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Sample records for single-question traumatic event

  1. Traumatic events and children

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    ... over and over again Know the Signs of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Half of the children who survive traumatic events ... team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Child Mental Health Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  2. Traumatic-event headaches

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    Haas David C

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic headaches from head trauma and whiplash injury are well-known and common, but chronic headaches from other sorts of physical traumas are not recognized. Methods Specific information was obtained from the medical records of 15 consecutive patients with chronic headaches related to physically injurious traumatic events that did not include either head trauma or whiplash injury. The events and the physical injuries produced by them were noted. The headaches' development, characteristics, duration, frequency, and accompaniments were recorded, as were the patients' use of pain-alleviative drugs. From this latter information, the headaches were classified by the diagnostic criteria of the International Headache Society as though they were naturally-occurring headaches. The presence of other post-traumatic symptoms and litigation were also recorded. Results The intervals between the events and the onset of the headaches resembled those between head traumas or whiplash injuries and their subsequent headaches. The headaches themselves were, as a group, similar to those after head trauma and whiplash injury. Thirteen of the patients had chronic tension-type headache, two had migraine. The sustained bodily injuries were trivial or unidentifiable in nine patients. Fabrication of symptoms for financial remuneration was not evident in these patients of whom seven were not even seeking payments of any kind. Conclusions This study suggests that these hitherto unrecognized post-traumatic headaches constitute a class of headaches characterized by a relation to traumatic events affecting the body but not including head or whiplash traumas. The bodily injuries per se can be discounted as the cause of the headaches. So can fabrication of symptoms for financial remuneration. Altered mental states, not systematically evaluated here, were a possible cause of the headaches. The overall resemblance of these headaches to the headaches after

  3. Coping with a Traumatic Event

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    ... Traumatic events are marked by a sense of horror, helplessness, serious injury, or the threat of serious ... The symptoms of PTSD fall into three broad types: re-living, avoidance and increased arousal. • Symptoms of ...

  4. Traumatic Childhood Events and Autism Spectrum Disorder

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    Kerns, Connor Morrow; Newschaffer, Craig J.; Berkowitz, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic childhood events are associated with a wide range of negative physical, psychological and adaptive outcomes over the life course and are one of the few identifiable causes of psychiatric illness. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be at increased risk for both encountering traumatic events and developing traumatic sequelae;…

  5. Predictors of tonic immobility during traumatic events

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    Arturo Bados

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tonic immobility (TI is a possible reaction to danger that is facilitated by intense fear, physical restraint and perceived inability to escape. Other variables that could affect TI, such as the type and characteristics of traumatic events and personal characteristics have been little or no studied. The present study evaluated the power of these variables to predict TI in a sample of 273 college students who had experienced at least one traumatic event. Of the sample, 7.7% and 13.2% responded with TI according to the two stricter definitions adopted. Most of the variables were significantly associated with TI in univariate analyses. However, in a multiple regression analysis, only certain features of the events (occurrence of physical/sexual abuse, number of different types of events experienced and certain reactions to them (perception of how traumatic were the events, severe fear response were significant predictors of TI. Since these predictors explained only 25% of the variance, the influence of other variables -such as neuroticism, negative affectivity and perceived lack of personal control or resources to cope with traumatic events- should be investigated.

  6. Sex differences in the appraisal of traumatic events and psychopathology.

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    Kucharska, Justyna

    2017-09-01

    The current study is an investigation of the relationship between the appraisal of traumatic events and mental disorder symptoms: internalizing symptoms and externalizing/substance-abuse symptoms. Cumulative trauma over the lifetime was taken into account. Also, specific effects related to traumatic events of various types (i.e., betrayal trauma, accident involving a family member, physical violence, and natural disaster) were assessed. Participants, 190 young men and 277 young women, were asked to evaluate the strength with which the traumatic event impacted their lives. It was hypothesized that the relationship between traumatic experiences and mental disorder symptoms would be stronger in women than in men, and also that cognitive appraisal, in interaction with gender, would be related to the severity of the symptoms. Women showed higher levels of internalizing symptoms, but lower levels of externalizing/substance-abuse symptoms than men. Still, the correlation between cumulative trauma and both types of symptoms was stronger in women. For all types of trauma, women reported a stronger negative appraisal of the event than men. Interaction of sex and cognitive appraisal was demonstrated to be related to the severity of internalizing disorders. In the present study, women, as compared with men, evaluated traumatic events more negatively (for all types of trauma) and the relationship between trauma and mental disorder symptoms was also stronger in women. These results show the importance of the appraisal of trauma in the development of psychiatric symptoms in women and men following trauma. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Witnessing traumatic events and post-traumatic stress disorder: Insights from an animal model.

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    Patki, Gaurav; Salvi, Ankita; Liu, Hesong; Salim, Samina

    2015-07-23

    It is becoming increasingly recognized that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be acquired vicariously from witnessing traumatic events. Recently, we published an animal model called the "Trauma witness model" (TWM) which mimics PTSD-like symptoms in rats from witnessing daily traumatic events (social defeat of cage mate) [14]. Our TWM does not result in any physical injury. This is a major procedural advantage over the typical intruder paradigm in which it is difficult to delineate the inflammatory response of tissue injury and the response elicited from emotional distress. Using TWM paradigm, we examined behavioral and cognitive effects in rats [14] however, the long-term persistence of PTSD-like symptoms or a time-course of these events (anxiety and depression-like behaviors and cognitive deficits) and the contribution of olfactory and auditory stress vs visual reinforcement were not examined. This study demonstrates that some of the features of PTSD-like symptoms in rats are reversible after a significant time lapse of the witnessing of traumatic events. We also have established that witnessing is critical to the PTSD-like phenotype and cannot be acquired solely due to auditory or olfactory stresses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing traumatic event exposure: general issues and preliminary findings for the Stressful Life Events Screening Questionnaire.

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    Goodman, L A; Corcoran, C; Turner, K; Yuan, N; Green, B L

    1998-07-01

    This article reviews the psychometric properties of the Stressful Life Events Screening Questionnaire (SLESQ), a recently developed trauma history screening measure, and discusses the complexities involved in assessing trauma exposure. There are relatively few general measures of exposure to a variety of types of traumatic events, and most of those that exist have not been subjected to rigorous psychometric evaluation. The SLESQ showed good test-retest reliability, with a median kappa of .73, adequate convergent validity (with a lengthier interview) with a median kappa of .64, and good discrimination between Criterion A and non-Criterion A events. The discussion addresses some of the challenges of assessing traumatic event exposure along the dimensions of defining traumatic events, assessment methodologies, reporting consistency, and incident validation.

  9. Children's Vantage Point of Recalling Traumatic Events.

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    Dawson, Katie S; Bryant, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the recollections of child survivors of the 2004 Asian tsunami in terms of their vantage point and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) responses. Five years after the tsunami, 110 children (aged 7-13 years) living in Aceh, Indonesia were assessed for source of memories of the tsunami (personal memory or second-hand source), vantage point of the memory, and were administered the Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale-13. Fifty-three children (48%) met criteria for PTSD. Two-thirds of children reported direct memories of the tsunami and one-third reported having memories based on reports from other people. More children (97%) who reported an indirect memory of the tsunami recalled the event from an onlooker's perspective to some extent than those who recalled the event directly (63%). Boys were more likely to rely on stories from others to reconstruct their memory of the tsunami, and to adopt an observer perspective. Boys who adopted an observer's perspective had less severe PTSD than those who adopted a field perspective. These findings suggest that, at least in the case of boys, an observer perspectives of trauma can be associated with levels of PTSD.

  10. Sibling relationships as a resource for coping with traumatic events

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    Perricone, Giovanna; Fontana, Valentina; Burgio, Sofia; Polizzi, Concetta

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the correlation between the perception of sibling relationship to cope an adverse occurrence – the partial collapse of a primary school – and the indicators related to the traumatic impact set off by the event, by soliciting the child’s reminiscence of the catastrophic experience. One hundred trauma-exposed children were recruited from a Sicilian primary school and were administered the following research instruments: the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC-A), ...

  11. The shared and specific relationships between exposure to potentially traumatic events and transdiagnostic dimensions of psychopathology.

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    Sunderland, Matthew; Carragher, Natacha; Chapman, Cath; Mills, Katherine; Teesson, Maree; Lockwood, Emma; Forbes, David; Slade, Tim

    2016-03-01

    The experience of traumatic events has been linked to the development of psychopathology. Changing perspectives on psychopathology have resulted in the hypothesis that broad dimensional constructs account for the majority of variance across putatively distinct disorders. As such, traumatic events may be associated with several disorders due to their relationship with these broad dimensions rather than any direct disorder-specific relationship. The current study used data from 8871 Australians to test this hypothesis. Two broad dimensions accounted for the majority of relationships between traumatic events and mental and substance use disorders. Direct relationships remained between post-traumatic stress disorder and six categories of traumatic events in the total population and between drug dependence and accidents/disasters for males only. These results have strong implications for how psychopathology is conceptualized and offer some evidence that traumatic events are associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing psychopathology in general. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sibling relationships as a resource for coping with traumatic events.

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    Perricone, Giovanna; Fontana, Valentina; Burgio, Sofia; Polizzi, Concetta

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the correlation between the perception of sibling relationship to cope an adverse occurrence - the partial collapse of a primary school - and the indicators related to the traumatic impact set off by the event, by soliciting the child's reminiscence of the catastrophic experience. One hundred trauma-exposed children were recruited from a Sicilian primary school and were administered the following research instruments: the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC-A), to investigate the traumatized response that can be triggered in the children involved; the Brother as a Resource Questionnaire (BRQ), to delve into the perception of sibling relationship as a resource. The outcomes showed statistically significant negative correlations between the Anxiety scale of the TSCC-A and the Scaffolding factors (r = -.260, p Depression scale and the Scaffolding factors (r = -.147, p < .05), Emotional sharing (r = -.168, p < .05) and Decision making process (r = -.281, p < .05). The Anger scale correlated negatively with the Emotional sharing (r = -187, p < .05), the Decision making process (r = -.182, p < .05) and the Scaffolding factors (r = -.279, p < .05); the Post-traumatic Stress correlated negatively with the Scaffolding factors (r = -.203, p < .05) and the Decision making process (r = -.238, p < .05). Lastly, the Dissociation correlated negatively with the Decision making process (r = -.270, p < .05).

  13. Why autobiographical memories for traumatic and emotional events might differ: theoretical arguments and empirical evidence.

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    Sotgiu, Igor; Rusconi, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    The authors review five arguments supporting the hypothesis that memories for traumatic and nontraumatic emotional events should be considered as qualitatively different recollections. The first argument considers the objective features of traumatic and emotional events and their possible influence on the formation of memories for these events. The second argument assumes that traumatic memories distinguish from emotional ones as trauma exposure is often associated with the development of psychological disorders involving memory disturbances. The third argument is that traumatic experiences are more likely than emotional experiences to be forgotten and recovered. The fourth argument concerns the possibility that emotional memories are socially shared more frequently than traumatic memories. A fifth argument suggests that trauma exposure may impair selected brain systems implicated in memory functions. Theoretical and empirical evidence supporting these claims is reviewed. In the conclusions, the authors illustrate future research directions and discuss some conceptual issues related to the definitions of traumatic event currently employed by memory researchers.

  14. Coping with serious events at work: a study of traumatic stress among nurses

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    Buurman, Bianca M.; Mank, Arno P. M.; Beijer, Hein J. M.; Olff, Miranda

    2011-01-01

    Nurses often encounter serious events during their work, which can lead to traumatic stress. To examine how serious events, demographic variables, and coping strategies are associated with traumatic stress in a sample of nurses working in the medical department of a university teaching hospital. The

  15. DO TESTIMONIES OF TRAUMATIC EVENTS DIFFER DEPENDING ON THE INTERVIEWER?

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    Ulrike Ehlert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available While differences in witness narratives due to different interviewers may have implications for their credibility in court, this study considers how investigative interviews by different parties to the proceedings, as well as the gender and nationality of interviewers, can influence the testimony of witnesses in court who share comparable traumatic experiences. The foundation of the analysis was answers given to judges, prosecutors, civil party lawyers and defence lawyers in the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC located in Phnom Penh. Transcribed testimonies of 24 victim witnesses and civil parties which were translated from Khmer into English were analysed using a computer-based text analysis program, the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC. Results showed that when answering questions by females, witnesses used significantly more cognitive process words. When interviewed by international rather than by Cambodian parties to the proceeding witness accounts were composed of significantly more verbal expressions of affective processes and of perceptual processes. Furthermore, witnesses used most cognitive and affective process words during the interview by civil party lawyers and defence lawyers. These results may be due to a prior supportive relationship between civil parties and their lawyers and due to a more interrogative question style by the defence lawyers, who attempt to undermine the credibility of the interviewed witnesses. Data shows that LIWC analysis is an appropriate method to examine witness accounts and, therefore, contributes to a better understanding of the complex relationship between testimony in events under litigation and credibility.

  16. The impact of occupational hazards and traumatic events among Belgian emergency physicians.

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    Somville, Francis J; De Gucht, Véronique; Maes, Stan

    2016-04-27

    Emergency Physicians (EPs) are regularly confronted with work related traumatic events and hectic work conditions. Several studies mention a high incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychosomatic complaints in EP. The main objective of this study is to examine the contribution of demographics, traumatic events, life events, the occurrence of occupational hazards and social support to post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), psychological distress, fatigue, somatic complaints and job satisfaction in Emergency Physicians. For this study questionnaires were distributed to Belgian Emergency Physicians, These include, as determinants socio-demographic characteristics, traumatic events, life events, the occurrence of physical hazards, occurrences of violence, occurrence of situations that increase the risk of burnout and social support by supervisors and colleagues (LQWQ-Med), and as outcomes PTSS (IES), psychological distress (BSI), somatic complaints (PHQ 15), perceived fatigue (CIS20 R) and job satisfaction (LQWQ-MD). The response rate was 52.3 %. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the association between the determinants and each of the outcomes. Emergency Physicians are particularly vulnerable to post-traumatic and chronic stress consequences due to repetitive exposure to work related traumatic incidents such as serious injuries or death of a child/adolescent. One out of three Emergency Physicians met sub-clinical levels of anxiety and 14.5 % met a clinical level of PTSD, short for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Levels of fatigue were high but not directly related to traumatic events and occupational hazards. Social support from colleagues was found to have a beneficial effect on these complaints. Job satisfaction seems to have a protective factor. All of these not only affect the Emergency Physicians themselves, but can also have an adverse impact on patient care. EPs are, according to our and other studies

  17. What are the characteristics of perinatal events perceived to be traumatic by midwives?

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    Sheen, Kayleigh; Spiby, Helen; Slade, Pauline

    2016-09-01

    there is potential for midwives to indirectly experience events whilst providing clinical care that fulfil criteria for trauma. This research aimed to investigate the characteristics of events perceived as traumatic by UK midwives. as part of a postal questionnaire survey conducted between December 2011 and April 2012, midwives (n=421) who had witnessed and/or listened to an account of an event and perceived this as traumatic for themselves provided a written description of their experience. A traumatic perinatal event was defined as occurring during labour or shortly after birth where the midwife perceived the mother or her infant to be at risk, and they (the midwife) had experienced fear, helplessness or horror in response. Descriptions of events were analysed using thematic analysis. Witnessed (W; n=299) and listened to (H; n=383) events were analysed separately and collated to identify common and distinct themes across both types of exposure. six themes were identified, each with subthemes. Five themes were identified in both witnessed and listened to accounts and one was salient to witnessed accounts only. Themes indicated that events were characterised as severe, unexpected and complex. They involved aspects relating to the organisational context; typically limited or delayed access to resources or personnel. There were aspects relating to parents, such as having an existing relationship with the parents, and negative perceptions of the conduct of colleagues. Traumatic events had a common theme of generating feelings of responsibility and blame Finally for witnessed events those that were perceived as traumatic sometimes held personal salience, so resonated in some way with the midwife's own life experience midwives are exposed to events as part of their work that they may find traumatic. Understanding the characteristics of the events that may trigger this perception may facilitate prevention of any associated distress and inform the development of

  18. Lifetime traumatic events, health-related quality of life, and satisfaction with life in older adults.

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    Lamoureux-Lamarche, Catherine; Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria

    2017-10-01

    The aims were to assess the association between lifetime traumatic events and post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSS) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and satisfaction with life stratified by gender among a community-dwelling sample of older adults. Data used came from the ESA-Services study (2011-2013) and included a large convenience sample of 1811 older adults. Traumatic events were measured using a list of 14 events. PTSS was measured using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. HRQOL and life satisfaction were measured with the EQ-5D-3L and the Satisfaction With Life Scale. Multivariate regression analyses were used to assess the association between traumatic events, PTSS, and quality of life. Respondents had a mean age of 73.90 years (SD: 6.13, range 65-97). Our results showed that exposure to violence (OR 4.88, CI 2.72-8.77), an accident (OR 2.33, CI 1.29-4.22), and sexual abuse (OR 2.26 CI 1.17-4.37) was associated with PTSS only in women. No traumatic event was associated only in men. The interaction between gender and exposure to violence and life-threatening disease of a close one was significant. Experiencing violence (β = -0.04, p life-threatening disease (β = -0.04, p life-threatening disease of a close one, sexual abuse, and other type of traumatic events. A life-threatening disease (β = -0.90, p life satisfaction only in men and the exposure of violence (β = -1.18, p life satisfaction in women. Our study could help healthcare professionals to identify and monitor traumatic events that are at higher risk to be associated with PTSS and a lower quality of life for older men and women.

  19. Do It Now: Short-Term Responses to Traumatic Events

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    Demaria, Thomas; Schonfeld, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic crises can have a lifelong effect. The majority of children, however, will not develop lasting problems following a crisis. The immediate goal of the school is to minimize the negative impact, support coping, accelerate adjustment, and instill confidence in students that school staff is available to address their needs. Support and…

  20. OP-11 DO TRAUMATIC LIFE EVENTS PREDISPOSE CHILDREN TO DEVELOP CONSTIPATION?

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    Rrajindrajith, S; Devanarayana, N M; Rajapakshe, N N; Benninga, M A

    2015-10-01

    The aetiology of functional constipation (FC) in children is not been fully understood.Exposure to physical, emotional and sexual abuse are known to predispose children to develop FC. No paediatric study has evaluated traumatic life events other than abuse as a potential predisposing factor for FC in children. We aimed to assess the association between traumatic life events and development of FC in children. We conducted a cross sectional, school based study.Children aged 13-18 years were selected from four semi-urban schools in the Gampaha district, Sri Lanka. A validated, self-administered questionnaires were used for collect data on functional gastrointestinal disease and traumatic life events. FC was defined using the Rome III criteria. A total of1792 children were included in the analysis [males 975 (54.4%), mean age 14.4 years, SD 1.3 yearsyears]. Out of them, 138(7.7%) had FC. Prevalence of FC was significantly higher in those exposed to traumatic life events compared to controls (53.6% vs.32.9%,p children to develop FC. Parental substance abuse (12.8% vs. 7.4%), domestic violence (14.8 vs. 7.5%) were not associated with FC (p > 0.05). FC is associated with childhoodtraumatic experiences. This provides further insight intohow traumatic childhood events are associated withdevelopment and perpetuation of FC in children.

  1. Factors associated with traumatic symptoms and internalizing problems among adolescents who experienced a traumatic event

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    Deković, M.; Koning, I.M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Buist, K.L.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify factors that are related to the traumatic symptoms and problem behavior among adolescents who experienced the New Years fire in 2001 in Volendam, The Netherlands. Three groups of factors were considered: pre-trauma (personality and coping), traumarelated

  2. The role of rumination in the occurrence of positive effects of experienced traumatic events

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    Nina Ogińska-Bulik

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Cognitive processes play a significant role in both the negative and positive consequences of traumatic experiences. The aim of this research was to investigate the role of rumination in the occurrence of positive effects, in the form of posttraumatic growth, of experienced traumatic events. Participants and procedure Data were collected from 227 subjects who had experienced traumatic events, including cancer patients (31.30%, women who had experienced domestic violence (39.20%, and medical rescue workers exposed to traumatic events at work (29.50%. The age of participants ranged from 19 to 67 years (M = 40.12, SD = 13.28. The Posttraumatic Growth Inventory was used to measure positive changes, and the Event Related Rumination Inventory was used to assess the two types of ruminations (intrusive and deliberate. Results Both types of ruminations (intrusive and deliberate were positively correlated with the level of posttraumatic growth in the group of cancer patients, and deliberate ruminations were associated with posttraumatic growth in the group of women who had experienced domestic violence and in the medical rescue workers. The results of regression analysis confirmed a significant role of deliberate rumination. Conclusions The study of ruminations allows us to better explain the mechanisms underlying the consequences of traumatic experiences.

  3. Traumatic events, post-migration living difficulties and post-traumatic symptoms in first generation immigrants: a primary care study

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    Massimiliano Aragona

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To study potentially traumatic events (PTE, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, anxiety, depression, somatization and post-migration living difficulties (PMLD in primary care immigrants. DESIGN: Patients self-rated transculturally validated questionnaires. Those with and without PTSD were compared on all variables. The influence of the number of PTE and of PMLD on PTSD was measured. RESULTS: 391 patients completed the questionnaires. Prevalence of PTSD was 10.2%. PTE and PMLD were frequent in the whole sample but more common in PTSD subjects. Either the number of PTE and of PMLD significantly increased the likelihood to have a PTSD. CONCLUSIONS: PTE, PMLD, PTSD and related conditions (anxiety, depression and somatization are frequent among immigrants in primary care, and either PTE and PMLD significantly influence resulting psychopathology. The implications in clinical practice are discussed.

  4. Enduring somatic threat perceptions and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in survivors of cardiac events.

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    Meli, Laura; Alcántara, Carmela; Sumner, Jennifer A; Swan, Brendan; Chang, Bernard P; Edmondson, Donald

    2017-04-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder due to acute cardiovascular events may be uniquely defined by enduring perceptions of somatic threat. We tested whether post-traumatic stress disorder at 1 month post-acute coronary syndrome indeed required both high peritraumatic threat during the acute coronary syndrome and ongoing cardiac threat perceptions. We assessed peritraumatic threat during emergency department enrollment of 284 patients with a provisional acute coronary syndrome diagnosis and cardiac threat perceptions and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms 1 month post-discharge. In a multiple regression model with adjustment for important covariates, emergency department threat perceptions were associated with higher 1 month post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms only among those with high levels of ongoing cardiac threat.

  5. Traumatic life events and development of post-traumatic stress disorder among female factory workers in a developing country.

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    Fitch, Taylor Jennelle; Yu, Xiao; Chien, Lung-Chang; Karim, Mohammad Monjurul; Alamgir, Hasanat

    2018-06-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be more prevalent and burdensome in developing countries. The goals of this study were to (1) determine the prevalence of PTSD, (2) identify types and number of traumas related to screening positive for PTSD and (3) determine other sociodemographic risk factors and health/medical conditions that may be correlated to PTSD among garment-factory workers and a comparable working population in Bangladesh. A survey was administered to a convenient sample of 607 lower socio-economic status (SES) working women in Bangladesh, 310 of who were garment workers. The primary outcome PTSD was measured by the PTSD Checklist. The Life Events Checklist determined the number and type of traumatic events. The prevalence of PTSD was found to be 17.79% - 7.25% in garment workers and 21.55% in the comparison worker group. In multivariate analysis, PTSD was found to be significantly associated with age, income, chronic pain and number of stressful events. Participants between 45-50 years of age had the greatest odds of reporting PTSD - 15.68 fold (95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.08, 60.29) compared with those younger than 24 years. PTSD was more common in those with lower income (2,000-4,000 taka) (odds ratio (OR) = 1.60; 95% CI = 0.79, 3.26), who had chronic pain (OR = 2.48; 95% CI = 1.51, 4.07) and who experienced over three traumatic life events (OR = 11.25; 95% CI = 4.59, 27.59). The mean number of traumatic events experienced by this entire population was 4.9 with PTSD being more likely in those who experienced physical assault (OR = 6.35; 95% CI = 4.07, 9.90), who caused serious harm or death to someone else (OR = 4.80; 95% CI = 1.36, 16.87) and who had exposure to combat or war (OR = 4.76; 95% CI = 1.17, 19.34). Undiagnosed and untreated PTSD impacts the quality of life and decrease worker productivity among working-age women in this developing country.

  6. Management of traumatic events: influence of emotion-centered coping strategies on the occurrence of dissociation and post-traumatic stress disorder

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    Georges Brousse

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Georges Brousse1,2, Benjamin Arnaud1, Jordane Durand Roger1, Julie Geneste1, Delphine Bourguet1, Frederic Zaplana1, Olivier Blanc1, Jeannot Schmidt1,2, Louis Jehel31CHU Clermont Ferrand, Unité Urgences Psychiatriques, 28 place Henri Dunant BP 69, 63003 Clermont-Ferrand Cedex 01, France; 2Univ Clermont 1, UFR médecine, Clermont-Ferrand, F63001 France; 3Hopital Tenon (CHU APHP 4 rue de la Chine 75020, France, INSERM U669Abstract: Our aim was to assess the influence of the coping strategies employed for the management of traumatic events on the occurrence of dissociation and traumatic disorders. We carried out a 1-year retrospective study of the cognitive management of a traumatic event in 18 subjects involved in the same road vehicle accident. The diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD was made for 33.3% of the participants. The participants with a PTSD diagnosis 1 year after the event used emotion-centered strategies during the event more often than did those with no PTSD, P < 0.02. In the year after the traumatic event, our results show a strong link between the intensity of PTSD and the severity of the post-traumatic symptoms like dissociation (P = 0.032 and the use of emotion-centered strategies (P = 0.004. Moreover, the participants who presented Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire scores above 15 made greater use of emotion-centered coping strategies than did those who did not show dissociation, P < 0.04. Our results confirm that the cognitive management of traumatic events may play an essential role in the development of a state of post-traumatic stress in the aftermath of a violent event.Keywords: trauma, coping, emotions, peritraumatic dissociation, post-traumatic stress disorder

  7. Posttraumatic stress among young urban children exposed to family violence and other potentially traumatic events.

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    Crusto, Cindy A; Whitson, Melissa L; Walling, Sherry M; Feinn, Richard; Friedman, Stacey R; Reynolds, Jesse; Amer, Mona; Kaufman, Joy S

    2010-12-01

    This study examines the relationship between the number of types of traumatic events experienced by children 3 to 6 years old, parenting stress, and children's posttraumatic stress (PTS). Parents and caregivers provided data for 154 urban children admitted into community-based mental health or developmental services. By parent and caregiver report, children experienced an average of 4.9 different types of potentially traumatic events. Nearly one quarter of the children evidenced clinically significant PTS. Posttraumatic stress was positively and significantly related to family violence and other family-related trauma exposure, nonfamily violence and trauma exposure, and parenting stress. Additionally, parenting stress partially mediated the relationship between family violence and trauma exposure and PTS. This study highlights the need for early violence and trauma exposure screening in help-seeking populations so that appropriate interventions are initiated. Copyright © 2010 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  8. Adult eyewitness memory for single versus repeated traumatic events

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    Theunissen, T.P.M.; Meyer, T.; Memon, A.; Weinsheimer, C.C.

    2017-01-01

    Reports from individuals who have witnessed multiple, similar emotional events may differ from reports from witnesses of only a single event. To test this, we had participants (N = 65) view a video of a road traffic accident. Half of the participants saw two additional (similar) aversive films.

  9. OP-11 DO TRAUMATIC LIFE EVENTS PREDISPOSE CHILDREN TO DEVELOP CONSTIPATION?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rrajindrajith, S.; Devanarayana, N. M.; Rajapakshe, N. N.; Benninga, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    The aetiology of functional constipation (FC) in children is not been fully understood.Exposure to physical, emotional and sexual abuse are known to predispose children to develop FC. No paediatric study has evaluated traumatic life events other than abuse as a potential predisposing factor for FC

  10. Measurement Differences from Rating Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Response to Differentially Distressing Traumatic Events

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    Elhai, Jon D.; Fine, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    The authors explored differences in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as a result of rating symptoms from two separate, differentially distressing traumatic events. In an initial sample of 400 nonclinical participants, the authors inquired through a web survey about previous psychological trauma, instructing participants to nominate…

  11. Traumatic life events and posttraumatic stress disorder among Mexican adolescents: results from a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Ricardo; Borges, Guilherme; Benjet, Corina; Medina-Mora, María Elena; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2008-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and the association of Traumatic Life Events (LEs) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) adolescent population. Adolescents aged 12 to 17 were administered the adolescent version of the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (n=3 005). Data were collected using a stratified, multistage and probability sample. Prevalence, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for LEs and PTSD (assessed with DSM-IV criteria) were obtained. The percentage of adolescents reporting at least one traumatic event in their lifetimes was 68.9%, with differences by sex. Prevalence for PTSD were 1.8% (2.4% females and 1.2% males), and sexual-related traumas were the LEs most associated with PTSD [OR=3.9 (CI95%=1.8-8.2)], adjusted by sex, education and age. Exposure to traumatic life events is not uncommon among Mexico City adolescents. Effort should be made to reduce child and adolescent sexual abuse, a very traumatic event highly associated with PTSD.

  12. Traumatic Events and Suicide-Related Outcomes among Mexico City Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Guilherme; Benjet, Corina; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Orozco, Ricardo; Molnar, Beth E.; Nock, Matthew K.

    2008-01-01

    Background: We report the prevalence and associations between traumatic events and suicidal ideation, suicide plans and suicide attempts among Mexican adolescents. Methods: The data are from a representative multistage probability household survey of 3,005 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years residing in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area that was…

  13. Virtual reality exposure and neuro-bio feedback to help coping with traumatic events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerincx, M.A.; Kallen, V.L.; Brouwer, A.-M.; Leer, L. van der; Brinke, M. ten

    2010-01-01

    Recent research shows that Virtual Reality (VR) exposure or bio-neuro feedback can help professionals to cope with possibly traumatic events. This paper presents a neuro-bio VR system that combines both methods in order to further improve the prevention and therapy of trauma-related disorders. This

  14. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Children and Adolescents Exposed to Traumatic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Wendy K.; Ortiz, Claudio D.; Viswesvaran, Chockalingham; Burns, Barbara J.; Kolko, David J.; Putnam, Frank W.; Amaya-Jackson, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    The article reviews the current status (1993-2007) of psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents who have been exposed to traumatic events. Twenty-one treatment studies are evaluated using criteria from Nathan and Gorman (2002) along a continuum of methodological rigor ranging from Type 1 to Type 6. All studies were, at a minimum, robust…

  15. Prevalence of traumatic events and PTSD symptoms among secondary school students in Baghdad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Al-Hadethe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: People in Iraq have been more or less continually exposed to war for more than three decades. Studies with Iraqi participants report high prevalence rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and related problems. Methods: The aim of this study is to measure the prevalence of traumatic events and to screen the prevalence of PTSD symptoms among Iraqi secondary school students. Four self-report scales were administered to 403 secondary school students, aged 16–19 (61% male and 31% female. These scales were Baghdad Trauma History Screen, the Scale of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms (SPTSS, Social Support Scale, and Scale of Religious Coping. Results: The results showed that 84% of participants experienced at least one traumatic event. Of these, 61% fully met the criteria for PTSD; 65% of the females and 58% of the males. PTSD symptoms were correlated with 20 positive religious coping but not with social support. Conclusions: It’s clear that traumatic events were speared widely among the participants and the result showed that the vast majority of participants were exposed to different types of traumatic events. In addition, many of the participants have met full PTSD criteria and others had partial PTSD.

  16. Prevalence of Traumatic Events and Symptoms of PTSD Among South Africans Receiving an HIV Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagee, Ashraf; Bantjes, Jason; Saal, Wylene

    2017-11-01

    We studied posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among a community sample of 500 persons seeking an HIV test. The majority of participants (62.2%) indicated that they had experienced at least one index event that qualified for PTSD, even though a small proportion (5%) actually met the diagnostic criteria for the disorder. Of those who reported an index event, 25 (8.04%) met the diagnostic criteria for PTSD while 286 (91.96%) did not. On average about one-third of participants who did not meet the criteria for PTSD endorsed PTSD symptoms whereas more than three quarters of those who met the full criteria did so. No demographic factors were associated with PTSD caseness, except number of traumatic events. These results are discussed in the context of the need to address traumatic events and PTSD among persons who undergo HIV testing.

  17. Helping Children with Disabilities Cope with Disaster and Traumatic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events General Information Caring for Children in a Disaster This web site from CDC has information for families, schools, and healthcare providers during and after crises and disasters. Children and Youth—SAMHSA Disaster Behavioral Health Information ...

  18. Multiple Traumatic Events and Psychological Distress : The South Africa Stress and Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Stacey L.; Williams, David R.; Stein, Dan J.; Seedat, Soraya; Jackson, Pamela B.; Moomal, Hashim

    2007-01-01

    Using nationally representative data from South Africa, we examine lifetime prevalence of traumas and multiple traumas (number of events). Employing multiple regression analysis, we study sociodemographic risk of trauma, and the association between trauma and distress. Results indicate most South Africans experience at least one traumatic event during their lives, with the majority reporting multiple. Consistent variation in risk is evident for gender and marital status but not other sociodem...

  19. Changes in event-related potential functional networks predict traumatic brain injury in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlan, Lorre S; Lan, Ingrid S; Smith, Colin; Margulies, Susan S

    2018-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of cognitive and behavioral deficits in children in the US each year. None of the current diagnostic tools, such as quantitative cognitive and balance tests, have been validated to identify mild traumatic brain injury in infants, adults and animals. In this preliminary study, we report a novel, quantitative tool that has the potential to quickly and reliably diagnose traumatic brain injury and which can track the state of the brain during recovery across multiple ages and species. Using 32 scalp electrodes, we recorded involuntary auditory event-related potentials from 22 awake four-week-old piglets one day before and one, four, and seven days after two different injury types (diffuse and focal) or sham. From these recordings, we generated event-related potential functional networks and assessed whether the patterns of the observed changes in these networks could distinguish brain-injured piglets from non-injured. Piglet brains exhibited significant changes after injury, as evaluated by five network metrics. The injury prediction algorithm developed from our analysis of the changes in the event-related potentials functional networks ultimately produced a tool with 82% predictive accuracy. This novel approach is the first application of auditory event-related potential functional networks to the prediction of traumatic brain injury. The resulting tool is a robust, objective and predictive method that offers promise for detecting mild traumatic brain injury, in particular because collecting event-related potentials data is noninvasive and inexpensive. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Traumatic events involving elderly patients treated with anticoagulants for atrial fibrillation: the downside of stroke prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Riccardi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A group of oral anticoagulant-treated patients affected by permanent atrial fibrillation was evaluated after their access to the emergency room as a result of a traumatic accident. In these patients, the re-evaluation of their risk of thromboembolism and bleeding was performed together with the evaluation of their risk of falling and institutionalization. Results show that the emergency department identifies a cohort of very elderly frail patients, who should be carefully reconsidered for anticoagulant therapy after a traumatic event.

  1. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Resulting from Torture and Other Traumatic Events among Syrian Kurdish Refugees in Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Hawkar; Hassan, Chiya Q

    2017-01-01

    Political violence is known to cause psychological distress. There is a large body of empirical studies drawing correlations between war trauma, torture, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, there are few studies on the effects of war-related trauma among Syrian refugees after events following the 'Arab Spring' uprisings between 2010 and 2012. This study examines the association of PTSD symptoms with torture and other traumatic events among Syrian Kurdish refugees living in Kurdistan Region, Iraq. The experiences and PTSD symptoms among 91 Syrian Kurdish refugees in the Arbat camp in the Sulaymaniyah Governorate of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq were assessed using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, sections I, IV, and V. Results showed that the estimated levels of PTSD symptoms were high: between 35 and 38%. There were no significant gender differences in the occurrence of PTSD symptoms. However, men reported more general traumatic experiences than women. There were significant positive correlations between PTSD symptoms with traumatic events and torture ( r = 0.500, r = 0.366, respectively). Examining the mental health impact of torture and other traumatic events among refugees has possible implications for organizations managing rehabilitation programs for individuals who have been exposed to traumatic events.

  2. Social support and negative and positive outcomes of experienced traumatic events in a group of male emergency service workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogińska-Bulik, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigates the relationship between perceived social support in the workplace and both negative (post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms) and positive outcomes (post-traumatic growth) of experienced traumatic events in a group of male emergency service workers. Data of 116 workers representing emergency services (37.1% firefighters, 37.1%, police officers and 30% medical rescue workers) who have experienced a traumatic event in their worksite were analyzed. The range of age of the participants was 21-57 years (M=35.27; SD=8.13). Polish versions of the Impact of Event Scale--Revised and the Post-traumatic Growth Inventory were used to assess the negative and positive outcomes of the experienced event. A perceived social support scale was measured by the scale What support you can count on. The data obtained from the study revealed the negative dependence of social support from supervisors with PTSD symptoms and positive--social support from co-workers with post-traumatic growth. Moreover the results of the study indicate the positive relationship between negative and positive outcomes of experienced traumatic events in the workplace. Perceived social support plays a more important role in gaining benefits from trauma than preventing negative outcomes of the experienced traumatic event. Support from co-workers, compared to support from supervisors, has greater importance.

  3. Tips for Survivors of a Traumatic Event: Managing Your Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Having trouble thinking clearly and concentrating. • Having difficulty making decisions. • Having difficulty giving or accepting help. U.S. DEPARTMENT ... feelings to loved ones and friends often. Pay Attention to Your Body, Feelings, and ... how your own past experiences affect your way of handling this event, and think ...

  4. Multiple traumatic events and psychological distress: the South Africa stress and health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Stacey L; Williams, David R; Stein, Dan J; Seedat, Soraya; Jackson, Pamela B; Moomal, Hashim

    2007-10-01

    Using nationally representative data from South Africa, we examine lifetime prevalence of traumas and multiple traumas (number of events). Employing multiple regression analysis, the authors study the sociodemographic risk of trauma, and the association between trauma and distress. Results indicate most South Africans experience at least one traumatic event during their lives, with the majority reporting multiple. Consistent variation in risk is evident for gender and marital status, but not other sociodemographics. Trauma is positively related to high distress, and findings also support a cumulative effect of trauma exposure. Individuals with the most traumas (6+) appear at 5 times greater risk of high distress. This study highlights the importance of considering traumatic events in the context of other traumas in South Africa.

  5. The interplay between psychological well-being, university adjustment and previous experience of traumatic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Miller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available It was shown that traumatic event that happened long ago does not have univocal connection with the current condition (intensity of post traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression, adjustment (as personality trait in general and university adaptation. Psychological well-being is not only a result of good adjustment, but at first contributes to socio-psychological adaptation of a person being connected with the way of perception and appraisal of life events. Psychological well-being is a part of adjustment potential and also reflects the level of adaptation. The most stressful events are death and/or serious illness of close others, or abuse. Special characteristics of students are described in the paper depending on the intensity of their suicidal thoughts. It is shown that the intensity of suicidal thoughts is connected with characteristics of psychological well-being showing itself in current condition, adjustment (as personality trait, university adaptation and choice of defense strategies

  6. Children’s Vantage Point of Recalling Traumatic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Katie S.; Bryant, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the recollections of child survivors of the 2004 Asian tsunami in terms of their vantage point and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) responses. Five years after the tsunami, 110 children (aged 7–13 years) living in Aceh, Indonesia were assessed for source of memories of the tsunami (personal memory or second-hand source), vantage point of the memory, and were administered the Children’s Revised Impact of Event Scale-13. Fifty-three children (48%) met criteria for PTSD. Two-thirds of children reported direct memories of the tsunami and one-third reported having memories based on reports from other people. More children (97%) who reported an indirect memory of the tsunami recalled the event from an onlooker’s perspective to some extent than those who recalled the event directly (63%). Boys were more likely to rely on stories from others to reconstruct their memory of the tsunami, and to adopt an observer perspective. Boys who adopted an observer’s perspective had less severe PTSD than those who adopted a field perspective. These findings suggest that, at least in the case of boys, an observer perspectives of trauma can be associated with levels of PTSD. PMID:27649299

  7. The mediating effect of depression between exposure to potentially traumatic events and PTSD in news journalists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klas Backholm

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: News journalists are an occupational group with a unique task at the scene of an unfolding crisis—to collect information and inform the public about the event. By being on location, journalists put themselves at risk for being exposed to the potentially traumatic event. Objective: To compare potentially traumatic exposure during work assignments at a crisis scene and in personal life as predictors of the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD in news journalists. Further, to investigate the mediating effect of depression between the predictor and predicted variables. Method: With a web-based questionnaire, information from a sample of Finnish news journalists (n=407 was collected. The data collected included details on the range of potentially traumatic assignments (PTAs at the crisis scene during the past 12 months, lifetime potentially traumatic events (PTEs in personal life, PTSD symptoms, and level of depression. Results: Approximately 50% of the participants had worked with a PTA during the past 12 months. Depression had a significant indirect effect on the relationship between PTAs at the scene and symptoms of PTSD. A similar result was found regarding the relationship between personal life PTEs and PTSD. Depression had a complete indirect effect in the case of PTAs and a partial indirect effect in regard to PTE exposure in personal life. Conclusions: Exposure to PTAs is common within journalistic work. The results reflect the importance of understanding the underlying mechanisms of the measured symptoms (PTSD, depression in relation to trauma history. The main limitations of the study include the cross-sectional design and the nature of the instruments used for the collection of work-related trauma history.

  8. Adler's psychology (of use) today: personal history of traumatic life events as a self-handicapping strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGree, C E; Snyder, C R

    1985-06-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that the reporting of a history of traumatic life events may serve as a strategy to control attributions about performance in an evaluative setting (i.e., self-handicapping). Following from Alfred Adler's early theorization in the psychology of use, as well as more recent theory and research on self-handicapping, we predicted that individuals would emphasize the adversity of events and experiences in their background when an uncertain evaluation was expected and when a traumatic background would serve as a suitable excuse for potential failure. Results generally supported the hypothesized self-protective reporting of traumatic life events.

  9. Posttraumatic Stress among Young Urban Children Exposed to Family Violence and Other Potentially Traumatic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crusto, Cindy A.; Whitson, Melissa L.; Walling, Sherry N.; Feinn, Richard; Friedman, Stacey R.; Reynolds, Jesse; Amer, Mona; Kaufman, Joy S.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between the number of types of traumatic events experienced by children 3 to 6 years old, parenting stress, and children’s posttraumatic stress (PTS). Parents/caregivers provided data for 154 urban children admitted into community-based mental health and/or developmental services. By parent/caregiver report, children experienced an average of 4.9 different types of potentially traumatic events. Nearly one-quarter of the children evidenced clinically significant PTS. PTS was positively and significantly related to family violence and other family-related trauma exposure, nonfamily violence/trauma exposure, and parenting stress. Additionally, parenting stress partially mediated the relationship between family violence/trauma exposure and PTS. This study highlights the need for early violence/trauma exposure screening in help-seeking populations so that appropriate interventions are initiated. PMID:21171132

  10. Gambling Behavior and Problem Gambling Reflecting Social Transition and Traumatic Childhood Events Among Greenland Inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Curtis, Tine; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    gambling behavior and problem gambling among Greenland Inuit in relation to the ongoing social transition and traumatic events during childhood. A large representative cross-sectional study was conducted among Greenland Inuit (n = 2,189). Data was collected among adults (18+) in 9 towns and 13 villages...... in Greenland from 2005 to 2010. Problem gambling, gambling behavior and traumatic childhood events were measured through a self-administered questionnaire. The lie/bet screen was used to identify past year and lifetime problem gambling. Social transition was measured as place of residence and a combination...... of residence, education and occupation. The lifetime prevalence of problem gambling was 16 % among men and 10 % among women (p ...

  11. El Salvador earthquakes: relationships among acute stress disorder symptoms, depression, traumatic event exposure, and resource loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, David N; de Alvarado, Ana Maria Glower; de Castro, Norma Blandon; Male, Robert Van; Zetino, A M; Vega, Raphael

    2006-12-01

    Four and seven weeks after powerful earthquakes in El Salvador, the authors examined the relationships among demographics, traumatic event exposure, social support, resource loss, acute stress disorder (ASD) symptoms, depression, and posttraumatic growth. Participants were 253 college students (Study 1) and 83 people in the community (Study 2). In Study 1, female gender, traumatic event exposure, low social support, and loss of personal characteristic, condition, and energy resources contributed to ASD symptoms and depression. In Study 2, damage to home and loss of personal characteristic and object resources contributed to ASD symptoms and depression. Posttraumatic growth was not associated with ASD symptoms or depression. Findings support the conservation of resources stress theory (Hobfoll, 1998). Resource loss spirals, excessive demands on coping, and exposure to multiple disasters are discussed.

  12. [Posttraumatic stress disorder in patients with neurogenic amnesia for the traumatic event].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podoll, K; Kunert, H J; Sass, H

    2000-10-01

    The development of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients with neurogenic amnesia for the traumatic event is recorded in 2 own patients and in 19 cases from the clinical literature. With a single exception, all patients were accident victims with closed head injuries. Only about three quarters of the patients completely fulfilled DSM-III-R criteria of PTSD. Nineteen patients displayed involuntary conscious memories of aspects of the traumatic event (presenting as recurrent intrusive thoughts, images or dreams) co-existent with a complete or partial lack of voluntary conscious memories of the trauma, suggesting that different memory systems and distinct brain mechanisms subserve these phenomena. The said clinical observations are discussed against the background of current neuropsychological models of multiple memory systems. The recorded cases demonstrate that declarative episodic memory is not necessary for symptoms of PTSD to emerge, whereas preserved functions of non-declarative memory systems represent a sufficient condition for the development of PTSD symptoms.

  13. Traumatic childhood sexual events and secondary sexual health complaints in neurotic disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Sobański, Jerzy A; Müldner-Nieckowski, Łukasz; Katarzyna Klasa,; Dembińska, Edyta; Rutkowski, Krzysztof; Cyranka, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Aim. Assessment of the association between self-reported sexual complaints and recalled childhood sexual adversities in a sample of psychotherapy patients.Material and methods. Coexistence of memories concerning traumatic events and minor sexual adversities and the currently present symptoms were analyzed on the basis of KO”0” Symptom Checklist andLife Inventory completed prior to treatment in the day hospital for neurotic disorders. Questionnaires from 3929 psychotherapy patients were analyz...

  14. Association between witnessing traumatic events and psychopathology in the South African Stress and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwoli, Lukoye; Platt, Jonathan; Williams, David R; Stein, Dan J; Koenen, Karestan C

    2015-08-01

    The high burden of witnessing traumatic events has been demonstrated in previous research in South Africa. However, previous work has focused on PTSD rather than a broader range of psychopathological outcomes. This study examined the association between witnessing trauma and multiple outcomes including mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders. Regression models measured the odds of mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders among those who reported witnessing in the South African Stress and Health Study. Discrete-time survival analysis was used to examine whether witnessing was associated with earlier onset of mental disorders. Witnessing trauma was more commonly reported among males and those with low-average education. Posttraumatic stress disorder, mood, and anxiety disorders varied significantly with witnessing status, and witnessing was associated with exposure to a higher number of traumatic events compared to other types of traumatic events. Respondents reporting witnessing trauma had elevated odds of mood and anxiety disorders, but not substance use disorders. Witnessing trauma is common in the South African population and results in increased risk of mood and anxiety disorders. Interventions aimed at reducing the burden of trauma and its outcomes must now increase their focus on bystanders and other observers, rather than just focusing on those directly affected.

  15. Are memories for sexually traumatic events "special"? A within-subjects investigation of trauma and memory in a clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace, Kristine A; Porter, Stephen; ten Brinke, Leanne

    2008-01-01

    According to a long-standing clinical tradition, sexually traumatic experiences are processed and recalled differently from other experiences, often leading to memory impairment. In this study, we compared the characteristics of traumatic memories for sexual violence and two other types of emotional experiences. N=44 women recruited from a local sexual trauma agency were asked to recall and describe three autobiographical events: sexual abuse/assault, a non-sexual trauma, and a positive emotional event. The characteristics of the three memory types were compared on both subjective and objective measures. Further, the potential influences of level of traumatic impact and dissociation were assessed. Results indicated that memories for sexual trauma were not impaired or fragmented relative to other memories. Instead, memories for sexual trauma were associated with a remarkably high level of vividness, detail, and sensory components. Further, high levels of traumatic impact were not associated with memory impairment. Implications for the ongoing traumatic memory debate are discussed.

  16. Experiences of Traumatic Events and Associations with PTSD and Depression Development in Urban Health Care-seeking Women

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, Jessica M.; Page, Gayle G.; Sharps, Phyllis; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

    2008-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that occurs after a traumatic event and has been linked to psychiatric and physical health declines. Rates of PTSD are far higher in individuals with low incomes and who reside in urban areas compared to the general population. In this study, 250 urban health care-seeking women were interviewed for a diagnosis of PTSD, major depressive disorder, and also the experience of traumatic events. Multivariate logistic regressions were used ...

  17. "One Scar Too Many:" The Associations Between Traumatic Events and Psychological Distress Among Undocumented Mexican Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcini, Luz M; Peña, Juan M; Gutierrez, Angela P; Fagundes, Christopher P; Lemus, Hector; Lindsay, Suzanne; Klonoff, Elizabeth A

    2017-10-01

    Undocumented immigration often presents with multiple stressors and contextual challenges, which may diminish mental health. This study is the first to provide population-based estimates for the prevalence of traumatic events and its association to clinically significant psychological distress among undocumented Mexican immigrants in the United States. This cross-sectional study used respondent-driven sampling to obtain and analyze data from clinical interviews with 248 undocumented Mexican immigrants residing in high-risk neighborhoods near the California-Mexico border. Overall, 82.7% of participants reported a history of traumatic events, with 47.0% of these meeting the criteria for clinically significant psychological distress. After controlling for relevant covariates, having experienced material deprivation, odds ratio (OR) = 2.26, 95% CI [1.18, 4.31], p = .013, and bodily injury, OR = 2.96, 95% CI [1.50, 5.83], p = .002, and not having a history of deportation, OR = 0.36, 95% CI [0.17, 0.79], p = .011, were associated with clinically significant psychological distress. These results support the need to revisit health and immigration policies and to devise solutions grounded in empirical evidence aimed at preventing the negative effects of trauma and psychological distress in this population. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  18. [Personal resources and negative and positive effects of traumatic events in a group of medical rescuers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogińska-Bulik, Nina

    The purpose of the research was to investigate the role of personal resources, such as optimism and sense of selfefficacy in both negative (posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms) and positive (posttraumatic growth - PTG) effects of experienced trauma in a group of emergency service representatives. Data of 100 medical rescue workers, mostly men (59%) who have experienced traumatic events in their worksite were analyzed. The age of the participants ranged from 24 to 60 years (mean = 37.43; standard deviation = 8.73). Polish versions of the Impact of Event Scale - Revised and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory were used to assess the negative and positive effects of experienced events. Optimism was assessed by the Life Orientation Test and sense of self-efficacy by the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale. The obtained results revealed that optimism is negatively associated with symptoms of PTSD in men, and sense of self-efficacy - positively with the severity of growth after trauma in women. The analyzed personal resources play a diverse role in the emergence of negative and positive effects of experienced traumatic events, depending on the gender of the respondents. Med Pr 2016;67(5):635-644. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  19. Personal resources and negative and positive effects of traumatic events in a group of medical rescuers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ogińska-Bulik

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of the research was to investigate the role of personal resources, such as optimism and sense of selfefficacy in both negative (posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms and positive (posttraumatic growth – PTG effects of experienced trauma in a group of emergency service representatives. Material and Methods: Data of 100 medical rescue workers, mostly men (59% who have experienced traumatic events in their worksite were analyzed. The age of the participants ranged from 24 to 60 years (mean = 37.43; standard deviation = 8.73. Polish versions of the Impact of Event Scale – Revised and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory were used to assess the negative and positive effects of experienced events. Optimism was assessed by the Life Orientation Test and sense of self-efficacy by the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale. Results: The obtained results revealed that optimism is negatively associated with symptoms of PTSD in men, and sense of self-efficacy – positively with the severity of growth after trauma in women. Conclusions: The analyzed personal resources play a diverse role in the emergence of negative and positive effects of experienced traumatic events, depending on the gender of the respondents. Med Pr 2016;67(5:635–644

  20. [Links between life events, traumatism and dementia; an open study including 565 patients with dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, E; Bouby-Serieys, V; Thomas, P; Clément, J-P

    2006-10-01

    Ageing is due to a progressive loss of the person's adaptation capability, whereas during this period environmental aggression increases. In the elderly, life events re-present a psychological traumatism that overwhelms the old person and related family, disrupting and fragilising homeostatic balance. A number of authors have suggested a possible link between life traumatisms and the dementia processes. The aim of this study is to reveal the presence of life traumatisms preceding the apparition of the dementia syndrome. This is a retrospective and comparative work based on the PIXEL study on complaints and demands from the principle informal caregivers of Alzheimer patients. It includes 565 patients presenting the criterion of dementia as defined by the DSM IV, and questionnaires filled out by the principle caregivers. One item of the questionnaire referred to life events which could have played a part in the development of the disorder. In a second stage, the reported events were classified into 4 distinct categories: loss, repeated or prolonged stress, psychotraumatism and depression-inducing events. The statistics were produced using SAS and Stat 10 software. Student's test, ANOVA and chi2-test were used. 372 caregivers answered the first item (65%); 76 of them believed there was no event while 296 related the disorder to one or several life events (79% of responders, 52% of the sample). These results confirm Persson and Clement's study which evidenced a higher frequency of stressing life events for subjects afflicted with dementia as compared with older people without any psychic disorder. Reported events and their respective frequency: spouse death (15.39%), parents' death (15%), familial difficulty (10.08%), anaesthesia (8.49%), child's death (4.42%), somatic disturbance (4%), depression (3.89%), retirement (3.89%), financial problems (2.65%), loneliness (2.65%), removal (1.76%), fall (1%), alcohol (0.8%), traumatism (0.53%), spouse care (0.35%), leaving for

  1. Gambling behavior and problem gambling reflecting social transition and traumatic childhood events among Greenland Inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Curtis, Tine; Bjerregaard, Peter

    Aims: An increase in social pathologies is a key feature in indigenous populations undergoing transition. The Greenland Inuit are a large indigenous population constituting a majority in their own country, which makes it possible to investigate differences within the population. This led us to st...... of social pathologies in Greenland. A significant association between lifetime problem gambling, social transition and traumatic childhood events suggests people caught between tradition and modern ways of life are more vulnerable to gambling problems....... was measured as place of residence and a combination of residence, education and occupation. Findings: The lifetime prevalence of problem gambling was 16% among men and 10% among women (p

  2. Early traumatic life events, parental attitudes, family history, and birth risk factors in patients with depressive disorder and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandelow, Borwin; Gutermann, Julia; Peter, Helmut; Wedekind, Dirk

    2013-02-01

    Only few studies have compared the frequency of traumatic life events during childhood in inpatients with depression with a healthy control group. Consecutively admitted inpatients with depression (n = 79), most of whom belonged to the melancholic subtype (n = 73; 92.4%), and healthy controls (n = 110) were investigated using a comprehensive retrospective interview with 203 questions regarding childhood traumatic life events, parental attitudes, family history of psychiatric disorders and birth risk factors. Depressed patients had significantly more severe traumatic events (mean score 1.33; SD 1.4) than control subjects (0.85; SD 1.2) on a 0-10 point "severe trauma scale". 70.9% (n = 56) of the depressed patients, but only 48.2% (n = 53) of the controls reported at least one severe traumatic event. When looking at single events, only few differences were found between patients and controls. Compared to controls, patients described significantly higher rates of psychiatric disorders in their families, in particular depression. Parental rearing styles were rated as more unfavorable in the patient group. In a logistic regression model, of all possible etiological factors examined, only a family history of psychiatric disorders showed a significant influence (OR = 3.6). Melancholic depression seems to be less associated with traumatic events than other psychiatric disorders.

  3. Pre-event trajectories of mental health and health-related disabilities, and post-event traumatic stress symptoms and health : A 7-wave population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velden, Peter; Bosmans, Mark; van der Meulen, Erik; Vermunt, J.K.

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown to what extent classes of trajectories of pre-event mental health problems (MHP) and health-related disabilities (HRD), predict post-event traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), MHP and HRD. Aim of the present 7-wave study was to assess the predictive values using a representative sample of

  4. National Estimates of Exposure to Traumatic Events and PTSD Prevalence Using DSM-IV and DSM-5 Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Milanak, Melissa E.; Miller, Mark W.; Keyes, Katherine M.; Friedman, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) defined according to the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual fifth edition (DSM-5; 2013) and fourth edition (DSM-IV; 1994) was compared in a national sample of U.S. adults (N = 2,953) recruited from an online panel. Exposure to traumatic events, PTSD symptoms, and functional impairment were assessed online using a highly structured, self-administered survey. Traumatic event exposure using DSM-5 criteria was high (89.7%), and exposure to multiple traumatic event types was the norm. PTSD caseness was determined using Same Event (i.e., all symptom criteria met to the same event type) and Composite Event (i.e., symptom criteria met to a combination of event types) definitions. Lifetime, past-12-month, and past 6-month PTSD prevalence using the Same Event definition for DSM-5 was 8.3%, 4.7%, and 3.8% respectively. All 6 DSM-5 prevalence estimates were slightly lower than their DSM-IV counterparts, although only 2 of these differences were statistically significant. DSM-5 PTSD prevalence was higher among women than among men, and prevalence increased with greater traumatic event exposure. Major reasons individuals met DSM-IV criteria, but not DSM-5 criteria were the exclusion of nonaccidental, nonviolent deaths from Criterion A, and the new requirement of at least 1 active avoidance symptom. PMID:24151000

  5. Potentially traumatic events as predictors of disability pension: A 10-year follow-up study in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassemo, Eva; Sandanger, Inger

    2018-05-01

    Are potentially traumatic events associated with subsequent disability pension? Traumatic exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may represent a disabling state with both personal and professional consequences for the affected individual. Despite this, there is a scarcity of research studying the effects of traumatic exposure on disability pension. This study examined the differences in risk for disability pension among unexposed, exposed to trauma and PTSD cases. An ambidirectional Norwegian cohort study, consisting of 1238 individuals aged 18-66 years who were at risk of disability pension, were interviewed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, and linked with registry data on disability pension. Registry follow-up in the Norwegian Insurance Database lasted ten years following interview in 2000-01. The risk of disability pension after traumatic exposure, divided into accidental and premeditated, was assessed by Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. In 10 years, 9.5% of the cohort had been granted disability pension. Overall exposure to traumatic events did not alter the risk of disability pension. However, among women, exposure to premeditated traumas did increase the risk (HR 2.96 (95% CI 1.54-5.68)), and was an independent risk factor. Fulfilling criteria for PTSD caseness further increased the risk (HR 4.69 (95% CI 1.78-12.40)). There was no increased risk found between traumatic exposure and disability pension for men. Exposure to trauma, particularly premeditated trauma, seems to be an independent risk factor for disability pension in women.

