WorldWideScience

Sample records for single-particle wave function

  1. Antisymmetrized four-body wave function and coexistence of single particle and cluster structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasakawa, T.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that each Yakubovski component of the totally antisymmetric four-body wave function satisfies the same equation as the unantisymmetric wave function. In the antisymmetric total wave function, the wave functions belonging to the same kind of partition are totally antisymmetric among themselves. This leads to the coexistence of cluster models, including the single particle model as a special case of the cluster model, as a sum

  2. Effect of single-particle splitting in the exact wave function of the isovectorial pairing Hamiltonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerma H, S.

    2010-01-01

    The structure of the exact wave function of the isovectorial pairing Hamiltonian with nondegenerate single-particle levels is discussed. The way that the single-particle splittings break the quartet condensate solution found for N=Z nuclei in a single degenerate level is established. After a brief review of the exact solution, the structure of the wave function is analyzed and some particular cases are considered where a clear interpretation of the wave function emerges. An expression for the exact wave function in terms of the isospin triplet of pair creators is given. The ground-state wave function is analyzed as a function of pairing strength, for a system of four protons and four neutrons. For small and large values of the pairing strength a dominance of two-pair (quartets) scalar couplings is found, whereas for intermediate values enhancements of the nonscalar couplings are obtained. A correlation of these enhancements with the creation of Cooper-like pairs is observed.

  3. Single-particle properties from Kohn-Sham Green's functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Anirban; Furnstahl, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    An effective action approach to Kohn-Sham density functional theory is used to illustrate how the exact Green's function can be calculated in terms of the Kohn-Sham Green's function. An example based on Skyrme energy functionals shows that single-particle Kohn-Sham spectra can be improved by adding sources used to construct the energy functional

  4. Fragmentation of single-particle states and neutron strength functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloviev, V.G.

    1975-01-01

    Fragmentation of one-particle states in odd deformed nuclei is studied in the framework of a model based on the interaction between quasiparticles and phonons. A principally new semi-microscopic method for calculation of force functions using the data on fragmentation of one-particle states is suggested. Calculated s- and p-wave neutron force functions in 239 U and 169 Er are in good agreement with experiment. The correct description of the s-wave neutron force function in the vicinity of is obtained in particular for Sn isotopes/ of its minimum is obtained in particular for Sn isotopes

  5. Single-particle energies and density of states in density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aggelen, H.; Chan, G. K.-L.

    2015-07-01

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) is commonly used as the foundation to obtain neutral excited states and transition weights in DFT, but does not allow direct access to density of states and single-particle energies, i.e. ionisation energies and electron affinities. Here we show that by extending TD-DFT to a superfluid formulation, which involves operators that break particle-number symmetry, we can obtain the density of states and single-particle energies from the poles of an appropriate superfluid response function. The standard Kohn- Sham eigenvalues emerge as the adiabatic limit of the superfluid response under the assumption that the exchange- correlation functional has no dependence on the superfluid density. The Kohn- Sham eigenvalues can thus be interpreted as approximations to the ionisation energies and electron affinities. Beyond this approximation, the formalism provides an incentive for creating a new class of density functionals specifically targeted at accurate single-particle eigenvalues and bandgaps.

  6. Single-particle Glauber matrix elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oset, E.; Strottman, D.

    1983-01-01

    The single-particle matrix elements of the Glauber profile function are tabulated for harmonic oscillator single-particle wave functions. The tables are presented in such a manner as to be applicable if the hadron--nucleon elementary scattering amplitude is specified by either a partial wave expansion or a Gaussian in momentum transfer squared. The table is complete through the 1 g/sub 9/2/ orbital and contains entries for the 3s/sub 1/2/ orbital for use if realistic wave functions are expanded in terms of harmonic oscillator functions

  7. Calculation of anomalous dimension of single-particle Green function in scalar field theory with strong nonlinear interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolesnichenko, A.V.

    1980-01-01

    An expression for the anomalous dimension of the single-particle Green function is derived in the scalar theory with the interaction Hamiltonian Hsub(int)=g(phisup(n)/n) in the limit n→infinity. It is simultaneously shown that in this model the range of essential distances is of order of nsup(-1/2)

  8. Decomposition of Atmospheric Aerosol Phase Function by Particle Size and Morphology via Single Particle Scattering Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aptowicz, K. B.; Pan, Y.; Martin, S.; Fernandez, E.; Chang, R.; Pinnick, R. G.

    2013-12-01

    We report upon an experimental approach that provides insight into how particle size and shape affect the scattering phase function of atmospheric aerosol particles. Central to our approach is the design of an apparatus that measures the forward and backward scattering hemispheres (scattering patterns) of individual atmospheric aerosol particles in the coarse mode range. The size and shape of each particle is discerned from the corresponding scattering pattern. In particular, autocorrelation analysis is used to differentiate between spherical and non-spherical particles, the calculated asphericity factor is used to characterize the morphology of non-spherical particles, and the integrated irradiance is used for particle sizing. We found the fraction of spherical particles decays exponentially with particle size, decreasing from 11% for particles on the order of 1 micrometer to less than 1% for particles over 5 micrometer. The average phase functions of subpopulations of particles, grouped by size and morphology, are determined by averaging their corresponding scattering patterns. The phase functions of spherical and non-spherical atmospheric particles are shown to diverge with increasing size. In addition, the phase function of non-spherical particles is found to vary little as a function of the asphericity factor.

  9. Projected interaction picture of field operators and memory superoperators. A master equation for the single-particle Green's function in a Liouville space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinberg, H.

    1983-11-01

    The projection operator method of Zwanzig and Feshbach is used to construct the time-dependent field operators in the interaction picture. The formula developed to describe the time dependence involves time-ordered cosine and sine projected evolution (memory) superoperators, from which a master equation for the interaction-picture single-particle Green's function in a Liouville space is derived. (author)

  10. The Single Particle Theory of Backward-Wave Amplifications Based on Electron Cyclotron Maser with a Rectilinear Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Lina; Wang Hongyu; Sun Peng

    2014-01-01

    The theory of slow backward-wave amplifications is developed based on electron cyclotron maser (ECM) mechanism employing an initially rectilinear beam. A nonlinear evolution equation is derived to describe the electron energy. Numerical calculations show that the saturated interaction efficiency in this system may exceed 20%, and the saturated interaction length spans 3–6 centimeters. The distinctive interaction mechanism is promising for the design of compact backward microwave amplification devices. Numerical studies are also presented for the slow-wave ECM efficiency with inclusion of Gaussian beam electron velocity spread. It is shown that the velocity spread reduces the interaction efficiency. (basic plasma phenomena)

  11. Single particle dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemens, P.J.; Jensen, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the opening of the 3-quasiparticle continuum at 3Δ sets the energy scale for the enhancement of the effective mass near the Fermi surface of nuclei. The authors argue that the spreading width of single-particle states due to coupling with low-lying collective modes is qualitatively different from the two-body collision mechanism, and contributes little to the single-particle lifetime in the sense of the optical model. (orig.)

  12. A pair density functional theory utilizing the correlated wave function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, M; Higuchi, K

    2009-01-01

    We propose a practical scheme for calculating the ground-state pair density (PD) by utilizing the correlated wave function. As the correlated wave function, we adopt a linear combination of the single Slater determinants that are constructed from the solutions of the initial scheme [Higuchi M and Higuchi K 2007 Physica B 387, 117]. The single-particle equation is derived by performing the variational principle within the set of PDs that are constructed from such correlated wave functions. Since the search region of the PD is substantially extended as compared with the initial scheme, it is expected that the present scheme can cover more correlation effects. The single-particle equation is practical, and may be easily applied to actual calculations.

  13. Wave-function functionals for the density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slamet, Marlina; Pan Xiaoyin; Sahni, Viraht

    2011-01-01

    We extend the idea of the constrained-search variational method for the construction of wave-function functionals ψ[χ] of functions χ. The search is constrained to those functions χ such that ψ[χ] reproduces the density ρ(r) while simultaneously leading to an upper bound to the energy. The functionals are thereby normalized and automatically satisfy the electron-nucleus coalescence condition. The functionals ψ[χ] are also constructed to satisfy the electron-electron coalescence condition. The method is applied to the ground state of the helium atom to construct functionals ψ[χ] that reproduce the density as given by the Kinoshita correlated wave function. The expectation of single-particle operators W=Σ i r i n , n=-2,-1,1,2, W=Σ i δ(r i ) are exact, as must be the case. The expectations of the kinetic energy operator W=-(1/2)Σ i ∇ i 2 , the two-particle operators W=Σ n u n , n=-2,-1,1,2, where u=|r i -r j |, and the energy are accurate. We note that the construction of such functionals ψ[χ] is an application of the Levy-Lieb constrained-search definition of density functional theory. It is thereby possible to rigorously determine which functional ψ[χ] is closer to the true wave function.

  14. Hierarchical wave functions revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dingping.

    1997-11-01

    We study the hierarchical wave functions on a sphere and on a torus. We simplify some wave functions on a sphere or a torus using the analytic properties of wave functions. The open question, the construction of the wave function for quasi electron excitation on a torus, is also solved in this paper. (author)

  15. Photon wave function

    OpenAIRE

    Bialynicki-Birula, Iwo

    2005-01-01

    Photon wave function is a controversial concept. Controversies stem from the fact that photon wave functions can not have all the properties of the Schroedinger wave functions of nonrelativistic wave mechanics. Insistence on those properties that, owing to peculiarities of photon dynamics, cannot be rendered, led some physicists to the extreme opinion that the photon wave function does not exist. I reject such a fundamentalist point of view in favor of a more pragmatic approach. In my view, t...

  16. Taylor-series method for four-nucleon wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandulescu, A.; Tarnoveanu, I.; Rizea, M.

    1977-09-01

    Taylor-series method for transforming the infinite or finite well two-nucleon wave functions from individual coordinates to relative and c.m. coordinates, by expanding the single particle shell model wave functions around c.m. of the system, is generalized to four-nucleon wave functions. Also the connections with the Talmi-Moshinsky method for two and four harmonic oscillator wave functions are deduced. For both methods Fortran IV programs for the expansion coefficients have been written and the equivalence of corresponding expressions numerically proved. (author)

  17. To the evaluation of single-particle strengths of states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochirbat, G.

    1976-01-01

    Method of Green's function has been applied to calculating the distribution of single-particle states over actual nuclear levels. Chain of equations for these functions has been obtained in a model of interacting phonons and quasiparticles. It has been noticed that cutting the chain of equations by means of neglecting the higher order Green function corresponds to neglecting the higher order components of the wave function in variational methods. The one- and two-phonon approximations are discussed and the convenience of the Green function method for this case is demonstrated

  18. Single-particle dispersion in compressible turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingqing; Xiao, Zuoli

    2018-04-01

    Single-particle dispersion statistics in compressible box turbulence are studied using direct numerical simulation. Focus is placed on the detailed discussion of effects of the particle Stokes number and turbulent Mach number, as well as the forcing type. When solenoidal forcing is adopted, it is found that the single-particle dispersion undergoes a transition from the ballistic regime at short times to the diffusive regime at long times, in agreement with Taylor's particle dispersion argument. The strongest dispersion of heavy particles is announced when the Stokes number is of order 1, which is similar to the scenario in incompressible turbulence. The dispersion tends to be suppressed as the Mach number increases. When hybrid solenoidal and compressive forcing at a ratio of 1/2 is employed, the flow field shows apparent anisotropic property, characterized by the appearance of large shock wave structures. Accordingly, the single-particle dispersion shows extremely different behavior from the solenoidal forcing case.

  19. Single particle level scheme for alpha decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirea, M.

    1998-01-01

    The fine structure phenomenon in alpha decay was evidenced by Rosenblum. In this process the kinetic energy of the emitted particle has several determined values related to the structure of the parent and the daughter nucleus. The probability to find the daughter in a low lying state was considered strongly dependent on the spectroscopic factor defined as the square of overlap between the wave function of the parent in the ground state and the wave functions of the specific excited states of the daughter. This treatment provides a qualitative agreement with the experimental results if the variations of the penetrability between different excited states are neglected. Based on single particle structure during fission, a new formalism explained quantitatively the fine structure of the cluster decay. It was suggested that this formalism can be applied also to alpha decay. For this purpose, the first step is to construct the level scheme of this type of decay. Such a scheme, obtained with the super-asymmetric two-center potential, is plotted for the alpha decay of 223 Ra. It is interesting to note that, diabatically, the level with spin 3/2 emerging from 1i 11/2 (ground state of the parent) reaches an excited state of the daughter in agreement with the experiment. (author)

  20. A single particle energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodmer, A.R. [Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Usmani, Q.N.; Sami, M. [Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Physics

    1993-09-01

    We consider the binding energies of {Lambda} hypernuclei (HN), in particular the single-particle (s.p.) energy data, which have been obtained for a wide range of HN with mass numbers A {le} 89 and for orbital angular momenta {ell}{sub {Lambda}} {le} 4. We briefly review some of the relevant properties of A hypernuclei. These are nuclei {sub {Lambda}}{sup A}Z with baryon number A in which a single {Lambda} hyperon (baryon number = 1) is bound to an ordinary nucleus {sup A}Z consisting of A - 1 nucleons = Z protons + N neutrons. The {Lambda} hyperon is neutral, has spin 1/2, strangeness S = {minus}1, isospin I = O and a mass M{sub {Lambda}} = 1116 MeV/c{sup 2}. Although the {Lambda} interacts with a nucleon, its interaction is only about half as strong as that between two nucleons, and thus very roughly V{sub {Lambda}N} {approx} 0.5 V{sub NN}. As a result, the two-body {Lambda}N system is unbound, and the lightest bound HN is the three-body hypertriton {sub {Lambda}}{sup 3}H in which the {Lambda} is bound to a deuteron with the {Lambda}-d separation energy being only {approx} 0.1 MeV corresponding to an exponential tail of radius {approx} 15 fm! In strong interactions the strangeness S is of course conserved, and the {Lambda} is distinct from the nucleons. In a HN strangeness changes only in the weak decays of the {Lambda} which can decay either via ``free`` pionic decay {Lambda} {yields} N + {pi} or via induced decay {Lambda} + N {yields} N + N which is only possible in the presence of nucleons. Because of the small energy release the pionic decay is strongly suppressed in all but the lightest HN and the induced decay dominates. However, the weak decay lifetime {approx} 10{sup {minus}10}s is in fact close to the lifetime of a free {Lambda}. Since this is much longer than the strong interaction time {approx} 10{sup {minus}22}s we can ignore the weak interactions when considering the binding of HN, just as for ordinary nuclei.

  1. A single particle energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodmer, A.R.; Usmani, Q.N.; Sami, M.

    1993-01-01

    We consider the binding energies of Λ hypernuclei (HN), in particular the single-particle (s.p.) energy data, which have been obtained for a wide range of HN with mass numbers A ≤ 89 and for orbital angular momenta ell Λ ≤ 4. We briefly review some of the relevant properties of A hypernuclei. These are nuclei Λ A Z with baryon number A in which a single Λ hyperon (baryon number = 1) is bound to an ordinary nucleus A Z consisting of A - 1 nucleons = Z protons + N neutrons. The Λ hyperon is neutral, has spin 1/2, strangeness S = -1, isospin I = O and a mass M Λ = 1116 MeV/c 2 . Although the Λ interacts with a nucleon, its interaction is only about half as strong as that between two nucleons, and thus very roughly V ΛN ∼ 0.5 V NN . As a result, the two-body ΛN system is unbound, and the lightest bound HN is the three-body hypertriton Λ 3 H in which the Λ is bound to a deuteron with the Λ-d separation energy being only ∼ 0.1 MeV corresponding to an exponential tail of radius ∼ 15 fm exclamation point In strong interactions the strangeness S is of course conserved, and the Λ is distinct from the nucleons. In a HN strangeness changes only in the weak decays of the Λ which can decay either via ''free'' pionic decay Λ → N + π or via induced decay Λ + N → N + N which is only possible in the presence of nucleons. Because of the small energy release the pionic decay is strongly suppressed in all but the lightest HN and the induced decay dominates. However, the weak decay lifetime ∼ 10 -10 s is in fact close to the lifetime of a free Λ. Since this is much longer than the strong interaction time ∼ 10 -22 s we can ignore the weak interactions when considering the binding of HN, just as for ordinary nuclei

  2. Single particle detecting telescope system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, I.; Tomiyama, T.; Iga, Y.; Komatsubara, T.; Kanada, M.; Yamashita, Y.; Wada, T.; Furukawa, S.

    1981-01-01

    We constructed the single particle detecting telescope system for detecting a fractionally charged particle. The telescope consists of position detecting counters, wall-less multi-cell chambers, single detecting circuits and microcomputer system as data I/0 processor. Especially, a frequency of double particle is compared the case of the single particle detecting with the case of an ordinary measurement

  3. Modeling intraparticle transports during propylene polymerizations using supported metallocene and dual function metallocene as catalysts: Single particle model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hua-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two improved multigrain models (MGMs for preparing homopolypropylene and long chain branched polypropylene via propylene polymerization using silica-supported metallocene or dual function metallocene as catalysts are presented in this paper. The presented models are used to predict the intraparticle flow fields involved in the polymerizations. The simulation results show that the flow field distributions involve dare basically identical. The results also show that both the two polymerization processes have an initiation stage and the controlling step for them is reaction-diffusion-reaction with the polymerization proceeding. Furthermore, the simulation results show that the intra particle mass transfer resistance has significant effect on the polymerization but the heat transfer resistance can be ignored.

  4. Dual color single particle tracking via nanobodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, David; Winterflood, Christian M; Ewers, Helge

    2015-01-01

    Single particle tracking is a powerful tool to investigate the function of biological molecules by following their motion in space. However, the simultaneous tracking of two different species of molecules is still difficult to realize without compromising the length or density of trajectories, the localization accuracy or the simplicity of the assay. Here, we demonstrate a simple dual color single particle tracking assay using small, bright, high-affinity labeling via nanobodies of accessible targets with widely available instrumentation. We furthermore apply a ratiometric step-size analysis method to visualize differences in apparent membrane viscosity. (paper)

  5. Real stabilization method for nuclear single-particle resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Zhou Shangui; Meng Jie; Zhao Enguang

    2008-01-01

    We develop the real stabilization method within the framework of the relativistic mean-field (RMF) model. With the self-consistent nuclear potentials from the RMF model, the real stabilization method is used to study single-particle resonant states in spherical nuclei. As examples, the energies, widths, and wave functions of low-lying neutron resonant states in 120 Sn are obtained. These results are compared with those from the scattering phase-shift method and the analytic continuation in the coupling constant approach and satisfactory agreements are found

  6. Micrononcasual Euclidean wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enatsu, H.; Takenaka, A.; Okazaki, M.

    1978-01-01

    A theory which describes the internal attributes of hadrons in terms of space-time wave functions is presented. In order to develop the theory on the basis of a rather realistic model, covariant wave equations are first derived for the deuteron, in which the co-ordinates of the centre of mass of two nucleons can be defined unambiguously. Then the micro-noncasual behaviour of virtual mesons mediating between the two nucleons is expressed by means of wave functions depending only on the relative Euclidean co-ordinates with respect to the centre of mass of the two nucleons; the wave functions are assumed to obey the 0 4 and SU 2 x SU 2 groups. The properties of the wave functions under space inversion, time reversal and particle-antiparticle conjugation are investigated. It is found that the internal attributes of the mesons, such as spin, isospin, strangeness, intrinsic parity, charge parity and G-parity are explained consistently. The theory is applicable also to the case of baryons

  7. Single particle distributions, ch.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokzijl, R.

    1977-01-01

    A survey of inclusive single particle distributions is given for various particles. A comparison of particle cross-sections measured in K - p experiments at different center of mass energies shows that some of these cross-sections remain almost constant over a wide range of incoming K - momenta

  8. Semiclassical multicomponent wave function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostovoy, M.V.

    A consistent method for obtaining the semiclassical multicomponent wave function for any value of adiabatic parameter is discussed and illustrated by examining the motion of a neutral particle in a nonuniform magnetic field. The method generalizes the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization rule to

  9. Statistical wave function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    Statistical considerations are applied to quantum mechanical amplitudes. The physical motivation is the progress in the spectroscopy of highly excited states. The corresponding wave functions are strongly mixed. In terms of a basis set of eigenfunctions of a zeroth-order Hamiltonian with good quantum numbers, such wave functions have contributions from many basis states. The vector x is considered whose components are the expansion coefficients in that basis. Any amplitude can be written as a dagger x x. It is argued that the components of x and hence other amplitudes can be regarded as random variables. The maximum entropy formalism is applied to determine the corresponding distribution function. Two amplitudes a dagger x x and b dagger x x are independently distributed if b dagger x a = 0. It is suggested that the theory of quantal measurements implies that, in general, one can one determine the distribution of amplitudes and not the amplitudes themselves

  10. Expansions for Coulomb wave functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, J.

    1969-01-01

    In this paper we derive a number of expansions for Whittaker functions, regular and irregular Coulomb wave functions. The main result consists of a new expansion for the irregular Coulomb wave functions of orders zero and one in terms of regular Coulomb wave functions. The latter expansions are

  11. Single Particle Entropy in Heated Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guttormsen, M.; Chankova, R.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Rekstad, J.; Siem, S.; Sunde, A. C.; Syed, N. U. H.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Schiller, A.; Voinov, A.

    2006-01-01

    The thermal motion of single particles represents the largest contribution to level density (or entropy) in atomic nuclei. The concept of single particle entropy is presented and shown to be an approximate extensive (additive) quantity for mid-shell nuclei. A few applications of single particle entropy are demonstrated

  12. Properties of resonance wave functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, R. M.; Gerjuoy, E.

    1973-01-01

    Construction and study of resonance wave functions corresponding to poles of the Green's function for several illustrative models of theoretical interest. Resonance wave functions obtained from the Siegert and Kapur-Peierls definitions of the resonance energies are compared. The comparison especially clarifies the meaning of the normalization constant of the resonance wave functions. It is shown that the wave functions may be considered renormalized in a sense analogous to that of quantum field theory. However, this renormalization is entirely automatic, and the theory has neither ad hoc procedures nor infinite quantities.

  13. Wigner functions of s waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, J. P.; Varro, S.; Wolf, A.; Schleich, W. P.

    2007-01-01

    We derive explicit expressions for the Wigner function of wave functions in D dimensions which depend on the hyperradius--that is, of s waves. They are based either on the position or the momentum representation of the s wave. The corresponding Wigner function depends on three variables: the absolute value of the D-dimensional position and momentum vectors and the angle between them. We illustrate these expressions by calculating and discussing the Wigner functions of an elementary s wave and the energy eigenfunction of a free particle

  14. Wigner functions of s waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jens Peder; Varro, S.; Wolf, A.

    2007-01-01

    We derive explicit expressions for the Wigner function of wave functions in D dimensions which depend on the hyperradius-that is, of s waves. They are based either on the position or the momentum representation of the s wave. The corresponding Wigner function depends on three variables......: the absolute value of the D-dimensional position and momentum vectors and the angle between them. We illustrate these expressions by calculating and discussing the Wigner functions of an elementary s wave and the energy eigenfunction of a free particle....

  15. Photoelectron wave function in photoionization: plane wave or Coulomb wave?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozem, Samer; Gunina, Anastasia O; Ichino, Takatoshi; Osborn, David L; Stanton, John F; Krylov, Anna I

    2015-11-19

    The calculation of absolute total cross sections requires accurate wave functions of the photoelectron and of the initial and final states of the system. The essential information contained in the latter two can be condensed into a Dyson orbital. We employ correlated Dyson orbitals and test approximate treatments of the photoelectron wave function, that is, plane and Coulomb waves, by comparing computed and experimental photoionization and photodetachment spectra. We find that in anions, a plane wave treatment of the photoelectron provides a good description of photodetachment spectra. For photoionization of neutral atoms or molecules with one heavy atom, the photoelectron wave function must be treated as a Coulomb wave to account for the interaction of the photoelectron with the +1 charge of the ionized core. For larger molecules, the best agreement with experiment is often achieved by using a Coulomb wave with a partial (effective) charge smaller than unity. This likely derives from the fact that the effective charge at the centroid of the Dyson orbital, which serves as the origin of the spherical wave expansion, is smaller than the total charge of a polyatomic cation. The results suggest that accurate molecular photoionization cross sections can be computed with a modified central potential model that accounts for the nonspherical charge distribution of the core by adjusting the charge in the center of the expansion.

  16. Consequences of wave function orthogonality for medium energy nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, J.V.

    1978-01-01

    In the usual models of high-energy bound-state to continuum transitions no account is taken of the orthogonality of the bound and continuum wave functions. This orthogonality induces considerable cancellations in the overlap integrals expressing the transition amplitudes for reactions such as (e,e'p), (γ,p), and (π,N), which are simply not included in the distorted-wave Born-approximation calculations which to date remain the only computationally feasible heirarchy of approximations. The object of this paper is to present a new formulation of the bound-state to continuum transition problem, based upon flux conservation, in which the orthogonality of wave functions is taken into account ab initio. The new formulation, while exact if exact wave functions are used, offers the possibility of using approximate wave functions for the continuum states without doing violence to the cancellations induced by orthogonality. The method is applied to single-particle states obeying the Schroedinger and Dirac equations, as well as to a coupled-channel model in which absorptive processes can be described in a fully consistent manner. Several types of absorption vertex are considered, and in the (π,N) case the equivalence of pseudoscalar and pseudovector πNN coupling is seen to follow directly from wave function orthogonality

  17. Bohmian Conditional Wave Functions (and the status of the quantum state)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norsen, Travis

    2016-01-01

    The de Broglie - Bohm pilot-wave theory - uniquely among realistic candidate quantum theories - allows a straightforward and simple definition of the wave function of a subsystem of some larger system (such as the entire universe). Such sub-system wave functions are called “Conditional Wave Functions” (CWFs). Here we explain this concept and indicate the CWF's role in the Bohmian explanation of the usual quantum formalism, and then develop (and motivate) the more speculative idea that something like single-particle wave functions could replace the (ontologically problematical) universal wave function in some future, empirically adequate, pilot-wave-type theory. Throughout the presentation is pedagogical and points are illustrated with simple toy models. (paper)

  18. Angular momentum projection of cranked PNC wave function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yong

    2000-01-01

    In studying the properties of nuclear higher-spin states, not only the K-mixture needed to be taken into account, but also the Coriolis interaction (the cranking term) should be introduced. The cranking term breaks the time reversal symmetry, and the projection of the single-particle angular momentum on the intrinsic symmetric axis is no longer a good quantum number. This makes the theoretical calculation somewhat complicated. However, considering some intrinsic symmetry in a nucleus, it is not very difficult to apply the angular momentum projection technique to the PNC wave functions including the cranking components (the cranked PNC wave functions). The fundamental expressions for calculating the nuclear energy spectra and the electromagnetic properties are deduced and evaluated in theory, consequently the feasibility of actualizing the present scheme is made clear

  19. Neutron densities and the single particle structure of several even-even nuclei from 40Ca to 208Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, L.; Hodgson, P.E.

    1979-01-01

    Previously developed techniques which sum the squares of proton single particle wave functions to obtain nuclear charge densities are applied to the study of neutron distributions in /sup 40,48/Ca, /sup 58,64/Ni, /sup 116,124/Sn, and 208 Pb by comparing to those neutron densities deduced from 800 MeV proton elastic scattering data. The proton and neutron single particle wave functions are derived from a one-body, nonlocal Woods-Saxon binding potential whose parameters are adjusted to give the experimental single particle energies. Empirical spectroscopic factors determine the appropriate occupation probabilities for the single particle levels near the Fermi surface. Proper attention is given to nonorthogonality problems and to the removal of the spurious center-of-mass motion. These semiphenomenological neutron densities are compared to the predictions of the density matrix expansion variant of Hartree-Fock theory and to densities which are empirically deduced from recent 800 MeV polarized proton elastic scattering data. These ''experimental'' neutron distributions are obtained from approximate second order Kerman, McManus, and Thaler optical potential analyses using essentially ''model independent'' neutron densities. Qualitatively good agreement is obtained between the semiphenomenological neutron densities computed here, the density matrix expansion predictions, and the empirical results

  20. Single-particle density matrix of liquid 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakarchuk, I.A.

    2008-01-01

    The density single-particle matrix in the coordinate notation was calculated based on the expression for the interacting Bose-particle N system density matrix. Under the low temperatures the mentioned matrix in the first approximation enables to reproduce the Bogoliubov theory results. In the classical terms the mentioned theory enables to reproduce the results of the theory of the classical fluids in the approximation of the chaotic phases. On the basis of the density single-particle matrix one managed to obtain the function of the pulse distribution of the particles, the Bose-liquid average kinetic energy, and to study the Bose-Einstein condensation phenomenon [ru

  1. Single-particle spectral density of the Hubbard model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehlig, B.; Eskes, H.; Hayn, R.; Meinders, M.B.J.

    1995-01-01

    We calculate the single-particle spectral function for the Hubbard model within the framework of a projection technique equivalent to the two-pole approximation. We show that the two-pole approximation can be well understood as an average characterization of the upper and the lower Hubbard bands,

  2. SINGLE-PARTICLE SPECTRAL DENSITY OF THE HUBBARD-MODEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MEHLIG, B; ESKES, H; HAYN, R; MEINDERS, MBJ

    1995-01-01

    We calculate the single-particle spectral function for the Hubbard model within the framework of a projection technique equivalent to the two-pole approximation. We show that the two-pole approximation can be well understood as an average characterization of the upper and the lower Hubbard bands,

  3. Single particle dynamics in circular accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruth, R.D.

    1986-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the reader to the theory associated with the transverse dynamics of single particle, in circular accelerators. The discussion begins with a review of Hamiltonian dynamics and canonical transformations. The case of a single particle in a circular accelerator is considered with a discussion of non-linear terms and chromaticity. The canonical perturbation theory is presented and nonlinear resonances are considered. Finally, the concept of renormalization and residue criterion are examined. (FI)

  4. Relativistic bound state wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micu, L.

    2005-01-01

    A particular method of writing the bound state wave functions in relativistic form is applied to the solutions of the Dirac equation with confining potentials in order to obtain a relativistic description of a quark antiquark bound system representing a given meson. Concerning the role of the effective constituent in the present approach we first observe that without this additional constituent we couldn't expand the bound state wave function in terms of products of free states. Indeed, we notice that if the wave function depends on the relative coordinates only, all the expansion coefficients would be infinite. Secondly we remark that the effective constituent enabled us to give a Lorentz covariant meaning to the potential energy of the bound system which is now seen as the 4th component of a 4-momentum. On the other side, by relating the effective constituent to the quantum fluctuations of the background field which generate the binding, we provided a justification for the existence of some spatial degrees of freedom accompanying the interaction potential. These ones, which are quite unusual in quantum mechanics, in our model are the natural consequence of the the independence of the quarks and can be seen as the effect of the imperfect cancellation of the vector momenta during the quantum fluctuations. Related with all these we remark that the adequate representation for the relativistic description of a bound system is the momentum representation, because of the transparent and easy way of writing the conservation laws and the transformation properties of the wave functions. The only condition to be fulfilled is to find a suitable way to take into account the potential energy of the bound system. A particular feature of the present approach is that the confining forces are due to a kind of glue where both quarks are embedded. This recalls other bound state models where the wave function is factorized in terms of constituent wave functions and the confinement is

  5. Projection operator treatment of single particle resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lev, A.; Beres, W.P.

    1976-01-01

    A projection operator method is used to obtain the energy and width of a single particle resonance. The resonance energy is found without scanning. An example of the first g/sub 9/2/ neutron resonance in 40 Ca is given and compared with the traditional phase shift method. The results of both approaches are quite similar. 4 figures

  6. Model wave functions for the deuteron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certov, A.; Mathelitsch, L.; Moravcsik, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Model wave functions are constructed for the deuteron to facilitate the unambiguous exploration of dependencies on the percentage D state and on the small-, medium-, and large-distance parts of the deuteron wave function. The wave functions are constrained by those deuteron properties which are accurately known experimentally, and are in an analytic form which is easily integrable in expressions usually encountered in the use of such wave functions

  7. Fragmentation of single-particle states in deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malov, L.A.; Soloviev, V.G.

    1975-01-01

    Fragmentation of single-particle states on levels of deformed nuclei is studied on the example of 239 U and 169 Er nuclei in the framework of the model taking into consideration the interaction of quasiparticles with phonons. The dependence of fragmentation on the Fermi surface is considered from the viewpoint of single-particle levels. It is shown that in the distribution of single-particle strength functions a second maximum appears together with the large asymmetry maximum at high-energy excitation, and the distribution has a long ''tail''. A semimicroscopic approach is proposed for calculating the neutron strength functions. The following values of the strength functions are obtained: for sub(239)U-Ssub(0)sup(cal)=1.2x10sup(-4), Ssub(1)sup(cal)=2.7x10sub(-4) and for sub(169)Er-Ssub(0)sup(cal)=1.10sup(-4), Ssub(1)sup(cal)=1.2x10sup(-4)

  8. Gravity induced wave function collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasbarri, G.; Toroš, M.; Donadi, S.; Bassi, A.

    2017-11-01

    Starting from an idea of S. L. Adler [in Quantum Nonlocality and Reality: 50 Years of Bell's Theorem, edited by M. Bell and S. Gao (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England 2016)], we develop a novel model of gravity induced spontaneous wave function collapse. The collapse is driven by complex stochastic fluctuations of the spacetime metric. After deriving the fundamental equations, we prove the collapse and amplification mechanism, the two most important features of a consistent collapse model. Under reasonable simplifying assumptions, we constrain the strength ξ of the complex metric fluctuations with available experimental data. We show that ξ ≥10-26 in order for the model to guarantee classicality of macro-objects, and at the same time ξ ≤10-20 in order not to contradict experimental evidence. As a comparison, in the recent discovery of gravitational waves in the frequency range 35 to 250 Hz, the (real) metric fluctuations reach a peak of ξ ˜10-21.

  9. Single-particle Schroedinger fluid. I. Formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, K.K.; Griffin, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of a single quantal particle moving in a time-dependent external potential well is formulated specifically to emphasize and develop the fluid dynamical aspects of the matter flow. This idealized problem, the single-particle Schroedinger fluid, is shown to exhibit already a remarkably rich variety of fluid dynamical features, including compressible flow and line vortices. It provides also a sufficient framework to encompass simultaneously various simplified fluidic models for nuclei which have earlier been postulated on an ad hoc basis, and to illuminate their underlying restrictions. Explicit solutions of the single-particle Schroedinger fluid problem are studied in the adiabatic limit for their mathematical and physical implications (especially regarding the collective kinetic energy). The basic generalizations for extension of the treatment to the many-body Schroedinger fluid are set forth

  10. Microscopy of electronic wave function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harb, M.

    2010-01-01

    This work of thesis aims to visualize, on a position sensitive detector, the spatial oscillations of slow electrons (∼ meV) emitted by a threshold photoionization in the presence of an external electric field. The interference figure obtained represents the square magnitude of electronic wavefunction. This fundamental work allows us to have access to the electronic dynamics and thus to highlight several quantum mechanisms that occur at the atomic scale (field Coulomb, electron/electron interaction..). Despite the presence an electronic core in Li atom, we have succeeded, experimentally and for the first time, in visualizing the wave function associated with the quasi-discrete Stark states coupled to the ionization continuum. Besides, using simulations of wave packet propagation, based on the 'Split-operator' method, we have conducted a comprehensive study of the H, Li and Cs atoms while revealing the significant effects of the Stark resonances. A very good agreement, on and off resonances, was obtained between simulated and experimental results. In addition, we have developed a generalized analytical model to understand deeply the function of VMI (Velocity-Map Imaging) spectrometer. This model is based on the paraxial approximation; it is based on matrix optics calculation by making an analogy between the electronic trajectory and the light beam. An excellent agreement was obtained between the model predictions and the experimental results. (author)

  11. Longitudinal wave function control in single quantum dots with an applied magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuo; Tang, Jing; Gao, Yunan; Sun, Yue; Qiu, Kangsheng; Zhao, Yanhui; He, Min; Shi, Jin-An; Gu, Lin; Williams, David A.; Sheng, Weidong; Jin, Kuijuan; Xu, Xiulai

    2015-01-01

    Controlling single-particle wave functions in single semiconductor quantum dots is in demand to implement solid-state quantum information processing and spintronics. Normally, particle wave functions can be tuned transversely by an perpendicular magnetic field. We report a longitudinal wave function control in single quantum dots with a magnetic field. For a pure InAs quantum dot with a shape of pyramid or truncated pyramid, the hole wave function always occupies the base because of the less confinement at base, which induces a permanent dipole oriented from base to apex. With applying magnetic field along the base-apex direction, the hole wave function shrinks in the base plane. Because of the linear changing of the confinement for hole wave function from base to apex, the center of effective mass moves up during shrinking process. Due to the uniform confine potential for electrons, the center of effective mass of electrons does not move much, which results in a permanent dipole moment change and an inverted electron-hole alignment along the magnetic field direction. Manipulating the wave function longitudinally not only provides an alternative way to control the charge distribution with magnetic field but also a new method to tune electron-hole interaction in single quantum dots. PMID:25624018

  12. Longitudinal wave function control in single quantum dots with an applied magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuo; Tang, Jing; Gao, Yunan; Sun, Yue; Qiu, Kangsheng; Zhao, Yanhui; He, Min; Shi, Jin-An; Gu, Lin; Williams, David A; Sheng, Weidong; Jin, Kuijuan; Xu, Xiulai

    2015-01-27

    Controlling single-particle wave functions in single semiconductor quantum dots is in demand to implement solid-state quantum information processing and spintronics. Normally, particle wave functions can be tuned transversely by an perpendicular magnetic field. We report a longitudinal wave function control in single quantum dots with a magnetic field. For a pure InAs quantum dot with a shape of pyramid or truncated pyramid, the hole wave function always occupies the base because of the less confinement at base, which induces a permanent dipole oriented from base to apex. With applying magnetic field along the base-apex direction, the hole wave function shrinks in the base plane. Because of the linear changing of the confinement for hole wave function from base to apex, the center of effective mass moves up during shrinking process. Due to the uniform confine potential for electrons, the center of effective mass of electrons does not move much, which results in a permanent dipole moment change and an inverted electron-hole alignment along the magnetic field direction. Manipulating the wave function longitudinally not only provides an alternative way to control the charge distribution with magnetic field but also a new method to tune electron-hole interaction in single quantum dots.

  13. Covariance Function for Nearshore Wave Assimilation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-30

    which is applicable for any spectral wave model. The four dimensional variational (4DVar) assimilation methods are based on the mathematical ...covariance can be modeled by a parameterized Gaussian function, for nearshore wave assimilation applications , the covariance function depends primarily on...SPECTRAL ACTION DENSITY, RESPECTIVELY. ............................ 5 FIGURE 2. TOP ROW: STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE WAVE-FIELD PROPERTIES AT THE

  14. Pairing fluctuation effects on the single-particle spectra for the superconducting state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pieri, P.; Pisani, L.; Strinati, G.C.

    2004-01-01

    Single-particle spectra are calculated in the superconducting state for a fermionic system with an attractive interaction, as functions of temperature and coupling strength from weak to strong. The fermionic system is described by a single-particle self-energy that includes pairing-fluctuation effects in the superconducting state. The theory reduces to the ordinary BCS approximation in weak coupling and to the Bogoliubov approximation for the composite bosons in strong coupling. Several features of the single-particle spectral function are shown to compare favorably with experimental data for cuprate superconductors

  15. Single-Particle States in $^{133}$Sn

    CERN Multimedia

    Huck, A

    2002-01-01

    % IS338 \\\\ \\\\ It is suggested to investigate the $\\beta^- $-decay of $^{133}$In and $^{134}$In in order to determine the single-particle states in $^{133}$Sn, which are so far unknown and needed for the shell-model description of the region close to $^{132}$Sn. Large hyper-pure Ge-detectors will be used for the $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy. In the experiments with $^{134}$In, delayed neutrons in coincidence with $\\gamma$-rays from excited states in $^{133}$Sn provide the opportunity for a very selective detection of the states in question.

  16. Damping of unbound single-particle modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortier, S.; Beaumel, D.; Gales, S.; Guillot, J.; Langevin-Joliot, H.; Laurent, H.; Maison, J.M.

    1995-07-01

    The (α, 3 He-n) reaction has been investigated at 120 MeV incident energy on 64 Ni, 90 Zr and 120 Sn target nuclei. Neutrons in coincidence with 3 He particles emitted at 0 deg were detected, in order to get information about the decay of single-particle states embedded in the (α, 3 He) continuum. Neutron angular correlations, multiplicity values and branching ratios to low-lying states of the final nuclei have been compared with the predictions of the statistical decay model. Direct branching ratios in 91 Zr deduced from this analysis are compared with the predictions of two nuclear structure models. (author)

  17. Semiempirical formulas for single-particle energies of neutrons and protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodhi, M.A.K.; Waak, B.T.

    1978-01-01

    The stepwise multiple linear regression technique has been used to analyze the single-particle energies of neutrons and protons in nuclei along the line of beta stability. Their regular and systematic trends lead to semiempirical model-independent formulas for single-particle energies of neutrons and protons in the bound nuclei as functions of nuclear parameters A and Z for given states specified by nl/sub j/. These formulas are almost as convenient as the harmonic oscillator energy formulas to use. The single-particle energies computed from these formulas have been compared with the experimental data and are found in reasonable agreement

  18. Many-body calculations with deuteron based single-particle bases and their associated natural orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puddu, G.

    2018-06-01

    We use the recently introduced single-particle states obtained from localized deuteron wave-functions as a basis for nuclear many-body calculations. We show that energies can be substantially lowered if the natural orbits (NOs) obtained from this basis are used. We use this modified basis for {}10{{B}}, {}16{{O}} and {}24{{Mg}} employing the bare NNLOopt nucleon–nucleon interaction. The lowering of the energies increases with the mass. Although in principle NOs require a full scale preliminary many-body calculation, we found that an approximate preliminary many-body calculation, with a marginal increase in the computational cost, is sufficient. The use of natural orbits based on an harmonic oscillator basis leads to a much smaller lowering of the energies for a comparable computational cost.

  19. Single-Particle Momentum Distributions of Efimov States in Mixed-Species Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Yamashita, M.; F. Bellotti, F.; Frederico, T.

    2013-01-01

    to derive formulas for the scaling factor of the Efimov spectrum for any mass ratio assuming either that two or three of the two-body subsystems have a bound state at zero energy. We consider the single-particle momentum distribution analytically and numerically and analyse the tail of the momentum......We solve the three-body bound state problem in three dimensions for mass imbalanced systems of two identical bosons and a third particle in the universal limit where the interactions are assumed to be of zero-range. The system displays the Efimov effect and we use the momentum-space wave equation...... distribution to obtain the three-body contact parameter. Our finding demonstrate that the functional form of the three-body contact term depends on the mass ratio and we obtain an analytic expression for this behavior. To exemplify our results, we consider mixtures of Lithium with either two Caesium or Rubium...

  20. Wind wave source functions in opposing seas

    KAUST Repository

    Langodan, Sabique

    2015-08-26

    The Red Sea is a challenge for wave modeling because of its unique two opposed wave systems, forced by opposite winds and converging at its center. We investigate the different physical aspects of wave evolution and propagation in the convergence zone. The two opposing wave systems have similar amplitude and frequency, each driven by the action of its own wind. Wave patterns at the centre of the Red Sea, as derived from extensive tests and intercomparison between model and measured data, suggest that the currently available wave model source functions may not properly represent the evolution of the local fields that appear to be characterized by a less effective wind input and an enhanced white-capping. We propose and test a possible simple solution to improve the wave-model simulation under opposing winds and waves condition. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Damping of unbound single-particle modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortier, S.; Beaumel, D.; Gales, S.; Guillot, J.; Langevin-Joliot, H.; Laurent, H.; Maison, J.M.; Bordewijk, J.; Brandenburg, S.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Crawley, G.M.; Massolo, C.P.; Renteria, M.; Khendriche, A.

    1995-01-01

    The (α, 3 He-n) reaction has been investigated at 120 MeV incident energy on 64 Ni, 90 Zr, and 120 Sn target nuclei. Neutrons in coincidence with 3 He particles emitted at 0 degree were detected using the multidetector array EDEN, in order to get information about the decay of single-particle states embedded in the (α, 3 He) continuum. Neutron angular correlations, multiplicity values, and branching ratios to low-lying states of the final nuclei have been compared with the predictions of the statistical decay model. Evidence for a significant nonstatistical decay branch has been observed in the three nuclei below about 15 MeV excitation energy. Direct branching ratios in 91 Zr deduced from this analysis are compared with the predictions of two nuclear structure models. At higher excitation energy, the decay characteristics of the (α, 3 He) continuum are shown to be mainly statistical

  2. Faddeev wave function decomposition using bipolar harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.; Tomusiak, E.L.; Gibson, B.F.; Payne, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    The standard partial wave (channel) representation for the Faddeev solution to the Schroedinger equation for the ground state of 3 nucleons is written in terms of functions which couple the interacting pair and spectator angular momenta to give S, P, and D waves. For each such coupling there are three terms, one for each of the three cyclic permutations of the nucleon coordinates. A series of spherical harmonic identities is developed which allows writing the Faddeev solution in terms of a basis set of 5 bipolar harmonics: 1 for S waves; 1 for P waves; and 3 for D waves. The choice of a D-wave basis is largely arbitrary, and specific choices correspond to the decomposition schemes of Derrick and Blatt, Sachs, Gibson and Schiff, and Bolsterli and Jezak. The bipolar harmonic form greatly simplifies applications which utilize the wave function, and we specifically discuss the isoscalar charge (or mass) density and the 3 He Coulomb energy

  3. Emissions from Ethanol-Gasoline Blends: A Single Particle Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H. McMurry

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to its agricultural origin and function as a fuel oxygenate, ethanol is being promoted as an alternative biomass-based fuel for use in spark ignition engines, with mandates for its use at state and regional levels. While it has been established that the addition of ethanol to a fuel reduces the particulate mass concentration in the exhaust, little attention has been paid to changes in the physicochemical properties of the emitted particles. In this work, a dynamometer-mounted GM Quad-4 spark ignition engine run without aftertreatment at 1,500 RPM and 100% load was used with four different fuel blends, containing 0, 20, 40 and 85 percent ethanol in gasoline. This allowed the effects of the fuel composition to be isolated from other effects. Instrumentation employed included two Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometers covering different size ranges for analysis of single particle composition, an Aethalometer for black carbon, a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer for particle size distributions, a Photoelectric Aerosol Sensor for particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH species and gravimetric filter measurements for particulate mass concentrations. It was found that, under the conditions investigated here, additional ethanol content in the fuel changes the particle size distribution, especially in the accumulation mode, and decreases the black carbon and total particulate mass concentrations. The molecular weight distribution of the PAHs was found to decrease with added ethanol. However, PAHs produced from higher ethanol-content fuels are associated with NO2− (m/z—46 in the single-particle mass spectra, indicating the presence of nitro-PAHs. Compounds associated with the gasoline (e.g., sulfur-containing species are diminished due to dilution as ethanol is added to the fuel relative to those associated with the lubricating oil (e.g., calcium, zinc, phosphate in the single particle spectra. These changes have potential

  4. New apparatus of single particle trap system for aerosol visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Hidenori; Fujioka, Tomomi; Endo, Tetsuo; Kitayama, Chiho; Seto, Takafumi; Otani, Yoshio

    2014-08-01

    Control of transport and deposition of charged aerosol particles is important in various manufacturing processes. Aerosol visualization is an effective method to directly observe light scattering signal from laser-irradiated single aerosol particle trapped in a visualization cell. New single particle trap system triggered by light scattering pulse signal was developed in this study. The performance of the device was evaluated experimentally. Experimental setup consisted of an aerosol generator, a differential mobility analyzer (DMA), an optical particle counter (OPC) and the single particle trap system. Polystylene latex standard (PSL) particles (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 μm) were generated and classified according to the charge by the DMA. Singly charged 0.5 and 1.0 μm particles and doubly charged 2.0 μm particles were used as test particles. The single particle trap system was composed of a light scattering signal detector and a visualization cell. When the particle passed through the detector, trigger signal with a given delay time sent to the solenoid valves upstream and downstream of the visualization cell for trapping the particle in the visualization cell. The motion of particle in the visualization cell was monitored by CCD camera and the gravitational settling velocity and the electrostatic migration velocity were measured from the video image. The aerodynamic diameter obtained from the settling velocity was in good agreement with Stokes diameter calculated from the electrostatic migration velocity for individual particles. It was also found that the aerodynamic diameter obtained from the settling velocity was a one-to-one function of the scattered light intensity of individual particles. The applicability of this system will be discussed.

  5. A simple and realistic triton wave function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomnitz-Adler, J.; Pandharipande, V.R.

    1980-01-01

    We propose a simple triton wave function that consists of a product of three correlation operators operating on a three-body spin-isospin state. This wave function is formally similar to that used in the recent variational theories of nuclear matter, the main difference being in the long-range behavior of the correlation operators. Variational calculations are carried out with the Reid potential, using this wave function in the so-called 'symmetrized product' and 'independent pair' forms. The triton energy and density distributions obtained with the symmetrized product wave function agree with those obtained in Faddeev and other variational calculations using harmonic oscillator states. The proposed wave function and calculational methods can be easily generalized to treat the four-nucleon α-particle. (orig.)

  6. Multi-configurational explicitly correlated wave functions for the study of confined many electron atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarsa, A; Buendía, E; Gálvez, F J

    2016-01-01

    Explicitly correlated wave functions to study confined atoms under impenetrable spherical walls have been obtained. Configuration mixing and a correlation factor are included in the variational ansatz. The behaviors of the ground state and some low-lying excited states of He, Be, B and C atoms with the confinement size are analyzed. Level crossing with confinement is found for some cases. This effect is analyzed in terms of the single particle energy of the occupied orbitals. The multi-configuration parameterized optimized effective potential method is employed with a cut-off factor to account for Dirichlet boundary conditions. The variational Monte Carlo method is used to deal with explicitly correlated wave functions. (paper)

  7. Single particle level density in a finite depth potential well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlomo, S.; Kolomietz, V.M.; Dejbakhsh, H.

    1997-01-01

    We consider the single particle level density g(ε) of a realistic finite depth potential well, concentrating on the continuum (ε>0) region. We carry out quantum-mechanical calculations of the partial level density g l (ε), associated with a well-defined orbital angular momentum l≤40, using the phase-shift derivative method and the Greens-function method and compare the results with those obtained using the Thomas-Fermi approximation. We also numerically calculate g(ε) as a l sum of g l (ε) up to a certain value of scr(l) max ≤40 and determine the corresponding smooth level densities using the Strutinsky smoothing procedure. We demonstrate, in accordance with Levinson close-quote s theorem, that the partial contribution g l (ε) to the single particle level density from continuum states has positive and negative values. However, g(ε) is nonnegative. We also point out that this is not the case for an energy-dependent potential well. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  8. New instrument for tribocharge measurement due to single particle impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hideo; Ghadiri, Mojtaba; Matsuyama, Tatsushi; Ding Yulong; Pitt, Kendal G.

    2007-01-01

    During particulate solid processing, particle-particle and particle-wall collisions can generate electrostatic charges. This may lead to a variety of problems ranging from fire and explosion hazards to segregation, caking, and blocking. A fundamental understanding of the particle charging in such situations is therefore essential. For this purpose we have developed a new device that can measure charge transfer due to impact between a single particle and a metal plate. The device consists of an impact test system and two sets of Faraday cage and preamplifier for charge measurement. With current amplifiers, high-resolution measurements of particle charges of approximately 1 and 10 fC have been achieved before and after the impact, respectively. The device allows charge measurements of single particles with a size as small as ∼100 μm impacting on the target at different incident angles with a velocity up to about 80 m/s. Further analyses of the charge transfer as a function of particle initial charge define an equilibrium charge, i.e., an initial charge level prior to impact for which no net charge transfer would occur as a result of impact

  9. Damping of unbound single-particle modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortier, S.; Beaumel, D.; Gales, S.; Guillot, J.; Langevin-Joliot, H.; Laurent, H.; Maison, J.M.; Bordewijk, J.; Brandenburg, S.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Crawley, G.M.; Massolo, C.P.; Renteria, M.; Khendriche, A. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France)]|[Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands)]|[Nuclear Research Institute, Debrecen P.O. Box 51, H-4001 (Hungary)]|[NSCL, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)]|[Dep. Fisica, Fac. Cs. Exactas, UNLP, CC Nio 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)]|[Institut de Sciences Exactes,Universite de Tizi-Ouzou, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria)

    1995-11-01

    The ({alpha},{sup 3}He-{ital n}) reaction has been investigated at 120 MeV incident energy on {sup 64}Ni, {sup 90}Zr, and {sup 120}Sn target nuclei. Neutrons in coincidence with {sup 3}He particles emitted at 0{degree} were detected using the multidetector array EDEN, in order to get information about the decay of single-particle states embedded in the ({alpha},{sup 3}He) continuum. Neutron angular correlations, multiplicity values, and branching ratios to low-lying states of the final nuclei have been compared with the predictions of the statistical decay model. Evidence for a significant nonstatistical decay branch has been observed in the three nuclei below about 15 MeV excitation energy. Direct branching ratios in {sup 91}Zr deduced from this analysis are compared with the predictions of two nuclear structure models. At higher excitation energy, the decay characteristics of the ({alpha},{sup 3}He) continuum are shown to be mainly statistical.

