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Sample records for single-question screening test

  1. A single-question screen for rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postuma, Ronald B; Arnulf, Isabelle; Hogl, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia that is an important risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD) and Lewy body dementia. Its prevalence is unknown. One barrier to determining prevalence is that current screening tools are too long for large......-scale epidemiologic surveys. Therefore, we designed the REM Sleep Behavior Disorder Single-Question Screen (RBD1Q), a screening question for dream enactment with a simple yes/no response....

  2. A single-question screen for rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: a multicenter validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postuma, Ronald B; Arnulf, Isabelle; Hogl, Birgit; Iranzo, Alex; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Dauvilliers, Yves; Oertel, Wolfgang; Ju, Yo-El; Puligheddu, Monica; Jennum, Poul; Pelletier, Amelie; Wolfson, Christina; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Frauscher, Birgit; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Cochen De Cock, Valerie; Unger, Marcus M; Stiasny-Kolster, Karin; Fantini, Maria Livia; Montplaisir, Jacques Y

    2012-06-01

    Idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia that is an important risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD) and Lewy body dementia. Its prevalence is unknown. One barrier to determining prevalence is that current screening tools are too long for large-scale epidemiologic surveys. Therefore, we designed the REM Sleep Behavior Disorder Single-Question Screen (RBD1Q), a screening question for dream enactment with a simple yes/no response. Four hundred and eighty-four sleep-clinic-based participants (242 idiopathic RBD patients and 242 controls) completed the screen during a multicenter case-control study. All participants underwent a polysomnogram to define gold-standard diagnosis according to standard criteria. We found a sensitivity of 93.8% and a specificity of 87.2%. Sensitivity and specificity were similar in healthy volunteers, compared to controls or patients with other sleep diagnoses. A single-question screen for RBD may reliably detect disease, with psychometric properties favorably comparable to those reported for longer questionnaires. Copyright © 2012 Movement Disorder Society.

  3. The Hearing Handicap Inventory for Elderly-Screening (HHIE-S) versus a single question: reliability, validity, and relations with quality of life measures in the elderly community, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Kimiko; Ikeda, Hiroki; Hanaie, Kaoru; Morikawa, Masayuki; Iwamoto, Junko; Okamoto, Nozomi; Saeki, Keigo; Kurumatani, Norio

    2013-06-01

    Little is known about the usefulness of the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly-Screening (HHIE-S) and a single question (SQ) in assessing hearing impairment (HI) and the impact of HI on quality of life (QOL). The objective of this study was to examine the reliability, validity, and associations with QOL measures (i.e., subjective well-being, depressive symptoms, subjective loneliness, and physical functioning) of the HHIE-S and the SQ in the elderly community. A self-report questionnaire including HHIE-S, SQ, Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale, UCLA Loneliness Scale, and the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence was administered to community elderly (781 males and 950 females). Among them, 97 males and 100 females also responded voluntarily to a request for test-retest and auditory tests. The criterion validity was tested by using pure-tone averages. Regarding the reliability of HHIE-S, Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.91, Spearman-Brown coefficient was 0.90, and intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.85. Regarding the test-retest reliability of SQ, kappa coefficient was 0.65. HHIE-S had significantly lower sensitivity in identifying >25-dB HI, but significantly higher specificity for the detection of >40-dB HI than SQ. HHIE-S had stronger associations with QOL measures than did SQ. HHIE-S had high reliability, while SQ had insufficient reliability. HHIE-S was more specific in detecting HI and more sensitive in assessing the impact of HI on QOL than SQ. HHIE-S is a more effective instrument for assessing HI and QOL research than SQ in the elderly community.

  4. Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FAQs Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests Patient Education FAQs Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests Patient Education Pamphlets - ...

  5. Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... two drinks (the T question) = 2 points. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) can detect alcohol problems experienced ...

  6. Newborn screening tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... screen. A provider will place a small soft sensor on the baby's skin and attach it to ... up testing confirms that the child has a disease, treatment can be started, before symptoms appear. Blood ...

  7. Short apraxia screening test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiguarda, Ramon; Clarens, Florencia; Amengual, Alejandra; Drucaroff, Lucas; Hallett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Limb apraxia comprises many different and common disorders, which are largely unrecognized essentially because there is no easy-to-use screening test sensitive enough to identify all types of limb praxis deficits. We evaluated 70 right-handed patients with limb apraxia due to a single focal lesion of the left hemisphere and 40 normal controls, using a new apraxia screening test. The test covered 12 items including: intransitive gestures, transitive gestures elicited under verbal, visual, and tactile modalities, imitation of meaningful and meaningless postures and movements, and a multiple object test. Interrater reliability was maximum for a cutoff of >2 positive items identifying apraxia on the short battery (Cohen's kappa .918, p 3 items (Cohen's kappa .768, p 2 was higher, indicating greater apraxia diagnosis agreement between raters at this cutoff value. The screening test proved to have high specificity and sensitivity to diagnose every type of upper limb praxis deficit, thus showing advantages over previously published tests.

  8. Screening Tests for Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Screening Tests for Birth Defects Home For Patients Search FAQs Screening Tests ... FAQ165, April 2014 PDF Format Screening Tests for Birth Defects Pregnancy What is a birth defect? What ...

  9. Neonatal cystic fibrosis screening test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cystic fibrosis screening - neonatal; Immunoreactive trypsinogen; IRT test; CF - screening ... Cystic fibrosis is a disease passed down through families. CF causes thick, sticky mucus to build up in ...

  10. Glucose screening tests during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral glucose tolerance test - pregnancy; OGTT - pregnancy; Glucose challenge test - pregnancy; Gestational diabetes - glucose screening ... During the first step, you will have a glucose screening test: You DO NOT need to prepare ...

  11. Newborn Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the brain and spinal cord). Newborn screening for sickle cell disease can alert doctors to begin antibiotic treatment before infections happen. Newborn screening also helps doctors monitor symptoms more closely and can detect other disorders affecting ...

  12. TB Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Autoantibodies Digoxin Direct Antiglobulin Test Direct LDL Cholesterol Drug Abuse Testing EGFR Mutation Testing Electrolytes Emergency and Overdose ... Signify Treatment Failure? American Family Physician [On-line journal]. Available online at http://www.aafp.org/afp/ ...

  13. Chemical compatibility screening test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1997-12-01

    A program for evaluating packaging components that may be used in transporting mixed-waste forms has been developed and the first phase has been completed. This effort involved the screening of ten plastic materials in four simulant mixed-waste types. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer rubber, cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), epichlorohydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene rubber (EPDM), fluorocarbon (Viton or Kel-F), polytetrafluoroethylene, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), isobutylene-isoprene copolymer rubber (butyl), polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. The testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to 286,000 rads of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste types at 60{degrees}C. The seal materials were tested using vapor transport rate (VTR) measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. For these tests, a screening criterion of 0.9 g/hr/m{sup 2} for VTR and a specific gravity change of 10% was used. Based on this work, it was concluded that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only Viton passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture simulant mixed waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. For specific gravity testing of liner materials, the data showed that while all materials with the exception of polypropylene passed the screening criteria, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE offered the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals.

  14. Chemical compatibility screening test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1997-12-01

    A program for evaluating packaging components that may be used in transporting mixed-waste forms has been developed and the first phase has been completed. This effort involved the screening of ten plastic materials in four simulant mixed-waste types. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer rubber, cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), epichlorohydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene rubber (EPDM), fluorocarbon (Viton or Kel-F), polytetrafluoroethylene, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), isobutylene-isoprene copolymer rubber (butyl), polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. The testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to 286,000 rads of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste types at 60 degrees C. The seal materials were tested using vapor transport rate (VTR) measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. For these tests, a screening criterion of 0.9 g/hr/m 2 for VTR and a specific gravity change of 10% was used. Based on this work, it was concluded that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only Viton passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture simulant mixed waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. For specific gravity testing of liner materials, the data showed that while all materials with the exception of polypropylene passed the screening criteria, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE offered the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals

  15. Using a single question to assess physical activity in older adults: a reliability and validity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill Dawn P

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single-item physical activity questions provide a quick approximation of physical activity levels. While recall questionnaires provide a more detailed picture of an individual's level of physical activity, single-item questions may be more appropriate in certain situations. The aim of this study was to evaluate two single-item physical activity questions (one absolute question and one relative question for test-retest reliability, convergent validity, and discriminant validity, in a sample of older adults. Methods Data was obtained from the Project to Prevent Falls in Veterans, a fall risk-factor screening and modification trial. One question measured absolute physical activity (seldom, moderately, vigorously active and one measured relative physical activity (more, about as, less active than peers. Test-retest reliability was examined using weighted Kappa statistics (κ in a sample of 43 subjects. Validity was assessed using correlation coefficients (r in participants who received clinical assessments (n = 159. Results The absolute physical activity question was more reliable than the relative physical activity question (κ = 0.75 vs. κ = 0.56. Convergent validity, however, was stronger for the relative physical activity question (r = 0.28 to 0.57 vs. r = 0.10 to 0.33. Discriminant validity was similar for both questions. For the relative physical activity question, there was moderate agreement when this question was re-administered seven days later, fair to moderate/good associations when compared with indicators of physical function, and little to no associations when compared with measures hypothesized to be theoretically not related to physical activity. Conclusions The relative physical activity question had the best combination of test-retest reliability, convergent validity and discriminant validity. In studies requiring a measure of physical activity, where physical activity is not the primary focus and more

  16. Testing Precision Screening for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI research article about individualized approaches that could help identify those at risk of breast cancer who need to be screened and testing screening intervals that are appropriate for each person’s level of risk.

  17. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lesion? • What are the different types of abnormal Pap test results? • What testing is needed after an abnormal ... that could lead to cancer. Screening includes the Pap test and, for some women, testing for a virus ...

  18. Cancer Screening: How Do Screening Tests Become Standard Tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colonoscopy for colorectal cancer . Mammograms for breast cancer . Pap tests (Pap smears) for cervical cancer . Different types of ... follow a group of women who have regular Pap tests, and divide them into those who test positive ...

  19. Thrombophilia screening: whom to test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Aisha; Massicotte, M Patricia

    2012-08-16

    In this issue of Blood, Holzhauer et al have determined a novel method of identifying patients with protein C, protein S, and antithrombin deficiency who are at increased risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE; see figure). Children with VTE and their relatives were screened for inherited thrombophilia including proteins C and S and antithrombin deficiency; and Factor (F)V G1691A and FII G20210A. Their study demonstrates that relatives with proteins C and S and antithrombin deficiency are at a significantly higher risk of developing VTE compared with those without inherited thrombophilia.

  20. Screening and Invasive Testing in Twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Monni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal screening and testing for trisomy 21 in twin pregnancies poses a number of challenges: the exact estimate of the a priori risk of trisomy 21, the choice of prenatal screening test and/or invasive techniques to employ for the diagnosis and the impact of the result on the options of treatment in case of discordant results within a twin pair or among multiples. These different aspects are discussed below while recognizing that many issues remain unresolved.

  1. Reactor operator screening test experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, W.J.; Penkala, J.L.; Witzig, W.F.

    1976-01-01

    When it became apparent to Duquesne Light Company of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, that the throughput of their candidate selection-Phase I training-reactor operator certification sequence was something short of acceptable, the utility decided to ask consultants to make recommendations with respect to candidate selection procedures. The recommendation implemented was to create a Nuclear Training Test that would predict the success of a candidate in completing Phase I training and subsequently qualify for reactor operator certification. The mechanics involved in developing and calibrating the Nuclear Training Test are described. An arbitration decision that resulted when a number of International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers union employees filed a grievance alleging that the selection examination was unfair, invalid, not job related, inappropriate, and discriminatorily evaluated is also discussed. The arbitration decision favored the use of the Nuclear Training Test

  2. Newborn Screening Tests for your Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... oxygen in your baby’s blood by using a sensor attached to his finger or foot. This test is used to screen babies for a group of heart conditions called critical congenital heart disease (CCHD). Your baby gets this test before he ...

  3. Cancer screening tests for small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleis, Stephanie E

    2014-09-01

    Cancer is increasingly more common. Several tests for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer in companion animals have been developed. Screening tests discussed include those for lymphoid neoplasia, hemangiosarcoma, and transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. None of these tests should be used in isolation for diagnosis. Vincristine and doxorubicin are mainstays in the treatment of canine lymphoma. However, it is important and accepted practice to test individuals of predisposed breeds for this mutation before administering these drugs in a lymphoma protocol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P

    1990-12-15

    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  5. Comparison of single questions and brief questionnaire with longer validated food frequency questionnaire to assess adequate fruit and vegetable intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Amelia; Roberts, Kia; O'Leary, Fiona; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret Anne

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if a single question (SQ) for fruit and a SQ or five-item questionnaire for vegetable consumption (VFQ) could replace a longer food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to screen for inadequate versus adequate intakes in populations. Participants (109) completed three test screeners: fruit SQ, vegetable SQ, and a five-item VFQ followed by the reference 74-item FFQ (version 2 of the Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies [DQESv2]) including 13 fruit and 25 vegetable items. The five-item VFQ asked about intake of salad vegetables, cooked vegetables, white potatoes, legumes, and vegetable juice. The screeners were compared with the reference (DQESv2 FFQ) for sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive powers (PPV, NPV) to detect intakes of two or more servings of fruit and three or more servings of vegetables. Relative validity was examined using Bland-Altman statistics. The fruit SQ showed a PPV of 56% and an NPV of 83%. The PPV for the vegetable SQ was 30% and the NPV was 89%. For the five-item VFQ, the PPV was 39% and the NPV was 85%. Bland-Altman plots and linear regression equations showed that although the screener showed good agreement for fruit (unstandardized b1 coefficient = 0.04) for vegetable intake the difference between methods increased at higher intake levels (unstandardized b1 coefficients = -0.3 for the SQ, b1 = -0.6 for five-item VFQ). The fruit SQ and the five-item VFQ are suitable replacements for longer FFQs to detect inadequate intake and assess population mean but not individual intakes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fresnel Prism on Hess Screen Test

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, Kyung Min; Samuel Kim, Ungsoo

    2013-01-01

    A 65-year-old male patient complained of diplopia after a cataract surgery. He had esotropia of 18 prism diopters (PDs) at distant and near deviation, and therefore, we performed the Hess screen test to identify any abnormal eye movement. However, the indicator was found to be out of bounds, and therefore, the test could not be completed. Therefore, the test was subsequently performed with a 20 PD base-out Fresnel prism, and an abduction deficit was observed in the right eye, but not in the l...

  7. Mammography and Other Screening Tests for Breast Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ178 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Mammography and Other Screening Tests for Breast Problems • What ... test? • Why is breast screening important? • What is mammography? • Why is mammography done? • How should I prepare ...

  8. Towards single screening tests for brucellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K.; Smith, P.; Yu, W.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) and a fluorescence polarisation assay (FPA), each capable of detecting antibody in several species of hosts to smooth and rough members of the genus Brucella. The I-ELISA uses a mixture of smooth lipopolysaccharide (SLPS...... than did I-ELISA procedures using each individual antigen separately. Similarly, the assay using combined antigens detected antibody in slightly fewer animals not exposed to Brucella sp. When a universal cutoff of 10% positivity was used (relative to strongly positive control sera of each species......-ELISA and the FPA with combined antigens were suitable as screening tests for all species of Brucella in the animal species tested....

  9. [Mokken scaling of the Cognitive Screening Test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesfeldt, H F A

    2009-10-01

    The Cognitive Screening Test (CST) is a twenty-item orientation questionnaire in Dutch, that is commonly used to evaluate cognitive impairment. This study applied Mokken Scale Analysis, a non-parametric set of techniques derived from item response theory (IRT), to CST-data of 466 consecutive participants in psychogeriatric day care. The full item set and the standard short version of fourteen items both met the assumptions of the monotone homogeneity model, with scalability coefficient H = 0.39, which is considered weak. In order to select items that would fulfil the assumption of invariant item ordering or the double monotonicity model, the subjects were randomly partitioned into a training set (50% of the sample) and a test set (the remaining half). By means of an automated item selection eleven items were found to measure one latent trait, with H = 0.67 and item H coefficients larger than 0.51. Cross-validation of the item analysis in the remaining half of the subjects gave comparable values (H = 0.66; item H coefficients larger than 0.56). The selected items involve year, place of residence, birth date, the monarch's and prime minister's names, and their predecessors. Applying optimal discriminant analysis (ODA) it was found that the full set of twenty CST items performed best in distinguishing two predefined groups of patients of lower or higher cognitive ability, as established by an independent criterion derived from the Amsterdam Dementia Screening Test. The chance corrected predictive value or prognostic utility was 47.5% for the full item set, 45.2% for the fourteen items of the standard short version of the CST, and 46.1% for the homogeneous, unidimensional set of selected eleven items. The results of the item analysis support the application of the CST in cognitive assessment, and revealed a more reliable 'short' version of the CST than the standard short version (CST14).

  10. [Utilization of the screening test for discharge support].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikedo, Hasue; Morimoto, Ritsuko; Matsumoto, Saeko; Nakajo, Ikuko; Nakagawa, Michiyo

    2005-12-01

    We hand out a list of screening tests for discharge support (the screening) to all patients upon admission, so that they can receive an early discharge. Implementing the screening as a balanced score card (BSC) evaluation index of the work performance by the nursing division, we were able to screen more than 40% of newly admitted patients immediately after the introduction of the screening. When more than two items of the screening questionnaire were checked, a discharge support intervention was introduced. Patients who checked items on the screening questionnaire have tended to request discharge support within a week of admission.

  11. Olfactory screening test in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibenstein, A; Fioretti, A B; Simaskou, M N; Sucapane, P; Mearelli, S; Mina, C; Amabile, G; Fusetti, M

    2005-07-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a transient status between physiologic ageing and dementia. Each year more than 12% of subjects with MCI develop Alzheimer's disease. This study evaluated the presence of an olfactory deficit in amnesic MCI (aMCI) patients. Twenty-nine patients diagnosed with aMCI and a homogeneous control group of 29 subjects were enrolled in the study. Olfactory function was assessed by the Sniffin' Sticks Screening Test (SSST) and the Mini Mental State Examination, the Clinical Dementia Rating, the Geriatric Depression Scale and the Mental Deterioration Battery were used to evaluate the neurocognitive status. aMCI patients showed a significant impairment of their olfactory identification compared to controls (SSST score: 8.3+/-2.1 vs. 10.8+/-0.9; p<0.001). These results suggest that olfactory tests should be part of the diagnostic armamentarium of pre-clinical dementia. A long-term follow up might confirm the olfactory identification function as an early and reliable marker in the diagnosis of pre-clinical dementia.

  12. Prostate Cancer Screening: Should You Get a PSA Test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staff Cancer screening tests — including the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test to look for signs of prostate cancer — ... to the person undergoing the testing. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by both cancerous (malignant) ...

  13. Screening with Papanicolaou tests in Alberta: Are we Choosing Wisely?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Christopher J; Chen, Wenxin; Rose, Marianne Sarah; Cooke, Lara J

    2018-01-01

    To describe the prevalence and geographic distribution of cervical cancer screening, as well as the age groups of those undergoing screening, in Alberta, and to determine if screening practices conform to current guidelines and follow Choosing Wisely Canada recommendations. Descriptive study using data from the Alberta Ministry of Health Analytics and Performance Reporting Branch. Alberta. Women who had 1 or more Papanicolaou tests between 2011 and 2013. Number of women aged 15 to 20 and those aged 70 and older who had 1 or more Pap tests in a 3-year period; year-to-year trends in screening rates for women in these 2 age groups; trends in screening rates in various geographic regions (ie, cities and zones) in Alberta; and the discipline of clinicians who ordered the Pap tests. Between 2011 and 2013, 805 632 women in the province of Alberta had 1 or more Pap tests for cervical cancer screening. Overall, 25 511 (17.5%) women aged 15 to 20 and 16 818 (10.3%) aged 70 and older were screened contrary to most existing guidelines. Screening rates varied markedly in different geographic regions of the province. Most Pap tests were ordered by family physicians or general practitioners. Within the geographic regions of Alberta, provincial, national, and international guidelines for screening with Pap tests are inconsistently followed. This strongly echoes the need for clinicians and patients to consider the Choosing Wisely Canada recommendations and current guidelines for cervical cancer screening. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  14. Utility of quantitative sensory testing and screening tools in identifying HIV-associated peripheral neuropathy in Western Kenya: pilot testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna Cettomai

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathy is the most common neurologic complication of HIV but is widely under-diagnosed in resource-constrained settings. We aimed to identify tools that accurately distinguish individuals with moderate/severe peripheral neuropathy and can be administered by non-physician healthcare workers (HCW in resource-constrained settings.We enrolled a convenience sample of 30 HIV-infected outpatients from a Kenyan HIV-care clinic. A HCW administered the Neuropathy Severity Score (NSS, Single Question Neuropathy Screen (Single-QNS, Subjective Peripheral Neuropathy Screen (Subjective-PNS, and Brief Peripheral Neuropathy Screen (Brief-PNS. Monofilament, graduated tuning fork, and two-point discrimination examinations were performed. Tools were validated against a neurologist's clinical assessment of moderate/severe neuropathy.The sample was 57% male, mean age 38.6 years, and mean CD4 count 324 cells/µL. Neurologist's assessment identified 20% (6/30 with moderate/severe neuropathy. Diagnostic utilities for moderate/severe neuropathy were: Single-QNS--83% sensitivity, 71% specificity; Subjective-PNS-total--83% sensitivity, 83% specificity; Subjective-PNS-max and NSS--67% sensitivity, 92% specificity; Brief-PNS--0% sensitivity, 92% specificity; monofilament--100% sensitivity, 88% specificity; graduated tuning fork--83% sensitivity, 88% specificity; two-point discrimination--75% sensitivity, 58% specificity.Pilot testing suggests Single-QNS, Subjective-PNS, and monofilament examination accurately identify HIV-infected patients with moderate/severe neuropathy and may be useful diagnostic tools in resource-constrained settings.

  15. Screening for gestational diabetes: examining a breakfast meal test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was performed to analyse the carbohydrate quantity of the non-standardised breakfast meal test consumed as part of a screening test for gestational diabetes. Design: A prospective descriptive design was utilised. Setting: Screening for gestational diabetes was performed in the High-Risk Antenatal ...

  16. Cervical Cancer Screening with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about cotesting with human papillomavirus (HPV) as part of a cervical cancer screening program.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  17. Knowledge of prenatal screening and psychological management of test decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Hvidman, Lone; Jørgensen, Finn Stener

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study associations between pregnant women's knowledge of prenatal screening and decisional conflict in deciding whether to participate in first trimester screening for Down's syndrome in a setting of required informed consent and to study associations between knowledge and personal...... level of knowledge for the pregnant women making choices about participation in prenatal screening for Down's syndrome in order to improve psychological management of test decisions. Copyright © 2010 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  18. The Reliability of Inverse Screen Tests for Cluster Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Richard G.; Williams, Janice E.

    1987-01-01

    A Monte Carlo study, involving 6,000 "computer subjects" and three raters, explored the reliability of the inverse screen test for cluster analysis. Results indicate that the inverse screen may be a useful and reliable cluster analytic technique for determining the number of true groups. (TJH)

  19. False-positive Human Papillomavirus DNA tests in cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Pribac, Igor; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2011-01-01

    Based on data from randomised controlled trials (RCT) on primary cervical screening, it has been reported that the problem of more frequent false-positive tests in Human Papillomavirus (HPV) DNA screening compared to cytology could be overcome. However, these reports predominantly operated with a...

  20. Solubility tests and the peripheral blood film method for screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the cost benefit of screening for sicklecell disease among infants at district health centres in Uganda using sickling, solubility tests and the peripheral blood film method. Methods. Pilot screening services were established at district health centres. Cost benefit analysis (CBA) was performed in four ...

  1. A novel multitarget stool DNA test for colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Pramod

    2016-01-01

    Review of: Imperiale TF, Ransohoff DF, Itzkowitz SH, Levin TR, Lavin P, Lidgard GP, Ahlquist DA, Berger BM. Multitarget stool DNA testing for colorectal-cancer screening. N Engl J Med 2014;370(14):1287-97. This Practice Pearl reviews the results of a prospective, multicenter, cross-sectional clinical study that evaluated the performance of a new multitarget stool DNA (or mt-sDNA) screening test for colorectal cancer (CRC) and compared it with a fecal immunochemical test (FIT) in individuals at average risk for CRC. The potential impact of this test on the future of CRC screening is also discussed in a brief commentary. mt-sDNA testing is a noninvasive screening test designed to detect DNA biomarkers associated with colorectal neoplasia and occult hemoglobin in the stool. The sensitivity of mt-sDNA testing for detection of CRC was 92.3%, compared with 73.8% for FIT (p = 0.002). Sensitivity for detecting advanced precancerous lesions was 42.4% for mt-sDNA testing and 23.8% for FIT (p testing and FIT were 86.6% and 94.9%, respectively (p testing thus may be a first-line screening option for asymptomatic individuals at average risk for CRC who do not want to have a colonoscopy.

  2. 42 CFR 410.18 - Diabetes screening tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... screening tests. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section, the following definitions apply: Diabetes... receive the benefit: (1) Hypertension. (2) Dyslipidemia. (3) Obesity, defined as a body mass index greater...

  3. Recent advances in prenatal genetic screening and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Veyver, Ignatia B.

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of new technologies has dramatically changed the current practice of prenatal screening and testing for genetic abnormalities in the fetus. Expanded carrier screening panels and non-invasive cell-free fetal DNA-based screening for aneuploidy and single-gene disorders, and more recently for subchromosomal abnormalities, have been introduced into prenatal care. More recently introduced technologies such as chromosomal microarray analysis and whole-exome sequencing can diagnose more genetic conditions on samples obtained through amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling, including many disorders that cannot be screened for non-invasively. All of these options have benefits and limitations, and genetic counseling has become increasingly complex for providers who are responsible for guiding patients in their decisions about screening and testing before and during pregnancy. PMID:27853526

  4. Indicators for monitoring screening programs with primary HPV test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Manuel; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    following scientific evidence produced in numerous studies, as well as national and international guidelines, organized cervical cancer screening programs in Italy have gradually introduced the HPV test as primary screening test, replacing cytology. As public health interventions, screening programs must ensure equity, improvement in quality of life, and adequate information for the population involved with regards to benefits and possible risks; therefore, it is essential for quality to be constantly checked at every phase of the project.The Italian Cervical Screening Group (Gruppo Italiano per lo Screening Cervicale, GISCi) has written a handbook for the calculation and interpretation of cervical screening program monitoring indicators that take into account the new protocol based on primary HPV test with cytology triage. based on the European guidelines and Italian recommendations on primary HPVbased screening, the working group, which includes professionals from all the fields involved in cervical screening, identified the essential points needed to monitor the screening process, the accuracy of individual tests, and early outcomes, defining a specific indicator for each aspect. The indicators were grouped as follows: baseline indicators, indicators for test repeat after one year, cumulative indicators, and waiting times. For every indicator, the source of data, calculation formula, any standards or critical thresholds, and interpretation were defined. The standards are based on the results of NTCC trials or Italian pilot studies. the main indicators proposed for the organization are the following: number of invitations, compliance with first invitation, with one-year test repeat and with colposcopy; for test and process accuracy, a cohort approach was utilised, where indicators are based on women who must be followed for at least one year, so as to integrate the results obtained after the first HPV test with the outcome of the test's repetition after one year

  5. Unconfirmed reactive screening tests and their impact on donor management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.; Khan, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the percentage of false positive testing for transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs) using immunochromatographic test (ICT) as first line of screening tests and its effect on loss of volunteer blood donors. Over a period of three months, samples from blood bags of donors undergoing phlebotomy at teaching hospital blood banks in Lahore were screened for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) by immunochromatographic tests. Those found positive on initial screening were re-tested by ELISA method at the screening laboratory of the Institute of Haematology and Blood Transfusion Service, Punjab. Lahore. Out of a total of 62090 voluntary blood donors, 469 donors were found to be initially reactive for either HIV, HBV or HCV. Amongst these 96 (0.15%) blood donors were found to have tested falsely positive for HIV, HBV or HCV as compared to testing by ELISA. False positive testing rate of 0.15% or 96 out of a total of 62090 donors is rather small in terms of loss of voluntary donors and appropriate utilization of available resources. Although immunochromatographic testing is not the gold standard, however it serves an important purpose of initial donor screening. (author)

  6. Prenatal genetic carrier testing using triple disease screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, C M; Schechter, C; Robinowitz, J; Fulop, G; Burgert, T; Levy, B; Zinberg, R; Desnick, R J

    1997-10-15

    Rapid progress in gene discovery has dramatically increased diagnostic capabilities for carrier screening and prenatal testing for genetic diseases. However, simultaneous prenatal carrier screening for prevalent genetic disease has not been evaluated, and patient acceptance and attitudes toward this testing strategy remain undefined. To evaluate an educational, counseling, and carrier testing program for 3 genetic disorders: Tay-Sachs disease (TSD), type 1 Gaucher disease (GD), and cystic fibrosis (CF) that differ in detectability, severity, and availability of therapy. Potential participants received education and genetic counseling, gave informed consent, chose screening tests, and completed pre-education and posteducation questionnaires that assessed knowledge, attitudes toward genetic testing, and disease testing preferences. Medical genetics referral center. Volunteer sample of 2824 Ashkenazi Jewish individuals enrolled as couples who were referred for TSD testing. Genetic counseling, education, and if chosen, genetic testing for any or all 3 disorders. Acceptance of screening for each of the 3 disorders. Secondary outcomes include attitudes toward genetic testing and reproductive considerations. Of the 2824 individuals tested for TSD, 97% and 95% also chose testing for CF and GD, respectively. The frequency of detected carriers was 1:21 for TSD, 1 :25 for CF, and 1:18 for GD. Twenty-one carriercoupleswere identified, counseled, and all postconception couples opted for prenatal diagnosis. Pre-education and posteducation questionnaires revealed that patients initially knew little about the diseases, but acquired disease information and increased knowledge of genetic concepts. Education and genetic counseling increased understanding and retention of genetic concepts and disease-related information, and minimized test-related anxiety. Although individuals sought screening for all 3 diseases, reproductive attitudes and decisions varied directly with disease

  7. Barriers to uptake of antenatal maternal screening tests in Senegal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, W.; Ondoa, P.; Sarr, A.M.; Sow, A.L.; Schultsz, C.; Sakande, J.; Diallo, S.; Pool, R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence exists that selective antenatal maternal screening tests contribute to the reduction of maternal morbidity and mortality. However, data are lacking on coverage with the complete set of recommended tests. The study aimed to identify barriers to uptake of the complete set of tests

  8. Women's knowledge and use of prenatal screening tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven, Memnun; Akyüz, Aygül; Eroglu, Kafiye; Daack-Hirsch, Sandra; Skirton, Heather

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the rate of use of prenatal screening tests and the factors affecting the decision to have a prenatal screening test in pregnant women in Turkey. Prenatal genetic screening as an optional service is commonly used to determine a level of risk for genetic conditions in the foetus. A quantitative cross-sectional survey. Pregnant women (n = 274) who sought prenatal care from one hospital in Turkey were recruited and asked to complete questionnaires that were developed by the researchers. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data. Almost half (44·2) % of the women were primiparas, and the majority (97·8%) were in the third trimester of pregnancy. Only 36·1% of the women reported that they had prenatal screening by either the double test or triple test. Women had a low level of knowledge regarding prenatal screening: the mean knowledge score was 3·43 ± 3·21 of a possible score of 10. Having consanguineous marriage, a history of spontaneous abortion, a child with genetic disorder, multiparity or a longer marriage duration were positively correlated with accepting a prenatal screening test. This study has provided baseline data on the uptake and reasons for accepting or declining a prenatal screening in a cohort of Turkish women. There is evidence to suggest that more education is needed to improve knowledge and provide comprehensive nursing care to promote informed consent in this context. Perinatal nurses are ideally situated to inform pregnant women about prenatal screening tests to improve access to healthcare services and to ensure informed decisions are made by pregnant women and their partners. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Reiter haemagglutination test: a screening test for syphilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Qudah, A A; Mostratos, A

    1982-01-01

    Using an ultrasonicate of the Reiter treponeme as antigen the Reiter haemagglutination test (RHA) was evaluated as a serological test for syphilis. Comparison of the results of the cardiolipin Wassermann reaction, Reiter protein complement-fixation test, the fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorbed (FTA-ABS) test, the Treponema pallidum haemagglutination test (TPHA) (at dilutions of 1/16 and 1/80), and the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test with those of the RHA showed that the RHA was...

  10. The use of screening tests in spacecraft lubricant evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeras, Chris; Hilton, Mike; Carre, David; Didziulis, Stephen; Fleischauer, Paul

    1993-01-01

    A lubricant screening test fixture has been devised in order to satisfy the need to obtain lubricant performance data in a timely manner. This fixture has been used to perform short-term tests on potential lubricants for several spacecraft applications. The results of these tests have saved time by producing qualitative performance rankings of lubricant selections prior to life testing. To date, this test fixture has been used to test lubricants for 3 particular applications. The qualitative results from these tests have been verified by life test results and have provided insight into the function of various anti-wear additives.

  11. Socioeconomic disparities in diagnostic testing after positive aneuploidy screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Amy E; Dungan, Jeffrey; Feinglass, Joseph; Grobman, William A

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between type of health insurance (Medicaid vs. private) and uptake of diagnostic testing for fetal aneuploidy after a positive screening test result. We performed a retrospective cohort study of pregnant women who underwent aneuploidy screening in the first and/or second trimesters of pregnancy and received positive results. The characteristics of and outcomes for women with Medicaid were compared with those of women with private insurance in both univariable and multivariable analyses. In this study, 75 women with Medicaid and 75 with private insurance were analyzed. Those with Medicaid were younger (33.8 vs. 36.9 years, p aneuploidy screen (35 vs. 57%, p screening for aneuploidy. These results emphasize the potential importance of improved counseling for low-income women. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. Screening mammography interpretation test: more frequent mistakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozzi, Gino; Ganzetti, Alessandra; Martinoli, Carlo; Bacigalupo, Lorenzo; Bodini, Maria; Fiorentino, Carla; Marini, Ugo Paolo; Santini, Dolores

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To present the mammographic cases most commonly misinterpreted by the participants in the mammography self-test proposed by the Italian Society of Medical Radiology (SIRM) National Congress in Rimini, Italy, 2002, by analysing the findings responsible for errors, suggesting reasons for the errors, and assessing possible inadequacies in the format of the test. Materials and methods: The self-test was performed on the mammograms of 160 cases (32 positive and 128 negative for cancer as confirmed by histology). The mammograms had been taken in the four standard projections and placed on four multi-panel diaphanoscopes, each displaying a set of 40 cases comprising benign and malignant cases in equal proportions. The participants were given pre-printed forms on which to note down their diagnostic judgement. We evaluated a total of 134 fully-completed forms. Among these, we identified the 23 cases most frequently misread by over 15 participants in percentages varying between 40-90%. Of these cases, 10 were malignancies and 13 were negative mammograms. On review, we also assessed the diagnostic contribution of complementary investigations (not available the participants). The 134 fully-completed forms (all of the 40 cases) yielded a total of 5360 responses, 1180 of which (22.01%) were incorrect. Of these 823 out of the 4288 cases expected to be negative (19.2%) were false positive, and 357 out of the 1072 cases expected to be positive (33.3%) were false negative. As regards the 23 most frequently misread cases, these were 10/32 (31.25%) mammograms positive for malignancy and 13/128 (10.15%) negative mammograms or mammograms showing benign disease. The 10 malignancies included 7 infiltrating ductal carcinomas, 1 infiltrating cribriform carcinoma, 1 infiltrating tubular carcinoma, and 1 carcinoma in situ. The 13 cases of benign disease - as established by histology or long-term follow-up - mistaken for malignancies by the test participants were fibrocystic breast

  13. [Comparison of eight screening tests for ant-HCV antibody].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, Matsuo; Kagita, Masanori; Yamashita, Naoko; Nakano, Takasi; Tahara, Kazuko; Asari, Seishi; Iwatani, Yoshinori

    2002-09-01

    We compared eight HCV screening tests for detection of anti-HCV antibody; Ortho Quick Chaser HCV Ab (QC), Ortho HCV Ab ELISA III (ELISA), Ortho HVC Ab PA test III (PA), Lumipulse II Ortho HCV (LUMI), IMx HCV.DAINAPACKII (IMx), ARCHITECT HCV (ARCH), Immucheck.F-HCV C50 Ab (Immu), RANREAM HCV Ab Ex II (RAN). Sera from six hundred patients were examined by these eight screening tests. The positive rates of the eight screening tests were from 9.0% to 13.2%. Forty-five sera showed discrepant results between the eight screening tests, and about half of them showed weak positive reaction and/or false positive. Twenty-five of the forty-five sera were negative for ant-HCV antibody in the CHIRON RIBA III confirmatory test, and forty-four of them were negative for HCV-RNA in the PCR method. The agreement rates between the two reagents were from 95.5% to 99.2%, but were not always high between the two reagents that used similar antigen. The specificities and sensitivities evaluated by using the RIBA III confirmatory test were excellent in ELISA, LUMI, IMx, ARCH and Immu. Three BBI seroconversion panels were used to compare the positive readings in the initial stage of HCV infection by eight screening tests. ELISA and ARCH showed the earliest positive readings, and then IMx, LUMI = RAN, PA, QC and Immu in this order. These findings indicate that ELISA and ARCH were the most excellent in the sensitivity, specificity and early diagnosis of HCV infection. However, we must pay attention to the weak positive reaction in the screening tests, because there is a possibility of "false positive".

  14. Double Screening Tests of the CMS ECAL Avalanche Photodiodes

    CERN Document Server

    Deiters, Konrad; Renker, Dieter; Sakhelashvili, Tariel; Britvitch, Ilia; Kuznetsov, Andrey; Musienko, Yuri; Singovsky, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Specially developed avalanche photo-diodes (APDs) will be used to measure the light from the 61,200 lead tungstate crystals in the barrel part of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter. To ensure the reliability over the lifetime of the detector, every APD is screened by irradiation and burn-in before it is accepted for CMS. As part of the establishment of the screening procedure and to determine its effectiveness, a large number of APDs were screened twice. The results of these tests suggest that the required reliability will be achieved.

  15. Double screening tests of the CMS ECAL avalanche photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deiters, K.; Ingram, Q.; Renker, D.; Sakhelashvili, T.; Britvitch, I.; Kuznetsov, A.; Musienko, Y.; Singovsky, A.

    2005-01-01

    Specially developed avalanche photodiodes (APDs) will be used to measure the light from the 61,200 lead tungstate crystals in the barrel part of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter. To ensure the reliability over the lifetime of the detector, every APD is screened by irradiation and burn-in before it is accepted for CMS. As part of the establishment of the screening procedure and to determine its effectiveness, a large number of APDs were screened twice. The results of these tests suggest that the required reliability will be achieved

  16. A Mini-Nitrification Test for Toxicity Screening, Minntox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvin, Erik; Dyreborg, Søren; Menck, C.

    1994-01-01

    There is a high demand for a rapid, simple, and inexpensive test for screening of the toxicity of wastewater, polluted groundwater and chemicals in order to protect sewage treatment plants and aquatic and terrestrial recipients. The mini-nitrification test, MINNTOX, presented here, fulfils...

  17. Are antibiotic screening approaches sufficiently adequate? A proficiency test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, B.J.A.; Pikkemaat, M.G.; Stolker, A.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    A proficiency test including the screening analysis of antibiotics in beef using cryogenicly minced materials was organized by RIKILT in 2009. The test included blank beef samples and beef samples spiked with either flumequine or a combination of lincomycin and spectinomycin around the maximum

  18. Evidence of Validity for the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lease, Suzanne H.; Yanico, Barbara J.

    1995-01-01

    The convergent validity of an abbreviated version of the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST) was tested and supported. Extends a previous validity study by examining the CAST relationship to a measure that specifically addresses triangulation, individuation, intimacy, and personal authority between children of alcoholics and children of…

  19. Screening for Specific Language Impairment in Preschool Children: Evaluating a Screening Procedure Including the Token Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willinger, Ulrike; Schmoeger, Michaela; Deckert, Matthias; Eisenwort, Brigitte; Loader, Benjamin; Hofmair, Annemarie; Auff, Eduard

    2017-01-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) comprises impairments in receptive and/or expressive language. Aim of this study was to evaluate a screening for SLI. 61 children with SLI (SLI-children, age-range 4-6 years) and 61 matched typically developing controls were tested for receptive language ability (Token Test-TT) and for intelligence (Wechsler…

  20. Cognitive Screening Tests Versus Comprehensive Neuropsychological Test Batteries: A National Academy of Neuropsychology Education Paper†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebuck-Spencer, Tresa M; Glen, Tannahill; Puente, Antonio E; Denney, Robert L; Ruff, Ronald M; Hostetter, Gayle; Bianchini, Kevin J

    2017-06-01

    The American Medical Association Current Procedural Panel developed a new billing code making behavioral health screening a reimbursable healthcare service. The use of computerized testing as a means for cognitive screening and brief cognitive testing is increasing at a rapid rate. The purpose of this education paper is to provide information to clinicians, healthcare administrators, and policy developers about the purpose, strengths, and limitations of cognitive screening tests versus comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations. Screening tests are generally brief and narrow in scope, they can be administered during a routine clinical visit, and they can be helpful for identifying individuals in need of more comprehensive assessment. Some screening tests can also be helpful for monitoring treatment outcomes. Comprehensive neuropsychological assessments are multidimensional in nature and used for purposes such as identifying primary and secondary diagnoses, determining the nature  and severity of a person's cognitive difficulties, determining functional limitations, and planning treatment and rehabilitation. Cognitive screening tests are expected to play an increasingly important role in identifying individuals with cognitive impairment and in determining which individuals should be referred for further neuropsychological assessment. However, limitations of existing cognitive screening tests are present and cognitive screening tests should not be used as a replacement for comprehensive neuropsychological testing. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Personalized prostate cancer screening: improving PSA tests with genomic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, John S

    2010-12-15

    The use of a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test to screen for prostate cancer is controversial because of its modest predictive value and the potential overdiagnosis and over-treatment of the disease. A research article in this issue of Science Translational Medicine describes single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near six genes that are independently associated with serum PSA concentrations and that help to explain interindividual PSA variation. Three of these SNPs are also associated with prostate biopsy outcomes. These findings are an important step toward incorporating genetic markers into PSA screening, with the ultimate goal of devising personalized PSA tests for use in the clinic.

  2. Human papillomavirus testing and genotyping in cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Lynge, Elsebeth; Bonde, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Mass vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes 16 and 18 will, in the long term, reduce the incidence of cervical cancer, but screening will remain an important cancer control measure in both vaccinated and unvaccinated women. Since the 1960s, cytology screening has helped to reduce...... the incidence of cervical cancer, but has a low sensitivity for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and requires frequent testing. Several HPV tests have become available commercially. They appear to be more sensitive for high-grade CIN, and may further reduce the incidence of cervical cancer...

  3. Revaluation of the film test as a screening test for' Eurytrema sp infection in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Pacífico Antonio Diniz Belém; Mauro Rodrigues de Oliveira; Carlos Roberto Padovani

    1992-01-01

    Film test was performed in fecal samples of Eurytrema sp infected and non infected cattle but both groups showed similar results. So, it was concluded that film test is an unreliable one for screening Eurytrema sp infection in cattle.

  4. Screening for Language Disorders in Stroke: German Validation of the Language Screening Test (LAST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig-Bruhin, M; Vanbellingen, T; Schumacher, R; Pflugshaupt, T; Annoni, J M; Müri, R M; Bohlhalter, S; Nyffeler, T

    2016-01-01

    Screening of aphasia in acute stroke is crucial for directing patients to early language therapy. The Language Screening Test (LAST), originally developed in French, is a validated language screening test that allows detection of a language deficit within a few minutes. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate two parallel German versions of the LAST. The LAST includes subtests for naming, repetition, automatic speech, and comprehension. For the translation into German, task constructs and psycholinguistic criteria for item selection were identical to the French LAST. A cohort of 101 stroke patients were tested, all of whom were native German speakers. Validation of the LAST was based on (1) analysis of equivalence of the German versions, which was established by administering both versions successively in a subset of patients, (2) internal validity by means of internal consistency analysis, and (3) external validity by comparison with the short version of the Token Test in another subset of patients. The two German versions were equivalent as demonstrated by a high intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.91. Furthermore, an acceptable internal structure of the LAST was found (Cronbach's α = 0.74). A highly significant correlation (r = 0.74, p German version of the LAST, available in two parallel versions, is a new and valid language screening test in stroke.

  5. Tuberculosis Screening and Targeted Testing of College and University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of American College Health, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Screening and targeted testing for tuberculosis (TB) is a key strategy for controlling and preventing infection on college and university campuses. Early detection provides an opportunity to promote the health of affected individuals through prompt diagnosis and treatment while preventing potential spread to others. Implementation of a screening…

  6. Embryotoxicity of Mirtazapine: a study using Chick Embryotoxicity Screening Test

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maňáková, E.; Hubičková, L.; Košťálová, J.; Zemanová, Zdeňka

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 31, Suppl.2 (2010), s. 8-10 ISSN 0172-780X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : embryo toxicity * screening test * mirtazapine Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.621, year: 2010

  7. Assessment of the Diagnostic Potential of Clinotech TB Screen Test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Clinotech TB Screen test, a 3rd generation multi-antigen rapid chromatographic immunoassay for detection of IgG antibodies in serum against recombinant protein antigens 38kDa, 16kDa and 6kDa, was assessed for its diagnostic potential for diagnosis of active pulmonary TB in routine TB control programme in Abia ...

  8. 21 CFR 866.2420 - Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea. 866.2420 Section 866.2420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2420 Oxidase...

  9. Screening for gestational diabetes: examining a breakfast meal test

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as part of a screening test for gestational diabetes. Design: A prospective descriptive design was utilised. ... using a calibrated (one gram) kitchen scale. Estimations of portion size were used for food brought .... twists (50 g) using a crossover design, first in non-pregnant and then pregnant subjects. They found the candy ...

  10. A population screening test for antibody to measles virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, M.G.

    1981-01-01

    In areas where sporadic cases of measles continue to occur in spite of vaccination programs, the availability of a simple screening test for determination of seropositivity to measles virus is desirable. A sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) screening test (ST) for the detection of IgG antibody to measles virus, based on a solid phase RIA, is described. The assays were performed on polyvinyl microtiter plates for which the RIAST requires only 5 μl of serum per subject. Antigen consisted of a sonicated extract of measles virus-infected Vero cells. Rabbit antihuman IgG specific for the Fc-segment of human IgG, labelled with 125 I, was used to detect human IgG bound to viral antigen. The basic RIA method was characterized by carrying out full titrations of sera of 53 healthy adults, 10 children, and 13 patients with measles-associated illness. These sera were also tested by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) technique; most of the measles sera were also tested by complement fixation (CF). RIAST results (expressed as binding ratios) obtained for 52 healthy adults are compared with their RIA serum titers. Of the 200 sera of patients of various ages tested by the RIAST, 63 borderline sera were also tested by HI. The RIAST, which does not require serum treatment other than inactivation, proved to be more sensitive as an indicator of seropositivity than HI. Implications of the results and practical applications of the screening test are discussed. (author)

  11. Screening for Specific Language Impairment in Preschool Children: Evaluating a Screening Procedure Including the Token Test

    OpenAIRE

    Willinger, Ulrike; Schmoeger, Michaela; Deckert, Matthias; Eisenwort, Brigitte; Loader, Benjamin; Hofmair, Annemarie; Auff, Eduard

    2017-01-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) comprises impairments in receptive and/or expressive language. Aim of this study was to evaluate a screening for SLI. 61 children with SLI (SLI-children, age-range 4–6 years) and 61 matched typically developing controls were tested for receptive language ability (Token Test—TT) and for intelligence (Wechsler Preschool-and-Primary-Scale-of-Intelligence—WPPSI). Group differences were analyzed using t tests, as well as direct and stepwise discriminant analyses....

  12. Introduction of cytogenetic tests in colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suceveanu, Andra Iulia; Suceveanu, Adrian; Voinea, Florea; Mazilu, Laura; Mixici, Francisc; Adam, Tatiana

    2009-03-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM. The existing tests practiced on a large scale in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening do not fully accomplish the goal of best specificity and sensitivity or either an optimal cost/efficiency ratio. We aimed to analyze genetic mutations diagnosed in the DNA of exfoliated cells in the stool of the patients diagnosed with CRC through screening. We also aimed to demonstrate the similarity between the detected mutations in tumor samples and in exfoliated cells in the stool in order to prove the reliability of these cytogenetic tests, so that they could be introduced in CRC screening program. METHODS. We studied 200 patients diagnosed with CRC from whom we prelevated biopsy and stool samples. Samples were submitted to genetic analysis through denaturing gradient polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis method, and through polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis method for the heteroduplex analysis. Analyzed genes were APC, COL11A1, MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6. The chromosomal study was carried out using the PRINS technique. RESULTS. We discovered mutations in the APC gene (exons 4, 9, 13, and 15c) and COL11A1 gene (exon 54). Our chromosomal study detected instability of chromosomes 1, 7, 9, 20, and in 10 achrocentric chromosomes. CONCLUSIONS. Our results plead for the implementation of proposed cytogenetic tests in CRC screening programs.

  13. Evaluation of the screening test results before marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Durmaz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C viruses and Treponema pallidum are parenterally and sexually transmitted infection agents. Screening test is made before marriage to pre-marital couples legally under the relevant legislation and legal procedures in our country; applicants are evaluated in terms of sexually transmitted diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate pre-marital test results for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV I/II and Treponema pallidum.Materials and methods: To make screening test before marriage, randomized 117 patients who were applied to Kızıltepe General Hospital of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, were included in this study between January 2011 and March 2011. Of these patients, 64 were women (average age 24.7±5.7, and 55 were males (mean age 24.7±4.7. HBsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV I/II tests of the patients were studied by macro-ELISA device (ECIQ Vitros, Ortho Clinical Diagnostics, USA, screening of anti-Treponema pallidum IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies were studied by immunochromatographic rapid test (syphilis syphilis 3.0, Standard Diagnostics, inc. Korea.Results: Of the 119 patients, five patients (4.2% were positive for HBsAg (3 male and 2 female. Anti-HCV, anti-HIV I/II and anti-Treponema pallidum antibodies were negative in all patients.Conclusion: HBsAg test result which was obtained in present study has been found consistent with HBsAg positivity rate in our region. As a result of screening test that was done before marriage will continue to believe that the increased importance of the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2 (3: 292-294.

  14. Validation of a telephone screening test for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camozzato, Ana Luiza; Kochhann, Renata; Godinho, Claudia; Costa, Amanda; Chaves, Marcia L

    2011-03-01

    Financial constraints, mobility issues, medical conditions, crime in local areas can make cognitive assessment difficult for elders and telephone interviews can be a good alternative. This study was carried out to evaluate the reliability, validity and clinical utility of a Brazilian telephone version of the Mini Mental State Examination (Braztel-MMSE) in a community sample of healthy elderly participants and AD patients. The MMSE and the Braztel-MMSE were applied to 66 AD patients and 67 healthy elderly participants. The test-retest reliability was strong and significant (r = .92, p = .01), and the correlation between the Braztel-MMSE and the MMSE were significant (p = .01) and strong (r = .92). The general screening ability of the Braztel-MMSE was high (AUC = 0.982; CI95% = 0.964-1.001). This telephone version can therefore be used as a screening measure for dementia in older adults that need neuropsychological screening and cannot present for an evaluation.

  15. Tandem walking as a quick screening test for vestibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Helen S; Stitz, Jasmine; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Williams, Susan P; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P; Peters, Brian T; Bloomberg, Jacob J

    2017-12-11

    Although many screening tests of balance are available, few of them have been well validated for clinical or research uses. The goal of this study was to test an updated version of an old test, Tandem Walking, to determine how useful it is for screening patients with vestibular disorders. Case-control study. Subjects were 90 adult patients with vestibular disorders and 292 healthy adult controls. They were tested on the number of correct tandem steps they could perform with arms crossed and eyes closed in a series of 10 steps. Correct steps could be nonconsecutive. Subjects were given one practice trial with eyes open and three experimental trials with eyes closed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC), and sensitivity and specificity were calculated. ROC values, sensitivity, and specificity were, at best, only moderate, no matter how the age range was cut. Even for subjects in the age group with the highest ROC value (i.e., age less than 50 years), ROC = 0.8, sensitivity = 0.77, and specificity = 0.72. These results indicate that 23% of patients will not be identified. Therefore, we recommend that if this test is used for screening patients in the clinic or healthy volunteers, the result should be interpreted with care. 3b Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  16. Factors influencing women's acceptance of prenatal screening tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, De-Kun; Karlberg, Kristen; Wi, Soora; Norem, Carol

    2008-12-01

    To determine the factors influencing a woman's acceptance of the expanded alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) test. A population-based case-control study. All women (age < 35) who declined the expanded AFP test were identified as eligible cases. Controls were randomly selected from all women (age < 35) who accepted the test. We interviewed 199 cases and 229 controls before 30 weeks of gestation. While 47% of cases reported opposition to abortion as one of their reasons for declining the test (Group A), the remaining 53% of cases had a variety of other reasons for declining (Group B). After controlling for potential confounders, factors significantly associated with declining the test included: skepticism of the usefulness of the test results (odds ratio (OR) = 33.0), influence from family members (OR = 11.4), low educational level (OR = 7.1), willingness to keep a malformed fetus (OR = 6.2), failure to use providers as useful sources of information (OR = 5.0), and misunderstanding of the purpose of the test (OR = 2.0). Polytomous logistic regression revealed that Groups A and B had different determining factors as well as common factors. While many influential factors for participating in prenatal screening remain unmodifiable, some of them may be addressed to improve women's acceptance of prenatal screening tests. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Simple test guidelines for screening oilspill sorbents for toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blenkinsopp, S.A.; Sergy, G.; Doe, K.; Jackman, P.; Huybers, A.

    1998-01-01

    Environment Canada's Emergencies Science Division has established a program to develop a standard test method suitable for evaluating the toxicity of common sorbent materials. Sorbents are used to absorb or adsorb spilled oil and other hazardous materials. They vary widely in composition and packaging. They are often treated with oleophilic and hydrophobic compounds to improve performance and have been used in large quantities during oil spills. Until now, their potential toxicity has never been considered. Three tests have been evaluated to determine how appropriate they are in screening the toxicity of sorbents. Seven toxicity test recommendations for sorbents were presented. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  18. Screening for Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis with MOCA Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Aksoy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Cognitive dysfunction is currently recognized as a significant cause of disability in multiple sclerosis (MS. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA is screening device used to evaluate executive functions, visuo-spatial abilities, language, attention, and concentration, abstract thinking, memory, and orientation domain. The aim of this study is to compare cognitive functions of MS patients with age-matched controls using MOCA test. METHODS: Thirty nine subjects with a diagnosis of relapsing-remitting MS according to the 2010 revised McDonald criteria and 20 healthy volunteer controls participated in this study. Patients and controls underwent Turkish version of MOCA test. Total and subgroup scores were compared. RESULTS: Total MOCA score in MS patients and controls were 21,74±4,48 and 26,9±2,53 respectively. Total MOCA score of MS patients was significantly lower than controls. Significant deterioration was also found in language, attention, memory and executive functions domain. Disease duration and expanded disability status scale (EDSS did not differ in patients with and without cognitive deficits. CONCLUSION: Patients with MS showed deterioration in language, attention, working and long term-memory and executive functions compared to controls. MOCA is a simple, stand-alone cognitive screening test with superior sensitivity. Our findings suggest that the MOCA test may be useful for screening cognitive impairment in MS patients early in the disease course

  19. A novel test tube method of screening for hemoglobin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatu, T; Kasinrerk, W

    2012-02-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) E is a β-structural variant common worldwide. This Hb disorder can form a compound heterozygous state with the β-thalassemia gene, leading to life-threatening hereditary hemolytic anemia, HbE/β-thalassemia. Screening of HbE has proven to be a challenging practice in prevention and control of the HbE/β-thalassemia. A novel test tube method for HbE screening using diethyl aminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose resin was described. With the developed system, HbE/A(2) did not bind to the resin and remained dissolved in the supernatant, whereas other Hbs completely bound to the resin. The red color of the supernatant observed in the test tube indicated the presence of HbE. Colorless or markedly pale color of the supernatant indicates the absence of HbE. Accuracy and efficiency of the established method in detecting HbE was comparable with the standard cellulose acetate electrophoresis method. The developed method is cheap and simple with no requirement of sophisticated equipment. The reagent could be stored at 4 °C for up to 5 months. Hemolysate samples aged up to 5 months were still suitable for this test. The described novel test tube method could be an alternative method of mass population screening for HbE, particularly in small health care facilities. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Police corruption and psychological testing: a strategy for preemployment screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigo, Bruce A; Claussen, Natalie

    2003-06-01

    The prediction, control, and prevention of police corruption represent pervasive and enduring problems. Researchers have suggested that intervention at the preemployment screening stage may be the best solution. However, investigators have acknowledged that existing assessment practices are flawed. This article proposes a strategy for the preemployment screening of law enforcement personnel. In particular, it examines the utility of the Inwald Personality Inventory and the Revised-NEO Personality Inventory in relation to assessing antisocial behavioral tendencies and conscientious personality traits, respectively, and argues that their combined use, appropriately administered in a testing situation, represents a reliable and valid predictor of good job performance. The article speculatively comments on this strategy for purposes of psychological testing, future research in the field, and law enforcement administration practices.

  1. Language screening for preschool children: Individual or group testing?

    OpenAIRE

    Olujić, Marina; Kuvač Kraljević, Jelena; Hržica, Gordana; Srebačić, Ivana; Matić, Ana; Kologranić Belić, Lana; Padovan, Nevena; Peretić, Maja

    2014-01-01

    Early language development is a complex process that occurs alongside a number of other processes, including physical and cognitive development and socialization. The complexity of childhood as a developmental period can contribute to various deviations from the established norms in language development. The use of screening tests is a standard procedure in the early detection of clinical problems, including difficulties in language development. At present, there are no standardized instrumen...

  2. Serological Testing in Screening for Adult Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Rachel Gillett

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Assays for celiac-related antibodies are becoming widely available, and the present review aims to clarify the use of these investigations in the diagnosis of, management of and screening for adult celiac disease. The sensitivities and specificities of various antibody tests are discussed, along with their clinical use as an adjunct to small bowel biopsy, and as a first-line investigation for patients with atypical symptoms of celiac disease or patients at high risk of developing sprue.

  3. Iterative Cellular Screening System for Nanoparticle Safety Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Sambale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles have the potential to exhibit risks to human beings and to the environment; due to the wide applications of nanoproducts, extensive risk management must not be neglected. Therefore, we have constructed a cell-based, iterative screening system to examine a variety of nanoproducts concerning their toxicity during development. The sensitivity and application of various cell-based methods were discussed and proven by applying the screening to two different nanoparticles: zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles. They were used as benchmarks to set up our methods and to examine their effects on mammalian cell lines. Different biological processes such as cell viability, gene expression of interleukin-8 and heat shock protein 70, as well as morphology changes were investigated. Within our screening system, both nanoparticle suspensions and coatings can be tested. Electric cell impedance measurements revealed to be a good method for online monitoring of cellular behavior. The implementation of three-dimensional cell culture is essential to better mimic in vivo conditions. In conclusion, our screening system is highly efficient, cost minimizing, and reduces the need for animal studies.

  4. 49 CFR 40.241 - What are the first steps in any alcohol screening test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Screening Tests § 40.241 What are the first steps in any alcohol screening test? As the BAT or STT you will take the following steps to begin all alcohol screening tests, regardless of the type of testing device you are using: (a) When a specific time...

  5. Screening for Specific Language Impairment in Preschool Children: Evaluating a Screening Procedure Including the Token Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willinger, Ulrike; Schmoeger, Michaela; Deckert, Matthias; Eisenwort, Brigitte; Loader, Benjamin; Hofmair, Annemarie; Auff, Eduard

    2017-10-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) comprises impairments in receptive and/or expressive language. Aim of this study was to evaluate a screening for SLI. 61 children with SLI (SLI-children, age-range 4-6 years) and 61 matched typically developing controls were tested for receptive language ability (Token Test-TT) and for intelligence (Wechsler Preschool-and-Primary-Scale-of-Intelligence-WPPSI). Group differences were analyzed using t tests, as well as direct and stepwise discriminant analyses. The predictive value of the WPPSI with respect to TT performance was analyzed using regression analyses. SLI-children performed significantly worse on both TT and WPPSI ([Formula: see text]). The TT alone yielded an overall classification rate of 79%, the TT and the WPPSI together yielded an overall classification rate of 80%. TT performance was significantly predicted by verbal intelligence in SLI-children and nonverbal intelligence in controls whilst WPPSI subtest arithmetic was predictive in both groups. Without further research, the Token Test cannot be seen as a valid and sufficient tool for the screening of SLI in preschool children but rather as a tool for the assessment of more general intellectual capacities. SLI-children at this age already show impairments typically associated with SLI which indicates the necessity of early developmental support or training. Token Test performance is possibly an indicator for a more general developmental factor rather than an exclusive indicator for language difficulties.

  6. The validity of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, H; Nielsen, S D; Gluud, C

    1994-01-01

    This review examines the validity of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) as a screening instrument for alcohol problems. Studies that compare the MAST-questionnaire with other defined diagnostic criteria of alcohol problems were retrieved through MEDLINE and a cross-bibliographic check....... A total of 20 validity studies were included. The studies varied considerably regarding the prevalence of alcohol problems, the diagnostic criteria, and the examined patient categories. The MAST compared with other diagnostic criteria of alcohol problems gave validity measures with the following span...... and the specificities show substantial variations. The variables that seem to have the largest influence on the PVpos seem to be the prevalence of alcohol problems, the diagnostic method against which the MAST-questionnaire is validated, and the populations on which the MAST is applied. The MAST should in the future...

  7. Laboratory breeding and testing of Australorbis glabratus for molluscicidal screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopf, H. S.; Muller, R. L.

    1962-01-01

    The authors describe a technique for laboratory breeding of Australorbis glabratus, the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in South America. This technique is suitable for obtaining large numbers of snails in a small space with the minimum of maintenance time and under carefully controlled conditions. Techniques are also outlined for testing molluscicides against eggs and young snails as well as against adults. It is considered that, in view of the saving in breeding time and space effected, testing against young snails has several advantages for primary screening. With no compounds tested have anomalous results been obtained. Finally, the authors report on the results obtained with a new class of molluscicidal compounds—the organo-tins—which cause snail mortality in concentrations as low as those of any of the other molluscicides tested. PMID:13961665

  8. Standing balance tests for screening people with vestibular impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Helen S; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P; Peters, Brian T; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Bloomberg, Jacob J

    2014-02-01

    To improve the test standards for a version of the Romberg test and to determine whether measuring kinematic variables improved its utility for screening. Healthy controls and patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, postoperative acoustic neuroma resection, and chronic peripheral unilateral weakness were compared. Subjects wore Bluetooth-enabled inertial motion units while standing on the floor or medium-density, compliant foam, with eyes open or closed, with head still or moving in pitch or yaw. Dependent measures were time to perform each test condition, number of head movements made, and kinematic variables. Patients and controls did not differ significantly with eyes open or with eyes closed while on the floor. With eyes closed, on foam, some significant differences were found between patients and controls, especially for subjects older than 59 years. Head movement conditions were more challenging than with the head still. Significantly fewer patients than controls could make enough head movements to obtain kinematic measures. Kinematics indicated that lateral balance control is significantly reduced in these patients compared to controls. Receiver operator characteristics and sensitivity/specificity analyses showed moderately good differences with older subjects. Tests on foam with eyes closed, with head still or moving, may be useful as part of a screening battery for vestibular impairments, especially for older people. 3b. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. Revaluation of the film test as a screening test for' Eurytrema sp infection in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacífico Antonio Diniz Belém

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Film test was performed in fecal samples of Eurytrema sp infected and non infected cattle but both groups showed similar results. So, it was concluded that film test is an unreliable one for screening Eurytrema sp infection in cattle.