  6. Impact of new traumatic or stressful life events on pre-existing PTSD in traumatized refugees: results of a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Schock

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A significant proportion of trauma survivors experience an additional critical life event in the aftermath. These renewed experiences of traumatic and stressful life events may lead to an increase in trauma-related mental health symptoms.Method: In a longitudinal study, the effects of renewed experiences of a trauma or stressful life event were examined. For this purpose, refugees seeking asylum in Germany were assessed for posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS, Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS, anxiety, and depression (Hopkins Symptom Checklist [HSCL-25] before treatment start as well as after 6 and 12 months during treatment (N=46. Stressful life events and traumatic events were recorded monthly. If a new event happened, PDS and HSCL were additionally assessed directly afterwards. Mann–Whitney U-tests were performed to calculate the differences between the group that experienced an additional critical event (stressful vs. trauma during treatment (n=23 and the group that did not (n=23, as well as differences within the critical event group between the stressful life event group (n=13 and the trauma group (n=10.Results: Refugees improved significantly during the 12-month period of our study, but remained severely distressed. In a comparison of refugees with a new stressful life event or trauma, significant increases in PTS, anxiety, and depressive symptoms were found directly after the experience, compared to the group without a renewed event during the 12 months of treatment. With regard to the different critical life events (stressful vs. trauma, no significant differences were found regarding overall PTS, anxiety, and depression symptoms. Only avoidance symptoms increased significantly in the group experiencing a stressful life event.Conclusion: Although all clinicians should be aware of possible PTS symptom reactivation, especially those working with refugees and asylum seekers, who often experience new critical life

  7. Impact of new traumatic or stressful life events on pre-existing PTSD in traumatized refugees: results of a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock, Katrin; Böttche, Maria; Rosner, Rita; Wenk-Ansohn, Mechthild; Knaevelsrud, Christine

    2016-01-01

    A significant proportion of trauma survivors experience an additional critical life event in the aftermath. These renewed experiences of traumatic and stressful life events may lead to an increase in trauma-related mental health symptoms. In a longitudinal study, the effects of renewed experiences of a trauma or stressful life event were examined. For this purpose, refugees seeking asylum in Germany were assessed for posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS), Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS), anxiety, and depression (Hopkins Symptom Checklist [HSCL-25]) before treatment start as well as after 6 and 12 months during treatment ( N =46). Stressful life events and traumatic events were recorded monthly. If a new event happened, PDS and HSCL were additionally assessed directly afterwards. Mann-Whitney U -tests were performed to calculate the differences between the group that experienced an additional critical event (stressful vs. trauma) during treatment ( n =23) and the group that did not ( n =23), as well as differences within the critical event group between the stressful life event group ( n =13) and the trauma group ( n =10). Refugees improved significantly during the 12-month period of our study, but remained severely distressed. In a comparison of refugees with a new stressful life event or trauma, significant increases in PTS, anxiety, and depressive symptoms were found directly after the experience, compared to the group without a renewed event during the 12 months of treatment. With regard to the different critical life events (stressful vs. trauma), no significant differences were found regarding overall PTS, anxiety, and depression symptoms. Only avoidance symptoms increased significantly in the group experiencing a stressful life event. Although all clinicians should be aware of possible PTS symptom reactivation, especially those working with refugees and asylum seekers, who often experience new critical life events, should understand symptom

  8. Posttraumatic stress disorder in patients with traumatic brain injury and amnesia for the event?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, D L; Labbate, L A; Salazar, A M; Nelson, R; Sheley, E; Staudenmeier, J; Martin, E

    1997-01-01

    Frequency of DSM-III-R posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was studied in 47 active-duty service members (46 male, 1 female; mean age 27 = 7) with moderate traumatic brain injury and neurogenic amnesia for the event. Patients had attained "oriented and cooperative" recovery level. When evaluated with a modified Present State Examination and other questions at various points from study entry to 24-month follow-up, no patients met full criteria for PTSD or met criterion B (reexperience); 6 (13%) met both C (avoidance) and D (arousal) criteria. Five of these 6 also had organic mood disorder, depressed type, and/or organic anxiety disorder. Posttraumatic amnesia following moderate head injury may protect against recurring memories and the development of PTSD. Some patients with neurogenic amnesia may develop a form of PTSD without the reexperiencing symptoms.

  9. Examining the link between traumatic events and delinquency among juvenile delinquent girls: A longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsiglio, Mary C.; Chronister, Krista M.; Gibson, Brandon; Leve, Leslie D.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have postulated associations between childhood trauma and delinquency, but few have examined the direction of these relationships prospectively and, specifically, with samples of delinquent girls. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between traumatic events and delinquency for girls in the juvenile justice system using a cross-lagged model. Developmental differences in associations as a function of high school entry status were also examined. The sample included 166 girls in the juvenile justice system who were mandated to community-based out-of-home care due to chronic delinquency. Overall, study results provide evidence that trauma and delinquency risk pathways vary according to high school entry status. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:25580179

  10. Traumatic Experiences, Stressful Events, and Alexithymia in Chronic Migraine With Medication Overuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Bottiroli

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many factors are involved in the prognosis and outcome of Chronic Migraine and Medication Overuse Headache (CM+MOH, and their understanding is a topic of interest. It is well known that CM+MOH patients experience increased psychiatric comorbidity, such as anxiety, depression, or personality disorders. Other psychological factors still need to be explored. The present study is aimed to evaluate whether early life traumatic experiences, stressful life events, and alexithymia can be associated with CM+MOH.Methods: Three hundred and thirty-one individuals were recruited for this study. They belonged to one of the two following groups: CM+MOH (N = 179; 79% females, Age: 45.2 ± 9.8 and episodic migraine (EM (N = 152; 81% females; Age: 40.7 ± 11.0. Diagnosis was operationally defined according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders 3rd edition (ICHD-IIIβ. Data on early life (physical and emotional traumatic experiences, recent stressful events and alexithymia were collected by means of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Stressful life-events Questionnaire, and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20, respectively.Results: Data showed a higher prevalence of emotional (χ2 = 6.99; d.f. = 1; p = 0.006 and physical (χ2 = 6.18; d.f. = 1; p = 0.009 childhood trauma and of current stressful events of important impact (χ2 = 4.42; d.f. = 1; p = 0.025 in CM+MOH patients than in EM ones. CM+MOH patients were characterized by higher difficulties in a specific alexithymic trait (Factor 1 subscale of TAS-20 [F(1, 326 = 6.76, p = 0.01, ηp2 = 0.02] when compared to the EM group. The role of these factors was confirmed in a multivariate analysis, which showed an association of CM+MOH with emotional (OR 2.655; 95% CI 1.153–6.115, p = 0.022 or physical trauma (OR 2.763; 95% CI 1.322–5.771, p = 0.007, and a high score at the Factor 1 (OR 1.039; 95% CI 1.002–1.078, p = 0.040.Conclusions: Our findings demonstrated a clear

  11. [Frequency and Type of Traumatic Events in Children and Adolescents with a Posttraumatic Stress Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Sabine; Wolf, Saskia; Tutus, Dunja; Goldbeck, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    The risk for children and adolescents to be exposed to a potentially traumatic event (PTE) is high. The present study examines the frequency of PTEs in children and adolescents with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), the type of index trauma, and its relation to PTSD symptom severity and gender. A clinical sample of 159 children and adolescents between 7-16 years was assessed using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for Children and Adolescents (CAPS-CA). All reported PTEs from the checklist were analyzed according to frequency. The index events were categorized according to the following categories: cause (random vs. intentional), relation to offender (intrafamilial vs. extrafamilial), patient's role (victim, witness or vicarious traumatization), and type of PTE (physical or sexual violence). Relation between categories and PTSD symptom severity and sex were analyzed with inferential statistics. On average participants reported five PTEs, most frequently physical violence without weapons (57.9%), loss of loved person through death (45.9%), and sexual abuse/assaults (44%). The most frequent index traumata were intentional (76.7%). Regarding trauma type, there was a significant difference concerning higher symptom severity in children and adolescents who experienced sexual abuse/assault compared to physical violence (t=-1.913(109), p=0.05). A significantly higher symptom severity was found for girls compared to boys for the trauma categories extrafamilial offender (z=-2,27, p=0.02), victim (z=-2,11, p=0,04), and sexual abuse/assault (z=-2,43, p=0,01). Clinical and diagnostic implications are discussed in relation to the amendments of PTSD diagnostic criteria in DSM-5.

  12. Helping Children and Youth Who Have Experienced Traumatic Events. National Children's Mental Health Awareness Day--May 3, 2011. HHS Publication Number SMA-11-4642

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Childhood exposure to traumatic events is a major public health problem in the United States. Traumatic events can include witnessing or experiencing physical or sexual abuse, violence in families and communities, loss of a loved one, refugee and war experiences, living with a family member whose caregiving ability is impaired, and having a…

  13. [Prevalence of violent events and post-traumatic stress disorder in the Mexican population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Mora Icaza, Maria Elena; Borges-Guimaraes, Guilherme; Lara, Carmen; Ramos-Lira, Luciana; Zambrano, Joaquín; Fleiz-Bautista, Clara

    2005-01-01

    To report the rate of exposure to different violent events, their demographic correlates, the prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), and the impact on quality of life. The National Survey of Psychiatric Epidemiology is representative of the Mexican urban population aged 18 to 65. The survey was undertaken in 2001 and 2002 using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI- 15) computerized version. The statistical analyses take into account the multistage, stratified, and weighted sample design. Kaplan-Meier and logistic regressions were performed. Sixty-eight percent of the population has been exposed to at least one stressful life event. Exposure varies by sex (rape, harassment, and sexual abuse are more frequent in women; accidents and being a victim of burglary among men) and by age (more frequent in children, adolescents, young adult women, and the elderly). By sex, 2.3% of women and 0.49% of men present PTSD. Rape, harassment, kidnapping, and sexual abuse are the events most associated with PTSD. The results suggest the need to increase treatment coverage to attend the consequences of violence, taking into consideration the important gender and age variations.

  14. PTSD and Comorbid Disorders in a Representative Sample of Adolescents: The Risk Associated with Multiple Exposures to Potentially Traumatic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Alexandra; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the impact of multiple exposures to potentially traumatic events (PTEs), including sexual victimization, physical victimization, and witnessed violence, on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and comorbid conditions (i.e., major depressive episode [MDE], and substance use [SUD]). Methods: Participants were a…

  15. Life stress versus traumatic stress: The impact of life events on psychological functioning in children with and without serious illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Victoria W; Long, Alanna; Phipps, Sean

    2016-01-01

    To determine the differential impact of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and other stressful life events on psychological functioning in 2 groups of children: those with cancer and those without history of serious illness. Children with cancer age 8-17 (n = 254) and age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity-matched controls (n = 142) completed self-report measures of stressful life events and psychological functioning. Stressful life events included those that may meet Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) A1 criteria (PTEs; 9 events) and others that would likely not (other events; 21 events). Children with cancer endorsed significantly more PTEs than control children. There were no differences between groups in number of other events experienced. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that number of other events accounted for significant variance in psychological functioning, above and beyond group status, demographic factors (age and socioeconomic status), and number of PTEs. The number of cumulative other events experienced is a significant predictor of psychological functioning in both youth with serious illness and controls. In contrast, cumulative PTEs appear to have a minor (albeit significant) impact on children's psychological functioning. Assessment of psychological functioning would benefit from a thorough history of stressful life events, regardless of their potential traumatic impact. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Schema Driven Construction of Future Autobiographical Traumatic Events: The Future is Much More Troubling than the Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Research on future episodic thought has produced compelling theories and results in cognitive psychology, cognitive neuroscience, and clinical psychology. To integrate these using basic concepts and methods from autobiographical memory research, 76 undergraduates remembered past and imagined future positive and negative events that had or would have a major impact on them. Correlations of the online ratings of visual and auditory imagery, emotion, and other measures demonstrated that individuals used the same processes to the same extent to remember past and construct future events. These measures predicted the theoretically important metacognitive judgment of past reliving and future ‘preliving’ in similar ways. Future negative events had much higher scores than past negative events on standardized tests of reactions to traumatic events, scores in the range that would qualify for a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which was replicated (n = 52) to check for order effects. Consistent with earlier work, future events had less sensory vividness. Thus, the imagined symptoms of future events were unlikely to be caused by sensory vividness. To confirm this, 63 undergraduates produced numerous added details between two constructions of the same negative future events, removing deficits in rated vividness with no increase in the standardized tests of reactions to traumatic events. Neuroticism predicted individuals’ reactions to negative past events but did not predict imagined reactions to future events. This set of novel methods and findings are interpreted in the contexts of the literatures of episodic future thought, autobiographical memory, PTSD, and classic schema theory. PMID:23607632

  17. Lasting consequences of traumatic events on behavioral and skeletal parameters in a mouse model for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongrun; Watt, Heather; Kesavan, Chandrasekhar; Johnson, Patrick J; Wergedal, Jon E; Mohan, Subburaman

    2012-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that not only affects mental health, but may also affect bone health. However, there have been no studies to examine the direct relationship between PTSD and bone. We employed electric shocks in mice to simulate traumatic events that cause PTSD. We also injected the anxiogenic drug FG-7142 prior to electric shocks. Electric shocks created lasting conditioned fear memory in all mice. In young mice, electric shocks elicited not only behavioral response but also skeletal response, and injection of FG-7142 appeared to increase both types of response. For example in behavioral response within the first week, mice shocked alone froze an average of 6.2 sec in 10 sec tests, and mice injected with FG-7142 froze 7.6 sec, both significantly different (PPTSD-like behavior was associated with reduced bone mass acquisition. This is the first study to document evidence that traumatic events induce lasting consequences on both behavior and skeletal growth, and electric shocks coupled with injection of anxiogenic FG-7142 in young mice can be used as a model to study the effect of PTSD-like symptoms on bone development.

  18. Potentially traumatic events and mental health problems among children of Iraqi refugees: The roles of relationships with parents and feelings about school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentacosta, Christopher J; McLear, Caitlin M; Ziadni, Maisa S; Lumley, Mark A; Arfken, Cynthia L

    2016-01-01

    This study examined mental health problems among children of Iraqi refugees, most of whom were Christian. Exposure to potentially traumatic events was hypothesized to predict more symptoms of depression and traumatic stress. Moreover, youth reports of supportive relationships with parents and positive feelings about school were examined in relation to mental health problems. These promotive factors were expected to mitigate the hypothesized association between traumatic event exposure and mental health problems. Participants were 211 youth recruited from agencies and programs serving Iraqi refugees in a large metropolitan area in the United States. The hypotheses were partially supported. Youth who reported experiencing more potentially traumatic events endorsed more traumatic stress and depression symptoms. After accounting for exposure to potentially traumatic events and other covariates, youth who reported more positive feelings about school endorsed fewer symptoms of traumatic stress, and youth who reported more supportive relationships with parents endorsed fewer symptoms of depression. In addition, there was an interaction between potentially traumatic events and relationships with parents when predicting depression symptoms. Youth endorsed higher levels of depression symptoms when they reported less supportive relationships, regardless of the amount of traumatic event exposure, whereas youth endorsed lower levels of depression symptoms when they reported more supportive relationships with parents, but only at low levels of traumatic event exposure. Otherwise, the main effects were not qualified by interactions between potentially traumatic event exposure and the promotive factors. The findings from this study have implications for future research, policy, and practice with children of refugees. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Pre-event trajectories of mental health and health-related disabilities, and post-event traumatic stress symptoms and health: A 7-wave population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velden, Peter G; Bosmans, Mark W G; van der Meulen, Erik; Vermunt, Jeroen K

    2016-12-30

    It is unknown to what extent classes of trajectories of pre-event mental health problems (MHP) and health-related disabilities (HRD), predict post-event traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), MHP and HRD. Aim of the present 7-wave study was to assess the predictive values using a representative sample of adult Dutch (N=4052) participating in three health-surveys in November-December 2009 (T1), 2010 (T2), 2011 (T3). In total, 2988 out of 4052 also participated in trauma-surveys in April(T4), August(T5) and December(T6) 2012 and a fourth health-survey in November-December 2012 (T7). About 10% (N=314) was confronted with potentially traumatic events (PTE) in the 4 months before T4 or T5. Latent class analyses among 4052 respondents identified four classes of pre-event MHP and HRD. Series of multivariate logistic regression analyses with class membership, peri-traumatic stress, type of event, gender, age and education as predictors, showed that classes with high levels of MHP or HRD, were more at risk for high levels of PTSS at baseline and follow-ups at 4 and 8 months, than classes with low levels of MHP or HRD. These classes were very strong predictors for high levels of post-event MHP and HRD: no differences were found between non-affected and affected respondents with different levels of peri-traumatic stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Post-traumatic stress symptoms in Swedish obstetricians and midwives after severe obstetric events: a cross-sectional retrospective survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlberg, Å; Andreen Sachs, M; Johannesson, K; Hallberg, G; Jonsson, M; Skoog Svanberg, A; Högberg, U

    2017-07-01

    To examine post-traumatic stress reactions among obstetricians and midwives, experiences of support and professional consequences after severe events in the labour ward. Cross-sectional online survey from January 7 to March 10, 2014. Members of the Swedish Society of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and the Swedish Association of Midwives. Potentially traumatic events were defined as: the child died or was severely injured during delivery; maternal near-miss; maternal mortality; and other events such as violence or threat. The validated Screen Questionnaire Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (SQ-PTSD), based on DSM-IV (1994) 4th edition, was used to assess partial post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and probable PTSD. Partial or probable PTSD. The response rate was 47% for obstetricians (n = 706) and 40% (n = 1459) for midwives. Eighty-four percent of the obstetricians and 71% of the midwives reported experiencing at least one severe event on the delivery ward. Fifteen percent of both professions reported symptoms indicative of partial PTSD, whereas 7% of the obstetricians and 5% of the midwives indicated symptoms fulfilling PTSD criteria. Having experienced emotions of guilt or perceived insufficient support from friends predicted a higher risk of suffering from partial or probable PTSD. Obstetricians and midwives with partial PTSD symptoms chose to change their work to outpatient care significantly more often than colleagues without these symptoms. A substantial proportion of obstetricians and midwives reported symptoms of partial or probable PTSD after severe traumatic events experienced on the labour ward. Support and resilience training could avoid suffering and consequences for professional carers. In a survey 15% of Swedish obstetricians and midwives reported PTSD symptoms after their worst obstetric event. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  1. Exposures to war-related traumatic events and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms among displaced Darfuri female university students: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, Alia; Crutzen, Rik; Van den Borne, H W

    2012-08-03

    With the deaths of hundreds of thousands and the displacement of up to three million Darfuris, the increasingly complex and on-going war in Darfur has warranted the need to investigate war-related severity and current mental health levels amongst its civilian population. The purpose of this study is to explore the association between war-related exposures and assess post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms amongst a sample of Darfuri female university students at Ahfad University for Women (AUW) in Omdurman city. An exploratory cross-sectional study among a representative sample of Darfuri female university students at AUW (N = 123) was conducted in February 2010. Using an adapted version of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ), war-related exposures and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were assessed. Means and standard deviations illustrated the experiential severity of war exposure dimensions and PTSD symptom sub-scales, while Pearson correlations tested for the strength of association between dimensions of war exposures and PTSD symptom sub-scales. Approximately 42 % of the Darfuri participants reported being displaced and 54 % have experienced war-related traumatic exposures either as victims or as witnesses (M = 28, SD = 14.24, range 0 - 40 events). Also, there was a strong association between the experiential dimension of war-related trauma exposures and the full symptom of PTSD. Moreover, the refugee-specific self-perception of functioning sub-scale within the PTSD measurement scored a mean of 3.2 (SD = .56), well above the 2.0 cut-off. This study provides evidence for a relationship between traumatic war-related exposures and symptom rates of PTSD among AUW Darfuri female students. Findings are discussed in terms of AUW counseling service improvement.

  2. Exposures to war-related traumatic events and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms among displaced Darfuri female university students: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badri Alia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the deaths of hundreds of thousands and the displacement of up to three million Darfuris, the increasingly complex and on-going war in Darfur has warranted the need to investigate war-related severity and current mental health levels amongst its civilian population. The purpose of this study is to explore the association between war-related exposures and assess post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms amongst a sample of Darfuri female university students at Ahfad University for Women (AUW in Omdurman city. Methods An exploratory cross-sectional study among a representative sample of Darfuri female university students at AUW (N = 123 was conducted in February 2010. Using an adapted version of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ, war-related exposures and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms were assessed. Means and standard deviations illustrated the experiential severity of war exposure dimensions and PTSD symptom sub-scales, while Pearson correlations tested for the strength of association between dimensions of war exposures and PTSD symptom sub-scales. Results Approximately 42 % of the Darfuri participants reported being displaced and 54 % have experienced war-related traumatic exposures either as victims or as witnesses (M = 28, SD = 14.24, range 0 – 40 events. Also, there was a strong association between the experiential dimension of war-related trauma exposures and the full symptom of PTSD. Moreover, the refugee-specific self-perception of functioning sub-scale within the PTSD measurement scored a mean of 3.2 (SD = .56, well above the 2.0 cut-off. Conclusions This study provides evidence for a relationship between traumatic war-related exposures and symptom rates of PTSD among AUW Darfuri female students. Findings are discussed in terms of AUW counseling service improvement.

  3. Reflection in phraseological neology of traumatic historical events connected with the terrorist threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skorobogatova Taisiya Ivanovna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of phraseological units - neologisms which are associated with such traumatic historical events, as the implementation of terrorist acts. Particular emphasis is placed on the description of English, Russian and French phraseological units that have introduced the memory of the terrorist threat in the XX-XXI centuries.: Eng. That’s so 10th September (lit. today September 10, fig: Do not worry ahead of time about nothing; Rus. мочить в сортире (descriptor: беспощадно расправиться; фр. le prince s’est mari, le m chant est mort, c’est une semaine Walt Disney (lit. prince married the villain died, week Walt Disney; descriptor: Idyll, g n ration Bataclan (lit. Bataklan generation; descriptor: young people age of the victims who died in the “Bataklane”, i.e. young people aged 25-35. Phraseology description of new, emerging units is one of the most important problems in theoretical linguistics, namely: to illustrate and confirm the fact that the phrasebook body of a single national language is the result of the two memories - historical and linguistic. At the same time important to consider such a significant factor that determines the specificity of the national phraseological fund as memory selectivity in general and historical memory in particular.

  4. Traumatic event exposure and gambling: associations with clinical, neurocognitive, and personality variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppink, Eric W; Grant, Jon E

    2015-02-01

    Epidemiological research has shown high comorbidity rates between at-risk/problem (ARP) gambling and trauma. However, few studies have assessed the neurocognitive implications of this comorbidity, and even fewer have been conducted with young adults. The present study sought to determine the neurocognitive, clinical, personality types associated with trauma in ARP gamblers. The present study analyzed young adult gamblers age 18 to 29 drawn from a study investigating impulsivity. Of the 230 gamblers, 52 (22.6%) reported experiencing a traumatic event during their life to which they responded with intense fear, helplessness, or horror. The remaining participants indicated no experience with trauma. ARP gamblers who had experienced trauma showed significant neurocognitive deficits on tasks related to decision-making, risk adjustment, sustained attention, and spatial working memory. We did not detect significant differences in gambling severity. Trauma was associated with lower perceived quality of life and self-esteem, and higher rates of current comorbid diagnoses, suicidality, substance use disorders, and nicotine use. This study suggests that trauma may not exacerbate the severity of gambling in ARP gamblers. However, significant differences in supplemental clinical and neurocognitive measures may indicate that trauma is an important consideration when assessing problems beyond those related directly to gambling severity.

  5. Analysing the relationship between traumatic biographical events and the current structural functioning of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiltz, L; Schiltz, J

    2008-01-01

    We present the general structure of a multi-annual research project. Our general expectancy concerns the possibilities of arts psychotherapy as a means of launching the blocked process of subjectivation with people suffering from exclusion, precarity and marginalization. The research project follows a complex research design with a sequential strategy, the first part consisting in an integrated psychosocial and clinical study using a mixed methodology. We constructed special rating scales for the analysis of the data of a semi-structured biographical interview and also for the holistic interpretation of the Rotter Blank Sentences Test, separating the associations to sentences beginning with the third and first person. The correlations between two sets of variables (biographical interview and Rotter test) were computed for the total experimental group (N=206), and for clinical subgroups. We shall analyse the matrices of correlations (Spearman's Rho) with the help of optimal scaling procedures (OVERALS). The links between traumatic biographical events and responses to the 3rd, respectively 1st person items of the Rotter test are interpreted in terms of unconscious versus conscious psychological processes and allow us analysing the expression of defence mechanisms and coping strategies. The results of the study are discussed in the light of the recent traumatogenic hypothesis of borderline functioning.

  6. Potentially Traumatic Events, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Depression among Adults in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Cassie; Berenz, Erin C; Sheerin, Christina; Amstadter, Ananda B; Canino, Glorisa; Silberg, Judy

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to examine the prevalence of potentially traumatic events (PTEs), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; data available in males only), and depressive symptoms in a Puerto Rican sample of 678 adult caretakers (50% female) of twins participating in the Puerto Rican Infant Twin Study. The World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0) was utilized to assess rates of PTEs, PTSD, and depression among male participants while an abbreviated version of the CIDI 3.0 and the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire were administered to females to assess PTEs and depressive symptoms. Significantly more males than females reported exposure to a PTE (76.6% vs. 44.2%, χ(2) = 64.44, p < 0.001). In males, endorsement of multiple PTEs was associated with increased level of PTSD symptomatology (β = 0.33, p < 0.001). With regard to depression, a similar dose-response relationship was found in both males and females, with depressive symptoms increasing as number of PTEs increased (βs = 0.15, 0.16, ps < 0.05). Exposure to an attack with a weapon was significantly associated with increased depression symptoms in both males and females (βs = 0.24, 0.20, ps < 0.01, respectively). These findings highlight the need for identification of putative risk and resilience factors among PTE-exposed individuals in Puerto Rico.

  7. Potentially Traumatic Events, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Depression among Adults in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassie eOverstreet

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the current study were to examine the prevalence of potentially traumatic events (PTEs, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; data available in males only, and depressive symptoms in a Puerto Rican sample of 678 adult caretakers (50% female of twins participating in the Puerto Rican Infant Twin Study. The World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0 was utilized to assess rates of PTEs, PTSD, and depression among male participants while an abbreviated version of the CIDI 3.0 and the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire were administered to females to assess PTEs and depressive symptoms. Significantly more males than females reported exposure to a PTE (76.6% vs. 44.2%, 2=64.44, p<.001. In males, endorsement of multiple PTEs was associated with increased level of PTSD symptomatology ( = .33, p < .001. With regard to depression, a similar dose-response relationship was found in both males and females, with depressive symptoms increasing as number of PTEs increased (s = .15, .16, ps < .05. Exposure to an attack with a weapon was significantly associated with increased depression symptoms in both males and females (s=.24, .20, ps<.01, respectively. These findings highlight the need for identification of putative risk and resilience factors among PTE-exposed individuals in Puerto Rico.

  8. Psychological Effect of an Analogue Traumatic Event Reduced by Sleep Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcheret, Kate; Holmes, Emily A; Goodwin, Guy M; Foster, Russell G; Wulff, Katharina

    2015-07-01

    To examine the effect of sleep deprivation compared to sleep, immediately after experimental trauma stimuli on the development of intrusive memories to that trauma stimuli. Participants were exposed to a film with traumatic content (trauma film). The immediate response to the trauma film was assessed, followed by either total sleep deprivation (sleep deprived group, N = 20) or sleep as usual (sleep group, N = 22). Twelve hours after the film viewing the initial psychological effect of the trauma film was measured and for the subsequent 6 days intrusive emotional memories related to the trauma film were recorded in daily life. Academic sleep laboratory and participants' home environment. Healthy paid volunteers. On the first day after the trauma film, the psychological effect as assessed by the Impact of Event Scale - Revised was lower in the sleep deprived group compared to the sleep group. In addition, the sleep deprived group reported fewer intrusive emotional memories (mean 2.28, standard deviation [SD] 2.91) compared to the sleep group (mean 3.76, SD 3.35). Because habitual sleep/circadian patterns, psychological health, and immediate effect of the trauma film were similar at baseline for participants of both groups, the results cannot be accounted for by pre-existing inequalities between groups. Our findings suggest that sleep deprivation on one night, rather than sleeping, reduces emotional effect and intrusive memories following exposure to experimental trauma. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  9. Maternal posttraumatic stress disorder and depression in pediatric primary care: association with child maltreatment and frequency of child exposure to traumatic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemtob, Claude M; Gudiño, Omar G; Laraque, Danielle

    2013-11-01

    Maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be associated with increased risk for child maltreatment and child exposure to traumatic events. Exposure to multiple traumatic events is associated with a wide range of adverse health and social outcomes in children. To examine the association of probable maternal depression, PTSD, and comorbid PTSD and depression with the risk for child maltreatment and parenting stress and with the number of traumatic events to which preschool children are exposed. Cross-sectional observational design. We used analysis of variance to determine whether probable maternal psychopathology groups differed on child maltreatment, parenting stress, and children's exposure to traumatic events. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to examine the unique and interactive effects of depression and PTSD severity scores on these outcomes. Urban pediatric primary care outpatient clinic. Ninety-seven mothers of children aged 3 to 5 years. Pediatric primary care visit. Probable maternal depression and/or PTSD, parenting stress, child exposure to traumatic events, and child maltreatment. Mothers with probable comorbid PTSD and depression reported greater child-directed psychological aggression and physical assault and greater parenting stress. The children of mothers with PTSD (mean number of events the child was exposed to, 5.0) or with comorbid PTSD and depression (3.5 events) experienced more traumatic events than those of mothers with depression (1.2 events) or neither disorder (1.4 events). Severity of depressive symptoms uniquely predicted physical assault and neglect. Symptom scores for PTSD and depression interacted to predict psychological aggression and child exposure to traumatic events. When PTSD symptom severity scores were high, psychological aggression and the number of traumatic events children experienced rose. Depressive symptom severity scores predicted the risk for psychological aggression and exposure to traumatic events

  10. Insecure attachment style and cumulative traumatic life events in patients with somatoform pain disorder: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacak, Yeliz; Morawa, Eva; Tuffner, Daniela; Erim, Yesim

    2017-12-01

    Current models assume somatoform pain disorder (SPD) to be the result of a complex interaction between bio- and psychosocial factors, but the etiology is still not well understood. This study aimed to investigate the distribution of attachment style and the frequency of traumatic life events, especially childhood adversities, in patients with SPD compared to healthy controls. We compared 65 patients with SPD (confirmed by Structured Clinical Interview, SCID-I) to 65 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. The following questionnaires were employed: Relationship Scale Questionnaire (RSQ), Essen Trauma Inventory (ETI), Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-15). A logistic regression analysis was used to identify the association between SPD and psychological factors. Insecure attachment was significantly more prevalent (60%) in patients with SPD compared to healthy subjects (14%; pcumulative traumatic events emphasize their importance as risk factors of SPD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Childhood traumatic events and types of auditory verbal hallucinations in first-episode schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiak, Błażej; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Kiejna, Andrzej; Frydecka, Dorota

    2016-04-01

    Evidence is accumulating that childhood trauma might be associated with higher severity of positive symptoms in patients with psychosis and higher incidence of psychotic experiences in non-clinical populations. However, it remains unknown whether the history of childhood trauma might be associated with particular types of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). We assessed childhood trauma using the Early Trauma Inventory Self-Report - Short Form (ETISR-SF) in 94 first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients. Lifetime psychopathology was evaluated using the Operational Criteria for Psychotic Illness (OPCRIT) checklist, while symptoms on the day of assessment were examined using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Based on ETISR-SF, patients were divided into those with and without the history of childhood trauma: FES(+) and FES(-) patients. FES(+) patients had significantly higher total number of AVH types and Schneiderian first-rank AVH as well as significantly higher PANSS P3 item score (hallucinatory behavior) in comparison with FES(-) patients. They experienced significantly more frequently third person AVH and abusive/accusatory/persecutory voices. These differences remained significant after controlling for education, PANSS depression factor score and chlorpromazine equivalent. Linear regression analysis revealed that the total number of AVH types was predicted by sexual abuse score after controlling for above mentioned confounders. This effect was significant only in females. Our results indicate that the history of childhood trauma, especially sexual abuse, is associated with higher number AVH in females but not in males. Third person AVH and abusive/accusatory/persecutory voices, representing Schneiderian first-rank symptoms, might be particularly related to childhood traumatic events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Lifetime Exposure to Traumatic and Other Stressful Life Events and Hair Cortisol in a Multi-Racial/Ethnic Sample of Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Hannah M. C.; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Ritz, Thomas; Coull, Brent A.; Gennings, Chris; Wright, Robert O.; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether lifetime exposure to stressful and traumatic events alters hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning, as indexed by hair cortisol, regardless of associated psychopathology, among pregnant women of different racial/ethnic backgrounds. 180 women provided hair samples for measurement of integrated cortisol levels throughout pregnancy and information regarding their lifetime exposure to stressful and traumatic life events. Results indicate that increased lifetime exposure to traumatic events was associated with significantly greater hair cortisol over the course of pregnancy. Similarly, greater lifetime exposure to stressful and traumatic events weighted by reported negative impact (over the previous 12 months) was associated with significantly greater hair cortisol during pregnancy. All analyses controlled for maternal age, education, body mass index (BMI), use of inhaled corticosteroids, race/ethnicity, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive symptoms. Following stratification by race/ethnicity, associations between stressful and traumatic life events and hair cortisol were found among Black women only. This is the first study to consider associations between lifetime stress exposures and hair cortisol in a sociodemographically diverse sample of pregnant women. Increased exposure to stressful and traumatic events, independent of PTSD and depressive symptoms, was associated with higher cortisol production, particularly in Black women. Future research should investigate the influence of such increased cortisol exposure on developmental outcomes among offspring. PMID:26551892

  13. Positive future orientation as a mediator between traumatic events and mental health among children affected by HIV/AIDS in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jintao; Zhao, Guoxiang; Li, Xiaoming; Hong, Yan; Fang, Xiaoyi; Barnett, Douglas; Lin, Xiuyun; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhang, Liying

    2009-12-01

    The current study was designed to explore the effect of future orientation in mediating the relationship between traumatic events and mental health in children affected by HIV/AIDS in rural China. Cross-sectional data were collected from 1221 children affected by HIV/AIDS (755 AIDS orphans and 466 vulnerable children). Future orientation among children was measured using three indicators (future expectation, hopefulness toward the future, and perceived control over the future). Measures of mental health consisted of depression, loneliness, and self-esteem. Children's experience of any traumatic events was measured using a modified version of the Life Incidence of Traumatic Events-Student Form. Mediation analysis was conducted using structural equation modeling (SEM) methods. Among the children surveyed, most of the traumatic indicators were negatively associated with future expectation, hopefulness, perceived control, and self-esteem, and positively associated with depression and loneliness. The SEM of mediation analysis demonstrated an adequate fit. Future orientation fully mediated the relationship between traumatic events and mental health and accounted for 67.9% of the total effect of traumatic events on mental health. Results of this study support the positive effect of future expectation in mediating the relationship between traumatic events and mental health among children affected by HIV/AIDS in China. Future mental health promotion and intervention efforts targeting children affected by HIV/AIDS should include components that can mitigate the negative impact of traumatic events on their lives. These components may aim to develop children's positive future expectations, increase their hopefulness toward the future, and improve their perceived control over the future.

  14. The roles of spirituality in the relationship between traumatic life events, mental health, and drug use among African American women from one southern state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton-Tindall, Michele; Duvall, Jamieson; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Oser, Carrie B

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the role of spirituality as a moderator of the relationship between traumatic life experiences, mental health, and drug use in a sample of African American women. It was hypothesized that there would be an inverse relationship overall between spirituality and mental health and drug use among this sample of African American women. Secondly, was expected that spirituality would moderate the relationship between traumatic life events and mental health and drug use. African American women (n = 206) were recruited from the community and from probation officers in three urban areas of a southern state, and face-to-face interviews were completed. Findings indicated that there was a main effect for spirituality (as measured by existential well-being on the Spiritual Well-Being Scale) and traumatic life events, mental health, and alcohol use. In addition, spirituality was a significant moderator of the relationship between traumatic life events and cocaine use. Discussion and implications for African American women are included.

  15. Brief screening for traumatic life events in female university health service patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan B. Watson

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El cribado rutinario de pacientes de atención primaria expuestos a sucesos vitales traumáticos y, particularmente, al trauma por ataque, puede producir beneficios para pacientes y sistemas sanitarios. Sin embargo, tal cribado no ha sido todavía ampliamente adoptado. Para examinar la validez y la utilidad clínica del cribado conciso del trauma en pacientes de atención primaria, se evaluó desde este estudio instrumental la exposición al trauma en una muestra de pacientes universitarias (N = 339. La validez discriminante de una escueta pregunta auto-administrada de cribado sobre la exposición al trauma, perteneciente al módulo de trastorno de estrés postraumático (TEPT de la Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID, fue comparada con un inventario más largo de sucesos vitales traumáticos, el Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire. Dos versiones de la escueta pregunta de cribado fueron evaluadas para determinar su grado de exactitud para identificar a las participantes que informaron de ataque sexual o físico, y/o síntomas de TEPT. La escueta pregunta identificó a más de tres cuartas partes de las supervivientes al ataque traumático y al 96% de mujeres que cumplían los criterios del TEPT. Más del 40% de las participantes informó de al menos un ataque física o sexualmente traumático. El cuatro por ciento de aquellas que no informaron de ataque traumático y una tercera parte que informó de ataque traumático cumplían los criterios para el TEPT. Los resultados sugieren que una escueta pregunta de cribado acerca del trauma por ataque puede ser útil en contextos donde más procedimientos de evaluación que requieren más tiempo no son prácticos.

  16. Exposure to traumatic events at work, posttraumatic symptoms and professional quality of life among midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ran; Leykin, Dmitry; Golan-Hadari, Dita; Lahad, Mooli

    2017-07-01

    in their line of duty, midwives are often exposed to traumatic births that may lead to symptoms of compassion fatigue (CF), which includes burnout (BO) and secondary traumatic stress (STS).Conversely, midwives derive pleasure and great satisfaction in seeing the positive effect they have on their clients. This experience is known as compassion satisfaction (CS). Together, CS and CF comprise the professional quality of life (ProQOL). The aim of this paper was to study midwives' professional quality of life and traumatic experiences. The highly stressful environment of midwives may also include primary exposure to traumatic experiences and therefore PTSD levels were also assessed. the participants (N=93) were professional midwives from four medical centers in Israel. The participants answered selfreport questionnaires that assessed their ProQOL and PTSD symptoms. results indicated relatively high levels of CS which may mitigate, at least to some degree, the negative aspects of CF. PTSD levels significantly and positively correlated with STS and BO. Sixteen per cent presented with PTSD symptoms of clinical significance. Also, seniority was significantly and positively correlated with BO and PTSD symptoms. high ProQOL was found amongst the participants, with more than 74% scoring on the high range of CS. Nevertheless, we recommend further research and implementing strategies to maintain or further enhance CS and decrease CF levels. Finally, a more comprehensive understanding of the development of PTSD amongst midwives is vital in order to minimize its occurrence in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. First, Do No Harm: Teaching Writing in the Wake of Traumatic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBacher, Sarah; Harris-Moore, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Sarah DeBacher and Deborah Harris-Moore offer their experiences with teaching in the aftermath of traumatic situations. DeBacher, who taught at the University of New Orleans in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, and Harris-Moore, who taught at UC Santa Barbara following a mass shooting, explore the difficulty of teaching writing in the wake of…

  18. A single-question screen for rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postuma, Ronald B; Arnulf, Isabelle; Hogl, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia that is an important risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD) and Lewy body dementia. Its prevalence is unknown. One barrier to determining prevalence is that current screening tools are too long for large......-scale epidemiologic surveys. Therefore, we designed the REM Sleep Behavior Disorder Single-Question Screen (RBD1Q), a screening question for dream enactment with a simple yes/no response....

  19. Forensic mental health evaluations of military personnel with traumatic life event, in a university hospital in Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balandiz, Huseyin; Bolu, Abdullah

    2017-10-01

    The definition of psychological trauma has been rephrased with the DSM-5. From now on, witnessing someone else's traumatic event is also accepted as a traumatic life event. Therefore, the psychiatric examination of forensic cases gains importance for not overlooking a psychiatric trauma. This research aims to discuss the psychiatric examinations of military personnel who had a traumatic life event and to reveal psychiatric states of soldiers after trauma. The forensic reports prepared at Gulhane Military Medical Academy (GMMA), Forensic Medicine polyclinic between January 1, 2011 and November 30, 2014 were examined, and among them the cases sent to GMMA Psychiatry polyclinic for psychiatric examination were analyzed retrospectively. There were a total of 2408 cases who applied for the arrangement of a judicial report and 167 of them required a psychological examination. Among 167 cases, 165 were male and 2 were female, and the mean age was 25.6 years. Anxiety disorder (53.9%) was the most common diagnosis as a result of the psychiatric examination, following posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (18.6%), and 3.6% had no psychopathology. It was determined that injuries caused by firearms (38.3%) and explosive materials (26.3%) had caused psychological trauma the most. On the other hand, 11 (6.6%) cases were determined to have undergone a psychological trauma on account of being a witness to their friends' injuries during the conflict without experiencing any physical injury. There were not any statistically significant relationships between the severity of physical injury and being PTSD or anxiety disorder. Development of PTSD risk is directly correlated with the nature of trauma. The trauma types of the cases in our study were in the high-risk group because of the military population. Our study is of importance in terms of putting forward the psychiatric disorders seen in the military population with traumatic life history associated with war (combat-related). In

  20. Impact of Traumatic Events on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Danish Survivors of Sexual Abuse in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Palic, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse can be extremely traumatic and lead to lifelong symptomatology. The present study examined the impact of several demographic, abuse, and psychosocial variables on posttraumatic stress disorder severity among a consecutive sample of treatment-seeking, adult child sexual abuse...... survivors (N = 480). The child sexual abuse sample was characterized by severe trauma exposure, insecure attachment, and significant traumatization, with an estimated 77% suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder, more than twice the level of the comparison group. Regression analyses revealed risk...... factors associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder in which the strongest predictors being additional traumas, negative affectivity, and somatization. The findings add to existing research confirming the stressful nature of child sexual abuse and the variables that contribute...

  1. Impact of traumatic events on posttraumatic stress disorder among Danish survivors of sexual abuse in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M; Palic, Sabina; Karsberg, Sidsel; Eriksen, Sara Bek

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse can be extremely traumatic and lead to lifelong symptomatology. The present study examined the impact of several demographic, abuse, and psychosocial variables on posttraumatic stress disorder severity among a consecutive sample of treatment-seeking, adult child sexual abuse survivors (N = 480). The child sexual abuse sample was characterized by severe trauma exposure, insecure attachment, and significant traumatization, with an estimated 77% suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder, more than twice the level of the comparison group. Regression analyses revealed risk factors associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder in which the strongest predictors being additional traumas, negative affectivity, and somatization. The findings add to existing research confirming the stressful nature of child sexual abuse and the variables that contribute to the development and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder.

  2. A prospective longitudinal study of the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder resulting from childbirth events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcorn, K L; O'Donovan, A; Patrick, J C; Creedy, D; Devilly, G J

    2010-11-01

    Childbirth has been linked to postpartum impairment. However, controversy exists regarding the onset and prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after childbirth, with seminal studies being limited by methodological issues. This longitudinal prospective study examined the prevalence of PTSD following childbirth in a large sample while controlling for pre-existing PTSD and affective symptomatology. Pregnant women in their third trimester were recruited over a 12-month period and interviewed to identify PTSD and anxiety and depressive symptoms during the last trimester of pregnancy, 4-6 weeks postpartum, 12 weeks postpartum and 24 weeks postpartum. Of the 1067 women approached, 933 were recruited into the study. In total, 866 (93%) were retained to 4-6 weeks, 826 (89%) were retained to 12 weeks and 776 (83%) were retained to 24 weeks. Results indicated that, uncontrolled, 3.6% of women met PTSD criteria at 4-6 weeks postpartum, 6.3% at 12 weeks postpartum and 5.8% at 24 weeks postpartum. When controlling for PTSD and partial PTSD due to previous traumatic events as well as clinically significant anxiety and depression during pregnancy, PTSD rates were less at 1.2% at 4-6 weeks, 3.1% at 12 weeks and 3.1% at 24 weeks postpartum. This is the first study to demonstrate the occurrence of full criteria PTSD resulting from childbirth after controlling for pre-existing PTSD and partial PTSD and clinically significant depression and anxiety in pregnancy. The findings indicate that PTSD can result from a traumatic birth experience, though this is not the normative response.

  3. Livestock/animal assets buffer the impact of conflict-related traumatic events on mental health symptoms for rural women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Glass

    Full Text Available In the context of multiple adversities, women are demonstrating resilience in rebuilding their futures, through participation in microfinance programs. In addition to the economic benefits of microfinance, there is evidence to suggest that it is an effective vehicle for improving health.The parent study is a community-based trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a livestock microfinance intervention, Pigs for Peace (PFP, on health and economic outcomes with households in 10 villages in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. The analysis for this manuscript includes only baseline data from female participants enrolled in the ongoing parent study. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine if livestock/animal asset value moderates the relationship between conflict-related traumatic events and current mental health symptoms.The majority of women are 25 years or older, married, have on average 4 children in the home and have never attended school. Nearly 50% of women report having at least one livestock/animal asset at baseline. Over the past 10 years, women report on average more than 4 (M = 4.31, SD 3·64 traumatic events (range 0-18. Women reported symptoms consistent with PTSD with a mean score of ·2.30 (SD = 0·66 range 0-4 and depression with a mean score of 1.86 (SD = 0·49, range 0-3.47. The livestock/animal asset value by conflict-related traumatic events interaction was significant for both the PTSD (p = 0·021 and depression (p = 0·002 symptom models.The study provides evidence of the moderating affect of livestock/animal assets on mental health symptoms for women who have experienced conflict. The findings supports evidence about the importance of livestock/animal assets to economics in rural households but expands on previous research by demonstrating the psychosocial effects of these assets on women's health.clinicaltrials.gov NCT02008708.

  4. Traumatic events, other operational stressors and physical and mental health reported by Australian Defence Force personnel following peacekeeping and war-like deployments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waller Michael

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between stressful events on warlike deployments and subsequent mental health problems has been established. Less is known about the effects of stressful events on peacekeeping deployments. Methods Two cross sectional studies of the Australian Defence Force were used to contrast the prevalence of exposures reported by a group deployed on a peacekeeping operation (Bougainville, n = 1704 and those reported by a group deployed on operations which included warlike and non-warlike exposures (East Timor, n = 1333. A principal components analysis was used to identify groupings of non-traumatic exposures on deployment. Multiple regression models were used to assess the association between self-reported objective and subjective exposures, stressors on deployment and subsequent physical and mental health outcomes. Results The principal components analysis produced four groups of non-traumatic stressors which were consistent between the peacekeeping and more warlike deployments. These were labelled ‘separation’, ‘different culture’, ‘other people’ and ‘work frustration’. Higher levels of traumatic and non-traumatic exposures were reported by veterans of East Timor compared to Bougainville. Higher levels of subjective traumatic exposures were associated with increased rates of PTSD in East Timor veterans and more physical and psychological health symptoms in both deployed groups. In Bougainville and East Timor veterans some non-traumatic deployment stressors were also associated with worse health outcomes. Conclusion Strategies to best prepare, identify and treat those exposed to traumatic events and other stressors on deployment should be considered for Defence personnel deployed on both warlike and peacekeeping operations.

  5. Monetary Incentive Effects on Event-Based Prospective Memory Three Months after Traumatic Brain Injury in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroza, Claudia; Chapman, Sandra B.; Cook, Lori G.; Vásquez, Ana C.; Levin, Harvey S.

    2011-01-01

    Information regarding the remediation of event-based prospective memory (EB-PM) impairments following pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is scarce. Addressing this, two levels of monetary incentives were used to improve EB-PM in children ages 7 to 16 years with orthopedic injuries (OI, n = 51), or moderate (n = 25), and severe (n = 39) TBI at approximately three months postinjury. The EB-PM task consisted of the child giving a specific verbal response to a verbal cue from the examiner while performing a battery of neuropsychological measures (ongoing task). Significant effects were found for Age-at-Test, Motivation Condition, Period, and Group. Within-group analyses indicated OI and moderate TBI groups performed significantly better under the high-versus low-incentive condition, but the severe TBI group demonstrated no significant improvement. These results indicate EB-PM can be significantly improved at three months postinjury in children with moderate, but not severe, TBI. PMID:21347945

  6. Stressful Life Events and Predictors of Post-traumatic Growth among High-Risk Early Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpawong, Thalida E; Rohrbach, Louise A; Milam, Joel E; Unger, Jennifer B; Land, Helen; Sun, Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Sussman, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Stressful life events (SLEs) may elicit positive psychosocial change among youth, referred to as Post-traumatic Growth (PTG). We assessed types of SLEs experienced, degree to which participants reported PTG, and variables predicting PTG across 24 months among a sample of high risk, ethnically diverse early emerging adults. Participants were recruited from alternative high schools ( n = 564; mean age=16.8; 65% Hispanic). Multi-level regression models were constructed to examine the impact of environmental (SLE quantity, severity) and personal factors (hedonic ability, perceived stress, developmental stage, future time orientation) on a composite score of PTG. The majority of participants reported positive changes resulted from their most life-altering SLE of the past two years. Predictors of PTG included fewer SLEs, less general stress, having a future time perspective, and greater identification with the developmental stage of Emerging Adulthood. Findings suggest intervention targets to foster positive adaptation among early emerging adults who experience frequent SLEs.

  7. Mental states as part of countertransference responses in psychotherapists facing reports of traumatic events of mourning and sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfeld, Patricia; Terra, Luciana; Abuchaim, Claudio; Sordi, Anne; Wiethaeuper, Daniela; Bouchard, Marc-Andrè; Mardini, Victor; Baumgardt, Rosana; Lauerman, Marta; Ceitlin, Lúcia Helena

    2008-09-01

    The study aims to compare the mental states and countertransference responses of 92 psychodynamically oriented psychotherapists, male and female, experienced and inexperienced, facing written reports of real patients who experienced traumatic events. Two vignettes were presented: one of a sexual violence, the other the sudden death of a significant person. The Mental States Rating System (MSRS; Bouchard, Picard, Audet, Brisson, & Carrier, 1998), the MSRS Self-Report (Goldfeld & Bouchard, 2004), and the Inventory of Countertransference Behavior (ICB; Friedman & Gelso, 2000) were used. Results showed that the mourning vignette led to more reflective responses (MSRS) and the rape case was associated with more negative countertransference reactions (ICB). Female participants were more reflective (MSRS); male therapists used less mentalized states (MSRS Self-Report) and expressed more negative reactions (ICB) for both scenarios. Experienced therapists showed more positive reactions on the ICB. The construct validity of the instruments is discussed in relation to the findings.

  8. A periodic inspection and replacement policy for systems subject to competing failure modes due to degradation and traumatic events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynh, K.T., E-mail: tuan.huynh@utt.f [Universite de technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay and STMR UMR CNRS 6279-12, rue Marie Curie, BP2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Barros, A., E-mail: anne.barros@utt.f [Universite de technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay and STMR UMR CNRS 6279-12, rue Marie Curie, BP2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Berenguer, C., E-mail: christophe.berenguer@utt.f [Universite de technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay and STMR UMR CNRS 6279-12, rue Marie Curie, BP2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Castro, I.T., E-mail: inmatorres@unex.e [Departamento de Matematicas, Escuela Politecnica, 10071 Caceres (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    This paper deals with the condition-based maintenance of single-unit systems which are subject to the competing and dependent failures due deterioration and traumatic shock events. The main aim is to provide a model to assess the value of condition monitoring information for the maintenance decision-making. A condition-based periodic inspection/replacement policy is developed and compared with a benchmark time-based block replacement policy. Numerical results show that it is indeed useful to follow closely the actual evolution of the system to adapt the maintenance decisions to the true system state to improve the performance of maintenance policies. The analysis of the maintenance costs savings can be used to justify or not the choice to implement a policy based on condition monitoring information and to invest in condition monitoring devices.

  9. A periodic inspection and replacement policy for systems subject to competing failure modes due to degradation and traumatic events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynh, K.T.; Barros, A.; Berenguer, C.; Castro, I.T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the condition-based maintenance of single-unit systems which are subject to the competing and dependent failures due deterioration and traumatic shock events. The main aim is to provide a model to assess the value of condition monitoring information for the maintenance decision-making. A condition-based periodic inspection/replacement policy is developed and compared with a benchmark time-based block replacement policy. Numerical results show that it is indeed useful to follow closely the actual evolution of the system to adapt the maintenance decisions to the true system state to improve the performance of maintenance policies. The analysis of the maintenance costs savings can be used to justify or not the choice to implement a policy based on condition monitoring information and to invest in condition monitoring devices.

  10. Episodic and semantic components of autobiographical memories and imagined future events in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Adam D; Addis, Donna Rose; Romano, Tracy A; Marmar, Charles R; Bryant, Richard A; Hirst, William; Schacter, Daniel L

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) tend to retrieve autobiographical memories with less episodic specificity, referred to as overgeneralised autobiographical memory. In line with evidence that autobiographical memory overlaps with one's capacity to imagine the future, recent work has also shown that individuals with PTSD also imagine themselves in the future with less episodic specificity. To date most studies quantify episodic specificity by the presence of a distinct event. However, this method does not distinguish between the numbers of internal (episodic) and external (semantic) details, which can provide additional insights into remembering the past and imagining the future. This study employed the Autobiographical Interview (AI) coding scheme to the autobiographical memory and imagined future event narratives generated by combat veterans with and without PTSD. Responses were coded for the number of internal and external details. Compared to combat veterans without PTSD, those with PTSD generated more external than internal details when recalling past or imagining future events, and fewer internal details were associated with greater symptom severity. The potential mechanisms underlying these bidirectional deficits and clinical implications are discussed.

  11. Prevalence of problem drinking and characteristics of a single-question screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Scott H; Borg, Keith T; Miller, Peter M

    2010-09-01

    Hazardous drinking and alcohol use disorders (i.e, abuse and dependence) are common in Emergency Departments (EDs). This study examined 1) the prevalence of these conditions among ED patients and 2) characteristics of a single screening question (having consumed at least five drinks for males or four for females during a single day). Data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions were analyzed. Logistic regression for clustered data was used to estimate the relative risk for past-year ED use associated with hazardous drinking, abuse, and dependence. Contingency tables were analyzed to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the single-question screen for detecting these conditions. Hazardous drinking was not associated with ED utilization. Alcohol abuse was associated with a relative risk of 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-1.5) and alcohol dependence with a relative risk of 1.9 (95% CI 1.6-2.2). For current drinkers, the single question screen was 0.96, 0.85, and 0.90 sensitive for hazardous drinking, alcohol abuse, and alcohol dependence, respectively. Individuals with a positive screen in the past year were considered at least hazardous drinkers, and specificity was 0.80, 0.64, and 0.65 for hazardous drinking, abuse, and dependence, respectively. Specificity was modestly increased in women. Most problem drinkers were hazardous drinkers, but only severe alcohol use disorders were particularly prevalent in the ED. The single heavy-drinking-day item appears sensitive for problem drinking. Positive tests must be followed by additional assessment to differentiate hazardous drinking from alcohol use disorders. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. The Role of Traumatic Event History in Non-Medical Use of Prescription Drugs among a Nationally Representative Sample of US Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Jenna L.; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Smith, Daniel W.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Building on previous research with adolescents that examined demographic variables and other forms of substance abuse in relation to non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD), the current study examined potentially traumatic events, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), other substance use, and delinquent behavior as…

  13. Psychosocial interventions for children exposed to traumatic events in low- and middle-income countries: study protocol of an individual patient data meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purgato, M.; Gross, A.L.; Jordans, M.J.D.; de Jong, J.T.V.M.; Barbui, C.; Tol, W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The burden of mental health and psychosocial problems in children exposed to traumatic events in humanitarian settings in low- and middle-income countries is substantial. An increasing number of randomized studies has shown promising effects of psychosocial interventions, but this

  14. [Traumatic childhood in a private male population of liberty events: prevalence study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Miguel; Bertone, Matias Salvador

    2016-01-01

    We have observed, in several studies, high rates of psychiatric disorders and traumatic childhood experiences in people who are deprived of their freedom in prison institutions. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of different types of adverse childhood experiences and the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in patient-internal male in a prison psychiatric institution. An epidemiological study was conducted between March and July 2011 in which 59 inmates-patients were evaluated in the observation room and Psychiatric Evaluation (SOEP) of the unit 20 in the Central Psychiatric Service Men, which was located on the campus of J.T. Borda Hospital of the City of Buenos Aires, in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. SCID I and II, and ACE (Adverse Experience Childhood) scales were used. 91% of participants had suffered any adverse experience in childhood. Physical (59%), emotional (54%), sexual (18%) and negligence (66%): a high rate of abuse in its various forms was found At the same time it was observed that all patients had a mental disorder. The most common diagnosis is personality disorder (69.4%). It was observed that most of the abuses were perpetrated by people in your household. high prevalence rates of adverse childhood experiences and psychiatric disorders private individuals of their liberty were observed to coincide with that shown in other studies in similar populations.

  15. Potentially traumatic events have negative and positive effects on loneliness, depending on PTSD-symptom levels: evidence from a population-based prospective comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velden, Peter G; Pijnappel, Bas; van der Meulen, Erik

    2018-02-01

    Examine to what extent adults affected by recent potentially traumatic events (PTE) with different PTSD-symptom levels are more at risk for post-event loneliness than non-affected adults are in the same study period. We extracted data from the Dutch longitudinal LISS panel to measure pre-event loneliness (2011) and post-event loneliness (2013 and 2014), pre-event mental health problems (2011), PTE and PTSD symptoms (2012). This panel is based on a traditional random sample drawn from the population register by Statistics Netherlands. Results of the multinomial logistic regression analyses showed that affected adults with high levels of PTSD symptoms were more at risk for high levels of post-event loneliness than affected adults with very low PTSD-symptom levels and non-affected adults, while controlling for pre-event loneliness, pre-event mental health problems and demographics. However, affected adults with very low levels of PTSD symptoms compared to non-affected adults were less at risk for medium and high levels of post-event loneliness while controlling for the same variables. Yet, pre-event loneliness appeared to be the strongest independent predictor of loneliness at later stages: more than 80% with high pre-event levels had high post-event levels at both follow-ups. Remarkably, potentially traumatic events have depending on PTSD-symptom levels both negative and positive effects on post-event loneliness in favor of affected adults with very low PTSD symptoms levels. However, post-event levels at later stages are predominantly determined by pre-event loneliness levels.

