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Sample records for single-line medial axis

  1. UMAPRM: Uniformly sampling the medial axis

    KAUST Repository

    Yeh, Hsin-Yi Cindy

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Maintaining clearance, or distance from obstacles, is a vital component of successful motion planning algorithms. Maintaining high clearance often creates safer paths for robots. Contemporary sampling-based planning algorithms That utilize The medial axis, or The set of all points equidistant To Two or more obstacles, produce higher clearance paths. However, They are biased heavily Toward certain portions of The medial axis, sometimes ignoring parts critical To planning, e.g., specific Types of narrow passages. We introduce Uniform Medial Axis Probabilistic RoadMap (UMAPRM), a novel planning variant That generates samples uniformly on The medial axis of The free portion of Cspace. We Theoretically analyze The distribution generated by UMAPRM and show its uniformity. Our results show That UMAPRM\\'s distribution of samples along The medial axis is not only uniform but also preferable To other medial axis samplers in certain planning problems. We demonstrate That UMAPRM has negligible computational overhead over other sampling Techniques and can solve problems The others could not, e.g., a bug Trap. Finally, we demonstrate UMAPRM successfully generates higher clearance paths in The examples.

  2. Subquadratic medial-axis approximation in $\\mathbb{R}^3$

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Scheffer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an algorithm that approximates the medial axis of a smooth manifold in $\\mathbb{R}^3$ which is given by a sufficiently dense point sample. The resulting, non-discrete approximation is shown to converge to the medial axis as the sampling density approaches infinity. While all previous algorithms guaranteeing convergence have a running time quadratic in the size $n$ of the point sample, we achieve a running time of at most $\\mathcal{O}(n\\log^3 n$. While there is no subquadratic upper bound on the output complexity of previous algorithms for non-discrete medial axis approximation, the output of our algorithm is guaranteed to be of linear size.

  3. MARRT: Medial Axis biased rapidly-exploring random trees

    KAUST Repository

    Denny, Jory

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Motion planning is a difficult and widely studied problem in robotics. Current research aims not only to find feasible paths, but to ensure paths have certain properties, e.g., shortest or safest paths. This is difficult for current state-of-the-art sampling-based techniques as they typically focus on simply finding any path. Despite this difficulty, sampling-based techniques have shown great success in planning for a wide range of applications. Among such planners, Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs) search the planning space by biasing exploration toward unexplored regions. This paper introduces a novel RRT variant, Medial Axis RRT (MARRT), which biases tree exploration to the medial axis of free space by pushing all configurations from expansion steps towards the medial axis. We prove that this biasing increases the tree\\'s clearance from obstacles. Improving obstacle clearance is useful where path safety is important, e.g., path planning for robots performing tasks in close proximity to the elderly. Finally, we experimentally analyze MARRT, emphasizing its ability to effectively map difficult passages while increasing obstacle clearance, and compare it to contemporary RRT techniques.

  4. On the isomorphism between the medial axis and a dual of the Delaunay graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Ojaswa; Anton, François; Mioc, Darka

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we show a graph isomorphism between a dual graph of the Delaunay graph of the sampled points and the medial axis of the sampled features. This dual graph captures the fact that two Delaunay triangles share two vertices or an edge. Then, we apply it to the computation of the medial...... of (satellite) imagery and scanned maps. Applications include coastline extraction, extraction of fields, clear cuts, clouds, as well as heating or pollution monitoring and dense forest mapping among others....

  5. The Globe's Eccentric Rotational Axis: Why Medial Rectus Surgery Is More Potent than Lateral Rectus Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robert A; Demer, Joseph L

    2018-03-29

    Tables typically recommend greater lateral rectus (LR) than medial rectus (MR) surgical doses for horizontal strabismus of any given magnitude, a difference unexplained by mechanical models that assume globe rotation about its center. We tested this assumption during horizontal ductions. Prospective observational study. Eighteen adult subjects with normal binocular vision. Surface coil magnetic resonance imaging at 390 or 430 μm resolution was obtained using 2-mm-thick contiguous axial planes while subjects fixated targets in central, right, and left gaze. Angular displacements of lines connecting the corneal apex through the minor lens axis to the retina were measured to approximate clinical ductions. Globe centers were calculated from their area centroids. Apparent lens and globe-optic nerve (ON) junction rotations around the globe center were then compared with clinical ductions. Apparent angular rotations of lenses and globe-ON junctions during horizontal ductions. Globe-ON junctions appeared to rotate significantly less around globe centers than did lenses for abduction (20.6°±4.7° vs. 27.4°±7.4°, ± standard deviation (SD), P rotations differed significantly from clinical adduction (27.9°±8.3°, P rotation significantly less than clinical abduction (28.6°±9.4°, P rotational center was 2.2±0.5 mm medial and 0.8±1.0 mm posterior to the geometric globe center and was displaced farther medially and posteriorly during adduction. This eccentricity imbues each millimeter of MR recession with approximately 30% more trigonometric rotational effect than equivalent LR recession. The medial and posterior eccentricities of the normal ocular rotational axis profoundly influence horizontal rectus action. The proximity of the globe's rotational axis to the MR shortens its lever arm relative to the LR, explaining why mechanical effects of smaller MR recessions are equivalent to larger LR recessions. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published

  6. Anatomic relation between the medial collateral ligament of the elbow and the humero-ulnar joint axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, N; Ogura, T; Hashizume, H; Shigeyama, Y; Senda, M; Inoue, H

    1999-01-01

    The anatomic relation between the proximal attachment of the medial collateral ligament of the elbow joint and the humero-ulnar joint axis has not been clearly shown in a published study. We examined cadaveric specimens to find the exact relation between them. The medial collateral ligament was microscopically dissected to isolate specific fiber bundles. The length of each bundle was measured with a charge-coupled device camera system that faced the medial side of the elbow joint. The measurements indicated that the projected length of the deep middle bundle of the anterior oblique ligament, which is the strong cord-like part of the medial collateral ligament, is isometric during elbow flexion. The proximal end of the deep middle bundle was thus considered to be located almost on the humero-ulnar joint axis.

  7. Comparison of US-Guided Catheterization of the Right Internal Jugular Vein Using Medial-Oblique and Short Axis Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Kamalipour

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although some investigations have shown higher rates of successful first attempt and fewer attempts by using ultrasound-guided Internal Jugular Vein (IJV catheterization, arterial puncture is still common.. Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate US-guided catheterization of the right IJV via medial-oblique technique and also compare this technique to short-axis technique in open-heart surgery patients.. Patients and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 80 patients referred to cardiac operating room of Namazi hospital, Shiraz, Iran from March to July 2014 were selected using census method. Block randomization with website was also done. Then, the patients were divided into two groups of 40, Short Axis Group (SAG and Medial-Oblique Group (M-OG. For short-axis technique, patient’s head was positioned at zero degree angulation with his trunk. For medial-oblique technique, on the other hand, patient’s head was tilted to left to 45 degrees between the head and trunk. Sex, age, Body Mass Index (BMI, access time, guidewire time, cannulation time, total attempts for catheterization, first, second, and third attempt success, arterial puncture, hematoma, bleeding, and catheter malposition were recorded. The overlap between the carotid artery and IJV in zero- and 45-degree angulation was estimated through ultrasound print. After all, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to assess normal distribution of the data. Then, the data were analyzed through Student’s t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, and chi-square test. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.. Results: The results showed no significant differences between the two groups regarding the duration of different catheterization steps (P = 0.376. In all the cases in both groups, accessing the vein was successful with three attempts or less. There were no clinical complications of catheterization in the two groups. The mean of overlap was 23.60 ± 33.47 in zero

  8. Local plate/rod descriptors of 3D trabecular bone micro-CT images from medial axis topologic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyrin, Francoise; Attali, Dominique; Chappard, Christine; Benhamou, Claude Laurent [CREATIS, UMR CNRS 5220, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); Inserm, U 630, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); Insa de Lyon, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); Universite Lyon I, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); Universite de Lyon, 69621 Villeurbanne (France) and ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility), BP 220, 38043 Grenoble (France); GIPSA Laboratory, UMR CNRS 5216, 38402 Grenoble (France); Inserm, U 658, 45032 Orleans Cedex 1 (France) and B20A, UMR7052 CNRS, Universite Paris 7, 75010 Paris (France); Inserm, U 658, 45032 Orleans Cedex 1 (France)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: Trabecular bone microarchitecture is made of a complex network of plate and rod structures evolving with age and disease. The purpose of this article is to propose a new 3D local analysis method for the quantitative assessment of parameters related to the geometry of trabecular bone microarchitecture. Methods: The method is based on the topologic classification of the medial axis of the 3D image into branches, rods, and plates. Thanks to the reversibility of the medial axis, the classification is next extended to the whole 3D image. Finally, the percentages of rods and plates as well as their mean thicknesses are calculated. The method was applied both to simulated test images and 3D micro-CT images of human trabecular bone. Results: The classification of simulated phantoms made of plates and rods shows that the maximum error in the quantitative percentages of plate and rods is less than 6% and smaller than with the structure model index (SMI). Micro-CT images of human femoral bone taken in osteoporosis and early or advanced osteoarthritis were analyzed. Despite the large physiological variability, the present method avoids the underestimation of rods observed with other local methods. The relative percentages of rods and plates were not significantly different between osteoarthritis and osteoporotic groups, whereas their absolute percentages were in relation to an increase of rod and plate thicknesses in advanced osteoarthritis with also higher relative and absolute number of nodes. Conclusions: The proposed method is model-independent, robust to surface irregularities, and enables geometrical characterization of not only skeletal structures but entire 3D images. Its application provided more accurate results than the standard SMI on simple simulated phantoms, but the discrepancy observed on the advanced osteoarthritis group raises questions that will require further investigations. The systematic use of such a local method in the characterization of

  9. Automatic segmentation of the optic nerves and chiasm in CT and MR using the atlas-navigated optimal medial axis and deformable-model algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Jack H.; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2009-02-01

    In recent years, radiation therapy has become the preferred treatment for many types of head and neck tumors. To minimize side effects, radiation beams are planned pre-operatively to avoid over-radiation of vital structures, such as the optic nerves and chiasm, which are essential to the visual process. To plan the procedure, these structures must be identified using CT/MR imagery. Currently, a radiation oncologist must manually segment the structures, which is both inefficient and ineffective. Clearly an automated approach could be beneficial to the planning process. The problem is difficult due to the shape variability and low image contrast of the structures, and several attempts at automatic localization have been reported with marginal results. In this work we present a novel method for localizing the optic nerves and chiasm in CT/MR volumes using the atlas-navigated optimal medial axis and deformable-model algorithm (NOMAD). NOMAD uses a statistical model and image registration to provide a priori local intensity and shape information to both a medial axis extraction procedure and a deformable-model, which deforms the medial axis and completes the segmentation process. This approach achieves mean dice coefficients greater than 0.8 for both the optic nerves and the chiasm when compared to manual segmentations over ten test cases. By comparing quantitative results with existing techniques it can be seen that this method produces more accurate results.

  10. Development of a semi-automated method for mitral valve modeling with medial axis representation using 3D ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouch, Alison M; Yushkevich, Paul A; Jackson, Benjamin M; Jassar, Arminder S; Vergnat, Mathieu; Gorman, Joseph H; Gorman, Robert C; Sehgal, Chandra M

    2012-02-01

    Precise 3D modeling of the mitral valve has the potential to improve our understanding of valve morphology, particularly in the setting of mitral regurgitation (MR). Toward this goal, the authors have developed a user-initialized algorithm for reconstructing valve geometry from transesophageal 3D ultrasound (3D US) image data. Semi-automated image analysis was performed on transesophageal 3D US images obtained from 14 subjects with MR ranging from trace to severe. Image analysis of the mitral valve at midsystole had two stages: user-initialized segmentation and 3D deformable modeling with continuous medial representation (cm-rep). Semi-automated segmentation began with user-identification of valve location in 2D projection images generated from 3D US data. The mitral leaflets were then automatically segmented in 3D using the level set method. Second, a bileaflet deformable medial model was fitted to the binary valve segmentation by Bayesian optimization. The resulting cm-rep provided a visual reconstruction of the mitral valve, from which localized measurements of valve morphology were automatically derived. The features extracted from the fitted cm-rep included annular area, annular circumference, annular height, intercommissural width, septolateral length, total tenting volume, and percent anterior tenting volume. These measurements were compared to those obtained by expert manual tracing. Regurgitant orifice area (ROA) measurements were compared to qualitative assessments of MR severity. The accuracy of valve shape representation with cm-rep was evaluated in terms of the Dice overlap between the fitted cm-rep and its target segmentation. The morphological features and anatomic ROA derived from semi-automated image analysis were consistent with manual tracing of 3D US image data and with qualitative assessments of MR severity made on clinical radiology. The fitted cm-reps accurately captured valve shape and demonstrated patient-specific differences in valve

  11. FMEF Electrical single line diagram and panel schedule verification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, S.K.

    1998-01-01

    Since the FMEF did not have a mission, a formal drawing verification program was not developed, however, a verification process on essential electrical single line drawings and panel schedules was established to benefit the operations lock and tag program and to enhance the electrical safety culture of the facility. The purpose of this document is to provide a basis by which future landlords and cognizant personnel can understand the degree of verification performed on the electrical single lines and panel schedules. It is the intent that this document be revised or replaced by a more formal requirements document if a mission is identified for the FMEF

  12. Ipsilateral Medial and Lateral Discoid Meniscus with Medial Meniscus Tear

    OpenAIRE

    Shimozaki, Kengo; Nakase, Junsuke; Ohashi, Yoshinori; Numata, Hitoaki; Oshima, Takeshi; Takata, Yasushi; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Discoid meniscus is a well-documented knee pathology, and there are many cases of medial or lateral discoid meniscus reported in the literature. However, ipsilateral concurrent medial and lateral discoid meniscus is very rare, and only a few cases have been reported. Herein, we report a case of concurrent medial and lateral discoid meniscus. Case Report: A 27-year-old Japanese man complained of pain on medial joint space in his right knee that was diagnosed as a complete medial ...

  13. RADIAL VELOCITIES OF GALACTIC O-TYPE STARS. II. SINGLE-LINED SPECTROSCOPIC BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, S. J.; Gies, D. R.; Hillwig, T. C.; McSwain, M. V.; Huang, W.

    2013-01-01

    We report on new radial velocity measurements of massive stars that are either suspected binaries or lacking prior observations. This is part of a survey to identify and characterize spectroscopic binaries among O-type stars with the goal of comparing the binary fraction of field and runaway stars with those in clusters and associations. We present orbits for HDE 308813, HD 152147, HD 164536, BD–16°4826, and HDE 229232, Galactic O-type stars exhibiting single-lined spectroscopic variation. By fitting model spectra to our observed spectra, we obtain estimates for effective temperature, surface gravity, and rotational velocity. We compute orbital periods and velocity semiamplitudes for each system and note the lack of photometric variation for any system. These binaries probably appear single-lined because the companions are faint and because their orbital Doppler shifts are small compared to the width of the rotationally broadened lines of the primary.

  14. Arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dašić Žarko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Meniscal injuries are common in professional or recreational sports as well as in daily activities. If meniscal lesions lead to physical impairment they usually require surgical treatment. Arthroscopic treatment of meniscal injuries is one of the most often performed orthopedic operative procedures. Methods. The study analyzed the results of arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy in 213 patients in a 24-month period, from 2006, to 2008. Results. In our series of arthroscopically treated medial meniscus tears we noted 78 (36.62% vertical complete bucket handle lesions, 19 (8.92% vertical incomplete lesions, 18 (8.45% longitudinal tears, 35 (16.43% oblique tears, 18 (8.45% complex degenerative lesions, 17 (7.98% radial lesions and 28 (13.14% horisontal lesions. Mean preoperative International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC score was 49.81%, 1 month after the arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy the mean IKDC score was 84.08%, and 6 months after mean IKDC score was 90.36%. Six months after the procedure 197 (92.49% of patients had good or excellent subjective postoperative clinical outcomes, while 14 (6.57% patients subjectively did not notice a significant improvement after the intervention, and 2 (0.93% patients had no subjective improvement after the partial medial meniscectomy at all. Conclusion. Arthroscopic partial medial meniscetomy is minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedure and in well selected cases is a method of choice for treatment of medial meniscus injuries when repair techniques are not a viable option. It has small rate of complications, low morbidity and fast rehabilitation.

  15. Medial subtalar dislocation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pr KODO

    A 27- year old female patient suffered from a closed medial subtalar dislocation treated by ... injury. She presented with pain, swelling of and internal rotation of the foot in relation to the knee joint. The talus was prominent dorsolaterally. Globally the clinical appearance was that ... frequently than the lateral ones and can be.

  16. Axis Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sungil

    2006-01-01

    The Cold Neutron Research Facility (CNRF) project carried out by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is an effort to bring cold neutron instrumentation to Korea's only large scale research reactor, HANARO, located in Daejeon. As part of the CNRF project, a cold neutron triple-axis spectrometer (Cold-TAS) is being developed along with other five: 40 m long and 12 m long small angle neutron scattering instruments (40m-SANS and 12m-SANS), disk-chopper time-of-flight spectrometer (DC-ToF), Bio- Reflectometer (Bio-REF) and the reflectometer with vertical sample geometry (REF-V). For those cold neutron instruments, the performance of an individual instrument depends not only on its design but also on the guide that feeds cold neutrons to the instrument. Therefore, the quality of the neutron flux at an instrument position has to be checked with the specification of the instrument. As for the Cold-TAS, since the instrument requires a tall beam and a high flux of short wavelength neutrons, it was tentatively decided that it would use the cold guide 4 (CG4). The detailed specification of the guide is listed. Checking the neutron flux of the guide at the instrument position is the obvious next step

  17. Meta-heuristic and Constraint-Based Approaches for Single-Line Railway Timetabling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Federico; Ingolotti, Laura; Lova, Antonio; Tormos, Pilar; Salido, Miguel A.

    This chapter is devoted to recent advances in heuristic and metaheuristic procedures, arising from the areas of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence, which are able to cope with large scale problems as those in single-line railway timetable optimization. Timetable design is a central problem in railway planning. In the basic timetabling problem, we are given a line plan as well as demand and infrastructure information. The goal is to compute timetables for passengers and cargo trains that satisfy infrastructure capacity and achieve multicriteria objectives: minimal passenger waiting time (both at changeovers and onboard), efficient use of trains, etc. Due to its central role in the planning process of railway scheduling, timetable design has many interfaces with other classical problems: line planning, vehicle scheduling, and delay management.

  18. Atraumatic medial collateral ligament oedema in medial compartment knee osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergin, D.; Keogh, C.; O'Connell, M.; Zoga, A.; Rowe, D.; Shah, B.; Eustace, S.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe and determine the prevalence of atraumatic medial collateral oedema identified in patients with medial compartment osteoarthritis. Design and patients: Sixty patients, 30 patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (Kellgren and Lawrence grade 2 to 4) and 30 age-matched patients with atraumatic knee pain without osteoarthritis, referred for MR imaging over a 2 year period were included in the study. In each case, severity of osteoarthritis was recorded on radiographs and correlated with the presence or absence of medial collateral ligament oedema at MR imaging. Results: Medial collateral oedema was identified in 27 of the 30 patients with osteoarthritis, of whom 14 had grade 1 oedema and 13 had grade 2 oedema compared with the presence of medial collateral ligament oedema (grade 1) in only two of the 30 control patients without osteoarthritis (P<<0.0001). Conclusion: Medial collateral oedema is common in patients with osteoarthritis in the absence of trauma. When identified, medial collateral ligament oedema should be considered to be a feature of osteoarthritis and should not be incorrectly attributed to an acute traumatic injury. (orig.)

  19. Medial Clamp Tine Positioning Affects Ankle Syndesmosis Malreduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Christopher T; Putnam, Sara M; Cherney, Steven M; Ricci, William M; Spraggs-Hughes, Amanda; McAndrew, Christopher M; Gardner, Michael J

    2017-08-01

    To determine whether the position of the medial clamp tine during syndesmotic reduction affected reduction accuracy. Prospective cohort. Urban Level 1 trauma center. Seventy-two patients with operatively treated syndesmotic injuries. Patients underwent operative fixation of their ankle syndesmotic injuries using reduction forceps. The position of the medial clamp tine was then recorded with intraoperative fluoroscopy. Malreduction rates were then assessed with bilateral ankle computerized tomography. Fibular position within the incisura was measured with respect to the uninjured side to determine whether a malreduction had occurred. Malreductions were then analyzed for associations with injury pattern, patient demographics, and the location of the medial clamp tine. A statistically significant association was found between medial clamp position and sagittal plane syndesmosis malreduction. In reference to anterior fibular translation, there was a 0% malreduction rate in the 18 patients where the clamp tine was placed in the anterior third, a 19.4% malreduction rate in the middle third, and 60% malreduction rate in the posterior third (P = 0.006). In reference to posterior fibular translation, there was a 11.1% malreduction when clamp placement was in the anterior third, a 16.1% malreduction rate in the middle third, and 60% malreduction rate in the posterior third (P = 0.062). There were no significant associations between medial clamp position and coronal plane malreductions (overcompression or undercompression) (P = 1). When using reduction forceps for syndesmotic reduction, the position of the medial clamp tine can be highly variable. The angle created with off-axis syndesmotic clamping is likely a major culprit in iatrogenic malreduction. Sagittal plane malreduction appears to be highly sensitive to clamp obliquity, which is directly related to the medial clamp tine placement. Based on these data, we recommend placing the medial clamp tine in the anterior third

  20. Fragmented medial coronoid process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhasz, Cs.; Juhasz, T.

    1997-01-01

    Fragmented medial coronoid process: (FCP) is often considered to be part of the osteochondrosis dissecans complex, but trauma and growth discrepancies between the radius and ulna are proposed as causes. There is little to clinically differentiate FCP, from osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD) of the elbow. Pain on, flexion-extension of the elbow and lateral rotation of the paw is a little more consistent in FCP. Radiographic examination of the elbow is important despite the, fact that radiographic signs of the FCP are often nonspecific. Excessive osteoarthrosis and superimposition of the radial head and coronoid process make identification of the FCP difficult. Craniocaudal, flexed mediolateral and 25 degree craniocaudal-lateromedial views are necessary for diagnosis. Osteophyte production is more dramatic with FCP than with OCD and suggests therefore the occurrence of OCP in many cases. Although the detached process may be seen on any view, the oblique projection offers the least obstructed view. Exposure of the joint is identical to that for OCD, that means a medial approach with osteotomy of the epicondyle. In most cases the process is loose enough to be readily apparent, but in some it is necessary to exert force on the process in order to find the cleavage plane. It is necessary to remove the osteophytes as well and to inspect and irrigate the joint carefully to remove cartilage fragments before closure. Confinement is advisable for 4 weeks before returning the dog to normal activity. The outlook for function is good if the FCP is removed before secondary degenerative joint disease is well established

  1. Can you build an iPhone app without writing a single line of code?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, R.; Maskey, M.

    2011-12-01

    At the last ESIP summer meeting, a study was conducted to explore different commercial tools now available that allow one to create a mobile app without writing a single line of code. The proposed research comprised of two components. First, systematically evaluate different tools to create mobile apps along the dimensions of features and price. Second, create an iPhone app prototype for the ESIP community using some of these tools. The initial assessment classified the currently available tools to create mobile app tools into two categories. The tools that fall under the first category require no programming, but the content for the mobile apps are fed to it either via a web site RSS feed or entered manually. Consequently, these tools only support limited user interactivity. These tools follow the business model of website hosting services. This business model offers a set of templates to the end users with limited customization features to create their content in order to publish to websites. The second category of tools requires programming, but the code can be written in popular languages such as Javascript (compatible with most mobile platforms) rather than mobile app specific languages. For the second component of the study, two ESIP iPhone app prototypes were created. The first prototype required no programming and used the AppMakr tool. Objective C was used to create the second iPhone prototype from scratch and the source code for this prototype is available on the ESIP website. The study concluded that existing tools do make it easy to create a simple mobile app especially if one already has a well designed website. The associated costs are adequate but not cheap. However, if the mobile app has requirements that require interactivity and specialized customization then one needs to work with a mobile app developer.

  2. Music-to-Color Associations of Single-Line Piano Melodies in Non-synesthetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stephen E; Langlois, Thomas A; Schloss, Karen B

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has shown that non-synesthetes' color associations to classical orchestral music are strongly mediated by emotion. The present study examines similar cross-modal music-to-color associations for much better controlled musical stimuli: 64 single-line piano melodies that were generated from four basic melodies by Mozart, whose global musical parameters were manipulated in tempo(slow/fast), note-density (sparse/dense), mode (major/minor) and pitch-height (low/high). Participants first chose the three colors (from 37) that they judged to be most consistent with (and, later, the three that were most inconsistent with) the music they were hearing. They later rated each melody and each color for the strength of its association along four emotional dimensions: happy/sad, agitated/calm, angry/not-angry and strong/weak. The cross-modal choices showed that faster music in the major mode was associated with lighter, more saturated, yellower (warmer) colors than slower music in the minor mode. These results replicate and extend those of Palmer et al. (2013, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 110, 8836-8841) with more precisely controlled musical stimuli. Further results replicated strong evidence for emotional mediation of these cross-modal associations, in that the emotional ratings of the melodies were very highly correlated with the emotional associations of the colors chosen as going best/worst with the melodies (r = 0.92, 0.85, 0.82 and 0.70 for happy/sad, strong/weak,angry/not-angry and agitated/calm, respectively). The results are discussed in terms of common emotional associations forming a cross-modal bridge between highly disparate sensory inputs.

  3. The rotational axis of the tibia and relationship to the tibial torsion in varus osteoarthritic knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotanaphuti, Thanainit; Srisawasdi, Ruthasiri; Rattanaprichavej, Piti; Laoruengthana, Artit

    2012-10-01

    A transepicondylar axis is a useful reference for femoral component rotation and is demonstrated as a functional flexion-extension axis of a knee. Conversely, a rotational orientation of the tibial component was less clearly demonstrated and many anatomical landmarks were proposed. It has been reported that Asian people had more medial torsion of the tibia particularly with an osteoarthritic knee. The present study aims to address the relationship between the torsion variation of the tibia and the rotational axis of the tibia. Forty knees of 32 women (mean age of 73.3) with varus osteoarthritis underwent a preoperative CT images to identify a surgical epicondylar axis, an axis perpendicular to this line (femoral reference line), lines connecting between the PCL insertion and 3 reference point on the patellar tendon, an AP axis of the ankle and a tibial torsion angle. The mean value of the angle between the line connecting the PCL insertion and 3 different point of the patellar tendon including the medial border medial one-third and middle of the patellar tendon and the femoral reference line was -4.22, +4.37 and +8.47 degree, respectively. The mean of a tibial torsion angle was +16.51 degree. There were 6 cases having the femoral reference line rotated internally to the medial border of the patellar tendon and having less torsion angle (medial tibial torsion) with a mean of +13.78 degree. The femoral reference line in the Thai osteoarthritic knee is passed between medial edge of patellar tendon and medial 1/3 of patellar tendon. This line rotates more internally compared with the patellar tendon if the degree of medial tibial torsion is more severe. An excessive externally rotated tibial component when using the patellar tendon as guidance should be avoided in the knee presenting with medial tibial torsion.

  4. The relationship between chondromalacia patella, medial meniscal tear and medial periarticular bursitis in patients with osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resorlu Mustafa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the presence of bursitis in the medial compartment of the knee (pes anserine, semimembranosus-tibial collateral ligament, and medial collateral ligament bursa in osteoarthritis, chondromalacia patella and medial meniscal tears.

  5. Injerto libre braquial medial Free medial arm graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Martos Díaz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Entre las reconstrucciones de defectos titulares de cabeza y cuello, el injerto libre microvascularizado braquial medial no ha adquirido mucha popularidad debido a las variaciones anatómicas que se reflejan en la vascularización de éste. Nuestro objetivo es realizar una descripción de la anatomía y técnica quirúrgica, así como una revisión de la literatura describiendo las ventajas y desventajas de este tipo de injerto. Material y método. Presentamos el caso de una paciente con carcinoma epidermoide de mucosa yugal izquierda con afectación ganglionar ipsilateral. Se procedió a su resección con márgenes más disección cervical funcional. La reconstrucción del defecto se llevó a cabo mediante un injerto libre microvascularizado braquial medial de brazo izquierdo. Discusión. Pensamos que el injerto libre braquial medial de brazo se trata de una opción más segura a la hora de la reconstrucción de defectos cervicofaciales, aportando una serie de ventajas entre las que destacan: no sacrificio de una arteria terminal, cierre primario de la zona donante, mínimo defecto estético, y poseer una piel fina, elástica y sin vello.Introduction. Free medial microvascularized arm grafts have not become very popular for the reconstruction of head and neck defects due to anatomic variations in their vascularization. Our objective was to describe the anatomy and surgical technique and to review the literature on the advantages and disadvantages of free medial arm grafts. Material and methods. We report the case of a patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the left jugal mucosa with same-side lymph node involvement. The tumor was resected with margins and a functional cervical dissection was performed. The defect was reconstructed using a free medial microvascularized graft from the left arm. Discussion. We believe that free medial arm grafts are a safer option for the reconstruction of cervicofacial defects and that they offer

  6. SLG(Single-Line-to-Ground Fault Location in NUGS(Neutral Un-effectively Grounded System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wenhai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the SLG(Single-Line-to-Ground fault location methods in NUGS(Neutral Un-effectively Grounded System, including ungrounded system, resonant grounded system and high-resistance grounded system which are widely used in Northern Europe and China. This type of fault is hard to detect and location because fault current is the sum of capacitance current of the system which is always small(about tens of amperes. The characteristics of SLG fault in NUGS and the fault location methods are introduced in the paper.

  7. Medial tibial “spackling” to lessen chronic medial tibial soft tissue irritation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ryan Martin, MD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe a unique, utilitarian reconstructive treatment option known as tibial “spackling” for chronic, localized medial joint line pain corresponding with progressive radiographic peripheral medial tibial bone loss beneath a well-fixed revision total knee arthroplasty tibial baseplate. It is believed that this localized pain is due to chronic irritation of the medial capsule and collateral ligament from the prominent medial edge of the tibial component. In the setting of failed nonoperative treatment, our experience with utilizing bone cement to reconstruct the medial tibial bone defect and create a smooth medial tibial surface has been successful in eliminating chronic medial soft tissue irritation.

  8. Triple-axis spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toeroek, Gy.

    2001-01-01

    A triple-axis spectrometer has been designed for structural and dynamical studies of condensed matter. Because of the limited number of other operational equipment the triple axis spectrometer was used in a multi purpose regime, e.g. high resolution diffractometry, strain analysis, reflectometry, quasielastic and inelastic scattering. A polarization setup was also tested on this spectrometer. (R.P.)

  9. Gut-brain axis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, Johannes A.; Corssmit, Eleonora P.; Havekes, Louis M.; Pijl, Hanno

    2008-01-01

    To summarize recent studies on the regulation and the functions of the gut-brain axis. Visual cues of food and food intake interact with the gut-brain axis at the level of the hypothalamus. However, the hypothalamic response to glucose intake is considerably altered in patients with type 2 diabetes

  10. The Mechanical Axis of the First Ray: A Radiographic Assessment in Hallux Abducto Valgus Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPorta, Guido A; Nasser, Ellianne M; Mulhern, Jennifer L; Malay, D Scot

    2016-01-01

    The present report describes a new method of hallux abducto valgus deformity correction planning using the mechanical axis of the medial column (mechanical axis planning). This method of radiographic evaluation identifies an ideal position for the first metatarsal after correction and is useful regardless of the surgical procedure chosen. We retrospectively reviewed 200 radiographs to identify a "normal" value for the mechanical axis angle. We reviewed 100 radiographs of patients with hallux abducto valgus deformity (deformity group) and 100 radiographs of patients without hallux abducto valgus deformity (control group). The deformity group revealed an M1-M2 anatomic axis angle of 13.5° ± 2.83° and an M1-M2 mechanical axis angle of 11.58° ± 1°. The control group revealed an M1-M2 anatomic axis angle of 7.5° ± 1.76° and an M1-M2 mechanical axis angle of 11.19° ± 0.9°. The differences in the M1-M2 anatomic axis angle and M1-M2 mechanical axis angle were statistically significant between the control and deformity groups. We sought to provide a reliable method for planning hallux abducto valgus deformity correction by aligning the mechanical axis of the medial column and the mechanical axis of the first ray to the "normal" value of 11° to reduce the deformity. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 48 CFR 245.7101-3 - DD Form 1348-1, DoD Single Line Item Release/Receipt Document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROPERTY Plant Clearance Forms 245.7101-3 DD Form 1348-1, DoD Single Line Item Release/Receipt Document. Use for shipments of excess industrial plant equipment and contractor inventory redistribution system...

  12. Transfrontoethmoidal approach to medial intraconal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jittapiromsak, Pakrit; Deshmukh, Pushpa; Nakaji, Peter; Spetzler, Robert F; Preul, Mark C

    2009-12-01

    Object The standard superior craniotomy approach through the orbital roof is obstructed by numerous muscles, nerves, and vessels. Accessing the medial intraconal space also involves considerable brain retraction. The authors present a modified approach through the frontal sinus that overcomes these limitations. Methods Seven fixed silicone-injected cadaveric specimens were dissected bilaterally. In addition to the superior orbital wall, the ethmoidal sinuses and medial orbital wall were removed. The anatomical relationships between the major neurovascular complexes in the medial intraconal space and the optic nerve were observed. Results Intraconally, working space was created both in a "superior window" between the superior oblique and levator palpebrae muscle and in a "medial window" between the superior oblique and medial rectus muscle. The superior window mainly created an ipsilateral trajectory to the deep target. The medial window, which created a contralateral trajectory, provided a more inferior view of the medial intraconal space. Removal of the medial orbital wall further widened the exposure obtained from the superior window. The combination of these working windows makes the medial surface of the optic nerve available for exploration from multiple angles. Most of the major neurovascular complexes of the posterior orbit can be retracted safely without impinging on the optic nerve. Conclusions This novel extradural transfrontoethmoidal approach affords a direct view to the medial posterior orbit without major conflicts with intraconal neurovascular structures and requires minimal brain manipulation. The approach appears to offer advantages for medially located intraconal lesions.

  13. An additional reference axis for determining rotational alignment of the femoral component in total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Ye-Yeon; Cui, Wen-Quan; Baek, Myong-Hyun; Yun, Tae-Bong; Han, Seung-Ho

    2007-10-01

    No studies have examined the trochlear line connecting the most anterior projections of the lateral and medial femoral condyles in relation to the surgical epicondylar axis. To determine if the trochlear line is more consistent relative to the transepicondylar axis than the posterior condylar axis and the Whiteside's line, the angles between the surgical epicondylar axis and each of the 3 axes in 50 knees of cadavers were measured using computed tomography scans. The results showed that the variability in the trochlear line for referencing the transepicondylar axis was comparable to those of the Whiteside line and the posterior condylar axis. The trochlear line may be considered as an additional reference axis for determining the rotational alignment of the femoral component in total knee arthroplasty.

  14. Medial Patella Subluxation: Diagnosis and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, Mark A.; Bollier, Mathew J.

    2015-01-01

    Medial patella subluxation is a disabling condition typically associated with previous patellofemoral instability surgery. Patients often describe achy pain with painful popping episodes. They often report that the patella shifts laterally, which occurs as the medial subluxed patella dramatically shifts into the trochlear groove during early knee flexion. Physical examination is diagnostic with a positive medial subluxation test. Nonoperative treatment, such as focused physical therapy and pa...

  15. Snapping Knee Caused by Medial Meniscal Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Ohishi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Snapping phenomenon around the medial aspect of the knee is rare. We present this case of snapping knee caused by the sartorius muscle over a large medial meniscal cyst in a 66-year-old female. Magnetic resonance images demonstrated a large medial meniscal cyst with a horizontal tear of the medial meniscus. Arthroscopic cyst decompression with limited meniscectomy resulted in the disappearance of snapping, and no recurrence of the cyst was observed during a 2-year follow-up period.

  16. The anatomical tibial axis: reliable rotational orientation in knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, J P; Dixon, H; Dandachli, W; Iranpour, F

    2008-08-01

    The rotational alignment of the tibia is an unresolved issue in knee replacement. A poor functional outcome may be due to malrotation of the tibial component. Our aim was to find a reliable method for positioning the tibial component in knee replacement. CT scans of 19 knees were reconstructed in three dimensions and orientated vertically. An axial plane was identified 20 mm below the tibial spines. The centre of each tibial condyle was calculated from ten points taken round the condylar cortex. The tibial tubercle centre was also generated as the centre of the circle which best fitted eight points on the outside of the tubercle in an axial plane at the level of its most prominent point. The derived points were identified by three observers with errors of 0.6 mm to 1 mm. The medial and lateral tibial centres were constant features (radius 24 mm (SD 3), and 22 mm (SD 3), respectively). An anatomical axis was created perpendicular to the line joining these two points. The tubercle centre was found to be 20 mm (SD 7) lateral to the centre of the medial tibial condyle. Compared with this axis, an axis perpendicular to the posterior condylar axis was internally rotated by 6 degrees (SD 3). An axis based on the tibial tubercle and the tibial spines was also internally rotated by 5 degrees (sd 10). Alignment of the knee when based on this anatomical axis was more reliable than either the posterior surfaces or any axis involving the tubercle which was the least reliable landmark in the region.

  17. Medial subtalar dislocation: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manojlović Radovan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Subtalar dislocation (SI is a term that refers to an injury in which there is dislocation of the talonavicular and talocalcanear joint, although the tibiotalar joint is intact. Case Outline. A case of medial subtalar dislocation as a result of basketball injury, so-called 'basketball foot', is presented. Closed reposition in i.v. anaesthesia was performed with the patient in supine position and a knee flexed at 90 degrees. Longitudinal manual traction in line of deformity was carried out in plantar flexion. The reposition continued with abduction and eversion simultaneously increasing dorsiflexion. It was made in the first attempt and completed instantly. Rehabilitation was initiated after 5 weeks of immobilization. One year after the injury, the functional outcome was excellent with full range of motion and the patient was symptom-free. For better interpretation of roentgenogram, bone model of subtalar dislocation was made using the cadaver bone. Conclusion. Although the treatment of such injury is usually successful, diagnosis can be difficult because it is a rare injury, and moreover, X-ray of the injury can be confusing due to superposition of bones. Radiograms revealed superposition of the calcaneus, tarsal and metatarsal bones which was radiographically visualized in the anterior-posterior projection as one osseous block inward from the talus, and on the lateral view as in an osteal block below the tibial bone. Prompt recognition of these injuries followed by proper, delicately closed reduction under anaesthesia is crucial for achieving a good functional result in case of medial subtalar dislocation.

  18. A Novel Protection Method for Single Line-to-Ground Faults in Ungrounded Low-Inertia Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuming Jing

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel protection method for single line-to-ground (SLG faults in ungrounded low-inertia microgrids. The proposed method includes microgrid interface protection and unit protection. The microgrid interface protection is based on the difference between the zero-sequence voltage angle and the zero-sequence current angle at the microgrid interconnection transformer for fast selection of the faulty feeder. The microgrid unit protection is based on a comparison of the three zero-sequence current phase directions at each junction point of load or distributed energy resources. Methods are also included to locate the minimum fault section. The fault section location technology operates according to the coordination of microgrid unit protection. The proposed method responds to SLG faults that may occur in both the grid and the microgrid. Simulations of an ungrounded low-inertia microgrid with a relay model were carried out using Power System Computer Aided Design (PSCAD/Electromagnetic Transients including DC (EMTDC.

  19. GORE TEX MEDIALIZATION THYROPLASTY- A CASE SERIES

    OpenAIRE

    Balasubramanian Thiagarajan; Karthikeyan Arjunan

    2012-01-01

    Unilateral vocal fold paralysis classically presents with voice change, aspiration of ingested materials and cough. Medialization thyroplasty has become treatment of choice for un recovering vocal fold palsy. Still the ideal implant has not been defined in the surgical medialization of vocal folds. We present our experience of gore tex as the implant material.

  20. Higher dynamic medial knee load predicts greater cartilage loss over 12 months in medial knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennell, Kim L; Bowles, Kelly-Ann; Wang, Yuanyuan; Cicuttini, Flavia; Davies-Tuck, Miranda; Hinman, Rana S

    2011-10-01

    Mechanical factors, in particular increased medial knee joint load, are believed to be important in the structural progression of knee osteoarthritis. This study evaluated the relationship of medial knee load during walking to indices of structural disease progression, measured on MRI, in people with medial knee osteoarthritis. A longitudinal cohort design utilising a subset of participants (n=144, 72%) enrolled in a randomised controlled trial of lateral wedge insoles was employed. Medial knee load parameters including the peak knee adduction moment (KAM) and the KAM impulse were measured at baseline using three-dimensional gait analysis during walking. MRI at baseline and at 12 months was used to assess structural indices. Multiple regression with adjustment for covariates assessed the relationship between medial knee load parameters and the annual change in medial tibial cartilage volume. Binary logistic regression was used for the dichotomous variables of progression of medial tibiofemoral cartilage defects and bone marrow lesions (BML). A higher KAM impulse, but not peak KAM, at baseline was independently associated with greater loss of medial tibial cartilage volume over 12 months (β=29.9, 95% CI 6.3 to 53.5, p=0.01). No significant relationships were seen between medial knee load parameters and the progression of medial tibiofemoral cartilage defects or BML. This study suggests knee loading, in particular the KAM impulse, may be a risk factor for loss of medial tibial cartilage volume. As knee load is modifiable, load-modifying treatments may potentially slow disease progression.