  10. Sequential testing in a high stakes OSCE: Determining number of screening tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Graeme P; Sivasubramaniam, Selvaraj; Cleland, Jennifer

    2016-07-01

    The sequential objective structured clinical exam (OSCE) is a stand-alone variation of the traditional OSCE whereby all students sit a screening test. Those who pass this initial assessment undergo no further testing while weakly performing students sit an additional (sequential) test to determine their overall pass/fail status. Our aim was to determine outcomes of adopting a sequential OSCE approach using different numbers of screening stations and pass marks. We carried out a retrospective, observational study of anonymised databases of two cohorts of student outcomes from the final OSCE examination at the University of Aberdeen Medical School. Data were accessed for students (n = 388) who sat the exam in the years 2013-2014. We used Stata simulate program to compare outcomes - in terms of sensitivity and specificity - across 5000 random selections of 6-14 OSCE stations using random selections of groups of 100 students (with different screening test pass marks) versus those obtained across 15 stations. Across 6-14 stations, the sensitivity was ≥87% in 2013 and ≥84% in 2014 while the specificity ranged from 60% to 100% in both years. Specificity generally increased as the number of screening stations increased (with concomitant narrowing of the 95% confidence interval), while sensitivity varied between 84 and 98%. Similar sensitivities and specificities were found with screening pass marks of +1, +2 and +3 standard errors of measurement (SEM). Eight stations as a screening test appeared to be a reasonable compromise in terms of high sensitivity (88-89%) and specificity (83-86%). This research extends current sequential OSCE literature using a novel and robust approach to identify the "ideal" in terms of number of screening stations and pass mark. We discuss the educational and resource implications of our findings and make recommendations for the use of the sequential OSCE in medical education.

  11. Advances in prenatal screening for Down syndrome: II first trimester testing, integrated testing, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Peter A

    2002-10-01

    The acceptability of prenatal screening and diagnosis of Down syndrome is dependent, in part, on the gestational age at which the testing is offered. First trimester screening could be advantageous if it has sufficient efficacy and can be effectively delivered. Two first trimester maternal serum screening markers, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG), are useful for identifying women at increased risk for fetal Down syndrome. In addition, measurement of an enlarged thickness of the subcutaneous fluid-filled space at the back of the neck of the developing fetus (referred to as nuchal translucency or NT) has been demonstrated to be an indicator for these high-risk pregnancies. When these three parameters are combined, estimates for Down syndrome efficacy exceed those currently attainable in the second trimester. Women who are screen-positive in the first trimester can elect to receive cytogenetic testing of a chorionic villus biopsy. The first trimester tests could also, theoretically, be combined with the second trimester maternal serum screening tests (integrated screening) to obtain even higher levels of efficacy. There are, however, several practical limitations to first trimester and integrated screening. These include scheduling of testing within relatively narrow gestational age intervals, availability of appropriately trained ultrasonographers for NT measurement, risks associated with chorionic villus biopsy, and costs. There is also increasing evidence that an enlarged NT measurement is indicative of a high risk for spontaneous abortion and for fetal abnormalities that are not detectable by cytogenetic analysis. Women whose fetuses show enlarged NT, therefore, need first trimester counseling regarding their Down syndrome risks and the possibility of other adverse pregnancy outcomes. Follow-up ultrasound and fetal echocardiography in the second trimester are also indicated. First trimester

  12. Rapid screening test for porphyria diagnosis using fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, A.; Stepp, H.; Homann, C.; Hennig, G.; Brittenham, G. M.; Vogeser, M.

    2015-07-01

    Porphyrias are rare genetic metabolic disorders, which result from deficiencies of enzymes in the heme biosynthesis pathway. Depending on the enzyme defect, different types of porphyrins and heme precursors accumulate for the different porphyria diseases in erythrocytes, liver, blood plasma, urine and stool. Patients with acute hepatic porphyrias can suffer from acute neuropathic attacks, which can lead to death when undiagnosed, but show only unspecific clinical symptoms such as abdominal pain. Therefore, in addition to chromatographic methods, a rapid screening test is required to allow for immediate identification and treatment of these patients. In this study, fluorescence spectroscopic measurements were conducted on blood plasma and phantom material, mimicking the composition of blood plasma of porphyria patients. Hydrochloric acid was used to differentiate the occurring porphyrins (uroporphyrin-III and coproporphyrin-III) spectroscopically despite their initially overlapping excitation spectra. Plasma phantom mixtures were measured using dual wavelength excitation and the corresponding concentrations of uroporphyrin-III and coproporphyrin-III were determined. Additionally, three plasma samples of porphyria patients were examined and traces of coproporphyrin-III and uroporphyrin-III were identified. This study may therefore help to establish a rapid screening test method with spectroscopic differentiation of the occurring porphyrins, which consequently allows for the distinction of different porphyrias. This may be a valuable tool for clinical porphyria diagnosis and rapid or immediate treatment.

  13. PROSTATE CANCER SCREENING: PSA TEST AWARENESS AMONG ADULT MALES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obana, Michael; O'Lawrence, Henry

    2015-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to determine whether visits to the doctor in the last 12 months, education level, and annual household income for adult males increased the awareness of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests. The effect of these factors for the knowledge of PSA exams was performed using statistical analysis. A retrospective secondary database was utilized for this study using the questionnaire in the California Health Interview Survey from 2009. Based on this survey, annual visits to the doctor, higher educational levels attained, and greater take-home pay were statistically significant and the results of the study were equivalent to those hypothesized. This also reflects the consideration of marketing PSA blood test screenings to those adult males who are poor, uneducated, and do not see the doctor on a consistent basis.

  14. Risk of breast cancer after false-positive test results in screening mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My Catarina; Risør, Louise Madeleine; Thorsted, Brian Larsen

    2012-01-01

    Screening for disease in healthy people inevitably leads to some false-positive tests in disease-free individuals. Normally, women with false-positive screening tests for breast cancer are referred back to routine screening. However, the long-term outcome for women with false-positive tests...

  15. 78 FR 13069 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Recommendations for Screening, Testing, and, Management of Blood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... of Blood Donors and Blood and Blood Components Based on Screening Tests for Syphilis; Availability... Management of Blood Donors and Blood and Blood Components Based on Screening Tests for Syphilis,'' dated... for Screening, Testing, and Management of Blood Donors and Blood and Blood Components Based on...

  16. Pain on Functional Movement Screen Tests and Injury Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushman, Timothy T; Grier, Tyson L; Canham-Chervak, Michelle C; Anderson, Morgan K; North, William J; Jones, Bruce H

    2015-11-01

    The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is a tool intended to evaluate limitations or asymmetries of movement to detect individuals at risk for exercise- and sports-related injury. The purpose was to determine the association and predictive value of specific FMS tests with injury risk in physically active men. Soldiers aged 18-57 years completed the FMS (n = 2,476). Demographic and fitness data were collected by survey. Medical record data for any, overuse, and traumatic injury 6 months after the assessment were obtained. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value were calculated along with receiver operator characteristics to determine area under the curve (AUC). Risks, risk ratios, odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to assess injury risks. Multivariate logistic regression identified that pain on 5 of the 7 tests was associated with greater risk for any injury (OR = 1.50-3.51): deep squat, hurdle step, in-line lunge, trunk stability push-up, and rotary stability. However, FMS registered low sensitivity, PPV, and AUC for all 7 tests for the 3 injury types (2-24% sensitivity, 16-74% PPV, and 50-58% AUC). Although the presence of pain was associated with a higher risk of injury on 5 tests, a low sensitivity, PPV, and AUC were displayed. Therefore, caution is advised when implementing the FMS as a screening tool in an Army or similarly active population as it could lead to prevention and treatment resources being directed toward individuals who are not at greater risk for injury.

  17. Duplicate Type and Screen Testing: Waste in the Clinical Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Margaret L; Szklarski, Penny C; Booth, Garrett S

    2018-03-01

    - In the United States, approximately $65 billion dollars is spent per year on clinical laboratory testing, of which 20% to 30% of all testing is deemed inappropriate. There have been multiple studies in the field of transfusion medicine regarding evidence-based transfusion practices, but limited data exist regarding inappropriate pretransfusion testing and its financial and clinical implications. - To assess duplicative testing practices in the transfusion medicine service. - A 24-month retrospective review was performed at a 1025-bed tertiary care center, identifying all duplicate type and screen (TS) tests performed within 72 hours of the previous TS. Duplicative testing was classified as appropriate or inappropriate by predetermined criteria. The level of underordering was analyzed through a query of the electronic event reporting system. A cost analysis was performed to determine the financial impact of inappropriate duplicative TS. - The mean rate of inappropriate, duplicative TS orders was 4.13% (standard deviation ± 4.09%). Rates of inappropriate ordering ranged from 0.01% to 15.5% depending on the clinical service and did not correlate with volume of tests ordered. There were 8 reported cases of delayed blood delivery due to lack of a valid TS during the study period, demonstrating that underordering is also a harmful practice. The laboratory cost of inappropriate testing for the study period was $80,434, and phlebotomy costs were $45,469. - Our study demonstrates that inappropriate TS ordering is costly, both financially and clinically. By evaluating the percentage of inappropriate TS tests by clinical services, we have identified services that may benefit from additional education and technologic intervention.

  18. 50 Grams Oral Glucose Challenge Test: Is It an Effective Screening Test for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Heija, Adel; Al-Bash, Majeda; Ishrat, Noreen; Al-Kharausi, Lamya

    2016-10-01

    To find out whether 50 g oral glucose challenge test (OGCT) is an effective screening test for all pregnant women between 24 and 28 weeks gestation. A 50 g OGCT test was administered to 307 unselected women at 24-28 weeks of gestation. When venous plasma glucose (VPG) concentration after 1 h was >7.8 mmol/l, OGCT was positive. Women with a positive OGCT underwent 2 h 75 grams oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) as a confirmatory diagnosis of GDM. When fasting and 2 h post 75 g OGTT values were >5.5 mmol/I and >8 mmol/l, respectively, women were considered diabetic. We screened 307 women for GDM by OGCT. Total number of women with positive OGCT was 83 (27.03 %). In the low-risk group, total number of women with GDM was 9/168 (5.35 %) while the total number of women with GDM in the high-risk group was 14/139 (10.07 %). There was no significant difference with respect to the total number of women with GDM in the groups. A 50 g OGCT seems to be an effective screening test for both groups. More cases of GDM can be discovered when universal rather than risk-related screening is applied.

  19. Nursing swallow screens: why is testing water only not enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Allison Loftiss; Hannibal, Ruth Renee

    2013-10-01

    The speech-language pathologist (SLP) standardized a Nursing Bedside Swallowing Screen (NBSS) tool for all patients admitted to the hospital. The adults engaged in the NBSS before oral intake (i.e., medication included) as part of the Brain Attack Pathway for patients with neurological symptoms. If the patient failed the NBSS in the emergency department (ED), then the screen was repeated again after the patient had been admitted before the SLP dysphagia evaluation. Fifty-three male and female patients ranging from 34 to 96 years old with an initial diagnosis of stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) admitted during an 8-week time period from April 25, 2010, to June 19, 2010, were included in this study. There were 32 women and 17 men including 27 strokes and 22 TIAs tested. As a whole, the NBSS and SLP dysphagia evaluation results were consistent with each other for 40 of 46 patients (86.96% perfect agreement). The NBSS had 74% of sensitivity (34 of 46) with the nursing and the speech pathologist in agreement with the patients passing the swallow screen. Accurate identification of aspiration with the patients failing the NBSS was evident with the nursing and speech pathology assessment, which resulted in 83% of sensitivity (10 of 12). The positive predictive value with the corresponding identification of aspiration with the staff was 96% (44 of 46). The naturalistic observation of the patients exhibited internal consistency reliability between the two disciplines. Extraneous variables affecting the results included spontaneous resolution of stroke or TIA symptoms or the patient's decline in neurological status. For more insights from the authors, see Supplemental Digital Content 1, at http://links.lww.com/JNN/A9.

  20. Screening for chromosomal abnormalities by first trimester combined screening and noninvasive prenatal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, K O; Hoopmann, M; Hammer, R; Stressig, R; Kozlowski, P

    2015-02-01

    To examine combined first trimester screening (FTS), noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) and a two-step policy that combines FTS and NIPT in screening for aneuploidy. Retrospective study involving 21,052 pregnancies where FTS was performed at the Praxis Praenatal.de in Duesseldorf, Germany. In each case, the sum risk of trisomy 21, 18 and 13 was computed. We assumed that NIPT detects 99 %, 98 %, 90 % and 99 % of cases with trisomy 21, 18, 13 and sex chromosomal abnormalities and that the false-positive rate is 0.5 %. The following screening policies were examined: NIPT or FTS with sum risk cut-offs of 1 in 50 and 1 in 250 in all patients or a two-step-policy with FTS in all patients followed by NIPT in the intermediate sum risk group. For the intermediate risk group, sum risk cut-offs of 1 in 50 and 1 in 1000 and 1 in 150 and 1 in 500 were used. There were 127, 34, 13 and 15 pregnancies with trisomy 21, 18, 13 and sex chromosomal abnormalities. 23 fetuses had other chromosomal abnormalities with an increased risk for adverse outcome that are not detectable by NIPT. 20,840 pregnancies were classified as normal as ante- and postnatal examinations did not show any signs of clinically significant chromosomal abnormalities. FTS with a sum risk cut-off of 1 in 50 and 1 in 250 detects 81 % and 91 % for all aneuploidies. NIPT detects 88 % of the respective pregnancies. The 2-step approach with sum risk cut-offs of 1 in 50 and 1 in 1000 detects 94 % of all aneuploidies. With sum risk cut-offs of 1 in 150 and 1 in 500, the detection rate is 93 %. A 2-step policy with FTS for all patients and NIPT in the intermediate risk group results in the highest detection rate of all aneuploidies. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening Study: near and distance visual acuity testing increase the diagnostic accuracy of screening for amblyopia

    OpenAIRE

    Bu?i?, Mladen; Bjelo?, Mirjana; Petrove?ki, Mladen; Kuzmanovi? Elabjer, Biljana; Bosnar, Damir; Rami?, Senad; Mileti?, Daliborka; Andrija?evi?, Lidija; Kond?a Krstonijevi?, Edita; Jakovljevi?, Vid; Bi??an Tvrdi, Ana; Predovi?, Jurica; Kokot, Antonio; Bi??an, Filip; Kova?evi? Ljubi?, Mirna

    2016-01-01

    Aim To present and evaluate a new screening protocol for amblyopia in preschool children. Methods Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening (ZAPS) study protocol performed screening for amblyopia by near and distance visual acuity (VA) testing of 15 648 children aged 48-54 months attending kindergartens in the City of Zagreb County between September 2011 and June 2014 using Lea Symbols in lines test. If VA in either eye was >0.1 logMAR, the child was re-tested, if failed at...

  2. The Free-Running Asthma Screening Test: An Approach to Screening for Exercise-Induced Asthma in Rural Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaman, Doris J.; Estes, Jenny

    1997-01-01

    This study documented the prevalence of exercise-induced asthma (EIA) in rural elementary schools, examining the use of a free-running asthma screening test and peak expiratory flow-rate measurement for school screening. Results indicated that 5.7% of the students had EIA. Absenteeism and poverty were related to EIA. (SM)

  3. Predicting the risk of a false-positive test for women following a mammography screening programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Olsen, Anne Helene; Schwartz, Walter

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study was to provide a simple estimate of the cumulative risk of a false-positive test for women participating in mammography screening. To test the method, we used data from two well-established, organized mammography screening programmes offering biennial...... screening to women aged 50-69 years in Copenhagen and Fyn, Denmark. METHODS: We defined the outcome from a screen as being either a false-positive test or not a false-positive test. We then tested whether the outcomes from subsequent screens were independent, and afterwards estimated the risk over 10...

  4. Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening Study: near and distance visual acuity testing increase the diagnostic accuracy of screening for amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bušić, Mladen; Bjeloš, Mirjana; Petrovečki, Mladen; Kuzmanović Elabjer, Biljana; Bosnar, Damir; Ramić, Senad; Miletić, Daliborka; Andrijašević, Lidija; Kondža Krstonijević, Edita; Jakovljević, Vid; Bišćan Tvrdi, Ana; Predović, Jurica; Kokot, Antonio; Bišćan, Filip; Kovačević Ljubić, Mirna; Motušić Aras, Ranka

    2016-02-01

    To present and evaluate a new screening protocol for amblyopia in preschool children. Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening (ZAPS) study protocol performed screening for amblyopia by near and distance visual acuity (VA) testing of 15 648 children aged 48-54 months attending kindergartens in the City of Zagreb County between September 2011 and June 2014 using Lea Symbols in lines test. If VA in either eye was >0.1 logMAR, the child was re-tested, if failed at re-test, the child was referred to comprehensive eye examination at the Eye Clinic. 78.04% of children passed the screening test. Estimated prevalence of amblyopia was 8.08%. Testability, sensitivity, and specificity of the ZAPS study protocol were 99.19%, 100.00%, and 96.68% respectively. The ZAPS study used the most discriminative VA test with optotypes in line as they do not underestimate amblyopia. The estimated prevalence of amblyopia was considerably higher than reported elsewhere. To the best of our knowledge, the ZAPS study protocol reached the highest sensitivity and specificity when evaluating diagnostic accuracy of VA tests for screening. The pass level defined at ≤0.1 logMAR for 4-year-old children, using Lea Symbols in lines missed no amblyopia cases, advocating that both near and distance VA testing should be performed when screening for amblyopia.

  5. Twin-twin transfusion syndrome: neurodevelopmental screening test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amabile Vessoni Arias

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To assess the neurodevelopmental functions (cognition, language and motor function of survivors of twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS. Method Observational cross-sectional study of a total of 67 monochorionic diamniotic twins who underwent fetoscopic laser coagulation (FLC for treatment of TTTS. The study was conducted at the Center for Investigation in Pediatrics (CIPED, Universidade Estadual de Campinas. Ages ranged from one month and four days to two years four months. Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development Screening Test-III, were used for evaluation. Results Most children reached the competent category and were classified as having appropriate performance. The preterm children scored worse than term infants for gross motor subtest (p = 0.036. Conclusion The majority of children reached the expected development according to their age. Despite the good neurodevelopment, children classified at risk should be monitored for development throughout childhood.

  6. Predicting the risk of a false-positive test for women following a mammography screening programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Olsen, Anne Helene; Schwartz, Walter

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study was to provide a simple estimate of the cumulative risk of a false-positive test for women participating in mammography screening. To test the method, we used data from two well-established, organized mammography screening programmes offering biennial...... be calculated in a simple way relatively early after the start of a mammography screening programme....

  7. Effectiveness of nursing interventions to increase pap smear test screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guvenc, Gulten; Akyuz, Aygul; Yenen, Mufit Cemal

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a three-stage nursing intervention to increase Turkish women's participation in Pap smear testing. Knowledge and beliefs about cervical cancer screening and barriers to Pap smears also were explored. In a quasi-experimental study in a target population of 2,500 women, 237 completed pre-test measures to inform the intervention, and an educational brochure was distributed to all 2,500. As a result, 510 women (20.4%) accepted free Pap smears. Of the remaining 1,990 women, 417 were randomly selected for telephone interviews, 302 participated, and 158 of these (52.3%) participated in free Pap smear testing. Of the 144 who did not have Pap smears after participating in telephone interviews, 54 were then interviewed face-to-face, and 20 (37.0%) decided to accept free Pap smears. A total of 668 women had accepted free Pap smears by the end of the intervention period. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. 77 FR 15101 - Results From Inert Ingredient Test Orders Issued Under EPA's Endocrine Disruptor Screening...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... . List of Subjects Environmental protection, Endocrine disruptors, Pesticides and pests. Dated: February... Test Orders Issued Under EPA's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program: New Data Compensation Claims... required recipients to submit specific screening data on hormonal effects under EPA's Endocrine Disruptor...

  9. Subjective and objective screening tests for hydroxychloroquine toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukras, Catherine; Huynh, Nancy; Vitale, Susan; Wong, Wai T; Ferris, Fredrick L; Sieving, Paul A

    2015-02-01

    To compare subjective and objective clinical tests used in the screening for hydroxychloroquine retinal toxicity to multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) reference testing. Prospective, single-center, case control study. Fifty-seven patients with a previous or current history of hydroxychloroquine treatment of more than 5 years' duration. Participants were evaluated with a detailed medical history, dilated ophthalmologic examination, color fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence (FAF) imaging, spectral-domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT), automated visual field testing (10-2 visual field mean deviation [VFMD]), and mfERG testing. We used mfERG test parameters as a gold standard to divide participants into 2 groups: those affected by hydroxychloroquine-induced retinal toxicity and those unaffected. We assessed the association of various imaging and psychophysical variables in the affected versus the unaffected group. Fifty-seven study participants (91.2% female; mean age, 55.7±10.4 years; mean duration of hydroxychloroquine treatment, 15.0±7.5 years) were divided into affected (n = 19) and unaffected (n = 38) groups based on mfERG criteria. Mean age and duration of hydroxychloroquine treatment did not differ statistically between groups. Mean OCT retinal thickness measurements in all 9 macular subfields were significantly lower (<40 μm) in the affected group (P < 0.01 for all comparisons) compared with those in the unaffected group. Mean VFMD was 11 dB lower in the affected group (P < 0.0001). Clinical features indicative of retinal toxicity were scored for the 2 groups and were detected in 68.4% versus 0.0% using color fundus photographs, 73.3% versus 9.1% using FAF images, and 84.2% versus 0.0% on the scoring for the perifoveal loss of the photoreceptor ellipsoid zone on SD-OCT for affected and unaffected participants, respectively. Using a polynomial modeling approach, OCT inner ring retinal thickness measurements and Humphrey 10-2 VFMD were

  10. 40 CFR 795.70 - Indirect photolysis screening test: Sunlight photolysis in waters containing dissolved humic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... background information on this test guideline the following references should be consulted. (1) Cooper W.J... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Indirect photolysis screening test... TEST GUIDELINES Provisional Chemical Fate Guidelines § 795.70 Indirect photolysis screening test...

  11. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Alcohol Testing § 40.229 What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests? EBTs and ASDs on the... are allowed to use to conduct alcohol screening tests under this part. You may use an ASD that is on the NHTSA CPL for DOT alcohol tests only if there are instructions for its use in this part. An ASD...

  12. Tests Screening Reading Difficulty in Malayalam among Upper Primary School Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafoor, K. Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Design of a screening test for identifying reading difficult students in Malayalam and validation thereof among boys is made to help schools proactively intervene with such students. A battery of tests developed based on extant literature on screening tests, reviewed difficulties in reading Malayalam, and discrimination power of the draft tests is…

  13. 10 CFR 26.131 - Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity... Testing Facilities § 26.131 Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests. (a) Each validity test result from the licensee testing facility must be based on performing either a validity...

  14. Early Adoption of a Multitarget Stool DNA Test for Colorectal Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney Rutten, Lila J; Jacobson, Robert M; Wilson, Patrick M; Jacobson, Debra J; Fan, Chun; Kisiel, John B; Sweetser, Seth; Tulledge-Scheitel, Sidna M; St Sauver, Jennifer L

    2017-05-01

    To characterize early adoption of a novel multitarget stool DNA (MT-sDNA) screening test for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and to test the hypothesis that adoption differs by demographic characteristics and prior CRC screening behavior and proceeds predictably over time. We used the Rochester Epidemiology Project research infrastructure to assess the use of the MT-sDNA screening test in adults aged 50 to 75 years living in Olmsted County, Minnesota, in 2014 and identified 27,147 individuals eligible or due for screening colonoscopy from November 1, 2014, through November 30, 2015. We used electronic Current Procedure Terminology and Health Care Common Procedure codes to evaluate early adoption of the MT-sDNA screening test in this population and to test whether early adoption varies by age, sex, race, and prior CRC screening behavior. Overall, 2193 (8.1%) and 974 (3.6%) individuals were screened by colonoscopy and MT-sDNA, respectively. Age, sex, race, and prior CRC screening behavior were significantly and independently associated with MT-sDNA screening use compared with colonoscopy use after adjustment for all other variables (Padoption of MT-sDNA screening increased over time and were highest in those aged 50 to 54 years, women, whites, and those who had a history of screening. The use of the MT-sDNA screening test varied predictably by insurance coverage. The rates of colonoscopy decreased over time, whereas overall CRC screening rates remained steady. The results of the present study are generally consistent with predictions derived from prior research and the diffusion of innovation framework, pointing to increasing use of the new screening test over time and early adoption by younger patients, women, whites, and those with prior CRC screening. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Concordance between timeline follow-back and single-question assessment of self-reported smoking in a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Steven L; Rosner, June; Toll, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Smoking cessation clinical trials assess tobacco abstinence using self-report and biomarkers. Optimum methods for each are unclear; a common question assesses smoking in the prior 7 days. In contrast, timeline follow-back (TLFB) is another technique often used to assess use of alcohol in treatment trials; it is used less frequently in studies of smoking cessation. The goal of this study was to assess concordance between the 7-day smoking question and a 7-day TLFB. Secondary analysis of data from a randomized clinical trial of smoking cessation was conducted at a busy, urban hospital emergency department (ED) from October 2010 to December 2012. At 1, 3, and 12 months, subjects were contacted by phone to assess smoking status. Those reporting abstinence at 3 months were asked to return for an in-person measurement of exhaled carbon monoxide. For this analysis, smoking status at 1 month was compared for subjects in response to 2 questions asked concurrently, addressing 7-day point prevalence tobacco use and a 7-day TLFB. Of 780 subjects, 666 (85.4%) were available for 1-month follow-up. Of these, 99 (14.9%) reported no smoking in response to the 7-day question, and 96 (14.4%) reported no smoking in response to the 7-day TLFB. The overall proportionate agreement between the 2 methods was 98.6%, with a kappa of 0.95 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.91-0.98). A single question that assesses smoking at 7 days provides excellent concordance with the more detailed TLFB. The single question appears adequate to assess self-reported tobacco use in clinical trials of smoking cessation.

  16. The problem of false-positive human papillomavirus DNA tests in cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Pribac, Igor; Frederiksen, Maria Eiholm

    2013-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) testing has been extensively studied in randomized controlled trials of primary cervical screening. Based on encouraging results concerning its high detection rates and a high negative predictive value for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), HPV testing...... will probably replace cytology in future primary cervical screening. However, HPV testing is associated with more frequent false-positive tests compared to cytology. False-positive tests are defined as positive screening tests which are not subsequently confirmed with high-grade CIN. Several authors have...... testing leads to more screen-positive women being referred for colposcopy without having high-grade CIN, and to more women undergoing repeated testing. The only reasonable solution to the problem of false-positive tests appears to be a revised definition of a positive HPV screening test. However, further...

  17. The Relationship between Preeclampsia and Quadruple Screening Test in Nuliparous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Zand Vakili

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Early diagnosis and prediction of preeclampsia needs appropriate obstetric care. Preeclampsia predicting methods are important. This study was designed to determine the correlation between preeclampsia and quadruple screening test in the nulliparous. Materials and Methods:  This case - control study was conducted on 54 pregnant women with preeclampsia (case group and 108 healthy pregnant women (control group who referred to health centers in Sanandaj, Iran. Ultrasonography was performed to determine the gestational age by a radiologist. Maternal serum levels of alpha fetoprotein (AFP, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, unconjugated estriol (uE3, and inhibin-A were measured in the second trimester of pregnancy. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software and Chi-square test, T-test, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values. Results: The results showed that the sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of preeclampsia in pregnant women for hCG were 35.2% and 79.6 respectively. These findings for estriol were 20.4% and 88.9%, for inhibin-A were 38.8% and 88% and for alpha fetoprotein were 38.8% and 74.1%. The positive predictive value for hCG, estriol, inhibin-A and alpha fetoprotein were 46.3%, 47.8%, 61.8% and 42.9% respectively. The negative predictive value for hCG, estriol, inhibin-A and alpha fetoprotein were also 71%, 69.1%, 74.2% and 70.8% respectively. Conclusion: There was a relationship between preeclampsia and high levels of inhibin-A and hCG. Further studies on these markers and evaluating their usefulness in the diagnosis and management of preeclampsia are recommended.

  18. Preliminary phytochemical screening and antibacterial testing of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts of Piliostigma thonningii (Schum) used traditionally for relieving toothache and cough were screened for their phytochemical constituents and in vitro antibacterial activity. Chemical and chromatographic methods were used for the phytochemical screening of the extracts. Inhibitory ...

  19. Does offering prenatal screening influence pregnant women's attitudes regarding prenatal testing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinveld, J.H.; van den Berg, M.; van Eijk, J.T.; van Vugt, J.M.G.; van der Wal, G.; Timmermans, D.R.M.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This study aims to find out whether offering prenatal screening for Down syndrome and neural tube defects influences pregnant women's attitudes toward having a screening test. Methods: Women were randomised into a group that was offered prenatal screening and a group that was not offered

  20. Does population screening for Chlamydia trachomatis raise anxiety among those tested? Findings from a population based chlamydia screening study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Low Nicola

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advent of urine testing for Chlamydia trachomatis has raised the possibility of large-scale screening for this sexually transmitted infection, which is now the most common in the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an invitation to be screened for chlamydia and of receiving a negative result on levels of anxiety, depression and self-esteem. Methods 19,773 men and women aged 16 to 39 years, selected at random from 27 general practices in two large city areas (Bristol and Birmingham were invited by post to send home-collected urine samples or vulvo-vaginal swabs for chlamydia testing. Questionnaires enquiring about anxiety, depression and self-esteem were sent to random samples of those offered screening: one month before the dispatch of invitations; when participants returned samples; and after receiving a negative result. Results Home screening was associated with an overall reduction in anxiety scores. An invitation to participate did not increase anxiety levels. Anxiety scores in men were lower after receiving the invitation than at baseline. Amongst women anxiety was reduced after receipt of negative test results. Neither depression nor self-esteem scores were affected by screening. Conclusion Postal screening for chlamydia does not appear to have a negative impact on overall psychological well-being and can lead to a decrease in anxiety levels among respondents. There is, however, a clear difference between men and women in when this reduction occurs.

  1. Does population screening for Chlamydia trachomatis raise anxiety among those tested? Findings from a population based chlamydia screening study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Rona; Mills, Nicola; Sanford, Emma; Graham, Anna; Low, Nicola; Peters, Tim J

    2006-04-25

    The advent of urine testing for Chlamydia trachomatis has raised the possibility of large-scale screening for this sexually transmitted infection, which is now the most common in the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an invitation to be screened for chlamydia and of receiving a negative result on levels of anxiety, depression and self-esteem. 19,773 men and women aged 16 to 39 years, selected at random from 27 general practices in two large city areas (Bristol and Birmingham) were invited by post to send home-collected urine samples or vulvo-vaginal swabs for chlamydia testing. Questionnaires enquiring about anxiety, depression and self-esteem were sent to random samples of those offered screening: one month before the dispatch of invitations; when participants returned samples; and after receiving a negative result. Home screening was associated with an overall reduction in anxiety scores. An invitation to participate did not increase anxiety levels. Anxiety scores in men were lower after receiving the invitation than at baseline. Amongst women anxiety was reduced after receipt of negative test results. Neither depression nor self-esteem scores were affected by screening. Postal screening for chlamydia does not appear to have a negative impact on overall psychological well-being and can lead to a decrease in anxiety levels among respondents. There is, however, a clear difference between men and women in when this reduction occurs.

  2. Nouws antibiotics test: Validation of a post-screening method for antibiotic residues in kidney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikkemaat, M.G.; Oostra-van Dijk, S.; Schouten, J.; Rapallini, M.; Kortenhoeven, L.; Egmond, van H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Anticipating the rise in ‘suspect’ samples caused by the introduction of a more sensitive screening test for the presence of antibiotic residues in slaughter animals, an additional microbial post-screening method was developed. The test comprises four antibiotic group specific test plates, optimized

  3. Prenatal reflex DNA screening for Down syndrome: enhancing the screening performance of the initial first trimester test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Nicholas J; Bestwick, Jonathan P

    2016-04-01

    To estimate the effect of adding three biochemical markers (alphafetoprotein, inhibin-A, and placental growth factor) and two ultrasound markers (ductus venosus pulsatility index and nasal bone examination) to enhance the initial Combined test in prenatal reflex DNA screening for Down syndrome. Published data were used to estimate screening performance [detection rates (DRs) and false-positive rates (FPRs)] of reflex DNA screening according to the additional markers used, the proportion of women with the highest initial test risks reflexed to DNA testing and the gestational age at the time of blood collection. If 10% of women are reflexed, the addition of the three biochemical markers to the Combined test increases the DR from 90.8% to 92.3% (FPR 0.025% to 0.027%) with markers measured at 11 completed weeks' gestation. With markers measured at 13 completed weeks' gestation the DR increases from 87.7% to 95.2% (FPRs both 0.027%). The further addition of the two ultrasound markers increases the DR to 96.8% and 97.5% at 11 and 13 weeks' respectively (FPR to 0.024% and 0.022% respectively). Adding the specified markers to the Combined test can maintain or improve screening performance with a lower proportion of women reflexed. Our results can be used to determine the most cost-effective reflex DNA screening policy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Colon cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  5. Validation of a new language screening tool for patients with acute stroke: the Language Screening Test (LAST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamand-Roze, Constance; Falissard, Bruno; Roze, Emmanuel; Maintigneux, Lisa; Beziz, Jonathan; Chacon, Audrey; Join-Lambert, Claire; Adams, David; Denier, Christian

    2011-05-01

    Standard aphasia scales such as the Boston Diagnosis Aphasia Evaluation are inappropriate for use in acute stroke. Likewise, global stroke scales do not reliably detect aphasia, and existing brief aphasia screening scales suitable for patients with stroke have several limitations. The objective of this study was to generate and validate a bedside language screening tool, the Language Screening Test, suitable for use in the emergency setting. The Language Screening Test comprises 5 subtests and a total of 15 items. To avoid retest bias, we created 2 parallel versions of the scale. We report the equivalence of the 2 versions, their internal and external validity, and their interrater reliability. We validated the scale by administering it to 300 consecutive patients within 24 hours after admission to our stroke unit and to 104 stabilized patients with and without aphasia using the Boston Diagnosis Aphasia Evaluation as a reference. The 2 versions of the Language Screening Test were equivalent with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.96. Internal validity was good; none of the items showed a floor or ceiling effect with no redundancy and good internal consistency (Cronbach α 0.88). External validation against the Boston Diagnosis Aphasia Evaluation showed a sensitivity of 0.98 and a specificity of 1. Interrater agreement was near perfect (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.998). The median time to complete the Language Screening Test was approximately 2 minutes. Importantly, the Language Screening Test does not need to be administered by a speech and language therapist. This comprehensively validated language rating scale is simple and rapid, making it a useful tool for bedside evaluation of patients with acute stroke in routine clinical practice.

  6. Comparison of the automated vision screening test to the Snellen test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gofin, R; Falk, M

    1991-03-01

    The comparison of an automatic vision screening machine using the Landolt rings and the usual Snellen Chart was carried out among 123 second grade and 149 fifth grade students in an elementary school in Jerusalem. The sensitivity of the test for a cut-off point of greater than or equal to 6/12 according to the Snellen test was 41.7% (CI = 16.5-71.4) and the specificity was 86.5% (CI 78.1-92.2) for second graders. For fifth graders the values were 50.0% (CI = 20.1-79.9) and 90.6% (CI 83.7-94.8) respectively. Diagnosis by a specialist decreased the number of 'false negatives' and confirmed the pathological cases. The automatic test was well accepted by the children. Though more time is needed for assessment using the automatic test, its advantage is that no professional staff are required.

  7. Endocrine Disruptor Screening and Testing Advisory Committee (EDSTAC) Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EDSTAC Report was developed through a deliberative process that encouraged the development of consensus solutions to complex problems and issues related to developing an Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program.

  8. Fetal monitor for non-stress-test screening at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horio, H; Murakami, M; Chiba, Y; Inada, H

    1998-01-01

    A fetal monitoring device developed for non-stress-test (NST) screening at home works on battery power, and is so small and lightweight (152 x 120 x 64 mm, 600 g) that a pregnant woman can monitor fetal Doppler ultra-sound and record fetal heart rate (FHR) and uterine contraction (UC) data on an attached memory IC card at any time and in any place away from a hospital. The physician can evaluate these data, transmitted via public telephone lines, using a built-in modem in the monitor. The combination of the memory IC card as a temporary storage device with the intermittent data transmission to the host provides endless data storage. The input-output relationship of the device was quantitatively evaluated using a Doppler ultrasound heart rate simulator. Forty pregnant women participated in an evaluation of this system. The total number of NST data transmissions was 648, and the total amount of data received was more than 6.7 Mbytes. Of the 648 transmissions, 475 were adequate for clinical interpretation. Of the 101 failed NST data transmissions, 85 resulted from patient handling errors. However, 82.4% of these errors resulted in reexamination and transfer of new data by the patients, who were aware of the insufficiency of the original data. The main cause of the noise in the data was zero-count data; this noise rate accounted for 4.1% of the data abnormalities. A questionnaire survey found that 96% of the participants wanted to use the monitor again in their next pregnancies, and 83% would recommend its use to pregnant friends. The system was easily used and accepted by pregnant women, and the NST data obtained were sufficient for clinical interpretation.

  9. Self-Sampling for Human Papillomavirus Testing: Increased Cervical Cancer Screening Participation and Incorporation in International Screening Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sarah; Palmer, Christina; Bik, Elisabeth M.; Cardenas, Juan P.; Nuñez, Harold; Kraal, Laurens; Bird, Sara W.; Bowers, Jennie; Smith, Alison; Walton, Nathaniel A.; Goddard, Audrey D.; Almonacid, Daniel E.; Zneimer, Susan; Richman, Jessica; Apte, Zachary S.

    2018-01-01

    In most industrialized countries, screening programs for cervical cancer have shifted from cytology (Pap smear or ThinPrep) alone on clinician-obtained samples to the addition of screening for human papillomavirus (HPV), its main causative agent. For HPV testing, self-sampling instead of clinician-sampling has proven to be equally accurate, in particular for assays that use nucleic acid amplification techniques. In addition, HPV testing of self-collected samples in combination with a follow-up Pap smear in case of a positive result is more effective in detecting precancerous lesions than a Pap smear alone. Self-sampling for HPV testing has already been adopted by some countries, while others have started trials to evaluate its incorporation into national cervical cancer screening programs. Self-sampling may result in more individuals willing to participate in cervical cancer screening, because it removes many of the barriers that prevent women, especially those in low socioeconomic and minority populations, from participating in regular screening programs. Several studies have shown that the majority of women who have been underscreened but who tested HPV-positive in a self-obtained sample will visit a clinic for follow-up diagnosis and management. In addition, a self-collected sample can also be used for vaginal microbiome analysis, which can provide additional information about HPV infection persistence as well as vaginal health in general. PMID:29686981

  10. Self-Sampling for Human Papillomavirus Testing: Increased Cervical Cancer Screening Participation and Incorporation in International Screening Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Gupta

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In most industrialized countries, screening programs for cervical cancer have shifted from cytology (Pap smear or ThinPrep alone on clinician-obtained samples to the addition of screening for human papillomavirus (HPV, its main causative agent. For HPV testing, self-sampling instead of clinician-sampling has proven to be equally accurate, in particular for assays that use nucleic acid amplification techniques. In addition, HPV testing of self-collected samples in combination with a follow-up Pap smear in case of a positive result is more effective in detecting precancerous lesions than a Pap smear alone. Self-sampling for HPV testing has already been adopted by some countries, while others have started trials to evaluate its incorporation into national cervical cancer screening programs. Self-sampling may result in more individuals willing to participate in cervical cancer screening, because it removes many of the barriers that prevent women, especially those in low socioeconomic and minority populations, from participating in regular screening programs. Several studies have shown that the majority of women who have been underscreened but who tested HPV-positive in a self-obtained sample will visit a clinic for follow-up diagnosis and management. In addition, a self-collected sample can also be used for vaginal microbiome analysis, which can provide additional information about HPV infection persistence as well as vaginal health in general.

  11. Validity of Forced Eyelid Closure Test: A Novel Clinical Screening Test for Ocular Myasthenia Gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apinyawasisuk, Supanut; Zhou, Xinkai; Tian, Jack J; Garcia, Giancarlo A; Karanjia, Rustum; Sadun, Alfredo A

    2017-09-01

    Forced eyelid closure test (FECT) is a clinical screening test developed from the original Cogan lid twitch (CLT) sign to assist in the diagnosis of ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG), We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of FECT compared with CLT and benchmarked to standard diagnostic tests. This study was a retrospective chart review of 48 patients using electronic medical records of those that presented with ptosis and/or diplopia at Doheny Eye Institute, University of California, Los Angeles between February 2015 and April 2016. Patients without FECT testing were excluded. FECT and CLT results, and final diagnosis were recorded. To perform FECT, the patient was asked to squeeze his or her eyelids shut for 5-10 seconds then open quickly and fixate in primary position. The excessive upward overshoot of eyelids movement indicated a positive FECT. The test was performed by a neuro-ophthalmologist before establishing the diagnosis. Patients who had equivocal test results and/or inconclusive final diagnosis were excluded. Of the 48 patients studied, 18 patients (37.5%) had positive FECT; 15 of whom had a final diagnosis of OMG (83.3%). Of the 30 patients with negative FECT, 1 had OMG (3.3%). Of the 48 patients, 35 patients also had a documented CLT result (72.9%). CLT was positive in 11 of these 35 patients (31.4%), and 9 of these 11 had OMG (81.8%). Of the 24 patients with negative CLT, 2 of them had OMG (8.3%). Sensitivity and specificity of FECT were 94% and 91% (joint 95% confidence region: sensitivity × specificity = [0.70, 1] × [0.75, 1]). The relative true-positive fraction (rTPF) between FECT and CLT was 1.15; the relative false-positive fraction was 1.31. FECT is a simple clinical screening test with good sensitivity and specificity for OMG.

  12. Risk-benefit analysis for mass screening of breast cancer utilizing mammography as a screening test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iinuma, T.A.; Tateno, Yukio

    1989-01-01

    Incidence of breast cancers in Japanese women is increasing steadily. Mass screening of breast cancer was started in Japan under auspices of Adult Health Promotion Act of the Japanese Government from 1987. As the first screening method, the palpation of breasts is employed at present, but it is expected to be replaced by the mammography. In this report, the risk-benefit analysis is presented between risk of breast carcinogenesis due to radiation and benefit of mass screening of breast cancer. The benefit of mass screening is taken as the net elongation of average life expectancy of women due to survival from breast cancers. The risk of mammography is taken as the net loss of average life expectancy of women due to breast carcinogenesis. In the latter, the latency time and plateau period of radiation carcinogenesis were taken into consideration in the calculation. The results show that the ages at which the benefit and risk become equal are between 30 and 35 years old when dose equivalent of mammography is between 10 and 20 mSv, that are conventionally used. However, the critical age will be reduced to 20 years old if the dose equivalent becomes 1 mSv. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that a low dose mammographic system should be developed in order to achieve 1 mSv for the mass screening of breast cancer of Japanese women. In author's opinion, this is quite feasible by employing a new digital radiography with imaging plate. (author)

  13. Knowledge of prenatal screening and psychological management of test decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Hvidman, Lone; Jørgensen, Finn Stener

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study associations between pregnant women's knowledge of prenatal screening and decisional conflict in deciding whether to participate in first trimester screening for Down's syndrome in a setting of required informed consent and to study associations between knowledge and personal....... The results presented are based on 4,111 pregnant women (64%). Knowledge was measured by 15 knowledge questions. The primary outcomes were measured by use of pre-existing validated scales i.e. The Decisional Conflict Scale, the WHO well-being index, and the Cambridge Worry Scale. Associations were analysed...... by multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses. RESULTS: A higher level of knowledge was associated with less decisional conflict when deciding whether to participate in first trimester Down's syndrome screening (adjusted odds ratio 1.31 (1.26 to 1.37)). An increased level of knowledge was also...

  14. Experiences with a self-test for Dutch breast screening radiologists: lessons learnt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, J. M. H.; Verbeek, A. L. M.; Pijnappel, R. M.; Broeders, M. J. M.; den Heeten, G. J.

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate a self-test for Dutch breast screening radiologists introduced as part of the national quality assurance programme. A total of 144 radiologists were invited to complete a test-set of 60 screening mammograms (20 malignancies). Participants assigned findings such as location, lesion type

  15. Experiences with a self-test for Dutch breast screening radiologists: lessons learnt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, J.M.H.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Pijnappel, R.M.; Broeders, M.J.M.; Heeten, GJ. den

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate a self-test for Dutch breast screening radiologists introduced as part of the national quality assurance programme. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 144 radiologists were invited to complete a test-set of 60 screening mammograms (20 malignancies). Participants assigned findings

  16. Medical and lay attitudes towards genetic screening and testing in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toiviainen, Hanna; Jallinoja, Piia; Aro, Arja R

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare physicians', midwives' and lay people's attitudes towards genetic screening and testing to find out whether medical education and experience influence attitudes of genetic screening and testing. The study was based on comparison of answers to joint questio...

  17. Accepting or declining the offer of prenatal screening for congenital defects: test uptake and women's reasons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, M.; Timmermans-van der Pligt, D.R.M.; Kleinveld, J.H.; Garcia, E; van Vugt, J.M.G.; van der Wal, G.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Prenatal screening for Down syndrome has become standard practice in many western countries. In the Netherlands, however, prenatal screening tests for congenital defects are not offered routinely. The present study aims to assess test uptake in a large, unselected population of pregnant

  18. Willingness to take a screening test for colorectal cancer: a community-based survey in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Cho; Jun, Yip Kar; Yee, Wai Mun; Waqiyuddin, Syazana J D B T; Lui, Lau Chiew; Shaung, Ooi Yin; Haw, Fong Jenn

    2014-03-01

    The aims of the study were (i) to determine the knowledge and perceptions of colorectal cancer (CRC), (ii) to explore the willingness of the study population to take a screening test for CRC, and (iii) to identify factors affecting the willingness to take a screening test for CRC. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in a semiurban town in Malaysia using a pretested structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were determined for all important variables. A binary logistic regression model was introduced to identify independent predictors of the willingness to take a screening test. Factors influencing willingness were explored according to the constructs of the health belief model. Of the 256 respondents who had heard about CRC, the majority were aware of altered bowel habits (67.3%) or the presence of blood in stool or rectal bleeding (63.4%) as the warning symptoms. Although 38% of the respondents knew of colonoscopy as the screening test, 22% were not aware of any screening test for CRC. A majority (77.4%) showed willingness to take a screening test for CRC. In the multivariate analysis, 'having family or friends with history of CRC' and 'self-perceived risk' were the two significant variables for predicting the acceptance of CRC screening among the study population. Findings suggested that the respondents' knowledge of the CRC screening test was inadequate, albeit a high proportion expressed their intention to take screening tests. Health education on the CRC addressing available screening tests and the benefits of early screening for CRC should be scaled up.

  19. Abnormal ovarian cancer screening test result: women's informational, psychological and practical needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Patricia Y; Graves, Kristi D; Pavlik, Edward J; Andrykowski, Michael A

    2007-01-01

    Considerable effort has been devoted to the identification of cost-effective approaches to screening for ovarian cancer (OC). Transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) is one such screening approach. Approximately 5-7% of routine TVS screening tests yield abnormal results. Some women experience significant distress after receipt of an abnormal TVS screening test. Four focus groups provided in-depth, qualitative data regarding the informational, psychological, and practical needs of women after the receipt of an abnormal TVS result. Through question and content analytic procedures, we identified four themes: anticipation, emotional response, role of the screening technician, and impact of prior cancer experiences. Results provide initial guidance toward development of interventions to promote adaptive responses after receipt of an abnormal cancer screening test result.

  20. The King–Devick test for sideline concussion screening in collegiate football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle F. Leong

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: The data show worsening of K–D test scores following concussion further supporting utility of the K–D test as an objective, reliable and effective sideline visual screening tool to help identify athletes with concussion.

  1. Evaluation of the concomitant use of two different EIA tests for HIV screening in blood banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Marcia M; Salles, Nanci A; Barreto, Angela M E; Barreto, Claudia C; Chamone, Dalton F; Sabino, Ester C

    2003-01-01

    In 1998, the Brazilian Ministry of Health made it mandatory for all blood banks in the country to screen donated blood for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) concomitantly using two different enzyme immunoassay (EIA) tests. Concerned with the best use of available resources, our objective with this study was to evaluate the usefulness of conducting two EIA screening tests instead of just one. We analyzed data from 1999 through 2001 obtained by testing 698 191 units of donated blood using two EIA HIV screening tests concomitantly at the Pro-Blood Foundation/Blood Center of São Paulo (Fundação Pró-Sangue/Hemocentro de São Paulo), which is a major blood center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. All samples reactive in at least one of the two EIA tests were submitted for confirmation by a Western blot (WB) test, and the persons who had donated those samples were also asked to return and provide a follow-up sample. Out of the 698 191 blood units that were donated, 2 718 of them (0.4%) had to be discarded because they were reactive to at least one of the EIA tests. There were two WB-positive donation samples that were reactive in only one HIV EIA screening test. On their follow-up samples, both donors tested WB-negative. These cases were considered false positive results at screening. Of the 2 718 donors who were asked to return and provide a follow-up sample, 1 576 of them (58%) did so. From these 1 576 persons, we found that there were two individuals who had been reactive to only one of the two EIA screening tests and who had also been negative on the WB at screening but who were fully seroconverted on the follow-up sample. We thus estimated that, in comparison to the use of a single EIA screening test, the use of two EIA screening tests would detect only one extra sample out of 410 700 units of blood. Our data do not support the use of two different, concomitant EIA screening tests for HIV. The great majority of HIV-positive donors have already seroconverted and

  2. Alternative multi-user interaction screen: initial ergonomic test results

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Andrew C

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigate a potentially low-cost multi-user computer pointing interface. Given a choice of four targets arranged on the screen, the authors looked at what the user’s preference is in visiting the targets with a hand-held light source...

  3. A new microbial screening method for the detection of antimicrobial residues in slaughter animals: The Nouws antibiotic test (NAT-screening)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikkemaat, M.G.; Oostra-van Dijk, S.; Schouten, J.; Rapallini, M.; Egmond, van H.J.

    2008-01-01

    An improved microbial method for the screening of antimicrobial residues in slaughter animals has been developed. The Nouws antibiotic test (NAT-screening) is based on the analysis of renal pelvis fluid and comprises five test plates enabling group specific identification. The NAT-screening combines

  4. National assessment of HPV and Pap tests: Changes in cervical cancer screening, National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Meg; Benard, Vicki; King, Jessica; Crawford, Anatasha; Saraiya, Mona

    2017-07-01

    Major organizations recommend cytology screening (Pap test) every 3years for women aged 21-65; women aged 30 to 65 have the option of adding the HPV test (co-test) every 5years. We examined national percentages of cervical cancer screening, and we examined use of co-testing as an option for screening. We used 2015 U.S. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data to examine recent cervical cancer screening (Pap test within 3years among women aged 21-65 without a hysterectomy; N=10,596) and co-testing (N=9,125). We also conducted a multivariable analysis to determine odds of having had a Pap test or co-test by demographic variables. To evaluate changes in screening over time, we examined Pap testing during the years 2000, 2005, 2008, 2010, 2013 and 2015. Analysis completed in Atlanta, GA during 2016. Overall, 81.1% of eligible women reported having a Pap test within 3years; percentages declined over time among all age groups. An estimated 14 million women aged 21-65 had not been screened within the past 3years. Recent immigrants to the United States, women without insurance, and women without a usual source of healthcare had lower odds of being up to date with screening. About 1/3 of women up to date on Pap testing reported having a co-test with their most recent Pap test. Declines in screening among women aged 21-65 are cause for concern. More research is needed on co-testing practices. Provider and patient education efforts may be needed to clarify recommended use of HPV tests. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Optical testing of a parabolic trough solar collector by a null screen with stitching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Oliva, V., I.; Campos-Garcia, M.; Granados-Agustin, F.; Arjona-Pérez, M. J.; Díaz-Uribe, R.; Avendaño-Alejo, M.

    2009-06-01

    In this work we report a method for testing a parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC) based on the null screen principles. For surfaces with symmetry of revolution a cylindrical null screen is used, now, for testing the PTSC we use a flat null screen. The design of the null screen with ellipsoidal spots is described; its image, which is formed by reflection on the test surface, becomes an exact square array of circular spots if the surface is perfect. Any departure from this geometry is indicative of defects on the surface. The flat null screen design and the surface evaluation algorithm are presented. Here the surface is tested in sections and the evaluation of the shape of the surface is performed with stitching method. Results of the evaluation for a square PTSC with 1000 mm by side (F/0.49) are shown.

  6. Participation in prenatal screening tests and intentions concerning selective termination in Finnish maternity care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santalahti, P; Hemminki, E; Aro, A R

    1999-01-01

    AIMS: The study examined how prenatal screening tests are presented to women, factors associated with women's participation in screening, their experience of decision-making and intentions concerning pregnancy termination, and hospital data on rates of selective terminations. METHODS...... as a routine procedure. Most women (92%) underwent serum screening and most (86%) found the decision to participate or not easy. In almost every aspect of presentation and participation studied, serum and ultrasound screening differed from each other. 85% of respondents to ultrasound screening answered...... asking about selective terminations following detected fetal disorders were sent in 1993 to all public hospitals with obstetrics or gynaecology departments (response rate 100%). RESULTS: The serum screening test had usually been offered to women as a free choice, but for 22% of them it was presented...

  7. Changes in cervical cancer screening behavior for women attending Pap Test Week clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliquin, V; Decker, K; Altman, Ad; Lotocki, R

    2013-01-01

    This retrospective study of all women who accessed the 2006 Manitoba Pap Test Week clinics was designed to determine factors associated with inadequate cervical cancer screening and changes in cervical cancer screening behavior. Data were acquired using the CervixCheck Manitoba registry and an ancillary database of demographic information collected from clinic attendees. The study included 1124 women. Of these, 53% (n = 598) were under-screened (no Pap test in the previous 2 years) prior to accessing the clinics. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that older age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.03), no doctor (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.05-1.54), and living in Canada Pap Test Week clinics. Thirty-seven percent (n = 223) of under-screened women demonstrated improved screening status subsequent to the 2006 Pap Test Week (had a subsequent Papanicolaou [Pap] test performed within 2 years) and these women were more likely to live in an urban setting (P = 0.003), be younger (P Pap test result in 2006 (P Pap test performed at a Pap Test Week clinic compared to having a Pap test performed elsewhere (37% versus 60%, P Pap Test Week clinics whose screening status might be most modifiable.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of one versus two sample faecal immunochemical testing for colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goede, S Lucas; van Roon, Aafke H C; Reijerink, Jacqueline C I Y; van Vuuren, Anneke J; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Habbema, J Dik F; Kuipers, Ernst J; van Leerdam, Monique E; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein

    2013-05-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of a single faecal immunochemical test (FIT) are limited. The performance of FIT screening can be improved by increasing the screening frequency or by providing more than one sample in each screening round. This study aimed to evaluate if two-sample FIT screening is cost-effective compared with one-sample FIT. The MISCAN-colon microsimulation model was used to estimate costs and benefits of strategies with either one or two-sample FIT screening. The FIT cut-off level varied between 50 and 200 ng haemoglobin/ml, and the screening schedule was varied with respect to age range and interval. In addition, different definitions for positivity of the two-sample FIT were considered: at least one positive sample, two positive samples, or the mean of both samples being positive. Within an exemplary screening strategy, biennial FIT from the age of 55-75 years, one-sample FIT provided 76.0-97.0 life-years gained (LYG) per 1000 individuals, at a cost of € 259,000-264,000 (range reflects different FIT cut-off levels). Two-sample FIT screening with at least one sample being positive provided 7.3-12.4 additional LYG compared with one-sample FIT at an extra cost of € 50,000-59,000. However, when all screening intervals and age ranges were considered, intensifying screening with one-sample FIT provided equal or more LYG at lower costs compared with two-sample FIT. If attendance to screening does not differ between strategies it is recommended to increase the number of screening rounds with one-sample FIT screening, before considering increasing the number of FIT samples provided per screening round.

  9. Evaluation of a Screening Test for Detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium Parasites ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Youn, Sojin; Kabir, Mamun; Haque, Rashidul; Petri, William A.

    2008-01-01

    The Giardia/Cryptosporidium Chek test (TechLab, Inc.), a screening test for Giardia and Cryptosporidium, was evaluated with 136 fecal samples. Using the results of the Giardia II test and Cryptosporidium II test as gold standards, it was 98.4% sensitive and 100% specific and had positive and negative predictive values of 98.7% and 99.3%.

  10. Early Education Screening Test Battery of Basic Skills Development: Criteria for Personalizing Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University City School District, MO.

    The development and content of the Early Education Screening Test Battery are described elsewhere (TM 000 184). This report provides norms for the Gross Motor Test (GMO), Visual-Motor Integration (VMI), four scales of the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA), Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), and the Behavior Rating Scale…

  11. PEDS and ASQ developmental screening tests may not identify the same children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sices, Laura; Stancin, Terry; Kirchner, Lester; Bauchner, Howard

    2009-10-01

    In analyzing data from a larger study, we noticed significant disagreement between results of 2 commonly used developmental screening tools (Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status [PEDS; parent concern questionnaire] and Ages & Stages Questionnaires [ASQ; parent report of developmental skills]) delivered to children at the same visit in primary care. The screens have favorable reported psychometric properties and can be efficient to use in practice; however, there is little comparative information about the relative performance of these tools in primary care. We sought to describe the agreement between the 2 screens in this setting. Parents of 60 children aged 9 to 31 months completed PEDS and ASQ screens at the same visit. Concordance (PEDS and ASQ results agree) and discordance (results differ) for the 2 screens were determined. The mean age of children was 17.6 months, 77% received Medicaid, and 50% of parents had a high school education or less. Overall, 37% failed the PEDS and 27% failed the ASQ. Thirty-one children passed (52%) both screens; 9 (15%) failed both; and 20 (33%) failed 1 but not the other (13 PEDS and 7 ASQ). Agreement between the 2 screening tests was only fair, statistically no different from agreement by chance. There was substantial discordance between PEDS and ASQ developmental screens. Although these are preliminary data, clinicians need to be aware that in implementing revised American Academy of Pediatrics screening guidelines, the choice of screening instrument may affect which children are likely to be identified for additional evaluation.

  12. Evaluating the evidence: direct-to-consumer screening tests advertised online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, Kimberly M; Mackey, Timothy K; Liang, Bryan A

    2012-09-01

    Unsupervised online direct-to-consumer (DTC) access to medical services has rapidly expanded to medical screening tests, which have not been critically evaluated for their evidence basis. The objective of this study is to identify the scope of online-advertised DTC screening tests, outline the evidence for use of available DTC testing and suggest regulatory reform to address the relevant issues. An observational study of website advertisements, testing services and counselling/follow-up services for DTC testing was conducted. Data were collected from websites between 4 April and 1 June 2011. Each website was assessed for tests offered, advertised indications and availability of counselling/follow-up services. Advertised testing indications were compared with US Preventive Services Task Force recommendations and/or specialty guidelines and categorized as Supported, Against, Insufficient Evidence or No Guidance. Of 20 companies identified as offering DTC screening tests, 95% (19/20) do not clearly offer pretest counselling, post-test counselling and/or test follow-up. One hundred and twenty-seven different tests were identified. Only 19/127 (15%) could be Supported for screening in a target group selected for testing; 38/127 (30%) were given recommendations to avoid use in specific target group(s) selected for testing ('Against recommendations'); 29/127 (23%) had Insufficient Evidence of value, and for 64/127 (50%) No Guidance could be given. Only 4/127 (3%) tests were Supported for general screening use. Virtually all identified medical tests advertised and offered DTC are not recommended for use in screening by evidence-based guidelines. Limited oversight may lead to inaccurate self-diagnosis, treatment and wasted health resources.

  13. 42 CFR 410.17 - Cardiovascular disease screening tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services... total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglyceride. The test is performed after a 12-hour fasting...

  14. Prenatal screening tests may be a warning for the partial molar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Placental pathologies in early pregnancy may be overlooked, especially in partial molar pregnancy. We are reporting an incorrect preliminary diagnosed case with an increased risk of Down syndrome in her first-trimester screening test due to ...

  15. [Problems related to screening tests for drug addiction at the workplace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persechino, B; Martini, A; Iavicoli, S

    2003-01-01

    The authors review the issues related to implementation of screening procedures and testing for alcohol and drug addiction in occupational safety and health perspectives also in view of international organization regulations and directives.

  16. The impact of screening-test negative samples not enumerated by MPN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corbellini, Luis Gustavo; Ribeiro Duarte, Ana Sofia; de Knegt, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    In microbiological surveys, false negative results in detection tests precluding the enumeration by MPN may occur. The objective of this study was to illustrate the impact of screening test failure on the probability distribution of Salmonella concentrations in pork using a Bayesian method. A total...... a Bayesian model that uses the number of positive tubes at each dilution in an MPN analysis to estimate the parameters of the concentration distribution. With Salmonella paired data, three data sets were used for each slaughter step: one that includes the positives in the screening test only, a second one...... that includes false negative results from the screening, and a third that considers the entire data set. The relative sensitivity of the screening test was also calculated assuming as gold standard samples with confirmed Salmonella. Salmonella was confirmed by a reference laboratory in 29 samples either...

  17. A study of characteristics of a reliable and practical breath alcohol screening test. Part A

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate several commercially available breath-alcohol screening test devices of the length-of-stain type, under standardized laboratory conditions, with respect to their ability satisfactorily to detect an...

  18. MR angiography as a screening tool for intracranial aneurysms: feasibility, test characteristics, and interobserver agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaymakers, T. W.; Buys, P. C.; Verbeeten, B.; Ramos, L. M.; Witkamp, T. D.; Hulsmans, F. J.; Mali, W. P.; Algra, A.; Bonsel, G. J.; Bossuyt, P. M.; Vonk, C. M.; Buskens, E.; Limburg, M.; van Gijn, J.; Gorissen, A.; Greebe, P.; Albrecht, K. W.; Tulleken, C. A.; Rinkel, G. J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: MR angiography may be an appropriate tool to screen for unruptured intracranial aneurysms. Feasibility, test characteristics, and interobserver agreement in evaluation of MR angiograms were assessed by members of the MARS (Magnetic resonance Angiography in Relatives of patients with

  19. Integrated Multianalyte Second-Tier Testing for Newborn Screening for MSUD, IVA, and GAMT Deficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham B. Sinclair PhD, FCCMG

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Advances in mass spectrometry have allowed for expansion of newborn screening test panels over the last decade but with increased numbers of disorders have come increased concerns with false-positive rates. The introduction of second-tier testing has improved the specificity of screening for a number of disorders without any corresponding sacrifice in sensitivity. Such testing does, however, put pressure on scarce laboratory resources including instrument and personnel time and even the bloodspot sample itself. The British Columbia Newborn Screening Program has developed an integrated second-tier screening approach to improve test performance without the requirement to resample and reprocess the original bloodspot specimen. By utilizing the residual extract from the first-tier assay and introducing a chromatography step as the second tier, we have been able to reduce false-positive rates due to interfering isobaric compounds for 3 different disorders (maple syrup urine disease, isovaleric aciduria, and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase in a single multianalyte assay.

  20. Recent advances in prenatal genetic screening and testing [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatia B. Van den Veyver

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of new technologies has dramatically changed the current practice of prenatal screening and testing for genetic abnormalities in the fetus. Expanded carrier screening panels and non-invasive cell-free fetal DNA-based screening for aneuploidy and single-gene disorders, and more recently for subchromosomal abnormalities, have been introduced into prenatal care. More recently introduced technologies such as chromosomal microarray analysis and whole-exome sequencing can diagnose more genetic conditions on samples obtained through amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling, including many disorders that cannot be screened for non-invasively. All of these options have benefits and limitations, and genetic counseling has become increasingly complex for providers who are responsible for guiding patients in their decisions about screening and testing before and during pregnancy.

