Specification and Programming. 1992), is abstract model theory. Information flow...
Nguyen, Hung T
2005-01-01
THE CONCEPT OF FUZZINESS Examples Mathematical modeling Some operations on fuzzy sets Fuzziness as uncertainty Exercises SOME ALGEBRA OF FUZZY SETS Boolean algebras and lattices Equivalence relations and partitions Composing mappings Isomorphisms and homomorphisms Alpha-cuts Images of alpha-level sets Exercises FUZZY QUANTITIES Fuzzy quantities Fuzzy numbers Fuzzy intervals Exercises LOGICAL ASPECTS OF FUZZY SETS Classical two-valued logic A three-valued logic Fuzzy logic Fuzzy and Lukasiewi
Phase conjugate Michelson interferometer for optical logic
Khoury, Jed
2017-05-01
The interference theory is developed for of the phase conjugate Michelson interferometer in which its ordinary mirrors are replaced by a single externally pumped phase conjugate mirror. According to the theory, it was found that for an interferometer with two equal arms, the path length difference depends solely on the initial alignment of the two input beams, and the vertical alignment readout. Small vertical misalignments in the readout beam by mrad causes a huge change in the phase difference in the phase between the two interferometer arms beam. The phase difference is proportional to the interferometer arm lengths. The overlap between the phase conjugate beams is not affected by the interferometer beam alignment. The interferometer is proposed for nondestructive testing and the design all optical logic and associated fuzzy logic for ultrafast optical pattern recognition.
Logical Characterisation of Ontology Construction using Fuzzy Description Logics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Badie, Farshad; Götzsche, Hans
Ontologies based on Description Logics (DLs) have proved to be effective in formally sharing knowledge across semantic technologies, e.g. Semantic Web, Natural Language Processing, Text Analytics, Business intelligence. Our main goal is analysing ontology construction considering vagueness. We have...... had the extension of ontologies with Fuzzy Logic capabilities which plan to make proper backgrounds for ontology driven reasoning and argumentation on vague and imprecise domains. This presentation conceptualises learning from fuzzy classes using the Inductive Logic Programming framework. Then......, employs Description Logics in characterising and analysing fuzzy statements. And finally, provides a conceptual framework describing fuzzy concept learning in ontologies using the Inductive Logic Programming....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Baranov G. V.
2016-12-01
Full Text Available in this article the logic perspective in information culture is investigated. The contents of four laws of logical thinking in their value for thinking and humanitarian culture of the personality are described. Formal and logical laws are characterized by a condition of uniform information culture of mankind.
Modal Logics for Cryptographic Processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frendrup, U.; Huttel, Hans; Jensen, N. J.
2002-01-01
We present three modal logics for the spi-calculus and show that they capture strong versions of the environment sensitive bisimulation introduced by Boreale et al. Our logics differ from conventional modal logics for process calculi in that they allow us to describe the knowledge of an attacker ...
Lectures on Logic and Computation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
The European Summer School in Logic, Language and Information (ESSLLI) is organized every year by the Association for Logic, Language and Information (FoLLI) in different sites around Europe. The main focus of ESSLLI is on the interface between linguistics, logic and computation. ESSLLI offers fo...
Games for topological fixpoint logic
Bezhanishvili, N.; Kupke, C.
2016-01-01
Topological fixpoint logics are a family of logics that admits topological models and where the fixpoint operators are defined with respect to the topological interpretations. Here we consider a topological fixpoint logic for relational structures based on Stone spaces, where the fixpoint operators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn
This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...
Conventions and Institutional Logics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Westenholz, Ann
Two theoretical approaches – Conventions and Institutional Logics – are brought together and the similarities and differences between the two are explored. It is not the intention to combine the approaches, but I would like to open both ‘boxes’ and make them available to each other with the purpose...... of creating a space for dialog. Both approaches were developed in the mid-1980s as a reaction to rational-choice economic theory and collectivistic sociological theory. These two theories were oversimplifying social life as being founded either in actor-micro level analyses or in structure-macro level...... analyses. The theoretical quest of both Conventions and Institutional Logics has been to understand the increasing indeterminacy, uncertainty and ambiguity in people’s lives where a sense of reality, of value, of moral, of feelings is not fixed. Both approaches have created new theoretical insights...
Pascal, Robert; Pross, Addy
2016-11-01
In this paper we propose a logical connection between the physical and biological worlds, one resting on a broader understanding of the stability concept. We propose that stability manifests two facets - time and energy, and that stability's time facet, expressed as persistence, is more general than its energy facet. That insight leads to the logical formulation of the Persistence Principle, which describes the general direction of material change in the universe, and which can be stated most simply as: nature seeks persistent forms. Significantly, the principle is found to express itself in two mathematically distinct ways: in the replicative world through Malthusian exponential growth, and in the `regular' physical/chemical world through Boltzmann's probabilistic considerations. By encompassing both `regular' and replicative worlds, the principle appears to be able to help reconcile two of the major scientific theories of the 19th century - the Second Law of Thermodynamics and Darwin's theory of evolution - within a single conceptual framework.
Implementation of trinary logic in a polarization encoded optical shadow-casting scheme.
Rizvi, R A; Zaheer, K; Zubairy, M S
1991-03-10
The design of various multioutput trinary combinational logic units by a polarization encoded optical shadow-casting (POSC) technique is presented. The POSC modified algorithm is employed to design and implement these logic elements in a trinary number system with separate and simultaneous generation of outputs. A detailed solution of the POSC logic equations for a fixed source plane and a fixed decoding mask is given to obtain input pixel coding for a trinary half-adder, full adder, and subtractor.
Genetic Algorithm Based Design of Fuzzy Logic Power System Stabilizers in Multimachine Power System
Manisha Dubey; Aalok Dubey
2010-01-01
This paper presents an approach for the design of fuzzy logic power system stabilizers using genetic algorithms. In the proposed fuzzy expert system, speed deviation and its derivative have been selected as fuzzy inputs. In this approach the parameters of the fuzzy logic controllers have been tuned using genetic algorithm. Incorporation of GA in the design of fuzzy logic power system stabilizer will add an intelligent dimension to the stabilizer and significantly reduces ...
1981-01-01
Rapport, Groupe Intelligence Pasero, R., Artificielle , Universite d’Aix-Marseille, Roussel, P. Luminy, France, 1973. [Kowalski 1974] Kowalski, R. A...THIS PAGZ(Whan Doee Es tMord) Item 20 (Cont’d) ------ work in the area of artificial intelligence and those used in general program development into a...logic programming with LISP for implementing intelligent data base query systems. Continued developments will allow for enhancements to be made to the
Probabilistic Logical Characterization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hermanns, Holger; Parma, Augusto; Segala, Roberto
2011-01-01
Probabilistic automata exhibit both probabilistic and non-deterministic choice. They are therefore a powerful semantic foundation for modeling concurrent systems with random phenomena arising in many applications ranging from artificial intelligence, security, systems biology to performance...... modeling. Several variations of bisimulation and simulation relations have proved to be useful as means to abstract and compare different automata. This paper develops a taxonomy of logical characterizations of these relations on image-finite and image-infinite probabilistic automata....
Magnetoresistive logic and biochip
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brueckl, Hubert; Brzeska, Monika; Brinkmann, Dirk; Schotter, J.Joerg; Reiss, Guenter; Schepper, Willi; Kamp, P.-B.; Becker, Anke
2004-01-01
While some magnetoresistive devices based on giant magnetoresistance or spin-dependent tunneling are already commercialized, a new branch of development is evolving towards magnetoresistive logic with magnetic tunnel junctions. Furthermore, the new magnetoelectronic effects show promising properties in magnetoresistive biochips, which are capable of detecting even single molecules (e.g. DNA) by functionalized magnetic markers. The unclear limits of this approach are discussed with two model systems
Canonical multi-valued input Reed-Muller trees and forms
Perkowski, M. A.; Johnson, P. D.
1991-01-01
There is recently an increased interest in logic synthesis using EXOR gates. The paper introduces the fundamental concept of Orthogonal Expansion, which generalizes the ring form of the Shannon expansion to the logic with multiple-valued (mv) inputs. Based on this concept we are able to define a family of canonical tree circuits. Such circuits can be considered for binary and multiple-valued input cases. They can be multi-level (trees and DAG's) or flattened to two-level AND-EXOR circuits. Input decoders similar to those used in Sum of Products (SOP) PLA's are used in realizations of multiple-valued input functions. In the case of the binary logic the family of flattened AND-EXOR circuits includes several forms discussed by Davio and Green. For the case of the logic with multiple-valued inputs, the family of the flattened mv AND-EXOR circuits includes three expansions known from literature and two new expansions.
Marketing Logics, Ambidexterity and Influence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tollin, Karin; Schmidt, Marcus
2012-01-01
in four CMOs have taken on this challenge, or adopted a marketing logic which could be referred to as ambidextrous. Furthermore, the study shows that this logic exerts a stronger impact on marketing's influence, compared to logics related to assuring brand consistency and measuring the performance...... of marketing processes. Three other ways to enact marketing management were also revealed, namely: an innovation; a communication; and a supporting marketing logic. This leads us to conclude that the influence of companies' marketing functions show up a heterogeneous picture within which the marketing logics...
Lectures on Logic and Computation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
The European Summer School in Logic, Language and Information (ESSLLI) is organized every year by the Association for Logic, Language and Information (FoLLI) in different sites around Europe. The main focus of ESSLLI is on the interface between linguistics, logic and computation. ESSLLI offers...... foundational, introductory and advanced courses, as well as workshops, covering a wide variety of topics within the three areas of interest: Language and Computation, Language and Logic, and Logic and Computation. During two weeks, around 50 courses and 10 workshops are offered to the attendants, each of 1...
Querying Natural Logic Knowledge Bases
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik; Jensen, Per Anker
2017-01-01
This paper describes the principles of a system applying natural logic as a knowledge base language. Natural logics are regimented fragments of natural language employing high level inference rules. We advocate the use of natural logic for knowledge bases dealing with querying of classes in ontol......This paper describes the principles of a system applying natural logic as a knowledge base language. Natural logics are regimented fragments of natural language employing high level inference rules. We advocate the use of natural logic for knowledge bases dealing with querying of classes...... in ontologies and class-relationships such as are common in life-science descriptions. The paper adopts a version of natural logic with recursive restrictive clauses such as relative clauses and adnominal prepositional phrases. It includes passive as well as active voice sentences. We outline a prototype...
Synthesizing genetic sequential logic circuit with clock pulse generator.
Chuang, Chia-Hua; Lin, Chun-Liang
2014-05-28
Rhythmic clock widely occurs in biological systems which controls several aspects of cell physiology. For the different cell types, it is supplied with various rhythmic frequencies. How to synthesize a specific clock signal is a preliminary but a necessary step to further development of a biological computer in the future. This paper presents a genetic sequential logic circuit with a clock pulse generator based on a synthesized genetic oscillator, which generates a consecutive clock signal whose frequency is an inverse integer multiple to that of the genetic oscillator. An analogous electronic waveform-shaping circuit is constructed by a series of genetic buffers to shape logic high/low levels of an oscillation input in a basic sinusoidal cycle and generate a pulse-width-modulated (PWM) output with various duty cycles. By controlling the threshold level of the genetic buffer, a genetic clock pulse signal with its frequency consistent to the genetic oscillator is synthesized. A synchronous genetic counter circuit based on the topology of the digital sequential logic circuit is triggered by the clock pulse to synthesize the clock signal with an inverse multiple frequency to the genetic oscillator. The function acts like a frequency divider in electronic circuits which plays a key role in the sequential logic circuit with specific operational frequency. A cascaded genetic logic circuit generating clock pulse signals is proposed. Based on analogous implement of digital sequential logic circuits, genetic sequential logic circuits can be constructed by the proposed approach to generate various clock signals from an oscillation signal.
Automated logic conversion method for plant controller systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wada, Yutaka; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Miyo, Tsunemasa; Okano, Masato.
1990-01-01
An automated method is proposed for logic conversion from functional description diagrams to detailed logic schematics by incorporating expertise knowledge in plant controller systems design. The method uses connection data of function elements in the functional description diagram as input, and synthesizes a detailed logic structure by adding elements to the given connection data incrementally, and to generate detailed logic schematics. In logic synthesis, for building up complex synthesis procedures by combining generally-described knowledge, knowledge is applied by groups. The search order of the groups is given by upper-level knowledge. Furthermore, the knowledge is expressed in terms of two classes of rules; one for generating a hypothesis of individual synthesis operations and the other for considering several hypotheses to determine the connection ordering of elements to be added. In the generation of detailed logic schematics, knowledge is used as rules for deriving various kinds of layout conditions on schematics, and rules for generating two-dimensional coordinates of layout objects. Rules in the latter class use layout conditions to predict intersections among layout objects without their coordinates being fixed. The effectiveness of the method with 150 rules was verified by its experimental application to some logic conversions in a real power plant design. Evaluation of the results showed them to be equivalent to those obtained by well qualified designers. (author)
An external logic architecture for implementing traffic signal system control strategies.
2011-09-01
The built-in logic functions in traffic controllers have very limited capability to store information, to analyze input data, to estimate performance measures, and to adopt control strategy decisions. These capabilities are imperative to support traf...
A Program Transformation for Backwards Analysis of Logic Programs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gallagher, John Patrick
2003-01-01
programs presented here is based on a transformation of the input program, which makes explicit the dependencies of the given program points on the initial goals. The transformation is derived from the resultants semantics of logic programs. The transformed program is then analysed using a standard...
Fuzzy logic control of vehicle suspensions with dry friction nonlinearity
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
and a harsh ride. In order to overcome this practical difficulty a new FLC approach is proposed. The algorithm of the MIMO fuzzy logic controller for the vehicle suspension system uses the errors of the suspension end velocities of the front and rear, and their accelerations and suspension gap velocities as the input variables, ...
Tableaux for Logics of Subinterval Structures over Dense Orderings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bresolin, Davide; Goranko, Valentin; Montanari, Angelo
2010-01-01
of proper subintervals (that can share one endpoint with the current interval). For each of these logics, we establish a small pseudo-model property and construct a sound, complete and terminating tableau that searches systematically for existence of such a pseudo-model satisfying the input formulas. Both...
modelling room cooling capacity with fuzzy logic procedure
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The primary aim of this study is to develop a model for estimation of the cooling requirement of residential rooms. Fuzzy logic was employed to model four input variables (window area (m2), roof area (m2), external wall area (m2) and internal load (Watt). The algorithm of the inference engine applied sets of 81 linguistic ...
Concrete Quantum Logics and Δ -Logics, States and Δ -States
Hroch, Michal; Pták, Pavel
2017-12-01
By a concrete quantum logic (in short, by a logic) we mean the orthomodular poset that is set-representable. If L=({Ω },L) is a logic and L is closed under the formation of symmetric difference, Δ , we call L a Δ -logic. In the first part we situate the known results on logics and states to the context of Δ -logics and Δ -states (the Δ -states are the states that are subadditive with respect to the symmetric difference). Moreover, we observe that the rather prominent logic E^{ {even}}_{Ω } of all even-coeven subsets of the countable set Ω possesses only Δ -states. Then we show when a state on the logics given by the divisibility relation allows for an extension as a state. In the next paragraph we consider the so called density logic and its Δ -closure. We find that the Δ -closure coincides with the power set. Then we investigate other properties of the density logic and its factor.
Coincidence logic modules for criticality alarming
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schaief, C.C. III.
1977-04-01
A coincidence Logic Module and a companion contact closure Relay Module utilizing the NIM Standard have been developed for criticality alarming. The units provide an ALARM whenever two or more out of N detectors become activated. In addition, an ALERT is generated whenever one or more detectors is activated or when certain electronic component failures occur. The number of detector inputs (N) can be expanded in groups of six by adding modules. Serial and parallel redundancy were used to reduce the probability of system failure
Surface confined assemblies and polymers for sensing and molecular logic
de Ruiter, Graham; Altman, Marc; Motiei, Leila; Lahav, Michal; van der Boom, Milko E.
2013-05-01
Since the development of molecule-based sensors and the introduction of molecules mimicking the behavior of the AND gate in solution by de Silva in 1993, molecular (Boolean) Logic and Computing (MBLC) has become increasingly popular. The molecular approach toward Boolean logic resulted in intriguing proofs of concepts in solution including logic gates, half-adders, multiplexers, and flip-flop logic circuits. Molecular assemblies can perform diverse logic tasks by reconfiguring their inputs. Our recent research activities focus on MBLC with electrochromic polymers and immobilized polypyridyl complexes on solid support. We have designed a series of coordination-based thin films that are formed linearly by stepwise wet-chemical deposition or by self-propagating molecular assembly. The electrochromic properties of these films can be used for (i) detecting various analytes in solution and in the air, (ii) MBLC, (iii) electron-transfer studies, and (iv) interlayers for efficient inverted bulk-heterojunction solar cells. Our concept toward MBLC with functionalized surfaces is applicable to electrochemical and chemical inputs coupled with optical readout. Using this approach, we demonstrated various logic architectures with redox-active functionalized surfaces. Electrochemically operated sequential logic systems (e.g., flip-flops), multi-valued logic, and multi-state memory have been designed, which can improve computational power without increasing spatial requirements. Applying multi-valued digits in data storage and information processing could exponentially increase memory capacity. Our approach is applicable to highly diverse electrochromic thin films that operate at practical voltages (< 1.5 V).
Logical Characterisation of Ontology Construction using Fuzzy Description Logics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Badie, Farshad; Götzsche, Hans
Ontologies based on Description Logics (DLs) have proved to be effective in formally sharing knowledge across semantic technologies, e.g. Semantic Web, Natural Language Processing, Text Analytics, Business intelligence. Our main goal is analysing ontology construction considering vagueness. We have......, employs Description Logics in characterising and analysing fuzzy statements. And finally, provides a conceptual framework describing fuzzy concept learning in ontologies using the Inductive Logic Programming....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Birkedal, Lars; Sieczkowski, Filip; Thamsborg, Jacob Junker
2012-01-01
We present a logical relation for showing the correctness of program transformations based on a new type-and-eﬀect system for a concurrent extension of an ML-like language with higher-order functions, higher-order store and dynamic memory allocation. We show how to use our model to verify a number...... of interesting program transformations that rely on eﬀect annotations. In particular, we prove a Parallelization Theorem, which expresses when it is sound to run two expressions in parallel instead of sequentially. The conditions are expressed solely in terms of the types and eﬀects of the expressions...
de Silva, A Prasanna
2011-03-01
Chemists are now able to emulate the ideas and instruments of mathematics and computer science with molecules. The integration of molecular logic gates into small arrays has been a growth area during the last few years. The design principles underlying a collection of these cases are examined. Some of these computing molecules are applicable in medical- and biotechnologies. Cases of blood diagnostics, 'lab-on-a-molecule' systems, and molecular computational identification of small objects are included. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Flexible programmable logic module
Robertson, Perry J.; Hutchinson, Robert L.; Pierson, Lyndon G.
2001-01-01
The circuit module of this invention is a VME board containing a plurality of programmable logic devices (PLDs), a controlled impedance clock tree, and interconnecting buses. The PLDs are arranged to permit systolic processing of a problem by offering wide data buses and a plurality of processing nodes. The board contains a clock reference and clock distribution tree that can drive each of the PLDs with two critically timed clock references. External clock references can be used to drive additional circuit modules all operating from the same synchronous clock reference.
Krötzsch, M
2010-01-01
Ontological modelling today is applied in many areas of science and technology,including the Semantic Web. The W3C standard OWL defines one of the most important ontology languages based on the semantics of description logics. An alternative is to use rule languages in knowledge modelling, as proposed in the W3C's RIF standard. So far, it has often been unclear how to combine both technologies without sacrificing essential computational properties. This book explains this problem and presents new solutions that have recently been proposed. Extensive introductory chapters provide the necessary
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Øhrstrøm, Peter
2009-01-01
This paper deals with A.N. Prior's analysis of the concepts of dynamic and static time, i.e. McTaggart's so-called A- and B-concepts. The relations and mutual dependencies between these temporal concepts are investigated, and Prior's response to McTaggart's views is discussed. Futhermore, Prior......'s notion of branching time is analysed. It is argued that Prior can be criticized for identifying 'plain future'. Finally, Prior's four grades of tense-logical involvement are introduced and discussed. It is argued that the third grade is the most attractive form a philosophical point of view....
Computability, complexity, logic
Börger, Egon
1989-01-01
The theme of this book is formed by a pair of concepts: the concept of formal language as carrier of the precise expression of meaning, facts and problems, and the concept of algorithm or calculus, i.e. a formally operating procedure for the solution of precisely described questions and problems. The book is a unified introduction to the modern theory of these concepts, to the way in which they developed first in mathematical logic and computability theory and later in automata theory, and to the theory of formal languages and complexity theory. Apart from considering the fundamental themes an
Bright, Liam Kofi
2017-10-01
The logical empiricists expressed a consistent attitude to racial categorisation in both the ethical and scientific spheres. Their attitude may be captured in the following slogan: human racial taxonomy is an empirically meaningful mode of classifying persons that we should refrain from deploying. I offer an interpretation of their position that would render coherent their remarks on race with positions they adopted on the scientific status of taxonomy in general, together with their potential moral or political motivations for adopting that position. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
T Atanassov, Krassimir
2017-01-01
The book offers a comprehensive survey of intuitionistic fuzzy logics. By reporting on both the author’s research and others’ findings, it provides readers with a complete overview of the field and highlights key issues and open problems, thus suggesting new research directions. Starting with an introduction to the basic elements of intuitionistic fuzzy propositional calculus, it then provides a guide to the use of intuitionistic fuzzy operators and quantifiers, and lastly presents state-of-the-art applications of intuitionistic fuzzy sets. The book is a valuable reference resource for graduate students and researchers alike.
Classical Mathematical Logic The Semantic Foundations of Logic
Epstein, Richard L
2011-01-01
In Classical Mathematical Logic, Richard L. Epstein relates the systems of mathematical logic to their original motivations to formalize reasoning in mathematics. The book also shows how mathematical logic can be used to formalize particular systems of mathematics. It sets out the formalization not only of arithmetic, but also of group theory, field theory, and linear orderings. These lead to the formalization of the real numbers and Euclidean plane geometry. The scope and limitations of modern logic are made clear in these formalizations. The book provides detailed explanations of all proo
The Logic of Practice in the Practice of Logics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Raviola, Elena; Dubini, Paola
2016-01-01
This paper investigates the workings of institutional logics in practice, by focusing in particular on the interplay between material, practical and linguistic dimensions of practices. In other words, drawing on Bourdieu's sens pratique, the paper explores the logic of practice in the practice...... of logics through a six months full-time ethnographic study at Il Sole-24 Ore, the largest Italian financial newspaper, between 2007 and 2008. An original conceptual framework is developed to analyse how the logic of journalism is enacted vis-à-vis that of advertising in a setting in which an old technology...
Logic control of microfluidics with smart colloid
Wang, Limu
2010-01-01
We report the successful realization of a microfluidic chip with switching and corresponding inverting functionalities. The chips are identical logic control components incorporating a type of smart colloid, giant electrorheological fluid (GERF), which possesses reversible characteristics via a liquid-solid phase transition under external electric field. Two pairs of electrodes embedded on the sides of two microfluidic channels serve as signal input and output, respectively. One, located in the GERF micro-channel is used to control the flow status of GERF, while another one in the ither micro-fluidic channel is used to detect the signal generated with a passing-by droplet (defined as a signal droplet). Switching of the GERF from the suspended state (off-state) to the flowing state (on-state) or vice versa in the micro-channel is controlled by the appearance of signal droplets whenever they pass through the detection electrode. The output on-off signals can be easily demonstrated, clearly matching with GERF flow status. Our results show that such a logic switch is also a logic IF gate, while its inverter functions as a NOT gate. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2010.
Games for Topological Fixpoint Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nick Bezhanishvili
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Topological fixpoint logics are a family of logics that admits topological models and where the fixpoint operators are defined with respect to the topological interpretations. Here we consider a topological fixpoint logic for relational structures based on Stone spaces, where the fixpoint operators are interpreted via clopen sets. We develop a game-theoretic semantics for this logic. First we introduce games characterising clopen fixpoints of monotone operators on Stone spaces. These fixpoint games allow us to characterise the semantics for our topological fixpoint logic using a two-player graph game. Adequacy of this game is the main result of our paper. Finally, we define bisimulations for the topological structures under consideration and use our game semantics to prove that the truth of a formula of our topological fixpoint logic is bisimulation-invariant.
PM 3655 PHILIPS Logic analyzer
A logic analyzer is an electronic instrument that captures and displays multiple signals from a digital system or digital circuit. A logic analyzer may convert the captured data into timing diagrams, protocol decodes, state machine traces, assembly language, or may correlate assembly with source-level software. Logic Analyzers have advanced triggering capabilities, and are useful when a user needs to see the timing relationships between many signals in a digital system.
Logical Full Abstraction and PCF
Longley, John R; Plotkin, Gordon
2000-01-01
We introduce the concept of logical full abstraction, generalising the usual equational notion. We consider the language PCF and two extensions with “parallel” operations. The main result is that, for standard interpretations, logical full abstraction is equivalent to equational full abstraction together with universality; the proof involves constructing enumeration operators. We also consider restrictions on logical complexity and on the level of types.
A Logic for Miranda, Revisited
Thompson, Simon
1995-01-01
This paper expands upon work begun in the author's paper 'A Logic for Miranda', Formal Aspects of Computing 1 (1989), in building a logic for the Miranda functional programming language. After summarising the work in that paper, a translation of Miranda definitions into logical formulas is presented, and illustrated by means of examples. This work expands upon the earlier paper in giving a complete treatment of sequences of equations, and by examining how to translate the local definitions in...
Tensor product of quantum logics
Pulmannová, Sylvia
1985-01-01
A quantum logic is the couple (L,M) where L is an orthomodular σ-lattice and M is a strong set of states on L. The Jauch-Piron property in the σ-form is also supposed for any state of M. A ``tensor product'' of quantum logics is defined. This definition is compared with the definition of a free orthodistributive product of orthomodular σ-lattices. The existence and uniqueness of the tensor product in special cases of Hilbert space quantum logics and one quantum and one classical logic are studied.
