WorldWideScience

Sample records for single-pass picosecond supercontinuum-seeded

  1. Single Pass Albumin Dialysis in Hepatorenal Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Ebadur

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS is the most appalling complication of acute or chronic liver disease with 90% mortality rate. Single pass albumin dialysis (SPAD can be considered as a noble liver support technique in HRS. Here, we present a case of a young healthy patient who developed hyperacute fulminant liver failure that progressed to HRS. The patient was offered SPAD as a bridge to liver transplantation, however, it resulted in an excellent recovery.

  2. Axioms for behavioural congruence of single-pass instruction sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    In program algebra, an algebraic theory of single-pass instruction sequences, three congruences on instruction sequences are paid attention to: instruction sequence congruence, structural congruence, and behavioural congruence. Sound and complete axiom systems for the first two congruences were

  3. Forest Analysis by Single-Pass Millimeterwave SAR Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, Michael; Zhu, Xiao Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Recent investigations show that millimeterwave SAR tomography provides an interesting means for the analysis of forested areas, especially if single-pass systems are employed. Providing very high resolutions in the decimeter domain and highly coherent data also for slightly windy conditions, even individual trees can be considered. Besides, it has been shown that a certain amount of canopy penetration is possible in spite of the short wavelength.

  4. Milestone experiments for single pass UV/X-ray FELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.

    1994-01-01

    In the past decade, significant advances have been made in the theory and technology of high brightness electron beams and single pass FELS. These developments facilitate the construction of practical UV and X-ray FELs and has prompted proposals to the DOE for the construction of such facilities. There are several important experiments to be performed before committing to the construction of dedicated user facilities. Two experiments are under construction in the IR, the UCLA Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission experiment and the BNL laser seeded Harmonic Generation experiment. A multi-institution collaboration is being organized about a 210 MeV electron linac available at BNL and the 10 meter tong NISUS wiggler. This experiment will be done in the UV and will test various experimental aspects of electron beam dynamics, FEL exponential regime with gain guiding, start up from noise, seeding and harmonic generation. These experiments will advance the state of FEL research and lead towards future dedicated users' facilities

  5. Milestone experiments for single pass UV/X-ray FELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan

    1995-04-01

    In the past decade, significant advances have been made in the theory and technology of high brightness electron beams and single pass FELs. These developments facilitate the construction of practical UV and X-ray FELs and has prompted proposals to the DOE for the construction of such facilities. There are several important experiments to be performed before committing to the construction of dedicated user facilities. Two experiments are under construction in the IR, the UCLA self-amplified spontaneous emission experiment and the BNL laser seeded harmonic generation experiment. A multi-institution collaboration is being organized about a 210 MeV electron linac available at BNL and the 10 m long NISUS wiggler. This experiment will be done in the UV and will test various experimental aspects of electron beam dynamics, FEL exponential regime with gain guiding, start-up from noise, seeding and harmonic generation. These experiments will advance the state of FEL research and lead towards future dedicated users' facilities.

  6. Single Pass Stripline Beam Position Monitor Design, Fabrication and Commissioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKinlay J.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available To monitor the position of the electron beam during transport from the Booster Synchrotron to the Storage Ring at the Australian Synchrotron, a stripline Beam Position Monitor (BPM has been designed, fabricated and installed in-house. The design was based on an existing stripline in the Booster and modified for the transfer line with a particular emphasis on ensuring the line impedance is properly matched to the detector system. The initial bench tests of a prototype stripline showed that the fabrication of the four individual striplines in the BPM was made precisely, each with a measured standing wave ratio (SWR of 1.8 at 500 MHz. Further optimization for impedance matching will be done for new stripline BPMs. The linearity and gain factor was measured with the detector system. The detector system that digitizes the signals is an Instrumentation Technologies Brilliance Single Pass [1]. The results show an error of 1 mm at an offset (from the electrical centre of 10 mm when a linear gain factor is assumed and an RMS noise of ~150 um that decreases to < 10 um with increasing signal intensity. The results were under our requirements for the transport line. The commissioning results of the stripline will also be presented showing a strong signal for an electron beam with an estimated integrated charge of ~50 nC with a position stability of 28 um (horizontal and 75 um (vertical.

  7. Single Pass Stripline Beam Position Monitor Design, Fabrication and Commissioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Y.-R. E.; Wang, D.; Van Garderen, E.; McKinlay, J.

    2012-10-01

    To monitor the position of the electron beam during transport from the Booster Synchrotron to the Storage Ring at the Australian Synchrotron, a stripline Beam Position Monitor (BPM) has been designed, fabricated and installed in-house. The design was based on an existing stripline in the Booster and modified for the transfer line with a particular emphasis on ensuring the line impedance is properly matched to the detector system. The initial bench tests of a prototype stripline showed that the fabrication of the four individual striplines in the BPM was made precisely, each with a measured standing wave ratio (SWR) of 1.8 at 500 MHz. Further optimization for impedance matching will be done for new stripline BPMs. The linearity and gain factor was measured with the detector system. The detector system that digitizes the signals is an Instrumentation Technologies Brilliance Single Pass [1]. The results show an error of 1 mm at an offset (from the electrical centre) of 10 mm when a linear gain factor is assumed and an RMS noise of ~150 um that decreases to < 10 um with increasing signal intensity. The results were under our requirements for the transport line. The commissioning results of the stripline will also be presented showing a strong signal for an electron beam with an estimated integrated charge of ~50 nC with a position stability of 28 um (horizontal) and 75 um (vertical).

  8. The Single Pass RF Driver: Final beam compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Robert, E-mail: rjburke@fusionpowercorporation.com

    2014-01-01

    The Single Pass RF Driver (SPRFD) compacts the beam from the linac without storage rings by manipulations that take advantage of the multiplicity of isotopes (16), the preserved µbunch structure, and increased total linac current. Magnetic switches on a first set of delay lines rearrange the internal structure of the various isotopic beams. A second set of delay lines sets the relative timing of the 16 isotopic beam sections so they will telescope at the pellet, in one of multiple fusion chambers, e.g. 10. Shortening each isotopic beam section uses preservation of the µbunch structure up to the final ∼2 km drift before final focus. Just before the final drift, differential acceleration of the µbunches in each isotopic beam section (128 total) launches an axial collapse, referred to as the “Slick”. The µbunches interpenetrate as their centers of mass move toward each other and individual µbunches lengthen due to their momentum spread. In longitudinal phase space they slide over one another as they lengthen in time and slim down in instantaneous energy spread. The permissible amount of µbunch lengthening is set by the design pulse shape at the pellet, which varies for different groups of isotopes. In narrow bands of ranges according to the role for each isotope group in the pellet, the ranges extend from 1 to 10 g/cm{sup 2} to drive the cylinder barrel and thin hemispherical end caps, to heat the ∼0.5 g/cm{sup 2}ρR fast ignition zone, and to improve the quasi-sphericity of the compression of the fast ignition zones at the pellet's ends. Because the µbunch–µbunch momentum differences are correlated, time-ramped beamline transport elements close after the differential accelerator are used to correct the associated shifts of focal point. Beam neutralization is needed after the differential acceleration until adjacent bunches begin to overlap. Concurrent collapse of each isotope and telescoping of the 16 isotopes cause the current in each beamline

  9. The Single Pass RF Driver: Final beam compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The Single Pass RF Driver (SPRFD) compacts the beam from the linac without storage rings by manipulations that take advantage of the multiplicity of isotopes (16), the preserved µbunch structure, and increased total linac current. Magnetic switches on a first set of delay lines rearrange the internal structure of the various isotopic beams. A second set of delay lines sets the relative timing of the 16 isotopic beam sections so they will telescope at the pellet, in one of multiple fusion chambers, e.g. 10. Shortening each isotopic beam section uses preservation of the µbunch structure up to the final ∼2 km drift before final focus. Just before the final drift, differential acceleration of the µbunches in each isotopic beam section (128 total) launches an axial collapse, referred to as the “Slick”. The µbunches interpenetrate as their centers of mass move toward each other and individual µbunches lengthen due to their momentum spread. In longitudinal phase space they slide over one another as they lengthen in time and slim down in instantaneous energy spread. The permissible amount of µbunch lengthening is set by the design pulse shape at the pellet, which varies for different groups of isotopes. In narrow bands of ranges according to the role for each isotope group in the pellet, the ranges extend from 1 to 10 g/cm 2 to drive the cylinder barrel and thin hemispherical end caps, to heat the ∼0.5 g/cm 2 ρR fast ignition zone, and to improve the quasi-sphericity of the compression of the fast ignition zones at the pellet's ends. Because the µbunch–µbunch momentum differences are correlated, time-ramped beamline transport elements close after the differential accelerator are used to correct the associated shifts of focal point. Beam neutralization is needed after the differential acceleration until adjacent bunches begin to overlap. Concurrent collapse of each isotope and telescoping of the 16 isotopes cause the current in each beamline to rise

  10. Picosecond camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decroisette, Michel

    A Kerr cell activated by infrared pulses of a model locked Nd glass laser, acts as an ultra-fast and periodic shutter, with a few p.s. opening time. Associated with a S.T.L. camera, it gives rise to a picosecond camera allowing us to study very fast effects [fr

  11. Model for Estimation of Thermal History Produced by a Single Pass Underwater Wet Weld

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dill, Jay

    1997-01-01

    Thermal history calculations for single pass underwater wet weldments were made by solving the appropriate beat transfer equations using the three-dimensional Crank-Nicholson finite difference method...

  12. INVESTIGATION OF SINGLE-PASS/DOUBLE-PASS TECHNIQUES ON FRICTION STIR WELDING OF ALUMINIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A.A. Sathari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study the effects of single-pass/ double-pass techniques on friction stir welding of aluminium. Two pieces of AA1100 with a thickness of 6.0 mm were friction stir welded using a CNC milling machine at rotational speeds of 1400 rpm, 1600 rpm and 1800 rpm respectively for single-pass and double-pass. Microstructure observations of the welded area were studied using an optical microscope. The specimens were tested by using a tensile test and Vickers hardness test to evaluate their mechanical properties. The results indicated that, at low rotational speed, defects such as ‘surface lack of fill’ and tunnels in the welded area contributed to a decrease in mechanical properties. Welded specimens using double-pass techniques show increasing values of tensile strength and hardness. From this investigation it is found that the best parameters of FSW welded aluminium AA1100 plate were those using double-pass techniques that produce mechanically sound joints with a hardness of 56.38 HV and 108 MPa strength at 1800 rpm compared to the single-pass technique. Friction stir welding, single-pass/ double-pass techniques, AA1100, microstructure, mechanical properties.

  13. Fuel-element failures in Hanford single-pass reactors 1944--1971

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gydesen, S.P.

    1993-07-01

    The primary objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received as a result of emissions since 1944 from the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. To estimate the doses, the staff of the Source Terms Task use operating information from historical documents to approximate the radioactive emissions. One source of radioactive emissions to the Columbia River came from leaks in the aluminum cladding of the uranium metal fuel elements in single-pass reactors. The purpose of this letter report is to provide photocopies of the documents that recorded these failures. The data from these documents will be used by the Source Terms Task to determine the contribution of single-pass reactor fuel-element failures to the radioactivity of the reactor effluent from 1944 through 1971. Each referenced fuel-element failure occurring in the Hanford single-pass reactors is addressed. The first recorded failure was in 1948, the last in 1970. No records of fuel-element failures were found in documents prior to 1948. Data on the approximately 2000 failures which occurred during the 28 years (1944--1971) of Hanford single-pass reactor operations are provided in this report.

  14. Highly efficient single-pass sum frequency generation by cascaded nonlinear crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Kragh; Andersen, Peter E.; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2015-01-01

    , despite differences in the phase relations of the involved fields. An unprecedented 5.5 W of continuous-wave diffraction-limited green light is generated from the single-pass sum frequency mixing of two diode lasers in two periodically poled nonlinear crystals (conversion efficiency 50%). The technique......The cascading of nonlinear crystals has been established as a simple method to greatly increase the conversion efficiency of single-pass second-harmonic generation compared to a single-crystal scheme. Here, we show for the first time that the technique can be extended to sum frequency generation...... is generally applicable and can be applied to any combination of fundamental wavelengths and nonlinear crystals....

  15. Single-pass BPM system of the Photon Factory storage ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, T; Katoh, M; Mitsuhashi, T; Ueda, A; Tadano, M; Kobayashi, Y

    1998-05-01

    At the 2.5 GeV ring of the Photon Factory, a single-pass beam-position monitor (BPM) system is being prepared for the storage ring and the beam transport line. In the storage ring, the injected beam position during the first several turns can be measured with a single injection pulse. The BPM system has an adequate performance, useful for the commissioning of the new low-emittance lattice. Several stripline BPMs are being installed in the beam transport line. The continuous monitoring of the orbit in the beam transport line will be useful for the stabilization of the injection energy as well as the injection beam orbit.

  16. Generic, network schema agnostic sparse tensor factorization for single-pass clustering of heterogeneous information networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jibing; Meng, Qinggang; Deng, Su; Huang, Hongbin; Wu, Yahui; Badii, Atta

    2017-01-01

    Heterogeneous information networks (e.g. bibliographic networks and social media networks) that consist of multiple interconnected objects are ubiquitous. Clustering analysis is an effective method to understand the semantic information and interpretable structure of the heterogeneous information networks, and it has attracted the attention of many researchers in recent years. However, most studies assume that heterogeneous information networks usually follow some simple schemas, such as bi-typed networks or star network schema, and they can only cluster one type of object in the network each time. In this paper, a novel clustering framework is proposed based on sparse tensor factorization for heterogeneous information networks, which can cluster multiple types of objects simultaneously in a single pass without any network schema information. The types of objects and the relations between them in the heterogeneous information networks are modeled as a sparse tensor. The clustering issue is modeled as an optimization problem, which is similar to the well-known Tucker decomposition. Then, an Alternating Least Squares (ALS) algorithm and a feasible initialization method are proposed to solve the optimization problem. Based on the tensor factorization, we simultaneously partition different types of objects into different clusters. The experimental results on both synthetic and real-world datasets have demonstrated that our proposed clustering framework, STFClus, can model heterogeneous information networks efficiently and can outperform state-of-the-art clustering algorithms as a generally applicable single-pass clustering method for heterogeneous network which is network schema agnostic.

  17. Improvements in picosecond chronography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthurs, E.G.; Bradley, D.J.; Liddy, Brian; O'Neill, Fergus; Roddie, A.G.; Sibbett, Wilson; Sleat, W.E.

    The durations of laser pulses as short as 1 picosecond have been measured with an electro-optical streak camera. The time resolution limit of the camera system has been directly and unambiguously demonstrated employing a flashlamp pumped mode-locked dye laser to reliably generate tunable-frequency pulses of duration between 1 and 2 psec. An argon laser pumped C.W. mode-locked dye laser has been developed using the streak camera as a diagnostic tool, to produce continuous streams of picosecond pulses. With the high light gain of the camera system, pulses of peak powers < 1 watt can be studied with picosecond time resolution. The build-up of picosecond pulses from the initial photon noise of the mode-locked laser has also been directly recorded for the first time

  18. Ultrastructural evaluation of multiple pass low energy versus single pass high energy radio-frequency treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kist, David; Burns, A Jay; Sanner, Roth; Counters, Jeff; Zelickson, Brian

    2006-02-01

    The radio-frequency (RF) device is a system capable of volumetric heating of the mid to deep dermis and selective heating of the fibrous septa strands and fascia layer. Clinically, these effects promote dermal collagen production, and tightening of these deep subcutaneous structures. A new technique of using multiple low energy passes has been described which results in lower patient discomfort and fewer side effects. This technique has also been anecdotally described as giving more reproducible and reliable clinical results of tissue tightening and contouring. This study will compare ultrastructural changes in collagen between a single pass high energy versus up to five passes of a multiple pass lower energy treatment. Three subjects were consented and treated in the preauricular region with the RF device using single or multiple passes (three or five) in the same 1.5 cm(2) treatment area with a slight delay between passes to allow tissue cooling. Biopsies from each treatment region and a control biopsy were taken immediately, 24 hours or 6 months post treatment for electron microscopic examination of the 0-1 mm and 1-2 mm levels. Sections of tissue 1 mm x 1 mm x 80 nm were examined with an RCA EMU-4 Transmission Electron Microscope. Twenty sections from 6 blocks from each 1 mm depth were examined by 2 blinded observers. The morphology and degree of collagen change in relation to area examined was compared to the control tissue, and estimated using a quantitative scale. Ultrastructural examination of tissue showed that an increased amount of collagen fibril changes with increasing passes at energies of 97 J (three passes) and 122 J (five passes), respectively. The changes seen after five multiple passes were similar to those detected after much more painful single pass high-energy treatments. This ultrastructural study shows changes in collagen fibril morphology with an increased effect demonstrated at greater depths of the skin with multiple low-fluence passes

  19. Effect of a ballast zone on the hydraulic stability of a single-pass steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyakov, I.I.; Kvetnyj, M.A.; Loginov, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    A new mechanism of hydraulic instability of boiling channels with convection heating which reveals in the presence of a developed ballast zone at decreased loads of a counterflan steam generator operation is considered. It is shown that for the certain combinations of thermal and technical parameters pulsation regimes caused by the ballast zone displacement over the heating surface are possible. The parameter relation at which the ballast zone position becomes unstable is obtained. The effect of the ballast zone on the statis steam generator stability is established. A mechanism of whole-circuit pulsations revealed when developing start regimes of single-pass steam generator heated with liquid sodium is explained from the positions of the instability

  20. Experimental and simulation studies on a single pass, double duct solar air heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forson, F.K. [Kwame Nkrumah Univ. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Kumasi (Ghana); Rajakaruna, H. [De Montfort Univ., School of Engineering and Technology, Leicester (United Kingdom)

    2003-05-01

    A mathematical model of a single pass, double duct solar air heater (SPDDSAH) is described. The model provides a design tool capable of predicting: incident solar radiation, heat transfer coefficients, mean air flow rates, mean air temperature and relative humidity at the exit. Results from the simulation are presented and compared with experimental ones obtained on a full scale air heater and a small scale laboratory one. Reasonable agreement between the predicted and measured values is demonstrated. Predicted results from a parametric study are also presented. It is shown that significant improvement in the SPDDSAH performance can be obtained with an appropriate choice of the collector parameters and the top to bottom channel depth ratio of the two ducts. The air mass flow rate is shown to be the dominant factor in determining the overall efficiency of the heater. (Author)

  1. High-Accuracy Elevation Data at Large Scales from Airborne Single-Pass SAR Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Jean-Pierre Schumann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital elevation models (DEMs are essential data sets for disaster risk management and humanitarian relief services as well as many environmental process models. At present, on the hand, globally available DEMs only meet the basic requirements and for many services and modeling studies are not of high enough spatial resolution and lack accuracy in the vertical. On the other hand, LiDAR-DEMs are of very high spatial resolution and great vertical accuracy but acquisition operations can be very costly for spatial scales larger than a couple of hundred square km and also have severe limitations in wetland areas and under cloudy and rainy conditions. The ideal situation would thus be to have a DEM technology that allows larger spatial coverage than LiDAR but without compromising resolution and vertical accuracy and still performing under some adverse weather conditions and at a reasonable cost. In this paper, we present a novel single pass In-SAR technology for airborne vehicles that is cost-effective and can generate DEMs with a vertical error of around 0.3 m for an average spatial resolution of 3 m. To demonstrate this capability, we compare a sample single-pass In-SAR Ka-band DEM of the California Central Valley from the NASA/JPL airborne GLISTIN-A to a high-resolution LiDAR DEM. We also perform a simple sensitivity analysis to floodplain inundation. Based on the findings of our analysis, we argue that this type of technology can and should be used to replace large regions of globally available lower resolution DEMs, particularly in coastal, delta and floodplain areas where a high number of assets, habitats and lives are at risk from natural disasters. We conclude with a discussion on requirements, advantages and caveats in terms of instrument and data processing.

  2. Uranium Release from Acidic Weathered Hanford Sediments: Single-Pass Flow-Through and Column Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guohui; Um, Wooyong; Wang, Zheming; Reinoso-Maset, Estela; Washton, Nancy M; Mueller, Karl T; Perdrial, Nicolas; O'Day, Peggy A; Chorover, Jon

    2017-10-03

    The reaction of acidic radioactive waste with sediments can induce mineral transformation reactions that, in turn, control contaminant fate. Here, sediment weathering by synthetic uranium-containing acid solutions was investigated using bench-scale experiments to simulate waste disposal conditions at Hanford's cribs (Hanford, WA). During acid weathering, the presence of phosphate exerted a strong influence over uranium mineralogy and a rapidly precipitated, crystalline uranium phosphate phase (meta-ankoleite [K(UO 2 )(PO 4 )·3H 2 O]) was identified using spectroscopic and diffraction-based techniques. In phosphate-free system, uranium oxyhydroxide minerals such as K-compreignacite [K 2 (UO 2 ) 6 O 4 (OH) 6 ·7H 2 O] were formed. Single-pass flow-through (SPFT) and column leaching experiments using synthetic Hanford pore water showed that uranium precipitated as meta-ankoleite during acid weathering was strongly retained in the sediments, with an average release rate of 2.67 × 10 -12 mol g -1 s -1 . In the absence of phosphate, uranium release was controlled by dissolution of uranium oxyhydroxide (compreignacite-type) mineral with a release rate of 1.05-2.42 × 10 -10 mol g -1 s -1 . The uranium mineralogy and release rates determined for both systems in this study support the development of accurate U-release models for the prediction of contaminant transport. These results suggest that phosphate minerals may be a good candidate for uranium remediation approaches at contaminated sites.

  3. Parametric analysis of plastic strain and force distribution in single pass metal spinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhary, Shashank; Tejesh, Chiruvolu Mohan; Regalla, Srinivasa Prakash; Suresh, Kurra

    2013-01-01

    Metal spinning also known as spin forming is one of the sheet metal working processes by which an axis-symmetric part can be formed from a flat sheet metal blank. Parts are produced by pressing a blunt edged tool or roller on to the blank which in turn is mounted on a rotating mandrel. This paper discusses about the setting up a 3-D finite element simulation of single pass metal spinning in LS-Dyna. Four parameters were considered namely blank thickness, roller nose radius, feed ratio and mandrel speed and the variation in forces and plastic strain were analysed using the full-factorial design of experiments (DOE) method of simulation experiments. For some of these DOE runs, physical experiments on extra deep drawing (EDD) sheet metal were carried out using En31 tool on a lathe machine. Simulation results are able to predict the zone of unsafe thinning in the sheet and high forming forces that are hint to the necessity for less-expensive and semi-automated machine tools to help the household and small scale spinning workers widely prevalent in India

  4. Parametric analysis of plastic strain and force distribution in single pass metal spinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Shashank; Tejesh, Chiruvolu Mohan; Regalla, Srinivasa Prakash; Suresh, Kurra

    2013-12-01

    Metal spinning also known as spin forming is one of the sheet metal working processes by which an axis-symmetric part can be formed from a flat sheet metal blank. Parts are produced by pressing a blunt edged tool or roller on to the blank which in turn is mounted on a rotating mandrel. This paper discusses about the setting up a 3-D finite element simulation of single pass metal spinning in LS-Dyna. Four parameters were considered namely blank thickness, roller nose radius, feed ratio and mandrel speed and the variation in forces and plastic strain were analysed using the full-factorial design of experiments (DOE) method of simulation experiments. For some of these DOE runs, physical experiments on extra deep drawing (EDD) sheet metal were carried out using En31 tool on a lathe machine. Simulation results are able to predict the zone of unsafe thinning in the sheet and high forming forces that are hint to the necessity for less-expensive and semi-automated machine tools to help the household and small scale spinning workers widely prevalent in India.

  5. Capacitive deionization of arsenic-contaminated groundwater in a single-pass mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chen-Shiuan; Liou, Sofia Ya Hsuan; Hou, Chia-Hung

    2017-10-01

    A single-pass-mode capacitive deionization (CDI) reactor was used to remove arsenic from groundwater in the presence of multiple ions. The CDI reactor involved an applied voltage of 1.2 V and six cell pairs of activated carbon electrodes, each of which was 20 × 30 cm 2 . The results indicate that this method achieved an effluent arsenic concentration of 0.03 mg L -1 , which is lower than the arsenic concentration standard for drinking water and irrigation sources in Taiwan, during the charging stage. Additionally, the ability of the CDI to remove other coexisting ions was studied. The presence of other ions has a significant influence on the removal of arsenic from groundwater. From the analysis of the electrosorption selectivity, the preference for anion removal could be ordered as follows: NO 3 -  > SO 4 2-  > F -  > Cl - >As. The electrosorption selectivity for cations could be ordered as follows: Ca 2+  > Mg 2+  > Na +  ∼ K + . Moreover, monovalent cations can be replaced by divalent cations at the electrode surface in the later period of the electrosorption stage. Consequently, activated carbon-based capacitive deionization is demonstrated to be a high-potential technology for remediation of arsenic-contaminated groundwater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Optical performance of multifocal soft contact lenses via a single-pass method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakaraju, Ravi C; Ehrmann, Klaus; Falk, Darrin; Ho, Arthur; Papas, Eric

    2012-08-01

    A physical model eye capable of carrying soft contact lenses (CLs) was used as a platform to evaluate optical performance of several commercial multifocals (MFCLs) with high- and low-add powers and a single-vision control. Optical performance was evaluated at three pupil sizes, six target vergences, and five CL-correcting positions using a spatially filtered monochromatic (632.8 nm) light source. The various target vergences were achieved by using negative trial lenses. A photosensor in the retinal plane recorded the image point-spread that enabled the computation of visual Strehl ratios. The centration of CLs was monitored by an additional integrated en face camera. Hydration of the correcting lens was maintained using a humidity chamber and repeated instillations of rewetting saline drops. All the MFCLs reduced performance for distance but considerably improved performance along the range of distance to near target vergences, relative to the single-vision CL. Performance was dependent on add power, design, pupil, and centration of the correcting CLs. Proclear (D) design produced good performance for intermediate vision, whereas Proclear (N) design performed well at near vision (p 4 mm in diameter. Acuvue Oasys bifocal produced performance comparable with single-vision CL for most vergences. Direct measurement of single-pass images at the retinal plane of a physical model eye used in conjunction with various MFCLs is demonstrated. This method may have utility in evaluating the relative effectiveness of commercial and prototype designs.

  7. Parametric analysis of plastic strain and force distribution in single pass metal spinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, Shashank, E-mail: shashankbit08@gmail.com, E-mail: mohantejesh93@gmail.com, E-mail: regalla@hyderabad.bits-pilani.ac.in, E-mail: ksuresh@hyderabad.bits-pilani.ac.in; Tejesh, Chiruvolu Mohan, E-mail: shashankbit08@gmail.com, E-mail: mohantejesh93@gmail.com, E-mail: regalla@hyderabad.bits-pilani.ac.in, E-mail: ksuresh@hyderabad.bits-pilani.ac.in; Regalla, Srinivasa Prakash, E-mail: shashankbit08@gmail.com, E-mail: mohantejesh93@gmail.com, E-mail: regalla@hyderabad.bits-pilani.ac.in, E-mail: ksuresh@hyderabad.bits-pilani.ac.in; Suresh, Kurra, E-mail: shashankbit08@gmail.com, E-mail: mohantejesh93@gmail.com, E-mail: regalla@hyderabad.bits-pilani.ac.in, E-mail: ksuresh@hyderabad.bits-pilani.ac.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, BITS-Pilani, Hyderabad Campus, Shamirpet, Hyderabad, 500078, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2013-12-16

    Metal spinning also known as spin forming is one of the sheet metal working processes by which an axis-symmetric part can be formed from a flat sheet metal blank. Parts are produced by pressing a blunt edged tool or roller on to the blank which in turn is mounted on a rotating mandrel. This paper discusses about the setting up a 3-D finite element simulation of single pass metal spinning in LS-Dyna. Four parameters were considered namely blank thickness, roller nose radius, feed ratio and mandrel speed and the variation in forces and plastic strain were analysed using the full-factorial design of experiments (DOE) method of simulation experiments. For some of these DOE runs, physical experiments on extra deep drawing (EDD) sheet metal were carried out using En31 tool on a lathe machine. Simulation results are able to predict the zone of unsafe thinning in the sheet and high forming forces that are hint to the necessity for less-expensive and semi-automated machine tools to help the household and small scale spinning workers widely prevalent in India.

  8. Double-Sided Single-Pass Submerged Arc Welding for 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jian; Yuan, Yi; Wang, Xiaoming; Yao, Zongxiang

    2013-09-01

    The duplex stainless steel (DSS), which combines the characteristics of ferritic steel and austenitic steel, is used widely. The submerged arc welding (SAW) method is usually applied to join thick plates of DSS. However, an effective welding procedure is needed in order to obtain ideal DSS welds with an appropriate proportion of ferrite (δ) and austenite (γ) in the weld zone, particularly in the melted zone and heat-affected zone. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a high efficiency double-sided single-pass (DSSP) SAW joining method for thick DSS plates. The effectiveness of the converse welding procedure, characterizations of weld zone, and mechanical properties of welded joint are analyzed. The results show an increasing appearance and continuous distribution feature of the σ phase in the fusion zone of the leading welded seam. The converse welding procedure promotes the σ phase to precipitate in the fusion zone of leading welded side. The microhardness appears to significantly increase in the center of leading welded side. Ductile fracture mode is observed in the weld zone. A mixture fracture feature appears with a shear lip and tears in the fusion zone near the fusion line. The ductility, plasticity, and microhardness of the joints have a significant relationship with σ phase and heat treatment effect influenced by the converse welding step. An available heat input controlling technology of the DSSP formation method is discussed for SAW of thick DSS plates.

  9. Intestinal permeability of forskolin by in situ single pass perfusion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen-Jun; Jiang, Dong-bo; Tian, Lu-Lu; Yin, Jia-Jun; Huang, Jian-Ming; Weng, Wei-Yu

    2012-05-01

    The intestinal permeability of forskolin was investigated using a single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) technique in rats. SPIP was performed in different intestinal segments (duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon) with three concentrations of forskolin (11.90, 29.75, and 59.90 µg/mL). The investigations of adsorption and stability were performed to ensure that the disappearance of forskolin from the perfusate was due to intestinal absorption. The results of the SPIP study indicated that forskolin could be absorbed in all segments of the intestine. The effective permeability (P (eff)) of forskolin was in the range of drugs with high intestinal permeability. The P (eff) was highest in the duodenum as compared to other intestinal segments. The decreases of P (eff) in the duodenum and ileum at the highest forskolin concentration suggested a saturable transport process. The addition of verapamil, a P-glycoprotein inhibitor, significantly enhanced the permeability of forskolin across the rat jejunum. The absorbed fraction of dissolved forskolin after oral administration in humans was estimated to be 100 % calculated from rat P (eff). In conclusion, dissolved forskolin can be absorbed readily in the intestine. The low aqueous solubility of forskolin might be a crucial factor for its poor oral bioavailability. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Uranium Release from Acidic Weathered Hanford Sediments: Single-Pass Flow-Through and Column Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guohui [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Um, Wooyong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, South Korea; Wang, Zheming [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Reinoso-Maset, Estela [Sierra; Washton, Nancy M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Mueller, Karl T. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Perdrial, Nicolas [Department; Department; O’Day, Peggy A. [Sierra; Chorover, Jon [Department

    2017-09-21

    The reaction of acidic radioactive waste with sediments can induce mineral transformation reactions that, in turn, control contaminant fate. Here, sediment weathering by synthetic uranium-containing acid solutions was investigated using bench-scale experiments to simulate waste disposal conditions at Hanford’s cribs, USA. During acid weathering, the presence of phosphate exerted a strong influence over uranium mineralogy and a rapidly precipitated, crystalline uranium phosphate phase (meta-ankoleite [K(UO2)(PO4)·3H2O]) was identified using spectroscopic and diffraction-based techniques. In phosphate-free system, uranium oxyhydroxide minerals such as K-compreignacite [K2(UO2)6O4(OH)6·7H2O] were formed. Single-pass flow-through (SPFT) and column leaching experiments using synthetic Hanford pore water showed that uranium precipitated as meta-ankoleite during acid weathering was strongly retained in the sediments, with an average release rate of 2.67E-12 mol g-1 s-1. In the absence of phosphate, uranium release was controlled by dissolution of uranium oxyhydroxide (compreignacite-type) mineral with a release rate of 1.05-2.42E-10 mol g-1 s-1. The uranium mineralogy and release rates determined for both systems in this study support the development of accurate U-release models for prediction of contaminant transport. These results suggest that phosphate minerals may be a good candidate for uranium remediation approaches at contaminated sites.

  11. Evaluation of regional pulmonary blood flow in mitral valvular heart disease using single-pass radionuclide angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang-Soon Koh; Byung Tae Kim; Myung Chul Lee; Bo Yeon Cho

    1982-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension in mitral valvular cardiac disease has been evaluated in 122 patients by a modified upper lung/lower count ratio using single-pass radionuclide angiocardiography. The mean upper lung/lower lung radio correlates well with pulmonary artery mean (r=0.483) and wedge pressure (r=0.804). After correction surgery of the cardiac valve, the ratio decreases and returns to normal range in patients judged clinically to have good surgical benifit. This modified method using single-pass technique provides additional simple, reproducible and nontraumatic results of regional pulmonary blood flow and appears to be correlated with the degree of pulmonary hypertension in mitral heart disease

  12. FY2016 ILAW Glass Corrosion Testing with the Single-Pass Flow-Through Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeway, James J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Asmussen, Robert M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Parruzot, Benjamin PG [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cordova, Elsa [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, Benjamin D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Leavy, Ian I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephenson, John R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McElroy, Erin M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-04-21

    The inventory of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) produced at the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will be disposed of at the near-surface, on-site Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). When groundwater comes into contact with the waste form, the glass will corrode and radionuclides will be released into the near-field environment. Because the release of the radionuclides is dependent on the dissolution rate of the glass, it is important that the performance assessment (PA) model accounts for the dissolution rate of the glass as a function of various chemical conditions. To accomplish this, an IDF PA model based on Transition State Theory (TST) can be employed. The model is able to account for changes in temperature, exposed surface area, and pH of the contacting solution as well as the effect of silicon concentrations in solution, specifically the activity of orthosilicic acid (H4SiO4), whose concentration is directly linked to the glass dissolution rate. In addition, the IDF PA model accounts for the alkali-ion exchange process as sodium is leached from the glass and into solution. The effect of temperature, pH, H4SiO4 activity, and the rate of ion-exchange can be parameterized and implemented directly into the PA rate law model. The rate law parameters are derived from laboratory tests with the single-pass flow-through (SPFT) method. To date, rate law parameters have been determined for seven ILAW glass compositions, thus additional rate law parameters on a wider range of compositions will supplement the existing body of data for PA maintenance activities. The data provided in this report can be used by ILAW glass scientists to further the understanding of ILAW glass behavior, by IDF PA modelers to use the rate law parameters in PA modeling efforts, and by Department of Energy (DOE) contractors and decision makers as they assess the IDF PA program.

  13. Picosecond image-converter diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelev, M.Ya.

    1975-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the improvements in picosecond image-converter diagnostics carried out since the previous Congress in 1972. The account is given under the following headings: picosecond image converter cameras for visible and x-ray radiation diagnostics; Nd:glass and ruby mode-locked laser measurements; x-ray plasma emission diagnostics; computer treatment of pictures produced by picosecond cameras. (U.K.)

  14. Generation of coherent soft x-rays using a single-pass free-electron laser amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, T.F.; Goldstein, J.C.; Newnam, B.E.; McVey, B.D.

    1988-01-01

    We consider a single-pass free-electron laser (FEL) amplifier, driven by an rf-linac followed by a damping ring for reduced emittance, for use in generating coherent light in the soft x-ray region. The dependence of the optical gain on electron-beam quality, studied with the three-dimensional FEL simulation code FELEX, is given and related to the expected power of self-amplified spontaneous emission. We discuss issues for the damping ring designed to achieve the required electron beam quality. The idea of a multipass regenerative amplifier is also presented

  15. [Mobile single-pass batch hemodialysis system in intensive care medicine. Reduction of costs and workload in renal replacement therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopf, H-B; Hochscherf, M; Jehmlich, M; Leischik, M; Ritter, J

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes the introduction of a single-pass batch hemodialysis system for renal replacement therapy in a 14 bed intensive care unit. The goals were to reduce the workload of intensive care unit physicians using an alternative and simpler method compared to continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) and to reduce the costs of hemofiltrate solutions (80,650 EUR per year in our clinic in 2005). We describe and evaluate the process of implementation of the system as well as the achieved and prospective savings. We conclude that a close cooperation of all participants (physicians, nurses, economists, technicians) of a hospital can achieve substantial benefits for patients and employees as well as reduce the economic burden of a hospital.

  16. Gain claming in single-pass and double-pass L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harun, S.W.; Ahmad, H.

    2004-01-01

    Gain clamping is demonstrated in single-pass and double-pass long wavelength band erbium-doped fiber amplifiers. A C/L-band wavelength division multiplexing coupler is used in single-pass system to generate a laser at 1566 nm. The gain for the amplifier is clamped at 15.5 dB with gain variation of less than 0.2 dB from input signal power of -40 to -14 dBm with almost negligible noise figure penalty. However, the flatness of gain spectrum is slightly degraded due to the un-optimisation of erbium-doped fiber length. The advantage of this configuration is that the oscillating light does not appear at the output of the amplifier. A highly efficient gain-clamped long wavelength band erbium-doped fiber amplifiers with improved noise figure characteristic is demonstrated by simply adding a broadband conventional band fiber Bragg grating in double pass system. The combination of the fiber Bragg grating and optical circulator has created laser in the cavity for gain clamping. By adjusting the power combination of pumps 1 and 2, the clamped gain level can be controlled. The amplifier gain is clamped at 28.1 dB from -40 to -25 dBm with gain variation of less than 0.5 dB by setting the pumps 1 and 2 at 59.5 and 50.6 mW, respectively. The gain is also flat from 1574 nm to 1604 nm with gain variation of less than 3 dB. The corresponding noise figure varies from 5.6 to 7.6 dB, which is 0.8 to 2.6 dB reduced compared to those of unclamped amplifier (Authors)

  17. Single-pass high-gain tapered free-electron laser with transverse diffraction in the postsaturation regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Ying Tsai

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been well known that the resonant interaction of an ultrarelativistic electron beam and the radiation field in the single-pass high-gain free electron laser (FEL amplifier leads to the optical gain guiding. The transverse Laplacian term of the slowly varying wave equation in the linear regime can be approximated as a constant detuning parameter, i.e., |∇_{⊥}^{2}|∼k_{R}/z_{R} where k_{R} is the resonant wave number and z_{R} is the Rayleigh range of the laser. In the post-saturation regime, the radiation power begins to oscillate about an equilibrium for the untapered case while continues to grow by undulator tapering. Moreover, in this regime the gain guiding decreases and the simple constant detune is no longer valid. In this paper we study the single-pass high-gain FEL performance in the post-saturation regime with inclusion of diffraction effect and undulator tapering. Our analysis relies upon two constants of motion, one from the energy conservation and the other from the adiabatic invariant of the action variable. By constructing a two-dimensional axisymmetric wave equation and the coupled one-dimensional electron dynamical equations, the performance of a tapered FEL in the postsaturation regime can be analyzed, including the fundamental mode profile, the power efficiency and the scaled energy spread. We begin the analytical investigation with two different axisymmetric electron beam profiles, the uniform and bounded parabolic ones. It is found that the tapered FEL power efficiency can be smaller but close to the taper ratio provided the resonant phase remains constant and the beam-wave is properly matched. Such a tapered efficiency is nearly independent of transverse electron beam size before significant electron detrapping occurs. This is essentially different from the untapered case, where the power extraction efficiency is around the essential FEL gain bandwidth (or ρ, the Pierce or FEL parameter and depends on the beam

  18. Picosecond resolution programmable delay line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchenek, Mariusz

    2009-01-01

    The note presents implementation of a programmable delay line for digital signals. The tested circuit has a subnanosecond delay range programmable with a resolution of picoseconds. Implementation of the circuit was based on low-cost components, easily available on the market. (technical design note)

  19. Broadly tunable picosecond ir source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campillo, A.J.; Hyer, R.C.; Shapiro, S.L.

    1979-01-01

    A completely grating tuned (1.9 to 2.4 μm) picosecond traveling wave IR generator capable of controlled spectral bandwidth operation down to the Fourier Transform limit is reported. Subsequent down conversion in CdSe extends tuning to 10 to 20 μm

  20. Single-pass continuous-flow leach test of PNL 76-68 glass: some selected Bead Leach I results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    A single-pass continuous-flow leach test of PNL 76-68 glass beads (7 mm dia) was concluded after 420 days of uninterrupted operation. Variables included in the experimental matrix were flow-rate, leachant composition, and temperature. Analysis was conducted on all leachate samples for 237 Np and 239 Pu as well as a number of nonradioactive elements. Results indicated that flow-rate and leachant systematically affected the leach rate, but only slightly. Temperature effects were significant. Plutonium leach rate was lower at higher temperature suggesting that Pu sorption onto the beads was enhanced at the higher temperature. The range of leach rates for all analyzed elements (except Pu), at both temperature, at all three flow rates, and with all three leachant compositions varied only three orders of magnitude. The range of variables used in this experiment covered those expected in many proposed repository environments. The preliminary interpretation of the results also indicated that matrix dissolution may be the dominant leaching mechanism, at least for Np in bicarbonate leachant. Regardless of the leaching mechanism the importance of this study is that it bounds the effects of repository environments when the ground water is oxidizing and when it doesn't reach the waste form until the waste has cooled to ambient rock temperature

  1. Single-pass continuous-flow leach test of PNL 76-68 glass: some selected Bead Leach I results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    A single-pass continuous-flow leach test of PNL 76-68 glass beads (7 mm dia) was concluded after 420 days of uninterrupted operation. Variables included in the experimental matrix were flow-rate, leachant composition, and temperature. Analysis was conducted on all leachate samples for 237 Np and 239 Pu as well as a number of nonradioactive elements. Results indicated that flow-rate and leachant systematically affected the leach rate, but only slightly. Temperature effects were significant. Plutonium leach rate was lower at higher temperature suggesting that Pu sorption onto the beads was enhanced at the higher temperature. The range of leach rates for all analyzed elements (except Pu), at both temperatures, at all three flow rates, and with all three leachant compositions varied over only three orders of magnitude. The range of variables used in this experiment covered those expected in many proposed repository environments. The preliminary interpretation of the results aPPh 3 also reacted with Mn 2 (CO) 10 and Cp 2 Mo 2 (CO) 6 to give a variety of products at room temperature. A radical mechanism was suggested

  2. Evaluation of the single-pass flow-through test to support a low-activity waste specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrail, B.P.; Peeler, D.K.

    1995-09-01

    A series of single-pass flow-through (SPFT) tests was performed on five reference low-activity waste glasses and a reference glass from the National Institute of Standards and Technology to support a product specification for low-activity waste (LAW) forms. The results showed that the SPFT test provides a means to quantitatively distinguish among LAW glass forms in terms of their forward reaction rate at a given temperature and solution pH. Two of the test glasses were also subjected to SPFT testing at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Forward reaction rate constants calculated from the ANL test data were 100 to over 1,000 times larger than the values obtained from the SPFT tests conducted at PNL. An analysis of the ANL results showed that they were inconsistent with independent measurements done on glasses of similar composition, the known pH-dependence of the forward rate, and with the results from low surface-area-to-volume, short duration product consistency tests. Because the data set obtained from the SPFT tests done at PNL was consistent with each of these same factors, a detailed examination of the test procedures used at both laboratories was performed to determine the cause(s) of the discrepancy. The omission of background subtraction in the data analysis procedure and the short-duration (on the order of hours) of the ANL tests are factors that may have significantly affected the calculated rates

  3. Single-Pass Percutaneous Liver Biopsy for Diffuse Liver Disease Using an Automated Device: Experience in 154 Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera-Sanfeliz, Gerant; Kinney, Thomas B.; Rose, Steven C.; Agha, Ayad K.M.; Valji, Karim; Miller, Franklin J.; Roberts, Anne C.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To describe our experience with ultrasound (US)-guided percutaneous liver biopsies using the INRAD 18G Express core needle biopsy system.Methods: One hundred and fifty-four consecutive percutaneous core liver biopsy procedures were performed in 153 men in a single institution over 37 months. The medical charts, pathology reports, and radiology files were retrospectively reviewed. The number of needle passes, type of guidance, change in hematocrit level, and adequacy of specimens for histologic analysis were evaluated.Results: All biopsies were performed for histologic staging of chronic liver diseases. The majority of patients had hepatitis C (134/153, 90.2%). All patients were discharged to home after 4 hr of postprocedural observation. In 145 of 154 (94%) biopsies, a single needle pass was sufficient for diagnosis. US guidance was utilized in all but one of the procedures (153/154, 99.4%). The mean hematocrit decrease was 1.2% (44.1-42.9%). Pain requiring narcotic analgesia, the most frequent complication, occurred in 28 of 154 procedures (18.2%). No major complications occurred. The specimens were diagnostic in 152 of 154 procedures (98.7%).Conclusions: Single-pass percutaneous US-guided liver biopsy with the INRAD 18G Express core needle biopsy system is safe and provides definitive pathologic diagnosis of chronic liver disease. It can be performed on an outpatient basis. Routine post-biopsy monitoring of hematocrit level in stable, asymptomatic patients is probably not warranted

  4. A 3D Reconstruction Strategy of Vehicle Outline Based on Single-Pass Single-Polarization CSAR Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leping Chen; Daoxiang An; Xiaotao Huang; Zhimin Zhou

    2017-11-01

    In the last few years, interest in circular synthetic aperture radar (CSAR) acquisitions has arisen as a consequence of the potential achievement of 3D reconstructions over 360° azimuth angle variation. In real-world scenarios, full 3D reconstructions of arbitrary targets need multi-pass data, which makes the processing complex, money-consuming, and time expending. In this paper, we propose a processing strategy for the 3D reconstruction of vehicle, which can avoid using multi-pass data by introducing a priori information of vehicle's shape. Besides, the proposed strategy just needs the single-pass single-polarization CSAR data to perform vehicle's 3D reconstruction, which makes the processing much more economic and efficient. First, an analysis of the distribution of attributed scattering centers from vehicle facet model is presented. And the analysis results show that a smooth and continuous basic outline of vehicle could be extracted from the peak curve of a noncoherent processing image. Second, the 3D location of vehicle roofline is inferred from layover with empirical insets of the basic outline. At last, the basic line and roofline of the vehicle are used to estimate the vehicle's 3D information and constitute the vehicle's 3D outline. The simulated and measured data processing results prove the correctness and effectiveness of our proposed strategy.

  5. Field trial of a fast single-pass transmit-receive probe during Gentilly II steam generator tube inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrutsky, L.; Cantin, M.; Renaud, J.; Cecco, V.; Lakhan, R.; Sullivan, S.

    2000-01-01

    A new generation of transmit-receive single-pass probes, denoted as C6 or X probe, was field tested during the Gentilly II, 2000 steam generator tube inspection. This probe has a performance equivalent to rotating probes and can be used for tubesheet and full-length inspection at an inspection speed equivalent to that of bobbin probes. Existing C3 transmit-receive probes have been demonstrated to be effective in detecting circumferential cracks. The C5 probe can detect both circumferential and axial cracks and volumetric defects but cannot discriminate between them. The C6 probe expands on the capabilities of both probes in a single probe head. It can simultaneously detect and discriminate between circumferential and axial cracks to satisfy different plugging criteria. It has excellent coverage, good defect detectability, and improved sizing and characterization. Probe data is displayed in C-scan format so that the amount of data to be analyzed is similar to rotating probes. The C6 probe will significantly decrease inspection time and the need for re-inspection and tube pulling. This paper describes the advantages of the probe and demonstrates its capabilities employing signals from tube samples with calibration flaws and laboratory induced cracks. It shows the results from the field trial of the probe at Gentilly II and describes the instrumentation, hardware and software used for the inspection. (author)

  6. Sea ice local surface topography from single-pass satellite InSAR measurements: a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Dierking

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative parameters characterizing the sea ice surface topography are needed in geophysical investigations such as studies on atmosphere–ice interactions or sea ice mechanics. Recently, the use of space-borne single-pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR for retrieving the ice surface topography has attracted notice among geophysicists. In this paper the potential of InSAR measurements is examined for several satellite configurations and radar frequencies, considering statistics of heights and widths of ice ridges as well as possible magnitudes of ice drift. It is shown that, theoretically, surface height variations can be retrieved with relative errors  ≤  0.5 m. In practice, however, the sea ice drift and open water leads may contribute significantly to the measured interferometric phase. Another essential factor is the dependence of the achievable interferometric baseline on the satellite orbit configurations. Possibilities to assess the influence of different factors on the measurement accuracy are demonstrated: signal-to-noise ratio, presence of a snow layer, and the penetration depth into the ice. Practical examples of sea surface height retrievals from bistatic SAR images collected during the TanDEM-X Science Phase are presented.

  7. Standard practice for measurement of the glass dissolution rate using the single-pass flow-through test method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes a single-pass flow-through (SPFT) test method that can be used to measure the dissolution rate of a homogeneous silicate glass, including nuclear waste glasses, in various test solutions at temperatures less than 100°C. Tests may be conducted under conditions in which the effects from dissolved species on the dissolution rate are minimized to measure the forward dissolution rate at specific values of temperature and pH, or to measure the dependence of the dissolution rate on the concentrations of various solute species. 1.2 Tests are conducted by pumping solutions in either a continuous or pulsed flow mode through a reaction cell that contains the test specimen. Tests must be conducted at several solution flow rates to evaluate the effect of the flow rate on the glass dissolution rate. 1.3 This practice excludes static test methods in which flow is simulated by manually removing solution from the reaction cell and replacing it with fresh solution. 1.4 Tests may be conducted wit...

  8. Field trial of a fast single-pass transmit-receive probe during Gentilly II steam generator tube inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrutsky, L.; Cantin, M.; Renaud, J.; Cecco, V.; Lakhan, R.; Sullivan, S.

    2000-01-01

    A new generation of transmit-receive single-pass probes, denoted as C6 or X probe, was field-tested during the Gentilly II, 2000 steam generator tube inspection. This probe has a performance equivalent to rotating probes and can be used for tubesheet and full-length inspection at an inspection speed equivalent to that of bobbin probes. Existing C3 transmit-receive probes have been demonstrated to be effective in detecting circumferential cracks. The C5 probe can detect both circumferential and axial cracks and volumetric defects but cannot discriminate between them. The C6 probe expands on the capabilities of both probes in a single probe head. It can simultaneously detect and discriminate between circumferential and axial cracks to satisfy different plugging criteria. It has excellent coverage, good defect detectability, and improved sizing and characterization. Probe data is displayed in C-scan format so that the amount of data to be analyzed is similar to rotating probes. The C6 probe will significantly decrease inspection time and the need for re-inspection and tube pulling. This paper describes the advantages of the probe and demonstrates its capabilities employing signals from tube samples with calibration flaws and laboratory induced cracks. It shows the results from the field trial of the probe at Gentilly II and describes the instrumentation, hardware and software used for the inspection. (author)

  9. Single-frequency blue light generation by single-pass sum-frequency generation in a coupled ring cavity tapered laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2013-01-01

    A generic approach for generation of tunable single frequency light is presented. 340 mW of near diffraction limited, single-frequency, and tunable blue light around 459 nm is generated by sum-frequency generation (SFG) between two tunable tapered diode lasers. One diode laser is operated in a ring...... cavity and another tapered diode laser is single-passed through a nonlinear crystal which is contained in the coupled ring cavity. Using this method, the single-pass conversion efficiency is more than 25%. In contrast to SFG in an external cavity, the system is entirely self-stabilized with no electronic...

  10. Balancing Radiation and Contrast Media Dose in Single-Pass Abdominal Multidetector CT: Prospective Evaluation of Image Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camera, Luigi; Romano, Federica; Liccardo, Immacolata; Liuzzi, Raffaele; Imbriaco, Massimo; Mainenti, Pier Paolo; Pizzuti, Laura Micol; Segreto, Sabrina; Maurea, Simone; Brunetti, Arturo

    2015-11-01

    As both contrast and radiation dose affect the quality of CT images, a constant image quality in abdominal contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography (CE-MDCT) could be obtained balancing radiation and contrast media dose according to the age of the patients. Seventy-two (38 Men; 34 women; aged 20-83 years) patients underwent a single-pass abdominal CE-MDCT. Patients were divided into three different age groups: A (20-44 years); B (45-65 years); and C (>65 years). For each group, a different noise index (NI) and contrast media dose (370 mgI/mL) was selected as follows: A (NI, 15; 2.5 mL/kg), B (NI, 12.5; 2 mL/kg), and C (NI, 10; 1.5 mL/kg). Radiation exposure was reported as dose-length product (DLP) in mGy × cm. For quantitative analysis, signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNR) ratios were calculated for both the liver (L) and the abdominal aorta (A). Statistical analysis was performed with a one-way analysis of variance. Standard imaging criteria were used for qualitative analysis. Although peak hepatic enhancement was 152 ± 16, 128 ± 12, and 101 ± 14 Hounsfield units (P contrast media dose (mL) administered were 476 ± 147 and 155 ± 27 for group A, 926 ± 291 and 130 ± 16 for group B, and 1981 ± 451 and 106 ± 15 for group C, respectively (P contrast media dose administered to patients of different age. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Global and local characteristics of an autogenous single pass electron beam weld in thick gage UNS S41500 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarafan, S., E-mail: Sheida.Sarafan.1@ens.etsmtl.ca [École de Technologie Supérieure, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3C 1K3 (Canada); National Research Council Canada, Aerospace, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 2B2 (Canada); Wanjara, P., E-mail: priti.wanjara@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [National Research Council Canada, Aerospace, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 2B2 (Canada); Gholipour, J., E-mail: Javad.gholipour@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [National Research Council Canada, Aerospace, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 2B2 (Canada); Champliaud, H., E-mail: henri.champliaud@etsmtl.ca [École de Technologie Supérieure, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3C 1K3 (Canada)

    2016-06-01

    Electron beam welding of UNS S41500, a low carbon martensitic stainless steel utilized in hydroelectric turbine manufacturing, was investigated by applying a single pass autogenous process to penetrate a section thickness of 72 mm without preheating. In the as-welded and post-weld heat treated conditions, the evolution in microhardness and microstructure across the weldments, as well as the global and local tensile properties, were evaluated. In the as-welded condition, assessment of the microhardness and the associated microstructure across the welds led to the identification of six regions, including the fusion zone, four heat affected zones and the base metal; each of these regions consisted of different phase constituents, such as tempered martensite, untempered martensite, delta ferrite and retained austenite. Post-weld heat treatment, undertaken to temper the untempered martensite in the as-welded microstructure, was effective in homogenizing the hardness across the weldment. The mechanical response of the welds, determined through tensile testing at room temperature with an automated non-contact three-dimensional deformation measurement system, indicated that the global tensile properties in the as-welded and post-weld heat treated conditions met the acceptance criteria in the ASME Section IX standard. Also, evaluation of the local tensile properties in the fusion and heat affected zones of the as-welded samples allowed a more comprehensive understanding of the strength and ductility associated with the different microstructures in the “composite” nature of the weldment. Fractographic analysis demonstrated dimpled features on the tensile fracture surfaces and failure was associated with debonding between the martensitic matrix and the secondary phases (such as delta ferrite and retained austenite) that resulted in the formation, growth and coalescence of voids into a macroscale crack.

  12. Microstructure evolution of pure copper during a single pass of simple shear extrusion (SSE): role of shear reversal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagherpour, E., E-mail: e.bagherpour@semnan.ac.ir [Faculty of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610–0394 (Japan); Qods, F., E-mail: qods@semnan.ac.ir [Faculty of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, R., E-mail: ebrahimy@shirazu.ac.ir [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Miyamoto, H., E-mail: hmiyamot@mail.doshisha.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610–0394 (Japan)

    2016-06-01

    In the present paper the role of shear reversal on microstructure, texture and mechanical properties of pure copper during a single pass of the simple shear extrusion (SSE) process was investigated. For SSE processing an appropriate die with a linear die profile was designed and constructed, which imposes forward shear in the first half and reverse shear in the second half channels. Electron back-scattering diffraction (EBSD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) were used to evaluate the microstructure of the deformed samples. The geometrical nature of this process imposes a distribution of strain results in the inhomogeneous microstructure and the hardness throughout the plane perpendicular to the extrusion direction. Strain reversal during the process results in a slight reduction in dislocation density, the hardness and mean disorientation angle of the samples, and an increase in the grain size. After a complete pass of SSE, dislocation density decreased by ~14% if compared to the middle of the process. This suggests that the dislocation annihilation occurred by the reversal of the shear strain. The simple shear textures were formed gradually and the strongest simple shear textures were observed on the middle of the SSE channel. The degree of the simple shear textures decreases with the distance from the middle plane where the shear is reversed, but the simple shear textures are still the major components after exit of the channel. Hardness variation was modeled by contributions from dislocation strengthening and grain boundary strengthening, where dislocation density is approximated by the misorientation angle of LAGBs which are regarded as dislocation cell boundaries. As a result, the hardness can be predicted successfully by the microstructural features, i.e. the low-angle boundaries, the mean misorientation angle and the fraction of high-angle grain boundaries.

  13. Double Pass 595?nm pulsed dye laser at a 6 minute interval for the treatment of port-wine stains is not more effective than single pass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, M. A. D.; van Drooge, A. M.; Wolkerstorfer, A.; van Gemert, M. J. C.; van der Veen, J. P. W.; Bos, J. D.; Beek, J. F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Pulsed dye laser (PDL) is the first choice for treatment of port wine stains (PWS). However, outcome is highly variable and only a few patients achieve complete clearance. The objective of the study was to compare efficacy and safety of single pass PDL with double pass PDL at a 6 minute

  14. Physicochemical properties of bio-oil and biochar produced by fast pyrolysis of stored single-pass corn stover and cobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajay; Darr, Matthew J; Dalluge, Dustin; Medic, Dorde; Webster, Keith; Brown, Robert C

    2012-12-01

    Short harvest window of corn (Zea mays) stover necessitates its storage before utilization; however, there is not enough work towards exploring the fast pyrolysis behavior of stored biomass. This study investigated the yields and the physicochemical properties (proximate and ultimate analyses, higher heating values and acidity) of the fast pyrolysis products obtained from single-pass stover and cobs stored either inside a metal building or anaerobically within plastic wraps. Biomass samples were pyrolyzed in a 183 cm long and 2.1cm inner diameter free-fall fast pyrolysis reactor. Yields of bio-oil, biochar and non-condensable gases from different biomass samples were in the ranges of 45-55, 25-37 and 11-17 wt.%, respectively, with the highest bio-oil yield from the ensiled single-pass stover. Bio-oils generated from ensiled single-pass cobs and ensiled single-pass stover were, respectively, the most and the least acidic with the modified acid numbers of 95.0 and 65.2 mg g(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Atrial electrogram quality in single-pass defibrillator leads with floating atrial bipole in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation and cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sticherling, Christian; Müller, Dirk; Schaer, Beat A; Krüger, Silke; Kolb, Christof

    2018-03-27

    Many patients receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) suffer from permanent atrial fibrillation (AF). Knowledge of the atrial rhythm is important to direct pharmacological or interventional treatment as well as maintaining AV-synchronous biventricular pacing if sinus rhythm can be restored. A single pass single-coil defibrillator lead with a floating atrial bipole has been shown to obtain reliable information about the atrial rhythm but has never been employed in a CRT-system. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of implanting a single coil right ventricular ICD lead with a floating atrial bipole and the signal quality of atrial electrograms (AEGM) in CRT-defibrillator recipients with permanent AF. Seventeen patients (16 males, mean age 73 ± 6 years, mean EF 25 ± 5%) with permanent AF and an indication for CRT-defibrillator placement were implanted with a designated CRT-D system comprising a single pass defibrillator lead with a atrial floating bipole. They were followed-up for 103 ± 22 days using remote monitoring for AEGM transmission. All patients had at last one AEGM suitable for atrial rhythm diagnosis and of 100 AEGM 99% were suitable for visual atrial rhythm assessment. Four patients were discharged in sinus rhythm and one reverted to AF during follow-up. Atrial electrograms retrieved from a single-pass defibrillator lead with a floating atrial bipole can be reliably used for atrial rhythm diagnosis in CRT recipients with permanent AF. Hence, a single pass ventricular defibrillator lead with a floating bipole can be considered in this population. Copyright © 2018 Indian Heart Rhythm Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A Tunable CW Orange Laser Based on a Cascaded MgO:PPLN Single-Pass Sum-Frequency Generation Module

    OpenAIRE

    Dismas K. Choge; Huai-Xi Chen; Bao-Lu Tian; Yi-Bin Xu; Guang-Wei Li; Wan-Guo Liang

    2018-01-01

    We report an all-solid-state continuous wave (CW) tunable orange laser based on cascaded single-pass sum-frequency generation with fundamental wavelengths at 1545.7 and 975.2 nm using two quasi-phase-matched (QPM) MgO-doped periodically poled lithium niobate (MgO:PPLN) crystals. Up to 10 mW of orange laser is generated in the cascaded module corresponding to a 10.4%/W nonlinear conversion efficiency. The orange output showed a temperature tuning rate of ~0.05 nm/°C, and the beam quality (M2) ...

  17. Comparison of the gravimetric, phenol red, and 14C-PEG-3350 methods to determine water absorption in the rat single-pass intestinal perfusion model

    OpenAIRE

    Sutton, Steven C.; Rinaldi, M. T. S.; Vukovinsky, K. E.

    2001-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether the gravimetric method provided an accurate measure of water flux correction and to compare the gravimetric method with methods that employ nonabsorbed markers (eg, phenol red and 14C-PEG-3350). Phenol red, 14C-PEG-3350, and 4-[2-[[2-(6-amino-3-pyridinyl)-2-hydroxyethyl]amino]ethoxy]-methyl ester, (R)-benzene acetic acid (Compound I) were co-perfused in situ through the jejunum of 9 anesthetized rats (single-pass intestinal perfusion [SPIP]). Wat...

  18. A Unified Algorithm for Channel Imbalance and Antenna Phase Center Position Calibration of a Single-Pass Multi-Baseline TomoSAR System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuncheng Bu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The multi-baseline synthetic aperture radar (SAR tomography (TomoSAR system is employed in such applications as disaster remote sensing, urban 3-D reconstruction, and forest carbon storage estimation. This is because of its 3-D imaging capability in a single-pass platform. However, a high 3-D resolution of TomoSAR is based on the premise that the channel imbalance and antenna phase center (APC position are precisely known. If this is not the case, the 3-D resolution performance will be seriously degraded. In this paper, a unified algorithm for channel imbalance and APC position calibration of a single-pass multi-baseline TomoSAR system is proposed. Based on the maximum likelihood method, as well as the least squares and the damped Newton method, we can calibrate the channel imbalance and APC position. The algorithm is suitable for near-field conditions, and no phase unwrapping operation is required. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm has been verified by simulation and experimental results.

  19. Picosecond radiolysis of ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funston, A.M.; Wishart, J.F.; Neta, P.; Lall, S.I.; Engel, R.

    2003-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are a rapidly expanding family of condensed-phase media with important applications in nuclear fuel and waste processing, energy production, improving the efficiency and safety of industrial chemical processes, and pollution prevention. Ionic liquids are completely nonvolatile, noncombustible, highly conductive, recyclable and capable of dissolving a wide variety of materials. An understanding of the radiation chemistry of ionic liquids is important for development of their applications in radioactive material processing and for the application of pulse radiolysis techniques to the general study of chemical reactivity in ionic liquids. Kinetic studies with a picosecond electron accelerator, such as the BNL Laser-Electron Accelerator Facility (LEAF), allow one to observe primary radiation products and their reactions on short time scales. For example, the solvated electron lifetime in neat methyltributylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide is ∼300 ns and its absorption maximum is ∼1400 nm. Kinetic studies of primary radiolytic products and their reactivities will be described for several types of ionic liquids. Supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy, Division of Chemical Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under contract DE-AC02-98-CH1088

  20. Generation of 46 W green-light by frequency doubling of 96 W picosecond unpolarized Yb-doped fiber amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yaoyao; Yu, Haijuan; Zhang, Jingyuan; Zhang, Ling; He, Chaojian; Lin, Xuechun

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrated a high efficiency and high average power picosecond green light source based on SHG (second harmonic generation) of an unpolarized ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier chain. Using single-pass frequency doubling in two temperature-tuned type-I phase-matching LBO crystals, we were able to generate 46 W, >70 ps pulses at 532 nm from a fundamental beam at 1064 nm, whose output is 96 W, 4.8 μJ, with a repetition frequency of 20 MHz and nearly diffraction limited. The optical conversion efficiency was ∼48% in a highly compact design. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported on ps green source through SHG of an unpolarized fiber laser with such a high output and high efficiency.

  1. N-isopropyl-[123I]p-iodoamphetamine: single-pass brain uptake and washout; binding to brain synaptosomes; and localization in dog and monkey brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winchell, H.S.; Horst, W.D.; Braun, L.; Oldendorf, W.H.; Hattner, R.; Parker, H.