  10. Microscopic calculations of λ single particle energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usmani, Q. N.

    1998-01-01

    Λ binding energy data for total baryon number A ≤ 208 and for Λ angular momenta ell Λ ≤ 3 are analyzed in terms of phenomenological (but generally consistent with meson-exchange) ΛN and ΛNN potentials. The Fermi-Hypernetted-Chain technique is used to calculate the expectation values for the Λ binding to nuclear matter. Accurate effective ΛN and ΛNN potentials are obtained which are folded with the core nucleus nucleon densities to calculate the Λ single particle potential U Λ (r). We use a dispersive ΛNN potential but also include an explicit ρ dependence to allow for reduced repulsion in the surface, and the best fits have a large ρ dependence giving consistency with the variational Monte Carlo calculations for Λ 5 He. The exchange fraction of the ΛN space-exchange potential is found to be 0.2-0.3 corresponding to m Λ * ≅ (0.74-0.82)m Λ . Charge symmetry breaking is found to be significant for heavy hypernuclei with a large neutron excess, with a strength consistent with that obtained from the A = 4 hypernuclei

  11. Single-particle stochastic heat engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Shubhashis; Pal, P. S.; Saha, Arnab; Jayannavar, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    We have performed an extensive analysis of a single-particle stochastic heat engine constructed by manipulating a Brownian particle in a time-dependent harmonic potential. The cycle consists of two isothermal steps at different temperatures and two adiabatic steps similar to that of a Carnot engine. The engine shows qualitative differences in inertial and overdamped regimes. All the thermodynamic quantities, including efficiency, exhibit strong fluctuations in a time periodic steady state. The fluctuations of stochastic efficiency dominate over the mean values even in the quasistatic regime. Interestingly, our system acts as an engine provided the temperature difference between the two reservoirs is greater than a finite critical value which in turn depends on the cycle time and other system parameters. This is supported by our analytical results carried out in the quasistatic regime. Our system works more reliably as an engine for large cycle times. By studying various model systems, we observe that the operational characteristics are model dependent. Our results clearly rule out any universal relation between efficiency at maximum power and temperature of the baths. We have also verified fluctuation relations for heat engines in time periodic steady state.

  12. Neutrino wave function and oscillation suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgov, A.D.; Lychkovskiy, O.V.; Mamonov, A.A.; Okun, L.B.; Schepkin, M.G.

    2005-01-01

    We consider a thought experiment, in which a neutrino is produced by an electron on a nucleus in a crystal. The wave function of the oscillating neutrino is calculated assuming that the electron is described by a wave packet. If the electron is relativistic and the spatial size of its wave packet is much larger than the size of the crystal cell, then the wave packet of the produced neutrino has essentially the same size as the wave packet of the electron. We investigate the suppression of neutrino oscillations at large distances caused by two mechanisms: (1) spatial separation of wave packets corresponding to different neutrino masses; (2) neutrino energy dispersion for given neutrino mass eigenstates. We resolve the contributions of these two mechanisms. (orig.)

  13. Integral transform technique for meson wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakulev, A.P.; Mikhajlov, S.V.

    1996-01-01

    In a recent paper [1] we proposed a new approach for extracting the wave function of the π-meson φ π (x) and the masses and wave functions of its first resonances from the new QCD sum rules for nondiagonal correlators obtained in [2]. Here, we test our approach using an exactly solvable toy model as an illustrating example. We demonstrate the validity of the method and suggest a pure algebraic procedure for extracting the masses and wave functions relating to the case under investigation. We also explore the stability of the procedure under perturbations of the theoretical part of the sum rule. In application to the pion case, this results not only in the mass and wave function of the first resonance (π'), but also in the estimation of π''-mass. 17 refs., 11 figs

  14. On single nucleon wave functions in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talmi, Igal

    2011-01-01

    The strong and singular interaction between nucleons, makes the nuclear many body theory very complicated. Still, nuclei exhibit simple and regular features which are simply described by the shell model. Wave functions of individual nucleons may be considered just as model wave functions which bear little resemblance to the real ones. There is, however, experimental evidence for the reality of single nucleon wave functions. There is a simple method of constructing such wave functions for valence nucleons. It is shown that this method can be improved by considering the polarization of the core by the valence nucleon. This gives rise to some rearrangement energy which affects the single valence nucleon energy within the nucleus.

  15. Noncommuting limits of oscillator wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daboul, J.; Pogosyan, G. S.; Wolf, K. B.

    2007-01-01

    Quantum harmonic oscillators with spring constants k > 0 plus constant forces f exhibit rescaled and displaced Hermite-Gaussian wave functions, and discrete, lower bound spectra. We examine their limits when (k, f) → (0, 0) along two different paths. When f → 0 and then k → 0, the contraction is standard: the system becomes free with a double continuous, positive spectrum, and the wave functions limit to plane waves of definite parity. On the other hand, when k → 0 first, the contraction path passes through the free-fall system, with a continuous, nondegenerate, unbounded spectrum and displaced Airy wave functions, while parity is lost. The subsequent f → 0 limit of the nonstandard path shows the dc hysteresis phenomenon of noncommuting contractions: the lost parity reappears as an infinitely oscillating superposition of the two limiting solutions that are related by the symmetry

  16. The Wave Function and Quantum Reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Shan

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the meaning of the wave function by analyzing the mass and charge density distributions of a quantum system. According to protective measurement, a charged quantum system has effective mass and charge density distributing in space, proportional to the square of the absolute value of its wave function. In a realistic interpretation, the wave function of a quantum system can be taken as a description of either a physical field or the ergodic motion of a particle. The essential difference between a field and the ergodic motion of a particle lies in the property of simultaneity; a field exists throughout space simultaneously, whereas the ergodic motion of a particle exists throughout space in a time-divided way. If the wave function is a physical field, then the mass and charge density will be distributed in space simultaneously for a charged quantum system, and thus there will exist gravitational and electrostatic self-interactions of its wave function. This not only violates the superposition principle of quantum mechanics but also contradicts experimental observations. Thus the wave function cannot be a description of a physical field but be a description of the ergodic motion of a particle. For the later there is only a localized particle with mass and charge at every instant, and thus there will not exist any self-interaction for the wave function. It is further argued that the classical ergodic models, which assume continuous motion of particles, cannot be consistent with quantum mechanics. Based on the negative result, we suggest that the wave function is a description of the quantum motion of particles, which is random and discontinuous in nature. On this interpretation, the square of the absolute value of the wave function not only gives the probability of the particle being found in certain locations, but also gives the probability of the particle being there. The suggested new interpretation of the wave function provides a natural realistic

  17. Automated data collection in single particle electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yong Zi; Cheng, Anchi; Potter, Clinton S.; Carragher, Bridget

    2016-01-01

    Automated data collection is an integral part of modern workflows in single particle electron microscopy (EM) research. This review surveys the software packages available for automated single particle EM data collection. The degree of automation at each stage of data collection is evaluated, and the capabilities of the software packages are described. Finally, future trends in automation are discussed. PMID:26671944

  18. Single particle irradiation effect of digital signal processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Si'an; Chen Kenan

    2010-01-01

    The single particle irradiation effect of high energy neutron on digital signal processor TMS320P25 in dynamic working condition has been studied. The influence of the single particle on the device has been explored through the acquired waveform and working current of TMS320P25. Analysis results, test data and test methods have also been presented. (authors)

  19. Expansion of continuum functions on resonance wave functions and amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, J.; Gareev, F.A.; Gizzatkulov, M.H.; Goncharov, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    To overcome difficulties encountered with wave functions of continuum spectrum (for example, in a shell model with continuum) the pole expansion (by the Mittag-Leffler theorem) of wave functions, scattering amplitudes and the Green functions with positive energies are considered. It is shown that resonance functions (the Gamov functions) form a complete set over which the continuum functions could be expanded. The general view of these expansions for final potentials and for the Coulomb repulsion potential are obtained and discussed. It is shown that the application of the method to nuclear structure calculations leads to simple algebraic equations

  20. Heuristic method for determining outgoing waves in many-body wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redish, E.F.; Tandy, P.C.; L'Huillier, M.

    1975-12-01

    A new and simple method is proposed for determining the kinds of outgoing waves present in a given many-body wave function. Whether any particular wave function contains ''hidden'' rearrangement components can be determined. 1 figure

  1. Relativistic deuteron wave function on light front

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmanov, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    In the framework of the one boson exchange model the approximate analytical expression for the deuteron wave function (WF) at relativistic relative momenta is obtained. WF depends on extra variable having the form of a unit vector and is determined by six functions instead of two ones (S-and D-waves) in the nonrelativistic case. At moderate momenta the WF is matched with WF in the Reid model. It is emphasized the importance of indication of the qualitative observed phenomena associated with change of parametrization and spin structure of relativistic deuteron WF

  2. Wave function of free electron in a strong laser plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shitong; Shen Wenda; Guo Qizhi

    1993-01-01

    The wave function of free electron in a strong laser plasma is obtained by solving exactly the Dirac equation in a curved space-time with optical metric for the laser plasma. When the laser field is diminished to zero, the wave function is naturally reduced to relativistic wave function of free electron. The possible application of the wave function is discussed

  3. Twist-2 Light-Cone Pion Wave Function

    OpenAIRE

    Belyaev, V. M.; Johnson, Mikkel B.

    1997-01-01

    We present an analysis of the existing constraints for the twist-2 light-cone pion wave function. We find that existing information on the pion wave function does not exclude the possibility that the pion wave function attains its asymptotic form. New bounds on the parameters of the pion wave function are presented.

  4. Wigner functions for evanescent waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruccelli, Jonathan C; Tian, Lei; Oh, Se Baek; Barbastathis, George

    2012-09-01

    We propose phase space distributions, based on an extension of the Wigner distribution function, to describe fields of any state of coherence that contain evanescent components emitted into a half-space. The evanescent components of the field are described in an optical phase space of spatial position and complex-valued angle. Behavior of these distributions upon propagation is also considered, where the rapid decay of the evanescent components is associated with the exponential decay of the associated phase space distributions. To demonstrate the structure and behavior of these distributions, we consider the fields generated from total internal reflection of a Gaussian Schell-model beam at a planar interface.

  5. Optimization of nonlinear wave function parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, R.; Minkoff, M.; Chemistry

    2006-01-01

    An energy-based optimization method is presented for our recently developed nonlinear wave function expansion form for electronic wave functions. This expansion form is based on spin eigenfunctions, using the graphical unitary group approach (GUGA). The wave function is expanded in a basis of product functions, allowing application to closed-shell and open-shell systems and to ground and excited electronic states. Each product basis function is itself a multiconfigurational function that depends on a relatively small number of nonlinear parameters called arc factors. The energy-based optimization is formulated in terms of analytic arc factor gradients and orbital-level Hamiltonian matrices that correspond to a specific kind of uncontraction of each of the product basis functions. These orbital-level Hamiltonian matrices give an intuitive representation of the energy in terms of disjoint subsets of the arc factors, they provide for an efficient computation of gradients of the energy with respect to the arc factors, and they allow optimal arc factors to be determined in closed form for subspaces of the full variation problem. Timings for energy and arc factor gradient computations involving expansion spaces of > 10 24 configuration state functions are reported. Preliminary convergence studies and molecular dissociation curves are presented for some small molecules

  6. Nonequilibrium phase diagram of a one-dimensional quasiperiodic system with a single-particle mobility edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkayastha, Archak; Dhar, Abhishek; Kulkarni, Manas

    2017-11-01

    We investigate and map out the nonequilibrium phase diagram of a generalization of the well known Aubry-André-Harper (AAH) model. This generalized AAH (GAAH) model is known to have a single-particle mobility edge which also has an additional self-dual property akin to that of the critical point of the AAH model. By calculating the population imbalance, we get hints of a rich phase diagram. We also find a fascinating connection between single particle wave functions near the mobility edge of the GAAH model and the wave functions of the critical AAH model. By placing this model far from equilibrium with the aid of two baths, we investigate the open system transport via system size scaling of nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) current, calculated by fully exact nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism. The critical point of the AAH model now generalizes to a `critical' line separating regions of ballistic and localized transport. Like the critical point of the AAH model, current scales subdiffusively with system size on the `critical' line (I ˜N-2 ±0.1 ). However, remarkably, the scaling exponent on this line is distinctly different from that obtained for the critical AAH model (where I ˜N-1.4 ±0.05 ). All these results can be understood from the above-mentioned connection between states near the mobility edge of the GAAH model and those of the critical AAH model. A very interesting high temperature nonequilibrium phase diagram of the GAAH model emerges from our calculations.

  7. Discrete expansions of continuum wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, J.; Ershov, S.N.; Gareev, F.A.; Kazacha, G.S.

    1980-01-01

    Different methods of expanding continuum wave functions in terms of discrete basis sets are discussed. The convergence properties of these expansions are investigated, both from a mathematical and a numerical point of view, for the case of potentials of Woods-Saxon and square well type. (orig.)

  8. The puzzling entanglement of Schroedinger's wave function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.; Rimini, A.; Weber, T.

    1987-05-01

    A brief review of the conceptual difficulties met by the quantum formalism is presented. The main attempts to overcome these difficulties are considered and their limitations are pointed out. A recent proposal based on the assumption of the occurrence of a specific type of wave function collapse is discussed and its consequences for the above-mentioned problems are analyzed. (author). 28 refs

  9. Wind wave source functions in opposing seas

    KAUST Repository

    Langodan, Sabique; Cavaleri, Luigi; Viswanadhapalli, Yesubabu; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    that the currently available wave model source functions may not properly represent the evolution of the local fields that appear to be characterized by a less effective wind input and an enhanced white-capping. We propose and test a possible simple solution

  10. Semiclassical initial value treatment of wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, Kenneth G.

    2010-01-01

    A semiclassical initial value approximation for time-independent wave functions, previously derived for integrable systems, is rederived in a form which allows it to be applied to more general systems. The wave function is expressed as an integral over a Lagrangian manifold that is constructed by propagating trajectories from an initial manifold formed on a Poincare surface. Even in the case of bound, integrable systems, it is unnecessary to identify action-angle variables or construct quantizing tori. The approximation is numerically tested for separable and highly chaotic two-dimensional quartic oscillator systems. For the separable (but highly anharmonic) system, the accuracy of the approximation is found to be excellent: overlaps of the semiclassical wave functions with the corresponding quantum wave functions exceed 0.999. For the chaotic system, semiclassical-quantum overlaps are found to range from 0.989 to 0.994, indicating accuracy that is still very good, despite the short classical trajectories used in the calculations.

  11. A different approach to obtain Mayer’s extension to stationary single particle Wigner distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, Anirban; Janaki, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    It is shown that the stationary collisionless single-particle Wigner equation in one dimension containing quantum corrections at the lowest order is satisfied by a distribution function that is similar in form to the Maxwellian distribution with an effective mass and a generalized potential. The distribution is used to study quantum corrections to electron hole solutions.

  12. Laboratory Measurements of Single-Particle Polarimetric Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsevich, M.; Penttila, A.; Maconi, G.; Kassamakov, I.; Helander, P.; Puranen, T.; Salmi, A.; Hæggström, E.; Muinonen, K.

    2017-12-01

    Measuring scattering properties of different targets is important for material characterization, remote sensing applications, and for verifying theoretical results. Furthermore, there are usually simplifications made when we model targets and compute the scattering properties, e.g., ideal shape or constant optical parameters throughout the target material. Experimental studies help in understanding the link between the observed properties and computed results. Experimentally derived Mueller matrices of studied particles can be used as input for larger-scale scattering simulations, e.g., radiative transfer computations. This method allows to bypass the problem of using an idealized model for single-particle optical properties. While existing approaches offer ensemble- and orientation-averaged particle properties, our aim is to measure individual particles with controlled or known orientation. With the newly developed scatterometer, we aim to offer novel possibility to measure single, small (down to μm-scale) targets and their polarimetric spectra. This work presents an experimental setup that measures light scattered by a fixed small particle with dimensions ranging between micrometer and millimeter sizes. The goal of our setup is nondestructive characterization of such particles by measuring light of multiple wavelengths scattered in 360° in a horizontal plane by an ultrasonically levitating sample, whilst simultaneously controlling its 3D position and orientation. We describe the principles and design of our instrument and its calibration. We also present example measurements of real samples. This study was conducted under the support from the European Research Council, in the frame of the Advanced Grant project No. 320773 `Scattering and Absorption of Electromagnetic Waves in Particulate Media' (SAEMPL).

  13. Digital atom interferometer with single particle control on a discretized space-time geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Andreas; Alberti, Andrea; Alt, Wolfgang; Belmechri, Noomen; Hild, Sebastian; Karski, Michał; Widera, Artur; Meschede, Dieter

    2012-06-19

    Engineering quantum particle systems, such as quantum simulators and quantum cellular automata, relies on full coherent control of quantum paths at the single particle level. Here we present an atom interferometer operating with single trapped atoms, where single particle wave packets are controlled through spin-dependent potentials. The interferometer is constructed from a sequence of discrete operations based on a set of elementary building blocks, which permit composing arbitrary interferometer geometries in a digital manner. We use this modularity to devise a space-time analogue of the well-known spin echo technique, yielding insight into decoherence mechanisms. We also demonstrate mesoscopic delocalization of single atoms with a separation-to-localization ratio exceeding 500; this result suggests their utilization beyond quantum logic applications as nano-resolution quantum probes in precision measurements, being able to measure potential gradients with precision 5 x 10(-4) in units of gravitational acceleration g.

  14. Antiferromagnetism and d-wave superconductivity in (doped) Mott insulators: A wave function approach

    OpenAIRE

    Weng, Z. Y.; Zhou, Y.; Muthukumar, V. N.

    2003-01-01

    We propose a class of wave functions that provide a unified description of antiferromagnetism and d-wave superconductivity in (doped) Mott insulators. The wave function has a Jastrow form and prohibits double occupancies. In the absence of holes, the wave function describes antiferromagnetism accurately. Off diagonal long range order develops at finite doping and the superconducting order parameter has d-wave symmetry. We also show how nodal quasiparticles and neutral spin excitations can be ...

  15. Study of Ion Acoustic Wave Damping through Green's Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsuan, H.C.S.; Jensen, Vagn Orla

    1973-01-01

    Green's function analyses of ion acoustic waves in streaming plasmas show that, in general, the waves damp algebraically rather than exponentially with distance from exciter.......Green's function analyses of ion acoustic waves in streaming plasmas show that, in general, the waves damp algebraically rather than exponentially with distance from exciter....

  16. Relativistic amplitudes in terms of wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmanov, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    In the framework of the invariant diagram technique which arises at the formulation of the fueld theory on the light front the question about conditions at which the relativistic amplitudes may be expressed through the wave functions is investigated. The amplitudes obtained depend on four-vector ω, determining the light front surface. The way is shown to find such values of the four-vector ω, at which the contribution of diagrams not expressed through wave functions is minimal. The investigation carried out is equivalent to the study of the dependence of amplitudes of the old-fashioned perturbation theory in the in the infinite momentum frame on direction of the infinite momentum

  17. Single-Particle Tracking of Human Lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Messieres, Michel; Ng, Abby; Duarte, Cornelio J; Remaley, Alan T; Lee, Jennifer C

    2016-01-05

    Lipoproteins, such as high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and very-low density lipoprotein (VLDL), play a critical role in heart disease. Lipoproteins vary in size and shape as well as in their apolipoprotein content. Here, we developed a new experimental framework to study freely diffusing lipoproteins from human blood, allowing analysis of even the smallest HDL with a radius of 5 nm. In an easily constructed confinement chamber, individual HDL, LDL, and VLDL particles labeled with three distinct fluorophores were simultaneously tracked by wide-field fluorescence microscopy and their sizes were determined by their motion. This technique enables studies of individual lipoproteins in solution and allows characterization of the heterogeneous properties of lipoproteins which affect their biological function but are difficult to discern in bulk studies.

  18. Mini wave function for the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslanka, K.

    1989-01-01

    The Friedman radiation filled world model can formally be treated as an oscillator with frequency determined by the cosmological constant and with an external force connected with the space curvature. The wave function for such a universe is constructed. By using Feynman's sum-over-histories method, the initial fundamental indeterminacy in the state of the universe is propagated forward in time. 5 refs. (author)

  19. Cranked cluster wave function for molecular states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Hisashi; Yabana, Kazuhiro; Wada, Takahiro.

    1986-01-01

    Construction of the cranked cluster wave function is discussed by focussing on three problems; the self-consistency between the potential and the density distribution, the properties of the rotational angular frequency which is strongly influenced by the inter-cluster Pauli principle and by the parity projection, and the spin alignment along the rotation axis with the resulting structure-change of the molecular state. (author)

  20. Tur\\'an type inequalities for regular Coulomb wave functions

    OpenAIRE

    Baricz, Árpád

    2015-01-01

    Tur\\'an, Mitrinovi\\'c-Adamovi\\'c and Wilker type inequalities are deduced for regular Coulomb wave functions. The proofs are based on a Mittag-Leffler expansion for the regular Coulomb wave function, which may be of independent interest. Moreover, some complete monotonicity results concerning the Coulomb zeta functions and some interlacing properties of the zeros of Coulomb wave functions are given.

  1. Meson wave functions in 2-dim QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrandt, S.; Visnjic, V.

    1977-07-01

    We consider the eigenvalue problem of 't Hooft for the meson spectrum in 2-dim QCD by defining some alternative formulations whose equivalence we prove. Hence we are able to prove that the spectrum is discrete and of finite multiplicity and to derive bounds (upper and lower) for the eigenvalues (ground state, with state and n → infinitely state). We prove that the functions are analytic and use this to carry out explicit numerical calculations of the wave functions for various values of the quark masses and to recalculate the meson spectrum. (orig.) [de

  2. Measurement of light-cone wave functions by diffractive dissociation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asheri, D. [Tel Aviv Univ., School of Physics and Astronomy, Sackler Faculty of Exact Science (Israel)

    2005-07-01

    The measurement of the pion light-cone wave function is revisited and results for the Gegenbauer coefficients are presented. Measurements of the photon electromagnetic and hadronic wave functions are described and results are presented. (authors)

  3. General Forms of Wave Functions for Dipositronium, Ps2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    The consequences of particle interchange symmetry for the structure of wave functions of the states of dipositronium was recently discussed by the author [I]. In the present work, the methodology is simply explained, and the wave functions are explicitly given.

  4. Evolution of single-particle structure of silicon isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bespalova, O. V.; Fedorov, N. A.; Klimochkina, A. A.; Markova, M. L.; Spasskaya, T. I.; Tretyakova, T. Yu.

    2018-01-01

    New data on proton and neutron single-particle energies E_{nlj} of Si isotopes with neutron number N from 12 to 28 as well as occupation probabilities N_{nlj} of single-particle states of stable isotopes 28, 30Si near the Fermi energy were obtained by the joint evaluation of the stripping and pick-up reaction data and excited state decay schemes of neighboring nuclei. The evaluated data indicate the following features of single-particle structure evolution: persistence of Z = 14 subshell closure with N increase, the new magicity of the number N = 16, and the conservation of the magic properties of the number N = 20 in Si isotopic chain. The features were described by the dispersive optical model. The calculation also predicts the weakening of N = 28 shell closure and demonstrates evolution of a bubble-like structure of the proton density distributions in neutron-rich Si isotopes.

  5. Evolution of single-particle structure of silicon isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bespalova, O.V.; Klimochkina, A.A.; Spasskaya, T.I.; Tretyakova, T.Yu. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Fedorov, N.A.; Markova, M.L. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2018-01-15

    New data on proton and neutron single-particle energies E{sub nlj} of Si isotopes with neutron number N from 12 to 28 as well as occupation probabilities N{sub nlj} of single-particle states of stable isotopes {sup 28,30}Si near the Fermi energy were obtained by the joint evaluation of the stripping and pick-up reaction data and excited state decay schemes of neighboring nuclei. The evaluated data indicate the following features of single-particle structure evolution: persistence of Z = 14 subshell closure with N increase, the new magicity of the number N = 16, and the conservation of the magic properties of the number N = 20 in Si isotopic chain. The features were described by the dispersive optical model. The calculation also predicts the weakening of N = 28 shell closure and demonstrates evolution of a bubble-like structure of the proton density distributions in neutron-rich Si isotopes. (orig.)

  6. Single-particle states vs. collective modes: friends or enemies ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, T.; Tsunoda, Y.; Togashi, T.; Shimizu, N.; Abe, T.

    2018-05-01

    The quantum self-organization is introduced as one of the major underlying mechanisms of the quantum many-body systems. In the case of atomic nuclei as an example, two types of the motion of nucleons, single-particle states and collective modes, dominate the structure of the nucleus. The collective mode arises as the balance between the effect of the mode-driving force (e.g., quadrupole force for the ellipsoidal deformation) and the resistance power against it. The single-particle energies are one of the sources to produce such resistance power: a coherent collective motion is more hindered by larger spacings between relevant single particle states. Thus, the single-particle state and the collective mode are "enemies" against each other. However, the nuclear forces are rich enough so as to enhance relevant collective mode by reducing the resistance power by changing single-particle energies for each eigenstate through monopole interactions. This will be verified with the concrete example taken from Zr isotopes. Thus, the quantum self-organization occurs: single-particle energies can be self-organized by (i) two quantum liquids, e.g., protons and neutrons, (ii) monopole interaction (to control resistance). In other words, atomic nuclei are not necessarily like simple rigid vases containing almost free nucleons, in contrast to the naïve Fermi liquid picture. Type II shell evolution is considered to be a simple visible case involving excitations across a (sub)magic gap. The quantum self-organization becomes more important in heavier nuclei where the number of active orbits and the number of active nucleons are larger.

  7. Single-particle potential from resummed ladder diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, N.

    2013-01-01

    A recent work on the resummation of fermionic in-medium ladder diagrams to all orders is extended by calculating the complex single-particle potential U(p, k f ) + i W(p, k f ) p > k f . The on-shell single-particle potential is constructed by means of a complex-valued in-medium loop that includes corrections from a test particle of momentum vector p added to the filled Fermi sea. The single-particle potential U(k f , k f ) at the Fermi surface as obtained from the resummation of the combined particle and hole ladder diagrams is shown to satisfy the Hugenholtz-Van-Hove theorem. The perturbative contributions at various orders a n in the scattering length are deduced and checked against the known analytical results at order a 1 and a 2 . The limit a → ∞ is studied as a special case and a strong momentum dependence of the real (and imaginary) single-particle potential is found. This feature indicates an instability against a phase transition to a state with an empty shell inside the Fermi sphere such that the density gets reduced by about 5%. The imaginary single-particle potential vanishes linearly at the Fermi surface. For comparison, the same analysis is performed for the resummed particle-particle ladder diagrams alone. In this truncation an instability for hole excitations near the Fermi surface is found at strong coupling. For the set of particle-hole ring diagrams the single-particle potential is calculated as well. Furthermore, the resummation of in-medium ladder diagrams to all orders is studied for a two-dimensional Fermi gas with a short-range two-body contact interaction. (orig.)

  8. Boundary conditions of the exact impulse wave function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravielle, M.; Miraglia, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    The behavior of the exact impulse wave function is investigated at intermediate and high impact energies. Numerical details of the wave function and its perturbative potential are reported. We conclude that the impulse wave function does not tend to the proper Coulomb asymptotic limit. For electron capture, however, it is shown that the impulse wave function produces reliable probabilities even for intermediate velocities and symmetric collision systems. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  9. Classifying and assembling two-dimensional X-ray laser diffraction patterns of a single particle to reconstruct the three-dimensional diffraction intensity function: resolution limit due to the quantum noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuhisa, Atsushi; Taka, Junichiro; Kono, Hidetoshi; Go, Nobuhiro

    2012-01-01

    A new algorithm is developed for reconstructing the high-resolution three-dimensional diffraction intensity function of a globular biological macromolecule from many quantum-noise-limited two-dimensional X-ray laser diffraction patterns, each for an unknown orientation. The structural resolution is expressed as a function of the incident X-ray intensity and quantities characterizing the target molecule. A new two-step algorithm is developed for reconstructing the three-dimensional diffraction intensity of a globular biological macromolecule from many experimentally measured quantum-noise-limited two-dimensional X-ray laser diffraction patterns, each for an unknown orientation. The first step is classification of the two-dimensional patterns into groups according to the similarity of direction of the incident X-rays with respect to the molecule and an averaging within each group to reduce the noise. The second step is detection of common intersecting circles between the signal-enhanced two-dimensional patterns to identify their mutual location in the three-dimensional wavenumber space. The newly developed algorithm enables one to detect a signal for classification in noisy experimental photon-count data with as low as ∼0.1 photons per effective pixel. The wavenumber of such a limiting pixel determines the attainable structural resolution. From this fact, the resolution limit due to the quantum noise attainable by this new method of analysis as well as two important experimental parameters, the number of two-dimensional patterns to be measured (the load for the detector) and the number of pairs of two-dimensional patterns to be analysed (the load for the computer), are derived as a function of the incident X-ray intensity and quantities characterizing the target molecule

  10. Influence of Torrefaction on Single Particle Combustion of Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Zhimin; Jian, Jie; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the influence of torrefaction on the char reactivity, char yield, and combustion time of 3-5 mm spherical wood particles in a single particle combustion reactor (SPC) operating at a nominal temperature of 1231 °C. The devolatilization times were reduced and the char burnout...

  11. Tomograms and the quest for single particle nonlocality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisimov, M A; Caponigro, M; Mancini, S; Man'ko, V I

    2007-01-01

    By using a tomographic approach to quantum states, we rise the problem of nonlocality within a single particle (single degree of freedom). We propose a possible way to look for such effects on a qubit. Although a conclusive answer is far from being reached, we provide some reflections on the foundational ground

  12. Single-particle behaviour in circulating fluidized beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erik Weinell, Claus; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Johnsson, Jan Erik

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental investigation of single-particle behaviour in a cold pilot-scale model of a circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC). In the system, sand is recirculated by means of air. Pressure measurements along the riser are used to determine the suspension density...

  13. Statistical Methods for Single-Particle Electron Cryomicroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Katrine Hommelhoff

    Electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) is a form of transmission electron microscopy, aimed at reconstructing the 3D structure of a macromolecular complex from a large set of 2D projection images, as they exhibit a very low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In the single-particle reconstruction (SPR) probl...

  14. Decay properties of high-lying single-particles modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaumel, D; Fortier, S; Gales, S; Guillot, J; LangevinJoliot, H; Laurent, H; Maison, JM; Vernotte, J; Bordewijck, J; Brandenburg, S; Krasznahorkay, A; Crawley, GM; Massolo, CP; Renteria, M; Khendriche, A

    1996-01-01

    The neutron decay of high-lying single-particle states in Ni-64, Zr-90, Sn-120 and (208)pb excited by means of the (alpha,He-3) reaction has been investigated at 120 MeV incident energy using the multidetector EDEN. The characteristics of this reaction are studied using inclusive spectra and angular

  15. Single particle behaviour in circulating fluidized bed combustors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erik Weinell, Claus

    1994-01-01

    An investigation of single particle behaviour in a circulating fluidized bed combustor is described, relating to sulphur capture reactions by limestone under alternate oxidizing and reducing conditions present in a circulating fluidized bed combustor, and to the devolatilization and burn out...

  16. Ergodicity of a single particle confined in a nanopore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernardi, S.; Hansen, Jesper Schmidt; Frascolli, F.

    2012-01-01

    -ergodic component of the phase space for energy levels typical of experiments, is surprisingly small, i.e. we conclude that the ergodic hypothesis is a reasonable approximation even for a single particle trapped in a nanopore. Due to the numerical scope of this work, our focus will be the onset of ergodic behavior...

  17. Classifying and assembling two-dimensional X-ray laser diffraction patterns of a single particle to reconstruct the three-dimensional diffraction intensity function: resolution limit due to the quantum noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuhisa, Atsushi; Taka, Junichiro; Kono, Hidetoshi; Go, Nobuhiro

    2012-05-01

    A new two-step algorithm is developed for reconstructing the three-dimensional diffraction intensity of a globular biological macromolecule from many experimentally measured quantum-noise-limited two-dimensional X-ray laser diffraction patterns, each for an unknown orientation. The first step is classification of the two-dimensional patterns into groups according to the similarity of direction of the incident X-rays with respect to the molecule and an averaging within each group to reduce the noise. The second step is detection of common intersecting circles between the signal-enhanced two-dimensional patterns to identify their mutual location in the three-dimensional wavenumber space. The newly developed algorithm enables one to detect a signal for classification in noisy experimental photon-count data with as low as ~0.1 photons per effective pixel. The wavenumber of such a limiting pixel determines the attainable structural resolution. From this fact, the resolution limit due to the quantum noise attainable by this new method of analysis as well as two important experimental parameters, the number of two-dimensional patterns to be measured (the load for the detector) and the number of pairs of two-dimensional patterns to be analysed (the load for the computer), are derived as a function of the incident X-ray intensity and quantities characterizing the target molecule. © 2012 International Union of Crystallography

  18. Calculating scattering matrices by wave function matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwierzycki, M.; Khomyakov, P.A.; Starikov, A.A.; Talanana, M.; Xu, P.X.; Karpan, V.M.; Marushchenko, I.; Brocks, G.; Kelly, P.J.; Xia, K.; Turek, I.; Bauer, G.E.W.

    2008-01-01

    The conductance of nanoscale structures can be conveniently related to their scattering properties expressed in terms of transmission and reflection coefficients. Wave function matching (WFM) is a transparent technique for calculating transmission and reflection matrices for any Hamiltonian that can be represented in tight-binding form. A first-principles Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian represented on a localized orbital basis or on a real space grid has such a form. WFM is based upon direct matching of the scattering-region wave function to the Bloch modes of ideal leads used to probe the scattering region. The purpose of this paper is to give a pedagogical introduction to WFM and present some illustrative examples of its use in practice. We briefly discuss WFM for calculating the conductance of atomic wires, using a real space grid implementation. A tight-binding muffin-tin orbital implementation very suitable for studying spin-dependent transport in layered magnetic materials is illustrated by looking at spin-dependent transmission through ideal and disordered interfaces. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Single-particle spectra and magnetic field effects within precursor superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pieri, P.; Pisani, L.; Strinati, G.C.; Perali, A.

    2004-01-01

    We study the single-particle spectra below the superconducting critical temperature from weak to strong coupling within a precursor superconductivity scenario. The spectral-weight function is obtained from a self-energy that includes pairing-fluctuations within a continuum model representing the hot spots of the Brillouin zone. The effects of strong magnetic fields on the pseudogap temperature are also discussed within the same scenario

  20. NA49 Results on Single Particle and Correlation Measurements in Central PB+PB Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Fuqiang; Bachler, J.; Bailey, S.J.; Barna, D.; Barnby, L.S.; Bartke, J.; Barton, R.A.; Bialkowska, H.; Billmeier, A.; Blyth, C.O.; Bock, R.; Boimska, B.; Bormann, C.; Brady, F.P.; Brockmann, R.; Brun, R.; Buncic, P.; Caines, H.L.; Carr, L.D.; Cebra, D.A.; Cooper, G.E.; Cramer, J.G.; Cristinziani, M.; Csato, P.; Dunn, J.; Eckardt, V.; Eckhardt, F.; Ferguson, M.I.; Fischer, H.G.; Flierl, D.; Fodor, Z.; Foka, P.; Freund, P.; Friese, V.; Fuchs, M.; Gabler, F.; Gal, J.; Ganz, R.; Gazdzicki, M.; Gladysz, E.; Grebieszkow, J.; Gunther, J.; Harris, J.W.; Hegyi, S.; Henkel, T.; Hill, L.A.; Hummler, H.; Igo, G.; Irmscher, D.; Jacobs, P.; Jones, P.G.; Kadija, K.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Kowalski, M.; Lasiuk, B.; Levai, P.; Malakhov, A.I.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Melkumov, G.L.; Mock, A.; Molnar, J.; Nelson, John M.; Oldenburg, M.; Odyniec, G.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Petridis, A.; Piper, A.; Porter, R.J.; Poskanzer, Arthur M.; Prindle, D.J.; Puhlhofer, F.; Rauch, W.; Reid, J.G.; Renfordt, R.; Retyk, W.; Ritter, H.G.; Rohrich, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rudolph, H.; Rybicki, A.; Sandoval, A.; Sann, H.; Semenov, A.Yu.; Schafer, E.; Schmischke, D.; Schmitz, N.; Schonfelder, S.; Seyboth, P.; Seyerlein, J.; Sikler, F.; Skrzypczak, E.; Snellings, R.; Squier, G.T.A.; Stock, R.; Strobele, H.; Struck, C.; Szentpetery, I.; Sziklai, J.; Toy, M.; Trainor, T.A.; Trentalange, S.; Ullrich, T.; Vassiliou, M.; Veres, G.; Vesztergombi, G.; Voloshin, S.; Vranic, D.; Weerasundara, D.D.; Wenig, S.; Whitten, C.; Wienold, T.; Wood, L.; Xu, N.; Yates, T.A.; Zimanyi, J.; Zhu, X.Z.; Zybert, R.; Wang, Fuqiang

    2000-01-01

    Single-particle spectra and two-particle correlation functions measured by the NA49 collaboration in central Pb+Pb collisions at 158 GeV/nucleon are presented. These measurements are used to study the kinetic and chemical freeze-out conditions in heavy ion collisions. We conclude that large baryon stopping, high baryon density and strong transverse radial flow are achieved in central Pb+Pb collisions at the SPS.

  1. Comparative study on spreading function for directional wave spectra

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhat, S.S.; Anand, N.M.; Nayak, B.U.

    -dimensional wave energy S(f) and the directional spreading function D(f, theta). This paper reviews various spreading functions proposed in the past for estimating the directional wave energy and presents their application to the Indian wave condition. It is found...

  2. Improved Wave-vessel Transfer Functions by Uncertainty Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Fønss Bach, Kasper; Iseki, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with uncertainty modelling of wave-vessel transfer functions used to calculate or predict wave-induced responses of a ship in a seaway. Although transfer functions, in theory, can be calculated to exactly reflect the behaviour of the ship when exposed to waves, uncertainty in inp...

  3. Green function for three-wave coupling problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molevich, N E

    2001-01-01

    The Green function is found for three-wave coupling problems. The function was used for analysis of parametric amplification in dissipative and active media. It is shown that the parametric increment in active media can become exponential. As an example, the nonstationary stimulated scattering of electromagnetic waves by sound and temperatures waves is considered. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  4. Spin-Wave Wave Function for Quantum Spin Models : Condensed Matter and Statistical Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Franjo, FRANJIC; Sandro, SORELLA; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia International School for Advance Studies; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia International School for Advance Studies

    1997-01-01

    We present a new approach to determine an accurate variational wave function for general quantum spin models, completely defined by a consistency requirement with the simple and well-known linear spin-wave expansion. With this wave function, it is also possible to obtain the correct behavior of the long distance correlation functions for the 1D S=1/2 antiferromagnet. In 2D the proposed spin-wave wave function represents an excellent approximation to the exact ground state of the S=1.2 XY mode...

  5. Deep inelastic scattering and light-cone wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, V.M.; Johnson, M.B.

    1996-01-01

    In the framework of light-cone QCD rules, we study the valence quark distribution function q(x B ) of a pion for moderate x B . The sum rule with the leading twist-2 wave function gives q(x B ) = φ π (x B ). Twist-4 wave functions give about 30% for x B ∼0.5. It is shown that QCD sum rule predictions, with the asymptotic pion wave function, are in good agreement with experimental data. We found that a two-hump profile for the twist-2 wave function leads to a valence quark distribution function that contradicts experimental data

  6. Experimental study on p-wave neutron strength functions for light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, L.; Waschkowski, W.; Meier, J.; Rau, G.; Salehi, M.

    1988-01-01

    Broad energy distributions in fast neutron beams have been achieved by appropriate filtering of the 236 U fission radiation provided from the RENT converter facility at the FRM research reactor. Transmission measurements in such beams result in average cross sections to which resonance reactions and shape elastic scattering contribute. We used a silicon (124.5 cm) filtered beam with a median energy of 143 keV (width 20 keV) and beams with 1.3 MeV (0.55 to 3 MeV) and 2.1 MeV (1 to 5.5 MeV) obtained through different filter combinations of lead and polyethylene. The relative high energies and the broad spectra made it possible to determine experimentally the contributions of s- and p-wave resonance reactions to the average cross section even for light nuclei. Using the three different beams we determined the average cross sections for the elements in the mass region A = 9 to 65. Analysing the measured cross sections by means of the R matrix formalism provided a complete set of p-wave strength functions and distant level parameters. Moreover, single particle shell effects in the cross sections were observed. In conclusion we obtained information on the 2P and the 3S size resonances and about the validity of the optical model for neutron reactions with light nuclei. (orig.)

  7. Intercellular Ca2+ Waves: Mechanisms and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Intercellular calcium (Ca2+) waves (ICWs) represent the propagation of increases in intracellular Ca2+ through a syncytium of cells and appear to be a fundamental mechanism for coordinating multicellular responses. ICWs occur in a wide diversity of cells and have been extensively studied in vitro. More recent studies focus on ICWs in vivo. ICWs are triggered by a variety of stimuli and involve the release of Ca2+ from internal stores. The propagation of ICWs predominately involves cell communication with internal messengers moving via gap junctions or extracellular messengers mediating paracrine signaling. ICWs appear to be important in both normal physiology as well as pathophysiological processes in a variety of organs and tissues including brain, liver, retina, cochlea, and vascular tissue. We review here the mechanisms of initiation and propagation of ICWs, the key intra- and extracellular messengers (inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and ATP) mediating ICWs, and the proposed physiological functions of ICWs. PMID:22811430

  8. An exponential multireference wave-function Ansatz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanrath, Michael

    2005-01-01

    An exponential multireference wave-function Ansatz is formulated. In accordance with the state universal coupled-cluster Ansatz of Jeziorski and Monkhorst [Phys. Rev. A 24, 1668 (1981)] the approach uses a reference specific cluster operator. In order to achieve state selectiveness the excitation- and reference-related amplitude indexing of the state universal Ansatz is replaced by an indexing which is based on excited determinants. There is no reference determinant playing a particular role. The approach is size consistent, coincides with traditional single-reference coupled cluster if applied to a single-reference, and converges to full configuration interaction with an increasing cluster operator excitation level. Initial applications on BeH 2 , CH 2 , Li 2 , and nH 2 are reported

  9. String wave function across a Kasner singularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, Edmund J.; Niz, Gustavo; Turok, Neil

    2010-01-01

    A collision of orbifold planes in 11 dimensions has been proposed as an explanation of the hot big bang. When the two planes are close to each other, the winding membranes become the lightest modes of the theory, and can be effectively described in terms of fundamental strings in a ten-dimensional background. Near the brane collision, the 11-dimensional metric is a Euclidean space times a 1+1-dimensional Milne universe. However, one may expect small perturbations to lead into a more general Kasner background. In this paper we extend the previous classical analysis of winding membranes to Kasner backgrounds, and using the Hamiltonian equations, solve for the wave function of loops with circular symmetry. The evolution across the singularity is regular, and explained in terms of the excitement of higher oscillation modes. We also show there is finite particle production and unitarity is preserved.

  10. Collective and single-particle states at high excitation energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Berg, A.M.; Van der Molen, H.K.T.; Harakeh, M.N.; Akimune, H.; Daito, I.; Fujimura, H.; Fujiwara, M.; Ihara, F.; Inomata, T.

    2000-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Damping of high-lying single-particle states was investigated by the study of proton decay from high-lying states in 91 Nb, populated by the 90 Zr(α,t) reaction with E α = 180 MeV. In addition to decay to the ground state of 90 Zr, semi-direct decay was observed to the low-lying (2 + and 3 - ) phonon states, confirming the conclusion from other experiments that these phonon states play an important role in the damping process of the single-particle states. Furthermore, the population and decay of Isobaric Analogue States of 91 Zr, which are located at an excitation energy of about 10 - 12 MeV in 91 Nb, has been studied in the same reaction. (author)

  11. Computer network defense through radial wave functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Ian J.

    The purpose of this research is to synthesize basic and fundamental findings in quantum computing, as applied to the attack and defense of conventional computer networks. The concept focuses on uses of radio waves as a shield for, and attack against traditional computers. A logic bomb is analogous to a landmine in a computer network, and if one was to implement it as non-trivial mitigation, it will aid computer network defense. As has been seen in kinetic warfare, the use of landmines has been devastating to geopolitical regions in that they are severely difficult for a civilian to avoid triggering given the unknown position of a landmine. Thus, the importance of understanding a logic bomb is relevant and has corollaries to quantum mechanics as well. The research synthesizes quantum logic phase shifts in certain respects using the Dynamic Data Exchange protocol in software written for this work, as well as a C-NOT gate applied to a virtual quantum circuit environment by implementing a Quantum Fourier Transform. The research focus applies the principles of coherence and entanglement from quantum physics, the concept of expert systems in artificial intelligence, principles of prime number based cryptography with trapdoor functions, and modeling radio wave propagation against an event from unknown parameters. This comes as a program relying on the artificial intelligence concept of an expert system in conjunction with trigger events for a trapdoor function relying on infinite recursion, as well as system mechanics for elliptic curve cryptography along orbital angular momenta. Here trapdoor both denotes the form of cipher, as well as the implied relationship to logic bombs.

  12. Spin resonance strength calculation through single particle tracking for RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Dutheil, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Huang, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ranjbar, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    The strengths of spin resonances for the polarized-proton operation in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider are currently calculated with the code DEPOL, which numerically integrates through the ring based on an analytical approximate formula. In this article, we test a new way to calculate the spin resonance strengths by performing Fourier transformation to the actual transverse magnetic fields seen by a single particle traveling through the ring. Comparison of calculated spin resonance strengths is made between this method and DEPOL.

  13. Approximate Stream Function wavemaker theory for highly non-linear waves in wave flumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, H.W.; Schäffer, Hemming Andreas

    2007-01-01

    An approximate Stream Function wavemaker theory for highly non-linear regular waves in flumes is presented. This theory is based on an ad hoe unified wave-generation method that combines linear fully dispersive wavemaker theory and wave generation for non-linear shallow water waves. This is done...... by applying a dispersion correction to the paddle position obtained for non-linear long waves. The method is validated by a number of wave flume experiments while comparing with results of linear wavemaker theory, second-order wavemaker theory and Cnoidal wavemaker theory within its range of application....

  14. Dynamic equations for gauge-invariant wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapshaj, V.N.; Skachkov, N.B.; Solovtsov, I.L.

    1984-01-01

    The Bethe-Salpeter and quasipotential dynamic equations for wave functions of relative quark motion, have been derived. Wave functions are determined by the gauge invariant method. The V.A. Fock gauge condition is used in the construction. Despite the transl tional noninvariance of the gauge condition the standard separation of variables has been obtained and wave function doesn't contain gauge exponents

  15. On the construction of translationally invariant deformed wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guardiola, R.

    1975-01-01

    Translationally invariant nuclear wave functions are constructed from deformed harmonic oscillator shell-model wave functions, with an exact projection of angular momentum quantum numbers. It is shown that the computation of matrix elements with the translationally invariant wave functions is as simple as the standard calculation, and formulae are obtained for (i) the potential energy, (ii) the kinetic energy and rms radius, and (iii) the charge form factor. (Auth.)

  16. Wave function of the Universe as a leaking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suen, W.; Young, K.

    1989-01-01

    We propose a path-integral formulation for the wave function of the Universe which requires neither the Euclidean nor the conformal rotation. The boundary condition is taken to be that ''all possible boundaries are included.'' The resulting wave function in a simple model is shown to have the following properties: (i) the wave function tends to zero as the scale factor of the Universe tends to zero; (ii) in the semiclassical regime, it contains only the expanding component; (iii) it favors inflation

  17. Light-front wave function of composite system with spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmanov, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    The method to construct the relativistic wave function with spin on the light front is developed. The spin structure of the deuteron wave function in relativistic range is found. The calculation methods are illustrated by the calculation of elastic pd-scattering cross section. The consideration carried out is equivalent to the solution of the problem of taking into account the spins and angular momenta in the parton wave functions in the infinite momentum frame

  18. Determining Complex Structures using Docking Method with Single Particle Scattering Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiguang Liu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Protein complexes are critical for many molecular functions. Due to intrinsic flexibility and dynamics of complexes, their structures are more difficult to determine using conventional experimental methods, in contrast to individual subunits. One of the major challenges is the crystallization of protein complexes. Using X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs, it is possible to collect scattering signals from non-crystalline protein complexes, but data interpretation is more difficult because of unknown orientations. Here, we propose a hybrid approach to determine protein complex structures by combining XFEL single particle scattering data with computational docking methods. Using simulations data, we demonstrate that a small set of single particle scattering data collected at random orientations can be used to distinguish the native complex structure from the decoys generated using docking algorithms. The results also indicate that a small set of single particle scattering data is superior to spherically averaged intensity profile in distinguishing complex structures. Given the fact that XFEL experimental data are difficult to acquire and at low abundance, this hybrid approach should find wide applications in data interpretations.

  19. Mathieu functions describing particles evolving in electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihu, Denisa-Andreea; Dariescu, Marina-Aura

    2017-12-01

    Solutions of Klein-Gordon equation for particles moving in a standing wave configuration bring into attention an intricate and complicated category of special functions, namely the Mathieu functions. The stability of the solutions governed by the intercorrelation between Mathieu equation' parameters is discussed. For specific intervals of the wave number, the instability regime installs, pointing out the tendency of exponential growth for the oscillatory wave functions, as a consequence of parametric resonance phenomenon. The expression of the wave function allows the computation of the four-dimensional conserved current density components.

  20. Parametrization of the scattering wave functions of the Paris potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loiseau, B.; Mathelitsch, L.

    1996-10-01

    The neutron-proton scattering wave functions of the Paris nucleon-nucleon potential are parametrized for partial waves of total angular momenta less than 5. The inner parts of the wave functions are approximated by polynomials with a continuous transition to the outer parts, which are given by the asymptotic regime and determined by the respective phase shifts. The scattering wave functions can then be calculated at any given energy below 400 MeV. Special attention is devoted to the zero-energy limit of the low partial waves. An easy-to-use FORTRAN program, which allows the user to calculate these parametrized wave functions, is available via electronic mail. (author)

  1. Six Impossible Things: Fractional Charge From Laughlin's Wave Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, Keshav N.

    2010-01-01

    The Laughlin's wave function is found to be the zero-energy ground state of a δ-function Hamiltonian. The finite negative value of the ground state energy which is 91 per cent of Wigner value, can be obtained only when Coulomb correlations are introduced. The Laughlin's wave function is of short range and it overlaps with that of the exact wave functions of small (number of electrons 2 or 5) systems. (i) It is impossible to obtain fractional charge from Laughlin's wave function. (ii) It is impossible to prove that the Laughlin's wave function gives the ground state of the Coulomb Hamiltonian. (iii) It is impossible to have particle-hole symmetry in the Laughlin's wave function. (iv) It is impossible to derive the value of m in the Laughlin's wave function. The value of m in ψ m can not be proved to be 3 or 5. (v) It is impossible to prove that the Laughlin's state is incompressible because the compressible states are also likely. (vi) It is impossible for the Laughlin's wave function to have spin. This effort is directed to explain the experimental data of quantum Hall effect in GaAs/AlGaAs.

  2. Study of single particle properties of neutron-rich Na isotopes on the "shore of the island of inversion" by means of neutron-transfer reactions

    CERN Multimedia

    Reiter, P; Blazhev, A A; Riisager, K; Bastin, B; Tengborn, E A; Kruecken, R; Voulot, D; Jeppesen, H B; Hadinia, B; Gernhaeuser, R A; Fynbo, H O U; Georgiev, G P; Habs, D; Fraile prieto, L M; Chapman, R; Nilsson, T; Diriken, J V J; Jenkins, D G; Kroell, T; Leske, J; Huyse, M L; Patronis, N

    We aim at the investigation of single particle properties of neutron-rich Na isotopes around the "shore of the island of inversion". As first experiment of this programme, we propose to study excited states in the isotope $^{29}$Na by a one-neutron transfer reaction with a $^{28}$Na beam at 3 MeV/u obtained from REX-ISOLDE impinging on a CD$_{2}$-target. The $\\gamma$-rays will be detected by the MINIBALL array and the particles by the T-REX array of segmented Si detectors. The main physics aims are to extract from the relative spectroscopic factors information on the configurations contributing to the wave functions of the populated states and, secondly, to identify and characterize negative parity states whose excitation energies reflect directly the N= 28 gap in this region. The results will be compared to recent shell model calculations involving new residual interactions. This will shed new light on the evolution of single particle structure and help to understand the underlying physics relevant for the f...

  3. Single-particle and collective excitations in Ni-63

    OpenAIRE

    Albers, M.; Zhu, S.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Gellanki, Jnaneswari; Ragnarsson, Ingemar; Alcorta, M.; Baugher, T.; Bertone, P. F.; Carpenter, M. P.; Chiara, C. J.; Chowdhury, P.; Deacon, A. N.; Gade, A.; DiGiovine, B.; Hoffman, C. R.