Optimization methods for logical inference
Chandru, Vijay
2011-01-01
Merging logic and mathematics in deductive inference-an innovative, cutting-edge approach. Optimization methods for logical inference? Absolutely, say Vijay Chandru and John Hooker, two major contributors to this rapidly expanding field. And even though ""solving logical inference problems with optimization methods may seem a bit like eating sauerkraut with chopsticks. . . it is the mathematical structure of a problem that determines whether an optimization model can help solve it, not the context in which the problem occurs."" Presenting powerful, proven optimization techniques for logic in
Contextual logic for quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Domenech, Graciela; Freytes, Hector
2005-01-01
In this work we build a quantum logic that allows us to refer to physical magnitudes pertaining to different contexts from a fixed one without the contradictions with quantum mechanics expressed in no-go theorems. This logic arises from considering a sheaf over a topological space associated with the Boolean sublattices of the ortholattice of closed subspaces of the Hilbert space of the physical system. Different from standard quantum logics, the contextual logic maintains a distributive lattice structure and a good definition of implication as a residue of the conjunction
Admissibility of logical inference rules
Rybakov, VV
1997-01-01
The aim of this book is to present the fundamental theoretical results concerning inference rules in deductive formal systems. Primary attention is focused on: admissible or permissible inference rules the derivability of the admissible inference rules the structural completeness of logics the bases for admissible and valid inference rules. There is particular emphasis on propositional non-standard logics (primary, superintuitionistic and modal logics) but general logical consequence relations and classical first-order theories are also considered. The book is basically self-contained and
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
A.N. Prior (1914-69) in the course of the 1950s and 1960s founded a new and revolutionary paradigm in philosophy and logic. Its most central feature is the preoccupation with time and the development of the logic of time. However, this was inseparably interwoven with fundamental questions about...... human freedom, ethics, and existence. This remarkable integration of themes also embodies an original and in fact revolutionary conception of logic. The book series, Logic and Philosophy of Time, is dedicated to a deep investigation and also the further development of Prior’s paradigm. ...
Popular lectures on mathematical logic
Wang, Hao
2014-01-01
A noted logician and philosopher addresses various forms of mathematical logic, discussing both theoretical underpinnings and practical applications. Author Hao Wang surveys the central concepts and theories of the discipline in a historical and developmental context, and then focuses on the four principal domains of contemporary mathematical logic: set theory, model theory, recursion theory and constructivism, and proof theory.Topics include the place of problems in the development of theories of logic and logic's relation to computer science. Specific attention is given to Gödel's incomplete
Implicational (Semilinear) Logics I: A New Hierarchy
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Cintula, Petr; Noguera, C.
2010-01-01
Roč. 49, č. 4 (2010), s. 417-446 ISSN 1432-0665 R&D Projects: GA ČR GEICC/08/E018 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : abstract algebraic logic * hierarchy of implicational logics * implicative logics * Leibniz hierarchy * linearly ordered logical matrices * mathematical fuzzy logic * non-classical logics * semilinear logics Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.414, year: 2010
Modeling of Kefir Production with Fuzzy Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hüseyin Nail Akgül
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The fermentation is ended with pH 4.6 values in industrial production of kefir. In this study, the incubation temperature, the incubation time and inoculums of culture were chose as variable parameters of kefir. In conventional control systems, the value of pH can be found by trial method. In these systems, if the number of input parameters is greater, the method of trial and error creates a system dependent on the person as well as troublesome. Fuzzy logic can be used in such cases. Modeling studies with this fuzzy logic control are examined in two portions. The first part consists of fuzzy rules and membership functions, while the second part consists of clarify. Kefir incubation temperature between 20 and 25°C, the incubation period between 18 to 22 hours and the inoculum ratio of culture between 1-5% are selected for optimum production conditions. Three separate fuzzy sets (triangular membership function are used to blur the incubation temperature, the incubation time and the inoculum ratio of culture. Because the membership function numbers belonging to the the input parameters are 3 units, 3x3x3=27 line rule is obtained by multiplying these numbers. The table of fuzzy rules was obtained using the method of Mamdani. The membership function values were determined by the method of average weight using three trapezoidal area of membership functions created for clarification. The success of the system will be found, comparing the numerical values obtained with pH values that should be. Eventually, to achieve the desired pH value of 4.6 in the production of kefir, with the using of fuzzy logic, the workload of people will be decreased and the productivity of business can be increased. In this case, it can be provided savings in both cost and time.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dupuy, R.
1970-01-01
The input-output supervisor is the program which monitors the flow of informations between core storage and peripheral equipments of a computer. This work is composed of three parts: 1 - Study of a generalized input-output supervisor. With sample modifications it looks like most of input-output supervisors which are running now on computers. 2 - Application of this theory on a magnetic drum. 3 - Hardware requirement for time-sharing. (author) [fr
Reliable logic circuit elements that exploit nonlinearity in the presence of a noise floor.
Murali, K; Sinha, Sudeshna; Ditto, William L; Bulsara, Adi R
2009-03-13
The response of a noisy nonlinear system to deterministic input signals can be enhanced by cooperative phenomena. We show that when one presents two square waves as input to a two-state system, the response of the system can produce a logical output (NOR/OR) with a probability controlled by the noise intensity. As one increases the noise (for fixed threshold or nonlinearity), the probability of the output reflecting a NOR/OR operation increases to unity and then decreases. Changing the nonlinearity (or the thresholds) of the system changes the output into another logic operation (NAND/AND) whose probability displays analogous behavior. The interplay of nonlinearity and noise can yield logic behavior, and the emergent outcome of such systems is a logic gate. This "logical stochastic resonance" is demonstrated via an experimental realization of a two-state system with two (adjustable) thresholds.
2005-01-01
A new all-electronic Particle Image Velocimetry technique that can efficiently map high speed gas flows has been developed in-house at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Particle Image Velocimetry is an optical technique for measuring the instantaneous two component velocity field across a planar region of a seeded flow field. A pulsed laser light sheet is used to illuminate the seed particles entrained in the flow field at two instances in time. One or more charged coupled device (CCD) cameras can be used to record the instantaneous positions of particles. Using the time between light sheet pulses and determining either the individual particle displacements or the average displacement of particles over a small subregion of the recorded image enables the calculation of the fluid velocity. Fuzzy logic minimizes the required operator intervention in identifying particles and computing velocity. Using two cameras that have the same view of the illumination plane yields two single exposure image frames. Two competing techniques that yield unambiguous velocity vector direction information have been widely used for reducing the single-exposure, multiple image frame data: (1) cross-correlation and (2) particle tracking. Correlation techniques yield averaged velocity estimates over subregions of the flow, whereas particle tracking techniques give individual particle velocity estimates. For the correlation technique, the correlation peak corresponding to the average displacement of particles across the subregion must be identified. Noise on the images and particle dropout result in misidentification of the true correlation peak. The subsequent velocity vector maps contain spurious vectors where the displacement peaks have been improperly identified. Typically these spurious vectors are replaced by a weighted average of the neighboring vectors, thereby decreasing the independence of the measurements. In this work, fuzzy logic techniques are used to determine the true
Towards an arithmetical logic the arithmetical foundations of logic
Gauthier, Yvon
2015-01-01
This book offers an original contribution to the foundations of logic and mathematics, and focuses on the internal logic of mathematical theories, from arithmetic or number theory to algebraic geometry. Arithmetical logic is the term used to refer to the internal logic of classical arithmetic, here called Fermat-Kronecker arithmetic, and combines Fermat’s method of infinite descent with Kronecker’s general arithmetic of homogeneous polynomials. The book also includes a treatment of theories in physics and mathematical physics to underscore the role of arithmetic from a constructivist viewpoint. The scope of the work intertwines historical, mathematical, logical and philosophical dimensions in a unified critical perspective; as such, it will appeal to a broad readership from mathematicians to logicians, to philosophers interested in foundational questions. Researchers and graduate students in the fields of philosophy and mathematics will benefit from the author’s critical approach to the foundations of l...
Universal logic gates via liquid-electronic hybrid divider
Zhou, Bingpu
2012-01-01
We demonstrated two-input microdroplet-based universal logic gates using a liquid-electronic hybrid divider. All 16 Boolean logic functions have been realized by manipulating the applied voltages. The novel platform consists of a microfluidic chip with integrated microdroplet detectors and external electronic components. The microdroplet detectors act as the communication media for fluidic and electronic information exchange. The presence or absence of microdroplets at the detector translates into the binary signal 1 or 0. The embedded micro-mechanical pneumatically actuated valve (PAV), fabricated using the well-developed multilayer soft lithography technique, offers biocompatibility, flexibility and accuracy for the on-chip realization of different logic functions. The microfluidic chip can be scaled up to construct large-scale microfluidic logic computation. On the other hand, the microfluidic chip with a specific logic function can be applied to droplet-based chemical reactions for on-demand bio or chemical analysis. Our experimental results have presented an autonomously driven, precision-controlled microfluidic chip for chemical reactions based on the IF logic function. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
"Chemical transformers" from nanoparticle ensembles operated with logic.
Motornov, Mikhail; Zhou, Jian; Pita, Marcos; Gopishetty, Venkateshwarlu; Tokarev, Ihor; Katz, Evgeny; Minko, Sergiy
2008-09-01
The pH-responsive nanoparticles were coupled with information-processing enzyme-based systems to yield "smart" signal-responsive hybrid systems with built-in Boolean logic. The enzyme systems performed AND/OR logic operations, transducing biochemical input signals into reversible structural changes (signal-directed self-assembly) of the nanoparticle assemblies, thus resulting in the processing and amplification of the biochemical signals. The hybrid system mimics biological systems in effective processing of complex biochemical information, resulting in reversible changes of the self-assembled structures of the nanoparticles. The bioinspired approach to the nanostructured morphing materials could be used in future self-assembled molecular robotic systems.
Borresen, Jon; Lynch, Stephen
2012-01-01
In the 1940s, the first generation of modern computers used vacuum tube oscillators as their principle components, however, with the development of the transistor, such oscillator based computers quickly became obsolete. As the demand for faster and lower power computers continues, transistors are themselves approaching their theoretical limit and emerging technologies must eventually supersede them. With the development of optical oscillators and Josephson junction technology, we are again presented with the possibility of using oscillators as the basic components of computers, and it is possible that the next generation of computers will be composed almost entirely of oscillatory devices. Here, we demonstrate how coupled threshold oscillators may be used to perform binary logic in a manner entirely consistent with modern computer architectures. We describe a variety of computational circuitry and demonstrate working oscillator models of both computation and memory. PMID:23173034
Partial quantum logics revisited
Vetterlein, Thomas
2011-01-01
Partial Boolean algebras (PBAs) were introduced by Kochen and Specker as an algebraic model reflecting the mutual relationships among quantum-physical yes-no tests. The fact that not all pairs of tests are compatible was taken into special account. In this paper, we review PBAs from two sides. First, we generalise the concept, taking into account also those yes-no tests which are based on unsharp measurements. Namely, we introduce partial MV-algebras, and we define a corresponding logic. Second, we turn to the representation theory of PBAs. In analogy to the case of orthomodular lattices, we give conditions for a PBA to be isomorphic to the PBA of closed subspaces of a complex Hilbert space. Hereby, we do not restrict ourselves to purely algebraic statements; we rather give preference to conditions involving automorphisms of a PBA. We conclude by outlining a critical view on the logico-algebraic approach to the foundational problem of quantum physics.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramli, Carroline Dewi Puspa Kencana; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming
2014-01-01
We study the international standard XACML 3.0 for describing security access control policies in a compositional way. Our main contributions are (i) to derive a logic that precisely captures the intentions of the standard, (ii) to formally define a semantics for the XACML 3.0 component evaluation......, and (iii) to define a semantics for the XACML 3.0 standard combining operators. To guard against modeling artefacts we provide an alternative lattice based way of characterizing the policy combining operators and we formally prove the equivalence of these approaches thereby increasing our faith in either...... one. We then discuss several ways of extending XACML: one direction is to extend XACML with new combining operators, and another direction is to incorporate the notion of conflict into XACML. We conclude by discussing the possibility of analysing XACML policies for gaps and conflicts....
Cleaveland, Rance; Luettgen, Gerald; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
This paper presents the Logical Process Calculus (LPC), a formalism that supports heterogeneous system specifications containing both operational and declarative subspecifications. Syntactically, LPC extends Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems with operators from the alternation-free linear-time mu-calculus (LT(mu)). Semantically, LPC is equipped with a behavioral preorder that generalizes Hennessy's and DeNicola's must-testing preorder as well as LT(mu's) satisfaction relation, while being compositional for all LPC operators. From a technical point of view, the new calculus is distinguished by the inclusion of: (1) both minimal and maximal fixed-point operators and (2) an unimple-mentability predicate on process terms, which tags inconsistent specifications. The utility of LPC is demonstrated by means of an example highlighting the benefits of heterogeneous system specification.
Lu, Jiao Yang; Zhang, Xin Xing; Huang, Wei Tao; Zhu, Qiu Yan; Ding, Xue Zhi; Xia, Li Qiu; Luo, Hong Qun; Li, Nian Bing
2017-09-19
The most serious and yet unsolved problems of molecular logic computing consist in how to connect molecular events in complex systems into a usable device with specific functions and how to selectively control branchy logic processes from the cascading logic systems. This report demonstrates that a Boolean logic tree is utilized to organize and connect "plug and play" chemical events DNA, nanomaterials, organic dye, biomolecule, and denaturant for developing the dual-signal electrochemical evolution aptasensor system with good resettability for amplification detection of thrombin, controllable and selectable three-state logic computation, and keypad lock security operation. The aptasensor system combines the merits of DNA-functionalized nanoamplification architecture and simple dual-signal electroactive dye brilliant cresyl blue for sensitive and selective detection of thrombin with a wide linear response range of 0.02-100 nM and a detection limit of 1.92 pM. By using these aforementioned chemical events as inputs and the differential pulse voltammetry current changes at different voltages as dual outputs, a resettable three-input biomolecular keypad lock based on sequential logic is established. Moreover, the first example of controllable and selectable three-state molecular logic computation with active-high and active-low logic functions can be implemented and allows the output ports to assume a high impediment or nothing (Z) state in addition to the 0 and 1 logic levels, effectively controlling subsequent branchy logic computation processes. Our approach is helpful in developing the advanced controllable and selectable logic computing and sensing system in large-scale integration circuits for application in biomedical engineering, intelligent sensing, and control.
Measuring Input Thresholds on an Existing Board
Kuperman, Igor; Gutrich, Daniel G.; Berkun, Andrew C.
2011-01-01
A critical PECL (positive emitter-coupled logic) interface to Xilinx interface needed to be changed on an existing flight board. The new Xilinx input interface used a CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) type of input, and the driver could meet its thresholds typically, but not in worst-case, according to the data sheet. The previous interface had been based on comparison with an external reference, but the CMOS input is based on comparison with an internal divider from the power supply. A way to measure what the exact input threshold was for this device for 64 inputs on a flight board was needed. The measurement technique allowed an accurate measurement of the voltage required to switch a Xilinx input from high to low for each of the 64 lines, while only probing two of them. Directly driving an external voltage was considered too risky, and tests done on any other unit could not be used to qualify the flight board. The two lines directly probed gave an absolute voltage threshold calibration, while data collected on the remaining 62 lines without probing gave relative measurements that could be used to identify any outliers. The PECL interface was forced to a long-period square wave by driving a saturated square wave into the ADC (analog to digital converter). The active pull-down circuit was turned off, causing each line to rise rapidly and fall slowly according to the input s weak pull-down circuitry. The fall time shows up as a change in the pulse width of the signal ready by the Xilinx. This change in pulse width is a function of capacitance, pulldown current, and input threshold. Capacitance was known from the different trace lengths, plus a gate input capacitance, which is the same for all inputs. The pull-down current is the same for all inputs including the two that are probed directly. The data was combined, and the Excel solver tool was used to find input thresholds for the 62 lines. This was repeated over different supply voltages and
Logical entropy of quantum dynamical systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ebrahimzadeh Abolfazl
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces the concepts of logical entropy and conditional logical entropy of hnite partitions on a quantum logic. Some of their ergodic properties are presented. Also logical entropy of a quantum dynamical system is dehned and ergodic properties of dynamical systems on a quantum logic are investigated. Finally, the version of Kolmogorov-Sinai theorem is proved.
Reversible logic gates on Physarum Polycephalum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schumann, Andrew
2015-01-01
In this paper, we consider possibilities how to implement asynchronous sequential logic gates and quantum-style reversible logic gates on Physarum polycephalum motions. We show that in asynchronous sequential logic gates we can erase information because of uncertainty in the direction of plasmodium propagation. Therefore quantum-style reversible logic gates are more preferable for designing logic circuits on Physarum polycephalum
Fuzzy Logic and Arithmetical Hierarchy III
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hájek, Petr
2001-01-01
Roč. 68, č. 1 (2001), s. 129-142 ISSN 0039-3215 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030004 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : fuzzy logic * basic fuzzy logic * Lukasiewicz logic * Godel logic * product logic * arithmetical hierarchy Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
An electronic power supply using pulse width modulated (PWM) voltage regulation provides a regulated output for a wide range of input voltages. Thus...switch to change the level of voltage regulation and the turns ratio of the primary winding of the power supply output transformer, thereby obtaining increased tolerance to input voltage change. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meyder, R.
1980-11-01
The codes system SSYST-2 is designed to analyse the thermal and mechanical behaviour of a fuel rod during a LOCA. The report contains a short introduction into the SSYST structure, a complete input-list for all modules and several tested input-list for a LOCA-analysis. (orig.) [de
Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Vowell, C. W.; Smith, Byron; Darcy, Jeannette
2006-01-01
This viewgraph presentation reviews the inputs to the MDS Medical Information Communique (MIC) catalog. The purpose of the group is to provide input for updating the MDS MIC Catalog and to request that MMOP assign Action Item to other working groups and FSs to support the MITWG Process for developing MIC-DDs.
Flat Coalgebraic Fixed Point Logics
Schröder, Lutz; Venema, Yde
Fixed point logics are widely used in computer science, in particular in artificial intelligence and concurrency. The most expressive logics of this type are the μ-calculus and its relatives. However, popular fixed point logics tend to trade expressivity for simplicity and readability, and in fact often live within the single variable fragment of the μ-calculus. The family of such flat fixed point logics includes, e.g., CTL, the *-nesting-free fragment of PDL, and the logic of common knowledge. Here, we extend this notion to the generic semantic framework of coalgebraic logic, thus covering a wide range of logics beyond the standard μ-calculus including, e.g., flat fragments of the graded μ-calculus and the alternating-time μ-calculus (such as ATL), as well as probabilistic and monotone fixed point logics. Our main results are completeness of the Kozen-Park axiomatization and a timed-out tableaux method that matches ExpTime upper bounds inherited from the coalgebraic μ-calculus but avoids using automata.
Methods in Logic Based Control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Georg Kronborg
1999-01-01
Desing and theory of Logic Based Control systems.Boolean Algebra, Karnaugh Map, Quine McClusky's algorithm. Sequential control design. Logic Based Control Method, Cascade Control Method. Implementation techniques: relay, pneumatic, TTL/CMOS,PAL and PLC- and Soft_PLC implementation. PLC...
Injection--ejection protection logic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, H.
1975-01-01
A brief sketch is given of the beginnings of the protective logic which would be needed to guard against quenches or damage in the ISA rings. Two logic diagrams are presented which illustrate the most obvious facets of the hard-wired protection system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
By blending historical research with current research, this collection (loosely inspired by themes from the work of Arthur Prior) demonstrates the importance of Prior's writings and helps us to gain a deeper understanding of time, its logic(s), and its language(s)....
Dynamic Logics of Belief Change
van Benthem, J.; Smets, S.; van Ditmarsch, H.; Halpern, J.; van der Hoek, W.; Kooi, B.
2015-01-01
This chapter gives an overview of current dynamic logics that describe belief update and revision, both for single agents and in multi-agent settings. We employ a mixture of ideas from AGM belief revision theory and dynamic-epistemic logics of information-driven agency. After describing the basic
Hybrid logics with Sahlqvist axioms
ten Cate, B.; Marx, M.; Viana, P.
2005-01-01
We show that every extension of the basic hybrid logic with modal Sahlqvist axioms is complete. As a corollary of our approach, we also obtain the Beth property for a large class of hybrid logics. Finally, we show that the new completeness result cannot be combined with the existing general
Flow Logics and Operational Semantics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis
1998-01-01
Flow logic is a “fast prototyping” approach to program analysis that shows great promise of being able to deal with a wide variety of languages and calculi for computation. However, seemingly innocent choices in the flow logic as well as in the operational semantics may inhibit proving the analysis...
Japanese Logic Puzzles and Proof
Wanko, Jeffrey J.
2009-01-01
An understanding of proof does not start in a high school geometry course. Rather, attention to logical reasoning throughout a student's school experience can help the development of proof readiness. In the spirit of problem solving, the author has begun to use some Japanese logic puzzles other than sudoku to help students develop additional…
Epistemic logics for sceptical agents
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Bílková, M.; Majer, Ondrej; Peliš, Michal
2016-01-01
Roč. 26, č. 6 (2016), s. 1815-1841 ISSN 0955-792X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-21076S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : epistemic logic * substructural logic * frame semantics Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.909, year: 2016
Towards Logical Designs In Biology
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Towards Logical Designs in Biology. Garima Agarwal. General Article Volume 12 Issue 2 February 2007 pp 29-38. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/012/02/0029-0038. Keywords. Synthetic biology; logic gates; regulatory modules; gene circuits. Author Affiliations.
Structural Completeness in Fuzzy Logics
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Cintula, Petr; Metcalfe, G.
2009-01-01
Roč. 50, č. 2 (2009), s. 153-183 ISSN 0029-4527 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : structral logics * fuzzy logics * structural completeness * admissible rules * primitive variety * residuated lattices Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
Naqvi, Syed Rameez; Akram, Tallha; Iqbal, Saba; Haider, Sajjad Ali; Kamran, Muhammad; Muhammad, Nazeer
2018-02-01
Considering the lack of optimization support for Quantum-dot Cellular Automata, we propose a dynamically reconfigurable logic cell capable of implementing various logic operations by means of artificial neural networks. The cell can be reconfigured to any 2-input combinational logic gate by altering the strength of connections, called weights and biases. We demonstrate how these cells may appositely be organized to perform multi-bit arithmetic and logic operations. The proposed work is important in that it gives a standard implementation of an 8-bit arithmetic and logic unit for quantum-dot cellular automata with minimal area and latency overhead. We also compare the proposed design with a few existing arithmetic and logic units, and show that it is more area efficient than any equivalent available in literature. Furthermore, the design is adaptable to 16, 32, and 64 bit architectures.
Broadband acoustic logic gates in a circular waveguide with multiple ports
Zuo, Cheng-yi; Xia, Jian-ping; Sun, Hong-xiang; Ge, Yong; Yuan, Shou-qi; Liu, Xiao-jun
2017-12-01
We report both experimentally and numerically that a broadband acoustic logic gate is realized by multi-port circular waveguides immersed in air. The logic functions OR, NOT, AND, XOR, and XNOR are realized by the three-port and four-port circular waveguides with a uniform threshold in the range of 3640 Hz-8920 Hz, which arises from the linear interference mechanism by adjusting the phase difference and propagation path between two input signals. Besides, the complex logic NOR and NAND functions are obtained by the cascading of two basic logic gates, and interesting applications of the logic calculus C + A × B by the four-port circular waveguide are discussed in detail. Compared with other acoustic logic gates, the device has the advantages of broad bandwidth, uniform threshold, simple structure, and easy connection, which provides diverse routes to construct devices for acoustic communication and computation.
Zalta on Unnecessary Logical Truths
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
MA Hojati
2013-09-01
Full Text Available According to a traditional view all logical truths are necessary however, this thesis recently has been faced with various critiques from different points of view. Introducing some logical operators, David Kaplan and Edward Zalta claim that there are logical truths regarding common definition ‒ that are not necessary. William Hanson objects Zalta's examples believing that they rely on unjustified presuppositions especially he does not accept real world validity as a proper notion for presenting logical truth. Nelson and Zalta reply to his objections claiming that they have unacceptable grounds. In this paper, we introduce logical truths, then present Kaplan's and Zalta's examples and explore Hanson's objections together with their replies. At last we try to show the metaphysical roots of the debates.
Zalta on Unnecessary Logical Truths
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
SH Shahryari
2013-08-01
Full Text Available According to a traditional view all logical truths are necessary however, this thesis recently has been faced with various critiques from different points of view. Introducing some logical operators, David Kaplan and Edward Zalta claim that there are logical truths regarding common definition â that are not necessary. William Hanson objects Zalta's examples believing that they rely on unjustified presuppositions especially he does not accept real world validity as a proper notion for presenting logical truth. Nelson and Zalta reply to his objections claiming that they have unacceptable grounds. In this paper, we introduce logical truths, then present Kaplan's and Zalta's examples and explore Hanson's objections together with their replies. At last we try to show the metaphysical roots of the debates.
Logical independence and quantum randomness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paterek, T; Kofler, J; Aspelmeyer, M; Zeilinger, A; Brukner, C; Prevedel, R; Klimek, P
2010-01-01
We propose a link between logical independence and quantum physics. We demonstrate that quantum systems in the eigenstates of Pauli group operators are capable of encoding mathematical axioms and show that Pauli group quantum measurements are capable of revealing whether or not a given proposition is logically dependent on the axiomatic system. Whenever a mathematical proposition is logically independent of the axioms encoded in the measured state, the measurement associated with the proposition gives random outcomes. This allows for an experimental test of logical independence. Conversely, it also allows for an explanation of the probabilities of random outcomes observed in Pauli group measurements from logical independence without invoking quantum theory. The axiomatic systems we study can be completed and are therefore not subject to Goedel's incompleteness theorem.
Logical independence and quantum randomness
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paterek, T; Kofler, J; Aspelmeyer, M; Zeilinger, A; Brukner, C [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Boltzmanngasse 3, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Prevedel, R; Klimek, P [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: tomasz.paterek@univie.ac.at
2010-01-15
We propose a link between logical independence and quantum physics. We demonstrate that quantum systems in the eigenstates of Pauli group operators are capable of encoding mathematical axioms and show that Pauli group quantum measurements are capable of revealing whether or not a given proposition is logically dependent on the axiomatic system. Whenever a mathematical proposition is logically independent of the axioms encoded in the measured state, the measurement associated with the proposition gives random outcomes. This allows for an experimental test of logical independence. Conversely, it also allows for an explanation of the probabilities of random outcomes observed in Pauli group measurements from logical independence without invoking quantum theory. The axiomatic systems we study can be completed and are therefore not subject to Goedel's incompleteness theorem.