  1. Detecting the single line to ground short circuit fault in the submarine’s power system using the artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behniafar Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The electric marine instruments are newly inserted in the trade and industry, for which the existence of an equipped and reliable power system is necessitated. One of the features of such a power system is that it cannot have an earth system causing the protection relays not to be able to detect the single line to ground short circuit fault. While on the other hand, the occurrence of another similar fault at the same time can lead to the double line fault and thereby the tripping of relays and shortening of vital loads. This in turn endangers the personals' security and causes the loss of military plans. From the above considerations, it is inferred that detecting the single line to ground fault in the marine instruments is of a special importance. In this way, this paper intends to detect the single line to ground fault in the power systems of the marine instruments using the wavelet transform and Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP neural network. In the numerical analysis, several different types of short circuit faults are simulated on several marine power systems and the proposed approach is applied to detect the single line to ground fault. The results are of a high quality and preciseness and perfectly demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  2. Variations in medial-lateral hamstring force and force ratio influence tibiofemoral kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalhoub, Sami; Fitzwater, Fallon G; Cyr, Adam J; Maletsky, Lorin P

    2016-10-01

    A change in hamstring strength and activation is typically seen after injuries or invasive surgeries such as anterior cruciate reconstruction or total knee replacement. While many studies have investigated the influence of isometric increases in hamstring load on knee joint kinematics, few have quantified the change in kinematics due to a variation in medial to lateral hamstring force ratio. This study examined the changes in knee joint kinematics on eight cadaveric knees during an open-chain deep knee bend for six different loading configurations: five loaded hamstring configurations that varied the ratio of a total load of 175 N between the semimembranosus and biceps femoris and one with no loads on the hamstring. The anterior-posterior translation of the medial and lateral femoral condyles' lowest points along proximal-distal axis of the tibia, the axial rotation of the tibia, and the quadriceps load were measured at each flexion angle. Unloading the hamstring shifted the medial and lateral lowest points posteriorly and increased tibial internal rotation. The influence of unloading hamstrings on quadriceps load was small in early flexion and increased with knee flexion. The loading configuration with the highest lateral hamstrings force resulted in the most posterior translation of the medial lowest point, most anterior translation of the lateral lowest point, and the highest tibial external rotation of the five loading configurations. As the medial hamstring force ratio increased, the medial lowest point shifted anteriorly, the lateral lowest point shifted posteriorly, and the tibia rotated more internally. The results of this study, demonstrate that variation in medial-lateral hamstrings force and force ratio influence tibiofemoral transverse kinematics and quadriceps loads required to extend the knee. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1707-1715, 2016. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by

  3. Native rotational knee kinematics is restored after lateral UKA but not after medial UKA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Keizo; Hamada, Daisuke; Takasago, Tomoya; Nitta, Akihiro; Goto, Tomohiro; Tonogai, Ichiro; Tsuruo, Yoshihiro; Sairyo, Koichi

    2018-03-26

    The aim of this study was to compare the intraoperative kinematics of medial and lateral unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) with those of the native knee using a navigation system. Six fresh-frozen cadaveric knees were included in the study. Medial UKA was performed in all right knees and lateral UKA was performed in all left knees. All UKA procedures were performed with a computerised navigation system. The tibial internal rotation angle and coronal alignment of the mechanical axis during passive knee flexion were assessed as rotational and varus/valgus kinematics before and after surgery using the navigation system. The rotation angles of the tibia in the early flexion phase of medial UKA were significantly larger than those of native knees (p = 0.008 at minimum knee flexion, p = 0.008 at 0° knee flexion). The rotational kinematics of lateral UKA was similar to those of the native knees throughout knee flexion. There were no significant differences in varus/valgus kinematics between native and UKA knees. The rotational kinematics of the native knee was not restored after medial UKA but was preserved after lateral UKA. There were no significant differences in the varus/valgus kinematics after either medial or lateral UKA when compared with those of the native knees. Thus, the geometry of the medial tibial articular surface is a determinant of the ability to restore the rotational kinematics of the native knee. Surgeons and implant designers should be aware that the anatomical medial articular geometry is an important factor in restoration of the native knee kinematics after knee arthroplasty.

  4. Complex Medial Meniscus Tears Are Associated With a Biconcave Medial Tibial Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, F Alan; Getelman, Mark H; Berry, Kathy L

    2017-04-01

    To determine whether an association exists between a biconcave medial tibial plateau and complex medial meniscus tears. A consecutive series of stable knees undergoing arthroscopy were evaluated retrospectively with the use of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), radiographs, and arthroscopy documented by intraoperative videos. Investigators independently performed blinded reviews of the MRI or videos. Based on the arthroscopy findings, medial tibial plateaus were classified as either biconcave or not biconcave. A transverse coronal plane ridge, separating the front of the tibial plateau from the back near the inner margin of the posterior body of the medial meniscus, was defined as biconcave. The medial plateau slope was calculated with MRI sagittal views. General demographic information, body mass index, and arthroscopically confirmed knee pathology were recorded. A total of 179 consecutive knees were studied from July 2014 through August 2015; 49 (27.2%) biconcave medial tibial plateaus and 130 (72.8%) controls were identified at arthroscopy. Complex medial meniscus tears were found in 103. Patients with a biconcave medial tibial plateau were found to have more complex medial meniscus tears (69.4%) than those without a biconcavity (53.1%) (P = .049) despite having lower body mass index (P = .020). No difference in medial tibial plateau slope was observed for biconcavities involving both cartilage and bone, bone only, or an indeterminate group (P = .47). Biconcave medial tibial plateaus were present in 27.4% of a consecutive series of patients undergoing knee arthroscopy. A biconcave medial tibial plateau was more frequently associated with a complex medial meniscus tear. Level III, case-control study. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. All rights reserved.

  5. Medial and Lateral Plantar Nerve Entrapment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foot Problems Overview of Foot Problems Achilles Tendon Bursitis Achilles Tendon Enthesopathy Bunion Corns and Calluses Damage ... the Foot Freiberg Disease Hammer Toe Inferior Calcaneal Bursitis Medial and Lateral Plantar Nerve Entrapment Metatarsal Joint ...

  6. Gore tex medialization thyroplasty- A case series

    OpenAIRE

    Arjunan, Karthikeyan; Thiagarajan, Prof.T.Balasubramanian; Narasimman, Prof.N.Seethalakshmi

    2017-01-01

    Unilateral vocal fold paralysis classically presents with voice change, aspiration of ingested materials and cough. Medialization thyroplasty has become treatment of choice for un recovering vocal fold palsy. Still the ideal implant has not been defined in the surgical medialization of vocal folds. We present our experience of gore tex as the implant material. This record was migrated from the OpenDepot repository service in June, 2017 before shutting down.

  7. The Relationship between Chondromalacia Patella, Medial Meniscal Tear and Medial Periarticular Bursitis in Patients with Osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Resorlu, Mustafa; Doner, Davut; Karatag, Ozan; Toprak, Canan Akgun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background This study investigated the presence of bursitis in the medial compartment of the knee (pes anserine, semimembranosus-tibial collateral ligament, and medial collateral ligament bursa) in osteoarthritis, chondromalacia patella and medial meniscal tears. Patients and methods Radiological findings of 100 patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging with a preliminary diagnosis of knee pain were retrospectively evaluated by two radiologists. The first radiologist assessed al...

  8. The Relationship between Chondromalacia Patella, Medial Meniscal Tear and Medial Periarticular Bursitis in Patients with Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resorlu, Mustafa; Doner, Davut; Karatag, Ozan; Toprak, Canan Akgun

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the presence of bursitis in the medial compartment of the knee (pes anserine, semimembranosus-tibial collateral ligament, and medial collateral ligament bursa) in osteoarthritis, chondromalacia patella and medial meniscal tears. Radiological findings of 100 patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging with a preliminary diagnosis of knee pain were retrospectively evaluated by two radiologists. The first radiologist assessed all patients in terms of osteoarthritis, chondromalacia patella and medial meniscal tear. The second radiologist was blinded to these results and assessed the presence of bursitis in all patients. Mild osteoarthritis (grade I and II) was determined in 55 patients and severe osteoarthritis (grade III and IV) in 45 cases. At retropatellar cartilage evaluation, 25 patients were assessed as normal, while 29 patients were diagnosed with mild chondromalacia patella (grade I and II) and 46 with severe chondromalacia patella (grade III and IV). Medial meniscus tear was determined in 51 patients. Severe osteoarthritis and chondromalacia patella were positively correlated with meniscal tear (p bursitis in the medial compartment (p = 0.038). Presence of medial periarticular bursitis was positively correlated with severity of osteoarthritis but exhibited no correlation with chondromalacia patella (p = 0.023 and p = 0.479, respectively). Evaluation of lateral compartment bursae revealed lateral collateral ligament bursitis in 2 patients and iliotibial bursitis in 5 patients. We observed a greater prevalence of bursitis in the medial compartment of the knee in patients with severe osteoarthritis and medial meniscus tear.

  9. How isometric are the medial patellofemoral, superficial medial collateral, and lateral collateral ligaments of the knee?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Jan; Wong, Pius; Witvrouw, Eric; Sloten, Jos Vander; Bellemans, Johan

    2009-10-01

    Ligament isometry is a cornerstone in the description of normal knee function and thorough knowledge is mandatory for successful repair of torn ligaments. This study was undertaken to validate a novel experimental model for the study of ligament strains and to determine the length changes in the superficial medial collateral, lateral collateral, and medial patellofemoral ligaments. Descriptive laboratory study. Passive motions and loaded squats of 12 cadaveric specimens were performed while controlling ankle load and optically tracking the motion of the bones. Preexperiment and postexperiment computed axial tomography scans allow the transformation of rigid body motion to relative motion of relevant anatomic landmarks on the femur, tibia, and patella. The superficial medial collateral ligament is a near-isometric ligament with a strain of less than 2%. The ligament is a little more slack in midflexion (30 degrees to 50 degrees ) and in deep flexion, but length changes are not significant (P > .05). The lateral collateral ligament behaves near isometric (tension from the collateral ligaments (P superficial medial collateral ligament is a near-isometric ligament with no significant length changes. The medial patellofemoral ligament behaves differently in its cranial and caudal parts. In knees with chronic medial collateral ligament insufficiency, isometric repair of the superficial medial collateral ligament can be attempted. A medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction with a double fixation on the medial patellar border is supported. The cranial bundle should be tightened at full extension and the caudal bundle at 30 degrees of knee flexion.

  10. Vertical axis wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obretenov, V.; Tsalov, T.; Chakarov, T.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the interest in wind turbines with vertical axis noticeably increased. They have some important advantages: low cost, relatively simple structure, reliable packaging system of wind aggregate long period during which require no maintenance, low noise, independence of wind direction, etc.. The relatively low efficiency, however, makes them applicable mainly for small facilities. The work presents a methodology and software for approximately aerodynamic design of wind turbines of this type, and also analyzed the possibility of improving the efficiency of their workflow

  11. Vertical axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Krivospitski, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Maksimov, Vasili [Miass, RU; Halstead, Richard [Rohnert Park, CA; Grahov, Jurij [Miass, RU

    2011-03-08

    A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

  12. Geographical point cloud modelling with the 3D medial axis transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, R.Y.

    2018-01-01

    A geographical point cloud is a detailed three-dimensional representation of the geometry of our geographic environment.
    Using geographical point cloud modelling, we are able to extract valuable information from geographical point clouds that can be used for applications in asset management,

  13. Visibility Analysis in a Point Cloud Based on the Medial Axis Transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, R.; Ledoux, H.; Biljecki, F.

    2015-01-01

    Visibility analysis is an important application of 3D GIS data. Current approaches require 3D city models that are often derived from detailed aerial point clouds. We present an approach to visibility analysis that does not require a city model but works directly on the point cloud. Our approach is

  14. The medial temporal lobe: memory and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Robert K; Suchan, Boris

    2013-10-01

    The structures of the medial temporal lobe, e.g., the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, perirhinal cortex, and parahippocampal cortex, are known to be essential for long-term memory processing and hence are labeled the medial temporal lobe memory system. Nevertheless, the exact contributions of each structure and the involvement in different cognitive processes remain controversial. This article discusses recent findings dealing with recognition memory and a long lasting involvement of the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex in episodic memory, based on functional imaging and lesion studies. Furthermore, a new paradigm employing objective manipulations of recollection and familiarity is presented, showing no anatomical distinction for these two processes, as opposed to studies using subjective ratings. Additionally, results regarding an involvement of the medial temporal lobe in visual processing are presented, in general supporting the visual-mnemonic theory. The discussed findings show that many questions regarding the functional organization remain unsolved, and that we are in need of further research to create a comprehensive model of the medial temporal lobe. For this, we might need to give up the distinctions into different cognitive processes and start to investigate the different types of representations that are processed by the medial temporal lobe. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Neuromuscular Exercise Post Partial Medial Meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Michelle; Hinman, Rana S; Wrigley, Tim V

    2015-01-01

    : An assessor-blinded, randomised controlled trial including people aged 30-50 years with no to mild pain following medial arthroscopic partial meniscectomy was conducted. Participants were randomly allocated to either a 12-week neuromuscular exercise program that targeted neutral lower limb alignment......PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of a 12-week, home-based, physiotherapist-guided neuromuscular exercise program on the knee adduction moment (an indicator of mediolateral knee load distribution) in people with a medial arthroscopic partial meniscectomy within the past 3-12 months. METHODS...

  16. Medial structure generation for registration of anatomical structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vera, Sergio; Gil, Debora; Kjer, Hans Martin

    2017-01-01

    Medial structures (skeletons and medial manifolds) have shown capacity to describe shape in a compact way. In the field of medical imaging, they have been employed to enrich the description of organ anatomy, to improve segmentation, or to describe the organ position in relation to surrounding...... structures. Methods for generation of medial structures, however, are prone to the generation of medial artifacts (spurious branches) that traditionally need to be pruned before the medial structure can be used for further computations. The act of pruning can affect main sections of the medial surface......, hindering its performance as shape descriptor. In this work, we present a method for the computation of medial structures that generates smooth medial surfaces that do not need to be explicitly pruned. Additionally, we present a validation framework for medial surface evaluation. Finally, we apply...

  17. Effects of implant stiffness, shape, and medialization depth on the acoustic outcomes of medialization laryngoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoyan; Chhetri, Dinesh K; Bergeron, Jennifer L

    2015-03-01

    Medialization laryngoplasty is commonly used to treat glottic insufficiency. In this study, we investigated the effects of implant stiffness (Young modulus), medialization depth, and implant medial surface shape on acoustic outcomes. Basic science study using ex vivo laryngeal phonation model. In an ex vivo human larynx phonation model, bilateral medialization laryngoplasties were performed with implants of varying stiffness, medial surface shape (rectangular, divergent, and convergent), and varying depths of medialization. The subglottal pressure, the flow rate, and the outside sound were measured as the implant parameters were varied. Medialization through the use of implants generally improved the harmonic-to-noise ratio (HNR) and the number of harmonics excited in the outside sound spectra. The degree of acoustic improvement depended on the implant insertion depth, stiffness, and to a lesser degree implant shape. Varying implant insertion depth led to large variations in phonation for stiff implants, but had much smaller effects for soft implants. Implants with stiffness comparable to vocal folds provided more consistent improvement in acoustic outcomes across different implant conditions. Further investigations are required to better understand the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prophylaxis of medial compartment gonarthrosis in varus knee – current state of knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworak, Lechosław B; Koczewski, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    The progression of gonarthrosis results in reduction of physical activity. One of the factors that increase the risk of osteoarthrosis may be joint overload related to the malalignment of the mechanical axis of the lower extremity. The medial compartment (MC) of the knee is particularly susceptible to overload due to the external knee adduction moment (EKAM). Varus knee malalignment contributes to increased EKAM and thus results in increased MC loading. The purpose of this study is to present methods described in current literature aimed at reducing the disproportion in the distribution of loads on articular surfaces of medial and lateral knee compartments in people with varus knee malalignment. Methods have been divided into non-surgical (gait training, physiotherapy, and orthopedic supplies such as valgus braces, lateral wedge insoles, walking poles) and surgical ones (corrective osteotomy). PMID:29593820

  19. Continuous medial representation for anatomical structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushkevich, Paul A; Zhang, Hui; Gee, James C

    2006-12-01

    The m-rep approach pioneered by Pizer et al. (2003) is a powerful morphological tool that makes it possible to employ features derived from medial loci (skeletons) in shape analysis. This paper extends the medial representation paradigm into the continuous realm, modeling skeletons and boundaries of three-dimensional objects as continuous parametric manifolds, while also maintaining the proper geometric relationship between these manifolds. The parametric representation of the boundary-medial relationship makes it possible to fit shape-based coordinate systems to the interiors of objects, providing a framework for combined statistical analysis of shape and appearance. Our approach leverages the idea of inverse skeletonization, where the skeleton of an object is defined first and the object's boundary is derived analytically from the skeleton. This paper derives a set of sufficient conditions ensuring that inverse skeletonization is well-posed for single-manifold skeletons and formulates a partial differential equation whose solutions satisfy the sufficient conditions. An efficient variational algorithm for deformable template modeling using the continuous medial representation is described and used to fit a template to the hippocampus in 87 subjects from a schizophrenia study with sub-voxel accuracy and 95% mean overlap.

  20. Treatment of Medial Malleolar Stress Fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bekerom, Michel P. J.; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of medial malleolar stress fractures varies from 0.6%-4.1% of all stress fractures. These fractures occur almost entirely in athletes and runners, and more frequently in skeletally mature patients aged 20-40 years. Treatment depends on the result of diagnostic imaging, displacement of

  1. Optogenetic dissection of medial prefrontal cortex circuitry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riga, D.; Matos, R.M.; Glas, A.; Smit, A.B.; Spijker, S.; van den Oever, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is critically involved in numerous cognitive functions, including attention, inhibitory control, habit formation, working memory and long-term memory. Moreover, through its dense interconnectivity with subcortical regions (e.g., thalamus, striatum, amygdala and

  2. Medial tibial stress syndrome: a critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moen, Maarten H.; Tol, Johannes L.; Weir, Adam; Steunebrink, Miriam; de Winter, Theodorus C.

    2009-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is one of the most common leg injuries in athletes and soldiers. The incidence of MTSS is reported as being between 4% and 35% in military personnel and athletes. The name given to this condition refers to pain on the posteromedial tibial border during exercise,

  3. Medial branch neurotomy in low back pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masala, Salvatore; Mammucari, Matteo; Simonetti, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); Nano, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Marcia, Stefano [S. Giovanni di Dio Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Cagliari (Italy)

    2012-07-15

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of pulsed radiofrequency medial branch dorsal ramus neurotomy in patients with facet joint syndrome. From January 2008 to April 2010, 92 patients with facet joint syndrome diagnosed by strict inclusion criteria and controlled diagnostic blocks undergone medial branch neurotomy. We did not exclude patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Electrodes (20G) with 5-mm active tip were placed under fluoroscopy guide parallel to medial branch. Patients were followed up by physical examination and by Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index at 1, 6, and 12 months. In all cases, pain improvement was statistically significant and so quality of life. Three non-FBSS patients had to undergo a second neurotomy because of non-satisfactory pain decrease. Complications were reported in no case. Medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy has confirmed its well-established effectiveness in pain and quality of life improvement as long as strict inclusion criteria be fulfilled and nerve ablation be accomplished by parallel electrode positioning. This statement can be extended also to FBSS patients. (orig.)

  4. Medial branch neurotomy in low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masala, Salvatore; Mammucari, Matteo; Simonetti, Giovanni; Nano, Giovanni; Marcia, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of pulsed radiofrequency medial branch dorsal ramus neurotomy in patients with facet joint syndrome. From January 2008 to April 2010, 92 patients with facet joint syndrome diagnosed by strict inclusion criteria and controlled diagnostic blocks undergone medial branch neurotomy. We did not exclude patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Electrodes (20G) with 5-mm active tip were placed under fluoroscopy guide parallel to medial branch. Patients were followed up by physical examination and by Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index at 1, 6, and 12 months. In all cases, pain improvement was statistically significant and so quality of life. Three non-FBSS patients had to undergo a second neurotomy because of non-satisfactory pain decrease. Complications were reported in no case. Medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy has confirmed its well-established effectiveness in pain and quality of life improvement as long as strict inclusion criteria be fulfilled and nerve ablation be accomplished by parallel electrode positioning. This statement can be extended also to FBSS patients. (orig.)

  5. Acute pharmacogenetic activation of medial prefrontal cortex ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is implicated in anxiety-like behaviour. In rodent models, perturbations of mPFCneuronal activity through pharmacological manipulations, optogenetic activation of mPFC neurons or cell-type specificpharmacogenetic inhibition of somatostatin interneurons indicate conflicting effects on ...

  6. Medial ankle pain after lateral ligament rupture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, C. N.; Bossuyt, P. M.; Marti, R. K.

    1996-01-01

    After a severe ankle sprain the incidence of residual complaints, particularly on the medial side of the joint, is high. We studied a consecutive series of 30 patients who had operative repair of acute ruptures of lateral ligaments. During operation, arthroscopy revealed a fresh injury to the

  7. Rheo: Japanese Sound Art Interrogating Digital Mediality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandsø, Anette

    2014-01-01

    THe article asks in what way the Japanese sound artist Ryoichi Kurokawa's audiovisual installation Rheo 5 Horisonz (2010) is 'digital'. Using Professor Lars Elleströms concept of 'mediality, the main claim in this article is that Rheo no only uses digital tehcnology, but also interrogates digital...

  8. Medial frontal cortex and response conflict: Evidence from human intracranial EEG and medial frontal cortex lesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, M.X.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; Haupt, S.; Elger, C.E.; Fell, J.

    2008-01-01

    The medial frontal cortex (MFC) has been implicated in the monitoring and selection of actions in the face of competing alternatives, but much remains unknown about its functional properties, including electrophysiological oscillations, during response conflict tasks. Here, we recorded intracranial

  9. Gut Microbiota-brain Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Xing; Wang, Yu-Ping

    2016-10-05

    To systematically review the updated information about the gut microbiota-brain axis. All articles about gut microbiota-brain axis published up to July 18, 2016, were identified through a literature search on PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science, with the keywords of "gut microbiota", "gut-brain axis", and "neuroscience". All relevant articles on gut microbiota and gut-brain axis were included and carefully reviewed, with no limitation of study design. It is well-recognized that gut microbiota affects the brain's physiological, behavioral, and cognitive functions although its precise mechanism has not yet been fully understood. Gut microbiota-brain axis may include gut microbiota and their metabolic products, enteric nervous system, sympathetic and parasympathetic branches within the autonomic nervous system, neural-immune system, neuroendocrine system, and central nervous system. Moreover, there may be five communication routes between gut microbiota and brain, including the gut-brain's neural network, neuroendocrine-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, gut immune system, some neurotransmitters and neural regulators synthesized by gut bacteria, and barrier paths including intestinal mucosal barrier and blood-brain barrier. The microbiome is used to define the composition and functional characteristics of gut microbiota, and metagenomics is an appropriate technique to characterize gut microbiota. Gut microbiota-brain axis refers to a bidirectional information network between the gut microbiota and the brain, which may provide a new way to protect the brain in the near future.

  10. Gut Microbiota-brain Axis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hong-Xing; Wang, Yu-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To systematically review the updated information about the gut microbiota-brain axis. Data Sources: All articles about gut microbiota-brain axis published up to July 18, 2016, were identified through a literature search on PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science, with the keywords of “gut microbiota”, “gut-brain axis”, and “neuroscience”. Study Selection: All relevant articles on gut microbiota and gut-brain axis were included and carefully reviewed, with no limitation of s...

  11. Near single-line operation of a free-burning CS2/O2/N2O flame laser with a nondispersive optical cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, K.D.; Kimbell, G.H.; Snelling, D.R.

    1975-01-01

    The CS 2 /O 2 /N 2 O flame laser has been operated for the first time under conditions in which the spectral output is nearly single line. This transition is the P 10 - 9 (17) of CO at 5.4265 μm, the same transition which was observed to oscillate in single-line fashion by Hirose et al. in an electrically initiated CO chemical laser. It is suggested that the unique behavior of this line may be due to its close proximity to a P branch transition in an adjacent band, namely the P 9 - 8 (23) line, such that the gain profiles of the two lines overlap. Calculations suggest that at the conditions of these experiments, the separation of the line centers for this pair is about 0.3 A or less. The P 10 - 9 (17) transition was also found to be totally absent under certain conditions of high multiline power, particulary at low O 2 and N 2 O flows. This may be due to absorption by a high-band R branch transition at 5.4266 μm, namely the R 15 - 16 (32) line. (U.S.)

  12. Foot medial longitudinal-arch deformation during quiet standing and gait in subjects with medial tibial stress syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas Quaade; Boysen, Lisbeth; Haugaard, Stine

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate (1) if subjects with medial tibial stress syndrome demonstrate increased navicular drop and medial longitudinal-arch deformation during quiet standing and gait compared with healthy subjects, and (2) the relationship between medial longitudinal......-arch deformation during quiet standing and gait. Thirty subjects aged 20 to 32 years were included (15 with medial tibial stress syndrome and 15 controls). Navicular drop and medial longitudinal-arch deformation were measured during quiet standing with neutral and loaded foot using a ruler and digital photography....... Medial longitudinal-arch deformation was measured during walking gait using 3-dimensional gait analysis. Subjects with medial tibial stress syndrome demonstrated a significantly larger navicular drop (mean +/- 1 SD, 7.7 +/- 3.1 mm) and medial longitudinal-arch deformation (5.9 +/- 3.2 degrees) during...

  13. [SECOT consensus on medial femorotibial osteoarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, A; Silvestre, A; Carpintero, P

    2013-01-01

    A consensus, prepared by SECOT, is presented on the management of medial knee compartment osteoarthritis, in order to establish clinical criteria and recommendations directed at unifying the criteria in its management, dealing with the factors involved in the pathogenesis of medial femorotibial knee osteoarthritis, the usefulness of diagnostic imaging techniques, and the usefulness of arthroscopy. Conservative and surgical treatments are also analysed. The experts consulted showed a consensus (agreed or disagreed) in 65.8% of the items considered, leaving 14items where no consensus was found, which included the aetiopathogenesis of the osteoarthritis, the value of NMR in degenerative disease, the usefulness of COX-2 and the chondroprotective drugs, as well as on the ideal valgus tibial osteotomy technique. © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Percutaneous medial collateral ligament release in arthroscopic medial meniscectomy in tight knees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakioglu, Onur; Ozsoy, Mehmet Hakan; Ozdemir, Haci Mustafa; Yigit, Hasan; Cavusoglu, Ali Turgay; Lobenhoffer, Philipp

    2013-07-01

    Visualization and surgery of tears in the posterior medial meniscus are difficult in tight knees. Iatrogenic chondral lesions might cause serious morbidity, and residual tears may result in inadequate symptom relief. We evaluated the clinical and radiological results of superficial medial collateral ligament (MCL) release during arthroscopic medial meniscectomy in tight knees. Eighteen patients [median age: 43 years (22-59); median follow-up: 8.3 months (6-12)] who underwent arthroscopic meniscectomy were included in the study. Patients with ligamentous injuries, severe chondral damage or meniscal repairs were excluded. Preoperatively, anteroposterior knee radiographs were obtained with 11-kg valgus stress using a specialized instrument. During the operation, if opening of the medial knee in 30° flexion under 11-kg valgus stress was inadequate, controlled release of the posterior portion of the MCL was performed using a 16-gauge needle. Intraoperative valgus stress was monitored using a specially designed lateral support with mounted load cell. MCL injury was evaluated both with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and valgus stress radiographs, which were obtained in the 1st week and 3rd and 6th months postoperatively to monitor healing of the elongated MCL. In all patients, meniscectomy could be performed with adequate visualization of the posterior medial meniscus and without iatrogenic chondral injury. The median medial joint space width on valgus stress radiographs was 7.1 mm preoperatively and 9.1, 8.0 and 7.2 mm in the 1st week, and 3rd and 6th months, respectively (p < 0.0001). On MRI, the injured structure was the posterior two-thirds of the MCL. Median Lysholm score, which was 42 points before the operation, had increased to 94 points at the final follow-up (p = 0.0002). Controlled release of the MCL in tight knees allowed easier handling in posterior medial meniscus tears and a better understanding of tear configurations, avoiding iatrogenic chondral

  15. Osteoligamentous injuries of the medial ankle joint

    OpenAIRE

    L?tscher, P.; Lang, T. H.; Zwicky, L.; Hintermann, B.; Knupp, M.

    2015-01-01

    Injuries of the ankle joint have a high incidence in daily life and sports, thus, playing an important socioeconomic role. Therefore, proper diagnosis and adequate treatment are mandatory. While most of the ligament injuries around the ankle joint are treated conservatively, great controversy exists on how to treat deltoid ligament injuries in ankle fractures. Missed injuries and inadequate treatment of the medial ankle lead to inferior outcome with instability, progressive deformity, and ank...

  16. Osteoligamentous injuries of the medial ankle joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lötscher, P; Lang, T H; Zwicky, L; Hintermann, B; Knupp, M

    2015-12-01

    Injuries of the ankle joint have a high incidence in daily life and sports, thus, playing an important socioeconomic role. Therefore, proper diagnosis and adequate treatment are mandatory. While most of the ligament injuries around the ankle joint are treated conservatively, great controversy exists on how to treat deltoid ligament injuries in ankle fractures. Missed injuries and inadequate treatment of the medial ankle lead to inferior outcome with instability, progressive deformity, and ankle joint osteoarthritis.

  17. Variations in the origin of the medial calcaneal nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellon, A Lee; Kim, Jaesuk; Spaulding, Cecily M

    2002-02-01

    Previous anatomic studies of the medial heel region were done on embalmed human cadavers. Here, the innervation of the medial heel region was studied by dissecting living tissue with the use of 3.5-power loupe magnification during decompression of the medial ankle for tarsal tunnel syndrome in 85 feet. The medial heel was found to be innervated by just one medial calcaneal nerve in 37% of the feet, by two medial calcaneal nerves in 41%, by three medial calcaneal nerves in 19%, and by four medial calcaneal nerves in 3%. An origin for a medial calcaneal nerve from the medial plantar nerve was found in 46% of the feet. This nerve most often innervates the skin of the posteromedial arch, where it is at risk for injury during calcaneal spur removal or plantar fasciotomy. Knowledge of the variations in location of the medial calcaneal nerves may prevent neuroma formation during surgery and provide insight into the variability of heel symptoms associated with tarsal tunnel syndrome.

  18. Varus-valgus stress radiograph as a predictor for extensive medial release in total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ji Hyun; Lee, Sung Hyun; Yang, Tae Yeong

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors for predicting the reduction osteotomy as extensive medial release during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) using multivariate logistic regression. A total of 404 TKAs were enrolled and sorted into two groups according to the extent of medial release and then analysed for the statistical significance of various risk factors including age, gender, body mass index (BMI), pre-operative knee mechanical axis angle (KMAA), mechanical varus stress angle (MVrSA), mechanical valgus stress angle (MVgSA), and sum of the mechanical varus and valgus stress angles (SMVVA) with use of multivariate logistic regression analysis. SMVVA to a more varus direction was found to be a significant risk factor for the reduction osteotomy (p varus direction were also significant risk factors (p = 0.010, adjusted OR = 1.189 with 95 % CI 1.041-1.357, and p = 0.005, adjusted OR = 1.401 with 95 % CI 1.109-1.767). The other variables were not significant risk factors. The overall results suggest that careful attention should be given to the need for extensive medial release and failure of the conventional soft tissue release technique during TKA in patients with a greater varus angle in the pre-operative SMVVA, MVgSA, and KMAA, especially with a greater varus SMVVA, which was the strongest predictor of reduction osteotomy. Level III, retrospective comparative study.

  19. Radiographic evaluation of the canine elbow joint with special reference to the medial humeral condyle and the medial coronoid process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorhout, G.; Hazewinkel, H.A.W.

    1987-01-01

    The results of radiographic examination of clinically affected elbow joints in 14 young, large-breed dogs, including standard and oblique projections and linear tomography, were compared with the findings of medial arthrotomy. Radiographs revealed arthrosis (13 dogs), osteochondrosis of the medial humeral condyle (2 dogs), fragmentation of the medial coronoid process (5 dogs), and a combination of osteochondrosis of the medial humeral condyle and fragmentation of the medial coronoid process (2 dogs). In one dog fissures in the medial coronoid process and in another dog a linear radiopacity along the articular surface of the medial coronoid process were found. In three dogs both medial humeral condyle and medial coronoid process appeared normal. The radiographic findings were confirmed during surgery in 11 dogs. Cartilage erosion of the medial humeral condyle in two dogs and of the medial coronoid process in one dog had not resulted in radiographically visible abnormalities. Radiographic examination of the elbow joints in young, large-breed dogs should include standard mediolateral and craniocaudal projections, a mediolateral projection with the joint maximally extended and the leg supinated 15°, and a craniolateral-to-caudomedial projection

  20. Three axis attitude control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Philip A. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A three-axis attitude control system for an orbiting body comprised of a motor driven flywheel supported by a torque producing active magnetic bearing is described. Free rotation of the flywheel is provided about its central axis and together with limited angular torsional deflections of the flywheel about two orthogonal axes which are perpendicular to the central axis. The motor comprises an electronically commutated DC motor, while the magnetic bearing comprises a radially servoed permanent magnet biased magnetic bearing capable of producing cross-axis torques on the flywheel. Three body attitude sensors for pitch, yaw and roll generate respective command signals along three mutually orthogonal axes (x, y, z) which are coupled to circuit means for energizing a set of control coils for producing torques about two of the axes (x and y) and speed control of the flywheel about the third (z) axis. An energy recovery system, which is operative during motor deceleration, is also included which permits the use of a high-speed motor to perform effectively as a reactive wheel suspended in the magnetic bearing.

  1. Ten-Year Results of Medial Open-Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy and Chondral Resurfacing in Severe Medial Osteoarthritis and Varus Malalignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Philipp; Geßlein, Markus; Schlumberger, Michael; Mayer, Philipp; Mayr, Raul; Oremek, Damian; Frank, Sebastian; Schulz-Jahrsdörfer, Martin; Richter, Jörg

    2018-03-01

    High tibial osteotomy (HTO) is a widely used treatment option for medial osteoarthritis and varus malalignment, especially in young patients with early osteoarthritis. Limited outcome data are available for this procedure in severe osteoarthritis, and no long-term data are available using newer implants. To determine survivorship and functional results of medial open-wedge HTO combined with a chondral resurfacing (CR) procedure (abrasion plus microfracture) in severe medial osteoarthritis (Kellgren-Lawrence grade 3 and 4) and varus malalignment. Furthermore, factors that potentially influence the outcome were analyzed. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. From September 2005 to December 2008, all cases of HTO (fixation with an angular-stable internal fixator) combined with CR were prospectively surveyed with regard to survival (Kaplan-Meier-method, not requiring arthroplasty) and functional outcome (subjective International Knee Documentation Committee [IKDC] score). Cartilage regeneration at the time of hardware removal, tibial bone varus angle (TBVA), pre- and postoperative mechanical medial proximal tibial angle (MPTA), and postoperative alignment were analyzed with regard to the result. Seventy-nine knees were included (73 patients; mean age 50.9 ± 7.6 years). The follow-up rate was 90% at 10.0 ± 1.2 years (range, 8.3-12.1 years). Pre- and postoperative mechanical tibiofemoral axis were 9.6° ± 3.0° of varus and 0.6° ± 2.7° of valgus, respectively. Survival rate was 81.7% (95% CI, 72.5%-90.9%) at 10 years. Subjective IKDC score significantly improved from 44 ± 11 preoperatively to 70 ± 13 at one, 66 ± 15 at three, 66 ± 15 at five, and 65 ± 17 at ten years ( P 95°) with inferior functional outcome at final follow-up, respectively. Even in cases of severe medial osteoarthritis and varus malalignment, HTO in combination with a CR procedure is a good to excellent treatment option. The role of the CR procedure remains unclear. Although good results are

  2. Vertical axis wind turbine airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich

    2012-12-18

    A vertical axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a vertical axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be vertically disposed and can rotate about a vertical axis.

  3. Gut Microbiota-brain Axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Xing; Wang, Yu-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To systematically review the updated information about the gut microbiota-brain axis. Data Sources: All articles about gut microbiota-brain axis published up to July 18, 2016, were identified through a literature search on PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science, with the keywords of “gut microbiota”, “gut-brain axis”, and “neuroscience”. Study Selection: All relevant articles on gut microbiota and gut-brain axis were included and carefully reviewed, with no limitation of study design. Results: It is well-recognized that gut microbiota affects the brain's physiological, behavioral, and cognitive functions although its precise mechanism has not yet been fully understood. Gut microbiota-brain axis may include gut microbiota and their metabolic products, enteric nervous system, sympathetic and parasympathetic branches within the autonomic nervous system, neural-immune system, neuroendocrine system, and central nervous system. Moreover, there may be five communication routes between gut microbiota and brain, including the gut-brain's neural network, neuroendocrine-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, gut immune system, some neurotransmitters and neural regulators synthesized by gut bacteria, and barrier paths including intestinal mucosal barrier and blood-brain barrier. The microbiome is used to define the composition and functional characteristics of gut microbiota, and metagenomics is an appropriate technique to characterize gut microbiota. Conclusions: Gut microbiota-brain axis refers to a bidirectional information network between the gut microbiota and the brain, which may provide a new way to protect the brain in the near future. PMID:27647198

  4. Minor varus alignment provides better results than neutral alignment in medial UKA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasso, Michele; Del Regno, Chiara; D'Amelio, Antonio; Viggiano, Davide; Corona, Katia; Schiavone Panni, Alfredo

    2015-03-01

    Few data exist regarding the outcome and survivorship of medial UKA in patients with minor varus alignment. The purpose of this study was therefore to analyse the clinical results of medial UKA implanted with no more than 7° of varus, and to verify whether there was a relationship between limb alignment and overall outcomes. One hundred and twenty five medial fixed-bearing UKAs with no more than 7° of varus were retrospectively analysed. The varus/valgus inclination and thickness of the bone cuts were performed relating to the proximal tibial epiphyseal axis. Patients were assessed with the IKS scores and range of knee motion. The subjects were classified into three groups according to the postoperative femoro-tibial mechanical alignment angle (group A: -2° to 1°; group B: 2° to 4°; group C: 5° to 7°). The mean follow-up was 7.6years (range, 3.5-9.3). IKS knee scores increased proportionally with increasing varus according to a linear relationship (p≪0.01). Additionally, IKS knee scores were significantly higher in group B and still higher in group C if compared to those in group A (p=0.003). Finally, a significantly higher frequency of IKS function scores>90 points in subjects with femoro-tibial mechanical alignment angle≥4° was found (p=0.009). Minor varus alignment does not compromise the mid- to long-term outcome of a medial UKA, and gives better results compared to neutral or close-to-neutral alignment. IV - Retrospective case series study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Using the Medial and Lateral Humeral Lines as an Adjunct to Intraoperative Elbow Arthrography to Guide Intraoperative Reduction and Fixation of Distal Humerus Physeal Separations Reduces the Incidence of Postoperative Cubitus Varus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Andrew Chia Chen; Wong, Ho Yin Kevin; Kumar, Sumanth; Mahadev, Arjandas

    2018-03-05

    Distal humerus physeal separations are rare pediatric elbow fractures that are often misdiagnosed and difficult to treat. Adequate reduction is often technically challenging and up to 71% of children develop postoperative cubitus varus. We propose using the medial and lateral humeral lines as an adjunct to elbow arthrography in order to guide intraoperative fixation of distal humerus physeal separations to reduce the incidence of postoperative cubitus varus. From 2009 to 2014, all pediatric patients under the age of 3 diagnosed with a distal humerus physeal separation and treated surgically at our institution were included for analysis. Two senior pediatric orthopaedic surgeons separately reviewed the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative images of all patients and measured the position of the ulnar axis relative to the medial and lateral humeral lines. The medial and lateral humeral shafts were defined as parallel lines drawn along the medial and lateral humeral diaphysis. Adequate reduction was defined by reduction of the ulnar axis within the boundaries of the medial and lateral humeral lines. Patients were assessed at latest follow-up for cubitus varus and any other surgical complications. Thirteen patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were on average 1.70 years old, ranging from 0.62 to 3 years old. Intraoperatively and immediately postoperatively, all 13 patients (100%) were noted to have adequate reduction of the ulnar axis within the boundaries medial and lateral humeral lines. None of the patients required intraoperative arthrography (0%). At the date of latest follow-up, 12 patients (92.3%) had no angular deformities compared with the contralateral limb and 1 patient (7.7%) had developed cubitus varus. No surgical complications were noted (0%). Intraoperative reduction of the ulnar axis within the boundaries of the medial and lateral humeral lines is associated with a lower incidence of postoperative cubitus varus in the treatment of

  6. Medial patellotibial ligament and medial patellomeniscal ligament: anatomy, imaging, biomechanics, and clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckel, Betina Bremer; Gobbi, Riccardo Gomes; Kaleka, Camila Cohen; Camanho, Gilberto Luis; Arendt, Elizabeth A

    2017-03-13

    The purpose of this article is to review anatomical, biomechanical, and clinical data of the medial patellotibial ligament (MPTL) and medial patellomeniscal ligament (MPML), as well as studies focusing on the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) but with relevant data about the MPTL and MPML. A literature search of articles specifically addressing the MPTL and/or MPML was included along with studies focusing on the MPFL but with relevant data about the MPTL and MPML. The medial patellar ligaments responsible for maintaining the stability of the patellofemoral (PF) joint include the MPFL, the MPTL, and the MPML. The MPFL is considered the primary restraint to lateral patellar translation, while the latter two are considered secondary restraints. There is robust literature on the anatomical, imaging, and biomechanical characteristics of the MPFL, and also the clinical outcome of its injury and surgical reconstruction; much less is known about the MPTL and MPML. Isolated MPFL reconstruction has good clinical and functional outcomes, with a low failure rate when defined as frank re-dislocation. Complications, including continued episodes of patellar apprehension and subluxation, remain present in most series. In addition, the current literature primarily includes a homogeneous population with few excessive anatomic dysplastic factors. There is lack of knowledge on the role of MPTL and MPML in (potentially) aiding patella stabilization and improving clinical outcomes. Understanding the role of the medial-sided patellar ligaments, in particular the role of the secondary stabilizers, in PF function and injury will aid in this goal. MPTL and MPML have consistent basic science literature, as well as favorable clinical outcomes of surgical patellar stabilization with reconstruction of the MPTL. However, there is much heterogeneity among clinical case series and lack of comparative studies to allow clear indication for the role of isolated or combined surgical reconstruction

  7. Segregation of the human medial prefrontal cortex in social cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo eBzdok

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available While the human medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC is widely believed to be a key node of neural networks relevant for socio-emotional processing, its functional subspecialization is still poorly understood. We thus revisited the often assumed differentiation of the mPFC in social cognition along its ventral-dorsal axis. Our neuroinformatic analysis was based on a neuroimaging meta-analysis of perspective-taking that yielded two separate clusters in the ventral and dorsal mPFC, respectively. We determined each seed region’s brain-wide interaction pattern by two complementary measures of functional connectivity: co-activation across a wide range of neuroimaging studies archived in the BrainMap database and correlated signal fluctuations during unconstrained (resting cognition. Furthermore, we characterized the functions associated with these two regions using the BrainMap database. Across methods, the ventral mPFC was more strongly connected with the nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, posterior cingulate cortex, and retrosplenial cortex, while the dorsal mPFC was more strongly connected with the inferior frontal gyrus, temporo-parietal junction, and middle temporal gyrus. Further, the ventral mPFC was selectively associated with action execution, olfaction, and reward related tasks, while the dorsal mPFC was selectively associated with perspective-taking and episodic memory retrieval. The ventral mPFC is therefore predominantly involved in sensory-driven, approach/avoidance-modulating, and evaluation-related processing, whereas the dorsal mPFC is predominantly involved in internally driven, memory-informed, and metacognition-related processing in social cognition.