    1980-01-01

    The kinetics of N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]iodoamphetamine in rat brains were determined by serial measurements of brain uptake index (BUI) after intracarotid injection; also studied were its effects on amine uptake and release in rat's brain cortical synaptosomes; and its in vivo distribution in the dog and monkey. No specific localization in brain nuclei of the dog was seen, but there was progressive accumulation in the eyes. Rapid initial brain uptake in the ketamine-sedated monkey was noted, and further slow brain uptake occurred during the next 20 min but without retinal localization. High levels of brain activity were maintained for several hours. The quantitative initial single-pass clearance of the agent in the brain suggests its use in evaluation of regional brain perfusion. Its interaction with brain amine-binding sites suggests its possible application in studies of cerebral amine metabolism

  2. Continuous-wave sodium D2 resonance radiation generated in single-pass sum-frequency generation with periodically poled lithium niobate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, J; She, C-Y; Williams, B P; Vance, J D; Acott, P E; Kawahara, T D

    2009-04-01

    With two cw single-mode Nd:YAG lasers at 1064 and 1319 nm and a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal, 11 mW of 2 kHz/100 ms bandwidth single-mode tunable 589 nm cw radiation has been detected using single-pass sum-frequency generation. The demonstrated conversion efficiency is approximately 3.2%[W(-1) cm(-1)]. This compact solid-state light source has been used in a solid-state-dye laser hybrid sodium fluorescence lidar transmitter to measure temperatures and winds in the upper atmosphere (80-105 km); it is being implemented into the transmitter of a mobile all-solid-state sodium temperature and wind lidar under construction.

  3. Deformational Features and Microstructure Evolution of Copper Fabricated by a Single Pass of the Elliptical Cross-Section Spiral Equal-Channel Extrusion (ECSEE) Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengpeng; Li, Fuguo; Liu, Juncheng

    2018-04-01

    The objectives of this work are to study the deformational feature, textures, microstructures, and dislocation configurations of ultrafine-grained copper processed by the process of elliptical cross-section spiral equal-channel extrusion (ECSEE). The deformation patterns of simple shear and pure shear in the ECSEE process were evaluated with the analytical method of geometric strain. The influence of the main technical parameters of ECSEE die on the effective strain distribution on the surface of ECSEE-fabricated samples was examined by the finite element simulation. The high friction factor could improve the effective strain accumulation of material deformation. Moreover, the pure copper sample fabricated by ECSEE ion shows a strong rotated cube shear texture. The refining mechanism of the dislocation deformation is dominant in copper processed by a single pass of ECSEE. The inhomogeneity of the micro-hardness distribution on the longitudinal section of the ECSEE-fabricated sample is consistent with the strain and microstructure distribution features.

  4. Picosecond optical shutter for particle detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, B.; Gee, C.M.; Shapiro, G.

    1975-04-01

    Characteristics of an optical shutter utilizing Kerr effect induced by picosecond laser pulses in carbon disulfide are studied experimentally. The shutter has a gate time of 4.5 to 5 ps full width at half-maximum and a transmission of approximately 15 percent at a wavelength 0.53 μm. Such an ultrafast shutter can be used as an optical signal gate in a sampling detection scheme that has picosecond time-resolution. The picosecond optical detection scheme is envisioned to have applications in experimental high-energy physics such as to time-resolve ultrashort Cherenkov or synchrotron radiation emitted by relativistic particles. Methods of synchronizing a laser-activated Kerr shutter with a particle accelerator or synchrotron are discussed

  5. Analysis of picosecond pulsed laser melted graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbeck, J.; Braunstein, G.; Speck, J.; Dresselhaus, M.S.; Huang, C.Y.; Malvezzi, A.M.; Bloembergen, N.

    1986-01-01

    A Raman microprobe and high resolution TEM have been used to analyze the resolidified region of liquid carbon generated by picosecond pulse laser radiation. From the relative intensities of the zone center Raman-allowed mode for graphite at 1582 cm -1 and the disorder-induced mode at 1360 cm -1 , the average graphite crystallite size in the resolidified region is determined as a function of position. By comparison with Rutherford backscattering spectra and Raman spectra from nonosecond pulsed laser melting experiments, the disorder depth for picosecond pulsed laser melted graphite is determined as a function of irradiating energy density. Comparisons of TEM micrographs for nanosecond and picosecond pulsed laser melting experiments show that the structure of the laser disordered regions in graphite are similar and exhibit similar behavior with increasing laser pulse fluence

  6. Picosecond, single pulse electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Riichi; Kawanishi, Masaharu

    1979-01-01

    The picosecond, single pulse electron linear accelerators, are described, which were installed in the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of the University of Tokyo and in the Nuclear Radiation Laboratory of the Osaka University. The purpose of the picosecond, single pulse electron linear accelerators is to investigate the very short time reaction of the substances, into which gamma ray or electron beam enters. When the electrons in substances receive radiation energy, the electrons get high kinetic energy, and the energy and the electric charge shift, at last to the quasi-stable state. This transient state can be experimented with these special accelerators very accurately, during picoseconds, raising the accuracy of the time of incidence of radiation and also raising the accuracy of observation time. The outline of these picosecond, single pulse electron linear accelerators of the University of Tokyo and the Osaka University, including the history, the systems and components and the output beam characteristics, are explained. For example, the maximum energy 30 -- 35 MeV, the peak current 1 -- 8 n C, the pulse width 18 -- 40 ps, the pulse repetition rate 200 -- 720 pps, the energy spectrum 1 -- 1.8% and the output beam diameter 2 -- 5 mm are shown as the output beam characteristics of the accelerators in both universities. The investigations utilizing the picosecond single pulse electron linear accelerators, such as the investigation of short life excitation state by pulsed radiation, the dosimetry study of pulsed radiation, and the investigation of the transforming mechanism and the development of the transforming technology from picosecond, single pulse electron beam to X ray, vacuum ultraviolet ray and visual ray, are described. (Nakai, Y.)

  7. Picosecond x-ray streak camera studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasyanov, Yu.S.; Malyutin, A.A.; Richardson, M.C.; Chevokin, V.K.

    1975-01-01

    Some initial results of direct measurement of picosecond x-ray emission from laser-produced plasmas are presented. A PIM-UMI 93 image converter tube, incorporating an x-ray sensitive photocathode, linear deflection, and three stages of image amplification was used to analyse the x-ray radiation emanating from plasmas produced from solid Ti targets by single high-intensity picosecond laser pulses. From such plasmas, the x-ray emission typically persisted for times of 60psec. However, it is shown that this detection system should be capable of resolving x-ray phenomena of much shorter duration. (author)

  8. Laser diagnostics for picosecond e-beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I.; Ben-Zvi, I.

    1992-01-01

    We propose a novel approach to picosecond e-bunch/laser pulse synchronization and spatial alignment based upon refraction and reflection of a laser beam on a plasma column created by relativistic electrons traveling through a gas or solid optical material. The technique may be used in laser accelerators and for general subpicosecond e-beam diagnostics

  9. Generation of picosecond pulsed coherent state superpositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Ruifang; Tipsmark, Anders; Laghaout, Amine

    2014-01-01

    We present the generation of approximated coherent state superpositions-referred to as Schrodinger cat states-by the process of subtracting single photons from picosecond pulsed squeezed states of light. The squeezed vacuum states are produced by spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC...... which exhibit non-Gaussian behavior. (C) 2014 Optical Society of America...

  10. Double Pass 595 nm Pulsed Dye Laser Does Not Enhance the Efficacy of Port Wine Stains Compared with Single Pass: A Randomized Comparison with Histological Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenxin; Zhu, Jiafang; Wang, Lizhen; Qiu, Yajing; Chen, Yijie; Yang, Xi; Chang, Lei; Ma, Gang; Lin, Xiaoxi

    2018-03-27

    To compare the efficacy and safety of double-pass pulsed dye laser (DWL) and single-pass PDL (SWL) in treating virgin port wine stain (PWS). The increase in the extent of vascular damage attributed to the use of double-pass techniques for PWS remains inconclusive. A prospective, side-by-side comparison with a histological study for virgin PWS is still lacking. Twenty-one patients (11 flat PWS, 10 hypertrophic PWS) with untreated PWS underwent 3 treatments at 2-month intervals. Each PWS was divided into three treatment sites: SWL, DWL, and untreated control. Chromametric and visual evaluation of the efficacy and evaluation of side effects were conducted 3 months after final treatment. Biopsies were taken at the treated sites immediately posttreatment. Chromametric and visual evaluation suggested that DWL sites showed no significant improvement compared with SWL (p > 0.05) in treating PWS. The mean depth of photothermal damage to the vessels was limited to a maximum of 0.36-0.41 mm in both SWL and DWL sides. Permanent side effects were not observed in any patients. Double-pass PDL does not enhance PWS clearance. To improve the clearance of PWS lesions, either the depth of laser penetration should be increased or greater photothermal damage to vessels should be generated.

  11. Comparison of the gravimetric, phenol red, and 14C-PEG-3350 methods to determine water absorption in the rat single-pass intestinal perfusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, S C; Rinaldi, M T; Vukovinsky, K E

    2001-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether the gravimetric method provided an accurate measure of water flux correction and to compare the gravimetric method with methods that employ nonabsorbed markers (eg, phenol red and 14C-PEG-3350). Phenol red,14C-PEG-3350, and 4-[2-[[2-(6-amino-3-pyridinyl)-2-hydroxyethyl]amino]ethoxy]-, methyl ester, (R)-benzene acetic acid (Compound I) were co-perfused in situ through the jejunum of 9 anesthetized rats (single-pass intestinal perfusion [SPIP]). Water absorption was determined from the phenol red,14C-PEG-3350, and gravimetric methods. The absorption rate constant (ka) for Compound I was calculated. Both phenol red and 14C-PEG-3350 were appreciably absorbed, underestimating the extent of water flux in the SPIP model. The average +/- SD water flux microg/h/cm) for the 3 methods were 68.9 +/- 28.2 (gravimetric), 26.8 +/- 49.2 (phenol red), and 34.9 +/- 21.9 (14C-PEG-3350). The (average +/- SD) ka for Compound I (uncorrected for water flux) was 0.024 +/- 0.005 min(-1). For the corrected, gravimetric method, the average +/- SD was 0.031 +/- 0.001 min(-1). The gravimetric method for correcting water flux was as accurate as the 2 "nonabsorbed" marker methods.

  12. Segmental-dependent membrane permeability along the intestine following oral drug administration: Evaluation of a triple single-pass intestinal perfusion (TSPIP) approach in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Arik; West, Brady T; Amidon, Gordon L

    2009-02-15

    In this paper we evaluate a modified approach to the traditional single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) rat model in investigating segmental-dependent permeability along the intestine following oral drug administration. Whereas in the traditional model one single segment of the intestine is perfused, we have simultaneously perfused three individual segments of each rat intestine: proximal jejunum, mid-small intestine and distal ileum, enabling to obtain tripled data from each rat compared to the traditional model. Three drugs, with different permeabilities, were utilized to evaluate the model: metoprolol, propranolol and cimetidine. Data was evaluated in comparison to the traditional method. Metoprolol and propranolol showed similar P(eff) values in the modified model in all segments. Segmental-dependent permeability was obtained for cimetidine, with lower P(eff) in the distal parts. Similar P(eff) values for all drugs were obtained in the traditional method, illustrating that the modified model is as accurate as the traditional, throughout a wide range of permeability characteristics, whether the permeability is constant or segment-dependent along the intestine. Three-fold higher statistical power to detect segmental-dependency was obtained in the modified approach, as each subject serves as his own control. In conclusion, the Triple SPIP model can reduce the number of animals utilized in segmental-dependent permeability research without compromising the quality of the data obtained.

  13. A protection system for picosecond accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Hongping; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Chen Huanguang; Xu Ruinian; Tang Junlong; Li Deming

    2006-01-01

    A personnel and machine protection system for the picosecond accelerator has been built. The key of the system is to send on/off of three triggering signals which are those of electron gun, 2856 MHz and 476 MHz, respectively, to ensure the safety of users and the accelerator. This paper describes the emergencies interlocked by ADAM5511 and timing trigger processor, and some secondary functions which improve the efficiency of the protection system completed in upper layer software. (authors)

  14. Picosecond spectroscopy: The first 20 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rentzepis, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    Lasers were at first operating in the pulsed mode. That was the ruby, Cr/sup 3+/, emitting at 694.3 nm with a few kilowatts power, several microseconds time width, and a rather broad non-smooth-spiky-intensity profile. Even with such a primitive laser source, several noteworthy, novel experiments were performed such as two photon processes and second harmonic generation. The advent of Q-switch lasers by means of dyes, Kerr cells and electro-optic crystals introduced the era of high power lasers and laser spectroscopy. The high intensity and rather smooth intensity versus time profile pulses emitted by ruby and Nd/sup 3+//glass lasers provided excellent means for non-linear spectroscopy studies and nanosecond Raman spectroscopy, a field which flourished ten years later. In the mid-sixties, the He/Ne laser was mode locked, and shortly thereafter, the Nd/sup 3+//glass laser was also mode locked and shown to emit picosecond duration pulses. This paper presents what one observes on the screen of an oscilloscope once a laser is set up so as to generate picosecond pulses by use of either a saturable absorbing dye or solid state modulator. What is seen is, of course, a train of pulses. It is characteristic of these pulses that their intensity is extremely high, in the gigawatt region. In this particular case, the band width is approximately twenty to thirty wavenumbers. The method utilized to measure the picosecond pulses, initially, was the two photon method. This paper also gives a more graphic illustration how this technique operates. This same procedure provides an extremely simple technique which the author believes made possible the initial development of the picosecond spectroscopy field

  15. The picosecond laser for tattoo removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Vincent M; Aldahan, Adam S; Mlacker, Stephanie; Shah, Vidhi V; Nouri, Keyvan

    2016-11-01

    The prevalence of tattoos continues to grow as modern society's stigma towards this form of body art shifts towards greater acceptance. Approximately one third of Americans aged 18-25 and 40 % of Americans aged 26-40 are tattooed. As tattoos continue to rise in popularity, so has the demand for an effective method of tattoo removal such as lasers. The various colors of tattoo inks render them ideal targets for specific lasers using the principle of selective photothermolysis. Traditional laser modalities employed for tattoo removal operate on pulse durations in the nanosecond domain. However, this pulse duration range is still too long to effectively break ink into small enough particles. Picosecond (10 -12 ) lasers have emerged at the forefront of laser tattoo removal due to their shorter pulse lengths, leading to quicker heating of the target chromophores, and consequently, more effective tattoo clearance. Recent studies have cited more effective treatment outcomes using picosecond lasers. Future comparative studies between picosecond lasers of various settings are necessary to determine optimal laser parameters for tattoo clearance.

  16. Performance of single-pass and by-pass multi-step multi-soil-layering systems for low-(C/N)-ratio polluted river water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Cai-Jie; Wu, Wei-Zhong

    2018-09-01

    Two kinds of hybrid two-step multi-soil-layering (MSL) systems loaded with different filter medias (zeolite-ceramsite MSL-1 and ceramsite-red clay MSL-2) were set-up for the low-(C/N)-ratio polluted river water treatment. A long-term pollutant removal performance of these two kinds of MSL systems was evaluated for 214 days. By-pass was employed in MSL systems to evaluate its effect on nitrogen removal enhancement. Zeolite-ceramsite single-pass MSL-1 system owns outstanding ammonia removal capability (24 g NH 4 + -Nm -2 d -1 ), 3 times higher than MSL-2 without zeolite under low aeration rate condition (0.8 × 10 4  L m -2 .h -1 ). Aeration rate up to 1.6 × 10 4  L m -2 .h -1 well satisfied the requirement of complete nitrification in first unit of both two MSLs. However, weak denitrification in second unit was commonly observed. By-pass of 50% influent into second unit can improve about 20% TN removal rate for both MSL-1 and MSL-2. Complete nitrification and denitrification was achieved in by-pass MSL systems after addition of carbon source with the resulting C/N ratio up to 2.5. The characters of biofilms distributed in different sections inside MSL-1 system well illustrated the nitrogen removal mechanism inside MSL systems. Two kinds of MSLs are both promising as an appealing nitrifying biofilm reactor. Recirculation can be considered further for by-pass MSL-2 system to ensure a complete ammonia removal. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Picosecond absorption relaxation measured with nanosecond laser photoacoustics

    OpenAIRE

    Danielli, Amos; Favazza, Christopher P.; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.

    2010-01-01

    Picosecond absorption relaxation—central to many disciplines—is typically measured by ultrafast (femtosecond or picosecond) pump-probe techniques, which however are restricted to optically thin and weakly scattering materials or require artificial sample preparation. Here, we developed a reflection-mode relaxation photoacoustic microscope based on a nanosecond laser and measured picosecond absorption relaxation times. The relaxation times of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin molecules, b...

  18. 0.4 mJ quasi-continuously pumped picosecond Nd:GdVO4 laser with selectable pulse duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubeček, V; Jelínek, M; Čech, M; Hiršl, P; Diels, J-C

    2010-01-01

    A quasi-continuously pumped picosecond oscillator-amplifier Nd:GdVO 4 laser system based on two identical slabs in a single bounce geometry is reported. Pulse duration is from 160 to 55 ps resulting from the pulse shortening along the extended mode locked train from passively mode locked oscillator, which was measured directly from a single laser shot. The shortest 55 ps long cavity dumped single pulses from the oscillator with the energy of 15±1 μJ and the contrast better than 10 -3 were amplified to the energy of 150 μJ with the contrast better than 10 -3 after the single-pass amplification and to the energy of 400 μJ after the double-pass amplification

  19. Evaluation of the Long-Term Performance of Titanate Ceramics for Immobilization of Excess Weapons Plutonium: Results from Pressurized Unsaturated Flow and Single Pass Flow-Through Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BP McGrail; HT Schaef; JP Icenhower; PF Martin; RD Orr; VL Legore

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes our findings from pressurized unsaturated flow (PUF) and single-pass flow-through (SPFT) experiments to date. Results from the PUF test of a Pu-bearing ceramic with enclosing surrogate high-level waste glass show that the glass reacts rapidly to alteration products. Glass reaction causes variations in the solution pH in contact with the ceramic materials. We also document variable concentrations of Pu in solution, primarily in colloidal form, which appear to be related to secular variations in solution composition. The apparent dissolution rate of the ceramic waste form, based on Ba concentrations in the effluent, is estimated at le 10 -5 g/(m 2 · d). Pu-bearing colloids were recovered in the size range of 0.2 to 2 microm, but it is not clear that such entities would be transported in a system that is not advective-flow dominated. Results from SPFT experiments give information on the corrosion resistance of two surrogate Pu-ceramics (Ce-pyrochlore and Ce-zirconolite) at 90 C over a pH range of 2 to 12. The two ceramics were doped with minor quantities (approximately0.1 mass%) of MoO 3 , so that concentrations of Mo in the effluent solution could be used to monitor the reaction behavior of the materials. The data obtained thus far from experiments with durations up to 150 d do not conclusively prove that the solid-aqueous solution systems have reached steady-state conditions. Therefore, the dissolution mechanism cannot be determined. Apparent dissolution rates of the two ceramic materials based on Ce, Gd, and Mo concentrations in the effluent solutions from the SPFT are nearly identical and vary between 1.1 to 8.5 x 10 -4 g/(m 2 · d). In addition, the data reveal a slightly amphoteric dissolution behavior, with a minimum apparent rate at pH = 7 to 8, over the pH range examined. Results from two related ceramic samples suggest that radiation damage can have a measurable effect on the dissolution of titanium-based ceramics. The rare earth

  20. A data-driven and physics-based single-pass retrieval of active-passive microwave covariation and vegetation parameters for the SMAP mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entekhabi, D.; Jagdhuber, T.; Das, N. N.; Baur, M.; Link, M.; Piles, M.; Akbar, R.; Konings, A. G.; Mccoll, K. A.; Alemohammad, S. H.; Montzka, C.; Kunstmann, H.

    2016-12-01

    The active-passive soil moisture retrieval algorithm of NASA's SMAP mission depends on robust statistical estimation of active-passive covariation (β) and vegetation structure (Γ) parameters in order to provide reliable global measurements of soil moisture on an intermediate level (9km) compared to the native resolution of the radiometer (36km) and radar (3km) instruments. These parameters apply to the SMAP radiometer-radar combination over the period of record that was cut short with the end of the SMAP radar transmission. They also apply to the current SMAP radiometer and Sentinel 1A/B radar combination for high-resolution surface soil moisture mapping. However, the performance of the statistically-based approach is directly dependent on the selection of a representative time frame in which these parameters can be estimated assuming dynamic soil moisture and stationary soil roughness and vegetation cover. Here, we propose a novel, data-driven and physics-based single-pass retrieval of active-passive microwave covariation and vegetation parameters for the SMAP mission. The algorithm does not depend on time series analyses and can be applied using minimum one pair of an active-passive acquisition. The algorithm stems from the physical link between microwave emission and scattering via conservation of energy. The formulation of the emission radiative transfer is combined with the Distorted Born Approximation of radar scattering for vegetated land surfaces. The two formulations are simultaneously solved for the covariation and vegetation structure parameters. Preliminary results from SMAP active-passive observations (April 13th to July 7th 2015) compare well with the time-series statistical approach and confirms the capability of this method to estimate these parameters. Moreover, the method is not restricted to a given frequency (applies to both L-band and C-band combinations for the radar) or incidence angle (all angles and not just the fixed 40° incidence

  1. Development of picosecond pulsed electron beam monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosono, Y.; Nakazawa, M.; Ueda, T.; Kobayasi, T.; Yosida, Y.; Ohkuma, J.; Okuda, S.; Suemine, S.

    1993-01-01

    For the picosecond pulsed electron beam of a linear accelerator a simple monitor using an electric connector has been developed which is constructed with SMA, BNC, N type electric connector through pipe (inner diameter = 50 mm or 100 mm). Under the measurement conditions of peak current (26A-900A) and narrow pulse width (Pw = 10 ps(FWHM), Pw = 30 ps(FWHM)), the following characteristics of this monitor were obtained, (A) rise time is less than 25 ps (B) the amplitude of the monitor output pulse is proportional directly to the area of cross section of the electrode. (author)

  2. Picosecond x-ray streak cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averin, V. I.; Bryukhnevich, Gennadii I.; Kolesov, G. V.; Lebedev, Vitaly B.; Miller, V. A.; Saulevich, S. V.; Shulika, A. N.

    1991-04-01

    The first multistage image converter with an X-ray photocathode (UMI-93 SR) was designed in VNIIOFI in 1974 [1]. The experiments carried out in IOFAN pointed out that X-ray electron-optical cameras using the tube provided temporal resolution up to 12 picoseconds [2]. The later work has developed into the creation of the separate streak and intensifying tubes. Thus, PV-003R tube has been built on base of UMI-93SR design, fibre optically connected to PMU-2V image intensifier carrying microchannel plate.

  3. Picosecond laser ablation of porcine sclera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góra, Wojciech S.; Harvey, Eleanor M.; Dhillon, Baljean; Parson, Simon H.; Maier, Robert R. J.; Hand, Duncan P.; Shephard, Jonathan D.

    2013-03-01

    Lasers have been shown to be successful in certain medical procedures and they have been identified as potentially making a major contribution to the development of minimally invasive procedures. However, the uptake is not as widespread and there is scope for many other applications where laser devices may offer a significant advantage in comparison to the traditional surgical tools. The purpose of this research is to assess the potential of using a picosecond laser for minimally invasive laser sclerostomy. Experiments were carried out on porcine scleral samples due to the comparable properties to human tissue. Samples were prepared with a 5mm diameter trephine and were stored in lactated Ringer's solution. After laser machining, the samples were fixed in 3% glutaraldehyde, then dried and investigated under SEM. The laser used in the experiments is an industrial picosecond TRUMPF TruMicro laser operating at a wavelength of 1030nm, pulse length of 6ps, repetition rate of 1 kHz and a focused spot diameter of 30μm. The laser beam was scanned across the samples with the use of a galvanometer scan head and various ablation patterns were investigated. Processing parameters (pulse energy, spot and line separation) which allow for the most efficient laser ablation of scleral tissue without introducing any collateral damage were investigated. The potential to create various shapes, such as linear incisions, square cavities and circular cavities was demonstrated.

  4. Picosecond absorption relaxation measured with nanosecond laser photoacoustics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielli, Amos; Favazza, Christopher P; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V

    2010-10-18

    Picosecond absorption relaxation-central to many disciplines-is typically measured by ultrafast (femtosecond or picosecond) pump-probe techniques, which however are restricted to optically thin and weakly scattering materials or require artificial sample preparation. Here, we developed a reflection-mode relaxation photoacoustic microscope based on a nanosecond laser and measured picosecond absorption relaxation times. The relaxation times of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin molecules, both possessing extremely low fluorescence quantum yields, were measured at 576 nm. The added advantages in dispersion susceptibility, laser-wavelength availability, reflection sensing, and expense foster the study of natural-including strongly scattering and nonfluorescent-materials.

  5. Laser ablation comparison by picosecond pulses train and nanosecond pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lednev, V. N.; Filippov, M. N.; Bunkin, A. F.; Pershin, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    A comparison of laser ablation by a train of picosecond pulses and nanosecond pulses revealed a difference in laser craters, ablation thresholds, plasma sizes and spectral line intensities. Laser ablation with a train of picosecond pulses resulted in improved crater quality while ablated mass decreased up to 30%. A reduction in laser plasma dimensions for picosecond train ablation was observed while the intensity of atomic/ionic lines in the plasma spectra was greater by a factor of 2-4 indicating an improved excitation and atomization in the plasma.

  6. Emerging terawatt picosecond CO2 laser technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I.V.

    1997-09-01

    The first terawatt picosecond (TWps) CO 2 laser is under construction at the BNL Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). TWps-CO 2 lasers, having an order of magnitude longer wavelength than the well-known table-top terawatt solid state lasers, offer new opportunities for strong-field physics research. For laser wakefield accelerators (LWFA) the advantage of the new class of lasers is due to a gain of two orders of magnitude in the ponderomotive potential. The large average power of CO 2 lasers is important for the generation of hard radiation through Compton back-scattering of the laser off energetic electron beams. The authors discuss applications of TWps-CO 2 lasers for LWFA modules of a tentative electron-positron collider, for γ-γ (or γ-lepton) colliders, for a possible table-top source of high-intensity x-rays and gamma rays, and the generation of polarized positron beams

  7. Picosecond high power laser systems and picosecond diagnostic technique in laser produced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Hiroto; Masuko, H.; Maekawa, Shigeru; Suzuki, Yoshiji; Sugiyama, Masaru.

    1979-01-01

    Highly repetitive, high power YAG and Glass laser systems have been developed and been successfully used for the studies of laser-plasma interactions. Various picosecond diagnostic techniques have been developed for such purposes in the regions from optical to X-ray frequency. Recently highly sensitive X-ray (1 - 10 KeV) streak camera for highly repetitive operations have been developed. Preliminary experiment shows the achievement of 28ps temporal resolution (100μm slit) and good sensitivity with detectable minimum number of 10E3-1KeV photons/shot/slit area. (author)

  8. 500 picosecond TDC for DIRC at BABAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebbolo, H.; Bailly, P.; Chauveau, J.

    1997-01-01

    A 16 channel TDC chip has been developed at LPNHE Paris, to equip the Front-End electronics of the Detector of Internally Reflected Cerenkov light (DIRC) of the BABAR experiment at the SLAC B factory (Stanford, USA). Binning is 500 picosecond, conversion time is 32 ns, with a fall range of 32 μs. The chip integrates channel buffering and selective readout of data falling within a programmable window defined by the level one trigger latency and resolution. The selective readout allows to manage random inputs at a maximum average rate of 100 kHz on each channel and makes data available at any time a trigger occurs. The maximum average rate of L1 accept trigger will be 2 kHz. The chip, housed in a 68 pin PLCC package, is designed in 0.7 μm CMOS technology and manufactured by ATMEL ES2. The TDC section and channel FIFOs are full custom designs. The TDC uses 16 independent voltage controlled digital delay lines and a 17th calibration channel which allows to tune the delays on the 59.5 MHZ reference clock. The selective readout algorithm has been synthesized from Verilog description and uses ATMEL ES2 standard cells. Die size is 36 mm2 and power less than 100 mW with all inputs fired at 100 kHZ. Prototypes test results show performances better than the specifications for the chip to be used on the DIRC detector. The ten production prototypes have been delivered mid May 1997

  9. Power scaling of supercontinuum seeded megahertz-repetition rate optical parametric chirped pulse amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, R; Stephanides, A; Prandolini, M J; Gronloh, B; Jungbluth, B; Mans, T; Tavella, F

    2014-03-15

    Optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifiers with high average power are possible with novel high-power Yb:YAG amplifiers with kW-level output powers. We demonstrate a compact wavelength-tunable sub-30-fs amplifier with 11.4 W average power with 20.7% pump-to-signal conversion efficiency. For parametric amplification, a beta-barium borate crystal is pumped by a 140 W, 1 ps Yb:YAG InnoSlab amplifier at 3.25 MHz repetition rate. The broadband seed is generated via supercontinuum generation in a YAG crystal.

  10. High power industrial picosecond laser from IR to UV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saby, Julien; Sangla, Damien; Pierrot, Simonette; Deslandes, Pierre; Salin, François

    2013-02-01

    Many industrial applications such as glass cutting, ceramic micro-machining or photovoltaic processes require high average and high peak power Picosecond pulses. The main limitation for the expansion of the picosecond market is the cost of high power picosecond laser sources, which is due to the complexity of the architecture used for picosecond pulse amplification, and the difficulty to keep an excellent beam quality at high average power. Amplification with fibers is a good technology to achieve high power in picosecond regime but, because of its tight confinement over long distances, light undergoes dramatic non linearities while propagating in fibers. One way to avoid strong non linearities is to increase fiber's mode area. Nineteen missing holes fibers offering core diameter larger than 80μm have been used over the past few years [1-3] but it has been shown that mode instabilities occur at approximately 100W average output power in these fibers [4]. Recently a new fiber design has been introduced, in which HOMs are delocalized from the core to the clad, preventing from HOMs amplification [5]. In these so-called Large Pitch Fibers, threshold for mode instabilities is increased to 294W offering robust single-mode operation below this power level [6]. We have demonstrated a high power-high efficiency industrial picosecond source using single-mode Large Pitch rod-type fibers doped with Ytterbium. Large Pitch Rod type fibers can offer a unique combination of single-mode output with a very large mode area from 40 μm up to 100μm and very high gain. This enables to directly amplify a low power-low energy Mode Locked Fiber laser with a simple amplification architecture, achieving very high power together with singlemode output independent of power level or repetition rate.

  11. Development of picosecond pulsed electron beam monitor. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosono, Y.; Nakazawa, M.; Ueda, T.

    1994-01-01

    A picosecond pulsed electron beam monitor for a 35 MeV linear accelerator has been developed. The monitor consists of an electric SMA connector and aluminium pipe(inner diameter of 50mm). The following characteristics of this monitor were obtained, (a) the rise time is less than 17.5 ps (b) linearity of the monitor output voltage is proportional to the peak current of beam. It is shown that this monitor can be successfully used for bunch measurements of picosecond pulsed electron beam of 35 MeV linac. (author)

  12. Synchronization of sub-picosecond electron and laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenzweig, J.B.; Le Sage, G.P.

    1999-01-01

    Sub-picosecond laser-electron synchronization is required to take full advantage of the experimental possibilities arising from the marriage of modern high intensity lasers and high brightness electron beams in the same laboratory. Two particular scenarios stand out in this regard, injection of ultra-short electron pulses in short wavelength laser-driven plasma accelerators, and Compton scattering of laser photons from short electron pulses. Both of these applications demand synchronization, which is sub-picosecond, with tens of femtosecond synchronization implied for next generation experiments. The design of a microwave timing modulator system is now being investigated in more detail. (AIP) copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  13. Picosecond infrared activation of methanol in acid zeolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonn, Miacha; van Santen, Rutger A.; Lercher, J.A.; Kleyn, Aart W.; Bakker, H.J.; Bakker, Huib J.

    1997-01-01

    Highly porous, crystalline zeolite catalysts are used industrially to catalyze the conversion of methanol to gasoline. We have performed a picosecond spectroscopic study providing insights into both the structure and the dynamics of methanol adsorbed to acid zeolites. We reveal the adsorption

  14. Diffractive sub-picosecond manipulation of x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, B.

    2004-01-01

    A class of X-ray optical elements for the sub-picosecond manipulation of X-rays is proposed. The design of these elements is based upon a time-dependent dynamical diffraction theory that synthesizes the eikonal theory with the Takagi-Taupin theory. A brief outline of the theory is given

  15. Optoelectronic Picosecond Detection of Synchrotron X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durbin, Stephen M. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2017-08-04

    The goal of this research program was to develop a detector that would measure x-ray time profiles with picosecond resolution. This was specifically aimed for use at x-ray synchrotrons, where x-ray pulse profiles have Gaussian time spreads of 50-100 ps (FWHM), so the successful development of such a detector with picosecond resolution would permit x-ray synchrotron studies to break through the pulse width barrier. That is, synchrotron time-resolved studies are currently limited to pump-probe studies that cannot reveal dynamics faster than ~50 ps, whereas the proposed detector would push this into the physically important 1 ps domain. The results of this research effort, described in detail below, are twofold: 1) the original plan to rely on converting electronic signals from a semiconductor sensor into an optical signal proved to be insufficient for generating signals with the necessary time resolution and sensitivity to be widely applicable; and 2) an all-optical method was discovered whereby the x-rays are directly absorbed in an optoelectronic material, lithium tantalate, which can then be probed by laser pulses with the desired picosecond sensitivity for detection of synchrotron x-rays. This research program has also produced new fundamental understanding of the interaction of x-rays and optical lasers in materials that has now created a viable path for true picosecond detection of synchrotron x-rays.

  16. TECHNICAL DESIGN NOTE: Picosecond resolution programmable delay line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchenek, Mariusz

    2009-11-01

    The note presents implementation of a programmable delay line for digital signals. The tested circuit has a subnanosecond delay range programmable with a resolution of picoseconds. Implementation of the circuit was based on low-cost components, easily available on the market.

  17. Picosecond mid-infrared amplifier for high average power.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, LR

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available High pressure CO2 lasers are good candidates for amplifying picosecond mid infrared pulses. High pressure CO2 lasers are notorious for being unreliable and difficult to operate. In this paper a high pressure CO2 laser is presented based on well...

  18. Detection of picosecond electrical transients in a scanning tunneling microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, R.H.M.; Rasing, T.H.M.; Kaufmann, L.M.F.; Smalbrugge, E.; Wolter, J.H.; Melloch, M.R.; Kempen, van H.

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a scanning tunneling microscope using an optoelectronic switch which gates the tunneling tip current. The switch is fabricated within several tens of microns from the tip by photolithography and an accurate cleavage method. We demonstrate this approach by detecting picosecond

  19. Picosecond relaxation of X-ray excited GaAs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tkachenko, V.; Medvedev, Nikita; Lipp, V.; Ziaja, B.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 24, Sep (2017), s. 15-21 ISSN 1574-1818 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : GaAS * X-ray excitation * picosecond relaxation Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 0.908, year: 2016

  20. Single-pass, efficient type-I phase-matched frequency doubling of high-power ultrashort-pulse Yb-fiber laser using LiB_3O_5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Mukesh Kumar; Kumar, Samir; Das, Ritwick

    2016-05-01

    We report 48 % efficient single-pass second harmonic generation of high-power ultrashort-pulse ({≈ }250 fs) Yb-fiber laser by utilizing type-I phase matching in LiB_3O_5 (LBO) crystal. The choice of LBO among other borate crystals for high-power frequency doubling is essentially motivated by large thermal conductivity, low birefringence and weak group velocity dispersion. By optimally focussing the beam in a 4-mm-long LBO crystal, we have generated about 2.3 W of average power at 532 nm using 4.8 W of available pump power at 1064 nm. The ultrashort green pulses were found out to be near-transform limited sech^2 pulses with a pulse width of Δ τ ≈ 150 fs and being delivered at 78 MHz repetition rate. Due to appreciably low spatial walk-off angle for LBO ({≈ }0.4°), we obtain M^2beam which signifies marginal distortion in comparison with the pump beam (M^2<1.15). We also discuss the impact of third-order optical nonlinearity of the LBO crystal on the generated ultrashort SH pulses.

  1. Effect of carbon content on formation of bimodal microstructure and mechanical properties of low-carbon steels subjected to heavy-reduction single-pass hot/warm deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyung-Won, E-mail: wonipark@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Komaba 4-6-1, Meguro-ku 153-8505, Tokyo (Japan); Yanagimoto, Jun [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Komaba 4-6-1, Meguro-ku 153-8505, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    A compression test simulating heavy-reduction single-pass rolling was conducted to investigate the microstructural evolution based on the formation of a bimodal structure and the mechanical properties of 0.01% and 0.1% carbon steels and niobium steel. When thermomechanical processing was conducted near and above the critical transformation temperature (A{sub c3}), microstructures of all steels were significantly refined and consisted of equiaxed grains without elongated grains. Nevertheless, these microstructures showed weak or no formation of the bimodal structure or coarse grains with decreasing carbon content, while they showed bimodal structure formation when 0.2% carbon steel was used in our previous research. The average grain size of Nb steel was about 2 μm and its microstructure was uniformly refined. These may be attributed to a decrease in the number of nucleation sites with decreasing carbon content in low-carbon steels and the occurrence of nucleation at grain boundaries as well as in grain interiors in Nb steel during processing. Mechanical properties of all steels deformed above the critical transformation temperature exhibited high performance characteristics with superior strength and marked elongation. Their fractographs indicated ductile fracture, which was revealed by SEM observation after a tensile test.

  2. New and Advanced Picosecond Lasers for Tattoo Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adatto, Maurice A; Amir, Ruthie; Bhawalkar, Jayant; Sierra, Rafael; Bankowski, Richard; Rozen, Doran; Dierickx, Christine; Lapidoth, Moshe

    2017-01-01

    Early methods of tattoo removal ultimately resulted in unacceptable cosmetic outcomes. While the introduction of laser technology was an improvement over the existing chemical, mechanical, and surgical procedures, the use of nonselective tattoo removal with carbon dioxide and argon lasers led to scarring. Q-switched lasers with nanosecond (10-9) pulse domains were considered to have revolutionized tattoo treatment, by selectively heating the tattoo particles, while reducing the adverse sequelae to adjacent normal skin. Theoretical considerations of restricting pulse duration, to heat tattoo particles to higher temperatures, proposed the use of sub-nanosecond pulses to target particles with thermal relaxation times lower than the nanosecond pulses in Q-switched lasers. Initial studies demonstrated that picosecond (10-12) pulses were more effective than nanosecond pulses in clearing black tattoos. Advances in picosecond technology led to the development of commercially available lasers, incorporating several different wavelengths, to further refine pigment targeting. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. A kilohertz picosecond x-ray pulse generation scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, W.; Borland, M.; Harkay, K. C.; Wang, C.-X.; Yang, B.

    2007-01-01

    The duration of the x-ray pulse generated at a synchrotron light source is typically tens of picoseconds. Shorter pulses are highly desired by the users. In electron storage rings, the vertical beam size is usually orders of magnitude less than the bunch length due to radiation damping; therefore, a shorter pulse can be obtained by slitting the vertically tilted bunch. Zholents proposed tilting the bunch using rf deflection. We found that tilted bunches can also be generated by a dipole magnet kick. A vertical tilt is developed after the kick in the presence of nonzero chromaticity. The tilt was successfully observed and a 4.2-ps pulse was obtained from a 27-ps electron bunch at the Advanced Photon Source. Based on this principle we propose a short-pulse generation scheme that produces picosecond x-ray pulses at a repetition rate of 1 utilde2 kHz, which can be used for pump-probe experiments

  4. Hydration and temperature interdependence of protein picosecond dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipps, Ferdinand; Levy, Seth; Markelz, A G

    2012-05-14

    We investigate the nature of the solvent motions giving rise to the rapid temperature dependence of protein picoseconds motions at 220 K, often referred to as the protein dynamical transition. The interdependence of picoseconds dynamics on hydration and temperature is examined using terahertz time domain spectroscopy to measure the complex permittivity in the 0.2-2.0 THz range for myoglobin. Both the real and imaginary parts of the permittivity over the frequency range measured have a strong temperature dependence at >0.27 h (g water per g protein), however the permittivity change is strongest for frequencies 1 THz, and 0.27 h for frequencies <1 THz. The data are consistent with the dynamical transition solvent fluctuations requiring only clusters of ~5 water molecules, whereas the enhancement of lowest frequency motions requires a fully spanning water network. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2012

  5. Picosecond X-ray streak camera dynamic range measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuber, C., E-mail: celine.zuber@cea.fr; Bazzoli, S.; Brunel, P.; Gontier, D.; Raimbourg, J.; Rubbelynck, C.; Trosseille, C. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Fronty, J.-P.; Goulmy, C. [Photonis SAS, Avenue Roger Roncier, BP 520, 19106 Brive Cedex (France)

    2016-09-15

    Streak cameras are widely used to record the spatio-temporal evolution of laser-induced plasma. A prototype of picosecond X-ray streak camera has been developed and tested by Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives to answer the Laser MegaJoule specific needs. The dynamic range of this instrument is measured with picosecond X-ray pulses generated by the interaction of a laser beam and a copper target. The required value of 100 is reached only in the configurations combining the slowest sweeping speed and optimization of the streak tube electron throughput by an appropriate choice of high voltages applied to its electrodes.

  6. ELYSE, a new picosecond electron accelerator at Orsay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belloni, J.D.; Gaillard, M.; Monard, H.; Larbre, J.-P.; Gobert, F.; Mostafavi, M.; Lampre, I.; Marignier, J.-L.

    2003-01-01

    ELYSE is a new instrument allowing to study fast kinetics processes at picosecond range by the complementary techniques of pulse radiolysis and laser photochemistry which was installed by the Laboratoire de Chimie Physique, University Paris-Sud, at Orsay. It was designed and constructed by the Linear Accelerator Laboratory, Orsay. The accelerator is a RF photocathode electron gun type which will deliver electron pulses of less than 5 ps FWHM. The Cs 2 Te cathode was chosen because of its high efficiency and long life time. Photoelectrons are generated by a picosecond synchronized laser system with a normal incidence. The charge per pulse is 1 nC with a dark current less than 1 % and a repetition frequency 1 to 50 Hz. Other detailed specifications of the accelerator, of the laser and of the optical spectroscopy detection set-up are described

  7. Picosecond transient absorption study of photodissociated carboxy hemoglobin and myoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janes, S.M.; Dalickas, G.A.; Eaton, W.A.; Hochstrasser, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The optical transient absorption spectra at 30 ps and 6.5 ns after photolysis are compared for both carboxy hemoglobin (HbCO) and carboxy myoglobin (MbCO). Both 355- and 532-nm excitation pulses were used. In all cases the shapes of the optical difference spectra thus generated are stationary over the complete time-scale studied. The photolysis spectra for MbCO are not significantly different from the equilibrium difference spectra generated on the same picosecond spectrometer when measured to an accuracy of +/- 0.5 nm. In addition, spectral parameters for delegated HbCO generated on the same spectrometer but detected by two different techniques, either by a Vidicon detector or point by point with photomultiplier tubes, are reported; the results are different from some of the previously reported picosecond experiments

  8. Picosecond Laser Pulse Interactions with Metallic and Semiconductor Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    thermometric determination of plasma relaxation is by far more sensitive than direct optical measurements. The solid line in Fig. 4 shows the calculated...passively mode-locked Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet in Si, several researchers have used high picosecond or fem- laser was used to produce single 30-ps, 1.06...these targets to an aluminum backing plate with a silver-epoxy conducting glue (Ablestik). The conductivity of the targets was high enough to make

  9. Picosecond lasers for tattoo removal: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Ofer; Atzmony, Lihi; Akerman, Lehavit; Levi, Assi; Kershenovich, Ruben; Lapidoth, Moshe; Mimouni, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    Given that the pigment particles in tattoos have a relaxation time of tattoo removal. To systematically review the evidence regarding the effectiveness and safety of picosecond lasers for tattoo removal, Pubmed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), ClinicalTrials.gov, and reference lists were searched for relevant trials. The primary outcome was >70 % clearance of tattoo pigment. Secondary outcomes were 90-100 % clearance of tattoo pigment, number of laser sessions required, and adverse effects. Eight trials were included, six with human participants (160 participants) and 2 with animal models. Seven of the eight trials explored the usage of either 755, 758, 795, 1064, or 1064/532-nm picosecond lasers for black and blue ink tattoos. In the human trials, 69-100 % of tattoos showed over 70 % clearance of pigment after 1-10 laser treatments. Reported side effects included pain, hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation, blister formation and transient erythema, edema, and pinpoint bleeding. Included articles varied in type of laser investigated, mostly non-comparative studies and with a medium to high risk of bias. There is sparse evidence that picosecond lasers are more effective than their nanosecond counterparts for mainly black and blue ink tattoo removal, with minor side effects.

  10. Studies on laser material processing with nanosecond and sub-nanosecond and picosecond and sub-picosecond pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Tao, Sha; Wang, Brian; Zhao, Jay

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, laser ablation of widely used metal (Al, Cu. stainless-steel), semiconductor (Si), transparent material (glass, sapphire), ceramic (Al2O3, AlN) and polymer (PI, PMMA) in industry were systematically studied with pulse width from nanosecond (5-100ns), picosecond (6-10ps) to sub-picosecond (0.8-0.95ps). A critical damage zone (CDZ) of up to 100um with ns laser, efficiency were also investigated. This is to explore how to provide industry users the best laser solution for device micro-fabrication with best price. Our studies of cutting and drilling with ns, ps, and sub-ps lasers indicate that it is feasible to achieve user accepted quality and speed with cost-effective and reliable laser by optimizing processing conditions.

  11. The first picosecond terawatt CO2 laser at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I.V.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Babzien, M.

    1998-02-01

    The first terawatt picosecond CO 2 laser will be brought to operation at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility in 1998. System consists of a single-mode TEA oscillator, picosecond semiconductor optical switch, multi-atmosphere. The authors report on design, simulation, and performance tests of the 10 atm final amplifier that allows for direct multi-joule energy extraction in a picosecond laser pulse

  12. Upconversion imaging using short-wave infrared picosecond pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathez, Morgan David; Rodrigo, Peter John; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    beam diameter to upconvert a wider range of signal spatial frequencies in the crystal. The 1877 nm signal is converted into 849 nm—enabling an image to be acquired by a silicon CCD camera. The measured size of the smallest resolvable element of this imaging system is consistent with the value predicted...... repetition rate of 21.7 MHz. Due to synchronization of high peak-power pulses, efficient upconversion is achieved in a single-pass setup that employs a bulk lithium niobate crystal. Optimizing the temporal overlap of the pulses for high upconversion efficiency enables us to exploit a relatively large pump...... by an improved model that considers the combined image blurring effect due to finite pump beam size, thick nonlinear crystal, and polychromatic infrared illumination....

  13. Study of phonon propagation in water using picosecond ultrasonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, F; Atay, T; Dang, C H; Grimsley, T J; Che, S; Ma, J; Zhang, Q; Nurmikko, A V; Maris, H J

    2007-01-01

    The propagation of ultra-short sound pulses in water is studied by using the picosecond ultrasonic technique. A sound pulse is generated when light is absorbed in a metal transducer film deposited onto a substrate. The sound propagates across a thin layer of water and is then reflected back to the surface at which it was generated. The efficiency of optoacoustic detection of the reflected sound is enhanced through the use of a resonant optical cavity. We show that the variation of the shape of the returning sound pulse with propagation distance agrees with that calculated by using the attenuation of sound in water that has been measured at lower frequencies

  14. Fast ion generation by a picosecond high-power laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Badziak, J.; Parys, P.; Wolowski, J.; Hora, H.; Krása, Josef; Láska, Leoš; Rohlena, Karel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2005), s. 5-22 ISSN 0078-5466 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME 238 Grant - others:International Atomic Energy in Vienna(XE) 11535/RO; State Commitee for Scientific Research (KBN)(PL) 1 PO3B 082 19 and 1 PO3B 043 26 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : fast ion * plasma * picosecond laser Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.459, year: 2005

  15. A relationship between solvent viscosity and biomolecule picosecond thermal fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornicchi, E.; De Francesco, A.; Marconi, M.; Onori, G.; Paciaroni, A.

    2008-01-01

    Through elastic neutron scattering measurements, we investigated the picosecond dynamics of DNA in the hydrated powder state or embedded in glycerol glassy matrix from 20 K to 300 K. We calculated the relaxational contribution of the mean square displacements (MSD) of DNA hydrogen atoms. We found the existence of a linear relationship between the inverse of the biomolecule relaxational MSD and the logarithm of the bulk viscosity of the surrounding environment. From the comparison with the case of lysozyme in the same environments, for which the validity of the relationship was already verified, possible differences and analogies concerning the biomolecule-to-solvent dynamical coupling can be stressed

  16. Environmentally stable picosecond Yb fiber laser with low repetition rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartl, M.; Abreu-Afonso, J.; Díez, A.; Rothhardt, M.; Limpert, J.; Tünnermann, A.

    2013-04-01

    A SESAM-mode-locked, all-polarization-maintaining Ytterbium fiber laser producing picosecond pulses with narrow spectral bandwidth is presented. A simple linear all-fiber cavity without dispersion compensation is realized using a uniform fiber Bragg grating (FBG). Different cavity lengths are investigated and repetition rates down to 0.7 MHz are obtained. Bandwidth and pulse duration of the output pulses are mainly determined by the choice of FBG. Pulses between 30 and 200 ps are generated employing different FBGs with bandwidths between 17 and 96 pm. The experimental results are in good agreement with numerical simulations. The laser holds great potential for simple amplification setups without pulse picking.

  17. Picosecond anti-Stokes generation in a photonic-crystal fiber for interferometric CARS microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Søren Rud

    2006-01-01

    We generate tunable picosecond anti-Stokes pulses by four-wave mixing of two picosecond pump and Stokes pulse trains in a photonic-crystal fiber. The visible, spectrally narrow anti-Stokes pulses with shifts over 150 nm are generated without generating other spectral features. As a demonstration,...

  18. Development of a new picosecond pulse radiolysis system by using a femtosecond laser synchronized with a picosecond linac. A step to femtosecond pulse radiolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Yoichi; Yamamoto, Tamotsu; Miki, Miyako; Seki, Shu; Okuda, Shuichi; Honda, Yoshihide; Kimura, Norio; Tagawa, Seiichi [Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Scientific and Industrial Research; Ushida, Kiminori

    1997-03-01

    A new picosecond pulse radiolysis system by using a Ti sapphire femtosecond laser synchronized with a 20 ps electron pulse from the 38 MeV L-band linac has been developed for the research of the ultra fast reactions in primary processes of radiation chemistry. The timing jitter in the synchronization of the laser pulse with the electron pulse is less than several picosecond. The technique can be used in the next femtosecond pulse radiolysis. (author)

  19. The use of lasers for studying ultrahigh speed phenomena (picoseconds): equipement of a picosecond spectroscopy laboratory using synchronized mode lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goujon, P.; Pochon, E.; Clerc, M.

    1975-01-01

    The spectroscopy laboratory is equipped with a dye laser and a neodymium glass laser. Detection is one case is made by means of a streak picosecond camera capable of a 5 ps time interval. A second detection method uses a CS 2 Kerr cell switch based on the Duguay principle. The first qualitative results concerning the fluorescence of DODCI and chlorophyll in vivo as well as the bleaching and recovering of the absorption of the electron solvated in liquid ammonia, have shown that this equipment could effectively enable the observation of physical-chemical processes as brief as 5 ps [fr

  20. Simulation of excitation and propagation of pico-second ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seung Yong; Kim, No Hyu

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an analytic and numerical simulation of the generation and propagation of pico-second ultrasound with nano-scale wavelength, enabling the production of bulk waves in thin films. An analytic model of laser-matter interaction and elasto-dynamic wave propagation is introduced to calculate the elastic strain pulse in microstructures. The model includes the laser-pulse absorption on the material surface, heat transfer from a photon to the elastic energy of a phonon, and acoustic wave propagation to formulate the governing equations of ultra-short ultrasound. The excitation and propagation of acoustic pulses produced by ultra-short laser pulses are numerically simulated for an aluminum substrate using the finite-difference method and compared with the analytical solution. Furthermore, Fourier analysis was performed to investigate the frequency spectrum of the simulated elastic wave pulse. It is concluded that a pico-second bulk wave with a very high frequency of up to hundreds of gigahertz is successfully generated in metals using a 100-fs laser pulse and that it can be propagated in the direction of thickness for thickness less than 100 nm

  1. Simulation of excitation and propagation of pico-second ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Seung Yong; Kim, No Hyu [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University of Technology and Education, Chunan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    This paper presents an analytic and numerical simulation of the generation and propagation of pico-second ultrasound with nano-scale wavelength, enabling the production of bulk waves in thin films. An analytic model of laser-matter interaction and elasto-dynamic wave propagation is introduced to calculate the elastic strain pulse in microstructures. The model includes the laser-pulse absorption on the material surface, heat transfer from a photon to the elastic energy of a phonon, and acoustic wave propagation to formulate the governing equations of ultra-short ultrasound. The excitation and propagation of acoustic pulses produced by ultra-short laser pulses are numerically simulated for an aluminum substrate using the finite-difference method and compared with the analytical solution. Furthermore, Fourier analysis was performed to investigate the frequency spectrum of the simulated elastic wave pulse. It is concluded that a pico-second bulk wave with a very high frequency of up to hundreds of gigahertz is successfully generated in metals using a 100-fs laser pulse and that it can be propagated in the direction of thickness for thickness less than 100 nm.

  2. Probing Dense Sprays with Gated, Picosecond, Digital Particle Field Holography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Trolinger

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes work that demonstrated the feasibility of producing a gated digital holography system that is capable of producing high-resolution images of three-dimensional particle and structure details deep within dense particle fields of a spray. We developed a gated picosecond digital holocamera, using optical Kerr cell gating, to demonstrate features of gated digital holography that make it an exceptional candidate for this application. The Kerr cell gate shuttered the camera after the initial burst of ballistic and snake photons had been recorded, suppressing longer path, multiple scattered illumination. By starting with a CW laser without gating and then incorporating a picosecond laser and an optical Kerr gate, we were able to assess the imaging quality of the gated holograms, and determine improvement gained by gating. We produced high quality images of 50–200 μm diameter particles, hairs and USAF resolution charts from digital holograms recorded through turbid media where more than 98% of the light was scattered from the field. The system can gate pulses as short as 3 mm in pathlength (10 ps, enabling image-improving features of the system. The experiments lead us to the conclusion that this method has an excellent capability as a diagnostics tool in dense spray combustion research.

  3. Picosecond pulse radiolysis study of primary reactions in solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Omar, Abdel Karim

    2013-01-01

    Following the discovery of ionizing radiations and their chemical effects, it was important to study and comprehend the formation mechanisms of short lived free radicals and molecular products. In order to perform such studies, researchers and research groups worked on developing tools allowing both formation and detection of those species at short time scales. Nowadays, pulse radiolysis imposed itself as a fundamental and efficient tool allowing scientists to probe chemical effects as well as reaction mechanisms in studied media. The Laboratoire de Chimie Physique d'Orsay 'LCP' is an interdisciplinary laboratory hosting the platform of fast kinetics known as 'ELYSE'. Due to its femtosecond laser and its picosecond electron accelerator, we have the possibility to study chemical effects of ionizing radiations interaction with media at ultrashort times up to ∼5 ps.Knowing that we are interested in primary reactions induced in aqueous media by ionizing radiations, ELYSE represents the essential tool in performing our studies. The obtained results concern:- First direct determination of hydroxyl radical 'HO*' radiolytic yield as function of time at picosecond time scale;- Direct effect of ionizing radiation in highly concentrated aqueous solutions as well as investigation of the ultrafast electron transfer reaction between solute molecules and positive holes 'H 2 O*+' formed upon water radiolysis;- Study at room temperature of electron transfer reaction between solvated electron (electron donor) and organic solutes (electron acceptors) en viscous medium;- Study at room temperature of electron's solvation dynamics in ethylene glycol and 2-propanol. (author)

  4. Simulation of excitation and propagation of pico-second ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Seung Yong; Kim, No Kyu [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University of Technology and Education, Chunan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    This paper presents an analytic and numerical simulation of the generation and propagation of pico-second ultrasound with nano-scale wavelength, enabling the production of bulk waves in thin films. An analytic model of laser-matter interaction and elasto-dynamic wave propagation is introduced to calculate the elastic strain pulse in microstructures. The model includes the laser-pulse absorption on the material surface, heat transfer from a photon to the elastic energy of a phonon, and acoustic wave propagation to formulate the governing equations of ultra-short ultrasound. The excitation and propagation of acoustic pulses produced by ultra-short laser pulses are numerically simulated for an aluminum substrate using the finite-difference method and compared with the analytical solution. Furthermore, Fourier analysis was performed to investigate the frequency spectrum of the simulated elastic wave pulse. It is concluded that a pico-second bulk wave with a very high frequency of up to hundreds of gigahertz is successfully generated in metals using a 100-fs laser pulse and that it can be propagated in the direction of thickness for thickness less than 100 nm.

  5. Study of Absorption Characteristics of the Total Saponins from Radix Ilicis Pubescentis in an In Situ Single-Pass Intestinal Perfusion (SPIP Rat Model by Using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojun Kuang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to the extensively reported therapeutic activities, far less attention has been paid to the intestinal absorption of the total saponins from Radix Ilicis Pubescentis (in Chinese Mao-Dong-Qing, MDQ. This study aimed to investigate the intestinal absorption characteristics of ilexgenin A (C1, ilexsaponin A1 (C2, ilexsaponin B1 (C3, ilexsaponin B2 (C4, ilexsaponin B3 (DC1, and ilexoside O (DC2 when administrated with the total saponins from MDQ (MDQ-TS. An UPLC method for simultaneous determination of C1, C2, C3, C4, DC1, and DC2 in intestinal outflow perfusate was developed and validated. The absorption characteristics of MDQ-TS were investigated by evaluating the effects of intestinal segments, drug concentration, P-glycoprotein (P-gp inhibitor (verapomil, endocytosis inhibitor (amantadine and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA, tight junction modulator on the intestinal transportation of MDQ-TS by using a single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP rat model, and the influence of co-existing components on the intestinal transport of the six saponins was discussed. The results showed that effective apparent permeability (Papp of C1, C2, C3, C4, and DC2 administrated in MDQ-TS form had no segment-dependent changes at low and middle dosage levels. C1, C2, C3, D4, DC1, and DC2 administrated in MDQ-TS form all exhibited excellent transmembrane permeability with Papp > 0.12 × 10−2 cm·min−1. Meanwhile, Papp and effective absorption rate constant (Ka values for the most saponins showed concentration dependence and saturation characteristics. After combining with P-gp inhibitor of verapamil, Papp of C2, C3, and DC1 in MDQ-TS group was significantly increased up to about 2.3-fold, 1.4-fold, and 3.4-fold, respectively in comparison to that of non-verapamil added group. Verapamil was found to improve the absorption of C2, C3, and DC1, indicating the involvement of an active transport mechanism in the absorption process. Compared with the

  6. Picosecond buildup and relaxation of intense stimulated emission in GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageeva, N. N.; Bronevoi, I. L.; Zabegaev, D. N.; Krivonosov, A. N.

    2013-01-01

    In support of the idea developed previously based on circumstantial evidence, we have found that stimulated emission emerges in GaAs and its intensity increases with a picosecond delay relative to the front of powerful picosecond optical pumping that produced a dense electron-hole plasma. The emission intensity relaxes with decreasing pumping with a characteristic time of ∼10 ps. We have derived the dependences of the delay time, the relaxation time, and the duration of the picosecond emission pulse on its photon energy. The estimates based on the fact that the relaxation of emission is determined by electron-hole plasma cooling correspond to the measured relaxation time.

  7. Six-frame picosecond radiation camera based on hydrated electron photoabsorption phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutts, G.W.; Olk, L.B.; Gates, H.A.; St Leger-Barter, G.

    1977-01-01

    To obtain picosecond photographs of nanosecond radiation sources, a six-frame ultra-high speed radiation camera based on hydrated electron absorption phenomena has been developed. A time-dependent opacity pattern is formed in an acidic aqueous cell by a pulsed radiation source. Six time-resolved picosecond images of this changing opacity pattern are transferred to photographic film with the use of a mode-locked dye laser and six electronically gated microchannel plate image intensifiers. Because the lifetime of the hydrated electron absorption centers can be reduced to picoseconds, the opacity patterns represent time-space pulse profile images

  8. Optimally shaped narrowband picosecond pulses for femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, David P; Valley, David; Ellis, Scott R; Creelman, Mark; Mathies, Richard A

    2013-09-09

    A comparison between a Fabry-Pérot etalon filter and a conventional grating filter for producing the picosecond (ps) Raman pump pulses for femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) is presented. It is shown that for pulses of equal energy the etalon filter produces Raman signals twice as large as that of the grating filter while suppressing the electronically resonant background signal. The time asymmetric profile of the etalon-generated pulse is shown to be responsible for both of these observations. A theoretical discussion is presented which quantitatively supports this hypothesis. It is concluded that etalons are the ideal method for the generation of narrowband ps pulses for FSRS because of the optical simplicity, efficiency, improved FSRS intensity and reduced backgrounds.

  9. Pockels cell shutter operating in the 100 picosecond range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchet, M.; Gex, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    The object of the first part of the statement is the study and the description of a 20 x 20mm section tranversal field shutter realized as a line transmission structure, acting as a roller-blind shutter acting within the limits of a subnanosecond. It is constituted by two appropriately cut, deuterized KDP electro-optical crystals, situated on either side of a birefringent plate having its neutral lines at a 45 0 angle to their optical axis, placed within a prtion of the dual plate transmission line. A resolution above 20 pairs of lines per millimetre, as well as a Transmission/Extinction ratio greater than 100 over all the optical section are obtained for a 250 picoseconds dynamic functioning. The second part of the statement deals with the application of this shutter to photography and hyper-rapid interferometry of plasmas created by lasers. (author)

  10. Monolithic millimeter-wave and picosecond electronic technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talley, W.K.; Luhmann, N.C.

    1996-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies into monolithic millimeter-wave and picosecond electronic technologies have been undertaken as a collaborative project between the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the University of California Department of Applied Science Coherent Millimeter-Wave Group under the auspices of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at LLNL. The work involves the design and fabrication of monolithic frequency multiplier, beam control, and imaging arrays for millimeter-wave imaging and radar, as well as the development of high speed nonlinear transmission lines for ultra-wideband radar imaging, time domain materials characterization and magnetic fusion plasma applications. In addition, the Coherent Millimeter-Wave Group is involved in the fabrication of a state-of-the-art X-band (∼8-11 GHz) RF photoinjector source aimed at producing psec high brightness electron bunches for advanced accelerator and coherent radiation generation studies

  11. User issues at the Stanford picosecond free electron laser center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.I.

    1995-01-01

    Assembling a productive user facility around a Free Electron Laser (FEL) is a complex task. Reliable operation of the FEL is a necessary, but by no means sufficient, condition to ensure that the center will be able to attract and keep the interest of first rate researchers. Some other issues which are important include: center wavelength stability and ease of tuning, bandwidth control, amplitude and position stability, ability to select arbitrary sequences of micropulses, and real time availability of information of the FEL's important parameters (spectral width, center wavelength, micropulse length and energy, etc.). In addition, at the Stanford Center we have found that providing additional systems (conventional picosecond lasers synchronized to the FEL, an FTIR spectrometer, a confocal microscopy, ...) has been important. (author)

  12. Lifetime measurements in the picosecond range: achievements and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruecken, R.

    2000-01-01

    Recent developments in the measurement of lifetimes in the picosecond range using the recoil distance method (RDM) are reviewed. Results from recent RDM experiments on superdeformed bands in the mass-190 region, shears, bands in the neutron deficient lead isotopes, and ground state bands in the mass-130 region are presented. New experimental devices for lifetime experiments at Yale, such as the New Yale Plunger Device (N.Y.P.D.), the SPEctrometer for Doppler-shift Experiments at Yale (SPEEDY) and the plans for the gas-filled recoil separator SASSYER are presented. Perspectives for the use of the RDM technique in the study of exotic nuclei and its potential use with radioactive beams are discussed. (author)

  13. Sweep devices for picosecond image-converter streak cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunin, B.; Miehe, J.A.; Sipp, B.; Schelev, M.Ya.; Serduchenko, J.N.; Thebault, J.

    1979-01-01

    Four different sweep devices based on microwave tubes, avalanche transistors, krytrons, and laser-triggered spark gaps are treated in detail. These control circuits are developed for picosecond image-converter cameras and generate sweep pulses providing streak speeds in the range of 10 7 to 5x10 10 cm/sec with maximum time resolution better than 10 -12 sec. Special low-jitter triggering schemes reduce the jitter to less than 5x10 -11 sec. Some problems arising in the construction and matching of the sweep devices and image-streak tube are discussed. Comparative parameters of nanosecond switching elements are presented. The results described can be used by other authors involved in streak camera development

  14. Picosecond multiphoton ionization of atomic and molecular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.C.; Smith, D.B.

    1990-01-01

    High peak-power picosecond laser pulses have been used for the first time to effect nonresonant or resonant multiphoton ionization (MPI) of clusters generated in a supersonic nozzle expansion. The resulting ions are subsequently detected and characterized by time-of-flight mass spectroscopy. Specifically, we present results involving MPI of clusters of xenon and nitric oxide. Previous MPI studies of many molecular clusters using nanosecond lasers have not been successful in observing the parent ion, presumably due to fast dissociation channels. It is proposed that the present technique is a new and rather general ionization source for cluster studies which is complementary to electron impact but may, in addition, provide unique spectroscopic or dynamical information. 23 refs., 5 figs

  15. Picosecond chirped pulse compression in single-mode fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenhua Cao; Youwei Zhang

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, the nonlinear propagation of picosecond chirped pulses in single mode fibers has been investigated both analytically and numerically. Results show that downchirped pulses can be compressed owing to normal group-velocity dispersion. The compression ratio depends both on the initial peak power and on the initial frequency chirp of the input pulse. While the compression ratio depends both on the initial peak power and on the initial frequency chirp of the input pulse. While the compression ratio increases with the negative frequency chirp, it decreases with the initial peak power of the input pulse. This means that the self-phase modulation induced nonlinear frequency chirp which is linear and positive (up-chirp) over a large central region of the pulse and tends to cancel the initial negative chirp of the pulse. It is also shown that, as the negative chirped pulse compresses temporally, it synchronously experiences a spectral narrowing

  16. Study of polysilane mainchain electronic structure by picosecond pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habara, H.; Saeki, A.; Kunimi, Y.; Seki, S.; Kozawa, T.; Yoshida, Y.; Tagawa, S.