  16. Utilizing the PREPaRE Model When Multiple Classrooms Witness a Traumatic Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Lisa J.; Rittle, Carrie; Roberts, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an account of how the Charleston County School District responded to an event by utilizing the PREPaRE model (Brock, et al., 2009). The acronym, PREPaRE, refers to a range of crisis response activities: P (prevent and prepare for psychological trauma), R (reaffirm physical health and perceptions of security and safety), E…

  17. Fear of childbirth and obstetrical events as predictors of postnatal symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbrother, Nichole; Woody, Sheila R

    2007-12-01

    This prospective study examined psychological and obstetrical predictors of enduring postpartum symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Contrary to prediction, prenatal fear of childbirth did not significantly predict symptoms of depression or post-traumatic stress disorder at one month postpartum, but anxiety sensitivity was an unexpected predictor that merits further investigation. Several obstetrical and neonatal variables significantly predicted symptoms of post-traumatic disorder, but not depression.

  18. Work-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other emotional diseases as consequence of traumatic events in public transportation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarner, Annika; Graessel, Elmar; Scholz, Johanna; Niedermeier, Alexander; Uter, Wolfgang; Drexler, Hans

    2015-07-01

    Drivers in public transportation are at risk of experiencing potential traumatic events such as accidents involving persons, collisions, or suicides. In this context, the question arises to what extent psychological traumatization and posttraumatic diseases occur. The aim of this systematic review was to describe the frequency and nature of work-related posttraumatic disorders, to analyze risk and prognostic factors after potentially traumatic events (accidents resulting in damage to property and/or in injury or death), and address sick leave after such events in the realm of public transportation, based on the available literature. Systematic review based on four databases (PubMed, PSYNDEX/MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, PILOTS) between 1980 and June 2013. We identified seven studies (four longitudinal, three cross-sectional) that examine employees after person under train (PUT) events. PTSD prevalences varied broadly between 0.7 and 17 %. The same applies to dysthymia/neurotic depression (1-26 %). However, similarly low prevalences of major depression (1.3-2.8 %) and panic disorder (0.5-1.3 %) have been observed. Risk factors of PTSD comprised individual, work-related, event-related, and prognostic aspects. Following the traumatic event, a total of 69-81 % of the drivers were absent, and if sick leave occurs, this was on average 3-19 days. It became evident that drivers in public transportation run a high risk of sick leave. It was also striking that despite the immense impact of PUT and high number of suicides, only an infinitesimal number of studies exists. Due to various differences (period of follow-up, instrument of measurement and study period), it turned out that the comparability of the results of the studies is limited. For various reasons, further research is urgently needed, as from an occupational health point of view the issue of posttraumatic diseases and implications for fitness for service should be addressed.

  19. Cultural adaptation and content validation of the Single-Question for screening alcohol abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Ester Dias Maciel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Describing the stages of translation, cultural adaptation and content validation of the Single-Question into Brazilian Portuguese, which will be named Questão Chave. Method This study is a cultural adaptation. The instrument was translated into Portuguese as two independent versions which led to a synthesis of translations (S1, and later to the synthesis S2, which was then submitted to evaluation by a Committee of Expert Judges in the area of alcohol use and instrument validation. The Content Validity Index and Kappa agreement coefficient were calculated from this evaluation. Results The judges evaluated the Questão Chave regarding the clarity of the sentence and aspects related to the quality of the translation (cultural adaptation, preservation of original meaning and correct use of technical terms. The Content Validity Index was 1 for clarity of sentence and correct use of technical terms, and 0.8 for adaptation and preservation of the original meaning. The Kappa index for concordance among the judges was 0.83. After an adjustment proposed by the judges, the S3 version was originated. Conclusion The Questão Chave had its content validity confirmed, which supports future studies that aim for its application in the target population to verify their psychometric properties.

  20. Race/ethnic differences in exposure to traumatic events, development of post-traumatic stress disorder, and treatment-seeking for post-traumatic stress disorder in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, A L; Gilman, S E; Breslau, J; Breslau, N; Koenen, K C

    2011-01-01

    To identify sources of race/ethnic differences related to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), we compared trauma exposure, risk for PTSD among those exposed to trauma, and treatment-seeking among Whites, Blacks, Hispanics and Asians in the US general population. Data from structured diagnostic interviews with 34 653 adult respondents to the 2004-2005 wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) were analysed. The lifetime prevalence of PTSD was highest among Blacks (8.7%), intermediate among Hispanics and Whites (7.0% and 7.4%) and lowest among Asians (4.0%). Differences in risk for trauma varied by type of event. Whites were more likely than the other groups to have any trauma, to learn of a trauma to someone close, and to learn of an unexpected death, but Blacks and Hispanics had higher risk of child maltreatment, chiefly witnessing domestic violence, and Asians, Black men, and Hispanic women had higher risk of war-related events than Whites. Among those exposed to trauma, PTSD risk was slightly higher among Blacks [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.22] and lower among Asians (aOR 0.67) compared with Whites, after adjustment for characteristics of trauma exposure. All minority groups were less likely to seek treatment for PTSD than Whites (aOR range: 0.39-0.61), and fewer than half of minorities with PTSD sought treatment (range: 32.7-42.0%). When PTSD affects US race/ethnic minorities, it is usually untreated. Large disparities in treatment indicate a need for investment in accessible and culturally sensitive treatment options.

  1. Zinc supplementation in rats impairs hippocampal-dependent memory consolidation and dampens post-traumatic recollection of stressful event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contestabile, Antonio; Peña-Altamira, Emiliano; Virgili, Marco; Monti, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    Zinc is a trace element important for synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. Zinc deficiency, both during pregnancy and after birth, impairs cognitive performance and, in addition to memory deficits, also results in alterations of attention, activity, neuropsychological behavior and motor development. The effects of zinc supplementation on cognition, particularly in the adult, are less clear. We demonstrate here in adult rats, that 4 week-long zinc supplementation given by drinking water, and approximately doubling normal daily intake, strongly impairs consolidation of hippocampal-dependent memory, tested through contextual fear conditioning and inhibitory avoidance. Furthermore, the same treatment started after memory consolidation of training for the same behavioral tests, substantially dampens the recall of the stressful event occurred 4 weeks before. A molecular correlate of the amnesic effect of zinc supplementation is represented by a dysregulated function of GSK-3ß in the hippocampus, a kinase that participates in memory processes. The possible relevance of these data for humans, in particular regarding post-traumatic stress disorders, is discussed in view of future investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  2. A single-question screening test for drug use in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter C; Schmidt, Susan M; Allensworth-Davies, Donald; Saitz, Richard

    2010-07-12

    Drug use (illicit drug use and nonmedical use of prescription drugs) is common but underrecognized in primary care settings. We validated a single-question screening test for drug use and drug use disorders in primary care. Adult patients recruited from primary care waiting rooms were asked the single screening question, "How many times in the past year have you used an illegal drug or used a prescription medication for nonmedical reasons?" A response of at least 1 time was considered positive for drug use. They were also asked the 10-item Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10). The reference standard was the presence or absence of current (past year) drug use or a drug use disorder (abuse or dependence) as determined by a standardized diagnostic interview. Drug use was also determined by oral fluid testing for common drugs of abuse. Of 394 eligible primary care patients, 286 (73%) completed the interview. The single screening question was 100% sensitive (95% confidence interval [CI], 90.6%-100%) and 73.5% specific (95% CI, 67.7%-78.6%) for the detection of a drug use disorder. It was less sensitive for the detection of self-reported current drug use (92.9%; 95% CI, 86.1%-96.5%) and drug use detected by oral fluid testing or self-report (81.8%; 95% CI, 72.5%-88.5%). Test characteristics were similar to those of the DAST-10 and were affected very little by participant demographic characteristics. The single screening question accurately identified drug use in this sample of primary care patients, supporting the usefulness of this brief screen in primary care.

  3. Primary care validation of a single-question alcohol screening test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter C; Schmidt, Susan M; Allensworth-Davies, Donald; Saitz, Richard

    2009-07-01

    Unhealthy alcohol use is prevalent but under-diagnosed in primary care settings. To validate, in primary care, a single-item screening test for unhealthy alcohol use recommended by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). Cross-sectional study. Adult English-speaking patients recruited from primary care waiting rooms. Participants were asked the single screening question, “How many times in the past year have you had X or more drinks in a day?”, where X is 5 for men and 4 for women, and a response of 1 or greater [corrected] is considered positive. Unhealthy alcohol use was defined as the presence of an alcohol use disorder, as determined by a standardized diagnostic interview, or risky consumption, as determined using a validated 30-day calendar method. Of 394 eligible primary care patients, 286 (73%) completed the interview. The single-question screen was 81.8% sensitive (95% confidence interval (CI) 72.5% to 88.5%) and 79.3% specific (95% CI 73.1% to 84.4%) for the detection of unhealthy alcohol use. It was slightly more sensitive (87.9%, 95% CI 72.7% to 95.2%) but was less specific (66.8%, 95% CI 60.8% to 72.3%) for the detection of a current alcohol use disorder. Test characteristics were similar to that of a commonly used three-item screen, and were affected very little by subject demographic characteristics. The single screening question recommended by the NIAAA accurately identified unhealthy alcohol use in this sample of primary care patients. These findings support the use of this brief screen in primary care.

  4. Prevalence of potentially traumatic events, depression, alcohol use, and social network supports among Chinese migrants: an epidemiological study in Guangzhou, China

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Brian J.; Chen, Wen; Wu, Yan; Zhou, Fangjing; Latkin, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Background: Addressing the health needs of Chinese migrants is a critical public health concern. Epidemiological studies are needed to establish the prevalence of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and common mental disorders among Chinese migrants and identify protective community and social resources.Method: Utilizing random household sampling, we are in the process of recruiting a representative sample of Chinese adults (N=1,000) in two districts home to a large number of internal migrant...

  5. A Single Question to Examine the Prevalence and Protective Effect of Seroadaptive Strategies Among Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosropour, Christine M; Dombrowski, Julia C; Katz, David A; Golden, Matthew R

    2017-11-01

    Seroadaptive behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM) are common, but ascertaining behavioral information is challenging in clinical settings. To address this, we developed a single seroadaptive behavior question. Men who have sex with men 18 years or older attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Seattle, WA, from 2013 to 2015, were eligible for this cross-sectional study. Respondents completed a comprehensive seroadaptive behavior questionnaire which included a single question that asked HIV-negative MSM to indicate which of 12 strategies they used in the past year to reduce their HIV risk. HIV testing was performed per routine clinical care. We used the κ statistic to examine agreement between the comprehensive questionnaire and the single question. We enrolled HIV-negative MSM at 3341 (55%) of 6105 eligible visits. The agreement between the full questionnaire and single question for 5 behaviors was fair to moderate (κ values of 0.34-0.59). From the single question, the most commonly reported behaviors were as follows: avoiding sex with HIV-positive (66%) or unknown-status (52%) men and using condoms with unknown-status partners (53%); 8% of men reported no seroadaptive behavior. Men tested newly HIV positive at 38 (1.4%) of 2741 visits. HIV test positivity for the most commonly reported behaviors ranged from 0.8% to 1.3%. Men reporting no seroadaptive strategy had a significantly higher HIV test positivity (3.5%) compared with men who reported at least 1 strategy (1.3%; P = 0.02). The single question performed relatively well against a comprehensive seroadaptive behaviors assessment and may be useful in clinical settings to identify men at greatest risk for HIV.

  6. Understanding Traumatic Stress in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... content Experts Careers Contracting Contact Search form Search American Institutes for Research About Us Our Topics Client Services News & Events You are here Home 22 Apr 2013 Report Understanding Traumatic Stress in Children Supporting Children and Families After Traumatic ...

  7. Coping with Traumatic Events

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-11-10

    Tragedies affect all of us in different ways. Some people might react to the stress immediately, while others may not experience stress until later.  Created: 11/10/2009 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.   Date Released: 11/10/2009.

  8. Emotional nonacceptance within the context of traumatic event exposure: The explanatory role of anxiety sensitivity for traumatic stress symptoms and disability among Latinos in a primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Andres G; Paulus, Daniel J; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Garza, Monica; Valdivieso, Jeanette; Ochoa-Perez, Melissa; Lemaire, Chad; Cardoso, Jodi Berger; Zvolensky, Michael J

    Research has found that Latinos (versus non-Latino Whites) evince higher rates of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), yet little attention has been given to intra-individual, emotion-related processes to explicate the higher incidence of these symptoms among Latinos. Participants included 183 trauma-exposed adult Latinos (88.5% female; Mage=37.7, SD=10.7 and 93.4% reported Spanish as their first language) who attended a community-based primary healthcare clinic in Houston. It was hypothesized that anxiety sensitivity would explain the relation between emotional nonacceptance and traumatic stress symptoms, namely re-experiencing, avoidance, and arousal difficulties as well as overall disability. Additionally, it was expected that the observed effects would be evident above and beyond the variance accounted for by number of traumas reported, gender, age, marital status, educational status, years living in the U.S., and negative affectivity. Consistent with our hypotheses, difficulties accepting negative emotions were associated with increased trauma-related re-experiencing, avoidance, and arousal difficulties. Additionally, anxiety sensitivity was an underlying mechanism in the association between emotional nonacceptance and all but one facet of traumatic stress symptoms (i.e., re-experiencing symptoms) and disability. Alternative models yielded no significant effects, providing greater confidence in the direction of the hypothesized effects. Findings are discussed in the context of their significance for informing the development of specialized intervention strategies that target anxiety sensitivity for Latinos in primary care with elevated risk for PTS and PTSD by their heightened levels of emotional nonacceptance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. "Am I too emotional for this job?" An exploration of student midwives' experiences of coping with traumatic events in the labour ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldridge, Liz; Davies, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    midwifery is emotionally challenging work, and learning to be a midwife brings its own particular challenges. For the student midwife, clinical placement in a hospital labour ward is especially demanding. In the context of organisational tensions and pressures the experience of supporting women through the unpredictable intensity of the labour process can be a significant source of stress for student midwives. Although increasing attention is now being paid to midwives' traumatic experiences and wellbeing few researchers have examined the traumatic experiences of student midwives. Such research is necessary to support the women in their care as well as to protect and retain future midwives. this paper develops themes from a research study by Davies and Coldridge (2015) which explored student midwives' sense of what was traumatic for them during their undergraduate midwifery education and how they were supported with such events. It examines the psychological tensions and anxieties that students face from a psychotherapeutic perspective. a qualitative descriptive study using semi-structured interviews. a midwifery undergraduate programme in one university in the North West of England. 11second and third year students. interviews were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. the study found five themes related to what the students found traumatic. The first theme Wearing the Blues referred to their enculturation within the profession and experiences within practice environments. A second theme No Man's Land explored students' role in the existential space between the woman and the qualified midwives. Three further themes described the experiences of engaging with emergency or unforeseen events in practice and how they coped with them ("Get the Red Box!", The Aftermath and Learning to Cope).This paper re-examines aspects of the themes from a psychotherapeutic perspective. researchers have suggested that midwives' empathic relationships with women may

  10. Relation between traumatic experience and post-traumatic symptomatics in Lithuanian Afghanistan war veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Domanskaitė Gota, Vėjūnė; Gailienė, Danutė; Kazlauskas, Evaldas

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess what potential traumatic life-events and experiences are related to PTSD in the Lithuanian Afghanistan war veterans (N = 174). [...]. The following variables were investigated: demographics, traumatic life-events or conditions, PTSD and sub-clinical level of PTSD.The Lithuanian Afghanistan war veterans with PTSD and sub-clinical level of PTSD reported significantly more lifetime traumatic events and conditions. The average number of traumatic events per man ...

  11. High Decision Latitude at Work Combined with Traumatic Life Events in Private Life is Associated with Reduced Sleep Quality: Results from the GAZEL Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadya Dich

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychosocial stress, both at work and at home, plays a role in sleep disturbances. Theoretical models of stress underscore the cumulative effect of stress from different domains in affecting health and well-being. However, previous research has not considered how work stress and stress in private life might interact to affect sleep. The study investigated potential synergistic effects of work stress and traumatic events in private life on sleep quality. Participants ('N' = 6552, average baseline age = 52 were a subset of the French GAZEL cohort who were working in 1999. Work stress was operationalized as high job demands and low decision latitude. These working conditions were self-reported in 1999 (study baseline. Traumatic events in the past 12 months were reported in 2000. Sleep quality was assessed in 2000 as disturbed sleep in the past 12 months, and current sleep problems was indexed by the sleep subscale of the Nottingham Health Profile questionnaire. The results showed that recent events interacted with decision latitude, but not job demands, in predicting sleep quality. However, contrary to our expectations, it was 'high' and not low decision latitude at work that amplified the negative association between stressful events and sleep quality. Adjusted for baseline health, individuals with highest numbers of events and highest levels of decision latitude were at highest risk for impaired sleep. These results challenge the idea that high decision latitude always serves as a protective factor, and underscore the necessity for considering a broader life context when studying stress in a particular domain of life.

  12. Decreased sexual motivation and heightened anxiety in male Long-Evans rats are correlated with the memory for a traumatic event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Wayne R; Grissom, Elin M; Belkin, Mark N; James, Thomas F; Dohanich, Gary P

    2013-05-01

    Individuals suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) frequently report disturbances in sexual functioning in addition to alterations in their affective behaviors. Notably, maladaptive cognitions and dysfunctional behaviors are perpetuated by the emergence of the intrusive thoughts that characterize the disorder. In rats, reminders of a traumatic event designed to simulate intrusive thoughts are associated with impairments in affective, social, and sexual behaviors. The current study examined the relationship between the memory for a traumatic event and changes in sexual and affective behaviors in male Long-Evans rats (N = 36). The trauma featured a combination stressor consisting of simultaneous exposure to a footshock and the odor of soiled cat litter. Memory for the trauma was reactivated by re-exposures to the context of the trauma in the absence of stressors and confirmed by assessing the percentage of time spent freezing. Following the second and final reminder, traumatized males exhibited reduced sexual motivation and increased anxiety, signified by longer latencies to achieve their first mount on a post-stress test of sexual behavior, and longer latencies to begin feeding in a novel environment, respectively. Correlational analyses revealed that decreased sexual motivation and heightened anxiety were predicted by the memory for the trauma as indicated by the time spent freezing during the re-exposures. The findings from the current study have implications for understanding the relationship between stress and sexual functioning and indicate that the impairments in sexual behavior that often occur in individuals with PTSD may be impacted by their memory for the trauma.

  13. Family Violence and Other Potentially Traumatic Interpersonal Events Among 9- to 17-Year-Old Children Attending an Outpatient Psychiatric Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultmann, Ole; Broberg, Anders G

    2016-11-01

    Among children visiting child and adolescent mental health care (CAM), the prevalence of exposure to family violence (FV) is reported to exceed prevalence in community samples, as are potentially traumatic interpersonal events (IPE) outside the family. The aim of the study was to relate CAM patients' self-reported experiences of violence exposure to their current psychiatric symptoms and to compare patients exposed to violence with patients who reported no exposure. We asked 305 consecutive 9- to 17-year-old patients in CAM about their current and previous exposure to violence in and outside of the family. Prevalence of exposure to any kind of violence was 67%. Reported exposures were 19% to IPE, 21% to FV, and 27% to both. Children exposed to both FV and IPE were more negatively affected by the events than children exposed to FV or IPE only. Children in the FV + IPE group reported more mental health symptoms than those in the no violence (33%) group. In general, IPE was related to the outcome measures only in combination with FV. Degree of violence exposure seemed to have a dose-response relationship with the diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. The impact of potentially traumatic events on the mental health of males who have served in the military: Findings from the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Darryl; Mewton, Louise; Varker, Tracey; Phelps, Andrea; Forbes, David

    2017-07-01

    The study investigated the impact of potentially traumatic events on mental health outcomes among males who had ever served in the Australian Defence Force. Data from a nationally representative household survey of Australian residents, the 2007 National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing, were used for this study. Compared with community members, Australian Defence Force males were significantly more likely to have experienced not only deployment and other war-like events but also accidents or other unexpected events, and trauma to someone close. For non-deployed males, Australian Defence Force members were at increased risk of accidents or other unexpected events compared to community members. After controlling for the effect of potentially traumatic events that were more prevalent among all Australian Defence Force members, the increased risk of mental disorders among Australian Defence Force members was no longer evident. For non-deployed males, Australian Defence Force and community members were at comparable risk of poor mental health outcomes. A significant minority of Australian Defence Force members had onset of a mental disorder prior to their first deployment. Deployment and other potentially traumatic events among Australian Defence Force members can help to explain their increased vulnerability to mental disorders compared with community members. Providers should routinely enquire about a range of potentially traumatic events among serving and ex-serving military personnel.

  15. Neural correlates of the modified Stroop effect in post-traumatic stress disorder: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyi; Wei, Dongtao; Dupuis-Roy, Nicolas; Du, Xue; Qiu, Jiang; Zhang, Qinglin

    2012-12-19

    Previous studies have provided electrophysiological evidence for attentional abnormalities in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present study examined the electrophysiological activity of trauma-exposed patients with or without a PTSD during a modified Stroop task. The PTSD group showed a reduced P2 and P3 amplitude relative to the non-PTSD group under both the earthquake-related and earthquake-unrelated words conditions. Importantly, the earthquake-related words elicited a greater P3 amplitude (350-450 ms after stimulus) than did unrelated words in the non-PTSD group, whereas no significant difference was found in the PTSD group. This indicates that PTSD patients had some attention deficits compared with non-PTSD individuals, and that these attention deficits were not just limited to earthquake-related words.

  16. How well does a single question about health predict the financial health of Medicare managed care plans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, A S; Bubolz, T A; Fisher, E S; Wasson, J H

    1999-01-01

    Responses to simple questions that predict subsequent health care utilization are of interest to both capitated health plans and the payer. To determine how responses to a single question about general health status predict subsequent health care expenditures. Participants in the 1992 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey were asked the following question: "In general, compared to other people your age, would you say your health is: excellent, very good, good, fair or poor?" To obtain each participant's total Medicare expenditures and number of hospitalizations in the ensuing year, we linked the responses to this question with data from the 1993 Medicare Continuous History Survey. Nationally representative sample of 8775 noninstitutionalized Medicare beneficiaries 65 years of age and older. Annual age- and sex-adjusted Medicare expenditures and hospitalization rates. Eighteen percent of the beneficiaries rated their health as excellent, 56% rated it as very good or good, 17% rated it as fair, and 7% rated it as poor. Medicare expenditures had a marked inverse relation to self-assessed health ratings. In the year after assessment, age- and sex-adjusted annual expenditures varied fivefold, from $8743 for beneficiaries rating their health as poor to $1656 for beneficiaries rating their health as excellent. Hospitalization rates followed the same pattern: Respondents who rated their health as poor had 675 hospitalizations per 1000 beneficiaries per year compared with 136 per 1000 for those rating their health as excellent. The response to a single question about general health status strongly predicts subsequent health care utilization. Self-reports of fair or poor health identify a group of high-risk patients who may benefit from targeted interventions. Because the current Medicare capitation formula does not account for health status, health plans can maximize profits by disproportionately enrolling beneficiaries who judge their health to be good. However, they are at

  17. Parental Substance Abuse As an Early Traumatic Event. Preliminary Findings on Neuropsychological and Personality Functioning in Young Drug Addicts Exposed to Drugs Early.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra; Mapelli, Daniela; Sacco, Marianna; Cristofalo, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Parental substance use is a major risk factor for child development, heightening the risk of drug problems in adolescence and young adulthood, and exposing offspring to several types of traumatic events. First, prenatal drug exposure can be considered a form of trauma itself, with subtle but long-lasting sequelae at the neuro-behavioral level. Second, parents' addiction often entails a childrearing environment characterized by poor parenting skills, disadvantaged contexts and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), leading to dysfunctional outcomes. Young adults born from/raised by parents with drug problems and diagnosed with a Substance Used Disorder (SUD) themselves might display a particularly severe condition in terms of cognitive deficits and impaired personality function. This preliminary study aims to investigate the role of early exposure to drugs as a traumatic event, capable of affecting the psychological status of young drug addicts. In particular, it intends to examine the neuropsychological functioning and personality profile of young adults with severe SUDs who were exposed to drugs early in their family context. The research involved three groups, each consisting of 15 young adults (aged 18-24): a group of inpatients diagnosed with SUDs and exposed to drugs early, a comparison group of non-exposed inpatients and a group of non-exposed youth without SUDs. A neuropsychological battery (Esame Neuropsicologico Breve-2), an assessment procedure for personality disorders (Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200) and the Symptom CheckList-90-Revised were administered. According to present preliminary results, young drug addicts exposed to drugs during their developmental age were characterized by elevated rates of neuropsychological impairments, especially at the expense of attentive and executive functions (EF); personality disorders were also common but did not differentiate them from non-exposed youth with SUDs. Alternative multi-focused prevention and

  18. From traumatic events and dissociation to body image and depression symptoms - in search of self-destruction syndrome in adolescents who engage in nonsuicidal self-injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziwiłłowicz, Wioletta; Lewandowska, Magdalena

    2017-04-30

    The aim of the study was to analyze relationships between the variables: severity of depression symptoms, feelings towards one's own body, dissociation, the number and type of traumatic life events experienced by adolescents who engage in deliberate self-injury and are psychiatrically hospitalized. We examined 60 patients aged 13-17 (M = 15.48, SD = 1.19). More than a half (55%) were diagnosed with a mixed disturbance of emotions and conduct, 23.5% with depressive behavior disorders, 10% were diagnosed a depressive episode. The research tools: a socio-demographic survey; original Feelings Towards the Body Questionnaire created on the basis of Tomkiewicz's description; Kovacs's CDI; Scharfetter's Ego-Psychopathology questionnaire. The examined individuals have negative feelings toward their bodies, more than half of them experience severe depression symptoms. There are links between traumatic events, dissociation, body image and the severity of depression symptoms. The strongest links were found: between dissociation vis-a-vis the severity of depression symptoms and the feelings towards one's body; and between the severity of depression symptoms and the feelings towards one's body. Two thirds of the examined individuals attempted suicide. Various forms of direct self-destructive behaviors very often occur simultaneously. It also provokes reflection about the conditions under which self-inflicted injury does (or does not) prevent suicide attempts. Self-mutilation along with the interaction between clinical variables may form a self-destruction syndrome in various mental disorders and contribute to clinical pictures of these disorders, this should be taken into account in diagnosing and treatment of adolescents.

  19. Accessibility of medical and psychosocial services following disasters and other traumatic events: experiences of Deaf and hard-of-hearing individuals in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skøt, Lotte; Jeppesen, Tina; Mellentin, Angelina Isabella; Elklit, Ask

    2017-12-01

    This descriptive study sought to explore barriers faced by Deaf and hard-of-hearing (D/HH) individuals in Denmark when accessing medical and psychosocial services following large-scale disasters and individual traumatic experiences. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine D/HH individuals who had experienced at least one disaster or other traumatic event. Difficulties were encountered during interactions with first response and healthcare services, which centered on: (1) lack of Deaf awareness among professionals, (2) problems accessing interpreter services, (3) professionals relying on hearing relatives to disseminate information, and (4) professionals who were unwilling to adjust their speech or try different forms of communication. Barriers reported in relation to accessing psychosocial services included: (1) lack of all-Deaf or hard-of-hearing support groups, and (2) limited availability of crisis psychologists who are trained to service the needs of the hearing impaired. Suggestions for improvements to service provision were provided, including a list of practical recommendations for professionals. This study has identified significant gaps in post-disaster service provision for D/HH individuals. Results can inform policy makers and other authorities in the position to enhance existing services and/or develop new services for this vulnerable target population. Implications for Rehabilitation Being Deaf or hard-of-hearing compromises a person's ability to obtain and share vital information during times of disaster. Medical and psychosocial services are expected to play critical response roles in times of disaster, and, should be properly equipped to assist Deaf and hard-of-hearing (D/HH) individuals. In a relatively small sample, this study highlights barriers faced by D/HH individuals in Denmark when accessing first response, healthcare, and psychosocial services following large-scale disasters and individual traumatic events, all of which centered

  20. Consistency of Self-Reported Neurocognitive Symptoms, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms, and Concussive Events From End of First Deployment to Veteran Health Administration Comprehensive Traumatic Brain Injury Evaluation by Operations Enduring Freedom/Iraqi Freedom/New Dawn Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Arthur C; Fingerhut, Esther C

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the consistency of self-reported symptoms and concussive events in combat veterans who reported experiencing concussive events. One hundred and forty, single deployed, Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation New Dawn combat veterans with Veteran Health Administration (VHA) Comprehensive Traumatic Brain Injury Evaluations (CTBIE) and no post-deployment head injury were examined to assess consistency of self-reported (a) traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related symptoms, (b) post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-related symptoms, and (c) TBI-related concussive events from soon after deployment to time of VHA CTBIE. Compared to their self-report of symptoms and traumatic events at the time of their Post-Deployment Health Assessment, at the time of their comprehensive VHA evaluation, subjects reported significantly greater impairment in concentration, decision making, memory, headache, and sleep. In addition, although half the subjects denied any PTSD symptoms post-deployment, approximately three quarters reported experiencing all four PTSD screening symptoms near the time of the VHA CTBIEs. At the latter time, subjects also reported significantly more TBI-related concussive events, as well as more post-concussive sequelae such as loss of consciousness immediately following these concussive events. Finally, although 84% reported a level of impairment so severe as to render all but the simplest activity doable, the vast majority simultaneously reported working and/or attending college. These findings raise questions regarding the accuracy of veteran self-report of both near and distant traumatic events, and argue for the inclusion of contemporaneous Department of Defense (DOD) records in veteran assessment and treatment planning. Published by Oxford University Press 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  1. Victimization from workplace bullying after a traumatic event: time-lagged relationships with symptoms of posttraumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Hansen, Marianne Bang; Knardahl, Stein; Heir, Trond

    2017-07-01

    This study examined relationships between victimization from bullying and symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTSS) after exposure to a terror attack at the workplace. It was hypothesized that (1) victims of bullying report higher and more stable levels of PTSS over time compared to their non-bullied colleagues and (2) that PTSS provides an increased risk of subsequent victimization from bullying. The hypotheses were tested in a two-wave prospective sample comprising 2337 employees from Norwegian governmental ministries who were exposed to the 2011 Oslo terror attack. The two waves of data collection were conducted 10 and 22 months after the terror attack. Hypothesis 1 was partially supported: victims of bullying reported significantly higher levels of PTSS than non-bullied employees at both measurement points, but bullying was not related to the stability in PTSS over time. In support of hypothesis 2, PTSS at 10 months was significantly associated with an increased risk of feeling victimized by bullying 1 year later. The results indicate that victimization from bullying is associated with elevated levels of PTSS in the aftermath of a workplace terror attack, but that bullying does not have any impact on the long-term development of PTSS. PTSS may be a potential antecedent of bullying. These findings suggest that organizations must give high priority to the psychosocial work environment of traumatized employees to prevent further detrimental health consequences.

  2. Factorial structure of complicated grief: associations with loss-related traumatic events and psychosocial impacts of mass conflict amongst West Papuan refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Rees, Susan; Chen, Jack; Kareth, Moses; Silove, Derrick

    2016-03-01

    Definitions of complicated grief vary across diagnostic systems, being represented as persistent complex bereavement (PCB) in DSM-5 and prolonged grief disorder (PGD) in the proposed revision of the ICD system. A past study in a high-income country has identified a six-factor structure for complicated grief, but there are no data testing this or any other model across cultures. The present study reports findings from a survey amongst West Papuan refugees (n = 230, response rate = 92 %) residing in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. We applied culturally adapted measures of conflict-related traumatic event (TEs) (drawing specifically on domains of conflict and loss), symptoms of complicated grief adapted and modified to the culture, and a multidimensional psychosocial index of the broader effects of conflict and displacement. Confirmatory factor analysis yielded a single higher order construct of complicated grief comprising six factors of yearning/preoccupation; shock/disbelief; anger/negative appraisal; behavioural change; estrangement from others/impairment; and a novel dimension of confusion/diminished identity. In contrast, our analysis failed to support DSM or ICD models of PCB or PGD. A Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model revealed that traumatic loss and the sense of injustice each were associated with the unitary construct of complicated grief and its subdomains of yearning/preoccupation; shock/disbelief; anger/negative appraisal (exclusive to injustice); and estrangement from others/social impairment (exclusive to TE domain of conflict and loss). Conflict and loss associated with feelings of injustice may be especially pathogenic in generating the anger/negative appraisal component of complicated grief amongst refugees.

  3. Pathways from assaultive violence to post-traumatic stress, depression, and generalized anxiety symptoms through stressful life events: longitudinal mediation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, S R; Joshi, S; Galea, S; Aiello, A E; Uddin, M; Koenen, K C; Cerdá, M

    2017-10-01

    Assaultive violence events are associated with increased risk for adverse psychiatric outcomes, including post-traumatic stress (PTS), depression, and generalized anxiety. Prior research has indicated that economic, legal, and social stressors that could follow assaultive events may explain the increased risk for adverse psychiatric outcomes, yet longitudinal studies have not adequately examined this pathway. In the current study, we aimed to address this limitation. Participants (N = 1360) were part of a longitudinal population-based study of adults living in Detroit. At three waves, participants indicated their exposure to assaultive violence and economic, legal, and social stressors, and completed inventories of PTS, depression, and generalized anxiety. Longitudinal mediation models were used to test the hypothesized pathway from assaultive violence to each psychiatric outcome. The hypothesized models evidenced good fit with the data and, in each, the paths from Wave 1 (W1) assaultive violence to W2 stressors, and from W2 stressors to W3 symptoms were significant (range of Standardized Estimates: 0.09-0.15, all p violence to W3 symptoms were significant (range of Standardized Estimates: 0.01-0.02, all p violence increase risk for a range of psychiatric symptoms. Although future research is needed, the results suggest that investment in interventions that prevent and mitigate assaultive violence survivors' exposure to such stressors may be an effective way to prevent mental illness in the aftermath of violent assaults.

  4. Alterations in autobiographical memory for a blast event in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans with mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palombo, Daniela J; Kapson, Heather S; Lafleche, Ginette; Vasterling, Jennifer J; Marx, Brian P; Franz, Molly; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2015-07-01

    Although loss of consciousness associated with moderate or severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is thought to interfere with encoding of the TBI event, little is known about the effects of mild TBI (mTBI), which typically involves only transient disruption in consciousness. Blast-exposed Afghanistan and Iraq War veterans were asked to recall the blast event. Participants were stratified based on whether the blast was associated with probable mTBI (n = 50) or not (n = 25). Narratives were scored for organizational structure (i.e., coherence) using the Narrative Coherence Coding Scheme (Reese et al., 2011) and episodic recollection using the Autobiographical Interview Coding Procedures (Levine et al., 2002). The mTBI group produced narratives that were less coherent but contained more episodic details than those of the no-TBI group. These results suggest that mTBI interferes with the organizational quality of memory in a manner that is independent of episodic detail generation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Prevalence of potentially traumatic events, depression, alcohol use, and social network supports among Chinese migrants: an epidemiological study in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Brian J; Chen, Wen; Wu, Yan; Zhou, Fangjing; Latkin, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Addressing the health needs of Chinese migrants is a critical public health concern. Epidemiological studies are needed to establish the prevalence of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and common mental disorders among Chinese migrants and identify protective community and social resources. Utilizing random household sampling, we are in the process of recruiting a representative sample of Chinese adults (N=1,000) in two districts home to a large number of internal migrants. Data are collected using face-to-face interviews and participant self-report methods. Chinese versions of the Life Events Checklist, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Patient Health Questionnaire and the Social Support Rating Scale measured exposure to PTEs, alcohol use disorder, depression, and social support networks. Preliminary results indicate a high proportion (68%) of the sample was exposed directly or indirectly to at least one PTE. The most commonly reported events were transportation accidents (43%), natural disasters (39%), and physical assault (26%). A total of 17% of the sample reported drinking consistent with having an alcohol use disorder. Moderate or severe depression was reported by 9% of the sample. The majority (75%) reported having three or more people to rely on for support, and 41% reported active participation in civic groups. Despite these strengths, only half the sample reported having trust in their community. Preliminary evidence from this population-level survey indicates high exposure to PTEs and a high potential burden of alcohol use disorders. The role of social networks will be explored as potentially useful for community-based intervention development.

  6. Prevalence of potentially traumatic events, depression, alcohol use, and social network supports among Chinese migrants: an epidemiological study in Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Hall

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Addressing the health needs of Chinese migrants is a critical public health concern. Epidemiological studies are needed to establish the prevalence of potentially traumatic events (PTEs and common mental disorders among Chinese migrants and identify protective community and social resources. Method: Utilizing random household sampling, we are in the process of recruiting a representative sample of Chinese adults (N=1,000 in two districts home to a large number of internal migrants. Data are collected using face-to-face interviews and participant self-report methods. Chinese versions of the Life Events Checklist, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Patient Health Questionnaire and the Social Support Rating Scale measured exposure to PTEs, alcohol use disorder, depression, and social support networks. Results: Preliminary results indicate a high proportion (68% of the sample was exposed directly or indirectly to at least one PTE. The most commonly reported events were transportation accidents (43%, natural disasters (39%, and physical assault (26%. A total of 17% of the sample reported drinking consistent with having an alcohol use disorder. Moderate or severe depression was reported by 9% of the sample. The majority (75% reported having three or more people to rely on for support, and 41% reported active participation in civic groups. Despite these strengths, only half the sample reported having trust in their community. Conclusion: Preliminary evidence from this population-level survey indicates high exposure to PTEs and a high potential burden of alcohol use disorders. The role of social networks will be explored as potentially useful for community-based intervention development.

  7. Cumulative life events, traumatic experiences, and psychiatric symptomatology in transition-aged youth with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Gotham, Katherine O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Co-occurring mood and anxiety symptomatology is commonly observed among youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) during adolescence and adulthood. Yet, little is known about the factors that might predispose youth with ASD to mood and anxiety problems. In this study, we focus on the role of cumulative stressful life events and trauma in co-occurring psychopathology among youth with ASD who are preparing to exit high school. Specifically, we examined the distribution of cumulative...

  8. Use of the Spine Adverse Events Severity System (SAVES) in patients with traumatic spinal cord injury. A comparison with institutional ICD-10 coding for the identification of acute care adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, J T; Thorogood, N P; Cheung, A; Noonan, V K; Chen, J; Fisher, C G; Dvorak, M F

    2013-06-01

    Observational cohort comparison. To compare the previously validated Spine Adverse Events Severity system (SAVES) with International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision codes (ICD-10) codes for identifying adverse events (AEs) in patients with traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI). Quaternary Care Spine Program. Patients discharged between 2006 and 2010 were identified from our prospective registry. Two consecutive cohorts were created based on the system used to record acute care AEs; one used ICD-10 coding by hospital coders and the other used SAVES data prospectively collected by a multidisciplinary clinical team. The ICD-10 codes were appropriately mapped to the SAVES. There were 212 patients in the ICD-10 cohort and 173 patients in the SAVES cohort. Analyses were adjusted to account for the different sample sizes, and the two cohorts were comparable based on age, gender and motor score. The SAVES system identified twice as many AEs per person as ICD-10 coding. Fifteen unique AEs were more reliably identified using SAVES, including neuropathic pain (32 × more; Ppatient age and severity of paralysis were more reliably correlated to AEs collected through SAVES than ICD-10. Implementation of the SAVES system for patients with TSCI captured more individuals experiencing AEs and more AEs per person compared with ICD-10 codes. This study demonstrates the utility of prospectively collecting AE data using validated tools.

  9. Comparison of single questions and brief questionnaire with longer validated food frequency questionnaire to assess adequate fruit and vegetable intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Amelia; Roberts, Kia; O'Leary, Fiona; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret Anne

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if a single question (SQ) for fruit and a SQ or five-item questionnaire for vegetable consumption (VFQ) could replace a longer food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to screen for inadequate versus adequate intakes in populations. Participants (109) completed three test screeners: fruit SQ, vegetable SQ, and a five-item VFQ followed by the reference 74-item FFQ (version 2 of the Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies [DQESv2]) including 13 fruit and 25 vegetable items. The five-item VFQ asked about intake of salad vegetables, cooked vegetables, white potatoes, legumes, and vegetable juice. The screeners were compared with the reference (DQESv2 FFQ) for sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive powers (PPV, NPV) to detect intakes of two or more servings of fruit and three or more servings of vegetables. Relative validity was examined using Bland-Altman statistics. The fruit SQ showed a PPV of 56% and an NPV of 83%. The PPV for the vegetable SQ was 30% and the NPV was 89%. For the five-item VFQ, the PPV was 39% and the NPV was 85%. Bland-Altman plots and linear regression equations showed that although the screener showed good agreement for fruit (unstandardized b1 coefficient = 0.04) for vegetable intake the difference between methods increased at higher intake levels (unstandardized b1 coefficients = -0.3 for the SQ, b1 = -0.6 for five-item VFQ). The fruit SQ and the five-item VFQ are suitable replacements for longer FFQs to detect inadequate intake and assess population mean but not individual intakes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Catecholamines in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    CONTRACT NUMBER Catecholamines in post - traumatic stress disorder 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0327 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...emotionally arousing experiences are typically vivid and persistent. The recurrent, intrusive memories of traumatic events in post - traumatic stress disorder ...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-08-1-0327 TITLE: Catecholamines in post - traumatic stress

  11. Associations between lifetime potentially traumatic events and chronic physical conditions in the South African Stress and Health Survey: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwoli, Lukoye; Platt, Jonathan M; Basu, Archana; Williams, David R; Stein, Dan J; Koenen, Karestan C

    2016-07-07

    This study examined the association between the type, and cumulative number of lifetime potentially traumatic events (PTEs), and chronic physical conditions, in a South African sample. PTE exposures have been associated with an increased risk for a wide range of chronic physical conditions, but it is unclear whether psychiatric disorders mediate this association. Given the established differences in trauma occurrence, and the epidemiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in South Africa relative to other countries, examining associations between PTEs and chronic physical conditions, particularly while accounting for psychiatric comorbidity is important. Data were drawn from the South African Stress and Health Study, a cross-sectional population-representative study of psychological and physical health of South African adults. Twenty-seven PTEs, based on the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0, DSM-IV PTSD module were grouped into seven PTE types (war events, physical violence, sexual violence, accidents, unexpected death of a loved one, network events, and witnessing PTEs). Five clusters of physical conditions (cardiovascular, arthritis, respiratory, chronic pain, and other health conditions) were examined. Logistic regressions assessed the odds of reporting a physical condition in relation to type and cumulative number of PTEs. Cochran-Armitage test for trend was used to examine dose-response effect of cumulative PTEs on physical conditions. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables and psychiatric disorders, respondents with any PTE had increased odds of all assessed physical conditions, ranging between 1.48 (95 % CI: 1.06-2.07) for arthritis and 2.07 (95 % CI: 1.57-2.73) for respiratory conditions, compared to those without PTE exposure. Sexual violence, physical violence, unexpected death of a loved one, and network PTEs significantly increased the odds of all or nearly all the physical conditions

  12. Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The 9th ARRCN Symposium 2015 was held during 21st–25th October 2015 at the Novotel Hotel, Chumphon, Thailand, one of the most favored travel destinations in Asia. The 10th ARRCN Symposium 2017 will be held during October 2017 in the Davao, Philippines. International Symposium on the Montagu's Harrier (Circus pygargus «The Montagu's Harrier in Europe. Status. Threats. Protection», organized by the environmental organization «Landesbund für Vogelschutz in Bayern e.V.» (LBV was held on November 20-22, 2015 in Germany. The location of this event was the city of Wurzburg in Bavaria.

  13. TRAUMATIC PANCREATITIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berne, Clarence J.; Walters, Robert L.

    1953-01-01

    Traumatic pancreatitis should be considered as a diagnostic possibility when trauma to the epigastrium is followed by phenomena suggestive of intra-abdominal injury. The presence or absence of hyperamylasemia should be established immediately. Even when traumatic pancreatitis is believed to exist, any suggestion of injury to other viscera should indicate laparotomy. Retroperitoneal rupture of the duodenum may simulate traumatic pancreatitis in all respects, including hyperamylasemia. X-ray studies may be of value in differentiation. Non-complicated traumatic pancreatitis is best treated conservatively. Gunshot and knife wounds of the pancreas should be drained. PMID:13094537

  14. The influence of occupational debriefing on post-traumatic stress symptomatology in traumatized police officers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlier, I. V.; Voerman, A. E.; Gersons, B. P.

    2000-01-01

    Certain individuals, such as police officers, are exposed to traumatic events as part of their occupational roles. In an effort to prevent psychological illnesses, notably the post-traumatic stress disorder, from arising out of work-related traumatic incidents, psychological interventions have been

  15. Effects of a peer support programme for youth social services employees experiencing potentially traumatic events: a protocol for a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Stephane; Tremblay, Nicole; Goncalves, Jane; Bilodeau, Henriette; Geoffrion, Steve

    2017-06-24

    The use of peer support programmes to help workers experiencing potentially traumatic events (PTE) has increased in high-risk organisations in the last decades. However, the scientific evidence of its effectiveness is still very limited. This paper aims to describe the protocol of a prospective cohort study that assesses the efficacy of a peer support programme among youth social services employees exposed to a PTE at work on psychological well-being, work functioning and needs of support. This is a mixed-methods prospective study that will examine workers' evolution four times over a 12-month period in Canada. This study involves: (1) quantitative data obtained through self-administrated questionnaires among 222 workers, and (2) qualitative in-depth interviews with a subsample of 45 workers. This study will compare findings from a cohort who received the support of a peer following a PTE (peer support-experimental protocol) as part of the experimental protocol of the Montreal Youth Social Services-University Institute (MYSS-UI), the second group of workers did not ask for the peer support (no peer support-experimental protocol) but was part of MYSS-UI, and the third group received standard organisational support from the Monteregie Youth Social Services (MYSS) (standard organisational protocol). The protocol and informed consent form complied with the ethics guidelines of the MYSS-UI. The Research Ethics Board of MYSS-UI and MYSS reviewed and accepted the protocol as required. The results of the study will be published in peer-reviewed journals, presented at research and general public conferences, disseminated via a public report for the institute that funded the project and for all workers. Results of this study will influence decision making regarding intervention policies following PTE and peer support interventions may be expanded throughout the youth social services in Canada and worldwide. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated

  16. Traumatic life events and posttraumatic stress disorder among Mexican adolescents: results from a survey Eventos traumáticos de vida y trastorno de estrés postraumático en adolescentes mexicanos: resultados de encuesta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Orozco

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and the association of Traumatic Life Events (LEs and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD among the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA adolescent population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Adolescents aged 12 to 17 were administered the adolescent version of the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (n=3 005. Data were collected using a stratified, multistage and probability sample. Prevalence, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for LEs and PTSD (assessed with DSM-IV criteria were obtained. RESULTS: The percentage of adolescents reporting at least one traumatic event in their lifetimes was 68.9%, with differences by sex. Prevalence for PTSD were 1.8% (2.4% females and 1.2% males, and sexual-related traumas were the LEs most associated with PTSD [OR=3.9 (CI95%=1.8-8.2], adjusted by sex, education and age. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to traumatic life events is not uncommon among Mexico City adolescents. Effort should be made to reduce child and adolescent sexual abuse, a very traumatic event highly associated with PTSD.OBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia y la asociación entre los Eventos Traumáticos (ET y Trastorno de Estrés Postraumático (TEPT en la población adolescente del Área Metropolitana de la Ciudad de México (AMCM. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: 3 005 adolescentes del AMCM entre 12 y 17 años fueron entrevistados empleando la versión para adolescentes de la Entrevista Dia gnóstica Internacional de Salud Mental, en una muestra probabilística, estratificada y multietápica. RESULTADOS: 68.9% de los adolescentes en el AMCM reportaron por lo menos un ET alguna vez en su vida, con diferencias por sexo. La prevalencia de TEPT fue 1.8% (2.4% mujeres y 1.2% hombres, y el abuso sexual se asoció al desarrollo de TEPT [OR=3.9(CI95%=1.8-8.2], independientemente del sexo, educación o edad. CONCLUSIONES: La exposición a ET es común en los adolescentes. Se debe poner énfasis en los esfuerzos

  17. Measuring symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder in people with intellectual disabilities: the development and psychometric properties of the Impact of Event Scale-Intellectual Disabilities (IES-IDs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, James C; Jobson, Laura; Langdon, Peter E

    2014-09-01

    The aims of the study were to (1) revise the Impact of Event Scale-Revised for use with people with intellectual disabilities (IDs), creating the Impact of Event Scale-Intellectual Disabilities (IES-IDs), (2) assess the reliability of the IES-IDs, and (3) compare the IES-IDs to an existing measure trauma-related symptomatology, namely the Lancaster and Northgate Trauma Scale (LANTS), along with measures of anxiety and depression. Forty adults with IDs who had experienced at least one traumatic event were recruited and completed the IES-IDs and the LANTS on two occasions, separated by 2 weeks. Participants also completed the Glasgow Depression Scale and the Glasgow Anxiety Scale, along with the Trauma Information Form which was used to collect information about trauma history. Fifteen per cent of the sample had encountered five or more traumatic events. The IES-IDs and the LANTS had good to excellent internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Both measures correlated with self-report measures of depression and anxiety, although the strength of this correlation was greater with the LANTS. There was a significant positive correlation between trauma frequency and the IES-IDs, while trauma frequency did not correlate with the LANTS. Both the IES-IDs and the LANTS appear to have good reliability. There is a lack of well-developed questionnaires that can be used to assess symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in people with intellectual disabilities. The Impact of Event Scale-Revised was augmented creating the Impact of Event Scale-Intellectual Disabilities (IES-IDs). The IES-IDs was shown to have good psychometric properties. The IES-IDs was compared to the Lancaster and Northgate Trauma Scale (LANTS), but the LANTS did not correlate with trauma frequency. However, this study had a small sample size, and a much larger study is needed to examine the factor structure of both the IES-IDs and the LANTS. Future studies should attempt to recruit people with

  18. Lifetime history of traumatic events in a young adult Mexican American sample: relation to substance dependence, affective disorder, acculturation stress, and PTSD

    OpenAIRE

    Ehlers, Cindy L.; Kim, Corinne; Gilder, David A.; Stouffer, Gina M.; Caetano, Raul; Yehuda, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Mexican Americans comprise one of the most rapidly growing populations in the United States, and within this population, trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are associated with physical and mental health problems. Therefore, efforts to delineate factors that may uniquely contribute to increased likelihood of trauma, PTSD, and substance use disorders over the lifetime in Mexican Americans are important to address health disparities and to develop treatment and prevention programs....

  19. Comparison of the New Adult Ventilator-Associated Event Criteria to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Pediatric Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Definition (PNU2) in a Population of Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirulis, Meghan M; Hamele, Mitchell T; Stockmann, Chris R; Bennett, Tellen D; Bratton, Susan L

    2016-02-01

    The new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention paradigm for ventilator-associated events is intended to simplify surveillance of infectious and noninfectious complications of mechanical ventilation in adults. We assessed the ventilator-associated events algorithm in pediatric patients. A retrospective observational cohort study. This single-center study took place in a PICU at an urban academic medical facility. Pediatric (ages 0-18 yr old) trauma patients with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury ventilated for greater than or equal to 2 days. We assessed for pediatric ventilator-associated pneumonia (as defined by current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention PNU2 guidelines), adult ventilator-associated events, and an experimental ventilator-associated events definition modified for pediatric patients. We compared ventilator-associated events to ventilator-associated pneumonia to calculate the test characteristics. Thirty-nine of 119 patients (33%) developed ventilator-associated pneumonia. Sensitivity of the adult ventilator-associated condition definition was 23% (95% CI, 11-39%), which increased to 56% (95% CI, 40-72%) using the modified pediatric ventilator-associated pneumonia criterion. Specificity reached 100% for both original and modified pediatric probable ventilator-associated pneumonia using ventilator-associated events criteria. Children who developed ventilator-associated pneumonia or ventilator-associated condition had similar baseline characteristics: age, mechanism of injury, injury severity scores, and use of an intracranial pressure monitor. Diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia and ventilator-associated condition portended similarly unfavorable outcomes: longer median duration of ventilation, ICU and hospital length of stay, and more discharges to rehabilitation, home health, or nursing care compared with patients with no pulmonary complication. Both current and modified ventilator-associated events criteria have poor

  20. Exposure to war traumatic experiences, post-traumatic stress disorder and post-traumatic growth among nurses in Gaza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamia, N A; Thabet, A A M; Vostanis, P

    2015-12-01

    What is known on the subject? This study builds on existing research on war-related factors that may affect health-care staff by particularly focusing on trauma exposure in both professional and everyday life, as well as on correlates of later positive psychological changes. What this paper adds to existing knowledge? It shows that one in five nursing staff working in Gaza experienced post-traumatic stress symptoms within the clinical range, 2 years after an incursion on Gaza and after being exposed to substantial trauma during this period. Participants appeared to develop a variety of post-traumatic growth responses following trauma exposure. Although nurses experienced traumatic events both as civilians and in their health-care capacity, personal exposure was strongly associated with PTSD symptoms. What are the implications for practice? Support to nursing and other health-care professionals in war situations should entail different levels, remain available well after an acute conflict, and take into consideration both personal and practice-related traumatic events. Mental health nursing practitioners can play a pivotal role in this. To establish the association between war traumatic experiences, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and post-traumatic growth among nurses in the Gaza Strip, 2 years after an incursion on Gaza, and during a period of ongoing trauma exposure. This study builds on existing evidence by considering exposure to personal and work-related traumatic events, and on factors associated with later positive psychological adaptation. The sample consisted of 274 randomly selected nurses in Gaza who completed the Gaza Traumatic Events Checklist, PTSD Checklist, and Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. Of the nurses, 19.7% reported full PTSD. There was a significant relationship between traumatic events and PTSD scores; as well as between community-related traumatic events and post-traumatic growth. Participants reported a range of traumatic

  1. Traumatic Pneumatocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Ching Yang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic pneumatocele is a rare complication of blunt chest trauma with uncertain pathogenesis. It occurs primarily in pediatric patients and is characterized by single or multiple pulmonary cystic lesions concomitant with other type of injuries of the lung parenchyma. Herein we present a case of traumatic pneumatocele in a 3-year-old boy, together with a brief review of the literature. This rare entity should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic lesions complicating blunt chest trauma, especially in young adults. The disease generally has a benign and self-limiting course.

  2. Occurrence of delayed-onset post-traumatic stress disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utzon-Frank, Nicolai; Breinegaard, Nina; Bertelsen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops according to consensus criteria within the first 1-6 months after a horrifying traumatic event, but it is alleged that PTSD may develop later. The objective was to review the evidence addressing occurrence of PTSD with onset >6 months after a traumatic...

  3. Brief Eclectic Psychotherapy for Traumatic Grief (BEP-TG): toward integrated treatment of symptoms related to traumatic loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, Geert E.; Kleber, Rolf J.; de la Rie, Simone M.; Bos, Jannetta B. A.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.; Boelen, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Traumatic events such as disasters, accidents, war, or criminal violence are often accompanied by the loss of loved ones, and may then give rise to traumatic grief. Traumatic grief refers to a clinical diagnosis of persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD) with comorbid (symptoms

  4. Brief Eclectic Psychotherapy for Traumatic Grief (BEP-TG) : toward integrated treatment of symptoms related to traumatic loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, Geert E; Kleber, Rolf J; de la Rie, Simone M; Bos, Jannetta B A; Gersons, Berthold P R; Boelen, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traumatic events such as disasters, accidents, war, or criminal violence are often accompanied by the loss of loved ones, and may then give rise to traumatic grief. Traumatic grief refers to a clinical diagnosis of persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD) with comorbid (symptoms

  5. [Supporting a teenager confronted with a traumatic experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchin, Clara; Benoit de Coignac, Agathe; Moro, Marie Rose

    2015-01-01

    Everyone reacts differently to a traumatic event. There is a risk of underestimating a teenager's traumatic experience by considering only the usual post-traumatic stress diagnosis criteria. However, when the trauma has not been able to be sufficiently developed, the adolescent's suffering is revealed through their behaviour. The therapeutic support of the youngster and their family enables them to reposition the traumatic event within the continuity of their history and to relaunch a thought process, often frozen by the traumatic experience. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Ketamine as a Rapid Treatment for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Post - traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) is a debilitating anxiety disorder characterized by intrusive re-experiences of the traumatic events...08-1-0602 TITLE: Ketamine as a Rapid Treatment for Post - Traumatic Stress Disorder PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dennis Charney...dissociative effects of ketamine but not have any sustained anxiolytic and antidepressant effects. Forty individuals diagnosed with post - traumatic

  7. Traumatic events, other operational stressors and physical and mental health reported by Australian Defence Force personnel following peacekeeping and war-like deployments

    OpenAIRE

    Waller, Michael; Treloar, Susan A; Sim, Malcolm R; McFarlane, Alexander C; McGuire, Annabel C L; Bleier, Jonathan; Dobson, Annette J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The association between stressful events on warlike deployments and subsequent mental health problems has been established. Less is known about the effects of stressful events on peacekeeping deployments. Methods Two cross sectional studies of the Australian Defence Force were used to contrast the prevalence of exposures reported by a group deployed on a peacekeeping operation (Bougainville, n = 1704) and those reported by a group deployed on operations which included warl...