  8. Foot progression angle and medial loading in individuals with diabetes mellitus, peripheral neuropathy, and a foot ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Mary K; Gelber, Judy R; Isaac, Elena J; Bohnert, Kathryn L; Strube, Michael J; Sinacore, David R

    2010-06-01

    Foot progression angle (FPA) and duration of foot medial column loading during walking were studied in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM), peripheral neuropathy (PN), and a forefoot ulcer (DMPN), and in age-matched control subjects. FPA was calculated from EMED-ST P-2 pressure maps as the angle formed between the longitudinal axis of the foot and the forward line of progression during walking. The medial loading duration was calculated as the amount of time the center of pressure line spent in the medial side of the foot pressure map. FPA was increased in the DMPN group, on the involved and uninvolved sides [15(9) degrees and 13(4) degrees respectively] compared the control group [9(4) degrees ]. FPA and medial loading duration were significantly correlated in the DMPN group on the involved and uninvolved sides (r>0.54, p0.82). This study provides evidence that FPA is an important biomechanical contributor to the pattern of foot loading in individuals with DM, PN, and a forefoot ulcer. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Medialized repair for retracted rotator cuff tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Kyu; Jung, Kyu-Hak; Won, Jun-Sung; Cho, Seung-Hyun

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional outcomes of medialized rotator cuff repair and the continuity of repaired tendon in chronic retracted rotator cuff tears. Thirty-five consecutive patients were selected from 153 cases that underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair for more than medium-sized posterosuperior rotator cuff tears between July 2009 and July 2012 performed with the medialized repair. All cases were available for at least 2 years of postoperative follow-up. The visual analog scale of pain, muscle strength, Constant score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, and University of California-Los Angeles score were evaluated. At the final follow-up, all clinical outcomes were significantly improved. The visual analog scale score for pain improved from 6 ± 1 preoperatively to 2 ± 1 postoperatively. The range of motion increased from preoperatively to postoperatively: active forward elevation, from 134° ± 49° to 150° ± 16°; active external rotation at the side, from 47° ± 15° to 55° ± 10°; and active internal rotation, from L3 to L1. The shoulder score also improved: Constant score, from 53.5 ± 16.7 to 79 ± 10; American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, from 51 ± 15 to 82 ± 8; and University of California-Los Angeles score, from 14 ± 4 to 28 ± 4. The retear cases at the final follow-up were 6 (17%). Medialized repair may be useful in cases in which anatomic bone-to-tendon repair would be difficult because of the excessive tension of the repaired tendon and a torn tendon that does not reach the anatomic insertion. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Combination of Nasolabial V-Y Advancement Flap and Glabellar Subcutaneous Pedicled Flap for Reconstruction of Medial Canthal Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromichi Matsuda

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A 77-year-old woman presented with a 1-year history of a right medial canthal tumor, which was histopathologically diagnosed as a basal cell carcinoma. After removal of the tumor with a 4-mm safety margin, the defect occupied the areas superior and inferior to the medial canthal tendon. We first reconstructed the lower part of the defect using a nasolabial V-Y advancement flap to make an elliptic defect in the upper part. We then created a glabellar subcutaneous pedicled flap to match the residual upper elliptic defect with the major axis set along a relaxed skin tension line. The pedicled glabellar flap was passed through a subcutaneous tunnel to the upper residual defect. At 6 months postoperatively, the patient showed no tumor recurrence and a good cosmetic outcome.

  11. Medial parapatellar approach leads to internal rotation of tibial component in total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiapparelli, Filippo-Franco; Amsler, Felix; Hirschmann, Michael T

    2017-05-30

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if the type of approach [medial parapatellar approach (MPA) versus lateral parapatellar approach with tibial tubercle osteotomy (LPA)] influences rotation of femoral and/or tibial component and leg axis in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). It was the hypothesis that MPA leads to an internally rotated tibial TKA component. This study included 200 consecutive patients in whom TKA was performed using either a parapatellar medial (n = 162, MPA) or parapatellar lateral approach with tibial tubercle osteotomy (n = 38, LPA). All patients underwent clinical follow-up, standardized radiographs and computed radiography (CT). TKA components' position and the whole leg axis were assessed on 3D reconstructed CT scans (sagittal, coronal and rotational). Mean values of TKA component position and the whole leg alignment of both groups were compared using a t test. The tibial component was graded as internally rotated (6° ER). The femoral component was graded as internally rotated [>3° of internal rotation (IR)], neutral rotation (equal or between -3° IR and 3° of ER) and externally rotated (>3° ER). There was no significant difference in terms of whole leg axis after TKA between both groups (MPA: 0.2° valgus ± 3.4; LPA: 0.0° valgus ± 3.5). Means of tibial component rotation were 2.7° ER ± 6.1 (MPA) and 7.6° ER ± 5.4 (LPA). Patients of group LPA presented a significantly less internally rotated (LPA: 18.4%; MPA: 48.8%) and more externally rotated (LPA: 52.6%; MPA: 22.8%) tibial component (p approach (medial versus lateral) significantly influenced tibial TKA component rotation. It appears that a MPA tends to internally rotate the tibial TKA component and a LPA tends to externally rotate the tibial TKA. The anterior cortex should not be used as landmark for tibial TKA component placement when using the lateral approach with tibial tubercle osteotomy. Retrospective comparative study, Level III.

  12. Stress fracture of the medial clavicle secondary to nervous tic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, K.; Sugiura, H.; Suzuki, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The clinical and radiological characteristics of swelling in the region of the medial clavicle may suggest the presence of a neoplastic or inflammatory lesion. This report describes a 27-year-old man with a painful tumor-like lesion over the medial clavicle, which was found to be a stress fracture caused by a nervous tic resulting from mental stress. (orig.)

  13. Medialization thyroplasty versus injection laryngoplasty: a cost minimization analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tam, Samantha; Sun, Hongmei; Sarma, Sisira; Siu, Jennifer; Fung, Kevin; Sowerby, Leigh

    2017-01-01

    Background Medialization thyroplasty and injection laryngoplasty are widely accepted treatment options for unilateral vocal fold paralysis. Although both procedures result in similar clinical outcomes, little is known about the corresponding medical care costs. Medialization thyroplasty requires expensive operating room resources while injection laryngoplasty utilizes outpatient resources but may require repeated procedures. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to quantify the cost differ...

  14. Medial Malleolar Fractures: An Anatomic Survey Determining the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Medial malleolar fractures are frequent, and their treatment is familiar to the orthopedic surgeon. Lag screw fixation using partially threaded screws remains the standard treatment method for medial malleolar fractures. However, the literature lacks a defined method for selecting lag screw length, relying more ...

  15. Anatomical and magnetic resonance imaging study of the medial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The medial collateral ligament of the ankle joint also known as the deltoid ligament, is a multifascicular group of ligaments. It can be divided into a superficial and deep group of fibers originating from the medial malleolus to insert in the talus, calcaneus, and navicular bones. Wide variations have been noted in ...

  16. Low implant migration of the SIGMA® medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppens, Daan; Stilling, Maiken; Munk, Stig

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate implant migration of the fixed-bearing Sigma® medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). UKA is a regularly used treatment for patients with medial osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. UKA has a higher revision rate than total knee arthroplasty. Implant...... migration can be used as a predictor of implant loosening....

  17. Computing refined skeletal features from medial point clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kustra, Jacek; Jalba, Andrei; Telea, Alexandru

    2016-01-01

    Medial representations have been widely used for many shape analysis and processing tasks. Large and complex 3D shapes are, in this context, a challenging case. Recently, several methods have been proposed that extract point-based medial surfaces with high accuracy and computational scalability.

  18. Stress fracture of the medial clavicle secondary to nervous tic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, K.; Sugiura, H.; Suzuki, Y. [Department of Orthopaedics, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, 1-1 Kanokoden, Chikusa, 464-8681, Nagoya (Japan)

    2004-09-01

    The clinical and radiological characteristics of swelling in the region of the medial clavicle may suggest the presence of a neoplastic or inflammatory lesion. This report describes a 27-year-old man with a painful tumor-like lesion over the medial clavicle, which was found to be a stress fracture caused by a nervous tic resulting from mental stress. (orig.)

  19. Medial patellofemoral ligament and medial patellotibial ligament reconstruction in children: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sadigursky

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament associated with the medial patellotibial ligament in skeletally immature patients. METHOD: This is a case series study in patients with patellar instability with open physis. In total, seven patients were evaluated: four males and three females were operated using the proposed technique. Patients with open physis who had more than two episodes of recurring patellar dislocation were included. No patients underwent additional procedures. The distance from the anterior tibial tuberosity to the trochlea grove (TT-TG was measured in all patients. On physical examination, the inverted J-sign, the apprehension sign, and the knee range of motion parameters were used in the pre- and post-operative period. In addition, the Kujala and Lysholm scores were applied before and 12 months after surgery. The results were analyzed with the Wilcoxon test. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 11.28 in both genders. Comparing the data of the pre- and post-operative period, the inverted J-sign was present in six patients (85.7% vs. absent in one (14.3%. The apprehension sign was absent in cases in the postoperative period; the range of motion was 117.85 ± 8.09 vs. 148.57 ± 3.77. The Kujala score was 42.57 ± 8.9 vs. 88.57 ± 5.09 and the Lysholm scores were classified as excellent or good in 28.6% and 71.4%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The combined reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament combined with the medial patellotibial ligament in skeletally immature patients with predisposing factors, presents satisfactory results without episodes of recurrence or residual subluxation; according to these preliminary results, it should be considered as a treatment option.

  20. Traumatic posterior root tear of the medial meniscus in patients with severe medial instability of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Ho Jong; Ha, Jeong Ku; Jang, Ho Su; Kim, Jin Goo

    2015-10-01

    To examine the incidence and diagnostic rate of traumatic medial meniscus posterior root tear associated with severe medial instability and to evaluate the effectiveness of pullout repair. From 2007 to 2011, 51 patients who underwent operation due to multiple ligament injuries including medial collateral ligament rupture were reviewed retrospectively. The International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective and Lysholm score were evaluated pre- and postoperatively. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, and if indicated, a second-look arthroscopic examination was conducted. Fourteen out of 51 patients were associated with severe medial instability. Seven patients were diagnosed with traumatic medial meniscus posterior root tear and underwent arthroscopic pullout repair. Five of them were missed at initial diagnosis using MRI. In seven patients, the mean Lysholm and IKDC subjective scores improved from 74.6 ± 10.3 and 47.6 ± 7.3 to 93.0 ± 3.7 and 91.6 ± 2.6, respectively. All showed complete healing of meniscus root on follow-up MRI and second-look arthroscopy. Medial meniscus posterior root tear may occur in severe medial instability from trauma. It is a common mistake that surgeons may not notice on the diagnosis of those injuries using MRI. Therefore, a high index of suspicion is required for the diagnosis of medial meniscus posterior root tear in this type of injuries. The traumatic medial meniscus posterior root tear could be healed successfully using arthroscopic pullout repair technique. The possibility of the medial meniscus posterior root tear should be considered in severe medial instability and arthroscopic pullout repair can be an effective option for treatment. Case series with no comparison group, Level IV.

  1. Centralization of extruded medial meniscus delays cartilage degeneration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeki, Nobutake; Muneta, Takeshi; Kawabata, Kenichi; Koga, Hideyuki; Nakagawa, Yusuke; Saito, Ryusuke; Udo, Mio; Yanagisawa, Katsuaki; Ohara, Toshiyuki; Mochizuki, Tomoyuki; Tsuji, Kunikazu; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sekiya, Ichiro

    2017-05-01

    Meniscus extrusion often observed in knee osteoarthritis has a strong correlation with the progression of cartilage degeneration and symptom in the patients. We recently reported a novel procedure "arthroscopic centralization" in which the capsule was sutured to the edge of the tibial plateau to reduce meniscus extrusion in the human knee. However, there is no animal model to study the efficacy of this procedure. The purposes of this study were [1] to establish a model of centralization for the extruded medial meniscus in a rat model; and [2] to investigate the chondroprotective effect of this procedure. Medial meniscus extrusion was induced by the release of the anterior synovial capsule and the transection of the meniscotibial ligament. Centralization was performed by the pulled-out suture technique. Alternatively, control rats had only the medial meniscus extrusion surgery. Medial meniscus extrusion was evaluated by micro-CT and macroscopic findings. Cartilage degeneration of the medial tibial plateau was evaluated macroscopically and histologically. By micro-CT analysis, the medial meniscus extrusion was significantly improved in the centralization group in comparison to the extrusion group throughout the study. Both macroscopically and histologically, the cartilage lesion of the medial tibial plateau was prevented in the centralization group but was apparent in the control group. We developed medial meniscus extrusion in a rat model, and centralization of the extruded medial meniscus by the pull-out suture technique improved the medial meniscus extrusion and delayed cartilage degeneration, though the effect was limited. Centralization is a promising treatment to prevent the progression of osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Fragmentation of the medial malleolus of dogs with and without tarsal osteochondrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newell, S.M.; Mahaffey, M.B.; Aron, D.N.

    1994-01-01

    Fragmentation of the medial malleolus of the tibia was found radiographically in 5 canine tarsi which did not have evidence of osteochondrosis of the medial trochlear ridge. An additional 5 tarsi were found where both medial malleolar fragmentation and osteochondrosis of the medial trochlear ridge were present. Radiographic evidence of degenerative joint disease was present in 3 of 5 dogs with medial malleolar fragmentation alone, and 5 of 5 dogs with medial malleolar fragmentation and medial trochlear ridge osteochondrosis. Eight of the 9 dogs were Rottweilers. Considering the sites of occurrence of osteochondrosis in other species, the authors propose that medial malleolar fragmentation could be secondary to osteochondrosis of the medial malleolus. Osteochondrosis of the medial malleolus has not been previously reported in dogs. Histological examination of the medial malleolar fragmentation was unavailable because surgery was not performed, therefore the hypothesis that the medial malleolar fragmentation is due to osteochondrosis was not proven

  3. Sonographic assessment of the medial ulnar collateral ligament distal ulnar attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, Lutul D; Mahoney, Andrew P; Sheppard, Joseph E; Schickendantz, Mark S; Taljanovic, Mihra S

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the long distal attachment of the medial ulnar collateral ligament (MUCL) can be delineated on sonography. We used 12 fresh-frozen cadaveric elbows for this study. We performed sonography of the elbow using a coronal-equivalent long-axis view of the MUCL. All sonographic examinations and measurements were performed by a board-certified, fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologist. Measurements were performed from the anteroinferior aspect of the medial epicondyle to the sublime tubercle and then from the sublime tubercle to the terminal fibers of the MUCL long ulnar attachment. We then measured the length of the MUCL from its attachment at the medial epicondyle of the humerus to the sublime tubercle and then from the sublime tubercle to the distal extent of its terminal fibers at the ulnar attachment with digital calipers. On sonography, the average length of the MUCL from its humeral attachment to the sublime tubercle (transarticular) was 19.6 mm. The average length of the ulnar attachment was 27.9 mm. The MUCL was thickest (mediolateral dimension) at its humeral attachment and tapered as it coursed distally along the ulnar attachment. The MUCL was clearly identified on sonography and in all anatomic specimens. On gross measurement, the average lengths of the transarticular portion of the MUCL and its ulnar footprint were 21.5 and 30.2 mm, respectively. We have successfully shown that the distal ulnar attachment of the MUCL can be visualized on high-resolution sonography. This preliminary work provides a framework for developing protocols for diagnosis of injuries to the distal ulnar collateral ligament. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  4. EVALUATION OF FUNCTIONAL RESULTS OF MEDIAL OPENING WEDGE HIGH TIBIAL OSTEOTOMY FOR UNICOMPARTMENTAL OSTEOARTHRITIS VARUS KNEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sundar Bakki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Osteoarthritis commonly affects the medial compartment of knee giving rise to varus deformity in majority of cases. Significant varus deformity further aggravates the pathology due to medialisation of the weight bearing line osteotomy of the proximal tibia realigns this weight bearing axis, thereby relieving pressure on the damaged medial compartment. OWHTO is a promising option in this scenario because it is associated with high accuracy in correcting the deformity and less number of complications when compared to lateral closing wedge HTO or UKA. In this study, we evaluate the functional outcome of HTO in patients with unicompartmental osteoarthritis. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a prospective study of patients who attended the orthopaedic outpatient clinic in Government Hospital, Kakinada, between August 2013 to August 2015. The patients were evaluated by clinical examination and weight bearing radiographs. The patients who were found to have unicompartmental osteoarthritis with knee pain not relieved by conservative management and who satisfy the inclusion criteria were selected. RESULTS Excellent results can be achieved by appropriate selection criteria and planning with long limb weight bearing radiographs. There is an excellent relief of pain, which can be achieved within first few months postoperatively, which is assessed by VAS score. The KSS- knee score is excellent in 35%, good in 40%, fair in 20% and poor in 5%. The KSS- function score is excellent in 30%, good in 45%, fair in 20% and poor in 5%. There is significant improvement in the range of movement of the knee joint postoperatively. CONCLUSION In this study, we conclude that medial OWHTO is the preferred modality for unicompartmental OA in those aged <60 years and in developing nations like India where squatting is an important function, it has major role as it can restore near normal knee function without disturbing anatomy.

  5. Optogenetic dissection of medial prefrontal cortex circuitry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danai eRiga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC is critically involved in numerous cognitive functions, including attention, inhibitory control, habit formation, working memory and long-term memory. Moreover, through its dense interconnectivity with subcortical regions (e.g. thalamus, striatum, amygdala and hippocampus, the mPFC is thought to exert top-down executive control over the processing of aversive and appetitive stimuli. Because the mPFC has been implicated in the processing of a wide range of cognitive and emotional stimuli, it is thought to function as a central hub in the brain circuitry mediating symptoms of psychiatric disorders. New optogenetics technology enables anatomical and functional dissection of mPFC circuitry with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. This provides important novel insights in the contribution of specific neuronal subpopulations and their connectivity to mPFC function in health and disease states. In this review, we present the current knowledge obtained with optogenetic methods concerning mPFC function and dysfunction and integrate this with findings from traditional intervention approaches used to investigate the mPFC circuitry in animal models of cognitive processing and psychiatric disorders.

  6. Impaired Varus-Valgus Proprioception and Neuromuscular Stabilization in Medial Knee Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alison H.; Lee, Song Joo; Zhao, Heng; Ren, Yupeng; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2014-01-01

    Impaired proprioception and poor muscular stabilization in the frontal plane may lead to knee instability during functional activities, a common complaint in persons with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Understanding these frontal plane neuromechanical properties in KOA will help elucidate the factors contributing to knee instability and aid in the development of targeted intervention strategies. The study objectives were to compare knee varus-valgus proprioception, isometric muscle strength, and active muscular contribution to stability between persons with medial KOA and healthy controls. We evaluated knee frontal plane neuromechanical parameters in 14 participants with medial KOA and 14 age- and gender-matched controls, using a joint driving device (JDD) with a customized motor and a 6-axis force sensor. Analysis of covariance with BMI as a covariate was used to test the differences in varus-valgus neuromechanical parameters between these two groups. The KOA group had impaired varus proprioception acuity (1.08 ± 0.59° vs. 0.69 ± 0.49°, p varus muscle strength (1.31 ± 0.75% vs. 1.79 ± 0.84% body weight, p varus-valgus control deficits in both the afferent input (proprioceptive acuity) and muscular effectors (muscle strength and capacity to stabilize the joint). PMID:24321442

  7. Patterns and Influencing Factors of Medial Meniscus Tears in Varus Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-Do; Youm, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Cho, Hye-Yong; Kim, Kwang-Ho

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the patterns of medial meniscus (MM) tears in patients with varus knee osteoarthritis who underwent total knee arthroplasty and analyze the factors that could affect MM tears. The patients (365 knees, 268 patients) were classified into three groups; group I with MM posterior horn (PH) tear only; group II with MM root tear only; and group III with MMPH plus root tear. The following factors were evaluated: age, gender, body mass index, varus deviation of the mechanical axis, medial proximal tibial angle, posterior tibial slope (PTS), and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) integrity (normal, degeneration, and tear or absence). MM tears were identified in all knees. The patterns of the combined MMPH tears in group III were less complex than those in group I. Varus deviation and PTS were significantly greater in group III than groups I and II. In group III, there were significantly more cases of ACL tear or absence than groups I and II. The others showed no differences among three groups. Severe varus knee osteoarthritis was always accompanied by MM tears. Risk factors for MMPH plus root tears were severe varus deformity, great PTS, and ACL tear or absence.

  8. Impaired varus-valgus proprioception and neuromuscular stabilization in medial knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alison H; Lee, Song Joo; Zhao, Heng; Ren, Yupeng; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2014-01-22

    Impaired proprioception and poor muscular stabilization in the frontal plane may lead to knee instability during functional activities, a common complaint in persons with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Understanding these frontal plane neuromechanical properties in KOA will help elucidate the factors contributing to knee instability and aid in the development of targeted intervention strategies. The objectives of the study were to compare knee varus-valgus proprioception, isometric muscle strength, and active muscular contribution to stability between persons with medial KOA and healthy controls. We evaluated knee frontal plane neuromechanical parameters in 14 participants with medial KOA and 14 age- and gender-matched controls, using a joint driving device (JDD) with a customized motor and a 6-axis force sensor. Analysis of covariance with BMI as a covariate was used to test the differences in varus-valgus neuromechanical parameters between these two groups. The KOA group had impaired varus proprioception acuity (1.08±0.59° vs. 0.69±0.49°, pproprioceptive acuity) and muscular effectors (muscle strength and capacity to stabilize the joint). © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. A systematic comparison of on-axis and off-axis transmission Kikuchi diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niessen, F.; Burrows, A.; Fanta, A. Bastos da Silva

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The capabilities of the novel on-axis transmission Kikuchi diffraction (TKD) technique were explored in a systematic comparison with conventional off-axis TKD. The effect of experimental parameters on the appearance of on-axis and off-axis Kikuchi patterns was measured and discussed. In ...

  10. Rhomboid flap: An option to medial canthal reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Corredor-Osorio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Medial canthal defects after wide local excision of basal cell carcinoma can range from small to medium size which can be reconstructed by using full thickness skin-grafts or defect local flaps. This report describes the case of 51-year-old woman with a medial canthal tumor. The large defect after of excision was successfully reconstructed with local rhomboid flap. The result cosmetic was highly satisfactory. Local rhomboid flap reconstruction is a safe, rapid and practical technique for skin defects in the canthal medial region after tumor excisions.

  11. Cartilage Delamination Flap Mimicking a Torn Medial Meniscus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gan Zhi-Wei Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a chondral delamination lesion due to medial parapatellar plica friction syndrome involving the medial femoral condyle. This mimicked a torn medial meniscus in clinical and radiological presentation. Arthroscopy revealed a chondral delamination flap, which was debrided. Diagnosis of chondral lesions in the knee can be challenging. Clinical examination and MRI have good accuracy for diagnosis and should be used in tandem. Early diagnosis and treatment of chondral lesions are important to prevent progression to early osteoarthritis.

  12. Medial Column Arthrodesis Using an Anatomic Distal Fibular Locking Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Ellianne M; LaPorta, Guido A; Trott, Kasandra

    2015-01-01

    The medial column fusion is performed for a multitude of etiologies, including peritalar subluxation deformity, Charcot arthropathy, trauma, post-traumatic degenerative joint disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. Various surgical techniques have been described for medial column arthrodesis. We describe a new fixation method using an anatomic distal fibular locking plate for medial column arthrodesis. This technique provides a rigid construct in compromised or at risk bone. After a review of the surgical technique, we outline 2 case examples of patients with peritalar subluxation and Charcot arthropathy. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Radiographic anatomy of the medial coronoid process of dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyabayashi, T.; Takiguchi, M.; Schrader, S.C.; Biller, D.S.

    1995-01-01

    Mediolateral, flexed mediolateral, mediocaudal-laterocranial 15 degrees oblique (extended and supinated mediolateral), and craniolateral-caudomedial 20 degrees to 30 degrees oblique radiographs of 16 elbow-joint specimens were produced to study the radiographic anatomy of the medial coronoid process. On the mediolateral view, the cranial point of the coronoid process was at the level of the distal one-third of the radial epiphysis. Degree of superimposition of the proximal radius and ulna determined how the medial coronoid process was projected on the radiographs. Mediocaudal-laterocranial oblique radiographs best showed the cranial outline of the medial coronoid process with moderate superimposition of the proximal radius and ulna

  14. Medial fracture line significance in calcaneus fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogut, Tahir; Ayhan, Egemen; Kantarci, Fatih; Unlu, Mehmet C; Salih, Muhammet

    2011-01-01

    In Sanders' classification of calcaneus fractures, the medial fracture line (subtype C) is close to the tarsal canal, which contains an artery for the talus and calcaneus. We hypothesized that because of this brittle vascular localization, patients with C line fracture patterns might describe radiologic subtalar arthritis more often and have more complaints. The purpose of the present study was to compare the results of C line fracture patterns with other types of calcaneus fractures. A total of 25 surgically treated feet were involved. Regarding Sanders' classification, group 1 included fractures involving the C line (11 feet), and group 2 included fractures not involving the C line (14 feet). Patient age at admission, trauma date, and interval until surgery were obtained from the patients' medical records. The Bohler angles were determined from the radiographs. At the last follow-up visit, the radiologist graded subtalar arthritis using computed tomography. For clinical follow-up, the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society and Maryland scores were assessed. No significant differences were found in mean age, follow-up period, delay to surgery, or postoperative Bohler angle between the 2 groups. The mean preoperative Bohler angle was significantly low for group 1. Although not significantly different, the mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society and Maryland scores were lower for group 1 (81.9 and 84.3) than group 2 (87.8 and 92.0), and the median subtalar arthritis grade was greater for group 1 (score 2) than for group 2 (score 1.5). The worse results with C line fracture patterns despite satisfactory reduction might result from sinus tarsi artery damage. Angiographic investigations could clarify this theory in the future. Consequently, surgeons must inform and should hesitate to operate on patients with these highly comminuted C line calcaneus fractures. Copyright © 2011 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  15. Isolated medial meniscal tear in a Border Collie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, P A

    2006-01-01

    A three-year-old, female Border Collie was successfully treated for an isolated, torn, medial meniscus by arthroscopic meniscal tear resection. The dog returned to agility competition without recurrence of lameness.

  16. Medial shoe-ground pressure and specific running injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brund, René B K; Rasmussen, Sten; Nielsen, Rasmus O

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Achilles tendinitis, plantar fasciopathy and medial tibial stress syndrome injuries (APM-injuries) account for approximately 25% of the total number of running injuries amongst recreational runners. Reports on the association between static foot pronation and APM-injuries are contradic......Objectives Achilles tendinitis, plantar fasciopathy and medial tibial stress syndrome injuries (APM-injuries) account for approximately 25% of the total number of running injuries amongst recreational runners. Reports on the association between static foot pronation and APM...

  17. The medial collateral ligament of the elbow joint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Floris, S; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Dalstra, Michel

    1998-01-01

    Eighteen osteoligamentous elbow joint specimens were included in a study of the medial collateral ligament complex (MCL). The morphologic characteristics of the MCL were examined, and three-dimensional kinematic measurements were taken after selective ligament dissections were performed. On morph......Eighteen osteoligamentous elbow joint specimens were included in a study of the medial collateral ligament complex (MCL). The morphologic characteristics of the MCL were examined, and three-dimensional kinematic measurements were taken after selective ligament dissections were performed...

  18. Voice Outcome after Gore-Tex Medialization Thyroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Elnashar, Ismail; El-Anwar, Mohammad; Amer, Hazem; Quriba, Amal

    2015-01-01

    IntroductionAlthough medialization thyroplasty utilizing Gore-Tex (Gore and Associates, Newark, Delaware, United States) has been discussed in the literature, few reports have assessed voice quality afterward, and they did not use a full assessment protocol.Objective To assess the improvement in voice quality after medialization thyroplasty utilizing Gore-Tex in patients with glottic insufficiency of variable etiology.MethodsEleven patients with glottic insufficiency of different etiologies t...

  19. Persistent Medial Subluxation of the Ulna with Radiotrochlear Articulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir R. Kachooei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Two patients-one with a terrible triad fracture dislocation and one with an anterior olecranon fracture dislocation—weretreated for maltracking of the elbow (medial subluxation. The radial head articulated with the lateral trochlea while theulnar trochlear notch was perched over the medial trochlea. The late revision surgery could not correct the subluxationbecause the joints were accustomed to the new alignment, however the overall function was reasonable.

  20. Persistent Medial Subluxation of the Ulna with Radiotrochlear Articulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachooei, Amir R; Ring, David

    2017-07-01

    Two patients-one with a terrible triad fracture dislocation and one with an anterior olecranon fracture dislocation-were treated for maltracking of the elbow (medial subluxation). The radial head articulated with the lateral trochlea while the ulnar trochlear notch was perched over the medial trochlea. The late revision surgery could not correct the subluxation because the joints were accustomed to the new alignment, however the overall function was reasonable.

  1. Comparative techniques of medial rectus muscle retraction for endoscopic exposure of the medial intraconal space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Giant C; Freitag, Suzanne K; Kocharyan, Armine; Yoon, Michael K; Lefebvre, Daniel R; Bleier, Benjamin S

    2016-05-01

    The medial rectus muscle (MRM) is the medial boundary to the intraconal space of the orbit, and retraction of the MRM is oftentimes necessary for endoscopic removal of intraconal tumors, e.g., orbital hemangioma. We evaluated each of the reported methods of MRM retraction for endoscopic orbital surgery and quantified the degree of intraconal exposure conferred by each method. Eight orbits from four cadaver heads were dissected. In each orbit, medial orbital decompression was performed and the MRM was retracted by using four previously described techniques: (1) external MRM retraction at the globe insertion point by using vessel loop (external group), (2) transseptal MRM retraction by using vessel loop (transseptal group), (3) transchoanal retraction of the MRM by using vessel loop (choanal group), and (4) transseptal four-handed technique by using double ball retraction by a second surgeon (transseptal double ball group). The length, height, and area of exposure of the medial intraconal space were quantified and compared. The average ± standard deviation (SD) anterior-posterior exposures for the external group, transseptal group, and transseptal double ball group were 17.51 ± 3.39 mm, 16.59 ± 4.16 mm, and 18.0 ± 15.25 mm, respectively. The choanal group provided significantly less exposure (12.39 ± 3.44 mm, p = 0.049) than the other groups. The average ± SD vertical exposures for the transseptal group, choanal group, and transseptal double ball group were 12.53 ± 4.38 mm, 13.05 ± 5.86 mm, and 13.57 ± 3.74 mm, respectively. The external group provided significantly less exposure (4.51 ± 1.56 mm, p = 0.0072) than the other groups. The transseptal and transseptal double ball groups provided the greatest total access by surface area (58.88 ± 26.96 mm(2) and 62.94 ± 34.74 mm(2), respectively) compared with the external and choanal groups (34.82 ± 23.37 mm(2) and 43.10 ± 23.68 mm(2), respectively). Although the transseptal trajectory of MRM retraction was

  2. Medial Prefrontal Cortex and HPA Axis Roles in Generation of PTSD-Like Symptoms in SPS Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    new to the animal, with new wood chips and a new lid – a context in which the animals had never been fed. The famil- iar context in this experiment...Hercules, CA, USA) and transferred onto nitrocellulose membranes. Membranes were then blocked in Tris buffer with 5% non-fat milk (i.e. blocking

  3. Principles of the prolactin/vasoinhibin axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triebel, Jakob; Bertsch, Thomas; Bollheimer, Cornelius; Rios-Barrera, Daniel; Pearce, Christy F; Hüfner, Michael; Martínez de la Escalera, Gonzalo; Clapp, Carmen

    2015-11-15

    The hormonal family of vasoinhibins, which derive from the anterior pituitary hormone prolactin, are known for their inhibiting effects on blood vessel growth, vasopermeability, and vasodilation. As pleiotropic hormones, vasoinhibins act in multiple target organs and tissues. The generation, secretion, and regulation of vasoinhibins are embedded into the organizational principle of an axis, which integrates the hypothalamus, the pituitary, and the target tissue microenvironment. This axis is designated as the prolactin/vasoinhibin axis. Disturbances of the prolactin/vasoinhibin axis are associated with the pathogenesis of retinal and cardiac diseases and with diseases occurring during pregnancy. New phylogenetical, physiological, and clinical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Acute injuries of the axis vertebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, J.T. (United General Hospital, Sedro Woolley, WA (USA)); Harris, J.H. (Texas Univ., Houston, TX (USA). Dept. of Radiology)

    1989-08-01

    A retrospective analysis of 165 patients admitted to Hermann Hospital with acute injuries of the axis vertebra revealed 68 (41%) dens fractures, 62 (38%) cases of traumatic spondylolisthesis ('hangman's' fracture), 21 (13%) extension teardrop fractures, 10 (6%) hyperextension dislocations, and 2 (1.0%) fractures each of the laminae and spinous processes. Of the axis injuries 31 (18%) were limited to the axis body alone. Of these, 21 (61%) were hyperextension teardrop fractures and 10 (32%) were hyperextension dislocations. Axis injuries were associated with acute injuries of other cervical vertebrae in 14 (8%) of the patients. (orig./GDG).

  5. Medialization thyroplasty versus injection laryngoplasty: a cost minimization analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Samantha; Sun, Hongmei; Sarma, Sisira; Siu, Jennifer; Fung, Kevin; Sowerby, Leigh

    2017-02-20

    Medialization thyroplasty and injection laryngoplasty are widely accepted treatment options for unilateral vocal fold paralysis. Although both procedures result in similar clinical outcomes, little is known about the corresponding medical care costs. Medialization thyroplasty requires expensive operating room resources while injection laryngoplasty utilizes outpatient resources but may require repeated procedures. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to quantify the cost differences in adult patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis undergoing medialization thyroplasty versus injection laryngoplasty. Cost minimization analysis conducted using a decision tree model. A decision tree model was constructed to capture clinical scenarios for medialization thyroplasty and injection laryngoplasty. Probabilities for various events were obtained from a retrospective cohort from the London Health Sciences Centre, Canada. Costs were derived from the published literature and the London Health Science Centre. All costs were reported in 2014 Canadian dollars. Time horizon was 5 years. The study was conducted from an academic hospital perspective in Canada. Various sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess differences in procedure-specific costs and probabilities of key events. Sixty-three patients underwent medialization thyroplasty and 41 underwent injection laryngoplasty. Cost of medialization thyroplasty was C$2499.10 per patient whereas those treated with injection laryngoplasty cost C$943.19. Results showed that cost savings with IL were C$1555.91. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses suggested cost savings ranged from C$596 to C$3626. Treatment with injection laryngoplasty results in cost savings of C$1555.91 per patient. Our extensive sensitivity analyses suggest that switching from medialization thyroplasty to injection laryngoplasty will lead to a minimum cost savings of C$596 per patient. Considering the significant cost savings and similar

  6. TCDD alters medial epithelial cell differentiation during palatogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, B.D.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1989-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a widely distributed, persistent environmental contaminant that is teratogenic in mice, where it induces hydronephrosis and cleft palate. The incidence of clefting has been shown to be dose dependent after exposure on either gestation Day (GD) 10 or 12, although the embryo is more susceptible on GD 12. TCDD-exposed palatal shelves meet but do not fuse, and programmed cell death of the medial epithelial cells is inhibited. The mechanism of action through which TCDD alters the program of medial cell development has not been examined in earlier studies, and it is not known whether the mechanism is the same regardless of the dose or developmental stage of exposure. In this study, C57BL/6N mice, a strain sensitive to TCDD, were dosed orally on GD 10 or 12 with 0, 6, 12, 24, or 30 micrograms/kg body wt, in 10 ml corn oil/kg. Embryonic palatal shelves were examined on GD 14, 15, or 16. The degree of palatal closure, epithelial surface morphology, and cellular ultrastructure, the incorporation of [3H]TdR, the expression of EGF receptors, and the binding of 125I-EGF were assessed. After exposure on GD 10 or 12, TCDD altered the differentiation pathway of the medial epithelial cells. The palatal shelves were of normal size and overall morphology, but fusion of the medial epithelia of the opposing shelves did not occur. TCDD prevented programmed cell death of the medial peridermal cells. The expression of EGF receptors by medial cells continued through Day 16 and the receptors were able to bind ligand. The medial cells differentiated into a stratified, squamous, keratinizing epithelium. The shift in phenotype to an oral-like epithelium occurred after exposure on either GD 10 or 12. At the lower dose (6 micrograms/kg), fewer cleft palates were produced, but those shelves which did respond had a fully expressed shift in differentiation

  7. In vivo and 3-dimensional functional anatomy of the anterior bundle of the medial collateral ligament of the elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Junichi; Moritomo, Hisao; Masatomi, Takashi; Kataoka, Toshiyuki; Murase, Tsuyoshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Sugamoto, Kazuomi

    2012-08-01

    Although the anterior bundle of the medial collateral ligament (AMCL) is a critical stabilizer of the elbow joint, little information exists on in vivo and 3-dimensional functional anatomy of the AMCL. The purposes of this study were to investigate in vivo changes in the length of the AMCL during elbow flexion and to clarify the 3-dimensional functional anatomy of the AMCL. We created 3-dimensional models of the AMCL and bones from computed tomography data of 4 healthy elbows in 5 different elbow positions. The AMCL was subdivided into 9 ligaments. We calculated changes in lengths of ligaments during flexion and related ligament origins to the axis of rotation of the elbow joint. There were 4 uniquely configured isometric ligaments, where their origins aligned broadly along the course of the axis of rotation in the coronal plane. The medially originating ligaments inserted on the posterior portion of the tubercle of the coronoid process, whereas the laterally originating ligaments inserted on its anterior portion. There were 5 non-isometric ligaments, 3 of which had origins proximal to the axis and became taut only in extension and the other 2 having origins distal to the axis and becoming taut only in flexion. Isometric ligaments within the AMCL do not originate from a narrow area; rather, they originate from a broader area that extends more medially in the coronal plane than previously thought, which explains how the AMCL reconciles isometricity and robustness. The proximal and distal ligaments act as checkreins that work only at the limits of elbow motion. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Lateral–Medial Dissociation in Orbitofrontal Cortex–Hypothalamus Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Satoshi; Osada, Takahiro; Ogawa, Akitoshi; Tanaka, Masaki; Wada, Hiroyuki; Yoshizawa, Yasunori; Imai, Yoshio; Machida, Toru; Akahane, Masaaki; Shirouzu, Ichiro; Konishi, Seiki

    2016-01-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is involved in cognitive functions, and is also closely related to autonomic functions. The OFC is densely connected with the hypothalamus, a heterogeneous structure controlling autonomic functions that can be divided into two major parts: the lateral and the medial. Resting-state functional connectivity has allowed us to parcellate the cerebral cortex into putative functional areas based on the changes in the spatial pattern of connectivity in the cerebral cortex when a seed point is moved from one voxel to another. In the present high spatial-resolution fMRI study, we investigate the connectivity-based organization of the OFC with reference to the hypothalamus. The OFC was parcellated using resting-state functional connectivity in an individual subject approach, and then the functional connectivity was examined between the parcellated areas in the OFC and the lateral/medial hypothalamus. We found a functional double dissociation in the OFC: the lateral OFC (the lateral orbital gyrus) was more likely connected with the lateral hypothalamus, whereas the medial OFC (the medial orbital and rectal gyri) was more likely connected with the medial hypothalamus. These results demonstrate the fundamental heterogeneity of the OFC, and suggest a potential neural basis of the OFC–hypothalamic functional interaction. PMID:27303281

  9. Anatomic basis of perforator flaps of medial vastus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Heping; Wang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Fahui; Yue, Suqin

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate anatomical features of perforating branch flaps based on the muscular branches of the medial vastus muscle and to seek a new, applicable technique that could be used in repairing soft tissue defects around human knees. In this study, the origin, the course, the branches, the distribution, and the distal anastomosis of the muscular branch of the medial vastus muscle were observed in 30 sides of adult cadaveric lower limb specimens with the adductor tubercle, the patella midpoint, and the inguinal ligament midpoint as the observation markers. The specimens had been perfused arterially with red gelatin before they were supplied. It was observed that the femoral artery gave constant muscular branches into the medial vastus muscle at the tip of the femoral triangle. The artery entered the muscle via the hilum and ran laterally downwards along the muscular bundle until it reached the lateral patella to anastomose with the arterial circle around the bone. Along its course, it also gave 1-3 (1/77%) musculocutaneous perforating branches (0.5-0.9 mm in diameter). It then extended vertically through the medial vastus muscle into the deep fascia and ran superficially to the overlying skin of the muscle. A flap based on the perforating branch of the medial vastus muscle could be harvested at a size of about 8.5 cm x 15.0 cm and might be transferred retrograde to repair the soft tissue defect around the knee.

  10. Excised larynx evaluation of subthyroid cartilage approach to medialization thyroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, James D; Hoffman, Matthew R; Scholp, Austin; Devine, Erin E; Jiang, Jack J; McCulloch, Timothy M

    2018-03-01

    To describe an alternative approach to medialization thyroplasty involving dissection underneath the thyroid cartilage with placement of a Gore-Tex implant, and to evaluate its effect on a range of phonatory measures using an excised canine larynx model. Animal model. On each of eight excised canine larynges, the conditions of normal, paralysis, medialization thyroplasty by standard transthyroid cartilage approach, and medialization thyroplasty by experimental subthyroid cartilage approach were performed. Aerodynamic, acoustic, and mucosal wave parameters were measured for each condition. Compared to the vocal fold paralysis state, both the transthyroid and subthyroid approaches for Gore-Tex insertion resulted in significant decreases in phonation threshold pressure and phonation threshold flow. Both approaches also significantly decreased percent jitter, decreased percent shimmer, and improved signal-to-noise ratio. The mucosal wave was preserved after insertion of the Gore-Tex implant for both approaches. For all the phonatory measures except phonation threshold flow, there were no significant differences between the transthyroid and subthyroid approaches. Gore-Tex implantation via a subthyroid approach in an excised canine larynx model can produce effective medialization, preserve the mucosal wave, and significantly improve aerodynamic and acoustic parameters without meaningful difference compared to a traditional transthyroid approach. The subthyroid approach does not require creation of a thyroid cartilage window and could be a potentially valuable alternative method of performing medialization thyroplasty. NA. Laryngoscope, 128:675-681, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Typing of MRI in medial meniscus degeneration in relation to radiological grade in medial compartmental osteoarthritis of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Nobuhito; Koshino, Tomihisa; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakai, Naotaka; Takagi, Toshitaka; Takeuchi, Ryohei [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-10-01

    The advancement of degeneration of 50 medial menisci in patients with medial compartmental osteoarthritic knees (OA) were evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The average age of the patients was 66.6 years (range, 39 to 86). According to a radiographical grading system, 6 knees were classified as Grade 1, 24 as Grade 2, 16 as Grade 3, and 4 as Grade 4. The extent and the location of a high intensity region in MRI were observed in 3 parts of the meniscus, namely, the anterior, middle and posterior part. In Grade 1, no high intensity region was observed in 3 knees, and a high intensity region was observed only in the posterior part in 2 knees. A high intensity region was observed from the medial to the posterior part in 13 knees, and only in the posterior part in 10 knees of Grade 2; from the medial to the posterior part in 12 knees, and only in the posterior part in 3 knees of Grade 3, and from the anterior to the posterior part in 2 knees of Grade 4. The shape of the high intensity region in the medial meniscus was classified into 5 types, as follows: Type 1, there was no high intensity region; Type 2, the high intensity region was observed to be restricted within the meniscus; Type 3, the high intensity region resembled a horizontal tear; Type 4, the high intensity region was observed as all of the medial joint space without a marginal area; Type 5, the high intensity region was observed as all of the medial joint space. In Grade 1, 3 knees were classified as Type 1, and 2 knees as Type 2; in Grade 2, 7 knees as Type 2, and 13 knees as Type 3, and 4 knees into Type 4; in Grade 3, 6 knees as Type 3, and 7 knees as Type 4; and in Grade 4, 2 knees as Type 4, and 2 knees as Type 5. These findings might suggest that the degeneration of medial meniscus in the medial type of OA was accelerated by mechanical stress due to varus deformity. (author)

  12. Typing of MRI in medial meniscus degeneration in relation to radiological grade in medial compartmental osteoarthritis of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Nobuhito; Koshino, Tomihisa; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakai, Naotaka; Takagi, Toshitaka; Takeuchi, Ryohei

    1998-01-01

    The advancement of degeneration of 50 medial menisci in patients with medial compartmental osteoarthritic knees (OA) were evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The average age of the patients was 66.6 years (range, 39 to 86). According to a radiographical grading system, 6 knees were classified as Grade 1, 24 as Grade 2, 16 as Grade 3, and 4 as Grade 4. The extent and the location of a high intensity region in MRI were observed in 3 parts of the meniscus, namely, the anterior, middle and posterior part. In Grade 1, no high intensity region was observed in 3 knees, and a high intensity region was observed only in the posterior part in 2 knees. A high intensity region was observed from the medial to the posterior part in 13 knees, and only in the posterior part in 10 knees of Grade 2; from the medial to the posterior part in 12 knees, and only in the posterior part in 3 knees of Grade 3, and from the anterior to the posterior part in 2 knees of Grade 4. The shape of the high intensity region in the medial meniscus was classified into 5 types, as follows: Type 1, there was no high intensity region; Type 2, the high intensity region was observed to be restricted within the meniscus; Type 3, the high intensity region resembled a horizontal tear; Type 4, the high intensity region was observed as all of the medial joint space without a marginal area; Type 5, the high intensity region was observed as all of the medial joint space. In Grade 1, 3 knees were classified as Type 1, and 2 knees as Type 2; in Grade 2, 7 knees as Type 2, and 13 knees as Type 3, and 4 knees into Type 4; in Grade 3, 6 knees as Type 3, and 7 knees as Type 4; and in Grade 4, 2 knees as Type 4, and 2 knees as Type 5. These findings might suggest that the degeneration of medial meniscus in the medial type of OA was accelerated by mechanical stress due to varus deformity. (author)

  13. Traumatic fragmented medial coronoid process in a Chihuahua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, H S; Wheeler, J L; Manley, P A

    2009-01-01

    Fragmented medial coronoid process (FMCP) is a disease process that has not previously been reported in toy-breed dogs. This report describes a presumptive case of FMCP in a 14-month-old Chihuahua that was presented for evaluation approximately four weeks following acute onset of moderate lameness in the left forelimb. Definitive diagnosis of a fragmented medial coronoid process was based upon computed tomography (CT) scan. A CT scan also demonstrated moderate joint incongruity in the affected elbow. Surgical removal of the fragment and subtotal coronoidectomy were performed via a medial arthrotomy. An ulnar ostectomy was also performed to address joint incongruity. Histology of specimens removed at surgery did not demonstrate evidence of microdamage as characteristic of FMCP in large breed dogs, and instead, suggested that the fracture was acute and traumatic in nature. Rapid return to function was observed following surgery.