  1. Participation in prenatal screening tests and intentions concerning selective termination in Finnish maternity care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santalahti, P; Hemminki, E; Aro, A R

    1999-01-01

    AIMS: The study examined how prenatal screening tests are presented to women, factors associated with women's participation in screening, their experience of decision-making and intentions concerning pregnancy termination, and hospital data on rates of selective terminations. METHODS...... asking about selective terminations following detected fetal disorders were sent in 1993 to all public hospitals with obstetrics or gynaecology departments (response rate 100%). RESULTS: The serum screening test had usually been offered to women as a free choice, but for 22% of them it was presented...... that it was offered as a routine procedure. Close acquaintance with a person with congenital disability was negatively associated with participation in serum screening and with the intention to terminate pregnancy in case of a detected disability. 27% of women in the serum screening survey and 22% in the ultrasound...

  2. Best combination of multiple diagnostic tests for screening purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jing; Zhang, Biao

    2010-12-10

    In a medical diagnostic testing problem, multiple diagnostic tests are often available in distinguishing between diseased and nondiseased subjects. Different diagnostic tests are usually sensitive to different aspects of the disease. A desirable approach is to combine multiple diagnostic tests so as to obtain an optimal composite diagnostic test with higher sensitivity and specificity that detects the presence of the disease more accurately. To accomplish this, it has been observed via signal detection theory developed in the 1950s and 1960s, that the optimal combination of different diagnostic variables (i.e. the diagnostic test results) is determined by the likelihood ratio function for the diseased and nondiseased groups. The conventional approach is to fit parametric models for the diseased and nondiseased groups separately and then to use the fitted likelihood ratio function for the best combination of test results. However, this approach is not so robust if the underlying distribution functions are misspecified. Since the optimal combination depends only on the likelihood ratio function, it would be more appropriate to model this function directly. A two-sample semiparametric inference technique is applied to the model for the likelihood ratio function. We consider the best combination of multiple diagnostic tests, and study semiparametric likelihood estimation of the optimal receiver operating characteristic curve and the area under the curve. We present a bootstrap procedure along with some results on simulation and on analysis of two real data sets.

  3. Li-Ion Cell Lot Testing and Flight Screening Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    This document reports the lot characterization and sample testing required for certification of a new lot of Moli-Energy Li-lon ICR-18650H 2200-mAh...cells that constitute this new lot are also presented. All testing began upon receipt of the new cell lot in March 2(K)9 and was performed with the

  4. [Fool's gold standards in language screening. Sensitivity and specificity of the Hessian child language screening test (Kindersprachscreening, KiSS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, K; Holler-Zittlau, I; van Minnen, S; Sick, U; Zaretsky, Y; Euler, H A

    2011-01-01

    The German Kindersprachscreening (KiSS) is a universal speech and language screening test for large-scale identification of Hessian kindergarten children requiring special educational language training or clinical speech/language therapy. To calculate the procedural screening validity, 257 children (aged 4.0 to 4.5 years) were tested using KiSS and four language tests (Reynell Development Language Scales III, Patholinguistische Diagnostik, PLAKSS, AWST-R). The majority or consensus judgements of three speech-language professionals, based on the language test results, served as a reference criterion. The base (fail) rates of the professionals were either self-determined or preset based on known prevalence rates. Screening validity was higher for preset than for self-determined base rates due to higher inter-judge agreement. The confusion matrices of the overall index classification of the KiSS (speech-language abnormalities with educational or clinical needs) with the fixed base rate expert judgement about language impairment, including fluency or voice disorders, yielded a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 78%, for just language impairment 84% and 75%, respectively. Specificities for disorders requiring clinical diagnostics in the KiSS (language impairment alone or combined with fluency/voice disorders) related to the test-based consensus expert judgment was about 93%. Sensitivities were unsatisfactory because the differentiation between educational and clinical needs requires improvement. Since the judgement concordances between the speech-language professionals was only moderate, the development of a comprehensive German reference test for speech and language disorders with evidence-based algorithmic decision rules rather than subjective clinical judgement is advocated.

  5. Astrophysical tests of gravity: a screening map of the nearby universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabré, Anna; Vikram, Vinu; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Koyama, Kazuya

    2012-01-01

    Astrophysical tests of modified gravity theories in the nearby universe have been emphasized recently by Hui 2009 and Jain 2011. A key element of such tests is the screening mechanism whereby general relativity is restored in massive halos or high density environments like the Milky Way. In chameleon theories of gravity, including all f(R) models, field dwarf galaxies may be unscreened and therefore feel an extra force, as opposed to screened galaxies. The first step to study differences between screened and unscreened galaxies is to create a 3D screening map. We use N-body simulations to test and calibrate simple approximations to determine the level of screening in galaxy catalogs. Sources of systematic errors in the screening map due to observational inaccuracies are modeled and their contamination is estimated. We then apply our methods to create a map out to 200 Mpc in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey footprint using data from the Sloan survey and other sources. In two companion papers this map will be used to carry out new tests of gravity using distance indicators and the disks of dwarf galaxies. We also make our screening map publicly available

  6. Perceived effectiveness of HPV test as a primary screening modality among US providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Saraiya, Mona

    2015-09-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) test, administered alone without the Papanicolaou (Pap) test, was recently recognized as a cervical cancer screening option in the United States by the Society of Gynecologic Oncology and the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and the Food and Drug Administration has approved an HPV test for primary screening. Surveys of US internists, family practitioners, nurse practitioners, and obstetrician-gynecologists were conducted in 2009 and 2012 to investigate providers' perceptions of the effectiveness of the HPV test administered alone as a population-based screening modality (2009: N=1040, 141-494 per provider group; 2012: N=1039, 155-435 per provider group). The majority in each provider group agreed that the HPV test administered alone is an effective screening modality in 2009 (75.3%-86.1%) and 2012 (79.5%-91.8%), and agreement rose significantly during this time period among family practitioners (χ(2)=15.26, df=1, ptest administered alone is an effective cervical cancer screening modality was widespread among providers in both 2009 and 2012, however implementation of guidelines for screening with the HPV test may be influenced by many other factors including reimbursement and patient preferences. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy and beyond: challenges of responsible innovation in prenatal screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido; Bombard, Yvonne; Bianchi, Diana W; Bergmann, Carsten; Borry, Pascal; Chitty, Lyn S; Fellmann, Florence; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Henneman, Lidewij; Howard, Heidi C; Lucassen, Anneke; Ormond, Kelly; Peterlin, Borut; Radojkovic, Dragica; Rogowski, Wolf; Soller, Maria; Tibben, Aad; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; van El, Carla G; Cornel, Martina C

    2015-01-01

    This paper contains a joint ESHG/ASHG position document with recommendations regarding responsible innovation in prenatal screening with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). By virtue of its greater accuracy and safety with respect to prenatal screening for common autosomal aneuploidies, NIPT has the potential of helping the practice better achieve its aim of facilitating autonomous reproductive choices, provided that balanced pretest information and non-directive counseling are available as part of the screening offer. Depending on the health-care setting, different scenarios for NIPT-based screening for common autosomal aneuploidies are possible. The trade-offs involved in these scenarios should be assessed in light of the aim of screening, the balance of benefits and burdens for pregnant women and their partners and considerations of cost-effectiveness and justice. With improving screening technologies and decreasing costs of sequencing and analysis, it will become possible in the near future to significantly expand the scope of prenatal screening beyond common autosomal aneuploidies. Commercial providers have already begun expanding their tests to include sex-chromosomal abnormalities and microdeletions. However, multiple false positives may undermine the main achievement of NIPT in the context of prenatal screening: the significant reduction of the invasive testing rate. This document argues for a cautious expansion of the scope of prenatal screening to serious congenital and childhood disorders, only following sound validation studies and a comprehensive evaluation of all relevant aspects. A further core message of this document is that in countries where prenatal screening is offered as a public health programme, governments and public health authorities should adopt an active role to ensure the responsible innovation of prenatal screening on the basis of ethical principles. Crucial elements are the quality of the screening process as a whole (including non

  8. Non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy and beyond: challenges of responsible innovation in prenatal screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido; Bombard, Yvonne; Bianchi, Diana W; Bergmann, Carsten; Borry, Pascal; Chitty, Lyn S; Fellmann, Florence; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Henneman, Lidewij; Howard, Heidi C; Lucassen, Anneke; Ormond, Kelly; Peterlin, Borut; Radojkovic, Dragica; Rogowski, Wolf; Soller, Maria; Tibben, Aad; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; van El, Carla G; Cornel, Martina C

    2015-11-01

    This paper contains a joint ESHG/ASHG position document with recommendations regarding responsible innovation in prenatal screening with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). By virtue of its greater accuracy and safety with respect to prenatal screening for common autosomal aneuploidies, NIPT has the potential of helping the practice better achieve its aim of facilitating autonomous reproductive choices, provided that balanced pretest information and non-directive counseling are available as part of the screening offer. Depending on the health-care setting, different scenarios for NIPT-based screening for common autosomal aneuploidies are possible. The trade-offs involved in these scenarios should be assessed in light of the aim of screening, the balance of benefits and burdens for pregnant women and their partners and considerations of cost-effectiveness and justice. With improving screening technologies and decreasing costs of sequencing and analysis, it will become possible in the near future to significantly expand the scope of prenatal screening beyond common autosomal aneuploidies. Commercial providers have already begun expanding their tests to include sex-chromosomal abnormalities and microdeletions. However, multiple false positives may undermine the main achievement of NIPT in the context of prenatal screening: the significant reduction of the invasive testing rate. This document argues for a cautious expansion of the scope of prenatal screening to serious congenital and childhood disorders, only following sound validation studies and a comprehensive evaluation of all relevant aspects. A further core message of this document is that in countries where prenatal screening is offered as a public health programme, governments and public health authorities should adopt an active role to ensure the responsible innovation of prenatal screening on the basis of ethical principles. Crucial elements are the quality of the screening process as a whole (including non

  9. Newborn screening for citrin deficiency and carnitine uptake defect using second-tier molecular tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Li-Yun

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS analysis is a powerful tool for newborn screening, and many rare inborn errors of metabolism are currently screened using MS/MS. However, the sensitivity of MS/MS screening for several inborn errors, including citrin deficiency (screened by citrulline level and carnitine uptake defect (CUD, screened by free carnitine level, is not satisfactory. This study was conducted to determine whether a second-tier molecular test could improve the sensitivity of citrin deficiency and CUD detection without increasing the false-positive rate. Methods Three mutations in the SLC25A13 gene (for citrin deficiency and one mutation in the SLC22A5 gene (for CUD were analyzed in newborns who demonstrated an inconclusive primary screening result (with levels between the screening and diagnostic cutoffs. Results The results revealed that 314 of 46 699 newborns received a second-tier test for citrin deficiency, and two patients were identified; 206 of 30 237 newborns received a second-tier testing for CUD, and one patient was identified. No patients were identified using the diagnostic cutoffs. Although the incidences for citrin deficiency (1:23 350 and CUD (1:30 000 detected by screening are still lower than the incidences calculated from the mutation carrier rates, the second-tier molecular test increases the sensitivity of newborn screening for citrin deficiency and CUD without increasing the false-positive rate. Conclusions Utilizing a molecular second-tier test for citrin deficiency and carnitine transporter deficiency is feasible.

  10. Health Screening: What Tests You Need and When

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you are considering having a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test or digital rectal examination (DRE). Sexually Transmitted ... for cancer of the colon, serum prostatic-specific antigen (PSA) for prostate cancer, mammography for breast cancer, and ...

  11. Recommendations for Developing Alternative Test Methods for Screening and Prioritization of Chemicals for Developmental Neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) is perceived by many stakeholders to be an area in critical need of alternative methods to current animal testing protocols and gUidelines. An immediate goal is to develop test methods that are capable of screening large numbers of chemic...

  12. Extended duration of the detectable stage by adding HPV test in cervical cancer screening.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marie, ME van den Akker-v; Ballegooijen, van M.; Rozendaal, L.; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Habbema, J.D.

    2003-01-01

    The human papillomavirus test (HPV) test could improve the (cost-) effectiveness of cervical screening by selecting women with a very low risk for cervical cancer during a long period. An analysis of a longitudinal study suggests that women with a negative Pap smear and a negative HPV test have a

  13. Results from the Dutch speech-in-noise screening test by telephone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, C.H.M.; Houtgast, T.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to implement a previously developed automatic speech-in-noise screening test by telephone (Smits, Kapteyn, & Houtgast, 2004), introduce it nationwide as a self-test, and analyze the results. Design: The test was implemented on an interactive voice response

  14. Comparison of accuracy measures of two screening tests for gestational diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Marsha; Zweers, Egbert J. K.; Opmeer, Brent C.; van Ballegooie, Evert; ter Brugge, Henk G.; de Valk, Harold W.; Mol, Ben W. J.; Visser, Gerard H. A.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the accuracy measures of the random glucose test and the 50-g glucose challenge test as screening tests for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, pregnant women without preexisting diabetes in two perinatal centers

  15. Discrimination indices as screening tests for beta-thalassemic trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntaios, George; Chatzinikolaou, Anastasia; Saouli, Zoi; Girtovitis, Fotios; Tsapanidou, Maria; Kaiafa, Georgia; Kontoninas, Zisis; Nikolaidou, Androula; Savopoulos, Christos; Pidonia, Ifigenia; Alexiou-Daniel, Stiliani

    2007-07-01

    The two most frequent microcytic anemias are beta-thalassemic trait (beta-TT) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Several discrimination indices have been proposed to distinguish between these two conditions. These indices are derived from several simple red blood cell indices, like red blood cell (RBC) count, mean cell volume, and RBC distribution width (RDW), as these are provided by electronic cell counters. The purpose of the study is to examine the diagnostic accuracy of six discrimination indices in the differentiation between IDA and beta-TT. The six discrimination indices that were examined were as follows: Mentzer Index (MI), Green & King Index (G&K), RDW Index (RDWI), England & Fraser Index (E&F), RDW, and RBC count. We calculated these indices on 373 patients (205 men, 168 women) with beta-TT and 120 patients (50 men, 70 women) with IDA, as well as their sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative prognostic value, efficiency, and Youden's index (YI). G&K shows the highest reliability, followed by E&F, RBC count, MI, and RDWI. On the contrary, RDW completely failed to differentiate between IDA and beta-TT. G&K proved to be the most reliable index as it had the highest sensitivity (75.06%), efficiency (80.12%), and YI (70.86%) for the detection of beta-TT. These six discrimination indices cannot be relied on for a safe differential diagnosis between beta-TT and IDA. They do have high specificity, but their sensitivity for the detection of beta-TT is not satisfactory. Consequently, they cannot be used neither as a screening tool for beta-TT because they could result in a significant number of false negative results.

  16. Cost-effectiveness analysis for Pap smear screening and human papillomavirus DNA testing and vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng-Kan; Hung, Hui-Fang; Duffy, Stephen; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi

    2011-12-01

    As the effectiveness of cytology-based screening programme for cervical cancer in mortality reduction has reached a plateau, various preventive strategies have been considered, including intensive Pap smear screening and the supplemental use of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test or HPV vaccination. Cost and effectiveness of these various preventive strategies are therefore of great concern for health policy makers. We intended to assess whether the combination of HPV DNA testing or HPV vaccination with Pap smear screening programme or the sole annual Pap smear screening is more effective and cost-effective in prevention of cervical cancer than the existing triennial Pap smear screening programme. A Markov decision model was constructed to compare total costs and effectiveness between different preventive strategies (including annual Pap smear, HPV DNA testing or HPV vaccination together with Pap smear screening programme) as opposed to the triennial Pap smear screening alone (the comparator). Probabilistic cost-effectiveness (C-E) analysis was adopted to plot a series of simulated incremental C-E ratios scattered over C-E plane and also to yield the acceptability curve for different comparisons of strategies. The threshold of vaccine cost and the influence of attendance rate were also investigated. Compared with triennial Pap smear screening programme, most of preventive strategies cost more but gain additional life years (quadrant I of C-E plane) except HPV DNA testing with Pap smear every 5 years dominated by triennial Pap smear screening programme. The most cost-effective strategy was annual Pap smear (incremental C-E ratio = $31 698), followed by HPV DNA testing with Pap smear every 3 years ($36 627), and vaccination programme with triennial Pap smear screening ($44 688) with the corresponding cost-effective probabilities by the acceptability curve being 65.52%, 52.08% and 35.84% given the threshold of $40 000 of willingness to pay. Vaccination combined with

  17. Quantiferon test for tuberculosis screening in sarcoidosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, Nils; Søborg, Bolette; Svendsen, Claus Bo

    2011-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors have been introduced in the treatment of refractory sarcoidosis. These biologics may reactivate latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Despite its known limitations, the tuberculin skin test (TST) is currently used for the diagnosis of LTBI in Danish...

  18. Evaluation of microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests in screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by the protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. Infection of individual is through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. This study evaluated the performance of microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in diagnosing malaria. A total of 400 clinically suspected malaria ...

  19. The effects of isolated single umbilical artery on first and second trimester aneuploidy screening test parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulek, Firat; Kahraman, Alper; Taskin, Salih; Ozkavukcu, Esra; Soylemez, Feride

    2015-04-01

    Reliability of first and second trimester screening tests largely depends on accurate estimation of maternal serum marker values. Reduced reliability could lead redundant invasive tests or misdiagnosis. Adjustments of serum marker values for confounding factors like insulin-dependent diabetes, maternal weight or maternal rhesus status are essential. We aimed to investigate whether isolated single umbilical artery alters first and second trimester test parameters or not. Routine detailed obstetric ultrasonographies performed were retrospectively screened for this study. Among spontaneously conceived singleton pregnancies, women who were found to have single umbilical artery without any additional structural anomalies or aneuploidies were selected. First and second trimester screening test results were accessible for 98 and 102 of the cases with isolated single umbilical artery, respectively. Among first trimester screening test parameters, PAPP-A (pregnancy-associated plasma protein A) MoMs were found significantly higher in isolated single umbilical artery group. AFP MoMs were found significantly elevated in isolated single umbilical artery group in second trimester quadruple tests. Existence of single umbilical artery could alter the estimation of MoM values of maternal serum markers. Reliability of prenatal screening tests could be improved by adjusting these parameters in accordance with isolated single umbilical artery.

  20. Improving newborn screening laboratory test ordering and result reporting using health information exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Stephen M; van Dyck, Peter C; Rinaldo, Piero; McDonald, Clement; Howell, R Rodrey; Zuckerman, Alan; Downing, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Capture, coding and communication of newborn screening (NBS) information represent a challenge for public health laboratories, health departments, hospitals, and ambulatory care practices. An increasing number of conditions targeted for screening and the complexity of interpretation contribute to a growing need for integrated information-management strategies. This makes NBS an important test of tools and architecture for electronic health information exchange (HIE) in this convergence of individual patient care and population health activities. For this reason, the American Health Information Community undertook three tasks described in this paper. First, a newborn screening use case was established to facilitate standards harmonization for common terminology and interoperability specifications guiding HIE. Second, newborn screening coding and terminology were developed for integration into electronic HIE activities. Finally, clarification of privacy, security, and clinical laboratory regulatory requirements governing information exchange was provided, serving as a framework to establish pathways for improving screening program timeliness, effectiveness, and efficiency of quality patient care services.

  1. Assessment of the Medmont C100 test for colour vision screening of male Saudi Arabians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Z. Alotaibi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the Medmont C100 test as a colour vision screening tool. Methods: One hundred and seventeen young male adults were screened with the Medmont C100, Ishihara plates, and the screening mode of the Oculus Anomaloscope tests. All subjects were tested under constant room illumination, namely that of a day light fluorescent lamp at 200 lux. Inclusion criteria were visual acuities (VA of 20/20 or better with or without correction and absence of known ocular pathologies.Aided and unaided visual acuities were measured with the Snellen VA chart. Results: Five out of the117 subjects, were found to have red-green colour vision deficiency (CVD with Ishihara and anomaloscope tests indicating a 4.7% CVD prevalence, while the Medmont C100 test yielded 33 cases of red-green deficiency indicating CVD prevalence of 28%.  With the Ishihara test, all five subjects were identified as deutans, while the anomaloscope revealed three as deutans and two as protans, and the Medmont C100 test identified all 33 cases as protans. Conclusion:  The Medmont C100 test yielded significantly higher prevalence of protan CVD compared with the Ishihara platesand Anomaloscope tests. These findings suggest that caution should be taken when using Medmont C100 test for colour vision screening as it tends togive more false positive results with bias for protans.  (S Afr Optom 2011 70(1 14-20

  2. Impact on colorectal cancer mortality of screening programmes based on the faecal immunochemical test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Manuel; Fedeli, Ugo; Schievano, Elena; Bovo, Emanuela; Guzzinati, Stefano; Baracco, Susanna; Fedato, Chiara; Saugo, Mario; Dei Tos, Angelo Paolo

    2015-05-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programmes based on the guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) reduce CRC-specific mortality. Several studies have shown higher sensitivity with the faecal immunochemical test (FIT) compared with gFOBT. We carried out an ecological study to evaluate the impact of FIT-based screening programmes on CRC mortality. In the Veneto Region (Italy), biennial FIT-based screening programmes that invited 50-69-year-old residents were introduced in different areas between 2002 and 2009. We compared CRC mortality rates from 1995 to 2011 between the areas where screening started in 2002-2004 (early screening areas (ESA)) and areas that introduced the screening in 2008-2009 (late screening areas (LSA)) using Poisson regression models. We also compared available data on CRC incidence rates (1995-2007) and surgical resection rates (2001-2012). Before the introduction of screening, CRC mortality and incidence rates in the two areas were similar. Compared with 1995-2000, 2006-2011 mortality rates were 22% lower in the ESA than in the LSA (rate ratio (RR)=0.78; 95% CI 0.68 to 0.89). The reduction was larger in women (RR=0.64; CI 0.51 to 0.80) than in men (RR=0.87; CI 0.73 to 1.04). In the ESA, incidence and surgery rates peaked during the introduction of the screening programme and then returned to the baseline (2006-2007 incidence) or dropped below initial values (surgery after 2007). FIT-based screening programmes were associated with a significant reduction in CRC mortality. This effect took place much earlier than reported by gFOBT-based trials and observational studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Evaluation of the concomitant use of two different EIA tests for HIV screening in blood banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otani Marcia M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In 1998, the Brazilian Ministry of Health made it mandatory for all blood banks in the country to screen donated blood for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV concomitantly using two different enzyme immunoassay (EIA tests. Concerned with the best use of available resources, our objective with this study was to evaluate the usefulness of conducting two EIA screening tests instead of just one. METHODS: We analyzed data from 1999 through 2001 obtained by testing 698 191 units of donated blood using two EIA HIV screening tests concomitantly at the Pro-Blood Foundation/Blood Center of São Paulo (Fundação Pró-Sangue/Hemocentro de São Paulo, which is a major blood center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. All samples reactive in at least one of the two EIA tests were submitted for confirmation by a Western blot (WB test, and the persons who had donated those samples were also asked to return and provide a follow-up sample. RESULTS: Out of the 698 191 blood units that were donated, 2 718 of them (0.4% had to be discarded because they were reactive to at least one of the EIA tests. There were two WB-positive donation samples that were reactive in only one HIV EIA screening test. On their follow-up samples, both donors tested WB-negative. These cases were considered false positive results at screening. Of the 2 718 donors who were asked to return and provide a follow-up sample, 1 576 of them (58% did so. From these 1 576 persons, we found that there were two individuals who had been reactive to only one of the two EIA screening tests and who had also been negative on the WB at screening but who were fully seroconverted on the follow-up sample. We thus estimated that, in comparison to the use of a single EIA screening test, the use of two EIA screening tests would detect only one extra sample out of 410 700 units of blood. CONCLUSIONS: Our data do not support the use of two different, concomitant EIA screening tests for HIV. The great

  4. TORCH Screening Test in Pregnant Women of Kirkuk City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiro M. Obaid

    2017-07-01

    Cytomegalovirus, Rubella and Toxoplasma are prevalent among pregnant women in Kirkuk city and probably they are the causative agents of abortion and infertility found among them, therefore it's better for pregnant woman or those planning to become pregnant to be tested for TORCH infections, and vaccinated against Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes simplex virus and Toxoplasma to grantee her health  as well as her baby.

  5. Por La Vida model intervention enhances use of cancer screening tests among Latinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, A M; Senn, K L; McNicholas, L J; Kaplan, R M; Roppé, B; Campo, M C

    1998-07-01

    To describe the short-term impact of the intervention known as Por La Vida (PLV) on cancer screening for Latinas in San Diego, California. Thirty-six lay community workers (consejeras) were recruited and trained to conduct educational group sessions. Each consejera recruited approximately 14 peers from the community to participate in the program. The consejeras were randomly assigned to either a twelve-week cancer screening intervention group or a control group in which they participated in an equally engaging program entitled "Community Living Skills." Pre- and post-intervention self-report information was obtained from project participants on the use of cancer screening examinations. Outcome measures were changes in the percentages of women who had breast and cervical cancer screening test within the past year before and after the intervention occurred. Experimental and control groups were compared using t-tests. Analyses were conducted using both consejeras and participants as the unit of analysis. The increase in the use of the cancer screening test was higher in the PLV cancer intervention group in comparison to women in the community living skills control group. Key to the PLV intervention model is the identification of natural helpers in the Latino community and their subsequent training in intervention based on social learning theory using culturally appropriate educational materials. The model is an effective and viable approach for increasing the use of cancer screening tests in Latinas of low socioeconomic level and low level of acculturation.

  6. Optimisation and assessment of three modern touch screen tablet computers for clinical vision testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humza J Tahir

    Full Text Available Technological advances have led to the development of powerful yet portable tablet computers whose touch-screen resolutions now permit the presentation of targets small enough to test the limits of normal visual acuity. Such devices have become ubiquitous in daily life and are moving into the clinical space. However, in order to produce clinically valid tests, it is important to identify the limits imposed by the screen characteristics, such as resolution, brightness uniformity, contrast linearity and the effect of viewing angle. Previously we have conducted such tests on the iPad 3. Here we extend our investigations to 2 other devices and outline a protocol for calibrating such screens, using standardised methods to measure the gamma function, warm up time, screen uniformity and the effects of viewing angle and screen reflections. We demonstrate that all three devices manifest typical gamma functions for voltage and luminance with warm up times of approximately 15 minutes. However, there were differences in homogeneity and reflectance among the displays. We suggest practical means to optimise quality of display for vision testing including screen calibration.

  7. Optimisation and assessment of three modern touch screen tablet computers for clinical vision testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Humza J; Murray, Ian J; Parry, Neil R A; Aslam, Tariq M

    2014-01-01

    Technological advances have led to the development of powerful yet portable tablet computers whose touch-screen resolutions now permit the presentation of targets small enough to test the limits of normal visual acuity. Such devices have become ubiquitous in daily life and are moving into the clinical space. However, in order to produce clinically valid tests, it is important to identify the limits imposed by the screen characteristics, such as resolution, brightness uniformity, contrast linearity and the effect of viewing angle. Previously we have conducted such tests on the iPad 3. Here we extend our investigations to 2 other devices and outline a protocol for calibrating such screens, using standardised methods to measure the gamma function, warm up time, screen uniformity and the effects of viewing angle and screen reflections. We demonstrate that all three devices manifest typical gamma functions for voltage and luminance with warm up times of approximately 15 minutes. However, there were differences in homogeneity and reflectance among the displays. We suggest practical means to optimise quality of display for vision testing including screen calibration.

  8. Screening test for assessment of ultimate biodegradability: linear alkylbenzene sulfonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gledhill, W E

    1975-01-01

    A relatively simple shake-flask system for determining CO2 evolution was developed to assess the ultimate biodegradability by soil and sewage micro-organisms of chemicals which enter the environment. Linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) were used as model compounds to evaluate the method and were found to undergo substantial biodegradation in this dilute system. At the 30 mg/liter test concentration, higher-molecular-weight LAS compounds were biodegraded at a slower rate and to a lesser extent than lower-molecular-weight LAS, an effect which was eliminated or greatly reduced upon incremental addition of the LAS to the test medium during the first week of incubation. LA35S was used to demonstrate rapid LAS desulfonation, and 14CO2 evolution studies with (14C) benzene ring-labeled LAS indicated concomitant biodegradation of the entire LAS molecule as well as the LAS aromatic component. The test can be employed to examine numerous compounds at the same time and is readily adapted to studies of the effect of variation in temperature and oxygen concentration on biodegradation. PMID:1211937

  9. Incidence of interval cancers in faecal immunochemical test colorectal screening programmes in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Carretta, Elisa; Mangone, Lucia; Baracco, Susanna; Serraino, Diego; Zorzi, Manuel

    2018-03-01

    Objective In Italy, colorectal screening programmes using the faecal immunochemical test from ages 50 to 69 every two years have been in place since 2005. We aimed to measure the incidence of interval cancers in the two years after a negative faecal immunochemical test, and compare this with the pre-screening incidence of colorectal cancer. Methods Using data on colorectal cancers diagnosed in Italy from 2000 to 2008 collected by cancer registries in areas with active screening programmes, we identified cases that occurred within 24 months of negative screening tests. We used the number of tests with a negative result as a denominator, grouped by age and sex. Proportional incidence was calculated for the first and second year after screening. Results Among 579,176 and 226,738 persons with negative test results followed up at 12 and 24 months, respectively, we identified 100 interval cancers in the first year and 70 in the second year. The proportional incidence was 13% (95% confidence interval 10-15) and 23% (95% confidence interval 18-25), respectively. The estimate for the two-year incidence is 18%, which was slightly higher in females (22%; 95% confidence interval 17-26), and for proximal colon (22%; 95% confidence interval 16-28). Conclusion The incidence of interval cancers in the two years after a negative faecal immunochemical test in routine population-based colorectal cancer screening was less than one-fifth of the expected incidence. This is direct evidence that the faecal immunochemical test-based screening programme protocol has high sensitivity for cancers that will become symptomatic.

  10. The clinical utility of HPV DNA testing in cervical cancer screening strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatla, Neerja; Moda, Nidhi

    2009-09-01

    Cervical cancer continues to be the commonest cause of death among women in developing countries, largely due to the failure to the inability to sustain effective cytology-based screening programs. While this burden may come down following implementation of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, screening will still be required. HPV DNA testing is a promising new technology for cervical cancer prevention and is the most reproducible of all cervical cancer screening tests. Presently, the two assays most widely used for the detection of genital types are the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Hybrid Capture 2 assays (hc2). Rapid, affordable tests are expected to be available soon. HPV DNA testing can be used in a variety of clinical scenarios that include primary screening in women older than 30 yr; as an adjunctive test to cytology; in the triage of women with an equivocal cytologic report, e.g., ASC-US; or for follow-up post-treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). HPV DNA testing can also be performed on self-collected samples, which allows screening in remote areas and also in women who refuse gynecologic examination.

  11. Screening for tuberculosis and testing for human immunodeficiency virus in Zambian prisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggard, Katie R; Hatwiinda, Sisa; Harris, Jennifer B; Phiri, Winifreda; Krüüner, Annika; Kaunda, Kaunda; Topp, Stephanie M; Kapata, Nathan; Ayles, Helen; Chileshe, Chisela; Henostroza, German

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To improve the Zambia Prisons Service’s implementation of tuberculosis screening and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing. Methods For both tuberculosis and HIV, we implemented mass screening of inmates and community-based screening of those residing in encampments adjacent to prisons. We also established routine systems – with inmates as peer educators – for the screening of newly entered or symptomatic inmates. We improved infection control measures, increased diagnostic capacity and promoted awareness of tuberculosis in Zambia’s prisons. Findings In a period of 9 months, we screened 7638 individuals and diagnosed 409 new patients with tuberculosis. We tested 4879 individuals for HIV and diagnosed 564 cases of infection. An additional 625 individuals had previously been found to be HIV-positive. Including those already on tuberculosis treatment at the time of screening, the prevalence of tuberculosis recorded in the prisons and adjacent encampments – 6.4% (6428/100 000) – is 18 times the national prevalence estimate of 0.35%. Overall, 22.9% of the inmates and 13.8% of the encampment residents were HIV-positive. Conclusion Both tuberculosis and HIV infection are common within Zambian prisons. We enhanced tuberculosis screening and improved the detection of tuberculosis and HIV in this setting. Our observations should be useful in the development of prison-based programmes for tuberculosis and HIV elsewhere. PMID:25883402

  12. Detection of complex hemoglobinopathies: recommendations on screening and DNA testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Baysal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The following recommendations should be taken into account during the evaluation and elucidation of the complex hemoglobinopathies: a in complex hemoglobinopathies performing DNA studies on all family members might be essential; b complex gene-gene interactions offer major diagnostic challenges both at the technical and clinical level; c hematological & DNA analyses must be run in parallel. Some cases may be straight forward but others may require indepth DNA work-up; d co-inheritance of a-thalassemia offers added challenge as it may affect phenotype significantly; e sickle cell anemia (SS, co-inherited with a-thal, can be a phenocopy of Sβ0-thal. The HbA2 increase can be mistaken for Sβ-thal. DNA Sequencing is imperative; f only a selected number of normal MCV, MCH, borderline HbA2 cases must be referred for DNA analysis. However, in certain cases, following hematological and family evaluation, the β and d genes may need to be sequenced; g DNA Sequencing will increasingly become the method of choice for screening and DNA mutation analysis. However, new methods like MLPA-which analyzes gene dosage- must be used more commonly to rule out deletion mutants to avoid false negative sequencing results; h these recommendations should be reviewed every 2-3 years reflecting new methods, new findings and new findings from ethnic groups. 诊断和说明复杂血红蛋白病时,建议考虑以下几点: a)针对复杂的血红蛋白病,有必要对所有家庭成员开展DNA研究;b 复杂的基因-基因交互作用可能使诊断在技术和临床层面上颇受挑战;c 血液和DNA分析须同时进行。 有些病例简单,但另外一些病例可能需要开展深层次的DNA检查;d 由于α型地中海贫血可能严重影响表型,α型地中海贫血的共同继承特征更具挑战;e 共同继承α型地中海贫血的镰状细胞贫血(SS),可以作为Sβ0型地中海贫血的显型。 HbA2增

  13. "Chair Stand Test" as Simple Tool for Sarcopenia Screening in Elderly Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, P A; Carneiro, J A O; Coqueiro, R S; Pereira, R; Fernandes, M H

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the association between sarcopenia and "chair stand test" performance, and evaluate this test as a screening tool for sarcopenia in community-dwelling elderly women. Cross-sectional Survey. 173 female individuals, aged ≥ 60 years and living in the urban area of the municipality of Lafaiete Coutinho, Bahia's inland, Brazil. The association between sarcopenia (defined by muscle mass, strength and/or performance loss) and performance in the "chair stand test" was tested by binary logistic regression technique. The ROC curve parameters were used to evaluate the diagnostic power of the test in sarcopenia screening. The significance level was set at 5 %. The model showed that the time spent for the "chair stand test" was positively associated (OR = 1.08; 95% CI = 1.01 - 1.16, p = 0.024) to sarcopenia, indicating that, for each 1 second increment in the test performance, the sarcopenia's probability increased by 8% in elderly women. The cut-off point that showed the best balance between sensitivity and specificity was 13 seconds. The performance of "chair stand test" showed predictive ability for sarcopenia, being an effective and simple screening tool for sarcopenia in elderly women. This test could be used for screening sarcopenic elderly women, allowing early interventions.

  14. Cervical human papilloma virus (HPV) DNA primary screening test: Results of a population-based screening programme in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passamonti, Basilio; Gustinucci, Daniela; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Cesarini, Elena; Bulletti, Simonetta; Carlani, Angela; Martinelli, Nadia; Broccolini, Massimo; D'Angelo, Valentina; D'Amico, Maria Rosaria; Di Dato, Eugenio; Galeazzi, Paola; Malaspina, Morena; Spita, Nicoletta; Tintori, Beatrice; Giaimo, Maria Donata

    2017-09-01

    Objective To present the results of the first and second round human papilloma virus (HPV)-based screening programme in the Umbria region after three years. Methods From August 2010 to November 2011, the entire female population aged 35-64 in a local health district was invited for HPV testing (HPV-DNA cobas4800 on a liquid-based cytology sample). HPV-negative women were re-invited after three years. For HPV-positive women, a slide was prepared and interpreted. Positive cytologies were referred to colposcopy; negatives were referred to repeat HPV after one year. If HPV was persistently positive, women were referred to colposcopy; if negative, to normal screening. Indicators of the first and second round are compared with those of cytology screening in the same area in the preceding three years. Results Participation was 56.5%, the same as cytology (56.6%). HPV-positivity was 6.4% (396/6272), cytology triage positivity was 35.6%; 251 cytology negative women were referred to one-year HPV retesting, 84.1% complied, and 55.5% were positive. Total colposcopy referral was 4.1%, and for cytology 1%. The detection rate for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or more severe was 10‰, compared with 3.7‰ using cytology. After three years, HPV-positivity was 3.4% (129/3831), overall colposcopy referral was 2.3% (most at one-year follow-up), and detection rate was 0.5/1000. Conclusions The first round detection rate was more than twice that of cytology screening, while colposcopy referral increased fourfold. At the second round, the detection rate decreased dramatically, showing that longer interval and more conservative protocols are needed.

  15. Participation behaviour following a false positive test in the Copenhagen mammography screening programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sune Bangsbøll; Vejborg, Ilse; von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is an ongoing debate concerning possible disadvantages of mammography screening, one being the consequence of receiving a false positive test-result. It is argued that receiving a false positive answer may have short- and/or long-term adverse psychological effects on women......, but results from different studies are conflicting. We tested if there was a difference in continued participation behaviour between the group of women who have been subject to a false positive result and those who have not. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study used the registers from the first six invitation...... rounds of the mammography screening programme in Copenhagen (1991-2003). We estimated the relative risk of not participating in the subsequent screening round for women with a false positive test using women with a negative test as baseline. As outcome measure odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence...

  16. New screen on the block: non-invasive prenatal testing for fetal chromosomal abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filoche, Sara; Lawton, Beverley; Beard, Angela; Dowell, Anthony; Stone, Peter

    2017-12-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) is a new screen for fetal chromosomal abnormalities. It is a screening test based on technology that involves the analysis of feto-placental DNA that is present in maternal blood. This DNA is then analysed for abnormalities of specific chromosomes (eg 13, 18, 21, X, Y). NIPT has a much higher screening capability for chromosomal abnormalities than current combined first trimester screening, with ~99% sensitivity for trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) and at least a 10-fold higher positive predictive value. The low false-positive rate (1-3%) is one of the most advertised advantages of NIPT. In practice, this could lead to a significant reduction in the number of false-positive tests and the need for invasive diagnostic procedures. NIPT is now suitable for singleton and twin pregnancies and can be performed from ~10 weeks in a pregnancy. NIPT is not currently publicly funded in most countries. However, the increasing availability of NIPT commercially will likely lead to an increase in demand for this as a screening option. Given the high numbers of women who visit a general practitioner (GP) in their first trimester, GPs are well-placed to also offer NIPT as a screening option. A GP's role in facilitating access to this service will likely be crucial in ensuring equity in access to this technology, and it is important to ensure that they are well supported to do so.

  17. Simple Screening Test for Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm in the Middle School Athlete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Tyler J.; Baker, Rachel H.; Weiss, Jason B.; Weiss, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    This article recommends and provides results from a simple screening test that could be incorporated into a standardized school evaluation for all children participating in sports and physical education classes. The test can be employed by physical educators utilizing their own gym to identify children who demonstrate signs of exercise-induced…

  18. Memory-Context Effects of Screen Color in Multiple-Choice and Fill-In Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestera, Gustavo E.; Clariana, Roy; Peck, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    In this experimental study, 44 undergraduates completed five computer-based instructional lessons and either two multiplechoice tests or two fill-in-the-blank tests. Color-coded borders were displayed during the lesson, adjacent to the screen text and illustrations. In the experimental condition, corresponding border colors were shown at posttest.…

  19. Extended duration of the detectable stage by adding HPV test in cervical cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Van Den Akker-van Marie (M.); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein); L. Rozendaal (Lawrence); C.J.L.M. Meijer (Chris); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe human papillomavirus test (HPV) test could improve the (cost-) effectiveness of cervical screening by selecting women with a very low risk for cervical cancer during a long period. An analysis of a longitudinal study suggests that women with a negative Pap smear and a negative HPV

  20. Cross-sectional evaluation of an internet-based hearing screening test in an occupational setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheikh Rashid, Marya; Leensen, Monique Cj; de Laat, Jan Apm; Dreschler, Wouter A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The Occupational Earcheck (OEC) is an online internet test to detect high-frequency hearing loss for the purposes of occupational hearing screening. In this study, we evaluated the OEC in an occupational setting in order to assess test sensitivity, specificity, and validity. Methods A

  1. The Micral-Test as a screening tool to detect micro- albuminuria in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods. Eighty children aged 5 -15 years with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) (HbSS) in a steady state attending the Lagos State University ... The sensitivity and specificity of the Micral-Test make it a good screening tool to detect MA in children with SCA. The Micral- .... The average cost of performing the Micral-Test was USD5.

  2. Uricult trio as a screening test for bacteriurla in pregnancy | Greeff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To establish the effectiveness in an indigent urban population of Uricult Trio as a screening test for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy and in diagnosing urinary tract infections (UTI) in symptomatic pregnant women. likelihood ratios were established for positive and negative Uricult Trio test results. Subjects.

  3. Noninvasiv prænatal test er et gennembrud inden for prænatal screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornstrup, Louise Stig; Ambye, Louise; Sørensen, Steen

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing is a breakthrough in prenatal screening Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) using cell-free fetal DNA from the peripheral blood of the pregnant woman has become a possibility within recent years, but is not yet implemented in Denmark. NIPT has proven to be very...

  4. Risk-Reducing Salpingo-oophorectomy and Ovarian Cancer Screening in 1077 Women After BRCA Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannis, Gabriel N.; Fehniger, Julia E.; Creasman, Jennifer S.; Jacoby, Vanessa L.; Beattie, Mary S.

    2016-01-01

    Background For women at potentially increased risk for ovarian cancer, data regarding screening and risk reduction are limited. Previous studies have reported on the behaviors of BRCA mutation carriers, but less is known about the behaviors of non-BRCA carriers. We surveyed a large cohort of women after BRCA testing to identify the prevalence and posttest predictors of risk-reducing and screening interventions. Methods A median of 3.7 years after BRCA testing, 1447 women who received genetic counseling and BRCA testing at 2 hospital sites were surveyed, with a 77.6% response rate. We analyzed data from 1077 survey respondents. We performed univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to identify predictors of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO), screening transvaginal ultrasonography (TVUS), and screening serum cancer antigen 125 (CA-125). Results Among the respondents, 201 women (18.7%) received positive test results for a deleterious mutation, 103 women (9.6%) received true-negative results, and 773 women (71.8%) received uninformative results. Overall, 19.1% of eligible women underwent RRSO and 39.6% used screening procedures. A positive BRCA result predicted RRSO (odds ratio [OR], 28.1; 95% CI, 16.2-48.6), TVUS (9.5 [4.3-21.0]), and serum CA-125 (13.0 [5.5-29.0]). Similarly, a true-negative BRCA result reduced the OR for RRSO (0.1 [0.0-0.6]), TVUS (0.2 [0.1-0.5]), and serum CA-125 (0.3 [0.1-0.7]). Of the 71.8% of women who received uninformative results after BRCA testing, 12.3% subsequently underwent RRSO, 33.8% reported ever having undergone screening serum CA-125 since BRCA testing, and 37.3% reported ever having undergone screening TVUS since BRCA testing. Conclusions Results of BRCA testing strongly predict RRSO and ovarian cancer screening. Use of RRSO and ovarian screening was reported in a sizable percentage of non-BRCA carriers despite insufficient data to determine the effectiveness of these interventions. PMID:23247828

  5. The triple test as a screening technique for Down syndrome: reliability and relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Reynolds

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Tim ReynoldsClinical Chemistry Department, Queen’s Hospital, Burton-on-Trent, Staffordshire, UKAbstract: The triple test is a second trimester screening test used to identify those pregnant women who should be offered a diagnostic test to identify whether their fetus has an aneuploidy. It was first described in 1988, but has largely been superseded by newer tests either conducted earlier in the first trimester (ie, the combined test, using ultrasound measurement of nuchal translucency,pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, and human chorionic gonadotrophin [hCG] or in the second trimester (ie, the quadruple test, using α-fetoprotein, hCG, uE3, and inhibin. These newer tests have been introduced because they offer greater detection and lower screen positive results thereby enhancing diagnosis rates, while decreasing the risk of iatrogenic harm caused by the invasive testing required when collecting suitable sample tissue. Noninvasive alternatives to the triple test have been identified, but these have not been adopted despite 13 years of development. It is likely, therefore, that the triple test (or variants thereof will continue to be used in routine antenatal care for the foreseeable future.Keywords: pregnancy, screening test, antenatal, Down syndrome

  6. Do negative screening test results cause false reassurance? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Grace C; Harvie, Michelle N; French, David P

    2017-11-01

    It has been suggested that receiving a negative screening test result may cause false reassurance or have a 'certificate of health effect'. False reassurance in those receiving a negative screening test result may result in them wrongly believing themselves to be at lower risk of the disease, and consequently less likely to engage in health-related behaviours that would lower their risk. The present systematic review aimed to identify the evidence regarding false reassurance effects due to negative screening test results in adults (over 18 years) screened for the presence of a disease or its precursors, where disease or precursors are linked to lifestyle behaviours. MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched for trials that compared a group who had received negative screening results to an unscreened control group. The following outcomes were considered as markers of false reassurance: perceived risk of disease; anxiety and worry about disease; health-related behaviours or intention to change health-related behaviours (i.e., smoking, diet, physical activity, and alcohol consumption); self-rated health status. Nine unique studies were identified, reporting 55 measures in relation to the outcomes considered. Outcomes were measured at various time points from immediately following screening to up to 11 years after screening. Despite considerable variation in outcome measures used and timing of measurements, effect sizes for comparisons between participants who received negative screening test results and control participants were typically small with few statistically significant differences. There was evidence of high risk of bias, and measures of behaviours employed were often not valid. The limited evidence base provided little evidence of false reassurance following a negative screening test results on any of four outcomes examined. False reassurance should not be considered a significant harm of screening, but further research is warranted. Statement of contribution

  7. Speech-in-noise screening tests by internet, part 3: test sensitivity for uncontrolled parameters in domestic usage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leensen, Monique C. J.; Dreschler, Wouter A.

    2013-01-01

    The online speech-in-noise test 'Earcheck' is sensitive for noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). This study investigates effects of uncontrollable parameters in domestic self-screening, such as presentation level and transducer type, on speech reception thresholds (SRTs) obtained with Earcheck.

  8. The feasibility of FOBT tests in colorectal cancer screening in Dobrogea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suceveanu, Andra Iulia; Suceveanu, Adrian; Dumitru, Eugen; Alexandrescu, Luana; Voinea, Florea

    2005-09-01

    The high incidence of colorectal cancer in Eastern Europe and the declining mortality due to this pathology in the Western World, where screening programs for cancer are available, prove the necessity of implementing colorectal cancer screening in Romania, too. The aim of our study was to detect colorectal cancer in asymptomatic stages, where surgical treatment could be curative. The study was conducted in the Gastroenterology Department of Emergency Hospital, Constanta County, over a period of 18 months. We recruited apparently healthy people following all criteria recommended by the guidelines. From the total of 1098 patients included in the study, 162 patients with FOBT test positive followed the screening program undergoing colonoscopy or barium enema investigation. The rate of acceptance regarding the screening procedures was 70.3%. Advanced colon lesions were found in 14 patients (1.27%) and cancers in 7 cases (0.63%). According to TNM classification 5 cancers (71.4%) were surgically curative (TNM I/II/III) and 2 (28.5%) were advanced (TNM IV). The positive predictive value (PPVs) of FOBT for cancer was 4.7%. Even if the effect of screening on mortality was not demonstrated, our study results confirm the necessity of colorectal cancer screening in our country, as it is worldwide, detecting cancers in curative stages. The detection rate of FOBT positive tests for neoplasia was similar to other studies.

  9. Impact of opportunistic testing in a systematic cervical cancer screening program: a nationwide registry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranberg, Mette; Larsen, Mette Bach; Mikkelsen, Ellen M; Svanholm, Hans; Andersen, Berit

    2015-07-21

    Systematic screening for precancerous cervical lesions has resulted in decreased incidence and mortality of cervical cancer. However, even in systematic screening programs, many women are still tested opportunistically. This study aimed to determine the spread of opportunistic testing in a systematic cervical cancer screening program, the impact of opportunistic testing in terms of detecting cytological abnormalities and examine the associations between sociodemography and opportunistic testing. A nationwide registry study was undertaken including women aged 23-49 years (n = 807,624) with a cervical cytology between 2010 and 2013. The women were categorised into: 1) screening after invitation; 2) routine opportunistic testing, if they were either tested more than 9 months after the latest invitation or between 2.5 years and 3 years after the latest cervical cytology and 3) sporadic opportunistic testing, if they were tested less than 2.5 years after the latest cervical cytology. Cytological diagnoses of women in each of the categories were identified and prevalence proportion differences (PPD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to explore group differences. Associations between sociodemography and undergoing opportunistic testing were established by multinomial logistic regression. In total, 28.8% of the cervical cytologies were due to either routine (20.7%) or sporadic (8.1%) opportunistic testing. Among women undergoing routine opportunistic testing, a larger proportion had high-grade squamous intraepithelial abnormalities than invited women (PPD: 0.6%, 95 % CI: 0.03-1.17%). A similar proportion of cytological abnormalities among women undergoing sporadic opportunistic testing and invited women was found. In multivariate analyses, younger age, being single or a social welfare recipient and residence region (North Denmark) were especially associated with opportunistic testing (routine or sporadic). One fourth of cervical cytologies in this study were

  10. Impact of pap test compliance and cervical cancer screening intervals on human papillomavirus vaccine acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Daron G; Waller, Jennifer; Dickinson, Ashley; McCracken, Courtney; Goebel, Angela

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact of Pap test compliance and cervical cancer screening intervals on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination acceptance. A convenience sample of 499 women 21 to 65 years old completed a 37-question survey in Augusta and Savannah, GA. The survey assessed their knowledge about HPV, cervical cancer, and the HPV vaccine. The questionnaire also determined their Pap test compliance and how longer Pap test intervals would influence their willingness to receive the HPV vaccine. Differences between categorical variables and knowledge scores were examined using χ test and unequal-variance t tests, respectively. Pap test-noncompliant women were more likely to get the HPV vaccine if they only needed a Pap test every 10 years compared with Pap test-compliant women (27.6% vs 14.6%, p = .02). A greater number (83.5%) of Pap test-noncompliant women preferred the HPV vaccine plus every 10-year Pap test option compared with Pap test-compliant women (31.3%, p Pap testing. Women are receptive to getting the HPV vaccine in exchange for longer cervical cancer screening intervals. Moreover, Pap test-noncompliant women are more likely to get the HPV vaccine if Pap testing was needed less frequently. Increasing the Pap testing interval may be an excellent method to improving HPV vaccine acceptance in women at highest risk for cervical cancer.

  11. Determinants of participation in colorectal cancer screening with faecal occult blood testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My; Brasso, Klaus; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in men and women. Participation rates in faecal occult blood testing (FOBT) screening activities are, however, relatively low. In terms of lowering the colorectal cancer mortality, high participation rates are essential, and therefore......, but determinants varied across countries and test settings. There was no systematic variation in participation across age groups. CONCLUSION: The participation pattern depends in part on local circumstances, which makes it difficult to point to a general strategy for increasing the uptake in FOBT screening...

  12. Cervical Cancer Screening for the Reluctant - HPV Testing of Air-Dried Vaginal Discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Tommy R.; Yau, Rae Wai-nang; Chan, Olivia Wai-hing; Yu, Vivian; Lo, Joyce Wing-sze; Chow, Tat-chong; Chan, Billy Wai-hon; Lee, Kam-cheong

    2006-01-01

    Despite the availability of the PAP test, cervical cancer continues to cause considerable morbidity and mortality. Many women default cervical cytology for a variety of reasons. This demands the development of alternative screening strategies, such as HPV testing on self-procured cervical-vaginal specimens in order to capture this group of women. We investigated the self-procured air-dried vaginal discharge for HPV testing. We recruited 82 patients with HPV-associated cervical lesions and 36 ...

  13. Reliability Assessment of a Single-Shot System by Use of Screen Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    unlimited. NUWC Keyport #17-002. Reliability Assessment of a Single-Shot System by Use of Screen Test Results Abstract: Field reliability prediction...approach described here assumes that the defect density during testing takes the form of an exponential decay, although other mathematical functions can...be substituted for the exponential. In order to apply the decay rate function to a discrete pass/fail test scheme, the approach provides for

  14. Health technology assessment of computer-assisted pap test screening in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Palma, Paolo; Moresco, Luca; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    To assess the introduction of computer-assisted Pap test screening in cervical cancer screening. Various scenarios are considered: conventional and liquid-based cytology (LBC) slides, fully automatic instrumentation (Becton Dickinson FocalPoint™ Slide Profiler and Hologic ThinPrep® Imaging System), and semiautomatic scanner (Hologic Integrated Imager I-Squared). A working group was formed that included researchers from the largest centers already using instrumentation. A questionnaire on laboratory management and on social/ethical issues and annual workload was proposed. Prices for the technology were obtained directly from the producers; costs were calculated from observed and literature data. The scope of the report and final draft were submitted to a consulting committee of stakeholders. The break-even point was found to be 49,000 cases/year, if conventional slides were used, while it was near the theoretical maximum capacity, 70,000 cases/year, with LBC slides. Efficiency increased with the volume of slides. Screening time decreased by two thirds for conventional slides and by less than half for LBC slides. Acceptance of the instrumentation by the users was good. Computer-assisted screening may increase productivity even if in most situations it will mean additional costs. Furthermore, primary screening with human papillomavirus tests will drastically reduce the need for Pap test reading. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. The performance of a screening test for urgent dental treatment need in a prison population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, K M; Milsom, K M; Zoitopoulos, L; Pau, A; Tickle, M

    2008-11-22

    To compare the performance of a questionnaire-based assessment of dental pain delivered by non-dental prison nursing staff against a clinical examination performed by an experienced prison dentist (gold standard). The research fieldwork took place in the healthcare department at HMP Brixton located in South London. The cohort were those who had complained of dental/facial pain to the prison authorities and were therefore placed on the waiting list for emergency dental care. Subjects were asked to complete the screening test and were then clinically examined by trained and calibrated dentists. The screening test was in the form of a 12-item questionnaire designed to categorise a population reporting dental pain into one of three groups. The screening test results were compared with the diagnosis of a clinical examination. Ninety-six subjects were recruited during the 16-week study period. Of the 96 prisoners recruited, 27 of those failed to complete the screening test and/or the diagnostic examination even though they had reported pain previously. When sensitivity and specificity values were calculated for the 96 prisoners recruited, the sensitivity was fairly high (81%) and the specificity was poor (33%). However, when these values were calculated for the sub-population, those that completed both the screening test and diagnostic examination (n = 69), the sensitivity did not improve particularly (83%) but the specificity value fell substantially to 13%. This study highlighted the problems of conducting research in the prison environment, for example increased security preventing researchers from gaining access into the prison and general pressures on prison staff. Additionally, the study demonstrated that screening is not effective in local prisons with a high turnover of prisoners.

  16. The impact of severe hyperemesis gravidarum on the triple test screening results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled, Yoav; Melamed, Nir; Krissi, Haim; Eitan, Ram; Yogev, Yariv; Pardo, Joseph

    2012-06-01

    we aimed to determine the influence of severe hyperemesis gravidarum on the interpretation of the triple test screen results. A retrospective, case control study. The study group included 73 women who were hospitalized due to severe hyperemesis gravidarum and data regarding triple screening test was available. Data was compared with a control group consisting of low-risk patients without hyperemesis gravidarum, who underwent the triple screening test in the same laboratory and matched to the study group by maternal age and gestational age at the time of screening in a 2:1 ratio. Overall, 219 gravid patients were included in the study, of whom 73 were diagnosed with severe hyperemesis gravidarum. Patients in the control group were characterized by higher weight at the time of triple test screen (53.7 ± 10.9 vs. 59.7 ± 14.3 years, p = 0.043). No difference was found in the level of Alpha-fetoprotein or unconjugated estriol (uE3) between the groups; however the level of hCG was significantly increased in women with severe hyperemesis gravidarum (1.2977 ± 0.82 vs. 1.0662 ± 0.53 MoM, p = 0.013). Increase in the level of hCG in women with severe hyperemesis gravidarum alter the results of triple test screen. This data should be incorporated when counseling patients regarding overall risk for chromosomal abnormalities.

  17. Primary cervical cancer screening with an HPV mRNA test: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørbye, Sveinung Wergeland; Fismen, Silje; Gutteberg, Tore Jarl; Mortensen, Elin Synnøve; Skjeldestad, Finn Egil

    2016-08-11

    To assess the performance of a 5-type human papillomavirus (HPV) messenger RNA (mRNA) test in primary screening within the framework of the Norwegian population-based screening programme. Nationwide register-based cohort study. In 2003-2004, general practitioners and gynaecologists recruited 18 852 women for participation in a primary screening study with a 5-type HPV mRNA test. After excluding women with a history of abnormal smears and with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2+) before or until 3 months after screening, 11 220 women aged 25-69 years were eligible for study participation. The Norwegian Cancer Registry completed follow-up of CIN2+ through 31 December 2009. Follow-up according to the algorithm for cytology outcomes in the population-based Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme. We estimated cumulative incidence of CIN grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) 72 months after the 5-type HPV mRNA test. 3.6% of the women were HPV mRNA-positive at baseline. The overall cumulative rate of CIN3+ was 1.3% (95% CI 1.1% to 1.5%) through 72 months of follow-up, 2.3% for women aged 25-33 years (n=3277) and 0.9% for women aged 34-69 years (n=7943). Cumulative CIN3+ rates by baseline status for HPV mRNA-positive and mRNA-negative women aged 25-33 years were 22.2% (95% CI 14.5% to 29.8%) and 0.9% (95% CI 0.4% to 1.4%), respectively, and 16.6% (95% CI 10.7% to 22.5%) and 0.5% (95% CI 0.4% to 0.7%), respectively, in women aged 34-69 years. The present cumulative incidence of CIN3+ is similar to rates reported in screening studies via HPV DNA tests. Owing to differences in biological rationale and test characteristics, there is a trade-off between sensitivity and specificity that must be balanced when decisions on HPV tests in primary screening are taken. HPV mRNA testing may be used as primary screening for women aged 25-33 years and 34-69 years. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already

  18. [Screening for dementia: validity of the Cognitive Screening Test (CST) and the Mini-Mental State Examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponds, R W; Verhey, F R; Rozendaal, N; Jolles, J; Deelman, B G

    1992-06-01

    The Cognitive Screening Test (CST--short version), a Dutch orientation questionnaire, and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were compared with respect to their ability to discriminate between mildly demented, moderately demented and non-demented patients. The difference between mildly and moderately demented patients was based on the Global Deterioration Scale score. The CST and the MMSE were administered to patients who had been referred to the Memory Clinic of the University Hospital of Maastricht. Both instruments were successful in discriminating moderately and severely demented from non-demented patients. The CST and the MMSE were also successful with respect to the classification of depressive, non-demented elderly patients. The CST did not succeed in the correct classification of mildly demented patients (50% false-negative). The results of the MMSE in this group of mildly demented patients were moderate (25% false-negative). It is concluded that the value of both screening instruments, and especially the short version of the CST is limited for clinical practice.

  19. GPs views and understanding of PSA testing, screening and early detection; survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, J; Melia, J; Kirby, M; Graffy, J; Moss, S

    2016-05-01

    There is currently no national prostate cancer screening programme in the UK. However, patients 50 years and older are entitled to a prostate specific antigen (PSA) test, if informed on the advantages and disadvantages of testing and their risk of cancer. The Prostate Cancer Risk Management Programme (PCRMP) provides this guidance. The aim of this study was to access GPs' views and understanding of PSA testing, prostate cancer screening and early detection. A total of 708 questionnaires were returned by GPs across two English regions in 2013 and the GP questionnaire responses were quantitatively analysed. In the 699 completed questionnaires, the majority of GPs were well informed about PSA testing, screening and early detection. Only 32% used guidelines for referral, 14% knew all age-specific PSA referral levels, 71% that Black men have a higher prostate cancer risk than White men (22% correctly answered threefold increase) and 82% that family history is a risk factor. A further 78% thought electronic prompts during consultation would encourage PCRMP guideline usage and 75% had never been offered a PSA test and prostate cancer educational course, of which 73% would like to attend a course. Only 23% were aware of the latest PSA screening evidence and 94% would like an update. Participating GPs seem to be well informed but need more information and tools to help follow recommended guidance. In particular, increased awareness of PCRMP guidelines especially by automated methods, further educational courses and evidence updates would be beneficial. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Analyzing slug tests in wells screened across the watertable: A field assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, K.L.; McElwee, C.D.

    2000-01-01

    The slug test is the most widely used technique for the in situ estimation of hydraulic conductivity in confined and unconfined formations. Currently, there are no generally accepted methods in the groundwater literature for the analysis of response data from slug tests performed in wells screened across the watertable. A field study was undertaken in an attempt to develop a set of practical guidelines for tests conducted in such wells. Three wells, screened within unconsolidated material exhibiting a range of hydraulic conductivities (.05-30.0 m/day), were installed to depths of up to 9 m (30 ft) in Kansas River alluvium that ranges in thickness from 15 m to 21 m (50 ft to 70 ft) near Lawrence, Kansas. Intensive well-development efforts removed any drilling debris that could interfere with well-formation hydraulics. Once the wells were developed properly, a series of slug tests was performed at each well. The tests were designed to assess the role of the unsaturated zone and the appropriateness of assuming a fixed hydraulic head upper boundary. The results of this investigation can be summarized as follows: (1) the sufficiency of well development should be based on repeat slug tests and not the clarity of pumped water; (2) the effective screen radius for best model analysis should be based on a mass balance and not nominal screen dimensions; (3) the watertable can be represented as a constant head boundary and flow in the unsaturated zone can be ignored in most situations; (4) conventional techniques for the analysis of slug-test data seem to be reasonable for slug tests conducted in wells screened across the watertable, when used with the appropriate effective screen radius and normalized head range; and (5) fluctuations in the watertable elevation through time can be exploited to obtain some insight into the nature of vertical variation in hydraulic conductivity at a well. The results of this investigation indicate that multiple slug tests should be performed at

  1. The Internet Process Addiction Test: Screening for Addictions to Processes Facilitated by the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason C. Northrup

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT was created to screen for potential addictive behaviors that could be facilitated by the internet. The IPAT was created with the mindset that the term “Internet addiction” is structurally problematic, as the Internet is simply the medium that one uses to access various addictive processes. The role of the internet in facilitating addictions, however, cannot be minimized. A new screening tool that effectively directed researchers and clinicians to the specific processes facilitated by the internet would therefore be useful. This study shows that the Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT demonstrates good validity and reliability. Four addictive processes were effectively screened for with the IPAT: Online video game playing, online social networking, online sexual activity, and web surfing. Implications for further research and limitations of the study are discussed.

  2. Performance of Parabolic and Diffusive OTR Screens at the CLIC Test Facility 3

    CERN Document Server

    Olvegaard, M; Bravin, E; Burger, S; Dabrowski, A; Lefevre, T; Welsch, C P

    2011-01-01

    At the CLIC Test Facility 3, OTR screens are commonly used in beam imaging systems for energy and energy spread characterization in dedicated spectrometer lines. In these lines the horizontal beam size is typically of the order of one centimeter. Already in 2005 a limitation was observed resulting from a strong dependence of the intensity of the light captured by the camera, on the position on the screen (vignetting). The severity of this effect increases with the electron energy, as the aperture of the optical system is finite and the OTR photons are emitted in a small cone of 1/γ angle. To mitigate this effect, different shapes and surface polishing of the screens were investigated. Parabolic and diffusive OTR radiators were tested in several spectrometer lines all along the CTF3 complex. The results are presented in this paper.