  8. Traumatic Aortic Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianna Miner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 48-year-old male with unknown past medical history presents as a trauma after being hit by a car traveling approximately 25 miles per hour. On initial presentation, the patient is confused, combative, and not answering questions appropriately. The patient is hypotensive with a blood pressure of 68/40 and a heart rate of 50 beats per minute, with oxygen saturation at 96% on room air. FAST scan is positive for fluid in Morrison’s pouch, splenorenal space, and pericardial space. Significant findings: The initial chest x-ray showed an abnormal superior mediastinal contour (blue line, suggestive of a possible aortic injury. The CT angiogram showed extensive circumferential irregularity and outpouching of the distal aortic arch (red arrows compatible with aortic transection. In addition, there was a circumferential intramural hematoma, which extended through the descending aorta to the proximal infrarenal abdominal aorta (green arrow. There was also an extensive surrounding mediastinal hematoma extending around the descending aorta and supraaortic branches (purple arrows. Discussion: Traumatic aortic injury is a life-threatening event. The incidence of blunt thoracic aortic injury is low, between 1 to 2 percent of those patients with blunt thoracic trauma.1 However, approximately 80% of patients with traumatic aortic injury die at the scene.2 Therefore it is imperative to diagnose traumatic aortic injury in a timely fashion. The diagnosis can be difficult due to the non-specific signs and symptoms and other distracting injuries. Clinical suspicion should be based on the mechanism of the injury and the hemodynamic status of the patient. In any patient with blunt or penetrating trauma to the chest that is hemodynamically unstable, traumatic aortic injury should be on the differential. Chest x-ray can be used as a screening tool. A normal chest x-ray has a negative predictive value of approximately 97%. CTA chest is the

  9. Problemas de saúde mental na adolescência: características familiares, eventos traumáticos e violência Mental health problems in adolescence: family characteristics, traumatic events and violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pereira da Cruz Benetti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de situações traumáticas, exposição à violência e características das relações parentais são fatores de risco para saúde mental. Este estudo procurou identificar as situações individuais, familiares e contextuais associadas às manifestações de problemas de saúde mental em adolescentes estudantes da região metropolitana de Porto Alegre, RS. Os instrumentos utilizados foram o Inventário de Eventos Estressores na Adolescência, Triagem da Exposição de Crianças à Violência na Comunidade, Inventário de Estilos Parentais e o Child Behavior Checklist- versão YRF. Participaram 245 adolescentes, sendo 114 (46,5% do sexo masculino com idade média de 16,02 anos (DP=1,83. A análise dos dados realizou-se através de estatística descritiva e inferencial para estimar os determinantes do diagnóstico clínico. Situações de violência, práticas parentais negativas e eventos traumáticos associaram-se ao diagnóstico clínico. Aponta-se a necessidade de implantação de ações preventivas e de atenção em saúde mental na infância e adolescência.The occurrence of traumatic events, exposure to violence and characteristics of parental relationship are risk factors associated to mental health. This study aimed to identify individual, family and contextual factors associated to the manifestation of mental health problems in a sample of adolescent students from the metropolitan region of the city of Porto Alegr e, RS. The instruments used were the Stressful Adolescence Events Inventory, Screening of Exposure to Community Violence, Parental Style Inventory and the Child Behavior Checklist- YRF version. Two hundred and forty five adolescents, of which 114 (46,5% male, mean age 16,02 (DP=1,83 participated in the study. Data analysis was done through descriptive and inferential statistics to estimate the determinants of clinical diagnostics. Violence situations, negative parenting practices and traumatic events were

  10. Lifetime history of traumatic events in a young adult Mexican American sample: Relation to substance dependence, affective disorder, acculturation stress, and PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Cindy L; Kim, Corinne; Gilder, David A; Stouffer, Gina M; Caetano, Raul; Yehuda, Rachel

    2016-12-01

    Mexican Americans comprise one of the most rapidly growing populations in the United States, and within this population, trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are associated with physical and mental health problems. Therefore, efforts to delineate factors that may uniquely contribute to increased likelihood of trauma, PTSD, and substance use disorders over the lifetime in Mexican Americans are important to address health disparities and to develop treatment and prevention programs. Six hundred fourteen young adults (age 18-30 yrs) of Mexican American heritage, largely second generation, were recruited from the community and assessed with the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism and an acculturation stress scale. More males (51.2%) reported experiencing traumas than females (41.1%), however, a larger proportion of females received a PTSD diagnosis (15%) than males (8%). Alcohol dependence and affective disorders, but not anxiety disorders, antisocial disorders, nicotine, marijuana, or stimulant dependence, were significantly comorbid with PTSD. Endorsing higher levels of acculturation stress was also significantly associated with both trauma exposure and a diagnosis of PTSD. Logistic regression revealed that female gender, having an affective disorder, alcohol dependence, higher levels of acculturation stress, and lower levels of education were all predictors of PTSD status. Additionally, alcohol dependence generally occurred after the PTSD diagnosis in early adulthood in this high-risk population. These studies suggest that treatment and prevention efforts should particularly focus on young adult second generation Mexican American women with higher levels of acculturation stress, who may be at higher risk for PTSD, affective disorder, and alcohol dependence following trauma exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Lifetime history of traumatic events in a young adult Mexican American sample: relation to substance dependence, affective disorder, acculturation stress, and PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Cindy L.; Kim, Corinne; Gilder, David A.; Stouffer, Gina M.; Caetano, Raul; Yehuda, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Mexican Americans comprise one of the most rapidly growing populations in the United States, and within this population, trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are associated with physical and mental health problems. Therefore, efforts to delineate factors that may uniquely contribute to increased likelihood of trauma, PTSD, and substance use disorders over the lifetime in Mexican Americans are important to address health disparities and to develop treatment and prevention programs. Six hundred fourteen young adults (age 18–30 yrs) of Mexican American heritage, largely second generation, were recruited from the community and assessed with the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism and an acculturation stress scale. More males (51.2%) reported experiencing traumas than females (41.1%), however, a larger proportion of females received a PTSD diagnosis (15%) than males (8%). Alcohol dependence and affective disorders, but not anxiety disorders, antisocial disorders, nicotine, marijuana, or stimulant dependence, were significantly comorbid with PTSD. Endorsing higher levels of acculturation stress was also significantly associated with both trauma exposure and a diagnosis of PTSD. Logistic regression revealed that female gender, having an affective disorder, alcohol dependence, higher levels of acculturation stress, and lower levels of education were all predictors of PTSD status. Additionally, alcohol dependence generally occurred after the PTSD diagnosis in early adulthood in this high-risk population. These studies suggest that treatment and prevention efforts should particularly focus on young adult second generation Mexican American women with higher levels of acculturation stress, who may be at higher risk for PTSD, affective disorder, and alcohol dependence following trauma exposure. PMID:27569652

  12. Traumatization in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Adult Psychiatric Outpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øhre, Beate; Uthus, Mette Perly; von Tetzchner, Stephen; Falkum, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Deaf and hard-of-hearing persons are at risk for experiencing traumatic events and such experiences are associated with symptoms of mental disorder. We investigated the prevalence of traumatic events and subsequent traumatization in adults referred to specialized psychiatric outpatient units for deaf and hard-of-hearing patients. Sixty-two…

  13. Mild traumatic brain injury does not produce post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbordone, R J; Liter, J C

    1995-01-01

    It has been widely assumed that patients who sustain mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) or post-concussive syndrome develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in response to their cognitive difficulties, diminished coping skills, or other losses. This study examined 70 patients who had previously been diagnosed as having either PTSD or MTBI. Each patient was asked to provide a highly detailed chronological history of the events which preceded, followed, and occurred during the traumatic event, to indicate whether they were rendered unconscious or had amnesia for the event, and to describe the various symptoms they developed. All (100.0%) of the PTSD patients were able to provide a highly detailed and emotionally charged recollection of the events which occurred within 15 minutes of the traumatic event in comparison to none (0.0%) of the MTBI patients. None of the MTBI patients reported symptoms such as intrusive recollections of the traumatic event, nightmares, hypervigilance, phobic or startle reactions, or became upset when they were asked to describe the traumatic event or were exposed to stimuli associated with it. These data suggest that PTSD and MTBI are two mutually exclusive disorders, and that it is highly unlikely that MTBI patients develop PTSD symptoms. Furthermore, these findings suggest that clinicians should exercise considerable caution in ruling out PTSD prior to making the diagnosis of MTBI.

  14. Sofrimento psíquico, acontecimento traumático e angústia pulsional Sufrimiento psíquico, evento traumático y angustia pulsional Psychic pain, traumatic event and neurotic anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa de Melo Carvalho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo aborda o sofrimento psíquico desencadeado por um acontecimento traumático, buscando, inicialmente, em uma perspectiva histórica, os elementos conceituais que concorrem para a delimitação do quadro clínico da neurose traumática no texto freudiano. Estuda, em seguida, sua conceituação no trabalho dos primeiros psicanalistas, em especial, Sandor Ferenczi e Karl Abraham, para então tomar alguns elementos conceituais da teoria da sedução generalizada de Jean Laplanche visando a enriquecer sua compreensão. Ao lado da discussão teórica, são apresentados dois fragmentos clínicos no intuito de ilustrar as principais ideias defendidas ao longo do artigo e que se fundamentam, em seus pontos essenciais, na tese freudiana segundo a qual toda angústia ante um acontecimento traumático, desde que se desenvolve, subentende, invariavelmente, a angústia ante o ataque pulsional.Este artículo abarca el sufrimiento psíquico desencadenado por un evento traumático, buscando, inicialmente, en una perspectiva histórica, los elementos conceptuales que convergen para la delimitación del cuadro clínico de la neurosis traumática en el texto freudiano. Estudia, enseguida, su conceptuación en el trabajo de los primeros psicoanalistas, en especial Sandor Ferenczi y Karl Abraham, para así tomar algunos elementos conceptuales de la teoría de la seducción generalizada de Jean Laplanche, pretendiendo enriquecer su comprensión. Juntamente con la discusión teórica, son presentados dos fragmentos clínicos con el objetivo de ilustrar las principales ideas defendidas a lo largo del artículo y que, en sus puntos esenciales, se fundamentan en la tesis freudiana según la cual toda angustia delante de un evento traumático, desde que se desarrolla, sobrentiende, invariablemente, la angustia delante del ataque pulsional.This article discusses the psychological distress triggered by a traumatic event and starts with a historical

  15. What makes a life event traumatic for a child? The predictive values of DSM-Criteria A1 and A2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Verlinden

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-Criteria A1 and A2 for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD have been discussed extensively, with several studies in adults or adolescents supporting the removal of Criterion A2. However, solid research in children is missing. Objective: This study evaluated the DSM-Criteria A1 and A2 in predicting posttraumatic stress in children. Method: A sample of 588 Dutch school children, aged 8–18 years, completed a self-report questionnaire to determine if they met Criteria A1 and/or A2. Their posttraumatic stress response was assessed using the Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale. Results: The contribution of Criterion A2 to the prediction of posttraumatic stress in children is of greater importance than the contribution of Criterion A1. Children who met Criterion A2 reported significantly higher levels of posttraumatic stress and were nine times more likely to develop probable PTSD than children who did not meet Criterion A2. When Criterion A1 was met, a child was only two times more likely to develop probable PTSD as compared with those where Criterion A1 was not met. Furthermore, the low sensitivity of Criterion A1 suggests that children may regularly develop severe posttraumatic stress in the absence of Criterion A1. The remarkably high negative predictive value of Criterion A2 indicates that if a child does not have a subjective reaction during an event that it is unlikely that he or she will develop PTSD. Conclusions: In contrast to most adult studies, the findings of this study emphasize the significant contribution of Criterion A2 to the prediction of posttraumatic stress in children and raise fundamental questions about the value of the current Criterion A1.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please seeSupplementary files under Article Tools online

  16. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the event. These symptoms cause significant problems in social or work situations and in relationships. They can also interfere ... excess drinking or drug use Lacking a good support system of family and ... with a weapon An accident Many other traumatic events also can lead to ...

  17. Brain-derived neurotropic factor polymorphisms, traumatic stress, mild traumatic brain injury, and combat exposure contribute to postdeployment traumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dretsch, Michael N; Williams, Kathy; Emmerich, Tanja; Crynen, Gogce; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Chaytow, Helena; Mathura, Venkat; Crawford, Fiona C; Iverson, Grant L

    2016-01-01

    In addition to experiencing traumatic events while deployed in a combat environment, there are other factors that contribute to the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in military service members. This study explored the contribution of genetics, childhood environment, prior trauma, psychological, cognitive, and deployment factors to the development of traumatic stress following deployment. Both pre- and postdeployment data on 231 of 458 soldiers were analyzed. Postdeployment assessments occurred within 30 days from returning stateside and included a battery of psychological health, medical history, and demographic questionnaires; neurocognitive tests; and blood serum for the D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2), apolipoprotein E (APOE), and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) genes. Soldiers who screened positive for traumatic stress at postdeployment had significantly higher scores in depression (d = 1.91), anxiety (d = 1.61), poor sleep quality (d = 0.92), postconcussion symptoms (d = 2.21), alcohol use (d = 0.63), traumatic life events (d = 0.42), and combat exposure (d = 0.91). BDNF Val66 Met genotype was significantly associated with risk for sustaining a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and screening positive for traumatic stress. Predeployment traumatic stress, greater combat exposure and sustaining an mTBI while deployed, and the BDNF Met/Met genotype accounted for 22% of the variance of postdeployment PTSD scores (R (2)  = 0.22, P PTSD scores. These findings suggest predeployment traumatic stress, genetic, and environmental factors have unique contributions to the development of combat-related traumatic stress in military service members.

  18. Client-centred therapy, post-traumatic stress disorder and post-traumatic growth: theoretical perspectives and practical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Stephen

    2004-03-01

    In practice it is not unusual for client-centred therapists to work with people who have experienced traumatic events. However, client-centred therapy is not usually considered within texts on traumatic stress and questions have been raised over the appropriateness of client-centred therapy with trauma survivors. The present study shows how, although he was writing well before the introduction of the term 'post-traumatic stress disorder', Carl Rogers provided a theory of therapy and personality that contains an account of threat-related psychological processes largely consistent with contemporary trauma theory. Rogers' theory provides the conceptual underpinnings to the client-centred and experiential ways of working with traumatized people. Furthermore, Rogers' theory provides an understanding of post-traumatic growth processes, and encourages therapists to adopt a more positive psychological perspective to their understanding of how people adjust to traumatic events.

  19. Imagery Rescripting of Early Traumatic Memories in Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Jennifer; Clark, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Negative self-images appear to play a role in the maintenance of social phobia and research suggests they are often linked to earlier memories of socially traumatic events. Imagery rescripting is a clinical intervention that aims to update such unpleasant or traumatic memories, and is increasingly being incorporated in cognitive behavioral therapy…

  20. Children and adolescents treated for post-traumatic stress disorder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children and adolescents can develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after exposure to a range of traumatic events, including domestic, political or community ... isolation (39%), fear or anxiety (37%), problematic family relationships (29%), emotional (27%) and physical (23%) abuse, and lack of social support (23%).

  1. Emotional Reasoning in Acutely Traumatized Children and Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verduijn, Nina J.C.; Vincken, Manon J.B.; Meesters, Cor M.G.; Engelhard, I.M.

    2015-01-01

    After a traumatic event, many children and adolescents develop post-traumatic stress disorder. Studies in adults suggest that emotional reasoning (i.e., drawing conclusions about situations on the basis of one’s emotional responses) is involved in PTSD development or maintenance. This longitudinal

  2. Post traumatic stress disorder: undiagnosed cases in a tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common, debilitating anxiety disorder characterized by emotional and physical symptoms that may occur after exposure to a severely traumatic event. Since it occurs commonly as a comorbid diagnosis with other mood- and anxiety disorders, we postulated that this ...

  3. Prevalence of Secondary Traumatic Stress among Social Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bride, Brian E.

    2007-01-01

    Social workers are increasingly being called on to assist survivors of childhood abuse, domestic violence, violent crime, disasters, and war and terrorism. It has become increasingly apparent that the psychological effects of traumatic events extend beyond those directly affected. Secondary traumatic stress (STS) is becoming viewed as an…

  4. intimate partner violence and post-traumatic stress disorder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    In this article we will focus on the association between IPV and PTSD and discuss implications for diagnosis and management at a primary care level. WHAT IS PTSD? PTSD is an anxiety disorder resulting from exposure to traumatic events.

  5. Prevalencia de sucesos violentos y de trastorno por estrés postraumático en la población mexicana Prevalence of violent events and post-traumatic stress disorder in the Mexican population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Elena Medina-Mora

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Reportar el índice de exposición a diferentes sucesos violentos, los correlatos demográficos, la prevalencia de trastorno por estrés postraumático y el impacto sobre la calidad de vida. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: La Encuesta Nacional de Epidemiología Psiquiátrica es representativa de la población mexicana urbana de 18 a 65 años de edad. Se realizó entre 2001 y 2002, con el instrumento diagnóstico de la versión computarizada de la Entrevista Internacional Compuesta de Diagnóstico (CIDI-15, por sus siglas en inglés. Los análisis toman en cuenta el diseño complejo de la muestra aleatoria, multietápica y estratificada. Se utilizaron el Método Kaplan-Meir y regresiones logísticas. RESULTADOS: El 68% de la población ha estado expuesta al menos a un suceso estresante en su vida. La exposición varía por sexo (violación, acoso y abuso sexual son más frecuentes en mujeres; los accidentes y robos, entre los hombres y por edad (niños, adolescentes, mujeres adultas jóvenes y personas de la tercera edad. El 2.3% de las mujeres y 0.49% de los hombres presentaron un trastorno de estrés postraumático. La violación, el acoso, el secuestro y el abuso sexual son los sucesos con mayor manifestación de trastornos por estrés postraumático. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados refuerzan la necesidad de ampliar la cobertura de tratamiento para atender las secuelas de la violencia, considerando las importantes variaciones de género y estadios de desarrollo.OBJECTIVE: To report the rate of exposure to different violent events, their demographic correlates, the prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD, and the impact on quality of life MATERIAL AND METHODS: The National Survey of Psychiatric Epidemiology is representative of the Mexican urban population aged 18 to 65. The survey was undertaken in 2001 and 2002 using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI-15 computerized version. The statistical analyses take into

  6. Brief Eclectic Psychotherapy for Traumatic Grief (BEP-TG): toward integrated treatment of symptoms related to traumatic loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Geert E; Kleber, Rolf J; de la Rie, Simone M; Bos, Jannetta B A; Gersons, Berthold P R; Boelen, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic events such as disasters, accidents, war, or criminal violence are often accompanied by the loss of loved ones, and may then give rise to traumatic grief. Traumatic grief refers to a clinical diagnosis of persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD) with comorbid (symptoms of) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or major depressive disorder (MDD) following confrontation with a traumatic loss. Trauma survivors, who are frequently from different cultural backgrounds, have often experienced multiple losses and ambiguous loss (missing family members or friends). Current evidence-based treatments for PTSD do not focus on traumatic grief. To develop a treatment for traumatic grief combining treatment interventions for PTSD and PCBD that may accommodate cultural aspects of grief. To provide a rationale for treatment, we propose a cognitive stress model of traumatic grief. Based on this model and on existing evidence-based treatments for PTSD and complicated grief, we developed Brief Eclectic Psychotherapy for Traumatic Grief (BEP-TG) for the treatment of patients with traumatic grief. The treatment is presented along with a case vignette. Processes contributing to traumatic grief include inadequately integrating the memory of the traumatic loss, negative appraisal of the traumatic loss, sensitivity to matching triggers and new stressors, and attempting to avoid distress. BEP-TG targets these processes. The BEP-TG protocol consists of five parts with proven effectiveness in the treatment of PCBD, PTSD, and MDD: information and motivation, grief-focused exposure, memorabilia and writing assignments, finding meaning and activation, and a farewell ritual. Tailored to fit the needs of trauma survivors, BEP-TG can be used to address traumatic grief symptoms related to multiple losses and ambiguous loss, as well as cultural aspects of bereavement through its different components.

  7. International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... class activity allows instructors to flexibly focus on culture, social psychology, mental health, and/or research design. Background Information: People all around the world experience potentially traumatic events, including ... universal, but culture influences both the way people respond and the ...

  8. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mild Traumatic Brain Injury Resilience Families with Kids Depression Families & Friendships Tobacco Life Stress Spirituality Anger Physical Injury Stigma Health & Wellness Work Adjustment Community Peer-2-Peer Forum ...

  9. Parent and Child Agreement for Acute Stress Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Other Psychopathology in a Prospective Study of Children and Adolescents Exposed to Single-Event Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Smith, Patrick; Glucksman, Edward; Yule, William; Dalgleish, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Examining parent-child agreement for Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in children and adolescents is essential for informing the assessment of trauma-exposed children, yet no studies have examined this relationship using appropriate statistical techniques. Parent-child agreement for these disorders was examined…

  10. Attenuated traumatic axonal injury and improved functional outcome after traumatic brain injury in mice lacking Sarm1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henninger, Nils; Bouley, James; Sikoglu, Elif M; An, Jiyan; Moore, Constance M; King, Jean A; Bowser, Robert; Freeman, Marc R; Brown, Robert H

    2016-04-01

    Axonal degeneration is a critical, early event in many acute and chronic neurological disorders. It has been consistently observed after traumatic brain injury, but whether axon degeneration is a driver of traumatic brain injury remains unclear. Molecular pathways underlying the pathology of traumatic brain injury have not been defined, and there is no efficacious treatment for traumatic brain injury. Here we show that mice lacking the mouse Toll receptor adaptor Sarm1 (sterile α/Armadillo/Toll-Interleukin receptor homology domain protein) gene, a key mediator of Wallerian degeneration, demonstrate multiple improved traumatic brain injury-associated phenotypes after injury in a closed-head mild traumatic brain injury model. Sarm1(-/-) mice developed fewer β-amyloid precursor protein aggregates in axons of the corpus callosum after traumatic brain injury as compared to Sarm1(+/+) mice. Furthermore, mice lacking Sarm1 had reduced plasma concentrations of the phophorylated axonal neurofilament subunit H, indicating that axonal integrity is maintained after traumatic brain injury. Strikingly, whereas wild-type mice exibited a number of behavioural deficits after traumatic brain injury, we observed a strong, early preservation of neurological function in Sarm1(-/-) animals. Finally, using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy we found tissue signatures consistent with substantially preserved neuronal energy metabolism in Sarm1(-/-) mice compared to controls immediately following traumatic brain injury. Our results indicate that the SARM1-mediated prodegenerative pathway promotes pathogenesis in traumatic brain injury and suggest that anti-SARM1 therapeutics are a viable approach for preserving neurological function after traumatic brain injury. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Traumatic thoracolumbar spine fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Siebenga (Jan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractTraumatic spinal fractures have the lowest functional outcomes and the lowest rates of return to work after injury of all major organ systems.1 This thesis will cover traumatic thoracolumbar spine fractures and not osteoporotic spine fractures because of the difference in fracture

  12. Post traumatic stress symptoms in the first years of conjugal bereavement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, Henk; de Keijser, Adrianus; van den Bout, Jan; Dijkhuis, Jos

    1990-01-01

    Bereavement is generally regarded as one of the most stressful events one can encounter. Yet, bereavement research and the study of post-traumatic stress seem to be mainly developing along separate lines. Strictly speaking, post-traumatic stress disorder can only occur after encountering events

  13. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Javidi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Unexpected extreme sudden traumatic stressor may cause post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Important traumatic events include war, violent personal assault (e.g., sexual assault, and physical attack, being taken hostage or kidnapped, confinement as a prisoner of war, torture, terrorist attack, severe car accidents, and natural disasters. In childhood age sexual abuse or witnessing serious injuries or unexpected death of a beloved one are among important traumatic events. PTSD can be categorized into two types of acute and chronic PTSD: if symptoms persist for less than three months, it is termed “acute PTSD,” otherwise, it is called “chronic PTSD.” 60.7% of men and 51.2% of women would experience at least one potentially traumatic event in their lifetime. The lifetime prevalence of PTSD is significantly higher in women than men. Lifetime prevalence of PTSD varies from 0.3% in China to 6.1% in New Zealand. The prevalence of PTSD in crime victims are between 19% and 75%; rates as high as 80% have been reported following rape. The prevalence of PTSD among direct victims of disasters was reported to be 30%–40%; the rate in rescue workers was 10%–20%. The prevalence of PTSD among police, fire, and emergency service workers ranged from 6%–32%. An overall prevalence rate of 4% for the general population, the rate in rescue/recovery occupations ranged from 5% to 32%, with the highest rate reported in search and rescue personnel (25%, firefighters (21%, and workers with no prior training for facing disaster. War is one of the most intense stressors known to man. Armed forces have a higher prevalence of depression, anxiety disorders, alcohol abuse and PTSD. High-risk children who have been abused or experienced natural disasters may have an even higher prevalence of PTSD than adults. Female gender, previous psychiatric problem, intensity and nature of exposure to the traumatic event, and lack of social support are known risk factors for

  14. Centrality of event across cultures. Emotionally positive and negative events in Mexico, China, Greenland, and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaragoza Scherman, Alejandra; Salgado, Sinué; Shao, Zhifang

    During their lifetime, people experience both emotionally positive and negative events. The Centrality of Event Scale (CES; Berntsen and Rubin, 2006; Berntsen, Rubin and Siegler, 2011) measures the extent to which an event is central to someone’s identity and life story. An event becomes central...... disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms: Participants with higher PTSD and depression scores reported that a traumatic or negative event was highly central to their identity and life story; and 3) A significant number of positive event occurred during participants’ adolescence and early adulthood, while...... an emotional event into our life story and our identity. Key findings: 1) Positive events are rated as more central to identity than negative events; 2) The extent to which highly traumatic and negative events become central to a person’s life story and identity varies as a function of post-traumatic stress...

  15. Secondary Traumatic Stress and Adjustment in Therapists Who Work with Sexual Violence Survivors: The Moderating Role of Posttraumatic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samios, Christina; Rodzik, Amber K.; Abel, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    Due to their secondary exposure to the traumatic events disclosed by clients, therapists who work with sexual violence survivors are at risk of experiencing secondary traumatic stress. We examined whether the negative effects of secondary traumatic stress on therapist adjustment would be buffered by posttraumatic growth. Sixty-one therapists who…

  16. Traumatic stressors and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in headache patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Reny; Schmidt, John E; Carlson, Charles R

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of significant traumatic stressors and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a headache population. Several recent publications have emphasized the relationship between life stressors and/or daily hassles and recurrent headaches. However, little is known about the prevalence and impact of major traumatic stressors in patients with recurrent headaches. Eighty patients with either migraine or tension-type headache completed a PTSD checklist. Data were compared with those from patients with chronic masticatory muscle pain of similar intensity and duration. Almost 64% of the headache patients reported one or more major traumatic stressors. This percentage was not significantly different from that of the comparison group, and fell within the broad range reported for exposure to traumatic stressors in epidemiologic studies with nonpatient populations. One out of 6 patients in the total headache sample, and 1 out of 4 of those reporting a traumatic stressor, reported symptoms suggestive of current PTSD. The prevalence of current PTSD-like symptomatology reported by the headache patients was comparable to that of the comparison group of the present study, but higher than that reported for the general population in the available literature printed in English. Traumatic stressors most often reported were not related to direct physical trauma, but rather associated with loss or serious illness of a loved one. Exposure to traumatic events in patients with a primary diagnosis of recurrent headaches is similar to that reported for chronic masticatory muscle pain patients or nonpatient populations. However, symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of current PTSD appear to be more frequent in patients with recurrent headaches than reported in the scientific literature printed in English for nonpatient populations. Screening for PTSD symptomatology is recommended as part of the routine clinical evaluation of headache.

  17. Post-traumatic stress disorder and head injury as a dual diagnosis: "islands" of memory as a mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, N S

    1997-01-01

    This case study describes post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and head injury after a road traffic accident involving a pedestrian. Previous studies have proposed two mechanisms by which this dual diagnosis may occur: (1) when post-traumatic amnesia and retrograde amnesia are small or non-existent and (2) when non-declarative memory systems for the traumatic event are in operation. This case study demonstrates a third mechanism--"islands" of memory within post-traumatic amnesia.

  18. Acute Renal Failure due to Non-Traumatic Rhabdomyolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagehan Aslan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyolysis is a musculoskeletal clinical and biochemical syndrome which is seen associated with traumatic and non-traumatic causes and is known as muscular dystrophy. Rhabdomyolysis which develops following crush-type trauma (Crush syndrome is rarely seen but is a well-known clinical event in the etiology of acute renal failure. Non-traumatic rhabdomyolysis is rare. The case is here presented of a patient who was diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis on presentation with acute renal failure and to whom repeated dialysis was applied.

  19. Be vigilant for post-traumatic stress reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Alastair M; Curran, Stephen A

    2016-05-01

    Most people experience at least one potentially traumatic event (PTE) during their life. Many will develop only transient distress and not a psychological illness. Even the most inherently horrific event does not invariably lead to the development of a psychological disorder while an individual with sufficient vulnerabilit may develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after what appears be an event of low magnitude. The diagnosis of PTSD differs fro most psychiatric disorders as it includes an aetiological factor, the traumatic event, as a core criterion. The DSM 5 core symptoms of PTSD are grouped into four key symptom clusters: re-experiencing, avoidance, negative cognitions and mood, and arousal. Symptoms must be present for at least one month and cause functional impairment. PTSD patients can avoid engaging in treatment and assertive follow-up may be necessary.

  20. Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... brain injury Some traumatic brain injuries have lasting effects, and some do not. You may be left with disabilities. These can be physical, behavioral, communicative, and/or mental. Customized treatment helps you to have as full ...

  1. Primary traumatic patellar dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Chun-Hao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acute traumatic patellar dislocation is a common injury in the active and young adult populations. MRI of the knee is recommended in all patients who present with acute patellar dislocation. Numerous operative and non-operative methods have been described to treat the injuries; however, the ideal management of the acute traumatic patellar dislocation in young adults is still in debate. This article is intended to review the studies to the subjects of epidemiology, initial examination and management.

  2. Traumatic Wound Dehiscence following Corneal Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Reza Jafarinasab

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the incidence, mechanisms, characteristics, and visual outcomes of traumatic wound dehiscence following keratoplasty. Methods: Medical records of 32 consecutive patients with traumatic globe rupture following keratoplasty who had been treated at our center from 2001 to 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Results: The study population consisted of 32 eyes of 32 patients including 25 men and 7 women with history of corneal transplantation who had sustained eye trauma leading to globe rupture. Mean patient age was 38.1 (range, 8 to 87 years and median interval between keratoplasty and the traumatic event was 9 months (range, 30 days to 20 years. Associated anterior segment findings included iris prolapse in 71.9%, lens extrusion in 34.4%, and hyphema in 40.6% of eyes. Posterior segment complications included vitreous prolapse (56%, vitreous hemorrhage (28% and retinal detachment (18%. Eyes which had undergone deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK; 5 cases, 15.6% tended to have less severe presentation and better final visual acuity. There was no correlation between the time interval from keratoplasty to the traumatic event, and final visual outcomes. Conclusion: The host-graft interface demonstrates decreased stability long after surgery and the visual prognosis of traumatic wound dehiscence is poor in many cases. An intact Descemet′s membrane in DALK may mitigate the severity of ocular injuries, but even in these cases, the visual outcome of globe rupture is not good and prevention of ocular trauma should be emphasized to all patients undergoing any kind of keratoplasty.

  3. Facilitating post traumatic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Helen

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whilst negative responses to traumatic injury have been well documented in the literature, there is a small but growing body of work that identifies posttraumatic growth as a salient feature of this experience. We contribute to this discourse by reporting on the experiences of 13 individuals who were traumatically injured, had undergone extensive rehabilitation and were discharged from formal care. All participants were injured through involvement in a motor vehicle accident, with the exception of one, who was injured through falling off the roof of a house. Methods In this qualitative study, we used an audio-taped in-depth interview with each participant as the means of data collection. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically to determine the participants' unique perspectives on the experience of recovery from traumatic injury. In reporting the findings, all participants' were given a pseudonym to assure their anonymity. Results Most participants indicated that their involvement in a traumatic occurrence was a springboard for growth that enabled them to develop new perspectives on life and living. Conclusion There are a number of contributions that health providers may make to the recovery of individuals who have been traumatically injured to assist them to develop new views of vulnerability and strength, make changes in relationships, and facilitate philosophical, physical and spiritual growth.

  4. Lifetime Traumatic Experiences and Leisure Physical Inactivity among Adolescent Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinauskas, Romualdas; Malinauskiene, Vilija; Malinauskas, Mindaugas

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations between lifetime traumatic experiences and leisure physical inactivity among adolescent boys and to determine to what extent those associations are mediated by posttraumatic stress symptoms, unhealthy behaviors (smoking, alcohol use), the daily consumption of fresh fruit, and sense of coherence. A self-administered questionnaire combining 3 instruments measured leisure physical activity level (Godin and Shephard), symptoms of posttraumatic stress (IES-revised), lifetime traumatic experiences, sense of coherence (SOC-13, from Antonovsky), and behavioral and dietary patterns in a representative sample of eighth grade boys from a number of Kaunas, Lithuania, secondary schools (N = 885; response rate 88.6%). Fifty-six point eight percent of boys had experienced at least 1 lifetime traumatic event, with a 20.5% prevalence of PTS symptoms, and 5.4% were inactive during leisure time. In the logistic regression models, leisure physical inactivity was associated with lifetime traumatic experiences (adjusted OR = 2.33; 95% CI: 1.09-4.98). Sense of coherence and posttraumatic stress symptoms did not mediate those associations. Less-than-daily consumption of fresh fruit showed an independent effect, while smoking and weekly consumption of alcohol did not. Consistent associations between lifetime traumatic experiences and leisure physical inactivity among adolescent boys indicate that the presence of lifetime traumatic events should be taken into account when employing intervention and prevention programs on unhealthy lifestyles (physical inactivity, smoking, and alcohol).

  5. Traumatic Childbirth from the Perspective of the Healthcare Professional

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Katja; Jørgensen, Jan Stener; la Cour, Karen

    in Denmark, adding up to a total of 2400. The overall aim of the survey is to identify the proportion of midwives and obstetricians who have been involved in one or more traumatic childbirths. Subsequently the aim is to investigate the correlation between traumatic childbirths and work-related mental health...... problems among midwives and obstetricians and finally to explore the coping strategies of the midwives and obstetricians related to their personal values, faith and convictions. Qualitative interviews The qualitative part of the study will consist of 16-20 individual semi-structured interviews, equally...... and obstetricians experience being involved in traumatic childbirths will serve to improve the management of the aftermath of the traumatic events from the perspective of the healthcare professionals. Such improvements could be important in the effort to prevent work-related mental health problems amongst midwives...

  6. Preliminary questions before studying mild traumatic brain injury outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayol, P; Carrière, H; Habonimana, D; Dumond, J-J

    2009-07-01

    To point out from the literature the issues in mild traumatic brain injury outcome. METHODOLOGY-RESULTS: The literature review allows to point out several different factors involved in the difficulty to study mild traumatic brain injury: mild traumatic brain injury definition, postconcussional syndrome definition, diagnosis threshold, severity and functional symptoms outcome, neuropsychological tests, unspecific syndrome feature, individual factors, confounding factors and treatment interventions. The mild traumatic brain injury outcome study is complicated by the definitions issues and especially their practical use and by the multiplicity and the intricate interrelationships among involved factors. The individual outcome and social cost weight is widely emphasized for an event still considered as medically trivial. The well-ordered preventive interventions necessity and the targeted treatment programs need for the persisting postconcussive symptoms complete our critical review.

  7. Vicarious traumatization in the work with survivors of childhood trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crothers, D

    1995-04-01

    1. Persons working with victims of childhood trauma may experience traumatic countertransference and vicarious traumatization. After hearing a patient's trauma story, which is a necessary part of childhood trauma therapy, staff may experience post-traumatic stress disorder, imagery associated with the patient's story and the same disruptions in relationships as the patient. 2. During the first 6 months of working with survivors of childhood trauma, common behaviors of staff members were identified, including a lack of attention, poor work performance, medication errors, sick calls, treatment errors, irreverence, hypervigilance, and somatic complaints. 3. Staff working with victims of childhood trauma can obtain the necessary staff support through team support, in traumatic events, and in a leadership role.

  8. Risk factors predict post-traumatic stress disorder differently in men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte M.; Elklit, Ask

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: About twice as many women as men develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), even though men as a group are exposed to more traumatic events. Exposure to different trauma types does not sufficiently explain why women are more vulnerable. METHODS: The present work examines...

  9. Traumatization in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Adult Psychiatric Outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øhre, Beate; Uthus, Mette Perly; von Tetzchner, Stephen; Falkum, Erik

    2015-07-01

    Deaf and hard-of-hearing persons are at risk for experiencing traumatic events and such experiences are associated with symptoms of mental disorder. We investigated the prevalence of traumatic events and subsequent traumatization in adults referred to specialized psychiatric outpatient units for deaf and hard-of-hearing patients. Sixty-two patients were diagnosed with mental disorders and assessed for potential traumatic experiences in their preferred language and mode of communication using instruments translated into Norwegian Sign Language. All patients reported traumatic events, with a mean of 6.2 different types; 85% reported subsequent traumatization not significantly associated with either residential school setting or communicative competence of childhood caregivers. Traumatization patterns in both sexes were similar to those in hearing clinical samples. Findings indicate that psychiatric intake interviews should routinely assess potentially traumatic events and their impacts, and that mental health professionals working with deaf and hard-of-hearing patients should be able to treat trauma-related disorders. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Genetic variant in CACNA1C is associated with PTSD in traumatized police officers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krzyzewska, Izabela M.; Ensink, Judith B. M.; Nawijn, Laura; Mul, Adri N.; Koch, Saskia B.; Venema, Andrea; Shankar, Vinod; Frijling, Jessie L.; Veltman, Dirk J.; Lindauer, Ramon J. L.; Olff, Miranda; Mannens, Marcel M. A. M.; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Henneman, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating psychiatric disorder that may develop after a traumatic event. Here we aimed to identify epigenetic and genetic loci associated with PTSD. We included 73 traumatized police officers with extreme phenotypes regarding symptom severity despite

  11. The Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention: Secondary Prevention for Youth at Risk of Developing PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Steven J.; Stover, Carla Smith; Marans, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study evaluated the effectiveness of a four-session, caregiver-child Intervention, the Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention (CFTSI), to prevent the development of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) provided within 30 days of exposure to a potentially traumatic event (PTE). Method: One-hundred seventy-six 7…

  12. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Group Leadership Instruction for Rehabilitation Counselors-in-Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Nykeisha; Wadsworth, John; Cory, James

    2009-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety syndrome that can develop after exposure to a traumatic event in which harm occurred or was threatened. PTSD is often treated with group therapy. Rehabilitation counselors need to be aware of the group treatments for PTSD because counselors may be leaders of group therapy, may work with consumers…

  13. Traumatic renal infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashiro, Naobumi; Ohtomo, Kuni; Kokubo, Takashi; Itai, Yuji; Iio, Masahiro

    1986-01-01

    Four cases of traumatic renal artery occlusion were described and illustrated. In two cases, direct blows to the abdomen compressed the renal artery against the vertebral column. Clinically, they were severely injured with macroscopic hematuria. Aortograms showed abrupt truncation of renal arteries. In the other two, rapid deceleration caused sudden displacement of the kidney producing an intimal tear with resultant thrombosis. Although they showed little injury without macrohematuria, aortograms revealed tapered occlusion of renal arteries. One of them developed hypertension. ''Rim sign'' of post-contrast CT and hypertension resulted from traumatic renal artery occlusion were reviewed. (author)

  14. Post-traumatic psychiatric disorders: PTSD is not the only diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auxéméry, Yann

    2018-05-01

    Traumatic events and their consequences are often hidden or minimised by patients for reasons linked to the post-traumatic stress disorder itself (inexpressibility, shame, depressive thoughts, fear of stigmatisation, etc.). Although post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains the most widely known disorder, chronic post-traumatic psychiatric disorders are many and varied. After a trauma, the practitioner has to check for the different clinical forms of post-traumatic psychological consequences: PTSD is not the only diagnosis. Based on our own clinical experience compared to the international literature, we think necessary to build a didactic classification describing chronic post-traumatic symptoms and syndromes. Post traumatic depressions and bereavement lead to high risk of suicidal crisis and self-harm behaviours. Re-experiencing are felt with anxiety, hyper arousal increases anxious reactivity, and avoidance strategies increase anticipatory anxiety, indicating post-traumatic anxiety disorders (agoraphobia, specific phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder, separation anxiety, social phobia). Characterising an often-severe clinical picture, the co-occurrence of post-traumatic and chronic psychotic symptoms is not unusual (post-traumatic schizophrenia, post-traumatic depression with mood-congruent psychotic features, non-schizophrenic post-traumatic psychotic disorder, and bipolar reaction to trauma). A physical injury occurring at the same time as a traumatic exposure increases the risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder later which, in turn, afflicts the subjective perception of the physical health (development of somatoform and psychosomatic disorders, comorbidity with a post-concussion syndrome). The trauma may cause a rupture in the biography of a person, also in his/her internal physiological functioning as in his/her social activities (impacts of instinctive functions and behaviours, personality changes, and adjustment difficulties on professional

  15. Post-traumatic stress disorder and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Donald; von Känel, Roland

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a first in a Series of two, we look at the evidence for an association of post-traumatic stress disorder with incident cardiovascular disease risk and the mechanisms that might cause this association, as well as the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder due to cardiovascular disease events and its associated prognostic risk. We discuss research done after the publication of previous relevant systematic reviews, and survey currently funded research from the two most active funders in the field: the National Institutes of Health and the US Veterans Administration. We conclude that post-traumatic stress disorder is a risk factor for incident cardiovascular disease, and a common psychiatric consequence of cardiovascular disease events that might worsen the prognosis of the cardiovascular disease. There are many candidate mechanisms for the link between post-traumatic stress disorder and cardiovascular disease, and several ongoing studies could soon point to the most important behavioural and physiological mechanisms to target in early phase intervention development. Similarly, targets are emerging for individual and environmental interventions that might offset the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder after cardiovascular disease events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF “GEZI” : TRAUMATIC EXPOSURE AND POSSIBLE EFFECTS IN THE MASS MOVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Yilmaz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Trauma refers an distinct experience with excessive stressful and destructive characteristics. According to criteari of diagnose in DSM-III (1980, traumatic events create death or threat of death, serious injury, threat to pyhsical integrity as well as feeling of intense fear, horror and helplessness. Many of individuals with traumatic events is not develop Post Trauma Stress Disorder (PTSD. Only 5 to 25 percent of individuals exposured to traumatic experiences develops PTSD. In this context, it may be concluded that traumatic event can not be cause of PTSD itself. However, the type of traumatic event, in terms of context, appears to be a significant factor. The present study aims to provide the impacts on mental health of traumatic event in terms of “Gezi Activity” which is an example of mass movements. Thus, it was interwieved with 11 participants who involved in “Gezi Activity” by using semi-structured interwiev. In this context, a semi-structured interwiev form was created related to determine the political participation, the motivation to be involved in the “Gezi” process, the traumatic exposure in the process, and the effects on mental health of individuals. 2 of 11 participants to the research are individuals who injured in the process of “Gezi” and have received inpatient treatment for a while. The data has been established by making qualitative research, was evaluated by content analysis. The findings were that the majority of the participants answered in the direction of “yes” to questions related to political participant, the traumatic exposure and emotions (fear, horror and helplessness. However small of the participants answered in the direction of “yes” to questions of post traumatic re-experiencing, avoidance and hyperarousal. To sum up the findings, while the participants expressed traumatic exposure and emotions in the process of “Gezi”, they reported that they did not experience post trauma re

  17. Post-traumatic growth in parents after infants' neonatal intensive care unit hospitalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftyka, Anna; Rozalska-Walaszek, Ilona; Rosa, Wojciech; Rybojad, Beata; Karakuła-Juchnowicz, Hanna

    2017-03-01

    To determine the incidence and severity of post-traumatic growth in a group of parents of children hospitalised in the intensive care unit in the past. A premature birth or a birth with life-threatening conditions is a traumatic event for the parents and may lead to a number of changes, some of which are positive, known as post-traumatic growth. The survey covered 106 parents of 67 infants aged 3-12 months. An original questionnaire and standardised research tools were used in the study: Impact Event Scale - Revised, Perceived Stress Scale, COPE Inventory: Positive Reinterpretation and Growth, Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, Post-traumatic Growth Inventory and Parent and Infant Characteristic Questionnaire. Due to a stepwise backward variables selection, we found three main factors that explain post-traumatic growth: post-traumatic stress symptoms, positive reinterpretation and growth and dichotomic variable infants' survival. This model explained 29% of the post-traumatic growth variation. Similar models that were considered separately for mothers and fathers showed no significantly better properties. Post-traumatic growth was related to a lesser extent to sociodemographic variables or the stressor itself, and related to a far greater extent to psychological factors. Our study highlights the fact that post-traumatic growth in the parents of neonates hospitalised in the neonatal intensive care units remains under-evaluated. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Trauma and traumatic neurosis: Freud's concepts revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepf, Siegfried; Zepf, Florian D

    2008-04-01

    The authors examine Freud 's concepts of 'trauma', 'protective shield against stimuli ' and 'traumatic neurosis' in the light of recent findings. 'Protective shield against stimuli' is regarded as a biological concept which appears in mental life as the striving to avoid unpleasant affects. 'Trauma' is a twofold concept in that it relates to mental experience and links an external event with the specific after-effects on an individual 's psychic reality. A distinction needs to be made between mentally destructive trauma and affective trauma. A destructive trauma does not break through the protective shield but does breach the pleasure-unpleasure principle, so that in the course of its subsequent mastery it leads to a traumatic neurosis. An affective trauma can be warded off under the rule of the pleasure-unpleasure principle and leads to a psychoneurosis.

  19. Traumatic Stress, Social Support, and Health Among Older American Indians: The Native Elder Care Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehee, Melissa; Buchwald, Dedra; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Omidpanah, Adam; Manson, Spero M; Goins, R Turner

    2017-01-03

    To estimate the prevalence of lifetime traumatic experiences, describe related symptoms of traumatic stress, and examine their association with perceived social support and physical and mental health among older American Indians. Analyses of existing interview data from the Native Elder Care Study, a random age-stratified sample of 505 tribal members ≥55 years of age conducted in partnership with a large Southeastern tribe. Interviews assessed trauma exposure, traumatic stress, measures of social support, and physical and mental health status. Overall, 31% of participants had experienced a traumatic event; of these, 43% reported traumatic stress at the time of the interview. Higher perceived social support was associated with a reduced prevalence of traumatic stress. Compared to their counterparts without traumatic stress, women participants reporting traumatic stress reported more symptoms of depression, and both symptomatic men and women had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease and chronic pain. Traumatic stress was associated with less perceived social support and poorer health. Social support was not found to moderate the relationship between traumatic stress and physical and mental health. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Post traumatic stress disorder and the forensic radiographer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaysher, E.; Vallis, J.; Reeves, P.

    2016-01-01

    The term post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is used to describe the psychological issues resulting from any traumatic event. An individual's ability to function is impaired by experiencing emotional responses to a traumatic event. Forensic radiographers need to be aware of the potential debilitating effects of this condition and those writing forensic protocols must take the condition into account and build in safeguards and welfare strategies. This narrative review looks at the origins of the term PTSD and highlights those who may be at increased risk of developing the condition including, in particular, forensic radiographers involved in mass fatality work. Signs, symptoms and possible treatments are also reviewed. - Highlights: • Presents a summary of PTSD for those working in forensic radiography. • Outlines signs & symptoms of PTSD. • Discusses treatment & prognosis of PTSD. • Suggests ways of managing factors which may predispose to PTSD.

  1. Post-traumatic growth among the UK veterans following treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Dominic; Palmer, E; Lock, R; Busuttil, W

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to examine levels of post-traumatic growth (PTG) in a sample of the UK veterans who had received treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The study followed-up 149 UK veterans after they had completed standardised treatment for PTSD provided by Combat Stress. Data had previously been collected on a range of mental health outcomes before treatment, and then repeated 6 months after the end of treatment. For the current study, participants completed the post-traumatic growth inventory (PTGI) measure. Analysis was conducted to explore levels of PTG and whether there were any relationships between pretreatment and post-treatment ratings of mental health and PTG. The mean score on the PTGI was 32.6. Evidence of a treatment effect on levels of PTG was observed. There appeared to be a relationship between improvements in symptoms of PTSD and depression and higher levels of PTG. This study observed the presence of PTG following exposure to traumatic events within a sample of the UK veterans following their treatment for PTSD. PTG scores were moderately low in comparison to similar studies in the USA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Neurodegeneration after mild and repetitive traumatic brain injury: Chronic traumatic encepalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanescu Ioana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive brain trauma is associated with a progressive neurological deterioration, now termed as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE. Although research on the long-term effects of TBI is advancing quickly, the incidence and prevalence of post-traumatic neurodegeneration and CTE are unknown. The incidence and prevalence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy and the genetic risk factors critical to its development are currently under research. CTE can be diagnosed only by post mortem neuropathological examination of the brain. Great efforts are being made to better understand the clinical signs and symptoms of CTE, obtained in most cases retrospectively from families of affected persons.Patients with CTE are described as having behavioral, mood, cognitive and motor impairments, occurring after a long latency from the traumatic events. Recent pathogenetic studies have provided new insights to CTE mechanisms, offering important clues in understanding neurodegenerative process and relations between physical factors and pathologic protein deposition. Further research is needed to better identify the genetic and environmental risk factors for CTE, as well as rehabilitation and treatment strategies.

  3. Center for the Study of Traumatic Stress. Annual Report 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    national media outlets, professional organizations, and projects dedicated to helping children and families affected by traumatic events. Could...EG: Review of Michael L Gross, bioethics and armed conflict/moral di- lemmas in medicine and war. The Ameri- can Journal of Bioethics , 8(10): 82-84

  4. Traumatic Fundal Rupture of unscarred Uterus in a Primigravida ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Uterine rupture is an infrequent but life threatening obstetric emergency. Rupture of previously scarred uterus is often encountered especially in multiparous women, but the traumatic rupture of an unscarred primigravid uterus as presented here is a relatively rare event. We report a case of rupture of an ...

  5. Post-traumatic stress disorder: Case report | Nyamai | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following exposure to a major traumatic event like the August seventh 1998 Nairobi bomb blast various reactions occur, some of which result in stress-related psychiatric disorders. We have described one such case, and used it to illustrate the salient features of posttraumatic stress disorder. We have outlined the diagnostic ...

  6. PTSD in relation to dissociation in traumatized police officers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlier, I. V.; Lamberts, R. D.; Fouwels, A. J.; Gersons, B. P.

    1996-01-01

    The assumed relationship between dissociation and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was examined. From a group of police officers who had experienced a traumatic event, the authors assessed the chronic dissociative symptoms of 42 police officers with PTSD, 50 police officers with

  7. Acute traumatic cataracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titelbaum, D.S.; Grossman, R.I.; Lloyd, W.C.; Cohen, E.J.; Atlas, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports orbital CT scans of 15 patients with clinically diagnoses traumatic cataracts retrospectively reviewed to determine the presence of radiographically detectable lens abnormalities. Definite lens swelling was clinically observed in a lease five cases. Eleven patients, scanned 4 hours of 3 days after injury, revealed visible and measured decreased CT density of the cataractous lens compared with the normal contralateral lens (average mean difference, 28 HU), suggesting acute lens swelling. In one patient, lens morphologic changes but not HU differences were found, probably due to superimposed hemorrhage. Three patients, scanned 3-8 hours after injury, revealed no detectable lens abnormality. The findings suggest that CT is potentially capable of identifying traumatic cataracts

  8. Delayed traumatic intracranial hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Hiroki

    1984-01-01

    CT was performed serially within 24 hours after head injury in 64 patients having Glasgow Coma Scale of 14 or less or cranial fracture shown on roentgenogram. Delayed traumatic extradural hematoma was observed within 7-12 hours after head injury in 6 cases (9.4%). This was prominent in the frontal and occipital regions (67%). Good recovery was seen in 83.3%. Delayed traumatic intracerebral hematoma was observed within 6-24 hours after head injury in 17 cases (26.6%). This higher incidence was related to contre coup injury. Conservative treatment was possible in 14 of the 17 patients (82.4%), showing good recovery in 70%. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. Traumatic insemination in terrestrial arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarnic, Nikolai J; Cassis, Gerasimos; Siva-Jothy, Michael T

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic insemination is a bizarre form of mating practiced by some invertebrates in which males use hypodermic genitalia to penetrate their partner's body wall during copulation, frequently bypassing the female genital tract and ejaculating into their blood system. The requirements for traumatic insemination to evolve are stringent, yet surprisingly it has arisen multiple times within invertebrates. In terrestrial arthropods traumatic insemination is most prevalent in the true bug infraorder Cimicomorpha, where it has evolved independently at least three times. Traumatic insemination is thought to occur in the Strepsiptera and has recently been recorded in fruit fly and spider lineages. We review the putative selective pressures that may have led to the evolution of traumatic insemination across these lineages, as well as the pressures that continue to drive divergence in male and female reproductive morphology and behavior. Traumatic insemination mechanisms and attributes are compared across independent lineages.

  10. Towards a post-traumatic subtype of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Cocchi, Luca; Harrison, Ben J; Shavitt, Roseli G; do Rosário, Maria Conceição; Ferrão, Ygor A; de Mathis, Maria Alice; Cordioli, Aristides V; Yücel, Murat; Pantelis, Christos; Mari, Jair de Jesus; Miguel, Euripedes C; Torres, Albina R

    2012-03-01

    We evaluated whether traumatic events are associated with a distinctive pattern of socio-demographic and clinical features of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We compared socio-demographic and clinical features of 106 patients developing OCD after post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD; termed post-traumatic OCD), 41 patients developing OCD before PTSD (pre-traumatic OCD), and 810 OCD patients without any history of PTSD (non-traumatic OCD) using multinomial logistic regression analysis. A later age at onset of OCD, self-mutilation disorder, history of suicide plans, panic disorder with agoraphobia, and compulsive buying disorder were independently related to post-traumatic OCD. In contrast, earlier age at OCD onset, alcohol-related disorders, contamination-washing symptoms, and self-mutilation disorder were all independently associated with pre-traumatic OCD. In addition, patients with post-traumatic OCD without a previous history of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) showed lower educational levels, greater rates of contamination-washing symptoms, and more severe miscellaneous symptoms as compared to post-traumatic OCD patients with a history of OCS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. ANIMAL MODELS OF POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER: FACE VALIDITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONAL eGOSWAMI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a debilitating condition that develops in a proportion of individuals following a traumatic event. Despite recent advances, ethical limitations associated with human research impede progress in understanding PTSD. Fortunately, much effort has focused on developing animal models to help study the pathophysiology of PTSD. Here, we provide an overview of animal PTSD models where a variety of stressors (physical, psychosocial, or psychogenic are used to examine the long-term effects of severe trauma. We emphasize models involving predator threat because they reproduce human individual differences in susceptibility to, and in the long-term consequences of, psychological trauma.

  12. When is exposure to a natural disaster traumatic? Comparison of a trauma questionnaire and disaster exposure inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harville, Emily W; Jacobs, Marni; Boynton-Jarrett, Renée

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have compared the sensitivity of trauma questionnaires to disaster inventories for assessing the prevalence of exposure to natural disaster or associated risk for post-disaster psychopathology. The objective of this analysis was to compare reporting of disaster exposure on a trauma questionnaire (Brief Trauma Questionnaire [BTQ]) to an inventory of disaster experience. Between 2011 and 2014, a sample of 841 reproductive-aged southern Louisiana women were interviewed using the BTQ and completed a detailed inventory about exposure to hurricanes and flooding. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomology was measured with the Post-Traumatic Stress Checklist, and depression with the Edinburgh Depression Scale. The single question addressing disaster exposure on the BTQ had a sensitivity of between 65% and 70% relative to the more detailed questions. Reporting disaster exposure on the BTQ was more likely for those who reported illness/injury due to a hurricane or flood (74%-77%) or danger (77-79%), compared to those who reported damage (69-71%) or evacuation (64-68%). Reporting disaster exposure on the BTQ was associated with depression (odds ratio [OR] 2.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43-3.68). A single question is unlikely to be useful for assessing the degree of exposure to disaster across a broad population, and varies in utility depending on the mental health outcome of interest: the single trauma question is useful for assessing depression risk.

  13. When is exposure to a natural disaster traumatic? Comparison of a trauma questionnaire and disaster exposure inventory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily W Harville

    Full Text Available Few studies have compared the sensitivity of trauma questionnaires to disaster inventories for assessing the prevalence of exposure to natural disaster or associated risk for post-disaster psychopathology. The objective of this analysis was to compare reporting of disaster exposure on a trauma questionnaire (Brief Trauma Questionnaire [BTQ] to an inventory of disaster experience. Between 2011 and 2014, a sample of 841 reproductive-aged southern Louisiana women were interviewed using the BTQ and completed a detailed inventory about exposure to hurricanes and flooding. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptomology was measured with the Post-Traumatic Stress Checklist, and depression with the Edinburgh Depression Scale. The single question addressing disaster exposure on the BTQ had a sensitivity of between 65% and 70% relative to the more detailed questions. Reporting disaster exposure on the BTQ was more likely for those who reported illness/injury due to a hurricane or flood (74%-77% or danger (77-79%, compared to those who reported damage (69-71% or evacuation (64-68%. Reporting disaster exposure on the BTQ was associated with depression (odds ratio [OR] 2.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43-3.68. A single question is unlikely to be useful for assessing the degree of exposure to disaster across a broad population, and varies in utility depending on the mental health outcome of interest: the single trauma question is useful for assessing depression risk.

  14. Risk factors in pregnancy for post-traumatic stress and depression after childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderquist, J; Wijma, B; Thorbert, G; Wijma, K

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to find risk factors in pregnancy for post-traumatic stress and depression 1 month after childbirth. Furthermore, the relation between post-traumatic stress and depression was explored. A prospective longitudinal study. Pregnant women in Linköping and Kalmar, Sweden. A total of 1224 women were assessed in pregnancy, week 12-20 and 32, as well as 1 month postpartum. Post-traumatic stress and depression after delivery were assessed 1 month postpartum. Potential risk factors were assessed in early and late pregnancy. Variables measured during pregnancy were trait anxiety, depression, fear of childbirth, childbirth-related traumatic stress, stress coping capacity, social support, parity, educational level, age, gestation week, parity, educational level, civil status, previous psychological/psychiatric counselling, and previous experience of any traumatic events. Delivery mode was assessed from the medical records. Prevalence of post-traumatic stress (criteria A, B, C, D, E, and F according to DSM-IV) and depression (Beck's depression inventory). One month postpartum, 12 (1.3%) women had post-traumatic stress (met symptom criteria B, C, and D for post-traumatic stress disorder according to Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition [DSM-IV]). The most important risk factors in pregnancy were depression in early pregnancy (OR=16.3), severe fear of childbirth (OR=6.2), and 'pre'-traumatic stress (in view of the forthcoming delivery) in late pregnancy (OR=12.5). The prevalence of depression was 5.6%. Post-traumatic stress and depression were positively related 1 month postpartum and were predicted by mainly the same factors. Risk factors for post-traumatic stress and depression after childbirth can be assessed in early pregnancy. Post-traumatic stress and depression also seem to share the same underlying vulnerability factors.

  15. Vicissitudes in adult life resulting from traumatic experiences in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Jorge Luis

    2006-10-01

    The author deals with the difficulties in combining the concepts of trauma and phantasy. He evaluates Freudian observations relating to chance and trauma. He considers traumatic effects of chance in relation to the rupture of a narcissistic phantasy of invulnerability. The narrating of traumatic events may awaken in the analyst tendencies to repeat the aggression of these traumatic events towards the subject. The accusatory interpretation can be one of the means by which this repetition is established. The author explores a type of trauma which is essentially related to the disturbance of the structure which contains the ideals of the subject. This disturbance is a consequence of disillusionment resulting from the loss of an object who was the depository of these ideals. Trauma generates a state of mourning for lost ideals. The author describes traumatic events which occurred in a patient's life at puberty; paradoxical behaviours in the patient's parents caused the patient to have new traumas. The reluctance to explore the derivatives of the unconscious, and to investigate possible meaning in symbols, was a central problem in this patient's analysis. The author discusses disturbances in symbolization, and he examines the subject of projective identifications that were received by patients from their primary objects.