  14. Idiopathic inflammatory medial meatal fibrotizing otitis presenting in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopsu, Erkki; Pitkäranta, Anne

    2008-04-01

    Acquired atresia of the ear canal presents rarely in children. Idiopathic inflammatory medial meatal fibrotizing otitis (IMFO) evidently has its own distinct etiopathologic findings causing acquired ear canal atresia. Two IMFO children treated and followed-up at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology of Helsinki University Hospital. Clinical and radiologic evaluation of 2 children with IMFO solely affecting the glabrous skin over the osseous part of the ear canal and the tympanic membrane. Review of identical cases of the acquired postinflammatory or inflammatory medial meatal atresia in children reported in association with literature. Idiopathic inflammatory medial meatal fibrotizing otitis, affecting solely the glabrous skin on the tympanic membrane and the osseous part of the external ear canals, is manifesting in 2 children without ongoing chronic middle ear infection. The etiopathologic findings or pathophysiology of IMFO is speculative. The success of surgical correction of the already-formed fibrous atresia has not been established.

  15. Gore-Tex medialization laryngoplasty for treatment of dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricker, Ryan M; deSilva, Brad W; Forrest, L Arick

    2010-04-01

    Gore-Tex medialization laryngoplasty is a well described procedure for the management of glottal incompetence with associated phonatory disturbance. Limited literature exists describing the use of this procedure in the management of dysphagia. We describe our experience with Gore-Tex medialization laryngoplasty and the treatment of dysphagia. Case series with chart review. Tertiary referral center. Between April 2000 and September 2008, 189 Gore-Tex medialization laryngoplasties were performed on 180 patients by the senior author. Complete records and analysis were available for and performed on 121 procedures for 113 patients. The main outcome measures were discontinuation of gastrostomy tube (g-tube) use or avoidance of g-tube, as well as clinical subjective improvement in swallowing function. Fifty-seven of 113 (50%) patients had complaints of dysphagia at presentation, with 47 of 57 (82%) having an objective swallowing evaluation. Thirty-two of 47 (68%) had documented penetration and/or aspiration. Twenty of 57 (35%) patients with dysphagia required g-tubes for alimentation. Eleven of 20 (55%) patients were able to discontinue g-tube use after Gore-Tex medialization laryngoplasty, and an additional five patients with aspiration were able to avoid need for g-tubes with Gore-Tex medialization laryngoplasty and swallowing therapy. Gore-Tex medialization laryngoplasty is a well tolerated and well described treatment for the management of glottal incompetence. The procedure is an appropriate adjunct in dysphagia management for the appropriate patient population. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Compartmental endoscopic surgical anatomy of the medial intraconal orbital space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleier, Benjamin S; Healy, David Y; Chhabra, Nipun; Freitag, Suzanne

    2014-07-01

    Surgical management of intraconal pathology represents the next frontier in endoscopic endonasal surgery. Despite this, the medial intraconal space remains a relatively unexplored region, secondary to its variable and technically demanding anatomy. The purpose of this study is to define the neurovascular structures in this region and introduce a compartmentalized approach to enhance surgical planning. This study was an institutional review board (IRB)-exempt endoscopic anatomic study in 10 cadaveric orbits. After dissection of the medial intraconal space, the pattern and trajectory of the oculomotor nerve and ophthalmic arterial arborizations were analyzed. The position of all vessels as well as the length of the oculomotor trunk and branches relative to the sphenoid face were calculated. A mean of 1.5 arterial branches were identified (n = 15; range, 1-4) at a mean of 8.8 mm from the sphenoid face (range, 4-15 mm). The majority of the arteries (n = 7) inserted adjacent to the midline of medial rectus. The oculomotor nerve inserted at the level of the sphenoid face and arborized with a large proximal trunk 5.5 ± 1.1 mm in length and multiple branches extending 13.2 ± 2.7 mm from the sphenoid face. The most anterior nerve and vascular pedicle were identified at 17.0 and 15.0 mm from the sphenoid face, respectively. The neurovascular supply to the medial rectus muscle describes a varied but predictable pattern. This data allows the compartmentalization of the medial intraconal space into 3 zones relative to the neurovascular supply. These zones inform the complexity of the dissection and provide a guideline for safe medial rectus retraction relative to the fixed landmark of the sphenoid face. © 2014 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  17. Medial vs lateral unicompartmental knee arthrroplasty: clinical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiocchi, Andrea; Condello, Vincenzo; Madonna, Vincenzo; Bonomo, M; Zorzi, Claudio

    2017-06-07

    Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty (UKA) is a common procedure for the management of isolated osteoarthritis. UKA is considered less invasive compared to total knee arthroplasty, associated with less operative time, blood loss and faster recovery. Isolated lateral osteoarthritis is a relatively uncommon clinical problem, with an incidence about ten times lower than the medial compartment. In fact, lateral UKA are about 5-10% of the total amount of the UKAs. In addition, it's historically considered more challenging and with poorer results. The aim of this paper was to compare current indications, modes of failure, survivorship and clinical results of medial and lateral UKA by a narrative review of the latest literature.

  18. The role of the medial prefrontal cortex in achieving goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kenji; Tanaka, Keiji

    2004-04-01

    Achieving goals in changing environments requires the course of action to be selected on the basis of goal expectation and memory of action-outcome contingency. It is often also essential to evaluate action on the basis of immediate outcomes and the discrimination of early action steps from the final step towards the goal. Recently, in single-cell recordings in monkeys, the neuronal activity that appears to underlie these processes has been noted in the medial part of the prefrontal cortex. Medial prefrontal cells were also active when the subjects extracted the rules of a task in a novel environment. The processes described above might play important roles in rule learning.

  19. Assessment of collicular fractures of the medial malleous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skie, M; Woldenberg, L; Ebraheim, N; Jackson, W T

    1989-12-01

    Collicular fractures of the medial malleolus have been described in literature as early as 1950 by Bonnin and then by Pankovich in 1979, yet have been given relatively little attention in orthopaedic and radiologic literature. A precise knowledge of the anatomy of the deltoid ligament, and anterior and posterior colliculi in relation to obtained radiographs is important in the determination of whether a fracture is considered to be stable or unstable, and thus bears an impact on its treatment. The intent of this discussion is to review the structures which comprise the medial malleolus and the assessment of their involvement in acute injury.

  20. Olfactory inputs activate the medial entorhinal cortex via the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biella, G; de Curtis, M

    2000-04-01

    The lateral and medial regions of the entorhinal cortex differ substantially in terms of connectivity and pattern of activation. With regard to olfactory input, a detailed and extensive physiological map of the olfactory projection to the entorhinal cortex is missing, even if anatomic studies suggest that the olfactory afferents are confined to the lateral and rostral entorhinal region. We studied the contribution of the medial and lateral entorhinal areas to olfactory processing by analyzing the responses induced by lateral olfactory tract stimulation in different entorhinal subfields of the in vitro isolated guinea pig brain. The pattern of synaptic activation of the medial and lateral entorhinal regions was reconstructed either by performing simultaneous multisite recordings or by applying current source density analysis on field potential laminar profiles obtained with 16-channel silicon probes. Current source density analysis demonstrated the existence of a direct monosynaptic olfactory input into the superficial 300 microm of the most rostral part of the lateral entorhinal cortex exclusively, whereas disynaptic sinks mediated by associative fibers arising from the piriform cortex were observed at 100-350 microm depth in the entire lateral aspect of the cortex. No local field responses were recorded in the medial entorhinal region unless a large population spike was generated in the hippocampus (dentate gyrus and CA1 region) by a stimulus 3-5x the intensity necessary to obtain a maximal monosynaptic response in the piriform cortex. In these conditions, a late sink was recorded at a depth of 600-1000 microm in the medial entorhinal area (layers III-V) 10.6 +/- 0.9 (SD) msec after a population spike was simultaneously recorded in CA1. Diffuse activation of the medial entorhinal region was also obtained by repetitive low-intensity stimulation of the lateral olfactory tract at 2-8 Hz. Higher or lower stimulation frequencies did not induce hippocampal-medial

  1. Anatomy and biomechanics of the medial side of the knee and their surgical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPrade, Matthew D; Kennedy, Mitchell I; Wijdicks, Coen A; LaPrade, Robert F

    2015-06-01

    In order to reconstruct the medial knee to restore the original biomechanical function of its ligamentous structures, a thorough understanding of its anatomic placement and relationship with surrounding structures is required. To restore the knee to normal kinematics, the diagnosis and surgical approach have to be aligned, to successfully reconstruct the area of injury. Three important ligaments maintain primary medial knee stability: the superficial medial collateral ligament, posterior oblique ligament, and deep medial collateral ligament. It is important not to exclude the assistance that other ligaments of the medial knee provide, including support of patellar stability by the medial patellofemoral ligament and multiligamentous hamstring tendon attachments. Valgus gapping and medial knee stability is accounted for collectively by every primary medial knee stabilizing structure. The following will review the principal medial knee anatomic and biomechanical properties.

  2. Design of Off-Axis PIAACMC Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluzhnik, Eugene; Guyon, Olivier; Belikov, Ruslan; Kern, Brian; Bendek, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization Complex Mask Coronagraph (PIAACMC) provides an efficient way to control diffraction propagation effects caused by the central obstruction/segmented mirrors of the telescope. PIAACMC can be optimized in a way that takes into account both chromatic diffraction effects caused by the telescope obstructed aperture and tip/tilt sensitivity of the coronagraph. As a result, unlike classic PIAA, the PIAACMC mirror shapes are often slightly asymmetric even for an on-axis configuration and require more care in calculating off-axis shapes when an off-axis configuration is preferred. A method to design off-axis PIAA mirror shapes given an on-axis mirror design is presented. The algorithm is based on geometrical ray tracing and is able to calculate off-axis PIAA mirror shapes for an arbitrary geometry of the input and output beams. The method is demonstrated using the third generation PIAACMC design for WFIRST-AFTA (Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope-Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets) telescope. Geometrical optics design issues related to the off-axis diffraction propagation effects are also discussed.

  3. Association of frontal plane knee alignment with foot posture in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohi, Hiroshi; Iijima, Hirotaka; Aoyama, Tomoki; Kaneda, Eishi; Ohi, Kazuko; Abe, Kaoru

    2017-06-07

    To examine the association of radiographic frontal plane knee alignment with three-dimensional foot posture in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis (OA). Participants in orthopedic clinics with Kellgren/Lawrence (K/L) grade ≥1 (88 patients and 88 knees; age, 61-91 years; 65.9% female) were enrolled. An anteroposterior radiographic view was used to assess the anatomical axis angle (AAA) after subtracting a sex-specific correction factor. The three-dimensional foot posture was also evaluated. Multiple regression analyses showed that increased corrected AAA (i.e., valgus direction) was independently associated with a decrease in the hallux valgus angle (regression coefficient: -0.40 per degree, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.72, -0.09; P = 0.013) and increase in the pronation angle of the calcaneus relative to floor (regression coefficient: 0.33 per degree, 95% CI: 0.10, 0.56; P = 0.005) adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index. The relationship between the corrected AAA and hallux valgus angle strengthened (regression coefficient: -0.60 per degree, 95% CI: -1.08, -0.13; P = 0.014) in varus-aligned knees examined separately (63 knees). The other foot postures (navicular height, navicular height/foot length, and rearfoot angle) were not significantly associated with corrected AAA. Radiographic frontal plane knee alignment was associated with hallux valgus angle and calcaneus angle relative to the floor in patients with medial knee OA, particularly in varus-aligned knees. These results indicate a connection between altered frontal knee alignment and foot posture, which may be helpful in understanding the pathogenesis of altered foot posture observed in patients with knee OA.

  4. On the positive correlation between the percentage of acute fracture of medial orbital wall and the degree of injury of affected medial rectus muscle by CT image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lei; Wang Jue

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To study the correlation between the percentage of acute fracture of unilateral medial orbital wall and the degree of injury of medial rectus muscle on the same side and to explore the possibility of evaluating the degree of injury of medial rectus muscle according to the percentage of fracture of medial orbital wall on the same side undergoing examination and diagnosis of ocular trauma by use of CT scan. Method: To measure the span length of fracture of medial orbital wall, to calculate the fracture percentage, to measure the maximum widths of muscle belly of medial rectus muscle on affected and contralateral sides on CT images and to analyse statistically. Results: There is a significant positive correlation between the fracture percentage of medial orbital wall and the increase in amplitude of width of medial rectus muscle on the same side. Conclusion: The injury of medial rectus muscle was aggravated by the greater percentage of fracture of medial orbital wall, which could be used to assess the degree of injury of medial rectus muscle suffering fracture of lamina orbitalis.

  5. Medial posterior meniscal root tears are associated with development or worsening of medial tibiofemoral cartilage damage: the multicenter osteoarthritis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guermazi, Ali; Hayashi, Daichi; Jarraya, Mohamed; Roemer, Frank W; Zhang, Yuqing; Niu, Jingbo; Crema, Michel D; Englund, Martin; Lynch, John A; Nevitt, Michael C; Torner, James C; Lewis, Cora E; Felson, David T

    2013-09-01

    To assess the association of meniscal root tear with the development or worsening of tibiofemoral cartilage damage. Institutional review board approval and written informed consent from all subjects were obtained. A total of 596 knees with radiographically depicted osteoarthritis were randomly selected from the Multicenter Osteoarthritis study cohort. Cartilage damage was semiquantitatively assessed by using the Whole-Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score (WORMS) system (grades 0-6). Subjects were separated into three groups: root tear only, meniscal tear without root tear, and neither meniscal nor root tear. A log-binomial regression model was used to calculate the relative risks for knees to develop incident or progressing cartilage damage in the root tear group and the meniscal tear group, with the no tear group serving as a reference. In the medial tibiofemoral joint, there were 37 knees with isolated medial posterior root tear, 294 with meniscal tear without root tear, and 264 without meniscal or root tear. There were only two lateral posterior root tears, and no anterior root tears were found. Thus, the focus was on the medial posterior root tear. The frequency of severe cartilage damage (WORMS ≥ 5) was higher in the group with root tear than in the group without root or meniscal tear (76.7% vs 19.7%, P meniscal but no root tear (76.7% vs 65.2%, P = .055). Longitudinal analyses included 33 knees with isolated medial posterior root tear, 270 with meniscal tear, and 245 with no tear. Adjusted relative risk of cartilage loss was 2.03 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.18, 3.48) for the root tear group and 1.84 (95% CI: 1.32, 2.58) for the meniscal tear group. Isolated medial posterior meniscal root tear is associated with incident and progressive medial tibiofemoral cartilage loss.

  6. Disruption of neuroendocrine stress responses to acute ferret odor by medial, but not central amygdala lesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masini, Cher V; Sasse, Sarah K; Garcia, Robert J; Nyhuis, Tara J; Day, Heidi E W; Campeau, Serge

    2009-09-08

    Investigations of the neural pathways associated with responses to predators have implicated the medial amygdala (MeA) as an important region involved in defensive behaviors. To our knowledge, however, the involvement of the MeA in neuroendocrine responses to predator odor exposure has not been investigated. Therefore, the present study examined the effects of MeA disruption in rats exposed to ferret or control odor on hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activation. Bilateral lesions of the MeA were made in Sprague-Dawley rats with the neurotoxin ibotenic acid (10 microg/microl; 0.3 microl / side). As a control for regional specificity, additional groups of rats were given lesions in the central amygdala (CeA). One week after recovery, the rats were exposed to ferret or strawberry control towels in small cages to examine HPA axis responses as determined by plasma corticosterone and adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) levels. Rats with complete bilateral MeA but not CeA lesions displayed significantly less corticosterone and ACTH release compared to sham-operated control rats only in the ferret odor conditions. These results suggest that the MeA is an important structure involved in the HPA axis responses to predator odors, in support of previous studies investigating behavioral responses under similar conditions.

  7. How does passive lengthening change the architecture of the human medial gastrocnemius muscle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsterlee, Bart; D'Souza, Arkiev; Gandevia, Simon C; Herbert, Robert D

    2017-04-01

    There are few comprehensive investigations of the changes in muscle architecture that accompany muscle contraction or change in muscle length in vivo. For this study, we measured changes in the three-dimensional architecture of the human medial gastrocnemius at the whole muscle level, the fascicle level and the fiber level using anatomical MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Data were obtained from eight subjects under relaxed conditions at three muscle lengths. At the whole muscle level, a 5.1% increase in muscle belly length resulted in a reduction in both muscle width (mean change -2.5%) and depth (-4.8%). At the fascicle level, muscle architecture measurements obtained at 3,000 locations per muscle showed that for every millimeter increase in muscle-tendon length above the slack length, average fascicle length increased by 0.46 mm, pennation angle decreased by 0.27° (0.17° in the superficial part and 0.37° in the deep part), and fascicle curvature decreased by 0.18 m -1 There was no evidence of systematic variation in architecture along the muscle's long axis at any muscle length. At the fiber level, analysis of the diffusion signal showed that passive lengthening of the muscle increased diffusion along fibers and decreased diffusion across fibers. Using these measurements across scales, we show that the complex shape changes that muscle fibers, whole muscles, and aponeuroses of the medial gastrocnemius undergo in vivo cannot be captured by simple geometrical models. This justifies the need for more complex models that link microstructural changes in muscle fibers to macroscopic changes in architecture. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Novel MRI and DTI techniques revealed changes in three-dimensional architecture of the human medial gastrocnemius during passive lengthening. Whole muscle belly width and depth decreased when the muscle lengthened. Fascicle length, pennation, and curvature changed uniformly or near uniformly along the muscle during passive lengthening

  8. Human angular vestibulo-ocular reflex axis disconjugacy: relationship to magnetic resonance imaging evidence of globe translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demer, Joseph L; Crane, Benjamin T; Tian, Jun-Ru

    2005-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrates that the lateral rectus pulley shifts 0.5 mm inferiorly relative to the medial rectus in 20 degrees upgaze, but 0.5 mm superiorly in 20 degrees downgaze, whereas the globe translates 0.7 mm nasally in adduction and 0.2 mm nasally in abduction. If pulleys influence ocular kinematics, these effects would predict disconjugate alterations of the yaw vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) rotational axes. Binocular eye and head movements were recorded using three-dimensional search coils in 8 humans (age 24 +/- 2 years, mean +/- SE) undergoing directionally randomized, transient, whole-body yaw (2800 degrees /s2 peak) in darkness while fixating straight ahead, as well as +/- 18 degrees vertically. Eye and head rotational velocity axes were expressed as quaternions in Listing coordinates. In the initial 70 ms, the ocular axis varied with vertical gaze by one-quarter the angle of target elevation, but this effect summed significantly with a disconjugate effect of horizontal duction. In central gaze, the mean adducting eye (AD) rotational axis tilted 3.4 +/- 0.8 degrees forward relative to the head axis, while that of the abducting eye (AB) tilted 0.6 +/- 0.8 degrees backward. In downgaze, the AD rotational axis tilted 8.6 +/- 1.0 degrees forward, and AB 5.7 +/- 1.2 degrees forward. In upgaze, the AD rotational axis tilted backward by 0.1 +/- 0.7 degrees, and AB backward 3.4 +/- 0.9 degrees. We suggest that nasal globe translation relative to the fixed trochlea produces binocular extorsion accounting for yaw VOR axis disconjugacy, and thus a horizontal duction dependence in VOR rotational axis summating with classic dependence of VOR axis on vertical gaze. Confirmation of predicted duction-dependent VOR disconjugacy supports the idea that rectus pulleys influence kinematics for all eye movements.

  9. Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome : Diagnosis, Treatment and Outcome Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winters, M.

    2017-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS), also known as shin splints, is one of the most common sports injuries. Although 20% of the jumping and running athletes have MTSS at some point while engaging in sporting activities, we know little about it. There is a lack of knowledge regarding making the

  10. MR imaging findings of medial tibial crest friction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klontzas, Michail E., E-mail: miklontzas@gmail.com; Akoumianakis, Ioannis D., E-mail: ioannis.akoumianakis@gmail.com; Vagios, Ilias, E-mail: iliasvagios@gmail.com; Karantanas, Apostolos H., E-mail: akarantanas@gmail.com

    2013-11-01

    Objective: Medial tibial condyle bone marrow edema (BME), associated with soft tissue edema (STe) surrounding the medial collateral ligament, was incidentally observed in MRI examinations of young and athletic individuals. The aim of the present study was to 1. Prospectively investigate the association between these findings and coexistence of localized pain, and 2. Explore the possible contribution of the tibial morphology to its pathogenesis. Methods: The medial tibial condyle crest was evaluated in 632 knee MRI examinations. The angle and depth were measured by two separate evaluators. The presence of STe and BME was recorded. A third evaluator blindly assessed the presence of pain at this site. Results: BME associated with STe was found in 24 patients (with no history of previous trauma, osteoarthritis, tumor or pes anserine bursitis). The mean crest angle was 151.3° (95%CI 147.4–155.3°) compared to 159.4° (95%CI 158.8–160°) in controls (Mann–Whitney test, P < 0.0001). MRI findings were highly predictive of localized pain (sensitivity 92% specificity 99%, Fisher's exact test, P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Friction at the medial tibial condyle crest is a painful syndrome. MRI is a highly specific and sensitive imaging modality for its diagnosis.

  11. MR imaging findings of medial tibial crest friction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klontzas, Michail E.; Akoumianakis, Ioannis D.; Vagios, Ilias; Karantanas, Apostolos H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Medial tibial condyle bone marrow edema (BME), associated with soft tissue edema (STe) surrounding the medial collateral ligament, was incidentally observed in MRI examinations of young and athletic individuals. The aim of the present study was to 1. Prospectively investigate the association between these findings and coexistence of localized pain, and 2. Explore the possible contribution of the tibial morphology to its pathogenesis. Methods: The medial tibial condyle crest was evaluated in 632 knee MRI examinations. The angle and depth were measured by two separate evaluators. The presence of STe and BME was recorded. A third evaluator blindly assessed the presence of pain at this site. Results: BME associated with STe was found in 24 patients (with no history of previous trauma, osteoarthritis, tumor or pes anserine bursitis). The mean crest angle was 151.3° (95%CI 147.4–155.3°) compared to 159.4° (95%CI 158.8–160°) in controls (Mann–Whitney test, P < 0.0001). MRI findings were highly predictive of localized pain (sensitivity 92% specificity 99%, Fisher's exact test, P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Friction at the medial tibial condyle crest is a painful syndrome. MRI is a highly specific and sensitive imaging modality for its diagnosis

  12. Traumatic 6th Nerve Palsy Managed with Medial Rectus Recession ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traumatic paralytic esotropia due to abducent nerve palsy is not uncommon but difficult to manage. It has less complex presentations having only the lateral rectus muscle affected with deviation in only horizontal plane and no torsional deviation exists. Long standing cases are associated with medial rectus contracture of.

  13. Cervical Pedicle Screw Placement Using Medial Funnel Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Hwan; Choi, Byung Kwan; Han, In Ho; Choi, Won Gyu; Nam, Kyoung Hyup; Kim, Hwan Soo

    2017-09-01

    Cervical pedicle screw (CPS) placement is very challenging due to high risk of neurovascular complications. We devised a new technique (medial funnel technique) to improve the accuracy and feasibility of CPS placement. We reviewed 28 consecutive patients undergoing CPS instrumentation using the medial funnel technique. Their mean age was 51.4 years (range, 30-81 years). Preoperative diagnosis included degenerative disease (n=5), trauma (n=22), and infection (n=1). Screw perforations were graded with the following criteria: grade 0 having no perforation, grade 1 having 50% of screw diameter. Grades 0 and 1 were considered as correct position. The degree of perforation was determined by 2 junior neurosurgeons and 1 senior neurosurgeon. A total of 88 CPSs were inserted. The rate of correct placement was 94.3%; grade 0, 54 screws; grade 1, 29 screws; grade 2, 4 screws; and grade 3, 1 screw. No neurovascular complications or failure of instrumentation occurred. In perforated screws (34 screws), lateral perforations were 4 and medial perforations were 30. We performed CPS insertion using medial funnel technique and achieved 94.3% (83 of 88) of correct placement. And it can decrease lateral perforation.

  14. [Medial unicompartmental knee prosthesis for patients with unicompartmental gonarthrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, N.P.; Deutman, R.; Raay, J.J. van; Horn, J.R. van

    2004-01-01

    The function and survival time of unicompartmental knee prostheses for patients with severe gonarthrosis have been improved the past few years by developments in their design, the instrumentarium and the surgical technique. A medial unicompartmental knee prosthesis may be indicated in patients with

  15. Medial unicondylar knee arthroplasty combined to anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Alberto; Legnani, Claudio; Terzaghi, Clara; Iori, Stefano; Borgo, Enrico

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate the outcomes of patients who underwent combined medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The hypothesis was that this procedure would lead to a high success rate in patients affected by isolated medial unicompartmental osteoarthritis and concomitant ACL deficiency. Fourteen patients with primary ACL lesion and concomitant medial compartment symptomatic osteoarthritis treated from 2006 to 2010 were followed up for an average time of 26.7 months (SD 4.2). Assessment included KOOS score, Oxford Knee score, American Knee Society scores, WOMAC index of osteoarthritis, Tegner activity level and objective examination including instrumented laxity test with KT-1000 arthrometer. Radiological assessment was done with standard simple radiographs in order to get information about any presence of loosening of the components. KOOS score, OKS, WOMAC index and the AKSS improved significantly after surgery (p reconstruction is a valid therapeutic option for the treatment of combined medial unicompartmental knee osteoarthritis and ACL deficiency in young and active patients and confirms subjective and objective clinical improvement 2 years after surgery. The use of a fixed-bearing prosthesis represents a reliable feature as it allows to overcome problems of improper ligament tensioning during the implantation of the components. IV.

  16. Medial peritalar fracture dislocation of the talar body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob B. Stirton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Peritalar fracture dislocations typically involve the talar neck and are classified according to Hawkins. To our knowledge, peritalar fracture dislocation involving the talar body has not been formally reported. In this article, we describe a case of peritalar fracture dislocation of the talar body. Keywords: Peritalar dislocation, Talus fracture, Talar body fracture dislocation, Medial subtalar dislocation

  17. Default network connectivity in medial temporal lobe amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Scott M; Salat, David H; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2012-10-17

    There is substantial overlap between the brain regions supporting episodic memory and the default network. However, in humans, the impact of bilateral medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage on a large-scale neural network such as the default mode network is unknown. To examine this issue, resting fMRI was performed with amnesic patients and control participants. Seed-based functional connectivity analyses revealed robust default network connectivity in amnesia in cortical default network regions such as medial prefrontal cortex, posterior medial cortex, and lateral parietal cortex, as well as evidence of connectivity to residual MTL tissue. Relative to control participants, decreased posterior cingulate cortex connectivity to MTL and increased connectivity to cortical default network regions including lateral parietal and medial prefrontal cortex were observed in amnesic patients. In contrast, somatomotor network connectivity was intact in amnesic patients, indicating that bilateral MTL lesions may selectively impact the default network. Changes in default network connectivity in amnesia were largely restricted to the MTL subsystem, providing preliminary support from MTL amnesic patients that the default network can be fractionated into functionally and structurally distinct components. To our knowledge, this is the first examination of the default network in amnesia.

  18. Anatomical and magnetic resonance imaging study of the medial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sally Mahmood Mohamed Hussin Omar

    2015-07-10

    Jul 10, 2015 ... Anatomical and magnetic resonance imaging study of the medial collateral ligament of the ankle joint. Sally Mahmood Mohamed Hussin Omar a. , Fardos Ahmed El-Kalaa a. ,. El Sebai Farag Ali b. , Ali Ali Abd El-Karim c. , Nancy Mohamed El Sekily d,. * a Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of ...

  19. Treatment of medial tibial stress syndrome: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winters, Marinus; Eskes, Michel; Weir, Adam; Moen, Maarten H.; Backx, Frank J. G.; Bakker, Eric W. P.

    2013-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a common exercise-induced leg injury among athletes and military personnel. Several treatment options have been described in the literature, but it remains unclear which treatment is most effective. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the

  20. Medial Malleolar Fractures: An Anatomic Survey Determining the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E‑mail: robinsonestevespires@gmail. com. Introduction. Ankle fractures are one of the most common injuries treated by the orthopedic surgeon.[1]. Although nondisplaced medial malleolar fractures are suitable for conservative treatment, in the vast majority of cases the fractures are displaced and require surgical treatment.

  1. Intrinsic factors associated with medial tibial stress syndrome in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is the most common lower-leg injury in athletes, and is thought to be caused by bony overload. To prevent MTSS, both pathophysiological and aetiological factors specific to MTSS need to be identified. The intrinsic risk factors that contribute to the development of MTSS are ...

  2. Comparison of Medial and Posterior Surgical Approaches in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-26

    Oct 26, 2017 ... children, both surgical approaches revealed similar functional and radiological outcomes ... posterior approach. Two different surgical approaches (medial and posterior) were used by two surgeons with at least 5 years of trauma surgery ..... approach in management of type III supracondylar fractures of the.

  3. Conventional trans‑tibial versus anatomic medial portal technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we aimed to determine if there is any difference between the clinical outcomes of two most commonly used drilling techniques; which are conventional trans‑tibial (TT) drilling of femoral tunnel and anatomic preparation of femoral tunnel through medial portal (MP), in patients who underwent ACL reconstruction.

  4. DOES CONJUNCTIVAL INCISION INFLUENCE MEDIAL RECTUS MUSCLE RECESSIONS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina G. Dimitrova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the role of conjunctival incision in medial rectus muscle recessions as surgical treatment of choice in esotropia. Methods: The study included 200 patients (370 eyes, operated on for esotropia in the period of 2000-2014. 170 of them (340 eyes underwent bilateral medial rectus muscle recessions and 30- unilateral medial rectus muscle recession for various forms of alternating/alternated esotropia. We compared the effect (Δ/mm recession of fornix and limbal approach. Diagnostic, surgical and statistical methods were used. Results: Limbal incision was performed on 110 patients (55,3% and fornix approach was done in 89 cases (44,7%. The mean effect corrected prism diopters for each mm of recession (Δ/mm differed significantly in the two groups, being bigger in cases with fornix incision (p<0,001 . Conclusion: The type of conjunctival incision in medial rectus muscle recessions have an influence not only on the cosmetic appearance, but also on the functional result. This is especially true for large recessions.

  5. Medial supracondylar stress fracture in an adolescent pitcher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Eric Y.; Chung, Christine B. [VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, CA (United States); University of California, San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Fronek, Jan [Scripps Healthcare, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2014-01-15

    We report the occurrence of a medial supracondylar stress fracture in an adolescent pitcher. To our knowledge, this fracture has not been described in the literature, and awareness of this entity allows initiation of therapy and precludes further unnecessary work-up. The radiographic, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging appearances are reviewed and the mechanism of injury is discussed. (orig.)

  6. A high speed vertical axis wind machine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    South, P

    1976-01-01

    The operational feasibility of vertical axis wind machines was investigated at the National Aeronautical Establishment in Ottawa through use of a wind tunnel and a rotor with blades curved in a skipping rope shape...

  7. Actuator assembly including a single axis of rotation locking member

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitmeyer, James N.; Benson, Dwayne M.; Geck, Kellan P.

    2009-12-08

    An actuator assembly including an actuator housing assembly and a single axis of rotation locking member fixedly attached to a portion of the actuator housing assembly and an external mounting structure. The single axis of rotation locking member restricting rotational movement of the actuator housing assembly about at least one axis. The single axis of rotation locking member is coupled at a first end to the actuator housing assembly about a Y axis and at a 90.degree. angle to an X and Z axis providing rotation of the actuator housing assembly about the Y axis. The single axis of rotation locking member is coupled at a second end to a mounting structure, and more particularly a mounting pin, about an X axis and at a 90.degree. angle to a Y and Z axis providing rotation of the actuator housing assembly about the X axis. The actuator assembly is thereby restricted from rotation about the Z axis.

  8. [A comparative study of split-root and medial resistance removal in extraction of medially impacted tooth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ren-yi; Fang, Ping-juan; Xiao, Jin; Liu, Deng-feng; Xu, Xing-qiao; Hu, Rong-dang

    2012-06-01

    To compare the operating time, root fracture and postoperative complications between split-root extraction and medial resistance removal in extraction of mandibular small-angle impacted third molars, to evaluate the advantages of split-root extraction in medially impacted tooth extraction. Forty male patients with bilaterally mandibular medial small-angle impacted third molars, having multiple roots in panoramic films, were selected. The impacted teeth on one side were extracted by using split-root method, while the similar impacted teeth on the other side were extracted by using medial resistance removal method. The operating time, root fracture, postoperative pain, facial edema, and mouth opening were recorded. SPSS11.5 software package was used and paired t test was performed to analyze the data. There were significant differences in operating time and root fracture between the two methods (Pimpacted third molars with multiple roots, the operating time of split-root extraction is shorter. The root fracture possibility of split-root extraction is smaller, and postoperative complications are less common.

  9. Medial sural perforator plus island flap: a modification of the medial sural perforator island flap for the reconstruction of postburn knee flexion contractures using burned calf skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Seog; Kim, Eui Sik; Hwang, Jae Ha; Lee, Sam Yong

    2012-06-01

    The medial sural perforator island flap may be suitable for the reconstruction of postburn knee flexion contractures. However, postburn knee flexion contractures are usually associated with burns of the calf, which is the donor site of the medial sural perforator flap. Thus, there are concerns regarding the safety of raising medial sural perforator flaps from burned calves. Between 2005 and 2010, 12 patients (11 males and 1 female) with postburn knee flexion contractures associated with second-degree burns of the calf (that healed by secondary intention) underwent reconstruction using a medial sural perforator island flap (based on the medial sural perforator) or medial sural perforator plus island flap (based on the medial sural perforator and other vessels that are pedicles of the sural flaps). All 12 flaps, which ranged in size from 7 to 15 cm in width and from 9 to 23 cm in length, survived completely. Of the 12 flaps, three were medial sural perforator island flaps and nine were medial sural perforator plus island flaps. Of the nine medial sural perforator plus island flaps, two included the lesser saphenous vein, five included the lesser saphenous vein and its accompanying artery, and two included the lesser saphenous vein, the distal sural nerve and their accompanying arteries. Healing of all donor sites was uncomplicated. All patients were completely satisfied with their results. Although this series is not large, the authors are convinced that some reliable medial sural perforators are usually present under second-degree burned calf skin that healed by secondary intention, and that the medial sural perforator island flap or the medial sural perforator plus island flap can be safely used even though the skin may not be as pliable as normal skin. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bilaterally painful anomalous insertion of the medial meniscus in a volleyball player with Marfanoid features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, M D; Richardson, A B

    1993-01-01

    A female volleyball player with a Marfanoid habitus had bilateral symptomatic anomalous insertions of the medial meniscus. Arthroscopic resection of the anomalous portions of the medial menisci as they attached to the anterior cruciate ligament successfully eliminated her symptoms.

  11. Long-term results after external vocal fold medialization thyroplasty with titanium vocal fold medialization implant (TVFMI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider-Stickler, Berit; Gaechter, Johannes; Bigenzahn, Wolfgang

    2013-05-01

    Since its introduction in 1999 by Friedrich, the titanium vocal fold medialization implant (TVFMI) is widely used for medialization thyroplasty in glottal closure insufficiency. The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term functional outcome after medialization thyroplasty using TVFMI. Between 1999 and 2009 123 patients (mean age 55.3 years, 76 male and 47 female) underwent medialization thyroplasty with the TVFMI (96 left, 27 right). For purpose of long-term follow-up, 33 patients could be examined. Prior to surgery, about 8 weeks and at least 1 year after surgery perceptual, acoustic, aerodynamic and videolaryngostroboscopic examinations have been performed. The interval between surgery and long-term follow-up was on average 57 (23-120) months. None of the 123 patients presented early major postoperative complications (e.g. implant dislocation, dyspnoea with need of tracheostomy, wound infection, postoperative bleeding). In three patients the TVFMI had to be removed 2-6 months after surgery due to granulation tissue formation. In one patient a subepithelial localization of the implant could be seen without necessity of removal. Perceptual and acoustic parameters were significantly improved after surgery with long-lasting effect even years after surgery. Airway resistance (R(aw)) showed an increase over time without a relevant negative impact on the peak expiratory flow (PEF). Medialization thyroplasty using TVFMI allows precise and save positioning of the implant with stable perceptual and acoustic improvement. The only postoperative complication was the development of endolaryngeal granulation tissue resulting in removal of the implant.

  12. Posterior horn medial meniscal root tear: the prequel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umans, H. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Lenox Hill Radiology and Imaging Associates, New York, NY (United States); Morrison, W. [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); DiFelice, G.S. [Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY (United States); Vaidya, N. [Crystal Run Healthcare, Middletown, NY (United States); Winalski, C.S. [Cleveland Clinic, Imaging Institute, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2014-06-15

    To determine whether subarticular marrow changes deep to the posterior horn medial meniscal root anchor might predict subsequent medial meniscal root tear. Fifteen patients with MR-diagnosed posterior horn medial meniscal root (PHMMR) tear and a knee MRI antecedent to the tear were identified at three imaging centers over a 7-year period. The pre- and post-tear MR images were evaluated for marrow signal changes deep to the root anchor, meniscal root signal intensity, medial compartment articular cartilage thinning, and meniscal body extrusion. Images of 29 age- and gender-matched individuals with two MRIs of the same knee were reviewed as a control group. MRI in 11 of 15 (73 %) cases with subsequent PHMMR tear demonstrated linear subcortical marrow edema deep to the meniscal root anchor on the antecedent MRI compared to only 1 of 29 (3 %) non-tear controls (p < 0.0001). The abnormal signal resolved on post-tear MRI in all but two patients. Cyst-like changes deep to the PHMMR were present on initial MRI in three of 15 (23 %) cases and three of 29 (10 %) controls, persisting in all but one case on follow-up imaging. The PHMMR was gray on the initial MRI in seven of 15 (47 %) of cases that developed tears compared to four of 29 (14 %) controls (p < 0.0001). There was medial meniscal extrusion (MME) prior to tear in two of 15 (13 %) patients and in ten of 15 (67 %) patients after PHMMR failure. In the control group, MME was present in one (3 %) and three (10 %) of 29 subjects on the initial and follow-up MRIs, respectively. Articular cartilage loss was noted in two of 15 (15 %) cases before tear and nine of 15 (69 %) on follow-up imaging, as compared to one (3 %) and four (14 %) of 29 subjects in the control group. Subcortical marrow edema deep to the PHMMR may result from abnormal stresses and thus be a harbinger of meniscal root failure. This hypothesis is supported by resolution of these marrow signal changes after root tear. Following tear, extrusion of the

  13. Clinical application of the modified medially-mounted motor-driven hip gear joint for paraplegics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, S; Imahori, R; Saitoh, E; Tomita, Y; Domen, K; Chino, N

    2000-04-15

    This paper describes a motor-driven orthosis for paraplegics which has been developed. This orthosis is composed of a medially-mounted motor-driven hip joint and bilateral knee-ankle-foot orthosis. With the gear mechanism, the virtual axis of the hip joint of this orthosis is almost as high as the anatomical hip joint. A paraplegic patient with an injury level of T10/11 walked using bilateral lofstrand crutches and this new orthosis with or without the motor system. The motor is initiated by pushing a button attached at the edge of the grab of the crutches. Faster cadence and speed and smaller rotation angle of the trunk was obtained in motor walking compared with non-motor walking. The patient did not feel fearful of falling. The benefit of motor orthosis is that it can be used even in patients with lower motor lesions and that it provides stable regulation of hip flexion movement in spastic patients. In conclusion, this motor orthosis will enhance paraplegic walking.