  3. Management of cases testing positive for gonococcal infection in a community-based chlamydia screening programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Jennifer; Cook, Penny A; Madden, Hannah C E; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A; Higgins, Stephen P; Bellis, Mark A

    2010-11-01

    The National Chlamydia Screening Programme in Greater Manchester (NCSP-GM) commissioned an evaluation of the management of gonorrhoea cases identified using the Gen-Probe APTIMA Combo 2 assay (AC2). NCSP-GM provided data on gonorrhoea cases from a 6-month period (September 2007-February 2008). Data were collected from patient referral pathways to genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics, including confirmatory testing, antibiotic resistance patterns and contact tracing. The AC2 positive predictive value (PPV) was calculated. 111 individuals tested positive for gonococcal infection using AC2 (0.7% of 16,028 individuals tested). Of these, 96 (0.6% of all tested) known index cases were seen at Greater Manchester GUM clinics. 78/96 (14 men, 64 women) underwent confirmatory microscopy and gonococcal culture. Confirmatory tests were positive in 14 men (100%) but only 40 women (63%). Thus the PPV of AC2 was 69% (54/78). Sensitivity in women may have been reduced by limited partner information and sample-taking (only 28% had a full gonorrhoea screen). Gonorrhoea screening in an NCSP-targeted population identified gonorrhoea in a low-risk population. Subsequent management in GUM clinics was variable and limited sample-taking may have decreased the sensitivity of confirmatory testing in women. Appropriate antibiotic sensitivity tests or, in their absence, a test of cure may be needed to ensure effective treatment.

  4. Brief Memory and Executive Test: evaluation of a new screening test for cognitive impairment due to small vessel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Rebecca L; Hannesdottir, Kristin; Lawrence, Robert; Morris, Robin G; Markus, Hugh S

    2012-03-01

    cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is the most common cause of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). Despite this, there is a paucity of rapid simple screening tools to identify cognitive impairment in SVD and differentiate it from other common dementia types. to validate a new screening test for cognitive impairment in SVD, the Brief Memory and Executive Test (BMET) battery, and examine its ability to detect SVD and differentiate it from Alzheimer's disease (AD). 45 patients with SVD, 27 patients with AD and 80 normal controls. the BMET includes brief tests of executive functioning and processing speed, with comparative tests of memory and orientation. Group discrimination was calculated using discriminant function analysis. the BMET took an average of 10 min to administer. It showed high sensitivity (91%) and specificity (85%) in differentiating SVD patients with cognitive impairment from AD patients. As a comparison the mini-mental state examination had lower sensitivity (63%) and specificity (62%). the BMET is a simple and quick to administer clinical tool for the detection of VCI in SVD and its differentiation from AD impairment. Further multicentre studies are required to evaluate and compare it with other existing screening tests.

  5. Yield and cost of performing screening tests for constipation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chogle, Ashish; Saps, Miguel

    2013-12-01

    Chronic constipation is one of the most common reasons for pediatric outpatient visits. Clinical guidelines recommend that the work-up for chronic refractory constipation include thyroid function tests, celiac serology, and measurement of calcium and lead levels. Data to justify routine screening of constipated children using these laboratory tests are lacking. To study the prevalence of celiac disease, hypothyroidism, hypercalcemia and lead poisoning in children with chronic constipation; and to estimate the health care costs of applying the guideline recommendations. Charts of constipated children from 2007 to 2011 were reviewed for the present retrospective cohort study. Results and costs of thyroid function tests, celiac panel, total immunoglobulin (Ig) A, and determination of lead and calcium levels were analyzed. A total of 7472 children (mean age 7.9 years; 3908 female) were evaluated: 1731 patients were screened for celiac antibodies; 55 had elevated tissue transglutaminase IgA levels and 29 had biopsy-positive celiac disease. Only three celiac patients had constipation as the sole presenting symptom; 1703 patients were screened for total IgA levels; 55 had IgA deficiency and two had biopsy-positive celiac disease; 2332 had free T4 and⁄or thyroid-stimulating hormone levels; and 14 had hypothyroidism. Only two patients had constipation as the sole presenting symptom; 4651 patients had calcium levels measured, 10 of whom had high levels but normal repeat values. Three patients had normal lead levels. The mean cost per patient was USD$1,014. Total screening cost for all patients was USD$4.7 million. Constipation alone did not increase the likelihood of celiac disease or hypothyroidism above the population prevalence. No benefit of screening for hypercalcemia was found. High health care costs were associated with the use of screening tests for organic constipation.

  6. The Coin-in-the-Hand Test and dementia: more evidence for a screening test for neurocognitive symptom exaggeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Ryan W; Peck, Caleb P; Buddin, William H; Heinrichs, Robin J; Baade, Lyle E

    2012-09-01

    The Coin-in-the-Hand Test was developed to help clinicians distinguish patients who are neurocognitively impaired from patients who are exaggerating or feigning memory complaints. Previous findings have shown that participants asked to feign memory problems and patients suspected of malingering performed worse on the test than patients with genuine neurocognitive dysfunction. We reviewed the literature on the Coin-in-the-Hand Test and evaluated test performance by 45 hospitalized patients who had dementia with moderately to severely impaired cognition. We analyzed Coin-in-the-Hand Test scores, neuropsychological findings, and other data to determine whether demographic or neurocognitive variables affected Coin-in-the-Hand Test scores. We also calculated base rates of these scores and provided cutoff ranges for clinical use. Coin-in-the-Hand Test scores were independent of neurocognitive functioning, age, education level, and type of dementia. Base rates of scores suggest that a low cutoff can help differentiate between patients with true neurocognitive impairments and those exaggerating or feigning memory complaints. Both the literature and our findings show the Coin-in-the-Hand Test to have potential as a quick and easy screening tool to detect neurocognitive symptom exaggeration. This test could effectively supplement commonly used neurocognitive screens such as the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Saint Louis University Mental Status Examination, and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment.

  7. Screening test recommendations for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus surveillance practices: A cost-minimization analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Melanie D; Curtis, Donna J; Atherly, Adam J; Bradley, Cathy J; Lindrooth, Richard C; Campbell, Jonathan D

    2017-07-01

    To mitigate methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections, intensive care units (ICUs) conduct surveillance through screening patients upon admission followed by adhering to isolation precautions. Two surveillance approaches commonly implemented are universal preemptive isolation and targeted isolation of only MRSA-positive patients. Decision analysis was used to calculate the total cost of universal preemptive isolation and targeted isolation. The screening test used as part of the surveillance practice was varied to identify which screening test minimized inappropriate and total costs. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the range of total costs resulting from variation in inputs. The total cost of the universal preemptive isolation surveillance practice was minimized when a polymerase chain reaction screening test was used ($82.51 per patient). Costs were $207.60 more per patient when a conventional culture was used due to the longer turnaround time and thus higher isolation costs. The total cost of the targeted isolation surveillance practice was minimized when chromogenic agar 24-hour testing was used ($8.54 per patient). Costs were $22.41 more per patient when polymerase chain reaction was used. For ICUs that preemptively isolate all patients, the use of a polymerase chain reaction screening test is recommended because it can minimize total costs by reducing inappropriate isolation costs. For ICUs that only isolate MRSA-positive patients, the use of chromogenic agar 24-hour testing is recommended to minimize total costs. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Lot release testing of serological infectious disease assays used for donor and donation screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, A D; Newham, J A

    2010-05-01

    Monitoring of the ongoing performance of infectious disease screening assays is a critical part of any donation screening programme. Although assay sensitivity is formally evaluated prior to implementation, it is essential that this level of performance is maintained from lot-to-lot. In 2002, National Health Service Blood and Transplant developed and implemented a formal system for the lot release testing of serology infectious disease screening assays. Lot release panels were prepared for each of the serological screening markers. They each comprise 10-15 members and include both genuine low-titre and diluted high-titre materials. For each panel member, a minimum reactivity is expected, based upon the formal sensitivity evaluation of each assay. All new lots of the screening assays used are assessed prior to supply of the lot to the organization. Since 2002, a total of 887 different lots of the serology screening assays used have been supplied. Of these, 876 (98.8%) passed lot release and were authorized for supply to the organization. Eleven lots (1.2%) were failed because the lots did not meet the release criteria or were unsuitable for some other reason. The lot release system has proved to be effective in objectively assessing assay performance to ensure that there is no significant lot-to-lot variation such that the performance of the assay may fall below that originally determined at evaluation. The few assays that have failed lot release did have proven performance issues that were subsequently accepted by the manufacturers. CONTENTS SUMMARY: Description of the Lot Release Testing system for serology infectious disease screening assays in use within NHSBT with a critical analysis and review of the data generated in the 7 years that the system has been in use.

  9. Screening of Plant Extracts for Antioxidant Activity: a Comparative Study on Three Testing Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, I.; Beek, van T.A.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Groot, de Æ.; Evstatieva, L.N.

    2002-01-01

    Three methods widely employed in the evaluation of antioxidant activity, namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method, static headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC) and -carotene bleaching test (BCBT), have been compared with regard to their application in the screening of

  10. Concordant testing results between various Human Papillomavirus assays in primary cervical cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Thurah, Lena; Bonde, Jesper; Hoa Lam, Janni Uyen

    2018-01-01

    (HC2) and other assays. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase and Scopus for studies of primary screening with HC2 and ≥one more assay, with cross-tabulated testing results for the assays. Two authors applied inclusion criteria and three authors extracted data from included studies. For each inter...

  11. Contribution to the study for an optimum choice of filter and screens in radiographic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caillieret, V.; Peix, G.; Babot, D.; Lormand, G.

    1985-01-01

    In order to optimize the choices of screens and filter in steel specimens radiographic testing with iridium 192 and cobalt 60, we started a theoretical and experimental study of their actions on radiative and latent images formation. Theoretical modelisation of photons interactions in steel and experimental apparatus for spectral analysis are described

  12. Capacity-to-Consent in Psychiatric Research: Development and Preliminary Testing of a Screening Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayas, Luis H.; Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Perez, M. Carmela

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Assuring research participants' capacity to provide informed consent has become increasingly important in health and mental health research, and each study faces unique capacity-assessment challenges, possibly requiring its own screening tool. This article describes the development and preliminary testing of a capacity-to-consent tool…

  13. The whispered voice: The best test for screening for hearing impairment in general practice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekhof, J.A.H.; Bock, G.H. de; Laat, J.A.P.M. de; Dap, R.; Schaapveld, K.; Springer, M.P.

    1996-01-01

    Hearling loss is an important health problem in the elderly which sometimes leads to social isolation. In a study with 62 patients, the diagnostic value of four simple tests for screening for hearing loss in general practice was examined. When paying attention to the loudness of the whispering, the

  14. Screening for congenital toxoplasmosis: accuracy of immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin A tests after birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, Ruth E; Thalib, Lukman; Tan, Hooi Kuan

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the accuracy of postnatal screening for toxoplasma-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgA. SETTING: Ten centres in three European countries. METHODS: We compared results of the first postnatal IgM or IgA test in infants with infected mothers identified by prenatal screeni...

  15. The effect of inherited thrombophilia on second trimester combined aneuploidy screening test markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cıkman, Muzaffer Seyhan; Seckin, Kerem Doga; Karslı, Mehmet Fatih; Baser, Eralp; Cıkman, Duygu Ilke; Cicek, Mahmut Nedim

    2015-04-01

    To determine whether inherited thrombophilia affects components of second trimester combined aneuploidy screening test. A case-control study was performed between 1 December 2010 and 1 February 2012, at a tertiary referral hospital. Singleton pregnancies with inherited thrombophilia that underwent second trimester (16-19(+6) week) combined aneuploidy screening test were included in the study. Maternal serum alfa fetoprotein, unconjugated estriol, human chorionic gonadotropin levels and multiple of median (MoM) levels were compared between the study group and controls. Within the study period, 18,943 women with singleton pregnancies had a combined second trimester aneuploidy screening test at our institution. Among these, 26 women met the criteria of thrombophilia. A control group that comprised 275 women with similar gestational age was generated, using a 1:1 ratio. Unconjugated estriol MoM levels were significantly lower in women with inherited thrombophilia (p = 0.02). But there was no statistically significant difference for unconjugated estriol levels, human chorionic gonadotropin, alfa fetoprotein and their MoM levels. Our study suggest that in patients with hereditary thrombophilia a new correction factor should be used, when calculating unconjugated estriol MoM value, which is one of the markers of second trimester aneuploidy screening test.

  16. Batch test screening of industrial product/byproduct filter materials for agricultural drainage water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filter treatment may be a viable means for removing the nitrate, phosphate, and pesticides discharged with agricultural drainage waters that cause adverse environmental impacts within the U.S. on local, regional, and national scales. Laboratory batch test screening for agricultural drainage water ...

  17. Noninvasiv prænatal test er et gennembrud inden for prænatal screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornstrup, Louise Stig; Ambye, Louise; Sørensen, Steen

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) using cell-free fetal DNA from the peripheral blood of the pregnant woman has become a possibility within recent years, but is not yet implemented in Denmark. NIPT has proven to be very efficient in the screening for especially trisomi 21. This article...

  18. Spectrum of patients with hypermethioninemia based on neonatal screening tests over 14 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Jung Oh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The neonatal screening test for homocystinuria primarily measures methionine by using a dried blood specimen. We investigated the incidence and clinical manifestations of homocystinuria, isolated hypermethioninemia, and transient hypermethioninemia among patients with hypermethioninemia on a neonatal screening test. Methods : We performed a retrospective study of 58 patients transferred to Shoonchunhyang Hospital because of hypermethioninemia on a neonatal screening test between January 1996 and August 2009. We analyzed the level of amino acid from plasma and urine, as well as blood homocysteine. Results : Almost half of the 58 patients were identified as normal. Whereas only 3 (5.1% patients were identified as having homocystinuria, about 20.7% (12 cases of the patients had isolated hypermethioninemia. The ages of these two groups at initial detection of hypermethioninemia on plasma amino acid analysis were 50.0¡?#?2.5; days and 34.9¡?#?3.5; days, respectively. Both groups were put on diets, and they showed a normal developmental course as a result of early diagnosis and treatment. Conclusion : Hypermethioninemia without homocystinuria, referred to as isolated hypermethioninemia, was also detected. Thus, the impact of hypermethioninemia on a neonatal screening test should be carefully evaluated through analysis of amino acid levels from blood and urine, and we need to detect and treat an early stage of isolated hypermethioninemia as well as homocystinuria.

  19. The cost-effectiveness of immunochemical tests for colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, Catherine; Le Gleut, Karelle; Cottet, Vanessa; Galimard, Christine; Durand, Gerard; Dancourt, Vincent; Faivre, Jean

    2014-01-01

    The optimal immunochemical test to use for generalised mass screening is still under debate in France. To compare the cost and effectiveness in biennial screening for colorectal cancer of fifteen strategies consisting of the three-stool sample un-rehydrated guaiac faecal occult blood test and three immunochemical tests: Magstream, FOB-Gold and OC-Sensor, at different positivity cut-off levels and stool-sample collection. A Markov model was used to compare these strategies in a general population of 100,000 individuals aged 50-74 over a 20-year period. Immunochemical tests were efficient strategies compared with guaiac faecal occult blood test. When all 15 strategies were compared with each other, only five of them remained efficient: the one- and two-stool sample Magstream, the one- and two-stool sample FOB-Gold with the 176 ng/mL cut-off, and the two-stool sample OC-Sensor with the 150 ng/mL cut-off. Sensitivity analyses showed that, at an identical price, the one-stool sample OC-Sensor was the most efficient strategy, and outperformed FOB-Gold. One-stool immunochemical testing can be considered a promising alternative to the guaiac faecal occult blood test for colorectal cancer mass screening in the general population. Competition between manufacturers should now be introduced to reduce purchase price differences. Copyright © 2013 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Diagnosis reliability of combined flexible sigmoidoscopy and fecal-immunochemical test in colorectal neoplasia screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iovanescu D

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dana Iovanescu,1 Mirela Frandes,2 Diana Lungeanu,2 Amelia Burlea,3 Bogdan P Miutescu,4 Eftimie Miutescu1 1Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, Pharmacy and Dental Medicine, “Vasile Goldis” West University of Arad, 2Department of Functional Sciences, “Victor Babes” University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Timisoara, 3Department of Pathology, County Hospital of Arad, 4Department of Gastroenterology, “Victor Babes” University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Timisoara, Romania Background: Employing colonoscopy, the gold standard in colorectal cancer (CRC diagnosis testing, for CRC screening presents a significant risk of complications. Alternative methods with a lower invasive-level and fewer risks are proposed in combination, though each with lower diagnosis performance when applied separately. The main objective of this cross-sectional pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility of a CRC screening program using combined flexible sigmoidoscopy and fecal-immunochemical test (FIT.Methods: The patient population consisted of 2,201 consecutive-case symptomatic patients attending the gastroenterology outpatient clinic with mild complaints between 2012 and 2014. They were referred for FIT. A sample of 252 individuals underwent a subsequent colonoscopy, blind to FIT results, and theoretical sigmoidoscopy was simulated. On a subsample of 57 patients, real sigmoidoscopy was additionally performed. Prior probabilities in terms of patients’ compliance and CRC prevalence were estimated, together with predictive ability of FIT and sigmoidoscopy in screening population. We assessed the merit of a screening strategy employing two-stage serial multiple testing: a first stage by combining two parallel tests, that is, flexible sigmoidoscopy and FIT and b colonoscopy as the second diagnosis test. The scheme was validated using the actual predictive values derived from the study population.Results: Colonoscopy found 75 (29.76% individuals with

  1. Evaluation of Calypte AWARE HIV-1/2 OMT antibody test as a screening test in an Indian setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingole N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Integrated counselling and testing centres (ICTC provide counselling and blood testing facilities for HIV diagnosis. Oral fluid tests provide an alternative for people whodo not want blood to be drawn. Also, it avoids the risk of occupational exposure. The goal of this study was to evaluate the utility of Calypte AWARE HIV-1/2 OMT antibody test as a screening test in an Indian setting. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out after ethics committee approval in 250 adult ICTC clients. Blood was collected and tested from these clients for HIV diagnosis as per routine policy and the results were considered as the gold standard. Also, after another written informed consent, oral fluid was collected from the clients and tested for the presence of HIV antibodies. Twenty five clients who had and 25 clients who had not completed their secondary school education (Group A and Group B, respectively were also asked to perform and interpret the test on their own and their findings and experiences were noted. Result: The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the oral fluid antibody test were 100%, 98.51%, 94.11% and 100%, respectively. Seventy six percent of clients preferred oral fluid testing. Group B found it difficult to perform the test as compared to Group A and this difference was statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: Oral fluid testing can be used as a screening test for HIV diagnosis; however, confirmation of reactive results by blood-based tests is a must.

  2. Testing for direct genetic effects using a screening step in family-based association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon M Lutz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In genome wide association studies (GWAS, families based studies tend to have less power to detect genetic associations than population based studies, such as case-control studies. This can be an issue when testing if genes in a family based GWAS have a direct effect on the phenotype of interest or if the genes act indirectly through a secondary phenotype. When multiple SNPs are tested for a direct effect in the family based study, a screening step can be used to minimize the burden of multiple comparisons in the causal analysis. We propose a 2-stage screening step that can be incorporated into the family based association test (FBAT approach similar to the conditional mean model approach in the VanSteen-algorithm [1]. Simulations demonstrate that the type 1 error is preserved and this method is advantageous when multiple markers are tested. This method is illustrated by an application to the Framingham Heart Study.

  3. Interpretation of Errors Made by Mandarin-Speaking Children on the Preschool Language Scales--5th Edition Screening Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yonggang; Rattanasone, Nan Xu; Wyver, Shirley; Hinton, Amber; Demuth, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    We investigated typical errors made by Mandarin-speaking children when measured by the Preschool Language Scales-fifth edition, Screening Test (PLS-5 Screening Test). The intention was to provide preliminary data for the development of a guideline for early childhood educators and psychologists who use the test with Mandarin-speaking children.…

  4. Application of direct agglutination test (DAT) and fast agglutination screening test (FAST) for sero-diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in endemic area of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Eduardo S.; Schoone, Gerard J.; Gontijo, Celia M. F.; Brazil, Reginaldo P.; Pacheco, Raquel S.; Schallig, Henk D. F. H.

    2005-01-01

    The direct agglutination test (DAT) has proved to be a very important sero-diagnostic tool combining high levels of intrinsic validity and ease of performance. Otherwise, fast agglutination screening test (FAST) utilises only one serum dilution making the test very suitable for the screening of

  5. Evaluation of the HISCL Anti-Treponema pallidum Assay as a Screening Test for Syphilis

    OpenAIRE

    An, Jingna; Chen, Qixia; Liu, Qianqian; Rao, Chenli; Li, Dongdong; Wang, Tingting; Tao, Chuanmin; Wang, Lanlan

    2015-01-01

    The resurgence of syphilis in recent years has become a serious threat to public health worldwide, and the serological detection of specific antibodies against Treponema pallidum remains the most reliable method for laboratory diagnosis of syphilis. This study examined the performance of the recently launched HISCL anti-Treponema pallidum (anti-TP) assay as a screening test for syphilis in a high-volume laboratory. The HISCL anti-TP assay was tested in 300 preselected syphilis-positive sample...

  6. Correlation Between Screening Mammography Interpretive Performance on a Test Set and Performance in Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglioretti, Diana L; Ichikawa, Laura; Smith, Robert A; Buist, Diana S M; Carney, Patricia A; Geller, Berta; Monsees, Barbara; Onega, Tracy; Rosenberg, Robert; Sickles, Edward A; Yankaskas, Bonnie C; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2017-10-01

    Evidence is inconsistent about whether radiologists' interpretive performance on a screening mammography test set reflects their performance in clinical practice. This study aimed to estimate the correlation between test set and clinical performance and determine if the correlation is influenced by cancer prevalence or lesion difficulty in the test set. This institutional review board-approved study randomized 83 radiologists from six Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium registries to assess one of four test sets of 109 screening mammograms each; 48 radiologists completed a fifth test set of 110 mammograms 2 years later. Test sets differed in number of cancer cases and difficulty of lesion detection. Test set sensitivity and specificity were estimated using woman-level and breast-level recall with cancer status and expert opinion as gold standards. Clinical performance was estimated using women-level recall with cancer status as the gold standard. Spearman rank correlations between test set and clinical performance with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. For test sets with fewer cancers (N = 15) that were more difficult to detect, correlations were weak to moderate for sensitivity (woman level = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.16, 0.69; breast level = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.03, 0.61) and weak for specificity (0.24, 95% CI = 0.01, 0.45) relative to expert recall. Correlations for test sets with more cancers (N = 30) were close to 0 and not statistically significant. Correlations between screening performance on a test set and performance in clinical practice are not strong. Test set performance more accurately reflects performance in clinical practice if cancer prevalence is low and lesions are challenging to detect. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Uptake of a colorectal cancer screening blood test in people with elevated risk for cancer who cannot or will not complete a faecal occult blood test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Erin L; Cock, Charles; Meng, Rosie; Cole, Stephen R; Fraser, Robert J L; Young, Graeme P

    2017-03-31

    Participation rates in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programmes using faecal occult blood tests (FOBTs) are low. Nonparticipation is commonly attributed to psychosocial factors, but some medical conditions also prevent screening. These barriers might be partially overcome if a blood test for CRC screening was available. This study determined whether people who had always declined screening by FOBT would participate if offered a blood test. An audit of registrants within a personalized CRC screening programme was undertaken to determine the reasons for regular nonparticipation in FOBT. Consistent nonparticipants (n=240) were randomly selected and invited for CRC screening with a blood test. Demographic characteristics and the reasons for prior FOBT nonparticipation were collected by means of a questionnaire. Nonparticipation in the screening programme could be classified as either behavioural (8.6%), with consistent noncompliance, or due to medical contraindications (8.5%), which included chronic rectal bleeding, being deemed unsuitable by a health professional, and needing personal assistance. Blood test uptake was 25%, with participation in the medical contraindications group greater than that in the behavioural group (43 vs. 12%, Pprocrastination and dislike of the test, but these were not associated with blood test uptake (P>0.05). There is a subgroup of the community who have medical reasons for nonparticipation in CRC screening with FOBT but will participate if offered a blood test. The option of a blood test does not, however, improve uptake in those who admit to behavioural reasons for noncompliance with screening.

  8. The use of the osmole gap as a screening test for the presence of exogenous substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purssell, Roy A; Lynd, Larry D; Koga, Yoshikata

    2004-01-01

    The rapid and accurate diagnosis of toxic alcohol poisoning due to methanol (methyl alcohol) [MeOH] and ethylene glycol (EG), is paramount in preventing serious adverse outcomes. The quantitative measurement of specific serum levels of these substances using gas chromatography is expensive, time consuming and generally only available at major tertiary-care facilities. Therefore, because these toxic substances are osmotically active and the measurement of serum osmolality is easily performed and more readily available, the presence of an osmole gap (OG) has been adopted as an alternative screening test. By definition, the OG is the difference between the measured serum osmolality determined using the freezing point depression (Osm(m)) and the calculated serum molarity (Mc), which is estimated from the known and readily measurable osmotically active substances in the serum, in particular sodium, urea, glucose, and potassium and ethanol (alcohol). Thus, the OG=Osm(m)-Mc, and an OG above a specific threshold (the threshold of positivity) suggests the presence of unmeasured osmotically active substances, which could be indicative of a toxic exposure. The objectives of this study were to review the principles of evaluating screening tests, the theory behind the OG as a screening test and the literature upon which the adoption of the OG as a screening test has been based. This review revealed that there have been numerous equations derived and proposed for the estimation of the Mc, with the objective of developing empirical evidence of the best equation for the determination of the OG and ultimately the utility of OG as a screening test. However, the methods and statistical analysis employed have generally been inconsistent with recommended guidelines for screening test evaluation and although many equations have been derived, they have not been appropriately validated. Specific evidence of the clinical utility of the OG requires that a threshold of positivity be

  9. Design of a single flat null-screen for testing a parabolic trough solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Oliva, Víctor Iván; Campos-García, Manuel; Román-Hernández, Edwin; Santiago-Alvarado, Agustín

    2014-11-01

    We present a null-screen design for testing the shape quality of the reflecting surface of a parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC). This technique is inexpensive, the whole surface is tested at once, and it is easy to implement. For this, we propose the design of a flat null-screen perpendicular to the optical axis of the PTSC in such a way that it allows testing of the full aperture; we compute the caustic associated with the reflected light rays on the desired surface and analyze the parameters that determine the null-screen dimensions. Additionally, we perform a numerical simulation to analyze the accuracy of the method by introducing random displacement errors into the measured data. Accuracies >0.35 mrad were found to evaluate the quality of surfaces with this method. The errors in the determination of the coordinates of the centroids of the reflected images must be measured with an accuracy >0.5 pixels, and the errors in the coordinates of the spots of the null-screen must be <0.5 mm.

  10. Does knowledge influence pap test screening among young African-American women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, Shalanda A; Guillaume, Daphnee A; Brandt, Heather M; Fletcher, Faith E

    2014-09-01

    Pap test screening among African-American women has substantially increased. However, African-American women continue to bear the burden of cervical cancer as compared to White women. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of Pap test knowledge on cervical screening history among young African-American women. Between January and April 2009, 320 women from historically black colleges and universities located in the southeastern United States who met study inclusion criteria completed an anonymous self-report questionnaire to assess their awareness, knowledge, and behaviors related to human papillomavirus and cervical cancer prevention and control. Seventy-six percent of women reported ever having a Pap test, 54 % reported having a Pap test less than 1 year ago, and 25 % reported ever having an abnormal Pap test result. The overall mean score on the six-point Pap test knowledge scale was 4.46 ± 1.02. Women who reported having an abnormal Pap test (4.96 ± 0.82) had significantly higher Pap test knowledge compared to those never having an abnormal result (4.49 ± 1.04), p Pap test knowledge among all women, including those with no prior abnormal Pap test history, are critical to cervical cancer prevention and control over the life course. Such efforts should include creating information that is relevant to the population and enables informed decision making about cervical health.

  11. A score based on screening tests to differentiate mild cognitive impairment from subjective memory complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Henrique de Gobbi Porto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is not easy to differentiate patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI from subjective memory complainers (SMC. Assessments with screening cognitive tools are essential, particularly in primary care where most patients are seen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of screening cognitive tests and to propose a score derived from screening tests. Elderly subjects with memory complaints were evaluated using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and the Brief Cognitive Battery (BCB. We added two delayed recalls in the MMSE (a delayed recall and a late-delayed recall, LDR, and also a phonemic fluency test of letter P fluency (LPF. A score was created based on these tests. The diagnoses were made on the basis of clinical consensus and neuropsychological testing. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to determine area under the curve (AUC, the sensitivity and specificity for each test separately and for the final proposed score. MMSE, LDR, LPF and delayed recall of BCB scores reach statistically significant differences between groups (P=0.000, 0.03, 0.001 and 0.01, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity and AUC were MMSE: 64%, 79% and 0.75 (cut off <29; LDR: 56%, 62% and 0.62 (cut off <3; LPF: 71%, 71% and 0.71 (cut off <14; delayed recall of BCB: 56%, 82% and 0.68 (cut off <9. The proposed score reached a sensitivity of 88% and 76% and specificity of 62% and 75% for cut off over 1 and over 2, respectively. AUC were 0.81. In conclusion, a score created from screening tests is capable of discriminating MCI from SMC with moderate to good accurancy.

  12. Follow-up of abnormal or inadequate test results in the Danish Cervical Cancer Screening Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Bettina Kjær

    2014-01-01

    Denmark has a higher incidence of cervical cancer than other Nordic countries, although all Danish women (aged 23–65) are screened regularly to identify possible cervical dysplasia or asymptomatic invasive cancer. Annually 40 000 women receives an abnormal or inadequate test result and a follow......-up recommendation. However problems with delayed follow-up may threaten the effectiveness of the Danish Cervical Cancer Screening Program, as 20% of women are delayed and dysplasia potentially can progress into cancer. Delayed follow-up is found in situations where women either consciously or unconsciously postpone...... will be of great importance to the future organisation of cervical and colorectal cancer screening programmes in Denmark, but will also have international interest because of their similar challenges....

  13. Method for screening the Nevada Test Site and contiguous areas for nuclear waste repository locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinnock, S.; Fernandez, J.A.; Neal, J.T.; Stephens, H.P.; Hartway, B.L.; Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., NM)

    1982-01-01

    This paper outlines the general concepts of a technical method for systematic screening of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada, for potentially suitable nuclear waste repository locations. After a general discussion of the organization and the purpose of the current screening activity, the paper addresses the steps of the screening method. These steps include: hierarchically organizing technical objectives for repository performance (an objectives tree); identifying and mapping pertinent physical characteristics of a site and its setting (physical attributes); relating the physical conditions to the objectives (favorability curves); identifying alternative locations and numerically evaluating their relative merits; investigating the effects of subjective judgments on the evaluations (sensitivity analyses); documenting the assumptions, logic, and results of the method. 19 references, 10 figures

  14. [Health technology assessment report: Computer-assisted Pap test for cervical cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Palma, Paolo; Moresco, Luca; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    HEALTH PROBLEM: Cervical cancer is a disease which is highly preventable by means of Pap test screening for the precancerous lesions, which can be easily treated. Furthermore, in the near future, control of the disease will be enhanced by the vaccination which prevents the infection of those human papillomavirus types that cause the vast majority of cervical cancers. The effectiveness of screening in drastically reducing cervical cancer incidence has been clearly demonstrated. The epidemiology of cervical cancer in industrialised countries is now determined mostly by the Pap test coverage of the female population and by the ability of health systems to assure appropriate follow up after an abnormal Pap test. Today there are two fully automated systems for computer-assisted Pap test: the BD FocalPoint and the Hologic Imager. Recently, the Hologic Integrated Imager, a semi-automated system, was launched. The two fully automated systems are composed of a central scanner, where the machine examines the cytologic slide, and of one or more review stations, where the cytologists analyze the slides previously centrally scanned. The softwares used by the two systems identify the fields of interest so that the cytologists can look only at those points, automatically pointed out by the review station. Furthermore, the FocalPoint system classifies the slides according to their level of risk of containing signs of relevant lesions. Those in the upper classes--about one fifth of the slides--are labelled as « further review », while those in the lower level of risk, i.e. slides that have such a low level of risk that they can be considered as negative with no human review, are labelled as « no further review ». The aim of computer-assisted Pap test is to reduce the time of slide examination and to increase productivity. Furthermore, the number of errors due to lack of attention may decrease. Both the systems can be applied to liquidbased cytology, while only the BD Focal

  15. [Screening Test of Fabry Disease in Patients with Renal Replacement Therapy in the City of Modena].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, Gaetano; Ganda, Nicola; Cerami, Caterina; Mori, Giacomo; Fontana, Francesco; Cappelli, Gianni

    2018-03-01

    Fabry disease is a rare genetic lysosomal storage disease, inherited in an X-linked manner, characterized by lysosomal deposition of globotriaosylceramide due to deficient activity of the enzyme α-galactosidase A. Because the prevalence of this genetic disorder is unknown in the Emilia Romagna region, we conducted a screening study to assess the prevalence of Fabry disease in the city of Modena, Italy. A screening study has been conducted in patients on renal replacement therapy at University Hospital of Modena. Screening tests have been performed using dried blood spot method. Alpha-galactosidase A activity and Lyso-Gb3 levels were evaluated in peripheral blood of all men. In women test based on genetic analysis; Lyso-Gb3 was measured only in patients with mutation of gene GLA. Screening tests have been performed on 388 subjects: 181 maintenance hemodialysis patients, 166 kidney transplant recipients and 41 peritoneal dialysis patients. About 40% of the patients did not had etiological diagnosis of renal disease. Lyso-Gb3 was more specific test than α- galactosidase A (100% vs. 82.5%) to diagnose Fabry disease. We found two different mutations: c.13 A >G p.(Asn5Asp), a variant likely benign and c.937 G >T p.(Asp313Tyr) a variant of uncertain significance. Both the patients carrying these genetic mutations had no symptoms or medical history compatible with Fabry disease. Identification of variant of uncertain significance such as c.937G >Tp.(Asp313Tyr) showed the limits of genetic analysis to diagnose an inherit disease. Further studies are need to assess the diagnostic value of Lyso-Gb3 for screening for Fabry disease. Copyright by Società Italiana di Nefrologia SIN, Rome, Italy.

  16. Smartphone-based audiometric test for screening hearing loss in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Ghanem, Sara; Handzel, Ophir; Ness, Lior; Ben-Artzi-Blima, Miri; Fait-Ghelbendorf, Karin; Himmelfarb, Mordechai

    2016-02-01

    Hearing loss is widespread among the elderly. One of the main obstacles to rehabilitation is identifying individuals with potentially correctable hearing loss. Smartphone-based hearing tests can be administered at home, thus greatly facilitating access to screening. This study evaluates the use of a smartphone application as a screening tool for hearing loss in individuals aged ≥ 65 years. Twenty-six subjects aged 84.4 ± 6.73 years (mean ± SD) were recruited. Pure-tone audiometry was administered by both a smartphone application (uHear for iPhone, v1.0 Unitron, Canada) and a standard portable audiometer by trained personnel. Participants also completed a questionnaire on their hearing. Pure-tone thresholds were compared between the two testing modalities and correlated with the questionnaire results. The cutoff point for failing screening tests was a pure tone average of 40 dB for the frequencies 250-6,000 Hz. The smartphone application's pure tone thresholds were higher (poorer hearing) than the audiometric thresholds, with a significant difference in all frequencies but 2,000 Hz. The application and the audiometric values were in agreement for 24 subjects (92 %). The application had a sensitivity of 100 % and specificity of 60 % for screening compared with the audiometer. The questionnaire was significantly less accurate, having assigned a passing score to three participants who failed both the application and audiometric tests. While a smartphone application may not be able to accurately determine the level of hearing impairment, it is useful as a highly accessible portable audiometer substitute for screening for hearing loss in elderly populations.

  17. RBC Antibody Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Gene Mutations Testing Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Tests D-dimer Dengue Fever Testing Des-gamma- ... Index of Screening Recommendations Not Listed? Not Listed? Newborn Screening Screening Tests for Infants Screening Tests for ...

  18. Recommendations for a step‐wise comparative approach to the evaluation of new screening tests for colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senore, Carlo; Mandel, Jack S.; Allison, James E.; Atkin, Wendy S.; Benamouzig, Robert; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Silva, Mahinda De; Guittet, Lydia; Halloran, Stephen P.; Haug, Ulrike; Hoff, Geir; Itzkowitz, Steven H.; Leja, Marcis; Levin, Bernard; Meijer, Gerrit A.; O'Morain, Colm A.; Parry, Susan; Rabeneck, Linda; Rozen, Paul; Saito, Hiroshi; Schoen, Robert E.; Seaman, Helen E.; Steele, Robert J. C.; Sung, Joseph J. Y.; Winawer, Sidney J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND New screening tests for colorectal cancer continue to emerge, but the evidence needed to justify their adoption in screening programs remains uncertain. METHODS A review of the literature and a consensus approach by experts was undertaken to provide practical guidance on how to compare new screening tests with proven screening tests. RESULTS Findings and recommendations from the review included the following: Adoption of a new screening test requires evidence of effectiveness relative to a proven comparator test. Clinical accuracy supported by programmatic population evaluation in the screening context on an intention‐to‐screen basis, including acceptability, is essential. Cancer‐specific mortality is not essential as an endpoint provided that the mortality benefit of the comparator has been demonstrated and that the biologic basis of detection is similar. Effectiveness of the guaiac‐based fecal occult blood test provides the minimum standard to be achieved by a new test. A 4‐phase evaluation is recommended. An initial retrospective evaluation in cancer cases and controls (Phase 1) is followed by a prospective evaluation of performance across the continuum of neoplastic lesions (Phase 2). Phase 3 follows the demonstration of adequate accuracy in these 2 prescreening phases and addresses programmatic outcomes at 1 screening round on an intention‐to‐screen basis. Phase 4 involves more comprehensive evaluation of ongoing screening over multiple rounds. Key information is provided from the following parameters: the test positivity rate in a screening population, the true‐positive and false‐positive rates, and the number needed to colonoscope to detect a target lesion. CONCLUSIONS New screening tests can be evaluated efficiently by this stepwise comparative approach. Cancer 2016;122:826–39. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society. PMID:26828588

  19. Testing the reliability of the Fall Risk Screening Tool in an elderly ambulatory population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Susan J; McKay, Michael; Hyrkas, Kristiina

    2013-11-01

    To identify and test the reliability of a fall risk screening tool in an ambulatory outpatient clinic. The Fall Risk Screening Tool (Albert Lea Medical Center, MN, USA) was scripted for an interview format. Two interviewers separately screened a convenience sample of 111 patients (age ≥ 65 years) in an ambulatory outpatient clinic in a northeastern US city. The interviewers' scoring of fall risk categories was similar. There was good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.834-0.889) and inter-rater reliability [intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) = 0.824-0.881] for total, Risk Factor and Client's Health Status subscales. The Physical Environment scores indicated acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.742) and adequate reliability (ICC = 0.688). Two Physical Environment items (furniture and medical equipment condition) had low reliabilities [Kappa (K) = 0.323, P = 0.08; K = -0.078, P = 0.648), respectively. The scripted Fall Risk Screening Tool demonstrated good reliability in this sample. Rewording two Physical Environment items will be considered. A reliable instrument such as the scripted Fall Risk Screening Tool provides a standardised assessment for identifying high fall risk patients. This tool is especially useful because it assesses personal, behavioural and environmental factors specific to community-dwelling patients; the interview format also facilitates patient-provider interaction. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Forward Genetic Screening Using Behavioral Tests in Zebrafish: A Proof of Concept Analysis of Mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlai, Robert; Poshusta, Tanya L; Rampersad, Mindy; Fernandes, Yohaan; Greenwood, Tammy M; Cousin, Margot A; Klee, Eric W; Clark, Karl J

    2017-01-01

    The zebrafish enjoys several advantages over other model organisms. It is small, easy to maintain, prolific, and numerous genetic tools are available for it. For example, forward genetic screens have allowed investigators to identify important genes potentially involved in a variety of functions from embryogenesis to cancer. However, despite its sophisticated behavioral repertoire, behavioral methods have rarely been utilized in forward genetic screens. Here, we employ a two-tiered strategy, a proof of concept study, to explore the feasibility of behavioral screens. We generated mutant lines using transposon-based insertional mutagenesis, allowing us to bias mutant selection with target genes expressed within the brain. Furthermore, we employed an efficient and fast behavioral pre-selection in which we investigated the locomotory response of 5-day post-fertilization old larval fish to hyperosmotic shock. Based on this assay, we selected five lines for our lower throughput secondary adult behavioral screen. The latter screen utilized tests in which computer animated image presentation and video-tracking-based automated quantification of behavior allowed us to compare heterozygous zebrafish with their wild-type siblings on their responses to a variety of stimuli. We found significant mutation induced adult behavioral alterations in 4 out of the 5 lines analyzed, including changes in response to social or fear inducing stimuli, to handling and novelty, or in habituation to novelty. We discuss the pros and cons of behavioral phenotyping and of the use of different forward genetic methods in biomedical research with zebrafish.

  1. Test-Retest Reliability of a Serious Game for Delirium Screening in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany Tong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cognitive screening in settings such as emergency departments (ED is frequently carried out using paper-and-pencil tests that require administration by trained staff. These assessments often compete with other clinical duties and thus may not be routinely administered in these busy settings. Literature has shown that the presence of cognitive impairments such as dementia and delirium are often missed in older ED patients. Failure to recognize delirium can have devastating consequences including increased mortality (Kakuma et al., 2003. Given the demands on emergency staff, an automated cognitive test to screen for delirium onset could be a valuable tool to support delirium prevention and management.In earlier research we examined the concurrent validity of a serious game, and carried out an initial assessment of its potential as a delirium screening tool (Tong et al., 2016. In this paper, we examine the test-retest reliability of the game, as it is an important criterion in a cognitive test for detecting risk of delirium onset.Objective: To demonstrate the test-retest reliability of the screening tool over time in a clinical sample of older emergency patients. A secondary objective is to assess whether there are practice effects that might make game performance unstable over repeated presentations.Materials and methods: Adults over the age of 70 were recruited from a hospital ED. Each patient played our serious game in an initial session soon after they arrived in the ED, and in follow up sessions conducted at eight-hour intervals (for each participant there were up to five follow up sessions, depending on how long the person stayed in the ED.Results: A total of 114 adults (61 females, 53 males between the ages of 70 and 104 years (M=81 years, SD=7 participated in our study after screening out delirious patients. We observed a test-retest reliability of the serious game (as assessed by correlation r-values between 0.5 and 0

  2. Evaluating the reliability of an injury prevention screening tool: Test-retest study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelman, Michael A; Kincaid, Madeline; Denny, Sarah; Wervey Arnold, Melissa; FitzGerald, Michael; Carle, Adam C; Mara, Constance A

    2016-10-01

    A standardized injury prevention (IP) screening tool can identify family risks and allow pediatricians to address behaviors. To assess behavior changes on later screens, the tool must be reliable for an individual and ideally between household members. Little research has examined the reliability of safety screening tool questions. This study utilized test-retest reliability of parent responses on an existing IP questionnaire and also compared responses between household parents. Investigators recruited parents of children 0 to 1 year of age during admission to a tertiary care children's hospital. When both parents were present, one was chosen as the "primary" respondent. Primary respondents completed the 30-question IP screening tool after consent, and they were re-screened approximately 4 hours later to test individual reliability. The "second" parent, when present, only completed the tool once. All participants received a 10-dollar gift card. Cohen's Kappa was used to estimate test-retest reliability and inter-rater agreement. Standard test-retest criteria consider Kappa values: 0.0 to 0.40 poor to fair, 0.41 to 0.60 moderate, 0.61 to 0.80 substantial, and 0.81 to 1.00 as almost perfect reliability. One hundred five families participated, with five lost to follow-up. Thirty-two (30.5%) parent dyads completed the tool. Primary respondents were generally mothers (88%) and Caucasian (72%). Test-retest of the primary respondents showed their responses to be almost perfect; average 0.82 (SD = 0.13, range 0.49-1.00). Seventeen questions had almost perfect test-retest reliability and 11 had substantial reliability. However, inter-rater agreement between household members for 12 objective questions showed little agreement between responses; inter-rater agreement averaged 0.35 (SD = 0.34, range -0.19-1.00). One question had almost perfect inter-rater agreement and two had substantial inter-rater agreement. The IP screening tool used by a single individual had excellent

  3. Test-Retest Reliability of a Serious Game for Delirium Screening in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Tiffany; Chignell, Mark; Tierney, Mary C; Lee, Jacques S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cognitive screening in settings such as emergency departments (ED) is frequently carried out using paper-and-pencil tests that require administration by trained staff. These assessments often compete with other clinical duties and thus may not be routinely administered in these busy settings. Literature has shown that the presence of cognitive impairments such as dementia and delirium are often missed in older ED patients. Failure to recognize delirium can have devastating consequences including increased mortality (Kakuma et al., 2003). Given the demands on emergency staff, an automated cognitive test to screen for delirium onset could be a valuable tool to support delirium prevention and management. In earlier research we examined the concurrent validity of a serious game, and carried out an initial assessment of its potential as a delirium screening tool (Tong et al., 2016). In this paper, we examine the test-retest reliability of the game, as it is an important criterion in a cognitive test for detecting risk of delirium onset. Objective: To demonstrate the test-retest reliability of the screening tool over time in a clinical sample of older emergency patients. A secondary objective is to assess whether there are practice effects that might make game performance unstable over repeated presentations. Materials and Methods: Adults over the age of 70 were recruited from a hospital ED. Each patient played our serious game in an initial session soon after they arrived in the ED, and in follow up sessions conducted at 8-h intervals (for each participant there were up to five follow up sessions, depending on how long the person stayed in the ED). Results: A total of 114 adults (61 females, 53 males) between the ages of 70 and 104 years ( M = 81 years, SD = 7) participated in our study after screening out delirious patients. We observed a test-retest reliability of the serious game (as assessed by correlation r -values) between 0.5 and 0.8 across adjacent

  4. Utility of quick oculomotor tests for screening the vestibular system in the subacute and chronic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Helen S; Stitz, Jasmine; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Williams, Susan P; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P; Peters, Brian T; Bloomberg, Jacob J

    2018-04-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of some widely used, easily administered clinical tests. Simple tests of oculomotor function have become widely used for clinical screening of patients suspected of having vestibular disorders despite a paucity of evidence showing good statistical support for their use in this highly variable population. Healthy controls with no history of otologic or neurologic disorders (n = 291) were compared to patients with known vestibular disorders (n = 62). All subjects performed passive and active head shaking, un-instrumented head impulse tests (HT), and video head impulse tests (vHIT) recorded with infrared video-oculography. For both passive and active head shaking, using presence/absence of vertigo and of nystagmus, sensitivity was low (<0.40). Sensitivity of presence/absence of saccades on HT was even lower (<0.15). On vHIT, gains were all approximately = 1.0, so sensitivity was very low (approximately 0.15-0.35). Sensitivity and specificity for presence/absence of saccades were moderately poor (less than 0.70). None of these tests are adequate for screening patients in the out-patient clinic for vestibular disorders or for screening people in epidemiologic studies to determine the prevalence of vestibular disorders.

  5. Negative Aging Stereotypes Impair Performance on Brief Cognitive Tests Used to Screen for Predementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Marie; Régner, Isabelle; Barber, Sarah J; Paccalin, Marc; Miazola, Aimé-Chris; Huguet, Pascal; Rigalleau, François

    2017-10-01

    There is today ample evidence that negative aging stereotypes impair healthy older adults' performance on cognitive tasks. Here, we tested whether these stereotypes also decrease performance during the screening for predementia on short cognitive tests widely used in primary care. An experiment was conducted on 80 healthy older adults taking the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) under Threat or Reduced-threat condition. Stereotype threat significantly impaired older adults' performance on both tests, resulting in 40% of older adults meeting the screening criteria for predementia, compared with 10% in Reduced-threat condition (MMSE and MoCA averaged). Our research highlights the influence of aging stereotypes on short cognitive tests used to screen for predementia. It is of critical importance that physicians provide a threat-free testing environment. Further research should clarify whether this socially induced bias may also operate in secondary care by generating false positives. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The Clock Drawing Test A review of its accuracy in screening for dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Aprahamian

    Full Text Available Abstract The Clock Drawing Test (CDT is a simple neuropsychometric instrument that can be easily applied to assess several cognitive functions. Over the past 20 years, the CDT has aroused considerable interest in its role for the early screening of cognitive impairment, especially in dementia. Although the CDT is considered an accurate test for dementia screening, recent studies including comparisons with structured batteries such as the CAMCOG have shown mixed results. Objectives: To investigate the importance of the CDT compared to other commonly used tests, in the diagnosis of dementia in the elderly; (2 to evaluate the reliability and correlation between available CDT scoring scales from recent studies. Methods: A systematic search in the literature was conducted in September 2008 for studies comparing CDT scoring systems and comparing the CDT with neuropsychiatric batteries. Results: Twelve studies were selected for analyses. Seven of these studies compared CDT scoring scales while five compared the CDT against the CAMCOG and the MMSE. Eight studies found good correlation and reliability between the scales and the other tests. Conclusion: Despite the mixed results in these studies, the CDT appears to be a good screening test for dementia.

  7. [Drug using risks screening in primary care patients using the ASSIST test: Cross sectional study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rodríguez, Juan A; Rigabert, Alina; Gómez Llano, M Nieves; Rubio, Gabriel

    2018-03-15

    The aim of this study is to estimate risky-drug use patterns of consumption of primary care patients. Multicentric descriptive cross-sectional study. five primary health care centers of the South of Madrid. all patients between 16-100 year-old consulting with their family physician. Spanish-validated World Health Organization ASSIST test was use to screen risky drug use in primary care. Total points scored at the test were obtained. A sum of 441 screening test were collected. Mean age was 51,3 years and 51.6% of patients presented a moderate-severe risky drug use out of the nine drugs tested. The more frequent drug use screened were tobacco (41.7%) followed by alcohol (15.4%), hypnotics (13.7%) and cannabis (5.7%). Differences were found between genders in the patterns: men had higher risky drug uses compared to women regarding alcohol and cannabis. Women had higher sedatives/hypnotics consumption prevalence. A 16% of patients presented with polyconsumption drug use patterns. There is risk derived from drug misuse in primary care for tobacco, alcohol, hypnotics and cannabis as detected by the ASSIST test. There is a higher rate of hypnotics than expected. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. DEPIVIH 2: Use of three HIV testing methods in French primary care settings - ELISA laboratory screening versus two rapid point-of-care HIV tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadima, D; Gauthier, R; Prévoteau du Clary, F; Bouée, S; Conort, G; Livrozet, J-M; Taulera, O; Wajsbrot, A; Majerholc, C; Peter, J-M; Aubert, J-P

    2018-03-01

    The primary endpoint was to evaluate the use of HIV testing methods by French primary care providers: Elisa laboratory screening, instant result HIV diagnostic test and rapid result HIV diagnostic test. The secondary endpoints were the population screening rate of unknown HIV status consulting during the study period, reasons for screening and for choosing the specific screening method, the investigators' satisfaction with the rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and problems encountered. National prospective interventional study with French family physicians (FP) from December 2013 to December 2014. FPs enrolled all consenting adults consulting for an HIV screening test during a 6-month period: the choice was an Elisa laboratory test or one of the two RDTs. During the study period, 43 FPs included 981 patients. HIV screening was performed for the first time for 31.6% of patients; 767 (78.2%) Elisa laboratory test prescriptions and 214 (21.8%) RDTs were performed, leading to a screening rate of 1.3%. For 120 (15.7%) of the Elisa laboratory tests, the result was not reported and six RDTs were not valid. Nine patients were diagnosed as HIV-infected (0.9%): five with Elisa laboratory test and four with RDT. Almost 90% of FPs were willing to keep on using RDTs in their daily practice. In general practice, RDTs may be an important additional tool to traditional HIV screening. They could account for one in five tests prescribed in this context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Negative HPV screening test predicts low cervical cancer risk better than negative Pap test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on a study that included more than 1 million women, investigators at NCI have determined that a negative test for HPV infection compared to a negative Pap test provides greater safety, or assurance, against future risk of cervical cancer.

  10. Knowledge of parents regarding newborn screening test, after accessing the website “Babies’ Portal” - Heel prick test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Antonelli Mendes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: to assess the knowledge of mothers about the heel prick test, develop contents on this test to make it available on the "Babies’ Portal" website, evaluate and validate the informative material developed. Methods: this study was conducted in three stages, that is, the first stage which is about a descriptive study involving 105 mothers of newborn children before performing the neonatal screening "Heel Prick Test", the second one consisting in the development of the website "Babies’ Portal", and the third stage, the evaluation and validation of this material carried out by 20 parents of children between zero and 36 months old, who underwent the neonatal screening Heel Prick Test by accessing the website “Babies’ Portal”. Results: although the interviewed mothers knew that their children had the right to be tested, they showed no knowledge of the diseases that can be prevented, time of diagnosis, nor the consequences arising from the lack of early diagnosis and treatment. The website creation and validation gathered basic information about the Heel Prick Test, and the participants regarded the content from satisfactory to excellent. Conclusion: it is necessary that families know not only about the procedures their children will undergo, but also the reason they are performed and the consequences of failing in doing so.

  11. Jk(a-b-) phenotype screening by the urea lysis test in Thai blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelert, Suparat; Thippayaboon, Pattrawan; Sriwai, Wimolpak; Sriwanitchrak, Pramote; Tubrod, Jintana; Kupatawintu, Pawinee; Nathalang, Oytip

    2010-01-01

    The Jk(a-b-) phenotype is rare in most populations and often detected after transfusion or pregnancy. After immunisation, anti-Jk3 forms and it can be difficult to find compatible Jk(a-b-) donors. Using anti-Jk(a) and anti-Jk(b) in a conventional tube method is unsuitable for identifying Jk(a-b-) in mass screening of blood donors. Jk(a-b-) phenotypes are associated with the absence of urea transporters on erythrocytes, making red blood cells (RBC) resistant to lysis by 2M urea, while Jk(a+b-), Jk(a-b+) and Jk(a+b+) phenotypes are susceptible to lysis. We screened for Jk(a-b-) phenotypes in blood donors by the urea lysis test using a 96-well microplate. The Jk(a-b-) phenotypes were confirmed by the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT). Altogether, 20,163 blood samples from Thai blood donors were tested and only RBC from five samples were resistant to lysis by 2M urea, while 20,158 samples were completely lysed within 5 min. In an IAT, both anti-Jk(a) and anti-Jk(b) failed to agglutinate RBC from all five samples. Using a micro-titre plate, the direct urea lysis test, costs * 0.01, about 480 times less than IAT. Moreover, the test time for each plate (94 samples) is about 18 times less than that for IAT. Jk(a-b-) phenotype screening by the direct urea lysis test on samples in a micro-titre plate is simple, cost-effective and practical for mass screening of blood donors.

  12. Jk(a−b−) phenotype screening by the urea lysis test in Thai blood donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelert, Suparat; Thippayaboon, Pattrawan; Sriwai, Wimolpak; Sriwanitchrak, Pramote; Tubrod, Jintana; Kupatawintu, Pawinee; Nathalang, Oytip

    2010-01-01

    Background The Jk(a−b−) phenotype is rare in most populations and often detected after transfusion or pregnancy. After immunisation, anti-Jk3 forms and it can be difficult to find compatible Jk(a−b−) donors. Using anti-Jka and anti-Jkb in a conventional tube method is unsuitable for identifying Jk(a−b−) in mass screening of blood donors. Jk(a−b−) phenotypes are associated with the absence of urea transporters on erythrocytes, making red blood cells (RBC) resistant to lysis by 2M urea, while Jk(a+b−), Jk(a−b+) and Jk(a+b+) phenotypes are susceptible to lysis. Materials and methods. We screened for Jk(a−b−) phenotypes in blood donors by the urea lysis test using a 96-well microplate. The Jk(a−b−) phenotypes were confirmed by the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT). Results Altogether, 20,163 blood samples from Thai blood donors were tested and only RBC from five samples were resistant to lysis by 2M urea, while 20,158 samples were completely lysed within 5 min. In an IAT, both anti-Jka and anti-Jkb failed to agglutinate RBC from all five samples. Using a micro-titre plate, the direct urea lysis test, costs • 0.01, about 480 times less than IAT. Moreover, the test time for each plate (94 samples) is about 18 times less than that for IAT. Conclusion Jk(a−b−) phenotype screening by the direct urea lysis test on samples in a micro-titre plate is simple, cost-effective and practical for mass screening of blood donors. PMID:20104274

  13. POPULATION BASED COLORECTAL CANCER SCREENING: COMPARISON OF TWO FAECAL OCCULT BLOOD TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miren Begoña eZubero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of screening for colorectal cancer is to improve prognosis by the detection of cancer at its early stages. In order to inform the decision on the specific test to be used in the population-based programme in the Basque Autonomous Region (Spain, we compared two immunochemical faecal occult blood quantitative tests (I-FOBT. Methods: Residents of selected study areas, aged 50-69 years, were invited to participate in the screening. Two tests based on latex agglutination (OC-Sensor and FOB Gold were randomly assigned to different study areas. A colonoscopy was offered to patients with a positive test result. The cut-off point used to classify a result as positive, according to manufacturer’s recommendations, was 100 ng/ml for both tests. Results: The invited population included 37,999 individuals. Participation rates were 61.8% (n=11,162 for OC-Sensor and 59.1% (n=11,786 for FOB Gold, (p=0.008. Positive rate for OC-Sensor was 6.6% (n=737 and 8.5% (n=1,002 for FOB Gold, (pConclusions: OC-Sensor test appears to be superior for I-FOBT based CRC screening, given its acceptance, ease of use, associated small number of errors and its screening accuracy. FOB-Gold on the other hand, has higher rate of positive values, with more colonoscopies performed, it shows higher detection incidence rates, but involves more false positives.

  14. An analysis of the duplicate testing strategy of an Irish immunochemical FOBT colorectal cancer screening programme.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelley, Leanne

    2013-06-10

    AIM: This study examined the relevance of using a two sample quantitative immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT or FIT) at a high cut off stringency by the first population-based colorectal cancer (CRC) pilot screening programme in Ireland. METHOD: Approximately ten thousand individuals between the ages of 50-74 years were invited to perform two consecutive FITs. These were analysed in tandem using the OC-Sensor and participants with at least one positive result with a haemoglobin cut off for positivity at 100 ng\\/ml were offered colonoscopy. RESULTS: A total of 5023 (52%) (2177 (43%) male; 2846 (57%) female) individuals with a median age of 64 years participated. At least one positive FIT test was detected from 514 (10%) individuals. From the 419 (82%) patients who proceeded to colonoscopy 17 (4%) had CRC and 132(33%) had an advanced adenoma. The detection rate for these screen relevant lesions was 3% (95% CIs = 2.5% - 3.5%) and the FIT positive + colonoscopy detection rate was 36% (95% CI = 31% - 40%). The numbers needed to colonoscope to find an advanced lesion was 2.8. The two test system detected four (23.5%) additional patients with CRC and 37 (28%) with an advanced adenoma compared with a single test. CONCLUSION: The CRC miss rate estimated for a single test (23.5%) was unacceptably high when the goal was to maximize the discovery of advanced lesions in the initial screening round. We conclude that the two test protocol at a high cut off threshold is suitable to optimize FIT screening in Ireland. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinical experience from Thailand: noninvasive prenatal testing as screening tests for trisomies 21, 18 and 13 in 4736 pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manotaya, S; Xu, H; Uerpairojkit, B; Chen, F; Charoenvidhya, D; Liu, H; Petcharaburanin, N; Liu, Y; Tang, S; Wang, X; Dansakul, S; Thomsopa, T; Gao, Y; Zhang, H; Xu, H; Jiang, Hui

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to report the clinical experience and performance of massively parallel sequencing-based noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) as a screening method in detecting trisomy 21, 18, and 13 (T21/T18/T13) in a mixed-risk population in Thailand. In a 30-month period, 121 medical centers in Thailand offered NIPT as clinical screening tests for fetal T21, T18, and T13 in the mixed-risk population. All NIPT-positive cases were recommended to undergo invasive prenatal diagnosis. A total of 4736 participants received the NIPT test, including 2840 high-risk pregnancies, either with advanced maternal age or positive serum biochemical tests, and 1889 low-risk pregnancies without conventional indications; 99.9% (4732/4736) of the participants with a median maternal age of 35 years old received reports, and 1.3% (63/4732) were classified as test positive, including 36 T21, 19 T18, and 8 T13; 82.5% (52/63) took prenatal diagnosis, and 11.5% (6/52) false-positive cases were observed. The positive predictive values for the detection of T21, T18, and T13 were 94.4%, 79.0%, and 87.5%, respectively. With stringent protocol, our prospective large-scale multicenter nationwide study demonstrated that NIPT showed excellent performance as screening tests for the detection of fetal T21, T18, and T13 in mixed-risk pregnancies in Thailand. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Stroop Test Validation to Screen for Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy in Pediatric Extrahepatic Portal Venous Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Meera Vyshni; Jagadisan, Barath; Kandasamy, Preeti; Senthilkumar, Gandhipuram Periyasamy

    2018-01-25

    Minimal Hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) has been reported in children with extra hepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO). MHE assessment is restricted to research situations as neuropsychiatric tests are time-intensive. Computerised Stroop Test (CST) has been used in cirrhotic adults for MHE screening. The study aims to assess MHE frequency in young Indian children with EHPVO and validate CST for MHE screening in pediatric EHPVO METHODS:: 37 children with EHPVO between 7-12 years of age and 37 age and gender matched controls were enrolled. Fasting plasma ammonia was measured. MHE was diagnosed by Revised Amsterdamse Kinder Intelligentie Test (RAKIT). The performance of a Tamil language version of CST in MHE screening was assessed. MHE was diagnosed in 18.9% (7/37) of EHPVO (EHPVO-MHE). Plasma ammonia levels were higher in EHPVO-MHE compared to EHPVO without MHE (EHPVO-No-MHE) but abnormal plasma ammonia levels are unsuitable for MHE screening. CST was administered in 35 EHPVO and 37 controls. EHPVO-MHE, compared to EHPVO-No-MHE, had longer "on time", "off time", "(on+off) time" and "(on-off) time". For MHE diagnosis, specificity and sensitivity of '(on+off) time' were 100% and 89.6% for a cut-off of >180.4 s (AUROC=0.97). In the absence of other risk factors for neurological insult or patent surgical shunts, MHE frequency in young Indian children with EHPVO, determined by RAKIT, was lesser than in earlier studies. CST is suitable for MHE screening in clinical practice to select patients for neuropsychiatric evaluation.