Stochastic p-Bits for Invertible Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kerem Yunus Camsari
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Conventional semiconductor-based logic and nanomagnet-based memory devices are built out of stable, deterministic units such as standard metal-oxide semiconductor transistors, or nanomagnets with energy barriers in excess of ≈40–60 kT. In this paper, we show that unstable, stochastic units, which we call “p-bits,” can be interconnected to create robust correlations that implement precise Boolean functions with impressive accuracy, comparable to standard digital circuits. At the same time, they are invertible, a unique property that is absent in standard digital circuits. When operated in the direct mode, the input is clamped, and the network provides the correct output. In the inverted mode, the output is clamped, and the network fluctuates among all possible inputs that are consistent with that output. First, we present a detailed implementation of an invertible gate to bring out the key role of a single three-terminal transistorlike building block to enable the construction of correlated p-bit networks. The results for this specific, CMOS-assisted nanomagnet-based hardware implementation agree well with those from a universal model for p-bits, showing that p-bits need not be magnet based: any three-terminal tunable random bit generator should be suitable. We present a general algorithm for designing a Boltzmann machine (BM with a symmetric connection matrix [J] (J_{ij}=J_{ji} that implements a given truth table with p-bits. The [J] matrices are relatively sparse with a few unique weights for convenient hardware implementation. We then show how BM full adders can be interconnected in a partially directed manner (J_{ij}≠J_{ji} to implement large logic operations such as 32-bit binary addition. Hundreds of stochastic p-bits get precisely correlated such that the correct answer out of 2^{33} (≈8×10^{9} possibilities can be extracted by looking at the statistical mode or majority vote of a number of time samples. With perfect
Stochastic p -Bits for Invertible Logic
Camsari, Kerem Yunus; Faria, Rafatul; Sutton, Brian M.; Datta, Supriyo
2017-07-01
Conventional semiconductor-based logic and nanomagnet-based memory devices are built out of stable, deterministic units such as standard metal-oxide semiconductor transistors, or nanomagnets with energy barriers in excess of ≈40 - 60 kT . In this paper, we show that unstable, stochastic units, which we call "p -bits," can be interconnected to create robust correlations that implement precise Boolean functions with impressive accuracy, comparable to standard digital circuits. At the same time, they are invertible, a unique property that is absent in standard digital circuits. When operated in the direct mode, the input is clamped, and the network provides the correct output. In the inverted mode, the output is clamped, and the network fluctuates among all possible inputs that are consistent with that output. First, we present a detailed implementation of an invertible gate to bring out the key role of a single three-terminal transistorlike building block to enable the construction of correlated p -bit networks. The results for this specific, CMOS-assisted nanomagnet-based hardware implementation agree well with those from a universal model for p -bits, showing that p -bits need not be magnet based: any three-terminal tunable random bit generator should be suitable. We present a general algorithm for designing a Boltzmann machine (BM) with a symmetric connection matrix [J ] (Ji j=Jj i) that implements a given truth table with p -bits. The [J ] matrices are relatively sparse with a few unique weights for convenient hardware implementation. We then show how BM full adders can be interconnected in a partially directed manner (Ji j≠Jj i) to implement large logic operations such as 32-bit binary addition. Hundreds of stochastic p -bits get precisely correlated such that the correct answer out of 233 (≈8 ×1 09) possibilities can be extracted by looking at the statistical mode or majority vote of a number of time samples. With perfect directivity (Jj i=0 ) a small
Construction of a fuzzy and Boolean logic gates based on DNA.
Zadegan, Reza M; Jepsen, Mette D E; Hildebrandt, Lasse L; Birkedal, Victoria; Kjems, Jørgen
2015-04-17
Logic gates are devices that can perform logical operations by transforming a set of inputs into a predictable single detectable output. The hybridization properties, structure, and function of nucleic acids can be used to make DNA-based logic gates. These devices are important modules in molecular computing and biosensing. The ideal logic gate system should provide a wide selection of logical operations, and be integrable in multiple copies into more complex structures. Here we show the successful construction of a small DNA-based logic gate complex that produces fluorescent outputs corresponding to the operation of the six Boolean logic gates AND, NAND, OR, NOR, XOR, and XNOR. The logic gate complex is shown to work also when implemented in a three-dimensional DNA origami box structure, where it controlled the position of the lid in a closed or open position. Implementation of multiple microRNA sensitive DNA locks on one DNA origami box structure enabled fuzzy logical operation that allows biosensing of complex molecular signals. Integrating logic gates with DNA origami systems opens a vast avenue to applications in the fields of nanomedicine for diagnostics and therapeutics. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
All-optical 10 Gb/s AND logic gate in a silicon microring resonator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xiong, Meng; Lei, Lei; Ding, Yunhong
2013-01-01
An all-optical AND logic gate in a single silicon microring resonator is experimentally demonstrated at 10 Gb/s with 50% RZ-OOK signals. By setting the wavelengths of two intensity-modulated input pumps on the resonances of the microring resonator, field-enhanced four-wave mixing with a total input...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
2017-02-01
The PLEXOS Input Data Generator (PIDG) is a tool that enables PLEXOS users to better version their data, automate data processing, collaborate in developing inputs, and transfer data between different production cost modeling and other power systems analysis software. PIDG can process data that is in a generalized format from multiple input sources, including CSV files, PostgreSQL databases, and PSS/E .raw files and write it to an Excel file that can be imported into PLEXOS with only limited manual intervention.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lefebvre, Claude; Therond, J.P.
1974-01-01
The present invention relates to a self-powered 'AND' logic circuit of dynamic type with positive safety, which delivers on duty operation an output signal equal to the logic product of the input logic signals. The invention relates also to the use of said 'AND' logic circuits in developing n/m logics also of dynamic types with positive safety, delivering on duty operation a zero valued signal when, at least n of the m input signals have the value zero. This type of logics can be inserted in nuclear reactor protection systems; when the value of the reactor operating physical characteristics go out of the safety margins, or true trouble affects 'AND' circuits the value of the output signal is zero, that triggers off the safety absorber drap, for instance [fr
Experiments on neural network architectures for fuzzy logic
Keller, James M.
1991-01-01
The use of fuzzy logic to model and manage uncertainty in a rule-based system places high computational demands on an inference engine. In an earlier paper, the authors introduced a trainable neural network structure for fuzzy logic. These networks can learn and extrapolate complex relationships between possibility distributions for the antecedents and consequents in the rules. Here, the power of these networks is further explored. The insensitivity of the output to noisy input distributions (which are likely if the clauses are generated from real data) is demonstrated as well as the ability of the networks to internalize multiple conjunctive clause and disjunctive clause rules. Since different rules with the same variables can be encoded in a single network, this approach to fuzzy logic inference provides a natural mechanism for rule conflict resolution.
Noise-assisted morphing of memory and logic function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kohar, Vivek; Sinha, Sudeshna
2012-01-01
We demonstrate how noise allows a bistable system to behave as a memory device, as well as a logic gate. Namely, in some optimal range of noise, the system can operate flexibly, both as a NAND/AND gate and a Set–Reset latch, by varying an asymmetrizing bias. Thus we show how this system implements memory, even for sub-threshold input signals, using noise constructively to store information. This can lead to the development of reconfigurable devices, that can switch efficiently between memory tasks and logic operations. -- Highlights: ► We consider a nonlinear system in a noisy environment. ► We show that the system can function as a robust memory element. ► Further, the response of the system can be easily morphed from memory to logic operations. ► Such systems can potentially act as building blocks of “smart” computing devices.
Microdroplet-based universal logic gates by electrorheological fluid
Zhang, Mengying
2011-01-01
We demonstrate a uniquely designed microfluid logic gate with universal functionality, which is capable of conducting all 16 logic operations in one chip, with different input voltage combinations. A kind of smart colloid, giant electrorheological (GER) fluid, functions as the translation media among fluidic, electronic and mechanic information, providing us with the capability of performing large integrations either on-chip or off-chip, while the on-chip hybrid circuit is formed by the interconnection of the electric components and fluidic channels, where the individual microdroplets travelling in a channel represents a bit. The universal logic gate reveals the possibilities of achieving a large-scale microfluidic processor with more complexity for on-chip processing for biological, chemical as well as computational experiments. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Axially modulated arch resonator for logic and memory applications
Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al
2018-01-17
We demonstrate reconfigurable logic and random access memory devices based on an axially modulated clamped-guided arch resonator. The device is electrostatically actuated and the motional signal is capacitively sensed, while the resonance frequency is modulated through an axial electrostatic force from the guided side of the microbeam. A multi-physics finite element model is used to verify the effectiveness of the axial modulation. We present two case studies: first, a reconfigurable two-input logic gate based on the linear resonance frequency modulation, and second, a memory element based on the hysteretic frequency response of the resonator working in the nonlinear regime. The energy consumptions of the device for both logic and memory operations are in the range of picojoules, promising for energy efficient alternative computing paradigm.
Logic Operators on Delta-Sigma Bit-Streams
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Axel Klein
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The fundamental logic operations NOT, OR, AND, and XOR processing bit-streams of Δ Σ -modulators are discussed herein. The resulting bit-streams are evaluated on the basis of their mean values and their standard deviations. Mathematical expressions are presented for their mean values; i.e., the logic function XOR results in the negative multiplication of two bipolar bit-streams, and the logic function AND results in the multiplication of two unipolar bit-streams. As the results are valid for bit-streams with independent high-frequency components, the normed cross-product is utilized for evaluation of the independence of the high-frequency components. In order to achieve a high independence between the input bit-streams, representing the same value, the quantization noise is affected. Multiple strategies are examined and Δ Σ -modulators with different designs are chosen as the best-suited solution. The operations are evaluated on a testbench.
Logic regression and its extensions.
Schwender, Holger; Ruczinski, Ingo
2010-01-01
Logic regression is an adaptive classification and regression procedure, initially developed to reveal interacting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genetic association studies. In general, this approach can be used in any setting with binary predictors, when the interaction of these covariates is of primary interest. Logic regression searches for Boolean (logic) combinations of binary variables that best explain the variability in the outcome variable, and thus, reveals variables and interactions that are associated with the response and/or have predictive capabilities. The logic expressions are embedded in a generalized linear regression framework, and thus, logic regression can handle a variety of outcome types, such as binary responses in case-control studies, numeric responses, and time-to-event data. In this chapter, we provide an introduction to the logic regression methodology, list some applications in public health and medicine, and summarize some of the direct extensions and modifications of logic regression that have been proposed in the literature. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kral, M J
1994-01-01
Although suicide is not viewed as a mental disorder per se, it is viewed by many if not most clinicians, researchers, and lay people as a real or natural symptom of depression. It is at least most typically seen as the unfortunate, severe, yet logical end result of a chain of negative self-appraisals, negative events, and hopelessness. Extending an approach articulated by the early French sociologist Gabriel Tarde, in this paper I argue that suicide is merely an idea, albeit a very bad one, having more in common with societal beliefs and norms regarding such things as divorce, abortion, sex, politics, consumer behavior, and fashion. I make a sharp contrast between perturbation and lethality, concepts central to Edwin S. Shneidman's theory of suicide. Evidence supportive of suicide as an idea is discussed based on what we are learning from the study of history and culture, and about contagion/cluster phenomena, media/communication, and choice of method. It is suggested that certain individuals are more vulnerable to incorporate the idea and act of suicide into their concepts of self, based on the same principles by which ideas are spread throughout society. Just as suicide impacts on society, so does society impact on suicide.
Remmel, Jeffrey; Shore, Richard; Sweedler, Moss; Progress in Computer Science and Applied Logic
1993-01-01
The twenty-six papers in this volume reflect the wide and still expanding range of Anil Nerode's work. A conference on Logical Methods was held in honor of Nerode's sixtieth birthday (4 June 1992) at the Mathematical Sciences Institute, Cornell University, 1-3 June 1992. Some of the conference papers are here, but others are from students, co-workers and other colleagues. The intention of the conference was to look forward, and to see the directions currently being pursued, in the development of work by, or with, Nerode. Here is a brief summary of the contents of this book. We give a retrospective view of Nerode's work. A number of specific areas are readily discerned: recursive equivalence types, recursive algebra and model theory, the theory of Turing degrees and r.e. sets, polynomial-time computability and computer science. Nerode began with automata theory and has also taken a keen interest in the history of mathematics. All these areas are represented. The one area missing is Nerode's applied mathematica...
Modelling object typicality in description logics - [Workshop on Description Logics
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Britz, K
2009-07-01
Full Text Available The authors presents a semantic model of typicality of concept members in description logics that accords well with a binary, globalist cognitive model of class membership and typicality. The authors define a general preferential semantic framework...
Logic with a Probability Semantics
Hailperin, Theodore
2010-01-01
The present study is an extension of the topic introduced in Dr. Hailperin's Sentential Probability Logic, where the usual true-false semantics for logic is replaced with one based more on probability, and where values ranging from 0 to 1 are subject to probability axioms. Moreover, as the word "sentential" in the title of that work indicates, the language there under consideration was limited to sentences constructed from atomic (not inner logical components) sentences, by use of sentential connectives ("no," "and," "or," etc.) but not including quantifiers ("for all," "there is"). An initial
Nanoelectromechanical resonator for logic operations
Kazmi, Syed N. R.
2017-08-29
We report an electro-thermally tunable in-plane doubly-clamped nanoelectromechanical resonator capable of dynamically performing NOR, NOT, XNOR, XOR, and AND logic operations. Toward this, a silicon based resonator is fabricated using standard e-beam lithography and surface nanomachining of a highly conductive device layer of a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. The performance of this logic device is examined at elevated temperatures, ranging from 25 °C to 85 °C, demonstrating its resilience for most of the logic operations; thereby paving the way towards nano-elements-based mechanical computing.
Meta-Logical Reasoning in Higher-Order Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Villadsen, Jørgen; Schlichtkrull, Anders; Hess, Andreas Viktor
The semantics of first-order logic (FOL) can be described in the meta-language of higher-order logic (HOL). Using HOL one can prove key properties of FOL such as soundness and completeness. Furthermore, one can prove sentences in FOL valid using the formalized FOL semantics. To aid in the constru...... in the construction of the proof an interactive proof assistant like Isabelle can be used. The proof assistant can even automate simple proofs using the formalized FOL semantics....
Noisy signaling through promoter logic gates.
Gerstung, Moritz; Timmer, Jens; Fleck, Christian
2009-01-01
We study the influence of noisy transcription factor signals on cis-regulatory promoter elements. These elements process the probability of binary binding events analogous to computer logic gates. At equilibrium, this probability is given by the so-called input function. We show that transcription factor noise causes deviations from the equilibrium value due to the nonlinearity of the input function. For a single binding site, the correction is always negative resulting in an occupancy below the mean-field level. Yet for more complex promoters it depends on the correlation of the transcription factor signals and the geometry of the input function. We present explicit solutions for the basic types of AND and OR gates. The correction size varies among these different types of gates and signal types, mainly being larger in AND gates and for correlated fluctuations. In all cases we find excellent agreement between the analytical results and numerical simulations. We also study the E. coli Lac operon as an example of an AND NOR gate. We present a consistent mathematical method that allows one to separate different sources of noise and quantifies their effect on promoter occupation. A surprising result of our analysis is that Poissonian molecular fluctuations, in contrast to external fluctuations, do no contribute to the correction.
Use of fuzzy logic in signal processing and validation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heger, A.S.; Alang-Rashid, N.K.; Holbert, K.E.
1993-01-01
The advent of fuzzy logic technology has afforded another opportunity to reexamine the signal processing and validation process (SPV). The features offered by fuzzy logic can lend themselves to a more reliable and perhaps fault-tolerant approach to SPV. This is particularly attractive to complex system operations, where optimal control for safe operation depends on reliable input data. The reason for the use of fuzzy logic as the tool for SPV is its ability to transform information from the linguistic domain to a mathematical domain for processing and then transformation of its result back into the linguistic domain for presentation. To ensure the safe and optimal operation of a nuclear plant, for example, reliable and valid data must be available to the human and computer operators. Based on these input data, the operators determine the current state of the power plant and project corrective actions for future states. This determination is based on available data and the conceptual and mathematical models for the plant. A fault-tolerant SPV based on fuzzy logic can help the operators meet the objective of effective, efficient, and safe operation of the nuclear power plant. The ultimate product of this project will be a code that will assist plant operators in making informed decisions under uncertain conditions when conflicting signals may be present
Analysis of Logic Programs Using Regular Tree Languages
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gallagher, John Patrick
2012-01-01
The eld of nite tree automata provides fundamental notations and tools for reasoning about set of terms called regular or recognizable tree languages. We consider two kinds of analysis using regular tree languages, applied to logic programs. The rst approach is to try to discover automatically...... a tree automaton from a logic program, approximating its minimal Herbrand model. In this case the input for the analysis is a program, and the output is a tree automaton. The second approach is to expose or check properties of the program that can be expressed by a given tree automaton. The input...... to the analysis is a program and a tree automaton, and the output is an abstract model of the program. These two contrasting abstract interpretations can be used in a wide range of analysis and verication problems....
Logical Theories for Agent Introspection
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bolander, Thomas
2004-01-01
Artificial intelligence systems (agents) generally have models of the environments they inhabit which they use for representing facts, for reasoning about these facts and for planning actions. Much intelligent behaviour seems to involve an ability to model not only one's external environment...... introspective reasoning, the presence of self-reference causes the theory to be prone to inconsistency. The challenge therefore becomes to construct logical theories supporting introspective reasoning while at the same time ensuring that consistency is retained. In the thesis, we meet this challenge by devising...... by developments within semantics for logic programming within computational logic and formal theories of truth within philosophical logic. The thesis provides a number of examples showing how the developed theories can be used as reasoning frameworks for agents with introspective abilities. In Danish...
Preferential reasoning for modal logics
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Britz, K
2011-11-01
Full Text Available representation results for both preferential and rational consequence, which paves the way for effective decision procedures for modal preferential reasoning. They then illustrate applications of their constructions to modal logics widely used in AI, notably...
Dependence logic theory and applications
Kontinen, Juha; Väänänen, Jouko; Vollmer, Heribert
2016-01-01
In this volume, different aspects of logics for dependence and independence are discussed, including both the logical and computational aspects of dependence logic, and also applications in a number of areas, such as statistics, social choice theory, databases, and computer security. The contributing authors represent leading experts in this relatively new field, each of whom was invited to write a chapter based on talks given at seminars held at the Schloss Dagstuhl Leibniz Center for Informatics in Wadern, Germany (in February 2013 and June 2015) and an Academy Colloquium at the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (March 2014). Altogether, these chapters provide the most up-to-date look at this developing and highly interdisciplinary field and will be of interest to a broad group of logicians, mathematicians, statisticians, philosophers, and scientists. Topics covered include a comprehensive survey of many propositional, modal, and first-order variants of dependence logic; new results concerning ...
Counting proofs in propositional logic
David, René; Zaionc, Marek
2009-01-01
International audience; We give a procedure for counting the number of different proofs of a formula in various sorts of propositional logic. This number is either an integer (that may be 0 if the formula is not provable) or infinite.
On-line tuning of a fuzzy-logic power system stabilizer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hossein-Zadeh, N.; Kalam, A.
2002-01-01
A scheme for on-line tuning of a fuzzy-logic power system stabilizer is presented. firstly, a fuzzy-logic power system stabilizer is developed using speed deviation and accelerating power as the controller input variables. The inference mechanism of fuzzy-logic controller is represented by a decision table, constructed of linguistic IF-THEN rules. The Linguistic rules are available from experts and the design procedure is based on these rules. It assumed that an exact model of the plant is not available and it is difficult to extract the exact parameters of the power plant. Thus, the design procedure can not be based on an exact model. This is an advantage of fuzzy logic that makes the design of a controller possible without knowing the exact model of the plant. Secondly, two scaling parameters are introduced to tune the fuzzy-logic power system stabilizer. These scaling parameters are the outputs of another fuzzy-logic system, which gets the operating conditions of power system as inputs. These mechanism of tuning the fuzzy-logic power system stabilizer makes the fuzzy-logic power system stabilizer adaptive to changes in the operating conditions. Therefore, the degradation of the system response, under a wide range of operating conditions, is less compared to the system response with a fixed-parameter fuzzy-logic power system stabilizer and a conventional (linear) power system stabilizer. The tuned stabilizer has been tested by performing nonlinear simulations using a synchronous machine-infinite bus model. The responses are compared with a fixed parameters fuzzy-logic power system stabilizer and a conventional (linear) power system stabilizer. It is shown that the tuned fuzzy-logic power system stabilizer is superior to both of them
Model Checking Temporal Logic Formulas Using Sticker Automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Weijun Zhu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available As an important complex problem, the temporal logic model checking problem is still far from being fully resolved under the circumstance of DNA computing, especially Computation Tree Logic (CTL, Interval Temporal Logic (ITL, and Projection Temporal Logic (PTL, because there is still a lack of approaches for DNA model checking. To address this challenge, a model checking method is proposed for checking the basic formulas in the above three temporal logic types with DNA molecules. First, one-type single-stranded DNA molecules are employed to encode the Finite State Automaton (FSA model of the given basic formula so that a sticker automaton is obtained. On the other hand, other single-stranded DNA molecules are employed to encode the given system model so that the input strings of the sticker automaton are obtained. Next, a series of biochemical reactions are conducted between the above two types of single-stranded DNA molecules. It can then be decided whether the system satisfies the formula or not. As a result, we have developed a DNA-based approach for checking all the basic formulas of CTL, ITL, and PTL. The simulated results demonstrate the effectiveness of the new method.
A fuzzy logic pitch angle controller for power system stabilization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jauch, Clemens; Cronin, Tom; Sorensen, Poul [Wind Energy Department, Riso National Laboratory, PO Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde, (Denmark); Jensen, Birgitte Bak [Institute of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, Pontoppidanstraede 101, DK-9220 Aalborg East, (Denmark)
2006-07-12
In this article the design of a fuzzy logic pitch angle controller for a fixed speed, active-stall wind turbine, which is used for power system stabilization, is presented. The system to be controlled, which is the wind turbine and the power system to which the turbine is connected, is described. The advantages of fuzzy logic control when applied to large-signal control of active-stall wind turbines are outlined. The general steps of the design process for a fuzzy logic controller, including definition of the controller inputs, set-up of the fuzzy rules and the method of defuzzification, are described. The performance of the controller is assessed by simulation, where the wind turbine's task is to dampen power system oscillations. In the scenario simulated for this work, the wind turbine has to ride through a transient short-circuit fault and subsequently contribute to the damping of the grid frequency oscillations that are caused by the transient fault. It is concluded that the fuzzy logic controller enables the wind turbine to dampen power system oscillations. It is also concluded that, owing to the inherent non-linearities in a wind turbine and the unpredictability of the whole system, the fuzzy logic controller is very suitable for this application. (Author).
Observation Predicates in Flow Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Sun, Hongyan
2003-01-01
in such a way that the hard constraints are satisfi ed exactly when the observation predicates report no violations. The development is carried out in a large fragment of a first order logic with negation and also takes care of the transformations necessary in order to adhere to the stratification restrictions...... inherent in Alternation-free Least Fixed Point Logic and similar formalisms such as Datalog....
Control Augmentation Using Fuzzy Logic Control
Kato, Akio; Inukai, Daisuke
Overall control to improve the control characteristics of an aircraft, CA (Control Augmentation), is used to realize the desirable motion of the aircraft in relation to the pilot’s control action. C∗ criterion is an important factor for the pilot’s preferred longitudinal motion. The time history of C∗ corresponding to the step input is specified within the upper and lower envelope, and it is desirable to be near the center of the envelope. In this research, the control laws of control augmentation for small supersonic aircraft were designed with the use of fuzzy logic control to obtain the C∗ response near the center of the envelope. The evaluation of the designed control laws showed good performance in all flight conditions. Here the control laws were varied by only one scaling factor for dynamic pressure. This means that virtually no gain schedules by the Mach number and the angle of attack are necessary. This paper shows that fuzzy logic control is an effective and flexible method when applied to control laws for the control augmentation of aircraft.
A new fast and programmable trigger logic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fucci, A.; Amendolia, S.R.; Bertolucci, E.; Bottigli, U.; Bradaschia, C.; Foa, L.; Giazotto, A.; Giorgi, M.; Givoletti, M.; Lucardesi, P.; Menzione, A.; Passuello, D.; Quaglia, M.; Ristori, L.; Rolandi, L.; Salvadori, P.; Scribano, A.; Stanga, R.; Stefanini, A.; Vincelli, M.L.
1977-01-01
The NA1 (FRAMM) experiment, under construction for the CERN-SPS North Area, deals with more than 1000 counter signals which have to be combined together in order to build sophisticated and highly selective triggers. These requirements have led to the development of a low cost, combinatorial, fast electronics which can replace, in an advantageous way the standard NIM electronics at the trigger level. The essential performances of the basic circuit are: 1) programmability of any desired logical expression; 2) trigger time independent of the chosen expression; 3) reduced cost and compactness due to the use of commercial RAMs, PROMs, and PLAs; 4) short delay, less than 20 ns, between input and output pulses. (Auth.)
FUZZY LOGIC STATIC SYNCHRONOUS COMPENSATOR (FLSTATCOM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I Made Mataram
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Penerapan teknik fuzzy membawa perubahan yang signifikan khusus pada perhitungan dan analisis sistem konvensional. Peranan peralatan FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission System untuk memperbaiki kualitas tegangan dari pembangkit menuju beban sangat besar. STATCOM merupakan peralatan paling berpengaruh untuk memperbaiki tegangan pada jaringan transmisi tenaga listrik. Pembahasan pada penelitian ini dikhususkan pada FLSTATCOM. Model Fuzzy Logic dengan dua input digunakan sebagai pengontrol IGBT, sehingga mampu meningkatkan unjuk kerja STATCOM konvensional. Sistem Single Machine Infinite Bus menjadi sistem uji coba penggunaan FLSTATCOM.Hasil simulasi menggunakan simulink MATLAB, diperoleh nilai tegangan pada tiap sisi terima tanpa menggunakan STATCOM menghasilkan tegangan sebesar 217,3 kV, menggunakan STATCOM menghasilkan tegangan sebesar 220 kV, dan penggunaan FLSTATCOM mampu meningkatkan tegangan menjadi 228,9 kV (5,34%
Cascadable spatial-soliton logic gates.
Blair, S; Wagner, K
2000-11-10
The three-terminal spatial-soliton angular-deflection geometry provides the characteristics of an inverting logic gate with gain, and phase-insensitive implementations can be realized by a number of specific nonlinear interactions between orthogonally polarized waves. In particular, numerical simulations of spatial-soliton dragging and collision are used to calculate the transfer functions of inverter and multiple configurations of two-input nor gates and to address their cascadability. These transfer functions converge in cascaded operation and suggest that fan-out greater than 2 with a large noise margin is attainable in a system with standardized signal levels. These results are obtained with the material properties of fused silica and are representative of low-loss Kerr media.