  14. The medial-transverse approach for internal jugular vein cannulation: an example of lateral thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Anthony M-H; Ricci, Christopher J; Ng, Calvin S H; Critchley, Lester A H; Ho, Adrienne K; Karmakar, Manoj K; Cheung, Chi W; Ng, Siu K

    2012-02-01

    Cannulation of the internal jugular vein (IJV) is traditionally performed using the central-longitudinal approach. Pneumothorax, carotid artery puncture, and failure to cannulate are uncommon, but by no means rare, complications. Ultrasound (US) guidance for IJV cannulation has reduced but not eliminated such complications. We herein introduce a new approach, coined the "medial-transverse approach" due to the perpendicular angle at which the introducer needle is advanced toward the IJV from the median to lateral direction. The direction of the introducer needle is not toward the lung, thus virtually eliminating the possibility of pneumothorax. The image of the entire needle is seen when the US probe is typically orientated for a short-axis view of the IJV and carotid artery, thus improving the chance of uncomplicated IJV puncture. We have used this technique with apparent success in thousands of cases over the past 20 years in two different institutions. A modified IJV cannulation technique that seems to have unique advantages over traditional approaches has been described. This technique is compatible with the blind and US-guided approaches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Aeroelastically coupled blades for vertical axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Joshua; Barone, Matthew F.

    2016-02-23

    Various technologies described herein pertain to a vertical axis wind turbine blade configured to rotate about a rotation axis. The vertical axis wind turbine blade includes at least an attachment segment, a rear swept segment, and optionally, a forward swept segment. The attachment segment is contiguous with the forward swept segment, and the forward swept segment is contiguous with the rear swept segment. The attachment segment includes a first portion of a centroid axis, the forward swept segment includes a second portion of the centroid axis, and the rear swept segment includes a third portion of the centroid axis. The second portion of the centroid axis is angularly displaced ahead of the first portion of the centroid axis and the third portion of the centroid axis is angularly displaced behind the first portion of the centroid axis in the direction of rotation about the rotation axis.

  16. Anomalous Medial Branch of Radial Artery: A Rare Variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surbhi Wadhwa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Radial artery is an important consistent vessel of the upper limb. It is a useful vascular access site for coronary procedures and its reliable anatomy has resulted in an elevation of radial forearm flaps for reconstructive surgeries of head and neck. Technical failures, in both the procedures, are mainly due to anatomical variations, such as radial loops, ectopic radial arteries or tortuosity in the vessel. We present a rare and a unique anomalous medial branch of the radial artery spiraling around the flexor carpi radialis muscle in the forearm with a high rising superficial palmar branch of radial artery. Developmentally it probably is a remanent of the normal pattern of capillary vessel maintenance and regression. Such a case is of importance for reconstructive surgeons and coronary interventionists, especially in view of its unique medial and deep course.

  17. Preauricular full-thickness skin grafting in medial canthal reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Corredor-Osorio

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma in medial canthal is a surgical challenge to oculoplastic surgeon. We report a case an 80 –year-old woman who presented with a vegetative tumor in the right inferior medial canthus that increased slowly in size over the past two years. An excisional biopsy from the tumor was suggestive of a basal cell carcinoma. A full-thickness excision of the tumor within the oncologic safety limits, was performed. A wide range of reconstruction techniques should be customized to the individual patient. In this case, the use of a preauricular full. Thickness skin graft was a favorable option, without complications, and with acceptable functional and cosmetic results. The aim of the treatment is to restore anatomy, functional and cosmetic of the patients.

  18. Dopaminergic Activity in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex Modulates Fear Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Babaei

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available "nThe purpose of the present study was to determine the role of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC dopaminergic system in fear conditioning response considering individual differences. Animals were initially counterbalanced and classified based on open field test, and then were given a single infusion of the dopamine agonist, amphetamine (AMPH and antagonist, clozapine (CLZ into the medial prefrontal cortex. Rats received tone-shock pairing in a classical fear conditioning test and then exposed to the tone alone. Freezing responses were measured as conditioned fear index. The results showed that both AMPH and CLZ infusion in mPFC reduced the expression of conditioned fear. This finding indicates that elevation or reduction in the dopaminergic activity is associated with the decrease of fear responses, despite preexisting individual-typological differences.

  19. Kinematic analysis of a televised medial ankle sprain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca E. Wade

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ankle sprains are one of the most prevalent athletic injuries. Prior work has investigated lateral ankle sprains, but research on generally more severe medial sprains is lacking. This case report performs a kinematic analysis using novel motion analysis methods on a non-contact medial ankle sprain. Peak eversion (50° occurred 0.2 seconds following ground contact, maximum velocity of 426°/s, while peak dorsiflexion (64° occurred with a greater maximum velocity (573°/s. The combination of dorsiflexion at ground contact and rapid eversion is associated with a non-contact eversion sprain. This study provides a quantitative analysis of the eversion ankle sprain injury mechanism. Keywords: Athletic injury, Biomechanics, Ankle injury, Kinematics

  20. Taiwanese life scientists less "medialized" than their Western colleagues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yin-Yueh; Peters, Hans Peter

    2015-01-01

    The article presents results from surveys of life scientists in Taiwan (n=270) and in Germany (n=326). Fewer Taiwanese than German researchers have frequent contact with the media and they rate their experiences with journalists less positively. Furthermore, they are less prepared to adapt to journalistic expectations and to a greater extent than German researchers they expect journalists to consider scientific criteria in their reporting. These findings are interpreted in Weingart's "medialization of science" framework as indicators of lower medialization of science in Taiwan than in Germany. However, Taiwanese scientists are more willing than German scientists to accept journalistic simplification at the expense of accuracy. This is explained as an adaptation to the media system and to the perceived scientific literacy of the media audience. We hypothesize that cultural differences regarding the relative priority of relational vs. rational communication goals may also contribute to more tolerance of journalistic simplification in Taiwan. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. Medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction: patient selection and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baer MR

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Michael R. Baer, Jeffrey A. Macalena Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA Abstract: Patellofemoral instability is a painful and often recurring disorder with many negative long-term consequences. After a period of failed nonoperative management, surgical intervention has been used to reduce the incidence of patellar subluxation and dislocations. Medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL reconstruction successfully addresses patellofemoral instability by restoring the deficient primary medial patellar soft tissue restraint. When planning MPFL reconstruction for instability, it is imperative to consider the patient’s unique anatomy including the tibial tuberosity–trochlear groove (TT–TG distance, trochlear dysplasia, and patella alta. Additionally, it is important to individualize surgical treatment in the skeletally immature, hypermobile, and athletic populations. Keywords: MPFL, indications, considerations, contraindications

  2. Theoretical tool movement required to diamond turn an off-axis paraboloid on axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.C.

    1976-01-01

    Current techniques for manufacturing off-axis paraboloids are both expensive and insufficiently accurate. An alternative method, turning the workpiece about its axis on a diamond-turning machine, is presented, and the equations describing the necessary tool movement are derived. A discussion of a particular case suggests that the proposed technique is feasible

  3. Modular off-axis solar concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesniak, Adam P; Hall, John C

    2015-01-27

    A solar concentrator including a housing defining a vertical axis and including a receiving wall connected to a reflecting wall to define an internal volume and an opening into the internal volume, wherein the reflecting wall defines at least one primary optical element, and wherein at least a portion of the reflecting wall includes a layer of reflective material, the housing further including a cover connected to the receiving wall and the reflecting wall to seal the opening, and at least one receiver mounted on the receiving wall such that a vertical axis of the receiver is disposed at a non-zero angle relative to the vertical axis of the housing, the receiver including at least one photovoltaic cell.

  4. Enclosed, off-axis solar concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Pablo; Grip, Robert E; Minano, Juan C; Narayanan, Authi A; Plesniak, Adam; Schwartz, Joel A

    2013-11-26

    A solar concentrator including a housing having receiving wall, a reflecting wall and at least two end walls, the receiving, reflecting and end walls defining a three-dimensional volume having an inlet, wherein a vertical axis of the housing is generally perpendicular to the inlet, a receiver mounted on the receiving wall of the housing, the receiver including at least one photovoltaic cell, wherein a vertical axis of the receiver is disposed at a non-zero angle relative to the vertical axis of the housing, at least one clip disposed on the reflecting wall an optical element received within the three-dimensional volume, the optical element including at least one tab, the tab being engaged by the clip to align the optical element with the receiver, and a window received over the inlet to enclose the housing.

  5. Reparative plastic surgery for central and medial breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kh. Ismagilov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Retrospective analysis of the early and long-term results of surgical treatment in patients with central and medial breast cancer (BC has revealed that reparative plastic surgery does not make the course of the tumor process worse after radical operations in combination with video-assisted thoracoscopic parasternal lymphatic dissection, and the latter does not in turn yield worse immediate and long-term results of surgical treatment in combination with one-stage repair.

  6. Open medial ankle dislocation without associated fracture: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlimi, F; Mahfoud, M; Berrada, M S; El Bardouni, A; El Yaacoubi, M

    2011-12-01

    Tibiotalar dislocation without associated fracture is a rare injury. We report a case of an unusual open medial ankle dislocation without any associated bony injury. After reduction and debridement under general anaesthesia, capsule suture and ligaments repair were performed. An external fixator was applied for ankle immobilization. After 3 years follow-up, functional results were excellent without signs of instability or degenerative arthritis. Copyright © 2011 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiographic predictability of cartilage damage in medial ankle osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jeong-Seok; Shim, Jae-Chan; Suh, Jin-Soo; Lee, Woo-Chun

    2010-08-01

    Radiographic grading has been used to assess and select between treatment options for ankle osteoarthritis. To use radiographic grading systems in clinical practice and scientific studies one must have reliable systems that predict the fate of the cartilage. We therefore asked whether (1) radiographic grading of ankle osteoarthritis is reliable and (2) grading reflects cartilage damage observed during arthroscopy. We then (3) determined the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the radiographic findings. We examined 74 ankles with medial osteoarthritis and 24 with normal articular cartilage based on arthroscopy. Arthroscopic findings were graded according to the modified Outerbridge grades and all radiographs were graded using the modified Kellgren-Lawrence, Takakura et al., and van Dijk et al. grading systems. The reliability of each radiographic grading system was evaluated. We correlated the radiographic grades and severity of cartilage damage for each radiographic grading system. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of spurs and joint space narrowing with or without talar tilting then were determined. The interobserver weighted kappa ranged from 0.58 to 0.89 and the intraobserver weighted kappa from 0.51 to 0.85. The correlation coefficients for the Kellgren-Lawrence, Takakura et al., and van Dijk et al. grades were 0.53, 0.42, and 0.42, respectively. Ankles with medial joint space narrowing (Stage 2 of Takakura et al. and van Dijk et al. grades) showed varying severity of cartilage damage. The positive predictive value of cartilage damage increased from 77% for medial joint space narrowing regardless of the presence of talar tilting to 98% for medial joint space narrowing with talar tilting. Our observations suggest the inclusion of talar tilting in grading schemes enhances the assessment of cartilage damage. Level II, diagnostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of level of evidence.

  8. ULTRASONOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF THE RUPTURED MEDIAL HEAD OF GASTROCNEMIUS MUSCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Lukac

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Tennis leg, a common injury of the medial head of gastrocnemius muscle in the muscle-tendon junction, is usually reported in men during recreational sports. Sudden pain is the main symptom accompanied by the feeling of rupture in the calf. Clinical examination followed by ultrasound is the standard diagnostic procedure. Objective: The main objectives of this study are to compare clinical and ultrasonographic findings in cases of tennis leg, evaluate the location and type of lesion in the medial head of gastrocnemius muscle, and evaluate the edema volume and the presence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT. Second, the healing process was monitored with ultrasound to distinguish the level of recovery and to record the presence of chronic sequelae. Methods: Eighty-one subjects with clinical symptoms of rupture of the medial head of gastrocnemius muscle participated in the study. A linear probe (7-12 MHz was used for ultrasonographic (US and a Doppler was used to verify the presence of DVT. Results: In 78 of 81 subjects examined, we found obvious US changes (96.3% and three of them had no positive findings. In 67 of them, we diagnosed rupture of the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle. Most of them had partial rupture (73.13% and the remaining had total rupture (26.87%. The edema (30.84% was found in the space between the aponeurosis of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. DVT with the clinical signs of tennis leg was observed in 5 of 81 patients (6.17%. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that ultrasound is very important for early diagnosis of muscle-tendon injuries in the leg. In addition, monitoring the healing process and assessing the chosen treatment showed a high efficiency. Ultrasonography is an effective method to identify and differentiate the sequelae of the injured muscles and vascular complications.

  9. Voice Outcome after Gore-Tex Medialization Thyroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnashar, Ismail; El-Anwar, Mohammad; Amer, Hazem; Quriba, Amal

    2015-07-01

    Introduction Although medialization thyroplasty utilizing Gore-Tex (Gore and Associates, Newark, Delaware, United States) has been discussed in the literature, few reports have assessed voice quality afterward, and they did not use a full assessment protocol. Objective To assess the improvement in voice quality after medialization thyroplasty utilizing Gore-Tex in patients with glottic insufficiency of variable etiology. Methods Eleven patients with glottic insufficiency of different etiologies that failed compensation were operated by type 1 thyroplasty utilizing Gore-Tex. Pre- and postoperative (1 week, 3 months, and 6 months) voice assessment was done and statistical analysis was performed on the results. Results In all postoperative assessments, there was significant improvement in the grade of dysphonia (p Gore-Tex medialization provides reliable results for both subjective and objective voice parameters. It leads to a satisfactory restoration of voice whatever the etiology of glottic incompetence is. This technique is relatively easy and does not lead to major complications. Further studies with larger number of patients and more extended periods of follow-up are still required to assess the long-term results of the technique regarding voice quality and implant extrusion.

  10. Medial blepharosynechioplasty: a new surgical concept for severe dry eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasaki T

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tsugihisa Sasaki,1,2 Taeko Ota,3 Youko Ookura,4 Kazuhisa Sugiyama11Department of Ophthalmology, Kanazawa University School of Medicine, Kanazawa, Ishikawa; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Fukui Prefectural Hospital, Fukui; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Tonami General Hospital, Tonami-city, Toyama; 4Department of Ophthamology, Saiseikai Kanazawa Hospital, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, JapanBackground: The purpose of this work was to report on the performance of medial blepharosynechioplasty (MBSP, a newly devised technique for treating severe dry eye.Methods: In this retrospective, nonrandomized clinical trial, three cases with severe dry eye (Sjögren’s syndrome associated with repeated punctal plug loss were treated using MBSP to create a synechia between the upper and lower lid medial borders of the puncta to suppress the lacrimal pump.Results: Postoperative follow-up showed improvement in the corneal condition in all three cases that persisted for 12–35 months. None of the patients had visual impairment.Conclusion: MBSP is a promising treatment for severe dry eye and merits further study.Keywords: dry eye, lacrimal pump suppression, medial blepharosynechioplasty

  11. An Isolated Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction with Patellar Tendon Autograft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Witoński

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the results of the medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction with a medial strip of patellar tendon autograft after a minimum 2-year followup. Ten patients (10 knees were operated on by one surgeon, according to the modified technique, described by Camanho, without any bone plug at free graft end. The mean age of the patients was 27.2 years (ranging from 18 to 42 years. The mean follow-up period was 3 years and 7 months. All patients were reviewed prospectively. At the last follow-up visit, all the patients demonstrated a significant improvement in terms of patellofemoral joint stability, all aspects of the KOOS questionnaire, and Kujala et al.’s score (59.7 points preoperatively and 84.4 points at the last followup. No patient revealed recurrent dislocation. The SF-36 score revealed a significant improvement in bodily pain, general health, physical role functioning, social role functioning, and physical functioning domains. The described MPFL reconstruction with the use of the medial 1/3rd of patella tendon is an effective procedure that gives satisfactorily patellofemoral joint functions, improves the quality of life, and provides much pain relief. It is relatively simple, surgically not extensive, and economically cost-effective procedure.

  12. Medial vestibular connections with the hypocretin (orexin) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Seth S.; Blanchard, Jane; Morin, Lawrence P.

    2005-01-01

    The mammalian medial vestibular nucleus (MVe) receives input from all vestibular endorgans and provides extensive projections to the central nervous system. Recent studies have demonstrated projections from the MVe to the circadian rhythm system. In addition, there are known projections from the MVe to regions considered to be involved in sleep and arousal. In this study, afferent and efferent subcortical connectivity of the medial vestibular nucleus of the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) was evaluated using cholera toxin subunit-B (retrograde), Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (anterograde), and pseudorabies virus (transneuronal retrograde) tract-tracing techniques. The results demonstrate MVe connections with regions mediating visuomotor and postural control, as previously observed in other mammals. The data also identify extensive projections from the MVe to regions mediating arousal and sleep-related functions, most of which receive immunohistochemically identified projections from the lateral hypothalamic hypocretin (orexin) neurons. These include the locus coeruleus, dorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei, dorsal raphe, and lateral preoptic area. The MVe itself receives a projection from hypocretin cells. CTB tracing demonstrated reciprocal connections between the MVe and most brain areas receiving MVe efferents. Virus tracing confirmed and extended the MVe afferent connections identified with CTB and additionally demonstrated transneuronal connectivity with the suprachiasmatic nucleus and the medial habenular nucleus. These anatomical data indicate that the vestibular system has access to a broad array of neural functions not typically associated with visuomotor, balance, or equilibrium, and that the MVe is likely to receive information from many of the same regions to which it projects.

  13. Medial malleolar fractures: a biomechanical study of fixation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, T Ty; Pugh, Kevin J; Litsky, Alan S; Taylor, Benjamin C; French, Bruce G

    2011-08-08

    Fracture fixation of the medial malleolus in rotationally unstable ankle fractures typically results in healing with current fixation methods. However, when failure occurs, pullout of the screws from tension, compression, and rotational forces is predictable. We sought to biomechanically test a relatively new technique of bicortical screw fixation for medial malleoli fractures. Also, the AO group recommends tension-band fixation of small avulsion type fractures of the medial malleolus that are unacceptable for screw fixation. A well-documented complication of this technique is prominent symptomatic implants and secondary surgery for implant removal. Replacing stainless steel 18-gauge wire with FiberWire suture could theoretically decrease symptomatic implants. Therefore, a second goal was to biomechanically compare these 2 tension-band constructs. Using a tibial Sawbones model, 2 bicortical screws were compared with 2 unicortical cancellous screws on a servohydraulic test frame in offset axial, transverse, and tension loading. Second, tension-band fixation using stainless steel wire was compared with FiberWire under tensile loads. Bicortical screw fixation was statistically the stiffest construct under tension loading conditions compared to unicortical screw fixation and tension-band techniques with FiberWire or stainless steel wire. In fact, unicortical screw fixation had only 10% of the stiffness as demonstrated in the bicortical technique. In a direct comparison, tension-band fixation using stainless steel wire was statistically stiffer than the FiberWire construct. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Bilateral Medial Medullary Stroke: A Challenge in Early Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir M. Torabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral medial medullary stroke is a very rare type of stroke, with catastrophic consequences. Early diagnosis is crucial. Here, I present a young patient with acute vertigo, progressive generalized weakness, dysarthria, and respiratory failure, who initially was misdiagnosed with acute vestibular syndrome. Initial brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI that was done in the acute phase was read as normal. Other possibilities were excluded by lumbar puncture and MRI of cervical spine. MR of C-spine showed lesion at medial medulla; therefore a second MRI of brain was requested, showed characteristic “heart appearance” shape at diffusion weighted (DWI, and confirmed bilateral medial medullary stroke. Retrospectively, a vague-defined hyperintense linear DWI signal at midline was noted in the first brain MRI. Because of the symmetric and midline pattern of this abnormal signal and similarity to an artifact, some radiologists or neurologists may miss this type of stroke. Radiologists and neurologists must recognize clinical and MRI findings of this rare type of stroke, which early treatment could make a difference in patient outcome. The abnormal DWI signal in early stages of this type of stroke may not be a typical “heart appearance” shape, and other variants such as small dot or linear DWI signal at midline must be recognized as early signs of stroke. Also, MRI of cervical spine may be helpful if there is attention to brainstem as well.

  15. Innovative Design of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chougule, Prasad

    2013-01-01

    The wind turbines can be classified as: i) Horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT), and ii) Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT). The HAWT is fully developed and the size is growing higher. Whereas, the VAWT is not developed because of the less efficiency and vibration issues of big structure. However......, and its aerodynamic characteristics are obtained by an experimental method. A new design is called D2퐴 − 푉퐴푊푇 and a test ring is made to validate the numerical results. A double multiple stream tube method (DMSTM) and blade element method (BEM) are used to determine the numerical performance of a proposed...

  16. Bipartite Medial Cuneiform: Case Report and Retrospective Review of 1000 Magnetic Resonance (MR Imaging Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine H. Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To present a unique case report of a Lisfranc fracture in a patient with a bipartite medial cuneiform and to evaluate the prevalence of the bipartite medial cuneiform in a retrospective review of 1000 magnetic resonance (MR imaging studies of the foot. Materials and Methods. Case report followed by a retrospective review of 1000 MR imaging studies of the foot for the presence or absence of a bipartite medial cuneiform. Results. The incidence of the bipartite medial cuneiform is 0.1%. Conclusion. A bipartite medial cuneiform is a rare finding but one with both clinical and surgical implications.

  17. Anatomical analysis of medial branches of dorsal rami of cervical nerves for radiofrequency thermocoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kweon, Tae Dong; Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Hye Yeon; Kim, Myung Hwa; Lee, Youn-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Cervical medial branch blocks are used to treat patients with chronic neck pain. The aim of this study was to clarify the anatomical aspects of the cervical medial branches to improve the accuracy and safety of radiofrequency denervation. Twenty cervical specimens were harvested from 20 adult cadavers. The anatomical parameters of the C4-C7 cervical medial branches were measured. The 3-dimensional computed tomography reconstruction images of the bone were also analyzed. Based on cadaveric analysis, most of the cervical dorsal rami gave off 1 medial branch; however, the cervical dorsal rami gave off 2 medial branches in 27%, 15%, 2%, and 0% at the vertebral level C4, C5, C6, and C7, respectively. The diameters of the medial branches varied from 1.0 to 1.2 mm, and the average distance from the notch of inferior articular process to the medial branches was about 2 mm. Most of the bifurcation sites were located at the medial side of the posterior tubercle of the transverse process. On the analysis of 3-dimensional computed tomography reconstruction images, cervical medial branches (C4 to C6) passed through the upper 49% to 53% of a line between the tips of 2 consecutive superior articular processes (anterior line). Also, cervical medial branches passed through the upper 28% to 35% of a line between the midpoints of 2 consecutive facet joints (midline). The present anatomical study may help improve accuracy and safety during radiofrequency denervation of the cervical medial branches.

  18. Episodic snapping of the medial head of the triceps due to weightlifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinner, R J; Wenger, D E; Barry, C J; Goldner, R D

    1999-01-01

    We describe two patients who had episodic elbow snapping and ulnar nerve dysesthesias only after weightlifting. These symptoms would disappear soon afterward. The episodic nature of their complaints and findings led to misdiagnosis. We documented by repeated clinical examinations and magnetic resonance imaging that the presence of these symptoms correlated directly with the finding of intermittent, activity-related snapping of the medial triceps. In both patients, the symptoms disappeared when the medial portion of the triceps migrated medially but did not dislocate over the medial epicondyle with elbow flexion. Thus, a minor change in the configuration of the medial portion of the triceps (fluid accumulation) in the same individual at different times can cause intermittent dislocation of the medial triceps. Previous papers dealing with patients with snapping of the medial triceps describe symptoms exacerbated by athletic activities, but the constant finding of snapping on sequential examinations.

  19. Research of misalignment between dithered ring laser gyro angle rate input axis and dither axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Geng; Wu, Wenqi; FAN, Zhenfang; LU, Guangfeng; Hu, Shaomin; Luo, Hui; Long, Xingwu

    2014-12-01

    The strap-down inertial navigation system (SINS), especially the SINS composed by dithered ring laser gyroscope (DRLG) is a kind of equipment, which providing high reliability and performance for moving vehicles. However, the mechanical dither which is used to eliminate the "Lock-In" effect can cause vibration disturbance to the INS and lead to dithering coupling problem in the inertial measurement unit (IMU) gyroscope triad, so its further application is limited. Among DRLG errors between the true gyro rotation rate and the measured rotation rate, the frequently considered one is the input axis misalignment between input reference axis which is perpendicular to the mounting surface and gyro angular rate input axis. But the misalignment angle between DRLG dither axis and gyro angular rate input axis is often ignored by researchers, which is amplified by dither coupling problem and that would lead to negative effects especially in high accuracy SINS. In order to study the problem more clearly, the concept of misalignment between DRLG dither axis and gyro angle rate input axis is researched. Considering the error of misalignment is of the order of 10-3 rad. or even smaller, the best way to measure it is using DRLG itself by means of an angle exciter as an auxiliary. In this paper, the concept of dither axis misalignment is explained explicitly firstly, based on this, the frequency of angle exciter is induced as reference parameter, when DRLG is mounted on the angle exciter in a certain angle, the projections of angle exciter rotation rate and mechanical oscillation rate on the gyro input axis are both sensed by DRLG. If the dither axis has misalignment error with the gyro input axis, there will be four major frequencies detected: the frequency of angle exciter, the dither mechanical frequency, sum and difference frequencies of the former two frequencies. Then the amplitude spectrum of DRLG output signal obtained by the using LabVIEW program. if there are only angle

  20. Concurrent or sequential development of medial meniscal and subchondral cystic lesions within the medial femorotibial joint in horses (1996-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, S M; Baxter, G M; McIlwraith, C W; Hendrickson, D A; Goodrich, L R; Frisbie, D D; Trotter, G W

    2010-01-01

    Summary Reasons for performing study: Medial meniscal injuries and subchondral cystic lesions (SCL) are known to occur independently within the medial femorotibial (MFT) joint in horses. However, there are no reports of a potential clinical relationship between these 2 types of lesions. To: 1) document the concurrent presence or sequential development of medial meniscal and SCL of the medial femoral condyle within the MFT joint; and 2) determine the prognosis with both types of lesions. Retrospective case series of horses with both a medial meniscal and SCL of the medial femoral condyle identified concurrently or sequentially by radiography, arthroscopy or post mortem examination. Case records and radiographs were reviewed, and a telephone survey of referring veterinarians, owners and trainers was conducted. Twenty-one horses (9.1% of all horses undergoing MFT joint arthroscopy) were identified to have both a medial meniscal injury and SCL of the medial femoral condyle. Thirteen horses had both abnormalities identified concurrently, 6 developed a meniscal lesion subsequent to SCL debridement, and 2 developed a SCL subsequent to a medial meniscal injury. Only 4/19 horses were classified as successful and returned to their intended use. The severity of the meniscal injury was significantly associated with the severity of lameness but not with outcome. A low percentage of horses may develop both a meniscal injury and SCL of the medial femoral condyle within the MFT joint and have a poor prognosis. Trauma to the MFT joint may lead to both meniscal and subchondral bone damage of the medial femoral condyle that may be recognised concurrently or sequentially.

  1. Triple-axis spectrometer DruechaL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehrer, W.; Keller, P.

    1996-01-01

    DruechaL is a triple-axis spectrometer located at a cold guide. The characteristics of guide and instrument allow the use of a broad spectral range of neutrons. The resolution in momentum and energy transfer can be tuned to match the experimental requirements by using either collimators or focusing systems (monochromator, antitrumpet, analyser). (author) figs., tabs., refs

  2. Triple-axis spectrometer DruechaL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehrer, W.; Keller, P. [Lab. for Neutron Scattering ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland) and Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    DruechaL is a triple-axis spectrometer located at a cold guide. The characteristics of guide and instrument allow the use of a broad spectral range of neutrons. The resolution in momentum and energy transfer can be tuned to match the experimental requirements by using either collimators or focusing systems (monochromator, antitrumpet, analyser). (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  3. Microbes and the gut-brain axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercik, P; Collins, S M; Verdu, E F

    2012-05-01

    The 'gut-brain' or 'brain-gut axis', depending on whether we emphasize bottom-up or top-bottom pathways, is a bi-directional communication system, comprised of neural pathways, such as the enteric nervous system (ENS), vagus, sympathetic and spinal nerves, and humoral pathways, which include cytokines, hormones, and neuropeptides as signaling molecules. Recent evidence, mainly arising from animal models, supports a role of microbes as signaling components in the gut-brain axis. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current knowledge regarding the role of microbes, including commensals, probiotics and gastrointestinal pathogens, in bottom-up pathways of communication in the gut-brain axis. Although this has clear implications for psychiatric co-morbidity in functional and inflammatory conditions of the gut, the focus of this review will be to discuss the current evidence for a role of bacteria (commensals, probiotics, and pathogens) as key modulators of gut-brain communication. The strongest evidence for a role of microbes as signaling components in the gut-brain axis currently arises from animal studies and indicate that mechanisms of communication are likely to be multiple. There is need for the concepts generated in animal models to be translated to the human in the future. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. The Trading Axis in Irkutsk Downtown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals a linear concentration of the trading function in the historical center of Irkutsk. It features historical prerequisites and continuation of the tradition in the post-Soviet period, given the conversion of plants and factories. The article analyses the current state and prospects of modernization of the trading axis with its transformation into a modern public space.

  5. An inexpensive and innovative correction of medial compartmental osteoarthritis knee joint by high tibial lateral closed wedge osteotomy in a rural set up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad DV, Arun AA, Tushar Chaudhari, Sagar Jawale, Shakthi Panda, Abhinav Jadhav, Deepak Dathrange

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis of Knee joint with Varus deformity causes considerable disability. Operative treatment aims at shifting the mechanical load bearing axis to the less affected compartment of the knee to relieve the symptoms. Exclusion Criteria: Non-walkers due to generalized arthropathies / medical comorbidities, Flexion deformity > 10 degrees, Range of motion 1cm lateral subluxation in standing A-P X rays of both knees. Methodology: 32 (12 Males and 20 Females cases of Medial compartment osteoarthritis presenting in our OPD between 2008-2012 were treated by HTOand cortical screw and SS wire fixation (TBW Technique. Results: Evaluation of results was done based on knee rating scale by Japanese orthopaedic association. 22 cases were Excellent, 8 cases were good. One case of failure, an iatrogenic intracondylar fracture of Tibia, and another secondary haematoma under the suture line, aspirated and complete healing was achieved. Patients had good range of motion, were able to squat and sit cross legged comfortably. Conclusion: HTO by Closed Medial wedge osteotomy and fixation with cortical screw and SS wire provides a good alternative to unicompartmental knee Arthroplasty and even Total knee Arthroplasty (may be up to 10-15 years in patients with Medial compartmental osteoarthritis. It is a cost effective technique with the use of minimum hardware and early postoperative mobilization in patients who cannot afford Knee Arthroplasty in a Rural set up.

  6. Identification of dental root canals and their medial line from micro-CT and cone-beam CT records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benyó Balázs

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shape of the dental root canal is highly patient specific. Automated identification methods of the medial line of dental root canals and the reproduction of their 3D shape can be beneficial for planning endodontic interventions as severely curved root canals or multi-rooted teeth may pose treatment challenges. Accurate shape information of the root canals may also be used by manufacturers of endodontic instruments in order to make more efficient clinical tools. Method Novel image processing procedures dedicated to the automated detection of the medial axis of the root canal from dental micro-CT and cone-beam CT records are developed. For micro-CT, the 3D model of the root canal is built up from several hundred parallel cross sections, using image enhancement, histogram based fuzzy c-means clustering, center point detection in the segmented slice, three dimensional inner surface reconstruction, and potential field driven curve skeleton extraction in three dimensions. Cone-beam CT records are processed with image enhancement filters and fuzzy chain based regional segmentation, followed by the reconstruction of the root canal surface and detecting its skeleton via a mesh contraction algorithm. Results The proposed medial line identification and root canal detection algorithms are validated on clinical data sets. 25 micro-CT and 36 cone-beam-CT records are used in the validation procedure. The overall success rate of the automatic dental root canal identification was about 92% in both procedures. The algorithms proved to be accurate enough for endodontic therapy planning. Conclusions Accurate medial line identification and shape detection algorithms of dental root canal have been developed. Different procedures are defined for micro-CT and cone-beam CT records. The automated execution of the subsequent processing steps allows easy application of the algorithms in the dental care. The output data of the image processing procedures

  7. Medial collateral ligament healing one year after a concurrent medial collateral ligament and anterior cruciate ligament injury: an interdisciplinary study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaji, T; Levine, R E; Woo, S L; Niyibizi, C; Kavalkovich, K W; Weaver-Green, C M

    1996-03-01

    The optimal treatment for concurrent injuries to the medial collateral and anterior cruciate ligaments has not been determined, despite numerous clinical and laboratory studies. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of surgical repair of the medial collateral ligament on its biomechanical and biochemical properties 52 weeks after such injuries. In the left knee of 12 skeletally mature New Zealand White rabbits, the medial collateral ligament was torn and the anterior cruciate ligament was transected and then reconstructed. This is an experimental model previously developed in our laboratory. In six rabbits, the torn ends of the medial collateral ligament were repaired, and in the remaining six rabbits, the ligament was not repaired. Fifty-two weeks after injury, we examined varus-valgus and anterior-posterior knee stability; structural properties of the femur-medial collateral ligament-tibia complex; and mechanical properties, collagen content, and mature collagen crosslinking of the medial collateral ligament. We could not detect significant differences between repair and nonrepair groups for any biomechanical or biochemical property. Our data support clinical findings that when the medial collateral and anterior cruciate ligaments are injured concurrently and the anterior cruciate ligament is reconstructed, conservative treatment of the ruptured medial collateral ligament can result in successful healing.

  8. Mechanical axis-derived femoral component rotation in extramedullary total knee arthroplasty: a comparison between femoral transverse axis and transepicondylar axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jai-Gon; Moon, Young-Wan; Lim, Ji-Soon; Park, Se-Jun; Kim, Sang-Min

    2012-03-01

    Correct rotational alignment of the femoral component is paramount to the success of total knee arthroplasty, but debate continues as to which method is the most reliable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate mechanical axis-derived rotational axis of the femoral component using an extramedullary femoral alignment guide system. Between 2009 and 2010, 60 patients (120 knees) underwent simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty. Postoperative CT scans were performed on all 120 knees. The mechanical axis-derived rotational axis of the femoral component was compared with the surgical transepicondylar axis on CT scans. The femoral component was externally rotated compared with the surgical transepicondylar axis (mean = 1.6°, SD = 2.2°, range: from 4.8° of internal rotation to 7.9° of external rotation). One hundred and nine of the 120 knees (90.8%) were rotated by less than 5° from the surgical transepicondylar axis. All inter-observer observations on CT scans were within a range of ±2.1° and showed no significant differences. Mechanical axis-derived rotational axis of the femoral component was found to be closely related to the surgical transepicondylar axis, to an extent which suggests that the mechanical axis-derived rotational axis could be a new alternative option in determining optimal rotational alignment of the femoral component during total knee arthroplasty. II.

  9. The flexion-extension axis of the knee and its relationship to the rotational orientation of the tibial plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrie, Charles M; Noble, Philip C; Ismaily, Sabir K; Stal, Drew; Incavo, Steve J

    2011-09-01

    We measured the optimal rotational alignment of the tibial component with respect to anatomic landmarks. Kinematic data were collected from functional maneuvers simulated in 20 cadaveric knees mounted in a joint simulator. The axis of knee motion was calculated for squatting and lunging activities over the interval of 30° to 90° of knee flexion. We then examined the accuracy and variability of 5 different anatomic axes in predicting the direction of knee motion. No one landmark guaranteed correct alignment of the tibial component and most predictors were highly variable (range, 6°-21°). The most accurate indicators were the medial third of the tibial tubercle (average error: squatting: 3.5° external rotation; lunging: 9.5°), and the medial-lateral axis of the resected tibial surface (6.7° and 1.1° internal rotation). The correct alignment of the tibial component can be best achieved by splitting the difference between these landmarks to eliminate placement of the component in excessive external and excessive internal rotation. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Fracture of an unossified humeral medial epicondyle: use of magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanabe, Katsuhisa; Miyamoto, Nao [Nishinomiya Municipal Central Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nishinomiya (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    Fracture of the humeral medial epicondyle is a relatively common injury in children. Surgery is a good option for treatment, but correct diagnosis is important. Most fractures occur after the ossification of the medial epicondylar apophysis. If a fracture occurs before the ossification of the medial epicondyle, it is undetectable by radiographs. Here we report a case of an unossified medial epicondyle fracture of the humerus. A 9-year-old boy had persistent pain in the medial side of the right elbow after a fall. Despite his pain, he could move his injured elbow with a range from 60 to 90 . Radiographs and computed tomography showed neither fracture nor dislocation in the injured elbow, and soft tissue swelling was the only finding. Neither the trochlea nor the medial epicondyle was ossified. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that the medial epicondyle was separated from the medial metaphysis and displaced. This clear finding led us to surgical fixation. Under general anesthesia, valgus stress showed gross instability of the injured elbow. Two years after the operation, he had no complaints and could play sports with the same range of motion as the left elbow. It is important to keep in mind that medial epicondylar fractures may be hidden in a normal radiograph before the ossification of the medial epicondylar apophysis. (orig.)

  11. Fracture of an unossified humeral medial epicondyle: use of magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Katsuhisa; Miyamoto, Nao

    2016-01-01

    Fracture of the humeral medial epicondyle is a relatively common injury in children. Surgery is a good option for treatment, but correct diagnosis is important. Most fractures occur after the ossification of the medial epicondylar apophysis. If a fracture occurs before the ossification of the medial epicondyle, it is undetectable by radiographs. Here we report a case of an unossified medial epicondyle fracture of the humerus. A 9-year-old boy had persistent pain in the medial side of the right elbow after a fall. Despite his pain, he could move his injured elbow with a range from 60 to 90 . Radiographs and computed tomography showed neither fracture nor dislocation in the injured elbow, and soft tissue swelling was the only finding. Neither the trochlea nor the medial epicondyle was ossified. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that the medial epicondyle was separated from the medial metaphysis and displaced. This clear finding led us to surgical fixation. Under general anesthesia, valgus stress showed gross instability of the injured elbow. Two years after the operation, he had no complaints and could play sports with the same range of motion as the left elbow. It is important to keep in mind that medial epicondylar fractures may be hidden in a normal radiograph before the ossification of the medial epicondylar apophysis. (orig.)

  12. Medial patellar ossification after patellar instability: a radiographic finding indicative of prior patella subluxation/dislocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerabek, Seth A. [Harvard Combined Orthopaedic Surgery Residency Program, Boston, MA (United States); Asnis, Peter D.; Poon, Steven K.; Gill, Thomas J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Boston, MA (United States); Bredella, Miriam A.; Ouellette, Hugue A. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2009-08-15

    To describe the correlation between medial patellar ossification and prior patella subluxation and/or dislocation. A retrospective billing database search identified 544 patients who had been diagnosed with patellar instability over a 13-year period. One hundred twenty-eight patients met the inclusion criteria. After review by a staff orthopedic surgeon and two musculoskeletal radiologists, 28 patients were found to have medial patellar ossification. The size and location of medial patellar ossification was recorded. Of the 28 patients (20 males, eight females, age 13-66 years, mean 28 years) who were found to have medial patellar ossification, 22 had radiographs, 16 had magnetic resonance imaging, and ten had both. The medial patellar ossification ranged in size from 2 to 18 mm with an average of 6.8 mm. Twelve were located in the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL), 14 in the medial joint capsule, and two in both the MPFL and joint capsule. Twenty-seven of 28 patients had a single ossification, and one patient had two ossifications. The timing from injury to first imaging of the lesion ranged from 10 days to a chronic history ({>=}35 years) of patellar instability. Medial patellar ossification correlates with a history of prior patella subluxation and/or dislocation. The medial ossification can be seen within the MPFL or the medial joint capsule, suggesting remote injury to these structures. The presence of this lesion will prompt physicians to evaluate for patellar instability. (orig.)

  13. Medial patellar ossification after patellar instability: a radiographic finding indicative of prior patella subluxation/dislocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerabek, Seth A.; Asnis, Peter D.; Poon, Steven K.; Gill, Thomas J.; Bredella, Miriam A.; Ouellette, Hugue A.

    2009-01-01

    To describe the correlation between medial patellar ossification and prior patella subluxation and/or dislocation. A retrospective billing database search identified 544 patients who had been diagnosed with patellar instability over a 13-year period. One hundred twenty-eight patients met the inclusion criteria. After review by a staff orthopedic surgeon and two musculoskeletal radiologists, 28 patients were found to have medial patellar ossification. The size and location of medial patellar ossification was recorded. Of the 28 patients (20 males, eight females, age 13-66 years, mean 28 years) who were found to have medial patellar ossification, 22 had radiographs, 16 had magnetic resonance imaging, and ten had both. The medial patellar ossification ranged in size from 2 to 18 mm with an average of 6.8 mm. Twelve were located in the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL), 14 in the medial joint capsule, and two in both the MPFL and joint capsule. Twenty-seven of 28 patients had a single ossification, and one patient had two ossifications. The timing from injury to first imaging of the lesion ranged from 10 days to a chronic history (≥35 years) of patellar instability. Medial patellar ossification correlates with a history of prior patella subluxation and/or dislocation. The medial ossification can be seen within the MPFL or the medial joint capsule, suggesting remote injury to these structures. The presence of this lesion will prompt physicians to evaluate for patellar instability. (orig.)

  14. UARS PEM Level 2 AXIS 2 V001 (UARPE2AXIS2) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The UARS Particle Environment Monitor (PEM) level 2 Atmosphere X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (AXIS) unit 2 daily product contains the X-ray high-resolution spectral...

  15. UARS PEM Level 2 AXIS 1 V001 (UARPE2AXIS1) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The UARS Particle Environment Monitor (PEM) level 2 Atmosphere X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (AXIS) unit 1 daily product contains the X-ray high-resolution spectral...

  16. Comparison of Medial and Lateral Meniscus Root Tears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Ji Hyun; Choi, Sang-Hee; Lee, Seung Ah; Wang, Joon Ho

    2015-01-01

    The meniscus root plays an essential role in maintaining the circumferential hoop tension and preventing meniscal displacement. Studies on meniscus root tears have investigated the relationship of osteoarthritis and an anterior cruciate ligament tear. However, few studies have directly compared the medial and lateral root tears. To assess the prevalence of meniscal extrusion and its relationship with clinical features in medial and lateral meniscus root tears, we performed a retrospective review of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results of 42 knee patients who had meniscus posterior horn root tears and who had undergone arthroscopic operations. The presence of meniscal extrusion was evaluated and the exact extent was measured from the tibial margin. The results were correlated with arthroscopic findings. Clinical features including patients’ ages, joint abnormalities, and previous trauma histories were evaluated. Twenty-two patients had medial meniscus root tears (MMRTs) and twenty patients had lateral meniscus root tears (LMRTs). Meniscal extrusion was present in 18 MMRT patients and one LMRT patient. The mean extent of extrusion was 4.2mm (range, 0.6 to 7.8) in the MMRT group and 0.9mm (range, -1.9 to 3.4) in the LMRT group. Five patients with MMRT had a history of trauma, while 19 patients with LMRT had a history of trauma. Three patients with MMRT had anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears, while 19 patients with LMRT had ACL tears. The mean age of the patients was 52 years (range: 29–71 years) and 30 years (range: 14–62 years) in the MMRT and LMRT group, respectively. There was a significant correlation between a MMRT and meniscal extrusion (pMeniscal extrusion is common in patients with MMRTs. However, it is rare in patients with LMRTs, which are more commonly associated with a history of trauma and ACL tears. PMID:26488288

  17. Voice Outcome after Gore-Tex Medialization Thyroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnashar, Ismail

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Although medialization thyroplasty utilizing Gore-Tex (Gore and Associates, Newark, Delaware, United States has been discussed in the literature, few reports have assessed voice quality afterward, and they did not use a full assessment protocol. Objective To assess the improvement in voice quality after medialization thyroplasty utilizing Gore-Tex in patients with glottic insufficiency of variable etiology. Methods Eleven patients with glottic insufficiency of different etiologies that failed compensation were operated by type 1 thyroplasty utilizing Gore-Tex. Pre- and postoperative (1 week, 3 months, and 6 months voice assessment was done and statistical analysis was performed on the results. Results In all postoperative assessments, there was significant improvement in the grade of dysphonia (p < 0.004 and highly significant reduction in the size of glottic gap and prolongation of maximum phonation time (p < 0.0001. The difference in voice parameters in the early (1 week and the late (3 and 6 months postoperative period was not significant. None of the patients developed stridor or shortness of breath necessitating tracheotomy, and there was no implant extrusion in any patient during the study period. Conclusion Gore-Tex medialization provides reliable results for both subjective and objective voice parameters. It leads to a satisfactory restoration of voice whatever the etiology of glottic incompetence is. This technique is relatively easy and does not lead to major complications. Further studies with larger number of patients and more extended periods of follow-up are still required to assess the long-term results of the technique regarding voice quality and implant extrusion.