    2013-01-01

    A study of excited states in Ni-63 up to an excitation energy of 28 MeV and a probable spin of 57/2 was carried out with the Mg-26(Ca-48,2 alpha 3n gamma)Ni-63 reaction at beam energies between 275 and 320 MeV. Three collective bands, built upon states of single-particle character, were identified. For two of the three bands, the transition quadrupole moments were extracted, herewith quantifying the deformation at high spin. The results have been compared with shell-model and cranked Nilsson-...

  4. Single particle tracking and single molecule energy transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Bräuchle, Christoph; Michaelis, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Closing a gap in the literature, this handbook gathers all the information on single particle tracking and single molecule energy transfer. It covers all aspects of this hot and modern topic, from detecting virus entry to membrane diffusion, and from protein folding using spFRET to coupled dye systems, as well recent achievements in the field. Throughout, the first-class editors and top international authors present content of the highest quality, making this a must-have for physical chemists, spectroscopists, molecular physicists and biochemists.

  5. Decay properties of high-lying single-particles modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumel, D.; Fortier, S.; Galès, S.; Guillot, J.; Langevin-Joliot, H.; Laurent, H.; Maison, J. M.; Vernotte, J.; Bordewijck, J.; Brandenburg, S.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Crawley, G. M.; Massolo, C. P.; Renteria, M.; Khendriche, A.

    1996-02-01

    The neutron decay of high-lying single-particle states in 64Ni, 90Zr, 120Sn and 208Pb excited by means of the (α, 3He) reaction has been investigated at 120 MeV incident energy using the multidetector EDEN. The characteristics of this reaction are studied using inclusive spectra and angular correlation analysis. The structure located between 11 and 15 MeV in 91Zr, and between 8 and 12 MeV excitation energy in 209Pb display large departures from a pure statistical decay. The corresponding non-statistical branching ratios are compared with the results of two theoretical calculations.

  6. Nuclear charge and magnetization densities of single particle states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frois, B.

    1985-01-01

    High energy electron scattering data have recently determined the spatial distributions of nucleons in the center of nuclei with amazing accuracy. For the first time we have access to the structure of the nuclear interior throughout the periodic table. The spatial resolution achieved by high momentum transfer measurements is now sufficient to define clearly the present limits of nuclear theory. The experimental situation is briefly reviewed and the results interpreted in the framework of self-consistent field theory. The shapes of single particle distributions in the nuclear interior are found to be in surprisingly good agreement with the predictions of mean field theory. The effects of correlations are discussed. (orig.)

  7. Nuclear charge and magnetization densities of single particle states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frois, B.

    1985-05-01

    High energy electron scattering data have recently determined the spatial distributions of nucleons in the center of nuclei with amazing accuracy. For the first time we have access to the structure of the nuclear interior throughout the periodic table. The spatial resolution achieved by high momentum transfer measurements is now sufficient to define clearly the present limits of nuclear theory. The experimental situation is briefly reviewed and the results interpreted in the framework of self-consistent field theory. The shapes of single particle distributions in the nuclear interior are found to be in surprisingly good agreement with the predictions of mean field theory. The effects of correlations are discussed

  8. Single-Particle Spin-Orbit Splittings in Nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuhiko, ANDO; Hiroharu, BANDO; Department of Physics, Kyoto University; Division of Mathematical Physics, Fukui University

    1981-01-01

    Single-particle spin-orbit splittings (Δ^) in ^O and ^Ca nuclei are evaluated within the framework of the effective interaction theory by employing the Reid soft-core potential and meson-exchange three-body forces (TBF). Among the two-body force contributions, the Pauli-rearrangement effect on Δ^ is studied with special care. The TBF contribution to Δ^ is found to be significant. The G-matrix, the second-order pauli-rearrangement and the TBF contribute to Δ^ by the amount of ~1/2, ~1/5 and ~1...

  9. The measurement of single particle temperature in plasma sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fincke, J.R.; Swank, W.D.; Bolsaitis, P.P.; Elliott, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    A measurement technique for simultaneously obtaining the size, velocity, temperature, and relative number density of particles entrained in high temperature flow fields is described. In determining the particle temperature from a two-color pyrometery technique, assumptions about the relative spectral emissivity of the particle are required. For situations in which the particle surface undergoes chemical reactions the assumption of grey body behavior is shown to introduce large Temperature measurement uncertainties. Results from isolated, laser heated, single particle measurements and in-flight data from the plasma spraying of WC-Co are presented. 10 refs., 5 figs

  10. Wave-function reconstruction in a graded semiconductor superlattice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyssenko, V. G.; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Meinhold, D.

    2004-01-01

    We reconstruct a test wave function in a strongly coupled, graded well-width superlattice by resolving the spatial extension of the interband polarisation and deducing the wave function employing non-linear optical spectroscopy. The graded gap superlattice allows us to precisely control the dista...

  11. A convenient analytical form for the triton wave function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajduk, C.; Green, A.M.; Sainio, M.E.

    1979-01-01

    The triton wave function obtained by solving the Faddeev equations with the Reid soft core potential is parametrized in a symmetrized cluster form. As a test the 3 He charge form factor is calculated for the exact and the parametrized wave functions and reasonable agreement between the two is found. (author)

  12. Collapse of the wave function models, ontology, origin, and implications

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    This is the first single volume about the collapse theories of quantum mechanics, which is becoming a very active field of research in both physics and philosophy. In standard quantum mechanics, it is postulated that when the wave function of a quantum system is measured, it no longer follows the Schrödinger equation, but instantaneously and randomly collapses to one of the wave functions that correspond to definite measurement results. However, why and how a definite measurement result appears is unknown. A promising solution to this problem are collapse theories in which the collapse of the wave function is spontaneous and dynamical. Chapters written by distinguished physicists and philosophers of physics discuss the origin and implications of wave-function collapse, the controversies around collapse models and their ontologies, and new arguments for the reality of wave function collapse. This is an invaluable resource for students and researchers interested in the philosophy of physics and foundations of ...

  13. Effect of Forcing Function on Nonlinear Acoustic Standing Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkheiner, Joshua R.; Li, Xiao-Fan; Raman, Ganesh; Daniels, Chris; Steinetz, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Nonlinear acoustic standing waves of high amplitude have been demonstrated by utilizing the effects of resonator shape to prevent the pressure waves from entering saturation. Experimentally, nonlinear acoustic standing waves have been generated by shaking an entire resonating cavity. While this promotes more efficient energy transfer than a piston-driven resonator, it also introduces complicated structural dynamics into the system. Experiments have shown that these dynamics result in resonator forcing functions comprised of a sum of several Fourier modes. However, previous numerical studies of the acoustics generated within the resonator assumed simple sinusoidal waves as the driving force. Using a previously developed numerical code, this paper demonstrates the effects of using a forcing function constructed with a series of harmonic sinusoidal waves on resonating cavities. From these results, a method will be demonstrated which allows the direct numerical analysis of experimentally generated nonlinear acoustic waves in resonators driven by harmonic forcing functions.

  14. Calculation of deuteron wave functions with relativistic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, W.W. III.

    1976-01-01

    Deuteron wave functions with a repulsive core are obtained numerically from a fully relativistic wave equation introduced by Gross. The numerical technique enables analytic solutions for classes of interactions composed of the relativistic exchanges of a single pion and a single phenomenological meson, sigma. The pion is chosen to interact as a mixture of pseudoscalar and pseudovector. The amount of mixture is determined by a free mixing parameter, lambda, ranging between 1 (pure pseudoscalar) and (pure pseudovector). Each value of lambda corresponds, then, to a different interaction. Solutions are found for lambda = 1, .9, .8, .6, and 0. The wave functions for each interaction come in a group of four. Of the four wave functions, two are the usual S and D state wave functions, while the remaining two, arising out of the relativistic prescription, are identified as 3 P 1 and 1 P 1 wave functions (P state wave functions). For the interactions solved for, the D state probabilities ranged between 5.1 percent and 6.3 percent, while the total P state probabilities ranged between 0.7 percent and 2.7 percent. The method of obtaining solutions was to adjust the sigma meson parameters to give the correct binding energy and a good quadrupole moment. All wave functions obtained are applied to relativistic N-d scattering in the backward direction where the effect of the P states is quite measurable

  15. Temperature dependence of single-particle properties in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, W.; Lu, G.C.; Li, Z.H.; Lombardo, U.; Schulze, H.-J.

    2006-01-01

    The single-nucleon potential in hot nuclear matter is investigated in the framework of the Brueckner theory by adopting the realistic Argonne V 18 or Nijmegen 93 two-body nucleon-nucleon interaction supplemented by a microscopic three-body force. The rearrangement contribution to the single-particle potential induced by the ground state correlations is calculated in terms of the hole-line expansion of the mass operator and provides a significant repulsive contribution in the low-momentum region around and below the Fermi surface. Increasing temperature leads to a reduction of the effect, while increasing density makes it become stronger. The three-body force suppresses somewhat the ground state correlations due to its strong short-range repulsion, increasing with density. Inclusion of the three-body force contribution results in a quite different temperature dependence of the single-particle potential at high enough densities as compared to that adopting the pure two-body force. The effects of three-body force and ground state correlations on the nucleon effective mass are also discussed

  16. Binding energy and single-particle energies in the 16O Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiase, J.O.; Sharma, L.K.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present the binding energy of 16 O together with single-particle energies in the oxygen region by folding together a Hamiltonian in the rest-frame of the nucleus with two-body correlation functions based on the Nijmegen potential. We have found that the binding energies are very sensitive to the core radius rc and that the effects of tensor correlations are non-negligible.Our calculated binding energy, E B = - 127.8 MeV with r c = 0.241 fm compares well with the experimental binding energy, E B = - 127.6 MeV

  17. Special software for computing the special functions of wave catastrophes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey S. Kryukovsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of ordinary differential equations in the context of calculating the special functions of wave catastrophes is considered. Complementary numerical methods and algorithms are described. The paper shows approaches to accelerate such calculations using capabilities of modern computing systems. Methods for calculating the special functions of wave catastrophes are considered in the framework of parallel computing and distributed systems. The paper covers the development process of special software for calculating of special functions, questions of portability, extensibility and interoperability.

  18. On quantum mechanical phase-space wave functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wlodarz, Joachim J.

    1994-01-01

    An approach to quantum mechanics based on the notion of a phase-space wave function is proposed within the Weyl-Wigner-Moyal representation. It is shown that the Schrodinger equation for the phase-space wave function is equivalent to the quantum Liouville equation for the Wigner distribution...... function. The relationship to the recent results by Torres-Vega and Frederick [J. Chem. Phys. 98, 3103 (1993)] is also discussed....

  19. Optimized Perturbation Theory for Wave Functions of Quantum Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatsuda, T.; Tanaka, T.; Kunihiro, T.

    1997-01-01

    The notion of the optimized perturbation, which has been successfully applied to energy eigenvalues, is generalized to treat wave functions of quantum systems. The key ingredient is to construct an envelope of a set of perturbative wave functions. This leads to a condition similar to that obtained from the principle of minimal sensitivity. Applications of the method to the quantum anharmonic oscillator and the double well potential show that uniformly valid wave functions with correct asymptotic behavior are obtained in the first-order optimized perturbation even for strong couplings. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  20. Improved wave functions for large-N expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imbo, T.; Sukhatme, U.

    1985-01-01

    Existing large-N expansions of radial wave functions phi/sub n/,l(r) are only accurate near the minimum of the effective potential. Within the framework of the shifted 1/N expansion, we use known analytic results to motivate a simple modification so that the improved wave functions are accurate over a wide range of r and any choice of quantum numbers n and l. It is shown that these wave functions yield simple and accurate analytic expressions for certain quantities of interest in quarkonium physics

  1. Conformal invariance and pion wave functions of nonleading twist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, V.M.; Filyanov, I.E.

    1989-01-01

    The restrictions are studied for the general structure of pion wave functions of twist 3 and twist 4 imposed by the conformal symmetry and the equations of motion. A systematic expansion of wave functions in the conformal spin is built and the first order corrections to asymptotic formulae are calculated by the QCD sum rule method. In particular, we have found a multiplicatively renormalizable contribution into the two-particle wave function of twist 4 which cannot be expanded in a finite set of Gegenbauer polynomials. 19 refs.; 5 figs

  2. Optimization of magnetic switches for single particle and cell transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abedini-Nassab, Roozbeh; Yellen, Benjamin B., E-mail: yellen@duke.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, Box 90300 Hudson Hall, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Joint Institute, University of Michigan—Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Murdoch, David M. [Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Kim, CheolGi [Department of Emerging Materials Science, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Daegu 711-873 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-28

    The ability to manipulate an ensemble of single particles and cells is a key aim of lab-on-a-chip research; however, the control mechanisms must be optimized for minimal power consumption to enable future large-scale implementation. Recently, we demonstrated a matter transport platform, which uses overlaid patterns of magnetic films and metallic current lines to control magnetic particles and magnetic-nanoparticle-labeled cells; however, we have made no prior attempts to optimize the device geometry and power consumption. Here, we provide an optimization analysis of particle-switching devices based on stochastic variation in the particle's size and magnetic content. These results are immediately applicable to the design of robust, multiplexed platforms capable of transporting, sorting, and storing single cells in large arrays with low power and high efficiency.

  3. Reconstructing an icosahedral virus from single-particle diffraction experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldin, D. K.; Poon, H.-C.; Schwander, P.; Uddin, M.; Schmidt, M.

    2011-08-01

    The first experimental data from single-particle scattering experiments from free electron lasers (FELs) are now becoming available. The first such experiments are being performed on relatively large objects such as viruses, which produce relatively low-resolution, low-noise diffraction patterns in so-called ``diffract-and-destroy'' experiments. We describe a very simple test on the angular correlations of measured diffraction data to determine if the scattering is from an icosahedral particle. If this is confirmed, the efficient algorithm proposed can then combine diffraction data from multiple shots of particles in random unknown orientations to generate a full 3D image of the icosahedral particle. We demonstrate this with a simulation for the satellite tobacco necrosis virus (STNV), the atomic coordinates of whose asymmetric unit is given in Protein Data Bank entry 2BUK.

  4. Decay properties of high-lying single-particles modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaumel, D. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 91 - Orsay (France); Fortier, S. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 91 - Orsay (France); Gales, S. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 91 - Orsay (France); Guillot, J. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 91 - Orsay (France); Langevin-Joliot, H. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 91 - Orsay (France); Laurent, H. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 91 -Orsay (France); Maison, J.M. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 91 - Orsay (France); Vernotte, J. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 91 - Orsay (France); Bordewijck, J. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, 9747 Groningen (Netherlands); Brandenburg, S. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, 9747 Groningen (Netherlands); Krasznahorkay, A. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, 9747 Groningen (Netherlands); Crawley, G.M. [NSCL, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Massolo, C.P. [Universitad Nacional de La Plata, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Renteria, M. [Universitad Nacional de La Plata, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Khendriche, A. [University of Tizi-Ouzou, Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria)

    1996-03-18

    The neutron decay of high-lying single-particle states in {sup 64}Ni, {sup 90}Zr, {sup 120}Sn and {sup 208}Pb excited by means of the ({alpha},{sup 3}He) reaction has been investigated at 120 MeV incident energy using the multidetector EDEN. The characteristics of this reaction are studied using inclusive spectra and angular correlation analysis. The structure located between 11 and 15 MeV in {sup 91}Zr, and between 8 and 12 MeV excitation energy in {sup 209}Pb display large departures from a pure statistical decay. The corresponding non-statistical branching ratios are compared with the results of two theoretical calculations. (orig.).

  5. Towards single particle imaging of human chromosomes at SACLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Ian; Schwenke, Joerg; Yusuf, Mohammed; Estandarte, Ana; Zhang, Fucai; Chen, Bo; Clark, Jesse; Song, Changyong; Nam, Daewoong; Joti, Yasumasa; Tono, Kensuke; Yabashi, Makina; Ratnasari, Gina; Kaneyoshi, Kohei; Takata, Hideaki; Fukui, Kiichi

    2015-01-01

    Single particle imaging (SPI) is one of the front-page opportunities which were used to motivate the construction of the first x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs). SPI’s big advantage is that it avoids radiation damage to biological samples because the diffraction takes place in femtosecond single shots before any atomic motion can take place in the sample, hence before the onset of radiation damage. This is the ‘diffract before destruction’ theme, destruction being assured from the high x-ray doses used. This article reports our collaboration’s first attempt at SPI using the SACLA XFEL facility in June 2015. The report is limited to experience with the instrumentation and examples of data because we have not yet had time to invert them to images. (paper)

  6. Authenticated multi-user quantum key distribution with single particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Song; Wang, Hui; Guo, Gong-De; Ye, Guo-Hua; Du, Hong-Zhen; Liu, Xiao-Fen

    2016-03-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) has been growing rapidly in recent years and becomes one of the hottest issues in quantum information science. During the implementation of QKD on a network, identity authentication has been one main problem. In this paper, an efficient authenticated multi-user quantum key distribution (MQKD) protocol with single particles is proposed. In this protocol, any two users on a quantum network can perform mutual authentication and share a secure session key with the assistance of a semi-honest center. Meanwhile, the particles, which are used as quantum information carriers, are not required to be stored, therefore the proposed protocol is feasible with current technology. Finally, security analysis shows that this protocol is secure in theory.

  7. A transient single particle model under FCI conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-Yan; SHANG Zhi; XU Ji-Jun

    2005-01-01

    The paper is focused on the coupling effect between film boiling heat transfer and evaporation drag around a hot-particle in cold liquid. Based on the continuity, momentum and energy equations of the vapor film, a transient two-dimensional single particle model has been established. This paper contains a detailed description of HPMC (High-temperature Particle Moving in Coolant) model for studying some aspects of the premixing stage of fuel-coolant interactions (FCIs). The transient process of high-temperature particles moving in coolant can be simulated. Comparisons between the experiment results and the calculations using HPMC model demonstrate that HPMC model achieves a good agreement in predicting the time-varying characteristic of high-temperature spheres moving in coolant.

  8. Classification using diffraction patterns for single-particle analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Hongli; Zhang, Kaiming [Department of Biophysics, the Health Science Centre, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Meng, Xing, E-mail: xmeng101@gmail.com [Wadsworth Centre, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York 12201 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    An alternative method has been assessed; diffraction patterns derived from the single particle data set were used to perform the first round of classification in creating the initial averages for proteins data with symmetrical morphology. The test protein set was a collection of Caenorhabditis elegans small heat shock protein 17 obtained by Cryo EM, which has a tetrahedral (12-fold) symmetry. It is demonstrated that the initial classification on diffraction patterns is workable as well as the real-space classification that is based on the phase contrast. The test results show that the information from diffraction patterns has the enough details to make the initial model faithful. The potential advantage using the alternative method is twofold, the ability to handle the sets with poor signal/noise or/and that break the symmetry properties. - Highlights: • New classification method. • Create the accurate initial model. • Better in handling noisy data.

  9. Classification using diffraction patterns for single-particle analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Hongli; Zhang, Kaiming; Meng, Xing

    2016-01-01

    An alternative method has been assessed; diffraction patterns derived from the single particle data set were used to perform the first round of classification in creating the initial averages for proteins data with symmetrical morphology. The test protein set was a collection of Caenorhabditis elegans small heat shock protein 17 obtained by Cryo EM, which has a tetrahedral (12-fold) symmetry. It is demonstrated that the initial classification on diffraction patterns is workable as well as the real-space classification that is based on the phase contrast. The test results show that the information from diffraction patterns has the enough details to make the initial model faithful. The potential advantage using the alternative method is twofold, the ability to handle the sets with poor signal/noise or/and that break the symmetry properties. - Highlights: • New classification method. • Create the accurate initial model. • Better in handling noisy data.

  10. Multi-Color Single Particle Tracking with Quantum Dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Eva Arnspang; Brewer, J. R.; Lagerholm, B. C.

    2012-01-01

    . multiplex single molecule sensitivity applications such as single particle tracking (SPT). In order to fully optimize single molecule multiplex application with QDs, we have in this work performed a comprehensive quantitative investigation of the fluorescence intensities, fluorescence intensity fluctuations......Quantum dots (QDs) have long promised to revolutionize fluorescence detection to include even applications requiring simultaneous multi-species detection at single molecule sensitivity. Despite the early promise, the unique optical properties of QDs have not yet been fully exploited in e. g...... further show that there is only a small size advantage in using blue-shifted QDs in biological applications because of the additional size of the water-stabilizing surface coat. Extending previous work, we finally also show that parallel four color multicolor (MC)-SPT with QDs is possible at an image...

  11. Nonstandard jump functions for radically symmetric shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baty, Roy S.; Tucker, Don H.; Stanescu, Dan

    2008-01-01

    Nonstandard analysis is applied to derive generalized jump functions for radially symmetric, one-dimensional, magnetogasdynamic shock waves. It is assumed that the shock wave jumps occur on infinitesimal intervals and the jump functions for the physical parameters occur smoothly across these intervals. Locally integrable predistributions of the Heaviside function are used to model the flow variables across a shock wave. The equations of motion expressed in nonconservative form are then applied to derive unambiguous relationships between the jump functions for the physical parameters for two families of self-similar flows. It is shown that the microstructures for these families of radially symmetric, magnetogasdynamic shock waves coincide in a nonstandard sense for a specified density jump function.

  12. Interplay of tensor correlations and vibrational coupling for single-particle states in atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colo, G.; SAgawa, H.; Bortignon, P. F.

    2009-01-01

    To study the structure of atomic nuclei, the ab-initio methods can nowadays be applied only for mass number A smaller than ∼ 10-15. For heavier systems, the self-consistent mean-field (SCMF) approach is probably the most microscopic approach which can be systematically applied to stable and exotic nuclei. In practice, the SCMF is mostly based on parametrizations of an effective interaction. However, the are groups who are intensively working on the development of a general density functional (DF) which is not necessarily extracted from an Hamiltonian. The basic question is to what extent this allows improving on the existing functionals. In this contribution we analyze the performance of existing functionals as far as the reproduction of single-particle states is concerned. We start by analyzing the effect of the tensor terms, on which the attention of several groups have recently focused. Then we discuss the impact of the particle-vibration coupling (PVC). Although the basic idea of this approach dates back to long time ago, we present here for the first time calculations which are entirely based on microscopic interactions without dropping any term or introducing ad hoc parameters. We show results both for well-known, benchmark nuclei like 4 0C a and 2 08P b as well as unstable nuclei like 1 32S n. Both single-particle energies and spectroscopic factors are discussed.(author)

  13. Single particle analysis with a 3600 light scattering photometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholdi, M.F.

    1979-06-01

    Light scattering by single spherical homogeneous particles in the diameter range 1 to 20 μm and relative refractive index 1.20 is measured. Particle size of narrowly dispersed populations is determined and a multi-modal dispersion of five components is completely analyzed. A 360 0 light scattering photometer for analysis of single particles has been designed and developed. A fluid stream containing single particles intersects a focused laser beam at the primary focal point of an ellipsoidal reflector ring. The light scattered at angles theta = 2.5 0 to 177.5 0 at phi = 0 0 and 180 0 is reflected onto a circular array of photodiodes. The ellipsoidal reflector is situated in a chamber filled with fluid matching that of the stream to minimize refracting and reflecting interfaces. The detector array consists of 60 photodiodes each subtending 3 0 in scattering angle on 6 0 centers around 360 0 . 32 measurements on individual particles can be acquired at rates of 500 particles per second. The intensity and angular distribution of light scattered by spherical particles are indicative of size and relative refractive index. Calculations, using Lorenz--Mie theory, of differential scattering patterns integrated over angle corresponding to the detector geometry determined the instrument response to particle size. From this the expected resolution and experimental procedures are determined.Ultimately, the photometer will be utilized for identification and discrimination of biological cells based on the sensitivity of light scattering to size, shape, refractive index differences, internal granularity, and other internal morphology. This study has demonstrated the utility of the photometer and indicates potential for application to light scattering studies of biological cells

  14. Aspects of a collective single-particle model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutz, U.

    1985-01-01

    The successful application of time-reversal breaking wave functions in the framework of collective models based on a mean-field approach is for fermionic accesses known for a long while. In this thesis this concept is confirmed also for bosons. Especially in the study of some simple models the physical content of which is determined by the IBA model analytical model-solutions are found which are in a surprisingly well agreement with the exact IBA solutions and the experimental spectra. These solutions which describe the ground-state band are thereby dependent on geometrical shape parameters and of a simpler structure than those of the IBA model. Thereby the cranking model serves as an essential support. In order to obtain a better understanding of the cranking model it is tried to go beyond the mean-field approach. Thereby also the neighbourhood of the stationary point is studied. The approach consecuted here is based on the necessity of a variation after the projection. This is forced by the application of as simple wave functions as possible in the solution of the nuclear many-body problem by means of a symmetry breaking mean-field. Exactly performable is the projection however only in the case of the particle-number symmetry. The particle-number projection was applied to the study of the high spin excitations of 168 Hf. The two-quasiparticle band of this nucleus exhibits a rotational band with the moment of inertia of a rigid body. The speculation of a phase transition of the nuclear system from superfluid to normally fluid resulting from this is not confirmed in the theoretical study. The energy gap remains also in the two-quasiparticle band up to high angular momenta nearly undiminishedly. Especially it is shown that the energy-level scheme of a nucleus contains no information about phase transitions. (orig./HSI) [de

  15. Optimal noise reduction in 3D reconstructions of single particles using a volume-normalized filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindelar, Charles V.; Grigorieff, Nikolaus

    2012-01-01

    The high noise level found in single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) image data presents a special challenge for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the imaged molecules. The spectral signal-to-noise ratio (SSNR) and related Fourier shell correlation (FSC) functions are commonly used to assess and mitigate the noise-generated error in the reconstruction. Calculation of the SSNR and FSC usually includes the noise in the solvent region surrounding the particle and therefore does not accurately reflect the signal in the particle density itself. Here we show that the SSNR in a reconstructed 3D particle map is linearly proportional to the fractional volume occupied by the particle. Using this relationship, we devise a novel filter (the “single-particle Wiener filter”) to minimize the error in a reconstructed particle map, if the particle volume is known. Moreover, we show how to approximate this filter even when the volume of the particle is not known, by optimizing the signal within a representative interior region of the particle. We show that the new filter improves on previously proposed error-reduction schemes, including the conventional Wiener filter as well as figure-of-merit weighting, and quantify the relationship between all of these methods by theoretical analysis as well as numeric evaluation of both simulated and experimentally collected data. The single-particle Wiener filter is applicable across a broad range of existing 3D reconstruction techniques, but is particularly well suited to the Fourier inversion method, leading to an efficient and accurate implementation. PMID:22613568

  16. Building the Nanoplasmonics Toolbox Through Shape Modeling and Single Particle Optical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringe, Emilie

    Interest in nanotechnology is driven by unprecedented properties tailorability, achievable by controlling particle structure and composition. Unlike bulk components, minute changes in size and shape affect the optical and electronic properties of nanoparticles. Characterization of such structure-function relationships and better understanding of structure control mechanisms is crucial to the development of applications such as plasmonic sensors and devices. The objective of the current research is thus twofold: to theoretically predict and understand how shape is controlled by synthesis conditions, and to experimentally unravel, through single particle studies, how shape, composition, size, and surrounding environment affect plasmonic properties in noble metal particles. Quantitative, predictive rules and fundamental knowledge obtained from this research contributes to the "nanoplasmonics toolbox", a library designed to provide scientists and engineers the tools to create and optimize novel nanotechnology applications. In this dissertation, single particle approaches are developed and used to unravel the effects of size, shape, substrate, aggregation state and surrounding environment on the optical response of metallic nanoparticles. Ag and Au nanocubes on different substrates are first presented, followed by the discussion of the concept of plasmon length, a universal parameter to describe plasmon energy for a variety of particle shapes and plasmon modes. Plasmonic sensing (both refractive index sensing and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy) and polarization effects are then studied at the single particle level. In the last two Chapters, analytical shape models based on the Wulff construction provide unique modeling tools for alloy and kinetically grown nanoparticles. The former reveals a size-dependence of the shape of small alloy particles (such as those used in catalysis) because of surface segregation, while the latter uniquely models the shape of many

  17. Simultaneous projection of particle-number and angular momentum BCS wave-functions in the rare-earth nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudih, M.R.; Fellah, M.; Allal, N.H.; Benhamouda, N.

    1999-01-01

    It is well established that the BCS wave-functions are neither eigen-functions of the particle-number operator nor of the angular momentum operator. In a previous paper, we have developed a particle-number projection before variation method (of FBCS type). This discrete projection method is based on the SBCS wave-function. The aim of the present contribution is to perform a subsequent angular momentum projection by means of the Peierls-Yoccoz method. The general expression of the system energy, after the double projection, is established in the case of axial symmetry. For practical calculations, an approximation method is introduced. It leads to a semi-classical form of the rotational energy. The rotational spectra have been evaluated numerically for some even-even rare-earth nuclei. The single-particle energies and eigen-states are those of a deformed Woods-Saxon mean field. The obtained results are compared on one hand, to the experimental data, and on the other hand, to the theoretical spectra evaluated by a particle-number projection after variation method (of PBCS type). For all studied nuclei, the spectra determined by the FBCS method reproduce the experimental data better than those of the PBCS method. However, even if the present method is satisfying for low angular momenta, the agreement with the experimental data is lesser for I ≥ 8, particularly for the lighter studied nuclei. (authors)

  18. The Green-function transform and wave propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin eSheppard

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fourier methods well known in signal processing are applied to three-dimensional wave propagation problems. The Fourier transform of the Green function, when written explicitly in terms of a real-valued spatial frequency, consists of homogeneous and inhomogeneous components. Both parts are necessary to result in a pure out-going wave that satisfies causality. The homogeneous component consists only of propagating waves, but the inhomogeneous component contains both evanescent and propagating terms. Thus we make a distinction between inhomogeneous waves and evanescent waves. The evanescent component is completely contained in the region of the inhomogeneous component outside the k-space sphere. Further, propagating waves in the Weyl expansion contain both homogeneous and inhomogeneous components. The connection between the Whittaker and Weyl expansions is discussed. A list of relevant spherically symmetric Fourier transforms is given.

  19. Analytical evaluation of integrals over Coulomb wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesbet, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    Indefinite integrals of products of Coulomb wave functions over the interval (r, ∞) can be evaluated by conversion to continued fractions. Examples are given of normalization and dipole transition integrals required in photoionization calculations. (orig.)

  20. Construction of Bethe Salpeter wave functions and applications in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gromes, D.

    1993-01-01

    We suggest an ansatz for the Bethe Salpeter wave function which is strictly covariant, obeys the spectrum conditions, and has the correct non relativistic limit. As a first simple application we present a wave function for the pion. It contains two parameters, one of them being the quark mass. The decay constant and the form factor derived from this are in excellent agreement with the data. (orig.)

  1. Wave function collapse implies divergence of average displacement

    OpenAIRE

    Marchewka, A.; Schuss, Z.

    2005-01-01

    We show that propagating a truncated discontinuous wave function by Schr\\"odinger's equation, as asserted by the collapse axiom, gives rise to non-existence of the average displacement of the particle on the line. It also implies that there is no Zeno effect. On the other hand, if the truncation is done so that the reduced wave function is continuous, the average coordinate is finite and there is a Zeno effect. Therefore the collapse axiom of measurement needs to be revised.

  2. Horizon wave-function and the quantum cosmic censorship

    OpenAIRE

    Casadio, RobertoDipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Alma Mater Università di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, Bologna, 40126, Italy; Micu, Octavian(Institute of Space Science, Bucharest, P.O. Box MG-23, Bucharest-Magurele, RO-077125, Romania); Stojkovic, Dejan(HEPCOS, Department of Physics, SUNY at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, 14260-1500, United States)

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the Cosmic Censorship Conjecture by means of the horizon wave-function (HWF) formalism. We consider a charged massive particle whose quantum mechanical state is represented by a spherically symmetric Gaussian wave-function, and restrict our attention to the superxtremal case (with charge-to-mass ratio $\\alpha>1$), which is the prototype of a naked singularity in the classical theory. We find that one can still obtain a normalisable HWF for $\\alpha^2 2$, and the uncertainty in t...

  3. Charge symmetry of electron wave functions in a quantized electromagnetic wave field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, M V [AN SSSR, Moscow. Fizicheskij Inst.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt to clear up the reasons of the electron charge symmetry violation in the quantum wave field was made in this article. For this purpose the connection between the Dirac equation and the electron wave functions in the external field with the exact equation of quantum electrodynamics is established. Attention is paid to the fact that a number of equations for single-electron wave functions can be used in the framework of the same assumptions. It permits the construction of the charge-symmetric solutions in particular.

  4. Approximate scattering wave functions for few-particle continua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    An operator identity which allows the wave operator for N particles interacting pairwise to be expanded as products of operators in which fewer than N particles interact is given. This identity is used to derive appproximate scattering wave functions for N-particle continua that avoid certain difficulties associated with Faddeev-type expansions. For example, a derivation is given of a scattering wave function used successfully recently to describe the three-particle continuum occurring in the electron impact ionization of the hydrogen atom

  5. Single-particle characterization of the High Arctic summertime aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierau, B.; Chang, R. Y.-W.; Leck, C.; Paatero, J.; Lohmann, U.

    2014-01-01

    Single-particle mass spectrometric measurements were carried out in the High Arctic north of 80° during summer 2008. The campaign took place onboard the icebreaker Oden and was part of the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS). The instrument deployed was an Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS) that provides information on the chemical composition of individual particles and their mixing state in real-time. Aerosols were sampled in the marine boundary layer at stations in the open ocean, in the marginal ice zone, and in the pack ice region. The largest fraction of particles detected for subsequent analysis in the size range of the ATOFMS between approximately 200 nm to 3000 nm in diameter showed mass spectrometric patterns indicating an internal mixing state and a biomass burning and/or biofuel source. The majority of these particles were connected to an air mass layer of elevated particle concentration mixed into the surface mixed layer from the upper part of the marine boundary layer. The second largest fraction was represented by sea salt particles. The chemical analysis of the over-ice sea salt aerosol revealed tracer compounds that reflect chemical aging of the particles during their long-range advection from the marginal ice zone, or open waters south thereof prior to detection at the ship. From our findings we conclude that long-range transport of particles is one source of aerosols in the High Arctic. To assess the importance of long-range particle sources for aerosol-cloud interactions over the inner Arctic in comparison to local and regional biogenic primary aerosol sources, the chemical composition of the detected particles was analyzed for indicators of marine biological origin. Only a~minor fraction showed chemical signatures of potentially ocean-derived primary particles of that kind. However, a chemical bias in the ATOFMS's detection capabilities observed during ASCOS might suggest a presence of a particle type of unknown composition

  6. Linear density response function in the projector augmented wave method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Jun; Mortensen, Jens Jørgen; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2011-01-01

    We present an implementation of the linear density response function within the projector-augmented wave method with applications to the linear optical and dielectric properties of both solids, surfaces, and interfaces. The response function is represented in plane waves while the single...... functions of Si, C, SiC, AlP, and GaAs compare well with previous calculations. While optical properties of semiconductors, in particular excitonic effects, are generally not well described by ALDA, we obtain excellent agreement with experiments for the surface loss function of graphene and the Mg(0001...

  7. Single-particle and collective dynamics of methanol confined in carbon nanotubes: a computer simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garberoglio, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of computer simulations of methanol confined in carbon nanotubes. Different levels of confinement were identified as a function of the nanotube radius and characterized using a pair-distribution function adapted to the cylindrical geometry of these systems. Dynamical properties of methanol were also analysed as a function of the nanotube size, both at the level of single-particle and collective properties. We found that confinement in narrow carbon nanotubes strongly affects the dynamical properties of methanol with respect to the bulk phase, due to the strong interaction with the carbon nanotube. In the other cases, confined methanol shows properties quite similar to those of the bulk phase. These phenomena are related to the peculiar hydrogen bonded network of methanol and are compared to the behaviour of water confined in similar conditions. The effect of nanotube flexibility on the dynamical properties of confined methanol is also discussed.

  8. Single particle tracking reveals spatial and dynamic organization of the Escherichia coli biofilm matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birjiniuk, Alona; Doyle, Patrick S; Billings, Nicole; Ribbeck, Katharina; Nance, Elizabeth; Hanes, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Biofilms are communities of surface-adherent bacteria surrounded by secreted polymers known as the extracellular polymeric substance. Biofilms are harmful in many industries, and thus it is of great interest to understand their mechanical properties and structure to determine ways to destabilize them. By performing single particle tracking with beads of varying surface functionalization it was found that charge interactions play a key role in mediating mobility within biofilms. With a combination of single particle tracking and microrheological concepts, it was found that Escherichia coli biofilms display height dependent charge density that evolves over time. Statistical analyses of bead trajectories and confocal microscopy showed inter-connecting micron scale channels that penetrate throughout the biofilm, which may be important for nutrient transfer through the system. This methodology provides significant insight into a particular biofilm system and can be applied to many others to provide comparisons of biofilm structure. The elucidation of structure provides evidence for the permeability of biofilms to microscale objects, and the ability of a biofilm to mature and change properties over time. (paper)

  9. Competition between collective and single particle excitations in nuclear structure description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovici, A.N.

    1983-01-01

    The microscopic description of the quadrupole collective dynamics in even krypton isotopes is presented. A microscopic calculation of Bohr's collective Hamiltonian is used to describe the collective motion in 76 Kr. A single-particle basis calculated in a deformed Woods-Saxon potential leads to the potential energy surface obtained by the Strutinsky renormalization procedure, and to the inertial functions determined in the cranking model approximation. The collective Schroedinger equation is solved numerically to analyse the low-energy, even parity states in 76 Kr. A good agreement between experiment and theory is obtained without specifically adjusting any parameter in the model for this nucleus. Some results regarding statical and dynamical characteristics of sup(74,78,80)Kr isotopes are also presented. The asymmetric rotor model with admixture of two quasiparticles is used to describe the sup(66,68,70)Ge and the sup(64,66)Zn isotopes. The interplay of collective and single particle motions is further investigated by magnetic moment measurements using the method of integral angular correlations perturbed by recoil into gas. The results involve g-factor measurements for 166 Ho, 68 Ge, 64 Zn, 66 Zn and 68 Ga nuclei. Finally, a discussion of further possible improvements and more general developments of the problems under investigation is given. (author)

  10. The effect of meson wave function on heavy-quark fragmentation function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moosavi Nejad, S.M. [Yazd University, Faculty of Physics (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Particles and Accelerators, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    We calculate the process-independent fragmentation functions (FFs) for a heavy quark to fragment into heavy mesons considering the effects of meson wave function. In all previous works, where the FFs of heavy mesons or heavy baryons were calculated, a delta function form was approximated for the wave function of hadrons. Here, for the first time, we consider a typical mesonic wave function which is different from the delta function and is the nonrelativistic limit of the solution of Bethe-Salpeter equation with the QCD kernel. We present our numerical results for the heavy FFs and show how the proposed wave function improves the previous results. As an example, we focus on the fragmentation function for c-quark to split into S-wave D{sup 0} -meson and compare our results with experimental data from BELLE and CLEO. (orig.)

  11. Improved WKB radial wave functions in several bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, B.; Durand, L.; Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706)

    1986-01-01

    We develop approximate WKB-like solutions to the radial Schroedinger equation for problems with an angular momentum barrier using Riccati-Bessel, Coulomb, and harmonic-oscillator functions as basis functions. The solutions treat the angular momentum singularity near the origin more accurately in leading approximation than the standard WKB solutions based on sine waves. The solutions based on Riccati-Bessel and free Coulomb wave functions continue smoothly through the inner turning point and are appropriate for scattering problems. The solutions based on oscillator and bound Coulomb wave functions incorporate both turning points smoothly and are particularly appropriate for bound-state problems; no matching of piecewise solutions using Airy functions is necessary

  12. Single particle characterization using a light scattering module coupled to a time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, E. S.; Onasch, T. B.; Canagaratna, M.; Jayne, J. T.; Kimmel, J.; Yu, X.-Y.; Alexander, M. L.; Worsnop, D. R.; Davidovits, P.

    2008-12-01

    We present the first single particle results obtained using an Aerodyne time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer coupled with a light scattering module (LS-ToF-AMS). The instrument was deployed at the T1 ground site approximately 40 km northeast of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) as part of the MILAGRO field study in March of 2006. The instrument was operated as a standard AMS from 12-30 March, acquiring average chemical composition and size distributions for the ambient aerosol, and in single particle mode from 27-30 March. Over a 75-h sampling period, 12 853 single particle mass spectra were optically triggered, saved, and analyzed. The correlated optical and chemical detection allowed detailed examination of single particle collection and quantification within the LS-ToF-AMS. The single particle data enabled the mixing states of the ambient aerosol to be characterized within the context of the size-resolved ensemble chemical information. The particulate mixing states were examined as a function of sampling time and most of the particles were found to be internal mixtures containing many of the organic and inorganic species identified in the ensemble analysis. The single particle mass spectra were deconvolved, using techniques developed for ensemble AMS data analysis, into HOA, OOA, NH4NO3, (NH4)2SO4, and NH4Cl fractions. Average single particle mass and chemistry measurements are shown to be in agreement with ensemble MS and PTOF measurements. While a significant fraction of ambient particles were internal mixtures of varying degrees, single particle measurements of chemical composition allowed the identification of time periods during which the ambient ensemble was externally mixed. In some cases the chemical composition of the particles suggested a likely source. Throughout the full sampling period, the ambient ensemble was an external mixture of combustion-generated HOA particles from local sources (e.g. traffic), with number concentrations peaking

  13. Multi-color single particle tracking with quantum dots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva C Arnspang

    Full Text Available Quantum dots (QDs have long promised to revolutionize fluorescence detection to include even applications requiring simultaneous multi-species detection at single molecule sensitivity. Despite the early promise, the unique optical properties of QDs have not yet been fully exploited in e. g. multiplex single molecule sensitivity applications such as single particle tracking (SPT. In order to fully optimize single molecule multiplex application with QDs, we have in this work performed a comprehensive quantitative investigation of the fluorescence intensities, fluorescence intensity fluctuations, and hydrodynamic radii of eight types of commercially available water soluble QDs. In this study, we show that the fluorescence intensity of CdSe core QDs increases as the emission of the QDs shifts towards the red but that hybrid CdSe/CdTe core QDs are less bright than the furthest red-shifted CdSe QDs. We further show that there is only a small size advantage in using blue-shifted QDs in biological applications because of the additional size of the water-stabilizing surface coat. Extending previous work, we finally also show that parallel four color multicolor (MC-SPT with QDs is possible at an image acquisition rate of at least 25 Hz. We demonstrate the technique by measuring the lateral dynamics of a lipid, biotin-cap-DPPE, in the cellular plasma membrane of live cells using four different colors of QDs; QD565, QD605, QD655, and QD705 as labels.

  14. Hierarchical Ag mesostructures for single particle SERS substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Minwei, E-mail: xuminwei@xjtu.edu.cn; Zhang, Yin

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • Hierarchical Ag mesostructures with the size of 250, 360 and 500 nm are synthesized via a seed-mediated approach. • The Ag mesostructures present the tailorable size and highly roughened surfaces. • The average enhancement factors for individual Ag mesostructures were estimated to be as high as 10{sup 6}. - Abstract: Hierarchical Ag mesostructures with highly rough surface morphology have been synthesized at room temperature through a simple seed-mediated approach. Electron microscopy characterizations indicate that the obtained Ag mesostructures exhibit a textured surface morphology with the flower-like architecture. Moreover, the particle size can be tailored easily in the range of 250–500 nm. For the growth process of the hierarchical Ag mesostructures, it is believed that the self-assembly mechanism is more reasonable rather than the epitaxial overgrowth of Ag seed. The oriented attachment of nanoparticles is revealed during the formation of Ag mesostructures. Single particle surface enhanced Raman spectra (sp-SERS) of crystal violet adsorbed on the hierarchical Ag mesostructures were measured. Results reveal that the hierarchical Ag mesostructures can be highly sensitive sp-SERS substrates with good reproducibility. The average enhancement factors for individual Ag mesostructures are estimated to be about 10{sup 6}.

  15. Single particle composition measurements of artificial Calcium Carbonate aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorn, S. R.; Mentel, T. F.; Schwinger, T.; Croteau, P. L.; Jayne, J.; Worsnop, D. R.; Trimborn, A.

    2012-12-01

    Mineral dust, with an estimated total source from natural and anthropogenic emissions of up to 2800 Tg/yr, is one of the two largest contributors to total aerosol mass, with only Sea salt having a similar source strength (up to 2600 Tg/yr). The composition of dust particles varies strongly depending on the production process and, most importantly, the source location. Therefore, the composition of single dust particles can be used both to trace source regions of air masses as well as to identify chemical aging processes. Here we present results of laboratory studies on generating artificial calcium carbonate (CaCO3) particles, a model compound for carbonaceous mineral dust particles. Particles were generated by atomizing an aqueous hydrogen carbonate solution. Water was removed using a silica diffusion dryer., then the particles were processed in an oven at temperatures up to 900°C, converting the hydrogen carbonate to its anhydrous form. The resulting aerosol was analyzed using an on-line single particle laser ablation aerosol particle time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LAAPTOF). The results confirm the conversion to calcium carbonate, and validate that the produced particles indeed can be used as a model compound for carbonaceous dust aerosols.

  16. Simulating Biomass Fast Pyrolysis at the Single Particle Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciesielski, Peter [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Wiggins, Gavin [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Jakes, Joseph E. [U.S. Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin, USA

    2017-07-01

    Simulating fast pyrolysis at the scale of single particles allows for the investigation of the impacts of feedstock-specific parameters such as particle size, shape, and species of origin. For this reason particle-scale modeling has emerged as an important tool for understanding how variations in feedstock properties affect the outcomes of pyrolysis processes. The origins of feedstock properties are largely dictated by the composition and hierarchical structure of biomass, from the microstructural porosity to the external morphology of milled particles. These properties may be accounted for in simulations of fast pyrolysis by several different computational approaches depending on the level of structural and chemical complexity included in the model. The predictive utility of particle-scale simulations of fast pyrolysis can still be enhanced substantially by advancements in several areas. Most notably, considerable progress would be facilitated by the development of pyrolysis kinetic schemes that are decoupled from transport phenomena, predict product evolution from whole-biomass with increased chemical speciation, and are still tractable with present-day computational resources.

  17. Rapidity resummation for B-meson wave functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Yue-Long

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transverse-momentum dependent (TMD hadronic wave functions develop light-cone divergences under QCD corrections, which are commonly regularized by the rapidity ζ of gauge vector defining the non-light-like Wilson lines. The yielding rapidity logarithms from infrared enhancement need to be resummed for both hadronic wave functions and short-distance functions, to achieve scheme-independent calculations of physical quantities. We briefly review the recent progress on the rapidity resummation for B-meson wave functions which are the key ingredients of TMD factorization formulae for radiative-leptonic, semi-leptonic and non-leptonic B-meson decays. The crucial observation is that rapidity resummation induces a strong suppression of B-meson wave functions at small light-quark momentum, strengthening the applicability of TMD factorization in exclusive B-meson decays. The phenomenological consequence of rapidity-resummation improved B-meson wave functions is further discussed in the context of B → π transition form factors at large hadronic recoil.

  18. P wave dispersion and maximum P wave duration are independently associated with rapid renal function decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ho-Ming; Tsai, Wei-Chung; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Hsu, Po-Chao; Lee, Wen-Hsien; Lin, Ming-Yen; Chen, Szu-Chia; Lee, Chee-Siong; Voon, Wen-Chol; Lai, Wen-Ter; Sheu, Sheng-Hsiung

    2012-01-01

    The P wave parameters measured by 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) are commonly used as noninvasive tools to assess for left atrial enlargement. There are limited studies to evaluate whether P wave parameters are independently associated with decline in renal function. Accordingly, the aim of this study is to assess whether P wave parameters are independently associated with progression to renal end point of ≥25% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). This longitudinal study included 166 patients. The renal end point was defined as ≥25% decline in eGFR. We measured two ECG P wave parameters corrected by heart rate, i.e. corrected P wave dispersion (PWdisperC) and corrected P wave maximum duration (PWdurMaxC). Heart function and structure were measured from echocardiography. Clinical data, P wave parameters, and echocardiographic measurements were compared and analyzed. Forty-three patients (25.9%) reached renal end point. Kaplan-Meier curves for renal end point-free survival showed PWdisperC > median (63.0 ms) (log-rank P = 0.004) and PWdurMaxC > median (117.9 ms) (log-rank Pfunction decline.

  19. Delta function excitation of waves in the earth's ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmar, R. J.; Crawford, F. W.; Harker, K. J.

    1983-01-01

    Excitation of the earth's ionosphere by delta function current sheets is considered, and the temporal and spatial evolution of wave packets is analyzed for a two-component collisional F2 layer. Approximations of an inverse Fourier-Laplace transform via saddle point methods provide plots of typical wave packets. These illustrate cold plasma wave theory and may be used as a diagnostic tool since it is possible to relate specific features, e.g., the frequency of a modulation envelope, to plasma parameters such as the electron cyclotron frequency. It is also possible to deduce the propagation path length and orientation of a remote radio beacon.

  20. Single-particle motion in large-amplitude quadrupole shape transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Kazuya

    1991-01-01

    The microscopic structure of the single-particle motion for the spherical-deformed transitional nuclei is analysed by using the self-consistent collective-coordinate method (SCC method). The single-particle motion in the moving-frame of reference called the collective vibrating coordinate frame is introduced by the generalized Bogoliubov transformation depending on the collective coordinate. The numerical calculations of the single-particle (quasi-particle) energy level diagrams and their occupation probabilities for the static deformation are carried out for the Sm isotopes. A clear change of the single-particle distribution structure appears in the course of deformation. (author)

  1. Discontinuous approximate molecular electronic wave-functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuebing, E.W.; Weare, J.H.; Parr, R.G.

    1977-01-01

    Following Kohn, Schlosser and Marcus and Weare and Parr an energy functional is defined for a molecular problem which is stationary in the neighborhood of the exact solution and permits the use of trial functions that are discontinuous. The functional differs from the functional of the standard Rayleigh--Ritz method in the replacement of the usual kinetic energy operators circumflex T(μ) with operators circumflex T'(μ) = circumflex T(μ) + circumflex I(μ) generates contributions from surfaces of nonsmooth behavior. If one uses the nabla PSI . nabla PSI way of writing the usual kinetic energy contributions, one must add surface integrals of the product of the average of nabla PSI and the change of PSI across surfaces of discontinuity. Various calculations are carried out for the hydrogen molecule-ion and the hydrogen molecule. It is shown that ab initio calculations on molecules can be carried out quite generally with a basis of atomic orbitals exactly obeying the zero-differential overlap (ZDO) condition, and a firm basis is thereby provided for theories of molecular electronic structure invoking the ZDO aoproximation. It is demonstrated that a valence bond theory employing orbitals exactly obeying ZDO can provide an adequate account of chemical bonding, and several suggestions are made regarding molecular orbital methods

  2. On the interpretation of wave function overlaps in quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stobbe, Søren; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Lodahl, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The spontaneous emission rate of excitons strongly confined in quantum dots (QDs) is proportional to the overlap integral of electron and hole envelope wave functions. A common and intuitive interpretation of this result is that the spontaneous emission rate is proportional to the probability...... that the electron and the hole are located at the same point or region in space, i.e., they must coincide spatially to recombine. Here, we show that this interpretation is not correct even loosely speaking. By general mathematical considerations we compare the envelope wave function overlap, the exchange overlap...... integral, and the probability of electrons and holes coinciding, and find that the frequency dependence of the envelope wave function overlap integral is very different from that expected from the common interpretation. We show that these theoretical considerations lead to predictions for measurements. We...

  3. ESTIMA, Neutron Width Level Spacing, Neutron Strength Function of S- Wave, P-Wave Resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fort, E.

    1982-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: ESTIMA calculates level spacing and neutron strength function of a mixed sequence of s- and p-wave resonances given a set of neutron widths as input parameters. Three algorithms are used, two of which calculate s-wave average parameters and assume that the reduced widths obey a Porter-Thomas distribution truncated by a minimum detection threshold. The third performs a maximum likelihood fit to a truncated chi-squared distribution of any specified number of degrees of freedom, i.e. it can be used for calculating s-wave or p-wave average parameters. Resonances of undeclared angular orbital momentum are divided into groups of probable s-wave and probable p-wave by a simple application of Bayes' Theorem. 2 - Method of solution: Three algorithms are used: i) GAMN method, based on simple moments properties of a Porter-Thomas distribution. ii) Missing Level Estimator, a simplified version of the algorithm used by the program BAYESZ. iii) ESTIMA, a maximum likelihood fit. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: A maximum of 400 resonances is allowed in the version available from NEADB, however this restriction can be relaxed by increasing array dimensions

  4. Period functions for Maass wave forms and cohomology

    CERN Document Server

    Bruggeman, R; Zagier, D; Bruggeman, R W; Zagier, D

    2015-01-01

    The authors construct explicit isomorphisms between spaces of Maass wave forms and cohomology groups for discrete cofinite groups \\Gamma\\subset\\mathrm{PSL}_2({\\mathbb{R}}). In the case that \\Gamma is the modular group \\mathrm{PSL}_2({\\mathbb{Z}}) this gives a cohomological framework for the results in Period functions for Maass wave forms. I, of J. Lewis and D. Zagier in Ann. Math. 153 (2001), 191-258, where a bijection was given between cuspidal Maass forms and period functions. The authors introduce the concepts of mixed parabolic cohomology group and semi-analytic vectors in principal serie

  5. Embedding beyond electrostatics-The role of wave function confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nåbo, Lina J; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Holmgaard List, Nanna; Solanko, Lukasz M; Wüstner, Daniel; Kongsted, Jacob

    2016-09-14

    We study excited states of cholesterol in solution and show that, in this specific case, solute wave-function confinement is the main effect of the solvent. This is rationalized on the basis of the polarizable density embedding scheme, which in addition to polarizable embedding includes non-electrostatic repulsion that effectively confines the solute wave function to its cavity. We illustrate how the inclusion of non-electrostatic repulsion results in a successful identification of the intense π → π(∗) transition, which was not possible using an embedding method that only includes electrostatics. This underlines the importance of non-electrostatic repulsion in quantum-mechanical embedding-based methods.