  16. DIAGNOSTIC CHALLENGES IN ASSESSING POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Arnaudova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is one of those psychiatric disorders that are still away from our attention, understanding, assessment and proper management. What could be the reason as by its name and diagnostic criteria an etiological fact is specified, namely a specific traumatic event. In our paper we aim to share and elicit some difficulties that we have met in consulting, diagnostic and management of people, who have suffered a traumatic event. On the base of a review of current psychiatric classifications and ongoing discussions we briefly summarize and discuss important key points. The definition of the event, associated with PTSD is different in DSM-III (introduced for the fist time in a classification of mental disorders, DSM-IV and ICD-10. DSM-IV is less restrictive and includes events that occur more frequently. In DSM-5, PTSD is placed in chapter “Trauma and Stressor-related disorders” and the accent is on the variable clinical characteristics of psychological distress. Emotional reactions to the traumatic event are no longer part of Criterion A. The clinical presentation varies and a number of intrusive psychological and physiological reactions of distress are described. Here comes a problem- the assessment of the trauma itself and the determination of the basic symptoms, when such an event happens. So, the skills to assess the trauma, to determine and competently attribute these symptoms to the specific event and cluster are of great importance. We conclude that a number of risk and prognostic factors should be considered in the process of assessment, diagnosis and management.

  17. A Case of Traumatic Proptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobby Desai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of traumatic proptosis in a competitive football player. This entity can occur with a significant decrease in vision, but in this case it did not. Some other causes of this condition are also discussed. A review of some traumatic conditions that may cause proptosis is provided as well.

  18. Post-traumatic syringomyelia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, M.; Sartor, K.; Aschoff, A.; Spahn, B.

    1999-01-01

    The improvement of preclinical emergency medicine, better surgical and conservative therapies, and the development of intensive care units and specialized centers have improved the survival rate for patients with serious spinal cord injuries. Therefore, more sequelae of chronic spinal cord injuries such as post-traumatic spinal cord cavitations also occur. The first such case was described by Bastian in 1867. Generally, these cavitations were diagnosed from 2 months up to 32 years after the trauma. The overall prevalence of post-traumatic syringomyelia (PTS) is not known; however, with the increasing use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), its diagnosis has increased, ranging from 2.3% of paraplegic and tetraplegic patients in 1976 and 3.2% in 1985, to nearly 50% in a selected group of patients in 1991 and 1993. In 1995, a 4.45% incidence was reported. In our clinic we are currently treating 440 cases of syringomyelia, 140 of which are PTS. Several observations suggest more than one potential mechanism for the evolution of a post-traumatic cyst or PTS. Various factors, such as hemorrhage or, in particular, ischemia within the spinal cord, blockage of the cerebrosinal fluid (CSF) pathways around the cord or localized meningeal fibrosis either alone or in combination with other factors, may be involved. Clinically, sensory disturbances, loss of motor function, pain, and modification of the deep tendon reflexes are observed in most patients. On MRI, PTS is seen as a longitudinal, cystic cavity within the spinal cord, giving a hypointense signal on T 1 -weighted images and a hyperintense signal on T 2 -weighted images. For treatment planning it is mandatory to identify the lower and upper end of the PTS on the MRI. (orig.) [de

  19. Post-traumatic pseudomyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Richard; Wick, Bruce; Kirschen, David

    2003-02-01

    Many clinicians have noted that patients demonstrate a myopic refractive change following Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). This apparent myopic shift disappears with cycloplegia, yet stubbornly reappears as soon as the pharmaceutical effect wears off. We propose that this shift is secondary to an irritative lesion that affects the parasympathetic innervation, resulting in ciliary body contracture. The dilemma for the clinician is whether to provide the immediate relief of clear distance vision by prescribing additional minus lenses, or to work toward attempting to re-establish the baseline refractive error. The natural history of post-traumatic pseudomyopia in our experience involves one of the following three courses: (1) a transient condition that will occasionally resolve; (2) the typical case, a recalcitrant condition that will resolve under cycloplegic intervention, but immediately return as the cycloplegic wears off; or (3) a less-common subgroup of patients who continue to show an increase in myopia over time. Our description of these cases demonstrates management strategies (including atropinization) to relax accommodative spasm, traditional vision therapy techniques aimed at loosening the accommodative system, and refractive corrections. Pseudomyopia is one of many ocular and behavioral sequelae following TBI. By understanding the natural course and potential management options for post-traumatic pseudomyopia, the clinician will be better prepared to deal with these challenging cases. Flexibility is required, since options that work with one patient may prove ineffective with another. Counseling the patient as to potential outcomes given the natural history of this condition helps establish more-realistic expectations by the patients being treated.

  20. Neuro emotional technique effects on brain physiology in cancer patients with traumatic stress symptoms: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Daniel A; Tobia, Anna; Stoner, Marie; Wintering, Nancy; Matthews, Michael; He, Xiao-Song; Doucet, Gaelle; Chervoneva, Inna; Tracy, Joseph I; Newberg, Andrew B

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the neurophysiological and clinical effects that may result from the neuro emotional technique (NET) in patients with traumatic stress symptoms associated with a cancer-related event. We hypothesized that self-regulatory processing of traumatic memories would be observable as physiological changes in key brain areas after undergoing the NET intervention and that these changes would be associated with improvement of traumatic stress symptoms. We enrolled 23 participants with a prior cancer diagnosis who expressed a distressing cancer-related memory that was associated with traumatic stress symptoms of at least 6 months in duration. Participants were randomized to either the NET intervention or a waitlist control condition. To evaluate the primary outcome of neurophysiological effects, all participants received functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the auditory presentation of both a neutral stimulus and a description of the specific traumatic event. Pre/post-comparisons were performed between the traumatic and neutral condition, within and between groups. Psychological measures included the Impact of Event Scale (IES), State Trait Anxiety Index (STAI), Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI)-18, and Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory (PTCI). The initial fMRI scans in both groups showed significant increases in the bilateral parahippocampus and brainstem. After NET, reactivity in the parahippocampus, brainstem, anterior cingulate, and insula was significantly decreased during the traumatic stimulus. Likewise, participants receiving the NET intervention had significant reductions (p stress as measured by the IES and PTCI. This study is an initial step towards understanding mechanistic features of the NET intervention. Specifically, brain regions involved with traumatic memories and distress such as the brainstem, insula, anterior cingulate gyrus, and parahippocampus had significantly reduced activity after the NET

  1. Traumatic skeletal changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troeger, J.; Schofer, O.

    1985-01-01

    Skeleton scintiscanning is indicated in the following cases: (1) Suspected bone injury after clinical examination, the radiograph of the skeletal region in question contributing findings that either do not confirm suspision, or make not clear whether the changes observed are traumatic. (2) Polytrauma. (3) When the accident scenario reported by the persons taking care of the child does not sufficiently explain the skeletal changes observed, or when these persons expressly deny the possibility of a trauma being the cause of findings observed. (4) Suspected or proven battered-child syndrome. (orig./MG) [de

  2. Traumatic olecranon bursitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, M.; Canoso, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    The affected elbow of 28 patients with traumatic olecranon bursitis was radiographically compared with the homologous elbow of 28 matched controls. Olecranon spurs, amorphous calcium deposits, or both, were present in 16 patients and 4 controls (p<0.01). Air was injected in the bursa in 12 additional patients. Nodules in the bursal floor were noted in 10, and the bursa was partially septated in 8. Olecranon spurs, present in 6 patients, corresponded to the insertion of the triceps tendon. With elbow flexion the bursa flattened and lengthened while the olecranon process glided distally beneath the bursal floor. (Auth.)

  3. [Traumatic tricuspid insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayre, F; Richard, P; Ollivier, J P

    1996-04-01

    Traumatic tricuspid insufficiency is a rare condition. The diagnosis is difficult because of the slow progression of this pathology and the presence of more clinically acute lesions. Non-penetrating chest trauma is responsible for 90% of cases. Echocardiography is the investigation of choice for assessing the mechanism of the tricuspid regurgitation and for diagnosing associated lesions. It should be performed systematically in patients with multiple trauma. The surgical indications are difficult to determine and depend on the patients' symptoms and the type of anatomical lesions. It should be undertaken before right ventricular myocardial dysfunction. Several techniques may be used from valvuloplasty to valve replacement mainly with bioprostheses in symptomatic patients.

  4. Traumatic hemipelvectomia in one year old girl. Report of case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Medina González

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The trauma of pelvis is a complex condition that implies injuries of vital organs putting in risk the life of the patient. The traumatic hemipelvectomy is a extremely severe pelvic injury and is fatal almost always, caused generally to events of high energy. It causes traumatic dislocation of the sacroiliac joint and the symphysis pubis, and to the femoral vessels are avulsioned. Because survival rate it is so low it require prompt medical attention. In this pathology type dissabling and prostetic wear is very difficult. In the medical literature there is not report of any patient ho survived this type of lesion under three year's old. We report a case of traumatic hemipelvectomy in a girl of 21 months who survived a traffic accident.

  5. [Post-traumatic tics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegre, S; Chacón, J; Redondo, L; Navarro-Busto, C; Solana, B

    1996-10-01

    Secondary tics are those in which an aetiology justifying them can be found, as compared to idiopathic tics, which make up the majority, and the Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (SGT), which is, at the moment, of unknown origin. Of the possible aetiologies described as causing tics, craneo-encephalic trauma has been mentioned on very few occasions. We present a case of post-traumatic tics (verbal and neck) in a young man of 24, and review the published cases which can be considered to be of post-traumatic tics. We have found six cases of tics secondary to traumas, all craneo-encephalic, like ours (the one under study). The time interval between the blow and the appearance of the tic or tics varied between 2 weeks and 3 months. The absence of significant lesions seen in the complementary investigations make it impossible for us to discover the site of the lesion caused by the trauma. However, the presence in some cases of other tics before the trauma, and of family histories of tics, supports the idea of a genetic basis or predisposition to suffer this disorder.

  6. [Social support after traumatism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maercker, A; Heim, E; Hecker, T; Thoma, M V

    2017-01-01

    The classical concept of social support has recently become of relevance again, particularly in the context of traumatized patient groups, which include refugees and migrants. This article summarizes the evidence from social support research, e. g. different types of positive effects as well as context, gender and cultural aspects. These aspects are highlighted by means of studies stemming from applied healthcare research and thus describe a wide range of health effects, e.g. increased well-being and reduced depressive symptoms, improved functional abilities, better immune status and longevity. Two new trauma-specific differentiations of the social support concept are introduced: societal acknowledgement as a trauma survivor and disclosure of traumatic experiences. Against this background several implications for working with refugees arise: promotion of self-efficacy and posttraumatic maturation as well as the treatment of mental disorders show considerable benefits from focusing on social support. Finally, possibilities emerging from digital communication media are discussed, which are particularly relevant in this context.

  7. Anxiety, Depression and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder after Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Prakash; Acharya, Lumeshor; Bhatta, Bhup Dev; Paneru, Suman Bhatta; Khattri, Jai Bahadur; Chakraborty, Prashant Kumar; Sharma, Rajasee

    2018-03-13

    Prevalence of anxiety, depression and post traumatic stress disorder is high after earthquake. The aim of the study is to study the prevalence and comorbidity of commonly occurring psychological symptoms in people exposed to Nepal mega earthquake in 2015 after a year of the event. A community based, cross sectional, descriptive study was carried out in Bhumlichaur area of Gorkha district, Nepal after around 14 months of the first major earthquake. We used self-reporting questionnaire 20, Post-traumatic stress disorder 8 and hospital anxiety and depression scale to screen for presence of symptoms of anxiety and depression or post-traumatic stress disorder in this population. The risk of having these disorders according to different socio-demographic variable was assessed by calculating odds ratio. All calculations were done using predictive and analytical software (PASW) version 16.0. A total of 198 participants were included in the final data analysis. The mean age of study participants was 35.13 years (SD=18.04). Borderline anxiety symptoms were found in 104 (52.5%) while significant anxiety symptoms were found in 40 (20%) of respondents. Borderline depressive symptoms were seen in 40 (20%) while significant depressive symptoms were seen in 16 (8%) of subjects. Around 27% (n= 53) of respondents were classified as having post-traumatic stress disorder. The prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms and post-traumatic stress disorder seems to be high even after one year in people exposed to earthquake.

  8. Imaging Neuroinflammation in Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Post traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) is a complex...several central nervous system conditions including post - traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Microglia represent over...trials. We have subsequently identified a better agent for interrogating TSPO in post - traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) subjects, 18-F PBR111, a

  9. Trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder among homeless adults in Sydney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kathryn M; Sharpe, Louise

    2008-03-01

    International studies indicate high prevalence rates of post-traumatic stress disorder within homeless populations. In Australia, studies indicate high rates of trauma among homeless adults, yet post-traumatic stress disorder has not been investigated in homeless Australian adults. The primary aim of this project was to determine the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder among homeless adults in Sydney. Further, another aim of the study was to determine whether the onset of post-traumatic stress disorder preceded the first episode of homelessness or was a consequence of homelessness. The sample consisted of 70 homeless men and women aged 18-73 years, who were randomly sampled through eight homeless services. A computer-assisted face-to-face structured clinical interview was conducted with each participant. Lifetime prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder was determined via the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The majority of the sample had experienced at least one traumatic event in their lifetime (98%). Indeed, the mean number of traumas per person was six. The 12 month prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder was higher among homeless adults in Sydney in comparison to the Australian general population (41% vs 1.5%). But 79% of the sample had a lifetime prevalence of post-traumatic stress. In 59% of cases, the onset of post-traumatic stress disorder preceded the age of the first reported homeless episode. Homeless adults in Sydney frequently experience trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder. The study found that trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder more often precede homelessness, but re-victimization is common. These findings highlight the high mental health needs among homeless people and have implications for services for homeless people.

  10. A diagnostic dilemma between psychosis and post-traumatic stress disorder: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coentre Ricardo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Post-traumatic stress disorder is defined as a mental disorder that arises from the experience of traumatic life events. Research has shown a high incidence of co-morbidity between post-traumatic stress disorder and psychosis. Case presentation We report the case of a 32-year-old black African woman with a history of both post-traumatic stress disorder and psychosis. Two years ago she presented to mental health services with auditory and visual hallucinations, persecutory delusions, suicidal ideation, recurring nightmares, hyper-arousal, and initial and middle insomnia. She was prescribed trifluoperazine (5 mg/day and began cognitive-behavioral therapy for psychosis. Her psychotic symptoms gradually resolved over a period of three weeks; however, she continues to experience ongoing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. In our case report, we review both the diagnostic and treatment issues regarding post-traumatic stress disorder with psychotic symptoms. Conclusions There are many factors responsible for the symptoms that occur in response to a traumatic event, including cognitive, affective and environmental factors. These factors may predispose both to the development of post-traumatic stress disorder and/or psychotic disorders. The independent diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder with psychotic features remains an open issue. A psychological formulation is essential regarding the appropriate treatment in a clinical setting.

  11. Glutamate/glutamine concentrations in the dorsal anterior cingulate vary with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnett, Nathaniel G; Wood, Kimberly H; Ference, Edward W; Reid, Meredith A; Lahti, Adrienne C; Knight, Amy J; Knight, David C

    2017-08-01

    Trauma and stress-related disorders (e.g., Acute Stress Disorder; ASD and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder; PTSD) that develop following a traumatic event are characterized by cognitive-affective dysfunction. The cognitive and affective functions disrupted by stress disorder are mediated, in part, by glutamatergic neural systems. However, it remains unclear whether neural glutamate concentrations, measured acutely following trauma, vary with ASD symptoms and/or future PTSD symptom expression. Therefore, the current study utilized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) to investigate glutamate/glutamine (Glx) concentrations within the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of recently (i.e., within one month) traumatized individuals and non-traumatized controls. Although Glx concentrations within dorsal ACC did not differ between recently traumatized and non-traumatized control groups, a positive linear relationship was observed between Glx concentrations and current stress disorder symptoms in traumatized individuals. Further, Glx concentrations showed a positive linear relationship with future stress disorder symptoms (i.e., assessed 3 months post-trauma). The present results suggest glutamate concentrations may play a role in both acute and future post-traumatic stress symptoms following a traumatic experience. The current results expand our understanding of the neurobiology of stress disorder and suggest glutamate within the dorsal ACC plays an important role in cognitive-affective dysfunction following a traumatic experience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Secondary traumatic stress among emergency nurses: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Emer; Avalos, Gloria; Dowling, Maura

    2015-04-01

    Emergency department nurses are required to deal with emotional trauma issues on a daily basis, which may result in them experiencing symptoms of secondary traumatic stress, a consequence of stress experienced when helping or wanting to help a person traumatised or suffering. This study measured emergency department nurses' self-reported levels of secondary traumatic stress. Registered nurses (n = 117) working at three emergency departments in the Western geographical region of Ireland were invited to complete the secondary traumatic stress scale (STSS). A response rate of 90% (n = 105) was achieved. Most participants (n = 67/64%) met the criteria for secondary traumatic stress. A statistically significant finding was that the highest proportion (82%) of secondary traumatic stress existed in the staff nurse group (p = 0.042). Moreover, for those nurses reporting secondary traumatic stress, statistical significance was found for the variables 'change of career considered' (p = 0.017) and 'finds alcohol helpful in alleviating work-related stress' (p = 0.004), when compared with nurses not reporting secondary traumatic stress. The findings suggest the need to examine current crisis management interventions and to introduce new systems to support nurses in Irish emergency departments. Moreover, because different types of traumatic events in the ED require different types of interventions, the prevention and management of STS among emergency department nurses must be tackled using a variety of approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cyber Bullying and Traumatic Experiences: The Impact on Learning Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agathi Stathopoulou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our research is to investigate the effects of traumatic experiences that teens with learning disorders had to go through. The sample of our study is consisted of 160 high school students who were referred in a web line evaluation form, due to low school performance. The research tool that was used was ACHENBACH’s self-report questionnaire for children and teenagers and more specifically the subscales for anxiety-depression and depression-withdrawal. Frequencies, percentages of responses and means have been calculated. An analysis of variance (one way anova to assess the differences in the averages of students' responses to the variable "experiencing a traumatic event" was also performed. The results showed that there are significant differences in the level of statistical significance p <0,01 between the means of students who say they have experienced a traumatic event and those who report that they haven’t. Particularly decisive traumatic experience for the students' mentality seems to be the in-school violence received by students and the death of a loved one. Application features that have to do with the cyber bulling are also presented briefly. 

  14. Blunt traumatic diaphragmatic rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Nogueira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic injury of the diaphragm ranges from 0.6 to 1.2% and rise up to 5%among patients who were victims of blunt trauma and underwent laparotomy.Clinical suspicion associated with radiological assessment contributes to earlydiagnosis. Isolated diaphragmatic injury has a good prognosis. Generallyworse outcomes are associated with other trauma injuries. Bilateral andright diaphragmatic lesions have worse prognosis. Multi detector computed tomography (MDCT scan of the chest and abdomen provides better diagnosticaccuracy using the possibility of image multiplanar reconstruction. Surgicalrepair via laparotomy and/ or thoracotomy in the acute phase of the injury hasa better outcome and avoids chronic complications of diaphragmatic hernia.The authors present the case of a young male patient, victim of blunt abdominaltrauma due to motor vehicle accident with rupture of the diaphragm, spleenand kidney injuries. The diagnosis was made by computed tomography of thethorax and abdomen and was confirmed during laparotomy.

  15. Post-traumatic hemobilia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlahos, L.; Kalovidouris, A.; Gouliamos, A.; Kailidou, E.

    1991-01-01

    Four patients with post-traumatic hemobilia were evaluated with arteriography over a 2-year period. In two patients hemobilia was of iatrogenic origin; in particular, one case appeared after a cholecystectomy, and the other was due to placement of a biliary stent with an endoscope. In the other two patients hemobilia was the result of a gun injury. Arteriography of the hepatic arterial system demonstrated two false aneurysms, extravasation of contrast medium through the biliary system in one patient and arterioportal fistula in another patient. It is concluded that arteriography of the hepatic arterial system is the method of choice for the evaluation and the possible treatment of patients with hemobilia. (author). 20 refs.; 4 figs

  16. Post-traumatic hemobilia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlahos, L.; Kalovidouris, A.; Gouliamos, A.; Kailidou, E. (Athens Univ. (Greece))

    Four patients with post-traumatic hemobilia were evaluated with arteriography over a 2-year period. In two patients hemobilia was of iatrogenic origin; in particular, one case appeared after a cholecystectomy, and the other was due to placement of a biliary stent with an endoscope. In the other two patients hemobilia was the result of a gun injury. Arteriography of the hepatic arterial system demonstrated two false aneurysms, extravasation of contrast medium through the biliary system in one patient and arterioportal fistula in another patient. It is concluded that arteriography of the hepatic arterial system is the method of choice for the evaluation and the possible treatment of patients with hemobilia. (author). 20 refs.; 4 figs.

  17. Traumatic lung hernia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabaza, M. J.; Alcazar, P. P.; Touma, C.

    2001-01-01

    Lung hernia is an uncommon entity that is defined as the protrusion of the lung parenchyma through a defect in the thoracic cavity. It is classified on the basis of its location (cervical, intercostal and diaphragmatic) and etiology (congenital and acquired). Acquired lung hernias can be further grouped as spontaneous, traumatic or pathological, depending on the responsible mechanism. Nearly half of them are secondary to chest trauma, whether penetrating or blunt. We present a case of lung hernia in a patient with penetrating chest trauma. The diagnosis was suspected from the radiographic images and was confirmed by computed tomography. We also review the literature concerning its classification and incidence, diagnostic methods used and treatment. (Author) 9 refs

  18. Post-traumatic stress disorder--best practice GP guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, David; Wolfgang, Bronwyn; Cooper, John; Creamer, Mark; Barton, David

    2009-03-01

    Approximately 50-65% of Australians are exposed to a traumatic event during their lifetime. Approximately 250 000 Australians suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at any given time, making it one of the most common anxiety disorders. In May 2007, the Australian guidelines for the treatment of adults with acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder was published. In order to facilitate translation of evidence regarding PTSD into busy clinical practice, and particularly for general practitioners, a more succinct version of the guidelines has been developed. This article describes a brief algorithm based on the Australian guidelines and outlines key recommendations. General practitioners are often the first point of contact with the health care system for someone who has experienced a traumatic event. Patients experiencing trauma within the past 2 weeks require psychological first aid, and monitoring and assessment for the development of acute stress disorder and symptoms of PTSD. If the patient wishes to talk about the event with you, support them in doing so. However, it is important not to push those who prefer not to talk about the event. Trauma focused psychological treatment is the first line of treatment for PTSD, although antidepressant medication may have an adjuvant role in some patients or in those with comorbidities.

  19. Imagining the future in children with severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lah, Suncica; Gott, Chloe; Epps, Adrienne; Parry, Louise

    2018-03-22

    Imagining the future events is thought to rely on re-combination and integration of past episodic memory traces into future events. Future and past events contain episodic and non-episodic details. Children with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) were found to have impaired recall of past episodic (but not semantic) event details. Here we examined whether severe TBI impairs construction of future events. Cross-sectional. Children with severe TBI (n = 14) and healthy controls (NC; n = 33) (i) completed tests of anterograde (narrative and relational) memory and executive skills, (ii) recalled past events and generated future events, and (iii) rated events' phenomenological qualities. Events were scored for episodic (internal) and non-episodic (external) details. The groups did not differ in generating details of future events although children with TBI recalled significantly fewer past internal (but not external) events' details relative to NCs. Moreover, the number of past internal details relative to future internal details was significantly higher in the NC group, but not in the TBI groups. Significant correlations between past and future were found for (i) episodic details in both groups, and (ii) semantic details in the NC group. The TBI group rated their events as being less significant than did the NC group. The groups did not differ on ratings of visual intensity and rehearsal. Children who have sustained severe TBI had impoverished recall of past, but not generation of future events. This unexpected dissociation between past and future event construction requires further research.

  20. The structure of post-traumatic stress disorder and complex post-traumatic stress disorder amongst West Papuan refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Rees, Susan; Chen, Jack; Kareth, Moses; Silove, Derrick

    2015-05-07

    The validity of applying the construct of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) across cultures has been the subject of contention. Although PTSD symptoms have been identified across multiple cultures, questions remain whether the constellation represents a coherent construct with an interpretable factor structure across diverse populations, especially those naïve to western notions of mental disorder. An important additional question is whether a constellation of Complex-PTSD (C-PTSD) can be identified and if so, whether there are distinctions between that disorder and core PTSD in patterns of antecedent traumatic events. Our study amongst West Papuan refugees in Papua New Guinea (PNG) aimed to examine the factorial structure of PTSD based on the DSM-IV, DSM-5, ICD-10 and ICD-11 definitions, and C-PTSD according to proposed ICD-11 criteria. We also investigated domains of traumatic events (TEs) and broader psychosocial effects of conflict (sense of safety and injustice) associated with the factorial structures identified. Culturally adapted measures were applied to assess exposure to conflict-related traumatic events (TEs), refugees' sense of safety and justice, and symptoms of PTSD and C-PTSD amongst 230 West Papuan refugees residing in Port Morseby, PNG. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) supported a unitary construct of both ICD-10 and ICD-11 PTSD, comprising the conventional symptom subdomains of intrusion, avoidance, and hyperarousal. In contrast, CFA did not identify a unitary construct underlying C-PTSD. The interaction of witnessing murders and sense of injustice was associated with both the intrusion and avoidance domains of PTSD, but not with the unique symptom clusters characterizing C-PTSD. Our findings support the ICD PTSD construct and its three-factor structure in this transcultural refugee population. Traumatic experiences of witnessing murder associated with a sense of injustice were specifically related to the intrusion and avoidance domains of

  1. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Following Childbirth: Prevalence and Contributing Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Shaban, Zainab; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Shams, Jamal; Alavi-Majd, Hamid; Mahmoodi, Zohreh; Sajjadi, Homeira

    2013-01-01

    Background Childbirth might be a traumatic event for some women. Objectives This study was conducted with the objective of investigating the prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) following childbirth. Patients and Methods The study was designed using a descriptive correlation scheme. The participants were selected from the women referred to the healthcare centers affiliated with Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran. Personal interviews were conducted with 600 wo...

  2. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Seedat

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is among the most prevalentanxiety disorders, both in terms of lifetime and 12-month prevalencerates documented in epidemiological studies worldwide.

  3. Traumatic Brain Injury Registry (TBI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — As the number of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) patients has grown, so has the need to track and monitor...

  4. Initial Management of Traumatic Wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devriendt, Nausikaa; de Rooster, Hilde

    2017-11-01

    When traumatic wounds are quickly and accurately treated, morbidity and costs can be significantly decreased. Several factors, such as time delay between injury and treatment, the degree of contamination, extension and depth of the wound, and the mechanism of injury, influence the treatment and prognosis and stress the importance of a patient-specific approach. Although all traumatic wounds are contaminated, antibiotic therapy is seldom required if correct wound management is installed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and severe maternal morbidity: is there an association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Carina R; Pacagnella, Rodolfo C; Parpinelli, Mary A; Silveira, Carla; Andreucci, Carla B; Ferreira, Elton C; Santos, Juliana P; Zanardi, Dulce M; Souza, Renato T; Cecatti, Jose G

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the occurrence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among women experiencing a severe maternal morbidity event and associated factors in comparison with those without maternal morbidity. In a retrospective cohort study, 803 women with or without severe maternal morbidity were evaluated at 6 months to 5 years postpartum for the presence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Interviews were conducted by telephone and electronic data was stored. Data analysis was carried out by using χ2, Fisher's Exact test, and logistic regression analysis. There was no significant change in the prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder related to a previous severe maternal morbidity experience. There were also no differences in diagnostic criteria for severe maternal morbidity (hypertensive syndromes, hemorrhage, surgical intervention or intensive care unit admission required, among other management criteria). Low parity (2.5-fold risk) and increasing age were factors associated with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. A severe maternal morbidity episode is not associated with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder symptoms within five years of the severe maternal morbidity event and birth. However, a more advanced maternal age and primiparity increased the risk of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. This does not imply that women who had experienced a severe maternal morbidity event did not suffer or need differentiated care.

  6. Prevalence rate of post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD and other psychological disorders among Saudi firefighters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Alghamd

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Firefighters have a high probability of being exposed to a variety of traumatic events. Potentially traumatic events can occur during a single rescue such as: providing aid to seriously injured or helpless victims. Moreover, firefighters who are injured in the line of duty may have to retire as a consequence of their injury. The psychological cost of this exposure may increase the risk of long-term problems, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms, depression, and anxiety. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of PTSD symptoms, depression, anxiety, and assess related variables such as coping strategies and social support among Saudi firefighters. Method: Two hundred firefighters completed the Fire-fighter Trauma History Screen (FTHS to measure the number of traumatic events, Screen for Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms (SPTSS scale to assess the prevalence of PTSD symptoms, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales (HADS to assess depression and anxiety, Brief Cope (BC scale to measure coping strategies used, and Social Support scale was used to evaluate the firefighter's support received. Results: The results showed that 84% (169/200 of firefighters were exposed to at least one traumatic event. The result presented that 57% (96/169 of exposure firefighters fully met the DSM-IV criteria for PTSD with high levels of depression and anxiety; 39% (66/169 partially met the PTSD criteria. However, only 4% participants have not met the PTSD criteria. The results also revealed that adaptive coping strategies and higher perceived social support was associated with lower levels of PTSD. Conclusion: The high prevalence rate of PTSD related to the type and severity of the traumatic events and years of experience in the job. Accordingly, many firefighters were severely affected by their experiences, and we should be developing methods to help them.

  7. Traumatic degloving lesion of penile and scrotal skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz A. Zanettini

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Avulsions of penile and scrotal skin are uncommon events and are caused mainly by accidents with industrial machines and agricultural machine belts. We report the case of a 30-year old patient with avulsion and traumatic degloving of the penile and scrotal skin, with exposure of the cavernous bodies, spongy body, and testes due to an industrial machine accident. Reconstruction was performed in steps, achieving a satisfactory esthetic result, normal voiding and reestablished sexual function.

  8. Prolonged Exposure Therapy For Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Levent SÜTÇÝGÝL; Selçuk ASLAN

    2012-01-01

    Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric illness that usually develops after an event that threatens one’s life and body integrity and it affects quality of life and impairs social functioning significantly. Many studies have shown therapeutic effect of cognitive behavioral therapies on posttraumatic stress disorder, so that these therapies take part in the first step of treatment guides. Exposure is a practice that is generally used to reduce pathological fear and related ...

  9. Predicting impaired extinction of traumatic memory and elevated startle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Nalloor

    Full Text Available Emotionally traumatic experiences can lead to debilitating anxiety disorders, such as phobias and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. Exposure to such experiences, however, is not sufficient to induce pathology, as only up to one quarter of people exposed to such events develop PTSD. These statistics, combined with findings that smaller hippocampal size prior to the trauma is associated with higher risk of developing PTSD, suggest that there are pre-disposing factors for such pathology. Because prospective studies in humans are limited and costly, investigating such pre-dispositions, and thus advancing understanding of the genesis of such pathologies, requires the use of animal models where predispositions are identified before the emotional trauma. Most existing animal models are retrospective: they classify subjects as those with or without a PTSD-like phenotype long after experiencing a traumatic event. Attempts to create prospective animal models have been largely unsuccessful.Here we report that individual predispositions to a PTSD-like phenotype, consisting of impaired rate and magnitude of extinction of an emotionally traumatic event coupled with long-lasting elevation of acoustic startle responses, can be revealed following exposure to a mild stressor, but before experiencing emotional trauma. We compare, in rats, the utility of several classification criteria and report that a combination of criteria based on acoustic startle responses and behavior in an anxiogenic environment is a reliable predictor of a PTSD-like phenotype.There are individual predispositions to developing impaired extinction and elevated acoustic startle that can be identified after exposure to a mildly stressful event, which by itself does not induce such a behavioral phenotype. The model presented here is a valuable tool for studying the etiology and pathophysiology of anxiety disorders and provides a platform for testing behavioral and pharmacological

  10. Traumatic injuries: imaging of head injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besenski, N. [Croatian Institute for Brain Research, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2002-06-01

    clinical state, MRI is warranted. Follow-up is best done with MRI as it is more sensitive to parenchymal changes. In routine MR protocol gradient-recalled-echo sequences should be included at any other time after a traumatic event since they are very sensitive in detection of hemosiderin as well as former hematoma without hemosiderin. The MR signal intensity varies depending on sequences and time scanning after trauma. (orig.)

  11. Traumatic injuries: imaging of head injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besenski, N.

    2002-01-01

    clinical state, MRI is warranted. Follow-up is best done with MRI as it is more sensitive to parenchymal changes. In routine MR protocol gradient-recalled-echo sequences should be included at any other time after a traumatic event since they are very sensitive in detection of hemosiderin as well as former hematoma without hemosiderin. The MR signal intensity varies depending on sequences and time scanning after trauma. (orig.)

  12. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder by Gender and Veteran Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehavot, Keren; Katon, Jodie G; Chen, Jessica A; Fortney, John C; Simpson, Tracy L

    2018-01-01

    Population-based data on the prevalence, correlates, and treatment utilization of post-traumatic stress disorder by gender and veteran status are limited. With changes in post-traumatic stress disorder diagnostic criteria in 2013, current information from a uniform data source is needed. This was a secondary analysis of the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III, which consisted of in-person interviews that were conducted with a representative sample of U.S. adults. The Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-5 Version was used to assess past-year and lifetime post-traumatic stress disorder among veterans (n=3,119) and civilians (n=32,982). Data were analyzed from January to March 2017. Adjusting for age and race/ethnicity, women veterans reported the highest rates of lifetime and past-year post-traumatic stress disorder (13.4%, 95% CI=8.8%, 17.9%, and 11.7%, 95% CI=7.1%, 16.4%) compared with women civilians (8.0%, 95% CI=7.4%, 8.6%, and 6.0%, 95% CI=5.5%, 6.6%); men veterans (7.7%, 95% CI=6.5%, 8.8%, and 6.7%, 95% CI=5.7%, 7.8%); and men civilians (3.4%, 95% CI=3.0%, 3.9%, and 2.6%, 95% CI=2.2%, 2.9%). Traumatic event exposure, correlates of lifetime post-traumatic stress disorder, and treatment seeking varied across subgroups. Men and women veterans were more likely than civilians to use a variety of treatment sources, with men civilians being least likely to seek treatment and men veterans exhibiting the longest delay in seeking treatment. Post-traumatic stress disorder is a common mental health disorder that varies by gender and veteran status. Women veterans' high rates of post-traumatic stress disorder highlight a critical target for prevention and intervention, whereas understanding treatment barriers for men veterans and civilians is necessary. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Destination memory in traumatic brain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wili Wilu, Amina; Coello, Yann; El Haj, Mohamad

    2018-06-01

    Destination memory, which is socially driven, refers to the ability to remember to whom one has sent information. Our study investigated destination memory in patients with traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). Patients and control participants were invited to tell proverbs (e.g., "the pen is mightier than the sword") to pictures of celebrities (e.g., Barack Obama). Then they were asked to indicate to which celebrity they had previously told the proverbs. Besides the assessment of destination memory, participants performed a binding task in which they were required to associate letters with their corresponding location. Analysis demonstrated less destination memory and binding in patients with TBIs than in controls. In both populations, significant correlations were observed between destination memory and performances on the binding task. These findings demonstrate difficulty in the ability to attribute information to its appropriate destination in TBI patients, perhaps owing to difficulties in binding separate information together to form a coherent representation of an event in memory.

  14. GUIDED IMAGERY: KONSEP KONSELING KREATIF UNTUK PENANGGANAN POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER (PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    author Yulianto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Everyone has a different reaction in facing the extraordinary events that are triggered by the teribble events. They clash psychic cause post traumatic stress disorder or in Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. To solve it can be done through treatment with pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. In psychotherapy handling, one of the techniques that can be used is the technique of guided imagery as one of the PTSD treatment efforts. This technique is an effort that can be used to deal with a difficult client to communicate verbally. Communication is the basis of the counseling relationship. Implementation of counseling through guided imagery techniques are considered able to help clients resolve client’s problems. In this technique, clients are guided to be able to focus on positive thoughts and imaginations that lead to negative events experienced to be able to create a positive picture of the imagination.Keywords: Guided imagery, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, Creative counseling

  15. Traumatization and chronic pain: a further model of interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egloff N

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Niklaus Egloff,1 Anna Hirschi,2 Roland von Känel1 1Department of General Internal Medicine, Division of Psychosomatic Medicine, Inselspital, University Hospital, Bern, Switzerland; 2Outpatient Clinic for Victims of Torture and War, Swiss Red Cross, Bern-Wabern, Switzerland Abstract: Up to 80% of patients with severe posttraumatic stress disorder are suffering from “unexplained” chronic pain. Theories about the links between traumatization and chronic pain have become the subject of increased interest over the last several years. We will give a short summary about the existing interaction models that emphasize particularly psychological and behavioral aspects of this interaction. After a synopsis of the most important psychoneurobiological mechanisms of pain in the context of traumatization, we introduce the hypermnesia–hyperarousal model, which focuses on two psychoneurobiological aspects of the physiology of learning. This hypothesis provides an answer to the hitherto open question about the origin of pain persistence and pain sensitization following a traumatic event and also provides a straightforward explanatory model for educational purposes. Keywords: posttraumatic stress disorder, chronic pain, hypermnesia, hypersensitivity, traumatization

  16. DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER IN SEXUAL ABUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Apriliani Saniti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic experiences may happen anytime in our life. The more terrible the situation, the bigger chance for a person to have post traumatic psychological problem, that is the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. Sexual abuse is a kind of traumatic event that caused psychological trauma/stress for the victim. In order to be able to manage patient with PTSD, physician should comprehend properties regarding PTSD, including proper treatment and management. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  17. Traumatic brain injury and disturbed sleep and wakefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Christian R

    2012-09-01

    Traumatic brain injury is a frequent condition worldwide, and sleep-wake disturbances often complicate the course after the injuring event. Current evidence suggests that the most common sleep-wake disturbances following traumatic brain injury include excessive daytime sleepiness and posttraumatic hypersomnia, that is, increased sleep need per 24 h. The neuromolecular basis of posttraumatic sleep pressure enhancement is not entirely clear. First neuropathological and clinical studies suggest that impaired hypocretin (orexin) signalling might contribute to sleepiness, but direct or indirect traumatic injury also to other sleep-wake modulating systems in the brainstem and the mesencephalon is likely. Posttraumatic insomnia may be less common than posttraumatic sleepiness, but studies on its frequency revealed conflicting results. Furthermore, insomnia is often associated with psychiatric comorbidities, and some patients with posttraumatic disruption of their circadian rhythm may be misdiagnosed as insomnia patients. The pathophysiology of posttraumatic circadian sleep disorders remains elusive; however, there is some evidence that reduced evening melatonin production due to traumatic brain damage may cause disruption of circadian regulation of sleep and wakefulness.

  18. The Effect of Traumatic Experiences and Psychiatric Symptoms on the Life Satisfaction of North Korean Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yeonsun; Lim, Sun Young; Jun, Jin Yong; Lee, So Hee; Yoo, So Young; Kim, Soohyun; Gwak, Ah Reum; Kim, Ji-Chul; Lee, Yu Jin; Kim, Seog Ju

    2017-01-01

    Successful adaptation of refugees to a new society can be hindered by traumatic experiences and psychiatric symptoms. This study aims to examine the relationship between trauma, psychiatric symptoms and life satisfaction of North Korean refugees resettled in South Korea. A total of 211 North Korean refugees living in South Korea completed a series of questionnaires on the history of their previous traumatic experiences, life satisfaction in South Korea, depression, anxiety, somatization and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. North Korean refugees who had experienced more traumatic events were less satisfied with their economic status in South Korea. Severe depression, anxiety, somatization or PTSD symptoms negatively correlated with their overall satisfaction in South Korea. In the stepwise regression model including all psychiatric symptoms and the number of traumatic experiences as dependent variables, only anxiety, but not trauma, predicted lower life satisfaction in South Korea. Traumatic experiences of North Korean refugees negatively affected the life satisfaction, especially the economic satisfaction, in South Korea. Since the negative effect of trauma was mainly mediated by psychiatric symptoms, the strategy of relieving psychiatric symptoms of traumatized refugees may help the adaptation of refugees. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Parental Factors Associated with Child Post-traumatic Stress Following Injury: A Consideration of Intervention Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E. Wise

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms are relatively common following pediatric traumatic injury and are related to poor long-term child outcomes. However, due to concerns regarding the efficacy of early child preventive interventions, and difficulty intervening with injured and medicated children soon after the event, it is not feasible to provide early psychological interventions to children exposed to traumatic injury. Parental PTSD symptoms and reactions to the child’s traumatic injury impact child outcomes and provide potential targets for early intervention to reduce child symptom development without involving the child. The authors conducted a review of the literature using Psycinfo and Pubmed research databases (publication years = 1990–2017 and identified 65 published studies relevant to the topic of the review. The present review considers parent factors [parenting styles, parental post-traumatic pathology (PTS, adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies, and communication regarding the traumatic injury] and their impact on child PTS. We focus specifically on factors amenable to intervention. We further review moderators of these relationships (e.g., child age and gender, parent gender and conclude that it is unlikely that a one-size-fits-all approach to treatment will be successful. Rather, it is necessary to consider the age and gender of parent child dyads in designing and providing targeted interventions to families following the traumatic injury of a child.

  20. Patterns of attention and experiences of post-traumatic stress symptoms following childbirth: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale-Hewitt, Vanessa; Slade, Pauline; Wright, Ingram; Cree, Michelle; Tully, Chris

    2012-08-01

    Childbirth for some women can be experienced as a traumatic event whereby it is appraised as threatening to life and associated with feelings of fear, helplessness or horror. These women may develop symptoms consistent with post-traumatic stress disorder or its sub-clinical symptoms (post-traumatic stress, PTS). Cognitive processes such as attentional biases have been identified in individuals with PTS exposed to other traumatic events. This study used an experimental design (the modified Stroop task) to investigate the relationship between attentional biases and PTS symptoms in 50 women who experienced their labour and delivery as stressful and responded with fear, helplessness and horror. Attentional biases away from childbirth words were significantly associated with both symptoms of post-traumatic stress and more negative experiences of childbirth. A negative experience was also associated with more severe symptoms of PTS. Positive experiences were unassociated with attentional biases or symptoms. Post-traumatic stress responses, in this population, may be associated with avoidance, and through influencing cognitive processing, acting as a maintaining factor of distress.

  1. The longitudinal relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder and perceived social support in survivors of traumatic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, A; Creamer, M; Forbes, D; McFarlane, A C; O'Donnell, M L; Silove, D; Steel, Z; Felmingham, K; Hadzi-Pavlovic, D; Bryant, R A

    2017-01-01

    Although perceived social support is thought to be a strong predictor of psychological outcomes following trauma exposure, the temporal relationship between perceived positive and negative social support and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms has not been empirically established. This study investigated the temporal sequencing of perceived positive social support, perceived negative social support, and PTSD symptoms in the 6 years following trauma exposure among survivors of traumatic injury. Participants were 1132 trauma survivors initially assessed upon admission to one of four Level 1 trauma hospitals in Australia after experiencing a traumatic injury. Participants were followed up at 3 months, 12 months, 24 months, and 6 years after the traumatic event. Latent difference score analyses revealed that greater severity of PTSD symptoms predicted subsequent increases in perceived negative social support at each time-point. Greater severity of PTSD symptoms predicted subsequent decreases in perceived positive social support between 3 and 12 months. High levels of perceived positive or negative social support did not predict subsequent changes in PTSD symptoms at any time-point. Results highlight the impact of PTSD symptoms on subsequent perceived social support, regardless of the type of support provided. The finding that perceived social support does not influence subsequent PTSD symptoms is novel, and indicates that the relationship between PTSD and perceived social support may be unidirectional.

  2. The value of the identification of predisposing factors for post-traumatic amnesia in management of mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotakopoulos, George; Makris, Demosthenes; Tsianaka, Eleni; Kotlia, Polikceni; Karakitsios, Paulos; Gatos, Charalabos; Tzannis, Alkiviadis; Fountas, Kostas

    2018-01-01

    To identify the risk factors for post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) and to document the incidence of PTA after mild traumatic brain injuries. This was a prospective study, affecting mild TBI (mTBI) (Glasgow Coma Scale 14-15) cases attending to the Emergency Department between January 2009 and April 2012 (40 months duration). Patients were divided into two groups (Group A: without PTA, and Group B: with PTA, and they were assessed according to the risk factors. A total of 1762 patients (males: 1002, 56.8%) were meeting study inclusion criteria [Group A: n = 1678 (83.8%), Group B: n = 84 (4.2%)]. Age, CT findings: (traumatic focal HCs in the frontal and temporal lobes or more diffuse punctate HCs, and skull base fractures), anticoagulation therapy and seizures were independent factors of PTA. There was no statistically significant correlation between PTA and sex, convexity fractures, stroke event, mechanism of mTBI (fall +/or beating), hypertension, coronary heart disease, chronic smokers and diabetes (p > 0.005). CT findings: (traumatic focal HCs in the frontal and temporal lobes or more diffuse punctate HCs and skull base fractures), age, seizures and anticoagulation/antiplatelet therapy, were independent factors of PTA and could be used as predictive factors after mTBI.

  3. Traumatic brain injury : from impact to rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halliday, J.; Absalom, A. R.

    Traumatic brain injury is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in our society, particularly among the young. This review discusses the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury, and current management from the acute phase through to rehabilitation of the traumatic brain injury patient.

  4. Traumatic stress symptomatology after child maltreatment and single traumatic events: different profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, Caroline S.; Verlinden, Eva; Bolle, Eva A.; Boer, Frits; Lindauer, Ramón J. L.

    2013-01-01

    The sequelae of child maltreatment tend to extend current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. This study examined this assumption, hypothesizing that (a) PTSD and trauma-related symptoms are more severe after single trauma than after child maltreatment; (b) symptoms unrelated to trauma

  5. An Unusual Case of Post-Traumatic Headache Complicated by Intracranial Hypotension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Siavoshi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of post-traumatic headache complicated by intracranial hypotension resulting in an acquired Chiari malformation and myelopathy with syringomyelia. This constellation of findings suggest a possible series of events that started with a traumatic cerebral spinal fluid (CSF leak, followed by descent of the cerebellar tonsils and disruption of CSF circulation that caused spinal cord swelling and syrinx. This unusual presentation of post-traumatic headache highlights the varying presentations and the potential sequelae of intracranial hypotension. In addition, the delayed onset of upper motor neuron symptoms along with initially normal head computerized tomography scan (CT findings, beg the question of whether or not a post-traumatic headache warrants earlier magnetic resonance imaging (MRI.

  6. Two Decades Later: The Resilience and Post-Traumatic Responses of Indigenous Quechua Girls and Adolescents in the Aftermath of the Peruvian Armed Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Eliana Barrios

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: In comparison to other traumatic events, the impact of a childhood during war on resilience later in life has been seldom examined. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the long term outcomes of post-traumatic responses and resilience of a sample of adult Indigenous Quechua women, who were girls or adolescents during the…

  7. Thyroid abscess following traumatic intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Polacco, MD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid abscess is a rare condition, and consequently diagnosis is often delayed. Causes include 3rd and 4th branchial cleft anomalies, hematogenous spread of infection, trauma from esophageal foreign body, and fine needle aspiration. Thyroid abscesses carry potential morbidity with thyroid and parathyroid gland destruction, tracheal compression, tracheal or esophageal fistula, internal jugular vein thrombophlebitis, and sepsis. The authors report a case of a 33-year old woman with a thyroid abscess following traumatic intubation. Thyroid abscess should be considered in patients presenting with anterior neck pain and swelling with a recent history of traumatic intubation, ultrasound or CT with contrast being the ideal diagnostic modalities.

  8. Traumatic primary brain stem haemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrioli, G.C.; Zuccarello, M.; Trincia, G.; Fiore, D.L.; De Caro, R.

    1983-01-01

    We report 36 cases of post-traumatic 'primary brain stem haemorrhage' visualized by the CT scan and confirmed at autopsy. Clinical experience shows that many technical factors influence the inability to visualize brain stem haemorrhages. Experimental injection of fresh blood into the pons and midbrain of cadavers shows that lesions as small as 0.25 ml in volume may be visualized. The volume and the anatomical configuration of traumatic lesions of the brain stem extended over a rostro-caudal direction, and their proximity to bony structures at the base of the skull are obstacles to the visualization of brain stem haemorrhages. (Author)

  9. Event Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korosec, D.

    2000-01-01

    The events in the nuclear industry are investigated from the license point of view and from the regulatory side too. It is well known the importance of the event investigation. One of the main goals of such investigation is to prevent the circumstances leading to the event and the consequences of the event. The protection of the nuclear workers against nuclear hazard, and the protection of general public against dangerous effects of an event could be achieved by systematic approach to the event investigation. Both, the nuclear safety regulatory body and the licensee shall ensure that operational significant events are investigated in a systematic and technically sound manner to gather information pertaining to the probable causes of the event. One of the results should be appropriate feedback regarding the lessons of the experience to the regulatory body, nuclear industry and general public. In the present paper a general description of systematic approach to the event investigation is presented. The systematic approach to the event investigation works best where cooperation is present among the different divisions of the nuclear facility or regulatory body. By involving management and supervisors the safety office can usually improve their efforts in the whole process. The end result shall be a program which serves to prevent events and reduce the time and efforts solving the root cause which initiated each event. Selection of the proper method for the investigation and an adequate review of the findings and conclusions lead to the higher level of the overall nuclear safety. (author)

  10. The Relationship between Post-Traumatic Symptoms, Parenting Style, and Resilience among Adolescents in Liaoning, China: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yanxue; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Lin; Gao, Han; Chen, Zhuo; Du, Siyi; Zhang, Lili; Guo, Yu

    2015-01-01

    In China, a growing number of adolescents have experienced traumatic events that have resulted in PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder). Post-traumatic symptoms are common psychological problems in adolescents who have experienced traumatic events. However, existing studies tend to focus on the factors influencing PTSD, such as the response styles and social support, and studies on the relationships between parenting style, resilience and post-traumatic symptoms are still rare. To analyze the relationships between parenting style, resilience and post-traumatic symptoms among adolescents in China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from June to December 2013 in the Liaoning Province, China. N = 5765 adolescents (aged 12 to 18 years old) were ultimately chosen to participate. The Chinese version of the Essen Trauma Inventory for Kids and Juveniles (ETI-KJ), a modified version of the Parental Authority Questionnaire, and the Chinese Resilience Scale were used to estimate the post-traumatic symptoms, parenting style, and resilience, respectively. Pearson's correlations, multiple linear regression analyses and structural equation modeling (SEM) were applied to analyze the data. Of the adolescents, 39.76% (N = 2292) had been exposed to traumatic events during their lives. The prevalence of probable PTSD at the time of the interview (one-month-prevalence) was 12.65%. Parenting style and resilience were significantly associated with post-traumatic symptoms. According to the SEM, parenting style had a significant direct effect on resilience (0.70, Pparenting style had a significant indirect effect (-0.43×0.70 = -0.30. PParenting style and resilience have significant effects on adolescents' post-traumatic symptoms. Schools and social-related departments could share knowledge on the impact of parenting style with parents enabling them to improve their own parenting style and their children's resilience and ability to respond effectively to traumatic events.

  11. The Relationship between Post-Traumatic Symptoms, Parenting Style, and Resilience among Adolescents in Liaoning, China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yanxue; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Lin; Gao, Han; Chen, Zhuo; Du, Siyi; Zhang, Lili; Guo, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Background In China, a growing number of adolescents have experienced traumatic events that have resulted in PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder). Post-traumatic symptoms are common psychological problems in adolescents who have experienced traumatic events. However, existing studies tend to focus on the factors influencing PTSD, such as the response styles and social support, and studies on the relationships between parenting style, resilience and post-traumatic symptoms are still rare. Objectives To analyze the relationships between parenting style, resilience and post-traumatic symptoms among adolescents in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted from June to December 2013 in the Liaoning Province, China. N = 5765 adolescents (aged 12 to 18 years old) were ultimately chosen to participate. The Chinese version of the Essen Trauma Inventory for Kids and Juveniles (ETI-KJ), a modified version of the Parental Authority Questionnaire, and the Chinese Resilience Scale were used to estimate the post-traumatic symptoms, parenting style, and resilience, respectively. Pearson’s correlations, multiple linear regression analyses and structural equation modeling (SEM) were applied to analyze the data. Results Of the adolescents, 39.76% (N = 2292) had been exposed to traumatic events during their lives. The prevalence of probable PTSD at the time of the interview (one-month-prevalence) was 12.65%. Parenting style and resilience were significantly associated with post-traumatic symptoms. According to the SEM, parenting style had a significant direct effect on resilience (0.70, Pparenting style had a significant indirect effect (-0.43×0.70 = -0.30. PParenting style and resilience have significant effects on adolescents’ post-traumatic symptoms. Schools and social-related departments could share knowledge on the impact of parenting style with parents enabling them to improve their own parenting style and their children’s resilience and ability to respond

  12. POST Traumatic Stress Disorder in Emergency Workers: Risk Factors and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argentero, Piergiorgio; Dell'Olivo, Bianca; Setti, Ilaria

    Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are emergent phenomena resulting from exposure to a traumatic event that causes actual or threatened death or injury and produces intense fear, helplessness, or horror. In order to assess the role of different factors contributing to this kind of emergent phenomenon prevalence rates across gender, cultures, and samples exposed to different traumas are examined. Risk factors for PTSD, including pre-existing individual-based factors, features of the traumatic event, and post-trauma interventions are examined as well. Several characteristics of the trauma, related to cognitions, post-trauma social support and therapeutic interventions for PTSD are also considered. Further work is needed in order to analyze the inter-relationships among these factors and underlying mechanisms. The chaotic nature of traumatic processes, the multiple and interactive impacts on traumatic events require a comprehensive perspective aimed at planning effective interventions. Treatment outcome studies recommended the combined use of training and therapies as first-line treatment for PTSD.

  13. The military's approach to traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Geoffrey S. F.; Grimes, Jamie; Ecklund, James M.

    2014-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) are common conditions. In Iraq and Afghanistan, explosive blast related TBI became prominent among US service members but the vast majority of TBI was still due to typical causes such as falls and sporting events. PTS has long been a focus of the US military mental health providers. Combat Stress Teams have been integral to forward deployed units since the beginning of the Global War on Terror. Military medical management of disease and injury follows standard of care clinical practice guidelines (CPG) established by civilian counterparts. However, when civilian CPGs do not exist or are not applicable to the military environment, new practice standards are created. Such is the case for mild TBI. In 2009, the VA-DoD CPG for management of mild TBI/concussion was published and a system-wide clinical care program for mild TBI/concussion was introduced. This was the first large scale effort on an entire medical care system to address all severities of TBI in a comprehensive organized way. In 2010, the VA-DoD CPG for management of PTSD was published. Nevertheless, both TBI and PTS are still incompletely understood. Investment in terms of money and effort has been committed by the DoD to their study. The Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center, National Intrepid Center of Excellence and the Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury are prominent examples of this effort. These are just beginnings, a work in progress ready to leverage advances made scientifically and always striving to provide the very best care to its military beneficiaries.

  14. The Evolution of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder following Moderate-to-Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alway, Yvette; Gould, Kate Rachel; McKay, Adam; Johnston, Lisa; Ponsford, Jennie

    2016-05-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may develop following traumatic brain injury (TBI), despite most patients having no conscious memory of their accident. This prospective study examined the frequency, timing of onset, symptom profile, and trajectory of PTSD and its psychiatric comorbidities during the first 4 years following moderate-to-severe TBI. Participants were 85 individuals (78.8% male) with moderate or severe TBI recruited following admission to acute rehabilitation between 2005 and 2010. Using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Disorders (SCID-I), participants were evaluated for pre- and post-injury PTSD soon after injury and reassessed at 6 months, 12 months, 2 years, 3 years, and 4 years post-injury. Over the first 4 years post-injury, 17.6% developed injury-related PTSD, none of whom had PTSD prior to injury. PTSD onset peaked between 6 and 12 months post-injury. The majority of PTSD cases (66.7%) had a delayed-onset, which for a third was preceded by subsyndromal symptoms in the first 6 months post-injury. PTSD frequency increased over the first year post-injury, remained stable during the second year, and gradually declined thereafter. The majority of subjects with PTSD experienced a chronic symptom course and all developed one or more than one comorbid psychiatric disorder, with mood, other anxiety, and substance-use disorders being the most common. Despite event-related amnesia, post-traumatic stress symptoms, including vivid re-experiencing phenomena, may develop following moderate-to-severe TBI. Onset is typically delayed and symptoms may persist for several years post-injury.

  15. Subthreshold Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eylem Ozten

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder is a very broad category among mental disorders. Since its inclusion in DSM-III, the diagnostic criteria of post-traumatic stress disorder has undergone a number of changes. The diagnosis and treatment of people who have some symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder without meeting full criteria still remains controversial. Although subthreshold post-traumatic stress disorder has been debated since it was first defined, the presence of subthreshold post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms has found to raise the risk for suicidal ideation significantly. This article overviews the definitions of trauma related disorders in history of psychiatry and highlights the need to define subthreshold post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms that were reported to be associated with impairment, comorbidity, and suicidal ideation. Clinical differences between subthreshold and full post-traumatic stress disorder will also be discussed.

  16. Evaluation after Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudel, Tina M.; Halper, James; Pines, Hayley; Cancro, Lorraine

    2010-01-01

    It is important to determine if a traumatic brain injury (TBI) has occurred when an individual is assessed in a hospital emergency room after a car accident, fall, or other injury that affects the head. This determination influences decisions about treatment. It is essential to screen for the injury, because the sooner they begin appropriate…

  17. Traumatic Brain Injury Inpatient Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Brian; Schrer, Marcia J.; Gaeta, Raphael; Elias, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) can cause multiple medical and functional problems. As the brain is involved in regulating nearly every bodily function, a TBI can affect any part of the body and aspect of cognitive, behavioral, and physical functioning. However, TBI affects each individual differently. Optimal management requires understanding the…

  18. Hypopituitarism in Traumatic Brain Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klose, Marianne; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    While hypopituitarism after traumatic brain injury (TBI) was previously considered rare, it is now thought to be a major cause of treatable morbidity among TBI survivors. Consequently, recommendations for assessment of pituitary function and replacement in TBI were recently introduced. Given...