Fuzzy Logic Based Autonomous Traffic Control System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad ABBAS
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to design and implement fuzzy logic based traffic light Control system to solve the traffic congestion issues. In this system four input parameters: Arrival, Queue, Pedestrian and Emergency Vehicle and two output parameters: Extension in Green and Pedestrian Signals are used. Using Fuzzy Rule Base, the system extends or terminates the Green Signal according to the Traffic situation at the junction. On the presence of emergency vehicle, the system decides which signal(s should be red and how much an extension should be given to Green Signal for Emergency Vehicle. The system also monitors the density of people and makes decisions accordingly. In order to verify the proposed design algorithm MATLAB simulation is adopted and results obtained show concurrency to the calculated values according to the Mamdani Model of the Fuzzy Control System.
On Structural Completeness of Tabular Superintuitionistic Logics
Citkin, Alexander
2015-01-01
As usual, the superintuitionistic (propositional) logics (that is, logics extending intuitionistic logic) are being studied “modulo derivability”, meaning such logics are viewed extensionally — they are identified with the set of formulae that are valid (derivable in the corresponding calculus) in
Proposal for the Formalization of Dialectical Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Luis Usó-Doménech
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Classical logic is typically concerned with abstract analysis. The problem for a synthetic logic is to transcend and unify available data to reconstruct the object as a totality. Three rules are proposed to pass from classic logic to synthetic logic. We present the category logic of qualitative opposition using examples from various sciences. This logic has been defined to include the neuter as part of qualitative opposition. The application of these rules to qualitative opposition, and, in particular, its neuter, demonstrated that a synthetic logic allows the truth of some contradictions. This synthetic logic is dialectical with a multi-valued logic, which gives every proposition a truth value in the interval [0,1] that is the square of the modulus of a complex number. In this dialectical logic, contradictions of the neuter of an opposition may be true.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2013-01-01
you to input a text file with a raw list of lexemes that appear in the construction under investigation. This is converted into an a frequency with the format described above. Open this file in a spreadsheet and fill in the corpus-wide word frequencies and save the file as a text file. You can now use...
Fuzzy Logic Based The Application of Multi-Microcontroller in Mobile Robot Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nuryono Satya Widodo
2009-12-01
Full Text Available This paper proposed a fuzzy logic based mobile robot as implemented in a multimicrocontroller system. Fuzzy logic controller was developed based on a behavior based approach. The Controller inputs were obtained from seven sonar sensor and three tactile switches. Behavior based approach was implemented in different level priority of behaviors. The behaviors were: obstacle avoidance, wall following and escaping as the emergency behavior. The results show that robot was able to navigate autonomously and avoid the entire obstacle.
Control of an air conditional system with fuzzy logic and PIC using
ERKAYMAZ, Hande; ÇAYIROĞLU, İbrahim
2010-01-01
In this study an air conditioner system was put into practice as programming PIC by fuzzy logic system. The system keeps temperature of atmosphere between 19-23oC. As input variable damp and heat values are taken by sensor called SHT11 and they are transmitted to PIC 16F876 which programmed by fuzzy logic system. Heater and cooler fans work as required climate.
A new hierarchy of infinitary logics in abstract algebraic logic
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Lávička, Tomáš; Noguera, Carles
2017-01-01
Roč. 105, č. 3 (2017), s. 521-551 ISSN 0039-3215 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14654S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 689176 - SYSMICS Institutional support: RVO:67985556 ; RVO:67985807 Keywords : Abstract algebraic logic * consequence relations * infinitary logics * completeness properties Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics; BA - General Mathematics (UIVT-O) OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics; Computer science s, information science , bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) (UIVT-O) Impact factor: 0.589, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/MTR/noguera-0469118.pdf
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iryna Khomenko
2018-04-01
Full Text Available The challenges of the global time require new solutions and up-to-date ways of thinking and communication. These challenges call for the ability to use critical thinking to face the ever-changing world and the ability to maintain a dialog based on the effective skills of communication. Studies in the fields of logic and argumentation theory are of particular importance in this regard. Nowadays they can be presented as a mix of theoretical and practical approaches. In this paper, I will present my reflections on informal logic, which was formed in the late 1970s. Unfortunately, in spite of numerous papers, books, and text-books published over the last forty years, consensus on many issues in this field has not been achieved so far. Therefore, it is difficult to treat informal logic as one of the well-defined approaches to argumentation. The goal of this paper is to take a look at the place of informal logic in state-of-the art study of argumentation by clarifying its subject matter and figuring out the realm to which informal logic belongs.
Fuzzy logic of Aristotelian forms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perlovsky, L.I. [Nichols Research Corp., Lexington, MA (United States)
1996-12-31
Model-based approaches to pattern recognition and machine vision have been proposed to overcome the exorbitant training requirements of earlier computational paradigms. However, uncertainties in data were found to lead to a combinatorial explosion of the computational complexity. This issue is related here to the roles of a priori knowledge vs. adaptive learning. What is the a-priori knowledge representation that supports learning? I introduce Modeling Field Theory (MFT), a model-based neural network whose adaptive learning is based on a priori models. These models combine deterministic, fuzzy, and statistical aspects to account for a priori knowledge, its fuzzy nature, and data uncertainties. In the process of learning, a priori fuzzy concepts converge to crisp or probabilistic concepts. The MFT is a convergent dynamical system of only linear computational complexity. Fuzzy logic turns out to be essential for reducing the combinatorial complexity to linear one. I will discuss the relationship of the new computational paradigm to two theories due to Aristotle: theory of Forms and logic. While theory of Forms argued that the mind cannot be based on ready-made a priori concepts, Aristotelian logic operated with just such concepts. I discuss an interpretation of MFT suggesting that its fuzzy logic, combining a-priority and adaptivity, implements Aristotelian theory of Forms (theory of mind). Thus, 2300 years after Aristotle, a logic is developed suitable for his theory of mind.
Strategies and logics of internationalization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahjouba Ben Salem
2013-07-01
Full Text Available The race between firms to acquire capacities worldwide has evolved in a chronological order which centered at first around products, then around position to move later on to skills and to focus currently on networks. Similarly, when observing the evolution of the different international development strategies, it was found out that they have started by the exportation and the setting up of production subsidiaries to move more recently to such strategies as mergers & acquisitions and international alliances. The present paper investigates the relationship between the internationalization strategies and logics and comes to the conclusion that, a particular logic is behind every choice made. Indeed, the present work was conducted within the Tunisian food enterprises and helped confirm this hypothesis as it was found out that the position logic is behind the choice of exportation and the creation of production subsidiaries while the choice of partnership is based on the logic of skills. The option for merger, on the other hand, is motivated by the networks logic.
Bioelectronic Interface Connecting Reversible Logic Gates Based on Enzyme and DNA Reactions.
Guz, Nataliia; Fedotova, Tatiana A; Fratto, Brian E; Schlesinger, Orr; Alfonta, Lital; Kolpashchikov, Dmitry M; Katz, Evgeny
2016-07-18
It is believed that connecting biomolecular computation elements in complex networks of communicating molecules may eventually lead to a biocomputer that can be used for diagnostics and/or the cure of physiological and genetic disorders. Here, a bioelectronic interface based on biomolecule-modified electrodes has been designed to bridge reversible enzymatic logic gates with reversible DNA-based logic gates. The enzyme-based Fredkin gate with three input and three output signals was connected to the DNA-based Feynman gate with two input and two output signals-both representing logically reversible computing elements. In the reversible Fredkin gate, the routing of two data signals between two output channels was controlled by the control signal (third channel). The two data output signals generated by the Fredkin gate were directed toward two electrochemical flow cells, responding to the output signals by releasing DNA molecules that serve as the input signals for the next Feynman logic gate based on the DNA reacting cascade, producing, in turn, two final output signals. The Feynman gate operated as the controlled NOT gate (CNOT), where one of the input channels controlled a NOT operation on another channel. Both logic gates represented a highly sophisticated combination of input-controlled signal-routing logic operations, resulting in redirecting chemical signals in different channels and performing orchestrated computing processes. The biomolecular reaction cascade responsible for the signal processing was realized by moving the solution from one reacting cell to another, including the reacting flow cells and electrochemical flow cells, which were organized in a specific network mimicking electronic computing circuitries. The designed system represents the first example of high complexity biocomputing processes integrating enzyme and DNA reactions and performing logically reversible signal processing. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
A type of all-optical logic gate based on graphene surface plasmon polaritons
Wu, Xiaoting; Tian, Jinping; Yang, Rongcao
2017-11-01
In this paper, a novel type of all-optical logic device based on graphene surface plasmon polaritons (GSP) is proposed. By utilizing linear interference between the GSP waves propagating in the different channels, this new structure can realize six different basic logic gates including OR, XOR, NOT, AND, NOR, and NAND. The state of ;ON/OFF; of each input channel can be well controlled by tuning the optical conductivity of graphene sheets, which can be further controlled by changing the external gate voltage. This type of logic gate is compact in geometrical sizes and is a potential block in the integration of nanophotonic devices.
Notes on stochastic (bio)-logic gates: computing with allosteric cooperativity
Agliari, Elena; Altavilla, Matteo; Barra, Adriano; Dello Schiavo, Lorenzo; Katz, Evgeny
2015-05-01
Recent experimental breakthroughs have finally allowed to implement in-vitro reaction kinetics (the so called enzyme based logic) which code for two-inputs logic gates and mimic the stochastic AND (and NAND) as well as the stochastic OR (and NOR). This accomplishment, together with the already-known single-input gates (performing as YES and NOT), provides a logic base and paves the way to the development of powerful biotechnological devices. However, as biochemical systems are always affected by the presence of noise (e.g. thermal), standard logic is not the correct theoretical reference framework, rather we show that statistical mechanics can work for this scope: here we formulate a complete statistical mechanical description of the Monod-Wyman-Changeaux allosteric model for both single and double ligand systems, with the purpose of exploring their practical capabilities to express noisy logical operators and/or perform stochastic logical operations. Mixing statistical mechanics with logics, and testing quantitatively the resulting findings on the available biochemical data, we successfully revise the concept of cooperativity (and anti-cooperativity) for allosteric systems, with particular emphasis on its computational capabilities, the related ranges and scaling of the involved parameters and its differences with classical cooperativity (and anti-cooperativity).
Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Controller Based Maximum Power Point Tracking in Photovoltaic Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ALTIN, N.
2013-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper, interval type-2 fuzzy logic controller based maximum power point tracking method is proposed for photovoltaic systems. The proposed interval type-2 fuzzy logic controller has two inputs and one output. Rate of change in photovoltaic system output power and rate of change in photovoltaic system terminal voltage are selected as input variables and change in duty cycle as output variable. Seven type-2 membership functions are used for determined input and output variables of fuzzy logic controller. Since type-2 fuzzy sets are used, effect of uncertainties on maximum power point tracking capability is removed. Operation point of the photovoltaic system is controlled via a boost type DC?DC converter. Simulation results show that the proposed maximum power point tracking method provides fast dynamic response, and it is also useful for rapidly changing atmospheric conditions.
Impossible Worlds and Logical Omniscience
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjerring, Jens Christian Krarup
2013-01-01
”. But I prove that it is impossible to develop an impossible-world framework that can do this job and that satisfies certain standard conditions. Effectively, I show that attempts to model moderately ideal agents in a world-involving framework collapse to modeling either logical omniscient agents......In this paper, I investigate whether we can use a world-involving framework to model the epistemic states of non-ideal agents. The standard possible-world framework falters in this respect because of a commitment to logical omniscience. A familiar attempt to overcome this problem centers around...... falsehoods, they are nevertheless able to rule out blatantly impossible worlds that verify obvious logical falsehoods. To model moderately ideal agents, I argue, the job is to construct a modal space that contains only possible and non-trivially impossible worlds where it is not the case that “anything goes...
Fuzzy Logic Reliability Centered Maintenance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Felecia .
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Reliability Centered Maintenence (RCM is a systematic maintenence strategy based on system reliability. Application of RCM process will not always come out with a binary output of “yes” and “no”. Most of the time they are not supported with available detail information to calculate system reliability. The fuzzy logic method attempts to eliminate the uncertainty by providing “truth” in different degrees.Data and responses from maintenance department will be processed using the two methods (reliability centered maintenance and fuzzy logic to design maintenance strategy for the company. The results of the fuzzy logic RCM application are maintenance strategy which fit with current and future condition.
The Pointer Assertion Logic Engine
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff
2001-01-01
in the logical tradition by encoding the programs and partial specifications as formulas in monadic second-order logic. Validity of these formulas is checked by the MONA tool, which also can provide explicit counterexamples to invalid formulas. To make verification decidable, the technique requires explicit loop...... restricted to simple special cases such as lists or trees. Even so, our current implementation is as fast as the previous specialized tools. Programs are annotated with partial specifications expressed in Pointer Assertion Logic, a new notation for expressing properties of the program store. We work......We present a new framework for verifying partial specifications of programs in order to catch type and memory errors and check data structure invariants. Our technique can verify a large class of data structures, namely all those that can be expressed as graph types. Earlier versions were...
Sequential logic analysis and synthesis
Cavanagh, Joseph
2007-01-01
Until now, there was no single resource for actual digital system design. Using both basic and advanced concepts, Sequential Logic: Analysis and Synthesis offers a thorough exposition of the analysis and synthesis of both synchronous and asynchronous sequential machines. With 25 years of experience in designing computing equipment, the author stresses the practical design of state machines. He clearly delineates each step of the structured and rigorous design principles that can be applied to practical applications. The book begins by reviewing the analysis of combinatorial logic and Boolean a
The logical foundations of mathematics
Hatcher, William S
1981-01-01
The Logical Foundations of Mathematics offers a study of the foundations of mathematics, stressing comparisons between and critical analyses of the major non-constructive foundational systems. The position of constructivism within the spectrum of foundational philosophies is discussed, along with the exact relationship between topos theory and set theory.Comprised of eight chapters, this book begins with an introduction to first-order logic. In particular, two complete systems of axioms and rules for the first-order predicate calculus are given, one for efficiency in proving metatheorems, and
An exercise in 'anhomomorphic logic'
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sorkin, Rafael D
2007-01-01
A classical logic exhibits a threefold inner structure comprising an algebra of propositions U, a space of 'truth values' V, and a distinguished family of mappings φ from propositions to truth values. Classically U is a Boolean algebra, V = Z 2 , and the admissible maps φ: U Z 2 are homomorphisms. If one admits a larger set of maps, one obtains an anhomomorphic logic that seems better suited to quantal reality (and the needs of quantum gravity). I explain these ideas and illustrate them with three simple examples
Logic gates and antisense DNA devices operating on a translator nucleic Acid scaffold.
Shlyahovsky, Bella; Li, Yang; Lioubashevski, Oleg; Elbaz, Johann; Willner, Itamar
2009-07-28
A series of logic gates, "AND", "OR", and "XOR", are designed using a DNA scaffold that includes four "footholds" on which the logic operations are activated. Two of the footholds represent input-recognition strands, and these are blocked by complementary nucleic acids, whereas the other two footholds are blocked by nucleic acids that include the horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-mimicking DNAzyme sequence. The logic gates are activated by either nucleic acid inputs that hybridize to the respective "footholds", or by low-molecular-weight inputs (adenosine monophosphate or cocaine) that yield the respective aptamer-substrate complexes. This results in the respective translocation of the blocking nucleic acids to the footholds carrying the HRP-mimicking DNAzyme sequence, and the concomitant release of the respective DNAzyme. The released product-strands then self-assemble into the hemin/G-quadruplex-HRP-mimicking DNAzyme that biocatalyzes the formation of a colored product and provides an output signal for the different logic gates. The principle of the logic operation is, then, implemented as a possible paradigm for future nanomedicine. The nucleic acid inputs that bind to the blocked footholds result in the translocation of the blocking nucleic acids to the respective footholds carrying the antithrombin aptamer. The released aptamer inhibits, then, the hydrolytic activity of thrombin. The system demonstrates the regulation of a biocatalytic reaction by a translator system activated on a DNA scaffold.
Logical space and the origins of pluralism in logic
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Arazim, Pavel
-, č. 2 (2017), s. 7-26 ISSN 0567-8293 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-15645S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : pluralism * expressivism * logical space * geometry * holism Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Philosophy, History and Philosophy of science and technology
Design and Synthesis of Ultra Low Energy Spin-Memristor Threshold Logic
Fan, Deliang; Sharad, Mrigank; Roy, Kaushik
2014-01-01
A threshold logic gate (TLG) performs weighted sum of multiple inputs and compares the sum with a threshold. We propose Spin-Memeristor Threshold Logic (SMTL) gates, which employ memristive cross-bar array (MCA) to perform current-mode summation of binary inputs, whereas, the low-voltage fast-switching spintronic threshold devices (STD) carry out the threshold operation in an energy efficient manner. Field programmable SMTL gate arrays can operate at a small terminal voltage of ~50mV, resulti...
Petri Nets as Models of Linear Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn
1990-01-01
The chief purpose of this paper is to appraise the feasibility of Girad's linear logic as a specification language for parallel processes. To this end we propose an interpretation of linear logic in Petri nets, with respect to which we investigate the expressive power of the logic......The chief purpose of this paper is to appraise the feasibility of Girad's linear logic as a specification language for parallel processes. To this end we propose an interpretation of linear logic in Petri nets, with respect to which we investigate the expressive power of the logic...
Implicational (semilinear) logics III: completeness properties
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Cintula, Petr; Noguera, Carles
2018-01-01
Roč. 57, 3-4 (2018), s. 391-420 ISSN 0933-5846 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14654S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 689176 - SYSMICS Institutional support: RVO:67985807 ; RVO:67985556 Keywords : abstract algebraic logic * protoalgebraic logics * implicational logics * disjunctional logics * semilinear logics * non-classical logics * completeness theorems * rational completeness Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics; BA - General Mathematics (UTIA-B) OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 0.394, year: 2016
Microelectromechanical resonator based digital logic elements
Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al
2016-10-20
Micro/nano-electromechanical resonator based mechanical computing has recently attracted significant attention. However, its full realization has been hindered by the difficulty in realizing complex combinational logics, in which the logic function is constructed by cascading multiple smaller logic blocks. In this work we report an alternative approach for implementation of digital logic core elements, multiplexer and demultiplexer, which can be used to realize combinational logic circuits by suitable concatenation. Toward this, shallow arch shaped microresonators are electrically connected and their resonance frequencies are tuned based on an electrothermal frequency modulation scheme. This study demonstrates that by reconfiguring the same basic building block, the arch microresonator, complex logic circuits can be realized.
Implicational (semilinear) logics III: completeness properties
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Cintula, Petr; Noguera, Carles
2018-01-01
Roč. 57, 3-4 (2018), s. 391-420 ISSN 0933-5846 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14654S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 689176 - SYSMICS Institutional support: RVO:67985807 ; RVO:67985556 Keywords : abstract algebraic logic * protoalgebraic logics * implicational logics * disjunctional logics * semilinear logics * non-classical logics * completeness theorems * rational completeness Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics; BA - General Mathematics (UTIA-B) OBOR OECD: Computer science s, information science , bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 0.394, year: 2016
Kurtz, S; Varga, E; Siddiq, M J; Niemier, M; Porod, W; Hu, X S; Bernstein, G H
2011-02-09
We discuss the experimental demonstration of non-majority, two-input, nanomagnet logic (NML) AND and OR gates. While gate designs still can incorporate the symmetric, rounded-rectangle magnets used in the three-input majority gate experiments by Imre (2006 Science 311 205-8), our new designs also leverage magnets with an edge that has a well-defined 'slant'. In rectangular and ellipsoid nanomagnets, the easy axis of the device coincides with its longer edge. For a magnet with a slanted edge, the easy and hard axes are 'tilted', and magnetic fields applied along the (geometrical) hard axis alone can set the easy axis magnetization state. This switching phenomenon can be employed to realize NML Boolean logic gates with both reduced footprints and critical path delays. Experimental demonstrations of two-input AND and OR gates are supported by corresponding micromagnetic simulations with temperature effects associated with a 300 K environment. Simulations suggest that the time evolution of experimentally demonstrated structures is correct, and that designs can also tolerate clock field misalignment. Additionally, simulations suggest that a slanted-edge 'compute magnet' can (i) be driven by two anti-ferromagnetically ordered lines of NML devices (for input) and (ii) drive an anti-ferromagnetically ordered line (for output). Both are essential if slanted-edge devices are to be used in NML circuits. We conclude with a discussion of extensibility and scaling prospects for shape-based computation with nanomagnets.
Optimization of Fuzzy Logic Controller for Supervisory Power System Stabilizers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. A. Al-Turki
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a powerful supervisory power system stabilizer (PSS using an adaptive fuzzy logic controller driven by an adaptive fuzzy set (AFS. The system under study consists of two synchronous generators, each fitted with a PSS, which are connected via double transmission lines. Different types of PSS-controller techniques are considered. The proposed genetic adaptive fuzzy logic controller (GAFLC-PSS, using 25 rules, is compared with a static fuzzy logic controller (SFLC driven by a fixed fuzzy set (FFS which has 49 rules. Both fuzzy logic controller (FLC algorithms utilize the speed error and its rate of change as an input vector. The adaptive FLC algorithm uses a genetic algorithmto tune the parameters of the fuzzy set of each PSS. The FLC’s are simulated and tested when the system is subjected to different disturbances under a wide range of operating points. The proposed GAFLC using AFS reduced the computational time of the FLC, where the number of rules is reduced from 49 to 25 rules. In addition, the proposed adaptive FLC driven by a genetic algorithm also reduced the complexity of the fuzzy model, while achieving a good dynamic response of the system under study.
Magnonic interferometric switch for multi-valued logic circuits
Balynsky, Michael; Kozhevnikov, Alexander; Khivintsev, Yuri; Bhowmick, Tonmoy; Gutierrez, David; Chiang, Howard; Dudko, Galina; Filimonov, Yuri; Liu, Guanxiong; Jiang, Chenglong; Balandin, Alexander A.; Lake, Roger; Khitun, Alexander
2017-01-01
We investigated a possible use of the magnonic interferometric switches in multi-valued logic circuits. The switch is a three-terminal device consisting of two spin channels where input, control, and output signals are spin waves. Signal modulation is achieved via the interference between the source and gate spin waves. We report experimental data on a micrometer scale prototype based on the Y3Fe2(FeO4)3 structure. The output characteristics are measured at different angles of the bias magnetic field. The On/Off ratio of the prototype exceeds 13 dB at room temperature. Experimental data are complemented by the theoretical analysis and the results of micro magnetic simulations showing spin wave propagation in a micrometer size magnetic junction. We also present the results of numerical modeling illustrating the operation of a nanometer-size switch consisting of just 20 spins in the source-drain channel. The utilization of spin wave interference as a switching mechanism makes it possible to build nanometer-scale logic gates, and minimize energy per operation, which is limited only by the noise margin. The utilization of phase in addition to amplitude for information encoding offers an innovative route towards multi-state logic circuits. We describe possible implementation of the three-value logic circuits based on the magnonic interferometric switches. The advantages and shortcomings inherent in interferometric switches are also discussed.
Bicycle Frame Prediction Techniques with Fuzzy Logic Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rafiuddin Syam
2015-03-01
Full Text Available In general, an appropriate size bike frame would get comfort to the rider while biking. This study aims to predict the simulation system on the bike frame sizes with fuzzy logic. Testing method used is the simulation test. In this study, fuzzy logic will be simulated using Matlab language to test their performance. Mamdani fuzzy logic using 3 variables and 1 output variable intake. Triangle function for the input and output. The controller is designed in the type mamdani with max-min composition and the method deffuzification using center of gravity method. The results showed that height, inseam and Crank Size generating appropriate frame size for the rider associated with comfort. Has a height range between 142 cm and 201 cm. Inseam has a range between 64 cm and 97 cm. Crank has a size range between 175 mm and 180 mm. The simulation results have a range of frame sizes between 13 inches and 22 inches. By using the fuzzy logic can be predicted the size frame of bicycle suitable for the biker.
Bicycle Frame Prediction Techniques with Fuzzy Logic Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rafiuddin Syam
2017-03-01
Full Text Available In general, an appropriate size bike frame would get comfort to the rider while biking. This study aims to predict the simulation system on the bike frame sizes with fuzzy logic. Testing method used is the simulation test. In this study, fuzzy logic will be simulated using Matlab language to test their performance. Mamdani fuzzy logic using 3 variables and 1 output variable intake. Triangle function for the input and output. The controller is designed in the type mamdani with max-min composition and the method deffuzification using center of gravity method. The results showed that height, inseam and Crank Size generating appropriate frame size for the rider associated with comfort. Has a height range between 142 cm and 201 cm. Inseam has a range between 64 cm and 97 cm. Crank has a size range between 175 mm and 180 mm. The simulation results have a range of frame sizes between 13 inches and 22 inches. By using the fuzzy logic can be predicted the size frame of bicycle suitable for the biker.
Contextual Validity in Hybrid Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin
2013-01-01
of Hans Kamp and David Kaplan. We introduce a simple proof rule, which we call the Kamp Rule, and first we show that it is all we need to take us from logical validities involving now to contextual validities involving now too. We then go on to show that this deductive bridge is strong enough to carry us...
Testing Superconductor Logic Integrated Circuits
Arun, A.J.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.
2005-01-01
Superconductor logic has the potential of extremely low-power consumption and ultra-fast digital signal processing. Unfortunately, the obtained yield of the present processes is low and specific faults occur. This paper deals with fault-modelling, Design-for-Test structures, and ATPG for these
Complexity Issues in Basic Logic
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Aguzzoli, S.; Gerla, B.; Haniková, Zuzana
2005-01-01
Roč. 9, - (2005), s. 919-934 ISSN 1432-7643 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A056 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : basic fuzzy logic (BL) * computational complexity * functional representation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.538, year: 2005
Phonotactics in inductive logic programming
Nerbonne, J.; Konstantopoulos, S.; Klopotek, M.A.; Wierzchon, S.T.; Trojanowski, K.
2004-01-01
We examine the results of applying inductive logic programming (ILP) to a relatively simple linguistic task, that of recognizing monosyllables in one language. ILP is suited to linguistic problems given linguists' preference for formulating their theories in discrete rules, and because of ILP's
Using Logical Problems in ESP.
Dorrity, Terry
1983-01-01
A course in scientific English for science researchers and advanced civil engineering students in Belgium has a central problem--the heterogeneous nature of the group and lack of common research experience around which to build a curriculum. An attempt to overcome this difficulty by using two logical problems for discussion is presented. (MSE)
Flow Logic for Process Calculi
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming; Pilegaard, Henrik
2012-01-01
developed for programming languages, this article provides a tutorial development of the approach of Flow Logic for process calculi based on a decade of research. We first develop a simple analysis for the π-calculus; this consists of the specification, semantic soundness (in the form of subject reduction...