  6. WKB wave function for many-variable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakita, B.; Tzani, R.

    1986-01-01

    The WKB method is a non-perturbative semi-classical method in quantum mechanics. The method for a system of one degree of freedom is well known and described in standard textbooks. The method for a system with many degrees of freedom especially for quantum fields is more involved. There exist two methods: Feynman path integral and Schrodinger wave function. The Feynman path integral WKB method is essentially a stationary phase approximation for Feynman path integrals. The WKB Schrodinger wave function method is on the other hand an extension of the standard WKB to many-variable systems

  7. The deuteron bound state wave function with tensor forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemasa, Tadashi

    1991-01-01

    A FORTRAN program named DEUTERON is developed to calculate the binding energy and wave function of a deuteron, when the interaction between two nucleons is described in terms of central, tensor, spin-orbit, and quadratic LS potentials with or without a hard core. An important use of the program is to provide the deuteron wave function required in nuclear reaction calculations involving a deuteron. Also, this program may be employed in nuclear Hartree-Fock calculations using an effective nucleon-nucleon interaction with a tensor component. (author)

  8. Evolution of wave function in a dissipative system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li-Hua; Sun, Chang-Pu

    1994-01-01

    For a dissipative system with Ohmic friction, we obtain a simple and exact solution for the wave function of the system plus the bath. It is described by the direct product in two independent Hilbert space. One of them is described by an effective Hamiltonian, the other represents the effect of the bath, i.e., the Brownian motion, thus clarifying the structure of the wave function of the system whose energy is dissipated by its interaction with the bath. No path integral technology is needed in this treatment. The derivation of the Weisskopf-Wigner line width theory follows easily.

  9. Chaos and nonlinear dynamics of single-particle orbits in a magnetotaillike magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Palmadesso, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    The properties of charged-particle motion in Hamiltonian dynamics are studied in a magnetotaillike magnetic field configuration. It is shown by numerical integration of the equation of motion that the system is generally nonintegrable and that the particle motion can be classified into three distinct types of orbits: bounded integrable orbits, unbounded stochastic orbits, and unbounded transient orbits. It is also shown that different regions of the phase space exhibit qualitatively different responses to external influences. The concept of 'differential memory' in single-particle distributions is proposed. Physical implications for the dynamical properties of the magnetotail plasmas and the possible generation of non-Maxwellian features in the distribution functions are discussed.

  10. Proton resonance elastic scattering of $^{30}$Mg for single particle structure of $^{31}$Mg

    CERN Multimedia

    The single particle structure of $^{31}$Mg, which is located in the so-called “island of inversion”, will be studied through measuring Isobaric Analog Resonances (IARs) of bound states of $^{31}$Mg. They are located in the high excitation energy of $^{31}$Al. We are going to determine the spectroscopic factors and angular momenta of the parent states by measuring the excitation function of the proton resonance elastic scattering around 0 degrees in the laboratory frame with around 3 MeV/nucleon $^{30}$Mg beam. The present study will reveal the shell evolution around $^{32}$Mg. In addition, the spectroscopic factor of the (7/2)$^{−}$ state which was not yet determined experimentally, may allow one to study the shape coexistence in this nucleus.

  11. EMHP: an accurate automated hole masking algorithm for single-particle cryo-EM image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndsen, Zachary; Bowman, Charles; Jang, Haerin; Ward, Andrew B

    2017-12-01

    The Electron Microscopy Hole Punch (EMHP) is a streamlined suite of tools for quick assessment, sorting and hole masking of electron micrographs. With recent advances in single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) data processing allowing for the rapid determination of protein structures using a smaller computational footprint, we saw the need for a fast and simple tool for data pre-processing that could run independent of existing high-performance computing (HPC) infrastructures. EMHP provides a data preprocessing platform in a small package that requires minimal python dependencies to function. https://www.bitbucket.org/chazbot/emhp Apache 2.0 License. bowman@scripps.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Singlet-triplet splittings from the virial theorem and single-particle excitation energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becke, Axel D.

    2018-01-01

    The zeroth-order (uncorrelated) singlet-triplet energy difference in single-particle excited configurations is 2Kif, where Kif is the Coulomb self-energy of the product of the transition orbitals. Here we present a non-empirical, virial-theorem argument that the correlated singlet-triplet energy difference should be half of this, namely, Kif. This incredibly simple result gives vertical HOMO-LUMO excitation energies in small-molecule benchmarks as good as the popular TD-B3LYP time-dependent approach to excited states. For linear acenes and nonlinear polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the performance is significantly better than TD-B3LYP. In addition to the virial theorem, the derivation borrows intuitive pair-density concepts from density-functional theory.

  13. Single-particle And Collective Effects Of Cubic Nonlinearity In The Beam Dynamics Of Proton Synchrotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Tran Hy, J

    1998-01-01

    This thesis describes some new studies of the effects of cubic nonlinearities arising from image-charge forces and octupole magnets on the transverse beam dynamics of proton synchrotrons and storage rings, and also a study of the damping of coherent oscillations using a feed-back damper. In the latter case, various corrective algorithms were modeled using linear one-turn maps. Kicks of fixed amplitude but appropriate sign were shown to provide linear damping and no coherent tune shift, though the rate predicted analytically was somewhat higher than that observed in simulations. This algorithm gave much faster damping (for equal power) than conventional proportional kicks, which damp exponentially. Two single-particle effects of the image-change force were investigated: distortion of the momentum dispersion function and amplitude dependence of the betatron tunes (resulting in tune spread). The former is calculated using transfer maps and the method of undetermined coefficients, the latter by solving the cubic ...

  14. Single-particle basis and translational invariance in microscopic nuclear calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehfros, V.D.

    1977-01-01

    The approach to the few-body problem is considered which allows to use the simple single-particle basis without violation of the translation invariance. A method is proposed to solve the nuclear reaction problems in the single-particle basis. The method satisfies the Pauli principle and the translation invariance. Calculation of the matrix elements of operators is treated

  15. Report of the working group on single-particle nonlinear dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazzani, A.; Bongini, L.; Corbett, J.; Dome, G.; Fedorova, A.; Freguglia, P.; Ng, K.; Ohmi, K.; Owen, H.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Robin, D.; Safranek, J.; Scandale, W.; Terebilo, A.; Turchetti, G.; Todesco, E.; Warnock, R.; Zeitlin, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Working Group on single-particle nonlinear dynamics has developed a set of tools to study nonlinear dynamics in a particle accelerator. The design of rings with large dynamic apertures is still far from automatic. The Working Group has concluded that nonlinear single-particle dynamics limits the performance of accelerators. (AIP) copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  16. On the asymptotic evolution of finite energy Airy wave functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro-Posada, P; Sánchez-Curto, J; Aceves, A B; McDonald, G S

    2015-06-15

    In general, there is an inverse relation between the degree of localization of a wave function of a certain class and its transform representation dictated by the scaling property of the Fourier transform. We report that in the case of finite energy Airy wave packets a simultaneous increase in their localization in the direct and transform domains can be obtained as the apodization parameter is varied. One consequence of this is that the far-field diffraction rate of a finite energy Airy beam decreases as the beam localization at the launch plane increases. We analyze the asymptotic properties of finite energy Airy wave functions using the stationary phase method. We obtain one dominant contribution to the long-term evolution that admits a Gaussian-like approximation, which displays the expected reduction of its broadening rate as the input localization is increased.

  17. Schmidt decomposition for non-collinear biphoton angular wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, M V

    2015-01-01

    Schmidt modes of non-collinear biphoton angular wave functions are found analytically. The experimentally realizable procedure for their separation is described. Parameters of the Schmidt decomposition are used to evaluate the degree of the biphoton's angular entanglement. (paper)

  18. Gravity induced corrections to quantum mechanical wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, T.P.

    1990-03-01

    We perform a semiclassical expansion in the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, in powers of the gravitational constant. We then show that quantum gravitational fluctuations can provide a correction to the wave-functions which are solutions of the Schroedinger equation for matter. This also implies a correction to the expectation values of quantum mechanical observables. (author). 6 refs

  19. The linear potential propagator via wave function expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassar, Antonio B.; Cattani, Mauro S.D.

    2002-01-01

    We evaluate the quantum propagator for the motion of a particle in a linear potential via a recently developed formalism [A.B. Nassar et al., Phys. Rev. E56, 1230, (1997)]. In this formalism, the propagator comes about as a type of expansion of the wave function over the space of the initial velocities. (author)

  20. Simulation of wind wave growth with reference source functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badulin, Sergei I.; Zakharov, Vladimir E.; Pushkarev, Andrei N.

    2013-04-01

    We present results of extensive simulations of wind wave growth with the so-called reference source function in the right-hand side of the Hasselmann equation written as follows First, we use Webb's algorithm [8] for calculating the exact nonlinear transfer function Snl. Second, we consider a family of wind input functions in accordance with recent consideration [9] ( )s S = ?(k)N , ?(k) = ? ? ?- f (?). in k 0 ?0 in (2) Function fin(?) describes dependence on angle ?. Parameters in (2) are tunable and determine magnitude (parameters ?0, ?0) and wave growth rate s [9]. Exponent s plays a key role in this study being responsible for reference scenarios of wave growth: s = 4-3 gives linear growth of wave momentum, s = 2 - linear growth of wave energy and s = 8-3 - constant rate of wave action growth. Note, the values are close to ones of conventional parameterizations of wave growth rates (e.g. s = 1 for [7] and s = 2 for [5]). Dissipation function Sdiss is chosen as one providing the Phillips spectrum E(?) ~ ?5 at high frequency range [3] (parameter ?diss fixes a dissipation scale of wind waves) Sdiss = Cdissμ4w?N (k)θ(? - ?diss) (3) Here frequency-dependent wave steepness μ2w = E(?,?)?5-g2 makes this function to be heavily nonlinear and provides a remarkable property of stationary solutions at high frequencies: the dissipation coefficient Cdiss should keep certain value to provide the observed power-law tails close to the Phillips spectrum E(?) ~ ?-5. Our recent estimates [3] give Cdiss ? 2.0. The Hasselmann equation (1) with the new functions Sin, Sdiss (2,3) has a family of self-similar solutions of the same form as previously studied models [1,3,9] and proposes a solid basis for further theoretical and numerical study of wave evolution under action of all the physical mechanisms: wind input, wave dissipation and nonlinear transfer. Simulations of duration- and fetch-limited wind wave growth have been carried out within the above model setup to check its

  1. Multiquark masses and wave functions through modified Green's function Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerbikov, B.O.; Polikarpov, M.I.; Shevchenko, L.V.

    1987-01-01

    The Modified Green's function Monte Carlo method (MGFMC) is used to calculate the masses and ground-state wave functions of multiquark systems in the potential model. The previously developed MGFMC is generalized in order to treat systems containing quarks with inequal masses. The obtained results are presented with the Cornell potential for the masses and the wave functions of light and heavy flavoured baryons and multiquark states (N=6, 9, 12) made of light quarks

  2. Single particle Schroedinger fluid and moments of inertia of deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doma, S.B.

    2002-01-01

    The authors have applied the theory of the single-particle Schroedinger fluid to the nuclear collective motion of axially deformed nuclei. A counter example of an arbitrary number of independent nucleons in the anisotropic harmonic oscillator potential at the equilibrium deformation has been also given. Moreover, the ground states of the doubly even nuclei in the s-d shell 20 Ne, 24 Mg, 28 Si, 32 S and 36 Ar are constructed by filling the single-particle states corresponding to the possible values of the number of quanta of excitations n x , n y and n z . Accordingly, the cranking-model, the rigid-body model and the equilibrium-model moments of inertia of these nuclei are calculated as functions of the oscillator parameters ℎω x , ℎω y and ℎω z which are given in terms of the non deformed value ℎω 0 0 , depending on the mass number A, the number of neutrons N, the number of protons Z, and the deformation parameter β. The calculated values of the cranking-model moments of inertia of these nuclei are in good agreement with the corresponding experiential values and show that the considered axially deformed nuclei may have oblate as well as prolate shapes and that the nucleus 24 Mg is the only one which is highly deformed. The rigid-body model and the equilibrium-model moments of inertia of the two nuclei 20 Ne and 24 Mg are also in good agreement with the corresponding experimental values

  3. Classical representation of wave functions for integrable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, Kenneth G.

    2004-01-01

    Classical exact (CE) wave functions are certain integral representations of energy eigenfunctions that are parameterized in terms of the motion of the corresponding classical system in a semiclassically relevant way. When applied to systems for which they are not exact, such expressions serve as semiclassical approximations. Previous work identified CE wave functions for a number of specific systems and established their semiclassical usefulness. This paper explores the degree to which such representations can be found for more general systems. It is shown that CE wave functions exist, in principle, for bound states of an arbitrary integrable system that are confined to a single classically allowed region. Evidence is presented that CE representations also exist for more general states of such a system that are unbound, or that extend over more than one allowed region. The CE expressions are not unique: an innumerable variety exists for each such system. The existence proof provides a formal method for constructing CE expressions by Fourier transforming certain superpositions of energy eigenstates. The parameterization in terms of the classical motion is achieved by identifying certain quantities in these superpositions as classical action and angle variables. The semiclassical relevance of this identification is ensured by imposing some mild conditions on the coefficients in the superposition. This procedure for parameterizing exact wave functions in terms of classical variables indicates a basic relationship between the quantum and classical descriptions of states. The method of constructing CE wave functions introduced in the proof is shown to be consistent with a number of previously obtained CE formulas and is used to derive two new, closed-form, CE expressions. A simple numerical example is presented to illustrate the semiclassical application of one of these expressions and to further verify the physical significance of the classical parameterization

  4. Calculation of the nucleon structure function from the nucleon wave function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussar, Paul E.

    1993-01-01

    Harmonic oscillator wave functions have played an historically important role in our understanding of the structure of the nucleon, most notably by providing insight into the mass spectra of the low-lying states. High energy scattering experiments are known to give us a picture of the nucleon wave function at high-momentum transfer and in a frame in which the nucleon is traveling fast. A simple model that crosses the twin bridges of momentum scale and Lorentz frame that separate the pictures of the nucleon wave function provided by the deep inelastic scattering data and by the oscillator model is presented.

  5. Single Particle Soot Photometer intercomparison at the AIDA chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Laborde

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Soot particles, consisting of black carbon (BC, organic carbon (OC, inorganic salts, and trace elements, are emitted into the atmosphere during incomplete combustion. Accurate measurements of atmospheric BC are important as BC particles cause adverse health effects and impact the climate.

    Unfortunately, the accurate measurement of the properties and mass concentrations of BC particles remains difficult. The Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2 can contribute to improving this situation by measuring the mass of refractory BC in individual particles as well as its mixing state.

    Here, the results of the first detailed SP2 intercomparison, involving 6 SP2s from 6 different research groups, are presented, including the most evolved data products that can presently be calculated from SP2 measurements.

    It was shown that a detection efficiency of almost 100% down to 1 fg BC per particle can readily be achieved, and that this limit can be pushed down to ∼0.2 fg BC with optimal SP2 setup. Number and mass size distributions of BC cores agreed within ±5% and ±10%, respectively, in between the SP2s, with larger deviations in the range below 1 fg BC.

    The accuracy of the SP2's mass concentration measurement depends on the calibration material chosen. The SP2 has previously been shown to be equally sensitive to fullerene soot and ambient BC from sources where fossil fuel was dominant and less sensitive to fullerene soot than to Aquadag. Fullerene soot was therefore chosen as the standard calibration material by the SP2 user community; however, many data sets rely solely on Aquadag calibration measurements. The difference in SP2 sensitivity was found to be almost equal (fullerene soot to Aquadag response ratio of ∼0.75 at 8.9 fg BC for all SP2s. This allows the calculation of a fullerene soot equivalent calibration curve from a measured Aquadag calibration, when no fullerene soot calibration is available. It could be

  6. Preliminary Understanding of Surface Plasmon-Enhanced Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy by Single Particle Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Kangshu

    Monitoring chiral optical signals of biomolecules as their conformation changes is an important means to study their structures, properties, and functions. Most measurements, however, are ensemble measurements because chiral optical signals from a single biomolecule is often too weak to be detected. In this dissertation, I present my early attempts to study conformational changes of adsorbed proteins by taking advantage of the enhanced electromagnetic (EM) field around a well-designed plasmonic nanofeature. In particular, I discuss the detection of protein adsorption and denaturation on metallic nanoparticles using single particle scattering and CD spectroscopic imaging. Particles of two distinctively different sizes were compared and two different sample protein molecules were studied. A combination of experimental and computational tools was used to simulate and interpret the collected scattering and CD results. The first chapter provides a brief overview of the state-of-art research in CD spectroscopic studies at the single particle level. Three different means to make particles capable of chiral detection are discussed. Various applications beyond single particle imaging are presented to showcase the potential of the described research project, beyond our immediate goals. The second chapter describes my initial characterization of large, metallic, anisotropic nanorods and the establishment of experimental procedures used later for spectrum reconstruction, data visualization and analysis. The physical shape and structure of the particles were imaged by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the chemical composition by energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), and the optical properties by darkfield microscopy. An experimental protocol was developed to connect information collected from separate techniques for the same particle, with the aims of discovering any possible structural-property correlation. The reproducibility of the single particle imaging method was

  7. Response functions of free mass gravitational wave antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estabrook, F. B.

    1985-01-01

    The work of Gursel, Linsay, Spero, Saulson, Whitcomb and Weiss (1984) on the response of a free-mass interferometric antenna is extended. Starting from first principles, the earlier work derived the response of a 2-arm gravitational wave antenna to plane polarized gravitational waves. Equivalent formulas (generalized slightly to allow for arbitrary elliptical polarization) are obtained by a simple differencing of the '3-pulse' Doppler response functions of two 1-arm antennas. A '4-pulse' response function is found, with quite complicated angular dependences for arbitrary incident polarization. The differencing method can as readily be used to write exact response functions ('3n+1 pulse') for antennas having multiple passes or more arms.

  8. Sum rules for baryonic vertex functions and the proton wave function in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavelle, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    We consider light-cone sum rules for vertex functions involving baryon-meson couplings. These sum rules relate the non-perturbative, and experimentally known, coupling constants to the moments of the wave function of the proton state. Our results for these moments are consistent with those obtained from QCD sum rules for two-point functions. (orig.)

  9. Configuration interaction wave functions: A seniority number approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcoba, Diego R.; Torre, Alicia; Lain, Luis; Massaccesi, Gustavo E.; Oña, Ofelia B.

    2014-01-01

    This work deals with the configuration interaction method when an N-electron Hamiltonian is projected on Slater determinants which are classified according to their seniority number values. We study the spin features of the wave functions and the size of the matrices required to formulate states of any spin symmetry within this treatment. Correlation energies associated with the wave functions arising from the seniority-based configuration interaction procedure are determined for three types of molecular orbital basis: canonical molecular orbitals, natural orbitals, and the orbitals resulting from minimizing the expectation value of the N-electron seniority number operator. The performance of these bases is analyzed by means of numerical results obtained from selected N-electron systems of several spin symmetries. The comparison of the results highlights the efficiency of the molecular orbital basis which minimizes the mean value of the seniority number for a state, yielding energy values closer to those provided by the full configuration interaction procedure

  10. Expression of relativistic amplitudes in terms of wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmanov, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    The conditions under which relativistic amplitudes may be expressed in terms of the wave functions are analyzed within the framework of the invariant diagram technique which appears on formulation of field theory on the light front. The amplitudes depend on the 4-vector ω which defines the surface of the light front. A rule is formulated for the determination of those values of the 4-vector ω for which the diagram contribution, which cannot be expressed in terms of the wave functions, is minimum. The present investigation is equivalent to a study of the dependence of the amplitudes of the old fashioned perburbation theory in the infinite momentum depending on the direction of the infinite momentum

  11. Horizon wave-function and the quantum cosmic censorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Casadio

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the Cosmic Censorship Conjecture by means of the horizon wave-function (HWF formalism. We consider a charged massive particle whose quantum mechanical state is represented by a spherically symmetric Gaussian wave-function, and restrict our attention to the superextremal case (with charge-to-mass ratio α>1, which is the prototype of a naked singularity in the classical theory. We find that one can still obtain a normalisable HWF for α22, and the uncertainty in the location of the horizon blows up at α2=2, signalling that such an object is no more well-defined. This perhaps implies that a quantum Cosmic Censorship might be conjectured by stating that no black holes with charge-to-mass ratio greater than a critical value (of the order of 2 can exist.

  12. Configuration interaction wave functions: A seniority number approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcoba, Diego R. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires and Instituto de Física de Buenos Aires, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Torre, Alicia; Lain, Luis, E-mail: qfplapel@lg.ehu.es [Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad del País Vasco, Apdo. 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Massaccesi, Gustavo E. [Departamento de Ciencias Exactas, Ciclo Básico Común, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Oña, Ofelia B. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquímicas Teóricas y Aplicadas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CCT La Plata, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Diag. 113 y 64 (S/N), Sucursal 4, CC 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2014-06-21

    This work deals with the configuration interaction method when an N-electron Hamiltonian is projected on Slater determinants which are classified according to their seniority number values. We study the spin features of the wave functions and the size of the matrices required to formulate states of any spin symmetry within this treatment. Correlation energies associated with the wave functions arising from the seniority-based configuration interaction procedure are determined for three types of molecular orbital basis: canonical molecular orbitals, natural orbitals, and the orbitals resulting from minimizing the expectation value of the N-electron seniority number operator. The performance of these bases is analyzed by means of numerical results obtained from selected N-electron systems of several spin symmetries. The comparison of the results highlights the efficiency of the molecular orbital basis which minimizes the mean value of the seniority number for a state, yielding energy values closer to those provided by the full configuration interaction procedure.

  13. Fine structure and analytical quantum-defect wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelecky, V.A.; Nieto, M.M.; Truax, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    We investigate the domain of validity of previously proposed analytical wave functions for atomic quantum-defect theory. This is done by considering the fine-structure splitting of alkali-metal and singly ionized alkaline-earth atoms. The Lande formula is found to be naturally incorporated. A supersymmetric-type integer is necessary for finite results. Calculated splittings correctly reproduce the principal features of experimental values for alkali-like atoms

  14. Wave Functions for Time-Dependent Dirac Equation under GUP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng-Yao; Long, Chao-Yun; Long, Zheng-Wen

    2018-04-01

    In this work, the time-dependent Dirac equation is investigated under generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) framework. It is possible to construct the exact solutions of Dirac equation when the time-dependent potentials satisfied the proper conditions. In (1+1) dimensions, the analytical wave functions of the Dirac equation under GUP have been obtained for the two kinds time-dependent potentials. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11565009

  15. Imaging electron wave functions inside open quantum rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, F; Hackens, B; Pala, M G; Ouisse, T; Sellier, H; Wallart, X; Bollaert, S; Cappy, A; Chevrier, J; Bayot, V; Huant, S

    2007-09-28

    Combining scanning gate microscopy (SGM) experiments and simulations, we demonstrate low temperature imaging of the electron probability density |Psi|(2)(x,y) in embedded mesoscopic quantum rings. The tip-induced conductance modulations share the same temperature dependence as the Aharonov-Bohm effect, indicating that they originate from electron wave function interferences. Simulations of both |Psi|(2)(x,y) and SGM conductance maps reproduce the main experimental observations and link fringes in SGM images to |Psi|(2)(x,y).

  16. Green function formalism for nonlinear acoustic waves in layered media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, A.; Tsoy, E.; De Sterke, C.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The applications of acoustic waves in identifying defects in adhesive bonds between metallic plates have received little attention at high intensities where the media respond nonlinearly. However, the effects of reduced bond strength are more distinct in the nonlinear response of the structure. Here we assume a weak nonlinearity acting as a small perturbation, thereby reducing the problem to a linear one. This enables us to develop a specialized Green function formalism for calculating acoustic fields in layered media

  17. Search for a bosonic component in the neutrino wave function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornow, W.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, Dolgov and Smirnov speculated that neutrinos may not obey the principle named after their inventor, the Pauli Principle. The neutrino wave function may contain a bosonic component. In principle, two-neutrino double-beta (2ν2β) decay data could be used to check on the conjecture that neutrinos violate the Pauli Principle. Recent 2ν2β data on 100 Mo to both the ground state and excited states in 100 Ru will be used to illustrate the procedure.

  18. Single-particle and collective states in transfer reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lhenry, I.; Suomijaervi, T.; Giai, N. van

    1993-01-01

    The possibility to excite collective states in transfer reactions induced by heavy ions is studied. Collective states are described within the Random Phase Approximation (RPA) and the collectivity is defined according to the number of configurations contributing to a given state. The particle transfer is described within the Distorted Wave Born Approximation (DWBA). Calculations are performed for two different stripping reactions: 207 Pb( 20 Ne, 19 Ne) 208 Pb and 59 Co( 20 Ne, 19 F) 60 Ni at 48 MeV/nucleon for which experimental data are available. The calculation shows that a sizeable fraction of collective strength can be excited in these reactions. The comparison with experiment shows that this parameter-free calculation qualitatively explains the data. (author) 19 refs.; 10 figs

  19. Correlated wave functions for three-particle systems with Coulomb interaction - The muonic helium atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, K.-N.

    1977-01-01

    A computational procedure for calculating correlated wave functions is proposed for three-particle systems interacting through Coulomb forces. Calculations are carried out for the muonic helium atom. Variational wave functions which explicitly contain interparticle coordinates are presented for the ground and excited states. General Hylleraas-type trial functions are used as the basis for the correlated wave functions. Excited-state energies of the muonic helium atom computed from 1- and 35-term wave functions are listed for four states.

  20. Boosted top production: factorization and resummation for single-particle inclusive distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferroglia, Andrea; Marzani, Simone; Pecjak, Ben D.; Yang, Li Lin

    2014-01-01

    We study single-particle inclusive (1PI) distributions in top-quark pair production at hadron colliders, working in the highly boosted regime where the top-quark p T is much larger than its mass. In particular, we derive a novel factorization formula valid in the small-mass and soft limits of the differential partonic cross section. This provides a framework for the simultaneous resummation of soft gluon corrections and small-mass logarithms, and also an efficient means of obtaining higher-order corrections to the differential cross section in this limit. The result involves five distinct one-scale functions, three of which arise through the subfactorization of soft real radiation in the small-mass limit. We list the NNLO corrections to each of these functions, building on results in the literature by performing a new calculation of a soft function involving four light-like Wilson lines to this order. We thus obtain a nearly complete description of the small-mass limit of the differential partonic cross section at NNLO near threshold, missing only terms involving closed top-quark loops in the virtual corrections

  1. Lagrangian single-particle turbulent statistics through the Hilbert-Huang transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongxiang; Biferale, Luca; Calzavarini, Enrico; Sun, Chao; Toschi, Federico

    2013-04-01

    The Hilbert-Huang transform is applied to analyze single-particle Lagrangian velocity data from numerical simulations of hydrodynamic turbulence. The velocity trajectory is described in terms of a set of intrinsic mode functions C(i)(t) and of their instantaneous frequency ω(i)(t). On the basis of this decomposition we define the ω-conditioned statistical moments of the C(i) modes, named q-order Hilbert spectra (HS). We show that such quantities have enhanced scaling properties as compared to traditional Fourier transform- or correlation-based (structure functions) statistical indicators, thus providing better insights into the turbulent energy transfer process. We present clear empirical evidence that the energylike quantity, i.e., the second-order HS, displays a linear scaling in time in the inertial range, as expected from a dimensional analysis. We also measure high-order moment scaling exponents in a direct way, without resorting to the extended self-similarity procedure. This leads to an estimate of the Lagrangian structure function exponents which are consistent with the multifractal prediction in the Lagrangian frame as proposed by Biferale et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 064502 (2004)].

  2. Inverse Schroedinger equation and the exact wave function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuji, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    Using the inverse of the Hamiltonian, we introduce the inverse Schroedinger equation (ISE) that is equivalent to the ordinary Schroedinger equation (SE). The ISE has the variational principle and the H-square group of equations as the SE has. When we use a positive Hamiltonian, shifting the energy origin, the inverse energy becomes monotonic and we further have the inverse Ritz variational principle and cross-H-square equations. The concepts of the SE and the ISE are combined to generalize the theory for calculating the exact wave function that is a common eigenfunction of the SE and ISE. The Krylov sequence is extended to include the inverse Hamiltonian, and the complete Krylov sequence is introduced. The iterative configuration interaction (ICI) theory is generalized to cover both the SE and ISE concepts and four different computational methods of calculating the exact wave function are presented in both analytical and matrix representations. The exact wave-function theory based on the inverse Hamiltonian can be applied to systems that have singularities in the Hamiltonian. The generalized ICI theory is applied to the hydrogen atom, giving the exact solution without any singularity problem

  3. Studies of the neutron single-particle structure of exotic nuclei at the HRIBF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.S.; Bardayan, D.W.; Blackmon, J.C.; Cizewski, J.A.; Greife, U.; Gross, C.J.; Johnson, M.S.; Jones, K.L.; Kozub, R.L.; Liang, J.F.; Livesay, R.J.; Ma, Z.; Moazen, B.H.; Nesaraja, C.D.; Shapira, D.; Smith, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    The study of neutron single-particle strengths in neutron-rich nuclei is of interest for nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics. The distribution of single-particle strengths constrains the effective Hamiltonian and pairing interactions and determines neutron interaction rates that are crucial for understanding the synthesis of heavy nuclei in supernovae via the rapid neutron capture process. Particularly important are the neutron single-particle levels in nuclei near closed neutron shells. Radioactive ion beams from the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility have been used to study (d,p) reactions in inverse kinematics in order to probe neutron single-particle states in exotic nuclei. The results of a measurement with a 82 Ge beam will be presented

  4. QCD Phenomenology and Light-Front Wave Functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, St.J.

    2001-01-01

    A natural calculus for describing the bound-state structure of relativistic composite systems in quantum field theory is the light-front Fock expansion which encodes the properties of a hadrons in terms of a set of frame-independent n-particle wave functions. Light-front quantization in the doubly-transverse light-cone gauge has a number of remarkable advantages, including explicit unitarity, a physical Fock expansion, the absence of ghost degrees of freedom, and the decoupling properties needed to prove factorization theorems in high momentum transfer inclusive and exclusive reactions. A number of applications are discussed in these lectures, including semileptonic B decays, two-photon exclusive reactions, diffractive dissociation into jets, and deeply virtual Compton scattering. The relation of the intrinsic sea to the light-front wave functions is discussed. Light-front quantization can also be used in the Hamiltonian form to construct an event generator for high energy physics reactions at the amplitude level. The light-cone partition function, summed over exponentially-weighted light-cone energies, has simple boost properties which may be useful for studies in heavy ion collisions. I also review recent work which shows that the structure functions measured in deep inelastic lepton scattering are affected by final-state rescattering, thus modifying their connection to light-front probability distributions. In particular, the shadowing of nuclear structure functions is due to destructive interference effects from leading-twist diffraction of the virtual photon, physics not included in the nuclear light-cone wave functions. (author)

  5. Riemann zeta function from wave-packet dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mack, R.; Dahl, Jens Peder; Moya-Cessa, H.

    2010-01-01

    We show that the time evolution of a thermal phase state of an anharmonic oscillator with logarithmic energy spectrum is intimately connected to the generalized Riemann zeta function zeta(s, a). Indeed, the autocorrelation function at a time t is determined by zeta (sigma + i tau, a), where sigma...... index of JWKB. We compare and contrast exact and approximate eigenvalues of purely logarithmic potentials. Moreover, we use a numerical method to find a potential which leads to exact logarithmic eigenvalues. We discuss possible realizations of Riemann zeta wave-packet dynamics using cold atoms...

  6. Corrections to the free-nucleon values of the single-particle matrix elements of the M1 and Gamow-Teller operators, from a comparison of shell-model predictions with sd-shell data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.A.; Wildenthal, B.H.

    1983-01-01

    The magnetic dipole moments of states in mirror pairs of the sd-shell nuclei and the strengths of the Gamow-Teller beta decays which connect them are compared with predictions based on mixed-configuration shell-model wave functions. From this analysis we extract the average effective values of the single-particle matrix elements of the l, s, and [Y/sup( 2 )xs]/sup( 1 ) components of the M1 and Gamow-Teller operators acting on nucleons in the 0d/sub 5/2/, 1s/sub 1/2/, and 0d/sub 3/2/ orbits. These results are compared with the recent calculations by Towner and Khanna of the corrections to the free-nucleon values of these matrix elements which arise from the effects of isobar currents, mesonic-exchange currents, and mixing with configurations outside the sd shell

  7. The extended hyperbolic function method and exact solutions of the long-short wave resonance equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Yadong

    2008-01-01

    The extended hyperbolic functions method for nonlinear wave equations is presented. Based on this method, we obtain a multiple exact explicit solutions for the nonlinear evolution equations which describe the resonance interaction between the long wave and the short wave. The solutions obtained in this paper include (a) the solitary wave solutions of bell-type for S and L, (b) the solitary wave solutions of kink-type for S and bell-type for L, (c) the solitary wave solutions of a compound of the bell-type and the kink-type for S and L, (d) the singular travelling wave solutions, (e) periodic travelling wave solutions of triangle function types, and solitary wave solutions of rational function types. The variety of structure to the exact solutions of the long-short wave equation is illustrated. The methods presented here can also be used to obtain exact solutions of nonlinear wave equations in n dimensions

  8. Angle resolved photoemission study of Fermi surfaces and single-particle excitations of quasi-low dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gweon, Gey-Hong

    Using angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) as the main experimental tool and the single particle Green's function as the main theoretical tool, materials of various degrees of low dimensionality and different ground states are studied. The underlying theme of this thesis is that of one dimensional physics, which includes charge density waves (CDW's) and the Luttinger liquid (LL). The LL is the prime example of a lattice non-Fermi liquid (non-FL) and CDW fluctuations also give non-FL behaviors. Non-FL physics is an emerging paradigm of condensed matter physics. It is thought by some researchers that one dimensional LL behavior is a key element in solving the high temperature superconductivity problem. TiTe2 is a quasi-2 dimensional (quasi-2D) Fermi liquid (FL) material very well suited for ARPES lineshape studies. I report ARPES spectra at 300 K which show an unusual behavior of a peak moving through the Fermi energy (EF). I also report a good fit of the ARPES spectra at 25 K obtained by using a causal Green's function proposed by K. Matho. SmTe3 is a quasi-2D CDW material. The near EF ARPES spectra and intensity map reveal rich details of an anisotropic gap and imperfectly nested Fermi surface (FS) for a high temperature CDW. A simple model of imperfect nesting can be constructed from these data and predicts a CDW wavevector in very good agreement with the value known from electron diffraction. NaMo6O17 and KMo 6O17 are also quasi-2D CDW materials. The "hidden nesting" or "hidden 1 dimensionality" picture for the CDW is confirmed very well by our direct image of the FS. K0.3MoO3, the so-called "blue bronze," is a quasi-1 dimensional (quasi-1D) CDW material. Even in its metallic phase above the CDW transition temperature, its photoemission spectra show an anomalously weak intensity at EF and no clear metallic Fermi edge. I compare predictions of an LL model and a CDW fluctuation model regarding these aspects, and find that the LL scenario explains them

  9. Single-Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlacek, Arthur [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The SP2 is an instrument that measures, in situ, the time-dependent scattering and incandescence signals produced by individual BC-containing particles as they travel through a continuous-wave laser beam. Any particle traversing the laser beam will scatter light, and the BC component of a BC-containing particle will absorb some of the laser energy until its temperature is raised to the point at which it incandesces (hereafter we adopt the standard terminology of the SP2 community and denote any substance determined by the SP2 to be BC as refractory black carbon (rBC)). The amplitude of the rBC incandescence signal is related to the amount of refractory material contained in the illuminated particle. By binning the individual incandescence signals per unit sample volume, the mass concentration [ng/m3] of rBC can be derived. By binning the individual signals by volume equivalent diameter the size distribution (dN/dlogDVED) per unit time can be derived. The rBC mass loading per unit time and the rBC size distribution unit time are the core data products produced by the SP2. Additionally, the scattering channel can be used to provide information on the rBC particle population-based mixing states within ambient aerosols. However, this data product is produced on a requested-basis since additional detailed analysis and QC/QA must be conducted.

  10. Wave function for harmonically confined electrons in time-dependent electric and magnetostatic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong-Ming; Chen, Jin-Wang; Pan, Xiao-Yin; Sahni, Viraht

    2014-01-14

    We derive via the interaction "representation" the many-body wave function for harmonically confined electrons in the presence of a magnetostatic field and perturbed by a spatially homogeneous time-dependent electric field-the Generalized Kohn Theorem (GKT) wave function. In the absence of the harmonic confinement - the uniform electron gas - the GKT wave function reduces to the Kohn Theorem wave function. Without the magnetostatic field, the GKT wave function is the Harmonic Potential Theorem wave function. We further prove the validity of the connection between the GKT wave function derived and the system in an accelerated frame of reference. Finally, we provide examples of the application of the GKT wave function.

  11. BAYESZ, S-Wave, P-Wave Resonance Level Spacing and Strength Functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    A - Description of problem or function: BAYESZ calculates average s- and p-wave level spacings, strength functions, and average radiation widths of a mixed sequence of s- and p-wave resonances whose parameters are supplied as input. The code is based on two physical assumptions: 1) The neutron reduced width distribution for each open channel is a chi-squared distribution with one degree of freedom, i.e. Porter-Thomas. 2) The spacing distribution follows the Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble. This property is used, however, only to fix the s- to p-wave level density ratio as proportional to (2J+1) with a spin cut-off correction. B - Method of solution: The method used is an extension of that described by Moore et al. in reference (1), and is based on the method of moments of a truncated Porter-Thomas distribution. C - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Parameters for a maximum of 500 individual resonances can be specified. This restriction can be relaxed by increasing array dimensions

  12. Uncovering homo-and hetero-interactions on the cell membrane using single particle tracking approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torreno-Pina, Juan A; Manzo, Carlo; Garcia-Parajo, Maria F

    2016-01-01

    The plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells is responsible for a myriad of functions that regulate cell physiology and plays a crucial role in a multitude of processes that include adhesion, migration, signaling recognition and cell–cell communication. This is accomplished by specific interactions between different membrane components such as lipids and proteins on the lipid bilayer but also through interactions with the underlying cortical actin cytoskeleton on the intracellular side and the glycocalyx matrix in close proximity to the extracellular side. Advanced biophysical techniques, including single particle tracking (SPT) have revealed that the lateral diffusion of molecular components on the plasma membrane represents a landmark manifestation of such interactions. Indeed, by studying changes in the diffusivity of individual membrane molecules, including sub-diffusion, confined diffusion and/or transient arrest of molecules in membrane compartments, it has been possible to gain insight on the nature of molecular interactions and to infer on its functional role for cell response. In this review, we will revise some exciting results where SPT has been crucial to reveal homo- and hetero-interactions on the cell membrane. (paper)

  13. Deblurring of class-averaged images in single-particle electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Wooram; Chirikjian, Gregory S; Madden, Dean R; Rockmore, Daniel N

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for the deblurring of class-averaged images in single-particle electron microscopy (EM). Since EM images of biological samples are very noisy, the images which are nominally identical projection images are often grouped, aligned and averaged in order to cancel or reduce the background noise. However, the noise in the individual EM images generates errors in the alignment process, which creates an inherent limit on the accuracy of the resulting class averages. This inaccurate class average due to the alignment errors can be viewed as the result of a convolution of an underlying clear image with a blurring function. In this work, we develop a deconvolution method that gives an estimate for the underlying clear image from a blurred class-averaged image using precomputed statistics of misalignment. Since this convolution is over the group of rigid-body motions of the plane, SE(2), we use the Fourier transform for SE(2) in order to convert the convolution into a matrix multiplication in the corresponding Fourier space. For practical implementation we use a Hermite-function-based image modeling technique, because Hermite expansions enable lossless Cartesian-polar coordinate conversion using the Laguerre–Fourier expansions, and Hermite expansion and Laguerre–Fourier expansion retain their structures under the Fourier transform. Based on these mathematical properties, we can obtain the deconvolution of the blurred class average using simple matrix multiplication. Tests of the proposed deconvolution method using synthetic and experimental EM images confirm the performance of our method

  14. The potential-free approach to the construction of the NN-wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troitsky, V.E.

    1984-01-01

    The traditional approaches to the nonrelativistic NN-interaction use local and nonlocal potentials of the kind defined by different dynamical speculations. The wave functions are obtained then from the Schroedinger equation with the chosen potential. Here the author obtains the wave functions (scattering wave function and bound state wave function) directly from the scattering phases in the frame of a dispersion approach without use of potential. (Auth.)

  15. Pre-asymptotic behavior of single-particle overlap integrals of non-Borromean two-neutron halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeyuk, N.K.; Tostevin, J.A.; Blokhintsev, L.D.

    2003-01-01

    For non-Borromean two-neutron halo nuclei, modifications to the behavior of single-particle overlap integrals will arise due to the correlations of the two interacting nucleons in the halo. An additional contribution to the overlap integral can be obtained using the Feynman diagram approach. This additional term is modeled using a simple local potential model. We show that these modifications may play a role in detailed interpretations of experimental results from single-nucleon knockout, transfer, and other reactions that probe the single-nucleon overlap functions

  16. Covariant density functional theory for decay of deformed proton emitters: A self-consistent approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Ferreira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Proton radioactivity from deformed nuclei is described for the first time by a self-consistent calculation based on covariant relativistic density functionals derived from meson exchange and point coupling models. The calculation provides an important new test to these interactions at the limits of stability, since the mixing of different angular momenta in the single particle wave functions is probed.

  17. On relation of momenta of structure functions of the composite systems with their simultaneous wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linkevich, A.D.; Savrin, V.I.; Sanadze, V.V.; Skachkov, N.B.

    1984-01-01

    Calculation of hadron structure function (SF) comprising point objects is carried out. The obtained hadron SF is expressed by means of simultaneous relativistic wave functions of a composite particle. Exact calculation of hadron SF momenta in simultaneous formulation of quantum field theory off-energy surface is conducted. The given calculation of hadron SF is shown to result in their dependence on momentum transferred square (or square of total vector of energy-momentum of Compton scattering on a quark) whih is determined by the set of simultaneous hadron wave functions as bound state of quark (partons) in the considered case of non-structural quarks

  18. Description of the nucleon wave function as a sum of well-chosen Gaussian functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, C.; Silvestre-Brac, B.

    1995-01-01

    We study in detail the possibility of describing the nucleon (three quark-system) wave function as a superposition of Gaussian functions. A Faddeev treatment including 8 amplitudes is performed and taken as reference for the exact values. Several approximations are proposed and compared carefully to the exact solutions. Three different potentials have been tested and several observables are considered. (author)

  19. Irregular wave functions of a hydrogen atom in a uniform magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintgen, D.; Hoenig, A.

    1989-01-01

    The highly excited irregular wave functions of a hydrogen atom in a uniform magnetic field are investigated analytically, with wave function scarring by periodic orbits considered quantitatively. The results obtained confirm that the contributions of closed classical orbits to the spatial wave functions vanish in the semiclassical limit. Their disappearance, however, is slow. This discussion is illustrated by numerical examples.

  20. Dynamics of a single particle in a horizontally shaken box

    OpenAIRE

    Drossel, Barbara; Prellberg, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    We study the dynamics of a particle in a horizontally and periodically shaken box as a function of the box parameters and the coefficient of restitution. For certain parameter values, the particle becomes regularly chattered at one of the walls, thereby loosing all its kinetic energy relative to that wall. The number of container oscillations between two chattering events depends in a fractal manner on the parameters of the system. In contrast to a vertically vibrated particle, for which chat...

  1. Measurement of ambient aerosols in northern Mexico City by single particle mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Moffet

    2008-08-01

    biomass particles. The highest wind speeds were correlated with the highest number fraction of fresh biomass particles (up to 76% of the submicron number fraction when winds were coming directly from fires that were located south and southeast of the city based on MODIS fire count data. This study provides a unique clock of hourly changes in single particle mixing state and sources as a function of meteorology in Mexico City. These new findings indicate that biomass burning and industrial emissions can make significant contributions to primary particle loadings in Mexico City that are strongly coupled with local meteorology.

  2. Single Particle energy levels in ODD-A Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasijo, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    Singe particle energies for atomic nuclei with odd-A number of nucleons, i.e. nuclei possessing odd number of protons or odd number of neutrons, were calculated based on Nilsson's theory, and then the diagrams were made. the energy diagram is in the from of plot of energies as function of deformations, entities identifying the deviations from the spherical shape. The energy calculations were done using FORTRAN 77 language of PC (Personal Computer) version with Microsoft Fortran Power Station compiler, which was then combined with WORD version 6.0 and EXCEL version 5.0 of WINDOWS WORKGROUP to make the plot

  3. Bose-Einstein condensation and long-range phase coherence in the many-particle Schroedinger wave function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayers, J.

    2001-01-01

    The properties of the many-particle Schroedinger wave function Ψ are examined in the presence of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC). It is shown that it is possible to define, in terms of Ψ, a function ψ(r-vector vertical bar s-vector), which can be regarded as the single-particle wave function of an arbitrary particle for a fixed configuration s-vector of all other particles. It is shown that ψ(r-vector|s-vector) plays an analogous role to the field operator of standard field-theoretical treatments of superfluidity. It is shown that in the presence of a Bose-Einstein condensate fraction f, ψ(r-vector|s-vector) must be nonzero and phase coherent within at least a fraction f of the total volume of the N-particle system for essentially all s-vector. Examination of the form of variational many-particle wave functions shows that in liquid 4 He, ψ(r-vector|s-vector) extends throughout the spaces left between the hard cores of the other atoms at s-vector. By contrast, in the absence of BEC, ψ(r-vector|s-vector) in the ground state must be nonzero only over a localized region of space. It is shown that in order for long-range phase coherence in ψ(r-vector|s-vector) to be maintained in the presence of velocity fields, any circulation must be quantized over macroscopic length scales. Some numerical calculations of the properties and fluctuations of liquid helium are presented. These suggest that the approach outlined in this paper may have significant advantages for the numerical calculations of the properties of Bose-Einstein condensed systems. The properties of ψ(r-vector|s-vector) are used to show that there is no general connection between the static structure factor and the size of the Bose-Einstein condensate fraction in a Bose fluid. It is suggested that the observed connection in liquid 4 He is due to the creation of vacancies in the liquid structure, which are required so that ψ(r-vector vertical bar s-vector) can delocalize, in the presence of hard

  4. The single-particle potential of nuclear matter in the LOCV framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modarres, M., E-mail: mmodares@ut.ac.ir [Physics Department, University of Tehran, North-Kargar Ave., 1439955961 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rajabi, A. [Physics Department, Shahid Rajaei Teacher Training University, Lavizan, 16788 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-10-01

    The density and momentum dependence of single-particle potential (SPP) and effective mass of symmetric nuclear matter are studied in the framework of lowest order constrained variational (LOCV) method. The Reid68, the Reid68-{Delta} and the Av{sub 18} interactions are considered as the input nucleon-nucleon potentials. It is shown that the SPP of nuclear matter, at fixed density, is an increasing function of nucleon momentum, and it has different behavior for the Reid type potentials with respect to Av{sub 18} interaction. We find good agreements between our LOCV SPP and those coming from others many-body techniques such as the (Dirac-)Brueckner-Hartree-Foch ((D)BHF), the fermion hypernetted chain (FHNC), mean field (MF), etc. On the other hand SPP dramatically depends on the density at low and high nucleon momentums. While the effective mass of nuclear matter increases as we increase the nucleon momentum, it decreases at the Fermi surface. Again, good agreements are observed between our calculated effective mass and those coming from the methods mentioned above.

  5. Study of single-particle correlations in events with the total disintegration of nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdinov, O.B.; Bagirov, A.M.; Sulejmanov, M.K.; Anoshin, A.I.; Bogdanowicz, J.; Kuznetsov, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    New experimental data on the behaviour of the single-particle two-dimensional correlation functions R versus Q (Q is the number of nucleons emitted from nuclei) and A p (A p is the mass of projectile nuclei) are presented. The interactions of π - -mesons (at a momentum of 40 GeV/c), protons, d, 4 He and 12 C nuclei with carbon nuclei (at a momentum of 4.2 A GeV/c) are considered. The values of R are obtained separately for π - -mesons and protons. In so doing, the values of R are normalised so that -1≤R≤1. The value of R=0 corresponds to the case of the absence of correlations. It has been found that the Q- and A p -dependence of R takes place only for weak correlations (R t and have a nonlinear character, that is the regions with different characters of the Q-dependence of R are separated: there is a change of regimes in the Q-dependences of R. The boundary values of Q=Q*, corresponding to the transitions from one dependence region to another, are determined. The correlations weaken with increasing A p , and they become minimum in 12 CC interactions. Simultaneously with weakening the correlations in the region of large Q≥Q*, the character of the Q-dependence of R changes

  6. FATES: a flexible analysis toolkit for the exploration of single-particle mass spectrometer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Camille M.; Cornwell, Gavin C.; Rodriguez, Paul; Prather, Kimberly A.

    2017-04-01

    Single-particle mass spectrometer (SPMS) analysis of aerosols has become increasingly popular since its invention in the 1990s. Today many iterations of commercial and lab-built SPMSs are in use worldwide. However, supporting analysis toolkits for these powerful instruments are outdated, have limited functionality, or are versions that are not available to the scientific community at large. In an effort to advance this field and allow better communication and collaboration between scientists, we have developed FATES (Flexible Analysis Toolkit for the Exploration of SPMS data), a MATLAB toolkit easily extensible to an array of SPMS designs and data formats. FATES was developed to minimize the computational demands of working with large data sets while still allowing easy maintenance, modification, and utilization by novice programmers. FATES permits scientists to explore, without constraint, complex SPMS data with simple scripts in a language popular for scientific numerical analysis. In addition FATES contains an array of data visualization graphic user interfaces (GUIs) which can aid both novice and expert users in calibration of raw data; exploration of the dependence of mass spectral characteristics on size, time, and peak intensity; and investigations of clustered data sets.

  7. Chameleon fields, wave function collapse and quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanzi, A

    2015-01-01

    Chameleon fields are quantum (usually scalar) fields, with a density-dependent mass. In a high-density environment, the mass of the chameleon is large. On the contrary, in a small-density environment (e.g. on cosmological distances), the chameleon is very light. A model where the collapse of the wave function is induced by chameleon fields is presented. During this analysis, a Chameleonic Equivalence Principle (CEP) will be formulated: in this model, quantum gravitation is equivalent to a conformal anomaly. Further research efforts are necessary to verify whether this proposal is compatible with phenomeno logical constraints. (paper)

  8. Search for a bosonic component in the neutrino wave function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornow, W. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) and Duke University Department of Physics, P.O. Box 90308, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Recently, Dolgov and Smirnov speculated that neutrinos may not obey the principle named after their inventor, the Pauli Principle. The neutrino wave function may contain a bosonic component. In principle, two-neutrino double-beta (2{nu}2{beta}) decay data could be used to check on the conjecture that neutrinos violate the Pauli Principle. Recent 2{nu}2{beta} data on {sup 100}Mo to both the ground state and excited states in {sup 100}Ru will be used to illustrate the procedure.

  9. Amplitude modulation of atomic wave functions. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The major theoretical advance has been to show that one can modulate Rydberg wave functions using either of two methods: (1) the amplitude modulation technique which depends on autoionization to deplete part of the wave function, or (2) a phase modulation method, which uses a change in the core potential to create a localized phase shift in the wave function. Essentially, these two methods can both be seen as using the core potential to change the Rydberg wave function, using the imaginary part of the potential to do amplitude modulation, or using the real part of the potential to do phase modulation. This work will be published as the authors acquire experimental results which show the differences between the two methods. One of the results of this theoretical study is that the initial proposal to study Barium 6snd states had a significant flaw. Neither the autoionization time, nor the quantum defect shifts are very large in these cases. This means that the modulation is relatively small. This shows itself primarily in the difficulty of seeing significant population redistribution into different 6snd states. The authors intend to correct this in the next funding cycle either: (a) by using the more quickly decaying Ba 6pnf states to modulate 6snd states, or (b) by using Sr 5 snd states, as outlined in this report. Their first, low power experiments are complete. These experiments have used two pulses to do a temporal version of the Ramsey separated oscillatory fields excitation. The two pulses are generated by passing the single pulse through a Michelson-Morley interferometer, which is computer controlled to sweep one arm through 2.5 {micro}m in steps of 10 nm. The second pulse`s excitation interferes with that of the first pulse, and so the total excitation has a sinusoidal variation (with a time period equal to the optical period) on top of a constant background. The amplitude of the total variation should decay at half of the rate decay rate of the autoionizing

  10. Simple functional-differential equations for the bound-state wave-function components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamuntavicius, G.P.