    2000-01-01

    The electronic structure of a charged polysilane molecle is studied. The transient absorption spectroscopy was carried out for charged radicals of poly (methylphenylsilane): PMPS by pico-second and nanosecond pulse radiolysis technique. It was observed that the peak of the transient absorption spectra shifted to longer wavelength region within a few nsec, and an increase was observed in the optical density at 370 nm, which had been already assigned to the radical anions of PMPS. It is ascribed to inter-segment electron transfer (intra-molecular transfer) through polymer chain. The nanosecond pulse radiolysis experiments gave similar kinetic traces in near-UV and IR region. This suggests the presence of an interband level, that is, a polaron level occupied by an excess electron or a hole. (author)

  17. Pico-second laser spectroscopy and reaction dynamics in liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mialocq, Jean-Claude

    1984-01-01

    The dynamic relaxation of excited singlet states of molecules and ions in liquid solution is investigated using picosecond laser spectroscopy. The more efficient process for the deactivation of the first excited singlet state of pinacyanol is internal conversion S 1 → S 0 between iso-energetic states. At low viscosity, the rate constant is inversely proportional to the macroscopic viscosity and depends on the relaxation of the angle between the quinoline end groups around the polymethinic chain. Electron photodetachment by 265 nm excitation of the ferrocyanide and phenolate anions and photoionisation of neutral molecules, phenol, indole and tryptophan in polar solvents give rise to the solvated electron formation. The mono-or bi-photonic nature of the ejection process and the solvent relaxation around the excess electron are analyzed. (author) [fr

  18. Picosecond Fluorescence Dynamics of Tryptophan and 5-Fluorotryptophan in Monellin : Slow Water-Protein Relaxation Unmasked

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Jianhua; Chen, Binbin; Callis, Patrik Robert; Muiño, Pedro L; Rozeboom, Henriette J; Broos, Jaap; Toptygin, Dmitri; Brand, Ludwig; Knutson, Jay R

    2015-01-01

    Time Dependent Fluorescence Stokes (emission wavelength) Shifts (TDFSS) from tryptophan (Trp) following sub-picosecond excitation are increasingly used to investigate protein dynamics, most recently enabling active research interest into water dynamics near the surface of proteins. Unlike many

  19. Picosecond x-ray measurements from 100 eV to 30 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attwood, D.T.; Kauffman, R.L.; Stradling, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    Picosecond x-ray measurements relevant to the Livermore Laser Fusion Program are reviewed. Resolved to 15 picoseconds, streak camera detection capabilities extend from 100 eV to higher than 30 keV, with synchronous capabilities in the visible, near infrared, and ultraviolet. Capabilities include automated data retrieval using charge coupled devices (CCD's), absolute x-ray intensity levels, novel cathodes, x-ray mirror/reflector combinations, and a variety of x-ray imaging devices

  20. Safety and efficacy of a novel diffractive lens array using a picosecond 755?nm alexandrite laser for treatment of wrinkles

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Robert A.; McDaniel, David H.; Weiss, Margaret A.; Mahoney, Anne Marie; Beasley, Karen L.; Halvorson, Christian R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Picosecond lasers have been reported to be effective for removal of tattoo pigment. This prospective study evaluated the efficacy and safety of the treatment of peri?oral and ?ocular wrinkles using a novel diffractive lens array coupled with a picosecond 755?nm alexandrite laser. Methods Forty female subjects presenting with wrinkles from photodamage were enrolled in an IRB approved study. Subjects received four picosecond diffractive lens array treatments to the full face at 1 m...

  1. Picosecond laser damage of fused silica at 355 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Xiangjie; Liu Hongjie; Wang Fang; Zhang Zhen; An Xinyou; Huang Jin; Jiang Xiaodong; Wu Weidong; Ren Weiyi

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the initiated damage threshold, the damage morphology and the subsequent damage growth on fused silica's input-surface and exit-surface under picosecond laser irradiation at 355 nm. Defects induced fluorescence on surface of the optical component is observed. The results demonstrate a significant dependence of the initiated damage on pulse duration and surface defects, and that of the damage growth on self-focusing, sub-surface defects. The damage-threshold is 3.98 J/cm 2 of input surface and 2.91 J/cm 2 of exit surface. The damage morphologies are quite different between input surface and exit surface. Slow growth behavior appears for the diameter of exit-surface and linear growth one for the depth of exit-surface in the lateral side of damage site with the increase of shot number. Defects have changed obviously compared with nanosecond laser damage in the damage area. Several main reasons such as electric intensification and self-focusing for the observed initiated damage and damage growth behavior are discussed. (authors)

  2. Simple method for generating adjustable trains of picosecond electron bunches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Muggli

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A simple, passive method for producing an adjustable train of picosecond electron bunches is demonstrated. The key component of this method is an electron beam mask consisting of an array of parallel wires that selectively spoils the beam emittance. This mask is positioned in a high magnetic dispersion, low beta-function region of the beam line. The incoming electron beam striking the mask has a time/energy correlation that corresponds to a time/position correlation at the mask location. The mask pattern is transformed into a time pattern or train of bunches when the dispersion is brought back to zero downstream of the mask. Results are presented of a proof-of-principle experiment demonstrating this novel technique that was performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility. This technique allows for easy tailoring of the bunch train for a particular application, including varying the bunch width and spacing, and enabling the generation of a trailing witness bunch.

  3. Emerging terawatt picosecond CO{sub 2} laser technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogorelsky, I V [Accelerator Test Facility, Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The first terawatt picosecond (TWps) CO{sub 2} laser is under construction at the BNL Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). TWps-CO{sub 2} lasers, having an order of magnitude longer wavelength than the well-known table-top terawatt solid state lasers, offer new opportunities for strong-field physics research. For laser wakefield accelerators (LWFA) the advantage of the new class of lasers is due to a gain of two orders of magnitude in the ponderomotive potential. The large average power of CO{sub 2} lasers is important for the generation of hard radiation through Compton back-scattering of the laser off energetic electron beams. We discuss applications of TWps-CO{sub 2} lasers for LWFA modules of a tentative electron-positron collider, for {gamma}-{gamma} (or {gamma}-lepton) colliders, for a possible `table-top` source of high-intensity x-rays and gamma rays, and the generation of polarized positron beams. (author)

  4. Lifetime measurements in the picosecond range: Achievements and Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruecken, Reiner

    1999-01-01

    This contribution will review the recoil distance method (RDM), its current range of applications as well as future perspectives for the measurement of lifetimes in the picosecond range of excited nuclear levels. Recent Doppler-shift lifetime experiments with large gamma-ray spectrometers have achieved a new level of precision and sensitivity, providing new insights into nuclear structure physics. High precision RDM measurements of near-yrast states in various mass regions have revealed dynamic shape effects beyond the framework of collective models and have also allowed to study the interaction between coexisting shapes. The measurement of lifetimes in superdeformed bands has shown that lifetimes can be measured for nuclear excitations, which are only populated with a few percent of the production cross-section of a nucleus. These experiments have also enabled us to study the mechanism of the decay-out of superdeformed bands. Another example for the need of precise lifetime measurements is the recent verifications of the concept of 'magnetic rotation' in nuclei by the experimental observation of the characteristic drop of B(M1) values as a function of angular momentum. These recent breakthroughs have also opened new perspectives for the use of the RDM technique for more exotic regions of nuclei and nuclear excitations. Here the measurement of lifetimes in neutron rich nuclei, which are not accessible with conventional nuclear reactions using stable beams and targets, is of special interest. Possible experimental approaches and simple estimates for the feasibility of such experiments will be presented. (author)

  5. Photonic-band-gap gyrotron amplifier with picosecond pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanni, Emilio A.; Jawla, Sudheer; Lewis, Samantha M.; Shapiro, Michael A.; Temkin, Richard J.

    2017-12-01

    We report the amplification of 250 GHz pulses as short as 260 ps without observation of pulse broadening using a photonic-band-gap circuit gyrotron traveling-wave-amplifier. The gyrotron amplifier operates with a device gain of 38 dB and an instantaneous bandwidth of 8 GHz. The operational bandwidth of the amplifier can be tuned over 16 GHz by adjusting the operating voltage of the electron beam and the magnetic field. The amplifier uses a 30 cm long photonic-band-gap interaction circuit to confine the desired TE03-like operating mode while suppressing lower order modes which can result in undesired oscillations. The circuit gain is >55 dB for a beam voltage of 23 kV and a current of 700 mA. These results demonstrate the wide bandwidths and a high gain achievable with gyrotron amplifiers. The amplification of picosecond pulses of variable lengths, 260-800 ps, shows good agreement with the theory using the coupled dispersion relation and the gain-spectrum of the amplifier as measured with quasi-CW input pulses.

  6. Sub-picosecond Resolution Time-to-Digital Converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratov, Vladimir [Advanced Science and Novel Technology Company, Rancho Palos Verdes, CA (United States); Katzman, Vladimir [Advanced Science and Novel Technology Company, Rancho Palos Verdes, CA (United States); Binkley, Jeb [Advanced Science and Novel Technology Company, Rancho Palos Verdes, CA (United States)

    2006-03-30

    Time-to-digital converters with sub-picosecond resolutions are needed to satisfy the requirements of time-on-flight measurements of the next generation of high energy and nuclear physics experiments. The converters must be highly integrated, power effective, low cost, and feature plug-and-play capabilities to handle the increasing number of channels (up to hundreds of millions) in future Department of Energy experiments. Current state-off-the-art time-to-digital converter integrated circuits do not have the sufficient degree of integration and flexibility to fulfill all the described requirements. During Phase I, the Advanced Science and Novel Technology Company in cooperation with the nuclear physics division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed the architecture of a novel time-to-digital converter with multiple channels connected to an external processor through a special interfacing block and synchronized by clock signals generated by an internal phase-locked loop. The critical blocks of the system including signal delay lines and delay-locked loops with proprietary differential delay cells, as well as the required digital code converter and the clock period counter have been designed and simulated using the advanced SiGe120 BiCMOS technological process. The results of investigations demonstrate a possibility to achieve the digitization accuracy within 1ps. ADSANTEC has demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed concept in computer simulations. The proposed system will be a critical component for the next generation of NEP experiments.

  7. Picosecond and subpicosecond pulsed laser deposition of Pb thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gontad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pb thin films were deposited on Nb substrates by means of pulsed laser deposition (PLD with UV radiation (248 nm, in two different ablation regimes: picosecond (5 ps and subpicosecond (0.5 ps. Granular films with grain size on the micron scale have been obtained, with no evidence of large droplet formation. All films presented a polycrystalline character with preferential orientation along the (111 crystalline planes. A maximum quantum efficiency (QE of 7.3×10^{-5} (at 266 nm and 7 ns pulse duration was measured, after laser cleaning, demonstrating good photoemission performance for Pb thin films deposited by ultrashort PLD. Moreover, Pb thin film photocathodes have maintained their QE for days, providing excellent chemical stability and durability. These results suggest that Pb thin films deposited on Nb by ultrashort PLD are a noteworthy alternative for the fabrication of photocathodes for superconductive radio-frequency electron guns. Finally, a comparison with the characteristics of Pb films prepared by ns PLD is illustrated and discussed.

  8. Shaping of picosecond pulses for pumping optical parametric amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueloep, J.A.; Krausz, F.; Major, Zs.; Horvath, B.

    2006-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. The use of temporally shaped pump pulses for optical parametric amplification (OPA) is expected to facilitate an increase of efficiency and suppression of possible spectral distortions in this process, since the gain sensitively depends on the pump intensity. Our simulations confirmed such beneficial effect of temporally shaped pump pulses on the OPA process. With the aim to realize an optimized OPA stage pumped by shaped pulses, a novel method for passively shaping narrow band picosecond pulses has been developed. The method is based on the pulse-stacking principle, where replicas of the incoming pulse are created in a specially designed four-beam interferometer. The replicas are recombined with appropriate delays. The interferometer design allows for a unique flexibility in varying the pulse shape, since all relevant degrees of freedom, such as relative intensities and delays between the pulse replicas are independently adjustable. According to our calculations a pulse with a flat-top time profile would provide optimal conditions in the OPA process. Usually the pump pulse needs to be amplified in a conventional laser amplifier prior to the OPA. Our cross-correlation measurements showed that we are able to obtain shaped amplified pulses by shaping the amplifier input. Furthermore, by precompensating the distortions introduced by the amplifier we demonstrated our capability to produce amplified pulses with a flat-top time profile.

  9. Picosecond streak camera diagnostics of CO2 laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaanimagi, P.A.; Marjoribanks, R.S.; Sancton, R.W.; Enright, G.D.; Richardson, M.C.

    1979-01-01

    The interaction of intense laser radiation with solid targets is currently of considerable interest in laser fusion studies. Its understanding requires temporal knowledge of both laser and plasma parameters on a picosecond time scale. In this paper we describe the progress we have recently made in analysing, with picosecond time resolution, various features of intense nanosecond CO 2 laser pulse interaction experiments. An infrared upconversion scheme, having linear response and <20 ps temporal resolution, has been utilized to characterise the 10 μm laser pulse. Various features of the interaction have been studied with the aid of picosecond IR and x-ray streak cameras. These include the temporal and spatial characteristics of high harmonic emission from the plasma, and the temporal development of the x-ray continuum spectrum. (author)

  10. A picosecond widely tunable deep-ultraviolet laser for angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Feng-Feng; Yang Feng; Zhang Shen-Jin; Xu Zhi; Wang Zhi-Min; Xu Feng-Liang; Peng Qin-Jun; Zhang Jing-Yuan; Xu Zu-Yan; Wang Xiao-Yang; Chen Chuang-Tian

    2013-01-01

    We develop a picosecond widely tunable laser in a deep-ultraviolet region from 175 nm to 210 nm, generated by two stages of frequency doubling of a 80-MHz mode-locked picosecond Ti:sapphire laser. A β-BaB 2 O 4 walk-off compensation configuration and a KBe 2 BO 3 F 2 prism-coupled device are adopted for the generation of second harmonic and fourth harmonics, respectively. The highest power is 3.72 mW at 193 nm, and the fluctuation at 2.85 mW in 130 min is less than ±2%

  11. Elemental fractionation in 785 nm picosecond and femtosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaheen, M.E., E-mail: mshaheen73@science.tanta.edu.eg [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Tanta University, Tanta (Egypt); Gagnon, J.E.; Fryer, B.J. [Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research (GLIER), University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada); Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada)

    2015-05-01

    Elemental fractionation and ICP-MS signal response were investigated for two different pulse width laser beams originating from the same laser system. Femtosecond and picosecond laser beams at pulse widths of 130 fs and 110 ps, respectively, and wavelength of 785 nm were used to ablate NIST 610 synthetic glass and SRM 1107 Naval Brass B at the same spot for 800 to 1000 laser pulses at different repetition rates (5 to 50 Hz). Elemental fractionation was found to depend on repetition rate and showed a trend with femtosecond laser ablation that is opposite to that observed in picosecond laser ablation for most measured isotopes. ICP-MS signal intensity was higher in femtosecond than picosecond LA-ICP-MS in both NIST 610 and naval brass when ablation was conducted under the same fluence and repetition rate. The differences in signal intensity were partly related to differences in particle size distribution between particles generated by femtosecond and picosecond laser pulses and the consequent differences in transport and ionization efficiencies. The main reason for the higher signal intensity resulting from femtosecond laser pulses was related to the larger crater sizes compared to those created during picosecond laser ablation. Elemental ratios measured using {sup 66}Zn/{sup 63}Cu, {sup 208}Pb/{sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th/{sup 238}U, {sup 66}Zn/{sup 232}Th and {sup 66}Zn/{sup 208}Pb were found to change with the number of laser pulses with data points being more scattered in picosecond than femtosecond laser pulses. Reproducibility of replicate measurements of signal intensities, fractionation and elemental ratios was better for fs-LA-ICP-MS (RSD ~ 3 to 6%) than ps-LA-ICP-MS (RSD ~ 7 to 11%). - Highlights: • Fractionation and ICP-MS signal response were investigated for two different pulse widths using NIST 610 and Naval Brass. • Dependence of fractionation indices on repetition rate and pulse width. • Higher ablation rate was observed in picosecond compared to

  12. Picosecond energy relaxation in La0.67Ca0.33MnO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorosinets, Vladimir; Richter, Pablo; Mohler, Ernst; Roskos, Hartmut G.; Jakob, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    Investigating the reflectance response dynamics of La 0.67 Ca 0.33 MnO 3 thin films after excitation by femtosecond laser pulses, we identify for the first time a picosecond relaxation step which only exists below the Curie temperature T C . The relaxation time increases from zero at T C to several picoseconds at low temperatures. The data can be explained with the existence of a magnetization-related effective energy gap, and assuming relaxation between these states to be mediated by a Frohlich-type electron-lattice interaction

  13. Time-resolved study of formate on Ni( 1 1 1 ) by picosecond SFG spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusafuka, K.; Noguchi, H.; Onda, K.; Kubota, J.; Domen, K.; Hirose, C.; Wada, A.

    2002-04-01

    Time-resolved vibrational measurements were carried out on formate (HCOO) adsorbed on Ni(1 1 1) surface by combining the sum-frequency generation method and picosecond laser system (time resolution of 6 ps). Rapid intensity decrease (within the time resolution) followed by intensity recovery (time constant of several tens of ps) of CH stretching signal was observed when picosecond 800 nm pulse was irradiated on the sample surface. From the results of temperature and pump fluence dependences of temporal behaviour of signal intensity, we concluded that the observed intensity change was induced by non-thermal process. Mechanism of the temporal intensity change was discussed.

  14. Spatial dynamics of picosecond CO2 laser pulses produced by optical switching in Ge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I.; Fisher, A.S.; Veligdan, J.; Russell, P.

    1991-01-01

    The design, test and optimization of a picosecond CO 2 pulse-forming system are presented. The system switches a semiconductor's optical characteristics at 10 μm under the control of a synchronized 1.06-μm Nd:YAG picosecond laser pulse. An energy-efficient version of such a system using collimated beams is described. A simple, semi-empirical approach is used to simulate the switching process, specifically including the spatial distributions of the laser energy and phase, which are relevant for experiments in laser-driven electron acceleration. 11 refs., 7 figs

  15. Elemental fractionation in 785 nm picosecond and femtosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, M.E.; Gagnon, J.E.; Fryer, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Elemental fractionation and ICP-MS signal response were investigated for two different pulse width laser beams originating from the same laser system. Femtosecond and picosecond laser beams at pulse widths of 130 fs and 110 ps, respectively, and wavelength of 785 nm were used to ablate NIST 610 synthetic glass and SRM 1107 Naval Brass B at the same spot for 800 to 1000 laser pulses at different repetition rates (5 to 50 Hz). Elemental fractionation was found to depend on repetition rate and showed a trend with femtosecond laser ablation that is opposite to that observed in picosecond laser ablation for most measured isotopes. ICP-MS signal intensity was higher in femtosecond than picosecond LA-ICP-MS in both NIST 610 and naval brass when ablation was conducted under the same fluence and repetition rate. The differences in signal intensity were partly related to differences in particle size distribution between particles generated by femtosecond and picosecond laser pulses and the consequent differences in transport and ionization efficiencies. The main reason for the higher signal intensity resulting from femtosecond laser pulses was related to the larger crater sizes compared to those created during picosecond laser ablation. Elemental ratios measured using 66 Zn/ 63 Cu, 208 Pb/ 238 U, 232 Th/ 238 U, 66 Zn/ 232 Th and 66 Zn/ 208 Pb were found to change with the number of laser pulses with data points being more scattered in picosecond than femtosecond laser pulses. Reproducibility of replicate measurements of signal intensities, fractionation and elemental ratios was better for fs-LA-ICP-MS (RSD ~ 3 to 6%) than ps-LA-ICP-MS (RSD ~ 7 to 11%). - Highlights: • Fractionation and ICP-MS signal response were investigated for two different pulse widths using NIST 610 and Naval Brass. • Dependence of fractionation indices on repetition rate and pulse width. • Higher ablation rate was observed in picosecond compared to femtosecond laser ablation of NIST 610 and Brass

  16. Picosecond intersubband hole relaxation in p-type quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Z.; Fauchet, P.M.; Rella, C.W.; Schwettman, H.A.

    1995-01-01

    We report the first direct measurement of the relaxation time of holes in p-type quantum wells using tunable, subpicosecond mid-infrared laser pulses in a pump-probe arrangement. The QW layers consisted of 50 In 0.5 Ga 0.5 As/Al 0.5 Ga 0.5 As periods. The In 0.5 Ga 0.5 As well was 4 nm wide and the Al 0.5 Ga 0.5 As barrier was 8 nm wide. The dopant concentration was 10 19 CM -3 which corresponds to a sheet density of 1.2 x 10 13 CM -2 . The room temperature IR spectrum showed a 50 meV wide absorption peak at 5.25 μm (220 meV). This energy agrees with the calculated n=1 heavy hole to n=1 light hole transition energy of 240 meV (150 meV for strain and 90 meV for confinement). The large absorption width results from hole-hole scattering and the difference in dispersion relations between the two subbands. The equal-wavelength pump-probe transmission measurements were performed using the Stanford free electron laser (FEL). The FEL pulses were tuned between 4 and 6 μ m and their duration was less than 1 ps. The measurements were performed as a function of temperature, pump wavelength and intensity (from 0.3 to 10 GW/cm 2 ). In all our experiments, we find an increase of transmission (decrease of absorption or bleaching) following photopumping, which recovers as a single exponential with a time constant (relaxation time) of the order of 1 picosecond. The maximum change in transmission is linear with pump 2 intensity below 1 GW/cm 2 and saturates to ∼3% with a saturation intensity I sat of 3 GW/cm 2 . As the saturation regime is entered, the relaxation time increases from 0.8 ps to 1.8 ps. This relaxation time depends on the temperature T: it increases from 0.8 ps to 1.3 ps as T decreases from 300 K to 77 K. Finally, when we tune the laser through the absorption band, the magnitude of the signal changes but its temporal behavior does not change, within the accuracy of the measurements

  17. Picosecond rotationally resolved stimulated emission pumping spectroscopy of nitric oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanjaroon, Chakree; Reeve, Scott W.; Ford, Alan; Murry, W. Dean; Lyon, Kevin; Yount, Bret; Britton, Dan; Burns, William A.; Allen, Susan D.; Bruce Johnson, J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Stimulated emission pumping for nitric oxide was studied using picosecond lasers. ► Weak and tightly focused pulses provide sufficient energy for population transfer. ► Selective excitation at the bandhead yields strong fluorescence depletion signals. ► We observe 19% population transfer to v″ = 2 of the X 2 Π 1/2 ground electronic state. - Abstract: Stimulated emission pumping (SEP) experiments were performed on the nitric oxide molecule in a flow cell environment using lasers with pulse widths of 17–25 ps. A lambda excitation scheme, or ‘‘pump–dump” arrangement, was employed with the pump laser tuned to the T 00 vibronic band origin (λ pump =226.35(1)nm) of the A 2 Σ + (v′ = 0, J′) ← X 2 Π 1/2 (v″ = 0, J″) and the dump laser scanned from 246–248 nm within the A 2 Σ + (v′ = 0, J′) → X 2 Π 1/2 (v″ = 2, J″) transition. The rotationally resolved SEP spectra were measured by observing the total fluorescence within the A 2 Σ + (v′ = 0, J′) → X 2 Π 1/2 (v″ = 1, J″) transition between 235 nm and 237.2 nm while scanning the dump laser wavelengths. Multiple rotational states were excited due to the broad laser bandwidth. Measurements showed that the resolved rotational structure depended on the energy and bandwidth of the applied pump and dump laser pulses. Analysis of the observed fluorescence depletion signals yielded an average percent fluorescence depletion of about 19% when λ pump =226.35(1)nm and λ dump =247.91(1)nm. This value reflects the percent transfer of the NO population from the A 2 Σ + (V′ = 0, J′) excited electronic state to the X 2 Π 1/2 (v″ = 2, J″) ground electronic state. The maximum expected depletion is 50% in the limit of dump saturation. Selective excitation of NO at the bandhead provides good spectral discrimination from the background emission and noise and unambiguously confirms the identity of the emitter.

  18. A Study of Picosecond Dehalogenation of Chlorobenzene Anions in Liquids of Positronium Inhibition Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikander, G.; Mogensen, O. E.

    1982-01-01

    on intramolecular electron transfer with subsequent dehalogenation of the molecular anion on a picosecond timescale. The divergence in inhibitor efficiency obtained for the chlorobenzenes when dissolved in aromatic solvents compared to the same solutes when dissolved in a saturated alkane appears most probably...

  19. Quench-free concentration measurements in high-temperature systems by picosecond LIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelter, A.; Rahmann, U.; Brockhinke, A.

    2001-01-01

    In the present work, a picosecond laser is used in conjunction with an intensified streak camera to study energy transfer processes in OH and to obtain quench-free results from the time-resolved spectra. Quantitative concentration profiles for OH and H are presented in a counterflow burner interacting with a vortex

  20. Picosecond dynamics of conformation changes in malachite green dye produced by photoionization of malachite green leucocyanide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremers, D A; Cremers, T L

    1983-01-07

    The appearance of malachite green dye absorption following photoionization of malachite green leucocyanide has been examined using picosecond flash photolysis. The rate of absorption increase depends upon solvent viscosity and exhibits a two-step behavior in viscous glycerol solutions. 21 references, 4 figures.

  1. Measurements of picosecond pulses of a high-current electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheltov, K.A.; Petrenko, A.N.; Turundaevskaya, I.G.; Shalimanov, V.F.

    1997-01-01

    The duration of a picosecond high-current accelerator electron beam pulse duration is measured and its shape is determined using a measuring line, comprising a Faraday cup, a radiofrequency cable of minor length and a wide-band SRG-7 oscillograph. The procedure of data reconstruction according to regularization method is applied to determine the actual shape of the pulse measured

  2. Single pass kernel k-means clustering method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Srinivasa Ramanujan Institute of Technology, Anantapur 515701, India; Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Rajeev Gandhi Memorial College of Engineering and Technology, Nandyal 518501, India; Department of Computer Science and ...

  3. Photocathode guns for single pass X-ray FELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, D.T.

    1997-10-01

    The present state of the art in photoinjector designs will be presented in this review. The authors discuss both proposed and operational photoinjectors with operating frequencies from L-band (1.424 GHz) to X-band (11.424 GHz). Also a novel pulsed DC gun will be presented. All the RF photoinjector discussed here use an emittance compensation scheme to align the different slices of the electron beam to decrease the beams normalized rms emittance

  4. Single pass kernel k-means clustering method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    paper proposes a simple and faster version of the kernel k-means clustering ... It has been considered as an important tool ... On the other hand, kernel-based clustering methods, like kernel k-means clus- ..... able at the UCI machine learning repository (Murphy 1994). ... All the data sets have only numeric valued features.

  5. Single pass kernel k-means clustering method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In unsupervised classification, kernel -means clustering method has been shown to perform better than conventional -means clustering method in ... 518501, India; Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Anantapur College of Engineering, Anantapur 515002, India ...

  6. Single Pass Collider Memo: Gradient Perturbations of the SLC arc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, W.T.; Sands, M.; /SLAC

    2016-12-16

    As the beam passes through the arcs, the gradient it encounters at each magnet differs from the design value. This deviation may be in part random and in part systematic. In this note we make estimates of the effects to be expected from both kinds of errors.

  7. Growth and apoptosis of HeLa cells induced by intense picosecond pulsed electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-yuan HUA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the growth and apoptosis of HeLa cells induced by intense picosecond pulsed electric field(PEF in vitro.Methods HeLa cells cultured in vitro were divided into experimental group and control group(with or without intense picosecond PEF.With constant pulse width,frequency and voltage,the cells in experimental group were divided into 6 sub-groups according to the number of pulse(100,200,500,1000,1500,2000,the growth inhibition of HeLa cells by PEF and the dose-effect relationship were analyzed by MTT.Caspase 3 protein activity was detected in the cells in 500,1000 and 2000 sub-groups.Mitochondrial transmembrane potential was detected by rhodamine 123 staining with the cells in 2000 sub-groups.Results MTT assay demonstrated that intense picosecond PEF significantly inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells in dose-dependent manner.The survival rates of cells declined along with the increase in pulse number,and were 96.23%±0.76%,94.11%±2.42%,90.31%±1.77%,64.59%±1.59%,32.95%±0.73%,23.85%±2.38% and 100%,respectively,in 100,200,500,1000,1500,2000 sub-groups and control group(P < 0.01.The Caspase 3 protein activity was significantly enhanced by intense picosecond PEF,and the absorbancy indexes(A were 0.174±0.012,0.232±0.017,0.365±0.016 and 0.122±0.011,respectively,in 500,1000,2000 sub-groups and control group(P < 0.05.The mitochondrial transmembrane potential of HeLa cells was significantly inhibited by intense picosecond PEF,and the fluorescence intensity in 2000 sub-group(76.66±13.38 was much lower than that in control group(155.81±2.33,P < 0.05.Conclusion Intense picosecond PEF may significantly inhibit the growth of HeLa cells,and induce cell apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway.

  8. Radiation chemistry and advanced polymer materials studied by picosecond pulse radiolysis combined with femtosecond laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, S.; Yoshida, Y.; Miki, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Ushida, K.; Izumi, Y.

    1996-01-01

    We have synchronized a single picosecond MeV electron pulse from L-band linear accelerator (linac) of The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research of Osaka University to a single femtosecond laser pulse of Ti:Sapphire laser. It is an essential technique for the future femtosecond pulse radiolysis and is also applied to many kinds of combined application of more than two different beams from accelerators in very short time range. Radiation chemistry and new type of polymers have been studied by LL (laser-linac) twin picosecond pulse radiolysis. Especially the early events in radiation chemistry such as geminate recombination processes of electrons and radical cations are have been studied in both liquids and solids. (author)

  9. Measurement of Sub-Picosecond Electron Bunches via Electro-Optic Sampling of Coherent Transition Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Timothy John [Northern Illinois U.

    2012-01-01

    Future collider applications as well as present high-gradient laser plasma wakefield accelerators and free-electron lasers operating with picosecond bunch durations place a higher demand on the time resolution of bunch distribution diagnostics. This demand has led to significant advancements in the field of electro-optic sampling over the past ten years. These methods allow the probing of diagnostic light such as coherent transition radiation or the bunch wakefields with sub-picosecond time resolution. We present results on the single-shot electro-optic spectral decoding of coherent transition radiation from bunches generated at the Fermilab A0 photoinjector laboratory. A longitudinal double-pulse modulation of the electron beam is also realized by transverse beam masking followed by a transverse-to-longitudinal phase-space exchange beamline. Live profile tuning is demonstrated by upstream beam focusing in conjunction with downstream monitoring of single-shot electro-optic spectral decoding of the coherent transition radiation.

  10. Tracing temperature in a nanometer size region in a picosecond time period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Kaoru; Kitayama, Takumi; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Matsuda, Makoto; Sataka, Masao; Tsujimoto, Masahiko; Toulemonde, Marcel; Bouffard, Serge; Kimura, Kenji

    2015-08-21

    Irradiation of materials with either swift heavy ions or slow highly charged ions leads to ultrafast heating on a timescale of several picosecond in a region of several nanometer. This ultrafast local heating result in formation of nanostructures, which provide a number of potential applications in nanotechnologies. These nanostructures are believed to be formed when the local temperature rises beyond the melting or boiling point of the material. Conventional techniques, however, are not applicable to measure temperature in such a localized region in a short time period. Here, we propose a novel method for tracing temperature in a nanometer region in a picosecond time period by utilizing desorption of gold nanoparticles around the ion impact position. The feasibility is examined by comparing with the temperature evolution predicted by a theoretical model.

  11. Prediction of picosecond voltage collapse and electromagnetic wave generation in gas avalanche switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayhall, D.J.; Yee, J.H.; Duong-Van, M.; Villa, F.

    1988-01-01

    A picosecond speed switch, the Gas Avalanche Switch (GAS), has been proposed for GeV linear accelerators. The medium is gas at high pressure (100 - 700 atm). An avalanche discharge is induced between pulse-charged high voltage electrodes by electron deposition from a fast laser pulse. Avalanche electrons move to the positive electrode, causing the applied voltage to collapse in picoseconds. A two-dimensional (2D) electromagnetic electron fluid computer code calculates the avalanche evolution and voltage collapse in air for an infinite parallel plate capacitor with a 0.1 mm spacing. Calculations are done for an accelerator switch geometry consisting of a 0.7 mm wide by 0.8 mm high, rectangular, high voltage center electrode (CE) between the grounded plates of a parallel plate line of 2 mm spacing. Several variations of CE elevation and initial electron deposition are investigated The 2D character of the outgoing TEM waves is shown

  12. Coherent Smith-Purcell radiation as a diagnostic for sub-picosecond electron bunch length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    We suggest a novel technique of measuring sub-picosecond electron bunch length base on coherent Smith-Purcell radiation (SPR) emitted when electrons pass close to the surface of a metal grating. With electron bunch lengths comparable to the grating period, we predict that coherent SPR will be emitted at large angles with respect to direction of beam propagation. As the bunch length shortens, the coherent SPR will be enhanced over the incoherent component that is normally observed at small angles. Furthermore, the angular distribution of the coherent SPR will be shifted toward smaller angles as the bunch length becomes much smaller than the grating period. By measuring the angular distribution of the coherent SPR, one can determine the bunch length of sub-picosecond electron pulses. This new technique is easy to implement and appears capable of measuring femtosecond electron bunch lengths

  13. Effect analysis of material properties of picosecond laser ablation for ABS/PVC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Y. H.; Ho, C. Y.; Chiou, Y. J.

    2017-06-01

    This paper analytically investigates the picosecond laser ablation of ABS/PVC. Laser-pulsed ablation is a wellestablished tool for polymer. However the ablation mechanism of laser processing for polymer has not been thoroughly understood yet. This study utilized a thermal transport model to analyze the relationship between the ablation rate and laser fluences. This model considered the energy balance at the decomposition interface and Arrhenius law as the ablation mechanisms. The calculated variation of the ablation rate with the logarithm of the laser fluence agrees with the measured data. It is also validated in this work that the variation of the ablation rate with the logarithm of the laser fluence obeys Beer's law for low laser fluences. The effects of material properties and processing parameters on the ablation depth per pulse are also discussed for picosecond laser processing of ABS/PVC.

  14. Picosecond Water Radiolysis at High Temperature. Br- Oxidation - Experiments and MC-Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldacchino, G.; Saffre, D.; Jeunesse, J.P.; Schmidhammer, U.; Larbre, J.P.; Mostafavi, M.; Beuve, M.; Gervais, B.

    2012-09-01

    Acidic solutions of bromhydric acid have been irradiated by picosecond pulses of 7 MeV-electrons provided by ELYSE accelerator (LCP Orsay). At elevated temperatures up to 350 deg. C, salts like NaBr or KBr usually precipitate and organic compound are decomposed. Another choice of OH-scavenger may be acidic halogenates like HBr or HCl. In this situation, the processes involving H + and Br - must be considerate: while hydrated electrons are scavenged by H + , . OH reacts with Br - . Then the formations of BrOH . and Br 2 .- have been investigated by using a devoted picosecond pump-probe setup. A dedicated small-size high temperature optical flow cell has been developed for fitting the picosecond duration of the electron pulses. This cell replaces the one used also with nanosecond resolution. The picosecond time resolution remains roughly not affected by the material crossed by electrons (0.4 mm of Inconel 718) and by the white light continuum (20 mm of Sapphire windows and 6 mm of liquid solution). Depending on the concentration of HBr, the growing up of the signal can be attributed to mainly BrOH . or Br2 .- . Actually with a relatively low scavenging power ([HBr] = 25 mM), Br 2 .- is formed with a reaction between Br . and Br - which delays of around 4 ns the apparition of Br2 .- . In this particular case we then assume the absorbance is due to BrOH . . With higher and higher temperature, from 100 deg. C to 300 deg. C, the rate constant of this formation is lightly less and less. This observation must be associated to the fact that the formation of BrOH . is actually equilibrium with a lower and lower equilibrium constant value when temperature is increased. This presentation tries to explain this fact in detail by also considering Monte Carlo simulations. This will allows following all transient species from ps to μs. (authors)

  15. Luminescence from ZnSe excited by picosecond mid-infrared FEL pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuyu, T.; Suzuki, T.; Tomimasu, T.

    1998-01-01

    We have observed blue band-edge emission from a ZnSe crystal under irradiation of mid-infrared picosecond free electron laser (FEL) pulses. The emission characteristics including spectrum, excitation power dependence, excitation wavelength dependence, and decay time have been investigated. The experimental results have indicated that it is difficult to understand the excitation process by multiphoton excitation, thermal excitation, or excitation through mid-gap levels. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  16. Mode-Locking in Broad-Area Semiconductor Lasers Enhanced by Picosecond-Pulse Injection

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser, J; Fischer, I; Elsasser, W; Gehrig, E; Hess, O

    2004-01-01

    We present combined experimental and theoretical investigations of the picosecond emission dynamics of broad-area semiconductor lasers (BALs). We enhance the weak longitudinal self-mode-locking that is inherent to BALs by injecting a single optical 50-ps pulse, which triggers the output of a distinct regular train of 13-ps pulses. Modeling based on multimode Maxwell-Bloch equations illustrates how the dynamic interaction of the injected pulse with the internal laser field efficiently couples ...

  17. A five-picosecond electron pulse from ANL (Argonne National Laboratory) L-Band Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, G.L.; Jonah, C.D.; Ficht, D.T.; Mavrogenes, G.S.; Sauer, M.C. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The pulse-compression system of the Argonne National Laboratory Chemistry Division L-Band Linac, presented at the 1986 Linear Accelerator Conference at Stanford, California, has been completed. A five-picosecond-wide electron pulse containing 6 x 10 -9 coulomb charge has been achieved. Acceleration parameters and the pulse-width measurement technique are discussed, and future plans for the utilization of this pulse in radiation chemistry studies are presented. 5 refs., 4 figs

  18. 40 W picosecond fiber amplifier with the large mode-area polarized crystal fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, H; Zhou, J; Wushouer, X; Yan, P; Wang, D; Gong, M

    2009-01-01

    We reported the 5W picosecond laser with pulse width of 30 ps and the repetition rate of 100 MHz, which was amplified to 40.2 W with the linear polarized Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber (PCF), with the slope efficiency of about 58%. As much as 17.3 W second-harmonic power was achieved corresponding to the conversion efficiency of 43%

  19. Picosecond ultrasonics study of the modification of interfacial bonding by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tas, G.; Loomis, J.J.; Maris, H.J.; Bailes, A.A. III; Seiberling, L.E.

    1998-01-01

    We report on experiments in which picosecond ultrasonic techniques are used to investigate the modification of interfacial bonding that results from ion implantation. The bonding is studied through measurements of the acoustic reflection coefficient at the interface. This method is nondestructive and can be used to create a map of the variation of the bonding over the area of the interface. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  20. Observation of asymmetric Stark profiles from plasmas created by a picosecond KrF laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, C.H.; Tighe, W.; Suckewer, S.; Seely, J.F.; Feldman, U.; Woltz, L.A.

    1987-10-01

    High-resolution extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectra from solid targets irradiated by a picosecond KrF* laser focused to 10 16 W/cm 2 have been recorded. The line profiles of transitions in Li-like fluorine and oxygen are asymmetric and up to 2 A in width. Calculations indicate the presence of transitions of the type 2p-3p and other forbidden Stark components. 11 refs., 6 figs

  1. Resonance Raman spectroscopy in the picosecond time scale: the carboxyhemoglobin photointermediate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terner, J.; Spiro, T.G.; Nagumo, M.; Nicol, M.F.; El-Sayed, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    A picosecond resonance Raman detection technique is described. The technique is described as specifically applied to the analysis of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb). Irradiaton of COHb with a tightly focused laser produced three distinct bands between 1540 and 1620cm -1 that are distinct from bands of COHb or deoxyHb, and the bands are attributed to an intermediate in the photolysis of COHb which develops within 30ps of the excitation. Computer subtraction of the COHb spectrum yielded a spectrum of the photointermediate

  2. Applications of picosecond lasers and pulse-bursts in precision manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knappe, Ralf

    2012-03-01

    Just as CW and quasi-CW lasers have revolutionized the materials processing world, picosecond lasers are poised to change the world of micromachining, where lasers outperform mechanical tools due to their flexibility, reliability, reproducibility, ease of programming, and lack of mechanical force or contamination to the part. Picosecond lasers are established as powerful tools for micromachining. Industrial processes like micro drilling, surface structuring and thin film ablation benefit from a process, which provides highest precision and minimal thermal impact for all materials. Applications such as microelectronics, semiconductor, and photovoltaic industries use picosecond lasers for maximum quality, flexibility, and cost efficiency. The range of parts, manufactured with ps lasers spans from microscopic diamond tools over large printing cylinders with square feet of structured surface. Cutting glass for display and PV is a large application, as well. With a smart distribution of energy into groups of ps-pulses at ns-scale separation (known as burst mode) ablation rates can be increased by one order of magnitude or more for some materials, also providing a better surface quality under certain conditions. The paper reports on the latest results of the laser technology, scaling of ablation rates, and various applications in ps-laser micromachining.

  3. Development of a picosecond time-of-flight system in the ATLAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabas, Herve

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, we present a study of the sensitivity to Beyond Standard Model physics brought by the design and installation of picosecond time-of-flight detectors in the forward region of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The first part of the thesis present a study of the sensitivity to the quartic gauge anomalous coupling between the photon and the W boson, using exclusive WW pair production in ATLAS. The event selection is built considering the semi-leptonic decay of WW pair and the presence of the AFP detector in ATLAS. The second part gives a description of large area picosecond photo-detectors design and time reconstruction algorithms with a special care given to signal sampling and processing for precision timing. The third part presents the design of SamPic: a custom picosecond readout integrated circuit. At the end, its first results are reported, and in particular a world-class 5 ps timing precision in measuring the delay between two fast pulses. (author) [fr

  4. Multiphoton ionization of (Xe)n and (NO)n clusters using a picosecond laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.B.; Miller, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Mass-resolved multiphoton ionization (MPI) spectroscopy is an established technique for detecting and analyzing van der Waals molecules and larger clusters. MPI spectroscopy provides excellent detection sensitivity, moderately high resolution, and selectivity among cluster species. In addition to information provided by the analysis of photoions following MPI, photoelectron spectroscopy can reveal details regarding the structure of ionic states. Unfortunately, the technique is limited by its tendency to produce extensive fragmentation. Fragmentation is also a problem with other ionization techniques (e.g., electron impact ionization), but the intense laser beams required for MPI cause additional dissociation channels to become available. These channels include absorption of additional photons by parent ions (ion ladder mechanism), absorption of additional photons by fragment ions (ladder switching mechanism), and resonances with dissociative states in the neutral manifold. The existence of these dissociation channels can preclude the use of MPI spectroscopy in many situations. Recently, MPI studies of stable molecules using picosecond lasers (pulse length = 1 - 10 ps) have indicated that limitations due to fragmentation might be subdued. With picosecond lasers, dissociation mechanisms can be altered and in some cases fragmentation can be eliminated or reduced. Additional photon absorption competes effectively with dissociation channels when a very short laser pulse or, perhaps more importantly, a sufficiently high peak-power is used. In the case where ionic absorption and fragmentation occurs, it has been shown that picosecond MPI might favor the ion ladder mechanism rather than the ladder switching mechanism

  5. Prediction of electromagnetic pulse generation by picosecond avalanches in high-pressure air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayhall, D.J.; Yee, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    The gas avalanche switch is a laser-activated, high-voltage switch, consisting of a set of pulse-charged electrodes in a high-pressure gas. Induced electrons from a picosecond-scale laser pulse initiate an avalanche discharge between high-voltage and grounded electrodes. If the voltage, pressure, and dimensions are correct, the rapid avalanche, fueled by the immense number of electrons available in the gas, collapses the applied voltage in picoseconds and generates electromagnetic pulses with widths as short as 1-10 ps and 3 dB bandwidths of 20-120 GHz. With proper voltage or pressure detuning, wider pulses and lower bandwidths occur. In addition to picosecond electromagnetic pulse generation, application of this switch should result in ultra-fast Marx bank pulsers. A number of versions of the switch are possible. The simplest is a parallel plate capacitor, consisting of a gas between two parallel plate conductors. High voltage is applied across the two plates. A parallel plate, Blumlein geometry features a center electrode between two grounded parallel plates. This geometry emits a single pulse in each direction along the parallel plates. A frozen wave geometry with multiple, oppositely charged center electrodes will emit AC pulses. Series switches consisting of gas gaps between two electrodes are also possible

  6. Laser Treatment of Professional Tattoos With a 1064/532-nm Dual-Wavelength Picosecond Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauvar, Arielle N B; Keaney, Terrence C; Alster, Tina

    2017-12-01

    Picosecond-domain laser pulses improve the photomechanical disruption of tattoos. This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of a novel, dual-wavelength, 1,064/532-nm, picosecond-domain laser for tattoo clearance. This was a prospective, self-controlled, clinical study of 34 subjects with 39 tattoos treated at 2 sites with an interval of 4.8 ± 1.6 weeks and up to 10 treatments (mean, 7.5). Blinded evaluation and investigator assessment of serial digital images was performed to evaluate treatment efficacy in the 36 tattoos that received at least 3 treatments. Investigators also assessed efficacy before each treatment visit up to 10 treatments. Safety and tolerability was evaluated for all 39 tattoos that underwent at least 1 treatment. Blinded evaluation demonstrated that lightening of tattoos was achieved in all subjects, with 86% (31 of 36 tattoos) showing at least a 50% clearance after 3 treatments. Adverse events were few and transient in nature. Patient satisfaction and treatment tolerability were high. Treatment of single-colored and multicolored tattoos with this novel 1,064/532-nm picosecond laser is highly safe and effective.

  7. Porous nanostructured ZnO films deposited by picosecond laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sima, Cornelia; Grigoriu, Constantin; Besleaga, Cristina; Mitran, Tudor; Ion, Lucian; Antohe, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We deposite porous nanostructured ZnO films by picoseconds laser ablation (PLA). ► We examine changes of the films structure on the experimental parameter deposition. ► We demonstrate PLA capability to produce ZnO nanostructured films free of particulates. - Abstract: Porous nanostructured polycrystalline ZnO films, free of large particulates, were deposited by picosecond laser ablation. Using a Zn target, zinc oxide films were deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates using a picosecond Nd:YVO 4 laser (8 ps, 50 kHz, 532 nm, 0.17 J/cm 2 ) in an oxygen atmosphere at room temperature (RT). The morpho-structural characteristics of ZnO films deposited at different oxygen pressures (150–900 mTorr) and gas flow rates (0.25 and 10 sccm) were studied. The post-deposition influence of annealing (250–550 °C) in oxygen on the film characteristics was also investigated. At RT, a mixture of Zn and ZnO formed. At substrate temperatures above 350 °C, the films were completely oxidized, containing a ZnO wurtzite phase with crystallite sizes of 12.2–40.1 nm. At pressures of up to 450 mTorr, the porous films consisted of well-distinguished primary nanoparticles with average sizes of 45–58 nm, while at higher pressures, larger clusters (3.1–14.7 μm) were dominant, leading to thicker films; higher flow rates favored clustering.

  8. Proton Radiography of Laser-Plasma Interactions with Picosecond Time Resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackinnon, A J; Patel, P K; Town, R J; Hatchett, S P; Hicks, D; Phillips, T H; Wilks, S C; Price, D; Key, M H; Lasinski, B; Langdon, B; Borghesi, M; Romagnani, L; Kar, S

    2005-01-01

    Radiography of laser-produced plasmas with MeV protons has the potential to provide new information on plasma conditions in extreme states of matter. Protons with energies up to many hundreds MeV, produced by large scale accelerators have been recently been used to obtain mass density radiographs of the behavior of large samples which have been shocked on microsecond timescales with approximately mm spatial resolution. The recent discovery of laminar proton beams accelerated to multi-MeV energies by picosecond duration laser beams has provided the opportunity to probe dense plasmas with hitherto unparalleled temporal and spatial resolution

  9. Relativistic Channeling of a Picosecond Laser Pulse in a Near-Critical Preformed Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghesi, M.; MacKinnon, A.J.; Barringer, L.; Gaillard, R.; Gizzi, L.; Meyer, C.; Willi, O.; Pukhov, A.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.

    1997-01-01

    Relativistic self-channeling of a picosecond laser pulse in a preformed plasma near critical density has been observed both experimentally and in 3D particle-in-cell simulations. Optical probing measurements indicate the formation of a single pulsating propagation channel, typically of about 5μm in diameter. The computational results reveal the importance in the channel formation of relativistic electrons traveling with the light pulse and of the corresponding self-generated magnetic field. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  10. Si nanostructures grown by picosecond high repetition rate pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervolaraki, M.; Komninou, Ph.; Kioseoglou, J.; Athanasopoulos, G.I.; Giapintzakis, J.

    2013-01-01

    One-step growth of n-doped Si nanostructures by picosecond ultra fast pulsed laser deposition at 1064 nm is reported for the first time. The structure and morphology of the Si nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Transmission electron microscopy studies revealed that the shape of the Si nanostructures depends on the ambient argon pressure. Fibrous networks, cauliflower formations and Si rectangular crystals grew when argon pressure of 300 Pa, 30 Pa and vacuum (10 −3 Pa) conditions were used, respectively. In addition, the electrical resistance of the vacuum made material was investigated

  11. Picosecond trigger system useful in mode-locked laser pulse measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunin, B.; Miehe, J.A.; Sipp, B.; Thebault, J.

    1976-01-01

    A highly sensitive tunnel diode trigger useful in temporal intensity build-up measurements of mode-locked lasers has been developed; the device reduces notably the time walk due to the lack of repeatability in intensity of the laser output. The performance of the trigger have been established by means of a GHz wideband-0.1V/cm sensitive real-time oscilloscope and of an image converter camera having a picosecond resolution: the experimental results show that a variation of the amplitude of the laser pulse train of a factor 5 leads to a time jitter of less than 30 ps (Auth.)

  12. Anomalous intensities of Ne-like ion resonance line in plasma produced by picosecond laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryunetkin, B.A.; Skobelev, I.Yu.; Faenov, A.Ya.; Kalashnikov, M.P.; Nikles, P.; Shnyupep, M.

    1995-01-01

    An anomalous structure of intensities of spectral lines of CuXX and GeXXX Ne-like ions emitted by plasma produced by laser pulses of picosecond duration and up to 2x10 18 W/cm 2 flux density is recorded for the first time. It is shown that spectrum maximum of these ions is emitted from a plasma region whose density is significantly above the critical value of the length of heating laser radiation wave. 9 refs.; 3 figs

  13. Dynamical test of Davydov-type solitons in acetanilide using a picosecond free-electron laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fann, Wunshain; Rothberg, Lewis; Roberson, Mark; Benson, Steve; Madey, John; Etemad, Shahab; Austin, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Picosecond infrared excitation experiments on acetanilide, an α-helix protein analog, indicate that the anomalous 1650-cm-1 band which appears on cooling of acetanilide crystals persists for at least several microseconds following rapid pulsed heating. The ground-state recovery time is 15+/-5 psec, consistent with a conventional mode strongly coupled to the phonon bath. We therefore suggest that the unusual temperature-dependent spectroscopy of acetanilide can be accounted for by slightly nondegenerate hydrogen atom configurations in the crystal.

  14. Multiphoton interactions in molecules with picosecond laser pulses. Progress report, July 15, 1985-July 14, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, H.S.

    1986-01-01

    The phenomena of superexcitation is discussed for C 2 F 5 Cl. This phenomena, which was first observed for SF 6 , is the excitation of very high levels of molecules by ultrashort pulses. For the same fluence, picosecond pulses were found to deposit more energy into the molecule than longer duration pulses. A second experimental result is discussed. The effect of collisions and pulse duration on the absorption spectrum of C 3 F 7 I. In this experiment it is observed that the linewidth decreases with pulse length. A red shift is observed with increased pressure. 2 refs., 2 figs

  15. A non-linear optical ''photograph'' of picosecond pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhorukova, A.K.; Sukhorukov, A.P.; Telegin, L.S.; Yankina, I.B.

    1981-01-01

    Results are given of experimental and theoretical studies on the conversion of the temporary structure of picosecond pulses into a spatial diagram with noncollinated lasing of the sum frequency. Correlations are found for the crystal parameters, the pumping emission and the interaction geometry, which are needed in measuring durations in a range from 10 /sup -10/ all the way up to 10 /sup -13/ seconds. The proposed optical recording circuit in the relatively simple experiment makes it possible to measure the duration of the super short pulses of weak signals.

  16. Photoemission in nanosecond and picosecond regimes obtained from macro and micro cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussoukaya, M.; Bergeret, H.; Chehab, R.; Leblond, B.; Franco, M.

    1987-03-01

    For Lasertron studies at LAL, results obtained from tests on different photocathodes are given below. Using respectively two Nd: YAG lasers (a nanosecond one and a picosecond one) we have determined the level and the intensity of pulsed photoemission and the photoelectric yield in UV, green and infrared lights. We obtained a total current of more than 1 A with nanosecond width from a single W needle, and photoconversion yield of more than 1 was reached in green and UV lights. In classical pulsed photoemission, obtained photoconversion yield from LaB 6 photocathode was of about 10 -3 in higher fields

  17. Si nanostructures grown by picosecond high repetition rate pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pervolaraki, M., E-mail: pervolaraki@ucy.ac.cy [Nanotechnology Research Center and Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Cyprus, 75 Kallipoleos Av., PO Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Komninou, Ph.; Kioseoglou, J. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Athanasopoulos, G.I. [Nanotechnology Research Center and Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Cyprus, 75 Kallipoleos Av., PO Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Giapintzakis, J., E-mail: giapintz@ucy.ac.cy [Nanotechnology Research Center and Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Cyprus, 75 Kallipoleos Av., PO Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2013-08-01

    One-step growth of n-doped Si nanostructures by picosecond ultra fast pulsed laser deposition at 1064 nm is reported for the first time. The structure and morphology of the Si nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Transmission electron microscopy studies revealed that the shape of the Si nanostructures depends on the ambient argon pressure. Fibrous networks, cauliflower formations and Si rectangular crystals grew when argon pressure of 300 Pa, 30 Pa and vacuum (10{sup −3} Pa) conditions were used, respectively. In addition, the electrical resistance of the vacuum made material was investigated.

  18. Unfolding of Ubiquitin Studied by Picosecond Time-Resolved Fluorescence of the Tyrosine Residue

    OpenAIRE

    Noronha, Melinda; Lima, João C.; Bastos, Margarida; Santos, Helena; Maçanita, António L.

    2004-01-01

    The photophysics of the single tyrosine in bovine ubiquitin (UBQ) was studied by picosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, as a function of pH and along thermal and chemical unfolding, with the following results: First, at room temperature (25°C) and below pH 1.5, native UBQ shows single-exponential decays. From pH 2 to 7, triple-exponential decays were observed and the three decay times were attributed to the presence of tyrosine, a tyrosine-carboxylate hydrogen-bonded complex, and...

  19. Two-color pump-probe laser spectroscopy instrument with picosecond time-resolved electronic delay and extended scan range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Anchi; Ye, Xiong; Ionascu, Dan; Cao, Wenxiang; Champion, Paul M.

    2005-11-01

    An electronically delayed two-color pump-probe instrument was developed using two synchronized laser systems. The instrument has picosecond time resolution and can perform scans over hundreds of nanoseconds without the beam divergence and walk-off effects that occur using standard spatial delay systems. A unique picosecond Ti :sapphire regenerative amplifier was also constructed without the need for pulse stretching and compressing optics. The picosecond regenerative amplifier has a broad wavelength tuning range, which suggests that it will make a significant contribution to two-color pump-probe experiments. To test this instrument we studied the rotational correlation relaxation of myoglobin (τr=8.2±0.5ns) in water as well as the geminate rebinding kinetics of oxygen to myoglobin (kg1=1.7×1011s-1, kg2=3.4×107s-1). The results are consistent with, and improve upon, previous studies.

  20. Multiphoton ionization of (Xe)/sub n/ and (NO)/sub n/ clusters using a picosecond laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.B.; Miller, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    In an effort to extend the application of multiphoton ionization (MPI) spectroscopy to the study of weakly bound systems, we have begun a systematic investigation of picosecond MPI in van der Waals molecules and clusters. To our knowledge no previous picosecond MPI studies of weakly bound systems have been reported. We present here results of picosecond MPI of Xe/sub n/(n = 1-20) and (NO)/sub n/(n = 1-4) clusters. Previous MPI studies using nanosecond lasers have not detected the NO cluster series, presumably because of fast dissociation channels. The use of high peak-power allows resonant and non-resonant photon absorption to the ionization limit to compete effectively with fast dissociative processes. 10 refs., 2 figs

  1. Multichannel, time-resolved picosecond laser ultrasound imaging and spectroscopy with custom complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Richard J.; Light, Roger A.; Johnston, Nicholas S.; Pitter, Mark C.; Somekh, Mike G.; Sharples, Steve D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a multichannel, time-resolved picosecond laser ultrasound system that uses a custom complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor linear array detector. This novel sensor allows parallel phase-sensitive detection of very low contrast modulated signals with performance in each channel comparable to that of a discrete photodiode and a lock-in amplifier. Application of the instrument is demonstrated by parallelizing spatial measurements to produce two-dimensional thickness maps on a layered sample, and spectroscopic parallelization is demonstrated by presenting the measured Brillouin oscillations from a gallium arsenide wafer. This paper demonstrates the significant advantages of our approach to pump probe systems, especially picosecond ultrasonics.

  2. Multichannel, time-resolved picosecond laser ultrasound imaging and spectroscopy with custom complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Richard J.; Light, Roger A.; Johnston, Nicholas S.; Pitter, Mark C.; Somekh, Mike G. [Institute of Biophysics, Imaging and Optical Science, University of Nottingham, Nottinghamshire NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Sharples, Steve D. [Applied Optics Group, Electrical Systems and Optics Research Division, University of Nottingham, Nottinghamshire NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15

    This paper presents a multichannel, time-resolved picosecond laser ultrasound system that uses a custom complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor linear array detector. This novel sensor allows parallel phase-sensitive detection of very low contrast modulated signals with performance in each channel comparable to that of a discrete photodiode and a lock-in amplifier. Application of the instrument is demonstrated by parallelizing spatial measurements to produce two-dimensional thickness maps on a layered sample, and spectroscopic parallelization is demonstrated by presenting the measured Brillouin oscillations from a gallium arsenide wafer. This paper demonstrates the significant advantages of our approach to pump probe systems, especially picosecond ultrasonics.

  3. Fabrication and hydrophobic characteristics of micro / nanostructures on polydimethylsiloxane surface prepared by picosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Wang; Dong, Shiyun; Yan, Shixing; Gang, Xiao; Xie, Zhiwei

    2018-03-01

    Picosecond laser has ultrashort pulse width and ultrastrong peak power, which makes it widely used in the field of micro-nanoscale fabrication. polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a typical silicone elastomer with good hydrophobicity. In order to further improve the hydrophobicity of PDMS, the picosecond laser was used to fabricate a grid-like microstructure on the surface of PDMS, and the relationship between hydrophobicity of PDMS with surface microstructure and laser processing parameters, such as processing times and cell spacing was studied. The results show that: compared with the unprocessed PDMS, the presence of surface microstructure significantly improved the hydrophobicity of PDMS. When the number of processing is constant, the hydrophobicity of PDMS decreases with the increase of cell spacing. However, when the cell spacing is fixed, the hydrophobicity of PDMS first increases and then decreases with the increase of processing times. In particular, when the times of laser processing is 6 and the cell spacing is 50μm, the contact angle of PDMS increased from 113° to 154°, which reached the level of superhydrophobic.

  4. Picosecond electron bunches from GaAs/GaAsP strained superlattice photocathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Xiuguang; Matsuba, Shunya; Honda, Yosuke; Miyajima, Tsukasa; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Utiyama, Takashi; Takeda, Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    GaAs/GaAsP strained superlattices are excellent candidates for use as spin-polarized electron sources. In the present study, picosecond electron bunches were successfully generated from such a superlattice photocathode. However, electron transport in the superlattice was much slower than in bulk GaAs. Transmission electron microscopy observations revealed that a small amount of variations in the uniformity of the layers was present in the superlattice. These variations lead to fluctuations in the superlattice mini-band structure and can affect electron transport. Thus, it is expected that if the periodicity of the superlattice can be improved, much faster electron bunches can be produced. - Highlights: • GaAs/GaAsP strained superlattices are excellent candidates for spin-polarized electron beam. • Pulse spin-polarized electron beam is required for investigating the magnetic domain change. • Picosecond electron bunches were achieved from GaAs/GaAsP superlattice photocathode. • TEM observation revealed a small disorder of superlattice layers. • Improvement of superlattice periodicity can achieve much faster electron bunches

  5. A Brief Technical History of the Large-Area Picosecond Photodetector (LAPPD) Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, B.W.; et al.

    2016-03-06

    The Large Area Picosecond PhotoDetector (LAPPD) Collaboration was formed in 2009 to develop large-area photodetectors capable of time resolutions measured in pico-seconds, with accompanying sub-millimeter spatial resolution. During the next three and one-half years the Collaboration developed the LAPPD design of 20 x 20 cm modules with gains greater than $10^7$ and non-uniformity less than $15\\%$, time resolution less than 50 psec for single photons and spatial resolution of 700~microns in both lateral dimensions. We describe the R\\&D performed to develop large-area micro-channel plate glass substrates, resistive and secondary-emitting coatings, large-area bialkali photocathodes, and RF-capable hermetic packaging. In addition, the Collaboration developed the necessary electronics for large systems capable of precise timing, built up from a custom low-power 15-GigaSample/sec waveform sampling 6-channel integrated circuit and supported by a two-level modular data acquisition system based on Field-Programmable Gate Arrays for local control, data-sparcification, and triggering. We discuss the formation, organization, and technical successes and short-comings of the Collaboration. The Collaboration ended in December 2012 with a transition from R\\&D to commercialization.

  6. Generating picosecond x-ray pulses in synchrotron light sources using dipole kickers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Guo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The duration of the x-ray pulse generated at a synchrotron light source is typically tens of picoseconds. Shorter pulses are highly desired by the users. In electron storage rings, the vertical beam size is usually orders of magnitude less than the bunch length due to radiation damping; therefore, a shorter pulse can be obtained by slitting the vertically tilted bunch. Zholents proposed tilting the bunch using rf deflection. We found that tilted bunches can also be generated by a dipole magnet kick. A vertical tilt is developed after the kick in the presence of nonzero chromaticity. The tilt was successfully observed and a 4.2-ps pulse was obtained from a 27-ps electron bunch at the Advanced Photon Source. Based on this principle, we propose a short-pulse generation scheme that produces picosecond x-ray pulses at a repetition rate of 1–2 kHz, which can be used for pump-probe experiments.

  7. Picosecond electron probe for direct investigation of lattice temperature and structural phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourou, G.; Williamson, S.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have directly observed the laser-induced melt metamorphosis of thin aluminum films. The time required for the melt to evolve is dependent on the degree to which the Al specimen is superheated. The temperature of this superheated state can also be monitored on the picosecond time scale. The picosecond electron probe not only reveals information about the structure of a material but also about the lattice temperature. The change in lattice parameter that is observed as a shift in diffracted ring diameter is directly related to the thermal expansion coefficient. Also, based on the Debye-Waller effect, a reduction in the intensity of the diffraction rings can be observed due to increased lattice vibration. Presently, a 1-kHz-1-mJ/pulse Nd:YAG laser is being used to measure the temperature overshoot of laser-induced Al films. The high repetition rate permits signal averaging to be employed thereby increasing the sensitivity of the thermometric technique

  8. Plasma satellites of X-ray lines of ions in a picosecond laser plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, V.S.; Vinogradov, V.I.; Kurilov, A.S.; Matafonov, A.P.; Lisitsa, V.S.; Gavrilenko, V. P.; Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, T.A.; Skobelev, I.Yu.; Magunov, A.I.; Pikuz, S.A. Jr.

    2004-01-01

    We present the results of our measurements of the spectra for multicharged ions in a plasma produced by moderately intense (about 10 17 W cm -2 ) picosecond laser pulses. They suggest the existence of intense plasma oscillations with a frequency appreciably lower than the frequency of the laser radiation. The observed spectrum for the plasma satellites of the Lyman Ly α doublet of the hydrogenic F IX ion in a dense plasma was modeled theoretically. The resulting doublet profile was shown to have a complex structure that depends nontrivially both on the plasma density and on the frequency and amplitude of the plasma oscillations. The positions of the satellites and their separations allowed them to be associated with intense electrostatic oscillations with an amplitude of (4-6) x 10 8 V cm -1 and a frequency near (0.7-1) x 10 15 s -1 . Assuming the oscillation frequency to be determined by the strength of the magnetic field B generated in the plasma, we obtained an estimate of B that is in reasonable agreement with other measurements and estimates of this quantity. Our theoretical analysis allowed explanation of the emission spectra observed when flat fluoroplastic targets were heated by intense picosecond laser pulses

  9. Atomic and molecular dynamics triggered by ultrashort light pulses on the atto- to picosecond time scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabst, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Time-resolved investigations of ultrafast electronic and molecular dynamics were not possible until recently. The typical time scale of these processes is in the picosecond to attosecond realm. The tremendous technological progress in recent years made it possible to generate ultrashort pulses, which can be used to trigger, to watch, and to control atomic and molecular motion. This tutorial focuses on experimental and theoretical advances which are used to study the dynamics of electrons and molecules in the presence of ultrashort pulses. In the first part, the rotational dynamics of molecules, which happens on picosecond and femtosecond time scales, is reviewed. Well-aligned molecules are particularly suitable for angle-dependent investigations like x-ray diffraction or strong-field ionization experiments. In the second part, the ionization dynamics of atoms is studied. The characteristic time scale lies, here, in the attosecond to few-femtosecond regime. Although a one-particle picture has been successfully applied to many processes, many-body effects do constantly occur. After a broad overview of the main mechanisms and the most common tools in attosecond physics, examples of many-body dynamics in the attosecond world (e.g., in high-harmonic generation and attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy) are discussed.