Towards Logical Designs In Biology
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Administrator
This article highlights an emerging field known as syn- thetic biology that envisions integrating designed circuits into living organisms in order to instruct them to make logical decisions based on the prevailing intracellular and extracellular conditions and produce a reliable behavior. The attempt is to design cells capable of ...
Probabilistic Logic and Probabilistic Networks
Haenni, R.; Romeijn, J.-W.; Wheeler, G.; Williamson, J.
2009-01-01
While in principle probabilistic logics might be applied to solve a range of problems, in practice they are rarely applied at present. This is perhaps because they seem disparate, complicated, and computationally intractable. However, we shall argue in this programmatic paper that several approaches
Logics of communication and change
van Benthem, Johan; van Eijck, Jan; Kooi, Barteld
2006-01-01
Current dynamic epistemic logics for analyzing effects of informational events often become cumbersome and opaque when common knowledge is added for groups of agents. Still, postconditions involving common knowledge are essential to successful multi-agent communication. We propose new systems that
Boggle Logic Puzzles: Minimal Solutions
Needleman, Jonathan
2013-01-01
Boggle logic puzzles are based on the popular word game Boggle played backwards. Given a list of words, the problem is to recreate the board. We explore these puzzles on a 3 x 3 board and find the minimum number of three-letter words needed to create a puzzle with a unique solution. We conclude with a series of open questions.
Mathematical Induction: Deductive Logic Perspective
Dogan, Hamide
2016-01-01
Many studies mentioned the deductive nature of Mathematical Induction (MI) proofs but almost all fell short in explaining its potential role in the formation of the misconceptions reported in the literature. This paper is the first of its kind looking at the misconceptions from the perspective of the abstract of the deductive logic from one's…
Contexts in Dynamic Predicate Logic
Visser, A.
1995-01-01
In this paper we introduce a notion of context for Groenendijk & Stokhof's Dynamic Predicate Logic DPL. We use these contexts to give a characterization of the relations on assignments that can be generated by composition from tests/conditions and random resettings in the case that we are working
Logical Empiricism, Politics, and Professionalism
Edgar, Scott
2009-01-01
This paper considers George A. Reisch's account of the role of Cold War political forces in shaping the apolitical stance that came to dominate philosophy of science in the late 1940s and 1950s. It argues that at least as early as the 1930s, Logical Empiricists such as Rudolf Carnap already held that philosophy of science could not properly have…
Classical Syllogisms in Logic Teaching
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Øhrstrøm, Peter; Sandborg-Petersen, Ulrik; Thorvaldsen, Steinar
2013-01-01
This paper focuses on the challenges of introducing classical syllogisms in university courses in elementary logic and human reasoning. Using a program written in Prolog+CG, some empirical studies have been carried out involving three groups of students in Denmark; one group of philosophy student...
Coreflections in Algebraic Quantum Logic
Jacobs, Bart; Mandemaker, Jorik
2012-07-01
Various generalizations of Boolean algebras are being studied in algebraic quantum logic, including orthomodular lattices, orthomodular po-sets, orthoalgebras and effect algebras. This paper contains a systematic study of the structure in and between categories of such algebras. It does so via a combination of totalization (of partially defined operations) and transfer of structure via coreflections.
Linguistics, Logic, and Finite Trees
Blackburn, P.; Meyer-Viol, W.
1993-01-01
A modal logic is developed to deal with finite ordered binary trees as they are used in (computational) linguistics. A modal language is introduced with operators for the 'mother of', 'first daughter of' and 'second daughter of' relations together with their transitive reflexive closures.
An overview of Interpretability Logic
Visser, A.
A miracle happens. In one hand we have a class of marvelously complex theories in predicate logic, theories with 'sufficient coding potential', like PA (Peano Arithmetic) or ZF (Zermelo Fraenkel Set Theory). In the other we have certain modal propositional theories of striking simplicity. We
Morpho (?) phono (?) logical fuzzy edges
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Morpho (?) phono (?) logical fuzzy edges: The case of {-/}/{-/U/} semantic (?) contrast in Shona. K. G. Mkangwanwi. Abstract. (ZAMBEZIA: Journal of Humanities of the Univ of Zimbabwe, 2000 27(1): 47-54). Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT
Program Theory Evaluation: Logic Analysis
Brousselle, Astrid; Champagne, Francois
2011-01-01
Program theory evaluation, which has grown in use over the past 10 years, assesses whether a program is designed in such a way that it can achieve its intended outcomes. This article describes a particular type of program theory evaluation--logic analysis--that allows us to test the plausibility of a program's theory using scientific knowledge.…
Symmetric normalisation for intuitionistic logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guenot, Nicolas; Straßburger, Lutz
2014-01-01
We present two proof systems for implication-only intuitionistic logic in the calculus of structures. The first is a direct adaptation of the standard sequent calculus to the deep inference setting, and we describe a procedure for cut elimination, similar to the one from the sequent calculus...
Completeness for Coalgebraic Fixpoint Logic
Enqvist, S.; Seifan, F.; Venema, Y.
2016-01-01
We introduce an axiomatization for the coalgebraic fixed point logic which was introduced by Venema as a generalization, based on Moss' coalgebraic modality, of the well-known modal mu-calculus. Our axiomatization can be seen as a generalization of Kozen's proof system for the modal mu-calculus to
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 11. The Logic of Animal Conflict. Raghavendra Gadagkar. Article-in-a-Box Volume 10 Issue 11 November 2005 pp 5-5. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/010/11/0005-0005 ...
Management of Industrial Processes with Programmable Logic Controller
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marius Tufoi
2009-10-01
Full Text Available In a modern economy, automation (the control is primarily to raise the competitiveness of a product, either directly through price or quality, or indirectly through the improvement of working conditions of staff productive. The control of industrial processes involves the management of dynamic systems that have continuous states. These systems are described by differential equations and, in general, analog inputs and outputs. Management of these systems is achieved, in general, with classical automation, by automation or with analog computers which contains modules with input / output analog performance. If states, inputs and outputs of a system can be modeled using binary variables, then these systems can be driven with Programmable Logic Controller.
FUZZY LOGIC IN LEGAL EDUCATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. Gonul BALKIR
2011-04-01
Full Text Available The necessity of examination of every case within its peculiar conditions in social sciences requires different approaches complying with the spirit and nature of social sciences. Multiple realities require different and various perceptual interpretations. In modern world and social sciences, interpretation of perception of valued and multi-valued have been started to be understood by the principles of fuzziness and fuzzy logic. Having the verbally expressible degrees of truthness such as true, very true, rather true, etc. fuzzy logic provides the opportunity for the interpretation of especially complex and rather vague set of information by flexibility or equivalence of the variables’ of fuzzy limitations. The methods and principles of fuzzy logic can be benefited in examination of the methodological problems of law, especially in the applications of filling the legal loopholes arising from the ambiguities and interpretation problems in order to understand the legal rules in a more comprehensible and applicable way and the efficiency of legal implications. On the other hand, fuzzy logic can be used as a technical legal method in legal education and especially in legal case studies and legal practice applications in order to provide the perception of law as a value and the more comprehensive and more quality perception and interpretation of value of justice, which is the core value of law. In the perception of what happened as it has happened in legal relationships and formations, the understanding of social reality and sociological legal rules with multi valued sense perspective and the their applications in accordance with the fuzzy logic’s methods could create more equivalent and just results. It can be useful for the young lawyers and law students as a facilitating legal method especially in the materialization of the perception and interpretation of multi valued and variables. Using methods and principles of fuzzy logic in legal
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zdunek, A.; Soederberg, M. (Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden))
1989-01-01
The input card deck for the finite element program GARFEM version 3.2 is described in this manual. The program includes, but is not limited to, capabilities to handle the following problems: * Linear bar and beam element structures, * Geometrically non-linear problems (bar and beam), both static and transient dynamic analysis, * Transient response dynamics from a catalog of time varying external forcing function types or input function tables, * Eigenvalue solution (modes and frequencies), * Multi point constraints (MPC) for the modelling of mechanisms and e.g. rigid links. The MPC definition is used only in the geometrically linearized sense, * Beams with disjunct shear axis and neutral axis, * Beams with rigid offset. An interface exist that connects GARFEM with the program GAROS. GAROS is a program for aeroelastic analysis of rotating structures. Since this interface was developed GARFEM now serves as a preprocessor program in place of NASTRAN which was formerly used. Documentation of the methods applied in GARFEM exists but is so far limited to the capacities in existence before the GAROS interface was developed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Judit Navracsics
2014-01-01
Full Text Available According to the critical period hypothesis, the earlier the acquisition of a second language starts, the better. Owing to the plasticity of the brain, up until a certain age a second language can be acquired successfully according to this view. Early second language learners are commonly said to have an advantage over later ones especially in phonetic/phonological acquisition. Native-like pronunciation is said to be most likely to be achieved by young learners. However, there is evidence of accentfree speech in second languages learnt after puberty as well. Occasionally, on the other hand, a nonnative accent may appear even in early second (or third language acquisition. Cross-linguistic influences are natural in multilingual development, and we would expect the dominant language to have an impact on the weaker one(s. The dominant language is usually the one that provides the largest amount of input for the child. But is it always the amount that counts? Perhaps sometimes other factors, such as emotions, ome into play? In this paper, data obtained from an EnglishPersian-Hungarian trilingual pair of siblings (under age 4 and 3 respectively is analyzed, with a special focus on cross-linguistic influences at the phonetic/phonological levels. It will be shown that beyond the amount of input there are more important factors that trigger interference in multilingual development.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borgwaldt, H.; Baumann, W.; Willerding, G.
1991-05-01
FLUTAN is a highly vectorized computer code for 3-D fluiddynamic and thermal-hydraulic analyses in cartesian and cylinder coordinates. It is related to the family of COMMIX codes originally developed at Argonne National Laboratory, USA. To a large extent, FLUTAN relies on basic concepts and structures imported from COMMIX-1B and COMMIX-2 which were made available to KfK in the frame of cooperation contracts in the fast reactor safety field. While on the one hand not all features of the original COMMIX versions have been implemented in FLUTAN, the code on the other hand includes some essential innovative options like CRESOR solution algorithm, general 3-dimensional rebalacing scheme for solving the pressure equation, and LECUSSO-QUICK-FRAM techniques suitable for reducing 'numerical diffusion' in both the enthalphy and momentum equations. This report provides users with detailed input instructions, presents formulations of the various model options, and explains by means of comprehensive sample input, how to use the code. (orig.) [de
High-performance Multiplexer-based Logic Synthesis Using Pass-transistor Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shen-Fu Hsiao
2002-01-01
Full Text Available An automatic logic/circuit synthesizer is developed which takes several Boolean functions as input and generates netlist output with basic composing cells from the pass-transistor cell library containing only two types of cells: 2-to-1 multiplexers and inverters. The synthesis procedure first constructs efficient binary decision diagrams (BDDs for these Boolean functions considering both multi-function sharing and minimum width. Each node in the BDD trees is realized by using a 2-to-1 multiplexer (MUX of proper driving capability designed pass-transistor logic. The inverters are then inserted all along the MUX paths in order to improve the speed performance and to alleviate the voltage-drop problem. Several methods are proposed to reduce the critical path delay in the multiplexer-chains for generation of faster circuits. Compared to the recently proposed pass-transistor-based top-down design, our synthesizer has better speed and area performance due to the reduced number of cascaded inverters.
Mathematical logic foundations for information science
Li, Wei
2010-01-01
This book presents the basic principles and formal calculus of mathematical logic. It covers core contents, extensions and developments of classical mathematical logic, and it offers formal proofs and concrete examples for all theoretical results.
Logic functions and equations examples and exercises
Steinbach, Bernd
2009-01-01
With a free, downloadable software package available to help solve the exercises, this book focuses on practical and relevant problems that arise in the field of binary logics, with its two main applications - digital circuit design, and propositional logics.
Set-Theory and Logic in School
Kapadia, Ramesh
1976-01-01
The author argues that the emphasis on logic and set theory in the school mathematics program is unnecessary and possibly harmful. He discusses briefly the relationships between semantics and logic. (SD)
Process algebra with four-valued logic
Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.
2000-01-01
We propose a combination of a fragment of four-valued logic and process algebra. We present an operational semantics in SOS-style, and a completeness result for ACP with conditionals and four-valued logic.
Eco-logical successes : January 2011
2011-01-01
This document identifies and explains each Eco-Logical signatory agency's strategic environmental programs, projects, and efforts that are either directly related to or share the vision set forth in Eco-Logical. A brief description of an agency's key...
Preface. Philosophy and History of Talmudic Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Schumann Andrew
2017-06-01
Full Text Available This volume contains the papers presented at the Philosophy and History of Talmudic Logic Affiliated Workshop of Krakow Conference on History of Logic (KHL2016, held on October 27, 2016, in Krakow, Poland.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Horčík, Rostislav; Noguera, C.; Petrík, M.
2007-01-01
Roč. 53, č. 3 (2007), s. 268-288 ISSN 0942-5616 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : algebraic logic * fuzzy logics * generalized contraction * generalized excluded middle * left-continuous t-norms * MTL-algebras * non-classical logics * residuated lattices * standard completeness * substructural logics * varieties * weak cancellation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.317, year: 2007
Logic without energy or bandwidth limits
Caulfield, Henry J.; Westphal, Jonathan
2003-07-01
Boolean logic is an inherently irreversible, hence lossy operation. It has a well-known energy cost and an obvious time cost. To avoid those costs, we must do a different kind of logic. But, it is Boolean logic that we wish to do. We solved that dilemma by using a quantum optical logic gate that is fully reversible that yields the Boolean result after the irreversible loss of information in detection occurs.
FOLE: The First-order Logical Environment
Kent, Robert E.
2013-01-01
This paper describes the first-order logical environment FOLE. Institutions in general, and logical environments in particular, give equivalent heterogeneous and homogeneous representations for logical systems. As such, they offer a rigorous and principled approach to distributed interoperable information systems via system consequence. Since FOLE is a particular logical environment, this provides a rigorous and principled approach to distributed interoperable first-order information systems....
APPLICATION OF FUZZY LOGIC TOOLBOX FOR MODELLING FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLERS
Olesiak, Krzysztof
2017-01-01
Computer technology, which has been developing very fast in the recent years, can be also fruitfully applied in teaching. For example, the software package Matlab is highly useful in teaching students at Bachelor Programs of Electrical Engineering and Automatics and Robotics. Fuzzy Logic Toolbox of the Matlab package can be used for designing and modelling controllers. Thanks to a large number of pre-defined elements available in the libraries, it is possible to create even highly complicated...
BIO Logical Agents: Norms, Beliefs, Intentions in Defeasible Logic
Governatori, Guido; Rotolo, Antonino
2007-01-01
In this paper we follow the BOID (Belief, Obligation, Intention, Desire) architecture to describe agents and agent types in Defeasible Logic. We argue, in particular, that the introduction of obligations can provide a new reading of the concepts of intention and intentionality. Then we examine the notion of social agent (i.e., an agent where obligations prevail over intentions) and discuss some computational and philosophical issues related to it. We show th...
Fuzzy Logic Applied to an Oven Temperature Control System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nagabhushana KATTE
2011-10-01
Full Text Available The paper describes the methodology of design and development of fuzzy logic based oven temperature control system. As simple fuzzy logic controller (FLC structure with an efficient realization and a small rule base that can be easily implemented in existing underwater control systems is proposed. The FLC has been designed using bell-shaped membership function for fuzzification, 49 control rules in its rule base and centre of gravity technique for defuzzification. Analog interface card with 16-bits resolution is designed to achieve higher precision in temperature measurement and control. The experimental results of PID and FLC implemented system are drawn for a step input and presented in a comparative fashion. FLC exhibits fast response and it has got sharp rise time and smooth control over conventional PID controller. The paper scrupulously discusses the hardware and software (developed using ‘C’ language features of the system.
Two Influential Primate Classifications Logically Aligned.
Franz, Nico M; Pier, Naomi M; Reeder, Deeann M; Chen, Mingmin; Yu, Shizhuo; Kianmajd, Parisa; Bowers, Shawn; Ludäscher, Bertram
2016-07-01
Classifications and phylogenies of perceived natural entities change in the light of new evidence. Taxonomic changes, translated into Code-compliant names, frequently lead to name:meaning dissociations across succeeding treatments. Classification standards such as the Mammal Species of the World (MSW) may experience significant levels of taxonomic change from one edition to the next, with potential costs to long-term, large-scale information integration. This circumstance challenges the biodiversity and phylogenetic data communities to express taxonomic congruence and incongruence in ways that both humans and machines can process, that is, to logically represent taxonomic alignments across multiple classifications. We demonstrate that such alignments are feasible for two classifications of primates corresponding to the second and third MSW editions. Our approach has three main components: (i) use of taxonomic concept labels, that is name sec. author (where sec. means according to), to assemble each concept hierarchy separately via parent/child relationships; (ii) articulation of select concepts across the two hierarchies with user-provided Region Connection Calculus (RCC-5) relationships; and (iii) the use of an Answer Set Programming toolkit to infer and visualize logically consistent alignments of these input constraints. Our use case entails the Primates sec. Groves (1993; MSW2-317 taxonomic concepts; 233 at the species level) and Primates sec. Groves (2005; MSW3-483 taxonomic concepts; 376 at the species level). Using 402 RCC-5 input articulations, the reasoning process yields a single, consistent alignment and 153,111 Maximally Informative Relations that constitute a comprehensive meaning resolution map for every concept pair in the Primates sec. MSW2/MSW3. The complete alignment, and various partitions thereof, facilitate quantitative analyses of name:meaning dissociation, revealing that nearly one in three taxonomic names are not reliable across treatments
Weak Completeness of Coalgebraic Dynamic Logics
Kupke, C.; Hansen, H.H.
2015-01-01
We present a coalgebraic generalisation of Fischer and Ladner’s Propositional Dynamic Logic (PDL) and Parikh’s Game Logic (GL). In earlier work, we proved a generic strong completeness result for coalgebraic dynamic logics without iteration. The coalgebraic semantics of such programs is given by a
Translating Dominant Institutional Logics in Practice
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Agger Nielsen, Jeppe; Jensen, Tina Blegind
In this paper we examine the proliferation of a new mobile technology in a structured setting of home care in Denmark, focusing on how actions at multiple levels interact to enable technology diffusion and institutionalization. The case study shows how a dominating field level logic...... that combining an institutional logic perspective with a translation perspective furthers our understanding of the malleability of institutional logics....
An Adequate First Order Logic of Intervals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chaochen, Zhou; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt
1998-01-01
This paper introduces left and right neighbourhoods as primitive interval modalities to define other unary and binary modalities of intervals in a first order logic with interval length. A complete first order logic for the neighbourhood modalities is presented. It is demonstrated how the logic can...... support formal specification and verification of liveness and fairness, and also of various notions of real analysis....
Towards a formal logic of design rationalization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Galle, Per
1997-01-01
Certain extensions to standard predicate logic are proposed and used as a framework for critical logical study of patterns of inference in design reasoning. It is shown that within this framework a modal logic of design rationalization (suggested by an empirical study reported earlier) can be for...
Dialogues as a dynamic framework for logic
Rückert, Helge
2007-01-01
Dialogical logic is a game-theoretical approach to logic. Logic is studied with the help of certain games, which can be thought of as idealized argumentations. Two players, the Proponent, who puts forward the initial thesis and tries to defend it, and the Opponent, who tries to attack the
Mathematical Fuzzy Logic - State of Art 2001
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hájek, Petr
2003-01-01
Roč. 24, - (2003), s. 71-89 ISSN 0103-9059. [WOLLIC'2001. Brasília, 31.07.2001-03.08.2001] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A056 Keywords : fuzzy logic * many valued logic * basic fuzzy logic BL Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.mat.unb.br/~matcont/24_4.pdf
Piaget's Logic of Meanings: Still Relevant Today
Wavering, Michael James
2011-01-01
In his last book, "Toward a Logic of Meanings" (Piaget & Garcia, 1991), Jean Piaget describes how thought can be categorized into a form of propositional logic, a logic of meanings. The intent of this article is to offer this analysis by Piaget as a means to understand the language and teaching of science. Using binary propositions, conjunctions,…
On Product Logic with Truth-Constants
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Savický, Petr; Cignoli, R.; Esteva, F.; Godo, L.; Noguera, C.
2006-01-01
Roč. 16, č. 2 (2006), s. 205-225 ISSN 0955-792X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0545 Keywords : non-classical logic * fuzzy logic * product logic * truth-constants * standard completeness Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.840, year: 2006
Parity Games and Automata for Game Logic
Hansen, H.H.; Kupke, C.; Marti, J.; Venema, Y.; Madeira, A.; Benevides, M.
2018-01-01
Parikh’s game logic is a PDL-like fixpoint logic interpreted on monotone neighbourhood frames that represent the strategic power of players in determined two-player games. Game logic translates into a fragment of the monotone μ-calculus, which in turn is expressively equivalent to monotone modal
The dynamic turn in quantum logic
Baltag, Alexandru; Smets, Sonja
In this paper we show how ideas coming from two areas of research in logic can reinforce each other. The first such line of inquiry concerns the "dynamic turn" in logic and especially the formalisms inspired by Propositional Dynamic Logic (PDL); while the second line concerns research into the
Hybrid Logical Analyses of the Ambient Calculus
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bolander, Thomas; Hansen, Rene Rydhof
2010-01-01
In this paper, hybrid logic is used to formulate three control flow analyses for Mobile Ambients, a process calculus designed for modelling mobility. We show that hybrid logic is very well-suited to express the semantic structure of the ambient calculus and how features of hybrid logic can...
Intuitionistic Rules : Admissible Rules of Intermediate Logics
Goudsmit, J.P.
2015-01-01
In this thesis, we investigate the admissible rules of intermediate logics. On the one hand, one can characterize the admissibility of rules in certain logic, and on the other hand, one can characterize logics through their admissible rules. We take both approaches, and reach new results in both
Logics of Business Education for Sustainability
Andersson, Pernilla; Öhman, Johan
2016-01-01
This paper explores various kinds of logics of "business education for sustainability" and how these "logics" position the subject business person, based on eight teachers' reasoning of their own practices. The concept of logics developed within a discourse theoretical framework is employed to analyse the teachers' reasoning.…
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vollan, A.; Soederberg, M. (Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden))
1989-01-01
This report describes the input for the programs GAROS1 and GAROS2, version 5.8 and later, February 1988. The GAROS system, developed by Arne Vollan, Omega GmbH, is used for the analysis of the mechanical and aeroelastic properties for general rotating systems. It has been specially designed to meet the requirements of aeroelastic stability and dynamic response of horizontal axis wind energy converters. Some of the special characteristics are: * The rotor may have one or more blades. * The blades may be rigidly attached to the hub, or they may be fully articulated. * The full elastic properties of the blades, the hub, the machine house and the tower are taken into account. * With the same basic model, a number of different analyses can be performed: Snap-shot analysis, Floquet method, transient response analysis, frequency response analysis etc.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Czarnitzki, Dirk; Grimpe, Christoph; Pellens, Maikel
The viability of modern open science norms and practices depend on public disclosure of new knowledge, methods, and materials. However, increasing industry funding of research can restrict the dissemination of results and materials. We show, through a survey sample of 837 German scientists in life...... sciences, natural sciences, engineering, and social sciences, that scientists who receive industry funding are twice as likely to deny requests for research inputs as those who do not. Receiving external funding in general does not affect denying others access. Scientists who receive external funding...... of any kind are, however, 50% more likely to be denied access to research materials by others, but this is not affected by being funded specifically by industry....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Czarnitzki, Dirk; Grimpe, Christoph; Pellens, Maikel
2015-01-01
The viability of modern open science norms and practices depends on public disclosure of new knowledge, methods, and materials. However, increasing industry funding of research can restrict the dissemination of results and materials. We show, through a survey sample of 837 German scientists in life...... sciences, natural sciences, engineering, and social sciences, that scientists who receive industry funding are twice as likely to deny requests for research inputs as those who do not. Receiving external funding in general does not affect denying others access. Scientists who receive external funding...... of any kind are, however, 50 % more likely to be denied access to research materials by others, but this is not affected by being funded specifically by industry...
Applications of Logic Coverage Criteria and Logic Mutation to Software Testing
Kaminski, Garrett K.
2011-01-01
Logic is an important component of software. Thus, software logic testing has enjoyed significant research over a period of decades, with renewed interest in the last several years. One approach to detecting logic faults is to create and execute tests that satisfy logic coverage criteria. Another approach to detecting faults is to perform mutation…
Programming Games for Logical Thinking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Tsalapatas
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Analytical thinking is a transversal skill that helps learners synthesize knowledge across subject areas; from mathematics, science, and technology to critical reading, critical examination, and evaluation of lessons. While most would not doubt the importance of analytical capacity in academic settings and its growing demand for the skill in professional environments, school curricula do not comprehensively address its development. As a result, the responsibility for structuring related learning activities falls to teachers. This work examines learning paradigms that can be integrated into mathematics and science school education for developing logical thinking through game-based exercises based on programming. The proposed learning design promotes structured algorithmic mindsets, is based on inclusive universal logic present in all cultures, and promotes constructivism educational approaches encouraging learners to drive knowledge building by composing past and emerging experiences.
The Relevance of Hegel's Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John W Burbidge
2007-12-01
Full Text Available Hegel defines his Logic as the science that thinks about thinking.nbsp; But when we interpret that work as outlining what happens when we reason we are vulnerable to Fregersquo;s charge of psychologism.nbsp; I use Hegelrsquo;s tripartite distinction among understanding, dialectical and speculative reason as operations of pure thought to suggest how thinking can work with objective concepts.nbsp; In the last analysis, however, our ability to move from the subjective contingency of representations and ideas to the pure concepts we think develops from mechanical memory, which separates sign from sense so hat we can focus simply on the latter.nbsp; By becoming aware of the connections that underlie our thinking processes we may be able to both move beyond the abstractions of symbolic logic and clarify what informal logicians call relevance.
An Embedded Reconfigurable Logic Module
Tucker, Jerry H.; Klenke, Robert H.; Shams, Qamar A. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
A Miniature Embedded Reconfigurable Computer and Logic (MERCAL) module has been developed and verified. MERCAL was designed to be a general-purpose, universal module that that can provide significant hardware and software resources to meet the requirements of many of today's complex embedded applications. This is accomplished in the MERCAL module by combining a sub credit card size PC in a DIMM form factor with a XILINX Spartan I1 FPGA. The PC has the ability to download program files to the FPGA to configure it for different hardware functions and to transfer data to and from the FPGA via the PC's ISA bus during run time. The MERCAL module combines, in a compact package, the computational power of a 133 MHz PC with up to 150,000 gate equivalents of digital logic that can be reconfigured by software. The general architecture and functionality of the MERCAL hardware and system software are described.