  17. Analytical Performance of Multiplexed Screening Test for 10 Antibiotic Resistance Genes from Perianal Swab Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, G Terrance; Rockweiler, Tony J; Kersey, Rossio K; Frye, Kelly L; Mitchner, Susan R; Toal, Douglas R; Quan, Julia

    2016-02-01

    Multiantibiotic-resistant bacteria pose a threat to patients and place an economic burden on health care systems. Carbapenem-resistant bacilli and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers drive the need to screen infected and colonized patients for patient management and infection control. We describe a multiplex microfluidic PCR test for perianal swab samples (Acuitas(®) MDRO Gene Test, OpGen) that detects the vancomycin-resistance gene vanA plus hundreds of gene subtypes from the carbapenemase and ESBL families Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM), Verona integron-mediated metallo-β-lactamase (VIM), imipenemase metallo-β-lactamase (IMP), OXA-23, OXA-48, OXA-51, CTX-M-1, and CTX-M-2, regardless of the bacterial species harboring the antibiotic resistance. Analytical test sensitivity per perianal swab is 11-250 CFU of bacteria harboring the antibiotic resistance genes. Test throughput is 182 samples per test run (1820 antibiotic resistance gene family results). We demonstrate reproducible test performance and 100% gene specificity for 265 clinical bacterial organisms harboring a variety of antibiotic resistance genes. The Acuitas MDRO Gene Test is a sensitive, specific, and high-throughput test to screen colonized patients and diagnose infections for several antibiotic resistance genes directly from perianal swab samples, regardless of the bacterial species harboring the resistance genes. © 2015 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  18. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Neck Tornado Test as a New Screening Test in Cervical Radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Juyeon; Park, Woo Young; Hong, Seungbae; An, Jiwon; Koh, Jae Chul; Lee, Youn-Woo; Kim, Yong Chan; Choi, Jong Bum

    2017-01-01

    The Spurling test, although a highly specific provocative test of the cervical spine in cervical radiculopathy (CR), has low to moderate sensitivity. Thus, we introduced the neck tornado test (NTT) to examine the neck and the cervical spine in CR. The aim of this study was to introduce a new provocative test, the NTT, and compare the diagnostic accuracy with a widely accepted provocative test, the Spurling test. Retrospective study. Medical records of 135 subjects with neck pain (CR, n = 67; without CR, n = 68) who had undergone cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging and been referred to the pain clinic between September 2014 and August 2015 were reviewed. Both the Spurling test and NTT were performed in all patients by expert examiners. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were compared for both the Spurling test and the NTT. The sensitivity of the Spurling test and the NTT was 55.22% and 85.07% ( P < 0.0001); specificity, 98.53% and 86.76% ( P = 0.0026); accuracy, 77.04% and 85.93% ( P = 0.0423), respectively. The NTT is more sensitive with superior diagnostic accuracy for CR diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging than the Spurling test.

  19. The role of Pap test screening against cervical cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meggiolaro, A; Unim, B; Semyonov, L; Miccoli, S; Maffongelli, E; La Torre, G

    2016-01-01

    The first aim of this article is to quantify the role of Pap test in cervical cancer prevention, updating the pool of available studies included in a previous meta-analysis. Potential sources of meta-analysis heterogeneity were investigated as second aim. Further evidence of cost-effectiveness has been provided about age and best time interval to perform Pap test screening. The articles' search was conducted using four medical electronic databases: PubMed, Google Scholar, ISI Web, and Scopus. Papers published until the 30th November 2013 were included. The research on Google Scholar was limited to the first 10 pages of web for each study design. A systematic review/meta-analysis was performed according to PRISMA Statement. New-Castle-Ottawa Scale and Jadad have been adopted for articles quality assessment. From 4143 screened articles, 34 met eligibility criteria and 30 case-control studies were included in meta-analysis. Meta-analysis was carried out using StatsDirect2.8.0. Heterogeneity was investigated with qualitative and quantitative approaches in sensitivity-analysis. Despite a great heterogeneity (Cochran Q=504.466, df=29, pPap test has been identified (OR=0.33; 95%CI=0.268-0.408, P Pap test against cervical cancer has been confirmed especially among women <40 years. Annual screening still remains the most cost-effective preventive strategy.

  20. Newborn screening for medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in England: prevalence, predictive value and test validity based on 1.5 million screened babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerton, Juliet; Khalid, Javaria M; Besley, Guy; Dalton, R Neil; Downing, Melanie; Green, Anne; Henderson, Mick; Krywawych, Steve; Leonard, James; Andresen, Brage S; Dezateux, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) is a rare, life-threatening condition. Early diagnosis by screening asymptomatic newborns may improve outcome, but the benefit to newborns identified with variants not encountered clinically is uncertain. To estimate, overall and by ethnic group: screen-positive prevalence and predictive value (PPV); MCADD prevalence; proportion MCADD variants detected of predicted definite or uncertain clinical importance. All births in areas of high ethnic minority prevalence in England. Prospective multicentre pilot screening service; testing at age five to eight days; standardized screening, diagnostic and management protocols; independent expert review of screen-positive cases to assign MCADD diagnosis and predicted clinical importance (definite or uncertain). Approximately 1.5 million babies (79% white; 10% Asian) were screened. MCADD was confirmed in 147 of 190 babies with a positive screening result (screen-positive prevalence: 1.20 per 10,000; MCADD prevalence: 0.94 per 10,000; PPV 77% [95% CI 71-83]), comprising 103 (70%) with MCADD variants of definite clinical importance (95 white [95%]; 2 Asian [2%]) and 44 (30%) with variants of uncertain clinical importance (29 white [67%]; 12 Asian [28%]). One baby in every 10,000 born in England is diagnosed with MCADD by newborn screening; around 60 babies each year. While the majority of MCADD variants detected are predicted to be of definite clinical importance, this varies according to ethnic group, with variants of uncertain importance most commonly found in Asian babies. These findings provide support for MCADD screening but highlight the need to take account of the ethnic diversity of the population tested at implementation.

  1. Clinical experience from Thailand noninvasive prenatal testing as screening tests for trisomies 21, 18 and 13 in 4736 pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manotaya, S.; Xu, H.; Uerpairojkit, B.

    2016-01-01

    PurposeThe purpose of this article is to report the clinical experience and performance of massively parallel sequencing-based noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) as a screening method in detecting trisomy 21, 18, and 13 (T21/T18/T13) in a mixed-risk population in Thailand. MethodsIn a 30-month...... period, 121 medical centers in Thailand offered NIPT as clinical screening tests for fetal T21, T18, and T13 in the mixed-risk population. All NIPT-positive cases were recommended to undergo invasive prenatal diagnosis. ResultsA total of 4736 participants received the NIPT test, including 2840 high......-risk pregnancies, either with advanced maternal age or positive serum biochemical tests, and 1889 low-risk pregnancies without conventional indications; 99.9% (4732/4736) of the participants with a median maternal age of 35years old received reports, and 1.3% (63/4732) were classified as test positive, including...

  2. Development of Taiwan Smell Identification Test: a quick office-based smell screening test for Taiwanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ning-I; Lai, Jen-Tsung; Shen, Ping-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Objective smell tests not only identify levels of smelling ability but also provide information on changes in olfaction after treatment. Odor identification is strongly socially and culturally dependent; therefore, the odorants used in a smell identification test should be familiar to the test population. We developed this smell test for Taiwanese populations with two aims: the test odors should be familiar to Taiwanese and the test should be easily and quickly administered in a busy clinic. Additives that are familiar to Taiwanese people were selected for this smell identification test. Subsequently, the test was validated with the traditional Chinese version of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (TC-UPSIT). Finally, this Taiwan Smell Identification Test (TWSIT) was implemented in daily clinical use, and cut-off points of "normosmia," "hyposmia," and "anosmia" were established. A total of 1000 subjects were included in the market survey to identify commonly recognized odors. Eight odorants with identification rate greater than 95% were selected. The TWSIT is an array of multiple-choice questions to select the odor. In addition, patient also reported the strength of the odor. The full score was 48. Thirty-seven patients simultaneously received both TWSIT and TC-UPSIT, and the correlation was high (r = 0.874). Based on the testing results of an additional 187 subjects, we concluded that scores of 47-48, 15-44, and 2-12 corresponded to normosmia, hyposmia, and anosmia, respectively. Patients with scores falling in the gaps require retesting at a later time. The TWSIT is a quick, office-based, and useful odor identification tool for Taiwanese. The experience of developing a culturally specific olfaction test like the TWSIT can be applied in different countries and cultures.

  3. Comparison among single-phase test, automated screening method and GC/MS for the traceability of ketamine in urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Visione

    2016-12-01

    CONCLUSION Following the law indications, ketamine is not searched: this limit does not make the authorities able to apply the penalties expected for road laws violations. The automation is essential to guarantee the reliability of toxicological screening tests, especially to medico-legal significance. This results highlight the absolutely necessity of the execution of the confirmation test, successively to screening analysis.

  4. De item-reeks van de cognitieve screening test vergeleken met die van de mini-mental state examination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmand, B.; Deelman, B. G.; Hooijer, C.; Jonker, C.; Lindeboom, J.

    1996-01-01

    The items of the ¿mini-mental state examination' (MMSE) and a Dutch dementia screening instrument, the ¿cognitive screening test' (CST), as well as the ¿geriatric mental status schedule' (GMS) and the ¿Dutch adult reading test' (DART), were administered to 4051 elderly people aged 65 to 84 years.

  5. Rapid detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates by the MRSA-screen latex agglutination test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.B. van Leeuwen (Willem); C. van Pelt (Cindy); A. Luijendijk (Ad); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); W.H.F. Goessens (Wil)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe slide agglutination test MRSA-Screen (Denka Seiken Co., Niigata, Japan) was compared with the mecA PCR ("gold standard") for the detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. The MRSA-Screen test detected the penicillin-binding protein 2a

  6. Primary HPV testing versus cytology-based cervical screening in women in Australia vaccinated for HPV and unvaccinated: effectiveness and economic assessment for the National Cervical Screening Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Jie-Bin; Simms, Kate T; Smith, Megan A; Hall, Michaela; Kang, Yoon-Jung; Xu, Xiang Ming; Caruana, Michael; Velentzis, Louiza Sofia; Bessell, Tracey; Saville, Marion; Hammond, Ian; Canfell, Karen

    2017-02-01

    Australia's National Cervical Screening Program currently recommends cytological screening every 2 years for women aged 18-69 years. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination was implemented in 2007 with high population coverage, and falls in high-grade lesions in young women have been reported extensively. This decline prompted a major review of the National Cervical Screening Program and new clinical management guidelines, for which we undertook this analysis. We did effectiveness modelling and an economic assessment of potential new screening strategies, using a model of HPV transmission, vaccination, natural history, and cervical screening. First, we evaluated 132 screening strategies, including those based on cytology and primary HPV testing. Second, after a recommendation was made to adopt primary HPV screening with partial genotyping and direct referral to colposcopy of women positive for HPV16/18, we evaluated the final effect of HPV screening after incorporating new clinical guidelines for women positive for HPV. Both evaluations considered both unvaccinated and vaccinated cohorts. Strategies entailing HPV testing every 5 years and either partial genotyping for HPV16/18 or cytological co-testing were the most effective. One of the most effective and cost-effective strategies comprised primary HPV screening with referral of women positive for oncogenic HPV16/18 direct to colposcopy, with reflex cytological triage for women with other oncogenic types and direct referral for those in this group with high-grade cytological findings. After incorporating detailed clinical guidelines recommendations, this strategy is predicted to reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality by 31% and 36%, respectively, in unvaccinated cohorts, and by 24% and 29%, respectively, in cohorts offered vaccination. Furthermore, this strategy is predicted to reduce costs by up to 19% for unvaccinated cohorts and 26% for cohorts offered vaccination, compared with the current programme

  7. Restriction of human papillomavirus DNA testing in primary cervical screening to women above age 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Njor, Sisse H; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2012-01-01

    Cervical screening with human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is less specific for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (=CIN3) than cytology. The aim of this systematic review was to determine whether a restriction of HPV testing to women aged at least 30 years would eliminate the problem....... On the basis of the data from randomized controlled trials, we calculated the relative detection of CIN1 and CIN2, and the relative risks of false-positive tests (positive tests without subsequent =CIN3) per age group and trial for HPV testing versus cytology. For women aged at least 30 years in trials...... with a low cytology abnormality rate, detection of CIN1 increased significantly by 50-90% in the two trials with reported data; detection of CIN2 was doubled in three trials; the risks of false-positive HPV tests were also doubled. In trials with a high cytology abnormality rate, these risks were similar...

  8. Developmental neurotoxicity testing: recommendations for developing alternative methods for the screening and prioritization of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crofton, Kevin M; Mundy, William R; Lein, Pamela J; Bal-Price, Anna; Coecke, Sandra; Seiler, Andrea E M; Knaut, Holger; Buzanska, Leonora; Goldberg, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) is perceived by many stakeholders to be an area in critical need of alternative methods to current animal testing protocols and guidelines. An immediate goal is to develop test methods that are capable of screening large numbers of chemicals. This document provides recommendations for developing alternative DNT approaches that will generate the type of data required for evaluating and comparing predictive capacity and efficiency across test methods and laboratories. These recommendations were originally drafted to stimulate and focus discussions of alternative testing methods and models for DNT at the TestSmart DNT II meeting (http://caat.jhsph.edu/programs/workshops/dnt2.html) and this document reflects critical feedback from all stakeholders that participated in this meeting. The intent of this document is to serve as a catalyst for engaging the research community in the development of DNT alternatives and it is expected that these recommendations will continue to evolve with the science.

  9. Diagnostic performance and costs of contingent screening models for trisomy 21 incorporating non-invasive prenatal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Susannah; O'Leary, Peter; Dickinson, Jan E; Suthers, Graeme K

    2017-08-01

    Contingent screening for trisomy 21 using non-invasive prenatal testing has the potential to reduce invasive diagnostic testing and increase the detection of trisomy 21. To describe the diagnostic and economic performance of prenatal screening models for trisomy 21 that use non-invasive prenatal testing as a contingent screen across a range of combined first trimester screening risk cut-offs from a public health system perspective. Using a hypothetical cohort of 300 000 pregnancies, we modelled the outcomes of 25 contingent non-invasive prenatal testing screening models and compared these to conventional screening, offering women with a high-risk (1 > 300) combined first trimester screening result an invasive test. The 25 models used a range of risk cut-offs. High-risk women were offered invasive testing. Intermediate-risk women were offered non-invasive prenatal testing. We report the cost of each model, detection rate, costs per diagnosis, invasive tests per diagnosis and the number of fetal losses per diagnosis. The cost per prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 21 using the conventional model was $51 876 compared to the contingent models which varied from $49 309-66 686. The number of diagnoses and cost per diagnosis increased as the intermediate-risk threshold was lowered. Results were sensitive to trisomy 21 incidence, uptake of testing and cost of non-invasive prenatal testing. Contingent non-invasive prenatal testing models using more sensitive combined first trimester screening risk cut-offs than conventional screening improved the detection rate of trisomy 21, reduced procedure-related fetal loss and could potentially be provided at a lower cost per diagnosis than conventional screening. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  10. Kinematics during lower extremity functional screening tests--are they reliable and related to jogging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatman, Chris; Hing, Wayne; Hume, Patria

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the within-day and between-day reliability of 3D lower extremity kinematics during five lower extremity functional screening tests and to assess the association between these kinematics and those recorded during jogging. Peak three-dimensional lower extremity kinematics were quantified in 25 uninjured participants during five lower extremity functional tests and jogging. A nine camera motion analysis system (Qualysis Medical AB, Sweden) was used to capture three trials of all tests. All functional tests were repeated by 10 participants one to two days later. Visual 3D (C-Motion Inc, USA) and Labview were used to process all data. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and typical errors (TE) were used to assess within- and between-day reliability of all variables. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the association between peak joint kinematics during the functional tests and jogging. For the majority of kinematic variables the within-day reliability was excellent (ICC ≥ 0.92) and the between-day reliability was excellent to good (ICC ≥ 0.80). The correlation between kinematics of the functional tests and jogging was generally large to very large (r = 0.53 to 0.93). These results suggest these lower extremity functional screening tests should prove a useful clinical tool when assessing dynamic lower extremity alignment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Terrestrial Eco-Toxicological Tests as Screening Tool to Assess Soil Contamination in Krompachy Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ol'ga, Šestinová; Findoráková, Lenka; Hančuľák, Jozef; Fedorová, Erika; Tomislav, Špaldon

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we present screening tool of heavy metal inputs to agricultural and permanent grass vegetation of the soils in Krompachy. This study is devoted to Ecotoxicity tests, Terrestrial Plant Test (modification of OECD 208, Phytotoxkit microbiotest on Sinapis Alba) and chronic tests of Earthworm (Dendrobaena veneta, modification of OECD Guidelines for the testing of chemicals 317, Bioaccumulation in Terrestrial Oligochaetes) as practical and sensitive screening method for assessing the effects of heavy metals in Krompachy soils. The total Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Hg concentrations and eco-toxicological tests of soils from the Krompachy area were determined of 4 sampling sites in 2015. An influence of the sampling sites distance from the copper smeltery on the absolutely concentrations of metals were recorded for copper, lead, zinc, arsenic and mercury. The highest concentrations of these metals were detected on the sampling sites up to 3 km from the copper smeltery. The samples of soil were used to assess of phytotoxic effect. Total mortality was established at earthworms using chronic toxicity test after 7 exposure days. The results of our study confirmed that no mortality was observed in any of the study soils. Based on the phytotoxicity testing, phytotoxic effects of the metals contaminated soils from the samples 3KR (7-9) S.alba seeds was observed.

  12. A comparison of hamstring muscle activity during different screening tests for non-contact ACL injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Rasmus S; Bencke, Jesper; Andersen, Lars Louis

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reduced ability to activate the medial hamstring muscles during a sports-specific sidecutting movement has been found to be a potential risk factor for non-contact ACL injury. However, whether a reduced ability to activate the medial hamstring muscle is a general neuromuscular...... phenomenon and thereby observable independently of the type of clinical screening tests used is not known. This cross sectional study investigated the rank correlation of knee joint neuromuscular activity between three different ACL injury risk screening tests. METHODS: Sixty-two adolescent female elite...... football and handball players (16.7±1.3years) participated in the study. Using surface electromyography (EMG) assessment, the neuromuscular activity of medial hamstring muscle (semitendinosus, ST), lateral hamstring muscle (biceps femoris, BF) and quadriceps muscle (vastus lateralis, VL) were monitored...

  13. The stroop effect in Greek healthy population: normative data for the Stroop Neuropsychological Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalonis, Ioannis; Christidi, Fotini; Bonakis, Anastasios; Kararizou, Evangelia; Triantafyllou, Nikolaos I; Paraskevas, Georgios; Kapaki, Elissavet; Vasilopoulos, Dimitrios

    2009-02-01

    The Stroop Test is a quick and frequently used measure in screening for brain damage, dysfunction of selective attention, and cognitive flexibility. The purpose of the present study is to provide normative data for Trenerry's Stroop Neuropsychological Screening Test (SNST) in a sample of 605 healthy Greek participants (age range: 18-84 years, education range: 6-18 years). Results revealed that age and education significantly contributed to SNST scores, accounting for a significant proportion of variance in time needed to complete the color task and in the interference Color-Word score. Performance on most of the measures decreases with increasing age and lower levels of education. Normative data stratified by age and education for the Greek adult population are provided as a useful set of norms for clinical practice.

  14. Primary care visit use after positive fecal immunochemical test for colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyer, Grace Clarke; Jensen, Christopher D; Zhao, Wei K; Neugut, Alfred I; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Tiro, Jasmin A; Kushi, Lawrence H; Corley, Douglas A

    2017-10-01

    For some patients, positive cancer screening test results can be a stressful experience that can affect future screening compliance and increase the use of health care services unrelated to medically indicated follow-up. Among 483,216 individuals aged 50 to 75 years who completed a fecal immunochemical test to screen for colorectal cancer at a large integrated health care setting between 2007 and 2011, the authors evaluated whether a positive test was associated with a net change in outpatient primary care visit use within the year after screening. Multivariable regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between test result group and net changes in primary care visits after fecal immunochemical testing. In the year after the fecal immunochemical test, use increased by 0.60 clinic visits for patients with true-positive results. The absolute change in visits was largest (3.00) among individuals with positive test results who were diagnosed with colorectal cancer, but significant small increases also were found for patients treated with polypectomy and who had no neoplasia (0.36) and those with a normal examination and no polypectomy performed (0.17). Groups of patients who demonstrated an increase in net visit use compared with the true-negative group included patients with true-positive results (odds ratio [OR], 1.60; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.54-1.66), and positive groups with a colorectal cancer diagnosis (OR, 7.19; 95% CI, 6.12-8.44), polypectomy/no neoplasia (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.27-1.48), and normal examination/no polypectomy (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.18-1.30). Given the large size of outreach programs, these small changes can cumulatively generate thousands of excess visits and have a substantial impact on total health care use. Therefore, these changes should be included in colorectal cancer screening cost models and their causes investigated further. Cancer 2017;123:3744-3753. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  15. Rapid Serological Tests Ineffectively Screen for HIV Exposure in HIV-Positive Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urick, Brittany; Fong, Youyi; Okiira, Christopher; Nabukeera-Barungi, Nicolette; Nansera, Denis; Ochola, Emmanuel; Nteziyaremye, Julius; Bigira, Victor; Ssewanyana, Isaac; Olupot-Olupot, Peter; Peter, Trevor; Ghadrshenas, Anisa; Vojnov, Lara; Kiyaga, Charles

    2018-03-01

    Data on the performance and utility of rapid serological tests in infants to determine HIV exposure are unclear and in some instances contradictory. This study sought to understand the performance of rapid serological tests in high HIV burden, high Option B+ coverage settings to be used as an HIV exposure screening tool. A total of 3600 infants up to 24 months of age at 4 regional hospitals in Uganda were systematically enrolled and tested simultaneously using both HIV rapid serological and nucleic acid-based tests. Only 58 of the 94 HIV-positive infants who received both rapid serological and nucleic acid-based tests were positive with the rapid serological test (sensitivity: 61.7%; 95% confidence interval: 51.1 to 71.5). Using rapid serological tests to screen infants for exposure to HIV and follow-up nucleic acid-based testing would have missed 38.3% (36 of 94) of HIV-positive infants. Finally, several HIV-positive infants who were negative by rapid serological test presented to well-child entry points and were considered healthy. All 3 HIV-positive infants presenting to outreach and immunization were negative by rapid serological testing and 73% (8 of 11) presenting to outpatient. These data suggest that the use of rapid serological tests may have inadequate performance as an indicator of exposure and potential HIV infection among infants presenting at both well-child (immunization and community outreach) and sick-infant (nutrition and inpatient) entry points. To improve the identification of HIV-positive infants, nucleic acid-based testing should instead be considered in infants aged younger than 18 months.

  16. Aneuploidy screening by non?invasive prenatal testing in twin pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Fosler, L.; Winters, P.; Jones, K. W.; Curnow, K. J.; Sehnert, A. J.; Bhatt, S.; Platt, L. D.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To describe our experience with non?invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) in twin pregnancy. Methods Two sets of maternal blood samples from twin pregnancies were analyzed at our laboratory using NIPT: 115 stored samples from pregnancies with known outcome (Clinical Study A) and 487 prospectively collected samples for which outcomes were requested from providers (Clinical Study B). NIPT was used to screen for the presence of fetal aneuploidy on chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y i...

  17. Inclusion Fluorescent-Antibody Test as a Screening Assay for Detection of Antibodies to Chlamydia pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Tapia, Olga; Slepenkin, Anatoly; Sevrioukov, Evgueni; Hamor, Kathi; de la Maza, Luis M.; Peterson, Ellena M.

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the ability of the inclusion immunofluorescence assay (inclusion IFA) to act as a screening test to detect samples with antibodies to Chlamydia pneumoniae; microimmunofluorescence (MIF) was used as the “gold standard.” In addition, the inclusion IFA was compared using HEp-2 cells infected with either C. pneumoniae CM-1 or Chlamydia trachomatis serovar E. A total of 331 serum samples representing a range of MIF titers were evaluated. The sensitivities of the ...

  18. Preferences and satisfaction towards a screening program with self-administered human papilloma virus detection tests

    OpenAIRE

    Morán, Flavia; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú. Estudiante de Medicina; Cárcamo, César; Facultad de Salud Pública y Administración, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. médico, doctor en Epidemiología; Valderrama, María; Facultad de Salud Pública y Administración, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. obstetra, magister en Obstetricia; García, Patricia J.; Facultad de Salud Pública y Administración, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. médico, doctora en Medicina

    2017-01-01

    Cross-sectional study describing preferences and satisfaction towards a cervical cancer screening program with selfadministered rapid tests for the detection of human papillomavirus (HPV). Of 2 090 users picked by the program in Ventanilla Callao - Peru, 97 were randomly selected to be surveyed. In addition, interviews were conducted with women leaders of the community, in charge of providing the evidence. 74.2% of the users felt, at least, satisfied with the program. 68% of women prefer to t...

  19. Tracer Test Monitoring Using Wells with Long Screened Intervals : Benefits and Disadvantages

    OpenAIRE

    Schnegg, Pierre-André; Flynn, Raymond Matthew; Mallèn, German; Perrochet, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Analytical and economic limitations often make fully-penetrating wells an attractive alternative for monitoring tracer test responses in aquifers. Modelling of breakthrough curves generated using long-screened (LS) wells in an unconfined gravel aquifer demonstrated that prolonged tailing could be reproduced with a series of partial breakthrough curves. The results suggested tracer arrived at multiple horizons. Subsequent measurements using a mobile downhole fluorometer demonstrated over 95% o...

  20. Transabdominal ultrasonography as a screening test for second-trimester placenta previa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quant, Hayley S; Friedman, Alexander M; Wang, Eileen; Parry, Samuel; Schwartz, Nadav

    2014-03-01

    To determine the test characteristics of transabdominal ultrasonography as a screening test for second-trimester placenta previa. This secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study evaluated the distance from the placental edge to the internal os (placenta-cervix distance) through both transabdominal and transvaginal ultrasonography during the anatomic survey. Patients were recruited in the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Ultrasound Unit at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, an urban tertiary care center. Transabdominal placenta-cervix distance cutoffs with high sensitivity for detection of previa and low-lying placenta were identified, and test characteristics were calculated. Follow-up ultrasound data, pregnancy, and delivery outcomes for those with second-trimester previa or low-lying placenta were obtained. One thousand two hundred fourteen women were included in the analysis. A transabdominal placenta-cervix distance cutoff of 4.2 cm was 93.3% sensitive and 76.7% specific for detection of previa with a 99.8% negative predictive value at a screen-positive rate of 25.0%. A cutoff of 2.8 cm was 86.7% sensitive and 90.5% specific with a 99.6% negative predictive value at a screen-positive rate of 11.4%. Only 9.8% (four of 41) of previas and low-lying placentas persisted through delivery. Transabdominal ultrasonography is an effective screening test for second-trimester placenta previa. At centers not performing universal transvaginal ultrasonography at the time of the anatomic survey, evidence-based transabdominal placenta-cervix distance cutoffs can optimize the identification of patients who require further surveillance for previa.

  1. Basal Serum Cortisol Concentration as a Screening Test for Hypoadrenocorticism in Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Bovens, C.; Tennant, K.; Reeve, J.; Murphy, K.F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Measurement of basal serum or plasma cortisol concentration is used as a screening test for hypoadrenocorticism in dogs, but is not well characterized. Objectives To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of basal serum cortisol to detect hypoadrenocorticism in a population of dogs with a clinical suspicion of hypoadrenocorticism. Animals Four hundred and fifty dogs with nonadrenal gland illness and 14 dogs with naturally occurring hypoadrenocorticism were included. Methods Retro...

  2. Development of a Dysphagia Screening Test for Preterm Infants (DST-PI)

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyoung Moo; Seo, Young Tak

    2017-01-01

    Objective To explore both the early prediction and diagnosis of dysphagia in preterm infants as an important developmental aspect as well as the prevention of respiratory complications, we developed the simple and-easy-to-apply Dysphagia Screening Test for Preterm Infants (DST-PI) to predict supraglottic penetration and subglottic aspiration. Methods Fifty-two infants were enrolled in a videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) due to clinical suspicions of dysphagia. Thirteen items related t...

  3. Investigating uptake in faecal immunochemical test (FIT) based colorectal cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major public health issue, being one of the most diagnosed cancers and one of the leading causes of cancer related mortality. Almost 2500 people are diagnosed with colorectal cancer each year in Ireland and over 1000 die from the disease with males at greater risk. Colorectal cancer is a highly treatable disease if detected at earlier stages. Ireland introduced a National Colorectal Cancer Screening Programme in 2013, using the new faecal immunochemical test (FIT) techn...

  4. Liquid-Crystal Display (LCD) Screen Thermal Testing to Simulate Solar Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    ARL-TN-0723 ● DEC 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Liquid - Crystal Display (LCD) Screen Thermal Testing to Simulate Solar Gain...longer needed. Do not return it to the originator. ARL-TN-0723 ● DEC 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Liquid - Crystal Display (LCD...1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) December 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 09/2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Liquid - Crystal

  5. Negative screening tests in classical galactosaemia caused by S135L homozygosity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Crushell, E

    2009-06-01

    Classical galactosaemia is relatively common in Ireland due to a high carrier rate of the Q188R GALT mutation. It is screened for using a bacterial inhibition assay (BIA) for free galactose. A Beutler assay on day one of life is performed only in high risk cases (infants of the Traveller community and relatives of known cases). A 16-month-old Irish-born boy of Nigerian origin was referred for investigation of developmental delay, and failure to thrive. He had oral aversion to solids and his diet consisted of cow\\'s milk and milk-based cereal mixes. He was found to have microcephaly, weight <2nd percentile, hepatomegaly and bilateral cataracts. Coagulation screen was normal and transaminases were slightly elevated. His original newborn screen was reviewed and confirmed to have been negative; urinary reducing substances on three separate occasions were negative. Beutler assay demonstrated "absent" red cell galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) activity. GALT enzyme activity was <0.5 gsubs\\/h per gHb confirming classical galactosaemia. Gal-1-P was elevated at 1.88 micromol\\/gHb. Mutation analysis of the GALT gene revealed S135L homozygosity. S135L\\/S135L galactosaemia is associated with absent red cell GALT activity but with approximately 10% activity in other tissues such as the liver and intestines, probably explaining the negative screening tests and the somewhat milder phenotype associated with this genotype. The patient was commenced on galactose-restricted diet; on follow-up at 2 years of age, growth had normalized but there was global developmental delay. In conclusion, galactosaemia must be considered in children who present with poor growth, hepatomegaly, developmental delay and cataracts and GALT enzyme analysis should be a first line test in such cases. Non-enzymatic screening methods such as urinary reducing substances and BIA for free galactose are not reliable in S135L homozygous galactosaemia.

  6. CITRUS, cervical cancer screening trial by randomization of HPV testing intervention for upcoming screening: Design, methods and baseline data of 18,471 women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisada, Tohru; Teramoto, Katsuhiro; Takano, Hirokuni; Sakamoto, Ikuko; Nishio, Hiroshi; Iwata, Takashi; Hashi, Akihiko; Katoh, Ryohei; Okamoto, Aikou; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Eiji; Teramukai, Satoshi; Aoki, Daisuke

    2017-10-01

    To assess the efficacy of screening with concurrent liquid-based cytology and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing for primary cervical cancer screening, we initiated a randomized trial entitled CervIcal cancer screening Trial by Randomization of HPV testing intervention for Upcoming Screening (CITRUS). Between June 2013 and March 2015, women aged 30-64 years of age who participated in a regular cervical cancer screening program (every 2 years) were invited to enrollment of our study. After giving their informed consent, 18,402 women were randomly assigned to liquid-based cytology as the control group (n=9145) or to HPV DNA testing with liquid-based cytology as the intervention group (n=9257). We subsequently compared the incidence rate of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), the rate of false positive tests and the rate of overdiagnosis, as well as assessing the risks and benefits of receiving screening for women in both groups. The primary outcome of our study was the incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) during the study period of around 6 years. In the control group, 97.9% of women were NILM, and 2.06% ASC-US or worse (ASC-US+). In the intervention group, 87.13% of women were NILM/HPV negative, 0.72% ASC-US/HPV negative, 10.34% NILM/HPV positive, 0.69% ASC-US/HPV positive, 0.90% worse than ASC-US/either HPV. Positive HPV testing was not linearly related to age in our study. Insights from CITRUS will provide future prospects for cervical cancer screening focused on the use of HPV testing in Japan. NCT01895517, UMIN000010843, TRIUC1312. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A comparison of hamstring muscle activity during different screening tests for non-contact ACL injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husted, Rasmus S; Bencke, Jesper; Andersen, Lars L; Myklebust, Grethe; Kallemose, Thomas; Lauridsen, Hanne B; Hölmich, Per; Aagaard, Per; Zebis, Mette K

    2016-06-01

    Reduced ability to activate the medial hamstring muscles during a sports-specific sidecutting movement has been found to be a potential risk factor for non-contact ACL injury. However, whether a reduced ability to activate the medial hamstring muscle is a general neuromuscular phenomenon and thereby observable independently of the type of clinical screening tests used is not known. This cross sectional study investigated the rank correlation of knee joint neuromuscular activity between three different ACL injury risk screening tests. Sixty-two adolescent female elite football and handball players (16.7±1.3years) participated in the study. Using surface electromyography (EMG) assessment, the neuromuscular activity of medial hamstring muscle (semitendinosus, ST), lateral hamstring muscle (biceps femoris, BF) and quadriceps muscle (vastus lateralis, VL) were monitored during three standardized screening tests - i.e. one-legged horizontal hop (OLH), drop vertical jump (DJ) and sidecutting (SC). Neuromuscular pre-activity was measured in the time interval 10ms prior to initial contact on a force plate. For neuromuscular hamstring muscle pre-activity, correlation analysis (Spearman correlation coefficient) showed low-to-moderate correlations between SC and 1) DJ (rs=0.34-0.36, Phamstring pre-activity share some common variance during the examined tests. However, a lack of strong correlation suggests that we cannot generalize one risk factor during one test to another test. The present data demonstrate that one-legged horizontal hop and drop vertical jump testing that are commonly used in the clinical setting does not resemble the specific neuromuscular activity patterns known to exist during sidecutting, a well known high risk movement for non-contact ACL injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of three marine screening tests and four Oslo and Paris Commission procedures to evaluate toxicity of offshore chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weideborg, M.; Vik, E.A.; Oefjord, G.D.; Kjoennoe, O. [Aquateam-Norwegian Water Technology Centre A/S, Oslo (Norway)

    1997-02-01

    The results from the screening toxicity tests Artemia salina, Microtox{reg_sign}, and Mitochondria RET test were compared with those obtained from OSPAR (Oslo and Paris Commissions)-authorized procedures for testing of offshore chemicals (Skeletonema costatum, Acartia tonsa, Abra alba, and Corophium volutator). In this study 82 test substances (26 non-water soluble) were included. The Microtox test was found to be the most sensitive of the three screening tests. Microtox and Mitochondria RET test results showed good correlation with results from Acartia and Skeletonema testing, and it was concluded that the Microtox test was a suitable screening test as a base for assessment of further testing, especially regarding water-soluble chemicals. Sensitivity of Artemia salina to the tested chemicals was too low for it to be an appropriate bioassay organism for screening testing. A very good correlation was found between the results obtained with the Skeletonema and Acartia tests. The results indicated no need for more than one of the Skeletonema or Acartia tests if the Skeletonema median effective concentration or Acartia median lethal concentration was greater than 200 mg/L. The sediment-reworker tests (A. Alba or C. volutator) for chemicals that are likely to end up in the sediments (non-water soluble or surfactants) should be performed, independent of results from screening tests and other OSPAR species.

  9. Research on testing instrument and method for correction of the uniformity of image intensifier fluorescence screen brightness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, YaFeng; Chang, BenKang; Qian, YunSheng; Fu, RongGuo

    2011-09-01

    To test the parameters of image intensifier screen is the precondition for researching and developing the third generation image intensifier. The picture of brightness uniformity of tested fluorescence screen shows bright in middle and dark at edge. It is not so direct to evaluate the performance of fluorescence screen. We analyze the energy and density distribution of the electrons, After correction, the image in computer is very uniform. So the uniformity of fluorescence screen brightness can be judged directly. It also shows the correction method is reasonable and close to ideal image. When the uniformity of image intensifier fluorescence screen brightness is corrected, the testing instrument is developed. In a vacuum environment of better than 1×10-4Pa, area source electron gun emits electrons. Going through the electric field to be accelerated, the high speed electrons bombard the screen and the screen luminize. By using testing equipment such as imaging luminance meter, fast storage photometer, optical power meter, current meter and photosensitive detectors, the screen brightness, the uniformity, light-emitting efficiency and afterglow can be tested respectively. System performance are explained. Testing method is established; Test results are given.

  10. Do Men and Women Need to Be Screened Differently with Fecal Immunochemical Testing? A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulen, Miriam P van der; Kapidzic, Atija; Leerdam, Monique E van; van der Steen, Alex; Kuipers, Ernst J; Spaander, Manon C W; de Koning, Harry J; Hol, Lieke; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris

    2017-08-01

    Background: Several studies suggest that test characteristics for the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) differ by gender, triggering a debate on whether men and women should be screened differently. We used the microsimulation model MISCAN-Colon to evaluate whether screening stratified by gender is cost-effective. Methods: We estimated gender-specific FIT characteristics based on first-round positivity and detection rates observed in a FIT screening pilot (CORERO-1). Subsequently, we used the model to estimate harms, benefits, and costs of 480 gender-specific FIT screening strategies and compared them with uniform screening. Results: Biennial FIT screening from ages 50 to 75 was less effective in women than men [35.7 vs. 49.0 quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained, respectively] at higher costs (€42,161 vs. -€5,471, respectively). However, the incremental QALYs gained and costs of annual screening compared with biennial screening were more similar for both genders (8.7 QALYs gained and €26,394 for women vs. 6.7 QALYs gained and €20,863 for men). Considering all evaluated screening strategies, optimal gender-based screening yielded at most 7% more QALYs gained than optimal uniform screening and even resulted in equal costs and QALYs gained from a willingness-to-pay threshold of €1,300. Conclusions: FIT screening is less effective in women, but the incremental cost-effectiveness is similar in men and women. Consequently, screening stratified by gender is not more cost-effective than uniform FIT screening. Impact: Our conclusions support the current policy of uniform FIT screening. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(8); 1328-36. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. The King-Devick test for sideline concussion screening in collegiate football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Danielle F; Balcer, Laura J; Galetta, Steven L; Evans, Greg; Gimre, Matthew; Watt, David

    2015-01-01

    Sports-related concussion has received increasing attention as a result of neurologic sequelae seen among athletes, highlighting the need for a validated, rapid screening tool. The King-Devick (K-D) test requires vision, eye movements, language function and attention in order to perform and has been proposed as a promising tool for assessment of concussion. We investigated the K-D test as a sideline screening tool in a collegiate cohort to determine the effect of concussion. Athletes (n=127, mean age 19.6±1.2 years) from the Wheaton College football and men's and women's basketball teams underwent baseline K-D testing at pre-season physicals for the 2012-2013 season. K-D testing was administered immediately on the sidelines for football players with suspected head injury during regular games and changes compared to baseline were determined. Post-season testing was also performed to compare non-concussed athletes' test performance. Concussed athletes (n=11) displayed sideline K-D scores that were significantly higher (worse) than baseline (36.5±5.6s vs. 31.3±4.5s, p<0.005, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Post-season testing demonstrated improvement of scores and was consistent with known learning effects (35.1±5.2s vs. 34.4±5.0s, p<0.05, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Test-retest reliability was analyzed between baseline and post-season administrations of the K-D test resulting in high levels of test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)=0.95 [95% Confidence Interval 0.85-1.05]). The data show worsening of K-D test scores following concussion further supporting utility of the K-D test as an objective, reliable and effective sideline visual screening tool to help identify athletes with concussion. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Terrestrial avoidance behaviour tests as screening tool to assess soil contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, Susana [Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)]. E-mail: sloureiro@bio.ua.pt; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M. [Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Nogueira, Antonio J.A. [Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2005-11-15

    To assess soil quality and risk assessment, bioassays can be useful tools to gauge the potential toxicity of contaminants focusing on their bioavailable fraction. A rapid and sublethal avoidance behaviour test was used as a screening tool with the earthworm Eisenia andrei and the isopod Porcellionides pruinosus, where organisms were exposed during 48 h to several chemicals (lindane, dimethoate and copper sulphate, for isopods and carbendazim, benomyl, dimethoate and copper sulphate for earthworms). Both species were also exposed to soils from an abandoned mine. For all bioassays a statistical approach was used to derive EC{sub 50} values. Isopods and earthworms were able to perceive the presence of toxic compounds and escaping from contaminated to clean soil. Furthermore the behaviour parameter was equally or more sensitive then other sublethal parameters (e.g. reproduction or growth), expressing the advantages of Avoidance Behaviour Tests as screening tools in ERA. - Avoidance Behaviour Tests with earthworms and isopods can be used as screening tools in the evaluation of soil contamination.

  13. The impact of inherited thrombophilia on first trimester combined aneuploidy screening test parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsli, Mehmet Fatih; Baser, Eralp; Seckin, Kerem Doga; Yeral, Mahmut İlkin; Togrul, Cihan; Ugur, Mustafa

    2014-03-01

    To determine whether inherited thrombophilia affects components of first trimester combined aneuploidy screening test. A case-control study was performed between January 1st and December 31st 2011, at a tertiary referral hospital. Singleton pregnancies with inherited thrombophilia that underwent first trimester (11-13(+6) week) combined aneuploidy screening test were included in the study. Pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (fbHCG) and fetal nuchal translucency (NT) were compared between the study group and controls. Within the study period, 15,881 women with singleton pregnancies had a combined first trimester aneuploidy screening test at our institution. Among these, 207 women met the inclusion criteria. A control group that comprised 625 women with similar gestational age was generated, using a 1:3 ratio. PAPP-A levels were significantly higher, whereas fbHCG levels and fetal NT measurements were lower in women with inherited thrombophilia (p < 0.001). Our study suggested that PAPP-A, free b-HCG and NT MoM levels display alterations in women with inherited thrombophilia. Future trials are needed to assess the need for readjustment of risk in these patients.

  14. Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus From Organ Donors Despite Nucleic Acid Test Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryaprasad, A; Basavaraju, S V; Hocevar, S N; Theodoropoulos, N; Zuckerman, R A; Hayden, T; Forbi, J C; Pegues, D; Levine, M; Martin, S I; Kuehnert, M J; Blumberg, E A

    2015-07-01

    Nucleic acid testing (NAT) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) is recommended for screening of organ donors, yet not all donor infections may be detected. We describe three US clusters of HCV transmission from donors at increased risk for HCV infection. Donor's and recipients' medical records were reviewed. Newly infected recipients were interviewed. Donor-derived HCV infection was considered when infection was newly detected after transplantation in recipients of organs from increased risk donors. Stored donor sera and tissue samples were tested for HCV RNA with high-sensitivity quantitative PCR. Posttransplant and pretransplant recipient sera were tested for HCV RNA. Quasispecies analysis of hypervariable region-1 was used to establish genetic relatedness of recipient HCV variants. Each donor had evidence of injection drug use preceding death. Of 12 recipients, 8 were HCV-infected-6 were newly diagnosed posttransplant. HCV RNA was retrospectively detected in stored samples from donor immunologic tissue collected at organ procurement. Phylogenetic analysis showed two clusters of closely related HCV variants from recipients. These investigations identified the first known HCV transmissions from increased risk organ donors with negative NAT screening, indicating very recent donor infection. Recipient informed consent and posttransplant screening for blood-borne pathogens are essential when considering increased risk donors. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  15. Complex Approach to Thyroid Screening In Regions Adjacent to the Semipalatinsk Test Site Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhumadilov, Zh.Sh.; Musinov, D.R.; Vasikovsky, G.G.; Bobokhidze, D.A.; Zhigitaev, T.K.; Abisheva, G.N.

    1998-01-01

    It has been well documented that the thyroid gland is one of the most radiosensitive of organs, especially when exposure occurs during childhood. It is known as well that childhood exposure to radioactive iodine increases thyroid cancer risk. Conducting thyroid screening in regions adjacent to the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) area is very important for medical examination, data management and thyroid dose reconstruction. Our experience of thyroid screening based on our screening projects in Kurchatov and several regions adjacent to STS (more than 4,000 screened patients) allowed to work out the most appropriate screening protocol. A retrospective analysis of the results of surgical treatment of the 7,271 patients with thyroid abnormalities in the Semipalatinsk, Pavlodar and Ust-Kamenogorsk regions of Kazakstan and study the histological staging of 7,271 surgically removed thyroid glands was preceded by our thyroid screening projects. Ours is the first study in the Semipalatinsk region that covers the period 1966-1998.Taking into account the onset of population effective doses during 1962, it was decided to distinguish 6 periods of observation. It is known that basic effective equivalent doses for the majority of the region's population were established by radioactive events in the period 1949-1962. This explains our focus on the year 1962, but thyroid dose reconstruction matter as well as other radiation related problems are still in the progress. We need to get the accurate dosimetry data. Selection of study subjects based on the appropriate criteria needed to be adjusted and clarified in accordance with the main goal of the project and radiation related information. All specialists involved in the thyroid screening project, data management, data analyses and interpretation of the results must be trained and must be highly qualified specialists in this field of science and practice. The experiences in Nagasaki, Hiroshima and Chernobyl, and discussions with

  16. Screening for cognitive dysfunction in Huntington's disease with the clock drawing test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwindt, Paul W; Hubers, Anna A M; Giltay, Erik J; van der Mast, Rose C; van Duijn, Erik

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the performance of the clock drawing test as a screening tool for cognitive impairment in Huntington's disease (HD) mutation carriers. The performance of the clock drawing test was assessed in 65 mutation carriers using the Shulman and the Freund scoring systems. The mini-mental state examination, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, the Verbal Fluency Test, and the Stroop tests were used as comparisons for the evaluation of cognitive functioning. Correlations of the clock drawing test with various cognitive tests (convergent validity), neuropsychiatric characteristics (divergent validity) and clinical characteristics were analysed using the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Receiver-operator characteristic analyses were performed for the clock drawing test against both the mini-mental state examination and against a composite variable for executive cognitive functioning to assess optimal cut-off scores. Inter-rater reliability was high for both the Shulman and Freund scoring systems (ICC = 0.95 and ICC = 0.90 respectively). The clock drawing tests showed moderate to high correlations with the composite variable for executive cognitive functioning (mean ρ = 0.75) and weaker correlations with the mini-mental state examination (mean ρ = 0.62). Mean sensitivity of the clock drawing tests was 0.82 and mean specificity was 0.79, whereas the mean positive predictive value was 0.66 and the mean negative predictive value was 0.87. The clock drawing test is a suitable screening instrument for cognitive dysfunction in HD, because it was shown to be accurate, particularly so with respect to executive cognitive functioning, and is easy and quick to use. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Implementation of broad screening with Ebola rapid diagnostic tests in Forécariah, Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantz Jean Louis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory-enhanced surveillance is critical for rapidly detecting the potential re-emergence of Ebola virus disease. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT for Ebola antigens could expand diagnostic capacity for Ebola virus disease. Objectives: The Guinean National Coordination for Ebola Response conducted a pilot implementation to determine the feasibility of broad screening of patients and corpses with the OraQuick® Ebola RDT. Methods: The implementation team developed protocols and trained healthcare workers to screen patients and corpses in Forécariah prefecture, Guinea, from 15 October to 30 November 2015. Data collected included number of consultations, number of fevers reported or measured, number of tests performed for patients or corpses and results of confirmatory RT-PCR testing. Data on malaria RDT results were collected for comparison. Feedback from Ebola RDT users was collected informally during supervision visits and forums. Results: There were 3738 consultations at the 15 selected healthcare facilities; 74.6% of consultations were for febrile illness. Among 2787 eligible febrile patients, 2633 were tested for malaria and 1628 OraQuick® Ebola RDTs were performed. A total of 322 OraQuick® Ebola RDTs were conducted on corpses. All Ebola tests on eligible patients were negative. Conclusions: Access to Ebola testing was expanded by the implementation of RDTs in an emergency situation. Feedback from Ebola RDT users and lessons learned will contribute to improving quality for RDT expansion.

  18. Quality Metrics of a Fecal Immunochemical Test-Based Colorectal Cancer Screening Program in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Ho; Cha, Jae Myung; Kwak, Min Seob; Yoon, Jin Young; Cho, Young-Hak; Jeon, Jung Won; Shin, Hyun Phil; Joo, Kwang Ro; Lee, Joung Il

    2018-03-15

    Knowledge regarding the quality metrics of fecal immunochemical test (FIT)-based colorectal cancer screening programs is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance and quality metrics of a FIT-based screening program. In our screening program, asymptomatic subjects aged ≥50 years underwent an annual FIT, and subjects with positive FIT results underwent a subsequent colonoscopy. The performance of the FIT and colonoscopy was analyzed in individuals with a positive FIT who completed the program between 2009 and 2015 at a university hospital. Among the 51,439 screened participants, 75.1% completed the FIT. The positive rate was 1.1%, and the colonoscopy completion rate in these patients was 68.6%. The positive predictive values of cancer and advanced neoplasia were 5.5% and 19.1%, respectively. The adenoma detection rate in the patients who underwent colonoscopy after a positive FIT was 48.2% (60.0% for men and 33.6% for women). The group with the highest tertile quantitative FIT level showed a significantly higher detection rate of advanced neoplasia than the group with the lowest tertile (odds ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.4 to 5.1; p<0.001). The quality metrics used in the United States and Europe may be directly introduced to other countries, including Korea. However, the optimal quality metrics should be established in each country.

  19. Evaluation of the Lumipulse G TP-N Chemiluminescent Immunoassay as a Syphilis Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Daniel A; Loeffelholz, Michael J

    2017-11-01

    A syphilis diagnosis is often aided by the detection of treponemal and nontreponemal antibodies. Automated treponemal antibody detection systems enable high-volume clinical laboratories to perform syphilis screening at a faster pace with lower labor costs. The Lumipulse G TP-N chemiluminescent immunoassay is an automated system that qualitatively detects IgG and IgM antibodies against Treponema pallidum antigens in human serum and plasma. To assess performance characteristics and workflow efficiency, the Lumipulse G TP-N assay was compared to the Bioplex 2200 Syphilis IgG multiplex flow immunoassay. Among the 4,134 routine and HIV samples tested by the two automated assays, the percentage of agreement was excellent at 99.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 98.6% to 99.2%; κ, 0.89), with the Lumipulse G TP-N having a shorter time to first and subsequent results. All specimens with reactive syphilis screening results were further tested by rapid plasma reagin (RPR) and Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TP·PA) testing ( n = 231). The results from the RPR-reactive samples ( n = 82) showed complete concordance with the two automated assays, while the TP·PA assay displayed some discrepancies. The positive percent agreement (PPA) and negative percent agreement (NPA) between the TP·PA test and the Lumipulse G TP-N test were 98.9% and 77.3%, respectively. The Bioplex 2200 Syphilis IgG immunoassay displayed a similar PPA (100%) but a substantially lower NPA (15.9%). Patient chart reviews of discrepant results suggested that the Lumipulse G TP-N assay produced 27 fewer falsely reactive results and can reduce the amount of additional confirmatory RPR and TP·PA testing needed. The analogous performance characteristics of the two automated systems indicate that the Lumipulse G TP-N assay is suitable for high-throughput syphilis screening. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. Basal serum cortisol concentration as a screening test for hypoadrenocorticism in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovens, C; Tennant, K; Reeve, J; Murphy, K F

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of basal serum or plasma cortisol concentration is used as a screening test for hypoadrenocorticism in dogs, but is not well characterized. To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of basal serum cortisol to detect hypoadrenocorticism in a population of dogs with a clinical suspicion of hypoadrenocorticism. Four hundred and fifty dogs with nonadrenal gland illness and 14 dogs with naturally occurring hypoadrenocorticism were included. Retrospective case-control study. The records of all dogs having had an ACTH stimulation test performed between January 2005 and September 2011 at the University of Bristol were reviewed. Dogs were included if the test was performed as a screening for hypoadrenocorticism. The sensitivity and specificity of basal serum cortisol concentration to detect dogs with hypoadrenocorticism were calculated using 2 cut-offs and compared to the gold standard ACTH stimulation test. Using a cut-off of ≤2 μg/dL (≤55 nmol/L), the sensitivity and specificity of basal cortisol to detect hypoadrenocorticism were 100% and 63.3%, respectively, whereas for a cut-off of ≤1 μg/dL (≤28 nmol/L), the sensitivity and specificity were 85.7% and 91.8%, respectively. Measurement of basal serum cortisol is useful as a screening test for hypoadrenocorticism in dogs using a cut-off of ≤2 μg/dL (≤55 nmol/L), and the disease is unlikely with a basal serum cortisol >2 μg/dL (>55 nmol/L). A basal serum cortisol ≤2 μg/dL (≤55 nmol/L) cannot be used to diagnose hypoadrenocorticism, and an ACTH stimulation test should be performed in these cases. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  1. Applicability of Screening Tests for Oxytetracycline in the Milk of Three Breeds of Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attaie, Rahmat; Bsharat, Mohammed; Mora-Gutierrez, Adela

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotics are widely used in animal husbandry, and the presence of antibiotic residues in milk is a health hazard. The objectives of this study were to determine residual amounts of oxytetracycline in the milk of three breeds of goats using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis and screening tests. It was also essential to explore the safe withdrawal period of oxytetracycline in lactating goats and examine the applicability of Charm ROSA and SNAP screening tests. The qualitative results of these tests were compared with the quantitative results of the HPLC method. Fifteen milking does, five each from the Alpine, LaMancha, and Nubian breeds, were selected from the herd at Prairie View A&M University. Milk samples containing antibiotic residues were deproteinized by HCl and acetonitrile, and then oxytetracycline was extracted from the supernatant. The residues of oxytetracycline in goat's milk up to 110 h after injection were qualitatively detected using the Charm ROSA test. Similarly, the SNAP test detected the antibiotic residues in milk up to 110 h after treatment. The HPLC results indicated that oxytetracycline residues in milk from Alpine goats were below the tolerance level (300 ng/ml) 82 h after drug treatment (72 h for LaManchas, 58 h for Nubians); however, the results of the screening tests would indicate longer withdrawal periods for milk from the breeds of goats studied, which would result in economic losses to goat's milk producers. The results of this study also indicated that oxytetracycline was not stable in raw goat's milk at refrigeration temperature or during pasteurization and that the concentrations decreased significantly. Commercial goat's milk is usually exposed to several hours of refrigeration and then to pasteurization. The results of this study indicated that, if oxytetracycline was present in raw goat's milk, the concentration would decrease significantly before it was marketed.

  2. Use of external metabolizing systems when testing for endocrine disruption in the T-screen assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Nellemann, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Although, it is well-established that information on the metabolism of a substance is important in the evaluation of its toxic potential, there is limited experience with incorporating metabolic aspects into in vitro tests for endocrine disrupters. The aim of the current study was a) to study different in vitro systems for biotransformation of ten known endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDs): five azole fungicides, three parabens and 2 phthalates, b) to determine possible changes in the ability of the EDs to bind and activate the thyroid receptor (TR) in the in vitro T-screen assay after biotransformation and c) to investigate the endogenous metabolic capacity of the GH3 cells, the cell line used in the T-screen assay, which is a proliferation assay used for the in vitro detection of agonistic and antagonistic properties of compounds at the level of the TR. The two in vitro metabolizing systems tested the human liver S9 mix and the PCB-induced rat microsomes gave an almost complete metabolic transformation of the tested parabens and phthalates. No marked difference the effects in the T-screen assay was observed between the parent compounds and the effects of the tested metabolic extracts. The GH3 cells themselves significantly metabolized the two tested phthalates dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP). Overall the results and qualitative data from the current study show that an in vitro metabolizing system using liver S9 or microsomes could be a convenient method for the incorporation of metabolic and toxicokinetic aspects into in vitro testing for endocrine disrupting effects.

  3. Testing the woman abuse screening tool to identify intimate partner violence in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, Livia; Braun, Kathryn L; Katz, Alan R

    2015-04-01

    Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a global public health problem. IPV prevalence in Indonesia has been estimated to be less than 1%, based on reported cases. It is likely that IPV prevalence is underreported in Indonesia, as it is in many other countries. Screening for IPV has been found to increase IPV identification, but no screening tools are in use in Indonesia. The aim of this study was to test the translated Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) for detecting IPV in Indonesia. The WAST was tested against a diagnostic interview by a trained psychologist on 240 women attending two Primary Health Centers in Jakarta. IPV prevalence and the reliability, sensitivity, and specificity of the WAST were estimated. Prevalence of IPV by diagnostic interview was 36.3%, much higher than published estimates. The most common forms of IPV identified were psychological (85%) and physical abuse (24%). Internal reliability of the WAST was high (α = .801). A WAST score of 13 (out of 24) is the recommended cutoff for identifying IPV, but only 17% of the Indonesian sample scored 13 or higher. Test sensitivity of the WAST with a cutoff score of 13 was only 41.9%, with a specificity of 96.8%. With a cutoff score of 10, the sensitivity improved to 84.9%, while the specificity decreased to 61.0%. Use of the WAST with a cutoff score of 10 provides good sensitivity and reasonable specificity and would provide a much-needed screening tool for use in Indonesia. Although a lower cutoff would yield a greater proportion of false positives, most of the true cases would be identified, increasing the possibility that women experiencing abuse would receive needed assistance. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Stool Investigations for Colorectal Cancer Screening: From Occult Blood Test to DNA Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannone, Andrea; Losurdo, Giuseppe; Pricci, Maria; Girardi, Bruna; Massaro, Antonio; Principi, Mariabeatrice; Barone, Michele; Ierardi, Enzo; Di Leo, Alfredo

    2016-06-01

    We report an update of current methods for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening based on fecal sample analysis. A systematic review of the literature was performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Direct electronic databases. Blood in the stools is the first and most used strategy. Fecal occult blood test (FOBT) and fecal immunochemical test (FIT) are the main methods. Both are economic, easy to perform with high specificity, and low sensitivity. Based on CRC multi-step process with genetic and epigenetic alterations in large bowel cell DNA, single mutations or panels of alterations have been detected. These tests have the advantage of a marked improvement of the sensitivity when compared to fecal blood. However, high costs, poor availability, and correct choice of marker panel represent the major limits. A specific sDNA panel including aberrantly methylated BMP3 and NDRG4 promoter regions, mutant k-ras and β-actin (a reference gene for human DNA quantity), and an immunochemical assay for human hemoglobin has been recently approved by Food and Drug Administration. Novel promising biomarkers for CRC screening are represented by microRNAs (miRNAs), a group of 18-25 nucleotide non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression. Reports on these fecal biomarkers are case-control studies, and each of them evaluates single miRNAs or multi-target panels. On the other hand, some fecal proteins have been studied as possible CRC screening markers, even though they demonstrated poor results. Finally, alterations of estrogen receptor-beta (i.e., dramatic reduction in the early stage of CRC) have been demonstrated in tissue samples. Specific investigations are warranted in order to add further noninvasive markers to the panel of CRC screening tools.

  5. The minimum test battery to screen for binocular vision anomalies: report 3 of the BAND study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussaindeen, Jameel Rizwana; Rakshit, Archayeeta; Singh, Neeraj Kumar; Swaminathan, Meenakshi; George, Ronnie; Kapur, Suman; Scheiman, Mitchell; Ramani, Krishna Kumar

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to report the minimum test battery needed to screen non-strabismic binocular vision anomalies (NSBVAs) in a community set-up. When large numbers are to be screened we aim to identify the most useful test battery when there is no opportunity for a more comprehensive and time-consuming clinical examination. The prevalence estimates and normative data for binocular vision parameters were estimated from the Binocular Vision Anomalies and Normative Data (BAND) study, following which cut-off estimates and receiver operating characteristic curves to identify the minimum test battery have been plotted. In the receiver operating characteristic phase of the study, children between nine and 17 years of age were screened in two schools in the rural arm using the minimum test battery, and the prevalence estimates with the minimum test battery were found. Receiver operating characteristic analyses revealed that near point of convergence with penlight and red filter (> 7.5 cm), monocular accommodative facility ( 1.25 prism dioptres) were significant factors with cut-off values for best sensitivity and specificity. This minimum test battery was applied to a cohort of 305 children. The mean (standard deviation) age of the subjects was 12.7 (two) years with 121 males and 184 females. Using the minimum battery of tests obtained through the receiver operating characteristic analyses, the prevalence of NSBVAs was found to be 26 per cent. Near point of convergence with penlight and red filter > 10 cm was found to have the highest sensitivity (80 per cent) and specificity (73 per cent) for the diagnosis of convergence insufficiency. For the diagnosis of accommodative infacility, monocular accommodative facility with a cut-off of less than seven cycles per minute was the best predictor for screening (92 per cent sensitivity and 90 per cent specificity). The minimum test battery of near point of convergence with penlight and red filter, difference between distance and near

  6. Outcomes of the Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP) in England after the first 1 million tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnick, Julietta; Nickerson, Claire; Coleman, Lynn; Rutter, Matt D; von Wagner, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The Bowel Cancer Screening Programme in England began operating in 2006 with the aim of full roll out across England by December 2009. Subjects aged 60–69 are being invited to complete three guaiac faecal occult blood tests (6 windows) every 2 years. The programme aims to reduce mortality from colorectal cancer by 16% in those invited for screening. Methods All subjects eligible for screening in the National Health Service in England are included on one database, which is populated from National Health Service registration data covering about 98% of the population of England. This analysis is only of subjects invited to participate in the first (prevalent) round of screening. Results By October 2008 almost 2.1 million had been invited to participate, with tests being returned by 49.6% of men and 54.4% of women invited. Uptake ranged between 55–60% across the four provincial hubs which administer the programme but was lower in the London hub (40%). Of the 1.08 million returning tests 2.5% of men and 1.5% of women had an abnormal test. 17 518 (10 608 M, 6910 F) underwent investigation, with 98% having a colonoscopy as their first investigation. Cancer (n=1772) and higher risk adenomas (n=6543) were found in 11.6% and 43% of men and 7.8% and 29% of women investigated, respectively. 71% of cancers were ‘early’ (10% polyp cancer, 32% Dukes A, 30% Dukes B) and 77% were left-sided (29% rectal, 45% sigmoid) with only 14% being right-sided compared with expected figures of 67% and 24% for left and right side from UK cancer registration. Conclusion In this first round of screening in England uptake and fecal occult blood test positivity was in line with that from the pilot and the original European trials. Although there was the expected improvement in cancer stage at diagnosis, the proportion with left-sided cancers was higher than expected. PMID:22156981

  7. Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Implementation Strategies of Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing in Down Syndrome Screening Programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersy, Elke; de Die-Smulders, Christine E M; Coumans, Audrey B C; Smits, Luc J M; de Wert, Guido M W R; Frints, Suzanna G M; Veltman, Joris A

    2015-01-01

    Implementation of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) in Down syndrome screening programmes requires health policy decisions about its combination with other tests and its timing in pregnancy. Our aim was to aid health policy decision makers by conducting a quantitative analysis of different NIPT implementation strategies. Decision trees were created to illustrate all plausible alternatives in a theoretical cohort of 100,000 pregnant women in five screening programmes: classical screening by the first-trimester combined test (FCT), pre-selection of high-risk women prior to NIPT by the FCT, NIPT as the first screening test at 10 weeks and at 13 weeks, and the simultaneous conductance of NIPT and the FCT. Pre-selection by FCT prior to NIPT reduces the number of amniocenteses to a minimum because of a reduction of false-positive NIPT results. If NIPT is the first screening test, it detects almost all fetal Down syndrome cases. NIPT at 10 weeks reassures women early in pregnancy, while NIPT at 13 weeks prevents unnecessary tests due to spontaneous miscarriages and allows for immediate confirmation by amniocentesis. Every implementation strategy has its advantages and disadvantages. The most favourable implementation strategy may be NIPT as the first screening test at 13 weeks, offering the most accurate screening test for Down syndrome, when the risk for spontaneous miscarriage has declined remarkably and timely confirmation by amniocentesis can be performed. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Molecular tests potentially improving HPV screening and genotyping for cervical cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradíssimo, Ana; Burk, Robert D

    2017-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers can be averted by type-specific vaccination (primary prevention) and/or through detection and ablation of precancerous cervical lesions (secondary prevention). This review presents current challenges to cervical cancer screening programs, focusing on recent molecular advances in HPV testing and potential improvements on risk stratification. Areas covered: High-risk (HR)-HPV DNA detection has been progressively incorporated into cervix cancer prevention programs based on its increased sensitivity. Advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) are being rapidly applied to HPV typing. However, current HPV DNA tests lack specificity for identification of cervical precancer (CIN3). HPV typing methods were reviewed based on published literature, with a focus on these applications for screening and risk stratification in the emerging complex clinical scenario post-vaccine introduction. In addition, the potential for NGS technologies to increase specificity is discussed in regards to reflex testing of specimens for emerging biomarkers for cervix precancer/cancer. Expert commentary: Integrative multi-disciplinary molecular tests accurately triaging exfoliated cervical specimens will improve cervical cancer prevention programs while simplifying healthcare procedures in HPV-infected women. Hence, the concept of a 'liquid-biopsy' (i.e., 'molecular' Pap test) highly specific for early identification of cervical precancerous lesions is of critical importance in the years to come.