    1986-01-01

    The author presents a new method of a direct derivation of differential equations for the wave-function components of identical-particles systems. The method generates in a simple manner all the possible variants of these equations. In some cases they are the differential equations of Faddeev or Yakubovskii. It is shown that the case of the bound states allows to formulate very simple equations for the components which are equivalent to the Schroedinger equation for the complete wave function. The components with a minimal antisymmetry are defined and the corresponding equations are derived. (Auth.)

  11. Fluctuations of the single-particle density in nuclear dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgio, G.F.; Chomaz, P.; Randrup, J.

    1991-01-01

    In recent years semiclassical methods have been developed to study heavy-ion collisions in the framework of the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck theory, in which the collisionless mean field evolution has been augmented by a Pauli-blocked Nordheim collision term. Since these models describe the average dynamic trajectory, they cannot be applied to describe fluctuations of one-body observables, correlations in the emission of light particles and catastrophic processes like multifragmentation. The authors have developed a new method in order to include the stochastic part of the collision integral into BUU-type simulations of the nuclear dynamics. They apply this method to a two-dimensional gas of fermions on a torus, for which the time evolution of the mean trajectory and the associated correlation function are calculated; the variance of the phase-space occupancy follows closely the predictions of the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation and relaxes towards the appropriate quantum-statistical limit. The breaking of the translational and spherical symmetry in the model permits the study of unstable situations in phase-space. The introduction of the nonlinear one-body field allows them to explore dynamical instabilities and bifurcations. Therefore the model can be appropriate for studying nuclear multifragmentation

  12. Hadronic wave functions and high momentum transfer interactions in quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.; Huang, T.; Lepage, G.P.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter emphasizes the utility of a Fock state representation of the meson and baryon wave functions as a means not only to parametrize the effects of bound state dynamics in QCD phenomena, but also to interrelate exclusive, inclusive, and higher twist processes. Discusses hadronic wave functions in QCD, measures of hadronic wave functions (form factors of composite systems, form factors of mesons, the meson distribution amplitude); large momentum transfer exclusive processes (two-photon processes); deep inelastic lepton scattering; and the phenomenology of hadronic wave functions (measures of hadron wave functions, constraints on the pion and proton valence wave function, quark jet diffraction excitation, the ''unveiling'' of the hadronic wave function and intrinsic charm). Finds that the testing ground of perturbative QCD where rigorous, definitive tests of the theory can be made can now be extended throughout a large domain of large momentum transfer exclusive and inclusive lepton, photon, and hadron reactions

  13. The wave function behavior of the open topological string partition function on the conifold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashani-Poor, Amir-Kian

    2007-01-01

    We calculate the topological string partition function to all genus on the conifold, in the presence of branes. We demonstrate that the partition functions for different brane backgrounds (smoothly connected along a quantum corrected moduli space) can be interpreted as the same wave function in different polarizations. This behavior has a natural interpretation in the Chern-Simons target space description of the topological theory. Our detailed analysis however indicates that non-perturbatively, a modification of real Chern-Simons theory is required to capture the correct target space theory of the topological string. We perform our calculations in the framework of a free fermion representation of the open topological string, demonstrating that this framework extends beyond the simple C 3 geometry. The notion of a fermionic brane creation operator arises in this setting, and we study to what extent the wave function properties of the partition function can be extended to this operator

  14. Principles and biophysical applications of single particle super-localization and rotational tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yan

    While conventional Single Particle Tracking (SPT) techniques acquire 2D or 3D trajectories of particle probes, we have developed Single Particle Orientation and Rotational Tracking (SPORT) techniques to extract orientation and rotational information. Combined with DIC microscopy, the SPORT technique has been applied in biophysical studies, including membrane diffusion and intracellular transport. The rotational dynamics of nanoparticle vectors on live cell membranes was recorded and its influence on the fate of these nanoparticle vectors was elucidated. The rotational motions of gold nanorods with various surface modifiers were tracked continuously at a temporal resolution of 5 ms under a DIC microscope. We found that the rotational behaviors of gold nanorod vectors are strongly related to their surface charge, specific surface functional groups, and the availability of receptors on cell membranes. The study of rotational Brownian motion of nanoparticles on cell membranes will lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of drug delivery and provide guidance in designing surface modification strategies for drug delivery vectors under various circumstances. To characterize the rotation mode of surface functionalized gold nanorods on cell membranes, the SPORT technique is combined with the correlation analysis of the bright and dark DIC intensities. The unique capabilities of visualizing and understanding rotational motions of functionalized nanoparticles on live cell membranes allow us to correlate rotational and translational dynamics in unprecedented detail and provide new insights for complex membrane processes, including electrostatic interactions, ligand-receptor binding, and lateral (confined and hopping) diffusion of membrane receptors. Surface-functionalized nanoparticles interact with the membrane in fundamentally different ways and exhibit distinct rotational modes. The early events of particle-membrane approach and attachment are directly visualized

  15. Principles and biophysical applications of single particle super-localization and rotational tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Yan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    While conventional Single Particle Tracking (SPT) techniques acquire 2D or 3D trajectories of particle probes, we have developed Single Particle Orientation and Rotational Tracking (SPORT) techniques to extract orientation and rotational information. Combined with DIC microscopy, the SPORT technique has been applied in biophysical studies, including membrane diffusion and intracellular transport. The rotational dynamics of nanoparticle vectors on live cell membranes was recorded and its influence on the fate of these nanoparticle vectors was elucidated. The rotational motions of gold nanorods with various surface modifiers were tracked continuously at a temporal resolution of 5 ms under a DIC microscope. We found that the rotational behaviors of gold nanorod vectors are strongly related to their surface charge, specific surface functional groups, and the availability of receptors on cell membranes. The study of rotational Brownian motion of nanoparticles on cell membranes will lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of drug delivery and provide guidance in designing surface modification strategies for drug delivery vectors under various circumstances. To characterize the rotation mode of surface functionalized gold nanorods on cell membranes, the SPORT technique is combined with the correlation analysis of the bright and dark DIC intensities. The unique capabilities of visualizing and understanding rotational motions of functionalized nanoparticles on live cell membranes allow us to correlate rotational and translational dynamics in unprecedented detail and provide new insights for complex membrane processes, including electrostatic interactions, ligand-receptor binding, and lateral (confined and hopping) diffusion of membrane receptors. Surface-functionalized nanoparticles interact with the membrane in fundamentally different ways and exhibit distinct rotational modes. The early events of particle-membrane approach and attachment are directly visualized

  16. Centroids of effective interactions from measured single-particle energies: An application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, B.J.

    1990-01-01

    Centroids of the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction for the mass region A=28--64 are extracted directly from experimental single-particle spectra, by comparing single-particle energies relative to different cores. Uncertainties in the centroids are estimated at approximately 100 keV, except in cases of exceptional fragmentation of the single-particle strength. The use of a large number of inert cores allows the dependence of the interaction on mass or model space to be investigated. The method permits accurate empirical modifications to be made to realistic interactions calculated from bare nucleon-nucleon potentials, which are known to possess defective centroids in many cases. In addition, the centroids can be used as input to the more sophisticated fitting procedures that are employed to produce matrix elements of the effective interaction

  17. Suppression of electron waves in relation to the deformation of the electron beam distribution function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumasa, O.; Itatani, R.

    1978-01-01

    The change of the electron beam distribution function due to the wave excited by the beam density modulation is observed, in relation to the suppression of electron waves in a beam-plasma system. (Auth.)

  18. Evolution of Single-Particle Energies for N=9 Nuclei at Large N/Z

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuosmaa A. H.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the nucleus 14B using the 13B(d,p14B and 15C(d,3He14B reactions. The two reactions provide complementary information about the negative-parity 1s1/2 and 0d5/2 neutron single-particle states in 14B. The data from the (d,p reaction give neutron-spectroscopic strengths for these levels, and the (d,3He results confirm the existence of a broad 2- excited state suggested in the literature. Together these results provide estimates of the sd-shell neutron effective single-particle energies in 14B.

  19. Quantum chaos in nuclear single-particle motion and damping of giant resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Santanu; Mukhopadhyay, Tapan

    1995-01-01

    The spectral statistics of single particle motion in deformed cavities with axial symmetry are presented. The single particle motion in the cavities considered are non-integrable and the systematics of the fluctuation measures of the spectra reveal a transition from regular to chaotic regime in the corresponding classical systems. Quantitative estimate of the degree of chaos enables us to introduce a correction factor to the one-body wall formula for the damping widths of isoscalar giant resonances. The damping widths calculated with this correction factor give much better agreement with experimental values than earlier calculations of one-body damping widths. (author). 21 refs., 5 figs

  20. Comparison of Regression Analysis and Transfer Function in Estimating the Parameters of Central Pulse Waves from Brachial Pulse Wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Rui; Xu, Li-Sheng; Yao, Yang; Hao, Li-Ling; Qi, Lin

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed ascending branch slope (A_slope), dicrotic notch height (Hn), diastolic area (Ad) and systolic area (As) diastolic blood pressure (DBP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), pulse pressure (PP), subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR), waveform parameter (k), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), and peripheral resistance (RS) of central pulse wave invasively and non-invasively measured. Invasively measured parameters were compared with parameters measured from brachial pulse waves by regression model and transfer function model. Accuracy of parameters estimated by regression and transfer function model, was compared too. Findings showed that k value, central pulse wave and brachial pulse wave parameters invasively measured, correlated positively. Regression model parameters including A_slope, DBP, SEVR, and transfer function model parameters had good consistency with parameters invasively measured. They had same effect of consistency. SBP, PP, SV, and CO could be calculated through the regression model, but their accuracies were worse than that of transfer function model.

  1. Definition of a magnetic susceptibility of conglomerates with magnetite particles. Particularities of defining single particle susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandulyak, A. A.; Sandulyak, A. V.; Ershova, V.; Pamme, N.; Ngmasom, B.; Iles, A.

    2017-11-01

    Data of a magnetic susceptibility of ferro-and the ferrimagnetic particles of many technogenic, natural, special media are especially demanded for the solution of various tasks connected with purposeful magnetic impact on these particles. One of productive approaches to definition of a magnetic susceptibility χ of these particles consists in receiving experimental data of a susceptibility of disperse samples 〈 χ 〉 with a disperse phase of these particles. The paper expounds and analyses the results of experiments on defining (by Faraday method in a magnetic field with intensity H = 90-730 kA/m) the magnetic susceptibility 〈 χ 〉 of disperse samples (conglomerates) with a given volume ratio γ of magnetite particles (γ = 0.0065-0.25). The corresponding families of concentration and field dependences are provided alongside with discussing the applicability of linear and exponential functions to describe these dependences. We consider the possibility of defining single particles susceptibility χ (with simultaneous obtaining field dependence of this susceptibility) by the commonly used relation χ = 〈 χ 〉 /γ both at relatively small (preferable for accuracy reasons) values γ - to γ = 0.02…0.025, as well as at increased values γ - up to γ = 0.25. The data χ are provided depending on H and correlating with known data at H matter magnetic susceptibility χm (for the case when the particles are traditionally likened to balls with the characteristic for them demagnetising factor equalling 1/3) complies with the anticipated inverse function χm ∼ 1/H in the studied area H (where magnetization M expressed as M = χH reaches saturation M = Const).

  2. FIREX-Related Biomass Burning Research Using ARM Single-Particle Soot Photometer Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onasch, Timothy B [Aerodyne Research, Inc.; Sedlacek, Arthur J [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-03-15

    The scientific focus of this study was to investigate and quantify the mass loadings, chemical compositions, and optical properties of biomass burning particulate emissions generated in the laboratory from Western U.S. fuels using a similar instrument suite to the one deployed on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Gulfstream-1 (G-1) aircraft during the 2013 Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) field study (Kleinman and Sedlacek, 2013). We deployed the single-particle soot photometer (SP2) to make measurements of biomass burning refractory black carbon (rBC) mass loadings and size distributions to correlate with non-refractory particulate matter (NR-PM; i.e., HR-AMS) and rBC (SP-AMS) measurements as a function of photo-oxidation processes in an environmental chamber. With these measurements, we will address the following scientific questions: 1. What are the emission indices (g/kg fuel) of rBC from various wildland fuels from the Pacific Northwest (i.e., relevant to BBOP analysis) as a function of combustion conditions and simulated atmospheric processing in an environmental chamber? 2. What are the optical properties (e.g., mass-specific absorption cross-section [MAC], single-scattering albedo [SSA], and absorption Angstrom exponent [AAE)] of rBC emitted from various wildland fuels and how are they impacted by atmospheric processing? 3. How does the mixing state of rBC in biomass-burning plumes relate to the optical properties? 4. How does the emitted rBC affect radiative forcing?

  3. Epicenter Location of Regional Seismic Events Using Love Wave and Rayleigh Wave Ambient Seismic Noise Green's Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levshin, A. L.; Barmin, M. P.; Moschetti, M. P.; Mendoza, C.; Ritzwoller, M. H.

    2011-12-01

    We describe a novel method to locate regional seismic events based on exploiting Empirical Green's Functions (EGF) that are produced from ambient seismic noise. Elastic EGFs between pairs of seismic stations are determined by cross-correlating long time-series of ambient noise recorded at the two stations. The EGFs principally contain Rayleigh waves on the vertical-vertical cross-correlations and Love waves on the transverse-transverse cross-correlations. Earlier work (Barmin et al., "Epicentral location based on Rayleigh wave empirical Green's functions from ambient seismic noise", Geophys. J. Int., 2011) showed that group time delays observed on Rayleigh wave EGFs can be exploited to locate to within about 1 km moderate sized earthquakes using USArray Transportable Array (TA) stations. The principal advantage of the method is that the ambient noise EGFs are affected by lateral variations in structure similarly to the earthquake signals, so the location is largely unbiased by 3-D structure. However, locations based on Rayleigh waves alone may be biased by more than 1 km if the earthquake depth is unknown but lies between 2 km and 7 km. This presentation is motivated by the fact that group time delays for Love waves are much less affected by earthquake depth than Rayleigh waves; thus exploitation of Love wave EGFs may reduce location bias caused by uncertainty in event depth. The advantage of Love waves to locate seismic events, however, is mitigated by the fact that Love wave EGFs have a smaller SNR than Rayleigh waves. Here, we test the use of Love and Rayleigh wave EGFs between 5- and 15-sec period to locate seismic events based on the USArray TA in the western US. We focus on locating aftershocks of the 2008 M 6.0 Wells earthquake, mining blasts in Wyoming and Montana, and small earthquakes near Norman, OK and Dallas, TX, some of which may be triggered by hydrofracking or injection wells.

  4. Overlap integrals of model wave functions of 4He and 3He,3H nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voloshin, N.I.; Levshin, E.B.; Fursa, A.D.

    1990-01-01

    Overlap integrals of wave functions 4 He nucleus and 3 He and 3 H nuclei are calculated. Two types of model wave functions are used to describe the structure of nuclei. The wace function is taken as a product of the one-particle Gaussian functions of the Gaussian type in the second case

  5. Pulse wave velocity and cognitive function in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Wenjun; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Schubert, Carla R; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Chappell, Richard J; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Acher, Charles W

    2014-01-01

    Arterial stiffness may be associated with cognitive function. In this study, pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured from the carotid to femoral (CF-PWV) and from the carotid to radial (CR-PWV) with the Complior SP System. Cognitive function was measured by 6 tests of executive function, psychomotor speed, memory, and language fluency. A total of 1433 participants were included (mean age 75 y, 43% men). Adjusting for age, sex, education, pulse rate, hemoglobin A1C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension, cardiovascular disease history, smoking, drinking, and depression symptoms, a CF-PWV>12 m/s was associated with a lower Mini-Mental State Examination score (coefficient: -0.31, SE: 0.11, P=0.005), fewer words recalled on Auditory Verbal Learning Test (coefficient: -1.10, SE: 0.43, P=0.01), and lower score on the composite cognition score (coefficient: -0.10, SE: 0.05, P=0.04) and marginally significantly associated with longer time to complete Trail Making Test-part B (coefficient: 6.30, SE: 3.41, P=0.06), CF-PWV was not associated with Trail Making Test-part A, Digit Symbol Substation Test, or Verbal Fluency Test. No associations were found between CR-PWV and cognitive performance measures. Higher large artery stiffness was associated with worse cognitive function, and longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these associations.

  6. Probing spontaneous wave-function collapse with entangled levitating nanospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Tiancai; Li, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Wave-function collapse models are considered to be the modified theories of standard quantum mechanics at the macroscopic level. By introducing nonlinear stochastic terms in the Schrödinger equation, these models (different from standard quantum mechanics) predict that it is fundamentally impossible to prepare macroscopic systems in macroscopic superpositions. The validity of these models can only be examined by experiments, and hence efficient protocols for these kinds of experiments are greatly needed. Here we provide a protocol that is able to probe the postulated collapse effect by means of the entanglement of the center-of-mass motion of two nanospheres optically trapped in a Fabry-Pérot cavity. We show that the collapse noise results in a large reduction of the steady-state entanglement, and the entanglement, with and without the collapse effect, shows distinguishable scalings with certain system parameters, which can be used to determine unambiguously the effect of these models.

  7. Electron Correlation from the Adiabatic Connection for Multireference Wave Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernal, Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    An adiabatic connection (AC) formula for the electron correlation energy is derived for a broad class of multireference wave functions. The AC expression recovers dynamic correlation energy and assures a balanced treatment of the correlation energy. Coupling the AC formalism with the extended random phase approximation allows one to find the correlation energy only from reference one- and two-electron reduced density matrices. If the generalized valence bond perfect pairing model is employed a simple closed-form expression for the approximate AC formula is obtained. This results in the overall M5 scaling of the computation cost making the method one of the most efficient multireference approaches accounting for dynamic electron correlation also for the strongly correlated systems.

  8. Approximate relativistic corrections to atomic radial wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, R.D.; Griffin, D.C.

    1976-01-01

    The mass-velocity and Darwin terms of the one-electron-atom Pauli equation have been added to the Hartree-Fock differential equations by using the HX formula to calculate a local central field potential for use in these terms. Introduction of the quantum number j is avoided by omitting the spin-orbit term of the Pauli equation. The major relativistic effects, both direct and indirect, are thereby incorporated into the wave functions, while allowing retention of the commonly used nonrelativistic formulation of energy level calculations. The improvement afforded in calculated total binding energies, excitation energies, spin-orbit parameters, and expectation values of r/sub m/ is comparable with that provided by fully relativistic Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculations

  9. Human brain networks function in connectome-specific harmonic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasoy, Selen; Donnelly, Isaac; Pearson, Joel

    2016-01-21

    A key characteristic of human brain activity is coherent, spatially distributed oscillations forming behaviour-dependent brain networks. However, a fundamental principle underlying these networks remains unknown. Here we report that functional networks of the human brain are predicted by harmonic patterns, ubiquitous throughout nature, steered by the anatomy of the human cerebral cortex, the human connectome. We introduce a new technique extending the Fourier basis to the human connectome. In this new frequency-specific representation of cortical activity, that we call 'connectome harmonics', oscillatory networks of the human brain at rest match harmonic wave patterns of certain frequencies. We demonstrate a neural mechanism behind the self-organization of connectome harmonics with a continuous neural field model of excitatory-inhibitory interactions on the connectome. Remarkably, the critical relation between the neural field patterns and the delicate excitation-inhibition balance fits the neurophysiological changes observed during the loss and recovery of consciousness.

  10. Dominant partition method. [based on a wave function formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, R. M.; Redish, E. F.

    1979-01-01

    By use of the L'Huillier, Redish, and Tandy (LRT) wave function formalism, a partially connected method, the dominant partition method (DPM) is developed for obtaining few body reductions of the many body problem in the LRT and Bencze, Redish, and Sloan (BRS) formalisms. The DPM maps the many body problem to a fewer body one by using the criterion that the truncated formalism must be such that consistency with the full Schroedinger equation is preserved. The DPM is based on a class of new forms for the irreducible cluster potential, which is introduced in the LRT formalism. Connectivity is maintained with respect to all partitions containing a given partition, which is referred to as the dominant partition. Degrees of freedom corresponding to the breakup of one or more of the clusters of the dominant partition are treated in a disconnected manner. This approach for simplifying the complicated BRS equations is appropriate for physical problems where a few body reaction mechanism prevails.

  11. Single particle dynamics of many-body systems described by Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, T.D.

    2003-01-01

    Using Langevin equations we describe the random walk of single particles that belong to particle systems satisfying Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equations. In doing so, we show that Haissinski distributions of bunched particles in electron storage rings can be derived from a particle dynamics model

  12. Single Particle Potential of a Σ Hyperon in Nuclear Matter. II Rearrangement Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabrowski, J.

    2000-01-01

    The rearrangement contribution to the real part of the single particle potential of a Σ hyperon in nuclear matter, U Σ , is investigated. The isospin and spin dependent parts of U Σ are considered. Results obtained for four models of the Nijmegen baryon-baryon interaction are presented and discussed. (author)

  13. Basic Evidence and Properties of Single-Particle States in Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cindro, N. [Institute ' ' Rudjer Boskovic' ' , Zagreb, Yugoslavia (Croatia)

    1970-07-15

    1. Introduction: the shell-model orbitals; 2. Information about single-particle orbitals: a critical evaluation; 3. Experimental evidence: 3.1. The lead region; 3.2. The calcium region; 3.3. Nuclei far from closed shells; 4. Conclusion. (author)

  14. DECAY MODES OF HIGH-LYING SINGLE-PARTICLE STATES IN PB-209

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BEAUMEL, D; FORTIER, S; GALES, S; GUILLOT, J; LANGEVINJOLIOT, H; LAURENT, H; MAISON, JM; VERNOTTE, J; BORDEWIJK, JA; BRANDENBURG, S; KRASZNAHORKAY, A; CRAWLEY, GM; MASSOLO, CP; RENTERIA, M

    The neutron decay of high-lying single-particle states in Pb-209 excited by means of the (alpha, He-3) reaction has been investigated at 122 MeV incident energy using a multidetector array. The high-spin values of these states, inferred from previous inclusive experiments, are confirmed by the

  15. Single-particle electron microscopy in the study of membrane protein structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zorzi, Rita; Mi, Wei; Liao, Maofu; Walz, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Single-particle electron microscopy (EM) provides the great advantage that protein structure can be studied without the need to grow crystals. However, due to technical limitations, this approach played only a minor role in the study of membrane protein structure. This situation has recently changed dramatically with the introduction of direct electron detection device cameras, which allow images of unprecedented quality to be recorded, also making software algorithms, such as three-dimensional classification and structure refinement, much more powerful. The enhanced potential of single-particle EM was impressively demonstrated by delivering the first long-sought atomic model of a member of the biomedically important transient receptor potential channel family. Structures of several more membrane proteins followed in short order. This review recounts the history of single-particle EM in the study of membrane proteins, describes the technical advances that now allow this approach to generate atomic models of membrane proteins and provides a brief overview of some of the membrane protein structures that have been studied by single-particle EM to date. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Single-particle thermal diffusion of charged colloids: Double-layer theory in a temperature gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhont, J.K.G.; Briels, Willem J.

    2008-01-01

    The double-layer contribution to the single-particle thermal diffusion coefficient of charged, spherical colloids with arbitrary double-layer thickness is calculated and compared to experiments. The calculation is based on an extension of the Debye-Hückel theory for the double-layer structure that

  17. Understanding particle size and distance driven competition of interparticle interactions and effective single-particle anisotropy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pacáková, Barbara; Mantlíková, Alice; Nižňanský, D.; Kubíčková, Simona; Vejpravová, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 20 (2016), 1-11, č. článku 206004. ISSN 0953-8984 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01953S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnetic nanoparticles * single-particle anisotropy * dipolar energy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.649, year: 2016

  18. Summary report of the group on single-particle nonlinear dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axinescu, S.; Bartolini, R.; Bazzani, A.

    1996-10-01

    This report summarizes the research on single-particle nonlinear beam dynamics. It discusses the following topics: analytical and semi-analytical tools; early prediction of the dynamic aperture; how the results are commonly presented; Is the mechanism of the dynamic aperture understand; ripple effects; and beam-beam effects

  19. Probing correlated quantum many-body systems at the single-particle level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endres, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The detection of correlation and response functions plays a crucial role in the experimental characterization of quantum many-body systems. In this thesis, we present novel techniques for the measurement of such functions at the single-particle level. Specifically, we show the single-atom- and single-site-resolved detection of an ultracold quantum gas in an optical lattice. The quantum gas is described by the Bose-Hubbard model, which features a zero temperature phase transition from a superfluid to a Mott-insulating state, a paradigm example of a quantum phase transition. We used the aforementioned detection techniques to study correlation and response properties across the superfluid-Mott-insulator transition. The single-atom sensitivity of our method is achieved by fluorescence detection of individual atoms with a high signal-to-noise ratio. A high-resolution objective collects the fluorescence light and yields in situ 'snapshots' of the quantum gas that allow for a single-site-resolved reconstruction of the atomic distribution. This allowed us to measure two-site and non-local correlation-functions across the superfluid-Mott-insulator transition. Non-local correlation functions are based on the information of an extended region of the system and play an important role for the characterization of low-dimensional quantum phases. While non-local correlation functions were so far only theoretical tools, our results show that they are actually experimentally accessible. Furthermore, we used a new thermometry scheme, based on the counting of individual thermal excitations, to measure the response of the system to lattice modulation. Using this method, we studied the excitation spectrum of the system across the two-dimensional superfluid-Mott-insulator transition. In particular, we detected a 'Higgs' amplitude mode in the strongly-interacting superfluid close to the transition point where the system is described by an effectively Lorentz-invariant low-energy theory

  20. Probing correlated quantum many-body systems at the single-particle level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endres, Manuel

    2013-02-27

    The detection of correlation and response functions plays a crucial role in the experimental characterization of quantum many-body systems. In this thesis, we present novel techniques for the measurement of such functions at the single-particle level. Specifically, we show the single-atom- and single-site-resolved detection of an ultracold quantum gas in an optical lattice. The quantum gas is described by the Bose-Hubbard model, which features a zero temperature phase transition from a superfluid to a Mott-insulating state, a paradigm example of a quantum phase transition. We used the aforementioned detection techniques to study correlation and response properties across the superfluid-Mott-insulator transition. The single-atom sensitivity of our method is achieved by fluorescence detection of individual atoms with a high signal-to-noise ratio. A high-resolution objective collects the fluorescence light and yields in situ 'snapshots' of the quantum gas that allow for a single-site-resolved reconstruction of the atomic distribution. This allowed us to measure two-site and non-local correlation-functions across the superfluid-Mott-insulator transition. Non-local correlation functions are based on the information of an extended region of the system and play an important role for the characterization of low-dimensional quantum phases. While non-local correlation functions were so far only theoretical tools, our results show that they are actually experimentally accessible. Furthermore, we used a new thermometry scheme, based on the counting of individual thermal excitations, to measure the response of the system to lattice modulation. Using this method, we studied the excitation spectrum of the system across the two-dimensional superfluid-Mott-insulator transition. In particular, we detected a 'Higgs' amplitude mode in the strongly-interacting superfluid close to the transition point where the system is described by an effectively Lorentz

  1. Relation between equal-time and light-front wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Gerald A.; Tiburzi, Brian C.

    2010-01-01

    The relation between equal-time and light-front wave functions is studied using models for which the four-dimensional solution of the Bethe-Salpeter wave function can be obtained. The popular prescription of defining the longitudinal momentum fraction using the instant-form free kinetic energy and third component of momentum is found to be incorrect except in the nonrelativistic limit. One may obtain light-front wave functions from rest-frame, instant-form wave functions by boosting the latter wave functions to the infinite momentum frame. Despite this difficulty, we prove a relation between certain integrals of the equal-time and light-front wave functions.

  2. Planck scale physics of the single-particle Schrödinger equation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... t ) is the wave function and is the mass of the particle. This leads to a nonlinear equation, the 'Newton–Schrödinger' equation, which has been found to possess stationary self-bound solutions, whose energy can be determined using an asymptotic method. We find that such a particle strongly violates the superposition ...

  3. Regression analysis and transfer function in estimating the parameters of central pulse waves from brachial pulse wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai Rui; Li Si-Man; Xu Li-Sheng; Yao Yang; Hao Li-Ling

    2017-07-01

    This study mainly analyzed the parameters such as ascending branch slope (A_slope), dicrotic notch height (Hn), diastolic area (Ad) and systolic area (As) diastolic blood pressure (DBP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), pulse pressure (PP), subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR), waveform parameter (k), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO) and peripheral resistance (RS) of central pulse wave invasively and non-invasively measured. These parameters extracted from the central pulse wave invasively measured were compared with the parameters measured from the brachial pulse waves by a regression model and a transfer function model. The accuracy of the parameters which were estimated by the regression model and the transfer function model was compared too. Our findings showed that in addition to the k value, the above parameters of the central pulse wave and the brachial pulse wave invasively measured had positive correlation. Both the regression model parameters including A_slope, DBP, SEVR and the transfer function model parameters had good consistency with the parameters invasively measured, and they had the same effect of consistency. The regression equations of the three parameters were expressed by Y'=a+bx. The SBP, PP, SV, CO of central pulse wave could be calculated through the regression model, but their accuracies were worse than that of transfer function model.

  4. Universal Expression of Efficiency at Maximum Power: A Quantum-Mechanical Brayton Engine Working with a Single Particle Confined in a Power-Law Trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Zhuo-Lin; Li Wei-Sheng; Lai Yi-Ming; He Ji-Zhou; Wang Jian-Hui

    2015-01-01

    We propose a quantum-mechanical Brayton engine model that works between two superposed states, employing a single particle confined in an arbitrary power-law trap as the working substance. Applying the superposition principle, we obtain the explicit expressions of the power and efficiency, and find that the efficiency at maximum power is bounded from above by the function: η_+ = θ/(θ + 1), with θ being a potential-dependent exponent. (paper)

  5. The Yang-Mills vacuum wave functional in Coulomb gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campagnari, Davide R.

    2011-01-01

    Yang-Mills theories are the building blocks of today's Standard Model of elementary particle physics. Besides methods based on a discretization of space-time (lattice gauge theory), also analytic methods are feasible, either in the Lagrangian or in the Hamiltonian formulation of the theory. This thesis focuses on the Hamiltonian approach to Yang-Mills theories in Coulomb gauge. The thesis is presented in cumulative form. After an introduction into the general formulation of Yang-Mills theories, the Hamilton operator in Coulomb gauge is derived. Chap. 1 deals with the heat-kernel expansion of the Faddeev-Popov determinant. In Chapters 2 and 3, the high-energy behaviour of the theory is investigated. To this purpose, perturbative methods are applied, and the results are compared with the ones stemming from functional methods in Coulomb and Landau gauge. Chap. 4 is devoted to the variational approach. Variational ansatzes going beyond the Gaussian form for the vacuum wave functional are considered and treated using Dyson-Schwinger techniques. Equations for the higher-order variational kernels are derived and their effects are estimated. Chap. 5 presents an application of the previously obtained propagators, namely the evaluation of the topological susceptibility, which is related to the mass of the η meson. Finally, a short overview of the perturbative treatment of dynamical fermion fields is presented.

  6. Multidimensional Wave Field Signal Theory: Transfer Function Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Baddour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of information by propagating or diffusive waves is common to many fields of engineering and physics. Such physical phenomena are governed by a Helmholtz (real wavenumber or pseudo-Helmholtz (complex wavenumber equation. Since these equations are linear, it would be useful to be able to use tools from signal theory in solving related problems. The aim of this paper is to derive multidimensional input/output transfer function relationships in the spatial domain for these equations in order to permit such a signal theoretic approach to problem solving. This paper presents such transfer function relationships for the spatial (not Fourier domain within appropriate coordinate systems. It is shown that the relationships assume particularly simple and computationally useful forms once the appropriate curvilinear version of a multidimensional spatial Fourier transform is used. These results are shown for both real and complex wavenumbers. Fourier inversion of these formulas would have applications for tomographic problems in various modalities. In the case of real wavenumbers, these inversion formulas are presented in closed form, whereby an input can be calculated from a given or measured wavefield.

  7. Photon wave function formalism for analysis of Mach–Zehnder interferometer and sum-frequency generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritboon, Atirach, E-mail: atirach.3.14@gmail.com [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai 90112 (Thailand); Daengngam, Chalongrat, E-mail: chalongrat.d@psu.ac.th [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai 90112 (Thailand); Pengpan, Teparksorn, E-mail: teparksorn.p@psu.ac.th [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai 90112 (Thailand)

    2016-08-15

    Biakynicki-Birula introduced a photon wave function similar to the matter wave function that satisfies the Schrödinger equation. Its second quantization form can be applied to investigate nonlinear optics at nearly full quantum level. In this paper, we applied the photon wave function formalism to analyze both linear optical processes in the well-known Mach–Zehnder interferometer and nonlinear optical processes for sum-frequency generation in dispersive and lossless medium. Results by photon wave function formalism agree with the well-established Maxwell treatments and existing experimental verifications.

  8. Photon wave function formalism for analysis of Mach–Zehnder interferometer and sum-frequency generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritboon, Atirach; Daengngam, Chalongrat; Pengpan, Teparksorn

    2016-01-01

    Biakynicki-Birula introduced a photon wave function similar to the matter wave function that satisfies the Schrödinger equation. Its second quantization form can be applied to investigate nonlinear optics at nearly full quantum level. In this paper, we applied the photon wave function formalism to analyze both linear optical processes in the well-known Mach–Zehnder interferometer and nonlinear optical processes for sum-frequency generation in dispersive and lossless medium. Results by photon wave function formalism agree with the well-established Maxwell treatments and existing experimental verifications.

  9. Wave function for time-dependent harmonically confined electrons in a time-dependent electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Qi; Pan, Xiao-Yin; Sahni, Viraht

    2013-09-21

    The many-body wave function of a system of interacting particles confined by a time-dependent harmonic potential and perturbed by a time-dependent spatially homogeneous electric field is derived via the Feynman path-integral method. The wave function is comprised of a phase factor times the solution to the unperturbed time-dependent Schrödinger equation with the latter being translated by a time-dependent value that satisfies the classical driven equation of motion. The wave function reduces to that of the Harmonic Potential Theorem wave function for the case of the time-independent harmonic confining potential.

  10. A combined wave distribution function and stability analysis of Viking particle and low-frequency wave data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oscarsson, T.E.; Roennmark, K.G.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the authors present an investigation of low-frequency waves observed on auroral field lines below the acceleration region by the Swedish satellite Viking. The measured frequency spectra are peaked at half the local proton gyrofrequency, and the waves are observed in close connection with precipitating electrons. In order to obtain information about the distribution of wave energy in wave vector space, they reconstruct the wave distribution function (WDF) from observed spectral densities. They use a new scheme that allows them to reconstruct simultaneously the WDF over a broad frequency band. The method also makes it possible to take into account available particle observations as well as Doppler shifts caused by the relative motion between the plasma and the satellite. The distribution of energy in wave vector space suggested by the reconstructed WDF is found to be consistent with what is expected from a plasma instability driven by the observed precipitating electrons. Furthermore, by using UV images obtained on Viking, they demonstrate that the wave propagation directions indicated by the reconstructed WDFs are consistent with a simple model of the presumed wave source in the electron precipitation region

  11. Determination of the S-wave scattering shape parameter P from the zero-energy wave function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kermode, M.W.; van Dijk, W.

    1990-01-01

    We show that for S-wave scattering at an energy k 2 by a local potential which supports no more than one bound state, the shape parameter P and coefficients of higher powers of k 2 in the effective range expansion function cotδ=-1/a+1/2 r 0 k 2 -Pr 0 3 k 3 +Qr 0 5 k 6 +..., where δ is the phase shift, may be obtained from the zero-energy wave function, u 0 (r). Thus δ itself may be determined from u 0 . We show that Pr 0 3 =∫ 0 R [β(r)u 0 2 (r)-bar β(r)bar u 0 2 (r)]dr, where r 0 is the effective range, β(r) is determined from an integral involving the wave function, and bar β(r) is a simple function of r which involves the scattering length and effective range

  12. Third-order non-Coulomb correction to the S-wave quarkonium wave functions at the origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beneke, M.; Kiyo, Y.; Schuller, K.

    2008-01-01

    We compute the third-order correction to the S-wave quarkonium wave functions |ψ n (0)| 2 at the origin from non-Coulomb potentials in the effective non-relativistic Lagrangian. Together with previous results on the Coulomb correction and the ultrasoft correction computed in a companion paper, this completes the third-order calculation up to a few unknown matching coefficients. Numerical estimates of the new correction for bottomonium and toponium are given

  13. Green function iterative solution of ground state wave function for Yukawa potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhao

    2003-01-01

    The newly developed single trajectory quadrature method is applied to solve central potentials. First, based on the series expansion method an exact analytic solution of the ground state for Hulthen potential and an approximate solution for Yukawa potential are obtained respectively. Second, the newly developed iterative method based on Green function defined by quadratures along the single trajectory is applied to solve Yukawa potential using the Coulomb solution and Hulthen solution as the trial functions respectively. The results show that a more proper choice of the trial function will give a better convergence. To further improve the convergence the iterative method is combined with the variational method to solve the ground state wave function for Yukawa potential, using variational solutions of the Coulomb and Hulthen potentials as the trial functions. The results give much better convergence. Finally, the obtained critical screen coefficient is applied to discuss the dissociate temperature of J/ψ in high temperature QGP

  14. Strong reduction of spectral heterogeneity in gold bipyramids for single-particle and single-molecule plasmon sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, S M E; Verheijen, M A; Prins, M W J; Zijlstra, P

    2016-01-15

    Single metal nanoparticles are attractive biomolecular sensors. Binding of analyte to a functional particle results in a plasmon shift that can be conveniently monitored in a far-field optical microscope. Heterogeneities in spectral properties of individual particles in an ensemble affect the reliability of a single-particle plasmon sensor, especially when plasmon shifts are monitored in real-time using a fixed irradiation wavelength. We compare the spectral heterogeneity of different plasmon sensor geometries (gold nanospheres, nanorods, and bipyramids) and correlate this to their size and aspect-ratio dispersion. We show that gold bipyramids exhibit a strongly reduced heterogeneity in aspect ratio and plasmon wavelength compared to commonly used gold nanorods. We show that this translates into a significantly improved homogeneity of the response to molecular binding without compromising single-molecule sensitivity.

  15. Computing many-body wave functions with guaranteed precision: the first-order Møller-Plesset wave function for the ground state of helium atom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Florian A; Harrison, Robert J; Valeev, Edward F

    2012-09-14

    We present an approach to compute accurate correlation energies for atoms and molecules using an adaptive discontinuous spectral-element multiresolution representation for the two-electron wave function. Because of the exponential storage complexity of the spectral-element representation with the number of dimensions, a brute-force computation of two-electron (six-dimensional) wave functions with high precision was not practical. To overcome the key storage bottlenecks we utilized (1) a low-rank tensor approximation (specifically, the singular value decomposition) to compress the wave function, and (2) explicitly correlated R12-type terms in the wave function to regularize the Coulomb electron-electron singularities of the Hamiltonian. All operations necessary to solve the Schrödinger equation were expressed so that the reconstruction of the full-rank form of the wave function is never necessary. Numerical performance of the method was highlighted by computing the first-order Møller-Plesset wave function of a helium atom. The computed second-order Møller-Plesset energy is precise to ~2 microhartrees, which is at the precision limit of the existing general atomic-orbital-based approaches. Our approach does not assume special geometric symmetries, hence application to molecules is straightforward.

  16. N-representability of the Jastrow wave function pair density of the lowest-order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Katsuhiko; Higuchi, Masahiko

    2017-08-08

    Conditions for the N-representability of the pair density (PD) are needed for the development of the PD functional theory. We derive sufficient conditions for the N-representability of the PD that is calculated from the Jastrow wave function within the lowest order. These conditions are used as the constraints on the correlation function of the Jastrow wave function. A concrete procedure to search the suitable correlation function is also presented.

  17. A single-sided representation for the homogeneous Green's function of a unified scalar wave equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapenaar, Kees

    2017-06-01

    A unified scalar wave equation is formulated, which covers three-dimensional (3D) acoustic waves, 2D horizontally-polarised shear waves, 2D transverse-electric EM waves, 2D transverse-magnetic EM waves, 3D quantum-mechanical waves and 2D flexural waves. The homogeneous Green's function of this wave equation is a combination of the causal Green's function and its time-reversal, such that their singularities at the source position cancel each other. A classical representation expresses this homogeneous Green's function as a closed boundary integral. This representation finds applications in holographic imaging, time-reversed wave propagation and Green's function retrieval by cross correlation. The main drawback of the classical representation in those applications is that it requires access to a closed boundary around the medium of interest, whereas in many practical situations the medium can be accessed from one side only. Therefore, a single-sided representation is derived for the homogeneous Green's function of the unified scalar wave equation. Like the classical representation, this single-sided representation fully accounts for multiple scattering. The single-sided representation has the same applications as the classical representation, but unlike the classical representation it is applicable in situations where the medium of interest is accessible from one side only.

  18. Newton force from wave function collapse: speculation and test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diósi, Lajos

    2014-01-01

    The Diosi-Penrose model of quantum-classical boundary postulates gravity-related spontaneous wave function collapse of massive degrees of freedom. The decoherence effects of the collapses are in principle detectable if not masked by the overwhelming environmental decoherence. But the DP (or any other, like GRW, CSL) spontaneous collapses are not detectable themselves, they are merely the redundant formalism of spontaneous decoherence. To let DP collapses become testable physics, recently we extended the DP model and proposed that DP collapses are responsible for the emergence of the Newton gravitational force between massive objects. We identified the collapse rate, possibly of the order of 1/ms, with the rate of emergence of the Newton force. A simple heuristic emergence (delay) time was added to the Newton law of gravity. This non-relativistic delay is in peaceful coexistence with Einstein's relativistic theory of gravitation, at least no experimental evidence has so far surfaced against it. We derive new predictions of such a 'lazy' Newton law that will enable decisive laboratory tests with available technologies. The simple equation of 'lazy' Newton law deserves theoretical and experimental studies in itself, independently of the underlying quantum foundational considerations.

  19. The universal wave function interpretation of string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gang, Dr. Sha Zhi; Xiu, Rulin

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we will show that a deeper understanding of space-time provided by both quantum physics and general relativity can lead to a new way to understand string theory. This new way of understanding and applying string theory, the universal wave function interpretation of string theory (UWFIST), may yield to a more powerful string theory and testable prediction. We will show how to derive UWFIST and what new result we can obtain from UWFIST. We will demonstrate that UWFIST indicates that the observed space-time and all phenomena are the projections from the world-sheet hologram. UWFIST provides the possible source for dark energy and dark matter and the explanation about why the dark energy and dark matter is beyond the detection of our current detector. We will show that UWFIST may also yield correct prediction of the cosmological constant to be of the order 10-121 in the unit of Planck scale. It may also help us understand and derive the energy source for inflation and the flatness of our observed 4-dimensional universe. UWFIST may also make other testable predictions that may be detected by interferometers. We conclude that UWFIST has the potential to make string theory a more powerful physics theory that can yield testable predictions. It is worth further investigation by more physicists

  20. Relativistic form factors for clusters with nonrelativistic wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, A.N.; Kumari, I.

    1977-01-01

    Using a simple variant of an argument employed by Licht and Pagnamenta (LP) on the effect of Lorentz contraction on the elastic form factors of clusters with nonrelativistic wave functions, it is shown how their result can be generalized to inelastic form factors so as to produce (i) a symmetrical appearance of Lorentz contraction effects in the initial and final states, and (ii) asymptotic behavior in accord with dimensional scaling theories. A comparison of this result with a closely analogous parametric form obtained by Brodsky and Chertok from a propagator chain model leads, with plausible arguments, to the conclusion of an effective mass M for the cluster, with M 2 varying as the number n of the quark constituents, instead of as n 2 . A further generalization of the LP formula is obtained for an arbitrary duality-diagram vertex, again with asymptotic behavior in conformity with dimensional scaling. The practical usefulness of this approach is emphasized as a complementary tool to those of high-energy physics for phenomenological fits to data up to moderate values of q 2

  1. Shock Wave Propagation in Functionally Graded Mineralized Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, Matthew; Hodo, Wayne; Livi, Ken; Browning, Alyssa; Crawford, Bryan; Rajendran, A. M.

    2017-06-01

    In this investigation, the effects of shock wave propagation in bone-like biomineralized tissue was investigated. The Alligator gar (Atractosteus spatula) exoskeleton is comprised of many disparate scales that provide a biological analog for potential design of flexible protective material systems. The gar scale is identified as a two-phase, (1) hydroxyapatite mineral and (2) collagen protein, biological composite with two distinct layers where a stiff, ceramic-like ganoine overlays a soft, highly ductile ganoid bone. Previous experimentations has shown significant softening under compressive loading and an asymmetrical stress-strain response for analogous mineralized tissues. The structural features, porosity, and elastic modulus were determined from high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, 3D micro-tomography, and dynamic nanoindentation experiments to develop an idealized computational model for FE simulations. The numerical analysis employed Gurson's yield criterion to determine the influence of porosity and pressure on material strength. Functional gradation of elastic moduli and certain structural features, such as the sawtooth interface, are explicitly modeled to study the plate impact shock profile for a full 3-D analysis using ABAQUS finite element software.

  2. Guidelines for the fitting of anomalous diffusion mean square displacement graphs from single particle tracking experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldad Kepten

    Full Text Available Single particle tracking is an essential tool in the study of complex systems and biophysics and it is commonly analyzed by the time-averaged mean square displacement (MSD of the diffusive trajectories. However, past work has shown that MSDs are susceptible to significant errors and biases, preventing the comparison and assessment of experimental studies. Here, we attempt to extract practical guidelines for the estimation of anomalous time averaged MSDs through the simulation of multiple scenarios with fractional Brownian motion as a representative of a large class of fractional ergodic processes. We extract the precision and accuracy of the fitted MSD for various anomalous exponents and measurement errors with respect to measurement length and maximum time lags. Based on the calculated precision maps, we present guidelines to improve accuracy in single particle studies. Importantly, we find that in some experimental conditions, the time averaged MSD should not be used as an estimator.

  3. Single-particle properties of the Hubbard model in a novel three-pole approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ciolo, Andrea; Avella, Adolfo

    2018-05-01

    We study the 2D Hubbard model using the Composite Operator Method within a novel three-pole approximation. Motivated by the long-standing experimental puzzle of the single-particle properties of the underdoped cuprates, we include in the operatorial basis, together with the usual Hubbard operators, a field describing the electronic transitions dressed by the nearest-neighbor spin fluctuations, which play a crucial role in the unconventional behavior of the Fermi surface and of the electronic dispersion. Then, we adopt this approximation to study the single-particle properties in the strong coupling regime and find an unexpected behavior of the van Hove singularity that can be seen as a precursor of a pseudogap regime.

  4. Single-particle model of a strongly driven, dense, nanoscale quantum ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLoreto, C. S.; Rangan, C.

    2018-01-01

    We study the effects of interatomic interactions on the quantum dynamics of a dense, nanoscale, atomic ensemble driven by a strong electromagnetic field. We use a self-consistent, mean-field technique based on the pseudospectral time-domain method and a full, three-directional basis to solve the coupled Maxwell-Liouville equations. We find that interatomic interactions generate a decoherence in the state of an ensemble on a much faster time scale than the excited-state lifetime of individual atoms. We present a single-particle model of the driven, dense ensemble by incorporating interactions into a dephasing rate. This single-particle model reproduces the essential physics of the full simulation and is an efficient way of rapidly estimating the collective dynamics of a dense ensemble.

  5. Inequivalence of single-particle and population lifetimes in a cuprate superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shuolong [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Sobota, J. A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Leuenberger, D. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); He, Y. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Hashimoto, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lu, D. H. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Eisaki, H. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki (Japan); Kirchmann, P. S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Shen, Z. -X. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We study optimally doped Bi-2212 (Tc=96 K) using femtosecond time- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. Energy-resolved population lifetimes are extracted and compared with single-particle lifetimes measured by equilibrium photoemission. The population lifetimes deviate from the single-particle lifetimes in the low excitation limit by 1–2 orders of magnitude. Fundamental considerations of electron scattering unveil that these two lifetimes are in general distinct, yet for systems with only electron-phonon scattering they should converge in the low-temperature, low-fluence limit. As a result, the qualitative disparity in our data, even in this limit, suggests that scattering channels beyond electron-phonon interactions play a significant role in the electron dynamics of cuprate superconductors.

  6. Innovative molecular-based fluorescent nanoparticles for multicolor single particle tracking in cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, Jonathan; Blanchard-Desce, Mireille; Godin, Antoine G; Palayret, Matthieu; Lounis, Brahim; Cognet, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Based on an original molecular-based design, we present bright and photostable fluorescent organic nanoparticles (FONs) showing excellent colloidal stability in various aqueous environments. Complementary near-infrared emitting and green emitting FONs were prepared using a simple, fast and robust protocol. Both types of FONs could be simultaneously imaged at the single-particle level in solution as well as in biological environments using a monochromatic excitation and a dual-color fluorescence microscope. No evidence of acute cytotoxicity was found upon incubation of live cells with mixed solutions of FONs, and both types of nanoparticles were found internalized in the cells where their motion could be simultaneously tracked at video-rate up to minutes. These fluorescent organic nanoparticles open a novel non-toxic alternative to existing nanoparticles for imaging biological structures, compatible with live-cell experiments and specially fitted for multicolor single particle tracking. (paper)

  7. Radiative capture of nucleons at astrophysical energies with single-particle states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.T.; Bertulani, C.A.; Guimaraes, V.

    2010-01-01

    Radiative capture of nucleons at energies of astrophysical interest is one of the most important processes for nucleosynthesis. The nucleon capture can occur either by a compound nucleus reaction or by a direct process. The compound reaction cross sections are usually very small, especially for light nuclei. The direct capture proceeds either via the formation of a single-particle resonance or a non-resonant capture process. In this work we calculate radiative capture cross sections and astrophysical S-factors for nuclei in the mass region A<20 using single-particle states. We carefully discuss the parameter fitting procedure adopted in the simplified two-body treatment of the capture process. Then we produce a detailed list of cases for which the model works well. Useful quantities, such as spectroscopic factors and asymptotic normalization coefficients, are obtained and compared to published data.

  8. Lithospheric Structure of the Arabian Shield from the Joint Inversion of Receiver Function and Surface-Wave Dispersion Observations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Julia, Jordi; Ammon, Charles J; Herrimann, Robert B

    2006-01-01

    .... Receiver functions are primarily sensitive to shear-wave velocity contrasts and vertical travel times and surface-wave dispersion measurements are sensitive to vertical shear-wave velocity averages...

  9. Lithospheric Structure of the Arabian Shield From the Joint Inversion of Receiver Function and Surface-Wave Dispersion Observations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herrmann, Robert B; Julia, Jordi; Ammon, Charles J

    2007-01-01

    .... Receiver functions are primarily sensitive to shear-wave velocity contrast and vertical travel times and surface-wave dispersion measurements are sensitive to vertical shear-wave velocity averages...

  10. Single-particle cryo-electron microscopy of Rift Valley fever virus

    OpenAIRE

    Sherman, Michael B.; Freiberg, Alexander N.; Holbrook, Michael R.; Watowich, Stanley J.

    2009-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV; Bunyaviridae; Phlebovirus) is an emerging human veterinary pathogen causing acute hepatitis in ruminants and has the potential to Single-particle cryo-EM reconstruction of RVFV MP-12 hemorrhagic fever in humans. We report a three-dimensional reconstruction of RVFV vaccine strain MP-12 (RVFV MP-12) by cryo-electron microcopy using icosahedral symmetry of individual virions. Although the genomic core of RVFV MP-12 is apparently poorly ordered, the glycoproteins on...

  11. Single particle measurements and two particle interferometry results from CERN experiment NA44

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon-Gillo, J.