  19. Gastric traumatic injuries: CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassandro, Francesco; Romano, Stefania; Rossi, Giovanni; Muto, Roberto; Cappabianca, Salvatore; Grassi, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Gastric blunt traumatic injuries are uncommon and their radiological appearance has been infrequently reported in medical literature. These injuries are difficult to diagnose preoperatively, though they require immediate recognition to minimize their otherwise high mortality and morbidity. The aim of our study is to describe the radiological appearance of blunt gastric traumatic injuries. Materials and methods: Retrospective evaluation of a 25 patients series observed between January 1997 and May 2005. Results: We observed rupture of the stomach in 20% of cases, in 44% of cases a partial lesion of the stomach, in one case a necrotic post-traumatic volvulus, five patients (20%) had benign portal pneumatosis, in three patients the stomach was secondarily involved because of a diaphragmatic hernia. The fundus resulted to be the most frequently damaged part of the stomach (80%). Conclusions: Blunt traumatic injuries need a careful and systematic approach given their economical and social relevance. For these reasons uncommon lesions require attention and may be important to search for specific findings of gastric lesions

  20. Gastric traumatic injuries: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassandro, Francesco [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, ' A. Cardarelli' Hospital, I-80131 Naples (Italy)]. E-mail: francesco.lassandro@fastwebnet.it; Romano, Stefania [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, ' A. Cardarelli' Hospital, I-80131 Naples (Italy); Rossi, Giovanni [Department of Radiology, V. Monaldi Hospital, Naples (Italy); Muto, Roberto [Department of Radiology, V. Monaldi Hospital, Naples (Italy); Cappabianca, Salvatore [Magrassi-Lanzara Department, Institute of Radiology, Second University of Naples (Italy); Grassi, Roberto [Magrassi-Lanzara Department, Institute of Radiology, Second University of Naples (Italy)

    2006-09-15

    Objective: Gastric blunt traumatic injuries are uncommon and their radiological appearance has been infrequently reported in medical literature. These injuries are difficult to diagnose preoperatively, though they require immediate recognition to minimize their otherwise high mortality and morbidity. The aim of our study is to describe the radiological appearance of blunt gastric traumatic injuries. Materials and methods: Retrospective evaluation of a 25 patients series observed between January 1997 and May 2005. Results: We observed rupture of the stomach in 20% of cases, in 44% of cases a partial lesion of the stomach, in one case a necrotic post-traumatic volvulus, five patients (20%) had benign portal pneumatosis, in three patients the stomach was secondarily involved because of a diaphragmatic hernia. The fundus resulted to be the most frequently damaged part of the stomach (80%). Conclusions: Blunt traumatic injuries need a careful and systematic approach given their economical and social relevance. For these reasons uncommon lesions require attention and may be important to search for specific findings of gastric lesions.

  1. SENTINEL EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Robida

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Objective of the article is a two year statistics on sentinel events in hospitals. Results of a survey on sentinel events and the attitude of hospital leaders and staff are also included. Some recommendations regarding patient safety and the handling of sentinel events are given.Methods. In March 2002 the Ministry of Health introduce a voluntary reporting system on sentinel events in Slovenian hospitals. Sentinel events were analyzed according to the place the event, its content, and root causes. To show results of the first year, a conference for hospital directors and medical directors was organized. A survey was conducted among the participants with the purpose of gathering information about their view on sentinel events. One hundred questionnaires were distributed.Results. Sentinel events. There were 14 reports of sentinel events in the first year and 7 in the second. In 4 cases reports were received only after written reminders were sent to the responsible persons, in one case no reports were obtained. There were 14 deaths, 5 of these were in-hospital suicides, 6 were due to an adverse event, 3 were unexplained. Events not leading to death were a suicide attempt, a wrong side surgery, a paraplegia after spinal anaesthesia, a fall with a femoral neck fracture, a damage of the spleen in the event of pleural space drainage, inadvertent embolization with absolute alcohol into a femoral artery and a physical attack on a physician by a patient. Analysis of root causes of sentinel events showed that in most cases processes were inadequate.Survey. One quarter of those surveyed did not know about the sentinel events reporting system. 16% were having actual problems when reporting events and 47% beleived that there was an attempt to blame individuals. Obstacles in reporting events openly were fear of consequences, moral shame, fear of public disclosure of names of participants in the event and exposure in mass media. The majority of

  2. Post-traumatic stress reactions before the advent of post-traumatic stress disorder: potential effects on the lives and legacies of Alexander the Great, Captain James Cook, Emily Dickinson, and Florence Nightingale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackowiak, Philip A; Batten, Sonja V

    2008-12-01

    Evidence is presented that Alexander the Great, Captain James Cook, Emily Dickinson, and Florence Nightingale each developed symptoms consistent with post-traumatic stress disorder in the aftermath of repeated potentially traumatizing events of differing character. Their case histories also varied with respect to background, premorbid personality style, risk factors, clinical presentation, and course of the illness, illustrating the pleomorphic character of the disorder, as well as the special problems in diagnosing it in historical figures.

  3. POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER: A FREQUENT WORK-RELATED ILLNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Cannizzaro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is an anxiety disorder that results from exposure to a traumatic event, and is characterized by hypermnesia of the traumatic event with frequent re-experiencing of the tragic occurrence, hyperarousal, and avoidance behaviour. Depression, anxiety, sleep dysfunction and substance abuse are also commonly reported. PTSD is highly prevalent both in the general population and in certain occupations that are particularly exposed to life-threatening situations, physically and psychological demanding activities, and physical assault, such as rescue workers, firefighters and paramedics. Recent advances in the comprehension of the epidemiology, physiopathology and clinical presentation of PTSD could push toward increased identification of this common psychiatric disorder with significant reflections on the chances of successful treatment.

  4. Event Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss conceptual event modeling within a context of information modeling. Traditionally, information modeling has been concerned with the modeling of a universe of discourse in terms of information structures. However, most interesting universes of discourse...... are dynamic and we present a modeling approach that can be used to model such dynamics.We characterize events as both information objects and change agents (Bækgaard 1997). When viewed as information objects events are phenomena that can be observed and described. For example, borrow events in a library can...

  5. How do foster youth experience the impact of adverse childhood events?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbakkers, Anne; van der Steen, Steffie; Grietens, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Foster children have been disproportionately exposed to traumatic events (Turney & Wildeman, 2017), which are perceived as important factors contributing to problems and specific needs they experience (Berrick & Skivenes, 2012; Bruskas, 2008). Despite the growing interest in the stories of foster

  6. The Efficacy of Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing: autobiographical memory performance and problem solving skills in women with post-traumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kh sadeghi

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: The result showed that elements of EMDR based on ALP Francis Shapiro, and trough having the influence on integration of traumatic event information and identifying the number of symptoms in patients having PTSD.

  7. The Relationship between Post-Traumatic Symptoms, Parenting Style, and Resilience among Adolescents in Liaoning, China: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxue Zhai

    Full Text Available In China, a growing number of adolescents have experienced traumatic events that have resulted in PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder. Post-traumatic symptoms are common psychological problems in adolescents who have experienced traumatic events. However, existing studies tend to focus on the factors influencing PTSD, such as the response styles and social support, and studies on the relationships between parenting style, resilience and post-traumatic symptoms are still rare.To analyze the relationships between parenting style, resilience and post-traumatic symptoms among adolescents in China.A cross-sectional survey was conducted from June to December 2013 in the Liaoning Province, China. N = 5765 adolescents (aged 12 to 18 years old were ultimately chosen to participate. The Chinese version of the Essen Trauma Inventory for Kids and Juveniles (ETI-KJ, a modified version of the Parental Authority Questionnaire, and the Chinese Resilience Scale were used to estimate the post-traumatic symptoms, parenting style, and resilience, respectively. Pearson's correlations, multiple linear regression analyses and structural equation modeling (SEM were applied to analyze the data.Of the adolescents, 39.76% (N = 2292 had been exposed to traumatic events during their lives. The prevalence of probable PTSD at the time of the interview (one-month-prevalence was 12.65%. Parenting style and resilience were significantly associated with post-traumatic symptoms. According to the SEM, parenting style had a significant direct effect on resilience (0.70, P<0.01 and post-traumatic symptoms (-0.15, P<0.05, and resilience had a significant direct effect on the post-traumatic symptoms (-0.43, P<0.01. Furthermore, parenting style had a significant indirect effect (-0.43×0.70 = -0.30. P<0.01 on the post-traumatic symptoms through resilience. The SEM significantly explained 49% of the variance in resilience and 30% of the variance in post-traumatic symptoms

  8. Defense Health Care: Research on Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy to Treat Traumatic Brain Injury and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Traumatic Brain Injury and Post - Traumatic Stress Disorder Why GAO Did This Study TBI and PTSD are signature...injury (TBI) and post - traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ), most of which were focused solely on TBI (29 articles). The 32 articles consisted of 7 case...Case Report Articles on Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy to Treat Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) or Post - Traumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD ),

  9. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms mediate the relationship between traumatic experiences and drinking behavior among women attending alcohol-serving venues in a South African township.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Melissa H; Ranby, Krista W; Meade, Christina S; Sikkema, Kathleen J; MacFarlane, Jessica C; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree; Kalichman, Seth C

    2012-07-01

    South Africa has high rates of traumatic experiences and alcohol abuse or dependence, especially among women. Traumatic experiences often result in symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and PTSD has been associated with hazardous drinking. This article examines the relationship between traumatic events and hazardous drinking among women who patronized alcohol-serving venues in South Africa and examines PTSD as a mediator of this relationship. A total of 560 women were recruited from a Cape Town township. They completed a computerized assessment that included alcohol consumption, history of traumatic events, and PTSD symptoms. Mediation analysis examined whether PTSD symptoms mediated the relationship between the number of traumatic event categories experienced (range: 0-7) and drinking behavior. The mean Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test score in the sample was 12.15 (range: 0-34, SD = 7.3), with 70.9% reaching criteria for hazardous drinking (AUDIT > 8). The mean PTSD score was 36.32 (range: 17-85, SD = 16.3),with 20.9% meeting symptom criteria for PTSD (PTSD Checklist with 20.9% meeting symptom criteria for PTSD (PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version ≥ 50). Endorsement of traumatic experiences was high, including adult emotional (51.8%), physical (49.6%), and sexual (26.3%) abuse; childhood physical (35.0%) and sexual (25.9%) abuse; and other types of trauma (83%). All categories of traumatic experiences, except the "other" category, were associated with hazardous drinking. PTSD symptoms mediated 46% of the relationship between the number of traumatic categories experienced and drinking behavior. Women reported high rates of hazardous drinking and high levels of PTSD symptoms, and most had some history of traumatic events. There was a strong relationship between traumatic exposure and drinking levels, which was largely mediated by PTSD symptoms. Substance use interventions should address histories of trauma in this population, where alcohol may be

  10. Models of traumatic experiences and children's psychological adjustment: the roles of perceived parenting and the children's own resources and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punamäki, R L; Qouta, S; el Sarraj, E

    1997-08-01

    The relations between traumatic events, perceived parenting styles, children's resources, political activity, and psychological adjustment were examined among 108 Palestinian boys and girls of 11-12 years of age. The results showed that exposure to traumatic events increased psychological adjustment problems directly and via 2 mediating paths. First, the more traumatic events children had experienced, the more negative parenting they experienced. And, the poorer they perceived parenting, the more they suffered from high neuroticism and low self-esteem. Second, the more traumatic events children had experienced, the more political activity they showed, and the more active they were, the more they suffered from psychological adjustment problems. Good perceived parenting protected children's psychological adjustment by making them less vulnerable in two ways. First, traumatic events decreased their intellectual, creative, and cognitive resources, and a lack of resources predicted many psychological adjustment problems in a model excluding perceived parenting. Second, political activity increased psychological adjustment problems in the same model, but not in the model including good parenting.

  11. 38 CFR 4.129 - Mental disorders due to traumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mental disorders due to... SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Mental Disorders § 4.129 Mental disorders due to traumatic stress. When a mental disorder that develops in service as a result of a highly stressful event is...

  12. PET Imaging of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Whiplash Associated Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vállez García, David

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury is the leading cause of brain injury in our society with 235 per 100,000 inhabitants per year in the European Union and about 500 per 100,000 inhabitants per year in the United States. About 80% of all these events are accounted for as mild cases. At the same time,

  13. Assessing prevalence of trauma and the risk of Post-Traumatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study estimates the cumulative occurrence of traumatic events and the risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-V) criteria, in a high-risk sample of youth in urban city of Lagos, Nigeria. Participants were interviewed about history of ...

  14. Reduced N400 Semantic Priming Effects in Adult Survivors of Paediatric and Adolescent Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuepffer, C.; Murdoch, B. E.; Lloyd, D.; Lewis, F. M.; Hinchliffe, F. J.

    2012-01-01

    The immediate and long-term neural correlates of linguistic processing deficits reported following paediatric and adolescent traumatic brain injury (TBI) are poorly understood. Therefore, the current research investigated event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited during a semantic picture-word priming experiment in two groups of highly functioning…

  15. When the world collapses: changed worldview and social reconstruction in a traumatized community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinka Corkalo Biruski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traumatic experience can affect the individual's basic beliefs about the world as a predictable and safe place. One of the cornerstones in recovery from trauma is reestablishment of safety, connectedness, and the shattered schema of a worldview. Objective: This study explored the role of negatively changed worldview in the relationship between war-related traumatization and readiness for social reconstruction of intergroup relations in a post-conflict community measured by three processes: intergroup rapprochement, rebuilding trust, and need for apology. It was hypothesized that more traumatized people are less supportive of social reconstruction and that this relationship is mediated by the changed worldview. Method: The study included a community random sample of 333 adults in the city of Vukovar, Croatia, that was most devastated during the 1991–1995 war. Six instruments were administered: Stressful Events Scale, Impact of Event Scale-Revised, Changed Worldview Scale, and three scales measuring the post-conflict social reconstruction processes: Intergroup Rapprochement, Intergroup Trust and Need for Apology. Results: Mediation analyses showed that the worldview change fully mediated between traumatization and all three aspects of social reconstruction. Conclusions: In a population exposed to war traumatization the worldview change mediates post-conflict social recovery of community relations.

  16. Bilateral Chylothorax Due to Blunt Trauma Without Radiographic Evidence of Traumatic Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mohamed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chylothorax represents an uncommon clinical entity with multiple etiologies. Chylothorax following blunt thoracic trauma is typically associated with posterior rib fractures or thoracic vertebral fractures or dislocations. The occurrence of a traumatic chylothorax in the absence of associated injuries is a rare event. We report a case of a 51-year-old patient who developed bilateral chylothorax after sustaining blunt trauma without radiographic evidence of traumatic injury. A 51-year-old male presented to the emergency department complaining of progressively worsening shortness of breath and associated chest pain for the prior one week following a fall down several concrete steps. On evaluation, the patient was found to have bilateral pleural effusions with no radiographic evidence of traumatic injury, including posterior rib or thoracic vertebral fractures. Subsequent thoracentesis and pleural fluid analysis were performed confirming the diagnosis of chylothorax. Management included repeated thoracentesis, diet modification and octreotide administration, which resulted in dramatic improvement and eventual resolution of symptoms. Non-iatrogenic traumatic bilateral chylothorax in the absence of other radiographically demonstrated bony or soft tissue injury is a rare event. Chylothorax should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with chest pain or shortness of breath following blunt trauma and evidence of pleural effusion, even in the absence of obvious traumatic fracture or injury on radiographic imaging.

  17. [Support psychotherapy in traumatic situations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sales, Pau; Vázquez Valverde, Carmelo

    2003-12-01

    It seems that a certain consensus exists to speak about a traumatic situation as an experience which is made up of a threat on the physical or psychological integrity of a person and against which one responds with fear, desperation and intensive horror. Different psychological phenomena are involved with the manner through which a human being confronts his/her past. In particular, the response to traumatic situations, mourning, and blame share their characteristic of being an irreversible living reality related to facts, loss or past impacts and it is necessary to integrate these in one's life in order to advance; these comprise a triangle frequently coexisting and interconnected. Aid for these three situations has, therefore, as common elements, two premises: an active task is required by the person who suffers this situation; this person must, in some form, desire to move ahead. One can not toil in mourning, in a traumatic experience, or in a life of blame if these have a positive symbolic value for this person; for example, mourning as a manner not to treason the dead person by forgetting that person, the reliving a trauma as an attempt to provide some sense to the actions which occurred, or blame as a desire to not forget an error or as a final punishment of this active task; the final objective of this active task is not usually to forget but to integrate in order to live. If a person does not perceive this clearly, this person may not become actively involved in the task to overcome a traumatic situation and to move ahead, nor will that person accept that a person who tries to help questions this person's realities or experiences.

  18. Traumatic brain lesions in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nícollas Nunes Rabelo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The neonatal period is a highly vulnerable time for an infant. The high neonatal morbidity and mortality rates attest to the fragility of life during this period. The incidence of birth trauma is 0.8%, varying from 0.2-2 per 1,000 births. The aim of this study is to describe brain traumas, and their mechanism, anatomy considerations, and physiopathology of the newborn traumatic brain injury. Methods A literature review using the PubMed data base, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Direct, The Cochrane Database, Google Scholar, and clinical trials. Selected papers from 1922 to 2016 were studied. We selected 109 papers, through key-words, with inclusion and exclusion criteria. Discussion This paper discusses the risk factors for birth trauma, the anatomy of the occipito-anterior and vertex presentation, and traumatic brain lesions. Conclusion Birth-related traumatic brain injury may cause serious complications in newborn infants. Its successful management includes special training, teamwork, and an individual approach.

  19. Traumatic hip dislocations in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minhas, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate clinical features, treatment and relationship to the time period between dislocation, reduction and early complications of traumatic dislocation of hip in children. Methods: Case series conducted at Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre Karachi from July 2005 to August 2009. Children with traumatic hip dislocation up to fifteen years of age who presented in last four years were included in this study. Their clinical information, etiology, associated injuries, duration, method of reduction and early complications are evaluated through emergency room proforma and indoor record. Follow up of patient was updated in outpatient department. Results: We had eight patients, six boys and two girls. Youngest 2.4 years and eldest was 12 years with mean age of 6.2 +- 3.8 years. All presented with posterior hip dislocation. Etiology was road traffic accident in two and history of fall in remaining six patients. Average duration of time between dislocation and reduction was 19 hours range 3-72 hours. Dislocated hips were reduced under General Anaesthesia in two patients and under sedation analgesia in six patients. No complications were noted in eight cases with mean 18.75 +- 13.23 months follows up. Conclusion: Traumatic hip dislocation in children is not rare. Slight trauma causes dislocation in younger age and immediate closed reduction and Immobilization reduces complications. (author

  20. Therapeutic Sleep for Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0166 TITLE: Therapeutic Sleep for Traumatic Brain Injury PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ravi Allada CONTRACTING...1. REPORT DATE June 2017 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1June2016 - 31May2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Therapeutic Sleep for Traumatic Brain ...proposal will test the hypothesis that correcting sleep disorders can have a therapeutic effect onTraumatic Brain Injury (TBI) The majority of TBI

  1. Traumatic hemipelvectomy (amputae: Report of one case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Errol U. Hutagalung

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic hemipelvectomy (amputae is a catastrophic injury resulting front violent shearing forces which avulsed the lower limb at the level sacroiliac joint and symphisis pubis. Patients surviving traumatic hemipelvectomy are rare. One case of a 25 months old girl surviving traumatic hemipelvectomy, is presented. This is the first case reported from Indonesia. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 169-73Keywords: Colostomy, skin graft, traffic accident

  2. An audit of traumatic nerve injury.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, G

    2009-07-01

    The impact of trauma in the Irish healthcare setting is considerable. We present the results of a retrospective assessment of referrals to a Neurophysiology department for suspected traumatic nerve injury. A broad range of traumatic neuropathies was demonstrated on testing, from numerous causes. We demonstrate an increased liklihood of traumatic nerve injury after fracture \\/ dislocation (p = 0.007). Our series demonstrates the need for clinicians to be aware of the possibility of nerve injury post trauma, especially after bony injury.

  3. Traumatic bone cyst resembling apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, D J; Ardekian, L; Machtei, E E; Peled, M; Manor, R; Laufer, D

    1997-10-01

    Among the pseudocysts of the jaws, the traumatic bone cyst is known as an asymptomatic lesion often noted unintentionally during routine radiographic examinations. The lesion neither devitalizes the teeth within its borders, nor does it cause resorption of their roots. The well-demarcated traumatic bone cyst often projects into the intraradicular septa and hence has been described as having scalloped borders. The following presentation is of a traumatic bone cyst that resembled periodontal pathology in its appearance.

  4. [Post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korábová, I; Masopustová, Z

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the issue of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth to health care professionals. The text focuses on the diagnostic definition of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth, symptoms, physiological background, prevalence, course, risk factors and consequences of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth for a woman, her child and her partner. Options for interventions and therapy are outlined as well.

  5. Chronic issues related to traumatic brain injury : traumatic brain injury is not an incident

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grauwmeijer, Erik; van der Naalt, Joukje; ribbers, gerard

    2016-01-01

    Despite an increased awareness of the long-term consequences of traumatic brain injury, health care professionals often consider traumatic brain injury as an incident. However, patients with traumatic brain injury may experience long-term neurological, cognitive and behavioural problems. Due to the

  6. Twitter and traumatic brain injury: A content and sentiment analysis of tweets pertaining to sport-related brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workewych, Adriana M; Ciuffetelli Muzzi, Madeline; Jing, Rowan; Zhang, Stanley; Topolovec-Vranic, Jane; Cusimano, Michael D

    2017-01-01

    Sport-related traumatic brain injuries are a significant public health burden, with hundreds of thousands sustained annually in North America. While sports offer numerous physical and social health benefits, traumatic brain injuries such as concussion can seriously impact a player's life, athletic career, and sport enjoyment. The culture in many sports encourages winning at all costs, placing athletes at risk for traumatic brain injuries. As social media has become a central part of everyday life, the content of users' messages often reflects the prevailing culture related to a particular event or health issue. We hypothesized that Twitter data might be useful for understanding public perceptions and misperceptions of sport-related traumatic brain injuries. We performed a content and sentiment analysis of 7483 Twitter ® tweets related to traumatic brain injuries in sports collected during June and July 2013. We identified five major themes. Users tweeted about personal traumatic brain injuries experiences, reported traumatic brain injuries in professional athletes, shared research about sport-related concussions, and discussed policy and safety in injury prevention, such as helmet use. We identified mixed perceptions of and sentiment toward traumatic brain injuries in sports: both an understanding that brain injuries are serious and disregard for activities that might reduce the public burden of traumatic brain injuries were prevalent in our Twitter analysis. While the scientific and medical community considers a concussion a form of traumatic brain injuries, our study demonstrates a misunderstanding of this fact among the public. In our current digital age, social media can provide useful insight into the culture around a health issue, facilitating implementation of prevention and treatment strategies.

  7. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in patients with traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Roger

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe traumatic stressors such as war, rape, or life-threatening accidents can result in a debilitating psychopathological development conceptualised as Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. Pathological memory formation during an alarm response may set the precondition for PTSD to occur. If true, a lack of memory formation by extended unconsciousness in the course of the traumatic experience should preclude PTSD. Methods 46 patients from a neurological rehabilitation clinic were examined by means of questionnaires and structured clinical interviews. All patients had suffered a TBI due to an accident, but varied with respect to falling unconscious during the traumatic event. Results 27% of the sub-sample who were not unconscious for an extended period but only 3% (1 of 31 patients who were unconscious for more than 12 hours as a result of the accident were diagnosed as having current PTSD (P Conclusion TBI and PTSD are not mutually exclusive. However, victims of accidents are unlikely to develop a PTSD if the impact to the head had resulted in an extended period of unconsciousness.

  8. Laser ignition of traumatically embedded firework debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C R

    1998-01-01

    The Q-switched ruby laser (QSRL) has a good track record for traumatic tattoo removal. An unusual case of QSRL-treatment of a traumatic tattoo composed of firework debris is presented. A young man's traumatic tattoo, composed of firework debris, underwent QSRL ablation at 4-7 J/cm2 (pulse width 5 mm; duration 20 ns). Each test pulse produced visible sparks and focal projectile ejection of skin with pox-like scar formation. Caution is advised when using the QSRL for the treatment of traumatic tattoos composed of potentially combustible debris.

  9. Traumatic brachiocephalic pseudoaneurysm presenting with delayed stroke: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, A.; Gueckel, F. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Mannheim, Medical Faculty of University Heidelberg (Germany); Meairs, S.; Cornelius, A.; Schwartz, A. [Department of Neurology, University Hospital Mannheim, Medical Faculty of University Heidelberg (Germany)

    2000-10-01

    We report a traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the internal carotid artery bifurcation and subclavian artery with recurrent strokes events in a 19-year-old man. He was admitted with an acute left hemiparesis. His history revealed a similar episode 1 year and a major car accident 3 years previously. Contrast enhanced MR angiography confirmed colour Doppler sonographic findings of a carotid and subclavian artery pseudoaneurysm presumably resulting from seat-belt trauma. The pseudoaneurysm, containing thrombus, was thought to be the source of artery-to-artery embolism. (orig.)

  10. Post-traumatic osteochondroma of the distal femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Akiqul; Chu, Jason S; Yegorov, Arthur

    2018-02-01

    Osteochondroma are the most common benign primary bone tumor. They are bony outgrowths surrounded by a characteristic cartilaginous cap, most commonly arising from the long bones. They are most often asymptomatic, usually discovered as incidental findings before the third or fourth decade of life. Although the exact pathogenesis is not fully established, there have been reports of these tumors arising after incidents such as fractures, trauma, radiation, and stem cell transplants. There have been only a few cases describing the development of osteochondroma after traumatic events. This report presents a documented case of an osteochondroma arising at the site of a previous femoral fracture, 10 years after the initial trauma.

  11. Post-traumatic osteochondroma of the distal femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiqul Miah

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Osteochondroma are the most common benign primary bone tumor. They are bony outgrowths surrounded by a characteristic cartilaginous cap, most commonly arising from the long bones. They are most often asymptomatic, usually discovered as incidental findings before the third or fourth decade of life. Although the exact pathogenesis is not fully established, there have been reports of these tumors arising after incidents such as fractures, trauma, radiation, and stem cell transplants. There have been only a few cases describing the development of osteochondroma after traumatic events. This report presents a documented case of an osteochondroma arising at the site of a previous femoral fracture, 10 years after the initial trauma.

  12. Implementing a screening programme for post-traumatic stress disorder following violent crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan I. Bisson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The emergence of validated means to determine which individuals will develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD following a traumatic event has raised the possibility of designing and implementing effective screening programmes following traumatic events. Objective: This study aimed to study the usefulness and implementation of a PTSD screening programme for victims of violent crime presenting to an emergency unit. Design: 3,349 individuals who presented to an emergency unit following a violent crime were asked to complete the Trauma Screening Questionnaire 2 weeks later. Those who scored above a standard cut-off were invited to attend a mental health assessment and subsequently offered treatment according to their needs. Results: Of the 3,349 individuals contacted, 572 (17.1% responded, 338 (10.1% screened positive, 26 (0.78% attended for assessment, and 9 (0.27% received treatment for PTSD. Conclusions: This simple screening programme was not as useful as was hoped raising questions regarding how best to develop screening programmes for PTSD following violent crime and other traumatic events.

  13. Fusion events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboufirassi, M; Angelique, J.C.; Bizard, G.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Buta, A.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Horn, D.; Kerambrun, A.; Laville, J.L.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefebvres, F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Meslin, C.; Metivier, V.; Nakagawa, T.; Peter, J.; Popescu, R.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Wieloch, A.; Yuasa-Nakagawa, K.

    1998-01-01

    The fusion reactions between low energy heavy ions have a very high cross section. First measurements at energies around 30-40 MeV/nucleon indicated no residue of either complete or incomplete fusion, thus demonstrating the disappearance of this process. This is explained as being due to the high amount o energies transferred to the nucleus, what leads to its total dislocation in light fragments and particles. Exclusive analyses have permitted to mark clearly the presence of fusion processes in heavy systems at energies above 30-40 MeV/nucleon. Among the complete events of the Kr + Au reaction at 60 MeV/nucleon the majority correspond to binary collisions. Nevertheless, for the most considerable energy losses, a class of events do occur for which the detected fragments appears to be emitted from a unique source. These events correspond to an incomplete projectile-target fusion followed by a multifragmentation. Such events were singled out also in the reaction Xe + Sn at 50 MeV/nucleon. For the events in which the energy dissipation was maximal it was possible to isolate an isotropic group of events showing all the characteristics of fusion nuclei. The fusion is said to be incomplete as pre-equilibrium Z = 1 and Z = 2 particles are emitted. The cross section is of the order of 25 mb. Similar conclusions were drown for the systems 36 Ar + 27 Al and 64 Zn + nat Ti. A cross section value of ∼ 20 mb was determined at 55 MeV/nucleon in the first case, while the measurement of evaporation light residues in the last system gave an upper limit of 20-30 mb for the cross section at 50 MeV/nucleon

  14. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy and other neurodegenerative proteinopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carmela Tartaglia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE is described as a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disease believed to result from multiple concussions. Traditionally, concussions were considered benign events and although most people recover fully, about 10% develop a post-concussive syndrome with persisting neurological, cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms. CTE was once thought to be unique to boxers, but it has now been observed in many different athletes having suffered multiple concussions as well as in military personal after repeated blast injuries. Much remains unknown about the development of CTE but its pathological substrate is usually tau, similar to that seen in Alzheimer’s disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. The aim of this perspective is to compare and contrast clinical and pathological CTE with the other neurodegenerative proteinopathies and highlight that there is an urgent need for understanding the relationship between concussion and the development of CTE as it may provide a window into the development of a proteinopathy and thus new avenues for treatment.

  15. When do traumatic experiences alter risk-taking behavior? A machine learning analysis of reports from refugees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Augsburger

    Full Text Available Exposure to traumatic stressors and subsequent trauma-related mental changes may alter a person's risk-taking behavior. It is unclear whether this relationship depends on the specific types of traumatic experiences. Moreover, the association has never been tested in displaced individuals with substantial levels of traumatic experiences. The present study assessed risk-taking behavior in 56 displaced individuals by means of the balloon analogue risk task (BART. Exposure to traumatic events, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression were assessed by means of semi-structured interviews. Using a novel statistical approach (stochastic gradient boosting machines, we analyzed predictors of risk-taking behavior. Exposure to organized violence was associated with less risk-taking, as indicated by fewer adjusted pumps in the BART, as was the reported experience of physical abuse and neglect, emotional abuse, and peer violence in childhood. However, civil traumatic stressors, as well as other events during childhood were associated with lower risk taking. This suggests that the association between global risk-taking behavior and exposure to traumatic stress depends on the particular type of the stressors that have been experienced.

  16. When do traumatic experiences alter risk-taking behavior? A machine learning analysis of reports from refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augsburger, Mareike; Elbert, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to traumatic stressors and subsequent trauma-related mental changes may alter a person's risk-taking behavior. It is unclear whether this relationship depends on the specific types of traumatic experiences. Moreover, the association has never been tested in displaced individuals with substantial levels of traumatic experiences. The present study assessed risk-taking behavior in 56 displaced individuals by means of the balloon analogue risk task (BART). Exposure to traumatic events, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression were assessed by means of semi-structured interviews. Using a novel statistical approach (stochastic gradient boosting machines), we analyzed predictors of risk-taking behavior. Exposure to organized violence was associated with less risk-taking, as indicated by fewer adjusted pumps in the BART, as was the reported experience of physical abuse and neglect, emotional abuse, and peer violence in childhood. However, civil traumatic stressors, as well as other events during childhood were associated with lower risk taking. This suggests that the association between global risk-taking behavior and exposure to traumatic stress depends on the particular type of the stressors that have been experienced.

  17. Intracranial Monitoring after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Donnelly, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    Intracranial monitoring after severe traumatic brain injury offers the possibility for early detection and amelioration of physiological insults. In this thesis, I explore cerebral insults due raised intracranial pressure, decreased cerebral perfusion pressure and impaired cerebral pressure reactivity after traumatic brain injury. In chapter 2, the importance of intracranial pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure and pressure reactivity in regulating the cerebral circulation is elucidated ...

  18. Gastrointestinal Traumatic Injuries: Gastrointestinal Perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revell, Maria A; Pugh, Marcia A; McGhee, Melanie

    2018-03-01

    The abdomen is a big place even in a small person. Gastrointestinal trauma can result in injury to the stomach, small bowel, colon, or rectum. Traumatic causes include blunt or penetrating trauma, such as gunshot wounds, stabbings, motor vehicle collisions, and crush injuries. Nontraumatic causes include appendicitis, Crohn disease, cancer, diverticulitis, ulcerative colitis, blockage of the bowel, and chemotherapy. The mechanism of injury will affect both the nature and severity of any resulting injuries. Treatment must address the critical and emergent nature of these injuries as well as issues that affect all trauma situations, which include management of hemodynamic instability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Traumatic subarachnoid-pleural fistula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.H.; Stothert, J.C. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Traumatic subarachnoid-pleural fistulas are rare. The authors found nine cases reported since 1959. Seven have been secondary to trauma and two following thoracotomy. One patient's death is thought to be directly related to the fistula. The diagnosis should be suspected in patients with a pleural effusion and associated vertebral trauma. The diagnosis can usually be confirmed with contrast or radioisotopic myelography. Successful closure of the fistula will usually occur spontaneously with closed tube drainage and antibiotics; occasionally, thoracotomy is necessary to close the rent in the dura

  20. Traumatic injuries of the hip.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Marshall, Nina

    2009-11-01

    Traumatic lesions of the hip in athletes may be clinically challenging because of the overlap in clinical presentation due to differing pathologies and the presence of multiple injuries. Imaging of the hip in the athlete has undergone a recent resurgence of interest and understanding related to the increasing accessibility and use of hip arthroscopy, which expands the treatment options available for intra-articular pathology. MR imaging and MR arthrography have a unique role in diagnosis of these pathologies, guiding the surgeon, arthroscopist, and referring clinician in their management of bony and soft tissue injury.

  1. Hypopituitarism after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Rodriguez, Eva; Bernabeu, Ignacio; Castro, Ana I; Casanueva, Felipe F

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence of hypopituitarism after traumatic brain (TBI) injury is widely variable in the literature; a meta-analysis determined a pooled prevalence of anterior hypopituitarism of 27.5%. Growth hormone deficiency is the most prevalent hormone insufficiency after TBI; however, the prevalence of each type of pituitary deficiency is influenced by the assays used for diagnosis, severity of head trauma, and time of evaluation. Recent studies have demonstrated improvement in cognitive function and cognitive quality of life with substitution therapy in GH-deficient patients after TBI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Treatment of traumatized maxillary central incisors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Kuo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic injury to the upper anterior teeth is not uncommon in young children. Dental ankylosis frequently occurs when teeth are traumatically luxated or replanted after being avulsed. Orthodontic movement of a traumatized tooth is difficult, especially when treating an ankylosed tooth without surgical luxation and distraction osteogenesis. This report describes a case of a patient with class I crowded malocclusion and labially displaced and intruded traumatized maxillary incisors. The protruded traumatized incisors were successfully brought to an acceptable position with acceptable gingival esthetics through the use of simple orthodontic traction combined with first-premolar extraction. An acceptable overbite and overjet were achieved within 14 months after completion of orthodontic treatment.

  3. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy: The unknown disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pérez, R; Paredes, I; Munarriz, P M; Paredes, B; Alén, J F

    2017-04-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy is a neurodegenerative disease produced by accumulated minor traumatic brain injuries; no definitive premortem diagnosis and no treatments are available for chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Risk factors associated with chronic traumatic encephalopathy include playing contact sports, presence of the apolipoprotein E4, and old age. Although it shares certain histopathological findings with Alzheimer disease, chronic traumatic encephalopathy has a more specific presentation (hyperphosphorylated tau protein deposited as neurofibrillary tangles, associated with neuropil threads and sometimes with beta-amyloid plaques). Its clinical presentation is insidious; patients show mild cognitive and emotional symptoms before progressing to parkinsonian motor signs and finally dementia. Results from new experimental diagnostic tools are promising, but these tools are not yet available. The mainstay of managing this disease is prevention and early detection of its first symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Income inequality among American states and the conditional risk of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabayo, Roman; Fuller, Daniel; Goldstein, Risë B; Kawachi, Ichiro; Gilman, Stephen E

    2017-09-01

    Vulnerability to post-traumatic disorder (PTSD) following a traumatic event can be influenced by individual-level as well as contextual factors. Characteristics of the social and economic environment might increase the odds for PTSD after traumatic events occur. One example that has been identified as a potential environmental determinant is income inequality. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between State-level income inequality and PTSD among adults who have been exposed to trauma. We used data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n = 34,653). Structured diagnostic interviews were administered at baseline (2001-2002) and follow-up (2004-2005). Weighted multi-level logistic regression was used to determine if US State-level income inequality, as measured by the Gini coefficient, was associated with incident episodes of PTSD during the study's 3-year follow-up period adjusting for individual and state-level covariates. The mean Gini coefficient across states in the NESARC was 0.44 (SD = 0.02) and ranged from 0.39 to 0.53. Of the respondents, 27,638 reported exposure to a traumatic event. Of this sample, 6.9 and 2.3% experienced persistent or recurrent and incident PTSD, respectively. State-level inequality was not associated with increased odds for persistent or recurrent PTSD (OR = 1.02; 95% CI 0.85, 1.22), but was associated with incident PTSD (OR = 1.30, 95% CI 1.04, 1.63). The degree of income inequality in one's state of residence is associated with vulnerability to PTSD among individuals exposed to traumatic events. Additional work is needed to determine if this association is causal (or alternatively, is explained by other socio-contextual factors associated with income inequality), and if so, what anxiogenic mechanisms explain it.

  5. Cognitive abnormalities and neural mechanisms in post-traumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting HU

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is an anxiety disorder that develops usually in response to an overwhelmingly terrifying or a life-threatening event. The symptoms including intrusion, flashback, re-experiencing, hyperarousal and avoidance can seriously impair the cognitive functions. At present, the researches have found PTSD patients had the difficulty in retrieving autobiographical memory and narrative disorder, attention bias toward traumatic stimulus and intellectual decline. Decrease in hippocampus and amygdala's volumes, excess endoplasmic reticulum stress, medial prefrontal cortex's low activation and highly excited response of the amygdala to the traumatic stimulus may be the neural mechanisms of cognitive abnormalities. In- depth research on cognitive abnormalities provides directions for PTSD prevention and treatment, and the cognitive treatment by prolonged exposure and attention control may be the effective method. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.09.14

  6. Exploring the process of writing about and sharing traumatic birth experiences online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blainey, Sarah H; Slade, Pauline

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to explore the experience of writing about a traumatic birth experience and sharing it online. Twelve women who had submitted their stories about traumatic birth experiences to the Birth Trauma Association for online publication were interviewed about their experiences. Women were interviewed shortly after writing but before posting and again 1 month after the story was posted online. All participants completed both interviews. These were transcribed and analysed using template analysis. Women described varied reasons for writing and sharing their stories, including wanting to help themselves and others. The process of writing was described as emotional, however was generally seen as a positive thing. Aspects of writing that were identified as helpful included organizing their experiences into a narrative, and distancing themselves from the experience. Writing and posting online about a traumatic birth is experienced positively by women. It may be a useful self-help intervention and is worthy of systematic evaluation. The mechanisms through which writing is reported to have impacted as described in the interviews link to the mechanisms of change in cognitive-behavioural approaches to post-traumatic symptoms. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Some women develop post-traumatic stress disorder-like symptoms following birth. These can impact on both themselves and their family, yet these women may not seek professional help. Writing about a traumatic event may be a useful approach for reducing post-traumatic stress symptoms, but the impact of online sharing is unknown. What does this study add? This study demonstrates that women report benefits from writing about their birth experiences. Writing enabled organizing the experience into a narrative and distancing from the trauma, which was helpful. Sharing the story online was an emotional experience for participants, however was generally seen positively. © 2014 The

  7. Collective trauma transmission and traumatic reactions among descendants of Armenian refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karenian, Hatsantour; Livaditis, Miltos; Karenian, Sirpouhi; Zafiriadis, Kyriakos; Bochtsou, Valentini; Xenitidis, Kiriakos

    2011-07-01

    It has been suggested, mainly by case reports, that the collective trauma generated by mass calamities may be transmitted to, and have long-lasting effects on, new generations. To investigate the psychological impact on contemporary Armenians of traumatic events suffered by Armenians during the period 1914-1918. A descriptive, cross-sectional study investigating demographic and cultural characteristics of a population of 689 people of Armenian origin, residents of Greece and Cyprus. Subjects were recruited during a range of Armenian cultural, athletic or charitable events. The participants completed a version of the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) (Self-Rating) Scale and a questionnaire including ad hoc questions regarding their relationship to the Armenian community, their attitudes and their source of information about the 1914-1918 events. Over a third (35.7%) of participants presented at least sub-clinical forms of such reactions during long periods of their lives. Women, older people, participants with a close relative lost during the events and those with strong connections to the Armenian community were more vulnerable. The results are indicative of a long-lasting (though gradually fading) cross-generational traumatizing effect of the discussed events. Clinicians having to deal with patients belonging to cultural or ethnic groups that suffered persecutions in the past should take into account the probable effects caused by a trauma-transmission mechanism.

  8. Adversity and Resilience Are Associated with Outcome after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Military Service Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Matthew W; Cooper, Douglas B; Lu, Lisa H; Iverson, Grant L; Kennedy, Jan E

    2018-05-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the associations between resilience, adversity, post-concussion symptoms, and post-traumatic stress symptom reporting after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). We hypothesized that resilience would be associated with less symptom reporting, and adversity would be associated with greater symptom reporting. This was a cross-sectional study of retrospective data collected for an ongoing TBI repository. United States military service members who screened positive for mTBI during a primary care visit completed the Trauma History Screen (THS), Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI), and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C). Data collected from February 2015 to August 2016 were used for the present study. Only participants with complete data for the above measures were included, yielding a sample size of 165 participants. Adversity (THS) and resilience (CD-RISC) scores were each correlated significantly with post-concussion (NSI) and traumatic stress (PCL-C) total and subscale scores in the hypothesized direction. Interactions between adversity and resilience were absent for all measures except the NSI sensory subscale. Four traumatic event types were significantly associated positively with most NSI and PCL-C total and subscale scores, but the age at which traumatic events were first experienced showed few and mixed significant associations. In conclusion, resilience and adversity were significantly associated with symptom endorsement after mTBI. Screening for cumulative adversity may identify individuals at greater risk of developing persistent post-concussion symptoms and/or PTSD, and interventions that increase resilience may reduce symptom severity.

  9. Patient-reported outcomes in post-traumatic stress disorder Part II: Focus on pharmacological treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be associated with long-lasting psychological suffering, distressing psychosocial disability, markedly reduced health-related quality of life, and increased morbidity and mortality in a subgroup of individuals in the aftermath of serious traumatic events. Both etiopathogenesis and treatment modalities of PTSD are best conceptualized within a biopsychosotial model. Pharmacotherapy may lay claim to a major role in the multimodal treatment approaches. Here we outline two different pharmacotherapeutic trends that aim to modify the encoding, consolidation, and rehearsal of traumatic memory in order to reduce the risk of PTSD immediately after trauma exposure on the one hand, and that endeavor to treat the clinical state of PTSD on the other. The theoretical rationales of both pharmacological strategies are the complex neurobiological underpinnings that characterize traumatic memory organization and clinical PTSD. Meanwhile, promising data from randomized controlled trials have been obtained for both approaches. Empirical evidence may inform clinicians in their clinical efforts for this special group of patients. The efficacy of several classes of drugs that have been investigated within a context of research should be evaluated critically and still have to stand the test of effectiveness in daily clinical practice. From a patient perspective, empirical results may serve as a psychoeducative guideline to what pharmacotherapeutic approaches may realistically achieve, what their risks and benefits are, and what their limits are in contributing to reducing the often major chronic suffering caused by serious traumatic events. Ethical issues have to be considered, particularly in the context of pharmacological strategies projected to prevent PTSD in the aftermath of traumatic exposure. PMID:25152660

  10. Interventional management of traumatic epistaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qiang; Jiang Xu; Yang Jijin; Yang Caoai; Zhang Huojun; Wang Weixing

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the clinical application of transcatheter arterial embolization in the treatment of traumatic epistaxis. Methods: Transcatheter arterial embolization was performed in 15 patients with traumatic epistaxis, caused by injury or surgery, after they failed to respond to medication and nasal packing. Seldinger technique was adopted via the femoral access and the bleeding site was determined with carotid angiography, super-selective catheterization was then carried out to embolize the ruptured artery with gelfoam particles or polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles. The clinical data and the therapeutic results were analyzed. Results: Of 15 patients, the epistaxis was caused by injury in 9 and by surgery of nasal or paranasal sinus in 6. Gelfoam particle was used in 14 cases and PVA particle in one case. The procedure was accomplished in one manipulation in all patients. The nasal tampon was removed in 2-3 days after the treatment with no recurrence of bleeding. No serious complications occurred. Conclusions: Transcatheter arterial embolization is a safe and effective therapy for profuse epistaxis on which the conservative management exerts no effect, and the gelfoam particle is the embolization material of first choice. (authors)

  11. Bear phalanx traumatically introduced into a living human: Prehistoric evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Gary D; Ojeda, Hillary M; Jabbour, Rebecca S; Ibarra, Caitlin L; Horton, Caroline F

    2013-03-01

    Traumatically induced skeletal injuries are common and can be ascribed to a normal range of events occurring in an individual's lifetime. A subset of these trauma-induced injuries provides enhanced insight into cultural history. Such cases might include those referable to medico-surgical and religious/ritualistic practices. We describe prehistoric evidence and cultural implications of the traumatic insertion of an Ursus manual phalanx into the elbow of a living human. The injury healed and the phalanx remained in situ until death. The individual derives from the Ellis Landing shellmound and dates to a subphase of the Middle Period (≈500BC-300AD) in the California cultural sequence. The remains are of a 30-40 year-old female. Comparative data on arm morphology and pathological conditions present were collected (n=159). Three Ursus subspecies (n=15) were examined to identify the taxon represented by the phalanx. The described individual was probably wearing bear paw ornaments at the time she was crushed by a heavy object. During this event, a bear claw was driven into her cubital fossa, the basal phalangeal tubercle being impressed into the humerus. The wound healed completely. The presence of Ursus body parts indicates an elevated societal role for this female; most likely she was a shaman or healer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Psychotrauma and effective treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder in soldiers and peacekeepers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quarcoo David

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Psychotrauma occurs as a result to a traumatic event, which may involve witnessing someone's actual death or personally experiencing serious physical injury, assault, rape and sexual abuse, being held as a hostage, or a threat to physical or psychological integrity. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is an anxiety disorder and was defined in the past as railway spine, traumatic war neurosis, stress syndrome, shell shock, battle fatigue, combat fatigue, or post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSS. If untreated, post-traumatic stress disorder can impair relationships of those affected and strain their families and society. Deployed soldiers are especially at a high risk to be affected by PTSD but often receive inadequate treatment. Reviews to date have focused only on a single type of treatment or groups of soldiers from only one country. The aim of the current review was to evaluate characteristics of therapeutic methods used internationally to treat male soldiers' PTSD after peacekeeping operations in South Eastern Europe and the Gulf wars. This systematic literature review returned results pertaining to the symptoms, diagnosis, timing and effectiveness of treatment. Sample groups and controls were relatively small and, therefore, the results lack generalizability. Further research is needed to understand the influence and unique psychological requirements of each specific military operation on the internationally deployed soldiers.

  13. The Spectrum of Disease in Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Ann C.; Stein, Thor D.; Nowinski, Christopher J.; Stern, Robert A.; Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Alvarez, Victor E.; Lee, Hyo-Soon; Hall, Garth; Wojtowicz, Sydney M.; Baugh, Christine M.; Riley, David O.; Kubilus, Caroline A.; Cormier, Kerry A.; Jacobs, Matthew A.; Martin, Brett R.; Abraham, Carmela R.; Ikezu, Tsuneya; Reichard, Robert Ross; Wolozin, Benjamin L.; Budson, Andrew E.; Goldstein, Lee E.; Kowall, Neil W.; Cantu, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy is a progressive tauopathy that occurs as a consequence of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury. We analysed post-mortem brains obtained from a cohort of 85 subjects with histories of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury and found evidence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy in 68 subjects: all males, ranging…

  14. Invasive Fungal Infections Secondary to Traumatic Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Kronen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal infection (IFI is a rare but serious complication of traumatic injury. The purpose of this article is to review the epidemiology, natural history, mycology, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes associated with post-traumatic IFI in military and civilian populations. The epidemiology of post-traumatic IFI is poorly characterized, but incidence appears to be rising. Patients often suffer from severe injuries and require extensive medical interventions. Fungi belonging to the order Mucorales are responsible for most post-traumatic IFI in both civilian and military populations. Risk factors differ between these cohorts but include specific injury patterns and comorbidities. Diagnosis of post-traumatic IFI typically follows positive laboratory results in the appropriate clinical context. The gold standard of treatment is surgical debridement in addition to systemic antifungal therapy. Patients with post-traumatic IFI may be at greater risk of amputation, delays in wound healing, hospital complications, and death as compared to trauma patients who do not develop IFI. More research is needed to understand the factors surrounding the development and management of post-traumatic IFI to reduce the significant morbidity and mortality associated with this disease.

  15. Event centrality in trauma and PTSD: relations between event relevance and posttraumatic symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Loreto Garcia da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent investigations propose that cognitive characteristics of autobiographical memory significantly interact with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. A traumatic event becoming more or less central in a person’s identity and life story might influence development of the disorder. Studies show high correlations between event centrality (EC and PTSD. Participated in this study 68 treatment-seeking individuals referred to a specialized service for suspected trauma-related disorder: 39 matched criteria for PTSD and 29 were exposed to trauma without PTSD. Our aims were to explore how the groups differ regarding EC, depression, anxiety, posttraumatic cognitions, PTSD symptom severity, and peritraumatic dissociative experience; and how distinctively EC interacts with the measures in each group. The PTSD group had higher scores in all variables but dissociation. EC correlated with overall PTSD symptoms only in the PTSD group and with dissociation only in the no-PTSD group. Findings support a model emphasizing the role of memory processes in PTSD. People exposed to trauma who developed PTSD had the memory of the traumatic experience more intensively governing their sense of self and thus eliciting more negative cognitive reactions. As EC facilitates recollection of the traumatic event, it could also mediate a semantization process that reinforces and increases posttraumatic symptoms.

  16. The impact of post-traumatic stress disorder symptomatology on quality of life: The sentinel experience of anger, hypervigilance and restricted affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, David; Nickerson, Angela; Bryant, Richard A; Creamer, Mark; Silove, Derrick; McFarlane, Alexander C; Van Hooff, Miranda; Phelps, Andrea; Felmingham, Kim L; Malhi, Gin S; Steel, Zachary; Fredrickson, Julia; Alkemade, Nathan; O'Donnell, Meaghan

    2018-05-01

    It is unclear which specific symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder are related to poor perceived quality of life. To investigate the influence of post-traumatic stress disorder symptomatology on quality of life in traumatic injury survivors. Traumatic injury survivors completed questionnaires on post-traumatic stress disorder symptomatology and quality of life at 3 months ( n = 987), 12 months ( n = 862), 24 months ( n = 830) and 6 years ( n = 613) post trauma. Low quality of life was reported by 14.5% of injury survivors at 3 months and 8% at 6 years post event. The post-traumatic stress disorder symptom clusters that contributed most to poor perceived quality of life were numbing and arousal, the individual symptoms that contributed most were anger, hypervigilance and detachment. There was variability in the quality of life of traumatic injury survivors in the 6 years following trauma and a consistent proportion reported low quality of life. Early intervention to reduce anger, hypervigilance and detachment symptoms may provide a means to improving the quality of life of traumatic injury survivors.

  17. Post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth: the phenomenon of traumatic birth

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, J L

    1997-01-01

    CHILDBIRTH CAN BE A VERY PAINFUL EXPERIENCE, often associated with feelings of being out of control. It should not, therefore, be surprising that childbirth may be traumatic for some women. Most women recover quickly post partum; others appear to have a more difficult time. The author asserts that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may occur after childbirth. He calls this variant of PTSD a "traumatic birth experience." There is very little literature on this topic. The evidence available ...

  18. Validation of the Danish-language psychological well-being-post-traumatic changes questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Peter; Sternhagen Nielsen, Anni Brit; Andersen, Soren Bo

    2016-01-01

    The Psychological Well-Being–Post-Traumatic Changes Questionnaire (PWB-PTCQ) is an 18-item self-report measure for assessing perceived changes in psychological well-being following traumatic events. The aim of the study was to translate, adapt, and test a Danish-language version of the questionna...... with the psychological distress measures; the PWB-PTCQ did not correlate, whereas the PTGI correlated positively. The Danish-language version of the PWB-PTCQ is found valid and reliable.......The Psychological Well-Being–Post-Traumatic Changes Questionnaire (PWB-PTCQ) is an 18-item self-report measure for assessing perceived changes in psychological well-being following traumatic events. The aim of the study was to translate, adapt, and test a Danish-language version...... of the questionnaire and to compare the measure with the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI). The PWB-PTCQ, the PTGI, and scales measuring psychological distress were administered to 290 soldiers a mean of 8 months after they returned from deployment. The psychometric properties of the PWB-PTCQ were satisfactory...

  19. Influence of early stress on memory reconsolidation: Implications for post-traumatic stress disorder treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villain, Hélène; Benkahoul, Aïcha; Birmes, Philippe; Ferry, Barbara; Roullet, Pascal

    2018-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common consequence of exposure to a life-threatening event. Currently, pharmacological treatments are limited by high rates of relapse, and novel treatment approaches are needed. We have recently demonstrated that propranolol, a β-adrenergic antagonist, inhibited aversive memory reconsolidation in animals. Following this, in an open-label study 70% of patients with PTSD treated with propranolol during reactivation of traumatic memory exhibited full remission. However, the reason why 30% of these patients did not respond positively to propranolol treatment is still unclear. One of the major candidates as factor of treatment resistance is the patient's early-life traumatic history. To test the role of this factor, mice with pre- or postnatal stress are being tested in fear conditioning and in a new behavioral task, the "city-like", specifically designed as a mouse model of PTSD. After reactivation of the traumatic event, mice received propranolol injection to block the noradrenergic system during memory reconsolidation. Results show that, in the "city-like" test, control mice strongly avoided the shock compartment but also the compartments containing cues associated with the electric shocks. Injection of propranolol after reactivation greatly reduced the memory of the traumatic event, but this effect was not present when mice had received pre- or postnatal stress. Moreover, propranolol produced only a very weak effect in the fear conditioning test, and never changed the corticosterone level whatever the behavioral experiment. Taken together our results suggest that our new behavioural paradigm is well adapted to PTSD study in mice, and that early stress exposure may have an impact on propranolol PTSD treatment outcome. These data are critical to understanding the effect of propranolol treatment, in order to improve the therapeutic protocol currently used in humans.

  20. Low emotional response to traumatic footage is associated with an absence of analogue flashbacks: an individual participant data meta-analysis of 16 trauma film paradigm experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ian A; Mackay, Clare E; Holmes, Emily A

    2015-01-01

    Most people will experience or witness a traumatic event. A common occurrence after trauma is the experience of involuntary emotional memories of the traumatic event, herewith "flashbacks". Some individuals, however, report no flashbacks. Prospective work investigating psychological factors associated with an absence of flashbacks is lacking. We performed an individual participant data meta-analysis on 16 experiments (n = 458) using the trauma film paradigm to investigate the association of emotional response to traumatic film footage and commonly collected baseline characteristics (trait anxiety, current depression, trauma history) with an absence of analogue flashbacks. An absence of analogue flashbacks was associated with low emotional response to the traumatic film footage and, to a lesser extent, low trait anxiety and low current depression levels. Trauma history and recognition memory for the film were not significantly associated with an absence of analogue flashbacks. Understanding why some individuals report an absence of flashbacks may aid preventative treatments against flashback development.

  1. Trending autoregulatory indices during treatment for traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam; Krasner, Alex; Kosinski, Colin; Wininger, Michael; Qadri, Maria; Kappus, Zachary; Danish, Shabbar; Craelius, William

    2016-12-01

    Our goal is to use automatic data monitoring for reliable prediction of episodes of intracranial hypertension in patients with traumatic brain injury. Here we test the validity of our method on retrospective patient data. We developed the Continuous Hemodynamic Autoregulatory Monitor (CHARM), that siphons and stores signals from existing monitors in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU), efficiently compresses them, and standardizes the search for statistical relationships between any proposed index and adverse events. CHARM uses an automated event detector to reliably locate episodes of elevated intracranial pressure (ICP), while eliminating artifacts within retrospective patient data. A graphical user interface allowed data scanning, selection of criteria for events, and calculating indices. The pressure reactivity index (PRx), defined as the least square linear regression slope of intracranial pressure versus arterial BP, was calculated for a single case that spanned 259 h. CHARM collected continuous records of ABP, ICP, ECG, SpO2, and ventilation from 29 patients with TBI over an 18-month period. Analysis of a single patient showed that PRx data distribution in the single hours immediately prior to all 16 intracranial hypertensive events, significantly differed from that in the 243 h that did not precede such events (p < 0.0001). The PRx index, however, lacked sufficient resolution as a real-time predictor of IH in this patient. CHARM streamlines the search for reliable predictors of intracranial hypertension. We report statistical evidence supporting the predictive potential of the pressure reactivity index.

  2. Play Therapy Untuk anak-anak Korban Bencana Alam Yang Mengalami Trauma (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder/PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endah Nawangsih

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anywhere in the world, natural disasters events cause loss of life, moreover a deep sorrow and fear for the victims. They were in a state of very uneasy, very scared, never-ending anxiety, and become prone to panic. These conditions called post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD as a continuous maladaptive reaction to a traumatic experience. In contrast to adults, children are in a state highly vulnerable to the impact caused by a traumatic event. Children with PTSD may show confusion or agitation. This condition brings suffering prolonged, if not given proper treatment. It required a specific intervention design for children with PTSD namely Play Therapy techniques. This intervention is one way that can be used to understand the world of children through playing, so that when used in the right circumstances can be meaningful as physical activity as well as therapy.