  10. Iron plasma generation using a Nd:YAG laser pulse of several hundred picoseconds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Jun, E-mail: jtamura@post.j-parc.jp [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kumaki, Masafumi [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Kondo, Kotaro [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Kanesue, Takeshi; Okamura, Masahiro [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    We investigated the high intensity plasma generated by using a Nd:YAG laser to apply a laser-produced plasma to the direct plasma injection scheme. The capability of the source to generate high charge state ions strongly depends on the power density of the laser irradiation. Therefore, we focused on using a higher power laser with several hundred picoseconds of pulse width. The iron target was irradiated with the pulsed laser, and the ion current of the laser-produced iron plasma was measured using a Faraday cup and the charge state distribution was investigated using an electrostatic ion analyzer. We found that higher charge state iron ions (up to Fe{sup 21+}) were obtained using a laser pulse of several hundred picoseconds in comparison to those obtained using a laser pulse of several nanoseconds (up to Fe{sup 19+}). We also found that when the laser irradiation area was relatively large, the laser power was absorbed mainly by the contamination on the target surface.

  11. Insights into the photochemical disproportionation of transition metal dimers on the picosecond time scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomont, Justin P; Nguyen, Son C; Harris, Charles B

    2013-05-09

    The reactivity of five transition metal dimers toward photochemical, in-solvent-cage disproportionation has been investigated using picosecond time-resolved infrared spectroscopy. Previous ultrafast studies on [CpW(CO)3]2 established the role of an in-cage disproportionation mechanism involving electron transfer between 17- and 19-electron radicals prior to diffusion out of the solvent cage. New results from time-resolved infrared studies reveal that the identity of the transition metal complex dictates whether the in-cage disproportionation mechanism can take place, as well as the more fundamental issue of whether 19-electron intermediates are able to form on the picosecond time scale. Significantly, the in-cage disproportionation mechanism observed previously for the tungsten dimer does not characterize the reactivity of four out of the five transition metal dimers in this study. The differences in the ability to form 19-electron intermediates are interpreted either in terms of differences in the 17/19-electron equilibrium or of differences in an energetic barrier to associative coordination of a Lewis base, whereas the case for the in-cage vs diffusive disproportionation mechanisms depends on whether the 19-electron reducing agent is genuinely characterized by 19-electron configuration at the metal center or if it is better described as an 18 + δ complex. These results help to better understand the factors that dictate mechanisms of radical disproportionation and carry implications for radical chain mechanisms.

  12. Intermolecular interaction of photoexcited Cu(/TMpy-P4) with water studied by transient resonance Raman and picosecond absorption spectroscopies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruglik, S.; Kruglik, Sergei G.; Ermolenkov, Vladimir V.; Shvedko, Alexander G.; Orlovich, Valentine A.; Galievsky, Victor A.; Chirvony, Vladimir S.; Otto, Cornelis; Turpin, Pierre-Yves

    1997-01-01

    photoinduced complex between Cu(TMpy-P4) and water molecules, reversibly axially coordinated to the central metal, was observed in picosecond transient absorption and nanosecond resonance Raman experiments. This complex is rapidly created (τ1 = 15 ± 5 ps) in the excited triplet (π, π*) state of

  13. A novel dual-wavelength, Nd:YAG, picosecond-domain laser safely and effectively removes multicolor tattoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Eric F; Schomacker, Kevin T; Basilavecchio, Lisa D; Plugis, Jessica M; Bhawalkar, Jayant D

    2015-07-14

    Although nanosecond-domain lasers have been the mainstay of laser tattoo removal for decades, recent disruptive innovations in laser design have introduced a new class of commercial Q-switched lasers that generate picosecond-domain pulses. A picosecond-domain, Nd:YAG laser with a KTP frequency-doubling crystal was used to treat 31 decorative tattoos in 21 subjects. Safety and effectiveness were determined by blinded evaluation of digital images in this prospective clinical study. The average clearance overall as evaluated by blinded observers evaluating randomized digital photographs was 79 ± 0.9% (mean ± sem) after an average of 6.5 treatments. Of the 31 tattoos completing treatment, 6 had evidence of mild hyper- or hypo-pigmentation by evaluation of photographs. The 350 picosecond, 532 nm, and 450 picosecond 1,064 nm Nd:YAG laser is safe and effective for removing decorative tattoos. Lasers Surg. Med. © 2015 The Authors. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 The Authors. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Picosecond calorimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgiou, Panayiotis; Vincent, Jonathan; Andersson, Magnus

    2006-01-01

    to rapidly heat liquid C H2 Cl2 using UV pulses of 100 fs duration. A significant x-ray diffraction signal is visible prior to the onset of thermal expansion, which characterizes a highly compressed superheated liquid. Liquid C H2 Cl2 then expands as a shock wave propagates through the sample...

  15. Comparison of two picosecond lasers to a nanosecond laser for treating tattoos: a prospective randomized study on 49 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorgeou, A; Perrillat, Y; Gral, N; Lagrange, S; Lacour, J-P; Passeron, T

    2018-02-01

    Q-switched nanosecond lasers demonstrated their efficacy in treating most types of tattoos, but complete disappearance is not always achieved even after performing numerous laser sessions. Picosecond lasers are supposed to be more efficient in clearing tattoos than nanosecond lasers, but prospective comparative data remain limited. To compare on different types of tattoos the efficacy of a nanosecond laser with two types of picosecond lasers. We conducted a prospective randomized study performed from December 2014 to June 2016 on adult patients with all types of tattoos. The tattoos were divided into two halves of equal size. After randomization, half of the tattoo was treated with a picosecond laser and the other half with a nanosecond laser. The evaluation was performed on standardized pictures performed before treatment and 2 months after the last session, by two physicians, not involved in the treatment, blinded on the type of treatments received. The main end point was a clearance above 75% of the tattoos. A total of 49 patients were included. Professional tattoos represented 85.7%, permanent make-up 8.2% and non-professional tattoo 6.1%. The majority were black or blue and 10.2% were polychromatic. No patient was lost during follow-up. A reduction of 75% or more of the colour intensity was obtained for 33% of the tattoos treated with the picosecond lasers compared to 14% with the nanosecond laser (P = 0.008). An improvement superior to 75% was obtained in 34% monochromic black or blue tattoos with the picosecond lasers compared to 9% for the nanosecond laser. Only one of the five polychromic tattoos achieved more than 75% of improvement with the two types of laser. Our results show a statistically significant superiority of the picosecond lasers compared to the nanosecond laser for tattoo clearance. However, they do not show better efficacy for polychromic tattoos and the difference in terms of side-effects was also minimal with a tendency of picosecond

  16. In vivo multiphoton-microscopy of picosecond-laser-induced optical breakdown in human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balu, Mihaela; Lentsch, Griffin; Korta, Dorota Z; König, Karsten; Kelly, Kristen M; Tromberg, Bruce J; Zachary, Christopher B

    2017-08-01

    Improvements in skin appearance resulting from treatment with fractionated picosecond-lasers have been noted, but optimizing the treatment efficacy depends on a thorough understanding of the specific skin response. The development of non-invasive laser imaging techniques in conjunction with laser therapy can potentially provide feedback for guidance and optimizing clinical outcome. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the capability of multiphoton microscopy (MPM), a high-resolution, label-free imaging technique, to characterize in vivo the skin response to a fractionated non-ablative picosecond-laser treatment. Two areas on the arm of a volunteer were treated with a fractionated picosecond laser at the Dermatology Clinic, UC Irvine. The skin response to treatment was imaged in vivo with a clinical MPM-based tomograph at 3 hours and 24 hours after treatment and seven additional time points over a 4-week period. MPM revealed micro-injuries present in the epidermis. Pigmented cells were particularly damaged in the process, suggesting that melanin is likely the main absorber for laser induced optical breakdown. Damaged individual cells were distinguished as early as 3 hours post pico-laser treatment with the 532 nm wavelength, and 24 hours post-treatment with both 532 and 1064 nm wavelengths. At later time points, clusters of cellular necrotic debris were imaged across the treated epidermis. After 24 hours of treatment, inflammatory cells were imaged in the proximity of epidermal micro-injuries. The epidermal injuries were exfoliated over a 4-week period. This observational and descriptive pilot study demonstrates that in vivo MPM imaging can be used non-invasively to provide label-free contrast for describing changes in human skin following a fractionated non-ablative laser treatment. The results presented in this study represent the groundwork for future longitudinal investigations on an expanded number of subjects to understand the response to treatment

  17. Initiation of an early-stage plasma during picosecond laser ablation of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Samuel S.; Mao, Xianglei; Greif, Ralph; Russo, Richard E.

    2000-01-01

    Picosecond time-resolved images of plasma initiation were recorded during pulsed-laser ablation of metal targets in an air atmosphere. An early-stage plasma was observed to form before the release of a material vapor plume. Close to the target surface, interferometry measurements indicate that the early-stage plasma has an electron number density on the order of 10 20 cm -3 . The longitudinal expansion of the ionization front for this plasma has a velocity 10 9 cm/s, during the laser pulse. In contrast, a material--vapor plume forms approximately 200 ps after the laser pulse, and it moves away from the target at 10 6 cm/s. The experimental observations of the early-stage plasma were simulated by using a theoretical model based on a two-fluids description of laser plasmas. The results indicate that the initiation of the plasma is due to air breakdown assisted by electron emission from the target

  18. High-intensity coherent FIR radiation from sub-picosecond electron bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, P.H.; Lihn, Hung-chi; Wiedemann, H.; Bocek, D.

    1994-01-01

    A facility to generate high-intensity, ultra-short pulses of broad-band far-infrared radiation has been assembled and tested at Stanford. The device uses sub-picosecond relativistic electron bunches to generate coherent radiation through transition or synchrotron radiation in the far-infrared (FIR) regime between millimeter waves and wavelengths of about 100 μm and less. Experimental results show a peak radiation power of greater than 0.33 MW within a micro-bunch and an average FIR radiation power of 4 mW. The average bunch length of 2856 micro-bunches within a 1 μsec macro-pulse is estimated to be about 480 sec. Simulations experimental setup and results will be discussed

  19. Picosecond scale experimental verification of a globally convergent algorithm for a coefficient inverse problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klibanov, Michael V; Pantong, Natee; Fiddy, Michael A; Schenk, John; Beilina, Larisa

    2010-01-01

    A globally convergent algorithm by the first and third authors for a 3D hyperbolic coefficient inverse problem is verified on experimental data measured in the picosecond scale regime. Quantifiable images of dielectric abnormalities are obtained. The total measurement timing of a 100 ps pulse for one detector location was 1.2 ns with 20 ps (=0.02 ns) time step between two consecutive readings. Blind tests have consistently demonstrated an accurate imaging of refractive indexes of dielectric abnormalities. At the same time, it is shown that a modified gradient method is inapplicable to this kind of experimental data. This inverse algorithm is also applicable to other types of imaging modalities, e.g. acoustics. Potential applications are in airport security, imaging of land mines, imaging of defects in non-distractive testing, etc

  20. Non-destructive spatial characterization of buried interfaces in multilayer stacks via two color picosecond acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Jorge C. D.; Garnier, Philippe; Devos, Arnaud

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate the ability to construct wide-area spatial mappings of buried interfaces in thin film stacks in a non-destructive manner using two color picosecond acoustics. Along with the extraction of layer thicknesses and sound velocities from acoustic signals, the morphological information presented is a powerful demonstration of phonon imaging as a metrological tool. For a series of heterogeneous (polymer, metal, and semiconductor) thin film stacks that have been treated with a chemical procedure known to alter layer properties, the spatial mappings reveal changes to interior thicknesses and chemically modified surface features without the need to remove uppermost layers. These results compare well to atomic force microscopy scans showing that the technique provides a significant advantage to current characterization methods for industrially important device stacks.

  1. Diode-pumped passively mode-locked sub-picosecond Yb:LuAG ceramic laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jiang-Feng; Liu Kai; Wang Jun-Li; Yang Yu; Wang Hui-Bo; Gao Zi-Ye; Jiang Li; Xie Teng-Fei; Chao-Yu Li; Pan Yu-Bai; Wei Zhi-Yi

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the laser activities of a diode-pumped Yb:LuAG ceramic which was prepared by the solid-state reactive sintering method were reported. The maximum output power was 1.86 W in the continuous wave (CW) laser operation, corresponding to a slope efficiency of 53.6%. The CW laser could be tuned from 1030 to 1096 nm by inserting a prism in the cavity. With the assist of a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM), passive mode-locking was realized, delivering sub-picosecond pulses with 933 fs duration and an average power of 532 mW at a repetition rate of 90.35 MHz. (paper)

  2. Plasma ion emission from high intensity picosecond laser pulse interactions with solid targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fews, A.P.; Norreys, P.A.; Beg, F.N.; Bell, A.R.; Dangor, A.E.; Danson, C.N.; Lee, P.; Rose, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    The fast ion emission from high intensity, picosecond laser plasmas has been measured to give the characteristic ion energy and the amount of laser energy transferred to ions with energies ≥100 keV/nucleon as a function of incident intensity. The characteristic ion energy varies from 0.2 to 1.3 MeV over the range 2.0x10 17 --2.0x10 18 W cm -2 . Ten percent of the laser energy is transferred into MeV ions at 2.0x10 18 W cm -2 . Calculations of stopping power in high density materials are presented that show that fast ions cannot be ignored in modeling fast ignitor schemes

  3. Laser diagnostics in combustion. Elastic scattering and picosecond laser-induced fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossler, Frederik

    1999-05-01

    Elastic scattering and the Lorenz-Mie (LM) theory in particular is used for the characterization of sub-micron- and micron-sized droplets of organic fuels in sprays and aerosols. Calculations on the Lorenz-Mie theory show that backward-sideward scattered visible radiation can be used for unambiguous detection of ensembles of homogeneous droplets of organic substances with diameters around 1 micrometer (size parameter between 2 and 6). A backward feature in the polarization ratio appears with a value considerably higher than one, on the opposite to the case of the rainbow observed for larger droplets. A comparison between measurements and LM calculations showed that a large amount of droplets in aerosols and well-atomized sprays were smaller than one micrometer in diameter. The LM theory was also used to characterize different size groups in a burning spray. A 3 - D technique based on a picosecond laser and a streak camera was demonstrated for measurements of fast and turbulent biphase flows. The entire 3 - D information was obtained within a time-span of less than 15 nanoseconds. A 2 - D technique for lifetime measurements based on a picosecond laser and a streak camera has been demonstrated on static objects. An analysis indicates that the technique may be applied to measurements of lifetimes around or below one picosecond employing femtosecond lasers and femtosecond streak-cameras. The technique may in principle be used to study dynamic systems when two detectors are used. Fluorescence lifetime measurements on hydrogen and oxygen atoms in flames at atmospheric pressure demonstrate the need of lasers with suiting spectral properties such as jitter and linewidth and the need of detectors with high sensitivity in the near IR in the case of oxygen atoms. The fluorescence lifetimes of gas phase acetone and 3-pentanone at 266 nm excitation wavelength have been measured for mixtures with nitrogen and air at temperatures between 323 and 723 K and pressures between 0

  4. Second-harmonic generation in atomic vapor with picosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.; Mullin, C.S.; Shen, Y.R.

    1997-01-01

    Picosecond laser pulses were used to study the highly forbidden resonant second-harmonic generation (SHG) in potassium vapor. The input intensity dependence, vapor density dependence, buffer-gas pressure dependence, and spatial profile of the SHG were measured. A pump - probe experiment was conducted to probe the time dependence of the SHG signal. The experimental results can be understood from an ionization-initiated dc-field-induced SHG model. A theory of a dc-field-induced SHG model is developed that takes into account the time development of the dc electric field in detail. This temporal buildup of the dc field along with transient coherent excitation between two-photon-allowed transitions can explain the experimental results quantitatively, including the previous vapor SHG results with nanosecond laser pulses. copyright 1997 Optical Society of America

  5. Picosecond ultrasonic study of surface acoustic waves on titanium nitride nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjornsson, M. M.; Connolly, A. B.; Mahat, S.; Rachmilowitz, B. E.; Daly, B. C.; Antonelli, G. A.; Myers, A.; Singh, K. J.; Yoo, H. J.; King, S. W.

    2015-01-01

    We have measured surface acoustic waves on nanostructured TiN wires overlaid on multiple thin films on a silicon substrate using the ultrafast pump-probe technique known as picosecond ultrasonics. We find a prominent oscillation in the range of 11–54 GHz for samples with varying pitch ranging from 420 nm down to 168 nm. We find that the observed oscillation increases monotonically in frequency with decrease in pitch, but that the increase is not linear. By comparing our data to two-dimensional mechanical simulations of the nanostructures, we find that the type of surface oscillation to which we are sensitive changes depending on the pitch of the sample. Surface waves on substrates that are loaded by thin films can take multiple forms, including Rayleigh-like waves, Sezawa waves, and radiative (leaky) surface waves. We describe evidence for detection of modes that display characteristics of these three surface wave types

  6. Femtosecond versus picosecond laser pulses for film-free laser bioprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Stephane; Kérourédan, Olivia; Devillard, Raphael; Cormier, Eric

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the properties of microjets in the context of film-free laser induced forward transfer in the femtosecond and picosecond regimes. The influence of the pulse duration (ranging from 0.4 to 12 ps) and the energy (ranging from 6 to 12 μJ) is systematically studied on the height, diameter, speed, volume, and shape of the jets. The 400 fs pulses generate thin and stable jets compatible with bioprinting, while 14 ps pulses generate more unstable jets. A pulse duration around 8 ps seems, therefore, to be an interesting trade-off to cover many bio-applications of microjets generated by lasers.

  7. Picosecond Electric-Field-Induced Threshold Switching in Phase-Change Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalden, Peter; Shu, Michael J; Chen, Frank; Wu, Xiaoxi; Zhu, Yi; Wen, Haidan; Johnston, Scott; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Landreman, Patrick; Brongersma, Mark; Fong, Scott W; Wong, H-S Philip; Sher, Meng-Ju; Jost, Peter; Kaes, Matthias; Salinga, Martin; von Hoegen, Alexander; Wuttig, Matthias; Lindenberg, Aaron M

    2016-08-05

    Many chalcogenide glasses undergo a breakdown in electronic resistance above a critical field strength. Known as threshold switching, this mechanism enables field-induced crystallization in emerging phase-change memory. Purely electronic as well as crystal nucleation assisted models have been employed to explain the electronic breakdown. Here, picosecond electric pulses are used to excite amorphous Ag_{4}In_{3}Sb_{67}Te_{26}. Field-dependent reversible changes in conductivity and pulse-driven crystallization are observed. The present results show that threshold switching can take place within the electric pulse on subpicosecond time scales-faster than crystals can nucleate. This supports purely electronic models of threshold switching and reveals potential applications as an ultrafast electronic switch.

  8. Generation and subsequent amplification of few-cycle femtosecond pulses from a picosecond pump laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhin, I. B.; Kuznetsov, I. I.; Palashov, O. V.

    2018-04-01

    Using a new approach, in which generation of femtosecond pulses as short as a few field cycles is implemented directly from the radiation of a picosecond pump laser, pulses with the microjoule energy, the repetition rate 10 kHz, and the duration less than 26 fs are generated in the spectral range 1.3 ‑ 1.4 μm. In the process of generating this radiation, use was made of a method providing passive phase stabilisation of the carrier oscillation of the electromagnetic field and its slow envelope. The radiation spectrum was converted into the range of parametric amplification in the BBO crystal by the broadband second harmonic generation; the pulse was parametrically amplified up to the microjoule level and compressed by chirped mirrors to a duration of 28 fs.

  9. Measurements of Electron Transport in Foils Irradiated with a Picosecond Time Scale Laser Pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C. R. D.; Hoarty, D. J.; James, S. F.; Swatton, D.; Hughes, S. J.; Morton, J. W.; Guymer, T. M.; Hill, M. P.; Chapman, D. A.; Andrew, J. E.; Comley, A. J.; Shepherd, R.; Dunn, J.; Chen, H.; Schneider, M.; Brown, G.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Emig, J.

    2011-01-01

    The heating of solid foils by a picosecond time scale laser pulse has been studied by using x-ray emission spectroscopy. The target material was plastic foil with a buried layer of a spectroscopic tracer material. The laser pulse length was either 0.5 or 2 ps, which resulted in a laser irradiance that varied over the range 10 16 -10 19 W/cm 2 . Time-resolved measurements of the buried layer emission spectra using an ultrafast x-ray streak camera were used to infer the density and temperature conditions as a function of laser parameters and depth of the buried layer. Comparison of the data to different models of electron transport showed that they are consistent with a model of electron transport that predicts the bulk of the target heating is due to return currents.

  10. Investigation of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics Machining Using 355 nm Picosecond Pulsed Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Zhu, Dezhi

    2018-06-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) has been widely used in the aircraft industry and automobile industry owing to its superior properties. In this paper, a Nd:YVO4 picosecond pulsed system emitting at 355 nm has been used for CFRP machining experiments to determine optimum milling conditions. Milling parameters including laser power, milling speed and hatch distance were optimized by using box-behnken design of response surface methodology (RSM). Material removal rate was influenced by laser beam overlap ratio which affects mechanical denudation. The results in heat affected zones (HAZ) and milling quality were discussed through the machined surface observed with scanning electron microscope. A re-focusing technique based on the experiment with different focal planes was proposed and milling mechanism was also analyzed in details.

  11. Towards crack-free ablation cutting of thin glass sheets with picosecond pulsed lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingying; Eppelt, Urs; Hartmann, Claudia; Schulz, Wolfgang; Zhu, Jianqiang; Lin, Zunqi

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the morphology and mechanism of laser-induced damage in the ablation cutting of thin glass sheets with picosecond laser. Two kinds of damage morphologies observed on the cross-section of the cut channel, are caused by high-density free-electrons and the temperature accumulation, respectively. Notches and micro-cracks can be observed on the top surface of the sample near the cut edge. The surface micro-cracks were related to high energy free-electrons and also the heat-affected zone. Heat-affected-zone and visible-cracks free conditions of glass cutting were achieved by controlling the repetition rate and spatial overlap of laser pulses.

  12. Watching proteins function with picosecond X-ray crystallography and molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anfinrud, Philip

    2006-03-01

    Time-resolved electron density maps of myoglobin, a ligand-binding heme protein, have been stitched together into movies that unveil with molecular dynamics (MD) calculations and picosecond time-resolved X-ray structures provides single-molecule insights into mechanisms of protein function. Ensemble-averaged MD simulations of the L29F mutant of myoglobin following ligand dissociation reproduce the direction, amplitude, and timescales of crystallographically-determined structural changes. This close agreement with experiments at comparable resolution in space and time validates the individual MD trajectories, which identify and structurally characterize a conformational switch that directs dissociated ligands to one of two nearby protein cavities. This unique combination of simulation and experiment unveils functional protein motions and illustrates at an atomic level relationships among protein structure, dynamics, and function. In collaboration with Friedrich Schotte and Gerhard Hummer, NIH.

  13. Electric field measurements in a nanosecond pulse discharge by picosecond CARS/4-wave mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Ben; Shkurenkov, Ivan; Adamovich, Igor; Lempert, Walter

    2014-10-01

    Time-resolved electric field measurements in hydrogen by picosecond CARS/4-wave mixing are presented. Measurements are carried out in a high voltage nanosecond pulse discharge in hydrogen in plane-to-plane geometry, at pressures of up to several hundred Torr, and with a time resolution of 0.2 ns. Absolute calibration of the diagnostics is done using a sub-breakdown high voltage pulse of 12 kV/cm. A diffuse discharge is obtained by applying a peak high voltage pulse of 40 kV/cm between the electrodes. It is found that breakdown occurs at a lower field, 15--20 kV/cm, after which the field in the plasma is reduced rapidly due to plasma self shielding The experimental results are compared with kinetic modeling calculations, showing good agreement between the measured and the predicted electric field.

  14. A High-Energy, 100 Hz, Picosecond Laser for OPCPA Pumping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongpeng Su

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A high-energy diode-pumped picosecond laser system centered at 1064 nm for optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier (OPCPA pumping was demonstrated. The laser system was based on a master oscillator power amplifier configuration, which contained an Nd:YVO4 mode-locked seed laser, an LD-pumped Nd:YAG regenerative amplifier, and two double-pass amplifiers. A reflecting volume Bragg grating with a 0.1 nm reflective bandwidth was used in the regenerative amplifier for spectrum narrowing and pulse broadening to suit the pulse duration of the optical parametric amplifier (OPA process. Laser pulses with an energy of 316.5 mJ and a pulse duration of 50 ps were obtained at a 100 Hz repetition rate. A top-hat beam distribution and a 0.53% energy stability (RMS were achieved in this system.

  15. Picosecond pulse radiolysis studies on geminate ion recombination in saturated hydrocarbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, S.; Washio, M.; Kobayashi, H.; Katsumura, Y.; Tabata, Y.

    1983-01-01

    The geminate recombination kinetics of the excess electron and the electron hole are discussed, based on time-resolved data on picosecond and nanosecond time scales. The recombination times of the excess electron and the electron hole are evaluated to be 3 ps for cyclohexane on the basis of the comparison between the experimental and the calculated results. The spin correlation decay of the geminate ion pairs and the triplet state formation before the spin correlation loss have also been discussed. The rapidly decaying species with very broad absorption spectra, which are similar to the absorption spectra of the cation radicals of saturated hydrocarbons, have been observed in neat saturated hydrocarbons in the sub-nanosecond and a few nanosecond time regions. The identification of the rapidly decaying species were not definitely made but those species are tentatively assigned to the excited states and/or the tail of the geminate cation radicals of saturated hydrocarbons. (author)

  16. Picosecond absorption studies of photoinduced charge separation in polyelectrolyte bound aromatic chromophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shand, M. A.; Rodgers, M. A. J.; Webber, S. E.

    1991-02-01

    Picosecond absorption studies of photoinduced electron transfer between aromatic chromophores bound to polymethacrylic acid (P) and methylviologen (MV 2+ have been carried out in aqueous solution. The diphenylanthracene copolymer/viologen system at pH 2.8 shows the corresponding redox products DPA + rad and MV + rad arising from the singlet state of DPA with a forward rate constant of electron transfer of 2.6 × 10 9 s -1. At pH 9.0 the quenching of the S 1 state of DPA occurs with no charge separated products being observed. The pyrene copolymer shows no evidence of charge separated products at any pH in the range 2.8-9.0. It is proposed that the differences in the radical pair kinetics arise from differences in the degree of binding of the ground state complexes formed by the donor and acceptor species.

  17. Numerical analysis of laser ablation and damage in glass with multiple picosecond laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingying; Eppelt, Urs; Russ, Simone; Hartmann, Claudia; Siebert, Christof; Zhu, Jianqiang; Schulz, Wolfgang

    2013-04-08

    This study presents a novel numerical model for laser ablation and laser damage in glass including beam propagation and nonlinear absorption of multiple incident ultrashort laser pulses. The laser ablation and damage in the glass cutting process with a picosecond pulsed laser was studied. The numerical results were in good agreement with our experimental observations, thereby revealing the damage mechanism induced by laser ablation. Beam propagation effects such as interference, diffraction and refraction, play a major role in the evolution of the crater structure and the damage region. There are three different damage regions, a thin layer and two different kinds of spikes. Moreover, the electronic damage mechanism was verified and distinguished from heat modification using the experimental results with different pulse spatial overlaps.

  18. The first terawatt picosecond CO2 laser for advanced accelerator studies at the Brookhaven ATF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I.V.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Skaritka, J.

    1996-10-01

    The first terawatt picosecond C0 2 laser system is under development at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility. Presently operational 1 Joule 100-ps ATF laser will be upgraded with a 10 atm amplifier capable of delivery ∼ 15 Joules of laser energy in a 3 ps pulse. We describe the design of the x-ray preionized 10 atm amplifier of a 10 liter active volume energized by a 1 MV, 200 kA transverse electric discharge. The amplifier, equipped with internal optics, permits the accommodation of a regenerative stage and a multi-pass booster in a relatively compact single discharge volume. The ATF terawatt C0 2 laser shall become operational in 1997 to serve for laser acceleration, x-ray generation and other strong-field physics experiments

  19. Synthesis by picosecond laser ablation of ligand-free Ag and Au nanoparticles for SERS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Enza; Spadaro, Salvatore; Santoro, Marco; Trusso, Sebastiano; Lucotti, Andrea.; Tommasini, Matteo.; Neri, Fortunato; Maria Ossi, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    The morphological and optical properties of noble metal nanoparticles prepared by picosecond laser generated plasmas in water were investigated. First, the ablation efficiency was maximized searching the optimal focusing conditions. The nanoparticle size, measured by Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy, strongly depends on the laser fluence, keeping fixed the other deposition parameters such as the target to scanner objective distance and laser repetition frequency. STEM images indicate narrow gradients of NP sizes. Hence the optimization of ablation parameters favours a fine tuning of nanoparticles. UV-Visible spectroscopy helped to determine the appropriate laser wavelength to resonantly excite the localized surface plasmon to carry out Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) measurements. The SERS activity of Ag and Au substrates, obtained spraying the colloids synthesized in water, was tested using crystal violet as a probe molecule. The good SERS performance, observed at excitation wavelength 785 nm, is attributed to aggregation phenomena of nanoparticles sprayed on the support.

  20. Anti-biofouling superhydrophobic surface fabricated by picosecond laser texturing of stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ke; Yang, Huan; Xue, Wei; He, An; Zhu, Dehua; Liu, Wenwen; Adeyemi, Kenneth; Cao, Yu

    2018-04-01

    Anti-biofouling technology is based on specifically designed materials and coatings. This is an enduring goal in the maritime industries, such as shipping, offshore oil exploration, and aquaculture. Recently, research of the relationship between wettability and antifouling effectiveness has attracted considerable attention, due to the anti-biofouling properties of the lotus leaf and shark skin. In this study, super-hydrophobic surfaces (SHSs) with controllable periodic structures were fabricated on AISI304 stainless steel by a picosecond laser, and their anti-biofouling performance were investigated by seawater immersion for five weeks in summertime. The results showed that the specimens with SHS demonstrate significant anti-biofouling effect as compared with the bare stainless steel plate. We observed that nearly 50% decrease of the average microbe attachment area ratio (Avg. MAAR) could be obtained. The micro-groove SHS with more abundant hierarchical micro-nano structures showed better anti-biofouling performance than the micro-pit SHS.

  1. Investigation of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics Machining Using 355 nm Picosecond Pulsed Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Zhu, Dezhi

    2017-08-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) has been widely used in the aircraft industry and automobile industry owing to its superior properties. In this paper, a Nd:YVO4 picosecond pulsed system emitting at 355 nm has been used for CFRP machining experiments to determine optimum milling conditions. Milling parameters including laser power, milling speed and hatch distance were optimized by using box-behnken design of response surface methodology (RSM). Material removal rate was influenced by laser beam overlap ratio which affects mechanical denudation. The results in heat affected zones (HAZ) and milling quality were discussed through the machined surface observed with scanning electron microscope. A re-focusing technique based on the experiment with different focal planes was proposed and milling mechanism was also analyzed in details.

  2. Measurement of transient atomic displacements in thin films with picosecond and femtometer resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kozina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We report measurements of the transient structural response of weakly photo-excited thin films of BiFeO3, Pb(Zr,TiO3, and Bi and time-scales for interfacial thermal transport. Utilizing picosecond x-ray diffraction at a 1.28 MHz repetition rate with time resolution extending down to 15 ps, transient changes in the diffraction angle are recorded. These changes are associated with photo-induced lattice strains within nanolayer thin films, resolved at the part-per-million level, corresponding to a shift in the scattering angle three orders of magnitude smaller than the rocking curve width and changes in the interlayer lattice spacing of fractions of a femtometer. The combination of high brightness, repetition rate, and stability of the synchrotron, in conjunction with high time resolution, represents a novel means to probe atomic-scale, near-equilibrium dynamics.

  3. Picosecond transient absorption spectra of aminosalicylates in confirmation of the triple excitation mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gormin, D.

    1989-01-01

    Using picosecond transient absorption studies, it is shown that the twisted intramolecular charge-transfer state (TICT) and the excited intramolecular proton-transfer state (ESIPT or PT) of specific aminosalicylates both contribute to the long-wavelength fluorescence band, F 2 , observed as an unresolved band to the red of the normal fluorescence band, F 1 . The transient absorption band for 2-hydroxy-4-(dimethylamino)benzoic acid methyl ester (PDASE) is shown to be a composite of the two excited-state absorption modes: S n double-prime(TICT) left-arrow S 1 double-prime (TICT) and S n '(PT)left-arrow S 1 '(PT). This corroborates previous steady-state fluorescence studies of the unresolved F 2 band. The assignments are based on comparison with the excited-state absorption spectra of various substituted aminosalicylates in polar and nonpolar solvents

  4. Shock compression and flash-heating of molecular adsorbates on the picosecond time scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Christopher Michael

    An ultrafast nonlinear coherent laser spectroscopy termed broadband multiplex vibrational sum-frequency generation (SFG) with nonresonant suppression was employed to monitor vibrational transitions of molecular adsorbates on metallic substrates during laser-driven shock compression and flash-heating. Adsorbates were in the form of well-ordered self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and included molecular explosive simulants, such as nitroaromatics, and long chain-length alkanethiols. Based on reflectance measurements of the metallic substrates, femtosecond flash-heating pulses were capable of producing large-amplitude temperature jumps with DeltaT = 500 K. Laser-driven shock compression of SAMs produced pressures up to 2 GPa, where 1 GPa ≈ 1 x 104 atm. Shock pressures were estimated via comparison with frequency shifts observed in the monolayer vibrational transitions during hydrostatic pressure measurements in a SiC anvil cell. Molecular dynamics during flash-heating and shock loading were probed with vibrational SFG spectroscopy with picosecond temporal resolution and sub-nanometer spatial resolution. Flash-heating studies of 4-nitrobenzenethiolate (NBT) on Au provided insight into effects from hot-electron excitation of the molecular adsorbates at early pump-probe delay times. At longer delay times, effects from the excitation of SAM lattice modes and lower-energy NBT vibrations were shown. In addition, flash-heating studies of alkanethiolates demonstrated chain disordering behaviors as well as interface thermal conductances across the Au-SAM junction, which was of specific interest within the context of molecular electronics. Shock compression studies of molecular explosive simulants, such as 4-nitrobenzoate (NBA), demonstrated the proficiency of this technique to observe shock-induced molecular dynamics, in this case orientational dynamics, on the picosecond time scale. Results validated the utilization of these refined shock loading techniques to probe the shock

  5. Studies of the mechanical properties of planar and patterned films with picosecond ultrasonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, George Andrew

    We describe a series of investigations of the mechanical properties of thin films and nanostructures. The experiments were performed with picosecond ultrasonics. In this method, sub-picosecond optical pulses are used to excite and detect acoustic phenomena. Several variations of the conventional experimental apparatus were developed and will be described. In the first study, we endeavor to analyze the vibrations of a nanostructure. From measurements of the change in the reflectivity, it is possible to determine the frequencies nun and damping rates Gamma n of a number of the normal modes of the structure. To understand the nature of these vibrations we developed a coarse-grained molecular dynamics model. By comparison of the measured nun and Gamma n with the frequencies and damping rates calculated from the computer simulation, we have been able to identify different normal modes and deduce their vibration patterns. We have also developed a new technique allowing the measurement of the transit time of an acoustic pulse in a thin film with great accuracy. This technique was applied to the study of elastic and anelastic effects in thin metal films. A strain was induced in the film either by heating the film-substrate system or bending the substrate. From measurements of these samples, we were able to extract a certain combination of second- and third-order elastic constants and detect the onset of plastic flow in the metal film. Finally, we describe a technique that can be used to generate high frequency surface waves. A transmission diffraction grating is formed on a transparent wafer, and then placed very close to the surface of the sample. A light pulse passing through the grating will give rise to a spatially-varying light intensity on the sample. This sets up a periodic thermal stress on the sample surface which in turn generates a standing surface acoustic wave.

  6. Picosecond excitation energy transfer of allophycocyanin studied in solution and in crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar Choubeh, Reza; Sonani, Ravi R; Madamwar, Datta; Struik, Paul C; Bader, Arjen N; Robert, Bruno; van Amerongen, Herbert

    2018-03-01

    Cyanobacteria perform photosynthesis with the use of large light-harvesting antennae called phycobilisomes (PBSs). These hemispherical PBSs contain hundreds of open-chain tetrapyrrole chromophores bound to different peptides, providing an arrangement in which excitation energy is funnelled towards the PBS core from where it can be transferred to photosystem I and/or photosystem II. In the PBS core, many allophycocyanin (APC) trimers are present, red-light-absorbing phycobiliproteins that covalently bind phycocyanobilin (PCB) chromophores. APC trimers were amongst the first light-harvesting complexes to be crystallized. APC trimers have two spectrally different PCBs per monomer, a high- and a low-energy pigment. The crystal structure of the APC trimer reveals the close distance (~21 Å) between those two chromophores (the distance within one monomer is ~51 Å) and this explains the ultrafast (~1 ps) excitation energy transfer (EET) between them. Both chromophores adopt a somewhat different structure, which is held responsible for their spectral difference. Here we used spectrally resolved picosecond fluorescence to study EET in these APC trimers both in crystallized and in solubilized form. We found that not all closely spaced pigment couples consist of a low- and a high-energy pigment. In ~10% of the cases, a couple consists of two high-energy pigments. EET to a low-energy pigment, which can spectrally be resolved, occurs on a time scale of tens of picoseconds. This transfer turns out to be three times faster in the crystal than in the solution. The spectral characteristics and the time scale of this transfer component are similar to what have been observed in the whole cells of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, for which it was ascribed to EET from C-phycocyanin to APC. The present results thus demonstrate that part of this transfer should probably also be ascribed to EET within APC trimers.

  7. Treatment of tattoos with a picosecond alexandrite laser: a prospective trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saedi, Nazanin; Metelitsa, Andrei; Petrell, Kathleen; Arndt, Kenneth A; Dover, Jeffrey S

    2012-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To study a picosecond 755-nm alexandrite laser for the removal of tattoos to confirm the efficacy of this therapy, focusing on the effect of therapy on the target lesion as well as the surrounding tissues and quantifying the number of necessary treatments. DESIGN Fifteen patients with tattoos were enrolled. Treatments were scheduled approximately 6 ± 2 weeks apart. Standard photographs using 2-dimensional imaging were taken at baseline, before each treatment, and 1 month and 3 months after the last treatment. SETTING Dermatology clinic at SkinCare Physicians in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts. PATIENTS Fifteen patients with darkly pigmented tattoos. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Treatment efficacy was assessed by the level of tattoo clearance in standard photographs. These photographs were assessed by a blinded physician evaluator and based on a 4-point scale. Efficacy was also assessed based on physician and patient satisfaction measured on a 4-point scale. RESULTS Twelve of 15 patients with tattoos (80%) completed the study. All 12 patients obtained greater than 75% clearance. Nine patients (75%) obtained greater than 75% clearance after having 2 to 4 treatments. The average number of treatment sessions needed to obtain this level of clearance was 4.25. All 12 patients (100%) were satisfied or extremely satisfied with the treatment. Adverse effects included pain, swelling, and blistering. Pain resolved immediately after therapy, while the swelling and blistering resolved within 1 week. Hypopigmentation and hyperpigmentation were reported at the 3-month follow-up. CONCLUSION The picosecond 755-nm alexandrite laser is a safe and very effective procedure for removing tattoo pigment.

  8. Study of photo-activated electron transfer reactions in the first excited singlet state by picosecond and nanosecond laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doizi, Denis

    1983-01-01

    Picosecond laser spectroscopy has been used to study two photo-activated electron transfer reactions: - a bimolecular electron transfer reaction between a sensitizer, DODCI, and an electron acceptor, methylviologen. The two radical ions created with an electron transfer efficiency γ ≅ 0.07 have been identified in picosecond and nanosecond laser absorption spectroscopy by adding selective solutes such as para-benzoquinone (an electron acceptor) or L(+) ascorbic acid (an electron donor). - an intramolecular electron transfer reaction in a triad molecule consisting of a tetra-aryl-porphyrin covalently linked to both a carotenoid and a quinone. The photoinduced charge separation occurs within 30 ps and leads, with a yield of 25 pc, to the formation of a zwitterion whose half-life is 2.5 μs. The experimental results obtained in these two studies show an effective decrease in the recombination rate of the two radical ions created in the encounter pair. (author) [fr

  9. Structure of picosecond pulses of a Q-switched and mode-locked diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donin, V I; Yakovin, D V; Gribanov, A V [Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-31

    The pulse duration of a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser, in which Q-switching with mode-locking (QML regime) is achieved using a spherical mirror and a travelling-wave acousto-optic modulator, is directly measured with a streak camera. It is found that the picosecond pulses can have a non-single-pulse structure, which is explained by excitation of several competing transverse modes in the Q-switching regime with a pulse repetition rate of 1 kHz. In the case of cw mode-locking (without Q-switching), a new (auto-QML) regime is observed, in which the pulse train repetition rate is determined by the frequency of the relaxation oscillations of the laser field while the train contains single picosecond pulses. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  10. Rewritable phase-change optical recording in Ge2Sb2Te5 films induced by picosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, J.; Schropp, A.; Solis, J.; Afonso, C.N.; Wuttig, M.

    2004-01-01

    The phase transformation dynamics induced in Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 films by picosecond laser pulses were studied using real-time reflectivity measurements with subnanosecond resolution. Evidence was found that the thermal diffusivity of the substrate plays a crucial role in determining the ability of the films to crystallize and amorphize. A film/substrate configuration with optimized heat flow conditions for ultrafast phase cycling with picosecond laser pulses was designed and produced. In this system, we achieved reversible phase transformations with large optical contrast (>20%) using single laser pulses with a duration of 30 ps within well-defined fluence windows. The amorphization (writing) process is completed within less than 1 ns, whereas crystallization (erasing) needs approximately 13 ns to be completed

  11. Generation of picosecond pulses and frequency combs in actively mode locked external ring cavity quantum cascade lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wójcik, Aleksander K.; Belyanin, Alexey; Malara, Pietro; Blanchard, Romain; Mansuripur, Tobias S.; Capasso, Federico

    2013-01-01

    We propose a robust and reliable method of active mode locking of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and develop its theoretical description. Its key element is the use of an external ring cavity, which circumvents fundamental issues undermining the stability of mode locking in quantum cascade lasers. We show that active mode locking can give rise to the generation of picosecond pulses and phase-locked frequency combs containing thousands of the ring cavity modes

  12. Accelerator-based Single-shot Ultrafast Transmission Electron Microscope with Picosecond Temporal Resolution and Nanometer Spatial Resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, D.; Fu, F.; Zhang, J.; Huang, X.; Wang, L.; Wang, X.; Wan, W.

    2014-01-01

    We present feasibility study of an accelerator-based ultrafast transmission electron microscope (u-TEM) capable of producing a full field image in a single-shot with simultaneous picosecond temporal resolution and nanometer spatial resolution. We study key physics related to performance of u-TEMs, and discuss major challenges as well as possible solutions for practical realization of u-TEMs. The feasibility of u-TEMs is confirmed through simulations using realistic electron beam parameters. W...

  13. High-energy, tunable, mid-infrared, picosecond optical parametric generation in CdSiP2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaitanya Kumar, S.; Jelínek, M.; Baudisch, M.; Zawilski, K. T.; Schunemann, P. G.; Kubecek, V.; Biegert, J.; Ebrahim-Zadeh, M.

    2012-06-01

    We report a tunable, high-energy, single-pass, optical parametric generator (OPG) based on the new nonlinear material, cadmium silicon phosphide, CdSiP2. The OPG is pumped by a laboratory designed cavity-dumped passively mode-locked, diode-pumped, Nd:YAG oscillator, providing 25 μJ pulses in 20 ps at 5 Hz. The pump energy is further boosted by a flashlamp-pumped Nd:YAG amplifier to 2.5 mJ. The OPG is temperature tunable over 1263-1286 nm (23 nm) in the signal and 6153-6731 nm (578 nm) in the idler, corresponding to a total tuning range of 601 nm. Using the single-pass OPG configuration, we have generated signal energy as high as 636 μJ at 1283 nm, together with an idler energy of 33 μJ at 6234 nm, for 2.1 mJ of input pump energy. The signal pulses generated from the OPG have a Gaussian pulse duration of 24 ps and an FWHM spectral bandwidth of 10.4 nm at central wavelength of 1276 nm. The corresponding idler spectrum has an FWHM bandwidth of 140 nm centered at 6404 nm.

  14. Study of the laser-induced damage of reflective components in the sub-picosecond regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sozet, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, laser-induced damage phenomenon of reflective components is investigated in the sub-picosecond regime. These components, made of stacks of dielectric materials, are widely used in powerful laser facilities such as PETAL laser. PETAL laser has been built at the CEA-CESTA in France to deliver multi-kJ/500 fs pulses at 1053 nm and reach a power higher than 6 PW. For this kind of laser systems, reflective components are commonly used instead of optics operating in transmission to limit the accumulation of non-linear phase along the beam propagation due to the high intensities. Optical components irradiated by the highest power densities are the pulse compression gratings, transport mirrors and the focusing parabola, located at the end of the laser chain. Nowadays, laser-induced damage is the main factor that limits the overall performances of powerful laser systems. This manuscript presents three study axes to better understand and control damage phenomenon. The first one concerns the conception of reflective optics for the peta-watt applications. The design of new structures has been investigated to reach high diffraction efficiencies in the case of pulse compression gratings and a high reflectivity in the case of mirrors, while reducing the Electric-field enhancement which is one of the causes of the laser-induced damage. The second axis deals with the development of a precise damage metrology with new testing tools which brings new perspectives and a new viewpoint for the assessment of the laser resistance of optical components. Finally, the third axis concerns the study the damage growth after several irradiations in the sub-picosecond regime. The evolution of the damage area during growth sequences is observed and compared to numerical simulations. It enables to improve the understanding in the growth phenomenon. In the end, these studies will allow to develop predictive models of the laser-induced damage and new tools for the conception of

  15. Pattern analysis of laser-tattoo interactions for picosecond- and nanosecond-domain 1,064-nm neodymium-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet lasers in tissue-mimicking phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Keun Jae; Zheng, Zhenlong; Kwon, Tae Rin; Kim, Beom Joon; Lee, Hye Sun; Cho, Sung Bin

    2017-05-08

    During laser treatment for tattoo removal, pigment chromophores absorb laser energy, resulting in fragmentation of the ink particles via selective photothermolysis. The present study aimed to outline macroscopic laser-tattoo interactions in tissue-mimicking (TM) phantoms treated with picosecond- and nanosecond-domain lasers. Additionally, high-speed cinematographs were captured to visualize time-dependent tattoo-tissue interactions, from laser irradiation to the formation of photothermal and photoacoustic injury zones (PIZs). In all experimental settings using the nanosecond or picosecond laser, tattoo pigments fragmented into coarse particles after a single laser pulse, and further disintegrated into smaller particles that dispersed toward the boundaries of PIZs after repetitive delivery of laser energy. Particles fractured by picosecond treatment were more evenly dispersed throughout PIZs than those fractured by nanosecond treatment. Additionally, picosecond-then-picosecond laser treatment (5-pass-picosecond treatment + 5-pass-picosecond treatment) induced greater disintegration of tattoo particles within PIZs than picosecond-then-nanosecond laser treatment (5-pass-picosecond treatment + 5-pass-nanosecond treatment). High-speed cinematography recorded the formation of PIZs after repeated reflection and propagation of acoustic waves over hundreds of microseconds to a few milliseconds. The present data may be of use in predicting three-dimensional laser-tattoo interactions and associated reactions in surrounding tissue.

  16. Diagnostics for the laser fusion program: plasma physics on the scale of microns and picoseconds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attwood, D.T.

    1978-01-01

    Laser induced fusion is the forerunner of a class of inertial confinement schemes in which hydrogen isotopes are heated to thermonuclear conditions in a very short period. The process is characterized by such short time scales that fuel confinement is achieved through its' own finite mass and expansion velocity, approaching 1 μm/psec for ignition temperatures of order 10 keV (10 8 0 K). With current laser powers limited to several terrawatts one readily estimates, on the basis of energy conservation, target mass, and expansion velocity, that target size and laser pulse duration are on the order of 100 μm and 100 psec, respectively. Within these constraints, targets have been heated and confined to the point where thermonuclear conditions have been achieved. This paper describes a sampling of diagnostic techniques with requisite resolution (microns and picoseconds) to accurately describe the dynamics of a laser driven compression. As discussed in each case cited, these in turn provide insight to and quantitative measure of, the physical processes dominating the implosion. The success of the inertial confinement fusion program is strongly dependent on the continued development of such diagnostics and the understanding they provide

  17. Formation of Porous Structure with Subspot Size under the Irradiation of Picosecond Laser Pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was presented in this paper on porous structure with microsize holes significantly smaller than laser spot on the stainless steel 304 target surface induced by a picosecond Nd:van regenerative amplified laser, operating at 1064 nm. The target surface variations were studied in air ambience. The estimated surface damage threshold was 0.15 J/cm2. The target specific surface changes and phenomena observed supported a complementary study on the formation and growth of the subspot size pit holes on metal surface with dependence of laser pulse number of 50–1000 and fluences of 0.8 and 1.6 J/cm2. Two kinds of porous structures were presented: periodic holes are formed from Coulomb Explosion during locally spatial modulated ablation, and random holes are formed from the burst of bubbles in overheated liquid during phase explosion. It can be concluded that it is effective to fabricate a large metal surface area of porous structure by laser scanning regime. Generally, it is also difficult for ultrashort laser to fabricate the microporous structures compared with traditional methods. These porous structures potentially have a number of important applications in nanotechnology, industry, nuclear complex, and so forth.

  18. Negative pressure and spallation in graphite targets under nano- and picosecond laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belikov, R S; Khishchenko, K V [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Krasyuk, I K; Semenov, A Yu; Stuchebryukhov, I A [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Rinecker, T; Schoenlein, A [Goethe University Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Rosmej, O N [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Germany, 64291 Darmstadt, Planckstraße, 1 (Germany); Tomut, M [Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany, 64289 Darmstadt, Karolinenplatz, 5 (Germany)

    2015-05-31

    We present the results of experiments on the spallation phenomena in graphite targets under shock-wave nano- and picosecond irradiation, which have been performed on Kamerton-T (GPI, Moscow, Russia) and PHELIX (GSI, Darmstadt, Germany) laser facilities. In the range of the strain rates of 10{sup 6} – 10{sup 7} s{sup -1}, the data on the dynamic mechanical strength of the material at rapure (spallation) have been for the first time obtained. With a maximal strain rate of 1.4 × 10{sup 7} s{sup -1}, the spall strength of 2.1 GPa is obtained, which constitutes 64% of the theoretical ultimate tensile strength of graphite. The effect of spallation is observed not only on the rear side of the target, but also on its irradiated (front) surface. With the use of optical and scanning electron microscopes, the morphology of the front and rear surfaces of the targets is studied. By means of Raman scattering of light, the graphite structure both on the target front surface under laser exposure and on its rear side in the spall zone is investigated. A comparison of the dynamic strength of graphite and synthetic diamond is performed. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  19. Monitoring Photosynthesis in Individual Cells of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 on a Picosecond Timescale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumova, S.B.; Laptenok, S.P.; Borst, J.W.; Ughy, B.; Gombos, Z.; Ajlani, G.; van Amerongen, H.

    2010-01-01

    Picosecond fluorescence kinetics of wild-type (WT) and mutant cells of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, were studied at the ensemble level with a streak-camera and at the cell level using fluorescence-lifetime-imaging microscopy (FLIM). The FLIM measurements are in good agreement with the ensemble measurements, but they (can) unveil variations between and within cells. The BE mutant cells, devoid of photosystem II (PSII) and of the light-harvesting phycobilisomes, allowed the study of photosystem I (PSI) in vivo for the first time, and the observed 6-ps equilibration process and 25-ps trapping process are the same as found previously for isolated PSI. No major differences are detected between different cells. The PAL mutant cells, devoid of phycobilisomes, show four lifetimes: ∼20 ps (PSI and PSII), ∼80 ps, ∼440 ps, and 2.8 ns (all due to PSII), but not all cells are identical and variations in the kinetics are traced back to differences in the PSI/PSII ratio. Finally, FLIM measurements on WT cells reveal that in some cells or parts of cells, phycobilisomes are disconnected from PSI/PSII. It is argued that the FLIM setup used can become instrumental in unraveling photosynthetic regulation mechanisms in the future. PMID:20858447

  20. Picosecond laser ablation of poly-L-lactide: Effect of crystallinity on the material response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Rocio; Quintana, Iban; Etxarri, Jon [Manufacturing Processes Department, Fundacion TEKNIKER, Av. Otaola 20, 20600, Eibar, Guipuzcoa (Spain); Lejardi, Ainhoa; Sarasua, Jose-Ramon [Department of Mining and Metallurgy Engineering and Materials Science, School of Engineering, University of the Basque Country (EHU-UPV), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2011-11-01

    The picosecond laser ablation of poly-L-lactide (PLLA) as a function of laser fluence and degree of crystallinity was examined. The ablation parameters and the surface modifications were analyzed under various irradiation conditions using laser wavelengths ranging from the ultraviolet through the visible. When processing the amorphous PLLA, both energy threshold and topography varied considerably depending on laser wavelength. Laser irradiation showed a reduction in the energy ablation threshold as the degree of crystallinity increased, probably related to photomechanical effects involved in laser ablation with ultra-short pulses and the lower stress accommodation behavior of semicrystalline polymers. In particular, cooperative chain motions are impeded by the higher degree of crystallinity, showing fragile mechanical behavior and lower energy dissipation. The experimental results on ablation rate versus laser energy showed that UV laser ablation on semicrystalline PLLA was more efficient than the visible ablation, i.e., it exhibits higher etch rates over a wide range of pulse energy conditions. These results were interpreted in terms of photo-thermal and photo-chemical response of polymers as a function of material micro-structure and incident laser wavelength. High quality micro-grooves were produced in amorphous PLLA, reveling the potential of ultra-fast laser processing technique in the field of micro-structuring biocompatible and biodegradable polymers for biomedical applications.

  1. Picosecond imaging of inertial confinement fusion plasmas using electron pulse-dilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilsabeck, T. J.; Nagel, S. R.; Hares, J. D.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A. K. L.; Piston, K.; Chung, T. M.

    2017-02-01

    Laser driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF) plasmas typically have burn durations on the order of 100 ps. Time resolved imaging of the x-ray self emission during the hot spot formation is an important diagnostic tool which gives information on implosion symmetry, transient features and stagnation time. Traditional x-ray gated imagers for ICF use microchannel plate detectors to obtain gate widths of 40-100 ps. The development of electron pulse-dilation imaging has enabled a 10X improvement in temporal resolution over legacy instruments. In this technique, the incoming x-ray image is converted to electrons at a photocathode. The electrons are accelerated with a time-varying potential that leads to temporal expansion as the electron signal transits the tube. This expanded signal is recorded with a gated detector and the effective temporal resolution of the composite system can be as low as several picoseconds. An instrument based on this principle, known as the Dilation X-ray Imager (DIXI) has been constructed and fielded at the National Ignition Facility. Design features and experimental results from DIXI will be presented.

  2. Picosecond laser ablation of poly-L-lactide: Effect of crystallinity on the material response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, Rocio; Quintana, Iban; Etxarri, Jon; Lejardi, Ainhoa; Sarasua, Jose-Ramon

    2011-01-01

    The picosecond laser ablation of poly-L-lactide (PLLA) as a function of laser fluence and degree of crystallinity was examined. The ablation parameters and the surface modifications were analyzed under various irradiation conditions using laser wavelengths ranging from the ultraviolet through the visible. When processing the amorphous PLLA, both energy threshold and topography varied considerably depending on laser wavelength. Laser irradiation showed a reduction in the energy ablation threshold as the degree of crystallinity increased, probably related to photomechanical effects involved in laser ablation with ultra-short pulses and the lower stress accommodation behavior of semicrystalline polymers. In particular, cooperative chain motions are impeded by the higher degree of crystallinity, showing fragile mechanical behavior and lower energy dissipation. The experimental results on ablation rate versus laser energy showed that UV laser ablation on semicrystalline PLLA was more efficient than the visible ablation, i.e., it exhibits higher etch rates over a wide range of pulse energy conditions. These results were interpreted in terms of photo-thermal and photo-chemical response of polymers as a function of material micro-structure and incident laser wavelength. High quality micro-grooves were produced in amorphous PLLA, reveling the potential of ultra-fast laser processing technique in the field of micro-structuring biocompatible and biodegradable polymers for biomedical applications.

  3. Picosecond laser registration of interference pattern by oxidation of thin Cr films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiko, Vadim; Yarchuk, Michail [ITMO University, Kronverksky Ave. 49, St. Petersburg, 197101 (Russian Federation); Zakoldaev, Roman, E-mail: zakoldaev@gmail.com [ITMO University, Kronverksky Ave. 49, St. Petersburg, 197101 (Russian Federation); Gedvilas, Mindaugas; Račiukaitis, Gediminas [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanoriu Ave. 231, LT-02300, Vilnius (Lithuania); Kuzivanov, Michail; Baranov, Alexander [ITMO University, Kronverksky Ave. 49, St. Petersburg, 197101 (Russian Federation)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Periodical patterning of thin films was achieved by combining two technologies. • Selective chemical etching was combined with laser-induced oxidation. • Formation of the protective oxide layer prevented of chromium film from etching. • 1D binary grating with the chromium stripe width of 750 nm was fabricated. - Abstract: The laser oxidation of thin metallic films followed by its selective chemical etching is a promising method for the formation of binary metal structures on the glass substrates. It is important to confirm that even a single ultrashort laser pulse irradiation is able to create the protective oxide layer that makes possible to imprint the thermochemical image. Results of the thermo-chemical treatment of thin chromium films irradiated by picosecond laser pulse utilizing two and four beam interference combined with the chemical etching are presented. The spatial resolution of this method can be high enough due to thermo-chemical sharpening and can be close to the diffraction limit. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was applied for characterization of the chemical composition of the protective oxide layers formed under atmospheric conditions on the surface of thin chromium films.

  4. Rapid prototyping of flexible intrafascicular electrode arrays by picosecond laser structuring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Matthias; de la Oliva, Natalia; Del Valle, Jaume; Delgado-Martínez, Ignacio; Navarro, Xavier; Stieglitz, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    Interfacing the peripheral nervous system can be performed with a large variety of electrode arrays. However, stimulating and recording a nerve while having a reasonable amount of channels limits the number of available systems. Translational research towards human clinical trial requires device safety and biocompatibility but would benefit from design flexibility in the development process to individualize probes. We selected established medical grade implant materials like precious metals and Parylene C to develop a rapid prototyping process for novel intrafascicular electrode arrays using a picosecond laser structuring. A design for a rodent animal model was developed in conjunction with an intrafascicular implantation strategy. Electrode characterization and optimization was performed first in saline solution in vitro before performance and biocompatibility were validated in sciatic nerves of rats in chronic implantation. The novel fabrication process proved to be suitable for prototyping and building intrafascicular electrode arrays. Electrochemical properties of the electrode sites were enhanced and tested for long-term stability. Chronic implantation in the sciatic nerve of rats showed good biocompatibility, selectivity and stable stimulation thresholds. Established medical grade materials can be used for intrafascicular nerve electrode arrays when laser structuring defines structure size in the micro-scale. Design flexibility reduces re-design cycle time and material certificates are beneficial support for safety studies on the way to clinical trials.

  5. Picosecond ultrasonic study of surface acoustic waves on periodically patterned layered nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colletta, Michael; Gachuhi, Wanjiru; Gartenstein, Samuel A; James, Molly M; Szwed, Erik A; Daly, Brian C; Cui, Weili; Antonelli, George A

    2018-07-01

    We have used the ultrafast pump-probe technique known as picosecond ultrasonics to generate and detect surface acoustic waves on a structure consisting of nanoscale Al lines on SiO 2 on Si. We report results from ten samples with varying pitch (1000-140 nm) and SiO 2 film thickness (112 nm or 60 nm), and compare our results to an isotropic elastic calculation and a coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation. In all cases we are able to detect and identify a Rayleigh-like surface acoustic wave with wavelength equal to the pitch of the lines and frequency in the range of 5-24 GHz. In some samples, we are able to detect additional, higher frequency surface acoustic waves or independent modes of the Al lines with frequencies close to 50 GHz. We also describe the effects of probe beam polarization on the measurement's sensitivity to the different surface modes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Zinc oxide nanocolloids prepared by picosecond pulsed laser ablation in water at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Urso, Luisa; Spadaro, Salvatore; Bonsignore, Martina; Santangelo, Saveria; Compagnini, Giuseppe; Neri, Fortunato; Fazio, Enza

    2018-01-01

    Zinc oxide with wide direct band gap and high exciton binding energy is one of the most promising materials for ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting devices. It further exhibits good performance in the degradation of non-biodegradable pollutants under UV irradiation. In this work, zinc oxide (ZnO) and zinc oxide/gold (ZnO/Au) nanocolloids are prepared by picosecond pulsed laser ablation (ps-PLA), using a Zn and Au metallic targets in water media at room temperature (RT) and 80°C. ZnO and Au nanoparticles (NPs) with size in the 10-50 nm range are obtained at RT, while ZnO nanorods (NRs) are formed when water is maintained at 80°C during the ps-PLA process. Au NPs, added to ZnO colloids after the ablation process, decorate ZnO NRs. The crystalline phase of all ZnO nanocolloids is wurtzite. Methylene blue dye is used to investigate the photo-catalytic activity of all the synthesised nanocolloids, under UV light irradiation.

  7. Depth profiling of calcifications in breast tissue using picosecond Kerr-gated Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Rebecca; Matousek, Pavel; Ronayne, Kate Louise; Parker, Anthony William; Rogers, Keith; Stone, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    Breast calcifications are found in both benign and malignant lesions and their composition can indicate the disease state. Calcium oxalate (dihydrate) (COD) is associated with benign lesions, however calcium hydroxyapatite (HAP) is found mainly in proliferative lesions including carcinoma. The diagnostic practices of mammography and histopathology examine the morphology of the specimen. They can not reliably distinguish between the two types of calcification, which may indicate the presence of a cancerous lesion during mammography. We demonstrate for the first time that Kerr-gated Raman spectroscopy is capable of non-destructive probing of sufficient biochemical information from calcifications buried within tissue, and this information can potentially be used as a first step in identifying the type of lesion. The method uses a picosecond pulsed laser combined with fast temporal gating of Raman scattered light to enable spectra to be collected from a specific depth within scattering media by collecting signals emerging from the sample at a given time delay following the laser pulse. Spectra characteristic of both HAP and COD were obtained at depths of up to 0.96 mm, in both chicken breast and fatty tissue; and normal and cancerous human breast by utilising different time delays. This presents great potential for the use of Raman spectroscopy as an adjunct to mammography in the early diagnosis of breast cancer.

  8. Distributed-feedback dye laser for picosecond ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaney, Perry P.; Kliner, Dahv A. V.; Schrader, Paul E.; Farrow, Roger L.

    2000-01-01

    We describe the design and operation of a tunable, picosecond laser system for use in time-resolved spectroscopic measurements in the visible and ultraviolet (UV) spectral region. The laser is designed for fine tuning and high wavelength stability. A Nd:YAG-pumped distributed-feedback dye laser (DFDL) generates pulses that are ∼100 ps in duration with a nearly transform-limited linewidth (∼5 GHz) at a 20 Hz repetition rate. The DFDL pulses are amplified in two bow-tie amplifiers, providing pulse energies of up to 3.0 mJ; the amplified pulses may be frequency doubled to the UV spectral region, providing up to 1.0 mJ. The DFDL wavelength is computer stabilized to within ±0.8 pm (±0.7 GHz, two standard deviations), allowing the wavelength to be stationed on a narrow atomic or molecular transition or permitting nearly continuous spectral scans. Application of the laser system to studies of OH energy transfer has been demonstrated; both laser-induced-fluorescence and degenerate-four-wave-mixing spectra have been recorded. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  9. Note: Space qualified photon counting detector for laser time transfer with picosecond precision and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochazka, Ivan; Kodet, Jan; Blazej, Josef

    2016-05-01

    The laser time transfer link is under construction for the European Space Agency in the frame of Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space. We have developed and tested the flying unit of the photon counting detector optimized for this space mission. The results are summarized in this Note. An extreme challenge was to build a detector package, which is rugged, small and which provides long term detection delay stability on picosecond level. The device passed successfully all the tests required for space missions on the low Earth orbits. The detector is extremely rugged and compact. Its long term detection delay stability is excellent, it is better than ±1 ps/day, in a sense of time deviation it is better than 0.5 ps for averaging times of 2000 s to several hours. The device is capable to operate in a temperature range of -55 °C up to +60 °C, the change of the detection delay with temperature is +0.5 ps/K. The device is ready for integration into the space structure now.