  18. Voice Outcome after Gore-Tex Medialization Thyroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnashar, Ismail; El-Anwar, Mohammad; Amer, Hazem; Quriba, Amal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although medialization thyroplasty utilizing Gore-Tex (Gore and Associates, Newark, Delaware, United States) has been discussed in the literature, few reports have assessed voice quality afterward, and they did not use a full assessment protocol. Objective To assess the improvement in voice quality after medialization thyroplasty utilizing Gore-Tex in patients with glottic insufficiency of variable etiology. Methods Eleven patients with glottic insufficiency of different etiologies that failed compensation were operated by type 1 thyroplasty utilizing Gore-Tex. Pre- and postoperative (1 week, 3 months, and 6 months) voice assessment was done and statistical analysis was performed on the results. Results In all postoperative assessments, there was significant improvement in the grade of dysphonia (p < 0.004) and highly significant reduction in the size of glottic gap and prolongation of maximum phonation time (p < 0.0001). The difference in voice parameters in the early (1 week) and the late (3 and 6 months) postoperative period was not significant. None of the patients developed stridor or shortness of breath necessitating tracheotomy, and there was no implant extrusion in any patient during the study period. Conclusion Gore-Tex medialization provides reliable results for both subjective and objective voice parameters. It leads to a satisfactory restoration of voice whatever the etiology of glottic incompetence is. This technique is relatively easy and does not lead to major complications. Further studies with larger number of patients and more extended periods of follow-up are still required to assess the long-term results of the technique regarding voice quality and implant extrusion. PMID:26157500

  19. Evaluation of the angles of magnetic axis relative to rotation axis of pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'min, A.D.; Dagkesamanskaya, I.M.

    1983-01-01

    The difference of an observed width of integrated pulse's profile and a beamwidth of pulsar emission is pointed out. A method to evaluate angle #betta# of the magnetic axis relative to the rotation axis is proposed. Values of #betta# are obtained for 308 pulsars. The secular decrease of #betta# has been found. The radius of the emitting region, #betta#-factors and the density of radiating particles are also evaluated

  20. Visualization of the medial forebrain bundle using diffusion tensor imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardian eHana

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion tensor imaging is a technique that enables physicians the portrayal of white matter tracts in vivo. We used this technique in order to depict the medial forebrain bundle in 15 consecutive patients between 2012 and 2015. Men and women of all ages were included. There were 6 women and 9 men. The mean age was 58,6 years (39-77. Nine patients were candidates for an eventual deep brain stimulation. Eight of them suffered from Parkinson`s disease and one had multiple sclerosis. The remaining 6 patients suffered from different lesions which were situated in the frontal lobe. These were 2 metastasis, 2 meningiomas, 1 cerebral bleeding and 1 glioblastoma. We used a 3DT1-sequence for the navigation. Furthermore T2- and DTI- sequences were performed. The FOV was 200 x 200 mm², slice thickness 2 mm, and an acquisition matrix of 96 x 96 yielding nearly isotropic voxels of 2 x 2 x 2 mm. 3-Tesla-MRI was carried out strictly axial using 32 gradient directions and one b0-image. We used Echo-Planar-Imaging (EPI and ASSET parallel imaging with an acceleration factor of 2. b-value was 800 s/mm². The maximal angle was 50°. Additional scanning time was less than 9 minutes. We were able to visualize the medial forebrain bundle in 12 of our patients bilaterally and in the remaining 3 patients we depicted the medial forebrain bundle on one side. It was the contralateral side of the lesion. These were 2 meningiomas and one metastasis. Portrayal of the medial forebrain bundle is possible for everyday routine for neurosurgical interventions. As part of the reward circuitry it might be of substantial importance for neurosurgeons during deep brain stimulation in patients with psychiatric disorders. Furthermore it might explain at a certain extent character changes in patients with lesions in the frontal lobe. Surgery in this part of the brain should always take the preservation of this white matter tract into account.

  1. A Portable Single Axis Magnetic Gradiometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merayo, José M.G.; Petersen, Jan Raagaard; Nielsen, Otto V

    2001-01-01

    The single axis magnetic gradiometer based on two compact detector compensation (CDC) fluxgate ringcore sensors separated 20 cm is described. Despite its high stability and precision better than 1 nT, the calibration procedures are not straightforward. Firstly, the mono-axial measurement does not...... measurements is achieved by using a magnetic dipole of strength 2 mAm(2). In a coil facility, the gradient can be determined with an accuracy of 0.3 nT/m(RMS)....

  2. Resolution of a triple axis spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mourits; Bjerrum Møller, Hans

    1969-01-01

    A new method for obtaining the resolution function for a triple-axis neutron spectrometer is described, involving a combination of direct measurement and analytical calculation. All factors which contribute to the finite resolution of the instrument may be taken into account, and Gaussian...... or experimentally determined probability distributions may be used. The application to the study of the dispersion relation for excitations in a crystal is outlined...

  3. AXIS - Advanced X-ray Imaging Sarellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, Michael; AXIS Team

    2018-01-01

    We present an overview of the Advanced X-ray Imaging Satellite (AXIS), a probe mission concept under study to the 2020 Decadal survey. AXIS follows in the footsteps of the spectacularly successful Chandra X-ray Observatory with similar or higher angular resolution and an order of magnitude more collecting area in the 0.3-10 keV band over a 15' field of view. These capabilities are designed to attain a wide range of science goals such as (i) measuring the event horizon scale structure in AGN accretion disks and the spin of supermassive black holes through monitoring of gravitationally microlensed quasars; (ii) understanding AGN and starburst feedback in galaxies and galaxy clusters through direct imaging of winds and interaction of jets and via spatially resolved imaging of galaxies at high-z; (iii) probing the fueling of AGN by resolving the SMBH sphere of influence in nearby galaxies; (iv) investigating hierarchical structure formation and the SMBH merger rate through measurement of the occurrence rate of dual AGN and occupation fraction of SMBHs; (v) advancing SNR physics and galaxy ecology through large detailed samples of SNR in nearby galaxies; (vi) measuring the Cosmic Web through its connection to cluster outskirts. With a nominal 2028 launch, AXIS benefits from natural synergies with LSST, ELTs, ALMA, WFIRST and ATHENA, and will be a valuable precursor to Lynx. AXIS utilizes breakthroughs in the construction of light-weight X-ray optics from mono-crystalline silicon blocks, and developments in the fabrication of large format, small pixel, high readout detectors.

  4. Progressive resistance, whole body long-axis rotational training improves kicking motion motor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyland, John; Love, Matthew; Burden, Robert; Krupp, Ryan; Caborn, David N M

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate lower extremity muscle activation, peak resultant ground reaction force (GRF) production and quickness during performance of a kicking motion following progressive resistance, whole body long-axis rotational training. Randomized, controlled study. Kinesiological research laboratory. Thirty-six healthy subjects were assigned to a training (Group 1) or to a control (Group 2) group. Time-synchronized EMG (1000 Hz), peak resultant GRF (1000 Hz) and two-dimensional kinematic (60 Hz) data were collected as subjects responded to an audio cue by kicking a cone. Group mean change differences (MCD) were compared using independent sample t-tests. Fisher's exact tests were used to determine group differences in the proportion of subjects that displayed earlier activation responses post-training. Group 1 MCD revealed earlier gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, rectus femoris, medial hamstrings, and biceps femoris activation timing than Group 2 (P ≤ 0.006) and more Group 1 subjects displayed earlier activation of these muscles post-training (P ≤ 0.041). Group 1 MCD also revealed earlier peak resultant GRF timing and improved "kick quickness" than Group 2 (P ≤ 0.014) and more Group 1 subjects displayed earlier response timing for these variables post-training (P = 0.035). Progressive resistance, whole body long-axis rotational training may improve performance during sports movements that require quick, integrated trunk-lower extremity function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Kinematics of partial and total ruptures of the medial collateral ligament of the elbow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eygendaal, D; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Jensen, Steen Lund

    2000-01-01

    In this study the kinematics of partial and total ruptures of the medial collateral ligament of the elbow are investigated. After selective transection of the medial collateral ligament of 8 osteoligamentous intact elbow preparations was performed, 3-dimensional measurements of angular displacement......, increase in medial joint opening, and translation of the radial head were examined during application of relevant stress. Increase in joint opening was significant only after complete transection of the anterior part of the medial collateral ligament was performed. The joint opening was detected during...... valgus and internal rotatory stress only. After partial transection of the anterior bundle of the medial collateral ligament was performed, there was an elbow laxity to valgus and internal rotatory force, which became significant after transection of 100% of the anterior bundle of the medial collateral...

  6. Is testing the voice under sedation reliable in medialization thyroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Natsuki; Herrero, Ricard; Martin, Ana; Basterra, Jorge; Zapater, Enrique

    2016-12-01

    Medialization thyroplasty is an accepted method for improving non-compensated unilateral vocal cord palsy. Most surgeons decide the depth of penetration of the prosthesis by monitoring the voice changes in the patient during the surgical procedure. General anesthesia with intubation is incompatible with this procedure. Sedation is recommended. In this study we want to objectivize and quantify the influence of sedation and position on voice in order to know if this anesthetic procedure is justified in medialization thyroplasties. A prospective study. This study involved 15 adult patients who underwent sedation. Voice recordings were performed in each patient in three different positions and conditions: the seated position without sedation, the supine position without sedation, and the supine position under the effects of sedation. The sedation drugs used were midazolam, fentanyl, and propofol. The level of sedation was monitored using the observational scale and the bispectral index. The acoustic data obtained from sustained vowel sounds from patient recordings showed that sedation significantly affected the values of pitch. Compared to recordings from patients without sedation, pitch values in patients under sedation were significantly higher for jitter local and shimmer local recordings and significantly lower for pitch and harmonics-to-noise ratio. The supine position was shown not to influence on the voice. Sedation exerts an important influence on voice quality. General anesthesia could be an alternative, focusing our attention on monitoring the glottis with a fibrolaryngoscope during the surgical procedure. No sedation at all can also be an alternative.

  7. Arterial injury promotes medial chondrogenesis in Sm22 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jianbin; Yang, Maozhou; Jiang, Hong; Ju, Donghong; Zheng, Jian-Pu; Xu, Zhonghui; Liao, Tang-Dong; Li, Li

    2011-04-01

    Expression of SM22 (also known as SM22alpha and transgelin), a vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) marker, is down-regulated in arterial diseases involving medial osteochondrogenesis. We investigated the effect of SM22 deficiency in a mouse artery injury model to determine the role of SM22 in arterial chondrogenesis. Sm22 knockout (Sm22(-/-)) mice developed prominent medial chondrogenesis 2 weeks after carotid denudation as evidenced by the enhanced expression of chondrogenic markers including type II collagen, aggrecan, osteopontin, bone morphogenetic protein 2, and SRY-box containing gene 9 (SOX9). This was concomitant with suppression of VSMC key transcription factor myocardin and of VSMC markers such as SM α-actin and myosin heavy chain. The conversion tendency from myogenesis to chondrogenesis was also observed in primary Sm22(-/-) VSMCs and in a VSMC line after Sm22 knockdown: SM22 deficiency altered VSMC morphology with compromised stress fibre formation and increased actin dynamics. Meanwhile, the expression level of Sox9 mRNA was up-regulated while the mRNA levels of myocardin and VSMC markers were down-regulated, indicating a pro-chondrogenic transcriptional switch in SM22-deficient VSMCs. Furthermore, the increased expression of SOX9 was mediated by enhanced reactive oxygen species production and nuclear factor-κB pathway activation. These findings suggest that disruption of SM22 alters the actin cytoskeleton and promotes chondrogenic conversion of VSMCs.

  8. MRI parcellation of ex vivo medial temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustinack, Jean C; Magnain, Caroline; Reuter, Martin; van der Kouwe, André J W; Boas, David; Fischl, Bruce

    2014-06-01

    Recent advancements in radio frequency coils, field strength and sophisticated pulse sequences have propelled modern brain mapping and have made validation to biological standards - histology and pathology - possible. The medial temporal lobe has long been established as a pivotal brain region for connectivity, function and unique structure in the human brain, and reveals disconnection in mild Alzheimer's disease. Specific brain mapping of mesocortical areas affected with neurofibrillary tangle pathology early in disease progression provides not only an accurate description for location of these areas but also supplies spherical coordinates that allow comparison between other ex vivo cases and larger in vivo datasets. We have identified several cytoarchitectonic features in the medial temporal lobe with high resolution ex vivo MRI, including gray matter structures such as the entorhinal layer II 'islands', perirhinal layer II-III columns, presubicular 'clouds', granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus as well as lamina of the hippocampus. Localization of Brodmann areas 28 and 35 (entorhinal and perirhinal, respectively) demonstrates MRI based area boundaries validated with multiple methods and histological stains. Based on our findings, both myelin and Nissl staining relate to contrast in ex vivo MRI. Precise brain mapping serves to create modern atlases for cortical areas, allowing accurate localization with important applications to detecting early disease processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Simultaneous avascular necrosis of both medial and lateral femoral condyles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansberg, R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Avascular necrosis (AVN) of a femoral condyle is a common orthopaedic condition. While both medial and lateral femoral condyles may be involved either singly or sequentially the simultaneous occurrence of AVN of both femoral condyles is extremely uncommon. A 57-year-old male is presented who developed the onset of severe left sided knee pain suddenly at rest. Plain and tomographic radiography was unremarkable and a bone scan was performed. Markedly increased vascularity was demonstrated in the left knee with intense osteoblastic activity in the left medial and femoral condyles more marked in the lateral femoral condyle. A diagnosis of AVN of both femoral condyles was made and a MRI exam was performed to confirm this unusual diagnosis. The MRI showed a diffuse increase in intensity bilaterally with subtle bony change in the subarticular bone consistent with AVN more marked in the left lateral femoral condyle. The patients' symptoms resolved with supportive treatment. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  10. Medial Orbitofrontal Cortex Is Associated with Fatigue Sensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiki Tajima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue is an indispensable bioalarm to avoid exhaustive state caused by overwork or stresses. It is necessary to elucidate the neural mechanism of fatigue sensation for managing fatigue properly. We performed H2O  15 positron emission tomography scans to indicate neural activations while subjects were performing 35-min fatigue-inducing task trials twice. During the positron emission tomography experiment, subjects performed advanced trail-making tests, touching the target circles in sequence located on the display of a touch-panel screen. In order to identify the brain regions associated with fatigue sensation, correlation analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping method. The brain region exhibiting a positive correlation in activity with subjective sensation of fatigue, measured immediately after each positron emission tomography scan, was located in medial orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann's area 10/11. Hence, the medial orbitofrontal cortex is a brain region associated with mental fatigue sensation. Our findings provide a new perspective on the neural basis of fatigue.

  11. Medial prefrontal cortex role in recognition memory in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morici, Juan Facundo; Bekinschtein, Pedro; Weisstaub, Noelia V

    2015-10-01

    The study of the neurobiology of recognition memory, defined by the integration of the different components of experiences that support recollection of past experiences have been a challenge for memory researches for many years. In the last twenty years, with the development of the spontaneous novel object recognition task and all its variants this has started to change. The features of recognition memory include a particular object or person ("what"), the context in which the experience took place, which can be the arena itself or the location within a particular arena ("where") and the particular time at which the event occurred ("when"). This definition instead of the historical anthropocentric one allows the study of this type of episodic memory in animal models. Some forms of recognition memory that require integration of different features recruit the medial prefrontal cortex. Focusing on findings from spontaneous recognition memory tasks performed by rodents, this review concentrates on the description of previous works that have examined the role that the medial prefrontal cortex has on the different steps of recognition memory. We conclude that this structure, independently of the task used, is required at different memory stages when the task cannot be solved by a single item strategy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical outcomes after multiligament injured knees: medial versus lateral reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardy, N; Boisrenoult, P; Teissier, P; Steltzlen, C; Beaufils, P; Pujol, N

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the clinical outcomes of multiligament injured knees with respect to the medial collateral ligament and posteromedial corner (PMC) repair or reconstruction versus the posterolateral corner (PLC) reconstruction in patients operated according to a codified surgical protocol. Patients were divided into two groups depending on whether PMC or PLC was injured. Cruciate ligaments as well as PMC or PLC were reconstructed/repaired in a one-stage procedure. At minimum of 1-year follow-up, objective and subjective International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) forms, Lysholm score and sports activity level were recorded. Thirty-nine patients with a median follow-up time of 57 months (range 12-129) were reviewed. No significant difference was found for functional scores between acute PMC and PLC subgroups. In Group PLC, subjective outcomes tend to be better in the acute than in chronic reconstruction subgroup. A one-stage protocol with early surgery rather than delayed reconstruction produced better clinical outcomes whatever the injured collateral ligament, medial or lateral. In the future, early and chronic reconstructions as well as each injury pattern should be considered as separate entities in studies on multiple ligament injured knees to reach a better level of evidence. IV.

  13. Perineoscrotal reconstruction using a medial circumflex femoral artery perforator flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsidag, Semra; Akcal, Arzu; Sirvan, Selami Serhat; Guney, Soner; Ugurlu, Kemal

    2011-02-01

    Major scrotal defects may result from infection due to Fournier's gangrene, excision of scrotal skin diseases, traumatic avulsion of scrotal and penile skin, and genital burns. The wide spectrum of bacterial flora of the perineum, difficulty in providing immobilisation, and obtaining a natural contour of the testes make testicular cover very difficult. Various methods have been reported to cover the penoscrotal area, including skin grafting, transposing them to medial thigh skin, and use of local fasciocutaneous or musculocutaneous flaps. In this report, reconstruction using six local medial circumflex femoral artery perforator (MCFAP) flaps was undertaken in five male patients (mean age, 47 years) with complex penoscrotal or perineal wounds. The cause of the wounds in four patients was Fournier's gangrene, and was a wide papillomateous lesion in the other patient. Flap width was 6-10 cm and flap length was 10-18 cm. The results showed that a MCFAP flap provided the testes with a pliable local flap without being bulky and also protected the testicle without increasing the temperature. The other advantage of the MCFAP flap was that the donor-site scar could be concealed in the gluteal crease. Our results demonstrated that the MCFAP flap is an ideal local flap for covering penoscrotal defects. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. A protocol for manual segmentation of medial temporal lobe subregions in 7 Tesla MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Berron

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in MRI and increasing knowledge on the characterization and anatomical variability of medial temporal lobe (MTL anatomy have paved the way for more specific subdivisions of the MTL in humans. In addition, recent studies suggest that early changes in many neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases are better detected in smaller subregions of the MTL rather than with whole structure analyses. Here, we developed a new protocol using 7 Tesla (T MRI incorporating novel anatomical findings for the manual segmentation of entorhinal cortex (ErC, perirhinal cortex (PrC; divided into area 35 and 36, parahippocampal cortex (PhC, and hippocampus; which includes the subfields subiculum (Sub, CA1, CA2, as well as CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG which are separated by the endfolial pathway covering most of the long axis of the hippocampus. We provide detailed instructions alongside slice-by-slice segmentations to ease learning for the untrained but also more experienced raters. Twenty-two subjects were scanned (19–32 yrs, mean age = 26 years, 12 females with a turbo spin echo (TSE T2-weighted MRI sequence with high-resolution oblique coronal slices oriented orthogonal to the long axis of the hippocampus (in-plane resolution 0.44×0.44 mm2 and 1.0 mm slice thickness. The scans were manually delineated by two experienced raters, to assess intra- and inter-rater reliability. The Dice Similarity Index (DSI was above 0.78 for all regions and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC were between 0.76 to 0.99 both for intra- and inter-rater reliability. In conclusion, this study presents a fine-grained and comprehensive segmentation protocol for MTL structures at 7 T MRI that closely follows recent knowledge from anatomical studies. More specific subdivisions (e.g. area 35 and 36 in PrC, and the separation of DG and CA3 may pave the way for more precise delineations thereby enabling the detection of early volumetric changes in dementia and

  15. Comparison Of Medial Arch-Supporting Insoles And Heel Pads In The Treatment Of Plantar Fasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malkoc Melih

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Plantar fasciitis is a disorder caused by inflammation of the insertion point of the plantar fascia over the medial tubercle of the calcaneus. Foot orthotics are used to treat plantar fasciitis. Heel pads medialise the centre of force, whereas medial arch supporting insoles lateralise the force. We assessed the clinical results of the treatment of plantar fasciitis with silicone heel pads and medial arch-supported silicone insoles.

  16. The mechanical benefit of medial support screws in locking plating of proximal humerus fractures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical advantages of medial support screws (MSSs in the locking proximal humeral plate for treating proximal humerus fractures. METHODS: Thirty synthetic left humeri were randomly divided into 3 subgroups to establish two-part surgical neck fracture models of proximal humerus. All fractures were fixed with a locking proximal humerus plate. Group A was fixed with medial cortical support and no MSSs; Group B was fixed with 3 MSSs but without medial cortical support; Group C was fixed with neither medial cortical support nor MSSs. Axial compression, torsional stiffness, shear stiffness, and failure tests were performed. RESULTS: Constructs with medial support from cortical bone showed statistically higher axial and shear stiffness than other subgroups examined (P<0.0001. When the proximal humerus was not supported by medial cortical bone, locking plating with medial support screws exhibited higher axial and torsional stiffness than locking plating without medial support screws (P ≤ 0.0207. Specimens with medial cortical bone failed primarily by fracture of the humeral shaft or humeral head. Specimens without medial cortical bone support failed primarily by significant plate bending at the fracture site followed by humeral head collapse or humeral head fracture. CONCLUSIONS: Anatomic reduction with medial cortical support was the stiffest construct after a simulated two-part fracture. Significant biomechanical benefits of MSSs in locking plating of proximal humerus fractures were identified. The reconstruction of the medial column support for proximal humerus fractures helps to enhance mechanical stability of the humeral head and prevent implant failure.

  17. Correlation between hippocampal volumes and medial temporal lobe atrophy in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhikav, Vikas; Duraiswamy, Sharmila; Anand, Kuljeet Singh

    2017-01-01

    Hippocampus undergoes atrophy in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Calculation of hippocampal volumes can be done by a variety of methods using T1-weighted images of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Medial temporal lobes atrophy (MTL) can be rated visually using T1-weighted MRI brain images. The present study was done to see if any correlation existed between hippocampal volumes and visual rating scores of the MTL using Scheltens Visual Rating Method. We screened 84 subjects presented to the Department of Neurology of a Tertiary Care Hospital and enrolled forty subjects meeting the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke, AD related Disease Association criteria. Selected patients underwent MRI brain and T1-weighted images in a plane perpendicular to long axis of hippocampus were obtained. Hippocampal volumes were calculated manually using a standard protocol. The calculated hippocampal volumes were correlated with Scheltens Visual Rating Method for Rating MTL. A total of 32 cognitively normal age-matched subjects were selected to see the same correlation in the healthy subjects as well. Sensitivity and specificity of both methods was calculated and compared. There was an insignificant correlation between the hippocampal volumes and MTL rating scores in cognitively normal elderly ( n = 32; Pearson Correlation coefficient = 0.16, P > 0.05). In the AD Group, there was a moderately strong correlation between measured hippocampal volumes and MTL Rating (Pearson's correlation coefficient = -0.54; P < 0.05. There was a moderately strong correlation between hippocampal volume and Mini-Mental Status Examination in the AD group. Manual delineation was superior compared to the visual method ( P < 0.05). Good correlation was present between manual hippocampal volume measurements and MTL scores. Sensitivity and specificity of manual measurement of hippocampus was higher compared to visual rating scores for MTL in patients

  18. Correlation between hippocampal volumes and medial temporal lobe atrophy in patients with Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Dhikav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hippocampus undergoes atrophy in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD. Calculation of hippocampal volumes can be done by a variety of methods using T1-weighted images of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain. Medial temporal lobes atrophy (MTL can be rated visually using T1-weighted MRI brain images. The present study was done to see if any correlation existed between hippocampal volumes and visual rating scores of the MTL using Scheltens Visual Rating Method. Materials and Methods: We screened 84 subjects presented to the Department of Neurology of a Tertiary Care Hospital and enrolled forty subjects meeting the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke, AD related Disease Association criteria. Selected patients underwent MRI brain and T1-weighted images in a plane perpendicular to long axis of hippocampus were obtained. Hippocampal volumes were calculated manually using a standard protocol. The calculated hippocampal volumes were correlated with Scheltens Visual Rating Method for Rating MTL. A total of 32 cognitively normal age-matched subjects were selected to see the same correlation in the healthy subjects as well. Sensitivity and specificity of both methods was calculated and compared. Results: There was an insignificant correlation between the hippocampal volumes and MTL rating scores in cognitively normal elderly (n = 32; Pearson Correlation coefficient = 0.16, P> 0.05. In the AD Group, there was a moderately strong correlation between measured hippocampal volumes and MTL Rating (Pearson's correlation coefficient = −0.54;P< 0.05. There was a moderately strong correlation between hippocampal volume and Mini-Mental Status Examination in the AD group. Manual delineation was superior compared to the visual method (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Good correlation was present between manual hippocampal volume measurements and MTL scores. Sensitivity and specificity of manual measurement of

  19. A-P Positioning of Medialization Thyroplasty in an Excised Larynx Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwonka, Lukasz; Ford, Charles N.; Machi, Anthony T.; Leverson, Glen E.; Jiang, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    Hypothesis Posterior positioning of medialization thyroplasty provides the best acoustic and aerodynamic outcomes. Study Design Ex vivo excised canine larynx. Methods Unilateral thyroplasty windows were cut in the thyroid cartilages of 10 excised canine larynges. Each larynx was mounted on an artificial lung and the vocal fold opposite the thyroid window was adducted by medializing its arytenoid cartilage. Then, medialization thyroplasty was simulated with a probe placed anterior, central, and posterior in the thyroid window. The glottal area, airway reduction, medialization force, phonation threshold pressure and flow, aerodynamic power, intensity, efficiency, jitter, shimmer, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were measured at each medialization position. Results Posterior medialization probe placement minimized the glottal area, provided the best voice as determined by perturbation measures and SNR, reduced the work of phonation, and increased efficiency. Anterior and middle probe placement minimized the work of phonation but provided only modest gains in sound quality and decreased sound intensity. Medializing the vocal fold with posterior probe placement required twice as much force as central and anterior probe placement. Conclusions The results suggest that posterior medialization provides the greatest improvement in acoustic parameters and efficiency in patients who can tolerate the airway reduction. Middle and anterior medialization can decrease work of phonation, but in this experiment objective improvement in sound quality was limited. Subtle changes in displacement shim contour, especially in middle and anterior locations, have a substantial impact on voice outcome, affirming the value of intraoperative voice assessment. PMID:19235760

  20. Case report - curved femoral osteotomy for management of medial patellar luxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allpass, Maja; Miles, James Edward

    2015-01-01

    Medial patellaluxation kan forårsages af femoral varus hos hund. Førhen har patienter med excessiv femoralvarus været korrigeret ved en lateralt placeret femoral kile-ostektomi. Her præsenteres en case, hvor en buet osteotomi blev anvendt til behandling af medial patellaluxation.......Medial patellaluxation kan forårsages af femoral varus hos hund. Førhen har patienter med excessiv femoralvarus været korrigeret ved en lateralt placeret femoral kile-ostektomi. Her præsenteres en case, hvor en buet osteotomi blev anvendt til behandling af medial patellaluxation....

  1. Simultaneous MPFL and LPFL reconstruction for recurrent lateral patellar dislocation with medial patellofemoral instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Kusano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an extremely rare case of both recurrent lateral patella dislocation and medial patellofemoral instability, following prior operations to correct patella maltracking. Manual translation of the patella revealed medial and lateral instability with a positive apprehension sign. 3-D computer modelling of kinematics based on MRI data demonstrated that the patella deviated laterally at full extension and translated medially with knee flexion. The medial and lateral patellofemoral ligaments were reconstructed simultaneously with hamstring tendons, alleviating peripatellar pain and patellar instability in both directions.

  2. First Metatarsal Head and Medial Eminence Widths with and Without Hallux Valgus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Robin C; Nagesh, Darshan; Park, Hannah K; Grady, John

    2016-09-02

    Resection of the medial eminence in hallux valgus surgery is common. True hypertrophy of the medial eminence in hallux valgus is debated. No studies have compared metatarsal head width in patients with hallux valgus and control patients. We reviewed 43 radiographs with hallux valgus and 27 without hallux valgus. We measured medial eminence width, first metatarsal head width, and first metatarsal shaft width in patients with and without radiographic hallux valgus. Medial eminence width was 1.12 mm larger in patients with hallux valgus (P hallux valgus (P hallux valgus. However, frontal plane rotation of the first metatarsal likely accounts for this difference.

  3. Comparison of Medial and Lateral Meniscus Root Tears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyun Koo

    Full Text Available The meniscus root plays an essential role in maintaining the circumferential hoop tension and preventing meniscal displacement. Studies on meniscus root tears have investigated the relationship of osteoarthritis and an anterior cruciate ligament tear. However, few studies have directly compared the medial and lateral root tears. To assess the prevalence of meniscal extrusion and its relationship with clinical features in medial and lateral meniscus root tears, we performed a retrospective review of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI results of 42 knee patients who had meniscus posterior horn root tears and who had undergone arthroscopic operations. The presence of meniscal extrusion was evaluated and the exact extent was measured from the tibial margin. The results were correlated with arthroscopic findings. Clinical features including patients' ages, joint abnormalities, and previous trauma histories were evaluated. Twenty-two patients had medial meniscus root tears (MMRTs and twenty patients had lateral meniscus root tears (LMRTs. Meniscal extrusion was present in 18 MMRT patients and one LMRT patient. The mean extent of extrusion was 4.2mm (range, 0.6 to 7.8 in the MMRT group and 0.9mm (range, -1.9 to 3.4 in the LMRT group. Five patients with MMRT had a history of trauma, while 19 patients with LMRT had a history of trauma. Three patients with MMRT had anterior cruciate ligament (ACL tears, while 19 patients with LMRT had ACL tears. The mean age of the patients was 52 years (range: 29-71 years and 30 years (range: 14-62 years in the MMRT and LMRT group, respectively. There was a significant correlation between a MMRT and meniscal extrusion (p<0.0001, and between an ACL tear and LMRT (p<0.0001. A history of trauma was significantly common in LMRT (p<0.0001. LMRT patients were significantly younger than MMRT patients (p<0.0001. Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L grade differed significantly between MMRT and LMRT group (p<0.0001. Meniscal extrusion is

  4. Hand orientation during reach-to-grasp movements modulates neuronal activity in the medial posterior parietal area V6A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattori, Patrizia; Breveglieri, Rossella; Marzocchi, Nicoletta; Filippini, Daniela; Bosco, Annalisa; Galletti, Claudio

    2009-02-11

    Reach-to-grasp actions involve several components of forelimb movements needed to direct the hand toward the object to be grasped, and to orient and preshape the hand according to the object axis and shape. Area V6A, which represents a node of the dorsomedial frontoparietal circuits, has so far been implicated only in directing the arm toward different spatial locations. The present results confirm this finding and demonstrate, for the first time, that during reach-to-grasp, V6A neurons are also modulated by the orientation of the hand. In the present work the object to be grasped was a handle that could have different orientations. Reach-to-grasp movements were executed in complete darkness while gazing at a small fixation point. The majority of the tested cells (76/142; 54%) turned out to be sensitive to the orientation of the handle. Neurons could be modulated during preparation or execution of reach-to-grasp movements. The most represented cells were those modulated by hand orientation both during preparatory and movement periods. These data show that reaching and grasping are processed by the same population of neurons, providing evidence that the coordination of reaching and grasping takes place much earlier than previously thought, i.e., in the parieto-occipital cortex. The data here reported are in agreement with results of lesions to the medial posterior parietal cortex in both monkeys and humans, and with recent imaging data in humans, all of them indicating a functional coupling in the control of reaching and grasping by the medial parietofrontal circuit.

  5. Theoretical tool movement required to diamond turn an off-axis paraboloid on axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.C.

    1975-01-01

    High-quality, off-axis parabolic reflectors, required by the CTR and laser-fusion programs at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) and other ERDA laboratories, are currently manufactured by hand. There are several drawbacks to this method, including lead times of up to a year, costs in excess of dollars 75,000 for a small reflector, and unsatisfactory limits to the tolerances obtainable. This situation has led to a search for cheaper and more accurate methods of manufacturing off-axis paraboloids. An alternative method, turning the workpiece about its axis on a diamond-turning machine, is presented, and the equations describing the necessary tool movement are derived. A discussion of a particular case suggests that the proposed technique is feasible

  6. The Triple Axis and SPINS Spectrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, S F

    1993-01-01

    In this paper are described the triple axis and spin polarized inelastic neutron scattering (SPINS) spectrometers which are installed at the NIST Cold Neutron Research Facility (CNRF). The general principle of operation of these two instruments is described in sufficient detail to allow the reader to make an informed decision as to their usefulness for his needs. However, it is the intention of the staff at the CNRF to provide the expert resources for their efficient use in any given situation. Thus, this work is not intended as a user manual but rather as a guide into the range of applicability of the two instruments.

  7. The triple axis and SPINS spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevino, S.F.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper are described the triple axis and spin polarized inelastic neutron scattering (SPINS) spectrometers which are installed at the NIST Cold Neutron Research Facility (CNRF). The general principle of operation of these two instruments is described in sufficient detail to allow the reader to make an informed decision as to their usefulness for his needs. However, it is the intention of the staff at the CNRF to provide the expert resources for their efficient use in any given situation. Thus, this work is not intended as a user manual but rather as a guide into the range of applicability of the two instruments

  8. Effect of chemical stimulation of the medial frontal lobe on the micturition reflex in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Saori; Sugaya, Kimio; Kadekawa, Katsumi; Ashitomi, Katsuhiro; Yamamoto, Hideyuki

    2012-03-01

    We assessed the influence of the medial frontal lobe on micturition after chemical stimulation. We also examined the relation between the medial frontal lobe and the rostral pontine reticular formation, which has a strong inhibitory effect on micturition. A total of 35 female rats underwent continuous cystometry. Bladder activity changes were examined after physiological saline, glutamate, the glutamate receptor antagonist MK-801, noradrenaline or the adrenergic α-1 receptor antagonist naftopidil was injected in the medial frontal lobe. When glutamate was injected in the medial frontal lobe, MK-801 was also injected in the rostral pontine reticular formation. Glutamate injection in the medial frontal lobe prolonged the interval between bladder contractions while injection of the glutamate antagonist MK-801 shortened the interval. Glutamate injection in the medial frontal lobe just after MK-801 injection in the ipsilateral rostral pontine reticular formation also prolonged the interval between bladder contractions. However, after prior injection of MK-801 in the bilateral rostral pontine reticular formation glutamate injection in the medial frontal lobe did not influence cystometric parameters. Noradrenaline injection in the medial frontal lobe shortened the interval between bladder contractions while injection of its antagonist naftopidil prolonged the interval. Medial frontal lobe neurons excited by glutamate inhibited the micturition reflex via activation of the rostral pontine reticular formation by glutamatergic projection while medial frontal lobe neurons excited by noradrenaline facilitated the micturition reflex. Thus, the medial frontal lobe may be an important integration center for the initiation of micturition and urine storage mechanisms. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Bucket handle tears of the medial meniscus: meniscal intrusion rather than meniscal extrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlossberg, S. [Jacobi Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States); Umans, H. [Jacobi Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States); Jacobi Medical Center, Department of Surgery Division of Orthopedic Surgery, Bronx, NY (United States); Flusser, G. [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Tel Aviv (Israel); DiFelice, G.S. [Jacobi Medical Center, Department of Surgery Division of Orthopedic Surgery, Bronx, NY (United States); Lerer, D.B. [Montefiore Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2007-01-15

    To determine the frequency of medial meniscal extrusion (MME) versus ''medial meniscal intrusion'' in the setting of bucket handle tears. Images were evaluated for previously reported risk factors for MME, including: medial meniscal root tear, radial tear, degenerative joint disease and joint effusion. Forty-one consecutive cases of bucket handle tear of the medial meniscus were reviewed by consensus by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Imaging was performed using a 1.5 GE Signa MR unit. Patient age, gender, medial meniscal root integrity, MME, medial meniscal intrusion, degenerative joint disease, effusion and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear were recorded. Thirteen females and 27 males (age 12-62 years, median=30 years) were affected; one had bucket handle tear of each knee. Effusion was small in 13, moderate in 9 and large in 18. Degenerative joint disease was mild in three, moderate in two and severe in one. 26 ACL tears included three partial and three chronic. Medial meniscal root tear was complete in one case and partial thickness in two. None of the 40 cases with an intact or partially torn medial meniscal root demonstrated MME. MME of 3.1 mm was seen in the only full-thickness medial meniscal root tear, along with chronic ACL tear, moderate degenerative joint disease and large effusion. Medial meniscal intrusion of the central bucket handle fragment into the intercondylar notch was present in all 41 cases. Given an intact medial meniscal root in the setting of a ''pure'' bucket handle tear, there is no MME. (orig.)

  10. Integrating what and when across the primate medial temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naya, Yuji; Suzuki, Wendy A

    2011-08-05

    Episodic memory or memory for the detailed events in our lives is critically dependent on structures of the medial temporal lobe (MTL). A fundamental component of episodic memory is memory for the temporal order of items within an episode. To understand the contribution of individual MTL structures to temporal-order memory, we recorded single-unit activity and local field potential from three MTL areas (hippocampus and entorhinal and perirhinal cortex) and visual area TE as monkeys performed a temporal-order memory task. Hippocampus provided incremental timing signals from one item presentation to the next, whereas perirhinal cortex signaled the conjunction of items and their relative temporal order. Thus, perirhinal cortex appeared to integrate timing information from hippocampus with item information from visual sensory area TE.

  11. MORPHOMETRIC STUDY OF MEDIAL COLLATERAL LIGAMENTS OF ANKLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelu Prasad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The ankle joint is one of the most frequently injured joint. A sprained ankle results due to tear of anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular ligaments when the foot is twisted in lateral direction. In forcible eversion of the foot, the deltoid ligament may be torn. At times, the deltoid ligament pulls the medial malleolus thereby causing avulsion fracture of the malleolus. The strong eversion pull on the deltoid ligament causes transverse fracture of medial malleolus. If the tibia is carried anteriorly, the posterior margin of the distal end of the tibia is also broken by the talus producing a trimalleolar fracture. The talocrural joint is a major weight bearing joint of the body. The weight of the body is transmitted from the tibia and fibula to the talus which distributes the weight anteriorly and posteriorly within the foot. One sixth of the static load of the leg is carried by the fibula at the tibiofibular joint. These require a high degree of stability which is determined by the passive and dynamic factors. A sprained ankle results due to tear of anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular ligaments when the foot is twisted in lateral direction. In forcible eversion of the foot, the deltoid ligament may be torn. At times, the deltoid ligament pulls the medial malleolus thereby causing avulsion fracture of the malleolus. The strong eversion pull on the deltoid ligament causes transverse fracture of medial malleolus. If the tibia is carried anteriorly, the posterior margin of the distal end of the tibia is also broken by the talus producing a trimalleolar fracture. Conventionally, X-ray techniques have been used to diagnose ligament injuries. Magnetic resonance (MR imaging has opened new horizons in the diagnosis and treatment of many musculoskeletal diseases of the ankle and foot. It demonstrates abnormalities in the bones and soft tissues before they become evident at other imaging modalities. The anatomy of the deltoid ligament

  12. Effect of Medialization Thyroplasty on Glottic Airway Anatomy: Cadaver Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinghal, Tulika; Anderson, Jennifer; Chung, Janet; Hong, Aaron; Bharatha, Aditya

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the change in airway dimensions after medialization thyroplasty (MT) using a cadaveric model. Helical computerized tomography (CT) was performed before and after placement of a silastic block in human larynges to investigate the effect on airway anatomy at the level of the glottis. Tissue density (TD) of the medialized vocal fold (VF) was documented to understand the effect on tissue displacement. This is a cadaveric study. Thirteen human cadaveric larynges underwent fine-cut CT scan before and after MT was performed using carved blocks in two sizes (small block and large block [LB]). Clientstream software was used to measure laryngeal dimensions: intraglottic volume (IGV), cross-sectional area (CSA), posterior-glottic diameter (PGD), VF density (in Hounsfield units [HUs]), and anterior-posterior diameter (APD). Eight sequential axial sections 0.625 mm cuts) at the level of the true VFs were analyzed. There was a significant decrease between the three conditions for IGV (P < 0.0001) and CSA (P < 0.0001). TD of the VF was increased after MT as indicated by HU increase (P = 0.0003). APD was not significantly changed. PGD was significantly different between the no block to LB placement (P = 0.0012). MT significantly changes the IGV and CSA at the level of the glottis. Density in the true VF was significantly increased. These findings have important implications for understanding volumetric effects of MT. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Reversed Procrastination by Focal Disruption of Medial Frontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Ashwani; Diehl, Beate; Scott, Catherine; McEvoy, Andrew W; Nachev, Parashkev

    2016-11-07

    An enduring puzzle in the neuroscience of voluntary action is the origin of the remarkably wide dispersion of the reaction time distribution, an interval far greater than is explained by synaptic or signal transductive noise [1, 2]. That we are able to change our planned actions-a key criterion of volition [3]-so close to the time of their onset implies decision-making must reach deep into the execution of action itself [4-6]. It has been influentially suggested the reaction time distribution therefore reflects deliberate neural procrastination [7], giving alternative response tendencies sufficient time for fair competition in pursuing a decision threshold that determines which one is behaviorally manifest: a race model, where action selection and execution are closely interrelated [8-11]. Although the medial frontal cortex exhibits a sensitivity to reaction time on functional imaging that is consistent with such a mechanism [12-14], direct evidence from disruptive studies has hitherto been lacking. If movement-generating and movement-delaying neural substrates are closely co-localized here, a large-scale lesion will inevitably mask any acceleration, for the movement itself could be disrupted. Circumventing this problem, here we observed focal intracranial electrical disruption of the medial frontal wall in the context of the pre-surgical evaluation of two patients with epilepsy temporarily reversing such hypothesized procrastination. Effector-specific behavioral acceleration, time-locked to the period of electrical disruption, occurred exclusively at a specific locus at the ventral border of the pre-supplementary motor area. A cardinal prediction of race models of voluntary action is thereby substantiated in the human brain. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Methamphetamine and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Gabriel Zuloaga

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Psychostimulants such as methamphetamine (MA induce significant alterations in the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis. These changes in HPA axis function are associated with altered stress-related behaviors and might contribute to addictive processes such as relapse. In this mini-review we discuss acute and chronic effects of MA (adult and developmental exposure on the HPA axis, including effects on HPA axis associated genes/proteins, brain regions, and behaviors such as anxiety and depression. A better understanding of the mechanisms through which MA affects the HPA axis may lead to more effective treatment strategies for MA addiction.