  9. Potential effects of updated pap test screening guidelines and adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroilhet, Lisa; Van Hanegem, Lennie; Bernstein, Marilyn; Feldman, Sarah

    2013-04-01

    To review cases of adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) at our institution to examine how updated guidelines affect the timing of diagnosis. We identified patients with AIS diagnosed between 1998 and 2010 using the International Classification of Diseases, 9 Revision, Clinical Modification, code 233.1. Diagnosis was confirmed by pathology review. We abstracted demographic data, dysplasia history, and modalities utilized for diagnosis and treatment. We identified 242 patients who met selection criteria. Two hundred eight (86%) had Pap test abnormalities at presentation. One hundred thirty-seven out of 208 (66%) patients with abnormal Pap test results had a squamous, rather than glandular, abnormality. The mean time from abnormal Pap test to diagnosis of AIS was 29 months in patients older than 30 years and was 21 months in patients 30 years or younger. In patients younger than 21 years, 16 out of 17 had abnormal screening Pap test results showing squamous lesions. Their subsequent treatment for squamous dysplasia ultimately led to the diagnosis of AIS. : Updated screening guidelines may prevent the expeditious diagnosis of AIS in females younger than 21 years and those aged 21-29 years, many of whom had normal Pap test results within 3 years of diagnosis. II.

  10. Chorionic villus sampling in the cell-free DNA aneuploidy screening era: careful selection criteria can maximise the clinical utility of screening and invasive testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Stefan C; Reidy, Karen L; Norris, Fiona; Nisbet, Deborah L; Kornman, Louise H; Palma-Dias, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    To quantify the impact of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) screening on chorionic villus sampling (CVS) test indications and outcomes in a tertiary maternity service. Retrospective cohort study of all CVS procedures performed for any indication on singleton pregnancies at The Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne, and at Women's Ultrasound Melbourne, Australia, between August 2008 and February 2015. Karyotypes were classified according to pathogenicity and detectability by standard cfDNA screening panels. A total of 2051 CVS procedures, 25 373 twelve-week scans and 2394 cfDNA tests were performed. The CVS rate per 12-week scan fell from 9.8 to 3.9% following introduction of cfDNA screening. The yield of pathogenic chromosomal anomalies per CVS increased from 12.9 to 25.2%, with 70% of pathogenic results now comprising T21, up from 52%. Sixteen (5.3%) of the pathogenic chromosomal abnormalities identified on CVS would not have been predicted by current cfDNA tests. There is an evolving tension between improved screening performance for common aneuploidies offered by cfDNA testing, and the increasing diagnostic utility of molecular karyotyping. However, the risk of not identifying pathogenic chromosomal abnormalities is low if cfDNA screening is offered in the absence of a structural fetal anomaly, increased nuchal translucency or relevant family history. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. As tests evolve and costs of cancer care rise: reappraising stool-based screening for colorectal neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, M; Fendrick, A M; Ladabaum, U

    2008-04-01

    Colorectal cancer screening and treatment are rapidly evolving. Aims To reappraise stool-based colorectal cancer screening in light of changing test performance characteristics, lower test cost and increasing colorectal cancer care costs. Using a Markov model, we compared faecal DNA testing every 3 years, annual faecal occult blood testing or immunochemical testing, and colonoscopy every 10 years. In the base case, faecal occult blood testing and faecal immunochemical testing gained life-years/person and cost less than no screening. Faecal DNA testing version 1.1 at $300 (the current PreGen Plus test) gained 5323 life-years/100 000 persons at $16 900/life-year gained and faecal DNA testing version 2 (enhanced test) gained 5795 life-years/100 000 persons at $15 700/life-year gained vs. no screening. In the base case and most sensitivity analyses, faecal occult blood testing and faecal immunochemical testing were preferred to faecal DNA testing. Faecal DNA testing version 2 cost $100 000/life-year gained vs. faecal immunochemical testing when per-cycle adherence with faecal immunochemical testing was 22%. Faecal immunochemical testing with excellent adherence was superior to colonoscopy every 10 years. As novel biological therapies increase colorectal cancer treatment costs, faecal occult blood testing and faecal immunochemical testing could become cost-saving. The cost-effectiveness of faecal DNA testing compared with no screening has improved, but faecal occult blood testing and faecal immunochemical testing are preferred to faecal DNA testing when patient adherence is high. Faecal immunochemical testing may be comparable to colonoscopy every 10 years in persons adhering to yearly testing.

  12. [Validation of a screening test for age associated cognitive impairment, in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Pilar; Albala, Cecilia; Klaasen, Gonzalo

    2004-04-01

    The real prevalence of dementia in a given population must be determined through prevalence studies, using validated screening tests. To validate and determine cutoff points for a cognitive impairment screening test composed by the Folstein Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire (PFAQ). Validation of the diagnostic test in a sample of 100 subjects over 65 years old (85 from the project "Age associated dementias" and 15 with a confirmed diagnosis of dementia). All were subjected to a complete neuropsychological test by a trained neurologist, that constituted the "gold standard" for the diagnosis of dementia. An independent interviewer applied the MMSE to the subjects and the PFAQ to a next of kin informer. Cutoff points were calculated using ROC curves. The points with the better equilibrium between sensitivity and specificity were selected, considering differences in results between groups with low and high educational level. The cutoff point for MMSE was 21/22, with a sensitivity of 93.6% (95% CI 70.6-99.7%) and a specificity of 46.1% (95% CI 34.7-57.8%). The figure for PFAQ was 5/6, with a sensitivity of 89.2% (95% CI 70.6-99.7%) and a specificity of 70.7% (95% CI 58.9-80.3%). The combination of both instruments gave a sensitivity of 94.4% (95% CI 58.9-80.3%) and a specificity of 83.3% (95% CI 72.3-90.7%). This screening test, using MMSE and PFAQ, has a good sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of dementia in Chile. Being simple and of low cost, it can be applied in primary health care.

  13. Is the Screening Test of the French Version of the Dementia Quality of Life Questionnaire Indispensable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wolak

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the screening questions in the French version of the Dementia Quality of Life (DQoL questionnaire. To assess the psychometric properties of the French DQoL, 155 patients with mild-to-moderate dementia were recruited. Here, we compared the psychometric properties of the instrument between patients who passed the screening test (n = 109 and the whole study population (n = 155. The French DQoL version showed a good test-retest reliability at a 2-week interval (0.95 ≤ intraclass correlation coefficients ≤ 1.0, and an average internal consistency (0.58 ≤ Cronbach’s α ≤ 0.87 for the 2 study groups. Significant differences were observed in the 2 groups for 4 dimensions of the DQoL regarding dementia severity (Cornell scale, and for 3 dimensions evaluating depression (MMSE. Convergent validity with the Duke Health Profile revealed many significant correlations between dimensions not only in the 109 patients, but also in the whole study population. Our study demonstrated that patients who failed the screening procedure nonetheless seemed to be able to answer the DQoL questionnaire, the whole study group showing acceptable psychometric properties.

  14. Type 2 Diabetes Screening Test by Means of a Pulse Oximeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Enrique Monte; Lujan, Maria Jose Anyo; Rusinol, Montse Torrres; Fernandez, Paqui Juarez; Manrique, Pilar Nunez; Trivino, Cristina Aragon; Miquel, Magda Pedrosa; Rodriguez, Marife Alvarez; Burguillos, M Jose Gonzalez

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a method for screening for the presence of type 2 diabetes by means of the signal obtained from a pulse oximeter. The screening system consists of two parts: the first analyzes the signal obtained from the pulse oximeter, and the second consists of a machine-learning module. The system consists of a front end that extracts a set of features form the pulse oximeter signal. These features are based on physiological considerations. The set of features were the input of a machine-learning algorithm that determined the class of the input sample, i.e., whether the subject had diabetes or not. The machine-learning algorithms were random forests, gradient boosting, and linear discriminant analysis as benchmark. The system was tested on a database of [Formula: see text] subjects (two samples per subject) collected from five community health centers. The mean receiver operating characteristic area found was [Formula: see text]% (median value [Formula: see text]% and range [Formula: see text]%), with a specificity =  [Formula: see text]% for a threshold that gave a sensitivity = [Formula: see text]%. We present a screening method for detecting diabetes that has a performance comparable to the glycated haemoglobin (haemoglobin A1c HbA1c) test, does not require blood extraction, and yields results in less than 5 min.

  15. This is not only a test. The hidden risks of antibody screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron, P

    1986-05-27

    Interviews with several gay rights activists and public health workers raise serious questions about the blood test to detect antibodies to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A New York gay activist has described the test as "the 80's equivalent of the yellow star," which stigmatizes people and singles them out for discrimination. Public opinion tends not to make any distinction between a positive test result and full-blown AIDS, and government promotion of the test has not added clarity. Several states require the names and addresses of antibody carriers, while others keep lists of the sexual partners of those who test positive. Concern has been expressed that this trend will have 2 practical effects: people will be reluctant to take the test, and record keeping will lead to other uses. Since identification requirements were instituted in Colorado, voluntary testing at gay health clinics dropped from 600 to 100/month. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has allocated US$20 million for special AIDS antibody screening sites, and the states are spending thousands of dollars to collect statistics on individuals at risk. There is increasing concern, however, that funds that could be used for AIDS education are being diverted to antibody screening programs. In states where AIDS is still relatively new, refusal to fund community-based education efforts is considered especially destructive, since there may be time to stop the virus from infecting large numbers of people. A former government official, who disagrees with the CDC approach, has noted that there are no data to support the contention that testing people makes them change their behavior, while AIDS education has been proven to be an effective means to reduce high risk activities. Finally, there is evidence that a positive antibody test has a profound psychological impact, including anxiety, depression, and withdrawal from social relations.

  16. Economic Evaluations of Pharmacogenetic and Pharmacogenomic Screening Tests: A Systematic Review. Second Update of the Literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J J Berm

    Full Text Available Due to extended application of pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic screening (PGx tests it is important to assess whether they provide good value for money. This review provides an update of the literature.A literature search was performed in PubMed and papers published between August 2010 and September 2014, investigating the cost-effectiveness of PGx screening tests, were included. Papers from 2000 until July 2010 were included via two previous systematic reviews. Studies' overall quality was assessed with the Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES instrument.We found 38 studies, which combined with the previous 42 studies resulted in a total of 80 included studies. An average QHES score of 76 was found. Since 2010, more studies were funded by pharmaceutical companies. Most recent studies performed cost-utility analysis, univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses, and discussed limitations of their economic evaluations. Most studies indicated favorable cost-effectiveness. Majority of evaluations did not provide information regarding the intrinsic value of the PGx test. There were considerable differences in the costs for PGx testing. Reporting of the direction and magnitude of bias on the cost-effectiveness estimates as well as motivation for the chosen economic model and perspective were frequently missing.Application of PGx tests was mostly found to be a cost-effective or cost-saving strategy. We found that only the minority of recent pharmacoeconomic evaluations assessed the intrinsic value of the PGx tests. There was an increase in the number of studies and in the reporting of quality associated characteristics. To improve future evaluations, scenario analysis including a broad range of PGx tests costs and equal costs of comparator drugs to assess the intrinsic value of the PGx tests, are recommended. In addition, robust clinical evidence regarding PGx tests' efficacy remains of utmost importance.

  17. Usability Testing of a National Substance Use Screening Tool Embedded in Electronic Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, Anne; DeStio, Catherine; McCullagh, Lauren; Kapoor, Sandeep; Morley, Jeanne; Conigliaro, Joseph

    2016-07-08

    Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) is currently being implemented into health systems nationally via paper and electronic methods. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the integration of an electronic SBIRT tool into an existing paper-based SBIRT clinical workflow in a patient-centered medical home. Usability testing was conducted in an academic ambulatory clinic. Two rounds of usability testing were done with medical office assistants (MOAs) using a paper and electronic version of the SBIRT tool, with two and four participants, respectively. Qualitative and quantitative data was analyzed to determine the impact of both tools on clinical workflow. A second round of usability testing was done with the revised electronic version and compared with the first version. Personal workflow barriers cited in the first round of testing were that the electronic health record (EHR) tool was disruptive to patient's visits. In Round 2 of testing, MOAs reported favoring the electronic version due to improved layout and the inclusion of an alert system embedded in the EHR. For example, using the system usability scale (SUS), MOAs reported a grade "1" for the statement, "I would like to use this system frequently" during the first round of testing but a "5" during the second round of analysis. The importance of testing usability of various mediums of tools used in health care screening is highlighted by the findings of this study. In the first round of testing, the electronic tool was reported as less user friendly, being difficult to navigate, and time consuming. Many issues faced in the first generation of the tool were improved in the second generation after usability was evaluated. This study demonstrates how usability testing of an electronic SBRIT tool can help to identify challenges that can impact clinical workflow. However, a limitation of this study was the small sample size of MOAs that participated. The results may have been biased to

  18. [MODELS OF CLINICAL IMPLEMENTATION OF CELL FREE FETAL DNA IN THE MATERNAL SERUM SCREENING TEST-ANALYSIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankova, M; Chaveeva, P; Stratieva, V

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal screening by definition is a way of identifying pregnancies, with a high enough risk to specific fetal damage as to justify the subsequent invasive diagnosis among the seemingly normal pregnancies. [1] The aim of the prenatal screening test is to reach the high diagnostic frequency (DR > 95%), with low false-positive rate (FPR tests (NIPT) are widely adopted and use in clinical practice: 1st Trimester Combined screening (First trimester Combined Screening) and 2nd trimester biochemical screening (Second trimester biochemical screening) and in the last few years through screening Fetal DNA in Maternal serum (cfDNA screening). Since the introduction of the sfDNA test were examined and discussed the results of several ways of application: (1) as a primary screening method without preceding the result of 1st trimester combined screening for chromosomal abnormalities, (2) as a contingent test after 1st trimester combined screening in high risk pregnancies (> 1:100) (3) as a contingent test after 1st trimester combined screening, when the calculated risk is between ( 1:10 to 1:2500). The purpose of the study: to compare the results of different ways of application screening through cfDNA: detection rate (DR) for Tri21, Tri18 and Tri13, procentage of invasive diagnostics and cost-effectiveness ratio of cfDNA test in comparison with the 1st trimester combined screening. To establish the most suitable algorithm for application of cfDNA test. Analyzed were the results of several randomized multi-center clinical studies whose data are processed through a meta-analysis. cfDNA-test has a higher DR for Tri21 for lower FPR, compared to the combined screening in 1st trimester (cfDNA-DR 99%, 1st trimester screening-DR 96% and 0.4%FPR, respectively FPR 5%), but although it is with better results and reduces the incidence of invasive tests, does not justify the significant difference in price-performance ratio. On the other hand cfDNA-test is with a lower detection rate for

  19. Cervical cancer screening with clinic-based Pap test versus home HPV test among Somali immigrant women in Minnesota: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewali, Barrett; Okuyemi, Kolawole S; Askhir, Asli; Belinson, Jerome; Vogel, Rachel I; Joseph, Anne; Ghebre, Rahel G

    2015-04-01

    Cervical cancer is more common in the Somali immigrant population than the general population in the United States (US). There are low rates of cervical cancer screening among Somali women. This study compares cervical cancer screening test completion rates for a home human papilloma virus (HPV) test and standard clinic Pap test. Sixty-three Somali immigrant women aged 30-70 years who had not undergone cervical cancer screening within the past 3 years were randomly assigned to a home HPV test group (intervention) or a clinic Pap test group (control). Test completion rates were measured at 3 months. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to explore factors associated with test completion (intention-to-treat analysis). Participants in the HPV test group were 14 times more likely to complete the test compared to those in the Pap test group (P = 0.0002). Women who reported having friends/family members to talk about cancer screening were approximately three times more likely to complete any screening test than those who did not (P = 0.127) and participants who reported residing in the US longer were more likely to complete a screening test (P = 0.011). Future research should explore the potential of using the home-based HPV test kits as an initial approach to cervical cancer screening. The use of a self-sampling HPV kit has the potential to increase cervical cancer screening in under-served communities in the US. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Cone penetrometer tests and HydroPunch sampling: A screening technique for plume definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolley, M.; Kappmeyer, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Cone penetrometer tests and HydroPunch sampling were used to define the extent of volatile organic compounds in ground water. The investigation indicated that the combination of the these techniques is effective for obtaining ground water samples for preliminary plume definition. HydroPunch samples can be collected in unconsolidated sediments and the analytical results obtained from these samples are comparable to those obtained from adjacent monitoring wells. This sampling method is a rapid and cost-effective screening technique for characterizing the extent of contaminant plumes in soft sediment environments. Use of this screening technique allowed monitoring wells to be located at the plume boundary, thereby reducing the number of wells installed and the overall cost of the plume definition program

  1. Application of the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) instrument: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Andrécia Cósmen da; Lucchese, Roselma; Vargas, Lorena Silva; Benício, Patrícia Rosa; Vera, Ivânia

    2016-03-01

    Objective To systematize the knowledge and the learning of how the instrument Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) has been applied. Method Integrative review, performed from May to July 2014, searching the databases Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Literature (LILACS), Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline), PubMed and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), as well as in the search system of the Portal of Journals of the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES). We selected 26 articles. Results ASSIST focused on helping the identification and classification of psychoactive substances use, and it has proved to be important in screening the involvement with alcohol and other drugs, and effectiveness in primary health care. Conclusion It was confirmed as an instrument to be used in Health Care.

  2. A pilot study on screening blood donors with individual-donation nucleic acid testing in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jie; Wu, Yaling; Zhu, Hong; Li, Gan; Lv, Mengen; Wu, Daxiao; Li, Xiaotao; Zhu, Faming; Lv, Hangjun

    2014-01-01

    Background Nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT) is not yet obligatory in China for blood donor screening and the risk of enzyme immunoassay (EIA)-negative, NAT-reactive donations in Chinese blood donors has rarely been reported. The aim of this study was to screen a population of Chinese blood donors using a triplex individual-donation (ID)-NAT assay and assess the safety benefits of implementing NAT. Materials and methods Between 1st August, 2010 and 31st December, 2011 all donations at a Chinese blood centre were screened individually using the Procleix® Ultrio® assay, a multiplex NAT assay for the detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA, hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA and human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) RNA. All donations were also screened for HBsAg, anti-HIV and anti-HCV using two different EIA for each marker. Samples with discordant results between NAT and EIA were further tested with an alternative NAT assay (Cobas® TaqMan®). Potential yield cases (serologically negative/NAT-reactive donors) were further evaluated when possible. Results During the study period a total of 178,447 donations were screened by NAT and EIA, among which 169 HBV NAT yield cases (0.095%) were detected. No N AT yield cases were found for HIV-1 or HCV. For the HBV NAT yield cases, follow-up results showed that 11 (6.51%) were probable or confirmed HBV window period infections, 5 (2.96%) were chronic HBV carriers and 153 (90.53%) were probable or confirmed occult HBV infections. There was a statistically significant difference between the NAT-positive rates for first-time vs repeat donations (0.472% vs 0.146%, respectively; P<0.001). Discussion Our data demonstrate that the potential HBV yield rate was 1:1,056 for blood donations in the Zhejiang province of China. Implementation of NAT will provide a significant increment in safety relative to serological screening alone. PMID:24333061

  3. Harnessing Information Technology to Inform Patients Facing Routine Decisions: Cancer Screening as a Test Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krist, Alex H; Woolf, Steven H; Hochheimer, Camille; Sabo, Roy T; Kashiri, Paulette; Jones, Resa M; Lafata, Jennifer Elston; Etz, Rebecca S; Tu, Shin-Ping

    2017-05-01

    Technology could transform routine decision making by anticipating patients' information needs, assessing where patients are with decisions and preferences, personalizing educational experiences, facilitating patient-clinician information exchange, and supporting follow-up. This study evaluated whether patients and clinicians will use such a decision module and its impact on care, using 3 cancer screening decisions as test cases. Twelve practices with 55,453 patients using a patient portal participated in this prospective observational cohort study. Participation was open to patients who might face a cancer screening decision: women aged 40 to 49 who had not had a mammogram in 2 years, men aged 55 to 69 who had not had a prostate-specific antigen test in 2 years, and adults aged 50 to 74 overdue for colorectal cancer screening. Data sources included module responses, electronic health record data, and a postencounter survey. In 1 year, one-fifth of the portal users (11,458 patients) faced a potential cancer screening decision. Among these patients, 20.6% started and 7.9% completed the decision module. Fully 47.2% of module completers shared responses with their clinician. After their next office visit, 57.8% of those surveyed thought their clinician had seen their responses, and many reported the module made their appointment more productive (40.7%), helped engage them in the decision (47.7%), broadened their knowledge (48.1%), and improved communication (37.5%). Many patients face decisions that can be anticipated and proactively facilitated through technology. Although use of technology has the potential to make visits more efficient and effective, cultural, workflow, and technical changes are needed before it could be widely disseminated. © 2017 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  4. Historical and Theoretical Study of the Use of the Montessori Cylinder Block as a Screening Test Instrument for Developmental Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    我妻, 則明; AZUMA, Noriaki

    1994-01-01

    Studies investigating mental development screening tests and the Montessori cylinderblock were described. The theoretical possibility was discussed for the use of theMontessori cylinder block B type as a mental development screening test instrument.It was a theoretically unique idea to use the Montessori cylinder block B type as ascreening test instrument in measuring the child's mental development. As a result ofresearching previous studies, not only in Japan but also in other countries, the...

  5. [Otolith function tests--a differentiated, quality-assured screening system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düwel, P; Walther, L E; Sanders, M; Ilgner, J; Westhofen, M

    2005-09-01

    More than 30% of all otogenic vestibular disorders are related to isolated macular dysfunction. Videooculographic examination techniques for the otolith-ocular reflex, e. g. by means of eccentric rotation tests, are not widely used in clinical routine as these put a considerable strain on technical and staff resources. Thus, there is a considerable risk of "false negative" classification of vertigo disorders being labelled as "non-otogenic". By means of vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) and caloric irrigation in prone and supine position, several examination techniques for a side-related investigation of macula-induced vestibulo-ocular reflexes are available. The objective of this study is to compare and evaluate these techniques as screening tests. In 32 patients with vestibular disorders we performed investigations for VEMPs, eccentric rotation tests, as well as caloric irrigation for macular reaction in prone and supine position. In addition, we performed other audiologic and vestibular function tests which were complemented by the clinical course in order to differentiate each case between otogenic and non-otogenic vertigo with or without macular affection. The technical feasibility as well as patients' acceptance for VEMP testing is better than for eccentric rotation tests. The sensitivity index for VEMPs (89%) as well as for caloric irrigation in prone and supine position for macular examination (71%) is satisfactory. However, the specificity of VEMPs is inferior (53%) to eccentric rotation (100%). Both the examination for VEMPs as well as caloric macular testing in prone and supine position carry features which make them feasible for screening, even though these two procedures test for two different parts of the otolith system. However, to confirm a diagnosis and to set up a therapeutic concept for macular function disorders, eccentric rotation should be added.

  6. Budget impact analysis of chronic kidney disease mass screening test in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Masahide; Yamagata, Kunihiro; Hoshi, Shu-Ling; Saito, Chie; Asahi, Koichi; Moriyama, Toshiki; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko; Konta, Tsuneo; Fujimoto, Shouichi; Narita, Ichiei; Kimura, Kenjiro; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2014-12-01

    Our recently published cost-effectiveness study on chronic kidney disease mass screening test in Japan evaluated the use of dipstick test, serum creatinine (Cr) assay or both in specific health checkup (SHC). Mandating the use of serum Cr assay additionally, or the continuation of current policy mandating dipstick test only was found cost-effective. This study aims to examine the affordability of previously suggested reforms. Budget impact analysis was conducted assuming the economic model would be good for 15 years and applying a population projection. Costs expended by social insurers without discounting were counted as budgets. Annual budget impacts of mass screening compared with do-nothing scenario were calculated as ¥79-¥-1,067 million for dipstick test only, ¥2,505-¥9,235 million for serum Cr assay only and ¥2,517-¥9,251 million for the use of both during a 15-year period. Annual budget impacts associated with the reforms were calculated as ¥975-¥4,129 million for mandating serum Cr assay in addition to the currently used mandatory dipstick test, and ¥963-¥4,113 million for mandating serum Cr assay only and abandoning dipstick test. Estimated values associated with the reform from ¥963-¥4,129 million per year over 15 years are considerable amounts of money under limited resources. The most impressive finding of this study is the decreasing additional expenditures in dipstick test only scenario. This suggests that current policy which mandates dipstick test only would contain medical care expenditure.

  7. Preseason Functional Movement Screen Component Tests Predict Severe Contact Injuries in Professional Rugby Union Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Jason C; Klingbiel, Jannie F G; Collins, Robert; Lambert, Mike I; Coopoo, Yoga

    2016-11-01

    Tee, JC, Klingbiel, JFG, Collins, R, Lambert, MI, and Coopoo, Y. Preseason Functional Movement Screen component tests predict severe contact injuries in professional rugby union players. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3194-3203, 2016-Rugby union is a collision sport with a relatively high risk of injury. The ability of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) or its component tests to predict the occurrence of severe (≥28 days) injuries in professional players was assessed. Ninety FMS test observations from 62 players across 4 different time periods were compared with severe injuries sustained during 6 months after FMS testing. Mean composite FMS scores were significantly lower in players who sustained severe injury (injured 13.2 ± 1.5 vs. noninjured 14.5 ± 1.4, Effect Size = 0.83, large) because of differences in in-line lunge (ILL) and active straight leg raise scores (ASLR). Receiver-operated characteristic curves and 2 × 2 contingency tables were used to determine that ASLR (cut-off 2/3) was the injury predictor with the greatest sensitivity (0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.79-1.0). Adding the ILL in combination with ASLR (ILL + ASLR) improved the specificity of the injury prediction model (ASLR specificity = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.18-0.43 vs. ASLR + ILL specificity = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.39-0.66, p ≤ 0.05). Further analysis was performed to determine whether FMS tests could predict contact and noncontact injuries. The FMS composite score and various combinations of component tests (deep squat [DS] + ILL, ILL + ASLR, and DS + ILL + ASLR) were all significant predictors of contact injury. The FMS composite score also predicted noncontact injury, but no component test or combination thereof produced a similar result. These findings indicate that low scores on various FMS component tests are risk factors for injury in professional rugby players.

  8. Implementation of a Computerized Screening Inventory: Improved Usability Through Iterative Testing and Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreaux, Edwin D; Fischer, Andrew Christopher; Haskins, Brianna Lyn; Saeed Zafar, Zubair; Chen, Guanling; Chinai, Sneha A

    2016-03-09

    The administration of health screeners in a hospital setting has traditionally required (1) clinicians to ask questions and log answers, which can be time consuming and susceptible to error, or (2) patients to complete paper-and-pencil surveys, which require third-party entry of information into the electronic health record and can be vulnerable to error and misinterpretation. A highly promising method that avoids these limitations and bypasses third-party interpretation is direct entry via a computerized inventory. To (1) computerize medical and behavioral health screening for use in general medical settings, (2) optimize patient acceptability and feasibility through iterative usability testing and modification cycles, and (3) examine how age relates to usability. A computerized version of 15 screeners, including behavioral health screeners recommended by a National Institutes of Health Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research collaborative workgroup, was subjected to systematic usability testing and iterative modification. Consecutive adult, English-speaking patients seeking treatment in an urban emergency department were enrolled. Acceptability was defined as (1) the percentage of eligible patients who agreed to take the assessment (initiation rate) and (2) average satisfaction with the assessment (satisfaction rate). Feasibility was defined as the percentage of the screening items completed by those who initiated the assessment (completion rate). Chi-square tests, analyses of variance, and Pearson correlations were used to detect whether improvements in initiation, satisfaction, and completion rates were seen over time and to examine the relation between age and outcomes. Of 2157 eligible patients approached, 1280 agreed to complete the screening (initiation rate=59.34%). Statistically significant increases were observed over time in satisfaction (F3,1061=3.35, P=.019) and completion rates (F3,1276=25.44, PUsability testing revealed several critical

  9. Validity and Reliability of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiburcio Sainz, Marcela; Rosete-Mohedano, Ma Guadalupe; Natera Rey, Guillermina; Martínez Vélez, Nora Angélica; Carreño García, Silvia; Pérez Cisneros, Daniel

    2016-03-02

    The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), has been used successfully in many countries, but there are few studies of its validity and reliability for the Mexican population. The objective of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the self-administered ASSIST test in university students in Mexico. This was an ex post facto non-experimental study with 1,176 undergraduate students, the majority women (70.1%) aged 18-23 years (89.5%) and single (87.5%). To estimate concurrent validity, factor analysis and tests of reliability and correlation were carried out between the subscale for alcohol and AUDIT, those for tobacco and the Fagerström Test, and those for marijuana and DAST-20. Adequate reliability coefficients were obtained for ASSIST subscales for tobacco (alpha = 0.83), alcohol (alpha = 0.76), and marijuana (alpha = 0.73). Significant correlations were found only with the AUDIT (r = 0.71) and the alcohol subscale. The best balance of sensitivity and specificity of the alcohol subscale (83.8% and 80%, respectively) and the largest area under the ROC curve (81.9%) was found with a cutoff score of 8. The self-administered version of ASSIST is a valid screening instrument to identify at-risk cases due to substance use in this population.

  10. The GPCOG: a new screening test for dementia designed for general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodaty, Henry; Pond, Dimity; Kemp, Nicola M; Luscombe, Georgina; Harding, Louise; Berman, Karen; Huppert, Felicia A

    2002-03-01

    To design and test a brief, efficient dementia-screening instrument for use by general practitioners (GPs). The General Practitioner Assessment of Cognition (GPCOG) consists of cognitive test items and historical questions asked of an informant. The validity of the measure was assessed by comparison with the criterion standard of diagnoses of dementia derived from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition). Primary care doctors' offices. Sixty-seven GPs administered the GPCOG to 283 community-dwelling patients aged 50 to 74 with memory complaints or aged 75 and older. The Cambridge Mental Disorder of the Elderly Examination, the Abbreviated Mental Test (AMT), the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale, and the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey. The GPCOG was reliable and superior to the AMT (and possibly to the MMSE) in detecting dementia. The two-stage method of administering the GPCOG (cognitive testing followed by informant questions if necessary)had a sensitivity of 0.85, a specificity of 0.86, a misclassification rate of 14%, and positive predictive value of 71.4%. Patient interviews took less than 4 minutes to administer and informant interviews less than 2 minutes. The instrument was reported by GPs to be practical to administer and was acceptable to patients. The GPCOG is a valid, efficient, well-accepted instrument for dementia screening in primary care.

  11. Age Invariance of the Cannabis Abuse Screening Test in a Probabilistic Sample of Cannabis Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legleye, Stéphane; Rouquette, Alexandra

    2018-03-01

    The Cannabis abuse screening test (CAST) is a short test used for screening those with problematic cannabis use. Recently, its invariance toward age was tested in an Israeli sample of cannabis users, but this study had some sample and methodological limitations: it was conducted in a volunteer sample aged 18-40 and considered the CAST items as continuous variables, although they are based on 5-point Likert scales. We thus tested the CAST invariance toward age (15-24, 25-34, and 35-64 years old) using a French probabilistic sample of 1,351 past-year cannabis users aged 15-64 and using appropriate methods for categorical items and survey weights. Factors retained (non-recreational use and problems) were the same as those mentioned in previous studies. Scalar invariance held for the "problems" factor but only partial scalar invariance was supported for the "non-recreational use" factor. Caution is thus needed when the CAST score is compared across age groups. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. [HIV screening through rapid testing to pregnant women in the Family Medicine Unit 171].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Hernández, Gustavo; Uriostegui-Espíritu, Lizbeth Carlota; Delgado-Quiñones, Edna Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Coverage for HIV in our country through the rapid test has increased, from 8.2 % in 2006 to 59.8 % in 2012; however, it is still insufficient. The objective is to determine the prevalence of HIV screening through rapid testing to pregnant women in the Unidad de Medicina Familiar (UMF) 171. It was carried out a descriptive cross-sectional study with non-probability sampling that included pregnant women of any age who came to birth control in the UMF 171 of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. Review of medical records was applied as a tool to gather information on the rapid test. A sample of 85 patients was calculated and descriptive statistical analysis was performed. 85 patient records were reviewed in control pregnancy. Rapid testing for detection of antibodies to HIV was performed in 79 patients (93 %). In nine (10 %) of the patients who underwent the test, the result was not reported in their file. In six patients (7 %) of the total sample the rapid test was not requested or performed. The result of all rapid tests reported was HIV negative. There is an increase in the coverage of rapid HIV testing in pregnant women; however, not reporting and not requesting the test are still common problems in the early detection of HIV infection in pregnant women.

  13. Parametric and nonparametric two-sample tests for feature screening in class comparison: a simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Landoni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The identification of a location-, scale- and shape-sensitive test to detect differentially expressed features between two comparison groups represents a key point in high dimensional studies. The most commonly used tests refer to differences in location, but general distributional discrepancies might be important to reveal differential biological processes.                                                         Methods. A simulation study was conducted to compare the performance of a set of two-sample tests, i.e. Student's t, Welch's t, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney, Podgor-Gastwirth PG2, Cucconi, Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS, Cramer-von Mises (CvM, Anderson-Darling (AD and Zhang tests (ZK, ZC and ZA which were investigated under different distributional patterns. We applied the same tests to a real data example.                   Results. AD, CvM, ZA and ZC tests proved to be the most sensitive tests in mixture distribution patterns, while still maintaining a high power in normal distribution patterns. At best, the AD test showed a loss in power of ~ 2% in the comparison of two normal distributions, but a gain of ~ 32% with mixture distributions respect to the parametric tests. Accordingly, the AD test detected the greatest number of differentially expressed features in the real data application.   Conclusion. The tests for the general two-sample problem introduce a more general concept of 'differential expression', thus overcoming the limitations of the other tests restricted to specific moments of the feature distributions. In particular, the AD test should be considered as a powerful alternative to the parametric tests for feature screening in order to keep as many discriminative features as possible for the class prediction analysis.

  14. Mammography and Pap test screening among low-income foreign-born Hispanic women in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E. Fernandez

    Full Text Available Little is known about the factors influencing screening among low-income Hispanic women particularly among recent immigrants. A sample of 148 low-income, low-literate, foreign-born Hispanic women residing in the Washington DC metropolitan area participated in the study. The mean age of the sample was 46.2 (SD = 11.5, 84% reported annual household incomes<=$15,000. All women were Spanish speakers and had low acculturation levels. Ninety six percent had reported having a Pap smear, but 24% were not in compliance with recommended screening (Pap test within the last 3 years. Among women 40 and older, 62% had received a mammogram, but only 33% were compliant with age appropriate recommended mammography screening guidelines. Women in this study had more misconceptions about cancer than Hispanics in other studies. Multivariate logistic models for correlates of Pap test and mammography screening behavior indicate that factors such as fear of the screening test, embarrassment, and lack of knowledge influenced screening behavior. In conclusion, women in this study had lower rates of mammography screening than non-Hispanic women and lower rates of compliance with recommended Mammography and Pap test screening guidelines.

  15. Testing Interventions to Motivate and Educate (TIME: A multi-level intervention to improve colorectal cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Krok-Schoen

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The multi-level intervention was not effective in increasing CRC screening among participants who needed a test, perhaps due to low participation of patients in the stepped intervention. Future studies utilizing evidence-based strategies to encourage CRC screening are needed.

  16. A molecular monopoly? HPV testing, the Pap smear and the molecularisation of cervical cancer screening in the USA.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogarth, Stuart; Hopkins, Michael M.; Rodriguez, V.F.

    2011-01-01

    DNA-based molecular testing for human papillomavirus has emerged as a novel approach to cervical cancer screening in the context of well-entrenched existing technology, the Pap smear. This article seeks to elucidate the process of molecularisation in the context of screening programmes. We

  17. Mammography and Pap test screening among low-income foreign-born Hispanic women in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez Maria E.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the factors influencing screening among low-income Hispanic women particularly among recent immigrants. A sample of 148 low-income, low-literate, foreign-born Hispanic women residing in the Washington DC metropolitan area participated in the study. The mean age of the sample was 46.2 (SD = 11.5, 84% reported annual household incomes<=$15,000. All women were Spanish speakers and had low acculturation levels. Ninety six percent had reported having a Pap smear, but 24% were not in compliance with recommended screening (Pap test within the last 3 years. Among women 40 and older, 62% had received a mammogram, but only 33% were compliant with age appropriate recommended mammography screening guidelines. Women in this study had more misconceptions about cancer than Hispanics in other studies. Multivariate logistic models for correlates of Pap test and mammography screening behavior indicate that factors such as fear of the screening test, embarrassment, and lack of knowledge influenced screening behavior. In conclusion, women in this study had lower rates of mammography screening than non-Hispanic women and lower rates of compliance with recommended Mammography and Pap test screening guidelines.

  18. Risk stratification and detection of new colorectal neoplasms after colorectal cancer screening with faecal occult blood test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Andreas; Milter, Maya Christel; Andersen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data exist on adenoma surveillance as recommended in the European guidelines for quality assurance in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and diagnosis after faecal occult blood test (FOBT) screening. OBJECTIVE: To assess the European guidelines for adenoma surveillance after CRC...

  19. What women want. Women's preferences for the management of low-grade abnormal cervical screening tests: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Maria Eiholm; Lynge, E; Rebolj, M

    2012-01-01

    Pap smears. In all but two studies testing other situations, women more often expressed a preference for active follow-up than for observation; however, women appeared to be somewhat more willing to accept observation if reassured of the low risk of cervical cancer. Conclusions Even for low......Please cite this paper as: Frederiksen M, Lynge E, Rebolj M. What women want. Women's preferences for the management of low-grade abnormal cervical screening tests: a systematic review. BJOG 2011; DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2011.03130.x. Background If human papillomavirus (HPV) testing will replace...... cytology in primary cervical screening, the frequency of low-grade abnormal screening tests will double. Several available alternatives for the follow-up of low-grade abnormal screening tests have similar outcomes. In this situation, women's preferences have been proposed as a guide for management...

  20. Evaluation of a particle gel immunoassay as a screening test for syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, S; Monn, A; Meyer, J; Berger, U; Honegger, H P; Lautenschlager, St

    2009-02-01

    Recent trends in Western Europe show an increase in sexually transmitted infections. Surveillance data in Switzerland confirm this rising trend. Notifications of syphilis cases nearly doubled in the year 2002 and almost tripled in 2003. This trend necessitates an early correct diagnosis making reliable screening tests mandatory. In the presented study a particle gel immunoassay (ID-PaGIA syphilis antibody test, Diamed) using recombinant treponemal antigens TpN15, TpN17 and TpN47 was evaluated as a screening test in comparison to the currently used Treponema pallidum particle agglutination test (Serodia-TPPA, Fujirebio). Serum samples were obtained from a cross-sectional sero-epidemiological study among men who have sex with men. Samples were tested with the PaGia and the TPPA. In the case of equivocal results a titrated TPPA of an external laboratory was used as a confirmation test. In total 650 serum samples (48 seropositive patients, 602 negative) were evaluated. The PaGIA showed a sensitivity of 0.89 (43/48) and the TPPA of 0.83 (40/48). This difference was not statistically relevant (p = 0.4). The particle gel assay showed a significantly higher specificity (1.0) compared to the TPPA (0.98) (p = 0.004). The PaGIA showed a sensitivity comparable to that of other treponemal tests with an even better specificity. Advantages of the PaGIA are the fast reaction time of only 20 min and the simplicity of the procedure with minimal technical equipment.

  1. Verification testing of the compression performance of the HEVC screen content coding extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Gary J.; Baroncini, Vittorio A.; Yu, Haoping; Joshi, Rajan L.; Liu, Shan; Xiu, Xiaoyu; Xu, Jizheng

    2017-09-01

    This paper reports on verification testing of the coding performance of the screen content coding (SCC) extensions of the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard (Rec. ITU-T H.265 | ISO/IEC 23008-2 MPEG-H Part 2). The coding performance of HEVC screen content model (SCM) reference software is compared with that of the HEVC test model (HM) without the SCC extensions, as well as with the Advanced Video Coding (AVC) joint model (JM) reference software, for both lossy and mathematically lossless compression using All-Intra (AI), Random Access (RA), and Lowdelay B (LB) encoding structures and using similar encoding techniques. Video test sequences in 1920×1080 RGB 4:4:4, YCbCr 4:4:4, and YCbCr 4:2:0 colour sampling formats with 8 bits per sample are tested in two categories: "text and graphics with motion" (TGM) and "mixed" content. For lossless coding, the encodings are evaluated in terms of relative bit-rate savings. For lossy compression, subjective testing was conducted at 4 quality levels for each coding case, and the test results are presented through mean opinion score (MOS) curves. The relative coding performance is also evaluated in terms of Bjøntegaard-delta (BD) bit-rate savings for equal PSNR quality. The perceptual tests and objective metric measurements show a very substantial benefit in coding efficiency for the SCC extensions, and provided consistent results with a high degree of confidence. For TGM video, the estimated bit-rate savings ranged from 60-90% relative to the JM and 40-80% relative to the HM, depending on the AI/RA/LB configuration category and colour sampling format.

  2. Development of a fast agglutination screening test (FAST) for the detection of anti-Leishmania antibodies in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schallig, H. D. F. H.; Schoone, G. J.; Beijer, E. G. M.; Kroon, C. C. M.; Hommers, M.; Ozbel, Y.; Ozensoy, S.; da Silva, E. S.; Cardoso, L. M.; da Silva, E. D.

    2002-01-01

    A fast agglutination screening test (FAST) for the detection of anti-Leishinania antibodies in serum samples from dogs with visceral leishmamosis was developed. The test is based on the direct agglutination test (DAT), but combines a higher parasite concentration with a smaller test volume. In

  3. Significance of Intratracheal Instillation Tests for the Screening of Pulmonary Toxicity of Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yasuo; Izumi, Hiroto; Yoshiura, Yukiko; Fujisawa, Yuri; Fujita, Katsuhide

    Inhalation tests are the gold standard test for the estimation of the pulmonary toxicity of respirable materials. Intratracheal instillation tests have been used widely, but they yield limited evidence of the harmful effects of respirable materials. We reviewed the effectiveness of intratracheal instillation tests for estimating the hazards of nanomaterials, mainly using research papers featuring intratracheal instillation and inhalation tests centered on a Japanese national project. Compared to inhalation tests, intratracheal instillation tests induced more acute inflammatory responses in the animal lung due to a bolus effect regardless of the toxicity of the nanomaterials. However, nanomaterials with high toxicity induced persistent inflammation in the chronic phase, and nanomaterials with low toxicity induced only transient inflammation. Therefore, in order to estimate the harmful effects of a nanomaterial, an observation period of 3 months or 6 months following intratracheal instillation is necessary. Among the endpoints of pulmonary toxicity, cell count and percentage of neutrophil, chemokines for neutrophils and macrophages, and oxidative stress markers are considered most important. These markers show persistent and transient responses in the lung from nanomaterials with high and low toxicity, respectively. If the evaluation of the pulmonary toxicity of nanomaterials is performed in not only the acute but also the chronic phase in order to avoid the bolus effect of intratracheal instillation and inflammatory-related factors that are used as endpoints of pulmonary toxicity, we speculate that intratracheal instillation tests can be useful for screening for the identification of the hazard of nanomaterials through pulmonary inflammation.

  4. Screening for prostate cancer with the prostate-specific antigen test: are patients making informed decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, K J; Volk, R J; Cass, A R; Spann, S J

    1999-09-01

    The benefits of early detection of prostate cancer are uncertain, and the American College of Physicians and the American Academy of Family Physicians recommend individual decision making in prostate cancer screening. This study reports the knowledge of male primary care patients about prostate cancer and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing and examines how that knowledge is related to PSA testing, preferences for testing in the future, and desire for involvement in physician-patient decision making. The sample included 160 men aged 45 to 70 years with no history of prostate cancer who presented for care at a university-based family medicine clinic. Before scheduled office visits, patients completed a questionnaire developed for this study that included a 10-question measure of prostate cancer knowledge, the Deber-Kraestchmer Problem-Solving Decision-Making Scale, sociodemographic indicators, and questions on PSA testing. In general, patients who were college graduates were more knowledgeable about prostate cancer and early detection than those with a high school education or less. Aside from college graduates, most patients could not identify the principle advantages and disadvantages of PSA testing. Patients indicating previous or future plans for PSA testing demonstrated greater knowledge than other patients. Desire for involvement in decision making varied by patient education but was not related to past PSA testing. Patients lack knowledge about prostate cancer and early detection. This knowledge deficit may impede the early detection of prostate cancer and is a barrier to making an informed decision about undergoing PSA testing.

  5. Development of a simple screening test to detect and determine the microbiological quality of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.L.; MacPhee, S.M.; Turner, A.J.; Stuckey, T.; Betts, R.P.

    1995-07-01

    The direct epifluorescent filter technique/aerobic plate count (DEFT/APC) method is a recognised technique for the screening of irradiated foods. When the APC of an irradiated sample is compared with the DEFT count on the same sample, the APC is found to be considerably lower than that obtained by the DEFT, thus indicating that the sample could have been irradiated. Since the development of the DEFT/APC screening method, the technique has been tested with a limited range of food products. Previous work has indicated that the storage of irradiated foods can, in certain circumstances, allow microorganisms to grow, and thus compromise the ability of the DEFT/APC method to discriminate between irradiated and unirradiated samples. In some cases the method has been shown to give high DEFT count and low APC with food samples that have not been irradiated. Potentially, foods which have undergone a food processing treatment could give a high DEFT count compared to an APC and be erroneously identified as having been irradiated. The work reported here is aimed at analysing a range of irradiated samples (meat, poultry, fish, seafood, herbs and spices), stored under different conditions, to evaluate the applicability of the screening method for use with such products. The effects of other food processes on the DEFT/APC results were also investigated. (UK)

  6. Fecal immunochemical test-based colorectal cancer screening: The gender dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobbee, Esmée J; Wieten, Els; Hansen, Bettina E; Stoop, Esther M; de Wijkerslooth, Thomas R; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Bossuyt, Patrick M; Dekker, Evelien; Kuipers, Ernst J

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite differences between men and women in incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) and its precursors, screening programs consistently use the same strategy for both genders. Objective The objective of this article is to illustrate the effects of gender-tailored screening, including the effects on miss rates of advanced neoplasia (AN). Methods Participants (age 50–75 years) in a colonoscopy screening program were asked to complete a fecal immunochemical test (FIT) before colonoscopy. Positivity rates, sensitivity and specificity for detection of AN at multiple cut-offs were determined. Absolute numbers of detected and missed AN per 1000 screenees were calculated. Results In total 1,256 individuals underwent FIT and colonoscopy, 51% male (median age 61 years; IQR 56–66) and 49% female (median age 60 years; IQR 55–65). At all cut-offs men had higher positivity rates than women, ranging from 3.8% to 10.8% versus 3.2% to 4.8%. Sensitivity for AN was higher in men than women; 40%–25% and 35%–22%, respectively. More AN were found and missed in absolute numbers in men at all cut-offs. Conclusion More AN were both detected and missed in men compared to women at all cut-offs. Gender-tailored cut-offs could either level sensitivity in men and women (i.e., lower cut-off in women) or level the amount of missed lesions (i.e., lower cut-off in men). PMID:28507758

  7. Personal values that support and counteract utilization of a screening test for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aavik, Toivo; Aavik, Anu; Punab, Margus

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of the current research was to discover the personal values that may support men's prostate cancer screening decisions in the future. We asked for participants' past behavior and future behavioral intentions, and also considered their real-life behavior. The sample consisted of 371 men, of which 93 were first-time patients at the Andrology Unit. The results show that Security value was related to past participation, while Achievement, Stimulation, and Traditions counteracted this. Present prostate-testing behavior was related only to higher Security values. Predictors of future behavioral intentions were Security, Self-direction, and Benevolence, which described 21% of the total variability. Considering informed decision-making processes, our results suggest that men who hold Security, Self-direction, and Benevolence values are more likely to participate in office-based initial screening. The study indicates the need to offer office-based initial screening to those age-eligible men whose values do not support participation.

  8. Jaw-opening force test to screen for Dysphagia: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Koji; Tohara, Haruka; Wada, Satoko; Iida, Takatoshi; Ueda, Koichiro; Ansai, Toshihiro

    2014-05-01

    To assess the jaw-opening force test (JOFT) for dysphagia screening. Criterion standard. University dental hospital. Patients complaining of dysphagia (N=95) and with symptoms of dysphagia with chronic underlying causes (mean age ± SD, 79.3±9.61y; range, 50-94y; men: n=49; mean age ± SD, 77.03±9.81y; range, 50-94y; women: n=46; mean age ± SD, 75.42±9.73y; range, 51-93y) admitted for treatment between May 2011 and December 2012 were included. None. All patients were administered the JOFT and underwent fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES). The mean jaw-opening strength was compared with aspiration (ASP) and pharyngeal residue observations of the FEES, which was used as the criterion standard. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed. Forces of ≤3.2kg for men and ≤4kg for women were appropriate cutoff values for predicting ASP with a sensitivity and specificity of .57 and .79 for men and .93 and .52 for women, respectively. Based on the ROC analyses for predicting pharyngeal residue, forces of ≤5.3kg in men and ≤3.9kg in women were appropriate cutoff values, with a sensitivity and specificity of .80 and .88 for men and .83 and .81 for women, respectively. The JOFT could be a useful screening tool for predicting pharyngeal residue and could provide useful information to aid in the referral of patients for further diagnostic imaging testing. However, given its low sensitivity to ASP the JOFT should be paired with other screening tests that predict ASP. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hematuria screening test for urinary bladder mucosal infiltration in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuttiangtum, Ayuth; Udomthavornsuk, Banchong; Chumworathayi, Bandit

    2012-01-01

    To determine the diagnostic performance of hematuria as a screening test for urinary bladder infiltration in cervical cancer patients with a prospective study design. Newly diagnosed cervical cancer patients at Srinagarind hospital from 14 June 2011 to 30 April 2012 were enrolled in this study. We collected midstream urine samples for urinalysis from every patient before routine cystoscopic exam for clinical staging. The presence of 3 or more red blood cells (RBCs) per high power field was defined as positive for hematuria. A two-by-two table was used to determine the diagnostic performance of hematuria to detect urinary bladder mucosal infiltration using cystoscopy and biopsy as the gold standard. A total of 130 were patients included, 54 of which (41.5%) had hematuria. Of these, four patients (3.08%) had pathological report from cystoscopic biopsy confirmed metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of hematuria as a screening test to detect urinary bladder mucosal infiltration of cervical cancer were 100%, 60.3%, 7.4%, 100%, and 61.5%, respectively. There was no single case of urinary bladder mucosal infiltration in patients initially staged less than stage III. Hematuria can be used as a screening test to detect urinary bladder mucosal infiltration of cervical cancer. This can reduce the number of cervical cancer patients who really need to undergo cystoscopy as a staging procedure to less than half and to less than 20% if stage III or more were included without missing a single case of urinary bladder mucosal infiltration.

  10. Six years of vision screening tests in pre-school children in kindergartens of Wroclaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmigiel, Marta; Geniusz, Malwina; Szmigiel, Ireneusz

    2017-09-01

    Detection of vision defects of a child without professional knowledge is not easy. Very often, the parents of a small child does not know that their child sees incorrect. Also the youngster, not knowing any other way of seeing, does not know that it is not the best. While the vision of a small child is not yet fully formed, it is worth checking them very early. Defects detected early gives opportunity for the correction of anomalies, which might give the effect of the normal development of vision. According to the indications, the American Optometric Association (AOA) control eye examination should be performed between the ages of 6 months to 3 years, before going to school and then every two years. Members of SPIE Student Chapter, in cooperation with the Visual Optics Group working on the Department of Optics and Photonics (Faculty of Fundamental Problems, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology) for 6 years offer selected kindergartens of Wroclaw participation in project "Screening vision tests in pre-school children". Depending on the number of involved members of the student chapter and willing to cooperate students of Ophthalmology and Optometry, vision screening test was carried out in up to eight kindergartens every year. The basic purpose of screening vision test is to detect visual defects to start the correction so early in life as possible, while increasing the efficiency of the child's visual potential. The surrounding community is in fact more than enough examples of late diagnose vision problems, which resulted in lack of opportunity or treatment failure

  11. Old and New Ideas for Data Screening and Assumption Testing for Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flora, David B.; LaBrish, Cathy; Chalmers, R. Philip

    2011-01-01

    We provide a basic review of the data screening and assumption testing issues relevant to exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis along with practical advice for conducting analyses that are sensitive to these concerns. Historically, factor analysis was developed for explaining the relationships among many continuous test scores, which led to the expression of the common factor model as a multivariate linear regression model with observed, continuous variables serving as dependent variables, and unobserved factors as the independent, explanatory variables. Thus, we begin our paper with a review of the assumptions for the common factor model and data screening issues as they pertain to the factor analysis of continuous observed variables. In particular, we describe how principles from regression diagnostics also apply to factor analysis. Next, because modern applications of factor analysis frequently involve the analysis of the individual items from a single test or questionnaire, an important focus of this paper is the factor analysis of items. Although the traditional linear factor model is well-suited to the analysis of continuously distributed variables, commonly used item types, including Likert-type items, almost always produce dichotomous or ordered categorical variables. We describe how relationships among such items are often not well described by product-moment correlations, which has clear ramifications for the traditional linear factor analysis. An alternative, non-linear factor analysis using polychoric correlations has become more readily available to applied researchers and thus more popular. Consequently, we also review the assumptions and data-screening issues involved in this method. Throughout the paper, we demonstrate these procedures using an historic data set of nine cognitive ability variables. PMID:22403561

  12. Exploratory screening tests of several alloys and coatings for automobile thermal reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldrieve, R. E.

    1971-01-01

    A total of 23 materials (including uncoated ferritic and austenitic iron-base alloys, uncoated nickel and cobalt-base superalloys, and several different coatings on AISI 304 stainless steel) were screened as test coupons on a rack in an automobile thermal reactor. Test exposures were generally 51 hours including 142 thermal cycles of 10 minutes at 1010 + or - 30 C test coupon temperature and 7-minutes cool-down to about 510 C. Materials that exhibited corrosion resistance better than that of Hastelloy X include: a ferritic iron alloy with 6 weight percent aluminum; three nickel-base superalloys; two diffused-aluminum coatings on AISI 304; and a Ni-Cr slurry-sprayed coating on AISI 304. Preliminary comparison is made on the performance of the directly impinged coupons and a reactor core of the same material.

  13. Evaluation of the HISCL Anti-Treponema pallidum Assay as a Screening Test for Syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jingna; Chen, Qixia; Liu, Qianqian; Rao, Chenli; Li, Dongdong; Wang, Tingting; Tao, Chuanmin; Wang, Lanlan

    2015-07-01

    The resurgence of syphilis in recent years has become a serious threat to public health worldwide, and the serological detection of specific antibodies against Treponema pallidum remains the most reliable method for laboratory diagnosis of syphilis. This study examined the performance of the recently launched HISCL anti-Treponema pallidum (anti-TP) assay as a screening test for syphilis in a high-volume laboratory. The HISCL anti-TP assay was tested in 300 preselected syphilis-positive samples, 704 fresh syphilis-negative samples, 48 preselected potentially interfering samples, and 30 "borderline" samples and was compared head to head with the commercially available Lumipulse G TP-N. In this study, the HISCL anti-TP assay was in perfect agreement with the applied testing algorithms with an overall agreement of 100%, comparable to that of Lumipulse G TP-N (99.63%). The sensitivity and specificity of the HISCL anti-TP assay were 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 98.42% to 100%) and 100% (95% CI, 99.37% to 100%), respectively. Considering the excellent ease of use and automation, high throughput, and its favorable sensitivity and specificity, the HISCL anti-TP assay may represent a new choice for syphilis screening in high-volume laboratories. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. [Auditory brainstem response testing revisit of infants who failed the hearing screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Rong; Lou, Zhiwu; Lei, Zhaoxia

    2008-11-01

    Analyze the ABR testing results of local infants who failed the hearing screening and summarize its characteristics. Carry on the first ABR test to 140 infants who failed the newborns' hearing screening when they are about 3-month age, the unusualities carry on the second ABR test at about 6-month age, and carry on the statistical analysis. One hundred and forty infants with the first ABR diagnosis, 65 infants are normal, accounting for 46.43%; 75 infants have single or binaural ear hearing disorder, accounting for 53.57%, single ear 17.14%, binaural ear 36.43%, of which mild hearing disorder takes most, accounting for 27.14%, the profound hearing loss is also not extremely rare, accounting for 14.29%. Between male and female hearing disorder disease incidence rate difference is not remarkable statistics significance (P > 0.05). Between the number of high-risk in the hearing injury and non-high-risk after the comparison difference is not remarkable statistical significance (P > 0.05). With the population of above severe loss in hearing high-risk has the remarkable statistical significance with the non-high-risk comparison difference (P brain paralysis profound hearing disorder extension converges normally extremely. The non-high-risk whose hearing changes for the better is obviously higher than high-risk (P child hearing situation appraisal should be prudent to the brain paralysis; should establish perfect tracing, revisiting and managing system as soon as possible.

  15. Reliability of SleepStrip as a screening test in obstructive sleep apnea patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinç, Aykut Erdem; Yılmaz, Metin; Tutar, Hakan; Aydil, Utku; Kızıl, Yusuf; Damar, Murat; Kemaloğlu, Yusuf K

    2014-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common sleep disorder and related to multiple conditions that cause mortality in adults. In the present study, reliability of SleepStrip, a disposable screening device for detection of OSAS, is tested. In this prospective, nonrandomized double-blinded single cohort study at an academic health center, the performance of the SleepStrip in detecting respiratory events and establishing an SleepStrip score (Sscore) in domestic use were compared to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) obtained by the standard polysomnography (PSG) recordings in the sleep laboratory. Forty-one patients who have the PSG results participated the study and wore the SleepStrips at home. Test efficiency rate was 75% and there was a positive correlation between PSG-AHI scores and Sscores (r = 0.71, p correlation between Sscores and PSG-AHI scores were significant only at AHI > 30 levels. The SleepStrip has 100% specificity and positive predictive values, but it also has low negative predictive and sensitivity values. The SleepStrip is not a reliable screening test in differential diagnosis among simple snorers, mild, moderate and severe OSAS patients. However, high Sscores highly indicate the presence of moderate-severe OSAS. We can safely send these patients to split-night PSG and continuous, automatic, bi-level positive airway pressure (CPAP/BPAP/APAP) titration at the same night. The SleepStrip may increase the effective use of the sleep laboratories.

  16. Self-Sampling for Human Papillomavirus Testing among Non-Attenders Increases Attendance to the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enerly, Espen; Bonde, Jesper; Schee, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Increasing attendance to screening offers the best potential for improving the effectiveness of well-established cervical cancer screening programs. Self-sampling at home for human papillomavirus (HPV) testing as an alternative to a clinical sampling can be a useful policy to increase attendance....... To determine whether self-sampling improves screening attendance for women who do not regularly attend the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme (NCCSP), 800 women aged 25-69 years in the Oslo area who were due to receive a 2nd reminder to attend regular screening were randomly selected and invited...... to be part of the intervention group. Women in this group received one of two self-sampling devices, Evalyn Brush or Delphi Screener. To attend screening, women in the intervention group had the option of using the self-sampling device (self-sampling subgroup) or visiting their physician for a cervical smear...

  17. Using the alcohol, smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) to determine substance abuse prevalence in the RI trauma population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Ralph; Baird, Janette; He, Jun Kit; Adams, Charles; Mello, Michael

    2014-02-03

    Level I trauma centers are required to provide screening and brief interventions for alcohol abuse. The World Health Organization (WHO) Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) is a validated screening measure for all substances of abuse. This study is the first to use the ASSIST to screen a trauma population. A cross-sectional screening study using the ASSIST was conducted which included all patients admitted to the trauma service at Rhode Island Hospital during July and August 2012 who met inclusion criteria. The ASSIST categorized 25% of participants as needing a brief intervention for alcohol and an additional 6.3% as needing more intensive treatment. At least a brief intervention was indicated for at least one other substance besides alcohol in 37% of participants. The ability of the ASSIST to identify misuse of multiple substances makes it a good candidate for the screening measure used by trauma centers.

  18. Reasons for never and intermittent completion of colorectal cancer screening after receiving multiple rounds of mailed fecal tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Beverly B; BlueSpruce, June; Tuzzio, Leah; Vernon, Sally W; Aubree Shay, L; Catz, Sheryl L

    2017-05-30

    Long-term adherence to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is particularly important for fecal testing. Some U.S. studies report that only 25% of individuals repeat fecal testing annually. The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify barriers and facilitators reported by patients with suboptimal screening adherence to refine interventions for starting ongoing adherence to CRC screening. We also explored whether participants, particularly never screeners, would be willing to do a CRC screening blood test. Forty-one patients who previously enrolled in the Systems of Support to Increase CRC Screening (SOS) trial were interviewed 4-5 years later. Participants were purposively selected to include men and women with diverse race/ethnicities who had either been inconsistent screeners or had never screened during the first three years of SOS despite receiving at least two rounds of mailed fecal tests. Two interviewers conducted 30-min telephone interviews using a semi-structured interview guide. An iterative thematic analysis approach was used. Themes related to screening barriers were more pervasive among never screeners including: (1) Avoidance (inattention, procrastination) (2) Concerns about handling stool; (3) Health concerns; (4) Fear of a cancer diagnosis or positive test results. Themes related to screening facilitators were more often mentioned by participants who screened at least once including: (1) Use of a simpler 1-sample fecal test; (2) Convenience of mailings and doing the test at home; (3) Salience of prevention, especially as one got older; and (4) Influence of recommendations from providers, family and friends. Participants had diverse preferences for the number (3 on average) and types (phone, mail, text) of screening reminders. Some participants did not prefer e-mail links to the patient shared electronic health record because of difficulties remembering their password. It was acceptable for a nurse or medical assistant not from their clinic to

  19. Development of cognitive screening test for the severely hearing impaired: Hearing-impaired MoCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Vincent Y W; Chung, Janet; Callahan, Brandy L; Smith, Leah; Gritters, Nils; Chen, Joseph M; Black, Sandra E; Masellis, Mario

    2017-05-01

    To develop a version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) to be administered to the severely hearing impaired (HI-MoCA), and to assess its performance in two groups of cognitively intact adults over the age of 60. Test development followed by prospective subject recruitment. The MoCA was converted into a timed PowerPoint (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA) presentation, and verbal instructions were converted into visual instructions. Two groups of subjects over the age of 60 were recruited. All subjects passed screening questionnaires to eliminate those with undiagnosed mild cognitive impairment. The first group had normal hearing (group 1). The second group was severely hearing impaired (group 2). Group 1 received either the MoCA or HI-MoCA test (T1). Six months later (T2), subjects were administered the test (MoCA or HI-MoCA) they had not received previously to determine equivalency. Group 2 received the HI-MoCA at T1 and again at T2 to determine test-retest reliability. One hundred and three subjects were recruited into group 1, with a score of 26.66 (HI-MoCA) versus 27.14 (MoCA). This was significant (P 0.05), with a test-retest coefficient of 0.66. The HI-MoCA is easy to administer and reliable for screening cognitive impairment in the severely hearing impaired. No conversion factor is required in our prospectively tested cohort of cognitively intact subjects. 1b. Laryngoscope, 127:S4-S11, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Influence of food intake on the predictive value of the gestational diabetes mellitus screening test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Panchalli; Lu, Mei-Chun; Yu, Cheng-Wei; Wang, Li-Chu; Yan, Yuan-Horng

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the influence of prior food ingestion on the predictive value of a screening test for gestational diabetes mellitus. This prospective, nonrandomized study enrolled 1,387 pregnant women who underwent the 50-g glucose challenge test. Gestational diabetes mellitus was diagnosed according to the National Diabetes Data Group criteria. A nutritional survey of dietary information before the glucose challenge test was conducted. The patients were stratified into three groups based on the time of last food ingestion (fasting interval): 1 hour or less, 1-2 hours, and more than 2 hours. The more than 2-hours fasting interval group was defined as the "fasting" group, and the combined 1 hour or less and 1-2 hours fasting interval groups were defined as the "fed" group. We calculated the positivity rate and the positive predictive value to detect the predictive value. Among women who fasted 1 hour or less, 1-2 hours, and more than 2 hours before a glucose challenge test, 2.5%, 3.1%, and 6.9% were diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus, respectively. The positive predictive value of the glucose challenge test was greater in the fasting group than in the fed group (27.1% compared with 13.7%, P=.003). A multinomial logistic analysis showed that gestational diabetes mellitus was more prevalent in the fasting group than in the fed group (adjusted odds ratio 2.86, 95% confidence interval 1.65-4.95). Our findings suggest that food intake influences the predictive value of the gestational diabetes screening test. II.