Challenging institutional logics in Gourmet
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt; Scheuer, John Damm
2015-01-01
This paper focuses on the initial phase of an organizational transformation. More precisely the paper analyses the moment where an institutional entrepreneur produces ideas, which have the capacity to break with existing logics and thus produces the potential for change by challenging existing...... field logics. The empirical case is the gastronomic field in Denmark and in the Nordic countries - more specifically the paper discusses the cook and entrepreneur Claus Meyers ambitions to realize a food-political vision; The New Nordic Kitchen. The theoretical contribution of the paper...... is a conceptualization of the way in which an institutional entrepreneur initiates change in an organizational field. More specifically the paper discusses a system of concepts offered by Svejenova et al. (2007). According to Svejenova et al. the Spanish haute cuisine chef of the 3 star Michelin restaurant El Bulli...
Development of RPS trip logic based on PLD technology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Jong Gyun; Lee, Dong Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2012-08-15
The majority of instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in today's nuclear power plants (NPPs) are based on analog technology. Thus, most existing I and C systems now face obsolescence problems. Existing NPPs have difficulty in repairing and replacing devices and boards during maintenance because manufacturers no longer produce the analog devices and boards used in the implemented I and C systems. Therefore, existing NPPs are replacing the obsolete analog I and C systems with advanced digital systems. New NPPs are also adopting digital I and C systems because the economic efficiencies and usability of the systems are higher than the analog I and C systems. Digital I and C systems are based on two technologies: a microprocessor based system in which software programs manage the required functions and a programmable logic device (PLD) based system in which programmable logic devices, such as field programmable gate arrays, manage the required functions. PLD based systems provide higher levels of performance compared with microprocessor based systems because PLD systems can process the data in parallel while microprocessor based systems process the data sequentially. In this research, a bistable trip logic in a reactor protection system (RPS) was developed using very high speed integrated circuits hardware description language (VHDL), which is a hardware description language used in electronic design to describe the behavior of the digital system. Functional verifications were also performed in order to verify that the bistable trip logic was designed correctly and satisfied the required specifications. For the functional verification, a random testing technique was adopted to generate test inputs for the bistable trip logic.
Fuzzy Versions of Epistemic and Deontic Logic
Gounder, Ramasamy S.; Esterline, Albert C.
1998-01-01
Epistemic and deontic logics are modal logics, respectively, of knowledge and of the normative concepts of obligation, permission, and prohibition. Epistemic logic is useful in formalizing systems of communicating processes and knowledge and belief in AI (Artificial Intelligence). Deontic logic is useful in computer science wherever we must distinguish between actual and ideal behavior, as in fault tolerance and database integrity constraints. We here discuss fuzzy versions of these logics. In the crisp versions, various axioms correspond to various properties of the structures used in defining the semantics of the logics. Thus, any axiomatic theory will be characterized not only by its axioms but also by the set of properties holding of the corresponding semantic structures. Fuzzy logic does not proceed with axiomatic systems, but fuzzy versions of the semantic properties exist and can be shown to correspond to some of the axioms for the crisp systems in special ways that support dependency networks among assertions in a modal domain. This in turn allows one to implement truth maintenance systems. For the technical development of epistemic logic, and for that of deontic logic. To our knowledge, we are the first to address fuzzy epistemic and fuzzy deontic logic explicitly and to consider the different systems and semantic properties available. We give the syntax and semantics of epistemic logic and discuss the correspondence between axioms of epistemic logic and properties of semantic structures. The same topics are covered for deontic logic. Fuzzy epistemic and fuzzy deontic logic discusses the relationship between axioms and semantic properties for these logics. Our results can be exploited in truth maintenance systems.
Handling Pressures of Community Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Minbaeva, Dana; Hotho, Jasper; Muratbekova-Touron, Maral
2013-01-01
The paper aims at investigating how in pluralistic societies, such as emerging economies and countries in transition, organizational decision-makers respond to pressures of community logics in non-community settings, such as the work place. We theorize that in non-community settings, social relat...... with an experimental vignette study of the effects of clan and kinship ties on recruitment and selection decisions in Kazakhstan, followed by qualitative interviews....
Logic Learning in Hopfield Networks
Sathasivam, Saratha; Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin Wan
2008-01-01
Synaptic weights for neurons in logic programming can be calculated either by using Hebbian learning or by Wan Abdullah's method. In other words, Hebbian learning for governing events corresponding to some respective program clauses is equivalent with learning using Wan Abdullah's method for the same respective program clauses. In this paper we will evaluate experimentally the equivalence between these two types of learning through computer simulations.
Admissible Rules of Lukasiewicz Logic
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Jeřábek, Emil
2010-01-01
Roč. 20, č. 2 (2010), s. 425-447 ISSN 0955-792X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA900090703; GA AV ČR IAA100190902; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : linear temporal logic * unification * consecutions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.586, year: 2010 http://logcom.oxfordjournals.org/content/20/2/425
Modelling Emotions with Multidimensional Logic
Gershenson, Carlos
1999-01-01
One of the objectives of Artificial Intelligence has been the modelling of "human" characteristics, such as emotions, behaviour, conscience, etc. But in such characteristics we might find certain degree of contradiction. Previous work on modelling emotions and its problems are reviewed. A model for emotions is proposed using multidimensional logic, which handles the degree of contradiction that emotions might have. The model is oriented to simulate emotions in artificial societies...
Session Types in Abelian Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yoichi Hirai
2013-12-01
Full Text Available There was a PhD student who says "I found a pair of wooden shoes. I put a coin in the left and a key in the right. Next morning, I found those objects in the opposite shoes." We do not claim existence of such shoes, but propose a similar programming abstraction in the context of typed lambda calculi. The result, which we call the Amida calculus, extends Abramsky's linear lambda calculus LF and characterizes Abelian logic.
Is special relativity logically inconsistent
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prokhovnik, S.J.
1980-01-01
The author gives his view that Special Relativity is logically and mathematically consistent, as well as physically comprehensible if, and only if, it is firmly based on the single assumption of a unique fundamental reference frame for light propagation. The theory and all its results are derivable from this assumption; the Relativity and Light Principles become intelligible consequences of this assumption; the physical significance and source of time dilation and length contraction are made manifest thereby. (Auth.)
Anaesthesia monitoring using fuzzy logic.
Baig, Mirza Mansoor; Gholamhosseini, Hamid; Kouzani, Abbas; Harrison, Michael J
2011-10-01
Humans have a limited ability to accurately and continuously analyse large amount of data. In recent times, there has been a rapid growth in patient monitoring and medical data analysis using smart monitoring systems. Fuzzy logic-based expert systems, which can mimic human thought processes in complex circumstances, have indicated potential to improve clinicians' performance and accurately execute repetitive tasks to which humans are ill-suited. The main goal of this study is to develop a clinically useful diagnostic alarm system based on fuzzy logic for detecting critical events during anaesthesia administration. The proposed diagnostic alarm system called fuzzy logic monitoring system (FLMS) is presented. New diagnostic rules and membership functions (MFs) are developed. In addition, fuzzy inference system (FIS), adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), and clustering techniques are explored for developing the FLMS' diagnostic modules. The performance of FLMS which is based on fuzzy logic expert diagnostic systems is validated through a series of off-line tests. The training and testing data set are selected randomly from 30 sets of patients' data. The accuracy of diagnoses generated by the FLMS was validated by comparing the diagnostic information with the one provided by an anaesthetist for each patient. Kappa-analysis was used for measuring the level of agreement between the anaesthetist's and FLMS's diagnoses. When detecting hypovolaemia, a substantial level of agreement was observed between FLMS and the human expert (the anaesthetist) during surgical procedures. The diagnostic alarm system FLMS demonstrated that evidence-based expert diagnostic systems can diagnose hypovolaemia, with a substantial degree of accuracy, in anaesthetized patients and could be useful in delivering decision support to anaesthetists.
Texture classification using logical operators.
Manian, V; Vasquez, R; Katiyar, P
2000-01-01
In this paper, a new algorithm for texture classification based on logical operators is presented. Operators constructed from logical building blocks are convolved with texture images. An optimal set of six operators are selected based on their texture discrimination ability. The responses are then converted to standard deviation matrices computed over a sliding window. Zonal sampling features are computed from these matrices. A feature selection process is applied and the new set of features are used for texture classification. Classification of several natural and synthetic texture images are presented demonstrating the excellent performance of the logical operator method. The computational superiority and classification accuracy of the algorithm is demonstrated by comparison with other popular methods. Experiments with different classifiers and feature normalization are also presented. The Euclidean distance classifier is found to perform best with this algorithm. The algorithm involves only convolutions and simple arithmetic in the various stages which allows faster implementations. The algorithm is applicable to different types of classification problems which is demonstrated by segmentation of remote sensing images, compressed and reconstructed images and industrial images.
Between quantum logic and concurrency
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luca Bernardinello
2014-07-01
Full Text Available We start from two closure operators defined on the elements of a special kind of partially ordered sets, called causal nets. Causal nets are used to model histories of concurrent processes, recording occurrences of local states and of events. If every maximal chain (line of such a partially ordered set meets every maximal antichain (cut, then the two closure operators coincide, and generate a complete orthomodular lattice. In this paper we recall that, for any closed set in this lattice, every line meets either it or its orthocomplement in the lattice, and show that to any line, a two-valued state on the lattice can be associated. Starting from this result, we delineate a logical language whose formulas are interpreted over closed sets of a causal net, where every line induces an assignment of truth values to formulas. The resulting logic is non-classical; we show that maximal antichains in a causal net are associated to Boolean (hence "classical" substructures of the overall quantum logic.
Modeling and generating input processes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, M.E.
1987-01-01
This tutorial paper provides information relevant to the selection and generation of stochastic inputs to simulation studies. The primary area considered is multivariate but much of the philosophy at least is relevant to univariate inputs as well. 14 refs.
A Resolution Prover for Coalition Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cláudia Nalon
2014-04-01
Full Text Available We present a prototype tool for automated reasoning for Coalition Logic, a non-normal modal logic that can be used for reasoning about cooperative agency. The theorem prover CLProver is based on recent work on a resolution-based calculus for Coalition Logic that operates on coalition problems, a normal form for Coalition Logic. We provide an overview of coalition problems and of the resolution-based calculus for Coalition Logic. We then give details of the implementation of CLProver and present the results for a comparison with an existing tableau-based solver.
Asynchronous Operators of Sequential Logic Venjunction & Sequention
Vasyukevich, Vadim
2011-01-01
This book is dedicated to new mathematical instruments assigned for logical modeling of the memory of digital devices. The case in point is logic-dynamical operation named venjunction and venjunctive function as well as sequention and sequentional function. Venjunction and sequention operate within the framework of sequential logic. In a form of the corresponding equations, they organically fit analytical expressions of Boolean algebra. Thus, a sort of symbiosis is formed using elements of asynchronous sequential logic on the one hand and combinational logic on the other hand. So, asynchronous
Logic and discrete mathematics a concise introduction
Conradie, Willem
2015-01-01
A concise yet rigorous introduction to logic and discrete mathematics. This book features a unique combination of comprehensive coverage of logic with a solid exposition of the most important fields of discrete mathematics, presenting material that has been tested and refined by the authors in university courses taught over more than a decade. The chapters on logic - propositional and first-order - provide a robust toolkit for logical reasoning, emphasizing the conceptual understanding of the language and the semantics of classical logic as well as practical applications through the easy
All-optical symmetric ternary logic gate
Chattopadhyay, Tanay
2010-09-01
Symmetric ternary number (radix=3) has three logical states (1¯, 0, 1). It is very much useful in carry free arithmetical operation. Beside this, the logical operation using this type of number system is also effective in high speed computation and communication in multi-valued logic. In this literature all-optical circuits for three basic symmetrical ternary logical operations (inversion, MIN and MAX) are proposed and described. Numerical simulation verifies the theoretical model. In this present scheme the different ternary logical states are represented by different polarized state of light. Terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) based interferometric switch has been used categorically in this manuscript.
Optimization of input-constrained systems
Malki, Suleyman; Spaanenburg, Lambert
2009-05-01
The computational demands of algorithms are rapidly growing. The naive implementation uses extended doubleprecision floating-point numbers and has therefore extreme difficulties in maintaining real-time performance. For fixedpoint numbers, the value representation pushes in two directions (value range and step size) to set the applicationdependent word size. In the general case, checking all combinations of all different values on all system inputs will easily become computationally infeasible. Checking corner cases only helps to reduce the combinatorial explosion, as still checking for accuracy and precision to limit word size remains a considerable effort. A range of evolutionary techniques have been tried where the sheer size of the problem withstands an extensive search. When the value range can be limited, the problem becomes tractable and a constructive approach becomes feasible. We propose an approach that is reminiscent of the Quine-Mc.Cluskey logic minimization procedure. Next to the conjunctive search as popular in Boolean minimization, we investigate the disjunctive approach that starts from a presumed minimal word size. To eliminate the occurrence of anomalies, this still has to be checked for larger word sizes. The procedure has initially been implemented using Java and Matlab. We have applied the above procedure to feed-forward and to cellular neural networks (CNN) as typical examples of input-constrained systems. In the case of hole-filling by means of a CNN, we find that the 1461 different coefficient sets can be reduced to 360, each giving robust behaviour on 7-bits internal words.
Polarization-based all-optical logic operations in volume holographic photopolymer
Li, Chengmingyue; Cao, Liangcai; Li, Jingming; Wang, Zheng; Jin, Guofan
2014-11-01
Polarization-based all-optical logic operations were realized with dual-channel polarization holographic recording system. The polarization property of 9, 10-phenanthrenequinone-doped poly-methyl methacrylate (PQ/PMMA) photopolymer is investigated experimentally. To accurately represent the optical operations, the diffraction efficiency of parallel and orthogonal polarization recording in PQ/PMMA with the thickness of 1 mm are characterized for holographic recording and reconstruction process. A dual-channel polarization holographic recording system is set up for simultaneously recording two input pages. By changing the polarization state of the diffraction beam, all-optical logic OR and NAND operations are realized in the volume holograms. The polarization-based all-optical logic operations in the volume holographic photopolymer may pave a way for practical all-optical logic devices with high speed and large information capacity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barocas, Marcel
1974-01-01
The objective of this research thesis is to determine, by simulation, the time response of devices based on MOS transistors. After a theoretical study of the MOS element, the author develops a transistor model based on its physical components. This model is firstly used to obtain the transistor static characteristics. The author then studies the time response of the inverter logic circuit which is the basic operator of these circuits. Theoretical results are verified by simulation and by experiments. The author then reports a detailed study of the inverter input impedance, and the decoupling property between logic operators in cascade. The simulation confirms the obtained results. Based on this decoupling property, the output time response of a logic chain is studied by using a simulation software. A general method of determination of the output time response is developed with application to a logic assembly [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohd Khairulezwan Abdul Manan; Mohd Idris Taib; Mohd Dzul Aiman Aslan
2010-01-01
Reactor Monitoring System is one of very important part of Reactor Instrumentation and Control system. Current monitoring system is using analog system whereby all circuits are discrete circuit and all displays and indicators are not digitalized. The proposed new system will use using a Commercial Off-The-Shelf, state of the art, Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition system such as Programmable Logic Controller as well as Computer System. The implementations of Programmable Logic Controller are used for Data Acquisition System and as a sub-system for Computer System where all the activities involved are stored for operation record and report as well as use for research purposes. Programmable Logic Controller receives galvanised or optically isolated signal from Reactor Protection System. Programmable Logic Controller also receives signal from other parameters as a digital and analog input related to reactor system. (author)
Fuzzy logic feedback control for fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass.
Tai, Chao; Voltan, Diego S; Keshwani, Deepak R; Meyer, George E; Kuhar, Pankaj S
2016-06-01
A fuzzy logic feedback control system was developed for process monitoring and feeding control in fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis of a lignocellulosic biomass, dilute acid-pretreated corn stover. Digested glucose from hydrolysis reaction was assigned as input while doser feeding time and speed of pretreated biomass were responses from fuzzy logic control system. Membership functions for these three variables and rule-base were created based on batch hydrolysis data. The system response was first tested in LabVIEW environment then the performance was evaluated through real-time hydrolysis reaction. The feeding operations were determined timely by fuzzy logic control system and efficient responses were shown to plateau phases during hydrolysis. Feeding of proper amount of cellulose and maintaining solids content was well balanced. Fuzzy logic proved to be a robust and effective online feeding control tool for fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis.
Fan, Daoqing; Zhu, Xiaoqing; Dong, Shaojun; Wang, Erkang
2017-07-05
DNA is believed to be a promising candidate for molecular logic computation, and the fluorogenic/colorimetric substrates of G-quadruplex DNAzyme (G4zyme) are broadly used as label-free output reporters of DNA logic circuits. Herein, for the first time, tyramine-HCl (a fluorogenic substrate of G4zyme) is applied to DNA logic computation and a series of label-free DNA-input logic gates, including elementary AND, OR, and INHIBIT logic gates, as well as a two to one encoder, are constructed. Furthermore, a DNA caliper that can measure the base number of target DNA as low as three bases is also fabricated. This DNA caliper can also perform concatenated AND-AND logic computation to fulfil the requirements of sophisticated logic computing. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Introduction to fuzzy logic using Matlab
Sivanandam, SN; Deepa, S N
2006-01-01
Fuzzy Logic, at present is a hot topic, among academicians as well various programmers. This book is provided to give a broad, in-depth overview of the field of Fuzzy Logic. The basic principles of Fuzzy Logic are discussed in detail with various solved examples. The different approaches and solutions to the problems given in the book are well balanced and pertinent to the Fuzzy Logic research projects. The applications of Fuzzy Logic are also dealt to make the readers understand the concept of Fuzzy Logic. The solutions to the problems are programmed using MATLAB 6.0 and the simulated results are given. The MATLAB Fuzzy Logic toolbox is provided for easy reference.
Reprocessing input data validation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Persiani, P.J.; Bucher, R.G.; Pond, R.B.; Cornella, R.J.
1990-01-01
The Isotope Correlation Technique (ICT), in conjunction with the gravimetric (Pu/U ratio) method for mass determination, provides an independent verification of the input accountancy at the dissolver or accountancy stage of the reprocessing plant. The Isotope Correlation Technique has been applied to many classes of domestic and international reactor systems (light-water, heavy-water, graphite, and liquid-metal) operating in a variety of modes (power, research, production, and breeder), and for a variety of reprocessing fuel cycle management strategies. Analysis of reprocessing operations data based on isotopic correlations derived for assemblies in a PWR environment and fuel management scheme, yielded differences between the measurement-derived and ICT-derived plutonium mass determinations of (-0.02 ± 0.23)% for the measured U-235 and (+0.50 ± 0.31)% for the measured Pu-239, for a core campaign. The ICT analyses has been implemented for the plutonium isotopics in a depleted uranium assembly in a heavy-water, enriched uranium system and for the uranium isotopes in the fuel assemblies in light-water, highly-enriched systems. 7 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs
Photonic encryption : modeling and functional analysis of all optical logic.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tang, Jason D.; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Robertson, Perry J.
2004-10-01
With the build-out of large transport networks utilizing optical technologies, more and more capacity is being made available. Innovations in Dense Wave Division Multiplexing (DWDM) and the elimination of optical-electrical-optical conversions have brought on advances in communication speeds as we move into 10 Gigabit Ethernet and above. Of course, there is a need to encrypt data on these optical links as the data traverses public and private network backbones. Unfortunately, as the communications infrastructure becomes increasingly optical, advances in encryption (done electronically) have failed to keep up. This project examines the use of optical logic for implementing encryption in the photonic domain to achieve the requisite encryption rates. This paper documents the innovations and advances of work first detailed in 'Photonic Encryption using All Optical Logic,' [1]. A discussion of underlying concepts can be found in SAND2003-4474. In order to realize photonic encryption designs, technology developed for electrical logic circuits must be translated to the photonic regime. This paper examines S-SEED devices and how discrete logic elements can be interconnected and cascaded to form an optical circuit. Because there is no known software that can model these devices at a circuit level, the functionality of S-SEED devices in an optical circuit was modeled in PSpice. PSpice allows modeling of the macro characteristics of the devices in context of a logic element as opposed to device level computational modeling. By representing light intensity as voltage, 'black box' models are generated that accurately represent the intensity response and logic levels in both technologies. By modeling the behavior at the systems level, one can incorporate systems design tools and a simulation environment to aid in the overall functional design. Each black box model takes certain parameters (reflectance, intensity, input response), and models the optical ripple
A Comparison of Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic Methods for Process Modeling
Cios, Krzysztof J.; Sala, Dorel M.; Berke, Laszlo
1996-01-01
The goal of this work was to analyze the potential of neural networks and fuzzy logic methods to develop approximate response surfaces as process modeling, that is for mapping of input into output. Structural response was chosen as an example. Each of the many methods surveyed are explained and the results are presented. Future research directions are also discussed.
Polarization-encoded optical shadow-casting logic units: design.
Karim, M A; Awwal, A A; Cherri, A K
1987-07-15
A general design algorithm is presented for the multioutput polarization-encoded optical shadow-casting scheme. A set of POSC equations is obtained from the truth table of the desired logic unit and is solved in terms of four possible pixel characteristics (transparent, opaque, vertically polarized, and horizontally polarized) and four possible source characteristics (off, unpolarized, vertically polarized, and horizontally polarized). To demonstrate its feasibility, the algorithm is used to determine the input pixel characteristics of a full adder and a full subtracter.
All optical logic for optical pattern recognition and networking applications
Khoury, Jed
2017-05-01
In this paper, we propose architectures for the implementation 16 Boolean optical gates from two inputs using externally pumped phase- conjugate Michelson interferometer. Depending on the gate to be implemented, some require single stage interferometer and others require two stages interferometer. The proposed optical gates can be used in several applications in optical networks including, but not limited to, all-optical packet routers switching, and all-optical error detection. The optical logic gates can also be used in recognition of noiseless rotation and scale invariant objects such as finger prints for home land security applications.
A novel data storage logic in the cloud.
Mátyás, Bence; Szarka, Máté; Járvás, Gábor; Kusper, Gábor; Argay, István; Fialowski, Alice
2016-01-01
Databases which store and manage long-term scientific information related to life science are used to store huge amount of quantitative attributes. Introduction of a new entity attribute requires modification of the existing data tables and the programs that use these data tables. The solution is increasing the virtual data tables while the number of screens remains the same. The main objective of the present study was to introduce a logic called Joker Tao (JT) which provides universal data storage for cloud-based databases. It means all types of input data can be interpreted as an entity and attribute at the same time, in the same data table.
A multi-channel scaler designed with programmable logic device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Yongjie; Li Cheng; Xing Tao; Zhang Junjie
2004-01-01
This scaler used programmable logic device is a design for the electronics of telescope system of the beam. The scaler can scale 30 ECL inputs at the same time. With the EPP (Enhanced Parallel Port) modes of the Parallel Port, the transmitted rate of data is 2 MB/s. This scaler can be used in the position system of MWPC (Multi-Wires Proportional Chamber). Tested with particles of 5 x 10 3 /s, the scaler gives a credible and stable result. (authors)
Multi-valued logic in breast cancer detection.
Boiculese, L V; Dimitriu, G
2003-01-01
The aim of this paper is to determine the type of the breast cancer disease. The two classes of separation are malignant respectively benign. A multi-valued logic system (fuzzy system) was develop and applied in this classification. The system uses nine attributes as inputs that were scaled with an integer value in the range between 1 and 10. The attributes represent: 1. Clump Thickness, 2. Uniformity of Cell Size, 3. Uniformity of Cell Shape, 4. Marginal Adhesion, 5. Single Epithelial Cell Size, 6. Bare Nuclei, 7. Bland Chromatin, 8. Normal Nucleoli, 9. Mitoses. After training the system managed to get a good detection with an error less than 5%.
Membership function modification of fuzzy logic controllers with histogram equalization.
Zhuang, H; Wu, X
2001-01-01
In most fuzzy logic controllers (FLCs), initial membership functions (MFs) are normally laid evenly all across the universes of discourse (UD) that represent fuzzy control inputs. However, for evenly distributed MFs, there exists a potential problem that may adversely affect the control performance; that is, if the actual inputs are not equally distributed, but instead concentrate within a certain interval that is only part of the entire input area, this will result in two negative effects. On one hand, the MFs staying in the dense-input area will not be sufficient to react precisely to the inputs, because these inputs are too close to each other compared to the MFs in this area. The same fuzzy control output could be triggered for several different inputs. On the other hand, some of the MFs assigned for the sparse-input area are "wasted". In this paper we argue that, if we arrange the placement of these MFs according to a statistical study of feedback errors in a closed-loop system, we can expect a better control performance. To this end, we introduce a new mechanism to modify the evenly distributed MFs with the help of a technique termed histogram equalization. The histogram of the errors is actually the spatial distribution of real-time errors of the control system. To illustrate the proposed MF modification approach, a computer simulation of a simple system that has a known mathematical model is first analyzed, leading to our understanding of how this histogram-based modification mechanism functions. We then apply this method to an experimental laser tracking system to demonstrate that in real-world applications, a better control performance can he obtained by using this proposed technique.
The logic of relations and the logic of management.
Buntinx, W
2008-07-01
Increasing emphasis on financial and administrative control processes is affecting service culture in support organisations for persons with intellectual disability. This phenomenon is currently obvious in Dutch service organisations that find themselves in transition towards more community care and at the same time under pressure from new administrative and funding managerial bureaucracy. As a result, the logic of management is becoming more dominant in direct support settings and risk to overshadow the logic of relationships between staff and clients. The article presents a reflection on this phenomenon, starting from a description of service team characteristics as found in the literature. Next, findings about direct support staff (DSS) continuity are summarised from four Dutch studies. Following up these findings, the concept of 'microsystems' is explored as a possible answer to the organisational challenges demonstrated in the studies. Team characteristics, especially team size and membership continuity for DSS, appear relevant factors for assuring supportive relationships and service quality in direct support teams. The structure of the primary support team shows to be of special interest. The organisational concept of 'microsystems' is explored with respect to transcending the present conflict between bureaucratic managerial pressure and the need for supportive relationships. Service organisations need to create structural conditions for the efficacy of direct support teams in terms of client relationships and relevant client outcomes. At the same time, the need for administrative and control processes can not be denied. The concept of 'microsystems', application of a Quality of Life framework and the use of new instruments, such as the Supports Intensity Scale, can contribute to an organisational solution for the present conflicting logic of relations and management.
IM-135-562-00 IDIM instruction manual for the isolated digital input module for SLC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kieffer, J.