  3. Traumatic rupture of the aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorfman, G.S.; Paolella, L.P.; Haas, R.A.; Lambiase, R.E.; Cronan, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    To evaluate the acceptability of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in the evaluation of traumatic rupture of the aorta (TRA), the authors obtained 56 thoracic aortograms in 55 consecutive trauma patients, using both DSA and cut-film angiography (CFA). Both studies were ranked blindly and assigned scores for quality and diagnosis. Interobserver variance for DSA and CFA quality rankings was insignificant. CFA achieved significantly higher ranking for quality. In the 56 examinations, CFA demonstrated seven abnormalities that demanded intervention for follow-up angiography. DSA demonstrated only five of these and found no additional abnormalities. While this evaluation applies only to the particular digital system that the authors tested, they found that DSA, as compared with CFA, failed to demonstrate significant aortic injury. The confidence of diagnosis was significantly greater with CFA. Similar double-blind evaluation is mandatory at any trauma center prior to converting from CFA to DSA in the diagnosis of this life-threatening condition

  4. Traumatic Brain Injury in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benson Kinyanjui

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Kenya has a disproportionately high rate of road traffic accidents each year, many of them resulting in traumatic brain injuries (TBIs. A review of articles written on issues pertaining to the medical treatment of people with TBI in the past 15 years in Kenya indicates a significantly high incidence of TBIs and a high mortality rate. This article reviews the available literature as a first step in exploring the status of rehabilitation of Kenyans with cognitive impairments and other disabilities resulting from TBIs. From this preliminary review, it is apparent that despite TBI being a pervasive public health problem in Kenya, it has not received due attention in the public and private sectors as evidenced by a serious lack of post-acute rehabilitation services for people with TBIs. Implications for this lack of services are discussed and recommendations are made for potential approaches to this problem.

  5. Event Index - a LHCb Event Search System

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00392208; Kazeev, Nikita; Redkin, Artem

    2015-12-23

    LHC experiments generate up to $10^{12}$ events per year. This paper describes Event Index - an event search system. Event Index's primary function is quickly selecting subsets of events from a combination of conditions, such as the estimated decay channel or stripping lines output. Event Index is essentially Apache Lucene optimized for read-only indexes distributed over independent shards on independent nodes.

  6. The endocannabinoid system as a possible target to treat both the cognitive and emotional features of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

    OpenAIRE

    Trezza, Viviana; Campolongo, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder of significant prevalence and morbidity, whose pathogenesis relies on paradoxical changes of emotional memory processing. An ideal treatment would be a drug able to block the pathological over-consolidation and continuous retrieval of the traumatic event, while enhancing its extinction and reducing the anxiety symptoms. While the latter benefit from antidepressant medications, no drug is available to control the cognitive symptom...

  7. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stress (PTS) is a lot like post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) but not as severe. Patients have a ... PTS) are a lot like symptoms of other stress-related disorders. PTS has many of the same symptoms as ...

  8. Traumatic intracranial aneurysm: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Si Won; Chun, Kyung Ah; Baik, Joon Hyun; Shin, Kyung Sub

    1994-01-01

    The occurrence of traumatic aneurysm is rare in head injury, but this complication is important as it is a potentially treatable cause delayed onset of intracranial hemorrhage. Authors report one case of traumatic aneurysm involving A1 and A2 junction of anterior cerebral artery. A-28-year-old man with traffic accident was examined with brain CT and cerebral angiography. 1) Brain CT: Initial scan shows multiple skull fractures involving right frontal bones with subarachnoid hemorrhage and pneumocephalus. Follow-up scan shows intracerebral hemorrhage at bilateral frontal lobes. 2) Cerebral angiography: A traumatic aneurysm which is slowly filling and delayed emptying is noted at the junctional portion of A1 and A2 segment of the anterior cerebral artery. This report demonstrates radiologic findings of traumatic aneurysm at anterior cerebral artery with the brief review of the literatures

  9. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) in Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Condition Information What is TBI? TBI ... external force that affects the functioning of the brain. It can be caused by a bump or ...

  10. TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY CHILDREN: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denismar Borges de Miranda

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to know the scientific literature on head injury in children. Method: this study is an integrative review of published articles in the database SciELO the period 2000-2010. Results: 10 articles were analyzed, from which emerged four categories: causes of traumatic brain child infant prognosis of traumatic brain child, treating children victims of child head injury and complications of therapy used for child victims of traumatic brain injury in children. Conclusions: there is consensus among the authors investigated the factors associated with better prognosis of traumatic brain child, remain vague and uncertain. They add that the success of this customer service related to the control of complications arising from cerebral trauma and mostly are treatable and / or preventable.

  11. Outcomes Following Traumatic Grain Elevator Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolefree, Sydnei; Truong, Anthony; Ward, Jeanette; Dong, Fanglong; Ablah, Elizabeth; Haan, James

    2017-01-01

    The absence of a comprehensive database of grain elevator-associated injuries hinders accurate evaluation of injury prevalence and may lead to discordant information about injury frequencies. The main purpose of this study was to identify the most common mechanisms of injury related to grain elevator events. Comparisons of hospital outcomes between patients who sustained traumatic injuries associated with grain elevators at Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)-regulated industrial sites versus those on OSHA-exempt farming operations were also made. A retrospective review was conducted of all patients' presenting with grain elevator-related injuries at a level-1 trauma center between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2013. Data collected included demographics, mechanism of injury, injury severity, hospitalization details, and discharge disposition. Data were summarized, and comparisons were made between the groups. All patients (N = 18) in the study were male, with a mean age of 37 years. Falls and being caught in equipment each accounted for 27.8% of injuries. Among the 18 patients, there were a total of 37 injuries. The majority of injuries were either lower extremity (29.7%) or chest injuries (21.6%). The average hospital length of stay was 4 ± 4.5 days, and one patient required mechanical ventilation. There were no reported deaths. The literature reports entrapments as the leading cause of grain elevator-related injuries; however, this study found that falls and being caught in equipment were the most common mechanisms of injury. This suggests that a greater emphasis should be placed on fall prevention and equipment safety.

  12. Simulating events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferretti, C; Bruzzone, L [Techint Italimpianti, Milan (Italy)

    2000-06-01

    The Petacalco Marine terminal on the Pacific coast in the harbour of Lazaro Carclenas (Michoacan) in Mexico, provides coal to the thermoelectric power plant at Pdte Plutarco Elias Calles in the port area. The plant is being converted from oil to burn coal to generate 2100 MW of power. The article describes the layout of the terminal and equipment employed in the unloading, coal stacking, coal handling areas and the receiving area at the power plant. The contractor Techint Italimpianti has developed a software system, MHATIS, for marine terminal management which is nearly complete. The discrete event simulator with its graphic interface provides a real-type decision support system for simulating changes to the terminal operations and evaluating impacts. The article describes how MHATIS is used. 7 figs.

  13. Traumatic Floating Clavicle: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choo CY

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Shoulder girdle injuries after high energy traumatic impacts to the shoulder have been well documented. Based on the series of 1603 injuries of the shoulder girdle reported by Cave and colleagues, 85% of the dislocations were glenohumeral, 12% acromioclavicular and 3% sternoclavicular. Less frequently described are injuries involving both the sternoclavicular and acromioclavicular joints simultaneously in one extremity. The present case report discusses a case of traumatic floating clavicle associated with ipsilateral forearm and wrist injury which was treated surgically.

  14. Event generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, D.; Gulminelli, F.; Lopez, O.; Vient, E.

    1998-01-01

    The results concerning the heavy ion collision simulations at Fermi energies by means of phenomenological models obtained in the last two years ar presented. The event generators are essentially following the phase of elaboration of analysis methods of data obtained by INDRA or NAUTILUS 4 π multidetectors. To identify and correctly quantify a phenomenon or a physical quantity it is necessary to verify by simulation the feasibility and validity of the analysis and also to estimate the bias introduced by the experimental filter. Many studies have shown this, for instance: the determination of the collision reaction plan for flow studies, determination of kinematical characteristics of the quasi-projectiles, and the excitation energy measurement stored in the hot nuclei. To Eugene, the currently utilised generator, several improvements were added: introduction of space-time correlations between the different products emitted in the decay of excited nuclei by calculating the trajectories of the particles in the final phase of the reaction; taking into account in the decay cascade of the discrete levels of the lighter fragments; the possibility of the schematically description of the explosion of the nucleus by simultaneous emission of multi-fragments. Thus, by comparing the calculations with the data relative to heavy systems studied with the NAUTILUS assembly it was possible to extract the time scales in the nuclear fragmentation. The utilisation of these event generators was extended to the analysis of INDRA data concerning the determination of the vaporization threshold in the collisions Ar + Ni and also the research of the expansion effects in the collisions Xe + Sn at 50 MeV/u

  15. The relationship of gender and trauma characteristics to posttraumatic stress disorder in a community sample of traumatized northern plains American Indian adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanadesikan, Mukund; Novins, Douglas K; Beals, Janette

    2005-09-01

    Previous studies have identified a high prevalence (25%-80%) of trauma among American Indian and non-American Indian adolescents and adults. However, only a fraction of traumatized individuals develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This article examines the relationships of gender and trauma characteristics to a diagnosis of PTSD among a community sample of traumatized American Indian adolescents and young adults. Complete data were collected from 349 American Indians aged 15 to 24 years who participated in a cross-sectional community-based study from July 1997 to December 1999 and reported experiencing at least 1 traumatic event. Traumatic events and PTSD were assessed using a version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Logistic regression determined the relationships of gender, trauma type, age at first trauma, and number of traumas to the development of PTSD. Forty-two participants (12.0% of those who experienced a traumatic event) met criteria for lifetime PTSD. While all 4 of the independent variables noted above demonstrated univariate associations with PTSD, multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that only experiencing a sexual trauma (odds ratio [OR] = 4.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.76 to 11.28) and having experienced 6 or more traumas (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.06 to 6.04) were independent predictors of meeting criteria for PTSD. American Indian children and adolescents who experience sexual trauma and multiple traumatic experiences may be at particularly high risk for developing PTSD.

  16. Successful Endoscopic Therapy of Traumatic Bile Leaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P. Spinn

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic bile leaks often result in high morbidity and prolonged hospital stay that requires multimodality management. Data on endoscopic management of traumatic bile leaks are scarce. Our study objective was to evaluate the efficacy of the endoscopic management of a traumatic bile leak. We performed a retrospective case review of patients who were referred for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP after traumatic bile duct injury secondary to blunt (motor vehicle accident or penetrating (gunshot trauma for management of bile leaks at our tertiary academic referral center. Fourteen patients underwent ERCP for the management of a traumatic bile leak over a 5-year period. The etiology included blunt trauma from motor vehicle accident in 8 patients, motorcycle accident in 3 patients and penetrating injury from a gunshot wound in 3 patients. Liver injuries were grade III in 1 patient, grade IV in 10 patients, and grade V in 3 patients. All patients were treated by biliary stent placement, and the outcome was successful in 14 of 14 cases (100%. The mean duration of follow-up was 85.6 days (range 54-175 days. There were no ERCP-related complications. In our case review, endoscopic management with endobiliary stent placement was found to be successful and resulted in resolution of the bile leak in all 14 patients. Based on our study results, ERCP should be considered as first-line therapy in the management of traumatic bile leaks.

  17. How to quantify exposure to traumatic stress? Reliability and predictive validity of measures for cumulative trauma exposure in a post-conflict population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilker, Sarah; Pfeiffer, Anett; Kolassa, Stephan; Koslowski, Daniela; Elbert, Thomas; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    While studies with survivors of single traumatic experiences highlight individual response variation following trauma, research from conflict regions shows that almost everyone develops posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) if trauma exposure reaches extreme levels. Therefore, evaluating the effects of cumulative trauma exposure is of utmost importance in studies investigating risk factors for PTSD. Yet, little research has been devoted to evaluate how this important environmental risk factor can be best quantified. We investigated the retest reliability and predictive validity of different trauma measures in a sample of 227 Ugandan rebel war survivors. Trauma exposure was modeled as the number of traumatic event types experienced or as a score considering traumatic event frequencies. In addition, we investigated whether age at trauma exposure can be reliably measured and improves PTSD risk prediction. All trauma measures showed good reliability. While prediction of lifetime PTSD was most accurate from the number of different traumatic event types experienced, inclusion of event frequencies slightly improved the prediction of current PTSD. As assessing the number of traumatic events experienced is the least stressful and time-consuming assessment and leads to the best prediction of lifetime PTSD, we recommend this measure for research on PTSD etiology.

  18. How to quantify exposure to traumatic stress? Reliability and predictive validity of measures for cumulative trauma exposure in a post-conflict population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Wilker

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: While studies with survivors of single traumatic experiences highlight individual response variation following trauma, research from conflict regions shows that almost everyone develops posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD if trauma exposure reaches extreme levels. Therefore, evaluating the effects of cumulative trauma exposure is of utmost importance in studies investigating risk factors for PTSD. Yet, little research has been devoted to evaluate how this important environmental risk factor can be best quantified. Methods: We investigated the retest reliability and predictive validity of different trauma measures in a sample of 227 Ugandan rebel war survivors. Trauma exposure was modeled as the number of traumatic event types experienced or as a score considering traumatic event frequencies. In addition, we investigated whether age at trauma exposure can be reliably measured and improves PTSD risk prediction. Results: All trauma measures showed good reliability. While prediction of lifetime PTSD was most accurate from the number of different traumatic event types experienced, inclusion of event frequencies slightly improved the prediction of current PTSD. Conclusions: As assessing the number of traumatic events experienced is the least stressful and time-consuming assessment and leads to the best prediction of lifetime PTSD, we recommend this measure for research on PTSD etiology.

  19. The Effects of the 1999 Turkish Earthquake on Young Children: Analyzing Traumatized Children's Completion of Short Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncu, Elif Celebi; Wise, Aysegul Metindogan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to determine whether projective techniques could identify long-term consequences among children stemming from exposure to a traumatic event. The first group of children (n = 53; 26 female, 27 male) experienced 2 major earthquakes at age 7, 3 months apart, in Turkey, while a similarly matched control group…

  20. Events diary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    as Imperial College, the Royal Albert Hall, the Royal College of Art, the Natural History and Science Museums and the Royal Geographical Society. Under the heading `Shaping the future together' BA2000 will explore science, engineering and technology in their wider cultural context. Further information about this event on 6 - 12 September may be obtained from Sandra Koura, BA2000 Festival Manager, British Association for the Advancement of Science, 23 Savile Row, London W1X 2NB (tel: 0171 973 3075, e-mail: sandra.koura@britassoc.org.uk ). Details of the creating SPARKS events may be obtained from creating.sparks@britassoc.org.uk or from the website www.britassoc.org.uk . Other events 3 - 7 July, Porto Alegre, Brazil VII Interamerican conference on physics education: The preparation of physicists and physics teachers in contemporary society. Info: IACPE7@if.ufrgs.br or cabbat1.cnea.gov.ar/iacpe/iacpei.htm 27 August - 1 September, Barcelona, Spain GIREP conference: Physics teacher education beyond 2000. Info: www.blues.uab.es/phyteb/index.html

  1. Preventing post-traumatic stress disorder following childbirth and traumatic birth experiences: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaff, Lisanne F; Honig, Adriaan; van Pampus, Mariëlle G; Stramrood, Claire A I

    2018-06-01

    Between 9 and 44% of women experience giving birth as traumatic, and 3% of women develop a post-traumatic stress disorder following childbirth. Knowledge on risk factors is abundant, but studies on treatment are limited. This study aimed to present an overview of means to prevent traumatic birth experiences and childbirth-related post-traumatic stress disorder. Major databases [Cochrane; Embase; PsycINFO; PubMed (Medline)] were searched using combinations of the key words and their synonyms. After screening titles and abstracts and reading 135 full-text articles, 13 studies were included. All evaluated secondary prevention, and none primary prevention. Interventions included debriefing, structured psychological interventions, expressive writing interventions, encouraging skin-to-skin contact with healthy newborns immediately postpartum and holding or seeing the newborn after stillbirth. The large heterogeneity of study characteristics precluded pooling of data. The writing interventions to express feelings appeared to be effective in prevention. A psychological intervention including elements of exposure and psycho-education seemed to lead to fewer post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in women who delivered via emergency cesarean section. No research has been done on primary prevention of traumatic childbirth. Research on secondary prevention of traumatic childbirth and post-traumatic stress disorder following delivery provides insufficient evidence that the described interventions are effective in unselected groups of women. In certain subgroups, results are inhomogeneous. © 2018 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  2. Classroom Strategies for Teaching Veterans with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinski, Jennifer Blevins

    2012-01-01

    Postsecondary institutions currently face the largest influx of veteran students since World War II. As the number of veteran students who may experience learning problems caused by Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and/or Traumatic Brain Injury continues to rise, the need for instructional strategies that address their needs increases. Educators may…

  3. Post-traumatic amnesia predicts intelligence impairment following traumatic brain injury: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konigs, M.; de Kieviet, J.F.; Oosterlaan, J.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Worldwide, millions of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) suffer from persistent and disabling intelligence impairment. Post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) duration is a promising predictor of intelligence following TBI. Objectives: To determine (1) the impact of TBI on intelligence

  4. Traumatic diaphragmatic hernias: Retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P.A. Sousa

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study classifies cases of traumatic diaphragmatic hernias (TDH in patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU of the Coimbra University Hospitals (HUC from 1990 to 2004. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 34 cases of TDH, studying anatomical location, place and time of diagnosis, complementary tests aiding diagnosis, herniated organs, associated traumatism, morbidity and mortality. Results: Twenty-eight male and six female patients with an average age of 40.5 years ± 20.5, average SAPS score 38.8. Average lenght of stay was 19.1 ± 13.6 days, all suffered from closed traumatism and were put on artificial ventilation. The left-side diaphragm was more frequently affected (94.1% then the right. Diagnosis in 19 cases was made up in the first six hours following the diagnosis of traumatism, in four cases within 12 hours and in the remaining cases between 48 hours and 16 years after traumatism. In 13 patients the diagnosis was established intra-operatively. The stomach was typically one of the herniated organs. The most frequently associated lesions at the thoracic level were pulmonary contusion, haemothorax and pneumothorax, and at the abdominal level, haemoperitoneum and splenic lesion. The rates for complications and mortality were 55.8% and 11.7% respectively. Conclusions: TDH mainly occurs on the left side through closed thoraco-abdominal trauma following road traffic accidents. This group of patients, on average younger than others admitted to ICU, presents a longer average hospitalisation period, but has lower rates of mortality and lower SAPS severity scores. The most commonly herniated organ was the stomach and the most frequently encountered lesions were cranial-encephalic, splenic and pleural traumatisms. Pre-operative diagnosis of diaphragmatic injuries is difficult and a high index of clinical suspicion is needed after thoracoabdominal trauma. This diagnosis should always be considered a possibility in

  5. Geophysical events

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a summary of SEAN Bulletin, 13(3), March 31, 1988, a publication of the Smithsonian Institution's Scientific Event Alert Network. The complete bulletin is available in the microfiche edition of Eos as a microfiche supplement or as a paper reprint. For the microfiche, order document E88-002 at $2.50 (U.S.) by writing to AGU Orders, 2000 Florida Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20009 or by calling toll free on 800-424-2488. For the paper reprint, order SEAN Bulletin (giving volume and issue numbers and issue date) through the same address; the price is $3.50 for one copy of each issue number for those who do not have a deposit account, $2 for those who do; additional copies of each issue number are $1. Subscriptions to SEAN Bulletin are also available from AGU-Orders; the price is $18 for 12 monthly issues mailed to a U.S. address, $28 if mailed elsewhere, and must be prepaid.

  6. Prevalence of secondary traumatic stress among emergency nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez-Gomez, Elvira; Rutledge, Dana N

    2009-06-01

    Emergency nurses often care for persons exposed to traumatic events. In the presence of empathetic caring, nurses exposed to such stressors over time can suffer from Secondary Traumatic Stress (STS), or Compassion Fatigue (CF). STS symptoms (intrusion, avoidance, and arousal) may lead to job dissatisfaction or burnout. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence of STS in emergency nurses. Exploratory comparative design, with 67 emergency nurses from three general community hospitals in California. Survey instruments included a demographic tool and the STS Survey (STSS). Nurses were most likely to have Arousal symptoms (irritability reported by 54% of nurses), followed by Avoidance symptoms (avoidance of patients 52%), and Intrusion symptoms (intrusive thoughts about patients 46%). The majority of nurses (85%) reported at least one symptom in the past week. Utilizing Bride's algorithm to identify STS, 15% of nurses met no criteria, while 33% met all. Nurse participation in stress management activities was associated with less prevalence of STS symptoms. High prevalence of STS in our sample indicates that potentially large numbers of emergency nurses may be experiencing the negative effects of STS. Symptoms may contribute to emotional exhaustion and job separation of emergency nurses. Subsequent studies should be done to evaluate the association of CF/STS on actual burnout and attrition among emergency nurses.

  7. Prolonged Exposure Therapy For Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent SÜTÇÝGÝL

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD is a psychiatric illness that usually develops after an event that threatens one’s life and body integrity and it affects quality of life and impairs social functioning significantly. Many studies have shown therapeutic effect of cognitive behavioral therapies on posttraumatic stress disorder, so that these therapies take part in the first step of treatment guides. Exposure is a practice that is generally used to reduce pathological fear and related emotions common in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and other anxiety disorders. During exposure, patients intentionally confront with feared objects, situations, thoughts and similar stimuli in order to reduce anxiety level. Exposure can be divided into two main techniques as in vivo exposure and imaginal exposure. Prolonged exposure therapy is a specialized treatment program configured for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and it is based on emotional processing theory. Program is comprised of four main components: (a Psycho-education about trauma and posttraumatic disorders, (b Training for breathing exercises, (c repeated facing with objects, persons, situations and thoughts which causes re-experience about trauma, (d Patient are instructed for telling repeatedly and loudly about traumatic experiences . Prolonged exposure usually involves 9 to 12 sessions, each lasting about 60-90 minutes, administered once or twice a week. Prolonged exposure therapy was started to be implemented since the 1980s, during this period the effectiveness of the therapy has been shown in various empirical studies. [JCBPR 2012; 1(2.000: 98-104

  8. Prolonged Exposure Therapy For Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent SÜTÇİGİL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD is a psychiatric illness that usually develops after an event that threatens one’s life and body integrity and it affects quality of life and impairs social functioning significantly. Many studies have shown therapeutic effect of cognitive behavioral therapies on posttraumatic stress disorder, so that these therapies take part in the first step of treatment guides. Exposure is a practice that is generally used to reduce pathological fear and related emotions common in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and other anxiety disorders. During exposure, patients intentionally confront with feared objects, situations, thoughts and similar stimuli in order to reduce anxiety level. Exposure can be divided into two main techniques as in vivo exposure and imaginal exposure. Prolonged exposure therapy is a specialized treatment program configured for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and it is based on emotional processing theory. Program is comprised of four main components: (a Psycho-education about trauma and posttraumatic disorders, (b Training for breathing exercises, (c repeated facing with objects, persons, situations and thoughts which causes re-experience about trauma, (d Patient are instructed for telling repeatedly and loudly about traumatic experiences . Prolonged exposure usually involves 9 to 12 sessions, each lasting about 60-90 minutes, administered once or twice a week. Prolonged exposure therapy was started to be implemented since the 1980s, during this period the effectiveness of the therapy has been shown in various empirical studies.

  9. Panicogens in patients with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhtz, Christoph; Wiedemann, Klaus; Kellner, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Symptom provocation has proved its worth for understanding the pathophysiology of diseases and in general for the development of new therapeutic approaches in the medical field. In the research of anxiety disorders, investigations using experimentally induced panic attacks by various agents, such as sodium lactate, carbon dioxide, cholezystokinine-tetrapetid etc., have a long tradition and allow the exploration of usually naturally occuring spontaneous psychopathological phenomena under controlled conditions. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent disorder that can develop following exposure to an extreme traumatic event. In DSM-IV it is currently classified as an anxiety disorder and shares phenomenological similarities with panic disorder. The use of panicogenic challenge tests is also an interesting neurobiological approach to learn more about the nature of PTSD and may be a possibility to develop new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of PTSD symptoms. Not only panic anxiety, but also flashbacks and other dissociative symptoms can be provoked by several panicogens in PTSD. The purpose of this review is to evaluate studies using panicogens in PTSD. Methodological short-comings of current studies and needed directions of further research are discussed.

  10. Altered oscillatory brain dynamics after repeated traumatic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruf Martina

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repeated traumatic experiences, e.g. torture and war, lead to functional and structural cerebral changes, which should be detectable in cortical dynamics. Abnormal slow waves produced within circumscribed brain regions during a resting state have been associated with lesioned neural circuitry in neurological disorders and more recently also in mental illness. Methods Using magnetoencephalographic (MEG-based source imaging, we mapped abnormal distributions of generators of slow waves in 97 survivors of torture and war with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in comparison to 97 controls. Results PTSD patients showed elevated production of focally generated slow waves (1–4 Hz, particularly in left temporal brain regions, with peak activities in the region of the insula. Furthermore, differential slow wave activity in right frontal areas was found in PTSD patients compared to controls. Conclusion The insula, as a site of multimodal convergence, could play a key role in understanding the pathophysiology of PTSD, possibly accounting for what has been called posttraumatic alexithymia, i.e., reduced ability to identify, express and regulate emotional responses to reminders of traumatic events. Differences in activity in right frontal areas may indicate a dysfunctional PFC, which may lead to diminished extinction of conditioned fear and reduced inhibition of the amygdala.

  11. Hypothalamic-Pituitary Autoimmunity and Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Guaraldi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a leading cause of secondary hypopituitarism in children and adults, and is responsible for impaired quality of life, disabilities and compromised development. Alterations of pituitary function can occur at any time after the traumatic event, presenting in various ways and evolving during time, so they require appropriate screening for early detection and treatment. Although the exact pathophysiology is unknown, several mechanisms have been hypothesized, including hypothalamic-pituitary autoimmunity (HP-A. The aim of this study was to systematically review literature on the association between HP-A and TBI-induced hypopituitarism. Major pitfalls related to the HP-A investigation were also discussed. Methods: The PubMed database was searched with a string developed for this purpose, without temporal or language limits, for original articles assessing the association of HP-A and TBI-induced hypopituitarism. Results: Three articles from the same group met the inclusion criteria. Anti-pituitary and anti-hypothalamic antibodies were detected using indirect immunofluorescence in a significant number of patients with acute and chronic TBI. Elevated antibody titer was associated with an increased risk of persistent hypopituitarism, especially somatotroph and gonadotroph deficiency, while no correlations were found with clinical parameters. Conclusion: HPA seems to contribute to TBI-induced pituitary damage, although major methodological issues need to be overcome and larger studies are warranted to confirm these preliminary data.

  12. The hidden price of repeated traumatic exposure: Different cognitive deficits in different first-responders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einat eLevy-Gigi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies on first responders who are repeatedly exposed to traumatic events report low levels of PTSD symptoms and diagnosis. However, neuroimaging and behavioral studies show that traumatic exposure is associated with brain and cognitive dysfunctions. Taking together it may suggest that traumatic exposure have a price, which is not sufficiently defined by the standard PTSD measures. In a recent study we revealed that similar to individuals with PTSD, non-PTSD highly exposed firefighters display a selective impairment in hippocampal related functions. In the current study we aimed to test whether different first responders display a similar impairment. We concentrated on unique populations of active duty firefighters and criminal scene-investigators (CSI police, who are frequently exposed to similar levels and types of traumatic events, and compared them to civilian matched-controls with no history of trauma-exposure. We used a hippocampal dependent cue-context reversal paradigm, which separately evaluates reversal of negative and positive outcomes of cue and context related information. We predicted and found that all participants were equally able to acquire and retain stimulus-outcome associations. However, there were significant differences in reversal learning between the groups. Performance among firefighters replicated our prior findings; they struggled to learn that a previously negative context is later associated with a positive outcome. CSI police on the other hand showed a selective impairment in reversing the outcome of a negative cue. Hence after learning that a specific cue is associated with a negative outcome, they could not learn that later it is associated with a positive outcome. Performance in both groups did not correlate with levels of PTSD, anxiety, depression or behavioral inhibition symptoms. The results provide further evidence of the hidden price of traumatic exposure, suggesting that this price may differ as a

  13. Post-traumatic stress disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the event Feeling like you have no future 3. Hyperarousal Always scanning your surroundings for signs ... disorders in medical practice. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  14. Coping with Traumatic Stress Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Accountability & Whistleblower Protection Transparency Media Room Inside the Media Room Public Affairs News Releases Speeches Videos Publications National Observances Veterans Day Memorial Day Celebrating America's Freedoms Special Events Adaptive Sports Program Creative Arts Festival ...

  15. The Effect of Debriefing and Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Postpartum Depression in Traumatic Childbirth: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Sedigheh Abdollahpour; Afsaneh Keramat; Seyyed Abbas Mousavi; Ahmad Khosravi; zahra motaghi

    2018-01-01

    Background & aim: Childbirth is a stressful event in women’s lives, and if a mother perceives it as an unpleasant event, it can influence her postpartum mental health. Depression is a common mental disorder, which can has serious consequences depending on its severity. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of debriefing and brief cognitive-behavioral therapy on postpartum depression in traumatic childbirth. Methods: This clinical trial was performed on 179 mothers who experien...

  16. The classic metaphyseal lesion and traumatic injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thackeray, Jonathan D.; Wannemacher, Jacob; Adler, Brent H.; Lindberg, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the classic metaphyseal lesion (CML) is a traumatic lesion, strongly associated with abuse in infants. Nevertheless, various non-traumatic origins for CMLs continue to be suggested in medical and legal settings. No studies to date systematically describe the association of CMLs with other traumatic injuries. The primary objective of this study is to examine the association of CMLs with other traumatic injuries in a large data set of children evaluated for physical abuse. This was a retrospectively planned secondary analysis of data from a prospective, observational study of children <120 months of age who underwent evaluation by a child abuse physician. For this secondary analysis, we identified all children ≤12 months of age with an identified CML and determined the number and type of additional injuries identified. Descriptive analysis was used to report frequency of additional traumatic injuries. Among 2,890 subjects, 119 (4.1%) were identified as having a CML. Of these, 100 (84.0%) had at least one additional (non-CML) fracture. Thirty-three (27.7%) had traumatic brain injury. Nearly half (43.7%) of children had cutaneous injuries. Oropharyngeal injuries were found in 12 (10.1%) children. Abdominal/thoracic injuries were also found in 12 (10.1%) children. In all, 95.8% of children with a CML had at least one additional injury; one in four children had three or more categories of injury. CMLs identified in young children are strongly associated with traumatic injuries. Identification of a CML in a young child should prompt a thorough evaluation for physical abuse. (orig.)

  17. Traumatic posterior fossa epidural hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yukio; Nakazawa, Shozo; Yamakawa, Kazuomi; Kobayashi, Shiro; Tsuji, Yukihide

    1981-01-01

    In this paper three acute cases and two subacute cases are reported. CT findings in acute cases show two different types. ''Type I'' shows crescent or lenticular high density area which is not enhanced after contrast infusion. ''Type II'' shows lenticular low density area with membranous high density region in its medial side after contrast infusion. In subacute cases plain CT scan shows lenticular iso or low density area with membranous high density region in its medial side. Forty five cases of posterior fossa epidural hematoma in the review of literature of this country are discussed. Disturbances of the consciousness are the most predominant symptoms in acute cases, while in subacute cases cerebellar signs, vomiting, headache and choked disc are noted. Angiographical examinations may not always be valuable in collecting the direct information of the existence of the epidural hematoma. Liquor cavity in the posterior fossa which is thought to serve as a buffer action of hematoma is about 20 ml, so we discuss about the volume of hematoma, especially of 20 ml, associated with clinical course and prognosis. Volume of epidural hematoma is one of the most important factors affecting clinical course and prognosis. In summary of these our experiences, we again emphasize the value of CT scan as the rapid, noninvasive, accurate radiological examination in the diagnosis of traumatic posterior fossa epidural hematoma. (author)

  18. Unilateral traumatic oculomotor nerve paralysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asari, Syoji; Satoh, Toru; Yamamoto, Yuji

    1982-01-01

    The present authors report a case of unilateral traumatic oculomotor nerve paralysis which shows interesting CT findings which suggest its mechanism. A 60-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a cerebral concussion soon after a traffic accident. A CT scan was performed soon after admission. A high-density spot was noted at the medial aspect of the left cerebral peduncle, where the oculomotor nerve emerged from the midbrain, and an irregular, slender, high-density area was delineated in the right dorsolateral surface of the midbrain. Although the right hemiparesis had already improved by the next morning, the function of the left oculomotor nerve has been completely disturbed for the three months since the injury. In our case, it is speculated that an avulsion of the left oculomotor nerve rootlet occurred at the time of impact as the mechanism of the oculomotor nerve paralysis. A CT taken soon after the head injury showed a high-density spot; this was considered to be a hemorrhage occurring because of the avulsion of the nerve rootlet at the medial surface of the cerebral peduncle. (J.P.N.)

  19. Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Saulle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that is a long-term consequence of single or repetitive closed head injuries for which there is no treatment and no definitive pre-mortem diagnosis. It has been closely tied to athletes who participate in contact sports like boxing, American football, soccer, professional wrestling and hockey. Risk factors include head trauma, presence of ApoE3 or ApoE4 allele, military service, and old age. It is histologically identified by the presence of tau-immunoreactive NFTs and NTs with some cases having a TDP-43 proteinopathy or beta-amyloid plaques. It has an insidious clinical presentation that begins with cognitive and emotional disturbances and can progress to Parkinsonian symptoms. The exact mechanism for CTE has not been precisely defined however, research suggest it is due to an ongoing metabolic and immunologic cascade called immunoexcitiotoxicity. Prevention and education are currently the most compelling way to combat CTE and will be an emphasis of both physicians and athletes. Further research is needed to aid in pre-mortem diagnosis, therapies, and support for individuals and their families living with CTE.

  20. Dialogical Exposure with Traumatically Bereaved Bosnian Women: Findings from a Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagl, Maria; Powell, Steve; Rosner, Rita; Butollo, Willi

    2015-01-01

    In this trial, we compared the relative efficacy of dialogical exposure group treatment using Gestalt empty-chair method with a supportive group in the treatment of symptoms stemming from traumatic loss in a post-war society. One-hundred and nineteen women whose husbands were either killed or registered as missing during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina were quasi-randomized to seven sessions of group treatment with dialogical exposure or to an active control condition. Both interventions resulted in significant improvement from baseline to post-treatment for both kinds of loss, in terms of post-traumatic symptoms, general mental health and grief reactions, with the exception of depression and traumatic grief in the control condition. Regarding mean effect sizes (Cohen's d), pre-treatment to post-treatment improvements were moderate (d = 0.56) for the dialogical exposure group and small (d = 0.34) for the supportive group. Treatment gains were maintained at least until the 1-year follow-up. In controlled comparisons, dialogical exposure was superior concerning traumatic grief (Cohen's d = 0.37) and post-traumatic avoidance (d = 0.73) at post-treatment. Results show that short-term dialogical exposure group treatment was moderately effective in treating traumatically bereaved women. Research attests to high levels of symptoms among post-war civil populations, in particular, when a loved one was killed, which can lead not only to trauma reactions but also to severe separation distress. Grieving the loss of a loved one is hampered if the death remains unconfirmed. Unconfirmed loss could be conceptualized as unfinished business in terms of Gestalt therapy, which offers empty-chair dialogue for resolving unfinished business and grief. Dialogical exposure therapy (DET) supports the client in gaining awareness of and expressing his or her inner dialogues concerning the traumatic event, using Gestalt empty-chair method. Short-term DET was effective in

  1. [The post-traumatic stress disorder--PTSD--in psychiatry by children and teenagers: diagnostic and treatments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoua, V; François, A

    2010-01-01

    News confronts us daily with various traumatic events, like armed conflict, terrorist attacks, natural disasters, not to mention the cases of abuse and incest. The impact of these traumas on the psychological development of children is often very important and we can observe among them, symptoms of severe mental traumatisms immediately and sometimes deferred. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the existence of this disorder by children, to develop its symptoms and its possible developments, and to address the different therapeutic approaches.

  2. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Matthew M; Soufer, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling condition that develops consequent to trauma exposure such as natural disasters, sexual assault, automobile accidents, and combat that independently increases risk for early incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular (CV) mortality by over 50 % and incident hypertension risk by over 30 %. While the majority of research on PTSD and CVD has concerned initially healthy civilian and military veteran samples, emerging research is also demonstrating that PTSD consequent to the trauma of an acute cardiac event significantly increases risk for early recurrence and mortality and that patient experiences in the clinical pathway that are related to the emergency department environment may provide an opportunity to prevent PTSD onset and thus improve outcomes. Future directions for clinical and implementation science concern broad PTSD and trauma screening in the context of primary care medical environments and the testing of PTSD treatments with CVD-related surrogates and endpoints.

  3. Post traumatic facial nerve palsy without temporal bone fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scuotto, A.; Cappabianca, S.; Capasso, R.; Porto, A.; D'Oria, S.; Rotondo, M.

    2016-01-01

    Facial nerve injury following head trauma is a frequent event with or without temporal bone fractures. Computed tomography is the imaging modality of choice for assessing the possible bone disruption of the facial nerve canal. Magnetic resonance is helpful in presence of a facial nerve paralysis, unexplained by computed tomography findings. We present a case of delayed post-traumatic facial nerve palsy without radiological evidence of temporal bone fractures, in which magnetic resonance was crucial for diagnosing the nerve impairment. Radiological findings in accordance both with electrodiagnostic tests and clinical presentation suggested the successful conservative management. - Highlights: • Facial nerve is more prone to damage than any other cranial nerve after trauma. • Facial nerve trauma is usually associated with temporal bone fractures. • MRI is mandatory in case of no evidence of bone disruption at CT.

  4. THE EXPERIENCE OF ‘ENTRAPPED GRIEF’ FOLLOWING TRAUMATIC ABORTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Finlay

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Some abortions can result in prolonged, complex grief reactions where the effects endure in problematic ways. Research findings suggest that such women suffer a turbulent spiral of often contradictory emotions and, if insufficiently acknowledged at the time of the abortion by self or other, this emotional turmoil can become pushed down and disenfranchised. This paper discusses the nature of this entrapped grief by reviewing the literature and reporting on some phenomenological case study research. A final section discusses integrative psychotherapy approaches to working in this area. Better understanding of the experience of traumatic abortion may enable therapists to be more present to this phenomenon, in particular the voicelessness some clients may experience, rendering them unable to process their feelings about the event and associated loss.

  5. Traumatic Childbirth from the Perspective of the Healthcare Professional

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Katja

    2016-01-01

    , but it accentuates the natural unpredictability of childbirths and it gives voice to the midwife and obstetrician who go to work with no intention to cause harm. I have investigated the perspective of the involved healthcare professional from an individual approach, based on the existential-humanistic traditions...... was to explore to what extent and in what way midwives and obstetricians feel guilt or have existential considerations in relation to these events. Feeling guilty seemed to play a pivotal part in the narratives of being involved in a traumatic childbirth as a healthcare professional, and even in cases...... health and wellbeing in the aftermath. In study II, we formed five categories during the comparative mixed methods analysis: i) the pa-tient; ii) clinical peers; iii) official complaints; iv) guilt and v) existential considerations. Although blame from patients, peers or official authorities was feared...

  6. Childhood adversity and traumatic exposures during deployment as predictors of mental health in Australian military veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wu Yi; Kanesarajah, Jeeva; Waller, Michael; McGuire, Annabel C; Treloar, Susan A; Dobson, Annette J

    2016-02-01

    To examine whether the relationship between traumatic exposure on deployment and poor mental health varies by the reported level of childhood adversity experienced in Australian military veterans deployed to the Bougainville or East Timor military operations. Cross-sectional self-reported survey data were collected in 2008 from 3,564 Australian military veterans who deployed to East Timor or Bougainville on their deployment experiences, health and recall of childhood events. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the association between childhood adversity, deployment exposures and mental health. The most common childhood adversity reported was 'not having a special teacher, youth worker or family friend who looked out for them while growing up'. On average, responders reported experiencing 3.5 adverse childhood experiences (SD 2.7) and averaged 5.3 (SD 4.9) traumatic exposures on deployment. Both childhood adversity and traumatic exposures on deployment were associated with higher odds of poorer mental health. However, there was no evidence that level of childhood adversity modified the association between traumatic exposure and mental health. These findings suggest that military personnel who recalled a higher level of childhood adversity may need to be monitored for poor mental health and, if required, provided with appropriate support. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  7. Animal Models of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Recent Neurobiological Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Annie M.; Gilpin, Nicholas W.; Edwards, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a complex psychiatric disorder characterized by the intrusive re-experiencing of past trauma, avoidant behavior, enhanced fear, and hyperarousal following a traumatic event in vulnerable populations. Preclinical animal models do not replicate the human condition in its entirety, but seek to mimic symptoms or endophenotypes associated with PTSD. Although many models of traumatic stress exist, few adequately capture the complex nature of the disorder and the observed individual variability in susceptibility of humans to develop PTSD. In addition, various types of stressors may produce different molecular neuroadaptations that likely contribute to the various behavioral disruptions produced by each model, although certain consistent neurobiological themes related to PTSD have emerged. For example, animal models report traumatic stress- and trauma reminder-induced alterations in neuronal activity in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex, in agreement with the human PTSD literature. Models have also provided a conceptual framework for the often observed combination of PTSD and co-morbid conditions such as alcohol use disorder (AUD). Future studies will continue to refine preclinical PTSD models in hopes of capitalizing on their potential to deliver new and more efficacious treatments for PTSD and associated psychiatric disorders. PMID:25083568

  8. Traumatic ventricular septal defect in a 4-year-old boy after blunt chest injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Mi Kim

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic ventricular septal defect (VSD resulting from blunt chest injury is a very rare event. The mechanisms of traumatic VSD have been of little concern to dateuntil now, but two dominant theories have been described. In one, the rupture occurs due to acute compression of the heart; in the other, it is due to myocardial infarction of the septum. The clinical symptoms and timing of presentation are variable, so appropriate diagnosis can be difficult or delayed. Closure of traumatic VSD has been based on a combination of heart failure symptoms, hemodynamics, and defect size. Here, we present a case of a 4-year-old boy who presented with a traumatic VSD following a car accident. He showed normal cardiac structure at the time of injury, but after 8 days, his repeated echocardiography revealed a VSD. He was successfully treated by surgical closure of the VSD, and has been doing well up to the present. This report suggests that the clinician should pay great close attention to the patients injured by blunt chest trauma, keeping in mind the possibility of cardiac injury.

  9. Cultivating secondary traumatic growth among healthcare workers: the role of social support and self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Kotaro; Bock, Judith; Cieslak, Roman; Zukowska, Katarzyna; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Benight, Charles C

    2014-09-01

    This 2-study longitudinal investigation examined the indirect effects of secondary traumatic stress (STS) on secondary traumatic growth via two mediators: perceived social support and secondary trauma self-efficacy. In particular, we tested if the 2 hypothetical mediators operate sequentially, that is, with secondary trauma self-efficacy facilitating social support (i.e., cultivation hypothesis) and/or social support enhancing self-efficacy (i.e., enabling hypothesis). Participants in Study 1 (N = 293 at Time 1, N = 115 at Time 2) were behavioral healthcare providers working with U.S. military personnel suffering from trauma. Study 2 was conducted among Polish healthcare workers (N = 298 at Time 1, N = 189 at Time 2) providing services for civilian survivors of traumatic events. In both studies, multiple mediational analyses showed evidence for the cultivation hypothesis. The relationship between STS at Time 1 and secondary traumatic growth at Time 2 was mediated sequentially by secondary trauma self-efficacy at Time 1 and social support at Time 2. The enabling hypothesis was not supported. Education and development programs for healthcare workers may benefit from boosting self-efficacy with the intent to facilitate perceived social support. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Application of OCT in traumatic macular hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Li Fu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the application of optical coherence tomography(OCTin the diseases of traumatic macular hole. METHODS: Twenty-five eyes of 23 patients with traumatic macular hole from January 2015 to January 2017 were enrolled in this study, including 9 eyes treated without surgeries, 16 eyes with surgeries. The image features were analyzed using OCT from ZEISS. RESULTS: The OCT characteristics in patients with traumatic macular hole were partial or full-thickness disappearance of the neuro-epithelium. Posterior vitreous detachment was not seen in the traumatic macular hole. OCT examination revealed that 4 eyes had partial detachment of macular hole and 21 eyes had full thickness detachment. Of the twenty-one eyes, 4 eyes had simple macular hole, 10 eyes had macular full-layer division with peripheral nerve epithelium edema, 7 eyes had the macular full-layer hole with the neuro-epithelium localized detachment. In the 25 eyes, 9 eyes did not undergo the surgery, of which 7 eyes were self-healing; 16 eyes were surgically treated. Postoperative OCT showed the macular structure were normal in 12 eyes with the visual acuity improved 3 lines; retinal nerve epithelium were thinning in 4 eyes, visual acuities were not significant improved after surgery. CONCLUSION: OCT examination is necessary for the diagnosis and treatment of traumatic macular hole.

  11. The spectrum and outcome of paediatric traumatic brain injury in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spectrum and outcome of paediatric traumatic brain injury in ... to develop a comprehensive overview of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children ... We reviewed the age, gender, outcomes, radiological findings and treatment of the patients.

  12. the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder among sexually ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-10-10

    Oct 10, 2013 ... Background: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) develops ... like child sexual abuse can develop post-traumatic stress disorder ... MATERIALS AND METHODS ..... abuse and development of behavior problem ranging.

  13. Post traumatic stress disorder among former child soldiers attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post traumatic stress disorder among former child soldiers attending a rehabilitative service ... school in northern Uganda with a case of mass psychotic behavior. ... Methods: Data on post-traumatic stress disorder, depressed mood, physical ...

  14. Prevalence and predictive factors of post-traumatic hypopituitarism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klose, M; Juul, A; Poulsgaard, L

    2007-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and predictive factors of hypopituitarism following traumatic brain injury (TBI).......To estimate the prevalence and predictive factors of hypopituitarism following traumatic brain injury (TBI)....

  15. A retrospective evaluation of traumatic dental injury in children who ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-18

    Mar 18, 2014 ... Results: Of all 320 patients with traumatic dental injury, 205 were boys and 115 were girls ... Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, ..... the management of traumatic dental injuries I. Fractures and luxations of.

  16. Factors Associated with Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms in Students Who Survived 20 Months after the Sewol Ferry Disaster in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, So Hee; Kim, Eun Ji; Noh, Jin Won; Chae, Jeong Ho

    2018-03-12

    The Sewol ferry disaster caused national shock and grief in Korea. The present study examined the prevalence and associated factors of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among the surviving students 20 months after that disaster. This study was conducted using a cross-sectional design and a sample of 57 students (29 boys and 28 girls) who survived the Sewol ferry disaster. Data were collected using a questionnaire, including instruments that assessed psychological status. A generalized linear model using a log link and Poisson distribution was performed to identify factors associated with PTSD symptoms. The results showed that 26.3% of participants were classified in the clinical group by the Child Report of Post-traumatic Symptoms score. Based on a generalized linear model, Poisson distribution, and log link analyses, PTSD symptoms were positively correlated with the number of exposed traumatic events, peers and social support, peri-traumatic dissociation and post-traumatic negative beliefs, and emotional difficulties. On the other hand, PTSD symptoms were negatively correlated with psychological well-being, family cohesion, post-traumatic social support, receiving care at a psychiatry clinic, and female gender. This study uncovered risk and protective factors of PTSD in disaster-exposed adolescents. The implications of these findings are considered in relation to determining assessment and interventional strategies aimed at helping survivors following similar traumatic experiences. © 2018 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  17. Secondary traumatic stress in nurses: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano

    2011-02-01

    Is there a "cost of caring" for health care providers of traumatized patients? The aim of this study is to review the literature on secondary traumatic stress in nurses in order to answer the following questions: What studies have been conducted on secondary traumatic stress in nurses in all clinical specialties? What instruments were used to measure secondary traumatic stress in nurses and what psychometric properties were reported? A systematic review. CINAHL, PubMed, and PsycINFO databases were searched for the years 1981 to the present. Keywords used in the database searches included secondary traumatic stress, compassion fatigue, vicarious traumatization, secondary trauma, PTSD, and nurses. Research studies were reviewed for the following inclusion criteria: the sample included nurses, the secondary traumatic stress symptoms were measured, and the language was English. Seven studies were found in which researchers examined secondary traumatic stress in nurses. The samples in five of these studies consisted of all nurses, whereas in the remaining two studies, nurses were included in the samples but the results were not specifically reported for the subgroup of nurses. Presence of secondary traumatic stress was reported in forensic nurses, emergency department nurses, oncology nurses, pediatric nurses, and hospice nurses. Three instruments were identified that measured secondary traumatic stress in practitioners who care for traumatized populations: Secondary Traumatic Stress Scale, Compassion Fatigue Self Test for Helpers, and the Compassion Fatigue Scale-Revised. Presence of secondary traumatic stress in nurses was reported in all of the studies included in this literature review. The use of small samples and a number of different instruments to measure secondary traumatic stress symptoms, however, hindered the ability to make comparisons across studies and to draw conclusions. None of the studies conducted to date have focused on secondary traumatic stress in

  18. Invisible Bleeding: The Command Team’s Role in the Identification, Understanding, and Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    Traumatic Brain Injury, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder , TBI, PTSD , Wounded...Brain Injury (TBI) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD ). Command teams must leverage the existing programs and infrastructure while demonstrating a...subsequent struggle with Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD ) have given me the unique insight to tackle

  19. Sports and games for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Sue; De Silva, Mary; Henley, Robert

    2010-01-20

    Traumatic experiences evoke emotions such as fear, anxiety and distress and may encourage avoidance of similar situations in the future. For a proportion of those exposed to a traumatic event, this emotional reaction becomes uncontrollable and can develop into Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) (Breslau 2001). Most of those diagnosed with PTSD fully recover while a small proportion develop a chronic PTSD a year after the event (First 2004). Sports and games may be able to alleviate symptoms of PTSD. 1. To assess the effectiveness of sports, and games in alleviating and/or diminishing the symptoms of PTSD when compared to usual care or other interventions. 2. To assess the effectiveness of different types of sports and games in alleviating and/or diminishing symptoms of PTSD. The Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Controlled Trials Registers (CCDAN-CTR) were searched up to June 2008.The following databases were searched up to June 2008: the Cochrane Central registry of Controlled Trials; MEDLINE; EMBASE; CINAHL; PsycINFO. Reference lists of relevant papers were searched and experts in the field were contacted to determine if other studies were available. To be included, participants had to be diagnosed with PTSD using criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM IV) and/or ICD criteria. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that considered one or more well-specified sports or games for alleviating and/or diminishing symptoms of PTSD were included.Sports, and games were defined as any organized physical activity done alone or with a group and non-physical activities such as computer games and card games done alone or with a group. Psychological interventions such as music therapy, art therapy and play therapy and behavioural therapy were excluded. Two reviewers (SL and MD) separately checked the titles and abstracts of the search results to determine which studies met the pre-determined inclusion criteria

  20. Primary blast-induced traumatic brain injury: lessons from lithotripsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, A.; Ohtani, K.; Armonda, R.; Tomita, H.; Sakuma, A.; Mugikura, S.; Takayama, K.; Kushimoto, S.; Tominaga, T.

    2017-11-01

    Traumatic injury caused by explosive or blast events is traditionally divided into four mechanisms: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injury. The mechanisms of blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) are biomechanically distinct and can be modeled in both in vivo and in vitro systems. The primary bTBI injury mechanism is associated with the response of brain tissue to the initial blast wave. Among the four mechanisms of bTBI, there is a remarkable lack of information regarding the mechanism of primary bTBI. On the other hand, 30 years of research on the medical application of shock waves (SWs) has given us insight into the mechanisms of tissue and cellular damage in bTBI, including both air-mediated and underwater SW sources. From a basic physics perspective, the typical blast wave consists of a lead SW followed by shock-accelerated flow. The resultant tissue injury includes several features observed in primary bTBI, such as hemorrhage, edema, pseudo-aneurysm formation, vasoconstriction, and induction of apoptosis. These are well-described pathological findings within the SW literature. Acoustic impedance mismatch, penetration of tissue by shock/bubble interaction, geometry of the skull, shear stress, tensile stress, and subsequent cavitation formation are all important factors in determining the extent of SW-induced tissue and cellular injury. In addition, neuropsychiatric aspects of blast events need to be taken into account, as evidenced by reports of comorbidity and of some similar symptoms between physical injury resulting in bTBI and the psychiatric sequelae of post-traumatic stress. Research into blast injury biophysics is important to elucidate specific pathophysiologic mechanisms of blast injury, which enable accurate differential diagnosis, as well as development of effective treatments. Herein we describe the requirements for an adequate experimental setup when investigating blast-induced tissue and cellular injury; review SW physics

  1. Post-traumatic stress disorder in U.S. soldiers with post-traumatic headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Jacqueline F; Erickson, Jay C

    2013-01-01

    To determine the impact of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on headache characteristics and headache prognosis in U.S. soldiers with post-traumatic headache. PTSD and post-concussive headache are common conditions among U.S. Army personnel returning from deployment. The impact of comorbid PTSD on the characteristics and outcomes of post-traumatic headache has not been determined in U.S. Army soldiers. A retrospective cohort study was conducted among 270 consecutive U.S. Army soldiers diagnosed with post-traumatic headache at a single Army neurology clinic. All subjects were screened for PTSD at baseline using the PTSD symptom checklist. Headache frequency and characteristics were determined for post-traumatic headache subjects with and without PTSD at baseline. Headache measures were reassessed 3 months after the baseline visit, and were compared between groups with and without PTSD. Of 270 soldiers with post-traumatic headache, 105 (39%) met screening criteria for PTSD. There was no significant difference between subjects with PTSD and those without PTSD with regard to headache frequency (17.2 vs 15.7 headache days per month; P = .15) or chronic daily headache (58.1% vs 52.1%; P = .34). Comorbid PTSD was associated with higher headache-related disability as measured by the Migraine Disability Assessment Score. Three months after the baseline neurology clinic visit, the number of subjects with at least 50% reduction in headache frequency was similar among post-traumatic headache cases with and without PTSD (25.9% vs 26.8%). PTSD is prevalent among U.S. Army soldiers with post-traumatic headache. Comorbid PTSD is not associated with more frequent headaches or chronic daily headache in soldiers evaluated at a military neurology clinic for chronic post-traumatic headache. Comorbid PTSD does not adversely affect short-term headache outcomes, although prospective controlled trials are needed to better assess this relationship. © 2013 American Headache

  2. Air rifles are more than toys: BB gun-related traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopotek, Blaine; Weibley, Richard; Chapados, Rene

    2014-12-01

    Gunshot wounds are traumatic events that emergency departments around the country treat on a daily basis. An increasing number of these wounds are being caused by air rifles that shoot ball bearings (ie, BB guns) and, although uncommon, the results can be fatal. The general public and most practitioners may not realize the damage these "toys" can inflict. This article highlights an unfortunate event involving a BB gun accidentally discharged at close range and the consequences. Data from recent and older studies are discussed regarding the firepower of these guns and their potential for injury. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Mobile-bearing total knee arthroplasty: a full traumatic rotation of 180°.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudanese, Alessandra; Castiello, Emanuela; Affatato, Saverio

    2013-06-25

    From February 2008 to September 2012 we implanted 204 mobile-bearing knee prostheses in 192 patients. All the prostheses were cemented (both femoral and tibial components), and the patella was not replaced. Only one early complication of the implants (1/204 = 0.004%) occurred after a traumatic event as a full 180° rotation of the mobile-bearing polyethylene insert. A 78-year-old woman presented with swelling and severe pain at her right knee. This traumatic event was the only case among our mobile-bearing insert patients. 
The failed polyethylene inserts were retrieved and studied using a scanning electron microscope (SEM, ZEISS EVO 50 EP, Cambridge, UK) operating at 20 kV. 
Scratching and pitting were found on the UHMWPE insert perpendicular to the machining tracks for the concave surface. SEM micrographs of the insert showed burnishing on the concave surfaces and longitudinal scratches were clearly detectable and well-marked on the analyzed surfaces. 
A traumatic, fully rotating, polyethylene insert is rare and our case is the first report describing a traumatic event with a complete 180 degree rotation mobile-bearing in a total knee prosthesis. 
In the literature few reports discuss clinical outcomes after total knee arthroplasty in patients with Parkinson's disease and they cite mixed results. However, some authors suggest that posterior-stabilized and cruciate-retaining TKA should work well while others prefer cruciate-retaining, condylar constrained kinetics, or hinged devices. Although we did not implant a posterior-stabilized mobile-bearing total knee prosthesis or a constrained prosthesis, we obtained good clinical and radiological results at the 2-year followup.

  4. Traumatic hip dislocation: early MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laorr, A.; Greenspan, A.; Anderson, M.W.; Moehring, H.D.; McKinley, T.

    1995-01-01

    Objective of this study was to present the spectrum of early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings following traumatic dislocation of the femoral head, and to identify any associated injuries. Prospective MRI of both hips was performed on 18 patients within 5 weeks of a traumatic femoral head dislocation. The interval between the time of injury and the imaging studies ranged from 2 to 35 days. Posterior dislocation was present in 14 patients and anterior dislocation in 4 patients. In the majority of cases, we performed axial T1, coronal T1, and coronal T2 * (MPGR) sequences. MRI can effectively identify and quantify the muscle injury and joint effusion that invariably accompany traumatic hip dislocations. It is also useful for demonstrating trabecular bone contusion (trabecular injury) and iliofemoral ligament injury, which occur commonly with acute hip dislocation. (orig./VHE)

  5. Fatigue in adults with traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollayeva, Tatyana; Kendzerska, Tetyana; Mollayeva, Shirin

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite strong indications that fatigue is the most common and debilitating symptom after traumatic brain injury, little is known about its frequency, natural history, or relation to other factors. The current protocol outlines a strategy for a systematic review that will identify......, assess, and critically appraise studies that assessed predictors for fatigue and the consequences of fatigue on at least two separate time points following traumatic brain injury. METHODS/DESIGN: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINAHL, and PsycINFO will be systematically...... searched for relevant peer-reviewed studies. Reference lists of eligible papers will also be searched. All English language studies with a longitudinal design that focus on fatigue in adults with primary-impact traumatic brain injury will be included. Studies on fatigue following brain injury due...

  6. Early vasopressor use following traumatic injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hylands, Mathieu; Toma, Augustin; Beaudoin, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Current guidelines suggest limiting the use of vasopressors following traumatic injury; however, wide variations in practice exist. Although excessive vasoconstriction may be harmful, these agents may help reduce administration of potentially harmful resuscitation fluids. This systema......OBJECTIVES: Current guidelines suggest limiting the use of vasopressors following traumatic injury; however, wide variations in practice exist. Although excessive vasoconstriction may be harmful, these agents may help reduce administration of potentially harmful resuscitation fluids...... trials are currently ongoing. No study measured long-term quality of life or cognitive function. CONCLUSIONS: Existing data on the effects of vasopressors following traumatic injury are of very low quality according to the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology...