  1. Sweat conductivity and coulometric quantitative test in neonatal cystic fibrosis screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Mouseline Torquato; Magdalena, Neiva Isabel Rodrigues; Cat, Mônica Nunes Lima; Watanabe, Alexandra Mitiru; Rosário Filho, Nelson Augusto

    2015-01-01

    To compare the results obtained with the sweat test using the conductivity method and coulometric measurement of sweat chloride in newborns (NBs) with suspected cystic fibrosis (CF) in the neonatal screening program. The sweat test was performed simultaneously by both methods in children with and without CF. The cutoff values to confirm CF were >50 mmol/L in the conductivity and >60 mmol/L in the coulometric test. There were 444 infants without CF (185 males, 234 females, and 24 unreported) submitted to the sweat test through conductivity and coulometric measurement simultaneously, obtaining median results of 32 mmol/L and 12 mmol/L, respectively. For 90 infants with CF, the median values of conductivity and coulometric measurement were 108 mmol/L and 97 mmol/L, respectively. The false positive rate for conductivity was 16.7%, and was higher than 50 mmol/L in all patients with CF, which gives this method a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 93.8-97.8), specificity of 96.2% (95% CI: 93.8-97.8), positive predictive value of 83.3% (95% CI: 74.4-91.1), negative predictive value of 100% (95% CI: 90.5-109.4), and 9.8% accuracy. The correlation between the methods was r=0.97 (p>0.001). The best suggested cutoff value was 69.0 mmol/L, with a kappa coefficient=0.89. The conductivity test showed excellent correlation with the quantitative coulometric test, high sensitivity and specificity, and can be used in the diagnosis of CF in children detected through newborn screening. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Secondary Waste Form Screening Test Results—Cast Stone and Alkali Alumino-Silicate Geopolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Parker, Kent E.; Um, Wooyong; Valenta, Michelle M.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2010-06-28

    PNNL is conducting screening tests on the candidate waste forms to provide a basis for comparison and to resolve the formulation and data needs identified in the literature review. This report documents the screening test results on the Cast Stone cementitious waste form and the Geopolymer waste form. Test results suggest that both the Cast Stone and Geopolymer appear to be viable waste forms for the solidification of the secondary liquid wastes to be treated in the ETF. The diffusivity for technetium from the Cast Stone monoliths was in the range of 1.2 × 10-11 to 2.3 × 10-13 cm2/s during the 63 days of testing. The diffusivity for technetium from the Geopolymer was in the range of 1.7 × 10-10 to 3.8 × 10-12 cm2/s through the 63 days of the test. These values compare with a target of 1 × 10-9 cm2/s or less. The Geopolymer continues to show some fabrication issues with the diffusivities ranging from 1.7 × 10-10 to 3.8 × 10-12 cm2/s for the better-performing batch to from 1.2 × 10-9 to 1.8 × 10-11 cm2/s for the poorer-performing batch. In the future more comprehensive and longer term performance testing will be conducted, to further evaluate whether or not these waste forms will meet the regulation and performance criteria needed to cost-effectively dispose of secondary wastes.

  3. The Usefulness of {sup 18}F-FDG PET as a Cancer Screening Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Doo Heun; Choi, Joon Young; Song, Yun Mi; Lee, Su Jin; Kim, Young Hwan; Lee, Kyung Han; Kim, Byung Tae; Lee, Moon Kyu [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of whole body positron emission tomography (PET) using {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) for cancer screening in asymptomatic subjects. The subjects were 1,762 men and 259 women who voluntarily underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET for cancer screening as a part of a routine health examination. Final diagnosis was decided by other diagnostic studies, pathological results or clinical follow-up for 1 year. Of 2,021 subjects, 40 (2.0%) were finally proved to have cancer. Abnormal focal {sup 18}F-FDG uptake suggesting malignancy was found in 102 subjects (5.0%). Among them, 21 subjects (1.0%) were proved to have cancer. Other tests in the routine health examination could not find 9 of 21 cancers (42.9%) detected by PET. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of PET for cancer screening were 52.5%, 95.9%, 20.6%, and 99.0%, respectively. Pathologies of cancers missed on PET were adenocarcinoma (n=9; 3 colon cancers, 3 prostate cancers, 2 stomach cancers, and 1 rectal cancer), differentiated thyroid carcinoma (n=6), bronchioalveolar cell carcinoma (n=2), urinary bladder cancer (n=1), and melanoma (n=1). More than half of cancers which were not detected by PET were smaller than 1 cm in diameter. {sup 18}F-FDG PET might be useful for cancer screening in asymptomatic subjects due to its high specificity and negative predictive value and play a supplementary role to the conventional health check-up, but it could not replace due to limited sensitivity for urological cancers, small-sized tumors and some hypometaboic cancers.

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of a two-item Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiet, Quyen Q; Leyva, Yani E; Moos, Rudolf H; Smith, Brandy

    2017-11-01

    Drug use is prevalent and costly to society, but individuals with drug use disorders (DUDs) are under-diagnosed and under-treated, particularly in primary care (PC) settings. Drug screening instruments have been developed to identify patients with DUDs and facilitate treatment. The Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST) is one of the most well-known drug screening instruments. However, similar to many such instruments, it is too long for routine use in busy PC settings. This study developed and validated a briefer and more practical DAST for busy PC settings. We recruited 1300 PC patients in two Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) clinics. Participants responded to a structured diagnostic interview. We randomly selected half of the sample to develop and the other half to validate the new instrument. We employed signal detection techniques to select the best DAST items to identify DUDs (based on the MINI) and negative consequences of drug use (measured by the Inventory of Drug Use Consequences). Performance indicators were calculated. The two-item DAST (DAST-2) was 97% sensitive and 91% specific for DUDs in the development sample and 95% sensitive and 89% specific in the validation sample. It was highly sensitive and specific for DUD and negative consequences of drug use in subgroups of patients, including gender, age, race/ethnicity, marital status, educational level, and posttraumatic stress disorder status. The DAST-2 is an appropriate drug screening instrument for routine use in PC settings in the VA and may be applicable in broader range of PC clinics. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. The limited utility of screening laboratory tests and electrocardiograms in the management of unintentional asymptomatic pediatric ingestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, George Sam; Deakyne, Sara; Bajaj, Lalit; Yin, Shan; Heard, Kennon; Roosevelt, Genie

    2013-07-01

    Suspected ingestions are a common chief complaint to the emergency department although the majority of ingestions by children are insignificant. Assess the utility of screening laboratory tests and Electrocardiograms (ECGs) in unintentional asymptomatic pediatric poisonings. Retrospective chart review at a tertiary care children's hospital and a regional poison center of patients less than 12 years of age using ICD-9 codes from January 2005 through December 2008. Laboratory or ECG results requiring intervention and/or direct treatment, a non-RPC subspecialty consultation, and/or prolonged Emergency Department stay was considered changed management. Five hundred ninety five suspected ingestions met our criteria. The median age was 2.6 years (IQR 1.6, 3.0 years) and 56% were male. One laboratory test or ECG was obtained in 233 patients (39%). Of 24 screening ECGs, 32 complete blood counts and 34 blood gases, none were clinically significant. Fifty-two patients received screening metabolic panels, 3 were abnormal and 2 changed management (anion gap metabolic acidosis with unsuspected salicylate ingestions). None of the 127 (21%) screening acetaminophen levels changed management. Two of sixty-five (13%) screening salicylate levels changed management. Three screening urine toxicology tests on patients with altered mental status were positive without ingestion history. No patient under the age of 12 years with normal vital signs and normal mental status had positive screening tests. Screening laboratory tests and ECGs were of limited utility and rarely changed management despite being ordered in a significant number of patients. Screening tests are rarely indicated in unintentional overdoses in children who are asymptomatic. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. An evaluation of chemical screening test kits for lead in paint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oglesby, L.S.

    1996-04-01

    The Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act (Title X) requires abatement and management of lead-based paint. The purpose of this study was to evaluate three chemical screening test kits using materials and methods from one study and subjecting the results to the statistical analysis of another. The three kits were used to predict the presence of lead in paint at ten weight concentrations from 0.04 to 3.97%. Paint was applied to four wood boards yielding a sample size of 40. Four boards were painted with lead-free paint and used as blanks. All of the boards were tested with the three test kits by an untrained individual having no knowledge of the actual lead content. Sensitivity, specificity, and false positive and negative rates were calculated for the test kit results. The manufactures` detection limits, the observed sensitivity ranged from 1.00 to 0.80, specificity ranged from 1.00 to 0.42, false positive ranged from 0 to 58%, and false negatives ranged from 0 to 20%. At the 0.5% Federal threshold level, the observed sensitivity ranged from 1.00 to 0.94, specificity ranged from 1.00 to 0.5, false positives ranged from 0 to 11.1%, and false negatives ranged from 0 to 20%. The observed false positive and false negative rates for all three kits were found to be significantly lower than those reported in a previous study. These results indicate that the kits perform very well at the Federal threshold, with two of the kits having false negative rates below 12.5% and false positive rates of 3.13%. These results indicate that these two kits would probably be acceptable screening tests for lead in paint.

  7. Long-term performance of colorectal cancer screening programmes based on the faecal immunochemical test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Manuel; Hassan, Cesare; Capodaglio, Giulia; Fedato, Chiara; Montaguti, Adriana; Turrin, Anna; Rosano, Alberto; Monetti, Daniele; Stocco, Carmen; Baracco, Susanna; Russo, Francesca; Repici, Alessandro; Rugge, Massimo

    2017-11-03

    The long-term performance of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programmes based on a 2-year faecal immunochemical test (FIT) is still unclear. In a sample of 50 to 69-year-olds repeatedly screened with the FIT (OC-Hemodia latex agglutination test; cut-off: 20 µg haemoglobin/g faeces), we examined: (1) the FIT positivity rate, the CRC and advanced adenoma detection rate and the FIT's positive predictive value (PPV) for advanced neoplasia, at each round of screening and (2) the cumulative CRC and advanced adenoma detection rate after five rounds of FIT. Over 12 years (2002-2014), 123 347 individuals were administered the FIT up to six times, and 781 CRCs and 4713 advanced adenomas were diagnosed. The CRC and advanced adenoma detection rates declined substantially from the first to the third (rate ratio (RR) 0.25, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.32) and second (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.56) rounds, respectively, and then remained stable. The PPV for advanced neoplasia dropped by 18% in the second round (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.89), with no further reduction thereafter due to a concomitant decline in the FIT positivity rate (RR first to sixth rounds: 0.56, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.60).The cumulative CRC and advanced adenoma detection rates over five consecutive rounds were 8.5‰ (95% CI 7.8 to 9.2), and 58.9‰ (95% CI 56.9 to 61.0), respectively. Repeated FIT significantly reduces the burden of colorectal disease while facilitating an efficient use of colonoscopy resources. The cumulative detection rate after five rounds of FIT is similar to primary screening with colonoscopy, supporting the need to account for the cumulative sensitivity of repeated FITs when evaluating the test's efficacy. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. [Test and programme sensitivities of screening for colorectal cancer in Reggio Emilia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campari, Cinzia; Sassatelli, Romano; Paterlini, Luisa; Camellini, Lorenzo; Menozzi, Patrizia; Cattani, Antonella

    2011-01-01

    to estimate the sensitivity of the immunochemical test for faecal occult blood (FOBT) and the sensitivity of the colorectal tumour screening programme in the province of Reggio Emilia. retrospective cohort study, including a sample of 80,357 people of both genders, aged 50-69, who underwent FOBT, during the first round of the screening programme in the province of Reggio Emilia, from April 2005 to December 2007. incidence of interval cancer. The proportional incidence method was used to estimate the sensitivity of FOBT and of the screening programme. Data were stratified according to gender, age and year of interval. the overall sensitivity of FOBT was 73.2% (95%IC 63.8-80.7). The sensitivity of FOBT was lower in females (70.5% vs 75.1%), higher in the 50-59 age group (78.6% vs 70.2%) and higher in the colon than rectum (75.1% vs 68.9%). The test had a significantly higher sensitivity in the 1st year of interval than in the 2nd (84.4% vs 60.5%; RR=0.39, 95%IC 0.22-0.70), a difference which was confirmed, also when data were stratified according to gender. The overall sensitivity of the programme is 70.9% (95%IC 61.5-78.5). No statistically significant differences were shown, if data were stratified according to gender, age or site. Again the sensitivity in the 1st year was significantly higher than in the 2nd year of interval (83.2% vs 57.0%; RR=0.41, 95%IC 0.24-0.69). Overall our data confirmed the findings of similar Italian studies, despite subgroup analysis showed some differences in sensitivity in our study.

  9. Triple sugar screen breath hydrogen test for sugar intolerance in children with functional abdominal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, Jonathan E; Ubhrani, Dolly

    2010-09-01

    Sugar intolerance and functional gastrointestinal disorders are both common in school age children. Both may present with similar complaints such as abdominal pain, diarrhea and bloating. Lactose, fructose and sucrose hydrogen breath tests are widely used to detect sugar malabsorption. To determine the proportion of children with symptoms of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) that have sugar intolerance as determined by using a breath hydrogen test. We prospectively enrolled subjects with chronic abdominal pain, bloating and/or chronic diarrhea. All subjects underwent triple sugar screen hydrogen breath test (TSST) using the combined sugar solution. Breath hydrogen concentration ≥ 20 ppm above baseline was interpreted a positive test for sugar malabsorption. A positive hydrogen breath test consistent with sugar malabsorption was found in 5 out of 31 (16%) subjects. Three of these subjects were confirmed to have lactose malabsorption based on small bowel lactase enzyme analysis or subsequent lactose hydrogen breath test. One subject with positive TSST was diagnosed with fructose malabsorption based on dietary history; he improved on a limited fructose diet, and one was diagnosed to have gastric Crohn's disease. Approximately one in six children with symptoms of FGID had sugar intolerance as determined by the TSST.

  10. Physical examination tests for screening and diagnosis of cervicogenic headache: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Ochoa, J; Benítez-Martínez, J; Lluch, E; Santacruz-Zaragozá, S; Gómez-Contreras, P; Cook, C E

    2016-02-01

    It has been suggested that differential diagnosis of headaches should consist of a robust subjective examination and a detailed physical examination of the cervical spine. Cervicogenic headache (CGH) is a form of headache that involves referred pain from the neck. To our knowledge, no studies have summarized the reliability and diagnostic accuracy of physical examination tests for CGH. The aim of this study was to summarize the reliability and diagnostic accuracy of physical examination tests used to diagnose CGH. A systematic review following PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines was performed in four electronic databases (MEDLINE, Web of Science, Embase and Scopus). Full text reports concerning physical tests for the diagnosis of CGH which reported the clinometric properties for assessment of CGH, were included and screened for methodological quality. Quality Appraisal for Reliability Studies (QAREL) and Quality Assessment of Studies of Diagnostic Accuracy (QUADAS-2) scores were completed to assess article quality. Eight articles were retrieved for quality assessment and data extraction. Studies investigating diagnostic reliability of physical examination tests for CGH scored poorer on methodological quality (higher risk of bias) than those of diagnostic accuracy. There is sufficient evidence showing high levels of reliability and diagnostic accuracy of the selected physical examination tests for the diagnosis of CGH. The cervical flexion-rotation test (CFRT) exhibited both the highest reliability and the strongest diagnostic accuracy for the diagnosis of CGH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Screening Utility of the King-Devick Test in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Disease Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galetta, Kristin M; Chapman, Kimberly R; Essis, Maritza D; Alosco, Michael L; Gillard, Danielle; Steinberg, Eric; Dixon, Diane; Martin, Brett; Chaisson, Christine E; Kowall, Neil W; Tripodis, Yorghos; Balcer, Laura J; Stern, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    The King-Devick (K-D) test is a 1 to 2 minute, rapid number naming test, often used to assist with detection of concussion, but also has clinical utility in other neurological conditions (eg, Parkinson disease). The K-D involves saccadic eye and other eye movements, and abnormalities thereof may be an early indicator of Alzheimer disease (AD)-associated cognitive impairment. No study has tested the utility of the K-D in AD and we sought to do so. The sample included 206 [135 controls, 39 mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 32 AD dementia] consecutive subjects from the Boston University Alzheimer's Disease Center registry undergoing their initial annual evaluation between March 2013 and July 2015. The K-D was administered during this period. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves generated from logistic regression models revealed the K-D test distinguished controls from subjects with cognitive impairment (MCI and AD dementia) [area under the curve (AUC)=0.72], MCI (AUC=0.71) and AD dementia (AUC=0.74). K-D time scores between 48 and 52 seconds were associated with high sensitivity (>90.0%) and negative predictive values (>85.0%) for each diagnostic group. The K-D correlated strongly with validated attention, processing speed, and visual scanning tests. The K-D test may be a rapid and simple effective screening tool to detect cognitive impairment associated with AD.

  12. Computer-assisted static/dynamic renal imaging: a screening test for renovascular hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keim, H.J.; Johnson, P.M.; Vaughan, E.D. Jr.; Beg, K.; Follett, D.A.; Freeman, L.M.; Laragh, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Computer-assisted static/dynamic renal imaging with [ 197 Hg] chlormerodrin and [/sup 99m/Tc] pertechnetate was evaluated prospectively as a screening test for renovascular hypertension. Results are reported for 51 patients: 33 with benign essential hypertension and 18 with renovascular hypertension, and for 21 normal controls. All patients underwent renal arteriography. Patients with significant obesity, renal insufficiency, or renoparenchymal disease were excluded from this study. Independent visual analyses of renal gamma images and time-activity transit curves identified 17 of the 18 patients with renovascular hypertension; one study was equivocal. There were five equivocal and three false-positive results in the essential hypertension and normal control groups. The sensitivity of the method was 94% and the specificity 85%. Since the prevalence of the renovascular subset of hypertension is approximately 5%, the predictive value is only 25%. Inclusion of computer-generated data did not improve this result. Accordingly, this method is not recommended as a primary screening test for renovascular hypertension

  13. NC-TEST: noncontact thermal emissions screening technique for drug and alcohol detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokoski, Francine J.

    1997-01-01

    Drug abuse is highly correlated with criminal behavior. The typical drug-using criminal commits hundreds of crimes per year. The crime rate cannot be significantly reduced without a reduction in the percentage of the population abusing drugs and alcohol. Accurate and timely estimation of that percentage is important for policy decisions concerning crime control, public health measures, allocation of intervention resources for prevention and treatment, projections of criminal justice needs, and the evaluation of policy effectiveness. Such estimation is particularly difficult because self reporting is unreliable; and physical testing has to date required blood or urine analysis which is expensive and invasive, with the result that too few people are tested. MIKOS Ltd. has developed a non-contact, passive technique with the potential for automatic, real- time screening for drug and alcohol use. The system utilizes thermal radiation which is spontaneously and continuously emitted by the human body. Facial thermal patterns and changes in patterns are correlated with standardized effects of specific drugs and alcohol. A portable system incorporating the collection and analysis technique can be used episodically to collect data for estimating drug and alcohol use by general unknown populations such as crowds at airports, or it can be used for repetitive routine screening of specific known groups such as airline pilots, military personnel, school children, or persons on probation or parole.

  14. Validation of the Danish Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination as a screening test in a memory clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jette; Vogel, Asmus; Johannsen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    of this study was to evaluate the Danish version of ACE as a screening test for early dementia in an outpatient memory clinic. Further, we wanted to investigate the ability of the ACE to discriminate patients with early Alzheimer's disease (AD) from patients with depression. METHOD: 78 patients with mild AD...... (MMSE >or=20), 30 non-demented patients diagnosed with depression (originally referred for evaluation of cognitive symptoms), and 63 healthy volunteers, all between 60 and 85 years of age, were included. All patients were given the ACE as a supplement to the standard diagnostic work-up. RESULTS: The cut...... and depressed patients. CONCLUSION: The optimal cut-off points for ACE found in this Danish study were close to what is reported in most other European studies. The great overlap in ACE scores for demented and depressed patients emphasize that test scores must be interpreted with great caution when used...

  15. 49 CFR 40.245 - What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Alcohol Screening Tests § 40.245 What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using a saliva ASD or... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD? 40.245 Section 40.245 Transportation Office of the...

  16. 49 CFR 40.243 - What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using an EBT or non-evidential breath ASD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Alcohol Screening Tests § 40.243 What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using an EBT or non... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using an EBT or non-evidential breath ASD? 40.243 Section 40.243 Transportation Office of the...

  17. Screening, testing, and reporting for drug and alcohol use on labor and delivery: a survey of Maryland birthing hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Catherine; Lanham, Amy; Welsh, Christopher; Ramanadhan, Shaalini; Terplan, Mishka

    2014-01-01

    Recent amendments to the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act tie the receipt of federal block grants to mandatory reporting of substance-exposed newborns. To determine rates of screening, testing, and reporting of drug and alcohol use at the time of delivery, we administered a telephone survey of nursing managers and perinatal social workers at Maryland birthing hospitals. Of the 34 hospitals, 31 responded (response rate 91%). Although 97% of hospitals reported universal screening, only 6% used a validated instrument. Testing was reported by 94% with 45% reporting universal maternal testing and 7% universal newborn testing. Only 32% reported obtaining maternal consent prior to testing. There is significant heterogeneity in screening and testing for substance use in birthing hospitals. Given federal reporting mandates, state-level practices need to be standardized.

  18. Attitudes of pregnant women and male partners towards non-invasive prenatal testing and widening the scope of prenatal screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schendel, Rachèl V.; Kleinveld, Johanna H.; Dondorp, Wybo J.; Pajkrt, Eva; Timmermans, Danielle R. M.; Holtkamp, Kim C. A.; Karsten, Margreet; Vlietstra, Anne L.; Lachmeijer, Augusta M. A.; Henneman, Lidewij

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) and its potential to test for multiple disorders has received much attention. This study explores attitudes of women and men towards NIPT, and their views on widening the scope of prenatal testing in a country with a low uptake of prenatal screening (The

  19. Clinical evaluation of the Nanoduct sweat test system in the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis after newborn screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij-van Langen, Annette; Dompeling, Edward; Yntema, Jan-Bart; Arets, HGM; Tiddens, Harm; Loeber, Gerard; Dankert-Roelse, Jeannette

    After a positive newborn screening test for cystic fibrosis (CF), a sweat test is performed to confirm the diagnosis. The success rate of the generally acknowledged methods (Macroduct/Gibson and Cooke) in newborns varies between 73 and 99 %. The Nanoduct sweat test system is easier to perform and

  20. HPV testing in combination with liquid-based cytology in primary cervical screening (ARTISTIC): a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchener, Henry C; Almonte, Maribel; Thomson, Claire; Wheeler, Paula; Sargent, Alexandra; Stoykova, Boyka; Gilham, Clare; Baysson, Helene; Roberts, Christopher; Dowie, Robin; Desai, Mina; Mather, Jean; Bailey, Andrew; Turner, Andrew; Moss, Sue; Peto, Julian

    2009-07-01

    Testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA is reportedly more sensitive than cytology for the detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The effectiveness of HPV testing in primary cervical screening was assessed in the ARTISTIC trial, which was done over two screening rounds approximately 3 years apart (2001-03 and 2004-07) by comparing liquid-based cytology (LBC) combined with HPV testing against LBC alone. Women aged 20-64 years who were undergoing routine screening as part of the English National Health Service Cervical Screening Programme in Greater Manchester were randomly assigned (between July, 2001, and September, 2003) in a ratio of 3:1 to either combined LBC and HPV testing in which the results were revealed and acted on, or to combined LBC and HPV testing where the HPV result was concealed from the patient and investigator. The primary outcome was the detection rate of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) in the second screening round, analysed by intention to treat. This trial is registered with the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number ISRCTN25417821. There were 24 510 eligible women at entry (18 386 in the revealed group, 6124 in the concealed group). In the first round of screening 233 women (1.27%) in the revealed group had CIN3+, compared with 80 (1.31%) women in the concealed group (odds ratio [OR] 0.97, 95% CI 0.75-1.25; p>0.2). There was an unexpectedly large drop in the proportion of women with CIN3+ between the first and second rounds of screening in both groups, at 0.25% (29 of 11 676) in the revealed group and 0.47% (18 of 3866 women) in the concealed group (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.30-0.96; p=0.042). For both rounds combined, the proportion of women with CIN3+ were 1.51% (revealed) and 1.77% (concealed) (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.67-1.08; p>0.2). LBC combined with HPV testing resulted in a significantly lower detection rate of CIN3+ in the second round of screening compared with LBC

  1. Combinations of two odorants of smell identification test for screening of olfactory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Junpei; Kitamura, Miwa; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Matsubasa, Tomoko; Seo, Atsuko; Miwa, Takaki

    2014-12-01

    To determine whether combinations of two odorants of the Open Essence smell identification test can be used to screen for olfactory impairment in Japanese people. A total of 243 Japanese subjects (142 males, 101 females; mean age, 37.5 years; age range, 20-62 years) were enrolled in the study. The main outcome measures were the results of olfactory testing by using the full 12 odorants (condensed milk, cooking gas, curry, cypress wood (Japanese cypress, hinoki), India ink, Japanese orange (mikan), menthol, perfume, roasted garlic, rose, sweaty-smelling clothes, and wood) of the Open Essence test as well as combinations of two odorants of the Open Essence test, and the results of self-reported questionnaires addressing awareness of a smell disorder, history of sinunasal disease, self-reported nasal obstruction, and history of smoking. In screening with combinations of two odorants, the highest positive likelihood ratio (19.1) was obtained with the cypress wood and India ink odorants. All subjects correctly identified the curry odorant. Combinations of other odorants also had high positive likelihood ratios (India ink and sweaty-smelling clothes, 17.6; perfume and sweaty-smelling clothes, 14.7; cypress wood and roasted garlic, 14.1; cypress wood and rose, 13.2; cypress wood and perfume, 11.0; cypress wood and wood, 10.7). The combination of cypress wood and India ink odorants may be useful for detecting individuals with olfactory impairment among subjects who can correctly identify the curry odorant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A first approach to a neuropsychological screening tool using eye-tracking for bedside cognitive testing based on the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Jürgen; Krimly, Amon; Bauer, Lisa; Schulenburg, Sarah; Böhm, Sarah; Aho-Özhan, Helena E A; Uttner, Ingo; Gorges, Martin; Kassubek, Jan; Pinkhardt, Elmar H; Abrahams, Sharon; Ludolph, Albert C; Lulé, Dorothée

    2017-08-01

    Reliable assessment of cognitive functions is a challenging task in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients unable to speak and write. We therefore present an eye-tracking based neuropsychological screening tool based on the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS), a standard screening tool for cognitive deficits in ALS. In total, 46 ALS patients and 50 healthy controls matched for age, gender and education were tested with an oculomotor based and a standard paper-and-pencil version of the ECAS. Significant correlation between both versions was observed for ALS patients and healthy controls in the ECAS total score and in all of its ALS-specific domains (all r > 0.3; all p ALS patients and healthy controls in the ECAS total score (p ALS patients who are unable to speak or write.

  3. Development of new non-invasive tests for colorectal cancer screening: the relevance of information on adenoma detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Ulrike; Knudsen, Amy B; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Kuntz, Karen M

    2015-06-15

    Researchers are actively pursuing the development of a new non-invasive test (NIT) for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening as an alternative to fecal occult blood tests (FOBTs). The majority of pilot studies focus on the detection of invasive CRC rather than precursor lesions (i.e., adenomas). We aimed to explore the relevance of adenoma detection for the viability of an NIT for CRC screening by considering a hypothetical test that does not detect adenomas beyond chance. We used the Simulation Model of Colorectal Cancer (SimCRC) to estimate the effectiveness of CRC screening and the lifetime costs (payers' perspective) for a cohort of US 50-years-old persons to whom CRC screening is offered from age 50-75. We compared annual screening with guaiac and immunochemical FOBTs (with sensitivities up to 70 and 24% for CRC and adenomas, respectively) to annual screening with a hypothetical NIT (sensitivity of 90% for CRC, no detection of adenomas beyond chance, specificity and cost similar to FOBTs). Screening with the NIT was not more effective, but was 29-44% more costly than screening with FOBTs. The findings were robust to varying the screening interval, the NIT's sensitivity for CRC, adherence rates favoring the NIT, and the NIT's unit cost. A comparative modelling approach using a model that assumes a shorter adenoma dwell time (MISCAN-COLON) confirmed the superiority of the immunochemical FOBT over an NIT with no ability to detect adenomas. Information on adenoma detection is crucial to determine whether a new NIT is a viable alternative to FOBTs for CRC screening. Current evidence thus lacks an important piece of information to identify marker candidates that hold real promise and deserve further (large-scale) evaluation. © 2014 UICC.

  4. Parental duties and prenatal screening: does an offer of prenatal screening lead women to believe that they are morally compelled to test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Elisa; Timmermans, Danielle R M; van Leeuwen, Evert

    2012-12-01

    in debates around prenatal screening, it is frequently argued that responsible parenthood implies the acquisition of all available medical information about the health of a fetus, and use of this information to benefit the future child. to analyse whether an offer of a prenatal test leads women to believe that they are morally obliged to control the health of their fetus. a substudy within a randomised controlled trial (RCT) aimed to assess the decision-making process of women when confronted with an offer of a prenatal screening test. 111 women participating in an RCT were retrospectively asked their views on the meaning of testing within their parental duties. testing was described as a personal option that goes beyond the normal parental responsibilities. Participants did not believe that they ought to control the health of the fetus or to avoid disability. A duty to test was only reported when the birth of a disabled child would have a negative impact on family life. women's accounts suggest that two main factors are involved in making testing morally obligatory: (1) the woman's views on her moral duties to her family; and (2) the expected burden of a disabled child on the well-being of the family. A family-centred approach would be more suitable to assess the moral imperative character of testing than women's ethical views about their moral duties towards their unborn child. a test offer should not be limited to communication of the characteristics of screening and the meaning of the test results. In helping women to assess the meaning of testing within their parental duties, counselling should include the family situation in which women have to decide, the women's expectations about living with a child with Down's syndrome or any other disability, and the women's views on their commitments towards their family. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Scaled Composites' Doug Shane examines the screen of his ground control station during tests in New

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Scaled Composites' Doug Shane examines the screen of his ground control station during tests in New Mexico. Shane used this configuration as the ground control station to remotely pilot the Proteus aircraft during a NASA sponsored series of test flights. The unique Proteus aircraft served as a test bed for NASA-sponsored flight tests designed to validate collision-avoidance technologies proposed for uninhabited aircraft. The tests, flown over southern New Mexico in March, 2002, used the Proteus as a surrogate uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) while three other aircraft flew toward the Proteus from various angles on simulated collision courses. Radio-based 'detect, see and avoid' equipment on the Proteus successfully detected the other aircraft and relayed that information to a remote pilot on the ground at Las Cruces Airport. The pilot then transmitted commands to the Proteus to maneuver it away from the potential collisions. The flight demonstration, sponsored by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, New Mexico State University, Scaled Composites, the U.S. Navy and Modern Technology Solutions, Inc., were intended to demonstrate that UAVs can be flown safely and compatibly in the same skies as piloted aircraft.

  6. Screening test for neutralizing antibodies against yellow fever virus, based on a flavivirus pseudotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Mercier-Delarue

    Full Text Available Given the possibility of yellow fever virus reintroduction in epidemiologically receptive geographic areas, the risk of vaccine supply disruption is a serious issue. New strategies to reduce the doses of injected vaccines should be evaluated very carefully in terms of immunogenicity. The plaque reduction test for the determination of neutralizing antibodies (PRNT is particularly time-consuming and requires the use of a confinement laboratory. We have developed a new test based on the use of a non-infectious pseudovirus (WN/YF17D. The presence of a reporter gene allows sensitive determination of neutralizing antibodies by flow cytometry. This WN/YF17D test was as sensitive as PRNT for the follow-up of yellow fever vaccinees. Both tests lacked specificity with sera from patients hospitalized for acute Dengue virus infection. Conversely, both assays were strictly negative in adults never exposed to flavivirus infection or vaccination, and in patients sampled some time after acute Dengue infection. This WN/YF17D test will be particularly useful for large epidemiological studies and for screening for neutralizing antibodies against yellow fever virus.

  7. Review of short-term screening tests for mutagens, toxigens, and carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carney, H.J.; Hass, B.S.

    1979-07-01

    In order to test the thousands of man-made chemicals in the environment for carcinogenic and genetic hazards, a multitude of short-term screening tests has been developed to complement long-term mammalian bioassays and epidemiological studies. These tests cover a broad spectrum of organisms, and include the use of naked and viral nucleic acids, bacteria, fungi, higher plants, insects in vitro mammalian cell cultures (cell transformation, cell-mediated mutagenesis, DNA repair, and chromosome aberration tests) and live mammals. Assay end points include effects on nucleic acids, DNA repair synthesis, point or gene mutation, structural and numerical chromosome aberrations, cytological alterations, and in vitro cell transformation. The present review describes and compares these assays. In addition, it discusses their historical development, the problems and limitations associated with their use, and their implementation in comprehensive testing programs. It is intended to provide overview and specific information to the laboratory that is in the process of establishing genetic toxicological systems. (The literature is reviewed to January 1978.)

  8. Introduction of non-invasive prenatal testing as a first-tier aneuploidy screening test: A survey among Dutch midwives about their role as counsellors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Linda; Gitsels-van der Wal, Janneke T; de Boer, Marjon A; Vanstone, Meredith; Henneman, Lidewij

    2018-01-01

    In 2014, non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for trisomies 21, 18 and 13 was added to the Dutch prenatal screening program as part of the TRIDENT study. Most (85%) pregnant Dutch women are counselled for prenatal aneuploidy screening by primary care midwives. This will remain when NIPT is implemented as a first-tier screening test. We therefore investigated midwife counsellors': 1) Knowledge about NIPT; 2) Attitudes towards NIPT as first-tier screening test; and 3) Experiences with informing clients about NIPT. Between April-June 2015, an online questionnaire to assess knowledge about NIPT, attitudes towards NIPT, and experiences with NIPT was completed by 436 Dutch primary care midwives. We found that 59% midwives answered ≥7 of 8 knowledge questions correctly. Continuing professional education attendance and more positive attitudes towards prenatal screening for Down syndrome were positively associated with the total knowledge score (β = 0.261; p = 0.007 and β = 0.204; p = 0.015, respectively). The majority (67%) were in favor of replacing First trimester Combined Test with NIPT, although 41% preferred to maintain a nuchal translucency measurement alongside NIPT. We conclude that midwives demonstrated solid knowledge about NIPT that may still be improved in some areas. Dutch midwives overwhelmingly support the integration of NIPT as a first-tier screening test. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hemoglobinopathy screening by osmotic fragility test based on flow cytometer or naked eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Rinkle; Warang, Prashant; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Colah, Roshan

    2016-05-01

    Diagnosis of hemoglobin (Hb) disorders is based mostly on abnormal red blood cell (RBC) indices, elevated levels of HbA2, HbF, or any other Hb on the Variant high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system, and confirmation by molecular methods. However, large scale population screening is of prime importance and requires a simple, accurate, and cost effective technique. We have tried to compare the sensitivity of the widely used Naked Eye Single Tube Red Cell Osmotic Fragility Test (NESTROFT) and the osmotic fragility described as % residual RBCs through flow cytometry for population screening. The count of residual red cells was measured sequentially in real-time using flow cytometry. NESTROFT was performed using a 0.36% buffered saline. HbA2 and HbF levels along with other abnormal Hbs were determined on the Variant HPLC System. Molecular studies were done to confirm the diagnosis. The normal group showed a significantly lower percentage of residual RBCs (48.08 ± 11.87) as compared to cases (β thalassemia trait-82.97 ± 12.20, α thalassemia trait-72.58 ± 8.34, and HbS trait-85.00 ± 4.05). The sensitivity and specificity of NESTROFT was high for both β thalassemia traits (98.33 and 96.72%, respectively) and α thalassemia traits (100 and 96.72%, respectively) but very low sensitivity for HbS traits (54.84%). Flow cytometric osmotic fragility was a more sensitive method to discriminate normal from the group of hemoglobinopathy carriers as compared to NESTROFT which missed majority of HbS carriers. However, in view of feasibility and cost effectiveness, NESTROFT could still be used for population screening of thalassemia. © 2014 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2014 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  10. Development and Usability Testing of a Computer-Tailored Decision Support Tool for Lung Cancer Screening: Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Harris, Lisa; Comer, Robert Skipworth; Goyal, Anurag; Vode, Emilee Christine; Hanna, Nasser; Ceppa, DuyKhanh; Rawl, Susan M

    2017-11-16

    Awareness of lung cancer screening remains low in the screening-eligible population, and when patients visit their clinician never having heard of lung cancer screening, engaging in shared decision making to arrive at an informed decision can be a challenge. Therefore, methods to effectively support both patients and clinicians to engage in these important discussions are essential. To facilitate shared decision making about lung cancer screening, effective methods to prepare patients to have these important discussions with their clinician are needed. Our objective is to develop a computer-tailored decision support tool that meets the certification criteria of the International Patient Decision Aid Standards instrument version 4.0 that will support shared decision making in lung cancer screening decisions. Using a 3-phase process, we will develop and test a prototype of a computer-tailored decision support tool in a sample of lung cancer screening-eligible individuals. In phase I, we assembled a community advisory board comprising 10 screening-eligible individuals to develop the prototype. In phase II, we recruited a sample of 13 screening-eligible individuals to test the prototype for usability, acceptability, and satisfaction. In phase III, we are conducting a pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) with 60 screening-eligible participants who have never been screened for lung cancer. Outcomes tested include lung cancer and screening knowledge, lung cancer screening health beliefs (perceived risk, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy), perception of being prepared to engage in a patient-clinician discussion about lung cancer screening, occurrence of a patient-clinician discussion about lung cancer screening, and stage of adoption for lung cancer screening. Phases I and II are complete. Phase III is underway. As of July 15, 2017, 60 participants have been enrolled into the study, and have completed the baseline survey, intervention, and first

  11. Sensitivity analysis in the test of a parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC) with flat null-screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-García, Manuel; Huerta-Carranza, Oliver; Díaz-Uribe, José Rufino; Moreno-Oliva, Víctor Iván.; Santiago-Alvarado, Agustín.; Peña-Conzueloa, Andrés.

    2016-09-01

    In this work we proposed a flat null-screen method to test parabolic trough solar collectors (PTSC). The null-screen testing method measures the slope of the test surface and by a numerical integration procedure the shape of the test surface can be obtained. In this work, we show that the test can be sensitive to small surface deformations, such as those caused by sinusoidal deformations with different amplitudes and spatial periods introduced on the PTSC surface. These calculations also show that the attainable theoretical slope accuracy in the rms sense is about 0.34 mrad. This value was obtained under the assumption that is possible to achieve a 1-pixel resolution on the measurement of the position departures of the centroids of the targets of the null-screen.

  12. Exploring general practitioners' experience of informing women about prenatal screening tests for foetal abnormalities: A qualitative focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiser Bettina

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent developments have made screening tests for foetal abnormalities available earlier in pregnancy and women have a range of testing options accessible to them. It is now recommended that all women, regardless of their age, are provided with information on prenatal screening tests. General Practitioners (GPs are often the first health professionals a woman consults in pregnancy. As such, GPs are well positioned to inform women of the increasing range of prenatal screening tests available. The aim of this study was to explore GPs experience of informing women of prenatal genetic screening tests for foetal abnormality. Methods A qualitative study consisting of four focus groups was conducted in metropolitan and rural Victoria, Australia. A discussion guide was used and the audio-taped transcripts were independently coded by two researchers using thematic analysis. Multiple coders and analysts and informant feedback were employed to reduce the potential for researcher bias and increase the validity of the findings. Results Six themes were identified and classified as 'intrinsic' if they occurred within the context of the consultation or 'extrinsic' if they consisted of elements that impacted on the GP beyond the scope of the consultation. The three intrinsic themes were the way GPs explained the limitations of screening, the extent to which GPs provided information selectively and the time pressures at play. The three extrinsic factors were GPs' attitudes and values towards screening, the conflict they experienced in offering screening information and the sense of powerlessness within the screening test process and the health care system generally. Extrinsic themes reveal GPs' attitudes and values to screening and to disability, as well as raising questions about the fundamental premise of testing. Conclusion The increasing availability and utilisation of screening tests, in particular first trimester tests, has expanded GPs

  13. Echocardiography as a Screening Test for Myocardial Scarring in Children with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Compton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM is burdened with morbidity and mortality including tachyarrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. These complications are attributed in part to the formation of proarrhythmic scars in the myocardium. The presence of extensive LGE is a risk factor for adverse outcomes in HCM. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI is the standard for the noninvasive evaluation of myocardial scars. However, echocardiography represents an attractive screening tool for myocardial scarring. The aim of this study was to compare the suitability of echocardiography to detect myocardial scars to the standard of cMRI-LGE. Methods. The cMRI studies and echocardiograms from 56 consecutive children with HCM were independently evaluated for the presence of cMRI-LGE and echocardiographic evidence of scarring by expert readers. Results. Echocardiography had a high sensitivity (93% and negative predictive value (94% in comparison to LGE. The false positive rate was high, leading to a low specificity (37% and a low positive predictive value (35%. Conclusions. Given the poor specificity and positive predictive value, echocardiography is not a suitable screening test for the presence of myocardial scarring in children with HCM. However, children without echocardiographic evidence of myocardial scarring may not need to undergo cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to “rule in” LGE.

  14. Validation of Romanowsky staining as a novel screening test for the detection of faecal cryptosporidial oocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brar, A P S; Sood, N K; Singla, L D; Kaur, P; Gupta, K; Sandhu, B S

    2017-03-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is an emerging waterborne protozoan disease and one of the major causes of neonatal diarrhea in humans and animals. But the disease remains under diagnosed due to lack of availability of special stains in majority of laboratories at primary health centers. Therefore, it requires a rapid screening test for routine diagnosis in conventional laboratory set up. In this pursuit, the present study was planned. During this study, fecal samples from 100 representative animals randomly selected from 17 out breaks of bovine calf diarrhea, were stained with modified Ziehl Neelsen staining (mZN) and Leishman's stain to demonstrate cryptosporidial oocysts and for routine fecal examination, respectively. By mZN staining, 25 cases confirmed the presence of cryptosporidial oocysts. However, examination of Leishman's stained fecal smears revealed round hollow unstained bodies resembling cryptosporidia in 20 cases. Therefore, a comparative morphometric analysis was made between the two techniques to determine their relative efficacy in demonstrating cryptosporidia in the feces of affected animals. The analyses showed that the Leishman's stain can be effective in making a presumptive diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis with a little experience. Confirmation of cryptosporidiosis was done by histopathological examination of intestinal sections of calves died during these out breaks. The findings appear to have great clinical value for routine laboratory screening of fecal samples for cryptosporidiosis as conventional Romanowsky stains are readily available and used for multipurpose examination in most of the laboratories at grass root level. Perusal of literature proved this to be the first attempt at easy diagnostics for cryptosporidiosis.

  15. Assessment of Substances Abuse in Burn Patients by Using Drug Abuse Screening Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobra Gaseminegad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increase in the frequency of substance abuse among hospitalized burn injury patients. However, few studies have investigated substance abuse among burn patients. This study was aimed to identify the incidence of substance abuse in burn injury patients using the "Drug Abuse Screening Test" (DAST-20. We determined the validity of DAST-20 in spring 2010. Subsequently, this descriptive study was performed on 203 burn injury patients who fit the study's inclusion criteria. We chose a score of 6 as the cutoff and thus achieved a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 85% for the DAST-20. During the study, we gathered demographic data, burn features and DAST-20 results for all patients. Patients with scores of 6 or more were considered to be substances abusers. A statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS v16 software. According to the DAST-20 results, 33% of the patients were in the user group. The mean score of DAST-20 was significantly higher among users than it was among nonusers (P<0.05. The level of substance abuse was severe in 77% of users. No significant differences were found among the substances, with the exception of alcohol. Substance abuse is an important risk factor for burn patients. In addition, this study showed that DAST-20 is a valid screening measure for studies on burn patients.

  16. Psychophysical Calibration of Mobile Touch-Screens for Vision Testing in the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2015-01-01

    The now ubiquitous nature of touch-screen displays in cell phones and tablet computers makes them an attractive option for vision testing outside of the laboratory or clinic. Accurate measurement of parameters such as contrast sensitivity, however, requires precise control of absolute and relative screen luminances. The nonlinearity of the display response (gamma) can be measured or checked using a minimum motion technique similar to that developed by Anstis and Cavanagh (1983) for the determination of isoluminance. While the relative luminances of the color primaries vary between subjects (due to factors such as individual differences in pre-retinal pigment densities), the gamma nonlinearity can be checked in the lab using a photometer. Here we compare results obtained using the psychophysical method with physical measurements for a number of different devices. In addition, we present a novel physical method using the device's built-in front-facing camera in conjunction with a mirror to jointly calibrate the camera and display. A high degree of consistency between devices is found, but some departures from ideal performance are observed. In spite of this, the effects of calibration errors and display artifacts on estimates of contrast sensitivity are found to be small.

  17. Test-retest reliability and practice effects for the ANAM General Neuropsychological Screening battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Andrea S; Roebuck-Spencer, Tresa M; Fuenzalida, Eugenia; Gilliland, Kirby

    2018-04-01

    As the use of computer-based neurocognitive assessment is rapidly expanding, the need to systematically study and document key psychometric properties of these measures has become increasingly more salient. To meet this aim, this study examined test-retest reliability and practice effects for the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics General Neuropsychological Screening battery (ANAM GNS) in a sample of 94 community dwelling adults. ANAM GNS was administered and then repeated (alternate form) after 30 days. Test-retest reliability, practice effects, and the standard error of measurement were calculated. Using these estimates, reliable change indices were calculated to determine degree of performance change needed to exceed chance and measurement error (with 90% confidence interval). The test-retest reliability for the ANAM composite score was .91. Performance significantly improved upon retest, but the effect size was small consistent with minimal practice effects. The threshold indicating change beyond chance or measurement error with 90% certainty was .9 (z-score). Findings suggest that the ANAM GNS has excellent test-retest reliability upon retest at 30 days. Small practice effects can be expected. Change greater than .9 standard deviations in the ANAM composite score is likely to represent meaningful clinical change. This paper presents initial psychometric data from the ANAM GNS and supports its use as a reliable measure of cognition.

  18. Functional Screening Tests: Interrelationships and Ability to Predict Vertical Jump Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loturco, Irineu; Pereira, Lucas Adriano; Kobal, Ronaldo; Abad, Cesar Cavinato Cal; Komatsu, William; Cunha, Ronaldo; Arliani, Gustavo; Ejnisman, Benno; Pochini, Alberto de Castro; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; Cohen, Moises

    2018-02-01

    There are several methods used in sports science to identify asymmetries in athletes, given their purported relevance to injury prevention and performance optimization. We aimed to verify whether asymmetries provided by isokinetic assessments, jump tests, and tensiomyography (TMG) are associated with each other, and whether their respective functional indices are related to jumping ability. TMG parameters, unilateral and bilateral squat-jump (SJ) and countermovement-jump (CMJ) performances, and peak torque in knee-extension and flexion with angular velocities of 60 o /s and 300 o /s for twenty-four soccer players were retained for analyses. Asymmetry was detected by examining the percentage difference between dominant and non-dominant legs. The median-split technique was used to identify the best and worst performers in SJ and CMJ tests. Results revealed that the asymmetries detected in the three different methods were not interrelated. Curiously, better performances in SJ and CMJ tests were associated with higher asymmetry levels. Furthermore, only the knee-extension peak torque at both angular velocities was correlated moderately to largely (r=0.48-0.66) with jump performance. Despite their recognized ability to predict the risk of injury, the absence of interrelationships between TMG, isokinetic tests, and unilateral jumps precludes their single use as a unique functional screening diagnostic. Finally, and very importantly, lower-limb asymmetry is not necessarily related to impaired vertical jump performance in soccer players. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. A highly accurate inclusive cancer screening test using Caenorhabditis elegans scent detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Hirotsu

    Full Text Available Early detection and treatment are of vital importance to the successful eradication of various cancers, and development of economical and non-invasive novel cancer screening systems is critical. Previous reports using canine scent detection demonstrated the existence of cancer-specific odours. However, it is difficult to introduce canine scent recognition into clinical practice because of the need to maintain accuracy. In this study, we developed a Nematode Scent Detection Test (NSDT using Caenorhabditis elegans to provide a novel highly accurate cancer detection system that is economical, painless, rapid and convenient. We demonstrated wild-type C. elegans displayed attractive chemotaxis towards human cancer cell secretions, cancer tissues and urine from cancer patients but avoided control urine; in parallel, the response of the olfactory neurons of C. elegans to the urine from cancer patients was significantly stronger than to control urine. In contrast, G protein α mutants and olfactory neurons-ablated animals were not attracted to cancer patient urine, suggesting that C. elegans senses odours in urine. We tested 242 samples to measure the performance of the NSDT, and found the sensitivity was 95.8%; this is markedly higher than that of other existing tumour markers. Furthermore, the specificity was 95.0%. Importantly, this test was able to diagnose various cancer types tested at the early stage (stage 0 or 1. To conclude, C. elegans scent-based analyses might provide a new strategy to detect and study disease-associated scents.

  20. A highly accurate inclusive cancer screening test using Caenorhabditis elegans scent detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirotsu, Takaaki; Sonoda, Hideto; Uozumi, Takayuki; Shinden, Yoshiaki; Mimori, Koshi; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Ueda, Naoko; Hamakawa, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Early detection and treatment are of vital importance to the successful eradication of various cancers, and development of economical and non-invasive novel cancer screening systems is critical. Previous reports using canine scent detection demonstrated the existence of cancer-specific odours. However, it is difficult to introduce canine scent recognition into clinical practice because of the need to maintain accuracy. In this study, we developed a Nematode Scent Detection Test (NSDT) using Caenorhabditis elegans to provide a novel highly accurate cancer detection system that is economical, painless, rapid and convenient. We demonstrated wild-type C. elegans displayed attractive chemotaxis towards human cancer cell secretions, cancer tissues and urine from cancer patients but avoided control urine; in parallel, the response of the olfactory neurons of C. elegans to the urine from cancer patients was significantly stronger than to control urine. In contrast, G protein α mutants and olfactory neurons-ablated animals were not attracted to cancer patient urine, suggesting that C. elegans senses odours in urine. We tested 242 samples to measure the performance of the NSDT, and found the sensitivity was 95.8%; this is markedly higher than that of other existing tumour markers. Furthermore, the specificity was 95.0%. Importantly, this test was able to diagnose various cancer types tested at the early stage (stage 0 or 1). To conclude, C. elegans scent-based analyses might provide a new strategy to detect and study disease-associated scents.

  1. Cost-Effectiveness of Primary HPV Testing, Cytology and Co-testing as Cervical Cancer Screening for Women Above Age 30 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xian Wen; Lipold, Laura; Foucher, Julie; Sikon, Andrea; Brainard, Jennifer; Belinson, Jerome; Schramm, Sarah; Nottingham, Kelly; Hu, Bo; Rothberg, Michael B

    2016-11-01

    Cervical cancer screening guidelines for women aged ≥30 years allow for co-testing or primary cytology testing. Our objective was to determine the test characteristics and costs associated with Cytology, HPV and Co-testing screening strategies. Retrospective cohort study of women undergoing cervical cancer screening with both cytology and HPV (Hybrid Capture 2) testing from 2004 to 2010 in an integrated health system. The electronic health record was used to identify women aged ≥30 years who had co-testing. Unsatisfactory or unavailable test results and incorrectly ordered tests were excluded. The main outcome was biopsy-proven cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or higher (CIN3+). The final cohort consisted of 99,549 women. Subjects were mostly white (78.4 %), married (70.7 %), never smokers (61.3 %) and with private insurance (86.1 %). Overall, 5121 (5.1 %) tested positive for HPV and 6115 (6.1 %) had cytology ≥ ASCUS; 1681 had both and underwent colposcopy and 310 (0.3 %) had CIN3+. Sensitivity for CIN3+ was 91.9 % for Primary Cytology, 99.4 % for Co-testing, and 94.8 % for Primary HPV; specificity was 97.3 % for Co-testing and Primary Cytology and 97.9 % for Primary HPV. Over a 3-year screening interval, Primary HPV detected more cases of CIN3+ and was less expensive than Primary Cytology. Co-testing detected 14 more cases of CIN3+ than Primary HPV, but required an additional 100,277 cytology tests and 566 colposcopies at an added cost of $2.38 million, or $170,096 per additional case detected. Primary HPV was more effective and less expensive than Primary Cytology. Primary HPV screening appears to represent a cost-effective alternative to Co-testing.

  2. Injury history, sex, and performance on the functional movement screen and Y balance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimera, Nicole J; Smith, Craig A; Warren, Meghan

    2015-05-01

    Research is limited regarding the effects of injury or surgery history and sex on the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and Y Balance Test (YBT). To determine if injury or surgery history or sex affected results on the FMS and YBT. Cross-sectional study. Athletic training facilities. A total of 200 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I female (n = 92; age = 20.0 ± 1.4 years, body mass index = 22.8 ± 3.1 kg/m(2)) and male (n = 108; age = 20.0 ± 1.5 years, body mass index = 27.0 ± 4.6 kg/m(2)) athletes were screened; 170 completed the FMS, and 190 completed the YBT. A self-reported questionnaire identified injury or surgery history and sex. The FMS assessed movement during the patterns of deep squat, hurdle step, in-line lunge, shoulder mobility, impingement-clearing test, straight-leg raise, trunk stability push-up, press-up clearing test, rotary stability, and posterior-rocking clearing test. The YBT assessed balance while participants reached in anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions. The FMS composite score (CS; range, 0-21) and movement pattern score (range, 0-3), the YBT CS (% lower extremity length), and YBT anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral asymmetry (difference between limbs in centimeters). Independent-samples t tests established differences in mean FMS CS, YBT CS, and YBT asymmetry. The Mann-Whitney U test identified differences in FMS movement patterns. We found lower overall FMS CSs for the following injuries or surgeries: hip (injured = 12.7 ± 3.1, uninjured = 14.4 ± 2.3; P = .005), elbow (injured = 12.1 ± 2.8, uninjured = 14.3 ± 2.4; P = .02), and hand (injured = 12.3 ± 2.9, uninjured = 14.3 ± 2.3; P = .006) injuries and shoulder surgery (surgery = 12.0 ± 1.0, no surgery = 14.3 ± 2.4; P lunge: P lunge: P = .01). Female athletes performed worse in FMS movement patterns for trunk (P in the lunge (P = .008), shoulder mobility (P < .001), and straight-leg raise (P < .001). Anterior asymmetry was greater

  3. Reducing decision errors in the paired comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of screening tests with Gaussian outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringham, Brandy M; Alonzo, Todd A; Brinton, John T; Kreidler, Sarah M; Munjal, Aarti; Muller, Keith E; Glueck, Deborah H

    2014-03-05

    Scientists often use a paired comparison of the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves to decide which continuous cancer screening test has the best diagnostic accuracy. In the paired design, all participants are screened with both tests. Participants with suspicious results or signs and symptoms of disease receive the reference standard test. The remaining participants are classified as non-cases, even though some may have occult disease. The standard analysis includes all study participants, which can create bias in the estimates of diagnostic accuracy since not all participants receive disease status verification. We propose a weighted maximum likelihood bias correction method to reduce decision errors. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we assessed the method's ability to reduce decision errors across a range of disease prevalences, correlations between screening test scores, rates of interval cases and proportions of participants who received the reference standard test. The performance of the method depends on characteristics of the screening tests and the disease and on the percentage of participants who receive the reference standard test. In studies with a large amount of bias in the difference in the full areas under the curves, the bias correction method reduces the Type I error rate and improves power for the correct decision. We demonstrate the method with an application to a hypothetical oral cancer screening study. The bias correction method reduces decision errors for some paired screening trials. In order to determine if bias correction is needed for a specific screening trial, we recommend the investigator conduct a simulation study using our software.

  4. Responses to procedural information about colorectal cancer screening using faecal occult blood testing: the role of consideration of future consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Wagner, Christian; Good, Anna; Smith, Samuel G.; Wardle, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background  Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening participation is low despite its effectiveness in reducing CRC mortality. Identifying benefits and barriers requires consideration of specific characteristics of screening modalities. Aims and Research Questions  To monitor the impact of providing information about CRC screening via faecal occult blood testing (FOBt) on intentions to participate. To investigate moderation by individual differences in consideration of future consequences (CFC). Design, setting and participants  A total of 211 healthy adults (aged 45–59) with no experience of CRC screening were presented with eight consecutive statements about FOBt‐based screening in a web survey. Participants completed measures of i) intention (after each statement), ii) CFC and iii) the importance of screening practicalities (e.g. unpleasantness of completing the test) and benefits (e.g. early detection of cancer). Results  An 8 (information) × 2 (CFC) mixed ancova showed that intentions varied across the eight statements. (P < 0.001): increasing after information about FOBt being completed at home (P < 0.001) before subsequently decreasing after information about the requirement to collect faecal samples (P < 0.001) in a plastic tub (P < 0.01) on three occasions (P < 0.01) with the low CFC group generally being less inclined to complete the test (P < 0.01). Two between‐group anovas demonstrated that the low CFC group attributed greater importance to practicalities of screening than the high CFC group while the opposite was found for the importance of benefits (both P’s < 0.001). Conclusion  Deconstructing FOBt‐based screening pointed to specific benefits and barriers which can advance research into public preferences of screening and educational materials. PMID:21501350

  5. Implementation of a real-time reference and calibration grid platform for improved screening - mapping in Pap test slides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiambas, Evangelos; Riziotis, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer screening based on the Papanicolaou (Pap) test is a widely applied but not always efficient practice for detecting Human Papillomavirus (HPV) mediated lesions, partially due to a non-systematic and inadequate screening process. Our aim was to introduce an inexpensive easy-to-use direct screening platform for improved detection of abnormal cells indicative of underlying cervical neoplasia as well as persisting HPV infection. By employing a novel, efficient technique of laser-based micromachining, we achieved the fabrication of spatial grids on commercially available coverslips allowing visual segmentation of the slide for efficient screening. Abnormal and formerly diagnosed as negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM) Pap test slides (n = 200) were analyzed by conventional and grid-based screening. Grid-based microscopy led to a more reliable diagnosis compared to the conventional by identifying an increased number of abnormal cells (P = 0.001). It decreased borderline ASCUS, AGC diagnosis, increasing LSIL, HSIL and in situ AdenoCa detection rates closely related with biopsy (P = 0.015; kappa = 0.978). Concerning the set of NILM diagnoses in rapid re-screening, the method upgraded six cases (n = 6) to LSIL (P = 0.001). The proposed technical solution offers a calibration and orientation visual aid during the on-site screening process providing significant advantages compared to expensive digital imaging techniques. © 2016 Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Low priority main reason not to participate in a colorectal cancer screening program with a faecal occult blood test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, A F; van Rossum, L G M; Deutekom, M; Laheij, R J F; Fockens, P; Bossuyt, P M M; Dekker, E; Jansen, J B M J

    2008-12-01

    Compared with screening programs for breast and cervical cancer, reported participation rates for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening are low. The effectiveness of a screening program is strongly influenced by the participation rate. The aim of this study was to investigate the main reasons not to participate in a population-based, invitational CRC screening program. In the Dutch study program for CRC screening, a random selection of 20 623 persons were invited received a faecal occult blood test. Of the non-participants, 500 were randomly selected and contacted for a standardized telephone interview from November 2006 to May 2007 to document the main reason not to participate. In total, 312 (62%) non-participants could be included for analysis. Most frequently, reported reasons for non-participation were time-related or priority-related (36%), including 'did not notice test in mailbox' (13%) and 'forgot' (8%). Other reasons were health-related issues, such as 'severe illness' (9%), or emotional reasons, such as 'family circumstances' (7%). The majority of the reported reasons not to participate reflect low priority for screening. Adding extra instructions and information, and addressing specific concerns through additional interventions should be considered to improve individual decision-making about participation in future CRC population-based screening programs.

  7. New Advances of Preimplantation and Prenatal Genetic Screening and Noninvasive Testing as a Potential Predictor of Health Status of Babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Milachich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current morphologically based selection of human embryos for transfer cannot detect chromosome aneuploidies. So far, only biopsy techniques have been able to screen for chromosomal aneuploidies in the in vitro fertilization (IVF embryos. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD or screening (PGS involves the biopsy of oocyte polar bodies or embryonic cells and has become a routine clinical procedure in many IVF clinics worldwide, including recent development of comprehensive chromosome screening of all 23 pairs of chromosomes by microarrays for aneuploidy screening. The routine preimplantation and prenatal genetic diagnosis (PND require testing in an aggressive manner. These procedures may be invasive to the growing embryo and fetus and potentially could compromise the clinical outcome. Therefore the aim of this review is to summarize not only the new knowledge on preimplantation and prenatal genetic diagnosis in humans, but also on the development of potential noninvasive embryo and fetal testing that might play an important role in the future.

  8. [Validation of the Eating Attitudes Test as a screening instrument for eating disorders in general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez-Fernández, María Angeles; Ruiz-Lázaro, Pedro Manuel; Labrador, Francisco Javier; Raich, Rosa María

    2014-02-20

    To validate the best cut-off point of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40), Spanish version, for the screening of eating disorders (ED) in the general population. This was a transversal cross-sectional study. The EAT-40 Spanish version was administered to a representative sample of 1.543 students, age range 12 to 21 years, in the Region of Madrid. Six hundred and two participants (probable cases and a random sample of controls) were interviewed. The best diagnostic prediction was obtained with a cut-off point of 21, with sensitivity: 88.2%; specificity: 62.1%; positive predictive value: 17.7%; negative predictive value: 62.1%. Use of a cut-off point of 21 is recommended in epidemiological studies of eating disorders in the Spanish general population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. [LAST-Q: Adaptation and normalisation in Quebec of the Language Screening Test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois-Marcotte, J; Flamand-Roze, C; Denier, C; Monetta, L

    2015-05-01

    The goal of the present study was to adapt and to establish normative data for the recently developed Language Screening Test (LAST; Flamand-Roze et al., 2011) in the French-Canadian population according to age and level of education. After an adaptation process, 100 French-Canadian speakers were evaluated with the LAST-Q. As expected, a perfect score of 15/15 was obtained for all high level education participants, and a score of 14/15 was obtained for all participants with a lowest level of education or aged 80 years or more. Thanks to this adaptation, LAST-Q can be used in acute patients in stroke unit in Quebec. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. A Quantitative PCR-Electrochemical Genosensor Test for the Screening of Biotech Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura-Melo, Suely; Miranda-Castro, Rebeca; de-los-Santos-Álvarez, Noemí; Miranda-Ordieres, Arturo J.; dos Santos Junior, José Ribeiro; da Silva Fonseca, Rosana A.; Lobo-Castañón, María Jesús

    2017-01-01

    The design of screening methods for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food would improve the efficiency in their control. We report here a PCR amplification method combined with a sequence-specific electrochemical genosensor for the quantification of a DNA sequence characteristic of the 35S promoter derived from the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV). Specifically, we employ a genosensor constructed by chemisorption of a thiolated capture probe and p-aminothiophenol gold surfaces to entrap on the sensing layer the unpurified PCR amplicons, together with a signaling probe labeled with fluorescein. The proposed test allows for the determination of a transgene copy number in both hemizygous (maize MON810 trait) and homozygous (soybean GTS40-3-2) transformed plants, and exhibits a limit of quantification of at least 0.25% for both kinds of GMO lines. PMID:28420193

  11. Hemozoin detection may provide an inexpensive, sensitive, 1-minute malaria test that could revolutionize malaria screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimberg, Brian T; Grimberg, Kerry O

    2016-10-01

    Malaria remains widespread throughout the tropics and is a burden to the estimated 3.5 billion people who are exposed annually. The lack of a fast and accurate diagnostic method contributes to preventable malaria deaths and its continued transmission. In many areas diagnosis is made solely based on clinical presentation. Current methods for malaria diagnosis take more than 20 minutes from the time blood is drawn and are frequently inaccurate. The introduction of an accurate malaria diagnostic that can provide a result in less than 1 minute would allow for widespread screening and treatment of endemic populations, and enable regions that have gained a foothold against malaria to prevent its return. Using malaria parasites' waste product, hemozoin, as a biomarker for the presence of malaria could be the tool needed to develop this rapid test.