1983-01-01
This unit is designed as a general purpose digital input module. Each input is opto-isolated, and is designed to operate over a wide range of positive input voltages. The unit is nonlatching, each CAMAC Read of the unit presenting the data as seen at the inputs at the time of the Read command. The manual includes the following sections: specifications; front panel, lights and connectors; reference list; functional description; 82S100 logic equations; test and checkout procedures; appendix A, SLAC 82S100 programming data; and appendix B, JXK-FORTH 135-562 program listing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Waite, Anthony; /SLAC
2011-09-07
Serial Input/Output (SIO) is designed to be a long term storage format of a sophistication somewhere between simple ASCII files and the techniques provided by inter alia Objectivity and Root. The former tend to be low density, information lossy (floating point numbers lose precision) and inflexible. The latter require abstract descriptions of the data with all that that implies in terms of extra complexity. The basic building blocks of SIO are streams, records and blocks. Streams provide the connections between the program and files. The user can define an arbitrary list of streams as required. A given stream must be opened for either reading or writing. SIO does not support read/write streams. If a stream is closed during the execution of a program, it can be reopened in either read or write mode to the same or a different file. Records represent a coherent grouping of data. Records consist of a collection of blocks (see next paragraph). The user can define a variety of records (headers, events, error logs, etc.) and request that any of them be written to any stream. When SIO reads a file, it first decodes the record name and if that record has been defined and unpacking has been requested for it, SIO proceeds to unpack the blocks. Blocks are user provided objects which do the real work of reading/writing the data. The user is responsible for writing the code for these blocks and for identifying these blocks to SIO at run time. To write a collection of blocks, the user must first connect them to a record. The record can then be written to a stream as described above. Note that the same block can be connected to many different records. When SIO reads a record, it scans through the blocks written and calls the corresponding block object (if it has been defined) to decode it. Undefined blocks are skipped. Each of these categories (streams, records and blocks) have some characteristics in common. Every stream, record and block has a name with the condition that each
Conceptual Modeling via Logic Programming
1990-01-01
CONCEPTUAL MODELING VIA LOGIC PROGRAMaNG 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) John Burge, Bill Noah, Las Smith 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF...interpreter and named it Prolog for middle. He found that his program got into an "Programmation en logique ." It provided the infinite loop unless he used... lA N C I WA v Cruse Mle Submartine 44 0 0 0 0 0835 I 9 33 ICC 33 High F.e cruise Misaile 640 0 8S S44 0 0 High Post cruise missile 840 2 7S 440 too
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Britz, K
2014-07-01
Full Text Available (T !) ⊆ atm(α). A proof of this theorem is given by Makinson [35]. Essentially, it establishes that, for every theory T , there is a unique least set of elementary atoms such that T may be expressed equivalently using only atoms from that set. Hence... forgetting as a generalization of weak forgetting in the power set algebra as- sociated with the propositional language L. Brink [8] gives a general account of power structures in the context of logic. Definition 10. Let f : An −→ A be an n-ary operation...
Quantum logic properties of hypergraphs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klaey, M.P.
1987-10-01
In quantum logics, the notions of strong and full order determination and unitality for states on orthomodular posets are well known. These notions are defined for hypergraphs and their state spaces in a consistent manner and the relations between them and to the notions defined for orthomodular posets are discussed. The state space of a hypergraph is a polytope. This polytope is a simplex if and only if every superposition of pure states is a mixture of these same pure states. Isomorphic hypergraphs have convexly isomorphic state spaces. A class of hypergraphs is given whose group of automorphisms is group-isomorphic to the group of convex automorphisms of their state spaces.
Logical Entity Level Sentiment Analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Niklas Christoffer; Villadsen, Jørgen
2017-01-01
We present a formal logical approach using a combinatory categorial grammar for entity level sentiment analysis that utilizes machine learning techniques for efficient syntactical tagging and performs a deep structural analysis of the syntactical properties of texts in order to yield precise...... results. The method should be seen as an alternative to pure machine learning methods for sentiment analysis, which are argued to have high difficulties in capturing long distance dependencies, and can be dependent on significant amount of domain specific training data. The results show that the method...
SDR Input Power Estimation Algorithms
Nappier, Jennifer M.; Briones, Janette C.
2013-01-01
The General Dynamics (GD) S-Band software defined radio (SDR) in the Space Communications and Navigation (SCAN) Testbed on the International Space Station (ISS) provides experimenters an opportunity to develop and demonstrate experimental waveforms in space. The SDR has an analog and a digital automatic gain control (AGC) and the response of the AGCs to changes in SDR input power and temperature was characterized prior to the launch and installation of the SCAN Testbed on the ISS. The AGCs were used to estimate the SDR input power and SNR of the received signal and the characterization results showed a nonlinear response to SDR input power and temperature. In order to estimate the SDR input from the AGCs, three algorithms were developed and implemented on the ground software of the SCAN Testbed. The algorithms include a linear straight line estimator, which used the digital AGC and the temperature to estimate the SDR input power over a narrower section of the SDR input power range. There is a linear adaptive filter algorithm that uses both AGCs and the temperature to estimate the SDR input power over a wide input power range. Finally, an algorithm that uses neural networks was designed to estimate the input power over a wide range. This paper describes the algorithms in detail and their associated performance in estimating the SDR input power.
Intermediate inputs and economic productivity.
Baptist, Simon; Hepburn, Cameron
2013-03-13
Many models of economic growth exclude materials, energy and other intermediate inputs from the production function. Growing environmental pressures and resource prices suggest that this may be increasingly inappropriate. This paper explores the relationship between intermediate input intensity, productivity and national accounts using a panel dataset of manufacturing subsectors in the USA over 47 years. The first contribution is to identify sectoral production functions that incorporate intermediate inputs, while allowing for heterogeneity in both technology and productivity. The second contribution is that the paper finds a negative correlation between intermediate input intensity and total factor productivity (TFP)--sectors that are less intensive in their use of intermediate inputs have higher productivity. This finding is replicated at the firm level. We propose tentative hypotheses to explain this association, but testing and further disaggregation of intermediate inputs is left for further work. Further work could also explore more directly the relationship between material inputs and economic growth--given the high proportion of materials in intermediate inputs, the results in this paper are suggestive of further work on material efficiency. Depending upon the nature of the mechanism linking a reduction in intermediate input intensity to an increase in TFP, the implications could be significant. A third contribution is to suggest that an empirical bias in productivity, as measured in national accounts, may arise due to the exclusion of intermediate inputs. Current conventions of measuring productivity in national accounts may overstate the productivity of resource-intensive sectors relative to other sectors.
Rethinking Service Companies’ Business Logic: Do We Need a Customer-Dominant Logic as a Guideline?
Heinonen, Kristina; Strandvik, Tore; Mickelsson, Karl-Jacob; Edvardsson, Bo; Sundström, Erik; Andersson, Per
2009-01-01
Purpose –This paper explores and expands the roles of customers and companies in creating value by introducing a new a customer-based approach to service. The customer’s logic is examined as being the foundation of a customer-based marketing and business logic. Design/methodology/approach – The authors argue that both goods-dominant logics and service-dominant logics are provider-dominant. Contrasting the customer-dominant logic with provider-dominant logics, the paper examines the creatio...
[Continuity and transformation of body logic].
Bolens, Guillemette
2003-01-01
This article is concerned with two distinct corporeal logics. In the first, corporeality is founded on joints, tendons, and mobility; in the second, the envelope and its apertures are considered primordial. The first logic is extant in very few works. Although these texts (e.g. The Iliad, Beowulf) clearly share the same, very specific, conception of the body, they belong to different histories. The corporeal logic of the 'jointed body' (corps articulaire) cannot, therefore, be appraised in terms of longue durée. The texts represent, instead, a moment of transition between the psychodynamics of orality and literacy. A problem correlated to this fact is that readers (ancient and modern) no longer think using the same logic as that pertaining to the jointed body. They tend to translate information regarding the logic of the jointed body into data meaningful in their own logic.
All optical programmable logic array (PLA)
Hiluf, Dawit
2018-03-01
A programmable logic array (PLA) is an integrated circuit (IC) logic device that can be reconfigured to implement various kinds of combinational logic circuits. The device has a number of AND and OR gates which are linked together to give output or further combined with more gates or logic circuits. This work presents the realization of PLAs via the physics of a three level system interacting with light. A programmable logic array is designed such that a number of different logical functions can be combined as a sum-of-product or product-of-sum form. We present an all optical PLAs with the aid of laser light and observables of quantum systems, where encoded information can be considered as memory chip. The dynamics of the physical system is investigated using Lie algebra approach.
5th World Congress of Paraconsistent Logic
Chakraborty, Mihir; Dutta, Soma
2015-01-01
The present book discusses all aspects of paraconsistent logic, including the latest findings, and its various systems. It includes papers by leading international researchers, which address the subject in many different ways: development of abstract paraconsistent systems and new theorems about them; studies of the connections between these systems and other non-classical logics, such as non-monotonic, many-valued, relevant, paracomplete and fuzzy logics; philosophical interpretations of these constructions; and applications to other sciences, in particular quantum physics and mathematics. Reasoning with contradictions is the challenge of paraconsistent logic. The book will be of interest to graduate students and researchers working in mathematical logic, computer science, philosophical logic, linguistics and physics.
Molecular processors: from qubits to fuzzy logic.
Gentili, Pier Luigi
2011-03-14
Single molecules or their assemblies are information processing devices. Herein it is demonstrated how it is possible to process different types of logic through molecules. As long as decoherent effects are maintained far away from a pure quantum mechanical system, quantum logic can be processed. If the collapse of superimposed or entangled wavefunctions is unavoidable, molecules can still be used to process either crisp (binary or multi-valued) or fuzzy logic. The way for implementing fuzzy inference engines is declared and it is supported by the examples of molecular fuzzy logic systems devised so far. Fuzzy logic is drawing attention in the field of artificial intelligence, because it models human reasoning quite well. This ability may be due to some structural analogies between a fuzzy logic system and the human nervous system. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Trends in merged DRAM-logic computing
Gebis, Joseph
2000-11-01
Recent trends suggest that the current practice of fabricating DRAM and logic on separate dies and different processes should be reexamined. The gap between processing speed and memory latency is growing at 50% per year, and portable systems, where physical size and weight are critical issues, are becoming more popular. Merged DRAM-logic processes address these issues by combining DRAM and logic on a single die; this technology also promises to offer advantages such as increased memory bandwidth, reduced power consumption, and greater flexibility in memory organization. Merged DRAM-logic chips have already been successfully used in several commercial products. More commercial products are planned, and academic research projects are examining future uses of merged DRAM- logic processing. This paper describes the current state of merged DRAM-logic chips and examines proposed architectures, their performance and applications. Finally, tradeoffs and challenges related to the technology are discussed.
How Objects Shape Logics in Construction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tryggestad, Kjell; Georg, Susse
2011-01-01
The notion of institutional logics is a key tenet in institutional theory but few studies have attended to the micro‐foundations of logics. The sociology of associations is used to explore the micro‐foundations of logics, their emergence and temporal–spatial importance. A case study of the constr......The notion of institutional logics is a key tenet in institutional theory but few studies have attended to the micro‐foundations of logics. The sociology of associations is used to explore the micro‐foundations of logics, their emergence and temporal–spatial importance. A case study...... and identities as emergent and contingent outcomes of the material practices of building construction. The argument is concluded by considering the building construction as a materially mediated meaning structure....
Interdisciplinarity, logic of uncertainty and fuzzy logic in primary school
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luciana Delli Rocili
2015-12-01
Full Text Available On the occasion of the 120th anniversary of Mathesis, this work wants to be a memory, a tribute to two great presidents of Mathesis: Bruno de Finetti and Angelo Fadini. Both have pursued the idea of interdisciplinary teaching and research. Bruno de Finetti, with his books on The invention of truth, (1934, and on Logic and Intuitive Mathematics, (1959, and his very famous "Theory of probability", (1970, shows a rejection of formal education, comfortable, monodisciplinary, made of certainties, and chooses the impervious way of addressing the problems that are to the base of science. Angelo Fadini, with his papers and books on Theory of Fuzzy Sets, shows first in Italy several logical questions which puts as the basis for practical applications in Architecture. This paper is an attempt to experiment, in an interdisciplinary framework, the basic ideas of Bruno de Finetti and Angelo Fadini in primary school, in the belief that in the Primary School are formed ideas and intuitions, while in the secondary school the attention is focused mainly on specific issues of Mathematics. We shows some results of a still ongoing experimentation. Interdisciplinarietà, logica dell'incerto e logica sfumata nella scuola primaria In occasione dei 120 anni della Mathesis, questo lavoro vuole essere un ricordo, un omaggio a due grandi Presidenti della Mathesis: Bruno de Finetti e Angelo Fadini. Entrambi hanno portato avanti l’idea della interdisciplinarietà nell’insegnamento e nella ricerca. Bruno de Finetti, con la sua “Matematica Logico Intuitiva” del 1959, e la sua “Teoria delle probabilità”, del 1970, e ancora prima, con “L’invenzione della verità”, del 1934, mostra un rifiuto dell’insegnamento formale, comodo, monodisciplinare, fatto di certezze, e sceglie la strada impervia dell’affrontare i problemi che sono alla base della scienza. Angelo Fadini, con la sua Teoria degli Insiemi Sfocati, mostra per primo in Italia varie questioni
Analogical proportions: another logical view
Prade, Henri; Richard, Gilles
This paper investigates the logical formalization of a restricted form of analogical reasoning based on analogical proportions, i.e. statements of the form a is to b as c is to d. Starting from a naive set theoretic interpretation, we highlight the existence of two noticeable companion proportions: one states that a is to b the converse of what c is to d (reverse analogy), while the other called paralogical proportion expresses that what a and b have in common, c and d have it also. We identify the characteristic postulates of the three types of proportions and examine their consequences from an abstract viewpoint. We further study the properties of the set theoretic interpretation and of the Boolean logic interpretation, and we provide another light on the understanding of the role of permutations in the modeling of the three types of proportions. Finally, we address the use of these proportions as a basis for inference in a propositional setting, and relate it to more general schemes of analogical reasoning. The differences between analogy, reverse-analogy, and paralogy is still emphasized in a three-valued setting, which is also briefly presented.
Fuzzy Logic for Incidence Geometry
2016-01-01
The paper presents a mathematical framework for approximate geometric reasoning with extended objects in the context of Geography, in which all entities and their relationships are described by human language. These entities could be labelled by commonly used names of landmarks, water areas, and so forth. Unlike single points that are given in Cartesian coordinates, these geographic entities are extended in space and often loosely defined, but people easily perform spatial reasoning with extended geographic objects “as if they were points.” Unfortunately, up to date, geographic information systems (GIS) miss the capability of geometric reasoning with extended objects. The aim of the paper is to present a mathematical apparatus for approximate geometric reasoning with extended objects that is usable in GIS. In the paper we discuss the fuzzy logic (Aliev and Tserkovny, 2011) as a reasoning system for geometry of extended objects, as well as a basis for fuzzification of the axioms of incidence geometry. The same fuzzy logic was used for fuzzification of Euclid's first postulate. Fuzzy equivalence relation “extended lines sameness” is introduced. For its approximation we also utilize a fuzzy conditional inference, which is based on proposed fuzzy “degree of indiscernibility” and “discernibility measure” of extended points. PMID:27689133
Fuzzy logic based robotic controller
Attia, F.; Upadhyaya, M.
1994-01-01
Existing Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) robotic controllers rely on an inverse kinematic model to convert user-specified cartesian trajectory coordinates to joint variables. These joints experience friction, stiction, and gear backlash effects. Due to lack of proper linearization of these effects, modern control theory based on state space methods cannot provide adequate control for robotic systems. In the presence of loads, the dynamic behavior of robotic systems is complex and nonlinear, especially where mathematical modeling is evaluated for real-time operators. Fuzzy Logic Control is a fast emerging alternative to conventional control systems in situations where it may not be feasible to formulate an analytical model of the complex system. Fuzzy logic techniques track a user-defined trajectory without having the host computer to explicitly solve the nonlinear inverse kinematic equations. The goal is to provide a rule-based approach, which is closer to human reasoning. The approach used expresses end-point error, location of manipulator joints, and proximity to obstacles as fuzzy variables. The resulting decisions are based upon linguistic and non-numerical information. This paper presents a solution to the conventional robot controller which is independent of computationally intensive kinematic equations. Computer simulation results of this approach as obtained from software implementation are also discussed.
A Dynamic Logic for Learning Theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Baltag, Alexandru; Gierasimczuk, Nina; Özgün, Aybüke
2017-01-01
Building on previous work that bridged Formal Learning Theory and Dynamic Epistemic Logic in a topological setting, we introduce a Dynamic Logic for Learning Theory (DLLT), extending Subset Space Logics with dynamic observation modalities, as well as with a learning operator, which encodes...... the learner’s conjecture after observing a finite sequence of data. We completely axiomatise DLLT, study its expressivity and use it to characterise various notions of knowledge, belief, and learning. ...
On syntactic action refinement and logic
Majster-Cederbaum, Mila; Salger, Frank
1999-01-01
Action refinement is a useful methodology for the development of concurrent processes in a stepwise manner. We are here interested in establishing a connection between syntactic action refinement and logic. In the syntactic approach to action refinement, reduction functions are used to remove the refinement operators from process-algebraic expressions thereby providing semantics for them. We incorporate a syntactic action refinement operator to the Hennessy-Milner-Logic and define a logical r...
Formalization of Many-Valued Logics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Villadsen, Jørgen; Schlichtkrull, Anders
2017-01-01
Partiality is a key challenge for computational approaches to artificial intelligence in general and natural language in particular. Various extensions of classical two-valued logic to many-valued logics have been investigated in order to meet this challenge. We use the proof assistant Isabelle...... to formalize the syntax and semantics of many-valued logics with determinate as well as indeterminate truth values. The formalization allows for a concise presentation and makes automated verification possible....
2015-12-24
T P(t), (81) where T is the clock period, and for the inexact circuit the energy is Ẽ(t) = T P̃(t). (82) In digital circuits , the total power P...Y , Cb, or Cr) data X input vector to a digital logic circuit Y output of a digital logic circuit Y luminance Z quantization factor matrix zi,j (i...accuracy in digital logic circuits . The contribution of this research will be to advance the state of the art of inexact computing by optimizing the JPEG
Lian, Wenjing; Liang, Jiying; Shen, Li; Jin, Yue; Liu, Hongyun
2018-02-15
The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) films were electropolymerized on the surface of Au electrodes with luminol and pyrrole (PY) as the two monomers and ampicillin (AM) as the template molecule. The electrochemiluminescence (ECL) intensity peak of polyluminol (PL) of the AM-free MIP films at 0.7V vs Ag/AgCl could be greatly enhanced by AM rebinding. In addition, the ECL signals of the MIP films could also be enhanced by the addition of glucose oxidase (GOD)/glucose and/or ferrocenedicarboxylic acid (Fc(COOH) 2 ) in the testing solution. Moreover, Fc(COOH) 2 exhibited cyclic voltammetric (CV) response at the AM-free MIP film electrodes. Based on these results, a binary 3-input/6-output biomolecular logic gate system was established with AM, GOD and Fc(COOH) 2 as inputs and the ECL responses at different levels and CV signal as outputs. Some functional non-Boolean logic devices such as an encoder, a decoder and a demultiplexer were also constructed on the same platform. Particularly, on the basis of the same system, a ternary AND logic gate was established. The present work combined MIP film electrodes, the solid-state ECL, and the enzymatic reaction together, and various types of biomolecular logic circuits and devices were developed, which opened a novel avenue to construct more complicated bio-logic gate systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A Verification Logic for GOAL Agents
Hindriks, K. V.
Although there has been a growing body of literature on verification of agents programs, it has been difficult to design a verification logic for agent programs that fully characterizes such programs and to connect agent programs to agent theory. The challenge is to define an agent programming language that defines a computational framework but also allows for a logical characterization useful for verification. The agent programming language GOAL has been originally designed to connect agent programming to agent theory and we present additional results here that GOAL agents can be fully represented by a logical theory. GOAL agents can thus be said to execute the corresponding logical theory.
A History of Probabilistic Inductive Logic Programming
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fabrizio eRiguzzi
2014-09-01
Full Text Available The field of Probabilistic Logic Programming (PLP has seen significant advances in the last 20 years, with many proposals for languages that combine probability with logic programming. Since the start, the problem of learning probabilistic logic programs has been the focus of much attention. Learning these programs represents a whole subfield of Inductive Logic Programming (ILP. In Probabilistic ILP (PILP two problems are considered: learning the parameters of a program given the structure (the rules and learning both the structure and the parameters. Usually structure learning systems use parameter learning as a subroutine. In this article we present an overview of PILP and discuss the main results.
Towards a formal logic of design rationalization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Galle, Per
1997-01-01
Certain extensions to standard predicate logic are proposed and used as a framework for critical logical study of patterns of inference in design reasoning. It is shown that within this framework a modal logic of design rationalization (suggested by an empirical study reported earlier) can...... be formally defined in terms of quantification over a universe of discourse of ‘relevant points of view’. Five basic principles of the extended predicate logic are listed, on the basis of which the validity of ten modal patterns of inference encountered in design rationalization is tested. The basic idea...
WEATHER FORECAST DATA SEMANTIC ANALYSIS IN F-LOGIC
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ana Meštrović
2007-06-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses the semantic analysis problem in a spoken dialog system developed for the domain of weather forecasts. The main goal of semantic analysis is to extract the meaning from the spoken utterances and to transform it into a domain database format. In this work a semantic database for the domain of weather forecasts is represented using the F-logic formalism. Semantic knowledge is captured through semantic categories a semantic dictionary using phrases and output templates. Procedures for semantic analysis of Croatian weather data combine parsing techniques for Croatian language and slot filling approach. Semantic analysis is conducted in three phases. In the first phase the main semantic category for the input utterance is determined. The lattices are used for hierarchical semantic relation representation and main category derivation. In the second phase semantic units are analyzed and knowledge slots in the database are filled. Since some slot values of input data are missing in the third phase, incomplete data is updated with missing values. All rules for semantic analysis are defined in the F-logic and implemented using the FLORA-2 system. The results of semantic analysis evaluation in terms of frame and slot error rates are presented.
Classical Logic and Quantum Logic with Multiple and Common Lattice Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mladen Pavičić
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We consider a proper propositional quantum logic and show that it has multiple disjoint lattice models, only one of which is an orthomodular lattice (algebra underlying Hilbert (quantum space. We give an equivalent proof for the classical logic which turns out to have disjoint distributive and nondistributive ortholattices. In particular, we prove that both classical logic and quantum logic are sound and complete with respect to each of these lattices. We also show that there is one common nonorthomodular lattice that is a model of both quantum and classical logic. In technical terms, that enables us to run the same classical logic on both a digital (standard, two-subset, 0-1-bit computer and a nondigital (say, a six-subset computer (with appropriate chips and circuits. With quantum logic, the same six-element common lattice can serve us as a benchmark for an efficient evaluation of equations of bigger lattice models or theorems of the logic.
Principles of Intelligence: On Evolutionary Logic of the Brains
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joe Z Tsien
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Humans and animals may encounter numerous events, objects, scenes, foods and countless social interactions in a lifetime. This means that the brain is constructed by evolution to deal with uncertainties and various possibilities. What is the architectural abstraction of intelligence that enables the brain to discover various possible patterns and knowledge about complex, evolving worlds? Here, I discuss the Theory of Connectivity -- a power-of-two based, operational principle that can serve as a unified wiring and computational logic for organizing and constructing cell assemblies into the microcircuit-level building block, termed as functional connectivity motif (FCM. Defined by the power-of-two based equation, N =2i-1, each FCM consists of the principal projection-neuron cliques (N, ranging from those specific-cliques receiving specific information inputs (i to those general and sub-general cliques receiving various combinatorial convergent inputs. As the evolutionarily conserved logic, its validation requires demonstrations of the following three major properties: 1 Anatomical prevalence – FCMs are prevalent across neural circuits, regardless of gross anatomical shapes; 2 Species conservancy – FCMs are conserved across different animal species; 3 Cognitive universality – FCMs serve as a universal computational logic at the cell-assembly level for processing a variety of cognitive experiences and flexible behaviors. More importantly, this theory of connectivity further predicts that the specific-to-general combinatorial connectivity pattern within FCMs should be preconfigured by evolution, and emerge innately from development as the brain’s computational primitives. This proposed design-principle can also explain the general purpose of the layered cortex and serves as its core computational algorithm.
Modelling Of Anticipated Damage Ratio On Breakwaters Using Fuzzy Logic
Mercan, D. E.; Yagci, O.; Kabdasli, S.
2003-04-01
In breakwater design the determination of armour unit weight is especially important in terms of the structure's life. In a typical experimental breakwater stability study, different wave series composed of different wave heights; wave period and wave steepness characteristics are applied in order to investigate performance the structure. Using a classical approach, a regression equation is generated for damage ratio as a function of characteristic wave height. The parameters wave period and wave steepness are not considered. In this study, differing from the classical approach using a fuzzy logic, a relationship between damage ratio as a function of mean wave period (T_m), wave steepness (H_s/L_m) and significant wave height (H_s) was further generated. The system's inputs were mean wave period (T_m), wave steepness (H_s/L_m) and significant wave height (H_s). For fuzzification all input variables were divided into three fuzzy subsets, their membership functions were defined using method developed by Mandani (Mandani, 1974) and the rules were written. While for defuzzification the centroid method was used. In order to calibrate and test the generated models an experimental study was conducted. The experiments were performed in a wave flume (24 m long, 1.0 m wide and 1.0 m high) using 20 different irregular wave series (P-M spectrum). Throughout the study, the water depth was 0.6 m and the breakwater cross-sectional slope was 1V/2H. In the armour layer, a type of artificial armour unit known as antifer cubes were used. The results of the established fuzzy logic model and regression equation model was compared with experimental data and it was determined that the established fuzzy logic model gave a more accurate prediction of the damage ratio on this type of breakwater. References Mandani, E.H., "Application of Fuzzy Algorithms for Control of Simple Dynamic Plant", Proc. IEE, vol. 121, no. 12, December 1974.