    1994-01-01

    CERN experiment NA44 is optimized for the study of identified single and multiple particle distributions to p T = 0 near mid-rapidity. We measure π +- , K +- , p, bar p, d and bar d, in p + A and A + A collisions at 450 and 20OGeV/u, respectively. Two-particle intensity interferometry results from π + π + , K + K + , and K - K - measurements and single particle distributions are presented

  12. A deep convolutional neural network approach to single-particle recognition in cryo-electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanan; Ouyang, Qi; Mao, Youdong

    2017-07-21

    Single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) has become a mainstream tool for the structural determination of biological macromolecular complexes. However, high-resolution cryo-EM reconstruction often requires hundreds of thousands of single-particle images. Particle extraction from experimental micrographs thus can be laborious and presents a major practical bottleneck in cryo-EM structural determination. Existing computational methods for particle picking often use low-resolution templates for particle matching, making them susceptible to reference-dependent bias. It is critical to develop a highly efficient template-free method for the automatic recognition of particle images from cryo-EM micrographs. We developed a deep learning-based algorithmic framework, DeepEM, for single-particle recognition from noisy cryo-EM micrographs, enabling automated particle picking, selection and verification in an integrated fashion. The kernel of DeepEM is built upon a convolutional neural network (CNN) composed of eight layers, which can be recursively trained to be highly "knowledgeable". Our approach exhibits an improved performance and accuracy when tested on the standard KLH dataset. Application of DeepEM to several challenging experimental cryo-EM datasets demonstrated its ability to avoid the selection of un-wanted particles and non-particles even when true particles contain fewer features. The DeepEM methodology, derived from a deep CNN, allows automated particle extraction from raw cryo-EM micrographs in the absence of a template. It demonstrates an improved performance, objectivity and accuracy. Application of this novel method is expected to free the labor involved in single-particle verification, significantly improving the efficiency of cryo-EM data processing.

  13. A new seniority scheme for non-degenerate single particle orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, T.; Arima, A.

    1978-01-01

    A new method is proposed in the treatment of the seniority scheme. The method enables one to evaluate analytically the contribution from J = 0 Cooper pairs in non-degenerate single-particle orbits to many-body matrix elements. It includes the SU(2) quasi-spin and the BCS approximation as two extreme limits. The effect of particle number conservation is properly taken into account. (Auth.)

  14. Dragonfly : an implementation of the expand–maximize–compress algorithm for single-particle imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Ayyer, Kartik; Lan, Ti-Yen; Elser, Veit; Loh, N. Duane

    2016-01-01

    Single-particle imaging (SPI) with X-ray free-electron lasers has the potential to change fundamentally how biomacromolecules are imaged. The structure would be derived from millions of diffraction patterns, each from a different copy of the macromolecule before it is torn apart by radiation damage. The challenges posed by the resultant data stream are staggering: millions of incomplete, noisy and un-oriented patterns have to be computationally assembled into a three-dimensional intensity map...

  15. Quantum private comparison with d-level single-particle states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Chao-Hua; Guo, Gong-De; Lin, Song

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a quantum private comparison protocol with d-level single-particle states is proposed. In the protocol, a semi-honest third party is introduced to help two participants compare the size relationship of their secrets without revealing them to any other people. It is shown that the protocol is secure in theory. Moreover, the security of the protocol in real circumstance is also discussed. (paper)

  16. Ab initio calculation atomics ground state wave function for interactions Ion- Atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shojaee, F.; Bolori zadeh, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Ab initio calculation atomics ground state wave function for interactions Ion- Atom Atomic wave function expressed in a Slater - type basis obtained within Roothaan- Hartree - Fock for the ground state of the atoms He through B. The total energy is given for each atom.

  17. Influence of wetting layer wave functions on carrier capture in quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Troels; Kristensen, Philip; Tromborg, Bjarne

    2005-01-01

    This work numerically solves the effective mass Schrodinger equation and shows that the capture times are strongly influenced by details of the continuum states not accounted for by the approximate wave functions. Results show that calculations of capture time for phonon mediated carrier capture...... from a wetting layer into a quantum dot depend critically on the approximations used for the wetting layer wave functions....

  18. Interplay of single particle and collective response in molecular dynamics simulation of dusty plasma system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Srimanta; Das, Amita; Kumar, Sandeep; Tiwari, Sanat Kumar

    2018-04-01

    The collective response of the plasma medium is well known and has been explored extensively in the context of dusty plasma medium. On the other hand, the individual particle response associated with the collisional character giving rise to the dissipative phenomena has not been explored adequately. In this paper, two-dimensional molecular dynamics simulation of dust particles interacting via Yukawa potential has been considered. It has been shown that disturbances induced in a dust crystal elicit both collective and single particle responses. Generation of a few particles moving at speeds considerably higher than acoustic and/or shock speed (excited by the external disturbance) is observed. This is an indication of a single particle response. Furthermore, as these individual energetic particles propagate, the dust crystal is observed to crack along their path. Initially when the energy is high, these particles generate secondary energetic particles by the collisional scattering process. However, ultimately as these particles slow down they excite a collective response in the dust medium at secondary locations in a region which is undisturbed by the primary external disturbance. The condition when the cracking of the crystal stops and collective excitations get initiated has been identified quantitatively. The trailing collective primary disturbances would thus often encounter a disturbed medium with secondary and tertiary collective perturbations, thereby suffering significant modification in its propagation. It is thus clear that there is an interesting interplay (other than mere dissipation) between the single particle and collective response which governs the dynamics of any disturbance introduced in the medium.

  19. Exact density functional and wave function embedding schemes based on orbital localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hégely, Bence; Nagy, Péter R.; Kállay, Mihály; Ferenczy, György G.

    2016-01-01

    Exact schemes for the embedding of density functional theory (DFT) and wave function theory (WFT) methods into lower-level DFT or WFT approaches are introduced utilizing orbital localization. First, a simple modification of the projector-based embedding scheme of Manby and co-workers [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 18A507 (2014)] is proposed. We also use localized orbitals to partition the system, but instead of augmenting the Fock operator with a somewhat arbitrary level-shift projector we solve the Huzinaga-equation, which strictly enforces the Pauli exclusion principle. Second, the embedding of WFT methods in local correlation approaches is studied. Since the latter methods split up the system into local domains, very simple embedding theories can be defined if the domains of the active subsystem and the environment are treated at a different level. The considered embedding schemes are benchmarked for reaction energies and compared to quantum mechanics (QM)/molecular mechanics (MM) and vacuum embedding. We conclude that for DFT-in-DFT embedding, the Huzinaga-equation-based scheme is more efficient than the other approaches, but QM/MM or even simple vacuum embedding is still competitive in particular cases. Concerning the embedding of wave function methods, the clear winner is the embedding of WFT into low-level local correlation approaches, and WFT-in-DFT embedding can only be more advantageous if a non-hybrid density functional is employed.

  20. Exact density functional and wave function embedding schemes based on orbital localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hégely, Bence; Nagy, Péter R.; Ferenczy, György G.; Kállay, Mihály

    2016-08-01

    Exact schemes for the embedding of density functional theory (DFT) and wave function theory (WFT) methods into lower-level DFT or WFT approaches are introduced utilizing orbital localization. First, a simple modification of the projector-based embedding scheme of Manby and co-workers [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 18A507 (2014)] is proposed. We also use localized orbitals to partition the system, but instead of augmenting the Fock operator with a somewhat arbitrary level-shift projector we solve the Huzinaga-equation, which strictly enforces the Pauli exclusion principle. Second, the embedding of WFT methods in local correlation approaches is studied. Since the latter methods split up the system into local domains, very simple embedding theories can be defined if the domains of the active subsystem and the environment are treated at a different level. The considered embedding schemes are benchmarked for reaction energies and compared to quantum mechanics (QM)/molecular mechanics (MM) and vacuum embedding. We conclude that for DFT-in-DFT embedding, the Huzinaga-equation-based scheme is more efficient than the other approaches, but QM/MM or even simple vacuum embedding is still competitive in particular cases. Concerning the embedding of wave function methods, the clear winner is the embedding of WFT into low-level local correlation approaches, and WFT-in-DFT embedding can only be more advantageous if a non-hybrid density functional is employed.

  1. Exact density functional and wave function embedding schemes based on orbital localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hégely, Bence; Nagy, Péter R.; Kállay, Mihály, E-mail: kallay@mail.bme.hu [MTA-BME Lendület Quantum Chemistry Research Group, Department of Physical Chemistry and Materials Science, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, P.O. Box 91, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary); Ferenczy, György G. [Medicinal Chemistry Research Group, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Magyar tudósok körútja 2, H-1117 Budapest (Hungary); Department of Biophysics and Radiation Biology, Semmelweis University, Tűzoltó u. 37-47, H-1094 Budapest (Hungary)

    2016-08-14

    Exact schemes for the embedding of density functional theory (DFT) and wave function theory (WFT) methods into lower-level DFT or WFT approaches are introduced utilizing orbital localization. First, a simple modification of the projector-based embedding scheme of Manby and co-workers [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 18A507 (2014)] is proposed. We also use localized orbitals to partition the system, but instead of augmenting the Fock operator with a somewhat arbitrary level-shift projector we solve the Huzinaga-equation, which strictly enforces the Pauli exclusion principle. Second, the embedding of WFT methods in local correlation approaches is studied. Since the latter methods split up the system into local domains, very simple embedding theories can be defined if the domains of the active subsystem and the environment are treated at a different level. The considered embedding schemes are benchmarked for reaction energies and compared to quantum mechanics (QM)/molecular mechanics (MM) and vacuum embedding. We conclude that for DFT-in-DFT embedding, the Huzinaga-equation-based scheme is more efficient than the other approaches, but QM/MM or even simple vacuum embedding is still competitive in particular cases. Concerning the embedding of wave function methods, the clear winner is the embedding of WFT into low-level local correlation approaches, and WFT-in-DFT embedding can only be more advantageous if a non-hybrid density functional is employed.

  2. Application of the generalized multi structural (GMS) wave function to photoelectron spectra and electron scattering processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, M.A.C. do

    1992-01-01

    A Generalized Multi Structural (GMS) wave function is presented which combines the advantages of the SCF-MO and VB models, preserving the classical chemical structures but optimizing the orbitals in a self-consistent way. This wave function is particularly suitable to treat situations where the description of the molecular state requires localized wave functions. It also provides a very convenient way of treating the electron correlation problem, avoiding large CI expansions. The final wave functions are much more compact and easier to interpret than the ones obtained by the conventional methods, using orthogonal orbitals. Applications of the GMS wave function to the study of the photoelectron spectra of the trans-glyoxal molecule and to electron impact excitation processes in the nitrogen molecule are presented as an illustration of the method. (author)

  3. Efficient and Flexible Computation of Many-Electron Wave Function Overlaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasser, Felix; Ruckenbauer, Matthias; Mai, Sebastian; Oppel, Markus; Marquetand, Philipp; González, Leticia

    2016-03-08

    A new algorithm for the computation of the overlap between many-electron wave functions is described. This algorithm allows for the extensive use of recurring intermediates and thus provides high computational efficiency. Because of the general formalism employed, overlaps can be computed for varying wave function types, molecular orbitals, basis sets, and molecular geometries. This paves the way for efficiently computing nonadiabatic interaction terms for dynamics simulations. In addition, other application areas can be envisaged, such as the comparison of wave functions constructed at different levels of theory. Aside from explaining the algorithm and evaluating the performance, a detailed analysis of the numerical stability of wave function overlaps is carried out, and strategies for overcoming potential severe pitfalls due to displaced atoms and truncated wave functions are presented.

  4. Hadron-quark vertex function. Interconnection between 3D and 4D wave function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, A.N.; Bhatnagar, S.

    1990-01-01

    Interconnection between 3D and 4D forms of Bethe-Salpeter equation (EBS) with a kernel depending on relative momenta is used to derive hadron-quark vertex function in Lorentz invariance form. The vertex function which is directly related to a 4D wave function satisfying a corresponding EBS determines the natural continuation outside mass surface for the entire momentum space and serves the basis for computing amplitudes of transitions through appropriate loop quark diagrams. Two applications (f p values for P→ll-bar and F π for n 0 +yy) are discussed briefly to illustrate this formalism. An attention is paid to the problem of complex amplitudes for quark loops with a larger number of external hadrons.A possible solution of the problem is proposed. 29 refs

  5. Addendum to foundations of multidimensional wave field signal theory: Gaussian source function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Baddour

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Many important physical phenomena are described by wave or diffusion-wave type equations. Recent work has shown that a transform domain signal description from linear system theory can give meaningful insight to multi-dimensional wave fields. In N. Baddour [AIP Adv. 1, 022120 (2011], certain results were derived that are mathematically useful for the inversion of multi-dimensional Fourier transforms, but more importantly provide useful insight into how source functions are related to the resulting wave field. In this short addendum to that work, it is shown that these results can be applied with a Gaussian source function, which is often useful for modelling various physical phenomena.

  6. Addendum to foundations of multidimensional wave field signal theory: Gaussian source function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddour, Natalie

    2018-02-01

    Many important physical phenomena are described by wave or diffusion-wave type equations. Recent work has shown that a transform domain signal description from linear system theory can give meaningful insight to multi-dimensional wave fields. In N. Baddour [AIP Adv. 1, 022120 (2011)], certain results were derived that are mathematically useful for the inversion of multi-dimensional Fourier transforms, but more importantly provide useful insight into how source functions are related to the resulting wave field. In this short addendum to that work, it is shown that these results can be applied with a Gaussian source function, which is often useful for modelling various physical phenomena.

  7. Inside versus Outside: Ion Redistribution in Nitric Acid Reacted Sea Spray Aerosol Particles as Determined by Single Particle Analysis (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, A. P.; Guasco, T.; Ryder, O. S.; Baltrusaitis, J.; Cuadra-Rodriguez, L. A.; Collins, D. B.; Ruppel, M. J.; Bertram, T. H.; Prather, K. A.; Grassian, V. H.

    2013-12-01

    Sea spray aerosol (SSA) particles were generated under real-world conditions using natural seawater and a unique ocean-atmosphere facility equipped with actual breaking waves or a marine aerosol reference tank (MART) that replicates those conditions. The SSA particles were exposed to nitric acid in situ in a flow tube and the well-known chloride displacement and nitrate formation reaction was observed. However, as discussed here, little is known about how this anion displacement reaction affects the distribution of cations and other chemical constituents within and phase state of individual SSA particles. Single particle analysis of individual SSA particles shows that cations (Na+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+) within individual particles undergo a spatial redistribution after heterogeneous reaction with nitric acid, along with a more concentrated layer of organic matter at the surface of the particle. These data suggest that specific ion and aerosol pH effects play an important role in aerosol particle structure in ways that have not been previously recognized. The ordering of organic coatings can impact trace gas uptake, and subsequently impact trace gas budgets of O3 and NOx.

  8. Covariant spectator theory of $np$ scattering:\\\\ Effective range expansions and relativistic deuteron wave functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franz Gross, Alfred Stadler

    2010-09-01

    We present the effective range expansions for the 1S0 and 3S1 scattering phase shifts, and the relativistic deuteron wave functions that accompany our recent high precision fits (with \\chi^2/N{data} \\simeq 1) to the 2007 world np data below 350 MeV. The wave functions are expanded in a series of analytical functions (with the correct asymptotic behavior at both large and small arguments) that can be Fourier-transformed from momentum to coordinate space and are convenient to use in any application. A fortran subroutine to compute these wave functions can be obtained from the authors.

  9. Symmetry analysis of many-body wave functions, with applications to the nuclear shell model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novoselsky, A.; Katriel, J.

    1995-01-01

    The weights of the different permutational symmetry components of a nonsymmetry-adapted many-particle wave function are evaluated in terms of the expectation values of the symmetric-group class sums. This facilitates the evaluation of the weights without the construction of a complete set of symmetry adapted functions. Subspace projection operators are introduced, to be used when prior knowledge about the symmetry-species composition of a wave function is available. The permutational weight analysis of a recursively angular-momentum coupled (shell model) wave function is presented as an illustration

  10. Probability function of breaking-limited surface elevation. [wind generated waves of ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, C. C.; Huang, N. E.; Yuan, Y.; Long, S. R.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of wave breaking on the probability function of surface elevation is examined. The surface elevation limited by wave breaking zeta sub b(t) is first related to the original wave elevation zeta(t) and its second derivative. An approximate, second-order, nonlinear, non-Gaussian model for zeta(t) of arbitrary but moderate bandwidth is presented, and an expression for the probability density function zeta sub b(t) is derived. The results show clearly that the effect of wave breaking on the probability density function of surface elevation is to introduce a secondary hump on the positive side of the probability density function, a phenomenon also observed in wind wave tank experiments.

  11. Developing new optical imaging techniques for single particle and molecule tracking in live cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Wei [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy is a far-field as well as wide-field optical imaging technique. Since it is non-invasive and requires no sample staining, DIC microscopy is suitable for tracking the motion of target molecules in live cells without interfering their functions. In addition, high numerical aperture objectives and condensers can be used in DIC microscopy. The depth of focus of DIC is shallow, which gives DIC much better optical sectioning ability than those of phase contrast and dark field microscopies. In this work, DIC was utilized to study dynamic biological processes including endocytosis and intracellular transport in live cells. The suitability of DIC microscopy for single particle tracking in live cells was first demonstrated by using DIC to monitor the entire endocytosis process of one mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) into a live mammalian cell. By taking advantage of the optical sectioning ability of DIC, we recorded the depth profile of the MSN during the endocytosis process. The shape change around the nanoparticle due to the formation of a vesicle was also captured. DIC microscopy was further modified that the sample can be illuminated and imaged at two wavelengths simultaneously. By using the new technique, noble metal nanoparticles with different shapes and sizes were selectively imaged. Among all the examined metal nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles in rod shapes were found to be especially useful. Due to their anisotropic optical properties, gold nanorods showed as diffraction-limited spots with disproportionate bright and dark parts that are strongly dependent on their orientation in the 3D space. Gold nanorods were developed as orientation nanoprobes and were successfully used to report the self-rotation of gliding microtubules on kinesin coated substrates. Gold nanorods were further used to study the rotational motions of cargoes during the endocytosis and intracellular transport processes in live mammalian

  12. Coherent molecular transistor: control through variation of the gate wave function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernzerhof, Matthias

    2014-03-21

    In quantum interference transistors (QUITs), the current through the device is controlled by variation of the gate component of the wave function that interferes with the wave function component joining the source and the sink. Initially, mesoscopic QUITs have been studied and more recently, QUITs at the molecular scale have been proposed and implemented. Typically, in these devices the gate lead is subjected to externally adjustable physical parameters that permit interference control through modifications of the gate wave function. Here, we present an alternative model of a molecular QUIT in which the gate wave function is directly considered as a variable and the transistor operation is discussed in terms of this variable. This implies that we specify the gate current as well as the phase of the gate wave function component and calculate the resulting current through the source-sink channel. Thus, we extend on prior works that focus on the phase of the gate wave function component as a control parameter while having zero or certain discrete values of the current. We address a large class of systems, including finite graphene flakes, and obtain analytic solutions for how the gate wave function controls the transistor.

  13. Coherent molecular transistor: Control through variation of the gate wave function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernzerhof, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    In quantum interference transistors (QUITs), the current through the device is controlled by variation of the gate component of the wave function that interferes with the wave function component joining the source and the sink. Initially, mesoscopic QUITs have been studied and more recently, QUITs at the molecular scale have been proposed and implemented. Typically, in these devices the gate lead is subjected to externally adjustable physical parameters that permit interference control through modifications of the gate wave function. Here, we present an alternative model of a molecular QUIT in which the gate wave function is directly considered as a variable and the transistor operation is discussed in terms of this variable. This implies that we specify the gate current as well as the phase of the gate wave function component and calculate the resulting current through the source-sink channel. Thus, we extend on prior works that focus on the phase of the gate wave function component as a control parameter while having zero or certain discrete values of the current. We address a large class of systems, including finite graphene flakes, and obtain analytic solutions for how the gate wave function controls the transistor

  14. Wave function of the Universe in the early stage of its evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maydanyuk, Sergei P.

    2008-01-01

    In quantum cosmological models, constructed in the framework of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metrics, a nucleation of the Universe with its further expansion is described as a tunneling transition through an effective barrier between regions with small and large values of the scale factor a at non-zero (or zero) energy. The approach for describing this tunneling consists of constructing a wave function satisfying an appropriate boundary condition. There are various ways for defining the boundary condition that lead to different estimates of the barrier penetrability and the tunneling time. In order to describe the escape from the tunneling region as accurately as possible and to construct the total wave function on the basis of its two partial solutions unambiguously, we use the tunneling boundary condition that the total wave function must represent only the outgoing wave at the point of escape from the barrier, where the following definition for the wave is introduced: the wave is represented by the wave function whose modulus changes minimally under a variation of the scale factor a. We construct a new method for a direct non-semiclassical calculation of the total stationary wave function of the Universe, analyze the behavior of this wave function in the tunneling region, near the escape point and in the asymptotic region, and estimate the barrier penetrability. We observe oscillations of the modulus of the wave function in the external region starting from the turning point which decrease with increasing of a and which are not shown in semiclassical calculations. The period of such an oscillation decreases uniformly with increasing a and can be used as a fully quantum dynamical characteristic of the expansion of the Universe. (orig.)

  15. Ocean wave-radar modulation transfer functions from the West Coast experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J. W.; Plant, W. J.; Keller, W. C.; Jones, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    Short gravity-capillary waves, the equilibrium, or the steady state excitations of the ocean surface are modulated by longer ocean waves. These short waves are the predominant microwave scatterers on the ocean surface under many viewing conditions so that the modulation is readily measured with CW Doppler radar used as a two-scale wave probe. Modulation transfer functions (the ratio of the cross spectrum of the line-of-sight orbital speed and backscattered microwave power to the autospectrum of the line-of-sight orbital speed) were measured at 9.375 and 1.5 GHz (Bragg wavelengths of 2.3 and 13 cm) for winds up to 10 m/s and ocean wave periods from 2-18 s. The measurements were compared with the relaxation-time model; the principal result is that a source of modulation other than straining by the horizontal component of orbital speed, possibly the wave-induced airflow, is responsible for most of the modulation by waves of typical ocean wave period (10 s). The modulations are large; for unit coherence, spectra of radar images of deep-water waves should be proportional to the quotient of the slope spectra of the ocean waves by the ocean wave frequency.

  16. Excitation spectra and wave functions of quasiparticle bound states in bilayer Rashba superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashi, Yoichi, E-mail: higashiyoichi@ms.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan); Nagai, Yuki [CCSE, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 178-4-4, Wakashiba, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-0871 (Japan); Yoshida, Tomohiro [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Kato, Masaru [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan); Yanase, Youichi [Department of Physics, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • We focus on the pair-density wave state in bilayer Rashba superconductors. • The zero energy Bogoliubov wave functions are localized at the edge and vortex core. • We investigate the excitation spectra of edge and vortex bound states. - Abstract: We study the excitation spectra and the wave functions of quasiparticle bound states at a vortex and an edge in bilayer Rashba superconductors under a magnetic field. In particular, we focus on the quasiparticle states at the zero energy in the pair-density wave state in a topologically non-trivial phase. We numerically demonstrate that the quasiparticle wave functions with zero energy are localized at both the edge and the vortex core if the magnetic field exceeds the critical value.

  17. Approximated calculation of the vacuum wave function and vacuum energy of the LGT with RPA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui Ping

    2004-01-01

    The coupled cluster method is improved with the random phase approximation (RPA) to calculate vacuum wave function and vacuum energy of 2 + 1 - D SU(2) lattice gauge theory. In this calculating, the trial wave function composes of single-hollow graphs. The calculated results of vacuum wave functions show very good scaling behaviors at weak coupling region l/g 2 >1.2 from the third order to the sixth order, and the vacuum energy obtained with RPA method is lower than the vacuum energy obtained without RPA method, which means that this method is a more efficient one

  18. Analytic calculations of trial wave functions of the fractional quantum Hall effect on the sphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Batista, C.L. de [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Dingping Li [Perugia Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica

    1996-07-01

    We present a framework for the analytic calculations of the hierarchical wave functions and the composite fermion wave functions in the fractional quantum Hall effect on the sphere by using projective coordinates. Then we calculate the overlaps between these two wave functions at various fillings and small numbers of electrons. We find that the overlaps are most equal to one. This gives a further evidence that two theories of the fractional quantum Hall effect, the hierarchical theory, are physically equivalent. (author). 31 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. The development of optical microscopy techniques for the advancement of single-particle studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchuk, Kyle

    Single particle orientation and rotational tracking (SPORT) has recently become a powerful optical microscopy tool that can expose many molecular motions. Unfortunately, there is not yet a single microscopy technique that can decipher all particle motions in all environmental conditions, thus there are limitations to current technologies. Within, the two powerful microscopy tools of total internal reflection and interferometry are advanced to determine the position, orientation, and optical properties of metallic nanoparticles in a variety of environments. Total internal reflection is an optical phenomenon that has been applied to microscopy to produce either fluorescent or scattered light. The non-invasive far-field imaging technique is coupled with a near-field illumination scheme that allows for better axial resolution than confocal microscopy and epi-fluorescence microscopy. By controlling the incident illumination angle using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, a new type of imaging probe called "non-blinking" quantum dots (NBQDs) were super-localized in the axial direction to sub-10-nm precision. These particles were also used to study the rotational motion of microtubules being propelled by the motor protein kinesin across the substrate surface. The same instrument was modified to function under total internal reflection scattering (TIRS) microscopy to study metallic anisotropic nanoparticles and their dynamic interactions with synthetic lipid bilayers. Utilizing two illumination lasers with opposite polarization directions at wavelengths corresponding to the short and long axis surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the nanoparticles, both the in-plane and out-of-plane movements of many particles could be tracked simultaneously. When combined with Gaussian point spread function (PSF) fitting for particle super-localization, the binding status and rotational movement could be resolved without degeneracy. TIRS microscopy was also used to

  20. The development of optical microscopy techniques for the advancement of single-particle studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchuk, Kyle [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Single particle orientation and rotational tracking (SPORT) has recently become a powerful optical microscopy tool that can expose many molecular motions. Unfortunately, there is not yet a single microscopy technique that can decipher all particle motions in all environmental conditions, thus there are limitations to current technologies. Within, the two powerful microscopy tools of total internal reflection and interferometry are advanced to determine the position, orientation, and optical properties of metallic nanoparticles in a variety of environments. Total internal reflection is an optical phenomenon that has been applied to microscopy to produce either fluorescent or scattered light. The non-invasive far-field imaging technique is coupled with a near-field illumination scheme that allows for better axial resolution than confocal microscopy and epi-fluorescence microscopy. By controlling the incident illumination angle using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, a new type of imaging probe called “non-blinking” quantum dots (NBQDs) were super-localized in the axial direction to sub-10-nm precision. These particles were also used to study the rotational motion of microtubules being propelled by the motor protein kinesin across the substrate surface. The same instrument was modified to function under total internal reflection scattering (TIRS) microscopy to study metallic anisotropic nanoparticles and their dynamic interactions with synthetic lipid bilayers. Utilizing two illumination lasers with opposite polarization directions at wavelengths corresponding to the short and long axis surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the nanoparticles, both the in-plane and out-of-plane movements of many particles could be tracked simultaneously. When combined with Gaussian point spread function (PSF) fitting for particle super-localization, the binding status and rotational movement could be resolved without degeneracy. TIRS microscopy was also used to

  1. Degenerate RS perturbation theory. [Rayleigh-Schroedinger energies and wave functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfelder, J. O.; Certain, P. R.

    1974-01-01

    A concise, systematic procedure is given for determining the Rayleigh-Schroedinger energies and wave functions of degenerate states to arbitrarily high orders even when the degeneracies of the various states are resolved in arbitrary orders. The procedure is expressed in terms of an iterative cycle in which the energy through the (2n + 1)-th order is expressed in terms of the partially determined wave function through the n-th order. Both a direct and an operator derivation are given. The two approaches are equivalent and can be transcribed into each other. The direct approach deals with the wave functions (without the use of formal operators) and has the advantage that it resembles the usual treatment of nondegenerate perturbations and maintains close contact with the basic physics. In the operator approach, the wave functions are expressed in terms of infinite-order operators which are determined by the successive resolution of the space of the zeroth-order functions.

  2. Damping mechanisms of high-lying single-particle states in 91Nb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molen, H. K. T. van der; Berg, A. M. van den; Harakeh, M. N.; Hunyadi, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Akimune, H.; Daito, I.; Fujimura, H.; Ihara, F.; Inomata, T.; Ishibashi, K.; Yoshida, H.; Yosoi, M.; Fujita, Y.; Fujiwara, M.; Jaenecke, J.; O'Donnell, T. W.; Laurent, H.; Lhenry, I.; Rodin, V. A.

    2007-01-01

    Decay by proton emission from high-lying states in 91 Nb, populated in the 90 Zr(α,t) reaction at E α =180 MeV, has been investigated. Decay to the ground state and semidirect decay to the low-lying (2 + ,5 - , and 3 - ) phonon states in 90 Zr were observed. It was found that these phonon states play an important role in the damping process of the single-particle states. An optical-model coupled-channel approach was used successfully to describe the direct and semidirect parts of the decay

  3. Single particle analysis based on Zernike phase contrast transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danev, Radostin; Nagayama, Kuniaki

    2008-02-01

    We present the first application of Zernike phase-contrast transmission electron microscopy to single-particle 3D reconstruction of a protein, using GroEL chaperonin as the test specimen. We evaluated the performance of the technique by comparing 3D models derived from Zernike phase contrast imaging, with models from conventional underfocus phase contrast imaging. The same resolution, about 12A, was achieved by both imaging methods. The reconstruction based on Zernike phase contrast data required about 30% fewer particles. The advantages and prospects of each technique are discussed.

  4. Wigglers and single-particle dynamics in the NLC damping rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturini, Marco; Wolski, Andrzej; Dragt, Alex

    2003-01-01

    Wiggler insertions are expected to occupy a significant portion of the lattice of the Next Linear Collider (NLC) Main Damping Rings (MDR) and have a noticeable impact on the single-particle beam dynamics. Starting from a realistic 3D representation of the magnetic fields we calculate the transfer maps for the wigglers, accounting for linear and nonlinear effects, and we study the beam dynamics with particular attention paid to the Dynamic Aperture(DA). A DA reduction is observed but appears to remain within acceptable limits

  5. Statistical and direct decay of high-lying single-particle excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gales, S.

    1993-01-01

    Transfer reactions induced by hadronic probes at intermediate energies have revealed a rich spectrum of high-lying excitations embedded in the nuclear continuum. The investigation of their decay properties is believed to be a severe test of their microscopic structure as predicted by microscopic nuclear models. In addition the degree of damping of these simple modes in the nuclear continuum can be obtained by means of the measured particle (n,p) decay branching ratios. The neutron and proton decay studies of high-lying single-particle states in heavy nuclei are presented. (author). 13 refs., 9 figs

  6. Development and characterization of a single particle laser ablation mass spectrometer (SPLAM for organic aerosol studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gaie-Levrel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A single particle instrument was developed for real-time analysis of organic aerosol. This instrument, named Single Particle Laser Ablation Mass Spectrometry (SPLAM, samples particles using an aerodynamic lens system for which the theoretical performances were calculated. At the outlet of this system, particle detection and sizing are realized by using two continuous diode lasers operating at λ = 403 nm. Polystyrene Latex (PSL, sodium chloride (NaCl and dioctylphtalate (DOP particles were used to characterize and calibrate optical detection of SPLAM. The optical detection limit (DL and detection efficiency (DE were determined using size-selected DOP particles. The DE ranges from 0.1 to 90% for 100 and 350 nm DOP particles respectively and the SPLAM instrument is able to detect and size-resolve particles as small as 110–120 nm. During optical detection, particle scattered light from the two diode lasers, is detected by two photomultipliers and the detected signals are used to trigger UV excimer laser (λ = 248 nm used for one-step laser desorption ionization (LDI of individual aerosol particles. The formed ions are analyzed by a 1 m linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer in order to access to the chemical composition of individual particles. The TOF-MS detection limit for gaseous aromatic compounds was determined to be 0.85 × 10−15 kg (∼4 × 103 molecules. DOP particles were also used to test the overall operation of the instrument. The analysis of a secondary organic aerosol, formed in a smog chamber by the ozonolysis of indene, is presented as a first application of the instrument. Single particle mass spectra were obtained with an effective hit rate of 8%. Some of these mass spectra were found to be very different from one particle to another possibly reflecting chemical differences within the investigated indene SOA particles. Our study shows that an exhaustive statistical analysis, over hundreds of particles

  7. Optimal Estimation of Diffusion Coefficients from Noisy Time-Lapse-Recorded Single-Particle Trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Christian Lyngby

    2012-01-01

    . The standard method for estimating diusion coecients from single-particle trajectories is based on leastsquares tting to the experimentally measured mean square displacements. This method is highly inecient, since it ignores the high correlations inherent in these. We derive the exact maximum likelihood...... of diusion coecients of hOgg1 repair proteins diusing on stretched uctuating DNA from data previously analyzed using a suboptimal method. Our analysis shows that the proteins have dierent eective diusion coecients and that their diusion coecients are correlated with their residence time on DNA. These results...

  8. Dispersion relation for Bernstein waves using a new transformation for the modified Bessel function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masumi

    1985-01-01

    Aitken's or Shanks' transformation of the exponent-modified Bessel function produces better approximations. Dispersion relations for the hybrid and Bernstein waves using these provide better thermal and parallel wavenumber corrections. They also predict more closely the evolution and mode-conversion of these waves. (author)

  9. Data synthesis and display programs for wave distribution function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, L. R. O.; Yeh, K. J.

    1992-01-01

    At the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) software was written to synthesize and display artificial data for use in developing the methodology of wave distribution analysis. The software comprises two separate interactive programs, one for data synthesis and the other for data display.

  10. Quasiparticle Green's function theory of the Josephson effect in chiral p-wave superconductor/diffusive normal metal/chiral p-wave superconductor junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sawa, Y.; Yokoyama, T.; Tanaka, Y.; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch

    2007-01-01

    We study the Josephson effect in chiral p-wave superconductor/diffusive normal metal (DN)/chiral p-wave superconductor (CP/DN/CP) junctions using quasiclassical Green's function formalism with proper boundary conditions. The px+ipy-wave symmetry of superconducting order parameter is chosen which is

  11. A Stream Function Theory Based Calculation of Wave Kinematics for Very Steep Waves Using a Novel Non-linear Stretching Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroescu, Ionut Emanuel; Sørensen, Lasse; Frigaard, Peter Bak

    2016-01-01

    A non-linear stretching method was implemented for stream function theory to solve wave kinematics for physical conditions close to breaking waves in shallow waters, with wave heights limited by the water depth. The non-linear stretching method proves itself robust, efficient and fast, showing good...

  12. Phase-coexistence simulations of fluid mixtures by the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method using single-particle models

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jun; Calo, Victor M.

    2013-01-01

    models although its deviation in the liquid phase is greater. Since the single-particle model reduces the particle number and avoids the time-consuming Ewald summation used to evaluate Coulomb interactions, the proposed model improves the computational

  13. Biomass Burning Research Using DOE ARM Single-Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onasch, Timothy B [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Sedlacek, Arthur J [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Lewis, Ernie [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The focus of this laboratory study was to investigate the chemical and optical properties, and the detection efficiencies, of tar balls generated in the laboratory using the same instruments deployed on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Gulfstream-1 (G-1) aircraft during the 2013 Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) field study, during which tar balls were observed in wildland biomass burning particulate emissions. Key goals of this laboratory study were: (a) measuring the chemical composition of tar balls to provide insights into the atmospheric processes that form (evaporation/oxidation) and modify them in biomass burning plumes, (b) identifying whether tar balls contain refractory black carbon, (c) determining the collection efficiencies of tar balls impacting on the 600oC heated tungsten vaporizer in the Aerodyne Soot Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SP-AMS) (i.e., given the observed low volatilities, AMS measurements might underestimate organic biomass burning plume loadings), and (d) measuring the wavelength-dependent, mass-specific absorption cross-sections of brown carbon components of tar balls. This project was funded primarily by the DOE Atmospheric System Research (ASR) program, and the ARM Facility made their single-particle soot photometer (SP2) available for September 1-September 31, 2016 in the Aerodyne laboratories. The ARM mentor (Dr. Sedlacek) requested no funds for mentorship or data reduction. All ARM SP2 data collected as part of this project are archived in the ARM Data Archive in accordance with established protocols. The main objectives of the ARM Biomass Burning Observation Period (BBOP, July-October, 2013) field campaign were to (1) assess the impact of wildland fires in the Pacific Northwest on climate, through near-field and regional intensive measurement campaigns, and (2) investigate agricultural burns to determine how those biomass burn plumes differ from

  14. Wave function continuity and the diagonal Born-Oppenheimer correction at conical intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Garrett A; Levine, Benjamin G

    2016-05-14

    We demonstrate that though exact in principle, the expansion of the total molecular wave function as a sum over adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer (BO) vibronic states makes inclusion of the second-derivative nonadiabatic energy term near conical intersections practically problematic. In order to construct a well-behaved molecular wave function that has density at a conical intersection, the individual BO vibronic states in the summation must be discontinuous. When the second-derivative nonadiabatic terms are added to the Hamiltonian, singularities in the diagonal BO corrections (DBOCs) of the individual BO states arise from these discontinuities. In contrast to the well-known singularities in the first-derivative couplings at conical intersections, these singularities are non-integrable, resulting in undefined DBOC matrix elements. Though these singularities suggest that the exact molecular wave function may not have density at the conical intersection point, there is no physical basis for this constraint. Instead, the singularities are artifacts of the chosen basis of discontinuous functions. We also demonstrate that continuity of the total molecular wave function does not require continuity of the individual adiabatic nuclear wave functions. We classify nonadiabatic molecular dynamics methods according to the constraints placed on wave function continuity and analyze their formal properties. Based on our analysis, it is recommended that the DBOC be neglected when employing mixed quantum-classical methods and certain approximate quantum dynamical methods in the adiabatic representation.

  15. Strong correlation effects on the d-wave superconductor- spectral weight analysis by variational wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, C-P; Lee, T K; Ho, C-M

    2009-01-01

    We examine the strong correlation effects of the d-wave superconducting state by including the Gutzwiller projection for no electron double occupancy at each lattice site. The spectral weights (SW's) for adding and removing an electron on the projected superconducting state, the ground state of the 2-dimensional t-t'-t - J model with moderate doped holes describing the high T c cuprates, are studied numerically on finite lattices and compared with the observation made by low-temperature tunneling (particle asymmetry of tunneling conductance) and angle-resolved photoemission (SW transfer from the projected Fermi liquid state) spectroscopies. The contrast with the d-wave case without projection is alo presented.

  16. Theoretical calculation of shakeup intensities using Xa--SW wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tse, J.S.; Loubriel, G.

    1981-01-01

    The ground and 1s core hole state molecular wave functions of CH 4 , NH 3 , H 2 O, and HF obtained from Xa--SW calculations using the touching spheres (TS) and overlapping spheres (OS) approximations are used to calculate the intensity of shakeup satellites observed in their ls core level photoelectron spectra. The sudden approximation was assumed in the calculation. In case of TS Xa--SW wave functions, the one electron overlap integral inside the intersphere was calculated via Green's theorem. For OS Xa--SW wave functions, the integration over the awkwardly shaped intersphere region was circumvented by distributing the intersphere charge into the atomic spheres according to the charge partition scheme suggested by Case and Karplus. Our results show that there are no significant differences between the shakeup energies calculated from the TS and OS approximations. However, shakeup intensities calculated from TS Xa--SW wave functions are more reliable and in better numerical agreement with experiment

  17. ORBITALES. A program for the calculation of wave functions with an analytical central potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunta Carretero; Rodriguez Mayquez, E.

    1974-01-01

    In this paper is described the objective, basis, carrying out in FORTRAN language and use of the program ORBITALES. This program calculate atomic wave function in the case of ths analytical central potential (Author) 8 refs

  18. Covariant two-particle wave functions for model quasipotentials admitting exact solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapshaj, V.N.; Skachkov, N.B.

    1983-01-01

    Two formulations of quasipotential equations in the relativistic configurational representation are considered for the wave function of the internal motion of the bound system of two relativistic particles. Exact solutions of these equations are found for some model quasipotentials

  19. Covariant two-particle wave functions for model quasipotential allowing exact solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapshaj, V.N.; Skachkov, N.B.

    1982-01-01

    Two formulations of quasipotential equations in the relativistic configurational representation are considered for the wave function of relative motion of a bound state of two relativistic particles. Exact solutions of these equations are found for some model quasipotentials

  20. Second-Order Perturbation Theory for Generalized Active Space Self-Consistent-Field Wave Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dongxia; Li Manni, Giovanni; Olsen, Jeppe; Gagliardi, Laura

    2016-07-12

    A multireference second-order perturbation theory approach based on the generalized active space self-consistent-field (GASSCF) wave function is presented. Compared with the complete active space (CAS) and restricted active space (RAS) wave functions, GAS wave functions are more flexible and can employ larger active spaces and/or different truncations of the configuration interaction expansion. With GASSCF, one can explore chemical systems that are not affordable with either CASSCF or RASSCF. Perturbation theory to second order on top of GAS wave functions (GASPT2) has been implemented to recover the remaining electron correlation. The method has been benchmarked by computing the chromium dimer ground-state potential energy curve. These calculations show that GASPT2 gives results similar to CASPT2 even with a configuration interaction expansion much smaller than the corresponding CAS expansion.

  1. Order in large and chaos in small components of nuclear wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloviev, V.G.

    1992-06-01

    An investigation of the order and chaos of the nuclear excited states has shown that there is order in the large and chaos in the small quasiparticle or phonon components of the nuclear wave functions. The order-to-chaos transition is treated as a transition from the large to the small components of the nuclear wave function. The analysis has shown that relatively large many-quasiparticle components of the wave function at an excitation energy (4-8)MeV may exist. The large many-quasiparticle components of the wave functions of the neutron resonances are responsible for enhanced E1-, M1- and E2-transition probabilities from neutron resonance to levels lying (1-2)MeV below them. (author)

  2. Short time propagation of a singular wave function: Some surprising results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, A.; Granot, E.; Schuss, Z.

    2007-08-01

    The Schrödinger evolution of an initially singular wave function was investigated. First it was shown that a wide range of physical problems can be described by initially singular wave function. Then it was demonstrated that outside the support of the initial wave function the time evolution is governed to leading order by the values of the wave function and its derivatives at the singular points. Short-time universality appears where it depends only on a single parameter—the value at the singular point (not even on its derivatives). It was also demonstrated that the short-time evolution in the presence of an absorptive potential is different than in the presence of a nonabsorptive one. Therefore, this dynamics can be harnessed to the determination whether a potential is absorptive or not simply by measuring only the transmitted particles density.

  3. Four-body correlation embedded in antisymmetrized geminal power wave function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Airi; Sugino, Osamu

    2016-12-28

    We extend the Coleman's antisymmetrized geminal power (AGP) to develop a wave function theory that can incorporate up to four-body correlation in a region of strong correlation. To facilitate the variational determination of the wave function, the total energy is rewritten in terms of the traces of geminals. This novel trace formula is applied to a simple model system consisting of one dimensional Hubbard ring with a site of strong correlation. Our scheme significantly improves the result obtained by the AGP-configuration interaction scheme of Uemura et al. and also achieves more efficient compression of the degrees of freedom of the wave function. We regard the result as a step toward a first-principles wave function theory for a strongly correlated point defect or adsorbate embedded in an AGP-based mean-field medium.

  4. Continuity Conditions on Schrodinger Wave Functions at Discontinuities of the Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, David

    1979-01-01

    Several standard arguments which attempt to show that the wave function and its derivative must be continuous across jump discontinuities of the potential are reviewed and their defects discussed. (Author/HM)

  5. Variation in Differential and Total Cross Sections Due to Different Radial Wave Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, W., Jr.; Greene, T.

    1976-01-01

    Three sets of analytical wave functions are used to calculate the Na (3s---3p) transition differential and total electron excitation cross sections by Born approximations. Results show expected large variations in values. (Author/CP)

  6. The meaning of the wave function in search of the ontology of quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Shan

    2017-01-01

    At the heart of quantum mechanics lies the wave function, a powerful but mysterious mathematical object which has been a hot topic of debate from its earliest stages. Covering much of the recent debate and providing a comprehensive and critical review of competing approaches, this ambitious text provides new, decisive proof of the reality of the wave function. Aiming to make sense of the wave function in quantum mechanics and to find the ontological content of the theory, this book explores new ontological interpretations of the wave function in terms of random discontinuous motion of particles. Finally, the book investigates whether the suggested quantum ontology is complete in solving the measurement problem and if it should be revised in the relativistic domain. A timely addition to the literature on the foundations of quantum mechanics, this book is of value to students and researchers with an interest in the philosophy of physics. Presents a concise introduction to quantum mechanics, including the c...

  7. Redundancy-free single-particle equation-of-motion method for nuclei. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolnick, P.; Goswami, A.; Oregon Univ., Eugene

    1986-01-01

    The problem of coupling an odd nucleon to the collective states of an even core is considered in the intermediate-coupling limit. It is now well known that such intermediate-coupling calculations in spherical open-shell nuclei necessitate the inclusion of ground-state correlation or backward coupling which gives rise to an overcomplete basic set of states for the diagonalization of the hamiltonian. In a recent letter, we have derived a technique to free the single-particle equation-of-motion method of redundancy. Here we shall apply this redundancy-free equation-of-motion method to intermediate-coupling calculations in two regions of near-spherical odd-mass nuclei where forward coupling alone has not been successful. It is shown that qualitative effects of backward coupling previously reported are not spurious effects of double counting, although they are significantly modified by the removal of redundancy. We also discuss what further modifications of the theory will be needed in order to treat the dynamical interplay of collective and single-particle modes in nuclei self-consistently on the same footing. (orig.)

  8. Pairing in the BCS and LN approximations using continuum single particle level density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Id Betan, R.M.; Repetto, C.E.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the properties of drip line nuclei requires to take into account the correlations with the continuum spectrum of energy of the system. This paper has the purpose to show that the continuum single particle level density is a convenient way to consider the pairing correlation in the continuum. Isospin mean-field and isospin pairing strength are used to find the Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer (BCS) and Lipkin–Nogami (LN) approximate solutions of the pairing Hamiltonian. Several physical properties of the whole chain of the Tin isotope, as gap parameter, Fermi level, binding energy, and one- and two-neutron separation energies, were calculated and compared with other methods and with experimental data when they exist. It is shown that the use of the continuum single particle level density is an economical way to include explicitly the correlations with the continuum spectrum of energy in large scale mass calculation. It is also shown that the computed properties are in good agreement with experimental data and with more sophisticated treatment of the pairing interaction.

  9. Massively parallel unsupervised single-particle cryo-EM data clustering via statistical manifold learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiayi; Ma, Yong-Bei; Congdon, Charles; Brett, Bevin; Chen, Shuobing; Xu, Yaofang; Ouyang, Qi; Mao, Youdong

    2017-01-01

    Structural heterogeneity in single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) data represents a major challenge for high-resolution structure determination. Unsupervised classification may serve as the first step in the assessment of structural heterogeneity. However, traditional algorithms for unsupervised classification, such as K-means clustering and maximum likelihood optimization, may classify images into wrong classes with decreasing signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) in the image data, yet demand increased computational costs. Overcoming these limitations requires further development of clustering algorithms for high-performance cryo-EM data processing. Here we introduce an unsupervised single-particle clustering algorithm derived from a statistical manifold learning framework called generative topographic mapping (GTM). We show that unsupervised GTM clustering improves classification accuracy by about 40% in the absence of input references for data with lower SNRs. Applications to several experimental datasets suggest that our algorithm can detect subtle structural differences among classes via a hierarchical clustering strategy. After code optimization over a high-performance computing (HPC) environment, our software implementation was able to generate thousands of reference-free class averages within hours in a massively parallel fashion, which allows a significant improvement on ab initio 3D reconstruction and assists in the computational purification of homogeneous datasets for high-resolution visualization.

  10. Evolution of Single Particle and Collective properties in the Neutron-Rich Mg Isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Reiter, P; Wiens, A; Fitting, J; Lauer, M; Van duppen, P L E; Finke, F

    2002-01-01

    We propose to study the single particle and collective properties of the neutron-rich Mg isotopes in transfer reactions and Coulomb excitation using REX-ISOLDE and MINIBALL. From the Coulomb excitation measurement precise and largely model independent B( E2 ; 0$^{+}_{g.s.}\\rightarrow$ 2$^{+}_{1}$ ) will be determined for the even-even isotopes. For the odd isotopes the distribution of the E2 strength over a few low-lying states will be measured. The sign of the M1/E2 mixing ratio, extracted from angular distributions, is characteristic of the sign of the deformation, as is the resulting level scheme. The neutron-pickup channel in the transfer reactions will allow for a determination of the single particle properties (spin, parity, spectroscopic factors) of these nuclei. This information will give new insights in changes of nuclear structure in the vicinity of the island of deformation around $^{32}$Mg. A total of 24 shifts of REX beam time is requested.

  11. 3D dual-virtual-pinhole assisted single particle tracking microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Ye; Wang, Yifan; Zhou, Xin; Kuang, Cuifang; Liu, Xu

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel approach for high-speed, three-dimensional single particle tracking (SPT), which we refer to as dual-virtual-pinhole assisted single particle tracking microscopy (DVPaSPTM). DVPaSPTM system can obtain axial information of the sample without optical or mechanical depth scanning, so as to offer numbers of advantages including faster imaging, improved efficiency and a great reduction of photobleaching and phototoxicity. In addition, by the use of the dual-virtual-pinhole, the effect that the quantum yield exerts to the fluorescent signal can be eliminated, which makes the measurement independent of the surroundings and increases the accuracy of the result. DVPaSPTM system measures the intensity within different virtual pinholes of which the radii are given by the host computer. Axial information of fluorophores can be measured by the axial response curve through the ratio of intensity signals. We demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed method by a series of experiments. Results showed that the standard deviation of the axial measurement was 19.2 nm over a 2.5 μm range with 30 ms temporal resolution. (papers)

  12. Single-particle density matrix and superfluidity in the two-dimensional Bose Coulomb fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minguzzi, A.; Tosi, M.P.; Davoudi, B.

    2002-01-01

    A study by Magro and Ceperley [Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 826 (1994)] has shown that the ground state of the two-dimensional fluid of charged bosons with logarithmic interactions is not Bose condensed, but exhibits algebraic off-diagonal order in the single-particle density matrix ρ(r). We use a hydrodynamic Hamiltonian expressed in terms of density and phase operators, in combination with an f-sum rule on the superfluid fraction, to reproduce these results and to extend the evaluation of the density matrix to finite temperature T. This approach allows us to treat the liquid as a superfluid in the absence of a condensate. The algebraic decay of the one-body density matrix is due to correlations between phase fluctuations, and we find that the exponent in the power law is determined by the superfluid density n s (T). We also find that the plasmon gap in the single-particle energy spectrum at long wavelengths decreases with increasing T and closes at the critical temperature for the onset of superfluidity

  13. Massively parallel unsupervised single-particle cryo-EM data clustering via statistical manifold learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayi Wu

    Full Text Available Structural heterogeneity in single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM data represents a major challenge for high-resolution structure determination. Unsupervised classification may serve as the first step in the assessment of structural heterogeneity. However, traditional algorithms for unsupervised classification, such as K-means clustering and maximum likelihood optimization, may classify images into wrong classes with decreasing signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR in the image data, yet demand increased computational costs. Overcoming these limitations requires further development of clustering algorithms for high-performance cryo-EM data processing. Here we introduce an unsupervised single-particle clustering algorithm derived from a statistical manifold learning framework called generative topographic mapping (GTM. We show that unsupervised GTM clustering improves classification accuracy by about 40% in the absence of input references for data with lower SNRs. Applications to several experimental datasets suggest that our algorithm can detect subtle structural differences among classes via a hierarchical clustering strategy. After code optimization over a high-performance computing (HPC environment, our software implementation was able to generate thousands of reference-free class averages within hours in a massively parallel fashion, which allows a significant improvement on ab initio 3D reconstruction and assists in the computational purification of homogeneous datasets for high-resolution visualization.

  14. Single particle train ordering in microchannel based on inertial and vortex effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Liang-Liang; Yan, Qing; Zhe, Jiang; Zhao, Liang

    2018-06-01

    A new microfluidic device for microparticle focusing and ordering in a single particle train is reported. The particle focusing and ordering are based on inertial and vortex effects in a microchannel with a series of suddenly contracted and widely expanded structures on one side. In the suddenly contracted regions, particles located near the contracted structures are subjected to a strong wall-effect lift force and momentum-change-induced inertial force due to the highly curved trajectory, migrating to the straight wall. A horizontal vortex is generated downstream of the contracted structure, which prevents the particle from getting close to the wall. In the widely expanded regions, the streamline is curved and no vortex is generated. The shear-gradient lift force and the momentum-change-induced inertial force are dominant for particle lateral migration, driving particles towards the wall of the expanded structures. Eventually, particles are focused and ordered in a single particle train by the combination effects of the inertial forces and the vortex. In comparison with other single-stream particle focusing methods, this device requires no sheath flow, is easy for fabrication and operation, and can work over a wide range of Reynolds numbers from 19.1–142.9. The highly ordered particle chain could be potentially utilized in a variety of lab-chip applications, including micro-flow cytometer, imaging and droplet-based cell entrapment.

  15. Study on the fragmentation of granite due to the impact of single particle and double particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchun Kuang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Particle Impact Drilling (PID is a novel method to improve the rate of penetration (ROP. In order to further improve the performance of PID, an investigation into the effect of single and double particles: (1 diameter; (2 initial velocity; (3 distance; and (4 angle of incidence was undertaken to investigate their effects on broken volume and penetration depth into hard brittle rock. For this purpose, the laboratory experiment of single particle impact rock was employed. Meanwhile, based on the LS-DYNA, a new finite element (FE simulation of the PID, including single and double particles impact rock, has been presented. The 3-dimensional (3D, aix-symmetric, dynamic-explicit, Lagrangian model has been considered in this simulation. And the Elastic and Holmquist Johnson Cook (HJC material behaviors have been used for particles and rocks, respectively. The FE simulation results of single particle impacting rock are good agreement with experimental data. Furthermore, in this article the optimal impact parameters, including diameter, initial velocity, distance and the angle of incidence, are obtained in PID.