  7. Traumatic Gallbladder Rupture Treated by Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egawa, Noriyuki; Ueda, Junji; Hiraki, Masatsugu; Ide, Takao; Inoue, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Yuichiro; Noshiro, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gallbladder rupture due to blunt abdominal injury is rare. There are few reports of traumatic gallbladder injury, and it is commonly associated with other concomitant visceral injuries. Therefore, it is difficult to diagnose traumatic gallbladder rupture preoperatively when it is caused by blunt abdominal injury. We report a patient who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy after an exact preoperative diagnosis of traumatic gallbladder rupture. A 43-year-old man was admitted to our hospital due to blunt abdominal trauma. The day after admission, abdominal pain and ascites increased and a muscular defense sign appeared. Percutaneous drainage of the ascites was performed, and the aspirated fluid was bloody and almost pure bile. He was diagnosed with gallbladder rupture by the cholangiography using the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography technique. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed safely, and he promptly recovered. If accumulated fluids contain bile, endoscopic cholangiography is useful not only to diagnose gallbladder injury but also to determine the therapeutic strategy. PMID:27462188

  8. Traumatic Gallbladder Rupture Treated by Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Egawa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Gallbladder rupture due to blunt abdominal injury is rare. There are few reports of traumatic gallbladder injury, and it is commonly associated with other concomitant visceral injuries. Therefore, it is difficult to diagnose traumatic gallbladder rupture preoperatively when it is caused by blunt abdominal injury. We report a patient who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy after an exact preoperative diagnosis of traumatic gallbladder rupture. A 43-year-old man was admitted to our hospital due to blunt abdominal trauma. The day after admission, abdominal pain and ascites increased and a muscular defense sign appeared. Percutaneous drainage of the ascites was performed, and the aspirated fluid was bloody and almost pure bile. He was diagnosed with gallbladder rupture by the cholangiography using the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography technique. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed safely, and he promptly recovered. If accumulated fluids contain bile, endoscopic cholangiography is useful not only to diagnose gallbladder injury but also to determine the therapeutic strategy.

  9. Perspective on Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury | Igun | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Traumatic brain injury is an important aspect of paediatric trauma because of its contribution to mortality ant post trauma seqeulae. Management of traumatic brain injury remains a challenge to surgeons, especially in developing countries. This study aims to determine the pattern of traumatic brain injury among ...

  10. Secondary traumatization and attachment among wives of former POWs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahav, Yael; Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv; Solomon, Zahava

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the directionality of the association between post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and attachment insecurities across time among indirect trauma survivors. Wives of former prisoners of war (ex-POWs), with and without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD...... that attachment anxiety might act as a risk factor for secondary traumatic reactions....

  11. 45 CFR 1308.16 - Eligibility criteria: Traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility criteria: Traumatic brain injury. 1308... DISABILITIES Health Services Performance Standards § 1308.16 Eligibility criteria: Traumatic brain injury. A child is classified as having traumatic brain injury whose brain injuries are caused by an external...

  12. Resolving Child and Adolescent Traumatic Grief: Creative Techniques and Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar-Bailey, Meredith; Kress, Victoria E.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a review of creative interventions that can be helpful in facilitating the resolution of traumatic grief in children and adolescents. Traumatic grief is conceptualized as a condition in which a person loses a close loved one (e.g., a parent or a sibling) in a traumatic manner, and ensuing trauma-related symptoms disrupt the…

  13. Management of rigid post-traumatic kyphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S S; Hwa, S Y; Lin, L C; Pai, W M; Chen, P Q; Au, M K

    1996-10-01

    Rigid post-traumatic kyphosis after fracture of the thoracolumbar and lumbar spine represents a failure of initial management of the injury. Kyphosis moves the center of gravity anterior. The kyphosis and instability may result in pain, deformity, and increased neurologic deficits. Management for symptomatic post-traumatic kyphosis always has presented a challenge to orthopedic surgeons. To evaluate the surgical results of one stage posterior correction for rigid symptomatic post-traumatic kyphosis of the thoracolumbar and lumbar spine. The management for post-traumatic kyphosis remains controversial. Anterior, posterior, or combined anterior and posterior procedures have been advocated by different authors and show various degrees of success. One vertebra immediately above and below the level of the deformity was instrumented posteriorly by a transpedicular system (internal fixator AO). Posterior decompression was performed by excision of the spinal process and bilateral laminectomy. With the deformed vertebra through the pedicle, the vertebral body carefully is removed around the pedicle level, approximating a wedge shape. The extent to which the deformed vertebral body should be removed is determined by the attempted correction. Correction of the deformity is achieved by manipulation of the operating table and compression of the adjacent Schanz screws above and below the lesion. Thirteen patients with post-traumatic kyphosis with symptoms of fatigue and pain caused by slow progression of kyphotic deformities received posterior decompression, correction, and stabilization as a definitive treatment. The precorrection kyphosis ranged from 30-60 degrees, with a mean of 40 degrees +/- 10.8 degrees. After correction, kyphosis was reduced to an average of 1.5 degrees +/- 3.8 degrees, with a range from -5 degrees to 5 degrees. The average angle of correction was 38.8 degrees +/- 10.4 degrees, with a range from 25 degrees to 60 degrees. Significant difference was found

  14. Challenges for providing health care in traumatized populations: barriers for PTSD treatments and the need for new developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlauskas, Evaldas

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing recognition about the effects of traumatic experiences on mental health worldwide. With ongoing conflicts, natural disasters, interpersonal violence, and other traumatic events it is estimated that approximately 70% of the global population have been exposed to at least one lifetime traumatic experience. Research shows a substantial proportion of survivors, especially in low- and middle-income countries, would have a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). During recent decades effective evidence-based treatments for PTSD have been developed. However, there are significant barriers to mental health services and trauma-informed treatments are not easily available for trauma survivors. From the perspective of social psychotraumatology several core barriers to trauma treatments were identified, including the lack of acknowledgment, and avoidance of disclosure. The need for cultural sensitivity in PTSD treatments, the potential of alternative ways of treatment delivery, and the involvement of non-professional volunteers are proposed as directions for future developments in the field.

  15. Treating traumatic injuries of the diaphragm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwivedi Sankalp

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic diaphragmatic injury (DI is a unique clinical entity that is usually occult and can easily be missed. Their delayed presentation can be due to the delayed rupture of the diaphragm or delayed detection of diaphragmatic rupture, making the accurate diagnosis of DI challenging to the trauma surgeons. An emergency laparotomy and thorough exploration followed by the repair of the defect is the gold standard for the management of these cases. We report a case of blunt DI in an elderly gentleman and present a comprehensive overview for the management of traumatic injuries of the diaphragm.

  16. Post-traumatic hypopituitarism and fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Brent E; Zgaljardic, Dennis J; Forman, Jack

    2017-10-01

    Post-traumatic hypopituitarism (PTH) associated with chronic cognitive, psychiatric, and/or behavioural sequelae is common following moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). More specifically, due to a cascade of hormonal deficiencies secondary to PTH, individuals with TBI may experience debilitating fatigue that can negatively impact functional recovery, as it can limit participation in brain injury rehabilitation services and lead to an increase in maladaptive lifestyle practices. While the mechanisms underlying fatigue and TBI are not entirely understood, the current review will address the specific anatomy and physiology of the pituitary gland, as well as the association between pituitary dysfunction and fatigue in individuals with TBI.

  17. Parental Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Are Related to Successful Aging in Offspring of Holocaust Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrira, Amit; Ayalon, Liat; Bensimon, Moshe; Bodner, Ehud; Rosenbloom, Tova; Yadid, Gal

    2017-01-01

    A fascinating, yet underexplored, question is whether traumatic events experienced by previous generations affect the aging process of subsequent generations. This question is especially relevant for offspring of Holocaust survivors (OHS), who begin to face the aging process. Some preliminary findings point to greater physical dysfunction among middle-aged OHS, yet the mechanisms behind this dysfunction need further clarification. Therefore, the current studies assess aging OHS using the broad-scoped conceptualization of successful aging, while examining whether offspring successful aging relates to parental post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and offspring’s secondary traumatization symptoms. In Study 1, 101 adult offspring (mean age = 62.31) completed measures of parental PTSD, secondary traumatization, as well as successful aging indices – objective (medical conditions, disability and somatic symptoms) and subjective (perceptions of one’s aging). Relative to comparisons and OHS who reported that none of their parents suffered from probable PTSD, OHS who reported that their parents suffered from probable PTSD had lower scores in objective and subjective measures of successful aging. Mediation analyses showed that higher level of secondary traumatization mediated the relationship between parental PTSD and less successful aging in the offspring. Study 2 included 154 dyads of parents (mean age = 81.86) and their adult offspring (mean age = 54.48). Parents reported PTSD symptoms and offspring reported secondary traumatization and completed measures of objective successful aging. Relative to comparisons, OHS whose parent had probable PTSD have aged less successfully. Once again, offspring secondary traumatization mediated the effect. The findings suggest that parental post-traumatic reactions assessed both by offspring (Study 1) and by parents themselves (Study 2) take part in shaping the aging of the subsequent generation via reactions of secondary

  18. Parental Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Are Related to Successful Aging in Offspring of Holocaust Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Shrira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A fascinating, yet underexplored, question is whether traumatic events experienced by previous generations affect the aging process of subsequent generations. This question is especially relevant for offspring of Holocaust survivors (OHS, who begin to face the aging process. Some preliminary findings point to greater physical dysfunction among middle-aged OHS, yet the mechanisms behind this dysfunction need further clarification. Therefore, the current studies assess aging OHS using the broad-scoped conceptualization of successful aging, while examining whether offspring successful aging relates to parental post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms and offspring’s secondary traumatization symptoms. In Study 1, 101 adult offspring (mean age = 62.31 completed measures of parental PTSD, secondary traumatization, as well as successful aging indices – objective (medical conditions, disability and somatic symptoms and subjective (perceptions of one’s aging. Relative to comparisons and OHS who reported that none of their parents suffered from probable PTSD, OHS who reported that their parents suffered from probable PTSD had lower scores in objective and subjective measures of successful aging. Mediation analyses showed that higher level of secondary traumatization mediated the relationship between parental PTSD and less successful aging in the offspring. Study 2 included 154 dyads of parents (mean age = 81.86 and their adult offspring (mean age = 54.48. Parents reported PTSD symptoms and offspring reported secondary traumatization and completed measures of objective successful aging. Relative to comparisons, OHS whose parent had probable PTSD have aged less successfully. Once again, offspring secondary traumatization mediated the effect. The findings suggest that parental post-traumatic reactions assessed both by offspring (Study 1 and by parents themselves (Study 2 take part in shaping the aging of the subsequent generation via reactions of

  19. Post-traumatic stress, depression, and anxiety in patients with injury-related chronic pain: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Åhman

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Sofia Åhman, Britt-Marie StålnackeDepartment of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umeå University, SwedenAim: To investigate, in patients with injury-related chronic pain, pain intensity, levels of post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depressions.Methods: One hundred and sixty patients aged 17–62 years, admitted for assessment to the Pain Rehabilitation Clinic at the Umeå University Hospital, Umeå Sweden, for chronic pain caused by an injury, answered a set of questionnaires to assess post-traumatic stress (Impact of Event Scale [IES], pain intensity (VAS, depression, and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HAD].Results: Moderate to severe post-traumatic stress was reported by 48.1% of the patients. Possible–probable anxiety on the HAD was scored by 44.5% and possible–probable depression by 45.2%. Pain intensity (VAS was significantly correlated to post-traumatic stress (r = 0.183, p = 0.022, the HAD-scores anxiety (r = 0.186, p = 0.0021, and depression (r = 0.252, p = 0.002. No statistically significant differences were found between genders for post-traumatic stress, pain intensity, anxiety, or depression. Participants with moderate to severe stress reaction reported statistically significant higher anxiety scores on the HAD (p = 0.030 in comparison with patients with mild stress.Conclusion: The findings of relationships between pain intensity, post-traumatic stress, depression, and anxiety may have implications for clinicians and underline the importance of considering all these factors when managing patients with injury-related chronic pain.Keywords: post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, chronic pain

  20. Vaccine Adverse Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... in the primary immunization series in infants Report Adverse Event Report a Vaccine Adverse Event Contact FDA ( ...

  1. The endocannabinoid system and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): From preclinical findings to innovative therapeutic approaches in clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardi, Andrea; Schelling, Gustav; Campolongo, Patrizia

    2016-09-01

    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric chronic disease developing in individuals after the experience of an intense and life-threatening traumatic event. The post-traumatic symptomatology encompasses alterations in memory processes, mood, anxiety and arousal. There is now consensus in considering the disease as an aberrant adaptation to traumatic stress. Pharmacological research, aimed at the discovery of new potential effective treatments, has lately directed its attention towards the "so-called" cognitive enhancers. This class of substances, by modulating cognitive processes involved in the development and/or persistence of the post-traumatic symptomatology, could be of great help in improving the outcome of psychotherapies and patients' prognosis. In this perspective, drugs acting on the endocannabinoid system are receiving great attention due to their dual ability to modulate memory processes on one hand, and to reduce anxiety and depression on the other. The purpose of the present review is to offer a thorough overview of both animal and human studies investigating the effects of cannabinoids on memory processes. First, we will briefly describe the characteristics of the endocannabinoid system and the most commonly used animal models of learning and memory. Then, studies investigating cannabinoid modulatory influences on memory consolidation, retrieval and extinction will be separately presented, and the potential benefits associated with each approach will be discussed. In the final section, we will review literature data reporting beneficial effects of cannabinoid drugs in PTSD patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Irreducible Traumatic Posterior Shoulder Dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake Collier

    2017-01-01

    coracoid, marked limitation of abduction, and complete absence of external rotation with a fixed internal rotation deformity.2 Lesions commonly associated with traumatic posterior subluxation/dislocation are the reverse Hill-Sachs,3 a posterior labral detachment, glenohumeral ligament lesions,4 rotator cuff tears or posterior bony fractures.1 In order to make an accurate diagnosis it is important to obtain adequate x-ray imaging, including a “Y” view.2 Anteroposterior x-rays may show widening of the glenohumeral joint resembling a “light bulb” shape of the humeral head. However, definitive diagnosis is made by the “Y” view which shows the humeral head displaced posteriorly and no longer covering the glenoid fossa6. Irreducible acute posterior dislocation of the shoulder is extremely rare5 and only one other case has been reported in the literature.7

  3. A Memory of Shadows and of Stone. Traumatic Ruins, Conservation, Social Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Sulfaro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the scars caused by many terrible traumatic events, such as the atomic bomb, the Holocaust, genocides, massacres, and also deep socio-economic transformations, the notion of memory in the contemporary age is nearly always the result of a conflict between the conservation of some elements of the past and the oblivion of others. The ruin or the place of a tragedy is no longer merely a trace of a terrible past but, through a resemantization process, it becomes a sign, which is transmittable to the future. This introduces some questions to the issue of traumatic ruin: what are the social implications of ‘memorializing’ the trauma? Who decides what kind of traces of the past to deliver to the future? What is the role of conservation and architectural restoration in these processes? The present paper focuses on the possible practices in the processes of the representation of the past, with special regard to the relationship between places/buildings, memory and social processes. In particular, the paper deals with the consequences of practices involving a reinterpretation of the past and, practices aimed at leaving the signs of traumatic events visible on a building, a monument or a place: practices which, as they involve oblivion and remembrance, describe the contemporary condition of memory.

  4. Latest developments in post-traumatic stress disorder: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Neil; Brooks, Samantha; Dunn, Rebecca

    2015-06-01

    Most people will experience a traumatic event during their lives. However, not all will develop Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). There have been recent changes in diagnostic criteria for PTSD and there are a number of treatment options available. This review is based on published literature in the field of PTSD, its management and the recently published DSM-V. The most influential risk factors relate to the post-incident environment rather than pre-incident or the incident itself. There are two established and effective psychological therapies; trauma-focussed cognitive behavioural therapy and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. It is unclear what actually constitutes a traumatic event. Psychological debriefing or counselling interventions, shortly after trauma-exposure are found to be ineffective and may cause harm. Medication, whilst common practice, is not recommended as first line management. Future psychotherapies for PTSD may be just as effective if delivered in carefully considered group settings or through remote means. Research into the most effective ways to prevent individuals at risk of developing PTSD is still at an early stage and development of effective early interventions could substantially reduce the morbidity associated with PTSD. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. The role and dynamics of β-catenin in precondition induced neuroprotection after traumatic brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gali Umschweif

    Full Text Available Preconditioning via heat acclimation (34°C 30 d results in neuroprotection from traumatic brain injury due to constitutive as well as dynamic changes triggered by the trauma. Among these changes is Akt phosphorylation, which decreases apoptosis and induces HIF1α. In the present study we investigated the Akt downstream GSK3β/β-catenin pathway and focused on post injury alternations of β catenin and its impact on the cellular response in preconditioned heat acclimated mice. We found that the reduction in motor disability is accompanied with attenuation of depressive like behavior in heat acclimated mice that correlates with the GSK3β phosphorylation state. Concomitantly, a robust β catenin phosphorylation is not followed by its degradation, or by reduced nuclear accumulation. Enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of β catenin in the injured area weakens the β catenin-N cadherin complex. Membrane β catenin is transiently reduced in heat acclimated mice and its recovery 7 days post TBI is accompanied by induction of the synaptic marker synaptophysin. We suggest a set of cellular events following traumatic brain injury in heat acclimated mice that causes β catenin to participate in cell-cell adhesion alternations rather than in Wnt signaling. These events may contribute to synaptogenesis and the improved motor and cognitive abilities seen heat acclimated mice after traumatic brain injury.

  6. Risk factors predict post-traumatic stress disorder differently in men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elklit Ask

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background About twice as many women as men develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, even though men as a group are exposed to more traumatic events. Exposure to different trauma types does not sufficiently explain why women are more vulnerable. Methods The present work examines the effect of age, previous trauma, negative affectivity (NA, anxiety, depression, persistent dissociation, and social support on PTSD separately in men and women. Subjects were exposed to either a series of explosions in a firework factory near a residential area or to a high school stabbing incident. Results Some gender differences were found in the predictive power of well known risk factors for PTSD. Anxiety predicted PTSD in men, but not in women, whereas the opposite was found for depression. Dissociation was a better predictor for PTSD in women than in men in the explosion sample but not in the stabbing sample. Initially, NA predicted PTSD better in women than men in the explosion sample, but when compared only to other significant risk factors, it significantly predicted PTSD for both men and women in both studies. Previous traumatic events and age did not significantly predict PTSD in either gender. Conclusion Gender differences in the predictive value of social support on PTSD appear to be very complex, and no clear conclusions can be made based on the two studies included in this article.

  7. Attitudes to emotional expression and personality in predicting post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, J; Williams, R M

    2000-09-01

    To test hypotheses derived from a suggestion of Williams (1989) that negative attitudes towards emotional expression act as a predisposing or maintaining factor for post-traumatic stress reactions following a traumatic event. The study employed a prospective design in which attitudes to emotional expression, the 'Big Five' personality factors (Costa & McCrae, 1992a) and initial symptoms and injury severity within 1 week of a road traffic accident were used to predict the development of post-traumatic stress disorder 6 weeks post-accident. Sixty victims of road traffic accidents randomly selected from attenders at a large A&E department were assessed by questionnaire and interview. Measures comprised a 4-item scale relating to emotional expression, standardized scales for intrusion and avoidance features of traumatic experiences, and for anxiety and depression and the NEO-FFI Five Factor Personality Inventory. Forty-five of these participants responded to a postal questionnaire follow-up. In this survey the battery was repeated and also included a self-report diagnostic measure of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The percentage of the sample meeting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for PTSD at 6 weeks post-trauma was 30.8%. A small but significant relationship was found for negative attitudes to emotional expression at 1 week to predict intrusive symptoms and diagnosis at 6 weeks, over and above the independent relationships of initial symptoms, initial injury severity, personality and coping. The emotional expression measure was largely stable between the two points of measurement. More negative attitudes to emotional expression were related to less openness, extraversion and agreeableness personality domains. Some support for the hypotheses was found in relation to the development of PTSD and for the status of attitudes to emotion as a stable trait related to personality factors. The potential importance of attitudes to emotional expression in therapy and other

  8. Key steps in developing a cognitive vaccine against traumatic flashbacks: visuospatial Tetris versus verbal Pub Quiz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Emily A; James, Ella L; Kilford, Emma J; Deeprose, Catherine

    2010-11-10

    Flashbacks (intrusive memories of a traumatic event) are the hallmark feature of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, however preventative interventions are lacking. Tetris may offer a 'cognitive vaccine' [1] against flashback development after trauma exposure. We previously reported that playing the computer game Tetris soon after viewing traumatic material reduced flashbacks compared to no-task [1]. However, two criticisms need to be addressed for clinical translation: (1) Would all games have this effect via distraction/enjoyment, or might some games even be harmful? (2) Would effects be found if administered several hours post-trauma? Accordingly, we tested Tetris versus an alternative computer game--Pub Quiz--which we hypothesized not to be helpful (Experiments 1 and 2), and extended the intervention interval to 4 hours (Experiment 2). The trauma film paradigm was used as an experimental analog for flashback development in healthy volunteers. In both experiments, participants viewed traumatic film footage of death and injury before completing one of the following: (1) no-task control condition (2) Tetris or (3) Pub Quiz. Flashbacks were monitored for 1 week. Experiment 1: 30 min after the traumatic film, playing Tetris led to a significant reduction in flashbacks compared to no-task control, whereas Pub Quiz led to a significant increase in flashbacks. Experiment 2: 4 hours post-film, playing Tetris led to a significant reduction in flashbacks compared to no-task control, whereas Pub Quiz did not. First, computer games can have differential effects post-trauma, as predicted by a cognitive science formulation of trauma memory. In both Experiments, playing Tetris post-trauma film reduced flashbacks. Pub Quiz did not have this effect, even increasing flashbacks in Experiment 1. Thus not all computer games are beneficial or merely distracting post-trauma - some may be harmful. Second, the beneficial effects of Tetris are retained at 4 hours post-trauma. Clinically

  9. Cellular events in adhesion formation due to thermal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplun, A; Aronson, M; Halperin, B; Griffel, B

    1984-01-01

    Consequent to thermal traumatization of the intestinal wall of the mouse, histopathological events ensue which lead to peritoneal adhesion formation. In the first 48 h, the main pathological findings are of a necrotic and inflammatory nature, but subsequently fibroplasia is the main feature, as evidenced by the appearance of spindle-shaped cells followed by fibroblasts. Factors essential for and contributing to the formation of adhesions are described.

  10. The longitudinal course of post-traumatic stress after childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderquist, Johan; Wijma, Barbro; Wijma, Klaas

    2006-06-01

    Post-traumatic stress was assessed in early and late pregnancy, and 1, 4, 7, and 11 months postpartum by means of questionnaires among 1224 women. Thirty-seven women (3%) had post-traumatic stress (meeting criteria B, C, and D for PTSD) at least once within 1-11 months postpartum. In pregnancy, depression, severe fear of childbirth, 'pre'-traumatic stress, previous counseling related to pregnancy/childbirth, and self-reported previous psychological problems were associated with an increased risk of having post-traumatic stress within 1-11 months postpartum. Sum-scores of post-traumatic stress did not decrease over time among women who at least once had post-traumatic stress (criteria B, C, and D) within 1-11 months postpartum. Women with post-traumatic stress also showed a decrease in perceived social support over time postpartum.

  11. Traumatic Brain Injury and Personality Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Marc; McCabe, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and lifelong disability in the United States for individuals below the age of 45. Current estimates from the Center for Disease Control (CDC) indicate that at least 1.4 million Americans sustain a TBI annually. TBI affects 475,000 children under age 14 each year in the United States alone.…

  12. [Psychotherapeutic treatment of traumatized refugees in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttche, M; Stammel, N; Knaevelsrud, C

    2016-11-01

    Traumatic experiences resulting from war and violence can lead to a broad spectrum of psychological and somatic stress responses. The psychological strain of traumatized refugees is frequently aggravated by specific post-migration stressors. The current healthcare provision in Germany is characterized by many restrictions. The different residence permits are associated with a limited access to medical and psychotherapeutic services. In addition, there are several barriers limiting access of this group of patients to the healthcare system (e. g. low level of training of mental healthcare staff, language barriers and lack of financing for interpreters). Empirical studies have shown that traumatized refugees profit from existing trauma-focused and evidence-based interventions. Treatment is associated with particular challenges and issues (e. g. use of interpreters, migration and culture-specific as well as legal aspects). Specialized treatment centers for traumatized refugees use a multidisciplinary treatment approach, which includes psychotherapeutic, medical and social work interventions as well as assistance with the residential status and integration programs.

  13. Centralized rehabilitation after servere traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Aase Worså; Liebach, Annette; Nordenbo, Annette Mosbæk

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To present results from the first 3 years of centralized subacute rehabilitation after very severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), and to compare results of centralized versus decentralized rehabilitation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospectively, the most severely injured group of adults fr...

  14. Fitness to drive after traumatic brain injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, WH; Withaar, FK

    This paper deals with the issue of fitness to drive in patients suffering from traumatic brain injury (TBI). Guidelines for assessment are proposed and three types of studies are reviewed: studies about impairments of attention and information processing, studies of driving competence, and driver

  15. Bleaching of the discolored traumatized tooth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jon E.; Kopperud, Siemen E.; Pallesen, Ulla

    2018-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the treatment of discolored traumatized teeth, most of them being non-vital and subsequently, endodontically treated. Tooth bleaching based upon hydrogen peroxide as the active agent, applied directly or produced in a chemical reaction from sodium perborate or carbamide pe...

  16. Working with Students with Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    The participation of a student with Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) in general physical education can often be challenging and rewarding for the student and physical education teacher. This article addresses common characteristics of students with TBI and presents basic solutions to improve the education of students with TBI in the general physical…

  17. Traumatic tympanic membrane perforations: characteristics and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To characterize traumatic tympanic membrane perforation (TTMP) in terms of distribution, mechanisms, and outcome of treatment. To assess the factors influencing such outcome. Study design: Prospective analytical study, assessing outcomes post-injuries. Setting: Clinical department of a tertiary referral hospital.

  18. Subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano; Watson, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Nine percent of new mothers in the United States who participated in the Listening to Mothers II Postpartum Survey screened positive for meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder after childbirth. Women who have had a traumatic birth experience report fewer subsequent children and a longer length of time before their second baby. Childbirth-related posttraumatic stress disorder impacts couples' physical relationship, communication, conflict, emotions, and bonding with their children. The purpose of this study was to describe the meaning of women's experiences of a subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth. Phenomenology was the research design used. An international sample of 35 women participated in this Internet study. Women were asked, "Please describe in as much detail as you can remember your subsequent pregnancy, labor, and delivery following your previous traumatic birth." Colaizzi's phenomenological data analysis approach was used to analyze the stories of the 35 women. Data analysis yielded four themes: (a) riding the turbulent wave of panic during pregnancy; (b) strategizing: attempts to reclaim their body and complete the journey to motherhood; (c) bringing reverence to the birthing process and empowering women; and (d) still elusive: the longed-for healing birth experience. Subsequent childbirth after a previous birth trauma has the potential to either heal or retraumatize women. During pregnancy, women need permission and encouragement to grieve their prior traumatic births to help remove the burden of their invisible pain.

  19. Whiplash and post-traumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, JPC

    1998-01-01

    Purpose : This study examined the comorbidity of whiplash and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following motor vehicle accidents. A treatment strategy in cases with both disorders is proposed. Method: A review of the literature on psychological consequences of motor vehicle accidents and on

  20. TRAUMATIC INJURIES TO THE TEETII OF CHILDREN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the occurrence of dental injuries to children in ... The traumatic lesions of the teeth ffi:1y be .... An immediate negative response is frequently due to a damage to the apical nerve supply, healing to .... Metalic implants are sometimes used to sup-.

  1. Traumatic orbital encephalocele: Presentation and imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Leslie A; Kennedy, Tabassum A; Paul, Sean; Wells, Timothy S; Griepentrog, Greg J; Lucarelli, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic orbital encephalocele is a rare but severe complication of orbital roof fractures. We describe 3 cases of orbital encephalocele due to trauma in children. Retrospective case series from the University of Wisconsin - Madison and Medical College of Wisconsin. Three cases of traumatic orbital encephalocele in pediatric patients were found. The mechanism of injury was motor vehicle accident in 2 patients and accidental self-inflicted gunshot wound in 1 patient. All 3 patients sustained orbital roof fractures (4 mm to 19 mm in width) and frontal lobe contusions with high intracranial pressure. A key finding in all 3 cases was progression of proptosis and globe displacement 4 to 11 days after initial injury. On initial CT, all were diagnosed with extraconal hemorrhage adjacent to the roof fractures, with subsequent enlargement of the mass and eventual diagnosis of encephalocele. Orbital encephalocele is a severe and sight-threatening complication of orbital roof fractures. Post-traumatic orbital encephalocele can be challenging to diagnose on CT as patients with this condition often have associated orbital and intracranial hematoma, which can be difficult to distinguish from herniated brain tissue. When there is a high index of suspicion for encephalocele, an MRI of the orbits and brain with contrast should be obtained for additional characterization. Imaging signs that should raise suspicion for traumatic orbital encephalocele include an enlarging heterogeneous orbital mass in conjunction with a roof fracture and/or widening fracture segments.

  2. Burnout, vicarious traumatization and its prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pross, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies on burnout and vicarious traumatization are reviewed and summarized with a list of signs and symptoms. From the author's own observations two histories of caregivers working with torture survivors are described which exemplify the risk,implications and consequences of secondary trauma. Contributing factors in the social and political framework in which caregivers operate are analyzed and possible means of prevention suggested, particularly focussing on the conflict of roles when providing evaluations on trauma victims for health and immigration authorities. Caregivers working with victims of violence carry a high risk of suffering from burnout and vicarious traumatization unless preventive factors are considered such as: self care, solid professional training in psychotherapy, therapeutic self-awareness, regular self-examination by collegial and external supervision, limiting caseload, continuing professional education and learning about new concepts in trauma, occasional research sabbaticals, keeping a balance between empathy and a proper professional distance to clients, protecting oneself against being mislead by clients with fictitious PTSD. An institutional setting should be provided in which the roles of therapists and evaluators are separated. Important factors for burnout and vicarious traumatization are the lack of social recognition for caregivers and the financial and legal outsider status of many centers. Therefore politicians and social insurance carriers should be urged to integrate facilities for traumatized refugees into the general health care system and centers should work on more alliances with the medical mainstream and academic medicine.

  3. Understanding Traumatic Brain Injury: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudel, Tina M.; Scherer, Marcia J.; Elias, Eileen

    2009-01-01

    This article is the first of a multi-part series on traumatic brain injury (TBI). Historically, TBI has received very limited national public policy attention and support. However since it has become the signature injury of the military conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, TBI has gained the attention of elected officials, military leaders,…

  4. Psychiatric sequelae of traumatic brain injury: Retrospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a public health problem and is associated with many complications. However little is known about the psychiatric sequelae of TBI in Nigeria. This study described the pattern and determinants of psychiatric sequelae among subjects with TBI. Materials and Methods: The study is a ...

  5. Assessment of Students with Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesire, David J.; Buckley, Valerie A.; Canto, Angela I.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of brain injuries, as well as their impact on individuals who sustain them, has received growing attention from American media in recent years. This attention is likely the result of high profile individuals suffering brain injuries. Greater public awareness of traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) has also been promoted by sources such as…

  6. Traumatic Brain Injury: Looking Back, Looking Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Sue; Lorenz, Laura; Rankin, Theresa; Elias, Eileen; Weider, Katie

    2011-01-01

    This article is the eighth of a multi-part series on traumatic brain injury (TBI). Historically, TBI has received limited national attention and support. However, since it is the signature injury of the military conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, TBI has gained attention of elected officials, military leaders, policymakers, and the public. The…

  7. Traumatic aneurysms of the pericallosal arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakstad, P.; Nornes, H.; Hauge, H.N.

    1986-01-01

    Of a total of 912 operated intracranial aneurysms only three were classified as traumatic (0.3%). They were found in children after severe head trauma and were all located on the pericallosal artery or its branches and not a bifurcations. Shearing forces between the falx, the arteries and the brain at the time of injury are held responsible for the development of these aneurysms. Unlike these traumatic aneurysms, 29 ''spontaneous'' pericallosal aneurysms (3.2%) in adults were located at the bifurcations of the artery. As significantly fewer reports of traumatic aneurysms have been published during the last decade than before 1976, it is suggested that some might have been overlooked as a consequence of CT replacing cerebral angiography in the neuroradiological evaluation of severe head injury. This possibility should be kept in mind, especially when dealing with children after head injury and when CT scans indicate brain damage around the falx. The possibility of overlooking traumatic pericallosal aneurysms is described by other authors and discussed further in this paper. (orig.)

  8. Narrative Language in Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Andrea; Galetto, Valentina; Zampieri, Elisa; Vorano, Lorenza; Zettin, Marina; Carlomagno, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    Persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI) often show impaired linguistic and/or narrative abilities. The present study aimed to document the features of narrative discourse impairment in a group of adults with TBI. 14 severe TBI non-aphasic speakers (GCS less than 8) in the phase of neurological stability and 14 neurologically intact participants…

  9. Traumatic Brain Injury: Nuclear Medicine Neuroimaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Catasús, Carlos A; Vállez Garcia, David; Le Riverend Morales, Eloísa; Galvizu Sánchez, Reinaldo; Dierckx, Rudi; Dierckx, Rudi AJO; Otte, Andreas; de Vries, Erik FJ; van Waarde, Aren; Leenders, Klaus L

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an up-to-date review of nuclear medicine neuroimaging in traumatic brain injury (TBI). 18F-FDG PET will remain a valuable tool in researching complex mechanisms associated with early metabolic dysfunction in TBI. Although evidence-based imaging studies are needed, 18F-FDG PET

  10. Beam diagnostics for traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikol`skiy Yu.E.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The paper presents aliterature review of domestic and foreign sources of modern methods of diagnostics imaging for traumatic brain injury. Information of the magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography in the of this disease

  11. The electrocardiogram in traumatic right atrial rupture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veldhuisen, DJ; van den Berg, MP

    1999-01-01

    We:report the case of a previously healthy 20-year-old man who had a traumatic rupture of the right atrium. On admission an electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded which is highly remarkable and, retrospectively, suggestive for the diagnosis. The patient died soon after the EGG, and the diagnosis was

  12. Traumatic and alternating delayed intracranial hematomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesoin, F.; Redford, H.; Jomin, M.; Viaud, C.; Pruvo, J.

    1984-11-01

    Repeat computed tomography has enabled us to confirm the concept of delayed hematomas. With this in mind we report two cases of alternating, post-traumatic intracranial hematomas; confirming also the role of tamponade after surgical removal of an intracranial hematoma.

  13. Traumatic and alternating delayed intracranial hematomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesoin, F.; Redford, H.; Jomin, M.; Viaud, C.; Pruvo, J.

    1984-01-01

    Repeat computed tomography has enabled us to confirm the concept of delayed hematomas. With this in mind we report two cases of alternating, post-traumatic intracranial hematomas; confirming also the role of tamponade after surgical removal of an intracranial hematoma. (orig.)

  14. Whiplash and post-traumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, JPC

    Purpose : This study examined the comorbidity of whiplash and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following motor vehicle accidents. A treatment strategy in cases with both disorders is proposed. Method: A review of the literature on psychological consequences of motor vehicle accidents and on

  15. Life events and borderline personality features: the influence of gene–environment interaction and gene–environment correlation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Distel, M.A.; Middeldorp, C.M.; Trull, T.J.; Derom, C.A.; Willemsen, G.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2011-01-01

    Background Traumatic life events are generally more common in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) than in non-patients or patients with other personality disorders. This study investigates whether exposure to life events moderates the genetic architecture of BPD features. As the

  16. A neuromuscular exercise programme versus standard care for patients with traumatic anterior shoulder instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eshoj, Henrik; Rasmussen, Sten; Frich, Lars Henrik

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anterior shoulder dislocation is a common injury and may have considerable impact on shoulder-related quality of life (QoL). If not warranted for initial stabilising surgery, patients are mostly left with little to no post-traumatic rehabilitation. This may be due to lack of evidence......-based exercise programmes. In similar, high-impact injuries (e.g. anterior cruciate ligament tears in the knee) neuromuscular exercise has shown large success in improving physical function and QoL. Thus, the objective of this trial is to compare a nonoperative neuromuscular exercise shoulder programme...... dislocations due to at least one traumatic event will be randomised to 12 weeks of either a standardised, individualised or physiotherapist-supervised neuromuscular shoulder exercise programme or standard care (self-managed shoulder exercise programme). Patients will be stratified according to injury status...

  17. Psychophysiologic testing for post-traumatic stress disorder: forensic psychiatric application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, R K; Orr, S P

    1993-01-01

    The validity of the post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis is limited by both the illusory objectivity of the traumatic event and the subjectivity of the ensuing syndrome. These limitations are especially problematic in the forensic setting. Psychophysiologic measurements may strengthen PTSD's forensic value by offering a more objective assessment technique for cases that find their way into the courtroom. Based upon the results of published research studies conducted in a range of military and civilian, PTSD and non-PTSD subjects, psychophysiologic data can provide evidence helping to establish or refute the presence of the DSM-III-R PTSD arousal criteria, as well as aid psychiatric experts in estimating the probability of the disorder's presence in a given claimant. Psychophysiologic testing should be viewed as one component of a multimethod forensic psychiatric evaluation for PTSD. It is likely that it will soon be offered and, given current legal standards, admitted as evidence in civil and criminal litigation.

  18. Challenges in treating post-traumatic stress disorder and attachment trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jon G

    2003-06-01

    Treating women suffering from trauma poses significant challenges. The diagnostic prototype of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is based on single-event trauma, such as sexual assault in adulthood. Several effective cognitive- behavioral treatments for such traumas have been developed, although many treated patients continue to experience residual symptoms. Even more problematic is the complex developmental psychopathology stemming from a lifetime history of multiple traumas, often beginning with maltreatment in early attachment relationships. A history of attachment trauma undermines the development of capacities to regulate emotional distress and thereby complicates the treatment of acute trauma in adulthood. Such complex trauma requires a multifaceted treatment approach that must balance processing of traumatic memories with strategies to contain the intense emotions this processing evokes. Moreover, conducting such treatment places therapists at risk for secondary trauma such that trauma therapists also must process this stressful experience and implement strategies to regulate their own distress.

  19. Post-traumatic pituitary apoplexy: Case presentation and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Billeci, M.D.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary apoplexy is a dramatic condition that can occur spontaneously or triggered by various precipitating factors. Head trauma is a rare but well-recognized cause of apoplectics events. We present the case of an 81-year-old woman, with negative past medical history and under antiplatelet agents, who experienced an isolated VI cranial nerve palsy 24 h after a mild head trauma. Early brain CT revealed an unknown pituitary lesion without signs of intralesional bleeding. Only late brain MRI imaging revealed pituitary apoplexy together with a subarachnoid hemorrhage. After aggravation of neurological condition the patient, undergo endoscopic transsphenoidal decompression of cranial nerves with rapid deficits improvement. Our aim is to share our experience and to propose the first critical review of all cases of post-traumatic pituitary apoplexy described in literature. We also try to suggest some management advice for post traumatic pituitary apoplexy.

  20. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Following Childbirth: Prevalence and Contributing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Zainab; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Shams, Jamal; Alavi-Majd, Hamid; Mahmoodi, Zohreh; Sajjadi, Homeira

    2013-03-01

    Childbirth might be a traumatic event for some women. This study was conducted with the objective of investigating the prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) following childbirth. The study was designed using a descriptive correlation scheme. The participants were selected from the women referred to the healthcare centers affiliated with Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran. Personal interviews were conducted with 600 women who were 6-8 weeks postpartum and had been undergone to this center for postpartum and child care. One hundred and three (17. 2%) women had symptoms of PTSD following childbirth based on the PTSD Symptom Scale (PSS). The results of logistic regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between maternal occupation (P = 0.01), depression level (P childbirth. PTSD from childbirth occurs in some women. Early identification of risk factors should lead to early therapeutic intervention in the mothers at risk of PTSD.

  1. Chronic idiopathic urticaria and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): an under-recognized comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Madhulika A; Gupta, Aditya K

    2012-01-01

    A large body of literature supports the role of psychologic stress in urticaria; however, the comorbidity between chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a classic stress-mediated syndrome, has received little attention. The underlying etiology of urticaria is not identifiable in about 70% of patients, possibly because of difficulties with identification of a direct cause-and-effect relationship between a potential causative factor and the onset of urticaria. The core features of PTSD (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision [DSMIV-TR]) that are important in urticaria include (1) autonomic nervous system reactivity and state of sympathetic hyperarousal that can manifest as CIU, and (2) the persistent re-experiencing of the traumatic events in PTSD, which can manifest as urticaria or angioedema, or both, affecting a previously traumatized body region (eg, urticarial wheals affecting the body region where the patient had been stabbed years earlier). The following features of PTSD make it difficult to use the cause-and-effect model for the determination of causation: (1) PTSD may first emerge years after the initial trauma and is classified as PTSD with Delayed Onset (DSMIV-TR); and (2) the traumatic triggers that precipitate the PTSD symptoms may be unique and idiosyncratic to the patient and not even qualify as stressful or traumatic by standard criteria (eg, precipitating events for the PTSD may include smell of a certain cologne that was used by the perpetrator or witnessing a scene in a movie that was reminiscent of the location where the abuse occurred). Finally, in PTSD with Delayed Onset, patients may not make a conscious association between their recurrent urticaria and their earlier traumas because they can develop classically conditioned associations between stimuli that are reminiscent of the original abuse situation and their somatic reactions such as urticaria. The clinician

  2. Topology of Event Horizon

    OpenAIRE

    Siino, Masaru

    1997-01-01

    The topologies of event horizons are investigated. Considering the existence of the endpoint of the event horizon, it cannot be differentiable. Then there are the new possibilities of the topology of the event horizon though they are excluded in smooth event horizons. The relation between the topology of the event horizon and the endpoint of it is revealed. A torus event horizon is caused by two-dimensional endpoints. One-dimensional endpoints provide the coalescence of spherical event horizo...

  3. Cumulative trauma and partner conflict predict post-traumatic stress disorder in postpartum African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauff, Nancy J; Fry-McComish, Judith; Chiodo, Lisa M

    2017-08-01

    To describe relationships between cumulative trauma, partner conflict and post-traumatic stress in African-American postpartum women. Cumulative trauma exposure estimates for women in the USA range from 51-69%. During pregnancy, most trauma research has focused on physical injury to the mother. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with trauma and more prevalent in African-American women than women of other groups. Knowledge about both the rate and impact of cumulative trauma on pregnancy may contribute to our understanding of women seeking prenatal care, and disparities in infant morbidity and mortality. This retrospective, correlational, cross-sectional study took place on postpartum units of two Detroit hospitals. Participants were 150 African-American women aged between 18-45 who had given birth. Mothers completed the Cumulative Trauma Scale, Conflict Tactics Scale, Clinician Administered Post-traumatic Stress Scale, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and a Demographic Data form. Descriptive statistics, correlations and multiple regressions were used for data analysis. All participants reported at least one traumatic event in their lifetime. Cumulative trauma and partner conflict predicted PTSD, with the trauma of a life-threatening event for a loved one reported by 60% of the sample. Nearly, one-fourth of the women screened were at risk for PTSD. Increased cumulative trauma, increased partner conflict and lower level of education were related to higher rates of PTSD symptoms. Both cumulative trauma and partner conflict in the past year predict PTSD. Reasoning was used most often for partner conflict resolution. The results of this study offer additional knowledge regarding relationships between cumulative trauma, partner conflict and PTSD in African-American women. Healthcare providers need to be sensitive to patient life-threatening events, personal failures, abuse and other types of trauma. Current evidence supports the need to assess for

  4. Impact of post-traumatic stress disorder on oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Solis, Ana Cristina; Araújo, Álvaro Cabral; Corchs, Felipe; Bernik, Marcio; Duran, Érica Panzani; Silva, Cláudio; Lotufo-Neto, Francisco

    2017-09-01

    The stress experienced as an intense and traumatic event can increase the odds of orofacial pain, affect the biomechanics of masticatory system and compromise the periodontal health. This study was conducted to investigate the impact of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on oral health. A case-control study with a convenience sample was designed. Probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), bleeding on probing, and plaque were recorded at 6 sites per tooth. A visual analog scale (VAS) was used to evaluate the pain after probing. The Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders Axis II (RDC/TMD Axis II) and Structured Clinical Interview (DSM-IV) were also applied. The final sample comprised 38 PTSD patients and 38 controls. Patients with PTSD had a higher degree of chronic pain, more depression and nonspecific physical symptoms (including and excluding pain) compared with the control group (Fisher exact test p PTSD also had more pain after periodontal probing compared with controls (Mann-Whitney, p = 0.037). The prevalence of sites with CAL or PPD ≥ 4, ≥ 5, ≥ 6 were not different between the groups. Age was associated with moderate periodontitis (multivariable logistic regression model, OR = 3.33, 95% CI = 1.03-10.75, p = 0.04). The severity of PTSD precluded an ample sample size. Patients with PTSD presented a worse RDC/TMD Axis II profile, more pain after periodontal probing, and no difference related to periodontal clinical parameters. More studies are needed to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Traumatic atlantoaxial subluxation, posterior transfacet fixation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Cahueque Lemus

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cervical spine injuries are often described as catastrophic events in neurological terms, with very low survival rate. Lesions to C3-C7 segment are the most common (about 80% followed by segment C1-C2 (20%. The cervical spine injuries are of great importance, both by severity as the neurological implications. It is important to consider that among cervical traumas that do not present neurological damage at the time of the accident, 10% have deficits later, so all cervical trauma should be considered as potential spinal cord traumas, until the evolution of the case shows that definitively there is no spinal cord or nerve root damage. Cases have been reported with both atlantooccipital and atlantoaxial dislocations without neurological deficit, so these lesions went unnoticed in the emergency services. Some of the events to be considered at the time of the accident are suboccipital pain on axial skull pressure and spontaneous stiffness of the patient's neck. Dysphagia, pain on palpation of the anterior neck and a visible increase of prepharyngeal mass can also be observed, which is why it is important to keep the suspicion of craniocervical trauma in all patients who have these symptoms and carry out the relevant tests. This paper presents a case of post-traumatic atlantoaxial dislocation, which showed no neurological deficit at the time of the accident, but was later presented, as well as the surgical procedure carried out.

  6. Event segmentation ability uniquely predicts event memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Jesse Q; Zacks, Jeffrey M; Hambrick, David Z; Zacks, Rose T; Kurby, Christopher A; Bailey, Heather R; Eisenberg, Michelle L; Beck, Taylor M

    2013-11-01

    Memory for everyday events plays a central role in tasks of daily living, autobiographical memory, and planning. Event memory depends in part on segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful units. This study examined the relationship between event segmentation and memory in a lifespan sample to answer the following question: Is the ability to segment activity into meaningful events a unique predictor of subsequent memory, or is the relationship between event perception and memory accounted for by general cognitive abilities? Two hundred and eight adults ranging from 20 to 79years old segmented movies of everyday events and attempted to remember the events afterwards. They also completed psychometric ability tests and tests measuring script knowledge for everyday events. Event segmentation and script knowledge both explained unique variance in event memory above and beyond the psychometric measures, and did so as strongly in older as in younger adults. These results suggest that event segmentation is a basic cognitive mechanism, important for memory across the lifespan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Considerations for Experimental Animal Models of Concussion, Traumatic Brain Injury, and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy—These Matters Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W. Wojnarowicz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal models of concussion, traumatic brain injury (TBI, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE are widely available and routinely deployed in laboratories around the world. Effective animal modeling requires careful consideration of four basic principles. First, animal model use must be guided by clarity of definitions regarding the human disease or condition being modeled. Concussion, TBI, and CTE represent distinct clinical entities that require clear differentiation: concussion is a neurological syndrome, TBI is a neurological event, and CTE is a neurological disease. While these conditions are all associated with head injury, the pathophysiology, clinical course, and medical management of each are distinct. Investigators who use animal models of these conditions must take into account these clinical distinctions to avoid misinterpretation of results and category mistakes. Second, model selection must be grounded by clarity of purpose with respect to experimental questions and frame of reference of the investigation. Distinguishing injury context (“inputs” from injury consequences (“outputs” may be helpful during animal model selection, experimental design and execution, and interpretation of results. Vigilance is required to rout out, or rigorously control for, model artifacts with potential to interfere with primary endpoints. The widespread use of anesthetics in many animal models illustrates the many ways that model artifacts can confound preclinical results. Third, concordance between key features of the animal model and the human disease or condition being modeled is required to confirm model biofidelity. Fourth, experimental results observed in animals must be confirmed in human subjects for model validation. Adherence to these principles serves as a bulwark against flawed interpretation of results, study replication failure, and confusion in the field. Implementing these principles will advance basic science discovery and

  8. Neurotherapy of Traumatic Brain Injury/Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Vietnam Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David V; Esty, Mary Lee

    2015-10-01

    Previous report suggested the beneficial effects of an adaptation of the Flexyx Neurotherapy System (FNS) for the amelioration of mixed traumatic brain injury/post-traumatic stress symptoms in veterans of the Afghanistan and Iraq wars. As a novel variant of electroencephalograph biofeedback, FNS falls within the bioenergy domain of complementary and alternative medicine. Rather than learning voluntary control over the production/inhibition of brain wave patterns, FNS involves offsetting stimulation of brain wave activity by means of an external energy source, specifically, the conduction of electromagnetic energy stimulation via the connecting electroencephalograph cables. Essentially, these procedures subliminally induce strategic distortion of ongoing brain wave activity to presumably facilitate resetting of more adaptive patterns of activity. Reported herein are two cases of Vietnam veterans with mixed traumatic brain injury/post-traumatic stress symptoms, each treated with FNS for 25 sessions. Comparisons of pre- and post-treatment questionnaire assessments revealed notable decreases for all symptoms, suggesting improvements across the broad domains of cognition, pain, sleep, fatigue, and mood/emotion, including post-traumatic stress symptoms, as well as for overall activity levels. Findings suggest FNS treatment may be of potential benefit for the partial amelioration of symptoms, even in some individuals for whom symptoms have been present for decades. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  9. Lifetime post-traumatic stress symptoms are related to the health-related quality of life and severity of pain/fatigue in patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Osso, L; Carmassi, C; Consoli, G; Conversano, C; Ramacciotti, C E; Musetti, L; Massimetti, E; Pergentini, I; Corsi, M; Ciapparelli, A; Bazzichi, L

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of lifetime potentially traumatic events, including losses, and of post-traumatic stress symptoms on the severity of illness and health-related quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia (FM). Seventy patients with FM, diagnosed according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria, were consecutively enrolled at the Unit of Rheumatology of the University of Pisa, Italy. Assessments included: SCID-I/P; the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 Health Survey (MOS SF-36), for the severity of pain; the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL); the Trauma and Loss Spectrum Self-Report (TALS-SR) life-time version. The FIQ total score was related to the number of loss events (Domain I) and to symptoms of grief reactions (Domain II) and re-experiencing (Domain V) of the TALS-SR. The 'VAS fatigue' scores (FIQ) were significantly related to the TALS-SR symptoms of grief reactions (Domain II) and re-experiencing (Domain V). The Mental Component Summary and Bodily Pain scores of the MOS SF-36 were significantly related to all TALS-SR domains, the latter with the exception of the VIII (Arousal). Our results corroborate the presence of a relationship between the lifetime exposure to potentially traumatic events, in particular loss events, and lifetime post-traumatic stress symptoms and the severity of illness and HRQoL in patients with FM.

  10. Concurrent and prospective associations of habitual overgeneral memory and prospection with symptoms of depression, general anxiety, obsessive compulsiveness, and post-traumatic stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, Paul A.; Huntjens, Rafaele J. C.; van den Hout, Marcel A.

    2014-01-01

    Reduced memory specificity is associated with depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and some other forms of psychopathology. Reduced memory specificity is also associated with reduced specificity of envisioned future events. Research in this area has mostly relied on cue-word methods

  11. Traumatic subdural hematoma in the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jenn-Yeu; Chen, Yu-Hao; Hung, Kuang-Chen; Chang, Ti-Sheng

    2011-10-01

    Traumatic spinal subdural hematoma is rare and its mechanism remains unclear. This intervention describes a patient with mental retardation who was suffering from back pain and progressive weakness of the lower limbs following a traffic accident. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed a lumbar subdural lesion. Hematoma was identified in the spinal subdural space during an operation. The muscle power of both lower limbs recovered to normal after surgery. The isolated traumatic spinal subdural hematoma was not associated with intracranial subdural hemorrhage. A spinal subdural hematoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of spinal cord compression, especially for patients who have sustained spinal trauma. Emergency surgical decompression is usually the optimal treatment for a spinal subdural hematoma with acute deterioration and severe neurological deficits. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. [Unseen Suffering - Therapy for Traumatized Refugee Children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattenschlager, Andreas; Nahler, Stefanie; Reisinger, Regine

    2016-12-01

    Unseen Suffering - Therapy for Traumatized Refugee Children In March 2015 the psychological counselling service (Psychologische Familien- und Lebensberatung) of Caritas Ulm initiated a psychotherapy project for traumatized minor refugees. Besides individual and group therapy, networking and qualification of qualified personnel and volunteers, in autumn 2015 we started offering our services on-site in a large collective accommodation for asylum seekers in Ulm. This was mainly because - in contrast to unaccompanied, mostly adolescent, minor refugees - our services appeared to reach children only by chance. In our opinion this is mostly due to the fact that children's suffering is often far less noticed. This paper describes our first year's project work, followed by reports on the use of psychodrama groups with refugee children and on the therapeutic work in a collective accommodation for asylum seekers.

  13. Computerized axial tomography in traumatic cervical lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Tsunemaro

    1982-01-01

    Although plain computerized axial tomography cannot routinely demonstrate the spinal cord, it does provide excellent visualization of the bony outline of the spinal canal and vertebral column. So it should be reasonable to use this technique in cases of cervical traumatic disorders. In this paper we presented 10 cases of cervical traumatic lesions; 3 atlanto-axial dislocation, 2 cervical canal stenosis, 3 OPLL, 1 intramedullary hematoma and 1 C 2 -neurinoma. In some patients neurologic deficits were induced by cervical trauma. Bony lesions appeared more adequately deliniated than intraspinal lesions, however, in some cases intramedullary changes could also be demonstrated. The use of metrizamide with high resolution CT-scanner could improve the usefullness of this technique. (author)

  14. Arterial embolization therapy of traumatic renal hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Changxu; Chen Xiaolin; Huang Changhai; Pu Ge

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the angiographic manifestations and arterial embolizatin for traumatic renal hemorrhage when conservative treatment had failed. methods: 5 cases, all male, ranging in age from 12-29 years. All cases had history of injury. the main symptoms included severe abdominal pain, hematuria or coffee colored urine, rapid heart rate, hypotension. 3 suffered hemorrhagic shock. All cases underwent angiographic exam and the diagnosis was confirmed. Embolization materials were mainly self-blood clot and gelfoam. Results: Symptoms in all cases subsided quickly after embolization. Blood pressure recovered to normal within 12 hours; Hematuresis and abdominal pain disappeared or reduced in 1-2 days. One month later, intravenous urographic exam revealed recovered function of the injured kidneys. Conclusion: Renal arterial embolization in treating traumatic renal hemorrhage can control the bleeding while preserving the injured kidneys

  15. Traumatic knee extension deficit (the locked knee)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helmark, I C; Neergaard, K; Krogsgaard, M R

    2007-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the validity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and arthroscopy in knees with acute, traumatic extension deficit (the "locked knee"), and evaluated whether arthroscopy of knees with no mechanical pathology could be avoided by MRI evaluation. The study consisted...... of 50 patients who had an acute, traumatic extension deficit of the knee. All patients were submitted to MRI prior to arthroscopy. Following MRI and surgery, standardized forms were filled out, attempting to objectify the findings. The orthopaedic surgeon was not aware of the MRI result prior to surgery....... Evaluating MRI, all grade-3 meniscal lesions were considered able to cause a mechanical block as well as acute partial or total anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-ruptures. ACL-ruptures with an old appearance were not considered able to cause locking. Assuming that arthroscopy was the gold standard...

  16. [Magneto-encephalographic (MEG) brain recordings during traumatic memory recall in women with post-traumatic stress disorder: A pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottraux, J; Lecaignard, F; Yao, S-N; De Mey-Guillard, C; Haour, F; Delpuech, C; Servan-Schreiber, D

    2015-06-01

    female patients with milder dissociative symptoms limit our conclusions. The MEG protocol we used may also explain some partial discrepancies with previous MEG studies. However, our aim was to provoke a specific autobiographic recall of a traumatic event unfolding several sequential mental images along three minutes as in exposure therapy for PTSD. Despite its limitations, this pilot study is the first to provide MEG data during trauma recall. It suggests that recalling a specific traumatic event along three minutes results in hypo-activations of the brain regions regulating language and emotions. This paves the way to recording whole sessions of specific therapies for PTSD, with MEG using the millisecond resolution. MEG might be of interest to study the suppression of traumatic memories and their activation and habituation through prolonged graduated exposure in imagination across several sessions. MEG could also be used to study the effects of medication on PTSD symptoms. A controlled replication in a larger sample including male and female patients with various traumatic experiences is needed. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Traumatic atlantooccipital dislocation injury in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J; West, J S

    1994-10-01

    The tragedy of trauma turns into triumph when the surgery team members' efforts result in victory for the patient. Nowhere is this more true than in successful pediatric trauma care. Giving a child a second chance at life and the family an opportunity for a new beginning is the highest reward for the trauma team's years of professional training and practice. Traumatic atlantoocipital dislocation injury usually results in death, but recent neurosurgery trauma advances are increasing pediatric survival rates.

  18. Traumatic Brain Injury: Caregivers’ Problems and Needs

    OpenAIRE

    syed tajjudin syed hassan; WF Khaw; AR Rosna; J Husna

    2011-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an increasingly major world health problem. This short review using the most pertinent articles on TBI caregiving problems and needs highlights the pressing issues. Articles focusing on both TBI-caregivers’ problems and needs are rarely found, especially for developing countries. Most TBI-caregiving is done by family members, whose altered lives portend burden and stresses which add to the overwhelming demand of caring for the TBI-survivor. Lack of information,...

  19. Cognitive Rehabilitation for Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-08

    Cate Miller, Dr. Maria Mouratidis, Dr. George Prigatano, Dr. Carole Roth, LTC Michael Russell, LT Rick Schobitz, Dr. Joel Scholten, CAPT Edward Simmer...New York: The Guilford Press. Gordon W.A, Zafonte R., Cicerone, K., Cantor , J., Brown, M., Lombard, L., Goldsmith, R, & Chandna, T. (2006...Traumatic brain injury rehabilitation: State of the science. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 85, 343–82. Gordon, W.A., Cantor

  20. Virtual Reality for Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa R. Zanier

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this perspective, we discuss the potential of virtual reality (VR in the assessment and rehabilitation of traumatic brain injury, a silent epidemic of extremely high burden and no pharmacological therapy available. VR, endorsed by the mobile and gaming industries, is now available in more usable and cheaper tools allowing its therapeutic engagement both at the bedside and during the daily life at chronic stages after injury with terrific potential for a longitudinal disease modifying effect.