CRA Control Logic Realization for MARS 1-D/MASTER coupled Code System
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han, Soonkyoo; Jeong, Sungsu; Lee, Suyong
2013-01-01
Both Multi-dimensional Analysis Reactor Safety (MARS) code and Multi-purpose Analyzer for Static and Transient Effects of Reactors (MASTER) code, developed by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), can be coupled for various simulations of nuclear reactor system. In the MARS 1-D/MASTER coupled code system, MARS is used for the thermal hydraulic calculations and MASTER is used for reactor core calculations. In case of using this coupled code system, the movements of control rod assembly (CRA) are controlled by MASTER. MASTER, however, has a CRA control function which is inputted by user as a form of time dependent table. When simulations related to sequential CRA insertion or withdrawal which are not ejection or drop are performed, this CRA control function is not sufficient to demonstrate the process of CRA movements. Therefore an alternative way is proposed for realization of CRA control logic in MASTER. In this study, the manually realized CRA control logic was applied by inputting the time dependent CRA positions into MASTER. And the points of CRA movements were decided by iterations. At the end of CRA movement, the reactor power difference and the average coolant temperature difference were not out of the range of their dead bands. Therefore it means that this manually realized CRA control logic works appropriately in the dead bands of the logic. Therefore the proper CRA movement points could be decided by using this manually realized CRA control logic. Based on these results, it is verified that the proper CRA movement points can be chosen by using the proposed CRA control logic in this article. In conclusion, it is expected that this proposed CRA control logic in MASTER can be used to properly demonstrate the process related to CRA sequential movements in the MARS 1-D/MASTER coupled code system
PC based manual and safety logic card test setup for 235 MWe PHWRs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chandgadkar, G.M.; Kohli, A.K.; Agarwal, R.G.; Chandra, Rajesh
1992-01-01
Fuel handling controls for 235 MWe PHWR make use of Manual and Logic cards (MLCs) for providing safety interlocks. These cards consist of various type of logic blocks. By connecting these logic blocks all the safety interlocks required for fuel handling controls have been provided. Previously trouble shooting of these cards was done by means of logic probe. Since the method was manual, it was laborious and time consuming. PC based test setup has overcome this drawback and detects the fault at the component level within few seconds. It also gives printout of status of faulty MLC cards. Here motherboard has been designed having slots for insertion of MLC cards. The input/output connection of these cards are coming to two 50 pin FRC connectors. PC communicates through 144 line digital input/output card with MLC card under test. Software is user friendly and outputs suitable input patterns to the card under test and checks for output pattern. It compares this output pattern with compare pattern and detects the fault and displays the symptoms. This system is currently in use at test facility for fuelling machine for 235 MWe PHWR reactor at Refuelling Technology Division, Hall-7. This test setup has been proposed for use at NAPP and future reactors. (author). 4 figs., 1 annexure
Devaraju, Naga Sai Gopi K; Unger, Marc A
2012-11-21
Advances in microfluidics now allow an unprecedented level of parallelization and integration of biochemical reactions. However, one challenge still faced by the field has been the complexity and cost of the control hardware: one external pressure signal has been required for each independently actuated set of valves on chip. Using a simple post-modification to the multilayer soft lithography fabrication process, we present a new implementation of digital fluidic logic fully analogous to electronic logic with significant performance advances over the previous implementations. We demonstrate a novel normally closed static gain valve capable of modulating pressure signals in a fashion analogous to an electronic transistor. We utilize these valves to build complex fluidic logic circuits capable of arbitrary control of flows by processing binary input signals (pressure (1) and atmosphere (0)). We demonstrate logic gates and devices including NOT, NAND and NOR gates, bi-stable flip-flops, gated flip-flops (latches), oscillators, self-driven peristaltic pumps, delay flip-flops, and a 12-bit shift register built using static gain valves. This fluidic logic shows cascade-ability, feedback, programmability, bi-stability, and autonomous control capability. This implementation of fluidic logic yields significantly smaller devices, higher clock rates, simple designs, easy fabrication, and integration into MSL microfluidics.
All-optical logic gates in plasmonic metal-insulator-metal nanowaveguide with slot cavity resonator
Dolatabady, Alireza; Granpayeh, Nosrat
2017-04-01
We demonstrate the compact all-optical logic XOR and OR gates in subwavelength plasmonic metal-insulator-metal waveguides with slot cavity resonators, especially for telecommunication wavelengths, with an extinction ratio of 25 dB, which can provide nanoscale logic integrated circuits. The gates behavior is based on suppression or enhancement of resonant modes in a slot cavity resonator induced by a change in position of input ports. The performance of the gates is discussed analytically and verified by the numerical method of finite-difference time-domain (FDTD).
The combination of gold nanorods and nanoparticles with DNA nanodevices for logic gates construction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yao, Dongbao; Song, Tingjie; Xiao, Shiyan; Huang, Fujian; Liang, Haojun; Zheng, Bin
2015-01-01
In this work, two DNA nanodevices were constructed utilizing a DNA strand displacement reaction. With the assistance of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and gold nanorods (AuNRs), the autonomous reactions can be reflected from the aggregation states of nanoparticles. By sequence design and the two non-overlapping double hump-like UV–vis spectral peaks of AuNPs and AuNRs, two logic gates with multiple inputs and outputs were successfully run with expected outcomes. This method not only shows how to achieve computing with multiple logic calculations but also has great potential for multiple targets detection. (paper)
Nonlinear Aerodynamic Modeling From Flight Data Using Advanced Piloted Maneuvers and Fuzzy Logic
Brandon, Jay M.; Morelli, Eugene A.
2012-01-01
Results of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Seedling Project Phase I research project entitled "Nonlinear Aerodynamics Modeling using Fuzzy Logic" are presented. Efficient and rapid flight test capabilities were developed for estimating highly nonlinear models of airplane aerodynamics over a large flight envelope. Results showed that the flight maneuvers developed, used in conjunction with the fuzzy-logic system identification algorithms, produced very good model fits of the data, with no model structure inputs required, for flight conditions ranging from cruise to departure and spin conditions.
Cavity-cavity conditional logic
Rosenblum, Serge; Gao, Yvonne Y.; Reinhold, Philip; Wang, Chen; Axline, Christopher; Frunzio, Luigi; Girvin, Steven M.; Jiang, Liang; Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Devoret, Michel H.; Schoelkopf, Robert J.
In a superconducting circuit architecture, the highest coherence times are typically offered by 3D cavities. Moreover, these cavities offer a hardware-efficient way of redundantly encoding quantum information. While single-qubit control on a cavity has already been demonstrated, there is a need for a universal two-qubit gate between such cavities. In this talk, we demonstrate a cavity-cavity gate by parametric pumping on a fixed-frequency transmon interacting with the two cavities. Every gate application lowers the state fidelity by only 1%, while maintaining an entangling rate on-off ratio of 29dB. Additionally, we show that the gate is applicable not only to qubits consisting of single photons, but also to more complex encodings. These results illustrate the usefulness of cavities beyond the mere storage of quantum information, and pave the way towards gates between error-corrected logical qubits.
Design of reconfigurable logic controllers
Bukowiec, Arkadiusz; Doligalski, Michał; Tkacz, Jacek
2016-01-01
This book presents the original concepts and modern techniques for specification, synthesis, optimisation and implementation of parallel logical control devices. It deals with essential problems of reconfigurable control systems like dependability, modularity and portability. Reconfigurable systems require a wider variety of design and verification options than the application-specific integrated circuits. The book presents a comprehensive selection of possible design techniques. The diversity of the modelling approaches covers Petri nets, state machines and activity diagrams. The preferences of the presented optimization and synthesis methods are not limited to increasing of the efficiency of resource use. One of the biggest advantages of the presented methods is the platform independence, the FPGA devices and single board computers are some of the examples of possible platforms. These issues and problems are illustrated with practical cases of complete control systems. If you expect a new look at the recon...
Logical errors on proving theorem
Sari, C. K.; Waluyo, M.; Ainur, C. M.; Darmaningsih, E. N.
2018-01-01
In tertiary level, students of mathematics education department attend some abstract courses, such as Introduction to Real Analysis which needs an ability to prove mathematical statements almost all the time. In fact, many students have not mastered this ability appropriately. In their Introduction to Real Analysis tests, even though they completed their proof of theorems, they achieved an unsatisfactory score. They thought that they succeeded, but their proof was not valid. In this study, a qualitative research was conducted to describe logical errors that students made in proving the theorem of cluster point. The theorem was given to 54 students. Misconceptions on understanding the definitions seem to occur within cluster point, limit of function, and limit of sequences. The habit of using routine symbol might cause these misconceptions. Suggestions to deal with this condition are described as well.
Classical foundations of quantum logic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garola, C.
1991-01-01
The author constructs a language L for a classical first-order predicate calculus with monadic predicates only, extended by means of a family of statistical quantifiers. Then, a formal semantic model M is put forward for L which is compatible with a physical interpretation and embodies a truth theory which provides the statistical quantifiers with properties that fit their interpretation; in this framework, the truth mode of physical laws is suitably characterized and a probability-frequency correlation principle is established. By making use of L and M, a set of basic physical laws is stated that hold both in classical physics (CP) and in quantum physics (QP), which allow the selection of suitable subsets of primitive predicates of L and the introduction on these subsets of binary relations. Two languages L E x and L E S are constructed that can be mapped into L; the mapping induces on them mathematical structures, some kind of truth function, an interpretation. The formulas of L E S can be endowed with two different interpretations as statements about the frequency of some physical property in some class (state) of physical objects; consequently, a two-valued truth function and a multivalued fuzzy-truth function are defined on L E S . In all cases the algebras of propositions of these 'logics' are complete ortho-complemented lattices isomorphic to (E E , prec). These results hold both in CP and in QP; further physical assumptions endow the lattice (E E , prec), hence L E x and L E s , with further properties, such as distributivity in CP and weak modularity and covering law in QP. In the latter case, L E x and L E s , together with their interpretations, can be considered different models of the same basic mathematical structure, and can be identified with standard (elementary) quantum logics
An Algebraic View of Super-Belnap Logics
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Albuquerque, H.; Přenosil, Adam; Rivieccio, U.
2017-01-01
Roč. 105, č. 6 (2017), s. 1051-1086 ISSN 0039-3215 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 Grant - others:EU(XE) PIRSES- GA-2012-31898 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : Super-Belnap logics * Four-valued logic * Paraconsistent logic * Belnap–Dunn logic * FDE * Logic of Paradox * Kleene logic * Exactly True logic * De Morgan algebras * Abstract Algebraic Logic * Leibniz filters * Strong versions of logics Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 0.589, year: 2016
Biswas, Ayan K; Atulasimha, Jayasimha; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo
2014-12-23
A long-standing goal of computer technology is to process and store digital information with the same device in order to implement new architectures. One way to accomplish this is to use nanomagnetic logic gates that can perform Boolean operations and then store the output data in the magnetization states of nanomagnets, thereby doubling as both logic and memory. Unfortunately, many of these nanomagnetic devices do not possess the seven essential characteristics of a Boolean logic gate : concatenability, non-linearity, isolation between input and output, gain, universal logic implementation, scalability and error resilience. More importantly, their energy-delay products and error rates tend to vastly exceed that of conventional transistor-based logic gates, which is unacceptable. Here, we propose a non-volatile voltage-controlled nanomagnetic logic gate that possesses all the necessary characteristics of a logic gate and whose energy-delay product is two orders of magnitude less than that of other nanomagnetic (non-volatile) logic gates. The error rate is also superior.
A Formal Semantics for Concept Understanding relying on Description Logics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Badie, Farshad
2017-01-01
In this research, Description Logics (DLs) will be employed for logical description, logical characterisation, logical modelling and ontological description of concept understanding in terminological systems. It’s strongly believed that using a formal descriptive logic could support us in reveali...
A Case for Embedded Natural Logic for Ontological Knowledge Bases
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreasen, Troels; Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer
2014-01-01
We argue in favour of adopting a form of natural logic for ontology-structured knowledge bases as an alternative to description logic and rule based languages. Natural logic is a form of logic resembling natural language assertions, unlike description logic. This is essential e.g. in life sciences...
CBM first-level event selector input interface
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hutter, Dirk [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Goethe University, Frankfurt (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration
2016-07-01
The CBM First-level Event Selector (FLES) is the central event selection system of the upcoming CBM experiment at FAIR. Designed as a high-performance computing cluster, its task is an online analysis of the physics data at a total data rate exceeding 1 TByte/s. To allow efficient event selection, the FLES performs timeslice building, which combines the data from all given input links to self-contained, overlapping processing intervals and distributes them to compute nodes. Partitioning the input data streams into specialized containers allows to perform this task very efficiently. The FLES Input Interface defines the linkage between FEE and FLES data transport framework. Utilizing a custom FPGA board, it receives data via optical links, prepares them for subsequent timeslice building, and transfers the data via DMA to the PC's memory. An accompanying HDL module implements the front-end logic interface and FLES link protocol in the front-end FPGAs. Prototypes of all Input Interface components have been implemented and integrated into the FLES framework. In contrast to earlier prototypes, which included components to work without a FPGA layer between FLES and FEE, the structure matches the foreseen final setup. This allows the implementation and evaluation of the final CBM read-out chain. An overview of the FLES Input Interface as well as studies on system integration and system start-up are presented.
Fuzzy Logic in Medicine and Bioinformatics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Angela Torres
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a general view of the current applications of fuzzy logic in medicine and bioinformatics. We particularly review the medical literature using fuzzy logic. We then recall the geometrical interpretation of fuzzy sets as points in a fuzzy hypercube and present two concrete illustrations in medicine (drug addictions and in bioinformatics (comparison of genomes.
The Logic of the RAISE Specification Language
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
George, Chris; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth
2003-01-01
This paper describes the logic of the RAISE Specification Language, RSL. It explains the particular logic chosen for RAISE, and motivates this choice as suitable for a wide spectrum language to be used for designs as well as initial specifications, and supporting imperative and concurrent...
The Logic of the RAISE Specification Language
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
George, Chris; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth
2008-01-01
This chapter describes the logic of the RAISE Specification Language, RSL. It explains the particular logic chosen for RAISE, and motivates this choice as suitable for a wide spectrum language to be used for designs as well as initial specifications, and supporting imperative and concurrent...
Colligation, Or the Logical Inference of Interconnection
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Falster, Peter
1998-01-01
laws or assumptions. Yet interconnection as an abstract concept seems to be without scientific underpinning in pure logic. Adopting a historical viewpoint, our aim is to show that the reasoning of interconnection may be identified with a neglected kind of logical inference, called "colligation...
Colligation or, The Logical Inference of Interconnection
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Franksen, Ole Immanuel; Falster, Peter
2000-01-01
laws or assumptions. Yet interconnection as an abstract concept seems to be without scientific underpinning in oure logic. Adopting a historical viewpoint, our aim is to show that the reasoning of interconnection may be identified with a neglected kind of logical inference, called "colligation...
From Interpreter to Logic Engine by Defunctionalization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier
2004-01-01
Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied...
From Interpreter to Logic Engine by Defunctionalization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier
2003-01-01
Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied...
From Interpreter to logic Engine by Defunctionalization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier
2003-01-01
Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied...
Dialectical Multivalued Logic and Probabilistic Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Luis Usó Doménech
2017-02-01
Full Text Available There are two probabilistic algebras: one for classical probability and the other for quantum mechanics. Naturally, it is the relation to the object that decides, as in the case of logic, which algebra is to be used. From a paraconsistent multivalued logic therefore, one can derive a probability theory, adding the correspondence between truth value and fortuity.
CRS and Guarded Logics: a fruitful contact
van Benthem, J.; Andréka, H.; Ferenczi, M.; Németi, I.
2013-01-01
Back and forth between algebra and model theory. Algebra and model theory are complementary stances in the history of logic, and their interaction continues to spawn new ideas, witness the interface of First-Order Logic and Cylindric Algebra. This chapter is about a more specialized contact: the
Proof theory of epistemic logic of programs
Maffezioli, Paolo; Naibo, Alberto
A combination of epistemic logic and dynamic logic of programs is presented. Although rich enough to formalize some simple game-theoretic scenarios, its axiomatization is problematic as it leads to the paradoxical conclusion that agents are omniscient. A cut-free labelled Gentzen-style proof system
A proof theory for constructive default logic
Y-H. Tan (Yao-Hua)
1993-01-01
textabstractWe present what we call Constructive Default Logic (CDL) - a default logic in which the fixed-point definition of extensions is replaced by a constructive definition which yield so-called constructive extensions. Selection functions are used to represent explicitly the control of the
Reasoning by cases in Default Logic
Roos, N.; Roos, Nico
1998-01-01
Reiter's Default Logic is one of the most popular formalisms for describing default reasoning. One important defect of Default Logic is, however, the inability to reason by cases. Over the years, several solutions for this problem have been proposed. All these proposals deal with deriving new
Sort logic and foundations of mathematics
Väänänen, J.; Chong, C.; Feng, Q.; Slaman, T.A.; Woodin, W.H.
2014-01-01
I have argued elsewhere [8] that second order logic provides a foundation for mathematics much in the same way as set theory does, despite the fact that the former is second order and the latter first order, but second order logic is marred by reliance on ad hoc large domain assumptions. In this
Constructing Natural Extensions of Propositional Logics
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Přenosil, Adam
2016-01-01
Roč. 104, č. 6 (2016), s. 1179-1190 ISSN 0039-3215 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14654S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : abstract algebraic logic * consequence relations * propositional logic * natural extensions * transfer theorems Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.589, year: 2016
Permissive Subsorted Partial Logic in CASL
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cerioli, Maura; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Krieg-Brückner, Bernd
1997-01-01
This paper presents a permissive subsorted partial logic used in the CoFI Algebraic Specification Language. In contrast to other order-sorted logics, subsorting is not modeled by set inclusions, but by injective embeddings allowing for more general models in which subtypes can have different data...
A New Logic of Technical Malfunction
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Jespersen, Bjorn; Carrara, M.
2013-01-01
Roč. 101, č. 3 (2013), s. 547-581 ISSN 0039-3215 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : logic of malfunction * modification * simple type theory * transparent intensional logic * philosophy of technology * artefact * functioning as * intensional essentialism Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.330, year: 2013
Two Logical Faces of Belief Revision
van Benthem, J.; Trypuz, R.
2014-01-01
This piece proposes a style of thinking using modal frame correspondence that puts Segerberg’s dynamic doxastic logic and ‘Dutch’ dynamic-epistemic logic for belief change in one setting. While our technical results are elementary, they do suggest new lines of thought.
Boolean-valued second-order logic
Ikegami, D.; Väänänen, J.
2015-01-01
In so-called full second-order logic, the second-order variables range over all subsets and relations of the domain in question. In so-called Henkin second-order logic, every model is endowed with a set of subsets and relations which will serve as the range of the second-order variables. In our
The Logic of Empirical Theories Revisited
van Benthem, J.
2012-01-01
Logic and philosophy of science share a long history, though contacts have gone through ups and downs. This paper is a brief survey of some major themes in logical studies of empirical theories, including links to computer science and current studies of rational agency. The survey has no new
Dynamic logics for explicit and implicit information
Velázquez-Quesada, F.R.
2009-01-01
Classical Epistemic Logic (EL) is a compact and powerful framework for representing an agent’s information. In its dynamic versions (Dynamic Epistemic Logic), it also describes the information flow driven by observation and communication. Nevertheless, it makes a strong idealization: the agent’s
Using Pipelined XNOR Logic to Reduce SEU Risks in State Machines
Le, Martin; Zheng, Xin; Katanyoutant, Sunant
2008-01-01
Single-event upsets (SEUs) pose great threats to avionic systems state machine control logic, which are frequently used to control sequence of events and to qualify protocols. The risks of SEUs manifest in two ways: (a) the state machine s state information is changed, causing the state machine to unexpectedly transition to another state; (b) due to the asynchronous nature of SEU, the state machine's state registers become metastable, consequently causing any combinational logic associated with the metastable registers to malfunction temporarily. Effect (a) can be mitigated with methods such as triplemodular redundancy (TMR). However, effect (b) cannot be eliminated and can degrade the effectiveness of any mitigation method of effect (a). Although there is no way to completely eliminate the risk of SEU-induced errors, the risk can be made very small by use of a combination of very fast state-machine logic and error-detection logic. Therefore, one goal of two main elements of the present method is to design the fastest state-machine logic circuitry by basing it on the fastest generic state-machine design, which is that of a one-hot state machine. The other of the two main design elements is to design fast error-detection logic circuitry and to optimize it for implementation in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) architecture: In the resulting design, the one-hot state machine is fitted with a multiple-input XNOR gate for detection of illegal states. The XNOR gate is implemented with lookup tables and with pipelines for high speed. In this method, the task of designing all the logic must be performed manually because no currently available logic synthesis software tool can produce optimal solutions of design problems of this type. However, some assistance is provided by a script, written for this purpose in the Python language (an object-oriented interpretive computer language) to automatically generate hardware description language (HDL) code from state
Conflicting logics in Public Private Innovation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nissen, Helle Aarøe
that they are faced with a NIH logic which is in conflict with their own market logic involving intensions to commercialize broadly within the healthcare system. The firms experience difficulties in commercializing and thus diffusing welfare innovations, which, for them, seem to be counter intuitive......The article explores the interplay between conflicting logics, when private firms interact with potential public customers, as the firms aim to commercialize welfare innovations developed through Public Private Innovation (PPI) projects. Commercialization of welfare innovations in healthcare may...... as there is an expressed need for these within the healthcare system. As such, the article contributes to institutional logics theory by addressing the call for research in conflicting logics....
Interpreting Quantum Logic as a Pragmatic Structure
Garola, Claudio
2017-12-01
Many scholars maintain that the language of quantum mechanics introduces a quantum notion of truth which is formalized by (standard, sharp) quantum logic and is incompatible with the classical (Tarskian) notion of truth. We show that quantum logic can be identified (up to an equivalence relation) with a fragment of a pragmatic language LGP of assertive formulas, that are justified or unjustified rather than trueor false. Quantum logic can then be interpreted as an algebraic structure that formalizes properties of the notion of empirical justification according to quantum mechanics rather than properties of a quantum notion of truth. This conclusion agrees with a general integrationist perspective that interprets nonstandard logics as theories of metalinguistic notions different from truth, thus avoiding incompatibility with classical notions and preserving the globality of logic.
Processing device with self-scrubbing logic
Wojahn, Christopher K.
2016-03-01
An apparatus includes a processing unit including a configuration memory and self-scrubber logic coupled to read the configuration memory to detect compromised data stored in the configuration memory. The apparatus also includes a watchdog unit external to the processing unit and coupled to the self-scrubber logic to detect a failure in the self-scrubber logic. The watchdog unit is coupled to the processing unit to selectively reset the processing unit in response to detecting the failure in the self-scrubber logic. The apparatus also includes an external memory external to the processing unit and coupled to send configuration data to the configuration memory in response to a data feed signal outputted by the self-scrubber logic.
Processing device with self-scrubbing logic
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wojahn, Christopher K.
2017-10-17
An apparatus includes a processing unit including a configuration memory and self-scrubber logic coupled to read the configuration memory to detect compromised data stored in the configuration memory. The apparatus also includes a watchdog unit external to the processing unit and coupled to the self-scrubber logic to detect a failure in the self-scrubber logic. The watchdog unit is coupled to the processing unit to selectively reset the processing unit in response to detecting the failure in the self-scrubber logic. The apparatus also includes an external memory external to the processing unit and coupled to send configuration data to the configuration memory in response to a data feed signal outputted by the self-scrubber logic.
Control of Turing patterns and their usage as sensors, memory arrays, and logic gates
Muzika, František; Schreiber, Igor
2013-10-01
We study a model system of three diffusively coupled reaction cells arranged in a linear array that display Turing patterns with special focus on the case of equal coupling strength for all components. As a suitable model reaction we consider a two-variable core model of glycolysis. Using numerical continuation and bifurcation techniques we analyze the dependence of the system's steady states on varying rate coefficient of the recycling step while the coupling coefficients of the inhibitor and activator are fixed and set at the ratios 100:1, 1:1, and 4:5. We show that stable Turing patterns occur at all three ratios but, as expected, spontaneous transition from the spatially uniform steady state to the spatially nonuniform Turing patterns occurs only in the first case. The other two cases possess multiple Turing patterns, which are stabilized by secondary bifurcations and coexist with stable uniform periodic oscillations. For the 1:1 ratio we examine modular spatiotemporal perturbations, which allow for controllable switching between the uniform oscillations and various Turing patterns. Such modular perturbations are then used to construct chemical computing devices utilizing the multiple Turing patterns. By classifying various responses we propose: (a) a single-input resettable sensor capable of reading certain value of concentration, (b) two-input and three-input memory arrays capable of storing logic information, (c) three-input, three-output logic gates performing combinations of logical functions OR, XOR, AND, and NAND.
Material input of nuclear fuel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rissanen, S.; Tarjanne, R.
2001-01-01
The Material Input (MI) of nuclear fuel, expressed in terms of the total amount of natural material needed for manufacturing a product, is examined. The suitability of the MI method for assessing the environmental impacts of fuels is also discussed. Material input is expressed as a Material Input Coefficient (MIC), equalling to the total mass of natural material divided by the mass of the completed product. The material input coefficient is, however, only an intermediate result, which should not be used as such for the comparison of different fuels, because the energy contents of nuclear fuel is about 100 000-fold compared to the energy contents of fossil fuels. As a final result, the material input is expressed in proportion to the amount of generated electricity, which is called MIPS (Material Input Per Service unit). Material input is a simplified and commensurable indicator for the use of natural material, but because it does not take into account the harmfulness of materials or the way how the residual material is processed, it does not alone express the amount of environmental impacts. The examination of the mere amount does not differentiate between for example coal, natural gas or waste rock containing usually just sand. Natural gas is, however, substantially more harmful for the ecosystem than sand. Therefore, other methods should also be used to consider the environmental load of a product. The material input coefficient of nuclear fuel is calculated using data from different types of mines. The calculations are made among other things by using the data of an open pit mine (Key Lake, Canada), an underground mine (McArthur River, Canada) and a by-product mine (Olympic Dam, Australia). Furthermore, the coefficient is calculated for nuclear fuel corresponding to the nuclear fuel supply of Teollisuuden Voima (TVO) company in 2001. Because there is some uncertainty in the initial data, the inaccuracy of the final results can be even 20-50 per cent. The value
Comparison of robust input shapers
Vaughan, Joshua; Yano, Aika; Singhose, William
2008-09-01
The rapid movement of machines is a challenging control problem because it often results in high levels of vibration. As a result, flexible machines are typically moved relatively slowly. Input shaping is a control method that allows much higher speeds of motion by limiting vibration induced by the reference command. To design an input-shaping controller, estimates of the system natural frequency and damping ratio are required. However, real world systems cannot be modeled exactly, making the robustness to modeling errors an important consideration. Many robust input shapers have been developed, but robust shapers typically have longer durations that slow the system response. This creates a compromise between shaper robustness and rise time. This paper analyzes the compromise between rapidity of motion and shaper robustness for several input-shaping methods. Experimental results from a portable bridge crane verify the theoretical predictions.
A propositional typicality logic for extending rational consequence
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Booth, R
2013-08-01
Full Text Available We introduce Propositional Typicality Logic (PTL), a logic for reasoning about typicality. We do so by enriching classical propositional logic with a typicality operator of which the intuition is to capture the most typical (or normal) situations...