  10. Medical diagnosis and remote sensing at fiber-tip: picosecond resolved FRET sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polley, Nabarun; Pal, Samir Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) strategy in popular in fiber-optic sensing. However, the steady state emission quenching of the donor is inadequate to conclude FRET. The resonance type energy transfer from one molecule (donor) to other (acceptor) should meet few key properties including donor to acceptor energy migration in non-radiative way. In the present study, we have coupled the evanescent field of an optical fiber to the covalently attached donor (dansyl) molecules at the fiber tip. By using picosecond resolved time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) we have demonstrated that dansyl at the fiber tip transfers energy to a well known DNA-intercalating dye ethidium. Our ultrafast detection scheme selectively distinguishes the probe (dansyl) emission from the intrinsic emission of the fiber. We have also used the setup for the remote sensing of the dielectric constant (polarity) of an environment. We have finally implemented the detection mechanism to detect an industrial synthetic dye methylene blue (MB) in water.

  11. Picosecond dynamics of the glutamate receptor in response to agonist-induced vibrational excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Minoru; Shiomitsu, Eiji; Odai, Kei; Sugimoto, Tohru; Suzuki, Hideo; Ito, Etsuro

    2004-02-01

    Conformational changes of proteins are dominated by the excitation and relaxation processes of their vibrational states. To elucidate the mechanism of receptor activation, the conformation dynamics of receptors must be analyzed in response to agonist-induced vibrational excitation. In this study, we chose the bending vibrational mode of the guanidinium group of Arg485 of the glutamate receptor subunit GluR2 based on our previous studies, and we investigated picosecond dynamics of the glutamate receptor caused by the vibrational excitation of Arg485 via molecular dynamics simulations. The vibrational excitation energy in Arg485 in the ligand-binding site initially flowed into Lys730, and then into the J-helix at the subunit interface of the ligand-binding domain. Consequently, the atomic displacement in the subunit interface around an intersubunit hydrogen bond was evoked in about 3 ps. This atomic displacement may perturb the subunit packing of the receptor, triggering receptor activation. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. High peak power picosecond hybrid fiber and solid-state amplifier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wushouer, X; Yan, P; Yu, H; Liu, Q; Fu, X; Yan, X; Gong, M

    2010-01-01

    We report the high peak power picosecond hybrid fiber and solid-state laser amplifier system. The passively mode-locked solid-state seed source produced an average power of 1.8 W with pulse width of 14 ps and repetition rate of 86 MHz. It was directly coupled into the first Yb-doped polarized photonic crystal fiber amplifier stage. To avoid the nonlinear effects in fiber, the output power from the first stage was merely amplified to 24 W with the narrow spectra broadening of 0.21 nm. For the improvement of the peak power, the dual-end pumped composite Nd:YVO 4 amplifier system has been chosen at the second stage. To reduce the serious thermal effect, the thermally bonded composite YVO 4 – Nd:YVO 4 – YVO 4 rod crystal was used as the gain medium. The 53 W TEM 00 mode with the peak power of 40 kW, beam quality of M 2 < 1.15, corresponding to the optical-optical efficiency of 42.4% was obtained at the hybrid amplifier laser system. The system allows using a low power seed source and demonstrates an increase in the peak power beyond a fiber master oscillator power amplifier's (MOPA's) limit

  13. Interferometrically enhanced sub-terahertz picosecond imaging utilizing a miniature collapsing-field-domain source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainshtein, Sergey N.; Duan, Guoyong; Mikhnev, Valeri A.; Zemlyakov, Valery E.; Egorkin, Vladimir I.; Kalyuzhnyy, Nikolay A.; Maleev, Nikolai A.; Näpänkangas, Juha; Sequeiros, Roberto Blanco; Kostamovaara, Juha T.

    2018-05-01

    Progress in terahertz spectroscopy and imaging is mostly associated with femtosecond laser-driven systems, while solid-state sources, mainly sub-millimetre integrated circuits, are still in an early development phase. As simple and cost-efficient an emitter as a Gunn oscillator could cause a breakthrough in the field, provided its frequency limitations could be overcome. Proposed here is an application of the recently discovered collapsing field domains effect that permits sub-THz oscillations in sub-micron semiconductor layers thanks to nanometer-scale powerfully ionizing domains arising due to negative differential mobility in extreme fields. This shifts the frequency limit by an order of magnitude relative to the conventional Gunn effect. Our first miniature picosecond pulsed sources cover the 100-200 GHz band and promise milliwatts up to ˜500 GHz. Thanks to the method of interferometrically enhanced time-domain imaging proposed here and the low single-shot jitter of ˜1 ps, our simple imaging system provides sufficient time-domain imaging contrast for fresh-tissue terahertz histology.

  14. ASIC for time-of-flight measurements with picosecond timing resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankova, Vera; Shen, Wei; Harion, Tobias [Kirchhoff-Institute for Physics, Heidelberg Univ. (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The Positron Emission Tomography (PET) images are especially affected by a high level of noise. This noise affects the potential to detect and discriminate the tumor in relation to the background. Including Time-of-Flight information, with picosecond time resolution, within the conventional PET scanners will improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and in sequence the quality of the medical images. A mix-mode ASIC (STIC3) has been developed for high precision timing measurements with Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM). The STiC3 is 64-channel chip, with fully differential analog front-end for crosstalk and electronic noise immunity. It integrates Time to Digital Converters (TDC) with time binning of 50.2 ps for time and energy measurements. Measurements of the of the analog front-end show a time jitter less than 20 ps and jitter of the TDC together with the digital part is around 37 ps. Further the timing of a channel has been tested by injecting a pulse into two channels and measuring the time difference of the recorded timestamps. A Coincidence Time Resolution (CTR) of 215 ps FWHM has been obtained with 3.1 x 3.1 x 15 mm{sup 2} LYSO:Ce scintillator crystals and Hamamatsu SiPM matric (S12643-050CN(x)). Characterization measurements with the chip and its performances are presented.

  15. Effects of Laser Operating Parameters on Piezoelectric Substrates Micromachining with Picosecond Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamia EL Fissi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ten picoseconds (200 kHz ultrafast laser micro-structuring of piezoelectric substrates including AT-cut quartz, Lithium Niobate and Lithium Tantalate have been studied for the purpose of piezoelectric devices application ranging from surface acoustic wave devices, e.g., bandpass filters, to photonic devices such as optical waveguides and holograms. The study examines the impact of changing several laser parameters on the resulting microstructural shapes and morphology. The micromachining rate has been observed to be strongly dependent on the operating parameters, such as the pulse fluence, the scan speed and the scan number. The results specifically indicate that ablation at low fluence and low speed scan tends to form a U-shaped cross-section, while a V-shaped profile can be obtained by using a high fluence and a high scan speed. The evolution of surface morphology revealed that laser pulses overlap in a range around 93% for both Lithium Niobate (LiNbO3 and Lithium Tantalate (LiTaO3 and 98% for AT-cut quartz can help to achieve optimal residual surface roughness.

  16. Post-processing of 3D-printed parts using femtosecond and picosecond laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingareev, Ilya; Gehlich, Nils; Bonhoff, Tobias; Meiners, Wilhelm; Kelbassa, Ingomar; Biermann, Tim; Richardson, Martin C.

    2014-03-01

    Additive manufacturing, also known as 3D-printing, is a near-net shape manufacturing approach, delivering part geometry that can be considerably affected by various process conditions, heat-induced distortions, solidified melt droplets, partially fused powders, and surface modifications induced by the manufacturing tool motion and processing strategy. High-repetition rate femtosecond and picosecond laser radiation was utilized to improve surface quality of metal parts manufactured by laser additive techniques. Different laser scanning approaches were utilized to increase the ablation efficiency and to reduce the surface roughness while preserving the initial part geometry. We studied post-processing of 3D-shaped parts made of Nickel- and Titanium-base alloys by utilizing Selective Laser Melting (SLM) and Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) as additive manufacturing techniques. Process parameters such as the pulse energy, the number of layers and their spatial separation were varied. Surface processing in several layers was necessary to remove the excessive material, such as individual powder particles, and to reduce the average surface roughness from asdeposited 22-45 μm to a few microns. Due to the ultrafast laser-processing regime and the small heat-affected zone induced in materials, this novel integrated manufacturing approach can be used to post-process parts made of thermally and mechanically sensitive materials, and to attain complex designed shapes with micrometer precision.

  17. A review on high-resolution CMOS delay lines: towards sub-picosecond jitter performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrazzaq, Bilal I; Abdul Halin, Izhal; Kawahito, Shoji; Sidek, Roslina M; Shafie, Suhaidi; Yunus, Nurul Amziah Md

    2016-01-01

    A review on CMOS delay lines with a focus on the most frequently used techniques for high-resolution delay step is presented. The primary types, specifications, delay circuits, and operating principles are presented. The delay circuits reported in this paper are used for delaying digital inputs and clock signals. The most common analog and digitally-controlled delay elements topologies are presented, focusing on the main delay-tuning strategies. IC variables, namely, process, supply voltage, temperature, and noise sources that affect delay resolution through timing jitter are discussed. The design specifications of these delay elements are also discussed and compared for the common delay line circuits. As a result, the main findings of this paper are highlighting and discussing the followings: the most efficient high-resolution delay line techniques, the trade-off challenge found between CMOS delay lines designed using either analog or digitally-controlled delay elements, the trade-off challenge between delay resolution and delay range and the proposed solutions for this challenge, and how CMOS technology scaling can affect the performance of CMOS delay lines. Moreover, the current trends and efforts used in order to generate output delayed signal with low jitter in the sub-picosecond range are presented.

  18. Picosecond ion pulses from an EN tandem created by a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnes, K.D.; Cocke, C.L.; Chang, Z.; Ben-Itzhak, I.; Needham, H.V.; Rankin, A.

    2007-01-01

    As the James R. Macdonald Laboratory at Kansas State University continues its transformation from an ion collisions facility to an ultrafast laser/ion collisions facility, we are looking for novel ways to combine our traditional accelerator expertise with our new laser capabilities. One such combination is to produce picosecond pulses of stripping gas ions in the high energy accelerating tube of our EN tandem by directing ∼100 fs, sub-milliJoule laser pulses up the high energy end of the tandem toward a focusing mirror at the terminal. Ion pulses from both stripping and residual gas have been produced and identified, with pulse widths thus far on the order of a nanosecond. This width represents an upper limit, as it is dominated by pulse-to-pulse jitter in the ion time-of-flight (TOF) and is therefore not a true representation of the actual pulse width. In this paper, we describe the development process and report on the results to date. Conditions limiting the minimum temporal pulse width, such as tandem terminal ripple, thermal motion of the gas and space charge effects, are also outlined

  19. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Applications of Picosecond Spectroscopy to Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    1984-01-01

    With the development of lasers that can generate light 11 14 pulses ranging from 10- - 10- sec duration, and capable of 13 peak powers in excess of 10 watts scientists have been able to investigate the interactions of light with matter in a time and power domain not previously possible. These ultrashort laser pulses provide a powerful tool for the study of chemical phenomena at the most fundamental level. Many of the elementary processes of importance in chemistry including energy dissipa­ tion, molecular motions, structural and chemical changes occur on a very short time scale and thus require special approaches. Th~ use of ultrashort laser pulses to perturb and to probe systems of interest affords a direct approach to the time reso­ lution of very rapid chemical phenomena. It was recognition of the impact of these relatively new approaches to chemical phenomena that motivated NATO to sponsor a meeting on the applications of picosecond spectroscopy in chemistry. The primary aim of the NATO workshop was to ...

  20. Characterestics of pico-second single bunch at the S-band linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uesaka, Mitsuru; Kozawa, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Toshiaki; Ueda, Toru; Miya, Kenzo

    1994-01-01

    Measurement of the bunch structure of a pico-second single bunch was performed using a femto-second streak camera at the S-band linear accelerator of the University of Tokyo. The aim of this research is to investigate the feasibility of the generation of a femto-second single bunch at the S-band linac. The details of the bunch structure and energy spectrum of an original single bunch were precisely investigated in several operation modes where the RF phases in accelerating tubes and a prebuncher were varied. The femto-second streak camera was utilized to measure the bunch structure by one shot via Cherenkov radiation emitted by the electrons in the bunch. Next, an experiment for magnetic pulse compression of the original single bunch was carried out. Pulse shapes of the compressed bunchs for different energy modulation were also obtained by measuring Cherenkov radiation by one shot using the femto-second streak camera. Prior to the experiment, numerical tracking analysis to determine operating parameters for the magnetic pulse compression was also done. Measured pulse widths were compared with calculated ones. Finally, a 2 ps (full width at half maximum; FWHM) single bunch with an electric charge of 0.3 nC could be generated by the magnetic pulse compression. ((orig.))

  1. Picosecond ballistic imaging of diesel injection in high-temperature and high-pressure air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Sean P.; Porter, Jason M.; Parker, Terence E.

    2015-04-01

    The first successful demonstration of picosecond ballistic imaging using a 15-ps-pulse-duration laser in diesel sprays at temperature and pressure is reported. This technique uses an optical Kerr effect shutter constructed from a CS2 liquid cell and a 15-ps pulse at 532 nm. The optical shutter can be adjusted to produce effective imaging pulses between 7 and 16 ps. This technique is used to image the near-orifice region (first 3 mm) of diesel sprays from a high-pressure single-hole fuel injector. Ballistic imaging of dodecane and methyl oleate sprays injected into ambient air and diesel injection at preignition engine-like conditions are reported. Dodecane was injected into air heated to 600 °C and pressurized to 20 atm. The resulting images of the near-orifice region at these conditions reveal dramatic shedding of the liquid near the nozzle, an effect that has been predicted, but to our knowledge never before imaged. These shedding structures have an approximate spatial frequency of 10 mm-1 with lengths from 50 to 200 μm. Several parameters are explored including injection pressure, liquid fuel temperature, air temperature and pressure, and fuel type. Resulting trends are summarized with accompanying images.

  2. Ultrafast high-repetition imaging of fuel sprays using picosecond fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwar, Harsh; Wang, Hongjie; Tang, Mincheng; Idlahcen, Saïd; Rozé, Claude; Blaisot, Jean-Bernard; Godin, Thomas; Hideur, Ammar

    2015-12-28

    Modern diesel injectors operate at very high injection pressures of about 2000 bar resulting in injection velocities as high as 700 m/s near the nozzle outlet. In order to better predict the behavior of the atomization process at such high pressures, high-resolution spray images at high repetition rates must be recorded. However, due to extremely high velocity in the near-nozzle region, high-speed cameras fail to avoid blurring of the structures in the spray images due to their exposure time. Ultrafast imaging featuring ultra-short laser pulses to freeze the motion of the spray appears as an well suited solution to overcome this limitation. However, most commercial high-energy ultrafast sources are limited to a few kHz repetition rates. In the present work, we report the development of a custom-designed picosecond fiber laser generating ∼ 20 ps pulses with an average power of 2.5 W at a repetition rate of 8.2 MHz, suitable for high-speed imaging of high-pressure fuel jets. This fiber source has been proof tested by obtaining backlight images of diesel sprays issued from a single-orifice injector at an injection pressure of 300 bar. We observed a consequent improvement in terms of image resolution compared to standard white-light illumination. In addition, the compactness and stability against perturbations of our fiber laser system makes it particularly suitable for harsh experimental conditions.

  3. Picosecond laser micro/nano surface texturing of nickel for superhydrophobicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. C.; Wang, B.; Xie, H.; Zheng, H. Y.; Lam, Y. C.

    2018-03-01

    A single step direct picosecond laser texturing process was demonstrated to be able to obtain a superhydrophobic surface on a nickel substrate, a key material for mold fabrication in the manufacture of various devices, including polymeric microfluidic devices. A two-scale hierarchical surface structure of regular 2D array micro-bumps with nano-ripples was produced on a nickel surface. The laser textured surface initially showed superhydrophilicity with almost complete wetting of the structured surface just after laser treatment, then quickly changed to nearly superhydrophobic with a water contact angle (WCA) of 140° in less than 1 d, and finally became superhydrophobic with a WCA of more than 150° and a contact angle hysteresis (CAH) of less than 5°. The mechanism involved in the process is discussed in terms of surface morphology and surface chemistry. The ultra-fast laser induced NiO catalytic effect was thought to play a key role in modifying the surface chemistry so as to lower the surface energy. The developed process has the potential to improve the performance of nickel mold in the fabrication of microfluidic devices.

  4. Picosecond laser pulse-driven crystallization behavior of SiSb phase change memory thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Huan; Li Simian; Zhai Fengxiao; Wang Yang; Lai Tianshu; Wu Yiqun; Gan Fuxi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We reported crystallization dynamics of a novel SiSb phase change material. → We measured optical constants of as-deposited and irradiated SiSb areas. → Optical properties of as-deposited and irradiated SiSb thin film were compared. → Crystallization of irradiated SiSb was confirmed by using AFM and micro-Raman spectra. → The heat conduction effect of lower metal layer of multi-layer films was studied. - Abstract: Transient phase change crystallization process of SiSb phase change thin films under the irradiation of picosecond (ps) laser pulse was studied using time-resolved reflectivity measurements. The ps laser pulse-crystallized domains were characterized by atomic force microscope, Raman spectra and ellipsometrical spectra measurements. A reflectivity contrast of about 15% can be achieved by ps laser pulse-induced crystallization. A minimum crystallization time of 11 ns was achieved by a low-fluence single ps laser pulse after pre-irradiation. SiSb was shown to be very promising for fast phase change memory applications.

  5. Picosecond phase conjugation in two-photon absorption in poly-di-acetylenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunzi, Dominique Jean-Michel

    1990-01-01

    Poly-di-acetylenes exhibit a large two-photon absorption at 1064 nm wavelength. Its different effects on phase-conjugate nonlinearity are described in the framework of picosecond experiments. In solutions, gels, and films (optically thin media), third-order susceptibility appears as an increasing intensity dependent function. Phase measurements by nonlinear interferometry with the substrate or with the solvent are compared with predictions of a resonantly driven three level system. Phase-conjugate response exhibits a multi-exponential decay. Polarization symmetries analysis shows a one-dimensional effect. Study under strong static electric field action reveals that we face charged species bound to photoconductive polymer chains. In PTS single crystals (optically thick media), response saturates and cancels at high light intensity. This is well accounted for by propagation equations solved in large two-photon absorption conditions. The effect is exploited in a phase conjugation experiment under external optical pump excitation. We thus demonstrate that enhanced nonlinearity is a two-photon absorption relayed and amplified by mid-gap absorbing species which have been created by this two-photon absorption. We formally face a four-photon absorption described by a positive imaginary seventh-order non-linearity. (author) [fr

  6. Rapid prototyping of flexible intrafascicular electrode arrays by picosecond laser structuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Matthias; de la Oliva, Natalia; del Valle, Jaume; Delgado-Martínez, Ignacio; Navarro, Xavier; Stieglitz, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    Objective. Interfacing the peripheral nervous system can be performed with a large variety of electrode arrays. However, stimulating and recording a nerve while having a reasonable amount of channels limits the number of available systems. Translational research towards human clinical trial requires device safety and biocompatibility but would benefit from design flexibility in the development process to individualize probes. Approach. We selected established medical grade implant materials like precious metals and Parylene C to develop a rapid prototyping process for novel intrafascicular electrode arrays using a picosecond laser structuring. A design for a rodent animal model was developed in conjunction with an intrafascicular implantation strategy. Electrode characterization and optimization was performed first in saline solution in vitro before performance and biocompatibility were validated in sciatic nerves of rats in chronic implantation. Main results. The novel fabrication process proved to be suitable for prototyping and building intrafascicular electrode arrays. Electrochemical properties of the electrode sites were enhanced and tested for long-term stability. Chronic implantation in the sciatic nerve of rats showed good biocompatibility, selectivity and stable stimulation thresholds. Significance. Established medical grade materials can be used for intrafascicular nerve electrode arrays when laser structuring defines structure size in the micro-scale. Design flexibility reduces re-design cycle time and material certificates are beneficial support for safety studies on the way to clinical trials.

  7. Ten-watt level picosecond parametric mid-IR source broadly tunable in wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyvlečka, Michal; Novák, Ondřej; Roškot, Lukáscaron; Smrž, Martin; Mužík, Jiří; Endo, Akira; Mocek, Tomáš

    2018-02-01

    Mid-IR wavelength range (between 2 and 8 μm) offers perspective applications, such as minimally-invasive neurosurgery, gas sensing, or plastic and polymer processing. Maturity of high average power near-IR lasers is beneficial for powerful mid-IR generation by optical parametric conversion. We utilize in-house developed Yb:YAG thin-disk laser of 100 W average power at 77 kHz repetition rate, wavelength of 1030 nm, and about 2 ps pulse width for pumping of a ten-watt level picosecond mid-IR source. Seed beam is obtained by optical parametric generation in a double-pass 10 mm long PPLN crystal pumped by a part of the fundamental near-IR beam. Tunability of the signal wavelength between 1.46 μm and 1.95 μm was achieved with power of several tens of miliwatts. Main part of the fundamental beam pumps an optical parametric amplification stage, which includes a walk-off compensating pair of 10 mm long KTP crystals. We already demonstrated the OPA output signal and idler beam tunability between 1.70-1.95 μm and 2.18-2.62 μm, respectively. The signal and idler beams were amplified up to 8.5 W and 5 W, respectively, at 42 W pump without evidence of strong saturation. Thus, increase in signal and idler output power is expected for pump power increase.

  8. Face and labial rejuvenation with the new Nd-Yag 1064 picoseconds laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Heitor; Teixeira, Carolina

    2018-04-01

    Lips are the component of the oral cavity which synthesizes more functions and emotions. The nonverbal communication is established by the body, every movement gesture, posture and facial expression which shows a willingness to communicate directly or subtly, consciously or unconsciously. The smile is one of the expressions that attract us the most, for its simplicity and mainly for its puzzle. In Lips aging implies a loss of mucous membranes' density; lips' dehydrate and resect themselves, reducing its' thickness which causes an appearance of aging of the all face. The demands of public opinion of being young and stay young are becoming more and more pressing, therefore it is necessary to meet this demand. The responsibility of achieving this task is up to the doctor, the anti-aging medicine and the actual existing physical means, which are available to correct and prevent this disease. Having the possibility of using the new picoseconds Nd-Yag Laser in Lips' rejuvenation we must use them together and in accordance between them and the guideline we presented what we believe to be the guideline which allows us to obtain good results in a new and simple effective treatment that can be proved by the major aspect of the lip and by evidence and monitoring that we went through for about ten month. Obtained results of labial cracks' disappearance inside of the red mucosa increase in lips' volume and contour and disappearance of oral wrinkles creates an aesthetic appearance witch is remarkable. This is a non invasive method with minimal complications with low morbidity and in our opinion superior results when compared to other traditional methods considered soft tissue augmentation including peelings, botox injections, injectable fillers such as hyaluronic acid injections temporary and permanent injectable bio-implants, bio- catalysts and even surgery of the upper lip.

  9. Surface characterization of carbon fiber reinforced polymers by picosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, Rodolfo; Palmieri, Frank; Connell, John; Yost, William; Fitz-Gerald, James

    2018-02-01

    Adhesive bonding of composite materials requires reliable monitoring and detection of surface contaminants as part of a vigorous quality control process to assure robust and durable bonded structures. Surface treatment and effective monitoring prior to bonding are essential in order to obtain a surface which is free from contaminants that may lead to inferior bond quality. In this study, the focus is to advance the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique by using pulse energies below 100 μJ (μLIBS) for the detection of low levels of silicone contaminants in carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites. Various CFRP surface conditions were investigated by LIBS using ∼10 ps, 355 nm laser pulses with pulse energies below 30 μJ. Time-resolved analysis was conducted to optimize the gate delay and gate width for the detection of the C I emission line at 247.9 nm to monitor the epoxy resin matrix of CFRP composites and the Si I emission line at 288.2 nm for detection of silicone contaminants in CFRP. To study the surface sensitivity to silicone contamination, CFRP surfaces were coated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), the active ingredient in many mold release agents. The presence of PDMS was studied by inspecting the Si I emission lines at 251.6 nm and 288.2 nm. The measured PDMS areal densities ranged from 0.15 to 2 μg/cm2. LIBS measurements were performed before and after laser surface ablation. The results demonstrate the successful detection of PDMS thin layers on CFRP using picosecond μLIBS.

  10. The effects of a picosecond pulsed electric field on angiogenesis in the cervical cancer xenograft models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Limei; Yao, Chenguo; Xiong, Zhengai; Zhang, Ruizhe; Wang, Zhiliang; Wu, Yutong; Qin, Qin; Hua, Yuanyuan

    2016-04-01

    The application of picosecond pulsed electric field (psPEF) is a new biomedical engineering technique used in cancer therapy. However, its effects on cervical cancer angiogenesis are not clear. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of psPEF on angiogenesis in cervical cancer xenograft models. Xenograft tumors were created by subcutaneously inoculating nude mice (athymic BALB/c nu/nu mice) with HeLa cells, then were placed closely between tweezer-type plate electrodes and subjected to psPEF with a gradually increased electric field intensity (0kV/cm, 50kV/cm, 60kV/cm, 70kV/cm). The direct effect on tumor tissue was observed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The changes of blood vessels and oxygen saturation (sO2) of tumors were monitored in vivo by photoacoustic tomography (PAT). The microvessel density (MVD), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIF-1α and HIF-2α) were detected by immunohistochemical technique (IHC). Their protein expressions and gene transcription levels were evaluated using western blot (WB) and quantitative reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). PsPEF induced obvious necrosis of cervical cancer tissue; with the increasing of electric field intensity, the MVD, vascular PA signal and sO2 values declined significantly. The protein expression and gene transcription levels of VEGF, HIF1α and HIF2α were significantly decreased at the same time. PsPEF exhibited dramatic anti-tumor and anti-angiogenesis effects in cervical cancer xenograft models by exerting direct effect on cancer cells and vascular endothelial cells and indirect effect on tumor angiogenesis-related factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterisation of weld zone reactions in dissimilar glass-to-aluminium pulsed picosecond laser welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciuca, Octav P., E-mail: octav.ciuca@manchester.ac.uk [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Carter, Richard M. [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Prangnell, Philip B. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Hand, Duncan P. [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-15

    Precision welded joints, produced between fused silica glass and aluminium by a newly-developed picosecond-pulse laser technique, have been analysed for the first time using a full range of electron microscopy methods. The welds were produced as lap joints by focusing a 1.2 μm diameter laser beam through the transparent glass top sheet, slightly below the surface of the metal bottom sheet. Despite the extremely short interaction time, extensive reaction was observed in the weld zone, which involved the formation of nanocrystalline silicon and at least two transitional alumina phases, γ- and δ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The weld formation process was found to be complex and involved: the formation of a constrained plasma cavity at the joint interface, non-linear absorption in the glass, and the creation of multiple secondary keyholes in the metal substrate by beam scattering. The joint area was found to expand outside of the main interaction volume, as the energy absorbed into the low conductivity and higher melting point silica glass sheet melted the aluminium surface across a wider contact area. The reasons for the appearance of nanocrystalline Si and transitional alumina reaction products within the welds are discussed. - Highlights: •Pulsed laser welding of dissimilar materials causes extensive chemical reactivity. •Metastable Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases form due to laser-induced highly-transient thermal regime. •Fused silica is reduced by Al to form nanocrystalline Si. •Mechanism of joint formation is discussed.

  12. Observation of coherently enhanced tunable narrow-band terahertz transition radiation from a relativistic sub-picosecond electron bunch train

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piot, P.; Maxwell, T. J.; Sun, Y.-E; Ruan, J.; Lumpkin, A. H.; Thurman-Keup, R.; Rihaoui, M. M.

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the production of narrow-band (δf/f≅20% at f≅0.5THz) transition radiation with tunable frequency over [0.37, 0.86] THz. The radiation is produced as a train of sub-picosecond relativistic electron bunches transits at the vacuum-aluminum interface of an aluminum converter screen. The bunch train is generated via a transverse-to-longitudinal phase space exchange technique. We also show a possible application of modulated beams to extend the dynamical range of a popular bunch length diagnostic technique based on the spectral analysis of coherent radiation.

  13. Quantitative study of the ionization-induced refraction of picosecond laser pulses in gas-jet targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackinnon, A.J.; Borghesi, M.; Iwase, A.; Jones, M.W.; Pert, G.J.; Rae, S.; Burnett, K.; Willi, O.

    1996-01-01

    A quantitative study of refractive whole beam defocusing and small scale breakup induced by optical ionization of subpicosecond and picosecond, 0.25 and 1 μm, laser pulses in gas-jet targets at densities above 1x10 19 cm -3 has been carried out. A significant reduction of the incident laser intensity was observed due to refraction from ionization-induced density gradients. The level of refraction measured with optical probing correlated well with the fraction of energy transmitted through the plasma. The numerical and analytical models were found to agree well with experimental observations. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  14. Picosecond laser fabricated Ag, Au and Ag-Au nanoparticles for detecting ammonium perchlorate using a portable Raman spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byram, Chandu; Moram, Sree Sathya Bharathi; Soma, Venugopal Rao

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we present the results from fabrication studies of Ag, Au, and Ag-Au alloy nanoparticles (NPs) using picosecond laser ablation technique in the presence of liquid media. The alloy formation in the NPs was confirmed from UV-Visible measurements. The shape and crystallinity of NPs were investigated by using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area diffraction pattern (SAED) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The SERS effect of fabricated NPs was tested with methylene blue and an explosive molecule (ammonium perchlorate) using a portable Raman spectrometer and achieved EFs of ˜106.

  15. Accelerator-based single-shot ultrafast transmission electron microscope with picosecond temporal resolution and nanometer spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, D.; Fu, F.; Zhang, J.; Huang, X.; Wang, L.; Wang, X.; Wan, W.

    2014-09-01

    We present feasibility study of an accelerator-based ultrafast transmission electron microscope (u-TEM) capable of producing a full field image in a single-shot with simultaneous picosecond temporal resolution and nanometer spatial resolution. We study key physics related to performance of u-TEMs and discuss major challenges as well as possible solutions for practical realization of u-TEMs. The feasibility of u-TEMs is confirmed through simulations using realistic electron beam parameters. We anticipate that u-TEMs with a product of temporal and spatial resolution beyond 10-19 ms will open up new opportunities in probing matter at ultrafast temporal and ultrasmall spatial scales.

  16. A re-evaluation of the initial yield of the hydrated electron in the picosecond time range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muroya, Yusa; Lin Mingzhang; Wu, Guozhong; Iijima, Hokuto; Yoshii, Koji; Ueda, Toru; Kudo, Hisaaki; Katsumura, Yosuke

    2005-01-01

    The yield of the hydrated electron in the picosecond time range has been re-evaluated with an ultrafast pulse radiolysis system using a laser photocathode RF-gun in combination with a conventional one, and a value of 4.1±0.2 per 100 eV of absorbed energy at 20 ps was derived. This is consistent with recent experimental results using a time correlation method [Bartels et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 1686-1691 (2000)] and with Monte-Carlo calculations [Muroya et al., Can. J. Chem. 80 1367-1374 (2002)

  17. Treatment of flat and elevated pigmented disorders with a 755-nm alexandrite picosecond laser: clinical and histological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegre-Sanchez, Adrian; Jiménez-Gómez, Natalia; Moreno-Arrones, Óscar M; Fonda-Pascual, Pablo; Pérez-García, Bibiana; Jaén-Olasolo, Pedro; Boixeda, Pablo

    2018-02-09

    The novel picosecond lasers, initially developed for faster tattoo removal, have also shown great efficacy in endogenous pigmentary disorders. To describe the efficacy and safety profile of an alexandrite (755-nm) picosecond laser in a wide range of pigmented flat and elevated cutaneous lesions. A retrospective study was performed in which we collected all the clinical images of patients treated with the 755-nm alexandrite picosecond laser for 12 months (November 2016-November 2017). Clinical features were obtained from their medical charts. Patients treated for tattoo removal were excluded. All the images were analyzed by three blind physicians attending to a visual analogue scale (VAS) from 0 to 5 (0, no change; 1, 1-24% clearance; 2, 25-49% clearance; 3, 50-74% clearance; 4, 75-99% clearance; 5, complete clearance). Patient satisfaction was obtained from a subjective survey including four items: very satisfied, satisfied, non-satisfied, and totally dissatisfied. Thirty-seven patients were included (12 males; 25 females). The mean age of the study was 42.35 years. Twenty-five patients (68%) were treated for different pigmented flat disorders such as solar and mucosal lentigines (5), stasis dermatitis (4), or nevus of Ota (4), among other diagnoses. Twelve patients (32%) were treated for epidermal elevated lesions such as warts (5), epidermal nevi (2), and seborrheic keratosis (3), among other elevated lesions. Mean number of laser treatment was 3.02 sessions while mean follow-up after last laser treatment was 4.02 months. Mean VAS score of the three observers was 3.44 (61% of clearance) for pigmentary flat disorders and 3.60 (67%) for elevated lesions. Adverse effects reported were mild blistering in the first 2-5 days following laser treatment in some of the patients. Overall satisfaction among the patients included was high. The novel 755-nm picosecond alexandrite laser is effective not only for the resolution of pigmented flat lesions of different nature

  18. Influence of picosecond pulse electric field to invasive ability of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-mei WU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the influence of picosecond pulse electric field (psPEF to the invasive ability of cervical cancer. Methods The model of cervical cancer was reproduced in BALB/c nude mice (n=24, and they were randomly divided into four groups (n=6 when the xenografts had grown reaching a diameter of 0.8-1.0cm: control group (psPEF was not given, low field intensity group (50kV/cm, moderate field intensity group (60kV/cm and high field intensity group (70kV/cm. Seven days after the psPEF treatment, the histomorphological changes were observed with HE staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, the expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9 were determined with immunohistochemical (IHC staining, and the changes in protein level of VEGF and MMP-9 were assessed with Western blotting. Results After psPEF treatment, the area of necrosis was found to be increased with an increase in psPEF intensity. With TEM different degrees of apoptosis and necrosis in tumor cells with an increase of psPEF intensity were found. IHC showed that the number of VEGF and MMP-9 positive cells in cancer tissue was decreased with an increase in psPEF intensity. The average optical density (AOD of VEGF and MMP-9 proteins decreased significantly in psPEF treatment groups compared with that in control group, and the AOD values in psPEF treatment groups decreased with an increase in psPEF intensity, and the decrease was statistically significant (P<0.05. Western blotting showed the expressive levels of VEGF and MMP-9 proteins declined gradually with an increase in psPEF intensity, and the difference between groups was statistically significant (P<0.05. Conclusion psPEF may have anti-cervical cancer effects by inhibiting the secretion of VEGF and MMP-9 and reducing the invasive ability of cervical cancer cells. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.09.03

  19. Picosecond Laser Treatment for Tattoos and Benign Cutaneous Pigmented Lesions (Secondary publication).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Kenichiro

    2017-12-31

    The selective removal of tattoos and benign cutaneous pigmented lesions with laser energy evolved rapidly with the development of the nanosecond-domain Q-switched laser (ns-laser). Recently, however, a series of picosecond-domain lasers (ps-lasers) with pulsewidths less than 1 ns has become commercially available, enabling more efficient and faster removal of pigmented lesions in the field of dermatologic laser surgery. The efficacy of the ns-laser depended on the theory of selective photothermolysis, whereby an extremely short pulse width was delivered less than the thermal relaxation time (TRT) of a target. At sub-ns pulsewidths, i.e. in the ps-domain, this efficacy is dramatically extended through defeating the stress relaxation time (SRT) of a target allowing for even more effective pigment destruction with even less damage to the surrounding normal tissue. This will be discussed in detail. The ps-laser has been reported as achieving tattoo removal in fewer sessions than the ns-laser, with less in the way of unwanted side effects. Tattoos recalcitrant to ns-laser treatment have responded well to the ps-laser, and although true 'color blindness' is not yet completely achieved with the ps-domain pulses currently available, multicolored tattoos have also responded very favorably. The ability to limit damage precisely to the pigment target gives greater efficacy in treatment of epidermal lesions with less induction of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation in the PIH-susceptible Asian skin, and dermal melanocytosis also respond very well to ps-laser treatment. Illustrative clinical examples from the author's experience are given. Current ps-lasers could be a revolutionary advance for laser tattoo removal but may be less effective for some specific aesthetic indications such as melasma and other cosmetic procedures. Manufacturers must make an effort to reduce the current comparatively long ps-domain pulsewidths to deliver a 'true' ps-domain laser, with more basic

  20. Gaussian approximation to single particle correlations at and below the picosecond scale for Lennard-Jones and nanoparticle fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Zon, Ramses; Ashwin, S S; Cohen, E G D

    2008-01-01

    To describe short time (picosecond) and small scale (nanometre) transport in fluids, a Green's function approach was recently developed. This approach relies on an expansion of the distribution of single particle displacements around a Gaussian function, yielding an infinite series of correction terms. Applying a recent theorem (van Zon and Cohen 2006 J. Stat. Phys. 123 1–37) shows that for sufficiently small times the terms in this series become successively smaller, so that truncating the series near or at the Gaussian level might provide a good approximation. In this paper, we derive a theoretical estimate for the time scale at which truncating the series at or near the Gaussian level could be supposed to be accurate for equilibrium nanoscale systems. In order to numerically estimate this time scale, the coefficients for the first few terms in the series are determined in computer simulations for a Lennard-Jones (LJ) fluid, an isotopic LJ mixture and a suspension of a LJ-based model of nanoparticles in a LJ fluid. The results suggest that for LJ fluids an expansion around a Gaussian is accurate at time scales up to a picosecond, while for nanoparticles in suspension (a nanofluid), the characteristic time scale up to which the Gaussian is accurate becomes of the order of 5–10 ps. (invited article)

  1. Highlighting the nuances behind interaction of picosecond pulses with human skin: Relating distinct laser-tissue interactions to their potential in cutaneous interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunbajakava, Natallia E.; Varghese, Babu; Botchkareva, Natalia V.; Verhagen, Rieko; Vogel, Alfred

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, several commercial systems relying on picosecond pulses have been introduced into the field of cutaneous interventions. In parallel with this development, a somewhat distinct research prototype also operating in the picosecond regime was described in literature. Albeit both market-available products and the investigational device employ laser beams of nearly the same pulse duration and were reported to cause laser-induced optical breakdown (LIOB), they are different in terms of wavelength, applied fluence, laser beam quality, optical architecture and related focusing optics, resulting in different histomorphological features (such as e.g. lesion size, location, expression of collagen). Understanding the differences between these systems in relation to implications for clinical results raises a need in highlighting the nuances behind interaction of picosecond pulses with biological tissue. To achieve this, we accentuate the interplay of irradiance levels of picosecond pulses in W/cm2 , absorption properties of a target tissue at a wavelength of a light source and resulting interaction mechanisms with biological object. We also relate these nuances to potential consequences for cutaneous interventions.

  2. Antibacterial mechanisms of a novel type picosecond laser-generated silver-titanium nanoparticles and their toxicity to human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshed, Peri; Li, Lin; Liu, Zhu; Mironov, Aleksandr; Wang, Tao

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we explored the antibacterial mechanisms for a novel type of Ag-TiO 2 compound nanoparticles (NPs) produced from an Ag-TiO 2 alloy using a picosecond laser and evaluated the toxicity of the Ag-TiO 2 NPs to a range of human cell types. Transmission electron microscopy was used to determine the morphology, shapes, and size distribution of the laser-generated Ag-TiO 2 NPs. UV-visible spectrometer was used to confirm the shift of light absorbance of the NPs toward visible light wavelength. Results showed that the laser-generated Ag-TiO 2 NPs had significant antibacterial activities against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains, including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus . Increased level of reactive oxygen species was produced by E. coli after exposure to the Ag-TiO 2 NPs, which was accompanied with lipid peroxidation, glutathione depletion, disintegration of cell membrane and protein leakage, leading to the cell death. Five types of human cells originated from lung (A549), liver (HePG2), kidney (HEK293), endothelium cells (human coronary artery endothelial cells [hCAECs]), and skin (human dermal fibroblast cells [HDFc]) were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the laser-generated Ag-TiO 2 NPs. A weak but statistically significant decrease in cell proliferation was observed for hCAECs, A549 and HDFc cells when co-cultured with 2.5 µg/mL or 20 µg/mL of the laser-generated Ag-TiO 2 NPs for 48 hours. However, this effect was no longer apparent when a higher concentration of NPs (20 µg/mL) was used after 72 hours of co-culture with human cells, suggesting a possible adaptive process in the cells had occurred. We conclude that picosecond laser-generated Ag-TiO 2 NPs have a broad spectrum of antibacterial effect, including against the drug-resistant strain, with multiple underlying molecular mechanisms and low human cell toxicity. The antimicrobial properties of the new type of

  3. Investigation of the dynamic behavior in materials submitted to sub-picosecond laser driven shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuq-Lelandais, Jean-Paul

    2010-01-01

    Laser driven shocks allow to investigate materials behavior at high strain rate and present a great interest for research and industrial applications. The latest laser technologies evolutions provide an access to shorter regimes in duration, below the picosecond. This work, which results from a collaboration between the P' institute, the PIMM laboratory and the CEA-DAM, is dedicated to the characterization of the metallic material behavior in this ultra-short mode (aluminium, tantalum), leading to extreme dynamic solicitation in the target (>10 7 s -1 ). The study includes the validation of experimental results obtained on the LULI 100 TW facility by comparison with numerical model. First, the study is orientated to the femtosecond (fs) laser-matter interaction, which is different from what happens in nanosecond regime. Indeed, the characteristic duration scale is comparable to several molecular phenomena like non-equilibrium electrons-ions states. The aim is to determine the equivalent pressure loading induced by the laser pulse on the target. Then, the shock wave propagation within the target has been studied and particularly its pressure decay, notably strong in this regime. In this configuration, the spalls observed are thin, a few μm order, and show a planar rupture morphology. The results obtained by post-mortem observation show that the spall thickness is thinner if the target thickness is reduced. The spalls are characterized by the VISAR measurement. Within the framework of dynamic damage modeling and rupture criteria dimensioning, particularly those which have been validated in the ns regime as Kanel, shots with different thicknesses have been carried out to determine the damage properties in function of strain rate and validate the parameters by prolongation to the ultra-shorts modes. Then, the study has been generalized to the 2D propagation waves, which can explain the spall diameter evolutions. Meanwhile, microscopic simulations of ultra-short laser

  4. Bunch-shape monitor for a picosecond single-bunch beam of a 35 MeV electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosono, Yoneichi; Nakazawa, Masaharu; Iguchi, Tetsuo

    1995-01-01

    A non-interactive-type bunch-shape and beam intensity monitor for a 35 MeV electron linear accelerator (linac) has been developed. The monitor consists of an electric SMA-type connector and an Al pipe of 50 mm inner diameter. Test measurements of the present monitor have been made under the conditions of the accelerated charges of lower than 27 nC/pulse and the pulse width ranging from 6 to 30 ps (Full Width at Half Maximum). The results show that the present monitor is applicable to bunch-shape measurement of the picosecond single-bunch beam. The monitor output is also found to be proportional to the beam intensity of more than 0.05 nC/pulse. (author)

  5. Laser breakdown with millijoule trains of picosecond pulses transmitted through a hollow-core photonic-crystal fibre

    CERN Document Server

    Konorov, S O; Kolevatova, O A; Beloglasov, V I; Skibina, N B; Shcherbakov, A V; Wintner, E; Zheltikov, A M

    2003-01-01

    Sequences of picosecond pulses with a total energy in the pulse train of about 1 mJ are transmitted through a hollow-core photonic-crystal fibre with a core diameter of approximately 14 mu m. The fluence of laser radiation coupled into the core of the fibre under these conditions exceeds the breakdown threshold of fused silica by nearly an order of magnitude. The laser beam coming out of the fibre is then focused to produce a breakdown on a solid surface. Parameters of laser radiation were chosen in such a way as to avoid effects related to the excitation of higher order waveguide modes and ionization of the gas filling the fibre in order to provide the possibility to focus the output beam into a spot with a minimum diameter, thus ensuring the maximum spatial resolution and the maximum power density in the focal spot.

  6. Influence of deposited nanoparticles on the spall strength of metals under the action of picosecond pulses of shock compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebel, A. A.; Mayer, A. E.

    2018-01-01

    Molecular dynamic simulations of the generation and propagation of shock pulses of picosecond duration initiated by nanoscale impactors, and their interaction with the rear surface is carried out for aluminum and copper. It is shown that the presence of deposited nanoparticles on the rear surface increases the threshold value of the impact intensity leading to the rear spallation. The interaction of a shock wave with nanoparticles leads to severe plastic deformation in the surface layer of the metal including nanoparticles. A part of the compression pulse energy is expended on the plastic deformation, which suppresses the spall fracture. Spallation threshold substantially increases at large diameters of deposited nanoparticles, but instability develops on the rear surface of the target, which is accompanied by ejection of droplets. The instability disrupts the integrity of the rear surface, though the loss of integrity occurs through the ejection of mass, rather than a spallation.

  7. Picosecond-resolved FRET on non-amplified DNA for identifying individuals genetically susceptible to type-1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardo, Luca; Tosi, Giovanna; Bondani, Maria; Accolla, Roberto; Andreoni, Alessandra

    2012-06-01

    By tens-of-picosecond resolved fluorescence detection we study Förster resonance energy transfer between a donor and a black-hole-quencher bound at the 5'- and 3'-positions of an oligonucleotide probe matching the highly polymorphic region between codons 51 and 58 of the human leukocyte antigen DQB1 0201 allele, conferring susceptibility to type-1 diabetes. The probe is annealed with non-amplified genomic DNAs carrying either the 0201 sequence or other DQB1 allelic variants. We detect the longest-lived donor fluorescence in the case of hybridization with the 0201 allele and definitely faster and distinct decays for the other allelic variants, some of which are single-nucleotide polymorphic.

  8. Stable, high power, high efficiency picosecond ultraviolet generation at 355 nm in K3B6O10 Br crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Z. Y.; Wang, L. R.; Xia, M. J.; Yan, D. X.; Zhang, Q. L.; Zhang, L.; Liu, L. J.; Xu, D. G.; Zhang, D. X.; Wang, X. Y.; Li, R. K.; Chen, C. T.

    2018-06-01

    We demonstrate a high efficiency and high power picosecond ultraviolet source at 355 nm with stable output by sum frequency generation from a Nd:YAG laser using a type-I critically phase matched K3B6O10 Br crystal as nonlinear optical material. Conversion efficiency as high as 30.8% was achieved using a 25 ps laser at 1064 nm operated at 10 Hz. Similar work is done by using a 35 W 10 ps laser at 1064 nm as the pump source with a repetition rate of 80 MHz, and the highest average output power obtained was up to 5.3 W. In addition, the power stability of the 355 nm output power measurement shows that the standard deviation fluctuations of the average power are ±0.69% and ±0.91% at 3.0 W and 3.5 W, respectively.

  9. Influence of picosecond multiple/single line ablation on copper nanoparticles fabricated for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and photonics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamad, Syed; Tewari, Surya P; Podagatlapalli, G Krishna; Rao, S Venugopal

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive study comprising fabrication of copper nanoparticles (NPs) using picosecond (ps) multiple/single line ablation in various solvents such as acetone, dichloromethane (DCM), acetonitrile (ACN) and chloroform followed by optical, nonlinear optical (NLO), and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) characterization was performed. The influence of surrounding liquid media and the writing conditions resulted in fabrication of Cu NPs in acetone, CuCl NPs in DCM, CuO NPs in ACN and CuCl 2 NPs in chloroform. Prepared colloids were characterized through transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectra, selected area electron diffraction and UV-visible absorption spectra. A detailed investigation of the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity and the ps NLO properties of the colloids prepared through multiple/single line ablation techniques revealed that the best performance was achieved by Cu NPs for SERS applications and CuCl 2 NPs for NLO applications. (paper)

  10. A Polarization-Adjustable Picosecond Deep-Ultraviolet Laser for Spin- and Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Feng-Feng; Yang Feng; Zhang Shen-Jin; Wang Zhi-Min; Xu Feng-Liang; Peng Qin-Jun; Zhang Jing-Yuan; Xu Zu-Yan; Wang Xiao-Yang; Chen Chuang-Tian

    2012-01-01

    We report on a polarization-adjustable picosecond deep-ultraviolet (DUV) laser at 177.3 nm. The DUV laser was produced by second harmonic generation from a mode-locked laser at 355 nm in nonlinear optical crystal KBBF. The laser delivered a maximum average output power of 1.1 mW at 177.3 nm. The polarization of the 177.3 nm beam was adjusted with linear and circular polarization by means of λ/4 and λ/2 wave plates. To the best of our knowledge, the laser has been employed as the circularly polarized and linearly polarized DUV light source for a spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with high resolution for the first time. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  11. Accumulated surface damage on ZnS crystals produced by closely spaced pairs of picosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, L.L.; Lee, H.W.H.

    1988-12-01

    Excitation of a transparent ZnS crystal by repetitive picosecond dye laser pulses causes an accumulated surface modification leading to optical damage. The onset of the damage is detected by an abrupt increase in the emission of neutral Zn (and possibly S 2 ) from the surface. Comparison of the neutral emission thresholds with pulse-pair and single-pulse excitation shows that linear absorption is the dominant laser-surface interaction. In general, this measurement technique shows considerable promise for investigating the possible influence of nonlinear absorption or excitation processes on damage mechanisms. The data suggest that heating of small absorbing regions produces the surface modification that leads to the observed surface ablation. The nature of the damage observed at fluences above the threshold suggests that it is caused by heating of a relatively large (/approximately/10 - 100 μm) surface region that has been modified by the accumulation pulses. 3 refs., 5 figs

  12. Time-resolved SFG study of formate on a Ni( 1 1 1 ) surface under irradiation of picosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, H.; Okada, T.; Onda, K.; Kano, S. S.; Wada, A.; Domen, K.

    2003-03-01

    Time-resolved sum-frequency generation spectroscopy was carried out on a deuterated formate (DCOO) adsorbed on Ni(1 1 1) surface to investigate the surface reaction dynamics under instantaneous surface temperature jump induced by the irradiation by picosecond laser pulses. The irradiation of pump pulse (800 nm) caused the rapid intensity decrease of both CD and OCO stretching modes of bridged formate on Ni(1 1 1). Different temporal behaviors of intensity recovery between these two vibrational modes were observed, i.e., CD stretching mode recovered faster than OCO. This is the first result to show that the dynamics of adsorbates on metals strongly depends on the observed vibrational mode. From the results of temperature and pump fluence dependence, we concluded that the observed intensity change was not due to the decomposition or desorption, but was induced by a non-thermal process.

  13. Pulsed-diode-pumped, all-solid-state, electro-optically controlled picosecond Nd:YAG lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunkov, Mikhail V; Shabalin, Yu V; Konyashkin, A V; Kostryukov, P V; Olenin, A N; Tunkin, V G; Morozov, V B; Rusov, V A; Telegin, L S; Yakovlev, D V

    2005-01-01

    The results of the development of repetitively pulsed, diode-pumped, electro-optically controlled picosecond Nd:YAG lasers of two designs are presented. The first design uses the active-passive mode locking with electro-optical lasing control and semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM). This design allows the generation of 15-50-ps pulses with an energy up to 0.5 mJ and a maximum pulse repetition rate of 100 Hz. The laser of the second design generates 30-ps pulses due to combination of positive and negative electro-optical feedback and the control of the electro-optical modulator by the photocurrent of high-speed semiconductor structures. (active media. lasers)

  14. Utilization of the UV laser with picosecond pulses for the formation of surface microstructures on elastomeric plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoszewski, B.; Tofil, S.; Scendo, M.; Tarelnik, W.

    2017-08-01

    Elastomeric plastics belong to a wide range of polymeric materials with special properties. They are used as construction material for seals and other components in many branches of industry and, in particular, in the biomedical industry, mechatronics, electronics and chemical equipment. The micromachining of surfaces of these materials can be used to build micro-flow, insulating, dispensing systems and chemical and biological reactors. The paper presents results of research on the effects of micro-machining of selected elastomeric plastics using a UV laser emitting picosecond pulses. The authors see the prospective application of the developed technology in the sealing technique in particular to shaping the sealing pieces co-operating with the surface of the element. The result of the study is meant to show parameters of the UV laser’s performance when producing typical components such as grooves, recesses for optimum ablation in terms of quality and productivity.

  15. Design of a picosecond-laser-driven Ni-like Mo x-ray laser near 20 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsen, J.

    1997-01-01

    The gain is predicted for a solid molybdenum target illuminated by several joules of combined energy from a nanosecond laser pulse to create a preplasma followed by a picosecond laser pulse to drive the gain. Gains greater than 300cm -1 are predicted for the Ni-like Mo 4d 1 S 0 →4p 1 P 1 transition at 18.9 nm, which is driven by the monopole collisional excitation. High gain is also predicted for a self-photo-pumped 4f 1 P 1 →4d 1 P 1 transition at 22.0 nm and several other transitions driven by inner shell collisional ionization. copyright 1997 Optical Society of America

  16. Antibacterial mechanisms of a novel type picosecond laser-generated silver-titanium nanoparticles and their toxicity to human cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korshed P

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Peri Korshed,1 Lin Li,2 Zhu Liu,3 Aleksandr Mironov,4 Tao Wang1 1School of Biological Science, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, 2Laser Processing Research Centre, School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, 3School of Materials, 4Core Research Facilities, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK Abstract: In this study, we explored the antibacterial mechanisms for a novel type of Ag-TiO2 compound nanoparticles (NPs produced from an Ag-TiO2 alloy using a picosecond laser and evaluated the toxicity of the Ag-TiO2 NPs to a range of human cell types. Transmission electron microscopy was used to determine the morphology, shapes, and size distribution of the laser-generated Ag-TiO2 NPs. UV-visible spectrometer was used to confirm the shift of light absorbance of the NPs toward visible light wavelength. Results showed that the laser-generated Ag-TiO2 NPs had significant antibacterial activities against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains, including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Increased level of reactive oxygen species was produced by E. coli after exposure to the Ag-TiO2 NPs, which was accompanied with lipid peroxidation, glutathione depletion, disintegration of cell membrane and protein leakage, leading to the cell death. Five types of human cells originated from lung (A549, liver (HePG2, kidney (HEK293, endothelium cells (human coronary artery endothelial cells [hCAECs], and skin (human dermal fibroblast cells [HDFc] were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the laser-generated Ag-TiO2 NPs. A weak but statistically significant decrease in cell proliferation was observed for hCAECs, A549 and HDFc cells when co-cultured with 2.5 µg/mL or 20 µg/mL of the laser-generated Ag-TiO2 NPs for 48 hours. However, this effect was no longer apparent when a higher concentration of NPs (20 µg/mL was used after 72

  17. Picosecond wide-field time-correlated single photon counting fluorescence microscopy with a delay line anode detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirvonen, Liisa M.; Le Marois, Alix; Suhling, Klaus, E-mail: klaus.suhling@kcl.ac.uk [Department of Physics, King' s College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Becker, Wolfgang; Smietana, Stefan [Becker & Hickl GmbH, Nahmitzer Damm 30, 12277 Berlin (Germany); Milnes, James; Conneely, Thomas [Photek Ltd., 26 Castleham Rd, Saint Leonards-on-Sea TN38 9NS (United Kingdom); Jagutzki, Ottmar [Institut für Kernphysik, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    We perform wide-field time-correlated single photon counting-based fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) with a crossed delay line anode image intensifier, where the pulse propagation time yields the photon position. This microchannel plate-based detector was read out with conventional fast timing electronics and mounted on a fluorescence microscope with total internal reflection (TIR) illumination. The picosecond time resolution of this detection system combines low illumination intensity of microwatts with wide-field data collection. This is ideal for fluorescence lifetime imaging of cell membranes using TIR. We show that fluorescence lifetime images of living HeLa cells stained with membrane dye di-4-ANEPPDHQ exhibit a reduced lifetime near the coverslip in TIR compared to epifluorescence FLIM.

  18. Study on the Cross Plane Thermal Transport of Polycrystalline Molybdenum Nanofilms by Applying Picosecond Laser Transient Thermoreflectance Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Miao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin metal films are widely used as interconnecting wires and coatings in electronic devices and optical components. Reliable thermophysical properties of the films are required from the viewpoint of thermal management. The cross plane thermal transport of four polycrystalline molybdenum nanofilms with different thickness deposited on glass substrates has been studied by applying the picosecond laser transient thermoreflectance technique. The measurement is performed by applying both front pump-front probe and rear pump-front probe configurations with high quality signal. The determined cross plane thermal diffusivity of the Mo films greatly decreases compared to the corresponding bulk value and tends to increase as films become thicker, exhibiting significant size effect. The main mechanism responsible for the thermal diffusivity decrease of the present polycrystalline Mo nanofilms is the grain boundary scattering on the free electrons. Comparing the cross plane thermal diffusivity and inplane electrical conductivity indicates the anisotropy of the transport properties of the Mo films.

  19. Advanced magneto-optical microscopy: Imaging from picoseconds to centimeters - imaging spin waves and temperature distributions (invited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necdet Onur Urs

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in the observation of magnetic domains and domain walls by wide-field optical microscopy based on the magneto-optical Kerr, Faraday, Voigt, and Gradient effect are reviewed. Emphasis is given to the existence of higher order magneto-optical effects for advanced magnetic imaging. Fundamental concepts and advances in methodology are discussed that allow for imaging of magnetic domains on various length and time scales. Time-resolved imaging of electric field induced domain wall rotation is shown. Visualization of magnetization dynamics down to picosecond temporal resolution for the imaging of spin-waves and magneto-optical multi-effect domain imaging techniques for obtaining vectorial information are demonstrated. Beyond conventional domain imaging, the use of a magneto-optical indicator technique for local temperature sensing is shown.

  20. Development and performance test of picosecond pulse x-ray excited streak camera system for scintillator characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2010-01-01

    To observe time and wavelength-resolved scintillation events, picosecond pulse X-ray excited streak camera system is developed. The wavelength range spreads from vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) to near infrared region (110-900 nm) and the instrumental response function is around 80 ps. This work describes the principle of the newly developed instrument and the first performance test using BaF 2 single crystal scintillator. Core valence luminescence of BaF 2 peaking around 190 and 220 nm is clearly detected by our system, and the decay time turned out to be of 0.7 ns. These results are consistent with literature and confirm that our system properly works. (author)

  1. Fabrication of sub-micron surface structures on copper, stainless steel and titanium using picosecond laser interference patterning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieda, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.bieda@iws.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer-Institut für Werkstoff- und Strahltechnik (IWS), Winterbergstr. 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Siebold, Mathias, E-mail: m.siebold@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Bautzner Landstr. 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Lasagni, Andrés Fabián, E-mail: andres_fabian.lasagni@tu-dresden.de [Fraunhofer-Institut für Werkstoff- und Strahltechnik (IWS), Winterbergstr. 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Institut für Fertigungstechnik, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Laser interference patterning is introduced to generate sub-micrometer surface pattern. • The two-temperature model is applied to ps-laser interference patterning of metals. • Line-like structures with a pitch of 0.7 μm were fabricated on SAE 304, Ti and Cu. • The process is governed by a photo-thermal mechanism for a pulse duration of 35 ps. • A “cold”-ablation process for metals requires a pulse duration shorter than 10 ps. - Abstract: Picosecond direct laser interference patterning (ps-DLIP) is investigated theoretically and experimentally for the bulk metals copper, stainless steel and titanium. While surface texturing with nanosecond pulses is limited to feature sizes in the micrometer range, utilizing picosecond pulses can lead to sub-micrometer structures. The modelling and simulation of ps-DLIP are based on the two-temperature model and were carried out for a pulse duration of 35 ps at 515 nm wavelength and a laser fluence of 0.1 J/cm{sup 2}. The subsurface temperature distribution of both electrons and phonons was computed for periodic line-like structures with a pitch of 0.8 μm. The increase in temperature rises for a lower absorption coefficient and a higher thermal conductivity. The distance, at which the maximum subsurface temperature occurs, increases for a small absorption coefficient. High absorption and low thermal conductivity minimize internal heating and give rise to a pronounced surface micro topography with pitches smaller than 1 μm. In order to confirm the computed results, periodic line-like surface structures were produced using two interfering beams of a Yb:YAG-Laser with 515 nm wavelength and a pulse duration of 35 ps. It was possible to obtain a pitch of 0.7 μm on the metallic surfaces.

  2. Yb-fiber-pumped mid-infrared picosecond optical parametric oscillator tunable across 6.2-6.7 µm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S. Chaitanya; Casals, J. Canals; Parsa, S.; Zawilski, K. T.; Schunemann, P. G.; Ebrahim-Zadeh, M.

    2018-06-01

    We report a high-average-power picosecond optical parametric oscillator (OPO) tunable in the mid-infrared (mid-IR) based on CdSiP2 synchronously pumped by an Yb-fiber laser at 80 MHz repetition rate. Successful operation of this high-repetition-rate singly-resonant picosecond OPO has been enabled by the improved CSP crystal quality over a long interaction length. The OPO can be tuned across 1264-1284 nm in the near-IR signal and 6205-6724 nm in the mid-IR idler by temperature tuning the CSP crystal over 39-134 °C. By deploying a 5% output coupler for the resonant signal, we have extracted up to 44 mW of average power in the near-IR and up to 95 mW of non-resonant idler power at 6205 nm at 6.3% total conversion efficiency, with > 50 mW over > 55% of the mid-IR tuning range. We have investigated temperature-tuning characteristics of the OPO and compared the data with the theoretical calculations using the recent Sellmeier and thermo-optic coefficients for CdSiP2. The signal pulses from the OPO exhibit a Gaussian pulse duration of 19 ps centered at 1284 nm. We have also studied the output power stability of the OPO, resulting in a passive stability better than 1.9% rms for the near-IR signal and 2.4% rms for the mid-IR idler, measured over > 17 h, with both beams in high spatial quality.

  3. Effect of different parameters on machining of SiC/SiC composites via pico-second laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Weinan; Zhang, Ruoheng [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an, Shaanxi 10068 (China); Liu, Yongsheng, E-mail: yongshengliu@nwpu.edu.cn [Science and technology on Thermostructure Composite Materials Laboratory, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Wang, Chunhui; Wang, Jing [Science and technology on Thermostructure Composite Materials Laboratory, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Yang, Xiaojun [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an, Shaanxi 10068 (China); Cheng, Laifei [Science and technology on Thermostructure Composite Materials Laboratory, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710072 (China)

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The highlights of the manuscript include the following two aspects. • First, we found that the different machining modes (helical line scanning and single ring line scanning) and processing power of machining have remarkable effect on the surface morphology of the machined area, such as the shape, depth and the formation of different surface structures. • Secondly, we investigated that the debris consisted of C, Si and O was observed on the machined surface. • Some of the Si–C bonds of the SiC matrix and fibers would be transformed into Si–O bonds after machined, depending on the processing power. - Abstract: Pico-second laser plays an important role in modern machining technology, especially in machining high hardness materials. In this article, pico-second laser was utilized for irradiation on SiC/SiC composites, and effects of different processing parameters including the machining modes and laser power were discussed in detail. The results indicated that the machining modes and laser power had great effect on machining of SiC/SiC composites. Different types of surface morphology and structure were observed under helical line scanning and single ring line scanning, and the analysis of their formulation was discussed in detail. It was believed that the machining modes would be responsible to the different shapes of machining results at the same parameters. The processing power shall also influence the surface morphology and quality of machining results. In micro-hole drilling process, large amount of debris and fragments were observed within the micro-holes, and XPS analysis showed that there existed Si–O bonds and Si–C bonds, indicating that the oxidation during processing was incomplete. Other surface morphology, such as pores and pits were discussed as well.

  4. Outdoor Storage Characteristics of Single-Pass Large Square Corn Stover Bales in Iowa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Shah

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Year-round operation of biorefineries can be possible only if the continuous flow of cellulosic biomass is guaranteed. If corn (Zea mays stover is the primary cellulosic biomass, it is essential to recognize that this feedstock has a short annual harvest window (≤1–2 months and therefore cost effective storage techniques that preserve feedstock quality must be identified. This study evaluated two outdoor and one indoor storage strategies for corn stover bales in Iowa. High- and low-moisture stover bales were prepared in the fall of 2009, and stored either outdoors with two different types of cover (tarp and breathable film or within a building for 3 or 9 months. Dry matter loss (DML, changes in moisture and biomass compositions (fiber and ultimate analyses were determined. DML for bales stored outdoor with tarp and breathable film covers were in the ranges of 5–11 and 14–17%, respectively. More than half of the total DML occurred early during the storage. There were measurable differences in carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, oxygen, cellulose, hemi-cellulose and acid detergent lignin for the different storage treatments, but the changes were small and within a narrow range. For the bale storage treatments investigated, cellulose content increased by as much as 4%s from an initial level of ~41%, hemicellulose content changed by −2 to 1% from ~34%, and acid detergent lignin contents increased by as much as 3% from an initial value of ~5%. Tarp covered bales stored the best in this study, but other methods, such as tube-wrapping, and economics need further investigation.

  5. Simplified models of the symmetric single-pass parallel-plate counterflow heat exchanger: a tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, William F.; Abraham-Shrauner, Barbara

    2018-03-01

    The heat exchanger is important in practical thermal processes, especially those of (i) the molten-salt storage schemes, (ii) compressed air energy storage schemes and (iii) other load-shifting thermal storage presumed to undergird a Smart Grid. Such devices, although central to the utilization of energy from sustainable (but intermittent) renewable sources, will be unfamiliar to many scientists, who nevertheless need a working knowledge of them. This tutorial paper provides a largely self-contained conceptual introduction for such persons. It begins by modelling a novel quantized exchanger,1 impractical as a device, but useful for comprehending the underlying thermophysics. It then reviews the one-dimensional steady-state idealization which demonstrates that effectiveness of heat transfer increases monotonically with (device length)/(device throughput). Next, it presents a two-dimensional steady-state idealization for plug flow and from it derives a novel formula for effectiveness of transfer; this formula is then shown to agree well with a finite-difference time-domain solution of the two-dimensional idealization under Hagen-Poiseuille flow. These results are consistent with a conclusion that effectiveness of heat exchange can approach unity, but may involve unwelcome trade-offs among device cost, size and throughput.