  12. A Quantitative PCR-Electrochemical Genosensor Test for the Screening of Biotech Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely Moura-Melo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The design of screening methods for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs in food would improve the efficiency in their control. We report here a PCR amplification method combined with a sequence-specific electrochemical genosensor for the quantification of a DNA sequence characteristic of the 35S promoter derived from the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV. Specifically, we employ a genosensor constructed by chemisorption of a thiolated capture probe and p-aminothiophenol gold surfaces to entrap on the sensing layer the unpurified PCR amplicons, together with a signaling probe labeled with fluorescein. The proposed test allows for the determination of a transgene copy number in both hemizygous (maize MON810 trait and homozygous (soybean GTS40-3-2 transformed plants, and exhibits a limit of quantification of at least 0.25% for both kinds of GMO lines.

  13. A Quantitative PCR-Electrochemical Genosensor Test for the Screening of Biotech Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura-Melo, Suely; Miranda-Castro, Rebeca; de-Los-Santos-Álvarez, Noemí; Miranda-Ordieres, Arturo J; Dos Santos Junior, José Ribeiro; da Silva Fonseca, Rosana A; Lobo-Castañón, María Jesús

    2017-04-18

    The design of screening methods for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food would improve the efficiency in their control. We report here a PCR amplification method combined with a sequence-specific electrochemical genosensor for the quantification of a DNA sequence characteristic of the 35S promoter derived from the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV). Specifically, we employ a genosensor constructed by chemisorption of a thiolated capture probe and p -aminothiophenol gold surfaces to entrap on the sensing layer the unpurified PCR amplicons, together with a signaling probe labeled with fluorescein. The proposed test allows for the determination of a transgene copy number in both hemizygous (maize MON810 trait) and homozygous (soybean GTS40-3-2) transformed plants, and exhibits a limit of quantification of at least 0.25% for both kinds of GMO lines.

  14. [Historical Development of the Wool and Colour Plate Tests for Screening for Colour Vision Deficiencies in German Speaking Countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchenbecker, J

    2017-07-01

    Colour vision is a complex visual function that can be affected by congenital and/or acquired disorders. The frequency of congenital colour vision deficiencies has been investigated in rail and navy staff since the 1870s. Various test methods have been developed. Wool tests, flor contrast tests and colour plate tests have been used. A published colour plate test, based on Stilling's pseudo-isochromatic plates in combination with a flor contrast test, has been a common screening method for colour vision testing in German-speaking countries. This test is intended to detect congenital and acquired colour vision deficiencies in a simple and safe manner. More modern options, such as Internet and tablet PC have technical limitations, but will increasingly be used for screening for colour vision deficiencies. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Noninvasive Screening for Pulmonary Hypertension by Exercise Testing in Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jan; Heck, Pinar Bambul; Ewert, Peter; Hager, Alfred

    2017-05-01

    Patients with congenital heart disease and native or palliated conditions are at risk to develop pulmonary hypertension (PH) in later life. Screening for PH is currently performed by regular echocardiographic follow-up, which appears to be difficult in several congenital conditions. This study evaluated the screening for PH in congenital heart disease by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). We analyzed our database including all patients with congenital heart disease referred for CPET in our institution from June 2001 to September 2013 and identified 683 patients who had an accompanied heart catheterization less than 6 month after CPET. Those 130 patients with proven PH were compared with the other 563 patients with congenital heart disease but without PH. Peak oxygen uptake was the most discriminative variable, showing two thresholds at 16.3 mL/min per kg and 25.2 mL/min per kg. The highest specificity of 95% for PH was found in patients with a peak oxygen uptake of 16.3 mL/min per kg or less and a breathing reserve of 37.4% or less. In patients with a peak oxygen uptake exceeding 16.3 mL/min per kg, there was a high specificity of 86.3% but a low sensitivity of 53.1%. With 25.2 mL/min per kg as the threshold, the sensitivity for PH was only 10.0%. Detection of PH in patients with congenital heart disease by CPET is difficult because of many falsely positive tests. However, a peak oxygen uptake higher than 25.2 mL/min per kg makes the diagnosis of PH unlikely. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of a Dysphagia Screening Test for Preterm Infants (DST-PI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung Moo; Seo, Young Tak

    2017-06-01

    To explore both the early prediction and diagnosis of dysphagia in preterm infants as an important developmental aspect as well as the prevention of respiratory complications, we developed the simple and-easy-to-apply Dysphagia Screening Test for Preterm Infants (DST-PI) to predict supraglottic penetration and subglottic aspiration. Fifty-two infants were enrolled in a videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) due to clinical suspicions of dysphagia. Thirteen items related to supraglottic penetration or subglottic aspiration were initially selected from previous studies for the DST-PI. Finally, 7 items were determined by linear logistic regression analysis. Cutoff values, sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of the DST-PI for predicting supraglottic penetration or subglottic aspiration were calculated using a ROC curve. For inter-rater reliability, the kappa coefficient was calculated. Seven items were selected: 'gestational age,' 'history of apnea,' 'history of cyanosis during feeding,' 'swallowing pattern,' 'coughs during or after feeding,' 'decreased oxygen saturation within 3 minutes of feeding,' and 'voice change after feeding.' The Spearman correlation coefficient between the DST-PI and the penetration-aspiration scale (PAS) was 0.807 (p<0.001). The sensitivity and specificity at different cutoff values for detecting supraglottic penetration and subglottic aspiration were 96.6% and 76.9% at 3.25, and 88.9% and 75.8% at 6.25, respectively. The DST-PI is a valid and reliable dysphagia screening test for supraglottic penetration or subglottic aspiration in preterm infants that is easy to apply in a clinical context.

  17. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... barium enema means— (i) A screening double contrast barium enema of the entire colorectum (including a... attending physician decides that he or she cannot tolerate a screening double contrast barium enema, a screening single contrast barium enema of the entire colorectum (including a physician's interpretation of...

  18. Assessment of a modification of Br?ckner?s test as a screening modality for anisometropia and strabismus

    OpenAIRE

    Amitava, Abadan Khan; Kewlani, D.; Khan, Z.; Razzak, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background : Current amblyopia screening methods are not cost effective. Aim : To evaluate the diagnostic capability of a modified Brückner test (MBT) for amblyopiogenic risk factors. Materials and Methods : We applied the MBT using the streak retinoscope to identify anisometropia and strabismus by noting an inter-ocular difference in movement and glow, from children who failed 6/9 Snellen on community vision screening, followed by comprehensive eye examination. Statisitics : D...

  19. Activation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in a dual neuropsychological screening test: An fMRI approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tachibana Atsumichi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Kana Pick-out Test (KPT, which uses Kana or Japanese symbols that represent syllables, requires parallel processing of discrete (pick-out and continuous (reading dual tasks. As a dual task, the KPT is thought to test working memory and executive function, particularly in the prefrontal cortex (PFC, and is widely used in Japan as a clinical screen for dementia. Nevertheless, there has been little neurological investigation into PFC activity during this test. Methods We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to evaluate changes in the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD signal in young healthy adults during performance of a computerized KPT dual task (comprised of reading comprehension and picking out vowels and compared it to its single task components (reading or vowel pick-out alone. Results Behavioral performance of the KPT degraded compared to its single task components. Performance of the KPT markedly increased BOLD signal intensity in the PFC, and also activated sensorimotor, parietal association, and visual cortex areas. In conjunction analyses, bilateral BOLD signal in the dorsolateral PFC (Brodmann's areas 45, 46 was present only in the KPT. Conclusions Our results support the central bottleneck theory and suggest that the dorsolateral PFC is an important mediator of neural activity for both short-term storage and executive processes. Quantitative evaluation of the KPT with fMRI in healthy adults is the first step towards understanding the effects of aging or cognitive impairment on KPT performance.

  20. Barriers for Compliance to Breast, Colorectal, and Cervical Screening Cancer Tests among Hispanic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Miranda-Diaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hispanics are less likely to undergo screening tests for colorectal cancer and cervical cancer than non-Hispanic whites. Compliance with mammography, fecal occult blood testing (FOBT, colonoscopy, and cervical smears (PAP and barriers for compliance were studied. A descriptive study was performed with 194 ambulatory patients while they attended routine medical visits. Women are more likely than men to undergo a colonoscopy. Conversely, FOBT was most likely reported by men. Reasons for compliance with FOBT differed by gender. Men were most likely to avoid FOBT due to lack of knowledge whereas women reported that physicians do not recommend the procedure. Both men and women reported that lack of physician’s recommendation was their primary reason for not undergoing a colonoscopy. Men tend to report lack of knowledge about colonoscopy procedure. A higher mammogram utilization rate was reported by women older than 40 years. PAP smears were reported by 74% of women older than 21 years. The major reasons for avoiding mammography and PAP tests were having a busy schedule, fear, and feeling uncomfortable during the procedure. In a multivariate regression analysis, occupational status was found to be a predictor for compliance with FOBT and colonoscopy.

  1. Designing null phase screens to test a fast plano-convex aspheric lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelOlmo-Márquez, Jesús; Castán-Ricaño, Diana; Avendaño-Alejo, Maximino; Díaz-Uribe, Rufino

    2015-08-01

    We have obtained a formula to represent the wavefront produced by a plano-convex aspheric lens with symmetry of revolution considering a plane wavefront propagating parallel to the optical axis and impinging on the refracting surface, it is called a zero-distance phase front, being it the first wavefront to be out of the optical system. Using a concept of differential geometry called parallel curves it is possible to obtain an analytic formula to represent the wavefront propagated at arbitrary distances through the optical axis. In order to evaluate qualitatively a plano-convex aspheric lens, we have modified slightly an interferometer Tywman-Green as follow: In the reference beam we use a plane mirror and the beam of test we have used a spatial light modulator (SLM) to compensate the phase produced by the lens under test. It will be called a null phase interferometer. The main idea is to recombine both wavefronts in order to get a null interferogram, otherwise we will associate the patterns of the interferogram to deformations of the lens under test. The null phase screens are formed with concentric circumferences assuming different gray levels printed on SLM.

  2. [Validation of three screening tests used for early detection of cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Reyes, Esperanza Rosalba; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Quiñones-Pérez, Juan M; Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I

    2008-01-01

    to evaluate the validity (sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy) of three screening methods used in the early detection of the cervical carcinoma versus the histopathology diagnosis. a selected sample of 107 women attended in the Opportune Detection of Cervicouterine Cancer Program in the Hospital de Zona 46, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social in Durango, during the 2003 was included. The application of Papa-nicolaou, acetic acid test, and molecular detection of human papillomavirus, and histopatholgy diagnosis were performed in all the patients at the time of the gynecological exam. The detection and tipification of the human papillomavirus was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and analysis of polymorphisms of length of restriction fragments (RFLP). Histopathology diagnosis was considered the gold standard. The evaluation of the validity was carried out by the Bayesian method for diagnosis test. the positive cases for acetic acid test, Papanicolaou, and PCR were 47, 22, and 19. The accuracy values were 0.70, 0.80 and 0.99, respectively. since the molecular method showed a greater validity in the early detection of the cervical carcinoma we considered of vital importance its implementation in suitable programs of Opportune Detection of Cervicouterino Cancer Program in Mexico. However, in order to validate this conclusion, cross-sectional studies in different region of country must be carried out.

  3. The CAST (Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test): Preliminary Development of a UK Screen for Mainstream Primary-School-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Fiona J.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Bolton, Patrick; Brayne, Carol

    2002-01-01

    This article describes a pilot and follow-up study of the development of a screening test for Asperger Syndrome (AS) and relates social and communication conditions in children aged 4-11. Results suggest that the Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test may be useful for identifying children at risk for AS and related conditions, in a mainstream…

  4. Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Implementation Strategies of Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing in Down Syndrome Screening Programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mersy, E.; Die-Smulders, C.E. de; Coumans, A.B.; Smits, L.J.; Wert, G.M.W.R. de; Frints, S.G.; Veltman, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Implementation of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) in Down syndrome screening programmes requires health policy decisions about its combination with other tests and its timing in pregnancy. AIM: Our aim was to aid health policy decision makers by conducting a quantitative analysis of

  5. The 14C-Triolein Breath Test as a screening of the presence or absence of steatorrhoea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallares, M.; Pique, J.M.; Piera, C.; Navarro, S.; Setoain, J.; Vilar Bonet, J.; Gassull, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The 14 C-Triolein Breath Test expressed as the percentage of 14 C administered exhaled during the period between 3 and 6 hours and as the maximal percentage eliminated (peak) of 14 C during the period between 3 and 6 hours was proved to be a good screening test to detect the presence or absence of steatorrhoea in patients with long standing diarrhoea

  6. 49 CFR 40.247 - What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a screening test result?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a... What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a screening test result? (a) If the test result is an alcohol concentration of less than 0.02, as the BAT or STT, you must do the following: (1) Sign and date...

  7. Expanded newborn screening and confirmatory follow-up testing for inborn errors of metabolism detected by tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozben, Tomris

    2013-01-01

    Newborn screening (NBS) of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) is a coordinated comprehensive system consisting of education, screening, follow-up of abnormal test results, confirmatory testing, diagnosis, treatment, and evaluation of periodic outcome and efficiency. The ultimate goal of NBS and follow-up programs is to reduce morbidity and mortality from the disorders. Over the past decade, tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has become a key technology in the field of NBS. It has replaced classic screening techniques of one-analysis, one-metabolite, one-disease with one analysis, many-metabolites, and many-diseases. The development of electrospray ionization (ESI), automation of sample handling and data manipulation have allowed the introduction of expanded NBS for the identification of numerous conditions on a single sample and new conditions to be added to the list of disorders being screened for using MS/MS. In the case of a screened positive result, a follow-up analytical test should be performed for confirmation of the primary result. The most common confirmatory follow-up tests are amino acids and acylcarnitine analysis in plasma and organic acid analysis in urine. NBS should be integrated with follow-up and clinical management. Recent improvements in therapy have caused some disorders to be considered as potential candidates for NBS. This review covers some of the basic theory of expanded MS/MS and follow-up confirmatory tests applied for NBS of IEM.

  8. The functional movement test 9+ is a poor screening test for lower extremity injuries in professional male football players: a 2-year prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakken, Arnhild; Targett, Stephen; Bere, Tone; Eirale, Cristiano; Farooq, Abdulaziz; Tol, Johannes L.; Whiteley, Rod; Khan, Karim M.; Bahr, Roald

    2017-01-01

    The 9+ screening battery test consists of 11 tests to assess limitations in functional movement. To examine the association of the 9+ with lower extremity injuries and to identify a cut-off point to predict injury risk. Professional male football players in Qatar from 14 teams completed the 9+ at

  9. A standard screening test for the early and rapid diagnosis of leptospirosis

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    Chandrasekaran S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE : To perform dark field microscopy (DFM for detection of Leptospira and to validate the results using Leptospira IgM antibody SERION ELISA test. METHODS : After differential centrifugation of Ruys, DFM was done to demonstrate Leptospira in the blood and SERION ELISA was done for Leptospira IgM antibody in single or paired serum samples. One hundred and eleven cases (39 adults and 72 children of suspected leptospirosis were included in the study. RESULTS : Anicteric cases accounted for 66.7% (26/39 of adults and complications involving brain, liver, kidney and eyes were seen in 33.3% (13/39. In children, 90.3% (65/72 were anicteric and involvement of brain and liver was seen in 9.7% (7/72 cases. On testing 60 single samples of blood from 23 adults and 37 children, DFM exhibited greater sensitivity of 93.3% (56/60 than that of SERION ELISA for Leptospira IgM antibody (33.3%, 20/60. It was observed that the positivity of DFM decreased from 100% (15/15 to 90.9% (10/11 with increase in the duration of infection for more than one week. ELISA for Leptospira IgM, done on 51 paired blood samples, was positive in 64.7% (33/51 cases when both (first and second samples were tested while in 45.1% (23/51 cases was positive with first sample alone. 58.8%(30/51 cases were positive by testing second sample. DFM results on paired blood samples showed persistence of Leptospira in 92.9% of cases. CONCLUSION : This study shows the validation of DFM results by SERION ELISA for Leptospira IgM antibody, based on which we recommend that DFM can serve as a standard screening test for early and rapid diagnosis of leptospirosis.

  10. Subclinical mastitis in dairy camels in Algeria: Comparison of screening tests

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    Leyla HADEF

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine a threshold values and to assess the effectiveness of four indirect tests for the diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in dairy camels comparing with bacteriological culture. One hundred fifty three milk samples from 17 lactating camels were subjected to bacteriological culture, where 84 milk samples were positive, 47 were negative and 22 samples were considered as contaminated. A total of 131 milk samples were screened by pH, electrical conductivity (EC, California mastitis test (CMT and somatic cell count (SCC. The good combination of sensitivity and specificity were obtained with a threshold of 6.55, 7.2 mS/cm, score trace was considered as CMT (+ and 240 000 cells/ml for the four tests, respectively. The sensitivity of the SCC, pH, EC and CMT was 72.61, 66.66, 47.61 and 39.28 %; the specificity 70.21, 38.02, 59.57 and 72.34 %; percentage accuracy 71.75, 51.14, 51.90 and 51.14 %; and positive predictive value 81.33, 47.61, 67.79 and 71.73 %, respectively. The SCC was significantly correlated with bacteriological culture (r = 0.415, p < 0.05. Kappa value of SCC was higher than that of other tests (SCC > CMT > EC > pH. In conclusion, the results suggest that the SCC was the most accurate, reliable, diagnostic method compared to other tests used in this study after cultural isolation for the detection of subclinical mastitis in dairy camel under field conditions.

  11. The effect of offering different numbers of colorectal cancer screening test options in a decision aid: a pilot randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenner Alison RT

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decision aids can improve decision making processes, but the amount and type of information that they should attempt to communicate is controversial. We sought to compare, in a pilot randomized trial, two colorectal cancer (CRC screening decision aids that differed in the number of screening options presented. Methods Adults ages 48–75 not currently up to date with screening were recruited from the community and randomized to view one of two versions of our previously tested CRC screening decision aid. The first version included five screening options: fecal occult blood test (FOBT, sigmoidoscopy, a combination of FOBT and sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, and barium enema. The second discussed only the two most frequently selected screening options, FOBT and colonoscopy. Main outcomes were differences in screening interest and test preferences between groups after decision aid viewing. Patient test preference was elicited first without any associated out-of-pocket costs (OPC, and then with the following costs: FOBT-$10, sigmoidoscopy-$50, barium enema-$50, and colonoscopy-$200. Results 62 adults participated: 25 viewed the 5-option decision aid, and 37 viewed the 2-option version. Mean age was 54 (range 48–72, 58% were women, 71% were White, 24% African-American; 58% had completed at least a 4-year college degree. Comparing participants that viewed the 5-option version with participants who viewed the 2-option version, there were no differences in screening interest after viewing (1.8 vs. 1.9, t-test p = 0.76. Those viewing the 2-option version were somewhat more likely to choose colonoscopy than those viewing the 5-option version when no out of pocket costs were assumed (68% vs. 46%, p = 0.11, but not when such costs were imposed (41% vs. 42%, p = 1.00. Conclusion The number of screening options available does not appear to have a large effect on interest in colorectal cancer screening. The effect of offering differing

  12. What do Cochrane systematic reviews say about the clinical effectiveness of screening and diagnostic tests for cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Tito Pereira Bueno

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The purpose of screening tests for cancer is to detect it at an early stage in order to increase the chances of treatment. However, their unrestrained use may lead to unnecessary examinations, overdiagnosis and higher costs. It is thus necessary to evaluate their clinical effects in terms of benefits and harm. DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of Cochrane systematic reviews, carried out in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: Cochrane reviews on the clinical effectiveness of cancer screening procedures were included. Study titles and abstracts were independently assessed by two authors. Conflicts were resolved by another two authors. Findings were summarized and discussed. RESULTS: Seventeen reviews were selected: fifteen on screening for specific cancers (bladder, breast, colorectal, hepatic, lung, nasopharyngeal, esophageal, oral, prostate, testicular and uterine and two others on cancer in general. The quality of evidence of the findings varied among the reviews. Only two reviews resulted in high-quality evidence: screening using low-dose computed tomography scans for high-risk individuals seems to reduce lung cancer mortality; and screening using flexible sigmoidoscopy and fecal occult blood tests seems to reduce colorectal cancer mortality. CONCLUSION: The evidence found through Cochrane reviews did not support most of the commonly used screening tests for cancer. It is recommended that patients should be informed of the possibilities of false positives and false negatives before they undergo the tests. Further studies to fully assess the effectiveness of cancer screening tests and adverse outcomes are required.

  13. Polymerase chain reaction and blood culture in blood donors screened by ELISA test for Chagas' disease

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    Andréa Tieko Kinoshita-Yanaga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate, through blood culture and PCR, the results of the ELISA for Chagas' disease in the screening of blood donors in the public blood-supply network of the state of Paraná, Brazil, and to map the epidemiological profile of the donors with respect to their risk of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. The negative and positive results of the ELISA were confirmed by blood culture and PCR for 190/191 individuals (99.5%. For one individual (0.5%, the ELISA was inconclusive, blood culture and IIF were negative, and IHA and PCR positive. Three individuals (1.6% were positive for T. cruzi on all the tests. Donors were predominantly female, and natives of Paraná, of rural origin, had observed or been informed of the presence of the vector in the municipalities where they resided, had never received a blood transfusion, had donated blood 1 to 4 times, and reported no cases of Chagas' disease in their families. We concluded that PCR and blood culturing have excellent potential for confirming the results of the ELISA, and that candidate blood donors with negative or positive tests have a similar risk of infection by T. cruzi, indicating that the ELISA test is sufficiently safe for screening blood prior to use.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, pela hemocultura e PCR, os resultados do teste ELISA utilizado para doença de Chagas na triagem de doadores de sangue na rede pública do Estado do Paraná, Brasil, e traçar o perfil epidemiológico dos doadores quanto ao risco de infecção pelo Trypanosoma cruzi. Os resultados negativos e positivos do ELISA foram confirmados pela hemocultura e PCR em 190/191 indivíduos (99,5%. Para um indivíduo (0,5%, o teste de ELISA foi inconclusivo, hemocultura e IFI foram negativas, HAI e PCR foram positivas. Três indivíduos (1,6% foram positivos para T. cruzi em todos os testes. A maioria dos doadores era do sexo feminino, oriundos do Estado do Paraná, de origem rural, tinham

  14. Self-Sampling for Human Papillomavirus Testing among Non-Attenders Increases Attendance to the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme.

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    Espen Enerly

    Full Text Available Increasing attendance to screening offers the best potential for improving the effectiveness of well-established cervical cancer screening programs. Self-sampling at home for human papillomavirus (HPV testing as an alternative to a clinical sampling can be a useful policy to increase attendance. To determine whether self-sampling improves screening attendance for women who do not regularly attend the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme (NCCSP, 800 women aged 25-69 years in the Oslo area who were due to receive a 2nd reminder to attend regular screening were randomly selected and invited to be part of the intervention group. Women in this group received one of two self-sampling devices, Evalyn Brush or Delphi Screener. To attend screening, women in the intervention group had the option of using the self-sampling device (self-sampling subgroup or visiting their physician for a cervical smear. Self-sampled specimens were split and analyzed for the presence of high-risk (hr HPV by the CLART® HPV2 test and the digene® Hybrid Capture (HC2 test. The control group consisted of 2593 women who received a 2nd reminder letter according to the current guidelines of the NCCSP. The attendance rates were 33.4% in the intervention group and 23.2% in the control group, with similar attendance rates for both self-sampling devices. Women in the self-sampling subgroup responded favorably to both self-sampling devices and cited not remembering receiving a call for screening as the most dominant reason for previous non-attendance. Thirty-two of 34 (94.1% hrHPV-positive women in the self-sampling subgroup attended follow-up. In conclusion, self-sampling increased attendance rates and was feasible and well received. This study lends further support to the proposal that self-sampling may be a valuable alternative for increasing cervical cancer screening coverage in Norway.

  15. Cytology and Human Papillomavirus Testing 6 to 12 Months after ASCUS or LSIL Cytology in Organized Screening To Predict High-Grade Cervical Neoplasia between Screening Rounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjøborg, Katrine D.; Nygård, Mari; Røysland, Kjetil; Campbell, Suzanne; Alfsen, G. Cecilie; Jonassen, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    We carried out a prospective study comparing the performance of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 mRNA (PreTect HPV-Proofer; NorChip, Klokkarstua, Norway) and DNA (Amplicor HPV test; Roche Diagnostics, Basel, Switzerland) triage testing of women 6 to 12 months after atypical-squamous-cells-of-undetermined-significance (ASCUS) or low-grade-squamous-intraepithelial-lesion (LSIL) cytology in organized screening to predict high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) between screening rounds. Between January 2005 and April 2008, 692 study women with screening-detected ASCUS/LSIL cytology 6 to 12 months earlier returned for HPV mRNA and DNA testing and repeat cytology. The median follow-up time was 3 years, using existing health care facilities. Follow-up test results were available for 625 women. Of the 145 CIN2+ cases detected during the study period, 95 (65.5%) were HPV mRNA positive 6 to 12 months after screening-detected ASCUS/LSIL, 44 (30.4%) were HPV mRNA negative, and 6 (4.1%) were invalid. The corresponding HPV DNA results were 139 (95.9%), 5 (3.4%), and 1 (0.7%), respectively. The cumulative incidences of CIN2+ 3 years after a negative HPV mRNA and DNA test were 10.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.2 to 13.3%) and 1.8% (95% CI, 0.0 to 3.6%), respectively. The cumulative incidences of CIN2+ 3 years after positive HPV mRNA and DNA tests were 52.8% (95% CI, 40.1 to 60.1%) and 41.3% (95% CI, 35.5 to 46.6%), respectively. In conclusion, both positive HPV mRNA and DNA test results have a high enough long-term prediction of CIN2+ risk to consider referral to colposcopy as good practice when performed in delayed triage of women with ASCUS/LSIL cytology. In addition, the low CIN2+ risk among women with a negative Amplicor HPV test in our study confirms its safe use in a clinical setting. PMID:22518869

  16. Diagnostic performance of urine dipstick test for urinary tract infection screening in individuals with spinal cord injury

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    Patpiya Sirasaporn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the diagnostic performance of urine dipstick test for urinary tract infection (UTI screening in spinal cord injury (SCI patients. Study Design: A cross-sectional diagnostic study. Setting: Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen, Thailand. Participants: SCI patients with neurogenic bladder. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional diagnostic study that compared the urine dipstick test (index test with the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR criteria (gold standard test in SCI patients. The urine dipstick test reported positive and negative results. Moreover, the NIDRR criteria classified participants as patients with UTI and patients with no UTI. The diagnostic performance of urine dipstick test for UTI screening was measured in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV, positive likelihood ratio (+LR, and negative likelihood ratio (-LR and was summarized in percentage with 95% confidence interval (CI. Results: Out of the 77 participants, most of participants were paraplegia (74%. The combined nitrite and leukocyte esterase urine dipstick test showed the highest sensitivity (93%, PPV (79%, NPV (85%, and +LR (2.39, respectively. The urine dipstick test of nitrite gave the highest specificity (69%. The most common uropathogen was Escherichia coli (33%. Conclusion: In SCI patients, the combined positive nitrite and leukocyte esterase urine dipstick test showed the highest sensitivity. The combined nitrite and leukocyte esterase urine dipstick test should be promoted as a screening test for UTI in SCI patients.

  17. Women's Behaviors Toward Mammogram and Pap Test: Opportunities to Increase Cervical Cancer Screening Participation Rates among Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavasoli, Simon M; Kane, Eli; Chiarelli, Anna M; Kupets, Rachel

    Screening rates for cervical cancer remain moderate among women over 50 years of age. Because cervical and breast screening interventions can be linked, evaluating screening factors relating to both is important. This study evaluates factors associated with breast and cervical screening participation in women aged 52 to 69. A cross-sectional study was used to describe characteristics associated with screening behaviors of 1,173,456 eligible women in Ontario, Canada. Overdue for screening was defined as more than 2.5 years from last mammogram or more than 3.5 years from last Pap test. Factors that might influence uptake of mammogram or Pap test were included as covariates in a multivariable multinomial logistic regression model. Overall, 52.4% of eligible women were up-to-date for both, 21.3% were overdue for both, 14.4% were overdue for Pap test but were up-to-date with mammogram, and 11.9% were overdue for mammogram but were up-to-date with Pap test. There was an opposite effect of age on likelihood of being overdue for Pap test only versus mammogram only. Women aged 67 to 69 compared with those 52 to 54 were more likely to be overdue for Pap test only (adjusted odds ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 2.3-2.4) and less likely to be overdue for mammogram only (adjusted odds ratio, 0.5; 95% confidence interval, 0.5-0.6). A greater proportion of women rostered to a female physician versus a male physician were up-to-date for both (63.7% vs. 51.5%). Comparing screening patterns may provide physician- and patient-directed strategies to increase cervical screening participation by recruiting women who are overdue for Pap test but undergoing breast cancer screening. Copyright © 2017 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Persuasive Interventions for Controversial Cancer Screening Recommendations: Testing a Novel Approach to Help Patients Make Evidence-Based Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saver, Barry G; Mazor, Kathleen M; Luckmann, Roger; Cutrona, Sarah L; Hayes, Marcela; Gorodetsky, Tatyana; Esparza, Nancy; Bacigalupe, Gonzalo

    2017-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate novel decision aids designed to help patients trust and accept the controversial, evidence-based, US Preventive Services Task Force recommendations about prostate cancer screening (from 2012) and mammography screening for women aged 40 to 49 years (from 2009). We created recorded vignettes of physician-patient discussions about prostate cancer screening and mammography, accompanied by illustrative slides, based on principles derived from preceding qualitative work and behavioral science literature. We conducted a randomized crossover study with repeated measures with 27 men aged 50 to 74 years and 35 women aged 40 to 49 years. All participants saw a video intervention and a more traditional, paper-based decision aid intervention in random order. At entry and after seeing each intervention, they were surveyed about screening intentions, perceptions of benefits and harm, and decisional conflict. Changes in screening intentions were analyzed without regard to order of intervention after an initial analyses showed no evidence of an order effect. At baseline, 69% of men and 86% of women reported wanting screening, with 31% and 6%, respectively, unsure. Mean change on a 3-point, yes, unsure, no scale was -0.93 ( P = persuasive video interventions significantly changed the screening intentions of substantial proportions of viewers. Our approach needs further testing but may provide a model for helping patients to consider and accept evidence-based, counterintuitive recommendations. © 2017 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  19. IL28B SNP screening and distribution in the French Canadian population using a rapid PCR-based test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gélinas, Jean-François; Fabre, Thomas; Willems, Philippe; Leung, Reynold C; George, Jacob; Willems, Bernard; Bruneau, Julie; Shoukry, Naglaa H

    2013-06-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the proximity of the interleukin-28B (IL28B) gene can predict spontaneous resolution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and response to interferon therapy. Screening for this polymorphism has become part of the standard criteria for the management of HCV-infected patients, hence the need for a rapid, cost-effective screening method. Here, we describe a rapid PCR-based test to screen for two IL28B SNPs (rs12979860 and rs8099917). We used this test to investigate IL28B polymorphism and prevalence in a cohort of French Canadian injection drug users who are part of a unique population known to have a strong genetic founder effect. This population had lower linkage disequilibrium between the two tested SNPs as compared to other cohorts (|d'| = 0.68, r = 0.59). The special genetic makeup should be considered in the management of HCV-infected patients within that population.

  20. Comparison of four microbiological inhibition tests for the screening of antimicrobial residues in the tissues of food-producing animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Gondová

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study compares two existing microbiological inhibition tests, Screening Test for Antibiotic Residues (STAR and Premi®Test with two recently introduced tests, Nouws Antibiotic Test (NAT and Total Antibiotics for the screening of antimicrobial residues in the tissues of food-producing animals. In the negative or positive sample classification based on inhibition of the growth of test strain sensitive to many antibiotics and sulphonamides, out of 142 samples obtained from slaughterhouses and retail operations, 39 samples yielded a positive result in one or more tests: 4 samples in four tests, 14 samples in three tests, 13 samples in two tests, and 8 samples in one test. As for the numbers of observed positive samples, the descending sequence of tests was: STAR, Total Antibiotics, Premi®Test, NAT. The growth inhibition was observed in three out of seven test strains, namely Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Kocuria rhizophila ATCC 9341, and Bacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis. Considering the test strains sensitivity and no inhibition on the Bacillus pumilus NCIMB 10822 NAT test plates, our preliminary conclusion is that the animal samples are suspected for the presence of tetracycline, macrolide, and b-lactam antibiotics.

  1. Batch Test Screening of Industrial Product/Byproduct Filter Materials for Agricultural Drainage Water Treatment

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    Barry J. Allred

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Filter treatment may be a viable means for removing the nitrate (NO3−, phosphate (PO43−, and pesticides discharged with agricultural drainage waters that cause adverse environmental impacts within the U.S. on local, regional, and national scales. Laboratory batch test screening for agricultural drainage water treatment potential was conducted on 58 industrial product/byproduct filter materials grouped into six categories: (1 high carbon content media; (2 high iron content media; (3 high aluminum content media; (4 surfactant modified clay/zeolite; (5 coal combustion residuals; and (6 spent foundry sands. Based on a percent contaminant removal criteria of 75% or greater, seven industrial products/byproducts were found to meet this standard for NO3− alone, 44 met this standard for PO43−, and 25 met this standard for the chlorinated triazine herbicide, atrazine. Using a 50% or greater contaminant removal criteria, five of the industrial product/byproduct filter materials exhibited potential for removing NO3−, PO43−, and atrazine together; eight showed capability for combined NO3− and PO43− removal; 21 showed capability for combined PO43− and atrazine removal; and nine showed capability for combined NO3− and atrazine removal. The results of this study delineated some potential industrial product/byproduct filter materials for drainage water treatment; however, a complete feasibility evaluation for drainage water treatment of any of these filter materials will require much more extensive testing.

  2. Statistical methods for the analysis of a screening test for chronic beryllium disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frome, E.L.; Neubert, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Mathematical Sciences Section; Smith, M.H.; Littlefield, L.G.; Colyer, S.P. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States). Medical Sciences Div.

    1994-10-01

    The lymphocyte proliferation test (LPT) is a noninvasive screening procedure used to identify persons who may have chronic beryllium disease. A practical problem in the analysis of LPT well counts is the occurrence of outlying data values (approximately 7% of the time). A log-linear regression model is used to describe the expected well counts for each set of test conditions. The variance of the well counts is proportional to the square of the expected counts, and two resistant regression methods are used to estimate the parameters of interest. The first approach uses least absolute values (LAV) on the log of the well counts to estimate beryllium stimulation indices (SIs) and the coefficient of variation. The second approach uses a resistant regression version of maximum quasi-likelihood estimation. A major advantage of the resistant regression methods is that it is not necessary to identify and delete outliers. These two new methods for the statistical analysis of the LPT data and the outlier rejection method that is currently being used are applied to 173 LPT assays. The authors strongly recommend the LAV method for routine analysis of the LPT.

  3. Multi-laboratory testing of a screening method for world trade center (WTC) collapse dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Jacky A; Bern, Amy M; Willis, Robert D; Blanchard, Fredrick T; Conner, Teri L; Kahn, Henry D; Friedman, David

    2008-02-15

    The September 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) covered a large area of downtown New York City with dust and debris. This paper describes the testing of an analytical method designed to evaluate whether sampled dust contains dust that may have originated from the collapse of the WTC. Using dust samples collected from locations affected and not affected (referred to as 'background' locations) by the collapse, a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis method was developed to screen for three materials that are believed to be present in large quantities in WTC dusts: slag wool, concrete, and gypsum. An inter-laboratory evaluation of the method was implemented by having eight laboratories analyze a number of 'blind' dust samples, consisting of confirmed background dust and confirmed background dust spiked with varying amounts of dust affected by the WTC collapse. The levels of gypsum and concrete in the spiked samples were indistinguishable from the levels in the background samples. Measurements of slag wool in dust demonstrated potential for distinguishing between spiked and background samples in spite of considerable within and between laboratory variability. Slag wool measurements appear to be sufficiently sensitive to distinguish dust spiked with 5% WTC-affected dust from 22 out of 25 background dust samples. Additional development work and inter-laboratory testing of the slag wool component will be necessary to improve the precision and accuracy of the method and reduce inter- and intra-laboratory variability from levels observed in the inter-laboratory evaluation.

  4. Multi-laboratory testing of a screening method for world trade center (WTC) collapse dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosati, Jacky A.; Bern, Amy M.; Willis, Robert D.; Blanchard, Fredrick T.; Conner, Teri L.; Kahn, Henry D.; Friedman, David

    2008-01-01

    The September 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) covered a large area of downtown New York City with dust and debris. This paper describes the testing of an analytical method designed to evaluate whether sampled dust contains dust that may have originated from the collapse of the WTC. Using dust samples collected from locations affected and not affected (referred to as 'background' locations) by the collapse, a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis method was developed to screen for three materials that are believed to be present in large quantities in WTC dusts: slag wool, concrete, and gypsum. An inter-laboratory evaluation of the method was implemented by having eight laboratories analyze a number of 'blind' dust samples, consisting of confirmed background dust and confirmed background dust spiked with varying amounts of dust affected by the WTC collapse. The levels of gypsum and concrete in the spiked samples were indistinguishable from the levels in the background samples. Measurements of slag wool in dust demonstrated potential for distinguishing between spiked and background samples in spite of considerable within and between laboratory variability. Slag wool measurements appear to be sufficiently sensitive to distinguish dust spiked with 5% WTC-affected dust from 22 out of 25 background dust samples. Additional development work and inter-laboratory testing of the slag wool component will be necessary to improve the precision and accuracy of the method and reduce inter- and intra-laboratory variability from levels observed in the inter-laboratory evaluation

  5. Reliability of screening tests for health-related problems among low-income elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Teresa Saraiva Lino

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Screening tests for health problems can identify elderly people who should undergo the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment, enabling the planning of actions to prevent disability. The aim of this study was to analyze the inter-rater reliability (IRR of self-assessment questions (SAQ and performance tests (PT recommended in Brazil, in a sample of low-income elderly people, through an exploratory study performed with 165 elderly assessed by two professionals on different days. IRR was evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC for continuous variables and the kappa statistic for categorical ones. The IRR for the PT (muscle strength, mobility body mass index, vision was excellent and presented ICC values greater than 0.75. By contrast, the IRR for SAQ (urinary incontinence, self-perceived health and hearing impairment was intermediate. Only the fall-related item presented a good IRR. In this study single SAQ had poor reliability when compared to PT, suggesting the necessity of revision of subjective self-assessment items with low reproducibility before implementation.

  6. Can genome array screening replace FISH as a front-line test in multiple myeloma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boneva, Temenushka; Brazma, Diana; Gancheva, Katya; Howard-Reeves, Julie; Raynov, Julian; Grace, Colin; Nacheva, Elisabeth P

    2014-08-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant disorder characterized by neoplastic transformation of mature B cells in the bone marrow (BM), accompanied by complex genetic changes. The disease is heterogeneous at both the clinical and genomic levels. Molecular genetics and genomic investigations have demonstrated that disease evolution is associated with an accumulation of specific aberrations, mostly genome imbalances, which not only shed light on the disease pathogenesis but also allow risk assessment and treatment monitoring. We used a catalogue version of the Agilent 8x60K oligo-array with immuno-magnetically isolated CD138(+) cells from BM samples of 50 patients with myeloma to evaluate the merit of array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) as a diagnostic tool. We demonstrate the ability of aCGH to detect clonal imbalances to a level well below established clinically significant thresholds. aCGH, combined with target enrichment and complemented with tests for IGH rearrangements offers a cost neutral alternative to multiprobe fluorescence in situ hybridization screening. While we recognize the limitations of the standard version of the 8x60k array we demonstrate the value of aCGH as a first tier test in the diagnostic workup of MM. The array technology enables high-risk disease stratification with the added benefit of providing whole genome data to assist in establishing clinically relevant predicative markers. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Clinical implementation of routine screening for fetal trisomies in the UK NHS: cell-free DNA test contingent on results from first-trimester combined test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, M M; Revello, R; Poon, L C; Akolekar, R; Nicolaides, K H

    2016-01-01

    Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) analysis of maternal blood for detection of trisomies 21, 18 and 13 is superior to other methods of screening but is expensive. One strategy to maximize performance at reduced cost is to offer cfDNA testing contingent on the results of the first-trimester combined test that is used currently. The objectives of this study were to report the feasibility of implementing such screening, to examine the factors affecting patient decisions concerning their options for screening and decisions on the management of affected pregnancies and to report the prenatal diagnosis of fetal trisomies and outcome of affected pregnancies following the introduction of contingent screening. We examined routine clinical implementation of contingent screening in 11,692 singleton pregnancies in two National Health Service (NHS) hospitals in the UK. Women with a risk ≥ 1 in 100 (high-risk group) were offered options of invasive testing, cfDNA testing or no further testing, and those with a risk between 1 in 101 and 1 in 2500 (intermediate-risk group) were offered cfDNA testing or no further testing. The trisomic status of the pregnancies was determined by prenatal or postnatal karyotyping or by examination of the neonates. In the study population of 11,692 pregnancies, there were 47 cases of trisomy 21 and 28 of trisomies 18 or 13. Screening with the combined test followed by invasive testing for all patients in the high-risk group potentially could have detected 87% of trisomy 21 and 93% of trisomies 18 or 13, at a false-positive rate of 3.4%; the respective values for cfDNA testing in the high- and intermediate-risk groups were 98%, 82% and 0.25%. However, in the high-risk group, 38% of women chose invasive testing and 60% chose cfDNA testing; in the intermediate-risk group 92% opted for cfDNA testing. A prenatal diagnosis was made in 43 (91.5%) pregnancies with trisomy 21 and all pregnancies with trisomies 18 or 13. In many affected pregnancies the parents chose

  8. STD screening, testing, case reporting, and clinical and partner notification practices: a national survey of US physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Lawrence, Janet S; Montaño, Daniel E; Kasprzyk, Danuta; Phillips, William R; Armstrong, Keira; Leichliter, Jami S

    2002-11-01

    This study presents results from a national survey of US physicians that assessed screening, case reporting, partner management, and clinical practices for syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and HIV infection. Surveys were mailed to a random sample of 7300 physicians to assess screening, testing, reporting, and partner notification for syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and HIV. Fewer than one third of physicians routinely screened men or women (pregnant or nonpregnant) for STDs. Case reporting was lowest for chlamydia (37 percent), intermediate for gonorrhea (44 percent), and higher for syphilis, HIV, and AIDS (53 percent-57 percent). Physicians instructed patients to notify their partners (82 percent-89 percent) or the health department (25 percent-34 percent) rather than doing so themselves. STD screening levels are well below practice guidelines for women and virtually nonexistent for men. Case reporting levels are below those legally mandated; physicians rely instead on patients for partner notification. Health departments must increase collaboration with private physicians to improve the quality of STD care.

  9. Exploring the feasibility of alternative STD-testing venues and results delivery channels for a national screening campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Allison L; Bloodgood, Bonny

    2013-01-01

    Annual chlamydia screening is recommended for sexually active women aged 25 years and younger, though less than half of eligible women are screened each year. If acceptable to young women, nontraditional testing venues and new communication technologies could promote efficiencies in sexually transmitted disease (STD) screening and facilitate screening by overcoming barriers at systems and patient levels. This study sought to explore young women's technology use, preferences for STD-testing venues, attitudes toward nontraditional venues, and acceptability of test results delivery options. A total of 80 ethnographic one-on-one telephone interviews were conducted with African American, Caucasian, and Latina women, aged 15 to 25 years, in 10 metropolitan areas of the United States. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using NVivo2. Alternative STD-testing venues and results delivery channels are valued by young women for their convenience and accessibility, but they must also offer privacy, confidentiality, and emotional/informational support to be acceptable. Assuring provider (or self) competence and valid/accurate test results is also important. Although new technologies have been embraced by young women for personal and social uses, they may not be as readily embraced for the provision of STD-related services. Additional social marketing efforts may be needed to promote acceptance of nontraditional STD-testing settings and results delivery methods.

  10. Patterns of participation over four rounds of annual fecal immunochemical test-based screening for colorectal cancer: what predicts rescreening?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne M. Osborne

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Participation at the recommended intervals is critical for screening to be effective in reducing colorectal cancer (CRC incidence. This study describes patterns of screening participation over four rounds of fecal immunochemical testing (FIT to identify whether demographic variables and prior screening satisfaction are significantly associated with patterns of re-participation. Methods Baseline surveys were mailed to 4000 South Australians randomly selected from the electoral-roll. Respondents (n = 1928/48.2% were offered four annual FIT rounds. Screening participation and satisfaction at each round were recorded. Results Study participation was 58.5, 66.9, 73.1 and 71.4% respectively over four rounds. Three participation patterns were described: consistent participation (43.1%, consistent non-participation (26.4% and inconsistent participation (changeable; 30.5%, including intermittent and sustained change patterns. Sustained change described those who changed participatory behavior and then maintained for at least two rounds (n = 375/19.5%. Older people, and those not working were most likely to sustain participation. Younger invitees, especially men, were more likely to change participatory behavior and sustain the change. People with higher disadvantage, less education, not working and with no prior (pre-trial screening experience were more likely to start participating and drop out. People dissatisfied with a prior screening test, including finding aspects embarrassing or unpleasant, were also more likely not to participate in annual screening or to drop out. Conclusions The findings identify those at risk of non- or inconsistent participation in rescreening. They should aid targeting of interventions for demographic groups at risk and ensuring screening experiences are not perceived as unpleasant or difficult.

  11. The Functional Movement Screen and modified Star Excursion Balance Test as predictors of T-test agility performance in university rugby union and netball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Ross; Greig, Matt

    2018-05-01

    Agility is a functional requirement of many sports, challenging stability, and commonly cited as a mechanism of injury. The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and modified Star Excursion Balance Test (mSEBT) have equivocally been associated with agility performance. The aim of the current study was to establish a hierarchical ordering of FMS and mSEBT elements in predicting T-test agility performance. Cross-sectional study design. University. Thirty-two female rugby players, 31 male rugby players and 39 female netballers MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: FMS, mSEBT, T-test performance. The predictive potential of composite FMS and mSEBT scores were weaker than when discrete elements were considered. FMS elements were better predictors of T-test performance in rugby players, whilst mSEBT elements better predicted performance in netballers. Hierarchical modelling highlighted the in-line lunge (ILL) as the primary FMS predictor, whereas mSEBT ordering was limb and sport dependent. The relationship between musculoskeletal screening tools and agility performance was sport-specific. Discrete element scores are advocated over composite scores, and hierarchical ordering of tests might highlight redundancy in screening. The prominence of the ILL in hierarchical modelling might reflect the functional demands of the T-test. Sport-specificity and limb dominance influence hierarchical ordering of musculoskeletal screens. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Bergen Shopping Addiction Scale: Reliability and validity of a brief screening test

    OpenAIRE

    Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Griffiths, Mark D.; Pallesen, Ståle; Bilder, Robert; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Aboujaoude, Elias

    2015-01-01

    Although excessive and compulsive shopping has been increasingly placed within the behavioral addiction paradigm in recent years, items in existing screens arguably do not assess the core criteria and components of addiction. To date, assessment screens for shopping disorders have primarily been rooted within the impulse-control or obsessive-compulsive disorder paradigms. Furthermore, existing screens use the terms ‘shopping,’ ‘buying,’ and ‘spending’ interchangeably, and do not necessarily r...

  13. Preimplantation Genetic Screening: An Effective Testing for Infertile and Repeated Miscarriage Patients?

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ning; Zheng, Ying-Ming; Li, Lei; Jin, Fan

    2010-01-01

    Aneuploidy in pregnancy is known to increase with advanced maternal age (AMA) and associate with repeated implantation failure (RIF), and repeated miscarriage (RM). Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) has been introduced into clinical practice, screening, and eliminating aneuploidy embryos, which can improve the chance of conceptions for infertility cases with poor prognosis. These patients are a good target group to assess the possible benefit of aneuploidy screening. Although practiced ...

  14. Patterns and predictors of repeat fecal immunochemical and occult blood test screening in four large health care systems in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singal, Amit G; Corley, Douglas A; Kamineni, Aruna; Garcia, Michael; Zheng, Yingye; Doria-Rose, Paul V; Quinn, Virginia P; Jensen, Christopher D; Chubak, Jessica; Tiro, Jasmin; Doubeni, Chyke A; Ghai, Nirupa R; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Wernli, Karen; Halm, Ethan A

    2018-02-27

    Effectiveness of fecal occult blood test (FOBT) for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening depends on annual testing, but little is known about patterns of repeat stool-based screening within different settings. Our study's objective was to characterize screening patterns and identify factors associated with repeat screening among patients who completed an index guaiac FOBT (gFOBT) or fecal immunochemical test (FIT). We performed a multi-center retrospective cohort study among people who completed a FOBT between January 2010 and December 2011 to characterize repeat screening patterns over the subsequent 3 years. We studied at 4 large health care delivery systems in the United States. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with repeat screening patterns. We included individuals aged 50-71 years who completed an index FOBT and had at least 3 years of follow-up. We excluded people with a history of CRC, colonoscopy within 10 years or flexible sigmoidoscopy within 5 years before the index test, or positive index stool test. Consistent screening was defined as repeat FOBT within every 15 months and inconsistent screening as repeat testing at least once during follow-up but less than consistent screening. Among 959,857 eligible patients who completed an index FIT or gFOBT, 344,103 had three years of follow-up and met inclusion criteria. Of these, 46.6% had consistent screening, 43.4% inconsistent screening, and 10% had no repeat screening during follow-up. Screening patterns varied substantially across healthcare systems, with consistent screening proportions ranging from 1 to 54.3% and no repeat screening proportions ranging from 6.9 to 42.8%. Higher consistent screening proportions were observed in health systems with screening outreach and in-reach programs, whereas the safety-net health system, which uses opportunistic clinic-based screening, had the lowest consistent screening. Consistent screening increased with older age but was less

  15. A Neuropsychological Approach of Developmental Dyscalculia and a Screening Test Via a Web Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Christos Zygouris

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional definitions of Developmental Dyscalculia state that a child must substantially underachieve on mathematical abilities tests relative to the level expected given age, education and intelligence. However, cognitive developmental neuropsychological studies nowadays suggest that not only core numerical but also cognitive skills of children with developmental dyscalculia present deficits. The main aim of the research protocol was to construct a battery of six tests that can be delivered by computer in order to screen children’s arithmetic and cognitive skills. The hypothesis of the study was that children that are already diagnosed by paper and pencil tests as dyscalculic will present lower scores and larger time latencies not only in arithmetical but also in executive function tasks. A total of 134 right handed children (74 male and 60 female, age range 8 – 12 years participated in this study. The students with disorders in mathematics (N= 67, 37 male and 30 female age range 8 – 12 years M= 10.15 SD=1.10 had a statement of dyscalculia after assessment at a Centre of Diagnosis, Assessment and Support, as it is required by Greek Law. A comparison group without any learning disabilities was individually matched with the dyscalculic group according to age, sex and grade (N=67, 37 male and 30 female, age range 8 – 12 years old, M=10.24 SD=1.12. Statistical analysis revealed that children with dyscalculia had statistically significant lower mean scores of correct answers and larger time latencies in all tasks compared to their average peers that participated in the comparison group.`

  16. Women's preference for non-invasive prenatal DNA testing versus chromosomal microarray after screening for Down syndrome: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yky; Leung, W C; Leung, T Y; Choy, K W; Chiu, Rwk; Lo, T-K; Kwok, K Y; Sahota, D S

    2018-03-01

    To examine preferences for follow-up testing in women screened with high or intermediate risk for Down syndrome in the first or second trimester. Prospective cohort study. Three public hospitals in Hong Kong, China. Women with pregnancies termed as high risk (≥1:250; HR) or intermediate risk (1:251-1200; IR) for Down syndrome. Women with pregnancies screened as HR were offered the choices of: (1) an invasive test plus chromosomal microarray (CMA) to obtain more detailed fetal genetic information; (2) non-invasive cell-free prenatal DNA screening (NIPT) to detect trisomies 13, 18 and 21, and to avoid procedure-related miscarriage; and (3) to decline any further testing. Women received standardised counselling informing them that the reporting times were identical, the procedure miscarriage risk was 0.1-0.2% and that there was no charge for screening. Women with IR pregnancies (1:251-1200) were offered NIPT as a secondary screening test. Uptake rate for NIPT. Three hundred and forty-seven women had pregnancies deemed as HR; 344 (99.1%) women opted for follow-up testing, 216 (62.2%) of whom chose NIPT. Five hundred and seven of 614 women (82.6%) with IR risk chose NIPT. Seven (21%) of 34 women with nuchal translucency ≥3.5 mm opted for NIPT. In a setting where reporting times are similar and there is no cost difference between options, approximately 60% of women with pregnancies classed as HR would opt for NIPT, offering simple but limited aneuploidy assessment, over a diagnostic procedure with comprehensive and more detailed assessment. 60% of pregnant Chinese women prefer NIPT over CMA when screened as high risk for Down syndrome. © 2018 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  17. Estimation of Pap-test coverage in an area with an organised screening program: challenges for survey methods

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    Raggi Patrizio

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cytological screening programme of Viterbo has completed the second round of invitations to the entire target population (age 25–64. From a public health perspective, it is important to know the Pap-test coverage rate and the use of opportunistic screening. The most commonly used study design is the survey, but the validity of self-reports and the assumptions made about non respondents are often questioned. Methods From the target population, 940 women were sampled, and responded to a telephone interview about Pap-test utilisation. The answers were compared with the screening program registry; comparing the dates of Pap-tests reported by both sources. Sensitivity analyses were performed for coverage over a 36-month period, according to various assumptions regarding non respondents. Results The response rate was 68%. The coverage over 36 months was 86.4% if we assume that non respondents had the same coverage as respondents, 66% if we assume they were not covered at all, and 74.6% if we adjust for screening compliance in the non respondents. The sensitivity and specificity of the question, "have you ever had a Pap test with the screening programme" were 84.5% and 82.2% respectively. The test dates reported in the interview tended to be more recent than those reported in the registry, but 68% were within 12 months of each other. Conclusion Surveys are useful tools to understand the effectiveness of a screening programme and women's self-report was sufficiently reliable in our setting, but the coverage estimates were strongly influenced by the assumptions we made regarding non respondents.

  18. Healthcare professionals' and parents' experiences of the confirmatory testing period: a qualitative study of the UK expanded newborn screening pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Louise; Atkinson, Lou; Kehal, Isher; Bonham, James R

    2017-05-08

    With further expansion of the number of conditions for which newborn screening can be undertaken, it is timely to consider the impact of positive screening results and the confirmatory testing period on the families involved. This study was undertaken as part of a larger programme of work to evaluate the Expanded Newborn Screening (ENBS) programme in the United Kingdom (UK). It was aimed to determine the views and experiences of healthcare professionals (HCPs) and parents on communication and interaction during the period of confirmatory testing following a positive screening result. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with parents of children who had received a positive ENBS result and HCPs who had been involved with the diagnosis and support of parents. Ten parents and 11 healthcare professionals took part in the in-depth interviews. Questions considered the journey from the positive screening result through confirmatory testing to a confirmed diagnosis and the communication and interaction between the parents and HCPs that they had been experienced. Key themes were identified through thematic analysis. The results point to a number of elements within the path through confirmatory testing that are difficult for parents and could be further developed to improve the experience. These include the way in which the results are communicated to parents, rapid turnaround of results, offering a consistent approach, exploring interventions to support family relationships and reviewing the workload and scheduling implications for healthcare professionals. As technology enables newborn screening of a larger number of conditions, there is an increasing need to consider and mediate the potentially negative effects on families. The findings from this study point to a number of elements within the path through confirmatory testing that are difficult for parents and could be further developed to benefit the family experience.

  19. Antenatal syphilis screening using point-of-care testing in Sub-Saharan African countries: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kuznik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Untreated syphilis in pregnancy is associated with adverse clinical outcomes for the infant. Most syphilis infections occur in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, where coverage of antenatal screening for syphilis is inadequate. Recently introduced point-of-care syphilis tests have high accuracy and demonstrate potential to increase coverage of antenatal screening. However, country-specific cost-effectiveness data for these tests are limited. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of antenatal syphilis screening for 43 countries in SSA and estimate the impact of universal screening on stillbirths, neonatal deaths, congenital syphilis, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs averted.The decision analytic model reflected the perspective of the national health care system and was based on the sensitivity (86% and specificity (99% reported for the immunochromatographic strip (ICS test. Clinical outcomes of infants born to syphilis-infected mothers on the end points of stillbirth, neonatal death, and congenital syphilis were obtained from published sources. Treatment was assumed to consist of three injections of benzathine penicillin. Country-specific inputs included the antenatal prevalence of syphilis, annual number of live births, proportion of women with at least one antenatal care visit, per capita gross national income, and estimated hourly nurse wages. In all 43 sub-Saharan African countries analyzed, syphilis screening is highly cost-effective, with an average cost/DALY averted of US$11 (range: US$2-US$48. Screening remains highly cost-effective even if the average prevalence falls from the current rate of 3.1% (range: 0.6%-14.0% to 0.038% (range: 0.002%-0.113%. Universal antenatal screening of pregnant women in clinics may reduce the annual number of stillbirths by up to 64,000, neonatal deaths by up to 25,000, and annual incidence of congenital syphilis by up to 32,000, and avert up to 2.6 million

  20. Beta lactam antibiotics residues in cow's milk: comparison of efficacy of three screening tests used in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejzic, Nihad; Begagic, Muris; Šerić-Haračić, Sabina; Smajlovic, Muhamed

    2014-08-27

    Beta lactam antibiotics are widely used in therapy of cattle, particularly for the treatment of mastitis.  Over 95% of residue testing in dairies in Bosnia and Herzegovina is for Beta lactams. The aim of this paper is to compare the efficacy of three most common screening tests for Beta lactam residues in cow's milk in our country. The tests used in the study are SNAP β Lactam test (Idexx), Rosa Charm β Lactam test and Inhibition MRL test. Study samples included: standardized concentrations of penicillin solution (0, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 ppb). In addition we tested milk samples from three equal size study groups (not receiving any antibiotic therapy, treated with Beta lactams for mastitis and treated with Beta lactams for diseases other than mastitis). Sensitivity and specificity were determined for each test, using standard penicillin concentrations with threshold value set at concentration of 4 ppb (Maximum residue level - MLR). Additionally we determined proportions of presumably false negative and false positive results for each test using results of filed samples testing. Agreement of test results for each test pair was assessed through Kappa coefficients interpreted by Landis-Koch scale. Detection level of all tests was shown to be well below MRL. This alongside with effects of natural inhibitors in milk contributed to finding of positive results in untreated and treated animals after the withholding period. Screening tests for beta lactam residues are important tools for ensuring that milk for human consumption is free from antibiotics residues.

  1. Performance Assessment of Sysmex® CA-104 for Screening Coagulogram Testing

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    Oranut Komkhum

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Sysmex® CA-104 (CA-104 is a new, semi-automated coagulation analyzer which has not yet been evaluated in Thailand. The objective of this study was to evaluate the CA-104 performance for prothrombin time (PT, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT, and international normalized ratio (INR under local laboratory conditions. Methods: Real patient samples and control materials were used to evaluate CA-104 in terms of precision, reference range, and comparability to the validated Sysmex® CS-2100i analyzer (CS-2100i. Results: The highest percentages of coefficient of variation of PT and APTT were 1.34 and 1.47 for within-run, and 3.2 and 1.65 for between-run precision studies. Correlation coefficients of PT, APTT, and INR between CA-104 and CS-2100i were 0.97, 0.95, and 0.99, respectively. Mean biases of PT, APTT, and INR of CA-104 compared with those from CS-2100i were low. Most results were within 95% agreement, although a few values at the high levels were not. For INR testing, no specimen required warfarin dose adjustment when using CA-104 instead of CS-2100i. Conclusion: Performance of CA-104 for screening coagulogram in terms of precision and comparability to CS-2100i was acceptable. However, a few discrepancies in clotting time at high values were observed. Further investigation to identify the cause of this discrepancy is warranted.

  2. Screening Test for Detection of Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say Sensitivity to Insecticides

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    Dušanka Inđić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, the sensitivity of 15 field populations of Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsadecemlineata Say. - CPB was assessed to chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, thiamethoxam and fipronil,four insecticides which are mostly used for its control in Serbia. Screening test that allows rapidassessment of sensitivity of overwintered adults to insecticides was performed. Insecticideswere applied at label rates, and two, five and 10 fold higher rates by soaking method (5 sec.Mortality was assessed after 72h. From 15 monitored populations of CPB, two were sensitiveto label rate of chlorpyrifos, one was slightly resistant, 11 were resistant and one populationwas highly resistant. Concerning cypermethrin, two populations were sensitive, two slightlyresistant, five were resistant and six highly resistant. Highly sensitive to thiamethoxam labelrate were 12 populations, while three were sensitive. In the case of fipronil applied at label rate,two populations were highly sensitive, six sensitive, one slightly resistant and six were resistant.The application of insecticides at higher rates (2, 5 and 10 fold, that is justified only in bioassays,provided a rapid insight into sensitivity of field populations of CPB to insecticides.

  3. Genealogical tree study as screening method in the Lynch syndrome prior to genetic test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Plasencia, Luciano; Medina-Arana, Vicente; Barrios Del Pino, Ysamar; Fernández-Peralta, Antonia; González-Aguilera, Juan J

    2010-08-01

    Despite genetic advances in the study of Lynch syndrome (LS), difficulties remain in the diagnosis of the syndrome. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of a detailed genealogical tree as a screening method to identify Tenerife island families with a high probability of LS. We elaborated complete genealogical trees of the families. According to the degree of fulfillment of the Amsterdam Criteria II, the genealogical trees were classified as high or low probability of LS. Additionally, we analyzed the level of tumor microsatellite instability (MSI+) and identified a mutation in exon 13 of the MSH2 gene by single-strand conformation polymorphism, sequencing, and PCR-RFLP. According the genealogical trees, we found 10 families with high probability of LS and 30 families with low probability of LS. The families with high probability of LS showed high MSI+ in all cases. Conversely, families with low probability were MSS (microsatellite stable). In 5 of the 10 families with high probability, we discovered a T-->G mutation in position 688 of exon 13 of MSH2, which appeared in all the family members with the tumor, except 1 patient with a retinoblastoma. Our results indicate that genealogical tree is a highly effective tool for classifying families with a high probability of Lynch Syndrome prior to genetic test.

  4. Thallium scintigraphy during dobutamine infusion: nonexercise-dependent screening test for coronary disease