  16. Expanding Single Particle Mass Spectrometer Analyses for the Identification of Microbe Signatures in Sea Spray Aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Camille M; Al-Mashat, Hashim; Prather, Kimberly A

    2017-10-03

    Ocean-derived microbes in sea spray aersosol (SSA) have the potential to influence climate and weather by acting as ice nucleating particles in clouds. Single particle mass spectrometers (SPMSs), which generate in situ single particle composition data, are excellent tools for characterizing aerosols under changing environmental conditions as they can provide high temporal resolution and require no sample preparation. While SPMSs have proven capable of detecting microbes, these instruments have never been utilized to definitively identify aerosolized microbes in ambient sea spray aersosol. In this study, an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer was used to analyze laboratory generated SSA produced from natural seawater in a marine aerosol reference tank. We present the first description of a population of biological SSA mass spectra (BioSS), which closely match the ion signatures observed in previous terrestrial microbe studies. The fraction of BioSS dramatically increased in the largest supermicron particles, consistent with field and laboratory measurements of microbes ejected by bubble bursting, further supporting the assignment of BioSS mass spectra as microbes. Finally, as supported by analysis of inorganic ion signals, we propose that dry BioSS particles have heterogeneous structures, with microbes adhered to sodium chloride nodules surrounded by magnesium-enriched coatings. Consistent with this structure, chlorine-containing ion markers were ubiquitous in BioSS spectra and identified as possible tracers for distinguishing recently aerosolized marine from terrestrial microbes.

  17. Analysis of Real Ship Rolling Dynamics under Wave Excitement Force Composed of Sums of Cosine Functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y. S.; Cai, F.; Xu, W. M.

    2011-01-01

    The ship motion equation with a cosine wave excitement force describes the slip moments in regular waves. A new kind of wave excitement force model, with the form as sums of cosine functions was proposed to describe ship rolling in irregular waves. Ship rolling time series were obtained by solving the ship motion equation with the fourth-order-Runger-Kutta method. These rolling time series were synthetically analyzed with methods of phase-space track, power spectrum, primary component analysis, and the largest Lyapunove exponent. Simulation results show that ship rolling presents some chaotic characteristic when the wave excitement force was applied by sums of cosine functions. The result well explains the course of ship rolling's chaotic mechanism and is useful for ship hydrodynamic study.

  18. Wave drag as the objective function in transonic fighter wing optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, P. S.

    1984-01-01

    The original computational method for determining wave drag in a three dimensional transonic analysis method was replaced by a wave drag formula based on the loss in momentum across an isentropic shock. This formula was used as the objective function in a numerical optimization procedure to reduce the wave drag of a fighter wing at transonic maneuver conditions. The optimization procedure minimized wave drag through modifications to the wing section contours defined by a wing profile shape function. A significant reduction in wave drag was achieved while maintaining a high lift coefficient. Comparisons of the pressure distributions for the initial and optimized wing geometries showed significant reductions in the leading-edge peaks and shock strength across the span.

  19. Accuracy of three-body wave functions obtained with the correlation-function hyperspherical-harmonic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haftel, M.I.; Mandelzweig, V.B.

    1990-01-01

    The local convergence and accuracy of wave functions obtained by direct solution of the Schroedinger equation with the help of the correlation-function hyperspherical-harmonic method are analyzed for ground and excited states of the helium atom and for the ground state of the positronium negative ion. The inclusion of the cusp conditions into the correlation function is shown to be of crucial importance, not only near the coalescence points, but also away from them. The proper inclusion of all cusps yields for the ground state of the helium atom the local wave-function accuracy of about 10 -7 for different interparticle distances. The omission of one of the cusps in the excited helium atom reduces the wave-function precision to 10 -2 near the corresponding coalescence point and to 10 -4 --10 -5 away from it

  20. Asymptotic form of three-body (dtμ)+ and (ddμ)+ wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kino, Y.; Shimamura, I.; Armour, E.A.G.; Kamimura, M.

    1996-01-01

    In order to investigate a discrepancy between existing literature values for the normalization constant in the asymptotic form of three-body wave functions for (DTμ) + , we report the results of a new calculation of the normalization constants for this system as well as the related system (DDμ) + . These were obtained by fitting to accurate variational wave functions with special care being taken to describe the long-range behavior. (orig.)

  1. Convergence of repeated quantum nondemolition measurements and wave-function collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Michel; Bernard, Denis

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by recent experiments on quantum trapped fields, we give a rigorous proof that repeated indirect quantum nondemolition (QND) measurements converge to the collapse of the wave function as predicted by the postulates of quantum mechanics for direct measurements. We also relate the rate of convergence toward the collapsed wave function to the relative entropy of each indirect measurement, a result which makes contact with information theory.

  2. The technique of the modified hamiltonian for construction of the spin-projected wave function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsaune, A.Ya.; Glushkov, V.N.

    1991-01-01

    A method is suggested to construct the wave function, which is an eigenfunction for operator S 2 . A combination of Lowdin's projection operators and the method of taking into account the orthogonality conditions in variational problems previously developed by the authors is used for determination of the spin-current wave functions component. It is shown that the suggested method gives better results for the energies that the traditional restricted Hartee-Fock scheme

  3. Molecular dynamics simulations of the structure and single-particle dynamics of mixtures of divalent salts and ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez-González, Víctor; Docampo-Álvarez, Borja; Gallego, Luis J.; Varela, Luis M., E-mail: luismiguel.varela@usc.es [Grupo de Nanomateriais e Materia Branda, Departamento de Física da Materia Condensada, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Vida s/n, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Cabeza, Oscar [Facultade de Ciencias, Universidade da Coruña, Campus A Zapateira s/n, E-15008 A Coruña (Spain); Fedorov, Maxim [Department of Physics, Scottish University Physics Alliance (SUPA), University of Strathclyde, John Anderson Bldg., 107 Rottenrow East, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Lynden-Bell, Ruth M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-28

    We report a molecular dynamics study of the structure and single-particle dynamics of mixtures of a protic (ethylammonium nitrate) and an aprotic (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexaflurophosphate [BMIM][PF{sub 6}]) room-temperature ionic liquids doped with magnesium and calcium salts with a common anion at 298.15 K and 1 atm. The solvation of these divalent cations in dense ionic environments is analyzed by means of apparent molar volumes of the mixtures, radial distribution functions, and coordination numbers. For the protic mixtures, the effect of salt concentration on the network of hydrogen bonds is also considered. Moreover, single-particle dynamics of the salt cations is studied by means of their velocity autocorrelation functions and vibrational densities of states, explicitly analyzing the influence of salt concentration, and cation charge and mass on these magnitudes. The effect of the valency of the salt cation on these properties is considered comparing the results with those for the corresponding mixtures with lithium salts. We found that the main structural and dynamic features of the local solvation of divalent cations in ionic liquids are similar to those of monovalent salts, with cations being localized in the polar nanoregions of the bulk mixture coordinated in monodentate and bidentate coordination modes by the [NO{sub 3}]{sup −} and [PF{sub 6}]{sup −} anions. However, stronger electrostatic correlations of these polar nanoregions than in mixtures with salts with monovalent cations are found. The vibrational modes of the ionic liquid (IL) are seen to be scarcely affected by the addition of the salt, and the effect of mass and charge on the vibrational densities of states of the dissolved cations is reported. Cation mass is seen to exert a deeper influence than charge on the low-frequency vibrational spectra, giving a red shift of the vibrational modes and a virtual suppression of the higher energy vibrational modes for the heavier Ca{sup 2

  4. Molecular dynamics simulations of the structure and single-particle dynamics of mixtures of divalent salts and ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-González, Víctor; Docampo-Álvarez, Borja; Gallego, Luis J.; Varela, Luis M.; Cabeza, Oscar; Fedorov, Maxim; Lynden-Bell, Ruth M.

    2015-01-01

    We report a molecular dynamics study of the structure and single-particle dynamics of mixtures of a protic (ethylammonium nitrate) and an aprotic (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexaflurophosphate [BMIM][PF 6 ]) room-temperature ionic liquids doped with magnesium and calcium salts with a common anion at 298.15 K and 1 atm. The solvation of these divalent cations in dense ionic environments is analyzed by means of apparent molar volumes of the mixtures, radial distribution functions, and coordination numbers. For the protic mixtures, the effect of salt concentration on the network of hydrogen bonds is also considered. Moreover, single-particle dynamics of the salt cations is studied by means of their velocity autocorrelation functions and vibrational densities of states, explicitly analyzing the influence of salt concentration, and cation charge and mass on these magnitudes. The effect of the valency of the salt cation on these properties is considered comparing the results with those for the corresponding mixtures with lithium salts. We found that the main structural and dynamic features of the local solvation of divalent cations in ionic liquids are similar to those of monovalent salts, with cations being localized in the polar nanoregions of the bulk mixture coordinated in monodentate and bidentate coordination modes by the [NO 3 ] − and [PF 6 ] − anions. However, stronger electrostatic correlations of these polar nanoregions than in mixtures with salts with monovalent cations are found. The vibrational modes of the ionic liquid (IL) are seen to be scarcely affected by the addition of the salt, and the effect of mass and charge on the vibrational densities of states of the dissolved cations is reported. Cation mass is seen to exert a deeper influence than charge on the low-frequency vibrational spectra, giving a red shift of the vibrational modes and a virtual suppression of the higher energy vibrational modes for the heavier Ca 2+ cations. No qualitative

  5. Semi-analytical Karhunen-Loeve representation of irregular waves based on the prolate spheroidal wave functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gibbeum; Cho, Yeunwoo

    2018-01-01

    A new semi-analytical approach is presented to solving the matrix eigenvalue problem or the integral equation in Karhunen-Loeve (K-L) representation of random data such as irregular ocean waves. Instead of direct numerical approach to this matrix eigenvalue problem, which may suffer from the computational inaccuracy for big data, a pair of integral and differential equations are considered, which are related to the so-called prolate spheroidal wave functions (PSWF). First, the PSWF is expressed as a summation of a small number of the analytical Legendre functions. After substituting them into the PSWF differential equation, a much smaller size matrix eigenvalue problem is obtained than the direct numerical K-L matrix eigenvalue problem. By solving this with a minimal numerical effort, the PSWF and the associated eigenvalue of the PSWF differential equation are obtained. Then, the eigenvalue of the PSWF integral equation is analytically expressed by the functional values of the PSWF and the eigenvalues obtained in the PSWF differential equation. Finally, the analytically expressed PSWFs and the eigenvalues in the PWSF integral equation are used to form the kernel matrix in the K-L integral equation for the representation of exemplary wave data such as ordinary irregular waves. It is found that, with the same accuracy, the required memory size of the present method is smaller than that of the direct numerical K-L representation and the computation time of the present method is shorter than that of the semi-analytical method based on the sinusoidal functions.

  6. Modeling the Pulse Signal by Wave-Shape Function and Analyzing by Synchrosqueezing Transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hau-Tieng; Wu, Han-Kuei; Wang, Chun-Li; Yang, Yueh-Lung; Wu, Wen-Hsiang; Tsai, Tung-Hu; Chang, Hen-Hong

    2016-01-01

    We apply the recently developed adaptive non-harmonic model based on the wave-shape function, as well as the time-frequency analysis tool called synchrosqueezing transform (SST) to model and analyze oscillatory physiological signals. To demonstrate how the model and algorithm work, we apply them to study the pulse wave signal. By extracting features called the spectral pulse signature, and based on functional regression, we characterize the hemodynamics from the radial pulse wave signals recorded by the sphygmomanometer. Analysis results suggest the potential of the proposed signal processing approach to extract health-related hemodynamics features.

  7. Modeling the Pulse Signal by Wave-Shape Function and Analyzing by Synchrosqueezing Transform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hau-Tieng Wu

    Full Text Available We apply the recently developed adaptive non-harmonic model based on the wave-shape function, as well as the time-frequency analysis tool called synchrosqueezing transform (SST to model and analyze oscillatory physiological signals. To demonstrate how the model and algorithm work, we apply them to study the pulse wave signal. By extracting features called the spectral pulse signature, and based on functional regression, we characterize the hemodynamics from the radial pulse wave signals recorded by the sphygmomanometer. Analysis results suggest the potential of the proposed signal processing approach to extract health-related hemodynamics features.

  8. Double photoionization of helium: A new correlated double continuum wave function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macri, P.A.; Kornberg, M.A.; Miraglia, J.E. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Inst. de Astron. y Fisica del Espacio; Garibotti, C.R.; Gasaneo, G.; Colavecchia, F.D. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, 8400 S.C. de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina)

    1997-10-01

    In this work we discuss the failures and goodness of using the product of two and three Coulomb waves to represent the double-continuum wave function of two electrons in the field of an ion. Furthermore, we present a new wave function for the double continuum, which takes into account the non-diagonal part of the kinetic energy. It satisfies the correct boundary conditions for large particle separations, and treats the electronic interaction in a more realistic way than the previously enunciated models. (orig.). 14 refs.

  9. Gaussian approximation to single particle correlations at and below the picosecond scale for Lennard-Jones and nanoparticle fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Zon, Ramses; Ashwin, S S; Cohen, E G D

    2008-01-01

    To describe short time (picosecond) and small scale (nanometre) transport in fluids, a Green's function approach was recently developed. This approach relies on an expansion of the distribution of single particle displacements around a Gaussian function, yielding an infinite series of correction terms. Applying a recent theorem (van Zon and Cohen 2006 J. Stat. Phys. 123 1–37) shows that for sufficiently small times the terms in this series become successively smaller, so that truncating the series near or at the Gaussian level might provide a good approximation. In this paper, we derive a theoretical estimate for the time scale at which truncating the series at or near the Gaussian level could be supposed to be accurate for equilibrium nanoscale systems. In order to numerically estimate this time scale, the coefficients for the first few terms in the series are determined in computer simulations for a Lennard-Jones (LJ) fluid, an isotopic LJ mixture and a suspension of a LJ-based model of nanoparticles in a LJ fluid. The results suggest that for LJ fluids an expansion around a Gaussian is accurate at time scales up to a picosecond, while for nanoparticles in suspension (a nanofluid), the characteristic time scale up to which the Gaussian is accurate becomes of the order of 5–10 ps. (invited article)

  10. Single-particle resonance levels in {sup 14}O examined by N13+p elastic resonance scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teranishi, T. [Dept. of Physics, Kyushu Univ., 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)]. E-mail: teranishi@nucl.phys.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Kubono, S. [Center for Nuclear Study (CNS), Univ. of Tokyo, Wako Branch at RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Yamaguchi, H. [Center for Nuclear Study (CNS), Univ. of Tokyo, Wako Branch at RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); He, J.J. [Center for Nuclear Study (CNS), Univ. of Tokyo, Wako Branch at RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Saito, A. [Center for Nuclear Study (CNS), Univ. of Tokyo, Wako Branch at RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Fujikawa, H. [Center for Nuclear Study (CNS), Univ. of Tokyo, Wako Branch at RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Amadio, G. [Center for Nuclear Study (CNS), Univ. of Tokyo, Wako Branch at RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Niikura, M.; Shimoura, S. [Center for Nuclear Study (CNS), Univ. of Tokyo, Wako Branch at RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Wakabayashi, Y. [Dept. of Physics, Kyushu Univ., 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)]|[Center for Nuclear Study (CNS), Univ. of Tokyo, Wako Branch at RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Nishimura, S.; Nishimura, M. [RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Moon, J.Y.; Lee, C.S. [Dept. of Physics, Chung-Ang Univ., Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Odahara, A. [Nishinippon Inst. of Technology, Kanda, Fukuoka 800-0394 (Japan); Sohler, D. [Inst. of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4001 Debrecen, P.O. Box 51 (Hungary); Khiem, L.H. [Inst. of Physics and Electronics (IOP), Vietnamese Academy for Science and Technology (VAST), 10 Daotan, Congvi, Badinh, P.O. Box 429-BOHO, Hanoi 10000 (Viet Nam); Li, Z.H.; Lian, G.; Liu, W.P. [China Inst. of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(46), Beijing 102413 (China)

    2007-06-28

    Single-particle properties of low-lying resonance levels in {sup 14}O have been studied efficiently by utilizing a technique of proton elastic resonance scattering with a {sup 13}N secondary beam and a thick proton target. The excitation functions for the N13+p elastic scattering were measured over a wide energy range of E{sub CM}=0.4-3.3 MeV and fitted with an R-matrix calculation. A clear assignment of J{sup {pi}}=2{sup -} has been made for the level at E{sub x}=6.767(11) MeV in {sup 14}O for the first time. The excitation functions show a signature of a new 0{sup -} level at E{sub x}=5.71(2) MeV with {gamma}=400(100) keV. The excitation energies and widths of the {sup 14}O levels are discussed in conjunction with the spectroscopic structure of A=14 nuclei with T=1.

  11. Antisymmetrized molecular dynamics of wave packets with stochastic incorporation of Vlasov equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Akira; Horiuchi, Hisashi.

    1996-01-01

    The first purpose of this report is to present an extended AMD model which can generally describe such minor branching processes by removing the restriction on the one-body distribution function. This is done not by generalizing the wave packets to arbitrary single-particle wave functions but by representing the diffused and/or deformed wave packet as an ensemble of Gaussian wave packets. In other words, stochastic displacements are given to the wave packets in phase space so that the ensemble-average of the time evolution of the one-body distribution function is essentially equivalent to the solution of Vlasov equation which does not have any restriction on the shape of wave packets. This new model is called AMD-V. Although AMD-V is equivalent to Vlasov equation in the instantaneous time evolution of the one-body distribution function for an AMD wave function, AMD-V describes the branching into channels and the fluctuation of the mean field which are caused by the spreading or the splitting of the single-particle wave function. The second purpose of this report is to show the drastic effect of this new stochastic process of wave packet splitting on the dynamics of heavy ion collisions, especially in the fragmentation mechanism. We take the 40 Ca + 40 Ca system at the incident energy 35 MeV/nucleon. It will be shown that the reproduction of data by the AMD-V calculation is surprisingly good. We will see that the effect of the wave packet diffusion is crucially important to remove the spurious binary feature of the AMD calculation and to enable the multi-fragment final state. (J.P.N.)

  12. Extracting the Green's function from the correlation of coda waves: A derivation based on stationary phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snieder, Roel

    2004-01-01

    The Green's function of waves that propagate between two receivers can be found by cross-correlating multiply scattered waves recorded at these receivers. This technique obviates the need for a source at one of these locations, and is therefore called ''passive imaging.'' This principle has been explained by assuming that the normal modes of the system are uncorrelated and that all carry the same amount of energy (equipartitioning). Here I present an alternative derivation of passive imaging of the ballistic wave that is not based on normal modes. The derivation is valid for scalar waves in three dimensions, and for elastic surface waves. Passive imaging of the ballistic wave is based on the destructive interference of waves radiated from scatterers away from the receiver line, and the constructive interference of waves radiated from secondary sources near the receiver line. The derivation presented here shows that the global requirement of the equipartitioning of normal modes can be relaxed to the local requirement that the scattered waves propagate on average isotropically near the receivers

  13. Reconstruction of gastric slow wave from finger photoplethysmographic signal using radial basis function neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Yacin, S; Srinivasa Chakravarthy, V; Manivannan, M

    2011-11-01

    Extraction of extra-cardiac information from photoplethysmography (PPG) signal is a challenging research problem with significant clinical applications. In this study, radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) is used to reconstruct the gastric myoelectric activity (GMA) slow wave from finger PPG signal. Finger PPG and GMA (measured using Electrogastrogram, EGG) signals were acquired simultaneously at the sampling rate of 100 Hz from ten healthy subjects. Discrete wavelet transform (DWT) was used to extract slow wave (0-0.1953 Hz) component from the finger PPG signal; this slow wave PPG was used to reconstruct EGG. A RBFNN is trained on signals obtained from six subjects in both fasting and postprandial conditions. The trained network is tested on data obtained from the remaining four subjects. In the earlier study, we have shown the presence of GMA information in finger PPG signal using DWT and cross-correlation method. In this study, we explicitly reconstruct gastric slow wave from finger PPG signal by the proposed RBFNN-based method. It was found that the network-reconstructed slow wave provided significantly higher (P wave than the correlation obtained (≈0.7) between the PPG slow wave from DWT and the EEG slow wave. Our results showed that a simple finger PPG signal can be used to reconstruct gastric slow wave using RBFNN method.

  14. Analytic perturbation theory for screened Coulomb potential: full continuum wave function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechler, A.; Ennan, Mc J.; Pratt, R.H.

    1979-01-01

    An analytic perturbation theory developed previously is used to find a continuum screened-Coulomb wave function characterized by definite asymptotic momentum. This wave function satisfies an inhomogeneous partial differential equation which is solved in parabolic coordinates; the solution depends on both parabolic variables. We calculate partial wave projections of this solution and show that we can choose to add a solution of the homogeneous equation such that the partial wave projections become equal to the normalized continuum radial function found previously. However, finding the unique solution with given asymptotic linear momentum will require either using boundary conditions to determine the unique needed solution of the homogeneous equation or equivalently specifying the screened-Coulomb phase-shifts. (author)

  15. Bayesian extraction of the parton distribution amplitude from the Bethe-Salpeter wave function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Chang, Lei; Liu, Yu-xin

    2017-07-01

    We propose a new numerical method to compute the parton distribution amplitude (PDA) from the Euclidean Bethe-Salpeter wave function. The essential step is to extract the weight function in the Nakanishi representation of the Bethe-Salpeter wave function in Euclidean space, which is an ill-posed inversion problem, via the maximum entropy method (MEM). The Nakanishi weight function as well as the corresponding light-front parton distribution amplitude (PDA) can be well determined. We confirm prior work on PDA computations, which was based on different methods.

  16. Bayesian extraction of the parton distribution amplitude from the Bethe–Salpeter wave function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Gao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new numerical method to compute the parton distribution amplitude (PDA from the Euclidean Bethe–Salpeter wave function. The essential step is to extract the weight function in the Nakanishi representation of the Bethe–Salpeter wave function in Euclidean space, which is an ill-posed inversion problem, via the maximum entropy method (MEM. The Nakanishi weight function as well as the corresponding light-front parton distribution amplitude (PDA can be well determined. We confirm prior work on PDA computations, which was based on different methods.

  17. EDF: Computing electron number probability distribution functions in real space from molecular wave functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, E.; Pendás, A. Martín; Blanco, M. A.

    2008-04-01

    Given an N-electron molecule and an exhaustive partition of the real space ( R) into m arbitrary regions Ω,Ω,…,Ω ( ⋃i=1mΩ=R), the edf program computes all the probabilities P(n,n,…,n) of having exactly n electrons in Ω, n electrons in Ω,…, and n electrons ( n+n+⋯+n=N) in Ω. Each Ω may correspond to a single basin (atomic domain) or several such basins (functional group). In the later case, each atomic domain must belong to a single Ω. The program can manage both single- and multi-determinant wave functions which are read in from an aimpac-like wave function description ( .wfn) file (T.A. Keith et al., The AIMPAC95 programs, http://www.chemistry.mcmaster.ca/aimpac, 1995). For multi-determinantal wave functions a generalization of the original .wfn file has been introduced. The new format is completely backwards compatible, adding to the previous structure a description of the configuration interaction (CI) coefficients and the determinants of correlated wave functions. Besides the .wfn file, edf only needs the overlap integrals over all the atomic domains between the molecular orbitals (MO). After the P(n,n,…,n) probabilities are computed, edf obtains from them several magnitudes relevant to chemical bonding theory, such as average electronic populations and localization/delocalization indices. Regarding spin, edf may be used in two ways: with or without a splitting of the P(n,n,…,n) probabilities into α and β spin components. Program summaryProgram title: edf Catalogue identifier: AEAJ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEAJ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 5387 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 52 381 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77 Computer

  18. Two-body Schrödinger wave functions in a plane-wave basis via separation of dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerke, Jonathan; Poirier, Bill

    2018-03-01

    Using a combination of ideas, the ground and several excited electronic states of the helium atom and the hydrogen molecule are computed to chemical accuracy—i.e., to within 1-2 mhartree or better. The basic strategy is very different from the standard electronic structure approach in that the full two-electron six-dimensional (6D) problem is tackled directly, rather than starting from a single-electron Hartree-Fock approximation. Electron correlation is thus treated exactly, even though computational requirements remain modest. The method also allows for exact wave functions to be computed, as well as energy levels. From the full-dimensional 6D wave functions computed here, radial distribution functions and radial correlation functions are extracted—as well as a 2D probability density function exhibiting antisymmetry for a single Cartesian component. These calculations support a more recent interpretation of Hund's rule, which states that the lower energy of the higher spin-multiplicity states is actually due to reduced screening, rather than reduced electron-electron repulsion. Prospects for larger systems and/or electron dynamics applications appear promising.

  19. Potential Functional Embedding Theory at the Correlated Wave Function Level. 2. Error Sources and Performance Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jin; Yu, Kuang; Libisch, Florian; Dieterich, Johannes M; Carter, Emily A

    2017-03-14

    Quantum mechanical embedding theories partition a complex system into multiple spatial regions that can use different electronic structure methods within each, to optimize trade-offs between accuracy and cost. The present work incorporates accurate but expensive correlated wave function (CW) methods for a subsystem containing the phenomenon or feature of greatest interest, while self-consistently capturing quantum effects of the surroundings using fast but less accurate density functional theory (DFT) approximations. We recently proposed two embedding methods [for a review, see: Acc. Chem. Res. 2014 , 47 , 2768 ]: density functional embedding theory (DFET) and potential functional embedding theory (PFET). DFET provides a fast but non-self-consistent density-based embedding scheme, whereas PFET offers a more rigorous theoretical framework to perform fully self-consistent, variational CW/DFT calculations [as defined in part 1, CW/DFT means subsystem 1(2) is treated with CW(DFT) methods]. When originally presented, PFET was only tested at the DFT/DFT level of theory as a proof of principle within a planewave (PW) basis. Part 1 of this two-part series demonstrated that PFET can be made to work well with mixed Gaussian type orbital (GTO)/PW bases, as long as optimized GTO bases and consistent electron-ion potentials are employed throughout. Here in part 2 we conduct the first PFET calculations at the CW/DFT level and compare them to DFET and full CW benchmarks. We test the performance of PFET at the CW/DFT level for a variety of types of interactions (hydrogen bonding, metallic, and ionic). By introducing an intermediate CW/DFT embedding scheme denoted DFET/PFET, we show how PFET remedies different types of errors in DFET, serving as a more robust type of embedding theory.

  20. Studying Regional Wave Source Time Functions Using the Empirical Green's Function Method: Application to Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, J.; Schaff, D. P.; Chen, Y.; Schult, F.

    2013-12-01

    Reliably estimated source time functions (STFs) from high-frequency regional waveforms, such as Lg, Pn and Pg, provide important input for seismic source studies, explosion detection and discrimination, and minimization of parameter trade-off in attenuation studies. We have searched for candidate pairs of larger and small earthquakes in and around China that share the same focal mechanism but significantly differ in magnitudes, so that the empirical Green's function (EGF) method can be applied to study the STFs of the larger events. We conducted about a million deconvolutions using waveforms from 925 earthquakes, and screened the deconvolved traces to exclude those that are from event pairs that involved different mechanisms. Only 2,700 traces passed this screening and could be further analyzed using the EGF method. We have developed a series of codes for speeding up the final EGF analysis by implementing automations and user-graphic interface procedures. The codes have been fully tested with a subset of screened data and we are currently applying them to all the screened data. We will present a large number of deconvolved STFs retrieved using various phases (Lg, Pn, Sn and Pg and coda) with information on any directivities, any possible dependence of pulse durations on the wave types, on scaling relations for the pulse durations and event sizes, and on the estimated source static stress drops.

  1. Wave equations on a de Sitter fiber bundle. [Semiclassical wave function, bundle space, L-S coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drechsler, W [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik, Muenchen (F.R. Germany)

    1975-01-01

    A gauge theory of strong interaction is developed based on fields defined on a fiber bundle. The structural group of the bundle is taken to be the Lsub(4,1) de Sitter group. An internal variable xi, varying in the fiber over a space-time point x, is introduced as a means to describe - with the help of a semiclassical wave function psi(x,xi) defined on the bundle space - the internal structure of extended hadrons in a framework using differential geometric techniques. Three basic nonlinear wave equations for psi(x,xi) are established which are of integro-differential type. The nonlinear coupling terms in these de Sitter gauge invariant equations represent physically a generalized spin orbit coupling or a generalized spin coupling for the motion taking place in the fiber. The motivation for using a bigger space for the definition of hadronic matter wave functions as well as the implications of this geometric approach to strong interaction physics is discussed in detail, in particular with respect to the problem of hadronic constituents. The proposed fiber bundle formalism allows a dynamical description of extended structures for hadrons without implying the necessity of introducing any constituents.

  2. Self-consistent neutral point current and fields from single particle dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.F. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    In order to begin to build a global model of the magnetotail-auroral region interaction, it is of interest to understand the role of neutral points as potential centers of particle energization in the tail. In this paper, the single particle current is calculated near a magnetic neutral point with magnetotail properties. This is balanced with the Ampere's law current producing the magnetic field to obtain the self-consistent electric field for the problem. Also calculated is the current-electric field relationship and, in the regime where this relation is linear, an effective conductivity. Results for these macroscopic quantities are surprisingly similar to the values calculated for a constant normal field current sheet geometry. Application to magnetotail modeling is discussed. 11 references

  3. Role of bumpy fields on single particle orbit in near quasihelically symmetric stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seol, JaeChun; Hegna, C.C.

    2004-01-01

    The role of symmetry breaking on single particle orbits in near helically symmetric stellarators is investigated. In particular, the effect of a symmetry-breaking bumpy term is included in the analysis of trapped particle orbits. It is found that all trapped particle drift orbits are determined by surfaces on which vertical bar B vertical bar min is constant. Trapped particle orbits reside on these surfaces regardless of pitch angle and are determined solely by the initial position and the shape of the vertical bar B vertical bar min contour. Since vertical bar B vertical bar min contours do not depend on the direction of the banana center motion, superbanana orbits do not appear

  4. Choice of single-particle potential and the convergence of the effective interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Osnes, E.; Muether, H.; Schmid, K.W.

    1990-02-01

    The convergence of the expansion for the effective interaction is studied considering as example the shell model for the nuclei 18 O and 18 F. In this work the effective interaction is computed through third order in the Brueckner G matrix, using both a harmonic-oscillator (HO) basis and a Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) basis. The significant differences in the convergence behavior of the effective interaction in these two cases are reported. The results indicate that the choice of the BHF single-particle potential facilitates the convergence of the effective interaction in low-orders of the expansion, whereas the HO results exhibit a non-convergent behavior. The implications for the HO approach are discussed. All calculations have been performed considering a modern version of the Bonn one-boson-exchange potential for the nucleon-nucleon interaction. 23 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Single-particle states in ^112Cd probed with the ^111Cd(d,p) reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, P. E.; Jamieson, D.; Demand, G. A.; Finlay, P.; Green, K. L.; Leach, K. G.; Phillips, A. A.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Svensson, C. E.; Triambak, S.; Wong, J.; Ball, G. C.; Hertenberger, R.; Wirth, H.-F.; Kr"Ucken, R.; Faestermann, T.

    2009-10-01

    As part of a program of detailed spectroscopy of the Cd isotopes, the single-particle neutron states in ^112Cd have been probed with the ^111Cd(d,p) reaction. Beams of polarized 22 MeV deuterons, obtained from the LMU/TUM Tandem Accelerator, bombarded a target of ^111Cd. The protons from the reaction, corresponding to excitation energies up to 3 MeV in ^112Cd, were momentum analyzed with the Q3D spectrograph. Cross sections and analyzing powers were fit to results of DWBA calculations, and spectroscopic factors were determined. The results from the experiment, and implications for the structure of ^112Cd, will be presented.

  6. Decay modes of high-lying single-particle states in [sup 209]Pb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaumel, D.; Fortier, S.; Gales, S.; Guillot, J.; Langevin-Joliot, H.; Laurent, H.; Maison, J.M.; Vernotte, J.; Bordewijk, J.A.; Brandenburg, S.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Crawley, G.M.; Massolo, C.P.; Renteria, M. (Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France) Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, 9747AA Groningen (Netherlands) National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States) Departamento de Fisica, Fac. Cs. Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC No. 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina))

    1994-05-01

    The neutron decay of high-lying single-particle states in [sup 209]Pb excited by means of the ([alpha],[sup 3]He) reaction has been investigated at 122 MeV incident energy using a multidetector array. The high spin values of these states, inferred from previous inclusive experiments, are confirmed by the present data involving angular correlation measurements and the determination of branching ratios to low lying levels in [sup 208]Pb. The structure located between 8.5 and 12 MeV excitation energy in [sup 209]Pb displays large departures from a pure statistical decay with significant direct feeding of the low-lying collective states (3[sup [minus

  7. Decay modes of high-lying single-particle states in 209Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaumel, D.; Fortier, S.; Gales, S.; Guillot, J.; Crawley, G.M.; Massolo, C.P.; Renteria, M.

    1993-01-01

    The neutron decay of high-lying single-particle states in 209 Pb excited by means of the (α, 3 He) reaction has been investigated at 122 MeV incident energy using the multidetector array EDEN. The high spin values of these states, inferred from previous inclusive experiments, are confirmed by the present data involving angular correlation measurements and the determination of branching ratios to low lying levels in 208 Pb. The structure located between 8.5 and 12 MeV excitation energy in 209 Pb displays large departures from a pure statistical decay with significant direct feeding of the low-lying collective states (3 - ,5 - ) of 208 Pb. At higher excitation energy up to 20 MeV, the measured neutron decay is in agreement with the predictions of the statistical model. (authors). 24 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Probing the type of anomalous diffusion with single-particle tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Dominique; Köhler, Jürgen; Weiss, Matthias

    2014-05-07

    Many reactions in complex fluids, e.g. signaling cascades in the cytoplasm of living cells, are governed by a diffusion-driven encounter of reactants. Yet, diffusion in complex fluids often exhibits an anomalous characteristic ('subdiffusion'). Since different types of subdiffusion have distinct effects on timing and equilibria of chemical reactions, a thorough determination of the reactants' type of random walk is key to a quantitative understanding of reactions in complex fluids. Here we introduce a straightforward and simple approach for determining the type of subdiffusion from single-particle tracking data. Unlike previous approaches, our method also is sensitive to transient subdiffusion phenomena, e.g. obstructed diffusion below the percolation threshold. We validate our strategy with data from experiment and simulation.

  9. Fractal behavior of single-particle trajectories and isosets in isotropic and anisotropic fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalia, R.K.; Vashishta, P.; de Leeuw, S.W.

    1985-08-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations for a variety of systems in 2 spatial dimensions reveal fractual behavior associated with trajectories and isosets of single particle motion. The fractual dimensions of trajectories and isosets are 2 and 0.5, respectively, irrespective of the nature of the interparticle interaction or thermodynamic state of the system. Recently, we have investigated the fractual behavior of diffusing Ag ions in the superionic phase of Ag 2 S. MD calculations have shown that the Ag ions diffuse anisotropically along certain directions in the lattice of S particles. Fractual dimensions D and anti D for Ag ions are again 2 and 0.5, respectively. These results confirm the universal nature of fractual dimensions of trails and isosets

  10. Single particle transfer for quantitative analysis with total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esaka, Fumitaka; Esaka, Konomi T.; Magara, Masaaki; Sakurai, Satoshi; Usuda, Shigekazu; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    The technique of single particle transfer was applied to quantitative analysis with total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry. The technique was evaluated by performing quantitative analysis of individual Cu particles with diameters between 3.9 and 13.2 μm. The direct quantitative analysis of the Cu particle transferred onto a Si carrier gave a discrepancy between measured and calculated Cu amounts due to the absorption effects of incident and fluorescent X-rays within the particle. By the correction for the absorption effects, the Cu amounts in individual particles could be determined with the deviation within 10.5%. When the Cu particles were dissolved with HNO 3 solution prior to the TXRF analysis, the deviation was improved to be within 3.8%. In this case, no correction for the absorption effects was needed for quantification

  11. Applications of differential algebra to single-particle dynamics in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Y.

    1991-09-01

    Recent developments in the use of differential algebra to study single-particle beam dynamics in charged-particle storage rings are the subject of this paper. Chapter 2 gives a brief review of storage rings. The concepts of betatron motion and synchrotron motion, and their associated resonances, are introduced. Also introduced are the concepts of imperfections, such as off-momentum, misalignment, and random and systematic errors, and their associated corrections. The chapter concludes with a discussion of numerical simulation principles and the concept of one-turn periodic maps. In Chapter 3, the discussion becomes more focused with the introduction of differential algebras. The most critical test for differential algebraic mapping techniques -- their application to long-term stability studies -- is discussed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 presents a discussion of differential algebraic treatment of dispersed betatron motion. The paper concludes in Chapter 6 with a discussion of parameterization of high-order maps

  12. Dragonfly: an implementation of the expand-maximize-compress algorithm for single-particle imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyer, Kartik; Lan, Ti-Yen; Elser, Veit; Loh, N Duane

    2016-08-01

    Single-particle imaging (SPI) with X-ray free-electron lasers has the potential to change fundamentally how biomacromolecules are imaged. The structure would be derived from millions of diffraction patterns, each from a different copy of the macromolecule before it is torn apart by radiation damage. The challenges posed by the resultant data stream are staggering: millions of incomplete, noisy and un-oriented patterns have to be computationally assembled into a three-dimensional intensity map and then phase reconstructed. In this paper, the Dragonfly software package is described, based on a parallel implementation of the expand-maximize-compress reconstruction algorithm that is well suited for this task. Auxiliary modules to simulate SPI data streams are also included to assess the feasibility of proposed SPI experiments at the Linac Coherent Light Source, Stanford, California, USA.

  13. Burnout of pulverized biomass particles in large scale boiler - Single particle model approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saastamoinen, Jaakko; Aho, Martti; Moilanen, Antero [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Box 1603, 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Soerensen, Lasse Holst [ReaTech/ReAddit, Frederiksborgsveij 399, Niels Bohr, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Clausen, Soennik [Risoe National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Berg, Mogens [ENERGI E2 A/S, A.C. Meyers Vaenge 9, DK-2450 Copenhagen SV (Denmark)

    2010-05-15

    Burning of coal and biomass particles are studied and compared by measurements in an entrained flow reactor and by modelling. The results are applied to study the burning of pulverized biomass in a large scale utility boiler originally planned for coal. A simplified single particle approach, where the particle combustion model is coupled with one-dimensional equation of motion of the particle, is applied for the calculation of the burnout in the boiler. The particle size of biomass can be much larger than that of coal to reach complete burnout due to lower density and greater reactivity. The burner location and the trajectories of the particles might be optimised to maximise the residence time and burnout. (author)

  14. Experimental study of single-particle inclusive hadron scattering and associated multiplicities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, A.E.; Carey, D.C.; Elias, J.E.; Garbincius, P.H.; Mikenberg, G.; Polychronakos, V.A.; Aitkenhead, W.; Barton, D.S.; Brandenburg, G.W.; Busza, W.; Dobrowolski, T.; Friedman, J.I.; Kendall, H.W.; Lyons, T.; Nelson, B.; Rosenson, L.; Toy, W.; Verdier, R.; Votta, L.; Chiaradia, M.T.; DeMarzo, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Germinario, G.; Guerriero, L.; LaVopa, P.; Maggi, G.; Posa, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Spinelli, P.; Waldner, F.; Meunier, R.; Cutts, D.; Dulude, R.S.; Lanou, R.E. Jr.; Massimo, J.T.

    1982-01-01

    An experiment using the Fermilab single arm spectrometer (SAS) facility and an associated nonmagnetic vertex detector studied the reactions a+p→c+X where a and c were π +- , K +- , p, or p-bar. Extensive measurements were made at 100 and 175 GeV/c beam momenta with the outgoing hadrons detected in the SAS covering a kinematic range 0.12< x<1.0 and p/sub T/<1.25 GeV/c. Additional data covering a more restricted range in x were also gathered at 70 GeV/c incident momentum. In this high-statistics experiment, the identification of both the incoming and outgoing charged hadrons were made with a total of eight Cerenkov counters. New and extensive single-particle inclusive data for charged-particle production in low-p/sub T/ hadronic fragmentation are presented. The average associated charged-particle multiplicity and pseudorapidity distributions are also given

  15. Wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many...... times smaller it remains very high. For example, whilst there is enough potential wave power off the UK to supply the electricity demands several times over, the economically recoverable resource for the UK is estimated at 25% of current demand; a lot less, but a very substantial amount nonetheless....

  16. Single Particle Dynamic Imaging and Fe3+ Sensing with Bright Carbon Dots Derived from Bovine Serum Albumin Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingxiu; Wei, Lin; Zheng, Xuanfang; Xiao, Lehui

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we demonstrated a convenient and green strategy for the synthesis of highly luminescent and water-soluble carbon dots (Cdots) by carbonizing carbon precursors, i.e., Bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticles, in water solution. Without post surface modification, the as-synthesized Cdots exhibit fluorescence quantum yield (Q.Y.) as high as 34.8% and display superior colloidal stability not only in concentrated salt solutions (e.g. 2 M KCl) but also in a wide range of pH solutions. According to the FT-IR measurements, the Cdots contain many carboxyl groups, providing a versatile route for further chemical and biological functionalization. Through conjugation of Cdots with the transacting activator of transcription (TAT) peptide (a kind of cell penetration peptide (CPP)) derived from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), it is possible to directly monitor the dynamic interactions of CPP with living cell membrane at single particle level. Furthermore, these Cdots also exhibit a dosage-dependent selectivity toward Fe3+ among other metal ions, including K+, Na+, Mg2+, Hg2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Pb2+ and Al3+. We believed that the Cdots prepared by this strategy would display promising applications in various areas, including analytical chemistry, nanomedicine, biochemistry and so on.

  17. Cerebral functional connectivity and Mayer waves in mice: Phenomena and separability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumstead, Jonathan R; Bauer, Adam Q; Wright, Patrick W; Culver, Joseph P

    2017-02-01

    Resting-state functional connectivity is a growing neuroimaging approach that analyses the spatiotemporal structure of spontaneous brain activity, often using low-frequency (Mayer waves. Despite how close in frequency these phenomena exist, there is little research on how vasomotion and Mayer waves are related to or affect resting-state functional connectivity. In this study, we analyze spontaneous hemodynamic fluctuations over the mouse cortex using optical intrinsic signal imaging. We found spontaneous occurrence of oscillatory hemodynamics ∼0.2 Hz consistent with the properties of Mayer waves reported in the literature. Across a group of mice (n = 19), there was a large variability in the magnitude of Mayer waves. However, regardless of the magnitude of Mayer waves, functional connectivity patterns could be recovered from hemodynamic signals when filtered to the lower frequency band, 0.01-0.08 Hz. Our results demonstrate that both Mayer waves and resting-state functional connectivity patterns can co-exist simultaneously, and that they can be separated by applying bandpass filters.

  18. Evaluation strategies for isotope ratio measurements of single particles by LA-MC-ICPMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappel, S; Boulyga, S F; Dorta, L; Günther, D; Hattendorf, B; Koffler, D; Laaha, G; Leisch, F; Prohaska, T

    2013-03-01

    Data evaluation is a crucial step when it comes to the determination of accurate and precise isotope ratios computed from transient signals measured by multi-collector-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) coupled to, for example, laser ablation (LA). In the present study, the applicability of different data evaluation strategies (i.e. 'point-by-point', 'integration' and 'linear regression slope' method) for the computation of (235)U/(238)U isotope ratios measured in single particles by LA-MC-ICPMS was investigated. The analyzed uranium oxide particles (i.e. 9073-01-B, CRM U010 and NUSIMEP-7 test samples), having sizes down to the sub-micrometre range, are certified with respect to their (235)U/(238)U isotopic signature, which enabled evaluation of the applied strategies with respect to precision and accuracy. The different strategies were also compared with respect to their expanded uncertainties. Even though the 'point-by-point' method proved to be superior, the other methods are advantageous, as they take weighted signal intensities into account. For the first time, the use of a 'finite mixture model' is presented for the determination of an unknown number of different U isotopic compositions of single particles present on the same planchet. The model uses an algorithm that determines the number of isotopic signatures by attributing individual data points to computed clusters. The (235)U/(238)U isotope ratios are then determined by means of the slopes of linear regressions estimated for each cluster. The model was successfully applied for the accurate determination of different (235)U/(238)U isotope ratios of particles deposited on the NUSIMEP-7 test samples.

  19. DEMONIC programming: a computational language for single-particle equilibrium thermodynamics, and its formal semantics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Abramsky

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Maxwell's Demon, 'a being whose faculties are so sharpened that he can follow every molecule in its course', has been the centre of much debate about its abilities to violate the second law of thermodynamics. Landauer's hypothesis, that the Demon must erase its memory and incur a thermodynamic cost, has become the standard response to Maxwell's dilemma, and its implications for the thermodynamics of computation reach into many areas of quantum and classical computing. It remains, however, still a hypothesis. Debate has often centred around simple toy models of a single particle in a box. Despite their simplicity, the ability of these systems to accurately represent thermodynamics (specifically to satisfy the second law and whether or not they display Landauer Erasure, has been a matter of ongoing argument. The recent Norton-Ladyman controversy is one such example. In this paper we introduce a programming language to describe these simple thermodynamic processes, and give a formal operational semantics and program logic as a basis for formal reasoning about thermodynamic systems. We formalise the basic single-particle operations as statements in the language, and then show that the second law must be satisfied by any composition of these basic operations. This is done by finding a computational invariant of the system. We show, furthermore, that this invariant requires an erasure cost to exist within the system, equal to kTln2 for a bit of information: Landauer Erasure becomes a theorem of the formal system. The Norton-Ladyman controversy can therefore be resolved in a rigorous fashion, and moreover the formalism we introduce gives a set of reasoning tools for further analysis of Landauer erasure, which are provably consistent with the second law of thermodynamics.

  20. Chemical characterization of freshly emitted particulate matter from aircraft exhaust using single particle mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegglen, Manuel; Brem, B. T.; Ellenrieder, M.; Durdina, L.; Rindlisbacher, T.; Wang, J.; Lohmann, U.; Sierau, B.

    2016-06-01

    Non-volatile aircraft engine emissions are an important anthropogenic source of soot particles in the upper troposphere and in the vicinity of airports. They influence climate and contribute to global warming. In addition, they impact air quality and thus human health and the environment. The chemical composition of non-volatile particulate matter emission from aircraft engines was investigated using single particle time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The exhaust from three different aircraft engines was sampled and analyzed. The soot particulate matter was sampled directly behind the turbine in a test cell at Zurich Airport. Single particle analyses will focus on metallic compounds. The particles analyzed herein represent a subset of the emissions composed of the largest particles with a mobility diameter >100 nm due to instrumental restrictions. A vast majority of the analyzed particles was shown to contain elemental carbon, and depending on the engine and the applied thrust the elemental carbon to total carbon ratio ranged from 83% to 99%. The detected metallic compounds were all internally mixed with the soot particles. The most abundant metals in the exhaust were Cr, Fe, Mo, Na, Ca and Al; V, Ba, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Mg, Mn, Si, Ti and Zr were also detected. We further investigated potential sources of the ATOFMS-detected metallic compounds using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. The potential sources considered were kerosene, engine lubrication oil and abrasion from engine wearing components. An unambiguous source apportionment was not possible because most metallic compounds were detected in several of the analyzed sources.

  1. Coordinate asymptotics of the (3→3) wave functions for a three charged particle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkur'ev, S.P.

    1977-01-01

    Coordinate asymptotics of the (3 → 3) wave functions for three particles system with Coulomb interaction in the scattering problem is plotted. (3 → 3) and (3 → 2) process cases are considered, when the particles are not connected at the initial state. For coordinate asymptotics plotting the basis functions are used which meet Schroedinger equation in the eikonal approximation. The wave functions coordinate asymptotics plotting method is described far from special directions. Wave function asymptotical form is studied in the range of special directions and (3 → 3) scattering amplitude singularities are described. All data are given in accordance with the system with 2 charged particles only. The model in question is of special interest because of the described ppn system the studying of which is of great importance in nuclear physics. Final formulae are discussed for the most general case of three charged particles. Boundary problems for Schroedinger equation are shown to give the only way of definition for the (3 → 3) wave functions. It is pointed out that in special directions wave function coordinate asymptotics is presented with accuracy that gives the possibility to set such a boundary problem

  2. On propagation of axisymmetric waves in pressurized functionally graded elastomeric hollow cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Su, Yipin; Liu, Dongying; Chen, Weiqiu; Zhang, Chuanzeng

    2018-05-01

    Soft materials can be designed with a functionally graded (FG) property for specific applications. Such material inhomogeneity can also be found in many soft biological tissues whose functionality is only partly understood to date. In this paper, we analyze the axisymmetric guided wave propagation in a pressurized FG elastomeric hollow cylinder. The cylinder is subjected to a combined action of axial pre-stretch and pressure difference applied to the inner and outer cylindrical surfaces. We consider both torsional waves and longitudinal waves propagating in the FG cylinder made of incompressible isotropic elastomer, which is characterized by the Mooney-Rivlin strain energy function but with the material parameters varying with the radial coordinate in an affine way. The pressure difference generates an inhomogeneous deformation field in the FG cylinder, which dramatically complicates the superimposed wave problem described by the small-on-large theory. A particularly efficient approach is hence employed which combines the state-space formalism for the incremental wave motion with the approximate laminate or multi-layer technique. Dispersion relations for the two types of axisymmetric guided waves are then derived analytically. The accuracy and convergence of the proposed approach is validated numerically. The effects of the pressure difference, material gradient, and axial pre-stretch on both the torsional and the longitudinal wave propagation characteristics are discussed in detail through numerical examples. It is found that the frequency of axisymmetric waves depends nonlinearly on the pressure difference and the material gradient, and an increase in the material gradient enhances the capability of the pressure difference to adjust the wave behavior in the FG cylinder. This work provides a theoretical guidance for characterizing FG soft materials by in-situ ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation and for designing tunable waveguides via material tailoring along

  3. P-wave dispersion: relationship to left ventricular function in sickle cell anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguanobi, N I; Onwubere, B J; Ike, S O; Anisiuba, B C; Ejim, E C; Ibegbulam, O G

    2011-01-01

    The prognostic implications of P-wave dispersion in patients with a variety of cardiac disease conditions are increasingly being recognised. The relationship between P-wave dispersion and left ventricular function in sickle cell anaemia is unknown. This study was aimed at evaluating the relationship between P-wave dispersion and left ventricular function in adult Nigerian sickle cell anaemia patients. Between February and August 2007, a total of 62 sickle cell anaemia patients (aged 18-44 years; mean 28.27 ± 5.58) enrolled in the study. These were drawn from patients attending the adult sickle cell clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu. An equal number of age- and gender-matched normal subjects served as controls. All the participants were evaluated with electrocardiography and echocardiography. P-wave dispersion was defined as the difference between the maximum and minimum P-wave duration measured in a 12-lead electrocardiogram. P-wave duration and P-wave dispersion were significantly higher in patients than in controls. Significant correlation was demonstrated between P-wave dispersion and age in the patients (r = 0.387; p = 0.031). A comparison of subsets of sickle cell anaemia patients and controls with comparable haematocrit values (30-35%) showed significantly higher P-wave duration and P-wave dispersion in the patients than in the controls. The P-wave duration in patients and controls, respectively, was 111.10 ± 14.53 ms and 89.14 ± 16.45 ms (t = 3.141; p = 0.006). P-wave dispersion was 64.44 ± 15.86 ms in the patients and 36.43 ± 10.35 ms in the controls (t = 2.752; p = 0.013). Significant negative correlation was found between P-wave dispersion and left ventricular transmitral E/A ratio (r = -0.289; p = 0.023). These findings suggest that P-wave dispersion could be useful in the evaluation of sickle cell patients with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Further prospective studies are recommended to evaluate

  4. Photo double ionization of He: C3-like wave function for the two electron continuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otranto, S.; Garibotti, C.R. [Conicet and Centro Atomico Bariloche (Argentina); Otranto, S. [Universidad Nacional del Sur, Dept. de Fisica, Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2002-12-01

    We evaluate the triply differential cross-section (TDCS) for photo double ionization (PDI) of helium. A first approximation to the final state can be obtained by neglecting the e-e interaction and the non-orthogonal kinetic energy. This leads to the C2 model which proposes as solution a product of 2 independent Coulomb wave plane waves. A better approximation is the C3 model where the C3 wave describes the e-e motion as independent of the presence of the nucleus and represents it by a Coulomb continuum wave. The C3 wave function mainly consists in the product of 3 Coulomb waves, each one representing the interaction between a pair of particles. We use a C3 final continuum wave function with an inter-electronic effective coordinate to express the nuclear screening. Comparison with the standard C3 model shows that the TDCS is enhanced in the threshold region by effect of the reduced inter-electronic repulsion introduced by the present model. A more accurate description of the intermediate energy region is also obtained. Comparison with recent experimental data shows a good overall agreement of the angular distributions. The theoretical PDI total cross-section shows a relevant improvement in the intermediate energy region relative to the C3 model, which converges to data for photon energies larger than 1 keV.