  6. Exergetic performance evaluation of a single pass baffled solar air heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabzpooshani, M.; Mohammadi, K.; Khorasanizadeh, H.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the exergetic performance of a baffled type solar air heater has been evaluated theoretically. A detailed parametric study was done to investigate the effect of variation of fin and baffle parameters, number of glass covers, bottom insulation thickness and inlet air temperature at different mass flow rates on the exergy efficiency. The results indicated that attaching fins and baffles at low mass flow rates can lead to noticeable enhancement of the exergy efficiency. The results revealed that the trend of variation of the energy and exergy efficiencies are not the same and the exergy efficiency is the chief criterion for performance evaluation. Increasing the baffles width, reducing the distance between baffles and increasing the number of fins are effective at low mass flow rates, but at high mass flow rates the inverse trend is observable, such that exergy efficiency reduces sharply. The results showed that exergy efficiency increases with increasing the solar radiation intensity. By adding the second glass cover the exergy efficiency enhances at low mass flow rates. Increasing the insulation thickness over an optimum value doesn't improve the exergy efficiency. Increasing the inlet air temperature increases the exergy efficiency especially at high mass flow rates. - Highlights: • We study the exergetic performance of an upward type baffled solar air heater. • The effect of several design parameters on the performance is investigated. • Exergetic performance is very sensitive to the variation of baffles parameters. • Adding fins and baffles and increasing their parameters are efficient at low m . . • At high m . increment of baffles parameters causes decline of the exergy efficiency

  7. Safety Evaluation for Packaging for the N Reactor/single pass reactor fuel characterization shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, P.F.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) is to authorize the ChemNuclear CNS 1-13G packaging to ship samples of irradiated fuel elements from the 100 K East and 100 K West basins to the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory (PTL) in support of the spent nuclear fuel characterization effort. It also authorizes the return of the fuel element samples to the 100 K East facility using the same packaging. The CNS 1-13G cask has been-chosen to transport the fuel because it has a Certificate of Compliance (CoC) issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for transporting irradiated oxide and metal fuel in commerce. It is capable of being loaded and offloaded underwater and may be shipped with water in the payload compartment

  8. Non-linear optics for the final focus of the single-pass-collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.L.; Spencer, J.E.

    1981-02-01

    The purpose of the final focus system (FFS) is to demagnify the beam envelope in the Collider arc lattice to a size suitable for beam collisions at the interaction region. The final spot size is determined by the beam emittance, the beta function β* at the IR, the momentum spread in the beam, and the quality of the FFS optics. In particular, if the focusing system is not chromatically corrected, the momentum dispersion in the beam can lead to a substantial degradation in the quality of the final focus. The objective is to design a FFS for 50 GeV/c within approx. 100 meters having an IR spot size sigma/sub xy/ of approximately 2 μm for a beam emittance of epsilon = 3 x 10 -10 m-rad and a momentum spread of delta = +-0.5%. This requires a β/sub x,y/ equal to or less than 1 cm. This report considers the problems encountered in the design of a final focus system that will reliably provide the desired beam size for collisions

  9. A Novel Single Pass Authenticated Encryption Stream Cipher for Software Defined Radios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khajuria, Samant

    2012-01-01

    to propose cryptographic services such as confidentiality, integrity and authentication. Therefore, integration of security services into SDR devices is essential. Authenticated Encryption schemes donate the class of cryptographic algorithms that are designed for protecting both message confidentiality....... This makes authenticated encryption very attractive for low-cost low-power hardware implementations, as it allows for the substantial decrease in the circuit area and power consumed compared to the traditional schemes. In this thesis, an authenticated encryption scheme is proposed with the focus of achieving...... high throughput and low overhead for SDRs. The thesis is divided into two research topics. One topic is the design of a 1-pass authenticated encryption scheme that can accomplish both message secrecy and authenticity in a single cryptographic primitive. The other topic is the implementation...

  10. Single-pass beam measurements for the verification of the LHC magnetic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calaga, R.; Giovannozzi, M.; Redaelli, S.; Sun, Y.; Tomas, R.; Venturini-Delsolaro, W.; Zimmermann, F.

    2010-05-23

    During the 2009 LHC injection tests, the polarities and effects of specific quadrupole and higher-order magnetic circuits were investigated. A set of magnet circuits had been selected for detailed investigation based on a number of criteria. On or off-momentum difference trajectories launched via appropriate orbit correctors for varying strength settings of the magnet circuits under study - e.g. main, trim and skew quadrupoles; sextupole families and spool piece correctors; skew sextupoles, octupoles - were compared with predictions from various optics models. These comparisons allowed confirming or updating the relative polarity conventions used in the optics model and the accelerator control system, as well as verifying the correct powering and assignment of magnet families. Results from measurements in several LHC sectors are presented.

  11. CW frequency doubling of 1029 nm radiation using single pass bulk and waveguide PPLN crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chiodo, N.; Du Burck, F.; Hrabina, Jan; Candela, Y.; Wallerand, J. P.; Acef, O.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 311, 15 January (2013), s. 239-244 ISSN 0030-4018 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP102/11/P820 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : IR laser * second harmonic generation * waveguide and bulk crystals * periodically poled lithium niobate * 1029 nm wavelength Subject RIV: BH - Optics , Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.542, year: 2013

  12. Controlling dental enamel-cavity ablation depth with optimized stepping parameters along the focal plane normal using a three axis, numerically controlled picosecond laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fusong; Lv, Peijun; Wang, Dangxiao; Wang, Lei; Sun, Yuchun; Wang, Yong

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a depth-control method in enamel-cavity ablation by optimizing the timing of the focal-plane-normal stepping and the single-step size of a three axis, numerically controlled picosecond laser. Although it has been proposed that picosecond lasers may be used to ablate dental hard tissue, the viability of such a depth-control method in enamel-cavity ablation remains uncertain. Forty-two enamel slices with approximately level surfaces were prepared and subjected to two-dimensional ablation by a picosecond laser. The additive-pulse layer, n, was set to 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70. A three-dimensional microscope was then used to measure the ablation depth, d, to obtain a quantitative function relating n and d. Six enamel slices were then subjected to three dimensional ablation to produce 10 cavities, respectively, with additive-pulse layer and single-step size set to corresponding values. The difference between the theoretical and measured values was calculated for both the cavity depth and the ablation depth of a single step. These were used to determine minimum-difference values for both the additive-pulse layer (n) and single-step size (d). When the additive-pulse layer and the single-step size were set 5 and 45, respectively, the depth error had a minimum of 2.25 μm, and 450 μm deep enamel cavities were produced. When performing three-dimensional ablating of enamel with a picosecond laser, adjusting the timing of the focal-plane-normal stepping and the single-step size allows for the control of ablation-depth error to the order of micrometers.

  13. The mirror symmetric centroid difference method for picosecond lifetime measurements via {gamma}-{gamma} coincidences using very fast LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) scintillator detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regis, J.-M., E-mail: regis@ikp.uni-koeln.d [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany); Pascovici, G.; Jolie, J.; Rudigier, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany)

    2010-10-01

    The ultra-fast timing technique was introduced in the 1980s and is capable of measuring picosecond lifetimes of nuclear excited states with about 3 ps accuracy. Very fast scintillator detectors are connected to an electronic timing circuit and detector vs. detector time spectra are analyzed by means of the centroid shift method. The very good 3% energy resolution of the nowadays available LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) scintillator detectors for {gamma}-rays has made possible an extension of the well-established fast timing technique. The energy dependent fast timing characteristics or the prompt curve, respectively, of the LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) scintillator detector has been measured using a standard {sup 152}Eu {gamma}-ray source. For any energy combination in the range of 200keVpicosecond lifetime measurements is presented. The mirror symmetric centroid difference method takes advantage of the symmetry obtained when performing {gamma}-{gamma} lifetime measurements using a pair of almost identical very fast scintillator detectors. In particular cases, the use of the mirror symmetric centroid difference method also allows the direct determination of picosecond lifetimes, hence without the need of calibrating the prompt curve.

  14. Self-synchronization of the modulation of energy-levels population with electrons in GaAs induced by picosecond pulses of probe radiation and intrinsic stimulated emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ageeva, N. N.; Bronevoi, I. L., E-mail: bil@cplire.ru; Zabegaev, D. N.; Krivonosov, A. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kotel’nikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-15

    Picosecond optical pumping leads to the initiation of intrinsic picosecond stimulated emission in GaAs. As was established previously, due to the interaction of pulses of probe radiation with those of intrinsic emission, the dependence of the absorption α of the probe pulse on its delay τ with respect to the pump pulse is modulated with oscillations. It is found that the oscillatory dependences α(τ) have a similar shape only in the case of certain combinations of energies of the interacting pulses. As a result, it is assumed that the above interaction is, in fact, a synchronization of modulations (formed by pulses) of charge-carrier populations at energy levels; this synchronization occurs in the direction of the reconstruction of detailed equilibrium. The real-time picosecond self-modulation of the absorption α is measured for the first time. The characteristics of this self-modulation as well as absorption α and intrinsic emission self-modulation characteristics measured previously by correlation methods are now accounted for by the concept of synchronization.

  15. Comparison of treatment with an Alexandrite picosecond laser and Nd:YAG nanosecond laser for removing blue-black Chinese eyeliner tattoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengli; Huang, Yuqing; Lin, Tong; Wu, Qiuju

    2018-02-28

    To retrospectively evaluate the efficacy of an Alexandrite picosecond laser versus Nd:YAG nanosecond laser for removing blue-black eyeliner tattoos which have existed more than 10 years. A total of 40 patients were treated with an Alexandrite picosecond laser in our department from August 2015 to July 2017, with a fluence of 1.96-6.37J/cm 2 , spot size of 2.0-3.6 mm, and pulse width of 750 ps. Another 32 patients were treated with an Nd:YAG nanosecond laser, with a fluence of 2.80-7.00 J/cm 2 , spot size of 3 mm, and pulse width of 5-20 ns. All analysed patients completed at least one treatment and follow-up. The median number of treatment for all the patients was 1 (range, 1-4). After a single session, no difference was found between the two lasers for the eyeliner removal (p > 0.05). For the people who achieved an excellent response of tattoo clearance, there was still no difference between the two groups (p > 0.05). Transient side effects were observed in two groups, but neither group had significant adverse reactions. To treat blue-black Chinese eyeliner tattoos over 10 years, Alexandrite picosecond laser does not provide better clearance than the Nd:YAG nanosecond laser.

  16. Evidence of liquid phase during laser-induced periodic surface structures formation induced by accumulative ultraviolet picosecond laser beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynh, T. T. D.; Petit, A.; Semmar, N., E-mail: nadjib.semmar@univ-orleans.fr [GREMI, UMR7344, CNRS/University of Orleans, 14 rue d' Issoudun, BP6744, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Vayer, M. [ICMN, UMR 7374, CNRS/University of Orleans, 1b rue de la Ferollerie, CS 40059, 45071 Orleans Cedex (France); Sauldubois, A. [CME, UFR Sciences, University of Orleans, 1 Rue de Chartres, BP 6759, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France)

    2015-11-09

    Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) were formed on Cu/Si or Cu/glass thin films using Nd:YAG laser beam (40 ps, 10 Hz, and 30 mJ/cm{sup 2}). The study of ablation threshold is always achieved over melting when the variation of the number of pulses increases from 1 to 1000. But the incubation effect is leading to reduce the threshold of melting as increasing the number of laser pulse. Also, real time reflectivity signals exhibit typical behavior to stress the formation of a liquid phase during the laser-processing regime and helps to determine the threshold of soft ablation. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) analyses have shown the topology of the micro-crater containing regular spikes with different height. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) allows finally to show three distinguished zones in the close region of isolated protrusions. The central zone is a typical crystallized area of few nanometers surrounded by a mixed poly-crystalline and amorphous area. Finally, in the region far from the protrusion zone, Cu film shows an amorphous structure. The real time reflectivity, AFM, and HR-TEM analyses evidence the formation of a liquid phase during the LIPSS formation in the picosecond regime.

  17. Pseudo-topotactic conversion of carbon nanotubes to T-carbon nanowires under picosecond laser irradiation in methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinying; Wang, Rui; Zhu, Xi; Pan, Aifei; Han, Chenxiao; Li, Xin; Dan Zhao; Ma, Chuansheng; Wang, Wenjun; Su, Haibin; Niu, Chunming

    2017-09-25

    Pseudo-topotactic conversion of carbon nanotubes into one-dimensional carbon nanowires is a challenging but feasible path to obtain desired diameters and morphologies. Here, a previously predicted but experimentally unobserved carbon allotrope, T-carbon, has been produced from pseudo-topotactic conversion of a multi-walled carbon nanotube suspension in methanol by picosecond pulsed-laser irradiation. The as-grown T-carbon nanowires have the same diameter distribution as pristine carbon nanotubes, and have been characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, fast Fourier transform, electron energy loss, ultraviolet-visible, and photoluminescence spectroscopies to possess a diamond-like lattice, where each carbon is replaced by a carbon tetrahedron, and a lattice constant of 7.80 Å. The change in entropy from carbon nanotubes to T-carbon reveals the phase transformation to be first order in nature. The computed electronic band structures and projected density of states are in good agreement with the optical absorption and photoluminescence spectra of the T-carbon nanowires.T-carbon is a previously predicted but so far unobserved allotrope of carbon, with a crystal structure similar to diamond, but with each atomic lattice position replaced by a carbon tetrahedron. Here, the authors produce T-carbon nanowires via laser-irradiating a suspension of carbon nanotubes in methanol.

  18. Micro-joule pico-second range Yb3+-doped fibre laser for medical applications in acupuncture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Chavez, J. A.; Rivera-Manrique, S. I.; Jacques, S. L.

    2011-08-01

    The work described here is based on the optical design, simulation and on-going implementation of a pulsed (Q-switch) Yb3+-doped, 1-um diffraction-limited fibre laser with pico-second, 10 micro-Joule-range energy pulses for producing the right energy pulses which could be of benefit for patients who suffer chronic headache, photophobia, and even nausea which could is sometimes triggered by a series of factors. The specific therapeutic effect known as acupunctural analgesia is the main objective of this medium-term project. It is a simple design on which commercially available software was employed for laser cavity design. Monte Carlo technique for skin light-transport, thermal diffusion and the possible thermal de-naturalization optical study and prediction will also be included in the presentation. Full optical characterization will be included and a complete set of recent results on the laser-skin interaction and the so called moxi-bustion from the laser design will be extensively described.

  19. A new front-face optical cell for measuring weak fluorescent emissions with time resolution in the picosecond time scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryczynski, Z; Bucci, E

    1993-11-01

    Recent developments of ultrafast fluorimeters allow measuring time-resolved fluorescence on the picosecond time scale. This implies one is able to monitor lifetimes and anisotropy decays of highly quenched systems and of systems that contain fluorophores having lifetimes in the subnanosecond range; both systems that emit weak signals. The combination of weak signals and very short lifetimes makes the measurements prone to distortions which are negligible in standard fluorescence experiments. To cope with these difficulties, we have designed a new optical cell for front-face optics which offers to the excitation beam a horizontal free liquid surface in the absence of interactions with optical windows. The new cell has been tested with probes of known lifetimes and anisotropies. It proved very useful in detecting tryptophan fluorescence in hemoglobin. If only diluted samples are available, which cannot be used in front-face optics, regular square geometry can still be utilized by inserting light absorbers into a cuvette of 1 cm path length.

  20. Formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on tool steel by multiple picosecond laser pulses of different polarizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregorčič, Peter, E-mail: peter.gregorcic@fs.uni-lj.si [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Aškerčeva 6, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Sedlaček, Marko; Podgornik, Bojan [Institute of Metals and Technology, Lepi pot 11, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Reif, Jürgen [Brandenburgische Technische Universitaet – BTU Cottbus-Senftenberg, Platz der Deutschen Einheit 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Low number of differently polarized ps laser pulses is superimposed on tool steel. • Last pulses determine the ripples orientation for single spot and coherent traces. • Previously formed structures are overridden by later incident pulses. • Ripples contrast depends on total exposure, independent on pulses’ polarization. • Weak role of pre-formed structures makes interference scenarios questionable. - Abstract: Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) are produced on cold work tool steel by irradiation with a low number of picosecond laser pulses. As expected, the ripples, with a period of about 90% of the laser wavelength, are oriented perpendicular to the laser polarization. Subsequent irradiation with the polarization rotated by 45° or 90° results in a corresponding rotation of the ripples. This is visible already with the first pulse and becomes almost complete – erasing the previous orientation – after as few as three pulses. The phenomenon is not only observed for single-spot irradiation but also for writing long coherent traces. The experimental results strongly defy the role of surface plasmon-polaritons as the predominant key to LIPSS formation.

  1. Frequency-doubled green picosecond laser based on K3B6O10Br nonlinear optical crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Luping; Zhang, Ling; Hou, Zhanyu; Wang, Lirong; Xu, Hui; Shi, Meng; Wang, Lingwu; Yang, Yingying; Qi, Yaoyao; He, Chaojian; Yu, Haijuan; Lin, Xuechun; Su, Fufang; Xia, Mingjun; Li, Rukang

    2018-05-01

    We report a frequency-doubled green picosecond (ps) laser based on K3B6O10Br (KBB) nonlinear optical crystal with cutting angle of θ = 34.7° and φ = 30°. Through intracavity frequency doubling using a type I phase-matched KBB crystal with dimensions of 4 mm × 4 mm × 13.2 mm, the average output power of 185.00 mW green ps laser was obtained with a repetition rate of 80 MHz and pulse width of 25.0 ps. In addition, we present external frequency doubling using KBB crystal. The average output power of 3.00 W green ps laser was generated with a repetition rate of 10 kHz and pulse width of 38.1 ps, which corresponds to a pulse energy of 0.30 mJ and a peak power 7.89 MW, respectively. The experimental results show that KBB crystal is a promising nonlinear optical material.

  2. Effects of picosecond laser repetition rate on ablation of Cr12MoV cold work mold steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Baoye; Deng, Leimin; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Fei; Duan, Jun, E-mail: duans@hust.edu.cn; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, the effects of pulse repetition rate on ablation efficiency and quality of Cr12MoV cold work mold steel have been studied using a picosecond (ps) pulse Nd:YVO{sub 4} laser system at λ= 1064 nm. The experimental results of area ablation on target surface reveal that laser repetition rate plays a significant role in controlling ablation efficiency and quality. Increasing the laser repetition rate, while keeping a constant mean power improves the ablation efficiency and quality. For each laser mean power, there is an optimal repetition rate to achieve a higher laser ablation efficiency with low surface roughness. A high ablation efficiency of 42.29, 44.11 and 47.52 μm{sup 3}/mJ, with surface roughness of 0.476, 0.463 and 0.706 μm could be achieved at laser repetition rate of 10 MHz, for laser mean power of 15, 17 and 19 W, respectively. Scanning electron microcopy images revels that the surface morphology evolves from rough with numerous craters, to flat without pores when we increased the laser repetition rate. The effects of laser repetition rate on the heat accumulation, plasma shield and ablation threshold were analyzed by numerical simulation, spectral analysis and multi-laser shot, respectively. The synergetic effects of laser repetition rate on laser ablation rate and machining quality were analyzed and discussed systemically in this paper.

  3. On the use of a chirped Bragg grating as a cavity mirror of a picosecond Nd : YAG laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubko, A E; Shashkov, E V; Smirnov, A V; Vorob' ev, N S [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Smirnov, V I [OptiGrate Corp., 562 South Econ Circle, Oviedo, Florida 32765-4311 (United States)

    2016-02-28

    The first experimental evidence is presented that the use of a chirped volume Bragg grating (CVBG) as a cavity mirror of a Q-switched picosecond Nd : YAG laser with self-mode-locking leads to significant changes in the temporal parameters of the laser output. Measurements have been performed at two positions of the CVBG: with the grating placed so that shorter wavelengths reflected from its front part lead longer wavelengths or with the grating rotated through 180°, so that longer wavelengths are reflected first. In the former case, the duration of individual pulses in a train increased from ∼35 to ∼300 ps, whereas the pulse train shape and duration remained the same as in the case of a conventional laser with a mirror cavity. In the latter case, the full width at half maximum of pulse trains increased from ∼70 ns (Nd : YAG laser with a mirror cavity) to ∼1 ms, and the duration of individual pulses increased from 35 ps to ∼1.2 ns, respectively, which is more typical of free-running laser operation. (laser crystals and braggg ratings)

  4. Hematoporphyrin-sensitized degradation of deoxyribose and DNA in high intensity near-UV picosecond pulsed laser photolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gantchev, T.G.; Lier, J.E. van; Grabner, G.; Keskinova, E.; Angelov, D.

    1995-01-01

    The photosensitized degradation of deoxyribose and DNA, using hematoporphyrin (HP) and picosecond laser pulses at high intensities was studied. Aldehyde formation from 2-deoxy-D-ribose and long-chain double-stranded DNA, when analyzed as a function of light intensity, followed a non-linear dependence, suggesting the involvement of multiphoton light absorption by HP. The degradation mechanism was studied by analysis of the yield dependence on excitation intensity and the effect of added radical scavengers. The participation of OH radicals in the degradation process was confirmed by spin trapping techniques. At low light intensities, added N 2 O largely increased product formation, suggesting that HP photoionization predominates under these conditions. At higher intensities (I ≥ 3 GW/cm 2 ) the product yield was not affected by N 2 O which, combined with spin trapping data, suggested that OH radical formation occurred, but that neither HP photoionization nor peroxy formation was involved. Single and double strand breaks in supercoiled plasmid DNA (pBR 322) confirmed the generation of OH or OH-like radicals during high-intensity excitation of HP. A mechanism involving a multistep excitation of HP, followed by resonance energy transfer to H 2 O resulting in dissociation to yield OH and H atoms, is proposed. (author)

  5. Picosecond dynamics of reactions in the liquid phase: studies of iodine photodissociation and development of new laser techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, M.A.

    1985-09-01

    Iodine photodissociation and recombination was studied as a model for processes common to chemical reaction in the liquid phase. Picosecond transient absorption measurements from 1000 to 295 nm were used to monitor the dynamics in a variety of solvents. Most of the atoms which undergo geminate recombination were found to do so in less than or equal to 15 ps, in agreement with the results of existing molecular dynamics simulations. Vibrational relaxation times vary from approx.15 ps near the middle of the ground state well to approx.150 ps for complete relaxation to v = 0. The prediction of strong resonant vibrational energy transfer to chlorinated methane solvents was not supported, but some evidence for this mechanism was found for alkane solvents. Current theory is unable to explain the large variation (65 to 2700 ps) of the excited A'-state lifetime in various solvents. The 10-Hz amplified, synchronously-pumped dye laser which was used in these studies is described and characterized. SERS (Stimulated Electronic Raman Scattering) and difference frequency mixing were used in the generation of the infrared and far-infrared, respectively. 54 refs., 38 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Fabrication of periodical surface structures by picosecond laser irradiation of carbon thin films: transformation of amorphous carbon in nanographite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, C.; Dorcioman, G. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, Magurele RO-077125 (Romania); Bita, B. [National Institute for Research and Development in Microtechnologies, 126A Erou Iancu Nicolae Street, Voluntari RO-077190 (Romania); Faculty of Physics, 405 Atomistilor Street, Magurele RO-077125 (Romania); Besleaga, C.; Zgura, I. [National Institute of Materials Physics, 105bis Atomistilor Street, Magurele RO-077125 (Romania); Himcinschi, C. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Freiberg D-09596 (Germany); Popescu, A.C., E-mail: andrei.popescu@inflpr.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, Magurele RO-077125 (Romania)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Ripples obtained on carbon films after irradiation with visible ps laser pulses. • Amorphous carbon was transformed in nanographite following irradiation. • Ripples had a complex morphology, being made of islands of smaller ripples. • Hydrophilic carbon films became hydrophobic after surface structuring. - Abstract: Thin films of carbon were synthesized by ns pulsed laser deposition in vacuum on silicon substrates, starting from graphite targets. Further on, the films were irradiated with a picosecond laser source emitting in visible at 532 nm. After tuning of laser parameters, we obtained a film surface covered by laser induced periodical surface structures (LIPSS). They were investigated by optical, scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. It was observed that changing the irradiation angle influences the LIPSS covered area. At high magnification it was revealed that the LIPSS pattern was quite complex, being composed of other small LIPSS islands, interconnected by bridges of nanoparticles. Raman spectra for the non-irradiated carbon films were typical for a-C type of diamond-like carbon, while the LIPSS spectra were characteristic to nano-graphite. The pristine carbon film was hydrophilic, while the LIPSS covered film surface was hydrophobic.

  7. Effect of focusing condition on molten area characteristics in micro-welding of borosilicate glass by picosecond pulsed laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordin, I.H.W.; Okamoto, Y.; Okada, A.; Takekuni, T. [Okayama University, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama (Japan); Sakagawa, T. [Kataoka Corporation, Yokohama (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    The characteristics of the molten area are attributed not only by laser energy condition but also the focusing condition. In this study, a picosecond pulsed laser of 1064 nm in wavelength and 12.5 ps in pulse duration was used as a laser source for joining glass material. Influence of focusing condition on micro-welding of glasses was experimentally investigated by using an objective lens with and without spherical aberration correction, and its molten area was characterized. The usage of objective lens with spherical aberration correction led to a larger molten area inside the bulk material of glass even under the same pulse energy, which related to the efficient micro-welding of glass materials. In addition, an optical system with the spherical aberration correction led to a stable absorption of laser energy inside the bulk glass material, stabilizing the shape of molten area, which resulted in the reliable weld joint. On the other hand, breaking strength of the specimens with spherical aberration correction was higher than that without spherical aberration correction. Therefore, it is concluded that the focusing condition with spherical aberration correction led to the larger and stable molten area, which resulted in higher joining strength in micro-welding of glass materials. (orig.)

  8. Picosecond Soft-X-ray studies of Dense Plasma Regimes Progress Report (April 1, 2006 - March 31, 2007)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocca, Jorge; Marconi, Mario; Shlyaptsev, Vyacheslav; Dunn, James; Moon, Stephen; Nilsen, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this project is to investigate and characterize high-density converging plasma configurations using new soft x-ray laser based interferometric techniques. The results are used to verify and validate multi-dimensional hydrodynamic codes in plasma regimes which densities and size exceed those that can be probed with optical laser beams. The dynamics of converging plasmas created by laser irradiation of half-hohlraum cylindrical cavities targets was probed using a compact 46.9 nm soft x-ray laser. The results were used for comparison with extensive simulations conducted with the multi-dimensional hydrodynamic code HYDRA. As part of this study we have also investigated plasma regimes in which the index of refraction of the plasmas can not be defined solely based on the contribution of free electron, as is usually assumed for multiply ionized plasmas. Our results demonstrate the existence of plasma regimes in which the contribution of bound electrons from ions dominates the refractive index at soft x-ray wavelengths. We are also working in extending plasma interferometry to the sub 10 nm wavelength range. In the process we are advancing soft x-ray laser plasma diagnostics techniques to allow the measurement of large-scale, high-density plasmas with picosecond temporal resolution and micrometer spatial resolution, laying the foundations for future advanced diagnostics at high energy density DOE facilities. Dense plasma diagnostics, soft x-ray laser interferometry, converging plasmas

  9. Intense picosecond pulsed electric fields induce apoptosis through a mitochondrial-mediated pathway in HeLa cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    HUA, YUAN-YUAN; WANG, XIAO-SHU; ZHANG, YU; YAO, CHEN-GUO; ZHANG, XI-MING; XIONG, ZHENG-AI

    2012-01-01

    The application of pulsed electric fields (PEF) is emerging as a new technique for tumor therapy. Picosecond pulsed electric fields (psPEF) can be transferred to target deep tissue non-invasively and precisely, but the research of the biological effects of psPEF on cells is limited. Electric theory predicts that intense psPEF will target mitochondria and lead to changes in transmembrane potential, therefore, it is hypothesized that it can induce mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. HeLa cells were exposed to psPEF in this study to investigate this hypothesis. MTT assay demonstrated that intense psPEF significantly inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner. Typical characteristics of apoptosis in HeLa cells were observed, using transmission electron microscopy. Loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential was explored using laser scanning confocal microscopy with Rhodamine-123 (Rh123) staining. Furthermore, the mitochondrial apoptotic events were also confirmed by western blot analysis for the release of cytochrome C and apoptosis-inducing factor from mitochondria into the cytosol. In addition, activation of caspase-3, caspase-9, upregulation of Bax, p53 and downregulation of Bcl-2 were observed in HeLa cells also indicating apoptosis. Taken together, these results demonstrate that intense psPEF induce cell apoptosis through a mitochondrial-mediated pathway. PMID:22307872

  10. Photosensitivity of the Er/Yb-Codoped Schott IOG1 Phosphate Glass Using 248 nm, Femtosecond, and Picosecond Laser Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pissadakis, S.; Michelakaki, I.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of 248 nm laser radiation, with pulse duration of 5 picoseconds, 500 femtosecond, and 120 femtosecond, on the optical properties and the Knoop hardness of a commercial Er/Yb-codoped phosphate glass is presented here. Refractive index changes of the order of few parts of 10-4 are correlated with optical absorption centers induced in the glass volume, using Kramers-Kroning relationship. Accordingly, substantially lower refractive index changes are measured in volume Bragg gratings inscribed in the glass, indicating that, in addition to the optical density changes, volume dilation changes of negative sign may also be associated with the 248 nm ultrafast irradiation. The Knoop hardness experimental results reveal that the glass matrix undergoes an observable initial hardening and then a reversing softening and volume dilation process for modest accumulated energy doses, where the Knoop hardness follows a nonmonotonic trend. Comparative results on the Knoop hardness trend are also presented for the case of 193 nm excimer laser radiation. The above findings denote that the positive or negative evolution of refractive index changes induced by the 248 0nm ultrafast radiation in the glass is dominated by the counteraction of the color center formation and the volume modification effects.

  11. Fiber-laser-based, green-pumped, picosecond optical parametric oscillator using fan-out grating PPKTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaitanya Kumar, S; Parsa, S; Ebrahim-Zadeh, M

    2016-01-01

    We report a stable, Yb-fiber-laser-based, green-pumped, picosecond optical parametric oscillator (OPO) for the near-infrared based on periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate (PPKTP) nonlinear crystal, using fan-out grating design and operating near room temperature. The OPO is continuously tunable across 726-955 nm in the signal and 1201-1998 nm in the idler, resulting in a total signal plus idler wavelength coverage of 1026 nm by grating tuning at a fixed temperature. The device generates up to 580 mW of average power in the signal at 765 nm and 300 mW in the idler at 1338 nm, with an overall extraction efficiency of up to 52% and a pump depletion >76%. The extracted signal at 765 nm and idler at 1746 nm exhibit excellent passive power stability better than 0.5% and 0.8% rms, respectively, over 1 h with good beam quality in TEM00 mode profile. The output signal pulses have a Gaussian temporal duration of 13.2 ps, with a FWHM spectral bandwidth of 3.4 nm at 79.5 MHz repetition rate. Power scaling limitations of the OPO due to the material properties of PPKTP are studied.

  12. Monochromatic x-ray radiography of laser-driven spherical targets using high-energy, picoseconds LFEX laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Hiroshi; Fujioka, S.; Lee, S.; Arikawa, Y.; Shigemori, K.; Nagatomo, H.; Nishimura, H.; Sunahara, A.; Theobald, W.; Perez, F.; Patel, P. K.; Beg, F. N.

    2015-11-01

    Formation of a high density fusion fuel is essential in both conventional and advanced Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) schemes for the self-sustaining fusion process. In cone-guided Fast Ignition (FI), a metal cone is attached to a spherical target to maintain the path for the injection of an intense short-pulse ignition laser from blow-off plasma created when nanoseconds compression lasers drive the target. We have measured a temporal evolution of a compressed deuterated carbon (CD) sphere using 4.5 keV K-alpha radiography with the Kilo-Joule, picosecond LFEX laser at the Institute of Laser Engineering. A 200 μm CD sphere attached to the tip of a Au cone was directly driven by 9 Gekko XII beams with 300 J/beam in a 1.3 ns Gaussian pulse. The LFEX laser irradiated on a Ti foil to generate 4.51 Ti K-alpha x-ray. By varying the delay between the compression and backlighter lasers, the measured radiograph images show an increase of the areal density of the imploded target. The detail of the quantitative analyses to infer the areal density and comparisons to hydrodynamics simulations will be presented. This work was performed with the support and under the auspices of the NIFS Collaboration Research program (NIFS13KUGK072). H.S. was supported by the UNR's International Activities Grant program.

  13. Real time observation of the excimer formation dynamics of a gas phase benzene dimer by picosecond pump-probe spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Mitsuhiko; Fujii, Masaaki

    2015-10-21

    We observed the real-time excimer (EXC) formation dynamics of a gas phase benzene dimer (Bz2) cluster after photo-excitation to the S1 state by applying an ionization detected picosecond transient absorption method for probing the visible EXC absorption for the first time. The time evolution of the EXC absorption from the S1 0(0) level shows a rise that is well fitted by a single exponential function with a time constant of 18 ± 2 ps. The structure of the Bz dimer has a T-shaped structure in the ground electronic state, and that in the EXC state is a parallel sandwich (SW) structure. Thus, the observed rise time corresponds to the structural change from the T to the SW structures, which directly shows the EXC formation. On the other hand, the EXC formation after excitation of the S1 6(1) vibrational level of the stem site showed a faster rise of the time constant of 10 ± 2 ps. Supposing equilibrium between the EXC and the local excited states, it followed that the intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution rate of the 6(1) level is largely enhanced and becomes faster than the EXC formation reaction.

  14. Ultrastable, high efficiency picosecond green light generation using K3B6O10Br series nonlinear optical crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Z. Y.; Xia, M. J.; Wang, L. R.; Xu, B.; Yan, D. X.; Meng, L. P.; Liu, L. J.; Xu, D. G.; Zhang, L.; Wang, X. Y.; Li, R. K.; Chen, C. T.

    2017-09-01

    Two perovskite-structure K3B6O10Br1-x Cl x (x  =  0 and 0.5) series nonlinear optical crystals were thoroughly investigated for their picosecond 532 nm laser pulses abilities and high power outputs were achieved via second harmonic generation (SHG) technique for the first time. SHG conversion efficiency of 57.3% with a 13.2 mm length K3B6O10Br (KBB) crystal was achieved using a laser source of pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz and pulse width of 25 ps, which is the highest conversion efficiency of ps visible laser based on KBB crystal. And by employing an 80 MHz, 10 ps fundamental laser beam, maximum power outputs of 12 W with K3B6O10Br0.5Cl0.5 (KBBC) and 11.86 W with KBB crystals were successfully demonstrated. Furthermore, the standard deviation jitters of the average power outputs are less than 0.6% and 1.17% by KBB and KBBC, respectively, showing ultrastable power stabilities favorable for practical applications. In addition, the other optical parameters including acceptance angle and temperature bandwidth were also investigated.

  15. PLEIADES: A picosecond Compton scattering x-ray source for advanced backlighting and time-resolved material studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, David J.; Anderson, Scott G.; Barty, Christopher P.J.; Betts, Shawn M.; Booth, Rex; Brown, Winthrop J.; Crane, John K.; Cross, Robert R.; Fittinghoff, David N.; Hartemann, Fred V.; Kuba, Jaroslav; Le Sage, Gregory P.; Slaughter, Dennis R.; Tremaine, Aaron M.; Wootton, Alan J.; Hartouni, Edward P.; Springer, Paul T.; Rosenzweig, James B.

    2004-01-01

    The PLEIADES (Picosecond Laser-Electron Inter-Action for the Dynamical Evaluation of Structures) facility has produced first light at 70 keV. This milestone offers a new opportunity to develop laser-driven, compact, tunable x-ray sources for critical applications such as diagnostics for the National Ignition Facility and time-resolved material studies. The electron beam was focused to 50 μm rms, at 57 MeV, with 260 pC of charge, a relative energy spread of 0.2%, and a normalized emittance of 5 mm mrad horizontally and 13 mm mrad vertically. The scattered 820 nm laser pulse had an energy of 180 mJ and a duration of 54 fs. Initial x rays were captured with a cooled charge-coupled device using a cesium iodide scintillator; the peak photon energy was approximately 78 keV, with a total x-ray flux of 1.3x10 6 photons/shot, and the observed angular distribution found to agree very well with three-dimensional codes. Simple K-edge radiography of a tantalum foil showed good agreement with the theoretical divergence-angle dependence of the x-ray energy. Optimization of the x-ray dose is currently under way, with the goal of reaching 10 8 photons/shot and a peak brightness approaching 10 20 photons/mm 2 /mrad 2 /s/0.1% bandwidth

  16. Fabrication of superhydrophilic or superhydrophobic self-cleaning metal surfaces using picosecond laser pulses and chemical fluorination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Buxiang; Jiang, Gedong; Wang, Wenjun; Mei, Xuesong

    2016-05-01

    Bioinspired superhydrophilic/phobic self-cleaning surfaces have recently drawn a lot of interest in both fundamental and applied research. A hybrid method to produce the self-cleaning property of micro/nanostructured surface using ultra-fast laser pulses followed by chemical fluorination is proposed. The typical micro/nanocomposite structures that form from microporous arrays and microgroove groups have been processed by picosecond laser on titanium alloy surface. The surface hydrophilic/phobic and self-cleaning properties of micro/nanostructures before and after fluorination with fluoroalkyl-silane were investigated using surface contact angle measurements. The results indicate that surface properties change from hydrophilic to hydrophobic after fluorination, and the micro/nanostructured surface with increased roughness contributes to the improvement of surface hydrophobicity. The micro/nanomodification can make the original hydrophilic titanium alloy surface more hydrophilic or superhydrophilic. It also can make an originally hydrophobic fluorinated titanium alloy surface more hydrophobic or superhydrophobic. The produced micro/nanostructured titanium alloy surfaces show excellent self-cleaning properties regardless of the fluorination treatment, although the fluorinated surfaces have slightly better self-cleaning properties. It is found that surface treatment using ultra-fast laser pulses and subsequent chemical fluorination is an effective way to manipulate surface wettability and obtain self-cleaning properties.

  17. Self-cleaning effect in high quality percussion ablating of cooling hole by picosecond ultra-short pulse laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wanqin; Yu, Zhishui

    2018-06-01

    Comparing with the trepanning technology, cooling hole could be processed based on the percussion drilling with higher processing efficiency. However, it is widely believed that the ablating precision of hole is lower for percussion drilling than for trepanning, wherein, the melting spatter materials around the hole surface and the recast layer inside the hole are the two main issues for reducing the ablating precision of hole, especially for the recast layer, it can't be eliminated completely even through the trepanning technology. In this paper, the self-cleaning effect which is a particular property just for percussion ablating of holes has been presented in detail. In addition, the reasons inducing the self-cleaning effect have been discussed. At last, based on the self-cleaning effect of percussion drilling, high quality cooling hole without the melting spatter materials around the hole surface and recast layer inside the hole could be ablated in nickel-based superalloy by picosecond ultra-short pulse laser.

  18. New theoretical approaches to atomic and molecular dynamics triggered by ultrashort light pulses on the atto- to picosecond time scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pabst, Stefan Ulf

    2013-04-01

    The concept of atoms as the building blocks of matter has existed for over 3000 years. A revolution in the understanding and the description of atoms and molecules has occurred in the last century with the birth of quantum mechanics. After the electronic structure was understood, interest in studying the dynamics of electrons, atoms, and molecules increased. However, time-resolved investigations of these ultrafast processes were not possible until recently. The typical time scale of atomic and molecular processes is in the picosecond to attosecond realm. Tremendous technological progress in recent years makes it possible to generate light pulses on these time scales. With such ultrashort pulses, atomic and molecular dynamics can be triggered, watched, and controlled. Simultaneously, the need rises for theoretical models describing the underlying mechanisms. This doctoral thesis focuses on the development of theoretical models which can be used to study the dynamical behavior of electrons, atoms, and molecules in the presence of ultrashort light pulses. Several examples are discussed illustrating how light pulses can trigger and control electronic, atomic, and molecular motions. In the first part of this work, I focus on the rotational motion of asymmetric molecules, which happens on picosecond and femtosecond time scales. Here, the aim is to align all three axes of the molecule as well as possible. To investigate theoretically alignment dynamics, I developed a program that can describe alignment motion ranging from the impulsive to the adiabatic regime. The asymmetric molecule SO 2 is taken as an example to discuss strategies of optimizing 3D alignment without the presence of an external field (i.e., field-free alignment). Field-free alignment is particularly advantageous because subsequent experiments on the aligned molecule are not perturbed by the aligning light pulse. Wellaligned molecules in the gas phase are suitable for diffraction experiments. From the

  19. New theoretical approaches to atomic and molecular dynamics triggered by ultrashort light pulses on the atto- to picosecond time scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pabst, Stefan Ulf

    2013-04-15

    The concept of atoms as the building blocks of matter has existed for over 3000 years. A revolution in the understanding and the description of atoms and molecules has occurred in the last century with the birth of quantum mechanics. After the electronic structure was understood, interest in studying the dynamics of electrons, atoms, and molecules increased. However, time-resolved investigations of these ultrafast processes were not possible until recently. The typical time scale of atomic and molecular processes is in the picosecond to attosecond realm. Tremendous technological progress in recent years makes it possible to generate light pulses on these time scales. With such ultrashort pulses, atomic and molecular dynamics can be triggered, watched, and controlled. Simultaneously, the need rises for theoretical models describing the underlying mechanisms. This doctoral thesis focuses on the development of theoretical models which can be used to study the dynamical behavior of electrons, atoms, and molecules in the presence of ultrashort light pulses. Several examples are discussed illustrating how light pulses can trigger and control electronic, atomic, and molecular motions. In the first part of this work, I focus on the rotational motion of asymmetric molecules, which happens on picosecond and femtosecond time scales. Here, the aim is to align all three axes of the molecule as well as possible. To investigate theoretically alignment dynamics, I developed a program that can describe alignment motion ranging from the impulsive to the adiabatic regime. The asymmetric molecule SO{sub 2} is taken as an example to discuss strategies of optimizing 3D alignment without the presence of an external field (i.e., field-free alignment). Field-free alignment is particularly advantageous because subsequent experiments on the aligned molecule are not perturbed by the aligning light pulse. Wellaligned molecules in the gas phase are suitable for diffraction experiments. From the

  20. Debris-free rear-side picosecond laser ablation of thin germanium wafers in water with ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dongshi; Gökce, Bilal; Sommer, Steffen; Streubel, René; Barcikowski, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Picosecond laser cutting of fragile 150 μm thin germanium wafers (typically used for solar cell applications) in liquid results in debris-free surfaces. • Liquid-assisted laser cutting is much better than air-assisted laser cutting in terms of recast, debris and cleanness of the resultant grooves. • Laser cutting in ethanol–water mixtures result in better cut quality than those performed in pure water but lead to less cutting efficiency. • Low repetition rate (10 kHz), mixed solution (1 wt% ethanol in water) and moderate scanning speed (100 μm/s) are preferable for ultrafine high-quality debris-free cutting. - Abstract: In this paper, we perform liquid-assisted picosecond laser cutting of 150 μm thin germanium wafers from the rear side. By investigating the cutting efficiency (the ability to allow an one-line cut-through) and quality (characterized by groove morphologies on both sides), the pros and cons of this technique under different conditions are clarified. Specifically, with laser fluence fixed, repetition rate and scanning speed are varied to show quality and efficiency control by means of laser parameter modulation. It is found that low repetition rate ablation in liquid gives rise to a better cut quality on the front side than high repetition rate ablation since it avoids dispersed nanoparticles redeposition resulting from a bubble collapse, unlike the case of 100 kHz which leads to large nanorings near the grooves resulting from a strong interaction of bubbles and the case of 50 kHz which leads to random cutting due to the interaction of the former pulse induced cavitation bubble and the subsequent laser pulse. Furthermore, ethanol is mixed with pure distilled water to assess the liquid's impact on the cutting efficiency and cutting quality. The results show that increasing the ethanol fraction decreases the ablation efficiency but simultaneously, greatly improves the cutting quality. The improvement of

  1. Debris-free rear-side picosecond laser ablation of thin germanium wafers in water with ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Dongshi; Gökce, Bilal [Technical Chemistry I and Center for Nanointegration, Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitaetsstrasse 7, 45141 Essen (Germany); Sommer, Steffen [Dausinger & Giesen GmbH, Rotebühlstrasse 87, 70178 Stuttgart (Germany); Streubel, René [Technical Chemistry I and Center for Nanointegration, Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitaetsstrasse 7, 45141 Essen (Germany); Barcikowski, Stephan, E-mail: stephan.barcikowski@uni-due.de [Technical Chemistry I and Center for Nanointegration, Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitaetsstrasse 7, 45141 Essen (Germany)

    2016-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Picosecond laser cutting of fragile 150 μm thin germanium wafers (typically used for solar cell applications) in liquid results in debris-free surfaces. • Liquid-assisted laser cutting is much better than air-assisted laser cutting in terms of recast, debris and cleanness of the resultant grooves. • Laser cutting in ethanol–water mixtures result in better cut quality than those performed in pure water but lead to less cutting efficiency. • Low repetition rate (10 kHz), mixed solution (1 wt% ethanol in water) and moderate scanning speed (100 μm/s) are preferable for ultrafine high-quality debris-free cutting. - Abstract: In this paper, we perform liquid-assisted picosecond laser cutting of 150 μm thin germanium wafers from the rear side. By investigating the cutting efficiency (the ability to allow an one-line cut-through) and quality (characterized by groove morphologies on both sides), the pros and cons of this technique under different conditions are clarified. Specifically, with laser fluence fixed, repetition rate and scanning speed are varied to show quality and efficiency control by means of laser parameter modulation. It is found that low repetition rate ablation in liquid gives rise to a better cut quality on the front side than high repetition rate ablation since it avoids dispersed nanoparticles redeposition resulting from a bubble collapse, unlike the case of 100 kHz which leads to large nanorings near the grooves resulting from a strong interaction of bubbles and the case of 50 kHz which leads to random cutting due to the interaction of the former pulse induced cavitation bubble and the subsequent laser pulse. Furthermore, ethanol is mixed with pure distilled water to assess the liquid's impact on the cutting efficiency and cutting quality. The results show that increasing the ethanol fraction decreases the ablation efficiency but simultaneously, greatly improves the cutting quality. The improvement

  2. Efficient processing of CFRP with a picosecond laser with up to 1.4 kW average power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuseit, V.; Freitag, C.; Wiedenmann, M.; Weber, R.; Negel, J.-P.; Löscher, A.; Abdou Ahmed, M.; Graf, T.

    2015-03-01

    Laser processing of carbon fiber reinforce plastic (CFRP) is a very promising method to solve a lot of the challenges for large-volume production of lightweight constructions in automotive and airplane industries. However, the laser process is actual limited by two main issues. First the quality might be reduced due to thermal damage and second the high process energy needed for sublimation of the carbon fibers requires laser sources with high average power for productive processing. To achieve thermal damage of the CFRP of less than 10μm intensities above 108 W/cm² are needed. To reach these high intensities in the processing area ultra-short pulse laser systems are favored. Unfortunately the average power of commercially available laser systems is up to now in the range of several tens to a few hundred Watt. To sublimate the carbon fibers a large volume specific enthalpy of 85 J/mm³ is necessary. This means for example that cutting of 2 mm thick material with a kerf width of 0.2 mm with industry-typical 100 mm/sec requires several kilowatts of average power. At the IFSW a thin-disk multipass amplifier yielding a maximum average output power of 1100 W (300 kHz, 8 ps, 3.7 mJ) allowed for the first time to process CFRP at this average power and pulse energy level with picosecond pulse duration. With this unique laser system cutting of CFRP with a thickness of 2 mm an effective average cutting speed of 150 mm/sec with a thermal damage below 10μm was demonstrated.

  3. Enhanced optical confinement of dye-doped dielectric nanoparticles using a picosecond-pulsed near-infrared laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittiravechote, A; Chiang, W-Y; Usman, A; Liau, I; Masuhara, H

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel strategy to increase the capability of confining numerous dye-doped polymeric nanobeads (diameter 100 nm) with laser trapping. Unlike most classical works of optical trapping that address mainly the stiffness of the optical trap, our work concerns an increase in the number of particles confined near the laser focus. We developed an imaging system of light scattering in which a condenser lamp was employed to illuminate the focal plane of the objective lens, and the scattering of the incoherent light was specifically measured to determine the number of confined nanobeads. In contrast to preceding work that used mainly continuous-wave or femtosecond-pulsed lasers, we employed a picosecond-pulsed laser with the half-wavelength of the laser particularly falling within the absorption band of the dopant. Our results show that the number of doped nanobeads held by the laser is significantly greater than that of the bare nanobeads of the same dimension. In striking contrast, the confinement of the nanobeads of the two types was comparable when a continuous-wave laser of the same wavelength and power was employed. The number of confined dye-doped nanobeads increased nonlinearly with the power of the pulsed laser; this dependence was fitted satisfactorily with a second-order polynomial. Supported by theoretical analysis, we attribute the enhanced confinement of doped nanobeads in part to an increased effective refractive index resulting from two-photon resonance between the optical field of the laser and the dopant of the nanobead. We envisage that our findings would evoke applications that benefit from controlled confinement or aggregation of nanomaterials with the employment of near-infrared pulsed lasers. (letter)

  4. Experimental demonstration of novel cascaded SFG+DFG wavelength conversion of picosecond pulses in LiNbO 3 waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Sun, Junqiang; Luo, Chuanhong

    2006-06-01

    A novel cascaded χ (2) wavelength conversion of picosecond pulses based on sum frequency generation and difference frequency generation (SFG+DFG) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in LiNbO 3 waveguides. The signal pulse with 40-GHz repetition rate and 1.57-ps pulse width is adopted. First of all, high conversion efficiency about -18.93dB can be achieved with low power level required for both two pump lights, which is greatly enhanced approximately 8dB compared with the conventional cascaded second-order nonlinear interactions (SHG+DFG) with a single and much higher power pump. Secondly, the wavelength of the converted idler wave can be tuned from 1527.4 to 1540.5nm when the signal wavelength is changed from 1561.9 to 1548.4nm, and about 13.1nm converted idler bandwidth is achieved with the conversion efficiency higher than -31dB. Thirdly, two pump wavelengths can be separated as large as 17.3nm. Meanwhile, when one pump wavelength is fixed at 1549.1nm, the other can be tuned within a wide wavelength range about 7.6nm with the conversion efficiency higher than -34dB, which is much larger than that in the SHG+DFG situation. Finally, the temporal waveform of the converted idler pulse is observed with rather clear appearance achieved, and no obvious changes of the pulse shape and width are found compared with its corresponding original injected signal, showing that our proposed scheme exhibits a very good conversion performance.

  5. Prospective study of removing solar lentigines in Asians using a novel dual-wavelength and dual-pulse width picosecond laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, Kei; Akita, Hirotaka; Matsunaga, Yukiko

    2018-04-02

    Quality-switched (QS) lasers are known to be an effective treatment for removing solar lentigines, however, high incidence of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) is a concern in darker skin types. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a dual-wavelength and dual-pulse width picosecond Nd:YAG laser for removing solar lentigines in Asians. This was a prospective, IRB-approved study. Twenty cases with solar lentigines on the face were enrolled for treatment and evaluated at 1- and 3-month after the final treatment. Results were assessed by blinded evaluators using a 5-grade percentage improvement scale and Melanin index (MI) measured by a reflectance spectrophotometer. A patient self-assessment questionnaire was also administered using a 5-grade improvement scale. Additional treatment was performed if the improvement was less than 75% or the lentigo partially remained after 4 weeks. Histological evaluation was performed to compare the differences between the current picosecond laser and a QS Nd:YAG laser 532-nm using light and electron microscopy. Forty-three lesions in 20 females, skin type III or IV, age 53.7 ± 9.75 were treated and evaluated. The laser setting was: 532-nm, 750 picoseconds, average fluence of 0.35 ± 0.06 J/cm [2] using a spot size of 3 or 4 mm. Forty lesions (93.02%) achieved over 75% clearance with a single treatment and the other three lesions (6.98%) needed two treatments. PIH occurred only in 4.65% of lesions. The average score of the blinded evaluators' assessment was 4.77 and 4.58 on a 5-grade percentage improvement scale. The patients' self-assessment rating was 4.76 and 4.67 on a 5-grade scale at 1- and 3-month follow-up, respectively. The improvement rate of relative MI (MI in the lesion minus that of the normal area) was 77.60 ± 36.27% and 76.93 ± 20.95% at 1-and 3-month follow-up. Histology showed vacuolar formation by both lasers in the epidermis that were different sizes

  6. Nanosecond retinal structure changes in K-590 during the room-temperature bacteriorhodopsin photocycle: picosecond time-resolved coherent anti-stokes Raman spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Weidlich, O.; Ujj, L.; Jäger, F.; Atkinson, G.H.

    1997-01-01

    Time-resolved vibrational spectra are used to elucidate the structural changes in the retinal chromophore within the K-590 intermediate that precedes the formation of the L-550 intermediate in the room-temperature (RT) bacteriorhodopsin (BR) photocycle. Measured by picosecond time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (PTR/CARS), these vibrational data are recorded within the 750 cm-1 to 1720 cm-1 spectral region and with time delays of 50-260 ns after the RT/BR photocycle is optical...

  7. Ultrafast supercontinuum fiber-laser based pump-probe scanning magneto-optical Kerr effect microscope for the investigation of electron spin dynamics in semiconductors at cryogenic temperatures with picosecond time and micrometer spatial resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, T; Kiessling, T; Ossau, W; Molenkamp, L W; Biermann, K; Santos, P V

    2013-12-01

    We describe a two-color pump-probe scanning magneto-optical Kerr effect microscope which we have developed to investigate electron spin phenomena in semiconductors at cryogenic temperatures with picosecond time and micrometer spatial resolution. The key innovation of our microscope is the usage of an ultrafast "white light" supercontinuum fiber-laser source which provides access to the whole visible and near-infrared spectral range. Our Kerr microscope allows for the independent selection of the excitation and detection energy while avoiding the necessity to synchronize the pulse trains of two separate picosecond laser systems. The ability to independently tune the pump and probe wavelength enables the investigation of the influence of excitation energy on the optically induced electron spin dynamics in semiconductors. We demonstrate picosecond real-space imaging of the diffusive expansion of optically excited electron spin packets in a (110) GaAs quantum well sample to illustrate the capabilities of the instrument.

  8. A comparative study with a 755 nm picosecond Alexandrite laser with a diffractive lens array and a 532 nm/1064 nm Nd:YAG with a holographic optic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanghetti Md, Emil; Jennings, John

    2018-01-01

    This study was performed to better understand the cutaneous effects of using a fractional picosecond laser at 755 nm with a diffractive lens array and a picosecond Nd:YAG laser at 532 mn and 1064 nm with a holographic optic. We characterized the injuries created by these devices on skin clinically and histologically over 24 hours. With this information we modeled the effects of these devices on a cutaneous target. Eight patients, representing Fitzpatrick skin types I-VI, were treated on their backs with a picosecond Alexandrite laser with a diffractive lens array, as well as a picosecond Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm and 1064 nm with a holographic optic. Photographs were taken 15 minutes and 24 hours after treatments. Punch biopsies were obtained at 24 hours and examined histologically. Treatment with the picosecond Nd:YAG laser at both 532 nm and 1064 nm with the holographic optic revealed erythema and small scatted areas of petechial hemorrhage areas immediately and in many cases at 24 hours after treatment. The 755 nm picosecond Alexandrite laser with diffractive lens array produced erythema immediately after treatment, which largely dissipated 24 hours later. Histologies revealed intra-epidermal vacuoles with all three wavelengths. Fractional picosecond Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm and 1064 nm with the holographic optic showed focal areas of dermal and intra-epidermal hemorrhage with areas of vascular damage in some patients. This study demonstrates that both fractional picosecond devices produce vacuoles in the skin, which are most likely due to areas of laser induced optical breakdown (LIOB). In the patients (skin type II-IV) we observed scatter areas of hemorrhage in the skin, due to vascular damage with the 532 nm and 1064 nm, but not with 755 nm wavelengths. Lasers Surg. Med. 50:37-44, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Studies on linear, nonlinear optical and excited state dynamics of silicon nanoparticles prepared by picosecond laser ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hamad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report results from our studies on the fabrication and characterization of silicon (Si nanoparticles (NPs and nanostructures (NSs achieved through the ablation of Si target in four different liquids using ∼2 picosecond (ps pulses. The consequence of using different liquid media on the ablation of Si target was investigated by studying the surface morphology along with material composition of Si based NPs. The recorded mean sizes of these NPs were ∼9.5 nm, ∼37 nm, ∼45 nm and ∼42 nm obtained in acetone, water, dichloromethane (DCM and chloroform, respectively. The generated NPs were characterized by selected area electron diffraction (SAED, high resolution transmission microscopy (HRTEM, Raman spectroscopic techniques and Photoluminescence (PL studies. SAED, HRTEM and Raman spectroscopy data confirmed that the material composition was Si NPs in acetone, Si/SiO2 NPs in water, Si-C NPs in DCM and Si-C NPs in chloroform and all of them were confirmed to be polycrystalline in nature. Surface morphological information of the fabricated Si substrates was obtained using the field emission scanning electron microscopic (FESEM technique. FESEM data revealed the formation of laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS for the case of ablation in acetone and water while random NSs were observed for the case of ablation in DCM and chloroform. Femtosecond (fs nonlinear optical properties and excited state dynamics of these colloidal Si NPs were investigated using the Z-scan and pump-probe techniques with ∼150 fs (100 MHz and ∼70 fs (1 kHz laser pulses, respectively. The fs pump-probe data obtained at 600 nm consisted of single and double exponential decays which were tentatively assigned to electron-electron collisional relaxation (1 ps. Large third order optical nonlinearities (∼10−14 e.s.u. for these colloids have been estimated from Z-scan data at an excitation wavelength of 680 nm suggesting that the colloidal Si NPs find

  10. Studies on linear, nonlinear optical and excited state dynamics of silicon nanoparticles prepared by picosecond laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamad, Syed; Nageswara Rao, S. V. S.; Pathak, A. P. [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046, Telangana (India); Krishna Podagatlapalli, G.; Mounika, R.; Venugopal Rao, S., E-mail: soma-venu@yahoo.com, E-mail: soma-venu@uohyd.ac.in [Advanced Center of Research in High Energy Materials (ACRHEM), University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046, Telangana (India)

    2015-12-15

    We report results from our studies on the fabrication and characterization of silicon (Si) nanoparticles (NPs) and nanostructures (NSs) achieved through the ablation of Si target in four different liquids using ∼2 picosecond (ps) pulses. The consequence of using different liquid media on the ablation of Si target was investigated by studying the surface morphology along with material composition of Si based NPs. The recorded mean sizes of these NPs were ∼9.5 nm, ∼37 nm, ∼45 nm and ∼42 nm obtained in acetone, water, dichloromethane (DCM) and chloroform, respectively. The generated NPs were characterized by selected area electron diffraction (SAED), high resolution transmission microscopy (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopic techniques and Photoluminescence (PL) studies. SAED, HRTEM and Raman spectroscopy data confirmed that the material composition was Si NPs in acetone, Si/SiO{sub 2} NPs in water, Si-C NPs in DCM and Si-C NPs in chloroform and all of them were confirmed to be polycrystalline in nature. Surface morphological information of the fabricated Si substrates was obtained using the field emission scanning electron microscopic (FESEM) technique. FESEM data revealed the formation of laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) for the case of ablation in acetone and water while random NSs were observed for the case of ablation in DCM and chloroform. Femtosecond (fs) nonlinear optical properties and excited state dynamics of these colloidal Si NPs were investigated using the Z-scan and pump-probe techniques with ∼150 fs (100 MHz) and ∼70 fs (1 kHz) laser pulses, respectively. The fs pump-probe data obtained at 600 nm consisted of single and double exponential decays which were tentatively assigned to electron-electron collisional relaxation (<1 ps) and non-radiative transitions (>1 ps). Large third order optical nonlinearities (∼10{sup −14} e.s.u.) for these colloids have been estimated from Z-scan data at an excitation wavelength of 680 nm

  11. Picosecond laser texturization of mc-silicon for photovoltaics: A comparison between 1064 nm, 532 nm and 355 nm radiation wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binetti, Simona [Department of Materials Science and Milano-Bicocca Solar Energy Research Center (MIB-SOLAR), University of Milano-Bicocca, Via Cozzi 55, 20125 Milano (Italy); Le Donne, Alessia, E-mail: alessia.ledonne@mater.unimib.it [Department of Materials Science and Milano-Bicocca Solar Energy Research Center (MIB-SOLAR), University of Milano-Bicocca, Via Cozzi 55, 20125 Milano (Italy); Rolfi, Andrea [Department of Materials Science and Milano-Bicocca Solar Energy Research Center (MIB-SOLAR), University of Milano-Bicocca, Via Cozzi 55, 20125 Milano (Italy); Jäggi, Beat; Neuenschwander, Beat [Bern University of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Information Technology, Institute for Applied Laser, Photonics and Surface Technologies ALPS, Pestalozzistrasse 20, CH-3400 Burgdorf (Switzerland); Busto, Chiara [ENI Spa, Via Giacomo Fauser, 4, 28100 Novara (Italy); Frigeri, Cesare [CNR-IMEM Institute, Parco Area Delle Scienze 37/A, Fontanini, 43010 Parma (Italy); Scorticati, Davide; Longoni, Luca; Pellegrino, Sergio [Laserpoint Srl, Via Della Burrona 51, 20090 Vimodrone, Milano (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Self-organized surface structures were produced by picosecond laser pulses on mc-Si. • Three laser wavelengths were used which effectively reduce Si reflectivity up to 8%. • The subsurface damage induced by the three lasers was studied in detail. • μ-Raman, PL and TEM proved that UV laser provides the lowest subsurface damage. • UV laser induced damage is located above the depletion region of the p–n junction. - Abstract: Self-organized surface structures were produced by picosecond laser pulses on multi-crystalline silicon for photovoltaic applications. Three different laser wavelengths were employed (i.e. 1064 nm, 532 nm and 355 nm) and the resulting morphologies were observed to effectively reduce the reflectivity of the samples after laser irradiation. Besides, a comparative study of the laser induced subsurface damage generated by the three different wavelengths was performed by confocal micro-Raman, photoluminescence and transmission electron microscopy. The results of both the structural and optical characterization showed that the mc-Si texturing performed with the laser at 355 nm provides surface reflectivity between 11% and 8% over the spectral range from 400 nm to 1 μm, while inducing the lowest subsurface damage, located above the depletion region of the p–n junction.

  12. Recent results on solvation dynamics of electron and spur reactions of solvated electron in polar solvents studied by femtosecond laser spectroscopy and picosecond pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafavi, M.