  15. VERITAS: Versatile Triple-Axis Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Il

    2006-04-15

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute is planning to build a cold neutron triple-axis spectrometer at HANARO, the 30 MW research reactor. The spectrometer is expected to be completed in 2008 with the following configuration from the upstream to the downstream. Guide Supermirror m = 2, In-pile Straight Section, {approx} 5 m Curved Guide, {approx} 26 m w/ R 1500 m Straight Guide before the Instrument, {approx} 40 m Filters PG and Be Neutron Velocity Selector (Future) Monochromators Vertically Focusing Monochromators PG(002) and Heusler(111) Doubly Focusing Monochromators (Future) Monochromator-Sample Distance 2 m Collimation C1 Soller Collimators, 20', 40' 80'Beam Height at the Sample Table 1.5 m Sample-Analyzer Distance 1.0 m Collimation C2 Soller Collimators, 20', 40', 80' Radial Collimator Analyzers Horizontally Focusing Analyzers w/ Fixed Vertical Focusing PG(002) and Heusler(111) Analyzer-Detector Distance 0.5 m Detectors 5 cm Tube Detector 25 cm wide Position Sensitive Detector Once completed, the neutron flux at sample is expected to surpass that of SPINS at NCNR, making this instrument one of the most powerful 2nd generation cold neutron triple-axis spectrometers in the world.

  16. VERITAS: Versatile Triple-Axis Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Il

    2006-04-01

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute is planning to build a cold neutron triple-axis spectrometer at HANARO, the 30 MW research reactor. The spectrometer is expected to be completed in 2008 with the following configuration from the upstream to the downstream. Guide Supermirror m = 2, In-pile Straight Section, ∼ 5 m Curved Guide, ∼ 26 m w/ R 1500 m Straight Guide before the Instrument, ∼ 40 m Filters PG and Be Neutron Velocity Selector (Future) Monochromators Vertically Focusing Monochromators PG(002) and Heusler(111) Doubly Focusing Monochromators (Future) Monochromator-Sample Distance 2 m Collimation C1 Soller Collimators, 20', 40' 80'Beam Height at the Sample Table 1.5 m Sample-Analyzer Distance 1.0 m Collimation C2 Soller Collimators, 20', 40', 80' Radial Collimator Analyzers Horizontally Focusing Analyzers w/ Fixed Vertical Focusing PG(002) and Heusler(111) Analyzer-Detector Distance 0.5 m Detectors 5 cm Tube Detector 25 cm wide Position Sensitive Detector Once completed, the neutron flux at sample is expected to surpass that of SPINS at NCNR, making this instrument one of the most powerful 2nd generation cold neutron triple-axis spectrometers in the world

  17. Lateral trunk lean and medializing the knee as gait strategies for knee osteoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbrands, T. A.; Pisters, M. F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/317999303; Theeven, P. J R; Verschueren, S.; Vanwanseele, B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine (1) if Medial Thrust or Trunk Lean reduces the knee adduction moment (EKAM) the most during gait in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis, (2) if the best overall strategy is the most effective for each patient and (3) if these strategies affect ankle and hip kinetics.

  18. Lateral trunk lean and medializing the knee as gait strategies for knee osteoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. Pisters; Drs. Ing. Tim Gerbrands; B. Vanwanseele; P.J.R. Theeven; S. Verschueren

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine (1) if Medial Thrust or Trunk Lean reduces the knee adduction moment (EKAM) the most during gait in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis, (2) if the best overall strategy is the most effective for each patient and (3) if these strategies affect ankle and hip

  19. Analysis of medial deviation of center of pressure after initial heel contact in forefoot varus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Li Hsi

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: The most medial CoP of the row and CoP% detected increased medial CoP deviation in FV ≥ 8°, and may be applied to other clinical conditions where rearfoot angle and CoP of the array after initial heel contact cannot detect significant differences.

  20. MR appearance of anomalous insertion of the medial meniscus. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arjun, S.; Takahashi, S.; Nakane, N.; Yonemitsu, H.; Tang, Y.

    1998-01-01

    We report on the MR imaging of an anomalous medial meniscus with a tear in a 41-year-old man. Anomaly of the medial meniscus is rare and difficult to diagnose clinically. The MR images contributed to the pre-arthroscopic diagnosis and arthroscopy confirmed the lesion. The anomalous meniscus was not related to the symptoms. (orig.)

  1. The comparison of femoral component rotational alignment with transepicondylar axis in mobile bearing TKA, CT-scan study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witoolkollachit, Polawat; Seubchompoo, Onuma

    2008-07-01

    The tibial axis referencing method with a balanced tension flexion gap at 90 degrees knee flexion provides adequate femoral component rotation usually in external rotation, the trans-epicondylar line being parallel to the proximal tibial cut. The LCS mobile bearing TKA uses this technique to automatically determine the femoral component rotation with desired tension. The determination of the epicondyles may lead to some confusion. On the lateral side, the prominence of the lateral condyle makes it easy to define. However on the medial side, some surgeons use the prominent part of the medial epicondyle (well recognized on CT scan as the most proximal ridge that gives insertion to the superficial collateral ligament) and use the anatomical transepicondylar axis (aTEA). Other surgeons use the depression below called sulcus that defines the surgical transepicondylar axis (sTEA). The authors evaluated 40 clinically successful mobile bearing TKA in 33 patients. All the knees were performed by single surgeon and the rotational alignment of the femoral component was applied with balanced flexion gap technique. Post-op CT-scans were done in all knees with 2-mm interval and measurement of the different angles (between aTEA and the prosthetic posterior condylar line and between the sTEA and the prosthetic posterior condylar line) with the UTHSCSA Imagetool (IT) version 3 from the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. The authors found that the mean femoral implant angle was in 2.39 degrees (SD = 2.80) of internal rotation with reference to the aTEA and in 1.34 degrees (SD = 1.57 degrees) of external rotation with reference to the sTEA when the medial sulcus was perfectly detected (nine knees, 22.5%). The angle between the aTEA and the sTEA was -3.98 degrees (SD = 1.05 degrees). No patella subluxation was identified. Nineteen or 47.5% of the femoral components were in internal or external femoral rotation of more than 3 degrees to the aTEA. When sTEA was

  2. Behavioral effects of chronically elevated corticosterone in subregions of the medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Joshua D; Schulkin, Jay; Shepard, Jack D

    2017-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex is a key mediator of behavioral aspects of the defense response. Since chronic exposure to elevated glucocorticoids alters the dendritic structure of neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex, such exposure may alter behavioral responses to danger as well. We examined the effects of chronically elevated corticosterone in discrete regions of the medial prefrontal cortex on exploration of the elevated plus-maze. Chronically elevated corticosterone in the prelimbic or infralimbic cortices reduced open arm exploration. This effect was specific to the ventral regions of the medial prefrontal cortex as corticosterone had no effect on plus-maze exploration when administered into the anterior cingulate cortex. Taken together, these findings demonstrate clear regional differences for the effects of corticosterone in the medial prefrontal cortex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Coding Odorant Concentration through Activation Timing between the Medial and Lateral Olfactory Bulb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhishang Zhou

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, each olfactory bulb (OB contains a pair of mirror-symmetric glomerular maps organized to reflect odorant receptor identity. The functional implication of maintaining these symmetric medial-lateral maps within each OB remains unclear. Here, using in vivo multielectrode recordings to simultaneously detect odorant-induced activity across the entire OB, we reveal a timing difference in the odorant-evoked onset latencies between the medial and lateral halves. Interestingly, the latencies in the medial and lateral OB decreased at different rates as odorant concentration increased, causing the timing difference between them to also diminish. As a result, output neurons in the medial and lateral OB fired with greater synchrony at higher odorant concentrations. Thus, we propose that temporal differences in activity between the medial and lateral OB can dynamically code odorant concentration, which is subsequently decoded in the olfactory cortex through the integration of synchronous action potentials.

  4. Feasibility of the Medial Temporal lobe Atrophy index (MTAi and derived methods for measuring atrophy of the medial temporal lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco eConejo Bayón

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the Medial Temporal-lobe Atrophy index (MTAi, 2D-Medial Temporal Atrophy (2D-MTA, yearly rate of MTA (yrRMTA and yearly rate of relative MTA (yrRMTA are simple protocols for measuring the relative extent of atrophy in the MTL in relation to the global brain atrophy. Albeit preliminary studies showed interest of these methods in the diagnosis of AD, FTLD and correlation with cognitive impairment in PD, formal feasibility and validity studies remained pending. As a first step, we aimed to assess the feasibility. Mainly, we aimed to assess the reproducibility of measuring the areas needed to compute these indices. We also aimed to assess the efforts needed to start using these methods correctly. Methods: a series of 290 1.5T-MRI studies from 230 subjects ranging 65-85 years old who had been studied for cognitive impairment were used in this study. Six inexperienced tracers (IT plus one experienced tracer (ET traced the three areas needed to compute the indices. Finally, tracers underwent a short survey on their experience learning to compute the MTAi and experience of usage, including items relative to training time needed to understand and apply the MTAi, time to perform a study after training and overall satisfaction. Results: learning to trace the areas needed to compute the MTAi and derived methods is quick and easy. Results indicate very good intrarater ICC for the MTAi, good intrarater ICC for the 2D-MTA, yrMTA and yrRMTA and also good interrater ICC for the MTAi, 2D-MTA, yrMTA and yrRMTA.Conclusion: our data support that MTAi and derived methods (2D-MTA, yrMTA and yrRTMA have good to very good intrarater and interrater reproducibility and may be easily implemented in clinical practice even if new users have no experience tracing the area of regions of interest.

  5. Phonatory effects of type I thyroplasty implant shape and depth of medialization in unilateral vocal fold paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orestes, Michael I; Neubauer, Juergen; Sofer, Elazar; Salinas, Jonathon; Chhetri, Dinesh K

    2014-12-01

    Medialization thyroplasty (MT) is commonly used to treat glottic insufficiency. In this study, we investigated the phonatory effects of MT implant medialization depth and medial surface shape. Recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) and vagal paralysis were simulated in an in vivo canine. A type 1 MT was performed using a silicone elastomer implant with variable medialization depths and medial surface shapes: rectangular, V-shaped, divergent, and convergent. The effects on phonation onset flow/pressure relationships and acoustics were measured. Increasing depth of medialization led to improvements in fundamental frequency (F0) range and normalization of the slope of pressure/flow relationship toward baseline activation conditions. The effects of implant medial shape also depended on depth of medialization. Outcome measures were similar among the implants at smaller medialization depths. With large medialization depths and vagal paralysis conditions, the divergent implant maintained pressure/flow relationship closer to baseline. The vagal paralysis conditions also demonstrated decreased fundamental frequency range and worse flow/pressure relationship compared to RLN paralysis. The depth and medial shape of a medialization laryngoplasty (ML) implant significantly affect both the F0 range and aerodynamic power required for phonation. These effects become more notable with increasing depth of medialization. The study also illustrates that ML is less effective in vagal paralysis compared to RLN paralysis. N/A. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Predicting the Feasibility of Correcting Mechanical Axis in Large Varus Deformities With Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleeblad, Laura J; van der List, Jelle P; Pearle, Andrew D; Fragomen, Austin T; Rozbruch, S Robert

    2018-02-01

    Due to disappointing historical outcomes of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA), Kozinn and Scott proposed strict selection criteria, including preoperative varus alignment of ≤15°, to improve the outcomes of UKA. No studies to date, however, have assessed the feasibility of correcting large preoperative varus deformities with UKA surgery. The study goals were therefore to (1) assess to what extent patients with large varus deformities could be corrected and (2) determine radiographic parameters to predict sufficient correction. In 200 consecutive robotic-arm assisted medial UKA patients with large preoperative varus deformities (≥7°), the mechanical axis angle (MAA) and joint line convergence angle (JLCA) were measured on hip-knee-ankle radiographs. It was assessed what number of patients were corrected to optimal (≤4°) and acceptable (5°-7°) alignment, and whether the feasibility of this correction could be predicted using an estimated MAA (eMAA, preoperative MAA-JLCA) using regression analyses. Mean preoperative MAA was 10° of varus (range, 7°-18°), JLCA was 5° (1°-12°), postoperative MAA was 4° of varus (-3° to 8°), and correction was 6° (1°-14°). Postoperative optimal alignment was achieved in 62% and acceptable alignment in 36%. The eMAA was a significant predictor for optimal postoperative alignment, when corrected for age and gender (P varus deformities (7°-18°) could be considered candidates for medial UKA, as 98% was corrected to optimal or acceptable alignment, although cautious approach is needed in deformities >15°. Furthermore, it was noted that the feasibility of achieving optimal alignment could be predicted using the preoperative MAA, JLCA, and age. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. RITA-type triple axis spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roennow, H.M.

    2001-01-01

    The RITA spectrometer at Risoe National Laboratory was the first to incorporate a complete re-thinking of the neutron-path from source, through detector to analysis. Since then, other RITA-type spectrometers such as SPINS at NIST, RITA-II at PSI have been built, and several new spectrometers around the world are adapting the same philosophy. The main novelty of RITA was the introduction of a single back-end tank featuring both an analyser block with multiple individually turnable analyser blades and a 2D position sensitive detector. Several new triple-axis spectrometers are presently being built at existing and future sources, and almost all of them have learnt from the experience with RITA. (R.P.)

  8. Polarized triple-axis spectrometer TASP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeni, P.; Keller, P. [Lab. for Neutron Scattering ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland) and Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    The polarized triple-axis spectrometer TASP at SINQ has been optimized for measuring magnetic cross sections in condensed matter. The neutrons are polarized or analyzed either by means of benders or Heusler monochromators. The beam divergence, i.e. the intensity, and the spectral range of the neutrons is rather large because of the supermirror coatings of the feeding neutron guide. The intensity can be further increased at the sample position by means of a focussing monochromator and a focussing anti-trumpet. The end position of TASP allows the tailoring of the neutron beam already before the monochromator and to scatter neutrons over very wide ranges of angles. (author) 6 figs., 1 tab., 8 refs.

  9. Polarized triple-axis spectrometer TASP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeni, P.; Keller, P.

    1996-01-01

    The polarized triple-axis spectrometer TASP at SINQ has been optimized for measuring magnetic cross sections in condensed matter. The neutrons are polarized or analyzed either by means of benders or Heusler monochromators. The beam divergence, i.e. the intensity, and the spectral range of the neutrons is rather large because of the supermirror coatings of the feeding neutron guide. The intensity can be further increased at the sample position by means of a focussing monochromator and a focussing anti-trumpet. The end position of TASP allows the tailoring of the neutron beam already before the monochromator and to scatter neutrons over very wide ranges of angles. (author) 6 figs., 1 tab., 8 refs

  10. Arterial thoracic vascularization in some deer species: pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus), brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira) and axis deer (Axis axis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, W; Erdoğan, S

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the arterial distributions of the aortic arches of three deer species (Axis axis, Ozotoceros bezoarticus and Mazama gouazoubira) were described. The animals were dissected immediately after being found dead. Latex injection method was used to observe the vascularization of the thorax. The branching pattern of the arteries of the thoracic aorta in O. bezoarticus was similar to domestic ruminants. In the M. gouazoubira and A. axis, there were no bicarotid trunk. Interestingly, the first branch of the brachiocephalic trunk was the left costocervical trunk in A. axis. Then, brachiocephalic trunk was divided into right and left subclavian arteries. M. gouazoubira and A. axis in contrast to O. bezoarticus were different when compared with other ruminants, and the absence of bicarotid trunk was more striking than previous reports. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Effects of Shoes and a Prefabricated Medial Arch Support on Medial Gastrocnemius and Tibialis Anterior Activity while doing Leg Press Exercise in Normal Feet Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sheikhi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, different types of exercise machines are being used in the field of athletic training, recreation, post-injury and post-operation rehabilitation. Leg press is a commonly-used one that retrains muscles and simulates natural functional activities. In this activity, feet are in contact with a footrest to exert muscular forces. In addition, the footrest inserts reactive forces to feet and from the feet load would transfer to structures that are more proximal. Any misalignment in foot structure may interfere its function. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of shoes and using a prefabricated medial arch support on the activity of Tibialis anterior and medial gastrocnemius muscles while doing leg press exercise in normal feet subjects. Method: 14 men with normal Medial Longitudinal Arch and normal Body Mass Index aged between 18-35 years old, with at least 6 months experience of doing leg press volunteered to participate in this study.  Medial gastrocnemius and Tibialis anterior activity were measured by surface electromyography while doing leg press with 70% of subjects 1 Repetition Maximum.  To increase accuracy, motion was divided into knee flexion and knee extension phases. Peak Amplitude, Time to Peak Amplitude and Root Mean Square variables were used for analysis. Wilcoxon nonparametric test was used to compare the results. Results: No statistically significant difference was found in the electromyographic parameters of Medial gastrocnemius nor Tibialis anterior in any phases of motion, except for an increase in Tibialis anterior time to peak amplitude in shod condition compared with barefoot in knee extension phase of motion (p-value=0.008 and Tibialis anterior RMS in knee flexion phase in orthotic condition compared to shod (p-value=0.03. Conclusion: It seems that in high loads shoes or medial arch supports cannot change electromyographic parameters in Medial gastrocnemius nor Tibialis anterior in

  12. Location and tension of the medial palpebral ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Huan, Fan; Nam, Yong Seok; Han, Seung Ho; Kim, Dae Joong

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the precise anatomic location and tension of the medial palpebral ligament (MPL). Eleven hemifaces of 10 fresh Korean adult cadavers were used in this study. Nine specimens were used for measurement of dissection and tension, and 2 were used for histologic study. Measurements of tensile strength of each part of the MPL and Horner muscle were performed using a force gauge.The MPL consisted of 2 layers in all specimens dissected. The superficial layer of the palpebral ligament (SMPL) was observed from the anterior lacrimal crest to the upper and lower tarsal plates. The deep layer of the palpebral ligament (DMPL) lay from the anterior lacrimal crest to the posterior lacrimal crest, covering the lacrimal sac. The Horner muscle was observed at the posterior lacrimal crest just lateral to the attachment of the DMPL and ran laterally to the tarsal plate deep to the SMPL. The SMPL began at 4.5 ± 2.3 mm lateral to the nasomaxillary suture line to the upper and lower tarsal plates. Its transverse length was 9.6 ± 1.5 mm, and vertical width was 2.4 ± 0.7 mm, and its thickness was 4.5 ± 2.3 mm. The transverse length of the DMPL was 3.7 ± 0.4 mm, and its vertical width was 2.9 ± 1.3 mm, with a thickness of 0.3 ± 0.1 mm. The transverse length of the Horner muscle was 7.6 ± 1.9 mm, and its vertical width was 4.06 ± 1.5 mm, with a thickness of 0.4 ± 0.1 mm. The tensile strength of the SMPL was 13.4 ± 3.2 N, that of the DMPL was 4.1 ± 1.7 N, and that for Horner muscle was 9.0 ± 3.1 N. The tensile strength of the SMPL was significantly higher than that of the DMPL (P = 0.003).We reconfirmed that the MPL consisted of 2 layers: superficial layer and deep layer. Our results might be of use in surgeries of the medial canthi.

  13. Effects of the combination of metyrapone and oxazepam on cocaine-induced increases in corticosterone in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Courtney M; Breaux, Kelly N; Goeders, Nicholas E

    2017-03-01

    We have previously demonstrated that a combination of drugs (i.e., metyrapone and oxazepam) known to attenuate HPA-axis activity effectively decreases cocaine self-administration and cue reactivity in rats. However, we did not find changes in plasma corticosterone that matched the behavioral effects we observed, indicating that a different mechanism of action must be involved. Therefore, we hypothesized that the combination of metyrapone and oxazepam attenuates cocaine taking and seeking by decreasing cocaine-induced increases in corticosterone in the brain. Male rats were implanted with guide cannulae targeting the medial prefrontal cortex or nucleus accumbens. After the rats recovered from surgery, the microdialysis session was conducted. Rats were housed in the experimental chamber and the dialysis probes inserted into the guide cannulae the night before the session. The following day, dialysate samples were collected over a five-hour session. Baseline samples were collected for the first two hours, every 20min. Samples were then collected following administration of cocaine (15mg/kg, ip). Before injections of cocaine, rats were pretreated with either vehicle or the combination of metyrapone (50mg/kg, ip) and oxazepam (10mg/kg, ip). The administration of cocaine resulted in an increase in corticosterone in the medial prefrontal cortex following vehicle pretreatment, which was not observed in the nucleus accumbens. This cocaine-induced increase in corticosterone was attenuated by metyrapone/oxazepam. Reducing cocaine-induced increases in corticosterone in the medial prefrontal cortex might represent a novel mechanism through which the combination of metyrapone/oxazepam produces its behavioral effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Lateral trunk lean and medializing the knee as gait strategies for knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbrands, T A; Pisters, M F; Theeven, P J R; Verschueren, S; Vanwanseele, B

    2017-01-01

    To determine (1) if Medial Thrust or Trunk Lean reduces the knee adduction moment (EKAM) the most during gait in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis, (2) if the best overall strategy is the most effective for each patient and (3) if these strategies affect ankle and hip kinetics. Thirty patients with symptomatic medial knee osteoarthritis underwent 3-dimensional gait analysis. Participants received verbal instructions on two gait strategies (Trunk Lean and Medial Thrust) in randomized order after comfortable walking was recorded. The peaks and impulse of the EKAM and strategy-specific kinematic and kinetic variables were calculated for all conditions. Early stance EKAM peak was significantly reduced during Medial Thrust (-29%). During Trunk Lean, early and late stance EKAM peak and EKAM impulse reduced significantly (38%, 21% and -25%, respectively). In 79% of the subjects, the Trunk Lean condition was significantly more effective in reducing EKAM peak than Medial Thrust. Peak ankle dorsi and plantar flexion, knee flexion and hip extension and adduction moments were not significantly increased. Medial Thrust and Trunk Lean reduced the EKAM during gait in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Individual selection of the most effective gait modification strategy seems vital to optimally reduce dynamic knee loading during gait. No detrimental effects on external ankle and hip moments or knee flexion moments were found for these conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Supinated forearm is correlated with the onset of medial epicondylitis in professional slalom water-skiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Donato; Di Donato, Sigismondo Luca; Balato, Giovanni; D’Addona, Alessio; Schonauer, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background prolonged and laborious activities involving wrists and forearms has been long associated with the onset of epicondylitis. Slalom water-skiing can be included in this category. The purpose of the study is to analyse the correlation between the pronated or supinated position of forearms during water-skiing practice and the presence respectively of lateral and medial epicondylitis. Methods sixty-six pro and semi-pro slalom water-skiers were enrolled in the study. A questionnaire was submitted to each athlete. Diagnosis of lateral or medial epicondylitis was made through anamnesis and clinical exam by an expert orthopaedic surgeon. Chi-squared were performed for categorical variables, and Mann-Whitney U test for continuous ones. Results from 116 upper limbs examined, we observed 15 (12.9%) cases of lateral epicondylitis, 30 (25.9%) cases of medial epicondylitis, 10 (8.6%) were affected by both lateral and medial epicondylitis. Lateral and medial epicondylitis were associated (95% C.I.=2,489–26,355; P=slalom water-skiing can be considered a high-risk sport for epicondylitis. In slalom water-skiers there is a correlation between development of lateral and medial epicondylitis in the same upper limb. Supinated position of forearms is strongly associated with the diagnosis of medial epicondylitis. PMID:27331043

  16. Core curriculum case illustration: [Stieda fracture (avulsion fracture of the medial femoral condyle)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadl, Shaimaa Abdelhassib; Robinson, Jeffrey D

    2018-02-01

    This is the 30th installment of a series that will highlight one case per publication issue from the bank of cases available online as part of the American Society of Emergency Radiology (ASER) educational resources. Our goal is to generate more interest in and use of our online materials. To view more cases online please visit the ASER Core Curriculum and Recommendations for Study online at: http://www.erad.org/page/CCIP_TOC . A Stieda fracture is an avulsion injury from the medial femoral condyle of the origin of the medial collateral ligament. The medial collateral ligament originates superiorly from the medial femoral condyle and has superficial and deep fibers. On radiographs, the avulsion fracture at or near the medial femoral condyle near the attachment site of the medial collateral ligament is usually characteristic. Isolated partial or complete MCL injuries can be treated nonoperatively with good outcomes. Reconstruction of the medial ligamentous structures of the knee is usually performed if there is persistent valgus laxity or anteromedial rotatory instability after nonoperative management.

  17. Medial Calcar Support and Radiographic Outcomes of Plate Fixation for Proximal Humeral Fractures

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    Shih-Jie Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plate fixation remains one of the most popular surgical procedures for treating proximal humeral fractures (PHFx; however, substantial rates of complications have been reported in the literature. The objectives of the study were to examine how medial calcar support (MCS affects the radiographic outcomes and to determine the prognostic factors predicting treatment failure. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 89 adult patients who had PHFx and were treated with plate fixation at our institution in 2007–2011. The enrolled patients were separated into two groups according to disruption of medial calcar. Our results revealed an increased rate of poor radiographic outcomes in patients with disrupted medial calcar. Osteonecrosis of the humeral head and redisplacement were the two radiographic outcomes which had a positive causality with disruption of medial calcar (P=0.008 and 0.050, resp.. Deficient medial calcar, inadequate reduction, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and chronic liver disease were all significant predictors for the development of osteonecrosis in patients after PHFx surgery. Inadequate reduction was also a predictor for redisplacement. We confirmed that the restoration of medial calcar as well as comorbid conditions plays key roles in treatment of patients having PHFx with disrupted medial calcar.

  18. Role of the medial prefrontal cortex in coping and resilience.

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    Maier, Steven F; Watkins, Linda R

    2010-10-08

    The degree of behavioral control that an organism has over an aversive event is well known to modulate the behavioral and neurochemical consequences of exposure to the event. Here we review recent research that suggests that the experience of control over a potent stressor alters how the organism responds to future aversive events as well as to the stressor being controlled. More specifically, subjects that have experienced control show blunted behavioral and neurochemical responses to subsequent stressors occurring days to months later. Indeed, these subjects respond as if a later uncontrollable stressor is actually controllable. Further, we review research indicating that the stress resistance induced by control depends on control-induced activation of ventral medial prefrontal cortical (vmPFC) inhibitory control over brainstem and limbic structures. Furthermore, there appears to be plasticity in these circuits such that the experience of control alters the vmPFC in such a way that later uncontrollable stressors now activate the vmPFC circuitry, leading to inhibition of stress-responsive limbic and brainstem structures, i.e., stressor resistance. This controllability-induced proactive stressor resistance generalizes across very different stressors and may be involved in determining individual difference in reactions to traumatic events. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Medialization laryngoplasty with gore-tex: an animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durucu, Cengiz; Kanlikama, Muzaffer; Mumbuc, Semih; Bayazit, Yildirim; Bakir, Kemal; Karatas, Erkan

    2007-09-01

    Vocal cord paralysis is a disease that can cause voice disability and aspiration problems. Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE; Gore-Tex) has been widely used in cardiovascular and plastic surgery; however, its biocompatibility and safety have not been established precisely in the larynx. In this study, the biocompatibility and safety of ePTFE used in vocal cord medialization in the rabbit larynx were assessed. Type 1 thyroplasty with Gore-Tex was performed on one side of the larynx in eight rabbits. A sham procedure was applied on the contralateral side of their larynx. The rabbits were sacrificed after 6 months, and macroscopic and microscopic evaluations and comparisons were performed. No significant inflammatory response to Gore-Tex or displacement of the implant was seen. There was only a tiny fibrotic capsule surrounding the material in each specimen. Intense eosinophilic cell infiltration was seen surrounding one rabbit specimen. Gore-Tex seems to be a biocompatible, stable, and reversible material that can be safely used in laryngeal framework surgery.

  20. Autonoetic Consciousness in Autobiographical Memories after Medial Temporal Lobe Resection

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    M. Noulhiane

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate autonoetic consciousness associated with episodic autobiographical memory in patients who had undergone unilateral medial temporal lobe resection for intractable epilepsy. Autonoetic consciousness, defined as the conscious feeling of mentally travelling back in time to relive a specific event, was assessed using the Remember/Know (R/K paradigm across different time periods as proposed in the autobiographical memory task developed by Piolino et al. (TEMPau task. Results revealed that the two patient groups (left and right temporal resection gave reduced sense of reliving (R responses and more familiarity (K responses than healthy controls. This poor autonoetic consciousness was highlighted when patients were asked to justify their Remember responses by recalling sensory-perceptive, affective or spatiotemporal specific details across all life periods. These results support the bilateral MTL contribution to episodic autobiographical memory covering the entire lifespan, which is consistent with the multiple trace theory of MTL function [7,9]. This study also demonstrates the bilateral involvement of MTL structures in recalling specific details of personal events characterized by autonoetic consciousness.

  1. Autonoetic Consciousness in Autobiographical Memories after Medial Temporal Lobe Resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noulhiane, M.; Piolino, P.; Hasboun, D.; Clemenceau, S.; Baulac, M.; Samson, S.

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to investigate autonoetic consciousness associated with episodic autobiographical memory in patients who had undergone unilateral medial temporal lobe resection for intractable epilepsy. Autonoetic consciousness, defined as the conscious feeling of mentally travelling back in time to relive a specific event, was assessed using the Remember/Know (R/K) paradigm across different time periods as proposed in the autobiographical memory task developed by Piolino et al. (TEMPau task). Results revealed that the two patient groups (left and right temporal resection) gave reduced sense of reliving (R) responses and more familiarity (K) responses than healthy controls. This poor autonoetic consciousness was highlighted when patients were asked to justify their Remember responses by recalling sensory-perceptive, affective or spatiotemporal specific details across all life periods. These results support the bilateral MTL contribution to episodic autobiographical memory covering the entire lifespan, which is consistent with the multiple trace theory of MTL function [7,9]. This study also demonstrates the bilateral involvement of MTL structures in recalling specific details of personal events characterized by autonoetic consciousness. PMID:18413911

  2. Medial temporal lobe roles in human path integration.

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    Naohide Yamamoto

    Full Text Available Path integration is a process in which observers derive their location by integrating self-motion signals along their locomotion trajectory. Although the medial temporal lobe (MTL is thought to take part in path integration, the scope of its role for path integration remains unclear. To address this issue, we administered a variety of tasks involving path integration and other related processes to a group of neurosurgical patients whose MTL was unilaterally resected as therapy for epilepsy. These patients were unimpaired relative to neurologically intact controls in many tasks that required integration of various kinds of sensory self-motion information. However, the same patients (especially those who had lesions in the right hemisphere walked farther than the controls when attempting to walk without vision to a previewed target. Importantly, this task was unique in our test battery in that it allowed participants to form a mental representation of the target location and anticipate their upcoming walking trajectory before they began moving. Thus, these results put forth a new idea that the role of MTL structures for human path integration may stem from their participation in predicting the consequences of one's locomotor actions. The strengths of this new theoretical viewpoint are discussed.

  3. Anterior medial prefrontal cortex implements social priming of mimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin; Hamilton, Antonia F de C

    2015-04-01

    The neural and cognitive mechanisms by which primed constructs can impact on social behavior are poorly understood. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore how scrambled sentence priming can impact on mimicry behavior. Sentences involving pro/antisocial events from a first/third-person point of view were presented in short blocks, followed by a reaction-time assessment of mimicry. Behavioral results showed that both prosociality and viewpoint impact on mimicry, and fMRI analysis showed this effect is implemented by anterior medial prefrontal cortex (amPFC). We suggest that social primes may subtly modulate processing in amPFC in a manner linked to the later behavior, and that this same region also implements the top-down control of mimicry responses. This priming may be linked to processing of self-schemas in amPFC. Our findings demonstrate how social priming can be studied with fMRI, and have important implications for our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of prime-to-behavior effects as well as for current theories in social psychology. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Altered Medial Frontal Feedback Learning Signals in Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardoni, Fabio; Geisler, Daniel; King, Joseph A; Javadi, Amir-Homayoun; Ritschel, Franziska; Murr, Julia; Reiter, Andrea M F; Rössner, Veit; Smolka, Michael N; Kiebel, Stefan; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2018-02-01

    In their relentless pursuit of thinness, individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) engage in maladaptive behaviors (restrictive food choices and overexercising) that may originate in altered decision making and learning. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we employed computational modeling to elucidate the neural correlates of feedback learning and value-based decision making in 36 female patients with AN and 36 age-matched healthy volunteers (12-24 years). Participants performed a decision task that required adaptation to changing reward contingencies. Data were analyzed within a hierarchical Gaussian filter model that captures interindividual variability in learning under uncertainty. Behaviorally, patients displayed an increased learning rate specifically after punishments. At the neural level, hemodynamic correlates for the learning rate, expected value, and prediction error did not differ between the groups. However, activity in the posterior medial frontal cortex was elevated in AN following punishment. Our findings suggest that the neural underpinning of feedback learning is selectively altered for punishment in AN. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Endogenous androgens and carotid intimal-medial thickness in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernini, G P; Sgro', M; Moretti, A; Argenio, G F; Barlascini, C O; Cristofani, R; Salvetti, A

    1999-06-01

    The influence of endogenous androgens on atherosclerotic disease in women is unknown. In this study involving 101 pre- and post-menopausal females, we evaluated the relationship between serum androgen levels and both carotid artery intimal-medial thickness (IMT) and major cardiovascular risk factors. In addition to evaluation of blood pressure, body mass index, and waist-to-hip ratio, serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), androstenedione (A), total testosterone (TTS), free testosterone (FTS), insulin, cholesterol (total and high density lipoproteins), triglycerides, and glucose were measured. All women underwent carotid ultrasonography. Spearman correlation coefficients showed that serum DHEA-S and A levels were negatively related (P body mass index (P < 0.02). Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that A and FTS showed an inverse association with IMT measures (P < 0.05-0.001). In conclusion, our data indicate that in women serum DHEA-S and androgens decline with age and that normal hormonal levels are not associated with major cardiovascular risk factors. They also show that higher DHEA-S and androgen concentrations are related to lower carotid wall thickness; for A this association is independent of cardiovascular risk factors. Our results suggest that, in the physiological range, DHEA-S and androgens in women are correlated with lower risk of carotid artery atherosclerosis.

  6. Map reading, navigating from maps, and the medial temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgolites, Zhisen J; Kim, Soyun; Hopkins, Ramona O; Squire, Larry R

    2016-12-13

    We administered map-reading tasks in which participants navigated an array of marks on the floor by following paths on hand-held maps that made up to nine turns. The burden on memory was minimal because the map was always available. Nevertheless, because the map was held in a fixed position in relation to the body, spatial computations were continually needed to transform map coordinates into geographical coordinates as participants followed the maps. Patients with lesions limited to the hippocampus (n = 5) performed similar to controls at all path lengths (experiment 1). They were also intact at executing single moves to an adjacent location, even when trials began by facing in a direction that put the map coordinates and geographical coordinates into conflict (experiment 2). By contrast, one patient with large medial temporal lobe (MTL) lesions performed poorly overall in experiment 1 and poorly in experiment 2 when trials began by facing in the direction that placed the map coordinates and geographical coordinates in maximal conflict. Directly after testing, all patients were impaired at remembering factual details about the task. The findings suggest that the hippocampus is not needed to carry out the spatial computations needed for map reading and navigating from maps. The impairment in map reading associated with large MTL lesions may depend on damage in or near the parahippocampal cortex.

  7. Correlating Function and Imaging Measures of the Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus.

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    Ken Sakaie

    Full Text Available To test the validity of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI measures of tissue injury by examining such measures in a white matter structure with well-defined function, the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF. Injury to the MLF underlies internuclear ophthalmoparesis (INO.40 MS patients with chronic INO and 15 healthy controls were examined under an IRB-approved protocol. Tissue integrity of the MLF was characterized by DTI parameters: longitudinal diffusivity (LD, transverse diffusivity (TD, mean diffusivity (MD and fractional anisotropy (FA. Severity of INO was quantified by infrared oculography to measure versional disconjugacy index (VDI.LD was significantly lower in patients than in controls in the medulla-pons region of the MLF (p < 0.03. FA was also lower in patients in the same region (p < 0.0004. LD of the medulla-pons region correlated with VDI (R = -0.28, p < 0.05 as did FA in the midbrain section (R = 0.31, p < 0.02.This study demonstrates that DTI measures of brain tissue injury can detect injury to a functionally relevant white matter pathway, and that such measures correlate with clinically accepted evaluation indices for INO. The results validate DTI as a useful imaging measure of tissue integrity.

  8. Human medial frontal cortex activity predicts learning from errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Robert; Barre, Natalie; Murphy, Kevin; Silk, Tim J; Mattingley, Jason B

    2008-08-01

    Learning from errors is a critical feature of human cognition. It underlies our ability to adapt to changing environmental demands and to tune behavior for optimal performance. The posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC) has been implicated in the evaluation of errors to control behavior, although it has not previously been shown that activity in this region predicts learning from errors. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined activity in the pMFC during an associative learning task in which participants had to recall the spatial locations of 2-digit targets and were provided with immediate feedback regarding accuracy. Activity within the pMFC was significantly greater for errors that were subsequently corrected than for errors that were repeated. Moreover, pMFC activity during recall errors predicted future responses (correct vs. incorrect), despite a sizeable interval (on average 70 s) between an error and the next presentation of the same recall probe. Activity within the hippocampus also predicted future performance and correlated with error-feedback-related pMFC activity. A relationship between performance expectations and pMFC activity, in the absence of differing reinforcement value for errors, is consistent with the idea that error-related pMFC activity reflects the extent to which an outcome is "worse than expected."

  9. The effect of different types of insoles or shoe modifications on medial loading of the knee in persons with medial knee osteoarthritis: a randomised trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Graham J.; Parkes, Matthew J.; Forsythe, Laura.; Felson, David T.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many conservative treatments exist for medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) which aims to reduce the external knee adduction moment (EKAM). The objective of this study was to determine the difference between different shoes and lateral wedge insoles on EKAM, knee adduction angular impulse (KAAI), external knee flexion moment, pain, and comfort when walking in individuals with medial knee OA. Seventy individuals with medial knee OA underwent three‐dimensional walking gait analysis in five conditions (barefoot, control shoe, typical wedge, supported wedge, and mobility shoe) with pain and comfort recorded concurrently. The change in EKAM, KAAI, external knee flexion moment, pain, and comfort were assessed using multiple linear regressions and pairwise comparisons. Compared with the control shoe, lateral wedge insoles and barefoot walking significantly reduced early stance EKAM and KAAI. The mobility shoe showed no effect. A significant reduction in latter stance EKAM was seen in the lateral wedge insoles compared to the other conditions, with only the barefoot condition reducing the external knee flexion moment. However, the mobility shoe showed significant immediate knee pain reduction and improved comfort scores. Different lateral wedge insoles show comparable reductions in medial knee loading and in our study, the mobility shoe did not affect medial loading. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Orthopaedic Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 33:1646–1654, 2015. PMID:25991385

  10. Fratura avulsão do planalto tibial medial (Segond reverso Avulsion fracture of the medial tibial plateau (reverse Segond injury

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    Fabio Janson Angelini

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se neste artigo um padrão de lesão descrito na literatura apenas duas vezes, num total de quatro casos, denominado Segond reverso por apresentar achados clínicos e radiológicos exatamente opostos aos da clássica lesão de Segond. Semelhantemente aos casos previamente descritos, apresentou fratura avulsão do planalto tibial medial, na inserção do ligamento colateral medial profundo, associada a lesão do ligamento cruzado posterior. Assim como em um dos casos prévios, foi constatada lesão do ligamento cruzado anterior. Entretanto, diferiu dos anteriormente relatados por não apresentar lesão do menisco medial.This article reports an injury pattern described only twice in literature, totaling four cases, and referred to as reverse Segond injury for its clinical and radiological findings are precisely opposite to those observed in the classical Segond injury. Similarly to the previously described cases, our case reported avulsion fracture of the medial tibial plateau at the insertion of the deep tibial collateral ligament, associated to posterior cruciate ligament injury. Similarly to one of the previous cases, anterior cruciate ligament injury was found in our case, although it differs from the previous ones because it does not show medial meniscal injury.

  11. The role of medial frontal gyrus in action anticipation in professional badminton players

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    Huan Xu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Some studies show that the medial frontal cortex is associated with more skilled action anticipation, while similar findings are not observed in some other studies, possibly due to the stimuli employed and the participants used as the control group. In addition, no studies have investigated whether there is any functional connectivity between the medial frontal cortex and other brain regions in more skilled action anticipation. Therefore, the present study aimed to re-investigate how the medial frontal cortex is involved in more skilled action anticipation by circumventing the limitations of previous research and to investigate that the medial frontal cortex functionally connected with other brain regions involved in action processing in more skilled action anticipation. To this end, professional badminton players and novices were asked to anticipate the landing position of the shuttlecock while watching badminton match videos or to judge the gender of the players in the matches. The video clips ended right at the point that the shuttlecock and the racket came into contact to reduce the effect of information about the trajectory of the shuttlecock. Novices who lacked training and watching experience were recruited for the control group to reduce the effect of sport-related experience on the medial frontal cortex. Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD activation was assessed by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Compared to novices, badminton players exhibited stronger activation in the left medial frontal cortex during action anticipation and greater functional connectivity between left medial frontal cortex and some other brain regions (e.g., right posterior cingulate cortex. Therefore, the present study supports the position that the medial frontal cortex plays a role in more skilled action anticipation and that there is a specific brain network for more skilled action anticipation that involves right posterior cingulate

  12. Off-axis loads cause failure of the distal radius at lower magnitudes than axial loads: A finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troy, Karen L.; Grabiner, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Distal radius (Colles’) fractures are a common fall-related injury in older adults and frequently result in long-term pain and reduced ability to perform activities of daily living. Because the occurrence of a fracture during a fall depends on both the strength of the bone and upon the kinematics and kinetics of the impact itself, we sought to understand how changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and loading direction affect the fracture strength and fracture initiation location in the distal radius. A three-dimensional finite element model of the radius, scaphoid, and lunate was used to examine changes of ±2% and ±4% BMD, and both axial and physiologically relevant off-axis loads on the radius. Changes in BMD resulted in similar percent changes in fracture strength. However, modifying the applied load to include dorsal and lateral components (assuming a dorsal view of the wrist, rather than an anatomic view) resulted in a 47% decrease in fracture strength (axial failure load: 2752 N, off-axis: 1448 N). Loading direction also influenced the fracture initiation site. Axially loaded radii failed on the medial surface immediately proximal to the styloid process. In contrast, off-axis loads, containing dorsal and lateral components, caused failure on the dorsal–lateral surface. Because the radius appears to be very sensitive to loading direction, the results suggest that much of the variability in fracture strength seen in cadaver studies may be attributed to varying boundary conditions. The results further suggest that interventions focused on reducing the incidence of Colles’ fractures when falls onto the upper extremities are unavoidable may benefit from increasing the extent to which the radius is loaded along its axis. PMID:17368466

  13. A Method for Modeling of Floating Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Kai; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Moan, Torgeir

    2013-01-01

    It is of interest to investigate the potential advantages of floating vertical axis wind turbine (FVAWT) due to its economical installation and maintenance. A novel 5MW vertical axis wind turbine concept with a Darrieus rotor mounted on a semi-submersible support structure is proposed in this paper....... In order to assess the technical and economic feasibility of this novel concept, a comprehensive simulation tool for modeling of the floating vertical axis wind turbine is needed. This work presents the development of a coupled method for modeling of the dynamics of a floating vertical axis wind turbine...