  5. Photo double ionization of He: C3-like wave function for the two electron continuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otranto, S.; Garibotti, C.R.; Otranto, S.

    2002-01-01

    We evaluate the triply differential cross-section (TDCS) for photo double ionization (PDI) of helium. A first approximation to the final state can be obtained by neglecting the e-e interaction and the non-orthogonal kinetic energy. This leads to the C2 model which proposes as solution a product of 2 independent Coulomb wave plane waves. A better approximation is the C3 model where the C3 wave describes the e-e motion as independent of the presence of the nucleus and represents it by a Coulomb continuum wave. The C3 wave function mainly consists in the product of 3 Coulomb waves, each one representing the interaction between a pair of particles. We use a C3 final continuum wave function with an inter-electronic effective coordinate to express the nuclear screening. Comparison with the standard C3 model shows that the TDCS is enhanced in the threshold region by effect of the reduced inter-electronic repulsion introduced by the present model. A more accurate description of the intermediate energy region is also obtained. Comparison with recent experimental data shows a good overall agreement of the angular distributions. The theoretical PDI total cross-section shows a relevant improvement in the intermediate energy region relative to the C3 model, which converges to data for photon energies larger than 1 keV

  6. Extracting a shape function for a signal with intra-wave frequency modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Thomas Y; Shi, Zuoqiang

    2016-04-13

    In this paper, we develop an effective and robust adaptive time-frequency analysis method for signals with intra-wave frequency modulation. To handle this kind of signals effectively, we generalize our data-driven time-frequency analysis by using a shape function to describe the intra-wave frequency modulation. The idea of using a shape function in time-frequency analysis was first proposed by Wu (Wu 2013 Appl. Comput. Harmon. Anal. 35, 181-199. (doi:10.1016/j.acha.2012.08.008)). A shape function could be any smooth 2π-periodic function. Based on this model, we propose to solve an optimization problem to extract the shape function. By exploring the fact that the shape function is a periodic function with respect to its phase function, we can identify certain low-rank structure of the signal. This low-rank structure enables us to extract the shape function from the signal. Once the shape function is obtained, the instantaneous frequency with intra-wave modulation can be recovered from the shape function. We demonstrate the robustness and efficiency of our method by applying it to several synthetic and real signals. One important observation is that this approach is very stable to noise perturbation. By using the shape function approach, we can capture the intra-wave frequency modulation very well even for noise-polluted signals. In comparison, existing methods such as empirical mode decomposition/ensemble empirical mode decomposition seem to have difficulty in capturing the intra-wave modulation when the signal is polluted by noise. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Traveling waves in a diffusive predator-prey model with holling type-III functional response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wantong; Wu Shiliang

    2008-01-01

    We establish the existence of traveling wave solutions and small amplitude traveling wave train solutions for a reaction-diffusion system based on a predator-prey model with Holling type-III functional response. The analysis is in the three-dimensional phase space of the nonlinear ordinary differential equation system given by the diffusive predator-prey system in the traveling wave variable. The methods used to prove the results are the shooting argument, invariant manifold theory and the Hopf bifurcation theorem

  8. Distortions of the distribution function of collisionless particles by high-frequency gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vainer, B.V.; Nasel'skii, P.D.

    1983-01-01

    Equations for the correlation functions of fluctuations in the spectra of relativistic collisionless particles are obtained from the combined system of Einstein's equations and the Vlasov equation. It is shown that the interaction of high-frequency gravitational waves with collisionless particles leads to diffusion of their spectrum in the momentum space. The distortions in the spectrum of the microwave background radiation in a cosmological model with high-frequency gravitational waves are discussed. Bounds are obtained on the spectral characteristics of background gravitational waves

  9. Transfer function and near-field detection of evanescent waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radko, Ylia P.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Gregersen, Niels

    2006-01-01

    of collection and illumination modes. Making use of a collection near-field microscope with a similar fiber tip illuminated by an evanescent field, we measure the collected power as a function of the field spatial frequency in different polarization configurations. Considering a two-dimensional probe...... for the transfer function, which is derived by introducing an effective pointof (dipolelike) detection inside the probe tip. It is found to be possible to fit reasonably well both the experimental and the simulation data for evanescent field components, implying that the developed approximation of the near......-field transfer function can serve as a simple, rational, and sufficiently reliable means of fiber probe characterization....

  10. Phase function of a spherical particle when scattering an inhomogeneous electromagnetic plane wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2018-01-01

    of the complex hypergeometric function 2F1 for every term of a series expansion. In this work, I develop a simpler solution based on associated Legendre functions with argument zero. It is similar to the solution for homogeneous plane waves but with new explicit expressions for the angular dependency of the far......In absorbing media, electromagnetic plane waves are most often inhomogeneous. Existing solutions for the scattering of an inhomogeneous plane wave by a spherical particle provide no explicit expressions for the scattering components. In addition, current analytical solutions require evaluation......-field scattering components, that is, the phase function. I include recurrence formulae for practical evaluation and provide numerical examples to evaluate how well the new expressions match previous work in some limiting cases. The predicted difference in the scattering phase function due to inhomogeneity...

  11. Direct fragmentation of quarkonia including Fermi motion using light-cone wave function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobary, M.A. Gomshi [Razi University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kermanshah (Iran); A.E.O.I., Center for Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, Tehran (Iran); Javadi, B. [Razi University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kermanshah (Iran)

    2005-07-01

    We investigate the effect of Fermi motion on the direct fragmentation of the J/{psi} and {upsilon} states employing a light-cone wave function. Consistent with such a wave function we set up the kinematics of a heavy quark fragmenting into quarkonia such that the Fermi motion of the constituents splits into a longitudinal as well as a transverse direction and thus calculate the fragmentation functions for these states. In the framework of our investigation, we estimate that the fragmentation probabilities of J/{psi} and {upsilon} may increase at least up to 14 percent when including this degree of freedom. (orig.)

  12. Four-body wave function of π3He-system at the threshold energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pupyshev, V.V.; Rakityanskij, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    On the basis of approximate four-body equations the wave function of π 3 He-system is calculated at zero kinetic energy of the pion. In the case when distances between all four particles are comparable with the nucleus size a strong distortion of the wave function of (3N)-subsystem caused by the presence of the pion is found. The calculated four-body function is represented in a semianalytical form, which makes it possible to apply it in different calculations

  13. Transient difference solutions of the inhomogeneous wave equation - Simulation of the Green's function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, K. J.

    1983-01-01

    A time-dependent finite difference formulation to the inhomogeneous wave equation is derived for plane wave propagation with harmonic noise sources. The difference equation and boundary conditions are developed along with the techniques to simulate the Dirac delta function associated with a concentrated noise source. Example calculations are presented for the Green's function and distributed noise sources. For the example considered, the desired Fourier transformed acoustic pressures are determined from the transient pressures by use of a ramping function and an integration technique, both of which eliminates the nonharmonic pressure associated with the initial transient.

  14. Transient difference solutions of the inhomogeneous wave equation: Simulation of the Green's function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeiste, K. J.

    1983-01-01

    A time-dependent finite difference formulation to the inhomogeneous wave equation is derived for plane wave propagation with harmonic noise sources. The difference equation and boundary conditions are developed along with the techniques to simulate the Dirac delta function associated with a concentrated noise source. Example calculations are presented for the Green's function and distributed noise sources. For the example considered, the desired Fourier transformed acoustic pressures are determined from the transient pressures by use of a ramping function and an integration technique, both of which eliminates the nonharmonic pressure associated with the initial transient.

  15. Coronary wave energy: a novel predictor of functional recovery after myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, Kalpa; Foster, Paul; Guilcher, Antoine; Bandara, Asela; Jogiya, Roy; Lockie, Tim; Chowiencyzk, Phil; Nagel, Eike; Marber, Michael; Redwood, Simon; Plein, Sven; Perera, Divaka

    2013-04-01

    Revascularization after acute coronary syndromes provides prognostic benefit, provided that the subtended myocardium is viable. The microcirculation and contractility of the subtended myocardium affect propagation of coronary flow, which can be characterized by wave intensity analysis. The study objective was to determine in acute coronary syndromes whether early wave intensity analysis-derived microcirculatory (backward) expansion wave energy predicts late viability, defined by functional recovery. Thirty-one patients (58±11 years) were enrolled after non-ST elevation myocardial infarction. Regional left ventricular function and late-gadolinium enhancement were assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, before and 3 months after revascularization. The backward-traveling (microcirculatory) expansion wave was derived from wave intensity analysis of phasic coronary pressure and velocity in the infarct-related artery, whereas mean values were used to calculate hyperemic microvascular resistance. Twelve-hour troponin T, left ventricular ejection fraction, and percentage late-gadolinium enhancement mass were 1.35±1.21 µg/L, 56±11%, and 8.4±6.0%, respectively. The infarct-related artery backward-traveling (microcirculatory) expansion wave was inversely correlated with late-gadolinium enhancement infarct mass (r=-0.81; Pwave threshold of 2.8 W m(-2) s(-2)×10(5) predicted functional recovery with sensitivity and specificity of 0.91 and 0.82 (AUC 0.88). Hyperemic microvascular resistance correlated with late-gadolinium enhancement mass (r=0.48; P=0.03) but not left ventricular recovery (r=-0.34; P=0.07). The microcirculation-derived backward expansion wave is a new index that correlates with the magnitude and location of infarction, which may allow for the prediction of functional myocardial recovery. Coronary wave intensity analysis may facilitate myocardial viability assessment during cardiac catheterization.

  16. Application of the Exp-function method to the equal-width wave equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biazar, J; Ayati, Z

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the Exp-function method is used to find an exact solution of the equal-width wave (EW) equation. The method is straightforward and concise, and its applications are promising. It is shown that the Exp-function method, with the help of symbolic computation, provides a very effective and powerful mathematical tool for solving the EW equation.

  17. Performance of wave function and density functional methods for water hydrogen bond spin-spin coupling constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de la Vega, J M; Omar, S; San Fabián, J

    2017-04-01

    Spin-spin coupling constants in water monomer and dimer have been calculated using several wave function and density functional-based methods. CCSD, MCSCF, and SOPPA wave functions methods yield similar results, specially when an additive approach is used with the MCSCF. Several functionals have been used to analyze their performance with the Jacob's ladder and a set of functionals with different HF exchange were tested. Functionals with large HF exchange appropriately predict 1 J O H , 2 J H H and 2h J O O couplings, while 1h J O H is better calculated with functionals that include a reduced fraction of HF exchange. Accurate functionals for 1 J O H and 2 J H H have been tested in a tetramer water model. The hydrogen bond effects on these intramolecular couplings are additive when they are calculated by SOPPA(CCSD) wave function and DFT methods. Graphical Abstract Evaluation of the additive effect of the hydrogen bond on spin-spin coupling constants of water using WF and DFT methods.

  18. Improvements on Semi-Classical Distorted-Wave model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Weili; Watanabe, Y.; Kuwata, R. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Kohno, M.; Ogata, K.; Kawai, M.

    1998-03-01

    A method of improving the Semi-Classical Distorted Wave (SCDW) model in terms of the Wigner transform of the one-body density matrix is presented. Finite size effect of atomic nuclei can be taken into account by using the single particle wave functions for harmonic oscillator or Wood-Saxon potential, instead of those based on the local Fermi-gas model which were incorporated into previous SCDW model. We carried out a preliminary SCDW calculation of 160 MeV (p,p`x) reaction on {sup 90}Zr with the Wigner transform of harmonic oscillator wave functions. It is shown that the present calculation of angular distributions increase remarkably at backward angles than the previous ones and the agreement with the experimental data is improved. (author)

  19. Wave resistance calculation method combining Green functions based on Rankine and Kelvin source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Jingyu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available [Ojectives] At present, the Boundary Element Method(BEM of wave-making resistance mostly uses a model in which the velocity distribution near the hull is solved first, and the pressure integral is then calculated using the Bernoulli equation. However,the process of this model of wave-making resistance is complex and has low accuracy.[Methods] To address this problem, the present paper deduces a compound method for the quick calculation of ship wave resistance using the Rankine source Green function to solve the hull surface's source density, and combining the Lagally theorem concerning source point force calculation based on the Kelvin source Green function so as to solve the wave resistance. A case for the Wigley model is given.[Results] The results show that in contrast to the thin ship method of the linear wave resistance theorem, this method has higher precision, and in contrast to the method which completely uses the Kelvin source Green function, this method has better computational efficiency.[Conclusions] In general, the algorithm in this paper provides a compromise between precision and efficiency in wave-making resistance calculation.

  20. Single-particle properties of N = 12 to N = 20 silicon isotopes within the dispersive optical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bespalova, O. V.; Ermakova, T. A.; Klimochkina, A. A.; Spasskaya, T. I.

    2017-09-01

    Experimental neutron and proton single-particle energies in N = 12 to N = 20 silicon isotopes and data on neutron and proton scattering by nuclei of the isotope 28Si are analyzed on the basis of the dispersive optical model. Good agreement with available experimental data was attained. The occupation probabilities calculated for the single-particle states in question suggest a parallel-type filling of the 1 d and 2 s 1/2 neutron states in the isotopes 26,28,30,32,34Si. The single-particle spectra being considered are indicative of the closure of the Z = 14 proton subshell in the isotopes 30,32,34Si and the N = 20 neutron shell.

  1. Asymptotic expansions of Mathieu functions in wave mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, G.; Kuriyan, M.

    1976-01-01

    Solutions of the radial Schroedinger equation containing a polarization potential r -4 are expanded in a form appropriate for large values of r. These expansions of the Mathieu functions are used in association with the numerical solution of the Schroedinger equation to impose the asymptotic boundary condition in the case of bound states, and to extract phase shifts in the case of scattering states

  2. Photon distribution function for stocks wave for stimulated Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man'ko, O.V.; Tcherniega, N.V.

    1997-04-01

    New time-dependent integrals of motion are found for stimulated Raman scattering. Explicit formula for the photon-number probability distribution as a function of the laser-field intensity and the medium parameters is obtained in terms of Hermite polynomials of two variables. (author). 29 refs

  3. Phase-coexistence simulations of fluid mixtures by the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method using single-particle models

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jun

    2013-09-01

    We present a single-particle Lennard-Jones (L-J) model for CO2 and N2. Simplified L-J models for other small polyatomic molecules can be obtained following the methodology described herein. The phase-coexistence diagrams of single-component systems computed using the proposed single-particle models for CO2 and N2 agree well with experimental data over a wide range of temperatures. These diagrams are computed using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method based on the Gibbs-NVT ensemble. This good agreement validates the proposed simplified models. That is, with properly selected parameters, the single-particle models have similar accuracy in predicting gas-phase properties as more complex, state-of-the-art molecular models. To further test these single-particle models, three binary mixtures of CH4, CO2 and N2 are studied using a Gibbs-NPT ensemble. These results are compared against experimental data over a wide range of pressures. The single-particle model has similar accuracy in the gas phase as traditional models although its deviation in the liquid phase is greater. Since the single-particle model reduces the particle number and avoids the time-consuming Ewald summation used to evaluate Coulomb interactions, the proposed model improves the computational efficiency significantly, particularly in the case of high liquid density where the acceptance rate of the particle-swap trial move increases. We compare, at constant temperature and pressure, the Gibbs-NPT and Gibbs-NVT ensembles to analyze their performance differences and results consistency. As theoretically predicted, the agreement between the simulations implies that Gibbs-NVT can be used to validate Gibbs-NPT predictions when experimental data is not available. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  4. Wave functions and two-electron probability distributions of the Hooke's-law atom and helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, Darragh P.; Gill, Peter M. W.

    2003-01-01

    The Hooke's-law atom (hookium) provides an exactly soluble model for a two-electron atom in which the nuclear-electron Coulombic attraction has been replaced by a harmonic one. Starting from the known exact position-space wave function for the ground state of hookium, we present the momentum-space wave function. We also look at the intracules, two-electron probability distributions, for hookium in position, momentum, and phase space. These are compared with the Hartree-Fock results and the Coulomb holes (the difference between the exact and Hartree-Fock intracules) in position, momentum, and phase space are examined. We then compare these results with analogous results for the ground state of helium using a simple, explicitly correlated wave function

  5. Eikonal Approximation in AdS/CFT From Shock Waves to Four-Point Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Cornalba, L; Costa, Miguel S; Penedones, Joao; Cornalba, Lorenzo; Costa, M S; Penedones, J; Schiappa, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    We initiate a program to generalize the standard eikonal approximation to compute amplitudes in Anti-de Sitter spacetimes. Inspired by the shock wave derivation of the eikonal amplitude in flat space, we study the two-point function E ~ _{shock} in the presence of a shock wave in Anti-de Sitter, where O_1 is a scalar primary operator in the dual conformal field theory. At tree level in the gravitational coupling, we relate the shock two-point function E to the discontinuity across a kinematical branch cut of the conformal field theory four-point function A ~ , where O_2 creates the shock geometry in Anti-de Sitter. Finally, we extend the above results by computing E in the presence of shock waves along the horizon of Schwarzschild BTZ black holes. This work gives new tools for the study of Planckian physics in Anti-de Sitter spacetimes.

  6. Electronic structure and correlated wave functions of a few electron quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sako, Tokuei [Laboratory of Physics, College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 7-24-1 Narashinodai, Funabashi, Chiba 274-8501 (Japan); Ishida, Hiroshi [College of Humanities and Sciences, Nihon University, Tokyo 156-8550 (Japan); Fujikawa, Kazuo [Institute of Quantum Science, College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan)

    2015-01-22

    The energy spectra and wave functions of a few electrons confined by a quasi-one-dimensional harmonic and anharmonic potentials have been studied by using a full configuration interaction method employing a Cartesian anisotropic Gaussian basis set. The energy spectra are classified into three regimes of the strength of confinement, namely, large, medium and small. The polyad quantum number defined by a total number of nodes in the wave functions is shown to be a key ingredient to interpret the energy spectra for the whole range of the confinement strength. The nodal pattern of the wave functions exhibits normal modes for the harmonic confining potential, indicating collective motions of electrons. These normal modes are shown to undergo a transition to local modes for an anharmonic potential with large anharmonicity.

  7. Trial wave functions for a composite Fermi liquid on a torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremling, M.; Moran, N.; Slingerland, J. K.; Simon, S. H.

    2018-01-01

    We study the two-dimensional electron gas in a magnetic field at filling fraction ν =1/2 . At this filling the system is in a gapless state which can be interpreted as a Fermi liquid of composite fermions. We construct trial wave functions for the system on a torus, based on this idea, and numerically compare these to exact wave functions for small systems found by exact diagonalization. We find that the trial wave functions give an excellent description of the ground state of the system, as well as its charged excitations, in all momentum sectors. We analyze the dispersion of the composite fermions and the Berry phase associated with dragging a single fermion around the Fermi surface and comment on the implications of our results for the current debate on whether composite fermions are Dirac fermions.

  8. Strong Measurements Give a Better Direct Measurement of the Quantum Wave Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallone, Giuseppe; Dequal, Daniele

    2016-01-29

    Weak measurements have thus far been considered instrumental in the so-called direct measurement of the quantum wave function [4J. S. Lundeen, Nature (London) 474, 188 (2011).]. Here we show that a direct measurement of the wave function can be obtained by using measurements of arbitrary strength. In particular, in the case of strong measurements, i.e., those in which the coupling between the system and the measuring apparatus is maximum, we compared the precision and the accuracy of the two methods, by showing that strong measurements outperform weak measurements in both for arbitrary quantum states in most cases. We also give the exact expression of the difference between the original and reconstructed wave function obtained by the weak measurement approach; this will allow one to define the range of applicability of such a method.

  9. Wave Function and Emergent SU(2) Symmetry in the ν_{T}=1 Quantum Hall Bilayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Biao; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2018-02-16

    We propose a trial wave function for the quantum Hall bilayer system of total filling factor ν_{T}=1 at a layer distance d to magnetic length ℓ ratio d/ℓ=κ_{c1}≈1.1, where the lowest charged excitation is known to have a level crossing. The wave function has two-particle correlations, which fit well with those in previous numerical studies, and can be viewed as a Bose-Einstein condensate of free excitons formed by composite bosons and anticomposite bosons in different layers. We show the free nature of these excitons indicating an emergent SU(2) symmetry for the composite bosons at d/ℓ=κ_{c1}, which leads to the level crossing in low-lying charged excitations. We further show the overlap between the trial wave function, and the ground state of a small size exact diagonalization is peaked near d/ℓ=κ_{c1}, which supports our theory.

  10. Probing the Single-Particle Character of Rotational States in F 19 Using a Short-Lived Isomeric Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Gonzalez, D.; Auranen, K.; Avila, M. L.; Ayangeakaa, A. D.; Back, B. B.; Bottoni, S.; Carpenter, M. P.; Chen, J.; Deibel, C. M.; Hood, A. A.; Hoffman, C. R.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Jiang, C. L.; Kay, B. P.; Kuvin, S. A.; Lauer, A.; Schiffer, J. P.; Sethi, J.; Talwar, R.; Wiedenhöver, I.; Winkelbauer, J.; Zhu, S.

    2018-03-01

    A beam containing a substantial component of both the Jπ=5+ , T1 /2=162 ns isomeric state of F 18 and its 1+, 109.77-min ground state is utilized to study members of the ground-state rotational band in F 19 through the neutron transfer reaction (d ,p ) in inverse kinematics. The resulting spectroscopic strengths confirm the single-particle nature of the 13 /2+ band-terminating state. The agreement between shell-model calculations using an interaction constructed within the s d shell, and our experimental results reinforces the idea of a single-particle-collective duality in the descriptions of the structure of atomic nuclei.

  11. Stabilization and Structure Calculations for Noncovalent Interactions in Extended Molecular Systems Based on Wave Function and Density Functional Theories

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Riley, K. E.; Pitoňák, Michal; Jurečka, P.; Hobza, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 9 (2010), s. 5023-5063 ISSN 0009-2665 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : non covalent interactions * wave function theories * DFT Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 33.033, year: 2010

  12. Wave functions constructed from an invariant sum over histories satisfy constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliwell, J.J.; Hartle, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    Invariance of classical equations of motion under a group parametrized by functions of time implies constraints between canonical coordinates and momenta. In the Dirac formulation of quantum mechanics, invariance is normally imposed by demanding that physical wave functions are annihilated by the operator versions of these constraints. In the sum-over-histories quantum mechanics, however, wave functions are specified, directly, by appropriate functional integrals. It therefore becomes an interesting question whether the wave functions so specified obey the operator constraints of the Dirac theory. In this paper, we show for a wide class of theories, including gauge theories, general relativity, and first-quantized string theories, that wave functions constructed from a sum over histories are, in fact, annihilated by the constraints provided that the sum over histories is constructed in a manner which respects the invariance generated by the constraints. By this we mean a sum over histories defined with an invariant action, invariant measure, and an invariant class of paths summed over

  13. Single-particle characterization of the high-Arctic summertime aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sierau

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Single-particle mass-spectrometric measurements were carried out in the high Arctic north of 80° during summer 2008. The campaign took place onboard the icebreaker Oden and was part of the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS. The instrument deployed was an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS that provides information on the chemical composition of individual particles and their mixing state in real time. Aerosols were sampled in the marine boundary layer at stations in the open ocean, in the marginal ice zone, and in the pack ice region. The largest fraction of particles detected for subsequent analysis in the size range of the ATOFMS between approximately 200 and 3000 nm in diameter showed mass-spectrometric patterns, indicating an internal mixing state and a biomass burning and/or biofuel source. The majority of these particles were connected to an air mass layer of elevated particle concentration mixed into the surface mixed layer from the upper part of the marine boundary layer. The second largest fraction was represented by sea salt particles. The chemical analysis of the over-ice sea salt aerosol revealed tracer compounds that reflect chemical aging of the particles during their long-range advection from the marginal ice zone, or open waters south thereof prior to detection at the ship. From our findings we conclude that long-range transport of particles is one source of aerosols in the high Arctic. To assess the importance of long-range particle sources for aerosol–cloud interactions over the inner Arctic in comparison to local and regional biogenic primary aerosol sources, the chemical composition of the detected particles was analyzed for indicators of marine biological origin. Only a minor fraction showed chemical signatures of potentially ocean-derived primary particles of that kind. However, a chemical bias in the ATOFMS's detection capabilities observed during ASCOS might suggest the presence of a particle type of

  14. Single particle characterization, source apportionment, and aging effects of ambient aerosols in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Laura Grace

    Composed of a mixture of chemical species and phases and existing in a variety of shapes and sizes, atmospheric aerosols are complex and can have serious influence on human health, the environment, and climate. In order to better understand the impact of aerosols on local to global scales, detailed measurements on the physical and chemical properties of ambient particles are essential. In addition, knowing the origin or the source of the aerosols is important for policymakers to implement targeted regulations and effective control strategies to reduce air pollution in their region. One of the most ground breaking techniques in aerosol instrumentation is single particle mass spectrometry (SPMS), which can provide online chemical composition and size information on the individual particle level. The primary focus of this work is to further improve the ability of one specific SPMS technique, aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ATOFMS), for the use of identifying the specific origin of ambient aerosols, which is known as source apportionment. The ATOFMS source apportionment method utilizes a library of distinct source mass spectral signatures to match the chemical information of the single ambient particles. The unique signatures are obtained in controlled source characterization studies, such as with the exhaust emissions of heavy duty diesel vehicles (HDDV) operating on a dynamometer. The apportionment of ambient aerosols is complicated by the chemical and physical processes an individual particle can undergo as it spends time in the atmosphere, which is referred to as "aging" of the aerosol. Therefore, the performance of the source signature library technique was investigated on the ambient dataset of the highly aged environment of Riverside, California. Additionally, two specific subsets of the Riverside dataset (ultrafine particles and particles containing trace metals), which are known to cause adverse health effects, were probed in greater detail. Finally

  15. Technical Note: The single particle soot photometer fails to reliably detect PALAS soot nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gysel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The single particle soot photometer (SP2 uses laser-induced incandescence (LII for the measurement of atmospheric black carbon (BC particles. The BC mass concentration is obtained by combining quantitative detection of BC mass in single particles with a counting efficiency of 100% above its lower detection limit. It is commonly accepted that a particle must contain at least several tenths of a femtogram BC in order to be detected by the SP2.

    Here we show the result that most BC particles from a PALAS spark discharge soot generator remain undetected by the SP2, even if their BC mass, as independently determined with an aerosol particle mass analyser (APM, is clearly above the typical lower detection limit of the SP2. Comparison of counting efficiency and effective density data of PALAS soot with flame generated soot (combustion aerosol standard burner, CAST, fullerene soot and carbon black particles (Cabot Regal 400R reveals that particle morphology can affect the SP2's lower detection limit. PALAS soot particles are fractal-like agglomerates of very small primary particles with a low fractal dimension, resulting in a very low effective density. Such loosely packed particles behave like "the sum of individual primary particles" in the SP2's laser. Accordingly, most PALAS soot particles remain undetected as the SP2's laser intensity is insufficient to heat the primary particles to their vaporisation temperature because of their small size (Dpp ≈ 5–10 nm. Previous knowledge from pulsed laser-induced incandescence indicated that particle morphology might have an effect on the SP2's lower detection limit, however, an increase of the lower detection limit by a factor of ∼5–10, as reported here for PALAS soot, was not expected.

    In conclusion, the SP2's lower detection limit at a certain laser power depends primarily on the total BC mass per particle for compact particles with sufficiently high effective

  16. Single-particle characterization of the high-Arctic summertime aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierau, B.; Chang, R. Y.-W.; Leck, C.; Paatero, J.; Lohmann, U.

    2014-07-01

    Single-particle mass-spectrometric measurements were carried out in the high Arctic north of 80° during summer 2008. The campaign took place onboard the icebreaker Oden and was part of the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS). The instrument deployed was an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) that provides information on the chemical composition of individual particles and their mixing state in real time. Aerosols were sampled in the marine boundary layer at stations in the open ocean, in the marginal ice zone, and in the pack ice region. The largest fraction of particles detected for subsequent analysis in the size range of the ATOFMS between approximately 200 and 3000 nm in diameter showed mass-spectrometric patterns, indicating an internal mixing state and a biomass burning and/or biofuel source. The majority of these particles were connected to an air mass layer of elevated particle concentration mixed into the surface mixed layer from the upper part of the marine boundary layer. The second largest fraction was represented by sea salt particles. The chemical analysis of the over-ice sea salt aerosol revealed tracer compounds that reflect chemical aging of the particles during their long-range advection from the marginal ice zone, or open waters south thereof prior to detection at the ship. From our findings we conclude that long-range transport of particles is one source of aerosols in the high Arctic. To assess the importance of long-range particle sources for aerosol-cloud interactions over the inner Arctic in comparison to local and regional biogenic primary aerosol sources, the chemical composition of the detected particles was analyzed for indicators of marine biological origin. Only a minor fraction showed chemical signatures of potentially ocean-derived primary particles of that kind. However, a chemical bias in the ATOFMS's detection capabilities observed during ASCOS might suggest the presence of a particle type of unknown composition

  17. Mass Spectrometry of Single Particles Levitated in an Electrodynamic Balance: Applications to Laboratory Atmospheric Chemistry Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsall, A.; Krieger, U. K.; Keutsch, F. N.

    2017-12-01

    Dynamic changes to atmospheric aerosol particle composition (e.g., originating from evaporation/condensation, oxidative aging, or aqueous-phase chemical reactions) impact particle properties with importance for understanding particle effects on climate and human health. These changes can take place over the entire lifetime of an atmospheric particle, which can extend over multiple days. Previous laboratory studies of such processes have included analyzing single particles suspended in a levitation device, such as an electrodynamic balance (EDB), an optical levitator, or an acoustic trap, using optical detection techniques. However, studying chemically complex systems can require an analytical method, such as mass spectrometry, that provides more molecular specificity. Existing work coupling particle levitation with mass spectrometry is more limited and largely has consisted of acoustic levitation of millimeter-sized droplets.In this work an EDB has been coupled with a custom-built ionization source and commercial time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MS) as a platform for laboratory atmospheric chemistry research. Single charged particles (radius 10 μm) have been injected into an EDB, levitated for an arbitrarily long period of time, and then transferred to a vaporization-corona discharge ionization region for MS analysis. By analyzing a series of particles of identical composition, residing in the controlled environment of the EDB for varying times, we can trace the chemical evolution of a particle over hours or days, appropriate timescales for understanding transformations of atmospheric particles.To prove the concept of our EDB-MS system, we have studied the evaporation of particles consisting of polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules of mixed chain lengths, used as a benchmark system. Our system can quantify the composition of single particles (see Figure for sample spectrum of a single PEG-200 particle: PEG parent ions labeled with m/z, known PEG fragment ions

  18. A KINETIC ALFVEN WAVE AND THE PROTON DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION IN THE FAST SOLAR WIND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xing; Lu Quanming; Chen Yao; Li Bo; Xia Lidong

    2010-01-01

    Using one-dimensional test particle simulations, the effect of a kinetic Alfven wave on the velocity distribution function (VDF) of protons in the collisionless solar wind is investigated. We first use linear Vlasov theory to numerically obtain the property of a kinetic Alfven wave (the wave propagates in the direction almost perpendicular to the background magnetic field). We then numerically simulate how the wave will shape the proton VDF. It is found that Landau resonance may be able to generate two components in the initially Maxwellian proton VDF: a tenuous beam component along the direction of the background magnetic field and a core component. The streaming speed of the beam relative to the core proton component is about 1.2-1.3 Alfven speed.

  19. Relativistic wave functions of two spin 1/2 quarks in a model with QCD interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skachkov, N.B.; Solovtsov, I.L.

    1981-01-01

    Within the hamiltonian formulation of quantum field theory an equation is obtained for the vertex and wave functions of a composite system of two spin 1/2 quarks. Exact solutions are found for the relativistic potential having in the momentum representation the ''asymptotically-free'' behaviour at large values of momentum transfer Q 2 . It is shown that within the given model the π-meson wave function has zero at a finite distance corresponding to the point of discontinuity of the effective potential [ru

  20. Stochastic wave-function unravelling of the generalized Lindblad equation using correlated states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moodley, Mervlyn; Nsio Nzundu, T; Paul, S

    2012-01-01

    We perform a stochastic wave-function unravelling of the generalized Lindblad master equation using correlated states, a combination of the system state vectors and the environment population. The time-convolutionless projection operator method using correlated projection superoperators is applied to a two-state system, a qubit, that is coupled to an environment consisting of two energy bands which are both populated. These results are compared to the data obtained from Monte Carlo wave-function simulations based on the unravelling of the master equation. We also show a typical quantum trajectory and the average time evolution of the state vector on the Bloch sphere. (paper)

  1. Second-Order Moller-Plesset Perturbation Theory for Molecular Dirac-Hartree-Fock Wave Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyall, Kenneth G.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Moller-Plesset perturbation theory is developed to second order for a selection of Kramers restricted Dirac-Hartree-Fock closed and open-shell reference wave functions. The open-shell wave functions considered are limited to those with no more than two electrons in open shells, but include the case of a two-configuration SCF reference. Denominator shifts are included in the style of Davidson's OPT2 method. An implementation which uses unordered integrals with labels is presented, and results are given for a few test cases.

  2. Influence of wetting-layer wave functions on phonon-mediated carrier capture into self-assembled quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Troels; Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Tromborg, Bjarne

    2006-01-01

    Models of carrier dynamics in quantum dots rely strongly on adequate descriptions of the carrier wave functions. In this work we numerically solve the one-band effective mass Schrodinger equation to calculate the capture times of phonon-mediated carrier capture into self-assembled quantum dots. C....... Comparing with results obtained using approximate carrier wave functions, we demonstrate that the capture times are strongly influenced by properties of the wetting layer wave functions not accounted for by earlier theoretical analyses....

  3. Bound and scattering wave functions for a velocity-dependent Kisslinger potential for l>0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaghoub, M.I.

    2002-01-01

    Using formal scattering theory, the scattering wave functions are extrapolated to negative energies corresponding to bound-state poles. It is shown that the ratio of the normalized scattering and the corresponding bound-state wave functions, at a bound-state pole, is uniquely determined by the bound-state binding energy. This simple relation is proved analytically for an arbitrary angular momentum quantum number l>0, in the presence of a velocity-dependent Kisslinger potential. The extrapolation relation is tested analytically by solving the Schroedinger equation in the p-wave case exactly for the scattering and the corresponding bound-state wave functions when the Kisslinger potential has the form of a square well. A numerical resolution of the Schroedinger equation in the p-wave case and of a square-well Kisslinger potential is carried out to investigate the range of validity of the extrapolated connection. It is found that the derived relation is satisfied best at low energies and short distances. (orig.)

  4. Semiclassical model for single-particle transitions in nucleus-nucleus interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milek, B.; Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna; Technische Univ., Dresden; Reif, R.; Pham Khan Van; Revai, J.

    1990-04-01

    A previously elaborated semiclassical one-body model for the dynamics of a single particle, moving in two potentials, in heavy-ion reactions or in fissioning systems has been extended with respect to the inclusion of angular momenta and more realistic separable potentials. The collective relative motion is assumed to proceed along a trajectory which is calculated from classical equations of motion including conservative and phenomenological friction forces. The formalism has been derived involving three-dimensional trajectories for symmetric as well as for asymmetric nucleus-nucleus systems. The model allows for the calculation of correct quantum mechanical transition amplitudes to final bound and continuum states. It has been applied for the investigation of the excitation of a neutron during a fission process, covering also non-statistical differential emission probabilities. From the numerical calculations, using parameters adapted to 252 Cf(sf), one can conclude that in the underlying model without 'sudden' processes the energy spectrum consists of two parts. The low lying component is created in the neck region while a high lying part seems to be governed mainly by the dynamics of the underlying collective motion rather than by the specific initial conditions. (orig.)

  5. GraDeR: Membrane Protein Complex Preparation for Single-Particle Cryo-EM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, Florian; Gerle, Christoph; Fischer, Niels; Oshima, Atsunori; Shinzawa-Itoh, Kyoko; Shimada, Satoru; Yokoyama, Ken; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori; Stark, Holger

    2015-09-01

    We developed a method, named GraDeR, which substantially improves the preparation of membrane protein complexes for structure determination by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). In GraDeR, glycerol gradient centrifugation is used for the mild removal of free detergent monomers and micelles from lauryl maltose-neopentyl glycol detergent stabilized membrane complexes, resulting in monodisperse and stable complexes to which standard processes for water-soluble complexes can be applied. We demonstrate the applicability of the method on three different membrane complexes, including the mammalian FoF1 ATP synthase. For this highly dynamic and fragile rotary motor, we show that GraDeR allows visualizing the asymmetry of the F1 domain, which matches the ground state structure of the isolated domain. Therefore, the present cryo-EM structure of FoF1 ATP synthase provides direct structural evidence for Boyer's binding change mechanism in the context of the intact enzyme. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Robust model-based analysis of single-particle tracking experiments with Spot-On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Jonathan B; Lavis, Luke D

    2018-01-01

    Single-particle tracking (SPT) has become an important method to bridge biochemistry and cell biology since it allows direct observation of protein binding and diffusion dynamics in live cells. However, accurately inferring information from SPT studies is challenging due to biases in both data analysis and experimental design. To address analysis bias, we introduce ‘Spot-On’, an intuitive web-interface. Spot-On implements a kinetic modeling framework that accounts for known biases, including molecules moving out-of-focus, and robustly infers diffusion constants and subpopulations from pooled single-molecule trajectories. To minimize inherent experimental biases, we implement and validate stroboscopic photo-activation SPT (spaSPT), which minimizes motion-blur bias and tracking errors. We validate Spot-On using experimentally realistic simulations and show that Spot-On outperforms other methods. We then apply Spot-On to spaSPT data from live mammalian cells spanning a wide range of nuclear dynamics and demonstrate that Spot-On consistently and robustly infers subpopulation fractions and diffusion constants. PMID:29300163

  7. Canonical form of three-fermion pure-states with six single particle states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lin; Ž Ðoković, Dragomir; Grassl, Markus; Zeng, Bei

    2014-01-01

    We construct a canonical form for pure states in ∧ 3 (C 6 ), the three-fermion system with six single particle states, under local unitary (LU) transformations, i.e., the unitary group U(6). We also construct a minimal set of generators of the algebra of polynomial U(6)-invariants on ∧ 3 (C 6 ). It turns out that this algebra is isomorphic to the algebra of polynomial LU-invariants of three-qubits which are additionally invariant under qubit permutations. As a consequence of this surprising fact, we deduce that there is a one-to-one correspondence between the U(6)-orbits of pure three-fermion states in ∧ 3 (C 6 ) and the LU orbits of pure three-qubit states when qubit permutations are allowed. As an important byproduct, we obtain a new canonical form for pure three-qubit states under LU transformations U(2) × U(2) × U(2) (no qubit permutations allowed)

  8. Single Particle Laser Mass Spectrometry Applied to Differential Ice Nucleation Experiments at the AIDA Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallavardin, S. J.; Froyd, Karl D.; Lohmann, U.; Moehler, Ottmar; Murphy, Daniel M.; Cziczo, Dan

    2008-01-01

    Experiments conducted at the Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics in the Atmosphere (AIDA) chamber located in Karlsruhe, Germany permit investigation of particle properties that affect the nucleation of ice at temperature and water vapor conditions relevant to cloud microphysics and climate issues. Ice clouds were generated by heterogeneous nucleation of Arizona test dust (ATD), illite, and hematite and homogeneous nucleation of sulfuric acid. Ice crystals formed in the chamber were inertially separated from unactivated, or 'interstitial' aerosol particles with a pumped counterflow virtual impactor (PCVI), then evaporated. The ice residue (i.e., the aerosol which initiated ice nucleation plus any material which was scavenged from the gas- and/or particle-phase), was chemically characterized at the single particle level using a laser ionization mass spectrometer. In this manner the species that first nucleated ice could be identified out of a mixed aerosol population in the chamber. Bare mineral dust particles were more effective ice nuclei (IN) than similar particles with a coating. Metallic particles from contamination in the chamber initiated ice nucleation before other species but there were few enough that they did not compromise the experiments. Nitrate, sulfate, and organics were often detected on particles and ice residue, evidently from scavenging of trace gas-phase species in the chamber. Hematite was a more effective ice nucleus than illite. Ice residue was frequently larger than unactivated test aerosol due to the formation of aggregates due to scavenging, condensation of contaminant gases, and the predominance of larger aerosol in nucleation

  9. Orbital single particle tracking on a commercial confocal microscope using piezoelectric stage feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanzanò, L; Gratton, E

    2014-01-01

    Single Particle Tracking (SPT) is a technique used to locate fluorescent particles with nanometer precision. In the orbital tracking method the position of a particle is obtained analyzing the distribution of intensity along a circular orbit scanned around the particle. In combination with an active feedback this method allows tracking of particles in 2D and 3D with millisecond temporal resolution. Here we describe a SPT setup based on a feedback approach implemented with minimal modification of a commercially available confocal laser scanning microscope, the Zeiss LSM 510, in combination with an external piezoelectric stage scanner. The commercial microscope offers the advantage of a user-friendly software interface and pre-calibrated hardware components. The use of an external piezo-scanner allows the addition of feedback into the system but also represents a limitation in terms of its mechanical response. We describe in detail this implementation of the orbital tracking method and discuss advantages and limitations. As an example of application to live cell experiments we perform the 3D tracking of acidic vesicles in live polarized epithelial cells. (paper)

  10. Single particle transfer reactions: what can they tell us about vibrational states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hering, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    The topic discussed concerns single particle transfer reactions (SPTR) which are, in general, used to study SP states. However, good SP states are rare objects in nature and people who try to look for them have often to settle with something less than ideal. Indeed the picture of a pure SP state is physically not even reasonable. It means that a nucleon is moving around a core nucleus which stays in its ground state: a process which one could call equivalent to elastic scattering of a nucleon which is not free but rather in a bound state. However it is shown that inelastic scattering is a very strong competitor to elastic scattering if the nucleus possesses states of high collectivity. Thus one would expect inelastic scattering to happen also while the nucleon is bound. This is a very intuitive picture of what is called the fragmentation of SP states. A final state psi sub(B) is populated by the transfer reaction A + a → B + b where psi sub(B) = α 1 phi 1 phi sub(A)(0) + α 2 phi 2 phi sub(A)(lambda). Hence the population of psi sub(B) automatically involves the collective state phi sub(A)(lambda). A discussion of how one can get information about phi sub(A)(lambda) out of the experimental data is given. (Auth.)

  11. Improved identification of primary biological aerosol particles using single-particle mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Zawadowicz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP, especially at altitudes relevant to cloud formation, are scarce. Single-particle mass spectrometry (SPMS has been used to probe aerosol chemical composition from ground and aircraft for over 20 years. Here we develop a method for identifying bioaerosols (PBAP and particles containing fragments of PBAP as part of an internal mixture using SPMS. We show that identification of bioaerosol using SPMS is complicated because phosphorus-bearing mineral dust and phosphorus-rich combustion by-products such as fly ash produce mass spectra with peaks similar to those typically used as markers for bioaerosol. We have developed a methodology to differentiate and identify bioaerosol using machine learning statistical techniques applied to mass spectra of known particle types. This improved method provides far fewer false positives compared to approaches reported in the literature. The new method was then applied to two sets of ambient data collected at Storm Peak Laboratory and a forested site in Central Valley, California to show that 0.04–2 % of particles in the 200–3000 nm aerodynamic diameter range were identified as bioaerosol. In addition, 36–56 % of particles identified as biological also contained spectral features consistent with mineral dust, suggesting internal dust–biological mixtures.

  12. Noise bias in the refinement of structures derived from single particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Alex; Grigorieff, Nikolaus

    2004-01-01

    One of the main goals in the determination of three-dimensional macromolecular structures from electron microscope images of individual molecules and complexes (single particles) is a sufficiently high spatial resolution, about 4 A, at which the interpretation with an atomic model becomes possible. To reach high resolution, an iterative refinement procedure using an expectation maximization algorithm is often used that leads to a more accurate alignment of the positional and orientational parameters for each particle. We show here the results of refinement algorithms that use a phase residual, a linear correlation coefficient, or a weighted correlation coefficient to align individual particles. The algorithms were applied to computer-generated data sets that contained projections from model structures, as well as noise. The algorithms show different degrees of over-fitting, especially at high resolution where the signal is weak. We demonstrate that the degree of over-fitting is reduced with a weighting scheme that depends on the signal-to-noise ratio in the data. The weighting also improves the accuracy of resolution measurement by the commonly used Fourier shell correlation. The performance of the refinement algorithms is compared to that using a maximum likelihood approach. The weighted correlation coefficient was implemented in the computer program FREALIGN

  13. Single particle nonlocality, geometric phases and time-dependent boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzkin, A.

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the issue of single particle nonlocality in a quantum system subjected to time-dependent boundary conditions. We discuss earlier claims according to which the quantum state of a particle remaining localized at the center of an infinite well with moving walls would be specifically modified by the change in boundary conditions due to the wall’s motion. We first prove that the evolution of an initially localized Gaussian state is not affected nonlocally by a linearly moving wall: as long as the quantum state has negligible amplitude near the wall, the boundary motion has no effect. This result is further extended to related confined time-dependent oscillators in which the boundary’s motion is known to give rise to geometric phases: for a Gaussian state remaining localized far from the boundaries, the effect of the geometric phases is washed out and the particle dynamics shows no traces of a nonlocal influence that would be induced by the moving boundaries.

  14. Analysis and differentiation of mineral dust by single particle laser mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallavardin, S. J.; Lohmann, U.; Cziczo, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluates the potential of single particle laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for the analysis of atmospherically relevant mineral dusts. Samples of hematite, goethite, calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, silica, quartz, montmorrillonite, kaolinite, illite, hectorite, wollastonite and nephelinsyenit were investigated in positive and negative ion mode with a monopolar time-of-flight mass spectrometer where the desorption/ionization step was performed with a 193 nm excimer laser (∼10 9 W/cm 2 ). Particle size ranged from 500 nm to 3 (micro)m. Positive mass spectra mainly provide elemental composition whereas negative ion spectra provide information on element speciation and of a structural nature. The iron oxide, calcium-rich and aluminosilicate nature of particles is established in positive ion mode. The differentiation of calcium materials strongly relies on the calcium counter-ions in negative mass spectra. Aluminosilicates can be differentiated in both positive and negative ion mode using the relative abundance of various aluminum and silicon ions

  15. Real-time analysis of insoluble particles in glacial ice using single-particle mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Matthew; Zawadowicz, Maria A.; Das, Sarah B.; Cziczo, Daniel J.

    2017-11-01

    Insoluble aerosol particles trapped in glacial ice provide insight into past climates, but analysis requires information on climatically relevant particle properties, such as size, abundance, and internal mixing. We present a new analytical method using a time-of-flight single-particle mass spectrometer (SPMS) to determine the composition and size of insoluble particles in glacial ice over an aerodynamic size range of ˜ 0.2-3.0 µm diameter. Using samples from two Greenland ice cores, we developed a procedure to nebulize insoluble particles suspended in melted ice, evaporate condensed liquid from those particles, and transport them to the SPMS for analysis. We further determined size-dependent extraction and instrument transmission efficiencies to investigate the feasibility of determining particle-class-specific mass concentrations. We find SPMS can be used to provide constraints on the aerodynamic size, composition, and relative abundance of most insoluble particulate classes in ice core samples. We describe the importance of post-aqueous processing to particles, a process which occurs due to nebulization of aerosols from an aqueous suspension of originally soluble and insoluble aerosol components. This study represents an initial attempt to use SPMS as an emerging technique for the study of insoluble particulates in ice cores.

  16. cisTEM, user-friendly software for single-particle image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    We have developed new open-source software called cisTEM (computational imaging system for transmission electron microscopy) for the processing of data for high-resolution electron cryo-microscopy and single-particle averaging. cisTEM features a graphical user interface that is used to submit jobs, monitor their progress, and display results. It implements a full processing pipeline including movie processing, image defocus determination, automatic particle picking, 2D classification, ab-initio 3D map generation from random parameters, 3D classification, and high-resolution refinement and reconstruction. Some of these steps implement newly-developed algorithms; others were adapted from previously published algorithms. The software is optimized to enable processing of typical datasets (2000 micrographs, 200 k – 300 k particles) on a high-end, CPU-based workstation in half a day or less, comparable to GPU-accelerated processing. Jobs can also be scheduled on large computer clusters using flexible run profiles that can be adapted for most computing environments. cisTEM is available for download from cistem.org. PMID:29513216

  17. Characterization of biomass combustion at high temperatures based on an upgraded single particle model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jun; Paul, Manosh C.; Younger, Paul L.; Watson, Ian; Hossain, Mamdud; Welch, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • High temperature rapid biomass combustion is studied based on single particle model. • Particle size changes in devolatilization and char oxidation models are addressed. • Time scales of various thermal sub-processes are compared and discussed. • Potential solutions are suggested to achieve better biomass co-firing performances. - Abstract: Biomass co-firing is becoming a promising solution to reduce CO 2 emissions, due to its renewability and carbon neutrality. Biomass normally has high moisture and volatile contents, complicating its combustion behavior, which is significantly different from that of coal. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) combustion model of a single biomass particle is employed to study high-temperature rapid biomass combustion. The two-competing-rate model and kinetics/diffusion model are used to model biomass devolatilization reaction and char burnout process, respectively, in which the apparent kinetics used for those two models were from high temperatures and high heating rates tests. The particle size changes during the devolatilization and char burnout are also considered. The mass loss properties and temperature profile during the biomass devolatilization and combustion processes are predicted; and the timescales of particle heating up, drying, devolatilization, and char burnout are compared and discussed. Finally, the results shed light on the effects of particle size on the combustion behavior of biomass particle

  18. Three-dimensional single-particle tracking in live cells: news from the third dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupont, A; Wehnekamp, F; Katayama, Y; Lamb, D C; Gorelashvili, M; Schüller, V; Arcizet, D; Heinrich, D

    2013-01-01

    Single-particle tracking (SPT) is of growing importance in the biophysical community. It is used to investigate processes such as drug and gene delivery, viral uptake, intracellular trafficking or membrane-bound protein mobility. Traditionally, SPT is performed in two dimensions (2D) because of its technical simplicity. However, life occurs in three dimensions (3D) and many methods have been recently developed to track particles in 3D. Now, is the third dimension worth the effort? Here we investigate the differences between the 2D and 3D analyses of intracellular transport with the 3D development of a time-resolved mean square displacement (MSD) analysis introduced previously. The 3D trajectories, and the 2D projections, of fluorescent nanoparticles were obtained with an orbital tracking microscope in two different cell types: in Dictyostelium discoideum ameba and in adherent, more flattened HuH-7 human cells. As expected from the different 3D organization of both cells’ cytoskeletons, a third of the active transport was lost upon projection in the ameba whereas the identification of the active phases was barely affected in the HuH-7 cells. In both cell types, we found intracellular diffusion to be anisotropic and the diffusion coefficient values derived from the 2D analysis were therefore biased. (paper)

  19. Development of elemental technique for single particle irradiation system to cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukawa, Masae; Yasuda, Nakahiro; Matsumoto, Kenichi

    2004-01-01

    A single-ion microbeam facility (SPICE: Single Particle Irradiation system to Cell) are constructing at National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). The system was design to deliver the defined number of helium or hydrogen ions into an area smaller than the nuclei of cells in culture on thin films. The beam will be focused into 2μmθ (in diameter) by triplet-Q magnet. We have established the monitoring system using thin plastic scintillator, IIT and charge-coupled device (CCD) camera to measure the size and position of microbeam. The monitoring system for microbeam has been evaluated in the middle energy course using 4.3 MeV protons. We have designed and made two new type collimators to get the microbeam, and have evaluated its scattering effect. We have confirmed that the collimated beam spot (100 ions/sec) was observed in CCD image as small light spot. This system is now installed into SPICE apparatus. (authors)

  20. Dual-modality single particle orientation and rotational tracking of intracellular transport of nanocargos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Gu, Yan; Wang, Gufeng; Fang, Ning

    2012-01-17

    The single particle orientation and rotational tracking (SPORT) technique was introduced recently to follow the rotational motion of plasmonic gold nanorod under a differential interference contrast (DIC) microscope. In biological studies, however, cellular activities usually involve a multiplicity of molecules; thus, tracking the motion of a single molecule/object is insufficient. Fluorescence-based techniques have long been used to follow the spatial and temporal distributions of biomolecules of interest thanks to the availability of multiplexing fluorescent probes. To know the type and number of molecules and the timing of their involvement in a biological process under investigation by SPORT, we constructed a dual-modality DIC/fluorescence microscope to simultaneously image fluorescently tagged biomolecules and plasmonic nanoprobes in living cells. With the dual-modality SPORT technique, the microtubule-based intracellular transport can be unambiguously identified while the dynamic orientation of nanometer-sized cargos can be monitored at video rate. Furthermore, the active transport on the microtubule can be easily separated from the diffusion before the nanocargo docks on the microtubule or after it undocks from the microtubule. The potential of dual-modality SPORT is demonstrated for shedding new light on unresolved questions in intracellular transport.