    2006-01-01

    Here, we report several studies done recently at ELYSE laboratory on the solvation dynamics of electron and on the kinetics of solvated electron in the spur reactions, performed by femtosecond laser spectroscopy and picosecond pulse radiolysis, respectively. Solvated electrons have been produced in polyol (1,2-Etanediol, 1,2-Propanediol and 1,3-Propanediol) by two-photon ionization of the solvent with 263 nm femtosecond laser pulses at room temperature. The two-photon absorption coefficient of these solvents at 263 nm has been determined. The dynamics of electron solvation in polyols has been studied by pump-probe transient absorption spectroscopy. So, time resolved absorption spectra ranging from 430 to 720 nm have been measured (Figure 1). A blue shift of the spectra is observed for the first tens of picoseconds. Using Bayesian data analysis method, the observed solvation dynamics are reconstructed with different models: stepwise mechanisms, continuous relaxation models or combinations of stepwise and continuous relaxation. That analysis clearly indicates that it is not obvious to select a unique model to describe the solvation dynamics of electron in diols. We showed that several models are able to reproduce correctly the data: a two-step model, a heterogeneous or bi-exponential continuous relaxation model and even a hybrid model with a stepwise transition and homogeneous continuous relaxation. Nevertheless, the best fits are given by the continuous spectral relaxation models. The fact that the time-evolution of the absorption spectrum of the solvated electron in diols can be accurately described by the temperature dependent absorption spectrum of the ground state solvated electron suggests that the spectral blue shift is mostly caused by the continuous relaxation of the electron trapped in a large distribution of solvent cages. Similar trends on electron solvation dynamics are observed in the cases of 1,2-ethanediol, 1,3-propanediol and 1,2 propanediol

  13. Amplification of picosecond pulse by electron-beam pumped KrF laser amplifiers. Denshi beam reiki KrF laser zofukuki ni yoru piko byo pulse no zofuku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuda, I.; Tomie, T.; Owadano, Y.; Yano, M. (Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1991-08-20

    Experiments on the amplification of a picosecond pulse by electron-beam pumped KrF laser amplifiers were carried out for the purpose of its application to the field such as excitation light source for soft X-ray laser which requires large energy besides peak power. The picosecond pulse was amplified by a discharge pumped KrF amplifier and two electron-beam pumped KrF amplifiers(at the middle stage and the final stage). The energy of 4J, which was the largest energy for short pulse excimer laser so far, was obtained by these devices. About 90% of the window area of the final amplifier with 29cm diameter was filled by the input beam, and energy density of the picosecond beam reached 3.9 times saturation energy density. Measured energy of amplified spontaneous emission(ASE) showed good agreement with the theoretically estimated value. Most of ASE was derived from the discharge pumped laser as the first amplifier. As for the focused power density, the power density ratio of the picosecond pulse to ASE was estimated to be as large as 10{sup 5}. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Radio frequency picosecond phototube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margaryan, A.; Carlini, R.; Ent, R.; Grigoryan, N.; Gyunashyan, K.; Hashimoto, O.; Hovater, K.; Ispiryan, M.; Knyazyan, S.; Kross, B.; Majewski, S.; Marikyan, G.; Mkrtchyan, M.; Parlakyan, L.; Popov, V.; Tang, L.; Vardanyan, H.; Yan, C.; Zhamkochyan, S.; Zorn, C.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a photon detector for recording low-level and ultra-fast optical signals, based on radio frequency (RF) analysis of low-energy photoelectrons (PEs). By using currently developed 500 MHz RF deflector, it is possible to scan circularly and detect single PEs, amplified in multi-channel plates (MCPs). The operation of the tube is investigated by means of thermionic electron source. It is demonstrated that the signals generated in the MCP can be processed event by event; by using available nanosecond electronics and that time resolution better than 20 ps can be achieved. Timing characteristics of the Cherenkov detector with RF phototube in a 'head-on' geometry is investigated by means of Monte Carlo simulation

  15. Radio frequency picosecond phototube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margaryan, A. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 2 Alikhanian Brothers Street, Yerevan 375036 (Armenia)]. E-mail: mat@mail.yerphi.am; Carlini, R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News VA 23606 (United States); Ent, R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News VA 23606 (United States); Grigoryan, N. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 2 Alikhanian Brothers Street, Yerevan 375036 (Armenia); Gyunashyan, K. [Yerevan State University of Architecture and Construction, Yerevan (Armenia); Hashimoto, O. [Tohoku University, Sendai 98-77 (Japan); Hovater, K. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News VA 23606 (United States); Ispiryan, M. [University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Rd, Houston TX 77204 (United States); Knyazyan, S. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 2 Alikhanian Brothers Street, Yerevan 375036 (Armenia); Kross, B. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News VA 23606 (United States); Majewski, S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News VA 23606 (United States); Marikyan, G. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 2 Alikhanian Brothers Street, Yerevan 375036 (Armenia); Mkrtchyan, M. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 2 Alikhanian Brothers Street, Yerevan 375036 (Armenia); Parlakyan, L. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 2 Alikhanian Brothers Street, Yerevan 375036 (Armenia); Popov, V. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News VA 23606 (United States); Tang, L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News VA 23606 (United States); Vardanyan, H. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 2 Alikhanian Brothers Street, Yerevan 375036 (Armenia); Yan, C. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News VA 23606 (United States); Zhamkochyan, S. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 2 Alikhanian Brothers Street, Yerevan 375036 (Armenia); Zorn, C. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News VA 23606 (United States)

    2006-10-15

    We propose a photon detector for recording low-level and ultra-fast optical signals, based on radio frequency (RF) analysis of low-energy photoelectrons (PEs). By using currently developed 500 MHz RF deflector, it is possible to scan circularly and detect single PEs, amplified in multi-channel plates (MCPs). The operation of the tube is investigated by means of thermionic electron source. It is demonstrated that the signals generated in the MCP can be processed event by event; by using available nanosecond electronics and that time resolution better than 20 ps can be achieved. Timing characteristics of the Cherenkov detector with RF phototube in a 'head-on' geometry is investigated by means of Monte Carlo simulation.

  16. Contribution to the study of solvated electrons in water and alcohols and of radiolytic processes in organic carbonates by picosecond pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torche, Faycal

    2012-01-01

    This work is part of the study area of the interaction of radiation with polar liquids. Using the picosecond electron accelerator ELYSE, studies were conducted using the techniques of pulse radiolysis combined with absorption spectrophotometry Time-resolved in the field of a picosecond. This work is divided into two separate chapters. The first study addresses the temporal variation of the radiolytic yield of solvated electron in water and simple alcohols. Due to original detection system mounted on the accelerator ELYSE, composed of a flash lamp specifically designed for the detection and a streak-camera used for the first time in absorption spectroscopy, it was possible to record the time-dependent radiolytic yields of the solvated electron from ten picoseconds to a few hundred nanoseconds. The scavenging of the electron solvated by methyl viologen, was utilized to reevaluate the molar extinction coefficient of the absorption spectrum of solvated electron in water and ethanol from isobestic points which corresponds to the intersection of the absorption spectra of solvated electron which disappears and methyl viologen which is formed during the reaction. The second chapter is devoted to the study of liquid organic carbonates such as dimethyl carbonate (DMC), diethyl carbonate (DEC) and propylene carbonate (PC). This family of carbonate which compose the electrolytes lithium batteries, has never been investigated by pulse radiolysis. The studies were focused on the PC in the light of these physicochemical characteristics, including its very high dielectric constant and its strong dipole moment of 4.9 D. The first results were obtained on aqueous solutions containing propylene carbonate to observe the reactions of reduction and oxidation of PC by radiolytic species of water (solvated electron and OH radicals). Then, after the identification (spectral and kinetic) of the species formed by interaction with the OH radical as the PC* radical resulting from the

  17. On the biphoton excitation of the fluorescence of the bacteriochlorophyll molecules of purple photosynthetic bacteria by powerful near IR femto-picosecond pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, A. Yu., E-mail: borissov@belozersky.msu.ru [Moscow State University, Belozersky Institute of Physicochemical Biology (Russian Federation)

    2011-11-15

    The authors of a number of experimental works detected nonresonance biphoton excitation of bacteriochlorophyll molecules, which represent the main pigment in the light-absorbing natural 'antenna' complexes of photosynthesizing purple bacteria, by femtosecond IR pulses (1250-1500 nm). They believe that IR quanta excite hypothetic forbidden levels of the pigments of these bacteria in the double frequency range 625-750 nm. We propose and ground an alternative triplet mechanism to describe this phenomenon. According to our hypothesis, the mechanism of biphoton excitation of molecules by IR quanta can manifest itself specifically, through high triplet levels of molecules in the high fields induced by femtosecond-picosecond laser pulses.

  18. Plasma satellites of X-ray spectral lines of ions in a plasma of solid-state targets, heated by a picosecond laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, V.S.; Vinogradov, V.I.; Kurilov, A.S.; Matafonov, A.P.; Lisitsa, V.S.; Gavrilenko, V.P.; Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, T.A.; Skobelev, I.Yu.; Magunov, A.I.; Pikuz, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    The results of measuring the ions X-ray spectral lines by the interaction of the picosecond laser pulses with the solid-state target are presented. The spectra of the X-ray radiation were observed on the fluorine ion line. The spectral lines satellites, testifying to the availability, are identified. The position of the satellites and the distance between them make it possible to connect them with the intensive electrostatic oscillations with the amplitude, exceeding 10 8 V/cm, and the frequency close to 7 x 10 14 s -1 , substantially lower than the laser wave frequency. The experimental results are compared with the calculated data on the multicharge ions spectra [ru

  19. Hot phonon generation by split-off hole band electrons in AlxGa1-xAs alloys investigated by picosecond Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, J.M.; Kim, D.S.; Zhou, J.F.; Song, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    The initial generation of hot LO phonons by the relaxation of hot carriers in GaAs and Al x Ga 1-x As alloy semiconductors is studied. Within the initial 2ps of photoexcitation, only those electrons originating from the split-off hole bands are found to generate a significant number of I-valley hot phonons when photon energies of 2.33eV are used. A picosecond Raman scattering technique is used to determine the hot phonon occupation number in a series of MBE grown Al x Ga 1-x As samples with 0≤x≤0.39. The Stokes and anti-Stokes lines were measured for both GaAs-like and AlAs-like LO phonon modes to determine their occupation numbers. The authors observe a rapid decrease in the phonon occupation numbers as the aluminum concentration increases beyond x = 0.2. This rapid decrease is explained by considering only those electrons photoexcited from the split-off hole band. Almost all of the electrons originating from the heavy and light-hole bands are shown to quickly transfer and remain in the X and L valleys without generating significant numbers of hot LO phonons during the initial 2ps and at a carrier density of 10 17 cm -3 . A model based upon the instantaneous thermalization of hot electrons photoexcited from the split-off hole bands is used to fit the data. They have obtained very good agreement between experiment and theory. This work provides a clear understanding to the relaxation of Γ valley hot electrons by the generation of hot phonons on subpicosecond and picosecond time scales, which has long standing implications to previous time resolved Raman experiments

  20. Vibrational spectrum of the K-590 intermediate in the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle at room temperature: picosecond time-resolved resonance coherent anti-Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujj, L.; Jäger, F.; Popp, A.; Atkinson, G. H.

    1996-12-01

    The vibrational spectrum of the K-590 intermediate, thought to contribute significantly to the energy storage and transduction mechanism in the bacteriorhodopsin (BR) photocycle, is measured at room temperature using picosecond time-resolved resonance coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (PTR/CARS). The room-temperature BR photocycle is initiated by the 3 ps, 570 nm excitation of the ground-state species, BR-570, prepared in both H 2O and D 2O suspensions of BR. PTR/CARS data, recorded 50 ps after BR-570 excitation, at which time only BR-570 and K-590 are present, have an excellent S/N which provides a significantly more detailed view of the K-590 vibrational degrees of freedom than previously available. Two picosecond (6 ps FWHM) laser pulses, ω1 (633.4 nm) and ωS (675-700 nm), are used to record PTR/CARS data via electronic resonance enhancement in both BR-570 and K-590, each of which contains a distinct retinal structure (assigned as 13- rans, 15- anti, 13- cis, respectively). To obtain the vibrational spectrum of K-590 separately, the PTR/CARS spectra from the mixture of isomeric retinals is quantitatively analyzed in terms of third-order susceptibility ( η(3)) relationships. PTR/CARS spectra of K-590 recorded from both H 2O and D 2O suspensions of BR are compared with the analogous vibrational data obtained via spontaneous resonance Raman (RR) scattering at both low (77 K) and room temperature. Analyses of these vibrational spectra identify temperature-dependent effects and changes assignable to the substitution of deuterium at the Schiff-base nitrogen not previously reported.

  1. Laser surface texturing of cast iron steel: dramatic edge burr reduction and high speed process optimisation for industrial production using DPSS picosecond lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruneel, David; Kearsley, Andrew; Karnakis, Dimitris

    2015-07-01

    In this work we present picosecond DPSS laser surface texturing optimisation of automotive grade cast iron steel. This application attracts great interest, particularly in the automotive industry, to reduce friction between moving piston parts in car engines, in order to decrease fuel consumption. This is accomplished by partially covering with swallow microgrooves the inner surface of a piston liner and is currently a production process adopting much longer pulse (microsecond) DPSS lasers. Lubricated interface conditions of moving parts require from the laser process to produce a very strictly controlled surface topography around the laser formed grooves, whose edge burr height must be lower than 100 nm. To achieve such a strict tolerance, laser machining of cast iron steel was investigated using an infrared DPSS picosecond laser (10ps duration) with an output power of 16W and a repetition rate of 200 kHz. The ultrashort laser is believed to provide a much better thermal management of the etching process. All studies presented here were performed on flat samples in ambient air but the process is transferrable to cylindrical geometry engine liners. We will show that reducing significantly the edge burr below an acceptable limit for lubricated engine production is possible using such lasers and remarkably the process window lies at very high irradiated fluences much higher that the single pulse ablation threshold. This detailed experimental work highlights the close relationship between the optimised laser irradiation conditions as well as the process strategy with the final size of the undesirable edge burrs. The optimised process conditions are compatible with an industrial production process and show the potential for removing extra post)processing steps (honing, etc) of cylinder liners on the manufacturing line saving time and cost.

  2. Direct observation of an isopolyhalomethane O-H insertion reaction with water: Picosecond time-resolved resonance Raman (ps-TR3) study of the isobromoform reaction with water to produce a CHBr2OH product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, W.M.; Zhao Cunyuan; Li Yunliang; Guan Xiangguo; Phillips, David Lee

    2004-01-01

    Picosecond time-resolved resonance Raman (ps-TR 3 ) spectroscopy was used to obtain the first definitive spectroscopic observation of an isopolyhalomethane O-H insertion reaction with water. The ps-TR 3 spectra show that isobromoform is produced within several picoseconds after photolysis of CHBr 3 and then reacts on the hundreds of picosecond time scale with water to produce a CHBr 2 OH reaction product. Photolysis of low concentrations of bromoform in aqueous solution resulted in noticeable formation of HBr strong acid. Ab initio calculations show that isobromoform can react with water to produce a CHBr 2 (OH) O-H insertion reaction product and a HBr leaving group. This is consistent with both the ps-TR 3 experiments that observe the reaction of isobromoform with water to form a CHBr 2 (OH) product and photolysis experiments that show HBr acid formation. We briefly discuss the implications of these results for the phase dependent behavior of polyhalomethane photochemistry in the gas phase versus water solvated environments

  3. Analysis of Microstructure Refinement During Single-Pass and Multi-Pass Friction Stir Processing of Nial Propeller Bronze

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    material. For example, tool steel can be used in aluminum, but tungsten-based alloys should be used in copper and titanium based alloys. The material...many other alloys such as copper, nickel, titanium, magnesium, and steels . In addition, each processed alloy had other material characteristics that... bainitic transformation is also possible. The martencite is a B2 structure with a lattice parameter of 2.85±0.03Å [8]. The B2 structure is a BCC structure

  4. Characterization of the solid, airborne materials created when UF6 reacts with moist air flowing in single-pass mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickrell, P.W.

    1985-10-01

    A series of experiments has been performed in which UF 6 was released into flowing air in order to characterize the solid particulate material produced under non-static conditions. In two of the experiments, the aerosol was allowed to stagnate in a static chamber after release and examined further but in the other experiments characterization was done only on material collected a few seconds after release. Transmission electron microscopy and mass measurement by cascaded impactor were used to characterize the aerosol particles which were usually single spheroids with little agglomeration in evidence. The goal of the work is to determine the chemistry and physics of the UF 6 -atmospheric moisture reaction under a variety of conditions so that information about resulting species and product morphologies is available for containment and removal (knockdown) studies as well as for dispersion plume modeling and toxicology studies. This report completes the milestone for reporting the information obtained from releases of UF 6 into flowing rather than static air. 26 figs., 3 tabs

  5. High-accuracy single-pass InSAR DEM for large-scale flood hazard applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, G.; Faherty, D.; Moller, D.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we used a unique opportunity of the GLISTIN-A (NASA airborne mission designed to characterizing the cryosphere) track to Greenland to acquire a high-resolution InSAR DEM of a large area in the Red River of the North Basin (north of Grand Forks, ND, USA), which is a very flood-vulnerable valley, particularly in spring time due to increased soil moisture content near state of saturation and/or, typical for this region, snowmelt. Having an InSAR DEM that meets flood inundation modeling and mapping requirements comparable to LiDAR, would demonstrate great application potential of new radar technology for national agencies with an operational flood forecasting mandate and also local state governments active in flood event prediction, disaster response and mitigation. Specifically, we derived a bare-earth DEM in SAR geometry by first removing the inherent far range bias related to airborne operation, which at the more typical large-scale DEM resolution of 30 m has a sensor accuracy of plus or minus 2.5 cm. Subsequently, an intelligent classifier based on informed relationships between InSAR height, intensity and correlation was used to distinguish between bare-earth, roads or embankments, buildings and tall vegetation in order to facilitate the creation of a bare-earth DEM that would meet the requirements for accurate floodplain inundation mapping. Using state-of-the-art LiDAR terrain data, we demonstrate that capability by achieving a root mean squared error of approximately 25 cm and further illustrating its applicability to flood modeling.

  6. Spin motion determination of the Envisat satellite through laser ranging measurements from a single pass measured by a single station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittet, Jean-Noël; Šilha, Jiří; Schildknecht, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    The Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) technology is used to accurately determine the position of space objects equipped with so-called retro-reflectors or retro-reflector arrays (RRA). This type of measurement allows to measure the range to the spacecraft with high precision, which leads to determination of very accurate orbits for these targets. Non-active spacecraft, which are not attitude controlled any longer, tend to start to spin or tumble under influence of the external and internal torques and forces. If the return signal is measured for a non-spherical non-active rotating object, the signal in the range residuals with respect to the reference orbit is more complex. For rotating objects the return signal shows an oscillating pattern or patterns caused by the RRA moving around the satellite's centre of mass. This behaviour is projected onto the radial component measured by the SLR. In our work, we demonstrate how the SLR ranging technique from one sensor to a satellite equipped with a RRA can be used to precisely determine its spin motion during one passage. Multiple SLR measurements of one target over time allow to accurately monitor spin motion changes which can be further used for attitude predictions. We show our solutions of the spin motion determined for the non-active ESA satellite Envisat obtained from measurements acquired during years 2013-2015 by the Zimmerwald SLR station, Switzerland. All the necessary parameters are defined for our own so-called point-like model which describes the motion of a point in space around the satellite centre of mass.

  7. Temporal resolution technology of a soft X-ray picosecond framing camera based on Chevron micro-channel plates gated in cascade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Wenzheng [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710119 (China)], E-mail: ywz@opt.ac.cn; Bai Yonglin; Liu Baiyu [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710119 (China); Bai Xiaohong; Zhao Junping; Qin Junjun [Key Laboratory of Ultra-fast Photoelectric Diagnostics Technology, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710119 (China)

    2009-09-11

    We describe a soft X-ray picosecond framing camera (XFC) based on Chevron micro-channel plates (MCPs) gated in cascade for ultra-fast process diagnostics. The micro-strip lines are deposited on both the input and the output surfaces of the Chevron MCPs and can be gated by a negative (positive) electric pulse on the first (second) MCP. The gating is controlled by the time delay T{sub d} between two gating pulses. By increasing T{sub d}, the temporal resolution and the gain of the camera are greatly improved compared with a single-gated MCP-XFC. The optimal T{sub d}, which results in the best temporal resolution, is within the electron transit time and transit time spread of the MCP. Using 250 ps, {+-}2.5 kV gating pulses, the temporal resolution of the double-gated Chevron MCPs camera is improved from 60 ps for the single-gated MCP-XFC to 37 ps for T{sub d}=350 ps. The principle is presented in detail and accompanied with a theoretic simulation and experimental results.

  8. Effect of laser absorption on picosecond laser ablation of Cr12MoV mold steel, 9Cr18 stainless steel and H13A cemented carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Baoye; Liu, Peng; Wang, Xizhao; Zhang, Fei; Deng, Leimin; Duan, Jun; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2018-05-01

    Due to excellent properties, Cr12MoV mold steel, 9Cr18 stainless steel and H13A cemented carbide are widely used in industry. In this paper, the effect of absorption of laser light on ablation efficiency and roughness have been studied using a picosecond pulse Nd:YVO4 laser. The experimental results reveal that laser wavelength, original surface roughness and chemical composition play an important role in controlling ablation efficiency and roughness. Firstly, higher ablation efficiency with lower surface roughness is achieved on the ablation of 9Cr18 at 532, comparing with 1064 nm. Secondly, the ablation efficiency increases while the Ra of the ablated region decreases with the decrease of original surface roughness on ablation of Cr12MoV mold steel at 532 nm. Thirdly, the ablation efficiency of H13A cemented carbide is much higher than 9Cr18 stainless steel and Cr12MoV mold steel at 1064 nm. Scanning electron microscopy images reveals the formation of pores on the surface of 9Cr18 stainless steel and Cr12MoV mold steel at 532 nm while no pores are formed at 1064 nm. As to H13A cemented carbide, worm-like structure is formed at 1064 nm. The synergetic effects of the heat accumulation, plasma shielding and ablation threshold on laser ablation efficiency and machining quality were analyzed and discussed systematically in this paper.

  9. Picosecond studies of excitation transport in a finite volume: The clustered transport system octadecyl rhodamine B in triton X-100 micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ediger, M.D.; Domingue, R.P.; Fayer, M.D.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed experimental and theoretical examination of electronic excited state transport in the finite volume system, octadecyl rhodamine B molecules in triton X-100 micelles, is presented. Picosecond fluorescence mixing and transient grating techniques were used to examine systems in which the average number of chromophores per micelle ranged from 0.1 to 11. Because of the clustering of chromophores in the small micelles, the energy transport observed is extremely efficient. A statistical mechanical theory, based on a density expansion with a Pade approximant, is developed for donor--donor transport on a spherical surface. This theory accurately accounts for the experimental data with only the micelle radius as an adjustable parameter. The radius obtained from this procedure is in good agreement with determinations by other methods. This demonstrates that quantitative information about the spatial extent of chromophore distributions in small volumes can be obtained when appropriate finite volume energy transport theories are employed. It is shown that theories developed for infinite volumes are not applicable to systems such as the ones considered here. Finally the partitioning of rhodamine B and octadecyl rhodamine B between aqueous and micellar phases is measured, and lifetimes and rotation times are reported

  10. Spectral and Temporal Properties of the Alpha and Beta Subunits and (alpha Beta) Monomer Isolated from Nostoc SP. Using Picosecond Laser Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagen, Aaron J.

    1985-12-01

    The fluorescence decay profiles, relative quantum yield and transmission of the (alpha), (beta) and ((alpha)(beta)) complexes from phycoerythrin isolated from the photosynthetic antenna system of Nostoc sp. and measured by single picosecond laser spectroscopic techniques is studied. The fluorescence decay profiles of all three complexes are found to be intensity independent for the intensity range investigated ((TURN)4 x 10('13) to (TURN)4 x 10('15) photons-cm('-2) per pulse). The apparent decrease in the relative quantum yield of all three complexes as intensity increases is offset by a corresponding increase in the relative transmission. This evidence, along with the intensity independent fluorescence kinetics, suggests that exciton annihilation is absent in these complexes. The decay profiles are fit to models assuming energy transfer amongst fluorescing chromophores. The intraprotein transfer rate is found to be 100 ps in the (alpha) subunit, 666 ps in the (beta) subunit. Constraining these rates to be identical in the monomer results in explaining the monomer kinetics by an increase in the nonradiative rate of the f(,(beta)) chromophore, an apparent result of aggregation effects.

  11. High Power Picosecond Laser Surface Micro-texturing of H13 Tool Steel and Pattern Replication onto ABS Plastics via Injection Moulding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otanocha, Omonigho B.; Li, Lin; Zhong, Shan; Liu, Zhu

    2016-03-01

    H13 tool steels are often used as dies and moulds for injection moulding of plastic components. Certain injection moulded components require micro-patterns on their surfaces in order to modify the physical properties of the components or for better mould release to reduce mould contamination. With these applications it is necessary to study micro-patterning to moulds and to ensure effective pattern transfer and replication onto the plastic component during moulding. In this paper, we report an investigation into high average powered (100 W) picosecond laser interactions with H13 tool steel during surface micro-patterning (texturing) and the subsequent pattern replication on ABS plastic material through injection moulding. Design of experiments and statistical modelling were used to understand the influences of laser pulse repetition rate, laser fluence, scanning velocity, and number of scans on the depth of cut, kerf width and heat affected zones (HAZ) size. The characteristics of the surface patterns are analysed. The process parameter interactions and significance of process parameters on the processing quality and efficiency are characterised. An optimum operating window is recommended. The transferred geometry is compared with the patterns generated on the dies. A discussion is made to explain the characteristics of laser texturing and pattern replication on plastics.

  12. UV-Photochemistry of the Disulfide Bond: Evolution of Early Photoproducts from Picosecond X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy at the Sulfur K-Edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochmann, Miguel; Hussain, Abid; von Ahnen, Inga; Cordones, Amy A; Hong, Kiryong; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Ma, Rory; Adamczyk, Katrin; Kim, Tae Kyu; Schoenlein, Robert W; Vendrell, Oriol; Huse, Nils

    2018-05-30

    We have investigated dimethyl disulfide as the basic moiety for understanding the photochemistry of disulfide bonds, which are central to a broad range of biochemical processes. Picosecond time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the sulfur K-edge provides unique element-specific insight into the photochemistry of the disulfide bond initiated by 267 nm femtosecond pulses. We observe a broad but distinct transient induced absorption spectrum which recovers on at least two time scales in the nanosecond range. We employed RASSCF electronic structure calculations to simulate the sulfur-1s transitions of multiple possible chemical species, and identified the methylthiyl and methylperthiyl radicals as the primary reaction products. In addition, we identify disulfur and the CH 2 S thione as the secondary reaction products of the perthiyl radical that are most likely to explain the observed spectral and kinetic signatures of our experiment. Our study underscores the importance of elemental specificity and the potential of time-resolved X-ray spectroscopy to identify short-lived reaction products in complex reaction schemes that underlie the rich photochemistry of disulfide systems.

  13. Picosecond 532-nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser-a promising modality for the management of verrucous epidermal nevi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Assi; Amitai, Dan Ben; Mimouni, Daniel; Leshem, Yael A; Arzi, Ofir; Lapidoth, Moshe

    2018-04-01

    The verrucous epidermal nevus (VEN) is the most common type of epidermal nevi. As lesions can be disfiguring, treatment is often sought. Many therapeutic approaches have been reported, with variable efficacy and safety. Picosecond (PS) lasers are novel laser devices designated to target small chromophores. A side effect of these lasers is blistering due to epidermal-dermal separation. We aimed to harness this side effect of the PS lasers to treat patients with VEN. The purpose of this study was to report our experience treating VEN using a PS 532-nm laser. We present a retrospective case series of six patients with large VEN who were treated using a PS 532-nm laser (2-6 treatments, 8-10 weeks apart). Response in clinical photographs was assessed by two independent dermatologists and graded on a scale of 0 (exacerbation) to 4 (76-100% improvement). Patient satisfaction was recorded on a scale of 1-5. All patients demonstrated significant improvement. Average improvement was 3.7 on the quartile scale of improvement. Patient satisfaction rate averaged 4.7. The PS 532-nm laser is a promising novel modality for the treatment of large VEN.

  14. Homogenization of tissues via picosecond-infrared laser (PIRL) ablation: Giving a closer view on the in-vivo composition of protein species as compared to mechanical homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, M; Wurlitzer, M; Krutilin, A; Kiani, P; Nimer, R; Omidi, M; Mannaa, A; Bussmann, T; Bartkowiak, K; Kruber, S; Uschold, S; Steffen, P; Lübberstedt, J; Küpker, N; Petersen, H; Knecht, R; Hansen, N O; Zarrine-Afsar, A; Robertson, W D; Miller, R J D; Schlüter, H

    2016-02-16

    Posttranslational modifications and proteolytic processing regulate almost all physiological processes. Dysregulation can potentially result in pathologic protein species causing diseases. Thus, tissue species proteomes of diseased individuals provide diagnostic information. Since the composition of tissue proteomes can rapidly change during tissue homogenization by the action of enzymes released from their compartments, disease specific protein species patterns can vanish. Recently, we described a novel, ultrafast and soft method for cold vaporization of tissue via desorption by impulsive vibrational excitation (DIVE) using a picosecond-infrared-laser (PIRL). Given that DIVE extraction may provide improved access to the original composition of protein species in tissues, we compared the proteome composition of tissue protein homogenates after DIVE homogenization with conventional homogenizations. A higher number of intact protein species was observed in DIVE homogenates. Due to the ultrafast transfer of proteins from tissues via gas phase into frozen condensates of the aerosols, intact protein species were exposed to a lesser extent to enzymatic degradation reactions compared with conventional protein extraction. In addition, total yield of the number of proteins is higher in DIVE homogenates, because they are very homogenous and contain almost no insoluble particles, allowing direct analysis with subsequent analytical methods without the necessity of centrifugation. Enzymatic protein modifications during tissue homogenization are responsible for changes of the in-vivo protein species composition. Cold vaporization of tissues by PIRL-DIVE is comparable with taking a snapshot at the time of the laser irradiation of the dynamic changes that occur continuously under in-vivo conditions. At that time point all biomolecules are transferred into an aerosol, which is immediately frozen. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The generalized centroid difference method for picosecond sensitive determination of lifetimes of nuclear excited states using large fast-timing arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Régis, J.-M., E-mail: regis@ikp.uni-koeln.de [Institut für Kernphysik der Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Str. 77, 50937 Köln (Germany); Mach, H. [Departamento de Física Atómica y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Simpson, G.S. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie Grenoble, 53, rue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France); Jolie, J.; Pascovici, G.; Saed-Samii, N.; Warr, N. [Institut für Kernphysik der Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Str. 77, 50937 Köln (Germany); Bruce, A. [School of Computing, Engineering and Mathematics, University of Brighton, Lewes Road, Brighton BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom); Degenkolb, J. [Institut für Kernphysik der Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Str. 77, 50937 Köln (Germany); Fraile, L.M. [Departamento de Física Atómica y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Fransen, C. [Institut für Kernphysik der Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Str. 77, 50937 Köln (Germany); Ghita, D.G. [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, 77125 Bucharest (Romania); and others

    2013-10-21

    A novel method for direct electronic “fast-timing” lifetime measurements of nuclear excited states via γ–γ coincidences using an array equipped with N∈N equally shaped very fast high-resolution LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) scintillator detectors is presented. Analogous to the mirror symmetric centroid difference method, the generalized centroid difference method provides two independent “start” and “stop” time spectra obtained by a superposition of the N(N−1)γ–γ time difference spectra of the N detector fast-timing system. The two fast-timing array time spectra correspond to a forward and reverse gating of a specific γ–γ cascade. Provided that the energy response and the electronic time pick-off of the detectors are almost equal, a mean prompt response difference between start and stop events is calibrated and used as a single correction for lifetime determination. These combined fast-timing arrays mean γ–γ time-walk characteristics can be determined for 40keVpicosecond lifetimes in standard γ-ray sources.

  16. SLAC/DESY International Workshop on Interactions of Intense Sub-Picosecond X-Rays with Matter, Stanford, CA, January 23-24, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatchyn, Roman

    1998-01-01

    This is the proceedings volume of the 1997 SLAC/DESY International Workshop on Interactions of Intense Sub-picosecond X-Ray Pulses with Matter. The workshop theme evolved out of design and R and D studies, undertaken at SLAC, DESY, and elsewhere [1,2], of the new class of linac-driven X-Ray Free Electron Lasers (XRFELs) operating with photocathode-based, low-emittance electron beams in the Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) regime [3]. It can be noted that, following the conclusion of the workshop, funded design study reports on R and D facilities based on these novel sources have been completed and published by both laboratories [4,5]. Topical significance was imparted to the workshop agenda by a series of prior workshops organized to explore scientific and technological applications of linac driven XRFELs [6,7,8,9]. These served to highlight underlying concerns regarding the potential loading effects of the highly intense radiation pulses from this new class of light source on the instrumentation, samples, and experimental phenomena being considered. The primary objectives of the workshop were: (a) to provide tutorial overviews of existing theoretical, numerical, and experimental techniques in the study of interactions of intense, ultra-short radiation pulses with matter, and of their applicability to the parameter regimes of the SLAC and DESY XRFELs; (b) to discuss practical optics and instrumentation issues related to peak and average power density loading; (c) to identify and explore novel concepts and design approaches, with an emphasis on optical instrumentation and experimental physics; (d) to formulate independent or collaborative R and D programs and activities in the areas of theory, numerical simulation, and experimental physics relevant to the linac-driven XRFEL parameter regime

  17. Excitation mechanisms in 1 mJ picosecond laser induced low pressure He plasma and the resulting spectral quality enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idris, Nasrullah; Lahna, Kurnia; Abdulmadjid, Syahrun Nur [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Syiah Kuala University, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, NAD (Indonesia); Ramli, Muliadi [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Syiah Kuala University, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, NAD (Indonesia); Suyanto, Hery [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Udayana University, Kampus Bukit Jimbaran, Denpasar 80361, Bali (Indonesia); Marpaung, Alion Mangasi [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Jakarta State University, 10 Rawamangun, Jakarta (Indonesia); Pardede, Marincan [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Pelita Harapan, 1100 M.H. Thamrin Boulevard, Lippo Village, Tangerang 15811 (Indonesia); Jobiliong, Eric [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Pelita Harapan, 1100 M.H. Thamrin Boulevard, Lippo Village, Tangerang 15811 (Indonesia); Hedwig, Rinda; Lie, Zener Sukra [Department of Computer Engineering, Bina Nusantara University, 9 K.H. Syahdan, Jakarta 14810 (Indonesia); Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40/80 Srengseng Raya, Jakarta 11630 (Indonesia); Suliyanti, Maria Margaretha [Research Center for Physics, Indonesia Institute of Sciences, Kawasan PUSPIPTEK, Serpong, Tangerang Selatan 15314, Banten (Indonesia); Lie, Tjung Jie; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik, E-mail: kurnia18@cbn.net.id [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40/80 Srengseng Raya, Jakarta 11630 (Indonesia); Kagawa, Kiichiro [Fukui Science Education Academy, Takagi Chuou 2 choume, Fukui 910-0804 (Japan); Tjia, May On [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40/80 Srengseng Raya, Jakarta 11630 (Indonesia); Physics of Magnetism and Photonics Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, 10 Ganesha, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-06-14

    We report in this paper the results of an experimental study on the spectral and dynamical characteristics of plasma emission induced by 1 mJ picoseconds (ps) Nd-YAG laser using spatially resolved imaging and time resolved measurement of the emission intensities of copper sample. This study has provided the experimental evidence concerning the dynamical characteristics of the excitation mechanisms in various stages of the plasma formation, which largely consolidate the basic scenarios of excitation processes commonly accepted so far. However, it is also clearly shown that the duration of the shock wave excitation process induced by ps laser pulses is much shorter than those observed in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy employing nanosecond laser at higher output energy. This allows the detection of atomic emission due exclusively to He assisted excitation in low pressure He plasma by proper gating of the detection time. Furthermore, the triplet excited state associated with He I 587.6 nm is shown to be the one most likely involved in the process responsible for the excellent spectral quality as evidenced by its application to spectrochemical analysis of a number of samples. The use of very low energy laser pulses also leads to minimal destructive effect marked by the resulted craters of merely about 10 μm diameter and only 10 nm deep. It is especially noteworthy that the excellent emission spectrum of deuterium detected from D-doped titanium sample is free of spectral interference from the undesirable ubiquitous water molecules without a precleaning procedure as applied previously and yielding an impressive detection limit of less than 10 μg/g. Finally, the result of this study also shows a promising application to depth profiling of impurity distribution in the sample investigated.

  18. Four-wave-mixing and nonlinear cavity dumping of 280 picosecond 2nd Stokes pulse at 1.3 μm from Nd:SrMoO4 self-Raman laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smetanin, S N; Ivleva, L I; Jelínek, M Jr; Kubeček, V; Jelínková, H; Shurygin, A S

    2016-01-01

    The 280 picosecond 2nd Stokes Raman pulses at 1.3 μm were generated directly from the miniature diode-pumped Nd:SrMoO 4 self-Raman laser. Using the 90° phase matching insensitive to the angular mismatch, the self-Raman laser allowed for the achievement of the four-wave-mixing generation of the 2nd Stokes Raman pulse directly in the active Nd:SrMoO 4 crystal at stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) self-conversion of the laser radiation. The passive Cr:YAG Q-switching and nonlinear cavity dumping was used without any phase locking device. (letter)

  19. Excitation and deexcitation of the Si-H stretching mode in a Si:H with picosecond free electron laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Z.; Fauchet, M.; Rella, C.W.

    1995-01-01

    Hydrogen in amorphous and crystalline silicon has been the topic of intense theoretical and experimental investigations for more than one decade. To better understand how the Si-H bonds interact with the Si matrix and how they can be broken, it would be useful to excite selectively these bonds and monitor the energy flow from the Si-H bonds into the bulk Si modes. One attractive way of exciting the Si-H modes selectively is with an infrared laser tuned to a Si-H vibrational mode. Unfortunately, up to now, this type of experiment had not been possible because of the lack of a laser producing intense, ultrashort pulses that are tunable in the mid infrared. In this presentation, we report the first measurement where a 1 picosecond long laser pulse was used to excite the Si-H stretching modes near 2000 cm -1 and another identical laser pulse was used to measure the deexcitation from that specific vibrational mode. The laser was the Stanford free electron laser generating ∼1 ps-long pulses, tunable in the 5 μm region and focussed to an intensity of ∼1 GW/cm 2 . The pump-probe measurements were performed in transmission at room temperature on several 2 μm thick a-Si:H films deposited on c-Si. Samples with predominant Si-H 1 modes, predominant Si-H n>1 modes and with a mixture of modes were prepared. The laser was tuned on resonance with either of these modes. Immediately after excitation, we observe a bleaching of the infrared absorption, which can be attributed to excitation of the Si-H mode. Beaching is expected since, as a result of anharmonicity, the detuning between the (E 3 - E 2 ) resonance and the (E 2 - E 1 ) resonance is larger than the laser bandwidth. Note that despite the anharmonicity, it should be possible to climb the vibrational ladder due to power broadening

  20. Picosecond real time study of the bimolecular reaction O(3P)+C2H4 and the unimolecular photodissociation of CH3CHO and H2CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Zied, Osama K.; McDonald, J. Douglas

    1998-07-01

    The bimolecular reaction of O(3P) with ethylene and the unimolecular photodissociation of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde have been studied using a picosecond pump/probe technique. The bimolecular reaction was initiated in a van der Waals dimer precursor, C2H4ṡNO2, and the evolution of the vinoxy radical product monitored by laser-induced fluorescence. The NO2 constituent of the complex was photodissociated at 266 nm. The triplet oxygen atom then attacks a carbon atom of C2H4 to form a triplet diradical (CH2CH2O) which subsequently dissociates to vinoxy (CH2CHO) and H. The rise time of vinoxy radical production was measured to be 217 (+75-25) ps. RRKM theory was applied and a late high exit barrier was invoked in order to fit the measured rise time. The structure and binding energy of the van der Waals complex have been modeled using Lennard-Jones type potentials and the results were compared with other systems. The unimolecular side of the potential energy surfaces of this reaction has been investigated by photodissociating acetaldehyde at the same pump energy of 266 nm. The resulting photoproducts, acetyl radical (CH3CO) and formyl radical (HCO), have been monitored by resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) combined with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The similarity in the measured evolution times of both radicals indicates the same photodissociation pathway of the parent molecule. The photodissociation rate of acetaldehyde is estimated from RRKM theory to be very fast (3×1012s-1). The T1←S1 intersystem crossing (ISC) rate is found to be the rate determining step to photodissociation and increases with energy. The REMPI mechanism for the production of CH3CO+ is proposed to be the same as that of HCO+(2+1). The HCO product from the photodissociation of formaldehyde at 266 nm reveals a faster T1←S1 ISC rate than in acetaldehyde.

  1. Investigation of the thermal and optical performance of a spatial light modulator with high average power picosecond laser exposure for materials processing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, G.; Whitehead, D.; Perrie, W.; Allegre, O. J.; Olle, V.; Li, Q.; Tang, Y.; Dawson, K.; Jin, Y.; Edwardson, S. P.; Li, L.; Dearden, G.

    2018-03-01

    Spatial light modulators (SLMs) addressed with computer generated holograms (CGHs) can create structured light fields on demand when an incident laser beam is diffracted by a phase CGH. The power handling limitations of these devices based on a liquid crystal layer has always been of some concern. With careful engineering of chip thermal management, we report the detailed optical phase and temperature response of a liquid cooled SLM exposed to picosecond laser powers up to 〈P〉  =  220 W at 1064 nm. This information is critical for determining device performance at high laser powers. SLM chip temperature rose linearly with incident laser exposure, increasing by only 5 °C at 〈P〉  =  220 W incident power, measured with a thermal imaging camera. Thermal response time with continuous exposure was 1-2 s. The optical phase response with incident power approaches 2π radians with average power up to 〈P〉  =  130 W, hence the operational limit, while above this power, liquid crystal thickness variations limit phase response to just over π radians. Modelling of the thermal and phase response with exposure is also presented, supporting experimental observations well. These remarkable performance characteristics show that liquid crystal based SLM technology is highly robust when efficiently cooled. High speed, multi-beam plasmonic surface micro-structuring at a rate R  =  8 cm2 s-1 is achieved on polished metal surfaces at 〈P〉  =  25 W exposure while diffractive, multi-beam surface ablation with average power 〈P〉  =100 W on stainless steel is demonstrated with ablation rate of ~4 mm3 min-1. However, above 130 W, first order diffraction efficiency drops significantly in accord with the observed operational limit. Continuous exposure for a period of 45 min at a laser power of 〈P〉  =  160 W did not result in any detectable drop in diffraction efficiency, confirmed afterwards by the efficient

  2. Amplitudes and time scales of picosecond-to-microsecond motion in proteins studied by solid-state NMR: a critical evaluation of experimental approaches and application to crystalline ubiquitin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, Jens D.; Schanda, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Solid-state NMR provides insight into protein motion over time scales ranging from picoseconds to seconds. While in solution state the methodology to measure protein dynamics is well established, there is currently no such consensus protocol for measuring dynamics in solids. In this article, we perform a detailed investigation of measurement protocols for fast motions, i.e. motions ranging from picoseconds to a few microseconds, which is the range covered by dipolar coupling and relaxation experiments. We perform a detailed theoretical investigation how dipolar couplings and relaxation data can provide information about amplitudes and time scales of local motion. We show that the measurement of dipolar couplings is crucial for obtaining accurate motional parameters, while systematic errors are found when only relaxation data are used. Based on this realization, we investigate how the REDOR experiment can provide such data in a very accurate manner. We identify that with accurate rf calibration, and explicit consideration of rf field inhomogeneities, one can obtain highly accurate absolute order parameters. We then perform joint model-free analyses of 6 relaxation data sets and dipolar couplings, based on previously existing, as well as new data sets on microcrystalline ubiquitin. We show that nanosecond motion can be detected primarily in loop regions, and compare solid-state data to solution-state relaxation and RDC analyses. The protocols investigated here will serve as a useful basis towards the establishment of a routine protocol for the characterization of ps–μs motions in proteins by solid-state NMR

  3. Amplitudes and time scales of picosecond-to-microsecond motion in proteins studied by solid-state NMR: a critical evaluation of experimental approaches and application to crystalline ubiquitin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haller, Jens D.; Schanda, Paul, E-mail: paul.schanda@ibs.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Institut de Biologie Structurale (IBS) (France)

    2013-10-09

    Solid-state NMR provides insight into protein motion over time scales ranging from picoseconds to seconds. While in solution state the methodology to measure protein dynamics is well established, there is currently no such consensus protocol for measuring dynamics in solids. In this article, we perform a detailed investigation of measurement protocols for fast motions, i.e. motions ranging from picoseconds to a few microseconds, which is the range covered by dipolar coupling and relaxation experiments. We perform a detailed theoretical investigation how dipolar couplings and relaxation data can provide information about amplitudes and time scales of local motion. We show that the measurement of dipolar couplings is crucial for obtaining accurate motional parameters, while systematic errors are found when only relaxation data are used. Based on this realization, we investigate how the REDOR experiment can provide such data in a very accurate manner. We identify that with accurate rf calibration, and explicit consideration of rf field inhomogeneities, one can obtain highly accurate absolute order parameters. We then perform joint model-free analyses of 6 relaxation data sets and dipolar couplings, based on previously existing, as well as new data sets on microcrystalline ubiquitin. We show that nanosecond motion can be detected primarily in loop regions, and compare solid-state data to solution-state relaxation and RDC analyses. The protocols investigated here will serve as a useful basis towards the establishment of a routine protocol for the characterization of ps–μs motions in proteins by solid-state NMR.

  4. Picosecond laser filamentation in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-02

    various ionic species and plasma temperature. Our results show that the phenomenon of plasma-driven intensity clamping, which has been paramount in...oxygenmolecules only, as the ionization potential of oxygen is lower than that of nitrogen. Collisional ionization is included for both neutral species . To that...end, we compute the inverse bremsstrahlung heating of free electrons using the electron temperature-dependent collision rates ( ) [ ]( [ ]) ( )n r

  5. First picosecond in radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednar, J.

    1983-01-01

    The early processes of absorption by matter of ionizing radiation are discussed on the level of collision processes of electrons of the degradation spectrum of radiation with molecules of the medium. A short survey of the processes of initial excitations, superexcitations and ionizations is given occurring during absorption and relaxation processes. Collisions of fast charged particles with atoms and molecules are discussed within the first Bethe-Born approximation. A short theoretical description is given of the basic radiation chemical quantities, such as primary radiation chemical yield g and total absorbed energy Q/sub tot/ due to energy absorption from the totality of fast and slow electrons of the degradation spectrum. A short survey of current chemical and physical models of the track of a fast electron in condensed media is given together with some comments on the effect of the chemical composition of the medium on its initial radiation chemical decomposition. The model of the molecule in a high Rydberg state is sketched briefly together with some implications for radiation chemistry of formation and decay of this kind of highly excited matter. In conclusion, a survey of the initial yields of products in gases and track entities in liquids is presented and a few remarks are made concerning the intrinsic problems of radiation sciences, i.e. radiation physics, chemistry, dosimetry and biology

  6. Mid-infrared picosecond pump-dump-probe and pump-repump-probe experiments to resolve a ground-state intermediate in cyanobacterial phytochrome Cph1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wilderen, Luuk J G W; Clark, Ian P; Towrie, Michael; van Thor, Jasper J

    2009-12-24

    Multipulse picosecond mid-infrared spectroscopy has been used to study photochemical reactions of the cyanobacterial phytochrome photoreceptor Cph1. Different photophysical schemes have been discussed in the literature to describe the pathways after photoexcitation, particularly, to identify reaction phases that are linked to photoisomerisation and electronic decay in the 1566-1772 cm(-1) region that probes C=C and C=O stretching modes of the tetrapyrrole chromophore. Here, multipulse spectroscopy is employed, where, compared to conventional visible pump-mid-infrared probe spectroscopy, an additional visible pulse is incorporated that interacts with populations that are evolving on the excited- and ground-state potential energy surfaces. The time delays between the pump and the dump pulse are chosen such that the dump pulse interacts with different phases in the reaction process. The pump and dump pulses are at the same wavelength, 640 nm, and are resonant with the Pr ground state as well as with the excited state and intermediates. Because the dump pulse additionally pumps the remaining, partially recovered, and partially oriented ground-state population, theory is developed for estimating the fraction of excited-state molecules. The calculations take into account the model-dependent ground-state recovery fraction, the angular dependence of the population transfer resulting from the finite bleach that occurs with linearly polarized intense femtosecond optical excitation, and the partially oriented population for the dump field. Distinct differences between the results from the experiments that use a 1 or a 14 ps dump time favor a branching evolution from S1 to an excited state or reconfigured chromophore and to a newly identified ground-state intermediate (GSI). Optical dumping at 1 ps shows the instantaneous induced absorption of a delocalized C=C stretching mode at 1608 cm(-1), where the increased cross section is associated with the electronic ground

  7. Comparison of optical transients during the picosecond laser pulse-induced crystallization of GeSbTe and AgInSbTe phase-change thin films: Nucleation-driven versus growth-driven processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Guangfei [Key Laboratory of High Power Laser Materials, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Li, Simian [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technology, Department of Physics, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Huang, Huan [Key Laboratory of High Power Laser Materials, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Wang, Yang, E-mail: ywang@siom.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of High Power Laser Materials, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Lai, Tianshu, E-mail: stslts@mail.sysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technology, Department of Physics, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wu, Yiqun [Key Laboratory of High Power Laser Materials, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2013-09-01

    Direct comparison of the real-time in-situ crystallization behavior of as-deposited amorphous Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} (GeSbTe) and Ag{sub 8}In{sub 14}Sb{sub 55}Te{sub 23} (AgInSbTe) phase-change thin films driven by picosecond laser pulses was performed by a time-resolved optical pump-probe technique with nanosecond resolution. Different optical transients showed various crystallization processes because of the dissimilar nucleation- and growth-dominated mechanisms of the two materials. The effects of laser pulse fluence, thermal conductive structure, and successive pulse irradiation on their crystallization dynamics were also discussed. A schematic was then established to describe the different crystallization processes beginning from the as-deposited amorphous state. The results may provide further insight into the phase-change mechanism under extra-non-equilibrium conditions and aid the development of ultrafast phase-change memory materials.

  8. Generation of broadly tunable picosecond mid-infrared laser and sensitive detection of a mid-infrared signal by parametric frequency up-conversion in MgO:LiNbO3 optical parametric amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qiu-Lin; Zhang Jing; Qiu Kang-Sheng; Zhang Dong-Xiang; Feng Bao-Hua; Zhang Jing-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Picosecond optical parametric generation and amplification in the near-infrared region within 1.361–1.656 μm and the mid-infrared region within 2.976–4.875 μm is constructed on the basis of bulk MgO:LiNbO 3 crystals pumped at 1.064 μm. The maximum pulse energy reaches 1.3 mJ at 1.464 μm and 0.47 mJ at 3.894 μm, corresponding to a pump-to-idler photon conversion efficiency of 25%. By seeding the hard-to-measure mid-infrared radiation as the idler in the optical parametric amplification and measuring the amplified and frequency up-converted signal in the near-infrared or even visible region, one can measure very week mid-infrared radiation with ordinary detectors, which are insensitive to mid-infrared radiation, with a very high gain. A maximum gain factor of about 7 × 10 7 is achieved at the mid-infrared wavelength of 3.374 μm and the corresponding energy detection limit is as low as about 390 aJ per pulse. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  9. Implementation of a split-bolus single-pass CT protocol at a UK major trauma centre to reduce excess radiation dose in trauma pan-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, V.; Sastry, A.; Woo, T.D.; Jones, H.R.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To quantify the dose reduction and ensure that the use of a split-bolus protocol provided sufficient vascular enhancement. Materials and methods: Between 1 January 2014 and 31 May 2014, both split bolus and traditional two-phase scans were performed on a single CT scanner (SOMATOM Definition AS+, Siemens Healthcare) using a two-pump injector (Medrad Stellant). Both protocols used Siemens' proprietary tube current and tube voltage modulation techniques (CARE dose and CARE kV). The protocols were compared retrospectively to assess the dose–length product (DLP), aortic radiodensity at the level of the coeliac axis and radiodensity of the portal vein. Results: There were 151 trauma CT examinations during this period. Seventy-eight used the split-bolus protocol. Seventy-one had traditional two-phase imaging. One patient was excluded as they were under the age of 18 years. The radiodensity measurements for the portal vein were significantly higher (p<0.001) in the split-bolus protocol. The mean aortic enhancement in both protocols exceeded 250 HU, although the traditional two-phase protocol gave greater arterial enhancement (p<0.001) than the split-bolus protocol. The split-bolus protocol had a significantly lower (p<0.001) DLP with 43.5% reduction in the mean DLP compared to the traditional protocol. Conclusion: Split-bolus CT imaging offers significant dose reduction for this relatively young population while retaining both arterial and venous enhancement. -- Highlights: •We implemented a split bolus pan-CT protocol for trauma CT. •We compared the radiation dose and vascular enhancement of the split bolus protocol to a traditional two phase protocol. •The split bolus protocol had a 43.5% reduction in mean DLP

  10. Very high resolution single pass HLA genotyping using amplicon sequencing on the 454 next generation DNA sequencers: Comparison with Sanger sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, F; Höglund, B; Fernandez-Vina, M; Tyan, D; Rastrou, M; Williams, T; Moonsamy, P; Goodridge, D; Anderson, M; Erlich, H A; Holcomb, C L

    2015-12-01

    Compared to Sanger sequencing, next-generation sequencing offers advantages for high resolution HLA genotyping including increased throughput, lower cost, and reduced genotype ambiguity. Here we describe an enhancement of the Roche 454 GS GType HLA genotyping assay to provide very high resolution (VHR) typing, by the addition of 8 primer pairs to the original 14, to genotype 11 HLA loci. These additional amplicons help resolve common and well-documented alleles and exclude commonly found null alleles in genotype ambiguity strings. Simplification of workflow to reduce the initial preparation effort using early pooling of amplicons or the Fluidigm Access Array™ is also described. Performance of the VHR assay was evaluated on 28 well characterized cell lines using Conexio Assign MPS software which uses genomic, rather than cDNA, reference sequence. Concordance was 98.4%; 1.6% had no genotype assignment. Of concordant calls, 53% were unambiguous. To further assess the assay, 59 clinical samples were genotyped and results compared to unambiguous allele assignments obtained by prior sequence-based typing supplemented with SSO and/or SSP. Concordance was 98.7% with 58.2% as unambiguous calls; 1.3% could not be assigned. Our results show that the amplicon-based VHR assay is robust and can replace current Sanger methodology. Together with software enhancements, it has the potential to provide even higher resolution HLA typing. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. The effect of thermal de-phasing on the beam quality of a high-power single-pass second harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat Hashemi, Somayeh; Ghavami Sabouri, Saeed; Khorsandi, Alireza

    2018-04-01

    We present a theoretical model in order to study the effect of a thermally loaded crystal on the quality of a second-harmonic (SH) beam generated in a high-power pumping regime. The model is provided based on using a particular structure of oven considered for MgO:PPsLT nonlinear crystal to compensate for the thermal de-phasing effect that as the pumping power reaches up to 50 W degrades the conversion efficiency and beam quality of the interacting beams. Hereupon, the quality of fundamental beam is involved in the modeling to investigate the final effect on the beam quality of generated SH beam. Beam quality evaluation is subsequently simulated using Hermite-Gaussian modal decomposition approach for a range of fundamental beam qualities varied from 1 to 3 and for different levels of input powers. To provide a meaningful comparison numerical simulation is correlated with real data deduced from a high-power SH generation (SHG) experimental device. It is found that when using the open-top oven scheme and fixing the fundamental M 2-factor at nearly 1, for a range of input powers changing from 15 to 30 W, the M 2-factor of SHG beam is degraded from 9% to 24%, respectively, confirming very good consistency with the reported experimental results.

  12. Blue and Orange Two-Color CW Laser Based on Single-Pass Second-Harmonic and Sum-Frequency Generation in MgO:PPLN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dismas K. Choge

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a compact blue and orange-two color continuous wave laser source emitting at 487 nm and from 597.4 to 600.3 nm, respectively. The temperature tunable coherent orange radiation is achieved by frequency mixing 974 nm laser diode (LD and a C-band amplified spontaneous emission laser source while the temperature insensitive blue radiation is generated by second-order quasi-phase-matching frequency doubling of 974 nm LD. We implement the simultaneous nonlinear processes in a single magnesium oxide doped periodically poled lithium niobate bulk crystal without the need of an aperiodic design.

  13. Highly efficient single-pass frequency doubling of a continuous-wave distributed feedback laser diode using a PPLN waveguide crystal at 488 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jechow, Andreas; Schedel, Marco; Stry, Sandra; Sacher, Joachim; Menzel, Ralf

    2007-10-15

    A continuous-wave distributed feedback diode laser emitting at 976 nm was frequency doubled by the use of a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide crystal with a channel size of 3 microm x 5 microm and an interaction length of 10 mm. A laser to waveguide coupling efficiency of 75% could be achieved resulting in 304 mW of incident infrared light inside the waveguide. Blue laser light emission of 159 mW at 488 nm has been generated, which equals to a conversion efficiency of 52%. The resulting wall plug efficiency was 7.4%.

  14. 1.5 W green light generation by single-pass second harmonic generation of a single-frequency tapered diode laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Andersen, Peter E.; Sumpf, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    More than 1.5 W of green light at 531 nm is generated by singlepass second harmonic generation in periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3. The pump laser is a high power tapered laser with a distributed Bragg reflector etched in the ridge section of the laser to provide wavelength selectivity. The output...... power of the single-frequency tapered laser is 9.3 W in continuous wave operation. A conversion efficiency of 18.5 % was achieved in the experiments....

  15. Incubation and nanostructure formation on n- and p-type Si(1 0 0) and Si(1 1 1) at various doping levels induced by sub-nanojoule femto- and picosecond near-infrared laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schüle, M.; Afshar, M.; Feili, D.; Seidel, H.; König, K.; Straub, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanorifts, ripples of period 130 nm and randomly nanoporous surface structures were generated. • Such nanostructures emerged on heavily and lightly n- and p-doped Si(1 0 0) and Si(1 1 1) surfaces. • Strong incubation occurred irrespective of dopant type and concentration or surface orientation. • Incubation is attributed to photoexcitation from laser-induced defect states in the bandgap. • Aggregation of defects results in nanocracks, which turn into nanorift and nanoripple patterns. • Ablation involved predominantly single-photon processes but also multiphoton absorption. - Abstract: N- and p-doped Si(1 0 0) and Si(1 1 1) surfaces with dopant concentrations of 2 × 10 14 –1 × 10 19 cm −3 were irradiated by tightly focused 85-MHz repetition rate Ti:sapphire laser light (central wavelength 800 nm, bandwidth 120 nm) at pulse durations of 12 fs to 1.6 ps. Dependent on pulse peak intensity and exposure time nanorifts, ripples of period 130 nm as well as sponge-like randomly nanoporous surface structures were generated with water immersion and, thereafter, laid bare by etching off aggregated oxide nanoparticles. The same structure types emerged in air or water with transform-limited 100-fs pulses. At a pulse length of 12 fs pronounced incubation occurred with incubation coefficients S = 0.66–0.85, whereas incubation was diminished for picosecond pulses (S > 0.95). The ablation threshold strongly rose with dopant concentration. At similar doping level it was higher for n-type than for p-type samples and for Si(1 0 0) compared to Si(1 1 1) surfaces. These observations are attributed to laser-induced defect states in the bandgap which participate in photoexcitation, deactivation of dopants by complex formation, and different densities of interface states at the boundary with the ultrathin native silicon dioxide surface layer. The threshold increase with pulse length revealed predominant single-photon excitation as well as multiphoton

  16. Picosecond chronography at x-ray wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, P.R.; Bradley, D.J.; Roddie, A.G.; Sibbett, W.; Key, M.H.; Lamb, M.J.; Lewis, C.L.S.

    1975-01-01

    An ultrafast streak camera for vacuum U-V to X-ray radiation is described. Preliminary measurements on laser-produced plasmas are presented with time resolution down to 150 psecs and space resolution down to 40μm for 1keV X-ray emission from a plasma generated by 2GW laser pulses focussed on a Cu target. High sensitivity and wide spectral bandwidth is due to front surface photoemission at oblique incidence. Time resolution capability of 40 psec and simultaneous spatial resolution down to a few microns is theoretically possible with this system. (author)

  17. Picosecond optical nonlinearities in symmetrical and unsymmetrical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is evident that the saturable absorption (SA) behaviour changed to reverse sat- urable absorption (RSA) and the nonlinear coefficients were obtained using the equation α = α0I/[1 + (I/Is)]. The open-aperture scans were fitted by solving the propagation equation for homogeneous medium dI/dz = {−α0I/[1+(I/Is)]}−βI2.

  18. Very-High-Brightness Picosecond Electron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluem, H.

    2003-01-01

    Bright, RF photocathode electron guns are the source of choice for most high-performance research accelerator applications. Some of these applications are pushing the performance boundaries of the present state-of-the-art guns. Advanced Energy Systems is developing a novel photocathode RF gun that shows excellent promise for extending gun performance. Initial gun simulations with only a short booster accelerator easily break the benchmark emittance of one micron for 1 nC of bunch charge. The pulse length in these simulations is less than 2 ps. It is expected that with more detailed optimization studies, the performance can be further improved. The performance details of the gun will be presented. In addition, we will discuss the present design concept along with the status of the project

  19. Picosecond excitation transport in disordered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, D.E.

    1987-11-01

    Time-resolved fluorescence decay profiles are used to study excitation transport in 2- and 3-dimensional disordered systems. Time-correlated single photon counting detection is used to collect the fluorescence depolarization data. The high signal-to-noise ratios afforded by this technique makes it possible to critically examine current theories of excitation transport. Care has been taken to eliminate or account for the experimental artifacts common to this type of study. Solutions of 3,3'-diethyloxadicarbocyanine iodide (DODCI) in glycerol serve as a radomly distributed array of energy donors in 3-dimensions. A very thin sample cell (/approximately/ 2 μm) is used to minimize the effects of fluorescence self-absorption on the decay kinetics. Evidence of a dynamic shift of the fluorescence spectrum of DODCI in glycerol due to solvent reorganization is presented. The effects of excitation trapping on the decay profiles is minimized in the data analysis procedure. The 3-body theory of Gochanour, Andersen, and Fayer (GAF) and the far less complex 2-particle analytic theory of Huber, Hamilton, and Barnett yield indistinguishable fits to the data over the wide dynamic range of concentrations and decay times studied

  20. Mechanisms of microemulsion enhancing the oral bioavailability of puerarin: comparison between oil-in-water and water-in-oil microemulsions using the single-pass intestinal perfusion method and a chylomicron flow blocking approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang TT

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Tian-Tian Tang,1,2,3 Xiong-Bin Hu,1,2,3 De-Hua Liao,1,2,3 Xin-Yi Liu,1,2,3 Da-Xiong Xiang1,2,31Department of Pharmacy, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, People's Republic of China; 2Institute of Clinical Pharmacy, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, People's Republic of China; 3Key Laboratory for New Technology of Chinese Medicine Preparations of Hunan Province, Changsha, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: The purpose of the present work was to determine the mechanisms by which microemulsions (MEs enhance the oral bioavailability of puerarin. The in situ perfusion method was used in rats to study the absorption mechanisms of an oil-in-water (O/W microemulsion (O/W-ME and a water-in-oil (W/O microemulsion (W/O-ME. The possibility of lymphatic transport of the MEs was investigated using a chylomicron flow blocking approach. The results for the absorption mechanisms in the stomach and intestines indicated that the absorption characteristics of the O/W-ME and W/O-ME depend on the segment. The W/O-ME had higher internal membrane permeability than the O/W-ME. The results of the lymphatic transport analyses showed that both the O/W-ME and W/O-ME underwent lymphatic transport and that this pathway was a major contributor to the oral bioavailability of MEs. Furthermore, the type of ME can significantly affect the absorption of puerarin through the lymphatic system due to the oil content and the form of the microemulsion after oral administration. In conclusion, these data indicate that microemulsions are an effective and promising delivery system to enhance the oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs.Keywords: microemulsion, lymphatic transport, oral bioavailability, chylomicron

  1. Influence of the composition and microstructure on the mechanical properties of single pass weld metal obtained with two-run multipower submerged arc welding of 35 MM Fe 510 quality steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkhout, C.F.; Sipkes, M.P.

    1977-01-01

    For three 35 mm Fe 510 quality steels (with and without niobium) experiments have been carried out to establish a relationship between composition, microstructure and mechanical properties of weldmetal obtained with two-run multipower submerged arc welding. The most striking aspects are summarized in the following. The weldmental composition can influence the toughness both, directly by matrix alloying or indirectly through the grainsize and constituents of the microstructure such as the perlite-cementite and martensite fraction. In the range of compositions investigated Mn for instance has a beneficial, while Nb and N have a detrimental effect on notch toughness. For nitrogen the concentration in the weldmetal is determined by the type of weldingflux used. The unfavourable effect of Nb in the weldmetal depends mainly on the Nb content of the plate material (dilution effect). Niobium introduced by the flux is not active and in all probability only present as non metallic inclusions. Remarkable is the strong interaction found between Nb and N. The influence of Nb decreases when the N content of the weldmetal increases. This effect may probably also be an explanation for the great differences in the interpretation of the influence of Nb on weldmetal ductility as mentioned in the literature. A change in the concentration of these elements does not have any influence on the grainsize of the weldmetal. The influence of Mo is quite remarkable. In the first place it has a grain-refining effect, which strongly predominates its detrimental effect in promoting the martensite formation. From quantitative measurements it also appears that Mo reduces the amount of perlite in the weldmetal and suppresses entirely the influence of Mn on the Charpy-V transition temperature and the uppershelf-energy level

  2. Picosecond time measurement using ultra fast analog memories

    OpenAIRE

    Breton, D.; Delagnes, E.; Maalmi, J.

    2009-01-01

    International audience; The currently existing electronics dedicated to precise time measurement is mainly based on the use of constant fraction discriminators (CFD) associated with Time to Digital Converters (TDC). The constant fraction technique minimizes the time walk effect (dependency of timing on the pulse amplitude). Several attempts have been made to integrate CFD in multi-channel ASICs. But the time resolution measured on the most advanced one is of the order of 30 ps rms. Two main t...

  3. Carrier transport in amorphous silicon utilizing picosecond photoconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A. M.

    1981-08-01

    The development of a high-speed electronic measurement capability permitted the direct observation of the transient photoresponse of amorphous silicon (a-Si) with a time resolution of approximately 10ps. This technique was used to measure the initial mobility of photogenerated (2.1eV) free carriers in three types of a-Si having widely different densities of structural defects (i.e., as prepared by: (1) RF glow discharge (a-Si:H); (2) chemical vapor deposition; and (3) evaporation in ultra-high vacuum). In all three types of a-Si, the same initial mobility of approximately 1 cu cm/Vs at room temperature was found. This result tends to confirm the often-made suggestion that the free carrier mobility is determined by the influence of shallow states associated with the disorder in the random atomic network, and is an intrinsic property of a-Si which is unaffected by the method of preparation. The rate of decay of the photocurrent correlates with the density of structural defects and varies from 4ps to 200ps for the three types of a-Si investigated. The initial mobility of a-Si:H was found to be thermally activated. The possible application of extended state transport controlled by multiple trapping and small polaron formation is discussed.

  4. Investigation of laser plasma instabilities using picosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, J L; Montgomery, D S; Yin, L; Flippo, K A; Shimada, T; Johnson, R P; Rose, H A; Albright, B J; Hardin, R A

    2008-01-01

    A new short-pulse version of the single-hot-spot configuration has been implemented to enhance the performance of experiments to understand Stimulated Raman Scattering. The laser pulse length was reduced from ∼200 to ∼3 ps. The reduced pulse length improves the experiment by minimizing effects such as plasma hydrodynamic evolution and ponderomotive filamentation of the interaction beam. In addition, the shortened laser pulses allow full length 2D particle-in-cell simulations of the experiments. Using the improved single-hot-spot configuration, a series of experiments to investigate kλ D scaling of SRS has been performed. Details of the experimental setup and initial results will be presented

  5. High current photoemission with 10 picosecond uv pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.; Srinivasan-Rao, T.; Tsang, T.

    1990-06-01

    The quantum efficiency and the optical damage threshold of various metals were explored with 10 ps, 266 nm, UV laser pulses. Efficiencies for Cu, Y, and Sm were: 1.4, 5, and 7 x 10 -4 , with damage thresholds about 100, 10, and 30 mJ/cm 2 . This would permit over 1 μC/cm 2 or current densities exceeding 100 kA/cm 2 . High charge and current densities of up to 66 kA/cm 2 were obtained on 0.25 mm diam cathodes, and 21 kA/cm 2 on a 3 mm diam yttrium cathode. The maximum currents were limited by space charge and the dc field. The experiments with small area illumination indicate that the emitted electrons spread transversely due to Coulomb repulsion and their initial transverse velocity. This increases the effective area above the cathode, reduces the space charge effect and increases emission density on the cathode. The quantum efficiency can be increased substantially by enhancing the field on the surface by either a suitable electrode geometry or microstructures on it. 14 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Picosecond CO2 laser for relativistic particle acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Kimura, W.D.; Kurnit, N.A.; Kannari, F.

    1994-01-01

    A table-top 20-GW 50-ps CO 2 laser system is under operation at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility. We compare laser performance with model predictions. Extrapolations suggest the possibility of compact terawatt CO 2 laser systems suitable as laser accelerator drivers and for other strong-field applications. Latest progress on an Inverse Cherenkov Laser Accelerator experiment is reported

  7. UV photoemission from metal cathodes for picosecond power switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.; Srinivasan-RAo, T.; Tsang, T.

    1989-01-01

    Results are reported of photoemission studies using laser pulses of 10 ps duration and 4.66 eV photon energy on metal cathodes. These included thin wires, flat surfaces and an yttrium cathode with a grainy surface. The measurements of current density and quantum efficiency under low and high surface fields indicate that field assisted efficiencies exceeding 0.1% and current densities exceeding 10 5 A/cm 2 are obtainable. The results are compared to the requirements of switch power applications. 24 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  8. Picosecond pulse generated supercontinuum as a stable seed for OPCPA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Indra, Lukáš; Batysta, František; Hříbek, Petr; Novák, Jakub; Hubka, Zbyněk; Green, Jonathan T.; Antipenkov, Roman; Boge, Robert; Naylon, Jack A.; Bakule, Pavel; Rus, Bedřich

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 4 (2017), s. 843-846 ISSN 0146-9592 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LQ1606; GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : supercontinuum generation * ultrafast lasers * ultrafast nonlinear optics * thin-disk amplifier * repetition-rate Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 3.416, year: 2016

  9. High image quality sub 100 picosecond gated framing camera development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Wiedwald, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    A major challenge for laser fusion is the study of the symmetry and hydrodynamic stability of imploding fuel capsules. Framed x-radiographs of 10-100 ps duration, excellent image quality, minimum geometrical distortion (< 1%), dynamic range greater than 1000, and more than 200 x 200 pixels are required for this application. Recent progress on a gated proximity focused intensifier which meets these requirements is presented

  10. Modulated pumping in Cs with picosecond pulse trains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmitz, H.; Harde, H.; Kattau, W.

    1986-01-01

    Two different experimental arrangements were used for periodic excitation detection of coherence. Cs vapor in a gas cell was resonantly excited on the D 2 line by a train of ultrashort light pulses of circular polarization. To reduce transit-time broadening, additional buffer gas was contained in the cell and the light beam from a laser was expanded to a cross section of about 1.5 cm 2 . The resulting atomic coherence amplitude which was due to the periodic excitation of atoms could then be measured by different means. The experimental set-up is shown which takes advantage of the fact that atomic coherence gives rise to an oscillating optical anisotropy in the sample. The atomic splitting is measured by the 9th harmonic of the injection laser pulse rate with a width of less than 50 Hz. The experiments demonstrate the ultrahigh frequency resolution is possible with optical pulse train interference spectroscopy which allows one to sensitively detect small pressure shifts in the hyperfine frequency caused by buffer gases in the gas cell

  11. Integrated picosecond photoconductors produced on bulk Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, R.B.; Paulter, N.G.; Wagner, R.S.; Eisenstadt, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    We report optoelectronic cross-correlation measurements of the response of photoconductor pulsers and sampling gates formed on Si wafers. These photoconductors were fabricated with standard integrated circuit fabrication techniques followed by shadow-masked ion beam irradiation. Successful ion beam irradiations were performed with 2 MeV 2 H, 6 MeV He, and 30 MeV O with doses of 10 15 ion/cm 2 . Deep damage was necessary to eliminate long-lived background currents in the cross correlations. Carrier lifetimes of 96, 47, and 29 ps were observed in photoconductors with carrier mobilities of approx.250 cm 2 /Vs

  12. Synchronization circuit for shaping picosecond accelerated-electron pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, Y.S.; Solov'ev, N.G.; Tomnikov, A.P.

    1986-01-01

    The authors discuss a high-speed circuit for synchronization of trigger pulses of the deflector modulator of an accelerator with a given phase of rf voltage of 200 MHz. The measured time instability between the output trigger pulses of the circuit and the input rf voltage is ≤ + or - 0.05 nsec. The circuit is implemented by ECL integrated circuits of series K100 and K500, and operates in both the pulse (pulse duration 3 μsec and repetition frequency 400 Hz) and continuous modes

  13. Synchronization circuit for shaping electron beam picosecond pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, Yu.S.; Solov'ev, N.G.; Tomnikov, A.P.

    1985-01-01

    A fast response circuit of modulator trigger pulse synchronization of a deflector of the electron linear accelerator at 13 MeV with the given phase of HF-voltage is described. The circuit is constructed using K500 and K100 integrated emitter-coupled logics circuits. Main parameters of a synchropulse are duration of 20-50 ns, pulse rise time of 1-5 ns, pulse amplitude >=10 V, delay instability of a trigger pulse <=+-0.05 ns. A radiopulse with 3 μs duration, 5 V amplitude and 400 Hz frequency enters the circuit input. The circuit can operate at both pulsed operation and continuous modes

  14. A rotationally symmetric electron beam chopper for picosecond pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldfield, L.C.

    1976-01-01

    The chopper was designed for dynamic electron optical experiments where it is necessary to provide pulses of high quality with respect to both width and energy spread. The chopping action relies on the optical properties of a microwave cavity; these are exploited such that the time dependent space focusing causes a small circular aperture on the axis of rotational symmetry to transmit strongly for a single band of phase angles in each cycle of the excitation. Unless the pulses are to be used near the aperture plane, an 'energy correcting' cavity that operates in phase synchronism with the chopper is added to the system. The theoretical treatment is oriented towards computer display, and is novel in that it follows the progress of individual electron packets throughout the system. In contrast to conventional chopping and bunching theory, it is possible to analyse with ease the pulsing properties of a multicavity device. For a typical two-cavity design the pulse quality may range from 10 0 width and negligible energy spread, to 0.25% energy spread and negligible pulse width, depending on the second cavity excitation; in either situation 7.5% of the original steady beam is transmitted. (author)

  15. Characterization of irradiated APDs for picosecond time measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centis Vignali, M.; Dalal, R.; Gallinaro, M.; Harrop, B.; Jain, G.; Lu, C.; McClish, M.; McDonald, K. T.; Moll, M.; Newcomer, F. M.; Ugobono, S. Otero; White, S.

    2018-01-01

    For their operation at the CERN High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), the ATLAS and CMS experiments are planning to implement dedicated systems to measure the time of arrival of minimum ionizing particles with an accuracy of about 30 ps. The timing detectors will be subjected to radiation levels corresponding up to a 1-MeV neutrons fluence (Φeq) of 1015 cm-2 for the goal integrated luminosity of HL-LHC of 3000 fb-1. In this paper, deep-diffused Avalanche Photo Diodes (APDs) produced by Radiation Monitoring Devices are examined as candidate timing detectors for HL-LHC applications. These APDs are operated at 1.8 kV, resulting in a gain of up to 500. The timing performance of the detectors is evaluated using a pulsed laser. The effects of radiation damage on current, signal amplitude, noise, and timing performance of the APDs are evaluated using detectors irradiated with neutrons up to Φeq = 1015 cm-2.

  16. Picosecond laser krypton plasma emission in water window spectral range.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrba, Pavel; Vrbová, M.; Müller, M.; Mann, K.; Pánek, D.; Parkman, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 12 (2017), č. článku 123301. ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG15013 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : laser plasma Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.115, year: 2016 http://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.4998533

  17. Photonic integrated circuit as a picosecond pulse timing discriminator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Arthur James; Zhuang, Leimeng

    2016-04-18

    We report the first experimental demonstration of a compact on-chip optical pulse timing discriminator that is able to provide an output voltage proportional to the relative timing of two 60-ps input pulses on separate paths. The output voltage is intrinsically low-pass-filtered, so the discriminator forms an interface between high-speed optics and low-speed electronics. Potential applications include timing synchronization of multiple pulse trains as a precursor for optical time-division multiplexing, and compact rangefinders with millimeter dimensions.

  18. Picosecond-precision multichannel autonomous time and frequency counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szplet, R.; Kwiatkowski, P.; RóŻyc, K.; Jachna, Z.; Sondej, T.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the design, implementation, and test results of a multichannel time interval and frequency counter developed as a desktop instrument. The counter contains four main functional modules for (1) performing precise measurements, (2) controlling and fast data processing, (3) low-noise power suppling, and (4) supplying a stable reference clock (optional rubidium standard). A fundamental for the counter, the time interval measurement is based on time stamping combined with a period counting and in-period two-stage time interpolation that allows us to achieve wide measurement range (above 1 h), high precision (even better than 4.5 ps), and high measurement speed (up to 91.2 × 106 timestamps/s). The frequency is measured up to 3.0 GHz with the use of the reciprocal method. Wide functionality of the counter includes also the evaluation of frequency stability of clocks and oscillators (Allan deviation) and phase variation (time interval error, maximum time interval error, time deviation). The 8-channel measurement module is based on a field programmable gate array device, while the control unit involves a microcontroller with a high performance ARM-Cortex core. An efficient and user-friendly control of the counter is provided either locally, through the built-in keypad or/and color touch panel, or remotely, with the aid of USB, Ethernet, RS232C, or RS485 interfaces.

  19. Backseeding of higher order gain processes in picosecond spercontinuum generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moselund, Peter Morten; Frosz, Michael Henoch; Thomsen, C.L.

    2008-01-01

    In photonic crystal fibers with closely spaced zero dispersion wavelengths it is possible to have two pairs of four-wave mixing (FWM)gain peaks. Here, we demonstrate both numerically and experimentally how the outer four-wave mixing gain peaks can be used to produce a strong amplification peak...

  20. Picosecond rotationally resolved stimulated emission pumping spectroscopy of nitric oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanjaroon, Chakree; Reeve, Scott W.; Ford, Alan; Murry, W. Dean; Lyon, Kevin; Yount, Bret; Britton, Dan; Burns, William A.; Allen, Susan D.; Bruce Johnson, J.

    2012-01-01

    Stimulated emission pumping (SEP) experiments were performed on the nitric oxide molecule in a flow cell environment using lasers with pulse widths of 17-25 ps. A lambda excitation scheme, or ''pump-dump" arrangement, was employed with the pump laser tuned to the T 00 vibronic band origin ( λ=226.35(1)nm) of the A2Σ+( v' = 0, J') ← X2Π1/2( v″ = 0, J″) and the dump laser scanned from 246-248 nm within the A2Σ+( v' = 0, J') → X2Π1/2( v″ = 2, J″) transition. The rotationally resolved SEP spectra were measured by observing the total fluorescence within the A2Σ+( v' = 0, J') → X2Π1/2( v″ = 1, J″) transition between 235 nm and 237.2 nm while scanning the dump laser wavelengths. Multiple rotational states were excited due to the broad laser bandwidth. Measurements showed that the resolved rotational structure depended on the energy and bandwidth of the applied pump and dump laser pulses. Analysis of the observed fluorescence depletion signals yielded an average percent fluorescence depletion of about 19% when λ=226.35(1)nm and λ=247.91(1)nm. This value reflects the percent transfer of the NO population from the A2Σ+( V' = 0, J') excited electronic state to the X2Π1/2( v″ = 2, J″) ground electronic state. The maximum expected depletion is 50% in the limit of dump saturation. Selective excitation of NO at the bandhead provides good spectral discrimination from the background emission and noise and unambiguously confirms the identity of the emitter.

  1. Spectroscopy and picosecond dynamics of aqueous NO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadegaard, Ane Riis; Thøgersen, Jan; Jensen, Svend Knak; Nielsen, Jakob Brun; Jensen, Frank; Keiding, Søren Rud, E-mail: keiding@chem.au.dk [Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, Langelandsgade 140, DK 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Jena, Naresh K.; Odelius, Michael [Department of Physics, Albanova University Center, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-08-14

    We investigate the formation of aqueous nitrogen dioxide, NO{sub 2} formed through femtosecond photolysis of nitrate, NO{sub 3}{sup −}(aq) and nitromethane CH{sub 3}NO{sub 2}(aq). Common to the experiments is the observation of a strong induced absorption at 1610 ± 10 cm{sup −1}, assigned to the asymmetric stretch vibration in the ground state of NO{sub 2}. This assignment is substantiated through isotope experiments substituting {sup 14}N by {sup 15}N, experiments at different pH values, and by theoretical calculations and simulations of NO{sub 2}–D{sub 2}O clusters.

  2. Development of a pico-second start counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickescheid, Michael; Cardinali, Matteo; Corell, Oliver; Hoek, Matthias; Lauth, Werner; Schlimme, Soeren; Sfienti, Concettina; Thiel, Michaela [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz(Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The goal is to develop a hodoscope with a time resolution of less than 50 ps. To achieve this level of precision, the obvious choice is to use the Cherenkov effect because of the prompt photon-production. The detector itself consists of 64 fused-silica radiator bars (5 x 5 x 140 mm{sup 3}) in an 8 x 8 matrix attached to an microchannel plate photomultiplier tube with 64 pixels (one bar per pixel). The segmented radiator design allows improving the time resolution depending on the number of traversed radiator bars. Also the number of detected photons per pixel is important as it improves the time resolution. Signal discrimination will be done using custom-made front-end electronics and a TRB3 system will be used for data acquisition. The performance of the detector is determined using a low intensity electron beam at the MAMI accelerator in Mainz with a momentum of 855 MeV/c. The obtained data are compared to detailed Monte Carlo simulations. In this contribution the experimental setup is described in more detail. Also first preliminary results from the test experiment are shown.

  3. Optical-fiber interferometer for velocity measurements with picosecond resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng Jidong; Tan Hua; Wang Xiang; Ma Yun; Hu Shaolou; Wang Xiaosong

    2006-01-01

    The conventional Doppler laser-interference velocimeters are made up of traditional optical elements such as lenses and mirrors and will generally restrict its applications in multipoint velocity measurements. By transfering the light from multimode optical fiber to single-mode optical fiber and using the currently available conventional telecommunications elements, the authors have constructed a velocimeter called all-fiber displacement interferometer system for any reflector. The unique interferometer system is only made up of fibers or fiber-coupled components. The viability of this technique is demonstrated by measuring the velocity of an interface moving at velocity of 2133 m/s with 50 ps time resolution. In addition, the concept of optical-fiber mode conversion would provide a way to develop various optical-fiber sensors

  4. Picosecond KrF laser interaction with solid targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.A.; Barrow, V.; Edwards, J.; Kiehn, G.; Wark, J.; Willi, O.; Barr, J.; Everall, N.; Hooker, C.; Ross, T.; Shaw, M.; Turcu, E.

    1988-01-01

    The recently developed high power KrF system at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory has been used to heat solid targets with laser energies of up to 1 Joule in 3ps. Single shot irradiances of up to 10 17 Wcm -2 were achieved at the target surface. A number of diagnostics were used to investigate the plasmas produced. These included time integrated and time resolved X-ray and VUV spectroscopy. The plasma temperature was obtained from X-ray line ratios, and the plasma density from Stark broadening. When ASE background containing about 20% of the short pulse energy in a 10ns interval was present, the X0ray spectra indicated an electron temperature of about 400ev and a density of a few times 10 22 cm -2 . If however the prepulse level was kept to below 10 -3 of the main pulse, measurements indicated a plasmas with temperatures of 400ev at close to solid density. The production of hot electrons was investigated using titanium targets overcoated with CH, and observing the Ti Κα emission. These measurements also confirmed the low prepulse level, since Κα emission was weak when only 0.5 microns of plastic overcoat was used. These experimental results were simulated and observations and simulations are discussed

  5. Picosecond orientational dynamics of water in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tros, Martijn; Zheng, Linli; Hunger, Johannes; Bonn, Mischa; Bonn, Daniel; Smits, Gertien J; Woutersen, Sander

    2017-10-12

    Cells are extremely crowded, and a central question in biology is how this affects the intracellular water. Here, we use ultrafast vibrational spectroscopy and dielectric-relaxation spectroscopy to observe the random orientational motion of water molecules inside living cells of three prototypical organisms: Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast), and spores of Bacillus subtilis. In all three organisms, most of the intracellular water exhibits the same random orientational motion as neat water (characteristic time constants ~9 and ~2 ps for the first-order and second-order orientational correlation functions), whereas a smaller fraction exhibits slower orientational dynamics. The fraction of slow intracellular water varies between organisms, ranging from ~20% in E. coli to ~45% in B. subtilis spores. Comparison with the water dynamics observed in solutions mimicking the chemical composition of (parts of) the cytosol shows that the slow water is bound mostly to proteins, and to a lesser extent to other biomolecules and ions.The cytoplasm's crowdedness leads one to expect that cell water is different from bulk water. By measuring the rotational motion of water molecules in living cells, Tros et al. find that apart from a small fraction of water solvating biomolecules, cell water has the same dynamics as bulk water.

  6. Picosecond thermometer in the amide I band of myoglobin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, R.H.; Xie, A.; Meer, L. van der

    2005-01-01

    The amide I and II bands in myoglobin show a heterogeneous temperature dependence, with bands at 6.17 and 6.43 mu m which are more intense at low temperatures. The amide I band temperature dependence is on the long wavelength edge of the band, while the short wavelength side has almost...... can be used to determine the time it takes vibrational energy to flow into the hydration shell. We determine that vibrational energy flow to the hydration shell from the amide I takes approximately 20 ps to occur....

  7. Determination of Longitudinal Electron Bunch Lengths on Picosecond Time Scales

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez, C; Calviño, F

    1999-01-01

    At CERN (European Laboratory for Particle Physics) the CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) study is pursuing the design of an electron-positron high-energy linear collider using an innovative concept for the RF (Radio Frequency) power production, the socalled two-beam acceleration scheme. In order to keep the length of the collider in a reasonable range while being able of accelerating electrons and positrons up to 5 TeV, the normal-conducting accelerating structures should operate at very high frequency (in this case 30 GHz). The RF power necessary to feed the accelerating cavities is provided by a second electron beam, the drive beam, running parallel to the main beam. The CLIC Test Facility (CTF) was build with the main aim of studying and demonstrating the feasibility of the two beam acceleration scheme and technology. It is composed of two beams, the drive beam that will generate the 30 GHz RF power and the main beam which will be accelerated by this power. In order to have a good efficiency for the power gen...

  8. The solid state detector technology for picosecond laser ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochazka, Ivan

    1993-01-01

    We developed an all solid state laser ranging detector technology, which makes the goal of millimeter accuracy achievable. Our design and construction philosophy is to combine the techniques of single photon ranging, ultrashort laser pulses, and fast fixed threshold discrimination while avoiding any analog signal processing within the laser ranging chain. The all solid state laser ranging detector package consists of the START detector and the STOP solid state photon counting module. Both the detectors are working in an optically triggered avalanche switching regime. The optical signal is triggering an avalanche current buildup which results in the generation of a uniform, fast risetime output pulse.

  9. Picosecond nonlinear optical properties of cuprous oxide with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-08

    Feb 8, 2014 ... with a direct band gap of 2.17 eV and can be used in solar cells, ... various important applications in the field of material research. ... of isopropanol dispersed with Cu2O powder on carbon-coated copper grid to determine.

  10. Programmable optical waveform reshaping on a picosecond timescale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manurkar, Paritosh; Jain, Nitin; Kumar Periyannan Rajeswari, Prem

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the temporal reshaping of optical waveforms in the telecom wavelength band using the principle of quantum frequency conversion. The reshaped optical pulses do not undergo any wavelength translation. The interaction takes place in a nonlinear chi((2)) waveguide using ...... for quantum communications. (C) 2017 Optical Society of America...

  11. Picosecond laser machined designed patterns with anti-ice effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Del Cerro, D.A.; Römer, G.R.B.E.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Micromachining using ultra short laser pulses (USLP) has evolved over the past years as a versatile tool for introducing functional features in surfaces at a micrometric and even at a sub wavelength scale. Being able to control the surface topography at this level provides a method to change the

  12. Time-domain diagnostics in the picosecond regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumpkin, A.H.

    1995-01-01

    The measurement of bunch length and longitudinal profile for microbunches of electrons and positrons in the ps and sub-ps regime will be a critical part of validating performance of proposed facilities. Data will be presented showing single-sweep streak camera results at σ res ∼ 68 fs and projected synchroscan sweep resolution at σ ∼ 600 fs. Additionally, an rf cavity operating in a transverse magnetic mode has recently been shown to produce σ res ∼ 280 fs when used with a low-emittance beam. The potential for dual-sweep streak work with σ res < 1 ps on the fast axis is also described

  13. 5.7  W cw single-frequency laser at 671  nm by single-pass second harmonic generation of a 17.2  W injection-locked 1342  nm Nd : YVO4 ring laser using periodically poled MgO : LiNbO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Peter; Ruebel, Felix; Bartschke, Juergen; L'huillier, Johannes A

    2015-11-20

    We demonstrate a continuous wave single-frequency laser at 671.1 nm based on a high-power 888 nm pumped Nd:YVO4 ring laser at 1342.2 nm. Unidirectional operation of the fundamental ring laser is achieved with the injection-locking technique. A Nd:YVO4 microchip laser serves as the injecting seed source, providing a tunable single-frequency power of up to 40 mW. The ring laser emits a single-frequency power of 17.2 W with a Gaussian beam profile and a beam propagation factor of M2beam profile and a beam propagation factor of M2lasers. This work opens possibilities in cold atoms experiments with lithium, allowing the use of larger ensembles in magneto-optical traps or higher diffraction orders in atomic beam interferometers.

  14. Reaching a few picosecond timing precision with the 16-channel digitizer and timestamper SAMPIC ASIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delagnes, E., E-mail: eric.delagnes@cea.fr [CEA/IRFU/SEDI, Saclay (France); Breton, D. [Laboratoire de L’accélérateur Linéaire from CNRS/IN2P3, Centre scientifique d’Orsay, Bâtiment 200, 91898, Orsay, Cedex (France); Grabas, H. [CEA/IRFU/SEDI, Saclay (France); Maalmi, J.; Rusquart, P. [Laboratoire de L’accélérateur Linéaire from CNRS/IN2P3, Centre scientifique d’Orsay, Bâtiment 200, 91898, Orsay, Cedex (France)

    2015-07-01

    SAMPIC is a Time and Waveform to Digital Converter (TWDC) multichannel chip. It integrates 16 channels each including DLL-based TDC providing a raw time associated with an ultra-fast analog memory sampling the signal used for precise timing measurements as well as other parameters of the pulse. Every channel also integrates a discriminator that can trigger it independently or participate to a more complex trigger. After triggering, the analog samples are digitized by on-chip ADCs and are sent serially to the acquisition. The paper describes the architecture of SAMPIC and reports the main performance measured on the first prototype chip with a focus on timing resolution in the range of 15 ps RMS using raw data improved to less than 5 ps RMS after a simple calibration.

  15. Hydration-dependent dynamics of human telomeric oligonucleotides in the picosecond timescale: A neutron scattering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastiani, F.; Comez, L.; Sacchetti, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università degli Studi di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, 06123 Perugia (Italy); CNR, Istituto Officina dei Materiali, Unità di Perugia, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Longo, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università degli Studi di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Elettra—Sincrotrone Trieste, 34149 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Orecchini, A.; Petrillo, C.; Paciaroni, A., E-mail: alessandro.paciaroni@fisica.unipg.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università degli Studi di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, 06123 Perugia (Italy); De Francesco, A. [CNR-IOM OGG c/o Institut Laue-Langevin, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS20156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Muthmann, M. [Jülich Centre for Neutron Science, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Outstation at Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum, Lichtenbergstrasse 1, 85747 Garching (Germany); Teixeira, S. C. M. [EPSAM, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Institut Laue–Langevin, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS20156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2015-07-07

    The dynamics of the human oligonucleotide AG{sub 3}(T{sub 2}AG{sub 3}){sub 3} has been investigated by incoherent neutron scattering in the sub-nanosecond timescale. A hydration-dependent dynamical activation of thermal fluctuations in weakly hydrated samples was found, similar to that of protein powders. The amplitudes of such thermal fluctuations were evaluated in two different exchanged wave-vector ranges, so as to single out the different contributions from intra- and inter-nucleotide dynamics. The activation energy was calculated from the temperature-dependent characteristic times of the corresponding dynamical processes. The trends of both amplitudes and activation energies support a picture where oligonucleotides possess a larger conformational flexibility than long DNA sequences. This additional flexibility, which likely results from a significant relative chain-end contribution to the average chain dynamics, could be related to the strong structural polymorphism of the investigated oligonucleotides.

  16. FEL research and development at the SLAC sub-picosecond photon source, SPPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentson, L.; Bolton, P.; Bong, E.; Emma, P.; Galayda, J.; Hastings, J.; Krejcik, P.; Rago, C.; Rifkin, J.; Spencer, C.M.

    2003-01-01

    An upgrade project to the SLAC linac allows ultra-short electron bunches to be interleaved with the routine high-energy physics program operation, for use with an undulator to produce short-pulse, high-brightness X-rays. The linac upgrade comprises of the installation in the summer of 2002 of a bunch compressor chicane of similar design to the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) project. A final compression stage in the high-energy Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) line compresses the 28 GeV, 3.4 nC electron bunch to 80 fs FWHM, where a 5 m section of undulator (K=4.45) will produce 1.5 A X-rays with 3x10 7 photons per pulse and a peak brightness of 4x10 24 photons mm -2 mrad -2 s -1 (0.1% BW). The facility will allow us to test the dynamics and associated technology of bunch compression and gain valuable experience for the LCLS using the SLAC linac. New ultra-short electron bunch diagnostic techniques will be developed hand in hand with the same ultra-fast laser technology to be used for LCLS. Issues of high peak power (27 GW) X-ray transport and optics can be addressed at this facility as well as pump-probe and ultra-fast laser timing and stability issues

  17. Picosecond phase-velocity dispersion of hypersonic phonons imaged with ultrafast electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremons, Daniel R.; Du, Daniel X.; Flannigan, David J.

    2017-01-01

    We describe the direct imaging—with four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy—of the emergence, evolution, dispersion, and decay of photoexcited, hypersonic coherent acoustic phonons in nanoscale germanium wedges. Coherent strain waves generated via ultrafast in situ photoexcitation were imaged propagating with initial phase velocities of up to 35 km/s across discrete micrometer-scale crystal regions. We then observe that, while each wave front travels at a constant velocity, the entire wave train evolves with a time-varying phase-velocity dispersion, displaying a single-exponential decay to the longitudinal speed of sound (5 km/s) and with a mean lifetime of 280 ps. We also find that the wave trains propagate along a single in-plane direction oriented parallel to striations introduced during specimen preparation, independent of crystallographic direction. Elastic-plate modeling indicates the dynamics arise from excitation of a single, symmetric (dilatational) guided acoustic mode. Further, by precisely determining the experiment time-zero position with a plasma-lensing method, we find that wave-front emergence occurs approximately 100 ps after femtosecond photoexcitation, which matches well with Auger recombination times in germanium. We conclude by discussing the similarities between the imaged hypersonic strain-wave dynamics and electron/hole plasma-wave dynamics in strongly photoexcited semiconductors.

  18. High aspect ratio nanoholes in glass generated by femtosecond laser pulses with picosecond intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sanghoon; Choi, Jiyeon; Noh, Jiwhan; Cho, Sung-Hak

    2018-02-01

    Because of its potential uses, high aspect ratio nanostructures have been interested for last few decades. In order to generate nanostructures, various techniques have been attempted. Femtosecond laser ablation is one of techniques for generating nanostructures inside a transparent material. For generating nanostructures by femtosecond laser ablation, previous studies have been attempted beam shaping such as Bessel beam and temporal tailored beam. Both methods suppress electron excitation at near surface and initiate interference of photons at certain depth. Recent researches indicate that shape of nanostructures is related with temporal change of electron density and number of self-trapped excitons. In this study, we try to use the temporal change of electron density induced by femtosecond laser pulse for generating high aspect ratio nanoholes. In order to reveal the effect of temporal change of electron density, secondary pulses are irradiated from 100 to 1000 ps after the irradiation of first pulse. Our result shows that diameter of nanoholes is increasing and depth of nanoholes is decreasing as pulse to pulse interval is getting longer. With manipulating of pulse to pulse interval, we could generate high aspect ratio nanoholes with diameter of 250-350 nm and depth of 4∼6 μm inside a glass.

  19. Avalanche boron fusion by laser picosecond block ignition with magnetic trapping for clean and economic reactor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hora, H.; Korn, Georg; Eliezer, S.; Nissim, N.; Lalousis, P.; Giuffrida, Lorenzo; Margarone, Daniele; Picciotto, A.; Miley, G. H.; Moustaizis, S.; Martinez-Val, J.M.; Barty, C.P.J.; Kirchhoff, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4, Oct (2016), 1-9, č. článku e35. ISSN 2095-4719 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : boron fusion energy * dielectric nonlinear force explosion * economic reactor * environmentally clean energy Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  20. Picosecond Transient Photoconductivity in Functionalized Pentacene Molecular Crystals Probed by Terahertz Pulse Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegmann, F. A.; Tykwinski, R. R.; Lui, K. P.; Bullock, J. E.; Anthony, J. E.

    2002-11-01

    We have measured transient photoconductivity in functionalized pentacene molecular crystals using ultrafast optical pump-terahertz probe techniques. The single crystal samples were excited using 800nm, 100fs pulses, and the change in transmission of time-delayed, subpicosecond terahertz pulses was used to probe the photoconducting state over a temperature range from 10 to 300K. A subpicosecond rise in photoconductivity is observed, suggesting that mobile carriers are a primary photoexcitation. At times longer than 4ps, a power-law decay is observed consistent with dispersive transport.

  1. Retinal response of Macaca mulatta to picosecond laser pulses of varying energy and spot size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, William P; Cain, Clarence P; Narayan, Drew G; Noojin, Gary D; Boppart, Stephen A; Birngruber, Reginald; Fujimoto, James G; Toth, Cynthia A

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between the laser beam at the retina (spot size) and the extent of retinal injury from single ultrashort laser pulses. From previous studies it is believed that the retinal effect of single 3-ps laser pulses should vary in extent and location, depending on the occurrence of laser-induced breakdown (LIB) at the site of laser delivery. Single 3-ps pulses of 580-nm laser energy are delivered over a range of spot sizes to the retina of Macaca mulatta. The retinal response is captured sequentially with optical coherence tomography (OCT). The in vivo OCT images and the extent of pathology on final microscopic sections of the laser site are compared. With delivery of a laser pulse with peak irradiance greater than that required for LIB, OCT and light micrographs demonstrate inner retinal injury with many intraretinal and/or vitreous hemorrhages. In contrast, broad outer retinal injury with minimal to no choriocapillaris effect is seen after delivery of laser pulses to a larger retinal area (60 to 300 microm diam) when peak irradiance is less than that required for LIB. The broader lesions extend into the inner retina when higher energy delivery produces intraretinal injury. Microscopic examination of stained fixed tissues provide better resolution of retinal morphology than OCT. OCT provides less resolution but could be guided over an in vivo, visible retinal lesion for repeated sampling over time during the evolution of the lesion formation. For 3-ps visible wavelength laser pulses, varying the spot size and laser energy directly affects the extent of retinal injury. This again is believed to be partly due to the onset of LIB, as seen in previous studies. Spot-size dependence should be considered when comparing studies of retinal effects or when pursuing a specific retinal effect from ultrashort laser pulses. Copyright 2004 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

  2. Determination of Cross-Sectional Area of Focused Picosecond Gaussian Laser Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, Rodolfo; Fitz-Gerald, James; Palmieri, Frank; Connell, John

    2018-01-01

    Measurement of the waist diameter of a focused Gaussian-beam at the 1/e(sup 2) intensity, also referred to as spot size, is key to determining the fluence in laser processing experiments. Spot size measurements are also helpful to calculate the threshold energy and threshold fluence of a given material. This work reports an application of a conventional method, by analyzing single laser ablated spots for different laser pulse energies, to determine the cross-sectional area of a focused Gaussian-beam, which has a nominal pulse width of approx. 10 ps. Polished tungsten was used as the target material, due to its low surface roughness and low ablation threshold, to measure the beam waist diameter. From the ablative spot measurements, the ablation threshold fluence of the tungsten substrate was also calculated.

  3. Solvation of the electron in alcohols studied using the Argonne picosecond pulse radiolysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonah, C.D.; Kenney-Wallace, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    With a stroboscopic pulse radiolysis system, it is possible to measure the reactions of solvated electrons and dry electrons and the solvation time of electrons in alcohols from 20 psec to 350 psec. The solvation in alcohol and alcohol-alkane solutions is a complex process which depends on the microscopic structure of the fluid, so that the studies of solvation in alcohols as a function of temperature or as a function of the concentration of the alcohols must take into account the structure of the fluid being studied. The relaxation processes may not be dominant at low temperature. However, in room temperature alcohols, pre-existing traps are the dominant means of electron trapping. The extrapolation to water may be reasonable since water and alcohols both give similar final species. To obtain such idea of the solvation process in alcohols, the change of the absorption of electrons at 500 nm was measured. At very low concentration of alcohols in alkanes, electrons form a complex with a cluster of alcohol molecules, and the most probable size of this cluster is two alcohols (C 4 , C 10 ). The species formed is not solvated electrons, since the characteristic spectrum of solvated electrons is absent, and the conductivity of the species is far above that of solvated electrons. (Yamashita, S.)

  4. Picosecond Streaked K-Shell Spectroscopy of Near Solid-Density Aluminum Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, C. R.; Nilson, P. M.; Ivancic, S. T.; Mileham, C.; Froula, D. H.; Golovkin, I. E.

    2016-10-01

    The thermal x-ray emission from rapidly heated solid targets containing a buried-aluminum layer was measured. The targets were driven by high-contrast 1 ω or 2 ω laser pulses at focused intensities up to 1 ×1019W/Wcm2 cm2 . A streaked x-ray spectrometer recorded the Al Heα and lithium-like satellite lines with 2-ps temporal resolution and moderate resolving power (E/E ΔE 700). Time-integrated measurements over the same spectral range were used to correct the streaked data for variations in photocathode sensitivity. Line widths and intensity ratios from the streaked data were interpreted using a collisional radiative atomic model to provide the average plasma conditions in the buried layer as a function of time. It was observed that the resonance line tends toward lower photon energies at high electron densities. The measured shifts will be compared to predicted shifts from Stark-operator calculations at the inferred plasma conditions. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944, the office of Fusion Energy Sciences Award Number DE-SC0012317, and the Stewardship Science Graduate Fellowship Grant Number DE-NA0002135.

  5. Picosecond Time-Resolved Temperature and Density Measurements with K-Shell Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, C. R.; Nilson, P. M.; Ivancic, S. T.; Mileham, C.; Froula, D. H.; Golovkin, I. E.

    2017-10-01

    The thermal x-ray emission from rapidly heated solid targets containing a buried-aluminum layer was measured to track the evolution of the bulk plasma conditions. The targets were driven by high-contrast 1 ω laser pulses at focused intensities up to 1 × 1019 W/cm2. A streaked x-ray spectrometer recorded the AlHeα and lithium-like satellite lines with 2-ps temporal resolution and moderate resolving power (E E ΔE 1000 ΔE 1000) . Time-integrated measurements over the same spectral range were used to correct the streaked data for variations in photocathode sensitivity. Linewidths and intensity ratios from the streaked data were interpreted using a collisional radiative atomic kinetics model to provide the average plasma conditions in the buried layer as a function of time. Experimental uncertainties in the measured plasma conditions are quantified within a consistent model-dependent framework. The data demonstrate the production of a 330 +/-56 eV, 0.9 +/-0.3 g/cm3 plasma that evolves slowly during peak Heα emission. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  6. Experimental results of two stage harmonic generation with picosecond pulses on the Stanford Mark III FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, B.A.; Utah Univ., Salt Lake City; Stanford Univ., CA; Benson, S.V.; Madey, M.J.; Cutolo, A.; Naples Univ.

    1988-01-01

    We report experimental results on upper harmonic conversion using a lithium niobate and a beta barium borate crystal to quadruple the FEL light up into the visible and near infrared. The effects of finite linewidth, birefringent walk-off, and group velocity walk-off on conversion efficiency will be discussed with reference to the experimental results. (orig.)

  7. A high-throughput, multi-channel photon-counting detector with picosecond timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapington, J. S.; Fraser, G. W.; Miller, G. M.; Ashton, T. J. R.; Jarron, P.; Despeisse, M.; Powolny, F.; Howorth, J.; Milnes, J.

    2009-06-01

    High-throughput photon counting with high time resolution is a niche application area where vacuum tubes can still outperform solid-state devices. Applications in the life sciences utilizing time-resolved spectroscopies, particularly in the growing field of proteomics, will benefit greatly from performance enhancements in event timing and detector throughput. The HiContent project is a collaboration between the University of Leicester Space Research Centre, the Microelectronics Group at CERN, Photek Ltd., and end-users at the Gray Cancer Institute and the University of Manchester. The goal is to develop a detector system specifically designed for optical proteomics, capable of high content (multi-parametric) analysis at high throughput. The HiContent detector system is being developed to exploit this niche market. It combines multi-channel, high time resolution photon counting in a single miniaturized detector system with integrated electronics. The combination of enabling technologies; small pore microchannel plate devices with very high time resolution, and high-speed multi-channel ASIC electronics developed for the LHC at CERN, provides the necessary building blocks for a high-throughput detector system with up to 1024 parallel counting channels and 20 ps time resolution. We describe the detector and electronic design, discuss the current status of the HiContent project and present the results from a 64-channel prototype system. In the absence of an operational detector, we present measurements of the electronics performance using a pulse generator to simulate detector events. Event timing results from the NINO high-speed front-end ASIC captured using a fast digital oscilloscope are compared with data taken with the proposed electronic configuration which uses the multi-channel HPTDC timing ASIC.

  8. A high-throughput, multi-channel photon-counting detector with picosecond timing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapington, J.S.; Fraser, G.W.; Miller, G.M.; Ashton, T.J.R.; Jarron, P.; Despeisse, M.; Powolny, F.; Howorth, J.; Milnes, J.

    2009-01-01

    High-throughput photon counting with high time resolution is a niche application area where vacuum tubes can still outperform solid-state devices. Applications in the life sciences utilizing time-resolved spectroscopies, particularly in the growing field of proteomics, will benefit greatly from performance enhancements in event timing and detector throughput. The HiContent project is a collaboration between the University of Leicester Space Research Centre, the Microelectronics Group at CERN, Photek Ltd., and end-users at the Gray Cancer Institute and the University of Manchester. The goal is to develop a detector system specifically designed for optical proteomics, capable of high content (multi-parametric) analysis at high throughput. The HiContent detector system is being developed to exploit this niche market. It combines multi-channel, high time resolution photon counting in a single miniaturized detector system with integrated electronics. The combination of enabling technologies; small pore microchannel plate devices with very high time resolution, and high-speed multi-channel ASIC electronics developed for the LHC at CERN, provides the necessary building blocks for a high-throughput detector system with up to 1024 parallel counting channels and 20 ps time resolution. We describe the detector and electronic design, discuss the current status of the HiContent project and present the results from a 64-channel prototype system. In the absence of an operational detector, we present measurements of the electronics performance using a pulse generator to simulate detector events. Event timing results from the NINO high-speed front-end ASIC captured using a fast digital oscilloscope are compared with data taken with the proposed electronic configuration which uses the multi-channel HPTDC timing ASIC.

  9. Picosecond pulse radiolysis studies to understand the primary processes in radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonah, C.D.; Lewis, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The use of pulse radiolysis to learn about processes which occur before the beginning of chemical times is discussed. Two examples, the distance distribution of positive and negative ions in hydrocarbons, and the state of the dry electron are discussed in detail

  10. Picosecond pulse radiolysis studies to understand the primary processes in radiolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonah, C.D.; Lewis, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The use of pulse radiolysis to learn about processes which occur before the beginning of chemical times is discussed. Two examples, the distance distribution of positive and negative ions in hydrocarbons, and the state of the dry electron are discussed in detail.

  11. A sub-picosecond pulsed 5 MeV electron beam system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, J. Paul; Batchelor, K.; Meshkovsky, I.; Pavlishin, I.; Lekomtsev, V.; Dyublov, A.; Inochkin, M.; Srinivasan-Rao, T.

    2001-01-01

    Laser excited pulsed, electron beam systems that operate at energies from 1 MeV up to 5 MeV and pulse width from 0.1 to 100 ps are described. The systems consist of a high voltage pulser and a coaxial laser triggered gas or liquid spark gap. The spark gap discharges into a pulse forming line designed to produce and maintain a flat voltage pulse for 1 ns duration on the cathode of a photodiode. A synchronized laser is used to illuminate the photocathode with a laser pulse to produce an electron beam with very high brightness, short duration, and current at or near the space charge limit. Operation of the system is described and preliminary test measurements of voltages, synchronization, and jitter are presented for a 5 MeV system. Applications in chemistry, and accelerator research are briefly discussed

  12. High-power picosecond pulse delivery through hollow core photonic band gap fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michieletto, Mattia; Johansen, Mette Marie; Lyngsø, Jens Kristian

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrated robust and bend insensitive fiber delivery of high power pulsed laser with diffraction limited beam quality for two different kind of hollow core photonic band gap fibers......We demonstrated robust and bend insensitive fiber delivery of high power pulsed laser with diffraction limited beam quality for two different kind of hollow core photonic band gap fibers...

  13. kW-class picosecond thin-disc prepulse laser Perla for efficient EUV generation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Endo, Akira; Smrž, Martin; Mužík, Jiří; Novák, Ondřej; Chyla, Michal; Mocek, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 4 (2017), s. 1-6, č. článku 041011. ISSN 1932-5150 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1602; GA ČR GA16-12960S; GA MŠk LM2015086 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 739573 - HiLASE CoE Grant - others:OP VVV - HiLASE-CoE(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_006/0000674 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : EUV source * laser produced plasma * FEL * prepulse * thin-disc laser Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Laser s OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 1.350, year: 2016

  14. Pleiades: A Sub-picosecond Tunable X-ray Source at the LLNL Electron Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaughter, Dennis; Springer, Paul; Le Sage, Greg; Crane, John; Ditmire, Todd; Cowan, Tom; Anderson, Scott G.; Rosenzweig, James B.

    2002-01-01

    The use of ultra fast laser pulses to generate very high brightness, ultra short (fs to ps) pulses of x-rays is a topic of great interest to the x-ray user community. In principle, femto-second-scale pump-probe experiments can be used to temporally resolve structural dynamics of materials on the time scale of atomic motion. The development of sub-ps x-ray pulses will make possible a wide range of materials and plasma physics studies with unprecedented time resolution. A current project at LLNL will provide such a novel x-ray source based on Thomson scattering of high power, short laser pulses with a high peak brightness, relativistic electron bunch. The system is based on a 5 mm-mrad normalized emittance photo-injector, a 100 MeV electron RF linac, and a 300 mJ, 35 fs solid-state laser system. The Thomson x-ray source produces ultra fast pulses with x-ray energies capable of probing into high-Z metals, and a high flux per pulse enabling single shot experiments. The system will also operate at a high repetition rate (∼ 10 Hz). (authors)

  15. Picosecond spectral relaxation of curcumin excited state in toluene–alcohol mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saini, R.K.; Das, K., E-mail: kaustuv@rrcat.gov.in

    2013-12-15

    Excited state photophysics of Curcumin in a binary solvent mixture of toluene and five different alcohols (Methanol, Ethanol, 1-Propanol, 1-Butanol and 1-Octanol) are compared with an instrument time resolution of ∼40 ps. As the alcohol mole-fraction is varied from zero to unity, the observed trends in the fluorescence quantum yield and lifetime of the pigment in toluene–alcohol mixtures changes significantly in going from Methanol to 1-Octanol. This is attributed to the different degree of modulation of the non-radiative rates associated with the excited state intermolecular H bonding between the pigment and the alcohol. Fluorescence decays taken at the red edge of the emission spectrum started to show measurable rise times (200–30 ps) the magnitude of which decreased gradually with increasing alcohol mole-fraction. As a consequence the solvation times in the binary mixture were observed to slow down considerably at certain solvent compositions compared to that in neat alcohol. However, in toluene-1-Octanol mixture, the rise times and corresponding solvation times did not show a dependence on the 1-Octanol mole-fraction. The observed results suggest that viscosity, polarity and hydrogen bonding property of the alcohol solvent plays an important role in the excited state processes of the pigment in toluene–alcohol mixture. -- Highlights: • Excited state photophysics of Curcumin in a binary solvent mixture of toluene and five different alcohols were studied. • The observed trends in the fluorescence properties are attributed to intermolecular H bonding between the pigment and the alcohol. • Except 1-Octanol, the average solvation times of the pigment were observed to depend upon alcohol mole-fraction. • Viscosity, polarity and hydrogen bonding play an important role in the excited state processes of the pigment.

  16. Laser Giant Ion Source and the Prepulse Effects for Picosecond Interaction for High Gain Laser Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hora, Heinrich; Badziak, J.; Parys, P.; Wolowski, J.; Woryna, E.; Boody, F.P.; Hoepfl, R.; Jungwirth, K.; Ullschmied, J.; Kralikova, B.; Krasa, J.; Laska, L.; Pfeifer, M.; Rohlena, K.; Skala, J.; Perina, V.

    2003-01-01

    By studying laser driven ion sources which produce giant ion emission current densities exceeding the few mA/cm2 of classical ion sources (MEVVA or ECR) by more than six orders of magnitude, we unexpectedly measured an anomalous low ion energy with ps laser pulses.The emission is basically different from that with the fastest ion energies in the MeV to GeV range due to relativistic self focusing and from the second fastest ion group due to quiver-thermalization processes. We report on specifically designed experiments with gold targets where 0.5 ns laser pulses produce MeV Au-ions in accordance with relativistic self focusing in strong contrast to ps pulses where a 400 times higher intensity from TW pulses is needed to arrive at the same ion energies. These can be explained by a basically new model without self-focusing as a skin layer effect where the absence of a prepulse is essential. This has consequences for the application of laser driven ion sources and may improve the hitherto highest published laser fusion gains with 50 TW-ps laser pulses without the usual spherical precompression

  17. Robust picosecond writing of a layered antiferromagnet by staggered spin-orbit fields

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roy, P.E.; Otxoa, R.M.; Wunderlich, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 1 (2016), 1-5, č. článku 014439. ISSN 2469-9950 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : spintronics * Mn 2 Au * cumnas Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.836, year: 2016

  18. Fiber Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse Amplification of Sub-Picosecond Pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristofori, Valentina; Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Da Ros, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally, for the first time to our knowledge, fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification of 400-fs pulses. The 400-fs signal is stretched, amplified by 26 dB and compressed back to 500 fs.......We demonstrate experimentally, for the first time to our knowledge, fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification of 400-fs pulses. The 400-fs signal is stretched, amplified by 26 dB and compressed back to 500 fs....

  19. Dynamic characterization and amplification of sub-picosecond pulses in fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristofori, Valentina; Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Rishøj, Lars Søgaard

    2013-01-01

    We show a first-time demonstration of amplification of 400 fs pulses in a fiber optical parametric amplifier. The 400 fs signal is stretched in time, amplified by 26 dB and compressed back to 500 fs. A significant broadening of the pulses is experimentally shown due to dispersion and limited gain...

  20. Single shot diffraction of picosecond 8.7-keV x-ray pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. H. O’Shea

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate multiphoton, single shot diffraction images of x rays produced by inverse Compton scattering a high-power CO_{2} laser from a relativistic electron beam, creating a pulse of 8.7 keV x rays. The tightly focused, relatively high peak brightness electron beam and high photon density from the 2 J CO_{2} laser yielded 6×10^{7} x-ray photons over the full opening angle in a single shot. Single shot x-ray diffraction is performed by passing the x rays though a vertical slit and on to a flat silicon (111 crystal. 10^{2} diffracted photons were detected. The spectrum of the detected x rays is compared to simulation. The diffraction and detection of 10^{2} x rays is a key step to a more efficient time resolved diagnostic in which the number of observed x rays might reach 10^{4}; enabling a unique, flexible x-ray source as a sub-ps resolution diagnostic for studying the evolution of chemical reactions, lattice deformation and melting, and magnetism.

  1. Bulk and surface laser damage of silica by picosecond and nanosecond pulses at 1064 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Arlee V.; Do, Binh T.

    2008-01-01

    We measured bulk and surface dielectric breakdown thresholds of pure silica for 14 ps and 8 ns pulses of 1064 nm light. The thresholds are sharp and reproducible. For the 8 ns pulses the bulk threshold irradiance is 4.75 ± 0.25 kW/μm 2 . The threshold is approximately three times higher for 14 ps pulses. For 8 ns pulses the input surface damage threshold can be made equal to the bulk threshold by applying an alumina or silica surface polish

  2. Diode-pumped passively mode-locked sub-picosecond Yb:LuAG ceramic laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiang-Feng; Liu, Kai; Jiang, Li; Wang, Jun-Li; Yang, Yu; Wang, Hui-Bo; Gao, Zi-Ye; Xie, Teng-Fei; Chao-Yu, Li; Pan, Yu-Bai; Wei, Zhi-Yi

    2017-05-01

    Not Available Project supported by the National Major Scientific Instruments Development Project of China (Grant No. 2012YQ120047), the National Key R&D Program of China (Grant No. 2016YFB0402105), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61205130 and 61575212), and the Key Research Project of the Frontier Science of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. QYZDB-SSW-JSC022).

  3. Picosecond transient backward stimulated Raman scattering and pumping of femtosecond dye lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrivo, Steven M.; Spears, Kenneth G.; Sipior, Jeffrey

    1995-02-01

    We report studies of transient, backward stimulated, Raman scattering (TBSRS) in solvents with a 10 Hz, 27 ps, 532 nm pump laser. The TBSRS effect was used to create pulses at 545 nm and 630 nm with durations of 2-3 ps and 5-10 μJ of energy. The duration, energy and fluctuations of the Raman pulse were studied as a function of pump energy and focal parameters. A 5 μJ Raman pulse was amplified in either a Raman amplifier or two stage dye amplifier to 1 mJ levels. A 545 nm pulse of 3 ps duration was generated in CCl 4 and was then used to pump a short cavity dye laser (SCDL). The SCDL oscillator and a 5 stage dye amplifier provided a pulse of 700 fs and 400 μJ that was tunable near 590 nm.

  4. High-power picosecond pulse delivery through hollow core photonic band gap fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michieletto, Mattia; Johansen, Mette Marie; Lyngsø, Jens Kristian

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated robust and bend insensitive fiber delivery of high power laser with diffraction limited beam quality for two different kinds of hollow core band gap fibers. The light source for this experiment consists of ytterbium-doped double clad fiber aeroGAIN-ROD-PM85 in a high power amplifier...

  5. Picoseconds pulse generation and pulse width determination processes of a distributed feedback dye laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Ghani, B.; Hammadi, M.

    2004-08-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to describe the dynamic emission of Nd-glass, distributed feedback dye laser (DFDL), and periodical grating temperature. The suggested model allows the investigation of the time behavior of Nd-glass laser and DFDL pulsed. Moreover, it allows studying the effect of the laser input parameters of Nd-glass laser on the spectral characteristics of the output DFDL pulses such as pulse width, delay time, and time separation

  6. Picosecond dynamics of internal exciton transitions in CdSe nanorods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, D. G.; Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Lek, Jun Yan

    2013-01-01

    . The onset of exciton-LO phonon coupling appears as a bleach in the optical conductivity spectra at the LO phonon energy for times > 1 ps after excitation. Simulations show a suppressed exciton temperature due to thermally excited hole states being rapidly captured onto ligands or unpassivated surface states...

  7. 2D and 3D interconnect fabrication by picosecond Laser Induced Forward Transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, G.; Huis in 't veld, A.J.; Chall, P.

    2011-01-01

    Interconnects are an important cost driver in advanced 3D chip packaging. This holds for Through Silicon Vias (TSV) for chip stacking, but also for other integrated Si-technology. Especially in applications with a low number (<100 mm-2) of relatively large (10-2- um diameter), high aspect ratio

  8. Picosecond spectral relaxation of curcumin excited state in toluene–alcohol mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, R.K.; Das, K.

    2013-01-01

    Excited state photophysics of Curcumin in a binary solvent mixture of toluene and five different alcohols (Methanol, Ethanol, 1-Propanol, 1-Butanol and 1-Octanol) are compared with an instrument time resolution of ∼40 ps. As the alcohol mole-fraction is varied from zero to unity, the observed trends in the fluorescence quantum yield and lifetime of the pigment in toluene–alcohol mixtures changes significantly in going from Methanol to 1-Octanol. This is attributed to the different degree of modulation of the non-radiative rates associated with the excited state intermolecular H bonding between the pigment and the alcohol. Fluorescence decays taken at the red edge of the emission spectrum started to show measurable rise times (200–30 ps) the magnitude of which decreased gradually with increasing alcohol mole-fraction. As a consequence the solvation times in the binary mixture were observed to slow down considerably at certain solvent compositions compared to that in neat alcohol. However, in toluene-1-Octanol mixture, the rise times and corresponding solvation times did not show a dependence on the 1-Octanol mole-fraction. The observed results suggest that viscosity, polarity and hydrogen bonding property of the alcohol solvent plays an important role in the excited state processes of the pigment in toluene–alcohol mixture. -- Highlights: • Excited state photophysics of Curcumin in a binary solvent mixture of toluene and five different alcohols were studied. • The observed trends in the fluorescence properties are attributed to intermolecular H bonding between the pigment and the alcohol. • Except 1-Octanol, the average solvation times of the pigment were observed to depend upon alcohol mole-fraction. • Viscosity, polarity and hydrogen bonding play an important role in the excited state processes of the pigment

  9. Picosecond phase-velocity dispersion of hypersonic phonons imaged with ultrafast electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremons, Daniel R.; Du, Daniel X.; Flannigan, David J.

    2017-12-01

    Here, we describe the direct imaging—with four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy—of the emergence, evolution, dispersion, and decay of photoexcited, hypersonic coherent acoustic phonons in nanoscale germanium wedges. Coherent strain waves generated via ultrafast in situ photoexcitation were imaged propagating with initial phase velocities of up to 35 km/s across discrete micrometer-scale crystal regions. We observe that, while each wave front travels at a constant velocity, the entire wave train evolves with a time-varying phase-velocity dispersion, displaying a single-exponential decay to the longitudinal speed of sound (5 km/s) and with a mean lifetime of 280 ps. We also find that the wave trains propagate along a single in-plane direction oriented parallel to striations introduced during specimen preparation, independent of crystallographic direction. Elastic-plate modeling indicates the dynamics arise from excitation of a single, symmetric (dilatational) guided acoustic mode. Further, by precisely determining the experiment time-zero position with a plasma-lensing method, we find that wave-front emergence occurs approximately 100 ps after femtosecond photoexcitation, which matches well with Auger recombination times in germanium. We conclude by discussing the similarities between the imaged hypersonic strain-wave dynamics and electron/hole plasma-wave dynamics in strongly photoexcited semiconductors.

  10. The role of morphology and coupling of gold nanoparticles in optical breakdown during picosecond pulse exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeniy R. Davletshin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical study of the interaction of a 6 ps laser pulse with uncoupled and plasmon-coupled gold nanoparticles. We show how the one-dimensional assembly of particles affects the optical breakdown threshold of its surroundings. For this purpose we used a fully coupled electromagnetic, thermodynamic and plasma dynamics model for a laser pulse interaction with gold nanospheres, nanorods and assemblies, which was solved using the finite element method. The thresholds of optical breakdown for off- and on-resonance irradiated gold nanosphere monomers were compared against nanosphere dimers, trimers, and gold nanorods with the same overall size and aspect ratio. The optical breakdown thresholds had a stronger dependence on the optical near-field enhancement than on the mass or absorption cross-section of the nanostructure. These findings can be used to advance the nanoparticle-based nanoscale manipulation of matter.

  11. Method for single-shot measurement of picosecond laser pulse-lengths without electronic time dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyrala, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    A two-source shear pattern recording is proposed as a method for single-shot measurement of the pulse shape from nearly monochromatic sources whose pulse lengths are shorter than their coherence times. The basis of this method relies on the assertion that if two identical electromagnetic pulses are recombined with a time delay greater than the sum of their pulse widths, the recordable spatial pattern has no fringes in it. At an arbitrary delay, translated into an actual spatial recording position, the recorded modulated intensity will sample the corresponding laser intensity at that delay time, but with a modulation due to the coherence function of the electromagnetic pulse. Two arrangements are proposed for recording the pattern. The principles, the design parameters, and the methodologies of these arrangements are presented. Resolutions of the configurations and their limitations are given as well

  12. All-optical wavelength conversion by picosecond burst absorption in colloidal PbS quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geiregat, P.A.; Houtepen, A.J.; Van Thourhout, Dries; Hens, Zeger

    2016-01-01

    All-optical approaches to change the wavelength of a data signal are considered more energy-and cost-effective than current wavelength conversion schemes that rely on back and forth switching between the electrical and optical domains. However, the lack of cost-effective materials with

  13. All-Optical Wavelength Conversion by Picosecond Burst Absorption in Colloidal PbS Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiregat, Pieter; Houtepen, Arjan J; Van Thourhout, Dries; Hens, Zeger

    2016-01-26

    All-optical approaches to change the wavelength of a data signal are considered more energy- and cost-effective than current wavelength conversion schemes that rely on back and forth switching between the electrical and optical domains. However, the lack of cost-effective materials with sufficiently adequate optoelectronic properties hampers the development of this so-called all-optical wavelength conversion. Here, we show that the interplay between intraband and band gap absorption in colloidal quantum dots leads to a very strong and ultrafast modulation of the light absorption after photoexcitation in which slow components linked to exciton recombination are eliminated. This approach enables all-optical wavelength conversion at rates matching state-of-the-art convertors in speed, yet with cost-effective solution-processable materials. Moreover, the stronger light-matter interaction allows for implementation in small-footprint devices with low switching energies. Being a generic property, the demonstrated effect opens a pathway toward low-power integrated photonics based on colloidal quantum dots as the enabling material.

  14. Development of a pico-second life-time spectrometer for positron annihilation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujari, P.K.; Datta, T.; Tomar, B.S.; Das, S.K.

    1992-01-01

    Positron annihilation technique is a sensitive probe to investigate various physico-chemical phenomena due to the ability to provide information about the electron momentum and density in any medium. While measurements on the Doppler broadening and angular correlation of annihilation photons provide information about the electron momentum, the electron density at the annihilation site is obtained, by the positron life-time measurement. This report describes the development, optimization and calibration of a high resolution life-time spectrometer (FWHM=230 ps), based on fast-fast coincidence technique, a relatively new concept in nuclear timing spectroscopy. (author). 4 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  15. Picosecond dissociation of amyloid fibrils with infrared laser: A nonequilibrium simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang Viet, Man; Roland, Christopher, E-mail: cmroland@ncsu.edu; Sagui, Celeste, E-mail: sagui@ncsu.edu [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-8202 (United States); Derreumaux, Philippe; Nguyen, Phuong H., E-mail: phuong.nguyen@ibpc.fr [Laboratoire de Biochimie Théorique, UPR 9080, CNRS Université Denis Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité IBPC, 13 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Li, Mai Suan [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Institute for Computational Science and Technology, SBI Building, Quang Trung Software City, Tan Chanh Hiep Ward, District 12, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2015-10-21

    Recently, mid-infrared free-electron laser technology has been developed to dissociate amyloid fibrils. Here, we present a theoretical framework for this type of experiment based on laser-induced nonequilibrium all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. We show that the fibril is destroyed due to the strong resonance between its amide I vibrational modes and the laser field. The effects of laser irradiation are determined by a balance between fibril formation and dissociation. While the overall rearrangements of the fibril finish over short time scales, the interaction between the peptides and the solvent continues over much longer times indicating that the waters play an important role in the dissociation process. Our results thus provide new insights into amyloid fibril dissociation by laser techniques and open up new venues to investigate the complex phenomena associated with amyloidogenesis.

  16. Photoemission microscopy study of picosecond magnetodynamics in spin-valve-type thin film elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, C.M.; Kaiser, A.; Wiemann, C.; Tieg, C.; Cramm, S.

    2010-01-01

    Exploring ultimate time scales of magnetic switching processes is an important issue in spin electronics. In spin valves or magnetic tunnelling junctions magnetic anisotropies and coupling phenomena alter the magnetodynamic response of the entire system. Understanding the role of these interactions is a key to the design of optimized devices. We have employed time-resolved X-ray photoemission microscopy to address the magnetodynamics in spin-valve-type model systems in the ns- and ps-regime. In Co/Cr/Fe(0 0 1) single crystal elements we find a strong influence of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy, which tends to suppress rotation processes. In addition, we observe a dynamic 'decoupling' of the layers. In low-anisotropy FeNi/Cr/FeCo trilayers, the interlayer coupling character determines the dynamic response. Particularly, rotational processes in the FeNi and FeCo layers are temporarily shifted to each other, which can be related to different coercivities of the individual layers. By contrast, the domain wall motion in both layers closely agrees, caused by an enhanced coupling due to the domain wall stray fields. Our examples demonstrate that the detailed magnetodynamics in coupled magnetic layers is quite complex and depends strongly on the timescale under consideration.

  17. Experimental installation for excitation of semiconductors and dielectrics by picosecond pulsed electron beam and electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasibov, A.S.; Berezhnoj, K.V.; Shapkin, P.V.; Reutova, A.G.; Shunajlov, S.A.; Yalandin, M.I.

    2009-01-01

    The experimental facility for shaping high-voltage pulses with amplitudes of 30-250 kV and durations of 100-500 ps and electron beams with a current density of up to 1000 A/cm -2 is described. The facility was built using the principle of energy compression of a pulse from a nanosecond high-voltage generator accompanied by the subsequent pulse sharpening and cutting. The setup is equipped with two test coaxial chambers for radiation excitation in semiconductor crystals by an electron beam or an electric field in air at atmospheric pressure and T = 300 K. Generation of laser radiation in the visible range under field and electron pumping was attained in ZnSSe, ZnSe, ZnCdS, and CdS (462, 480, 515, and 525 nm, respectively). Under the exposure to an electric field (up to 10 6 V x cm -1 ), the laser generation region is as large as 300-500 μm. The radiation divergence was within 5 Deg C. The maximum integral radiation power (6 kW at λ = 480 nm) was obtained under field pumping of a zinc selenide sample with a single dielectric mirror [ru

  18. A high-throughput, multi-channel photon-counting detector with picosecond timing

    CERN Document Server

    Lapington, J S; Miller, G M; Ashton, T J R; Jarron, P; Despeisse, M; Powolny, F; Howorth, J; Milnes, J

    2009-01-01

    High-throughput photon counting with high time resolution is a niche application area where vacuum tubes can still outperform solid-state devices. Applications in the life sciences utilizing time-resolved spectroscopies, particularly in the growing field of proteomics, will benefit greatly from performance enhancements in event timing and detector throughput. The HiContent project is a collaboration between the University of Leicester Space Research Centre, the Microelectronics Group at CERN, Photek Ltd., and end-users at the Gray Cancer Institute and the University of Manchester. The goal is to develop a detector system specifically designed for optical proteomics, capable of high content (multi-parametric) analysis at high throughput. The HiContent detector system is being developed to exploit this niche market. It combines multi-channel, high time resolution photon counting in a single miniaturized detector system with integrated electronics. The combination of enabling technologies; small pore microchanne...

  19. High impact ionization rate in silicon by sub-picosecond THz electric field pulses (Conference Presentation)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarekegne, Abebe Tilahun; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Hirori, Hideki

    2017-01-01

    Summary form only given. Metallic antenna arrays fabricated on high resistivity silicon are used to localize and enhance the incident THz field resulting in high electric field pulses with peak electric field strength reaching several MV/cm on the silicon surface near the antenna tips. In such high...... electric field strengths high density of carriers are generated in silicon through impact ionization process. The high density of generated carriers induces a change of refractive index in silicon. By measuring the change of reflectivity of tightly focused 800 nm light, the local density of free carriers...... near the antenna tips is measured. Using the NIR probing technique, we observed that the density of carriers increases by over 8 orders of magnitude in a time duration of approximately 500 fs with an incident THz pulse of peak electric field strength 700 kV/cm. This shows that a single impact...

  20. Ejection Regimes in Picosecond Laser-Induced Forward Transfer of Metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pohl, Ralph; Visser, C.W.; Römer, Gerardus Richardus, Bernardus, Engelina; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao; Huis in 't Veld, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) is a 3D direct-write method suitable for precision printing of various materials, including pure metals. To understand the ejection mechanism and thereby improve deposition, here we present visualizations of ejection events at high-spatial (submicrometer) and