  14. Concept of a Programmable Fixture for 3-Axis CNC

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    Ahmad Dalloul

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available CNC machine is the one of the major reasons for industrial advancement in recent decades for its ability of producing accurate parts. The most commen CNC machines are of 3-axis and adopted widely in the industrial sector. However, for producing more complicated parts 5-axis CNC machines are required. Although the introduction of the 5-axis machine came after the 3-axis CNC machine has established itself and many manufacturers did not make the move toward the newer model and its high pricing compared to the 3-axis model did not help either. In this time the development of a fixture or a platform to help transfer the 3-axis to a 5-axis to some degree. This paper discusses the concept of a programmable fixture that gives 3-axis CNC machine the freedom to act in similar manner as the 5-axis. The paper describes the mechanism with some initial results of the testing. Result showed that the platform moves in translation manner with an average error of 5.58 % and 7.303% average error for rotation movement.

  15. Suicidal behavior on Axis VI: clinical data supporting a sixth Axis for DSM-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Orden, Kimberly A; Witte, Tracy K; Holm-Denoma, Jill; Gordon, Kathryn H; Joiner, Thomas E

    2011-01-01

    Oquendo and colleagues (Oquendo, Baca-García, Mann, & Giner, 2008; Oquendo & Currier, 2009) recommend that DSM-V emphasize suicide risk assessment on a sixth axis, thereby increasing regularity of suicide risk assessments. We propose that evidence of nonredundancy with Axis V - Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) is one piece of data that can serve as a starting point for a line of research establishing incremental predictive utility for a separate suicide risk assessment in the DSM framework. A standardized suicide risk assessment protocol, measures of depressive, anxious, and eating disordered symptomatology, as well as an index of comorbidity were administered to a sample of 412 adult outpatients. Our data indicate that data from standardized suicide risk assessments are associated with indices of symptomatology severity as well as comorbidity, controlling for GAF. These results support the nonredundancy of the assessments and suggest the utility of longitudinal investigations of the predictive utility of a sixth DSM axis in the assessment of suicide risk.

  16. Symptomatic Os Subtibiale Associated with Chronic Pain Around the Medial Malleolus in a Young Athlete

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    Iliev Alexandar A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An os subtibiale is a rare accessory bone located below or behind the medial malleolus. Herein we present a rare case of a painful os subtibiale in a young triathlete who presented with pain, redness and swelling below his left medial malleolus. Plain radiographs and three-dimensional computed tomography revealed a well-defined oval bone distal to the left medial malleolus. After conservative treatment failed, the ossicle was excised in an open surgery with complete resolution of symptoms. This case report emphasizes the need for clinical awareness of different anatomical variations of the bones of the foot.

  17. Benefit of cup medialization in total hip arthroplasty is associated with femoral anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, Alexandre; Levrero Florencio, Francesc; Rüdiger, Hannes A

    2014-10-01

    Medialization of the cup with a respective increase in femoral offset has been proposed in THA to increase abductor moment arms. Insofar as there are potential disadvantages to cup medialization, it is important to ascertain whether the purported biomechanical benefits of cup medialization are large enough to warrant the downsides; to date, studies regarding this question have disagreed. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of cup medialization with a compensatory increase in femoral offset compared with anatomic reconstruction for patients undergoing THA. We tested the hypothesis that there is a (linear) correlation between preoperative anatomic parameters and muscle moment arm increase caused by cup medialization. Fifteen patients undergoing THA were selected, covering a typical range of preoperative femoral offsets. For each patient, a finite element model was built based on a preoperative CT scan. The model included the pelvis, femur, gluteus minimus, medius, and maximus. Two reconstructions were compared: (1) anatomic position of the acetabular center of rotation, and (2) cup medialization compensated by an increase in the femoral offset. Passive abduction-adduction and flexion-extension were simulated in the range of normal gait. Muscle moment arms were evaluated and correlated to preoperative femoral offset, acetabular offset, height of the greater trochanter (relative to femoral center of rotation), and femoral antetorsion angle. The increase of muscle moment arms caused by cup medialization varied among patients. Muscle moment arms increase by 10% to 85% of the amount of cup medialization for abduction-adduction and from -35% (decrease) to 50% for flexion-extension. The change in moment arm was inversely correlated (R(2) = 0.588, p = 0.001) to femoral antetorsion (anteversion), such that patients with less femoral antetorsion gained more in terms of hip muscle moments. No linear correlation was observed between changes in moment arm and

  18. Increased medial foot loading during drop jump in subjects with patellofemoral pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathleff, Michael S; Richter, Camilla; Brushøj, Christoffer

    2014-01-01

    pressure distribution was collected during drop jump and single leg squat using pressure-sensitive Pedar insoles, inserted into a standard flat shoe. The primary outcome was the medial-to-lateral force, quantified as the peak force under the medial forefoot as the percentage of force under the total...... display a more medially oriented loading pattern of the forefoot compared to individuals without knee pain. This loading pattern may be associated with the distribution of forces acting on the patellofemoral joint and suggest treatment of PFP should consider interventions that target normalisation of foot...

  19. Case report 483: Discoid lateral meniscus (DLM), medially displaced, with complex tear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, M.A.; Buckwalter, K.A.; Braunstein, E.M.; Wojtys, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    A case of a 9-year-old girl who presented with persistent pain in the left knee was demonstrated to have a discoid lateral meniscus (DLM). The sagittal MR images demonstrated the oval shape of the meniscus, consistent with the typical arthrographic appearance. The coronal images showed that the main substance of the meniscus was displaced medially, with overgrowth of the articular cartilage at the lateral aspect of the joint. The medial aspect of the lateral femoral condyle was concave to accommodate the abnormal meniscus. These findings are consistent with long-standing, medial displacement of the torn meniscus. The literature concerning DLM, an uncommon variant, was reviewed and discussed. (orig.)

  20. Tibial avulsion fracture of the posterior root of the medial meniscus in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Jonas Vestergård; Krogsgaard, Michael Rindom

    2012-01-01

    Few reports have described avulsion fractures of the posterior root of the medial meniscus in skeletally immature patients. This lesion should not be overlooked as it damages the load absorptive (distributive) function of the meniscus, increasing the risk of cartilage degeneration. Two cases...... of displaced avulsion fractures of the posterior root of the medial meniscus in children are presented along with a concise report of the literature regarding avulsion fractures of the posterior root of the medial meniscus. Both avulsions were reattached arthroscopically by trans-tibial pull-out sutures...

  1. The gut-brain axis interactions during heat stress and avian necrotic enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calefi, Atilio Sersun; da Silva Fonseca, Juliana Garcia; Cohn, Daniel Wagner Hamada; Honda, Bruno Takashi Bueno; Costola-de-Souza, Carolina; Tsugiyama, Lucila Emiko; Quinteiro-Filho, Wanderley Moreno; Piantino Ferreira, Antonio J; Palermo-Neto, João

    2016-05-01

    The gut-brain axis is known to modulate behavioral and immune responses in animals; evidence supporting this modulation in chickens, however, is elusive. Here, we analyzed the effects of heat stress and/orClostridium perfringens (CP) infection on behavior, intestinal morphology, brain activity, and corticosterone serum levels in chickens. Broilers were randomly divided into 5 equal groups: a naïve group (N), a thioglycolate group (T), a thioglycolate heat-stressed group (T/HS35), an infected group (I), and an infected/stressed (I/HS35) group. Broilers in the I and I/HS35 groups were experimentally infected withClostridium perfringensfrom the 15th to the 19th day of life. Heat stress (35±1°C) was constantly applied to the broilers in the stressed groups from the 14th to the 19th day of life. Our data showed that heat stress andC. perfringensinfection produced significant differential responses in the chickens' behavior and in c-fosexpression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), nucleus taenia of the amygdala (Tn), medial preoptic area (POM), andglobus pallidus (GP) of the chickens. Heat stress ameliorated some of the intestinal lesions and the neuroendocrine changes induced byC. perfringensin the birds. Our results suggest the existence of clear relationships between the degree of intestinal lesions, the chickens' behavioral outcomes, brain activity, and serum levels of corticosterone. Together, they reinforce the importance of neuroimmunomodulation and especially of brain-gut axis interactions. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. Yaw dynamics of horizontal axis wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, A.C. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States))

    1992-05-01

    Designers of a horizontal axis wind turbine yaw mechanism are faced with a difficult decision. They know that if they elect to use a yaw- controlled rotor then the system will suffer increased initial cost and increased inherent maintenance and reliability problems. On the other hand, if they elect to allow the rotor to freely yaw they known they will have to account for unknown and random, though bounded, yaw rates. They will have a higher-risk design to trade-off against the potential for cost savings and reliability improvement. The risk of a yaw-free system could be minimized if methods were available for analyzing and understanding yaw behavior. The complexity of yaw behavior has, until recently, discouraged engineers from developing a complete yaw analysis method. The objectives of this work are to (1) provide a fundamental understanding of free-yaw mechanics and the design concepts most effective at eliminating yaw problems, and (2) provide tested design tools and guidelines for use by free-yaw wind systems manufacturers. The emphasis is on developing practical and sufficiently accurate design methods.

  3. Microbiota and the gut-brain axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienenstock, John; Kunze, Wolfgang; Forsythe, Paul

    2015-08-01

    Changes in gut microbiota can modulate the peripheral and central nervous systems, resulting in altered brain functioning, and suggesting the existence of a microbiota gut-brain axis. Diet can also change the profile of gut microbiota and, thereby, behavior. Effects of bacteria on the nervous system cannot be disassociated from effects on the immune system since the two are in constant bidirectional communication. While the composition of the gut microbiota varies greatly among individuals, alterations to the balance and content of common gut microbes may affect the production of molecules such as neurotransmitters, e.g., gamma amino butyric acid, and the products of fermentation, e.g., the short chain fatty acids butyrate, propionate, and acetate. Short chain fatty acids, which are pleomorphic, especially butyrate, positively influence host metabolism by promoting glucose and energy homeostasis, regulating immune responses and epithelial cell growth, and promoting the functioning of the central and peripheral nervous systems. In the future, the composition, diversity, and function of specific probiotics, coupled with similar, more detailed knowledge about gut microbiota, will potentially help in developing more effective diet- and drug-based therapies. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Gut/brain axis and the microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Emeran A; Tillisch, Kirsten; Gupta, Arpana

    2015-03-02

    Tremendous progress has been made in characterizing the bidirectional interactions between the central nervous system, the enteric nervous system, and the gastrointestinal tract. A series of provocative preclinical studies have suggested a prominent role for the gut microbiota in these gut-brain interactions. Based on studies using rodents raised in a germ-free environment, the gut microbiota appears to influence the development of emotional behavior, stress- and pain-modulation systems, and brain neurotransmitter systems. Additionally, microbiota perturbations by probiotics and antibiotics exert modulatory effects on some of these measures in adult animals. Current evidence suggests that multiple mechanisms, including endocrine and neurocrine pathways, may be involved in gut microbiota-to-brain signaling and that the brain can in turn alter microbial composition and behavior via the autonomic nervous system. Limited information is available on how these findings may translate to healthy humans or to disease states involving the brain or the gut/brain axis. Future research needs to focus on confirming that the rodent findings are translatable to human physiology and to diseases such as irritable bowel syndrome, autism, anxiety, depression, and Parkinson's disease.

  5. Creating a Multi-axis Machining Postprocessor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Vavruška

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the postprocessor creation process. When using standard commercially available postprocessors it is often very difficult to modify its internal source code, and it is a very complex process, in many cases even impossible, to implement the newly-developed functions. It is therefore very important to have a method for creating a postprocessor for any CAM system, which allows CL data (Cutter Location data to be generated to a separate text file. The goal of our work is to verify the proposed method for creating a postprocessor. Postprocessor functions for multi-axis machiningare dealt with in this work. A file with CL data must be translated by the postprocessor into an NC program that has been customized for a specific production machine and its control system. The postprocessor is therefore verified by applications for machining free-form surfaces of complex parts, and by executing the NC programs that are generated on real machine tools. This is also presented here.

  6. Did Failure Occur Because of Medial Column Instability That Was Not Recognized, or Did It Develop After Surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadakia, Anish R; Kelikian, Armen S; Barbosa, Mauricio; Patel, Milap S

    2017-09-01

    Medial column instability is a primary deforming force in the setting of pes planovalgus deformity. Consideration for medial column stabilization only after correction of the hindfoot deformity may result in creating a rigid hindfoot, compromising clinical outcomes. Careful analysis of the lateral radiograph to determine whether the deformity is secondary to the medial column or true peritalar subluxation may allow superior outcomes. Iatrogenic creation of an excessively rigid medial column may lead to significant instability of the remaining joints in the short term and arthrosis in the long term. Medial column arthrodesis should be used selectively to correct gross instability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The epidemiology of medial collateral ligament sprains in young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Christopher J; Haley, Chad A; Cameron, Kenneth L; Pallis, Mark; Svoboda, Steven J; Owens, Brett D

    2014-05-01

    A medial collateral ligament (MCL) knee sprain is a prevalent injury in athletic populations that may result in significant time lost to injury. Remarkably little is known of the epidemiology of this injury. To define the incidence of MCL tears and to determine the demographic and athletic risk factors. Descriptive epidemiological study. A longitudinal cohort study was performed to examine the epidemiology of isolated MCL sprains at the United States Military Academy (USMA) between 2005 and 2009. Charts and radiographic studies were reviewed by an independent orthopaedic surgeon to identify all new isolated MCL sprains resulting in time lost to sport and activity that occurred within the study period. Incidence rates (IRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated per 1000 person-years at risk and by sex, sport, and level of competition. The IR per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs) was also determined. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and respective 95% CIs were calculated between male and female students, intercollegiate and intramural athletes, and male and female intercollegiate athletes involved in selected sports. Chi-square and Poisson regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between the variables of interest and the incidence of MCL sprains, with statistical significance set at P sprain during 528,523 (407,475 male, 121,048 female) AEs for an overall IR of 10.14 per 1000 person-years and 0.11 per 1000 AEs. The IRR of MCL sprains of men compared with women involved in intercollegiate athletics was 2.87 (95% CI, 1.24-8.18) per 1000 person-years and 2.62 (95% CI, 1.13-7.47) per 1000 AEs. Of 21,805 at-risk intramural athletes, with quarterly participation, 16 (all male) sustained isolated MCL injuries during 225,683 AEs for an overall IR of 0.07 per 1000 AEs. The IRs of MCL injuries of intercollegiate and intramural athletes did not differ significantly. In intercollegiate sports, wrestling (0.57), judo (0.36), hockey (0.34), and rugby (men

  8. Learning curve of medialization thyroplasty using a Montgomery™ implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desuter, G; Henrard, S; Boucquey, D; Van Boven, M; Gardiner, Q; Remacle, M

    2015-02-01

    Type I thyroplasty--also called medialization thyroplasty (MT)--is considered as an effective treatment for glottic incompetence in general and for abductor vocal fold palsy in particular. In the past there have been some concerns about the experience a laryngeal framework surgeon should have in order achieve an acceptable voice outcome. To assess the learning curve of MT performed using the Montgomery(®) hard silicone implant. A retrospective study involving 36 patients divided into three consecutive groups (1, 2, 3) of 12 MT patients or six consecutive groups (1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b) of six MT patients. acoustic and aerodynamic outcome improvements (δ) compared to the duration of intervention [operative times (OT)]. Data were analysed by Anova, Kuskal Wallis and χ (2) statistical tests, according to data distributions. OT decreased significantly between groups 1, 2 and 3 with a mean OT of 90.5', 71.5' and 56' (p < 0.001), respectively. Objective δ such as maximum phonation time (MPT) (p 0.376), Estimated Sub-Glottic Pressure (ESPG) (p: 0.675) Shimmer (p: 0.543) and Jitter (p: 0.709) did not show significant improvement. Only the voice handicap index (VHI) δ of group 2 showed significant improvement (p 0.005) compared with the two other groups 1 and 3. Surgeon experience decreases the OT significantly. On the other hand, our study did not show a correlation between surgeon experience and voice outcome measures improvemnts (MPT, ESGP, Shimmer, Jitter).

  9. Outcomes of medialization laryngoplasty with and without arytenoid adduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Joseph; Schneider, Sarah L; Curtis, James; Langenstein, Jonelyn; Courey, Mark S; Yung, Katherine C

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of medialization laryngoplasty (ML) performed alone compared to ML with arytenoid adduction (AA) on glottic gap and voice quality in unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) patients. Retrospective case series. UVFP patients treated with ML alone and ML with AA at the University of California San Francisco Voice and Swallowing Center were identified. Demographic information and history of laryngeal procedures were collected. Preoperative and postoperative examinations were digitally analyzed using ImageJ for normalized anterior and posterior glottic gap and voice samples graded with CAPE-V scores. Forty-seven patients underwent ML and 27 patients underwent ML with AA. Normalized anterior gap (AG) improved in both ML (preop: 4.4 pixel units (u), postop: 0.8 u; P < 0.001) and ML with AA groups (preop: 3.3 u, postop 0.6 u; P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in normalized AG values between treatment groups. Postoperative normalized posterior gap (PG) improved in the ML with AA group only (preop: 1.8 u, postop: 0.5 u; P = 0.01). Overall severity, roughness, and strain voice parameters had acceptable reliability for analysis. Overall severity improved in ML (preop: 54, postop: 27; P < 0.001) and ML with AA (preop: 44, postop: 24; P = 0.005). There was no statistically significant difference in any voice parameter between treatment groups. UVFP patients undergoing ML may benefit from addition of AA when a large posterior glottic gap is present. In this study, ML with AA but not ML alone resulted in statistically significant improvement in PG. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:2591-2595, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  10. Medial mandibular flexure and maximum occlusal force in dentate adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canabarro, Simone de Andrade; Shinkai, Rosemary Sadami Arai

    2006-01-01

    Medial mandibular flexure (MMF) is the functional narrowing of the mandible during opening and protrusion movements, which may affect conventional or implant-supported prostheses. This study evaluated the association among MMF, maximum occlusal force (MOF), gender, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and age in 80 dentate adult subjects (40 women, 40 men; age range 20 to 38 years). Bilateral MOF was measured using a cross-arch force transducer placed in the first molar region. For MMF calculation, impressions of the mandibular occlusal surface were made with vinyl polysiloxane putty material in rest (R), maximum opening (O), and maximum protrusion (P). The impressions were scanned, and the images were processed using Adobe Photoshop software. Reference points were selected on the occlusal surface of the contralateral first molars, and the linear intermolar distance was measured using Image Tool software. MMF was calculated by subtracting the intermolar distance during opening or protrusion from the intermolar distance during rest. Mean values of MOF were 698.14 N for women and 1,009.48 N for men; MMF-O was 0.146 mm and MMF-Pwas 0.15 mm for the total sample. No correlation was found between MOF and MMF (r = 0.02 for MMF-O; r = 0.11 for MMF-P; P > .05) or between MMF and weight, height, BMI, or age. MOF was significantly associated (P <.001) with weight (r = 0.509), height (r = 0.459), and BMI (r = 0.423), but not with age (r = 0.009). These results suggest that MMF is not associated with MOF in this sample of dentate adults.

  11. Morphology of the medial collateral ligament of the knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill Thomas J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative knowledge on the anatomy of the medial collateral ligament (MCL is important for treatment of MCL injury and for MCL release during total knee arthroplasty (TKA. The objective of this study was to quantitatively determine the morphology of the MCL of human knees. Methods 10 cadaveric human knees were dissected to investigate the MCL anatomy. The specimens were fixed in full extension and this position was maintained during the dissection and morphometric measurements. The outlines of the insertion sites of the superficial MCL (sMCL and deep MCL (dMCL were digitized using a 3D digitizing system. Results The insertion areas of the superficial MCL (sMCL were 348.6 ± 42.8 mm2 and 79.7 ± 17.6 mm2 on the tibia and femur, respectively. The insertion areas of the deep MCL (dMCL were 63.6 ± 13.4 mm2 and 71.9 ± 14.8 mm2 on the tibia and femur, respectively. The distances from the centroids of the tibial and femoral insertions of the sMCL to the tibial and femoral joint line were 62.4 ± 5.5 mm and 31.1 ± 4.6 mm, respectively. The distances from the centroids of dMCL in the tibial insertion and the femoral insertion to the tibial and femoral joint line were 6.5 ± 1.3 mm and 20.5 ± 4.2 mm, respectively. The distal portion of the dMCL (meniscotibial ligament - MTL was approximately 1.7 times wider than the proximal portion of the dMCL (meniscofemoral ligament - MFL, whereas the MFL was approximately 3 times longer than the MTL. Conclusions The morphologic data on the MCL may provide useful information for improving treatments of MCL-related pathology and performing MCL release during TKA.

  12. Lateralizing value of semiology in medial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, S; Samson, Y; Nguyen-Michel, V-H; Zavanone, C; Navarro, V; Baulac, M; Adam, C

    2015-12-01

    Analysing the clinical characteristics of seizures constitutes a fundamental aspect of the presurgical evaluation of patients with medial temporal lobe epilepsy and unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS), the most frequent form of focal epilepsy accessible to surgery. We sought to retrospectively determine whether objective manifestations could have a reliable lateralizing value in a large population of MTLE-HS patients and if their presence could help to identify those patients who would be seizure free after surgery. We analysed the frequency and predictive lateralizing value of objective ictal and postictal signs in 391 patients with MTLE-HS (183 left/208 right). Data were derived from chart review and not from blinded videoEEG analysis. Correlation between the presence of reliable lateralizing signs and postoperative outcome was performed in a subgroup of 302 patients who underwent surgery. Contralateral dystonic posturing was the most frequent and reliable lateralizing sign that correctly lateralized the focus in 96% of patients. Unilateral head/eye deviation was noted in 42% of the patients and predicted unilateral focus in 67%. Ipsilateral postictal nose wiping, contralateral clonus and hypokinesia correctly lateralized the focus in 75%, 81%, respectively, and 100 of patients but were less frequently depicted. Postictal aphasia was a strong lateralizing sign for left MLE-HS. The presence of reliable lateralizing signs was not a predictor of seizure freedom. Seizure semiology is a simple tool that may permit reliable lateralization of the seizure focus in MTLE-HS. The presence of reliable lateralizing signs is not associated with a better postoperative outcome. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Fear Expression Suppresses Medial Prefrontal Cortical Firing in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F Giustino

    Full Text Available The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC plays a crucial role in emotional learning and memory in rodents and humans. While many studies suggest a differential role for the prelimbic (PL and infralimbic (IL subdivisions of mPFC, few have considered the relationship between neural activity in these two brain regions recorded simultaneously in behaving animals. Importantly, how concurrent PL and IL activity relate to conditioned freezing behavior is largely unknown. Here we used single-unit recordings targeting PL and IL in awake, behaving rats during the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear. On Day 1, rats received either signaled or unsignaled footshocks in the recording chamber; an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS preceded signaled footshocks. Twenty-four hours later, animals were returned to the recording chamber (modified to create a novel context where they received 5 CS-alone trials. After fear conditioning, both signaled and unsignaled rats exhibited high levels of post-shock freezing that was associated with an enduring suppression of mPFC spontaneous firing, particularly in the IL of signaled rats. Twenty-four hours later, CS presentation produced differential conditioned freezing in signaled and unsignaled rats: freezing increased in rats that had received signaled shocks, but decreased in animals in the unsignaled condition (i.e., external inhibition. This group difference in CS-evoked freezing was mirrored in the spontaneous firing rate of neurons in both PL and IL. Interestingly, differences in PL and IL firing rate highly correlated with freezing levels. In other words, in the signaled group IL spontaneous rates were suppressed relative to PL, perhaps limiting IL-mediated suppression of fear and allowing PL activity to dominate performance, resulting in high levels of freezing. This was not observed in the unsignaled group, which exhibited low freezing. These data reveal that the activity of mPFC neurons is modulated by both

  14. Are changes in conduit artery function associated with intima-medial thickness in young subjects?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopkins, N.D.; Munckhof, I. van den; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Tinken, T.M.; Cable, N.T.; Stratton, G.; Green, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Impaired brachial artery endothelial function, assessed by flow-mediated dilation (FMD), provides a strong prognostic index of cardiovascular events in asymptomatic adults and those with cardiovascular disease. However, the relationship between FMD and carotid intima-medial thickness

  15. Impact of Partial and complete rupture of anterior cruciate ligament on medial meniscus: A cadavaric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Similar to complete rupture, partial rupture of ACL can also trigger strain concentration on medial meniscus, especially posterior horn, which may be a more critical reason for meniscus injury associated with chronic ACL deficiency.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of surgically proven medial meniscus root tear: tear configuration and associated knee abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Gu; Shim, Jae-Chan; Choi, Yun Sun; Kim, Jin Goo; Lee, Ghi Jai; Kim, Ho Kyun

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of medial meniscal root tear and the correlation of medial meniscal root tear with other associated knee abnormalities. We retrospectively assessed preoperative magnetic resonance images of 39 patients with arthroscopically confirmed medial meniscal root tear. Magnetic resonance imaging findings were retrospectively reviewed by 2 experienced musculoskeletal radiologists for consensus. We evaluated the configuration of meniscal root tear and the other associated knee abnormalities on MRI for direct correlation with arthroscopic findings. At arthroscopy, there were 36 radial tears and 3 complex tears involving the medial meniscal posterior horn roots. All 36 radial tears could be correctly diagnosed by MRI, with findings showing ghost sign on sagittal images in 100% (36/36), vertical linear defect on coronal images in 100% (36/36), and radial linear defect on axial image in 94% (34/36). However, all 3 complex tears were misdiagnosed as radial tears on MRI. Medial meniscal root tears displayed a strong association with degenerative joint disease in 97% (38/39). Medial meniscal root tears were also found in association with cartilage defects of the medial femoral condyle and medial meniscal extrusions (> or =3 mm) in 89% (34/38) and 67% (26/39), respectively. Medial meniscal root tears were usually posterior horn root radial tear. A high association with degenerative joint disease, cartilage defects of the medial femoral condyle, and medial meniscal extrusions (>/=3 mm) were also noted.

  17. Axis: Generating Explanations at Scale with Learnersourcing and Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joseph Jay; Kim, Juho; Rafferty, Anna; Heffernan, Neil; Maldonado, Samuel; Gajos, Krzysztof Z.; Lasecki, Walter S.; Heffernan, Neil

    2016-01-01

    While explanations may help people learn by providing information about why an answer is correct, many problems on online platforms lack high-quality explanations. This paper presents AXIS (Adaptive eXplanation Improvement System), a system for obtaining explanations. AXIS asks learners to generate, revise, and evaluate explanations as they solve…

  18. A psychology of the human brain-gut-microbiome axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew P; Dinan, Timothy G; Clarke, Gerard; Cryan, John F

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, we have seen increasing research within neuroscience and biopsychology on the interactions between the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, the bacteria within the gastrointestinal tract, and the bidirectional relationship between these systems: the brain-gut-microbiome axis. Although research has demonstrated that the gut microbiota can impact upon cognition and a variety of stress-related behaviours, including those relevant to anxiety and depression, we still do not know how this occurs. A deeper understanding of how psychological development as well as social and cultural factors impact upon the brain-gut-microbiome axis will contextualise the role of the axis in humans and inform psychological interventions that improve health within the brain-gut-microbiome axis. Interventions ostensibly aimed at ameliorating disorders in one part of the brain-gut-microbiome axis (e.g., psychotherapy for depression) may nonetheless impact upon other parts of the axis (e.g., microbiome composition and function), and functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome represent a disorder of the axis, rather than an isolated problem either of psychology or of gastrointestinal function. The discipline of psychology needs to be cognisant of these interactions and can help to inform the future research agenda in this emerging field of research. In this review, we outline the role psychology has to play in understanding the brain-gut-microbiome axis, with a focus on human psychology and the use of research in laboratory animals to model human psychology.

  19. Angular momentum projection of tilted axis rotating states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oi, M.; Onishi, N.; Tajima, N. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan); Horibata, T.

    1998-03-01

    We applied an exact angular momentum projection to three dimensional cranked HFB (3d-CHFB) states. Tilted axis rotating states (TAR) and principal axis rotating states (PAR) are compared. It is shown that TAR is more adequate than PAR for description of the back bending phenomena driven by tilted rotation or wobbling motion. (author)

  20. Dead-end tract of the conduction axis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurosawa, H.; Becker, A. E.

    1985-01-01

    In the definitive heart the anterior continuation of the main conduction axis is considered to be the right bundle branch. In this study three hearts from neonates and infants were examined in which this situation did not pertain. The conduction axis continued beyond the point of origin of the right

  1. The Performance Characteristics of a Closed Loop, One Axis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a closed loop one axis solar tracking device of the polar axis type, which achieves an accurate tracking of the sun with a steady state error of less, than 2%. This prototype uses a photo-sensing system to generate an error signal. This error signal switches on a relay, which actuates an electromechanical ...

  2. Spin-stabilized magnetic levitation without vertical axis of rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Louis [Albuquerque, NM; Christenson, Todd [Albuquerque, NM; Aaronson, Gene [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-06-09

    The symmetry properties of a magnetic levitation arrangement are exploited to produce spin-stabilized magnetic levitation without aligning the rotational axis of the rotor with the direction of the force of gravity. The rotation of the rotor stabilizes perturbations directed parallel to the rotational axis.

  3. Investigation of blade performance of horizontal axis wind turbine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The shape of rotor blade plays an important role in determining the overall aerodynamic performance of a horizontal axis wind turbine. In this work, blade is designed for a 5KW horizontal axis wind turbine which is already in market. For designing blade, blade element momentum theory (BEMT) is used and a computer ...

  4. A psychology of the human brain–gut–microbiome axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew P.; Dinan, Timothy G.; Clarke, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In recent years, we have seen increasing research within neuroscience and biopsychology on the interactions between the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, the bacteria within the gastrointestinal tract, and the bidirectional relationship between these systems: the brain–gut–microbiome axis. Although research has demonstrated that the gut microbiota can impact upon cognition and a variety of stress‐related behaviours, including those relevant to anxiety and depression, we still do not know how this occurs. A deeper understanding of how psychological development as well as social and cultural factors impact upon the brain–gut–microbiome axis will contextualise the role of the axis in humans and inform psychological interventions that improve health within the brain–gut–microbiome axis. Interventions ostensibly aimed at ameliorating disorders in one part of the brain–gut–microbiome axis (e.g., psychotherapy for depression) may nonetheless impact upon other parts of the axis (e.g., microbiome composition and function), and functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome represent a disorder of the axis, rather than an isolated problem either of psychology or of gastrointestinal function. The discipline of psychology needs to be cognisant of these interactions and can help to inform the future research agenda in this emerging field of research. In this review, we outline the role psychology has to play in understanding the brain–gut–microbiome axis, with a focus on human psychology and the use of research in laboratory animals to model human psychology. PMID:28804508

  5. Sequence-dependent rotation axis changes in tennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Clint; Martin, Caroline; Rezzoug, Nasser; Gorce, Philippe; Bideau, Benoit; Isableu, Brice

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of rotation axes during a tennis serve. A motion capture system was used to evaluate the contribution of the potential axes of rotation (minimum inertia axis, shoulder-centre of mass axis and the shoulder-elbow axis) during the four discrete tennis serve phases (loading, cocking, acceleration and follow through). Ten ranked athletes (International Tennis Number 1-3) repeatedly performed a flat service aiming at a target on the other side of the net. The four serve phases are distinct and thus, each movement phase seems to be organised around specific rotation axes. The results showed that the limbs' rotational axis does not necessarily coincide with the minimum inertia axis across the cocking phase of the tennis serve. Even though individual serving strategies were exposed, all participants showed an effect due to the cocking phase and changed the rotation axis during the task. Taken together, the results showed that despite inter-individual differences, nine out of 10 participants changed the rotation axis towards the minimum inertia and/or the mass axis in an endeavour to maximise external rotation of the shoulder to optimally prepare for the acceleration phase.

  6. Sexual experience enhances cognitive flexibility and dendritic spine density in the medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasper, Erica R; LaMarca, Elizabeth A; Bocarsly, Miriam E; Fasolino, Maria; Opendak, Maya; Gould, Elizabeth

    2015-11-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex is important for cognitive flexibility, a capability that is affected by environmental conditions and specific experiences. Aversive experience, such as chronic restraint stress, is known to impair performance on a task of cognitive flexibility, specifically attentional set-shifting, in rats. Concomitant with this performance decrement, chronic stress reduces the number of dendritic spines on pyramidal neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex. No previous studies have examined whether a rewarding experience, namely mating, affects cognitive flexibility and dendritic spines in the medial prefrontal cortex of male rats. To test this possibility, we exposed adult male rats to sexual receptive females once daily for one week, assessed attentional set-shifting performance, and then analyzed their brains for changes in dendritic spines. We found that sexual experience improved performance on extradimensional set-shifting, which is known to require the medial prefrontal cortex. Additionally, we observed increased dendritic spine density on apical and basal dendrites of pyramidal neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex, but not the orbitofrontal cortex, after sexual experience. We also found that sexual experience enhanced dendritic spine density on granule neurons of the dentate gyrus. The ventral hippocampus sends a direct projection to the medial prefrontal cortex, raising the possibility that experience-dependent changes in the hippocampus are necessary for alterations in medial prefrontal cortex structure and function. As a first attempt at investigating this, we inactivated the ventral hippocampus with the GABA agonist muscimol, after each daily bout of sexual experience to observe whether the beneficial effects on cognitive flexibility were abolished. Contrary to our hypothesis, blocking hippocampal activity after sexual experience had no impact on enhanced cognitive flexibility. Taken together, these findings indicate that sexual

  7. Posttraumatic pseudoaneurysm of medial plantar artery in a child: treatment with percutaneous thrombin injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Neto Ladeira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pseudoaneurysms of the medial plantar artery are rare. The authors describe a case of a pseudoaneurysm of the medial plantar artery of a child who had suffered a penetrating laceration injury. Diagnosis can be confirmed using Doppler ultrasound and magnetic resonance angiography. As an alternative to the conventional surgery technique, percutaneous Doppler ultrasound-guided thrombin injection is a safe and effective treatment.

  8. Different roles of the medial and lateral hamstrings in unloading the anterior cruciate ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelich, David R; Xu, Dali; Koh, Jason L; Nuber, Gordon W; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injuries are closely associated with excessive loading and motion about the off axes of the knee, i.e. tibial rotation and knee varus/valgus. However, it is not clear about the 3-D mechanical actions of the lateral and medial hamstring muscles and their differences in loading the ACL. The purpose of this study was to investigate the change in anterior cruciate ligament strain induced by loading the lateral and medial hamstrings individually. Seven cadaveric knees were investigated using a custom testing apparatus allowing for six degree-of-freedom tibiofemoral motion induced by individual muscle loading. With major muscles crossing the knee loaded moderately, the medial and lateral hamstrings were loaded independently to 200N along their lines of actions at 0°, 30°, 60° and 90° of knee flexion. The induced strain of the anterior cruciate ligament was measured using a differential variable reluctance transducer. Tibiofemoral kinematics was monitored using a six degrees-of-freedom knee goniometer. Loading the lateral hamstrings induced significantly more anterior cruciate ligament strain reduction (mean 0.764 [SD 0.63] %) than loading the medial hamstrings (mean 0.007 [0.2] %), (P=0.001 and effect size=0.837) across the knee flexion angles. The lateral and medial hamstrings have significantly different effects on anterior cruciate ligament loadings. More effective rehabilitation and training strategies may be developed to strengthen the lateral and medial hamstrings selectively and differentially to reduce anterior cruciate ligament injury and improve post-injury rehabilitation. The lateral and medial hamstrings can potentially be strengthened selectively and differentially as a more focused rehabilitation approach to reduce ACL injury and improve post-injury rehabilitation. Different ACL reconstruction procedures with some of them involving the medial hamstrings can be compared to each other for their effect on ACL loading. Copyright

  9. The "Double Medial Malleolus": A New Physical Finding in Talocalcaneal Coalition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchi, Vanna; Huang, Ming-Tung; Bomar, James D; Mubarak, Scott

    2018-04-01

    It has been the observation of the senior author that there is a bony fullness or "double medial malleolus" over the middle facet as a consistent finding with most talocalcaneal coalitions (TCC). To document this observation, we reviewed records and radiographs in 3 patient groups. Part 1: retrospective chart review was completed for 111 feet to determine the clinical presence of a palpable "double medial malleolus." Part 2: computed tomography (CT) scans for evaluation of tarsal coalition or symptomatic flatfoot between January 2006 and December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed for the same cohort. Soft tissue thickness was measured as the shortest distance between bone and skin surface at both the medial malleolus and the middle facet/coalition. The volume of the middle facet or coalition was measured at their midpoint. These findings were compared among feet with TCC (n=53), calcaneonavicular coalition (CNC) (n=20), and flatfoot (n=38). Part 1-clinical: from medical records, 38 feet (34%) had documented record of a palpable medial prominence. Of the feet reviewed with a "double medial malleolus," all had TCC (no false positives or false negatives). Clinical and CT prominence demonstrated significant correlation (rs=0.519, P=0.001). Part 2-radiographic: CT observation of "double medial malleolus" is significantly associated with TCC (PTCC. The middle facet-to-skin distance was significantly closer in those with TCC versus controls (PTCC versus CNC (P=0.006) or flatfeet (PTCC versus the controls (PTCC. With this added clinical finding, appropriate images can be ordered to confirm the diagnosis of the latter. We advise CT scans with 3D images for surgical planning. The primary finding for tarsal coalitions in textbooks is decreased subtalar motion. This new finding of a palpable enlarged medial prominence just below the medial malleolus is highly associated with TCCs. Level III.

  10. Computed Tomographic Distinction of Intimal and Medial Calcification in the Intracranial Internal Carotid Artery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remko Kockelkoren

    Full Text Available Intracranial internal carotid artery (iICA calcification is associated with stroke and is often seen as a proxy of atherosclerosis of the intima. However, it was recently shown that these calcifications are predominantly located in the tunica media and internal elastic lamina (medial calcification. Intimal and medial calcifications are thought to have a different pathogenesis and clinical consequences and can only be distinguished through ex vivo histological analysis. Therefore, our aim was to develop CT scoring method to distinguish intimal and medial iICA calcification in vivo.First, in both iICAs of 16 cerebral autopsy patients the intimal and/or medial calcification area was histologically assessed (142 slides. Brain CT images of these patients were matched to the corresponding histological slides to develop a CT score that determines intimal or medial calcification dominance. Second, performance of the CT score was assessed in these 16 patients. Third, reproducibility was tested in a separate cohort.First, CT features of the score were circularity (absent, dot(s, <90°, 90-270° or 270-360°, thickness (absent, ≥1.5mm, or <1.5mm, and morphology (indistinguishable, irregular/patchy or continuous. A high sum of features represented medial and a lower sum intimal calcifications. Second, in the 16 patients the concordance between the CT score and the dominant calcification type was reasonable. Third, the score showed good reproducibility (kappa: 0.72 proportion of agreement: 0.82 between the categories intimal, medial or absent/indistinguishable.The developed CT score shows good reproducibility and can differentiate reasonably well between intimal and medial calcification dominance in the iICA, allowing for further (epidemiological studies on iICA calcification.

  11. Improved arthroscopic one-piece excision technique for the treatment of symptomatic discoid medial meniscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-De; Li, Tong; Gao, Shi-Jun

    2017-10-30

    Discoid medial meniscus is an extremely rare abnormality of the knee. During arthroscopic meniscectomy for symptomatic discoid medial meniscus, it is difficult to remove the posterior portion of the meniscus because of the confined working space within the compartment and the obstruction caused by the anterior cruciate ligament and the tibial intercondylar eminence. To overcome these problems, we describe an improved arthroscopic technique for one-piece excision of symptomatic discoid medial meniscus through three unique portals. Three improved portals were made in the injured knee: a standard anteromedial portal, a central transpatellar tendon portal, and a high anterolateral portal. The anterior side of the discoid medial meniscus was cut 7 mm from the periphery of the meniscus. Next, the anterior portion of the free discoid meniscus fragment was pulled in the anterolateral direction with tension. A curve-shaped cut was made along the longitudinal tear to the posterior horn using basket forceps through the standard anteromedial portal. Then, the anterior portion of the free discoid meniscus was pulled in the anteromedial direction. Pulling the fragment under tension made it easier to cut the posterior side of the discoid meniscus. The posterior side of the discoid meniscus was cut 7 mm from the periphery of the meniscus with straight scissors or basket forceps through the central transpatellar tendon portal. This technique resulted in satisfactory results. Excellent visualization of the posterior part of the discoid medial meniscus was gained during the procedure, and it was easy to cut the posterior part of the discoid medial meniscus. No recurrent symptoms were found. This improved arthroscopic one-piece excision technique for the treatment of symptomatic discoid medial meniscus enables the posterior part of the meniscus to be cut satisfactorily. Moreover, compared with previous techniques, this novel technique causes less formation of foreign bodies and less

  12. Biomechanical investigation of two plating systems for medial column fusion in foot

    OpenAIRE

    Simons, Paul; Sommerer, Theresia; Zderic, Ivan; Wahl, Dieter; Lenz, Mark; Skulev, Hristo; Knobe, Matthias; Gueorguiev, Boyko; Richards, R. Geoff; Klos, Kajetan

    2017-01-01

    Background Arthrodesis of the medial column (navicular, cuneiform I and metatarsal I) is performed for reasons such as Charcot arthropathy, arthritis, posttraumatic reconstruction or severe pes planus. However, the complication rate is still high and mainly resulting from inadequate fixation. Special plates, designed for medial column arthrodesis, seem to offer potential to reduce the complication rate. The aim of this study was to investigate biomechanically plantar and dorsomedial fusion of...

  13. Preoperative Patellofemoral Chondromalacia is Not a Contraindication for Fixed-Bearing Medial Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Alexander J; Kazarian, Gregory S; Lonner, Jess H

    2017-06-01

    Patellofemoral chondromalacia (PFCM) has historically been considered a contraindication for unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA), but there is limited data assessing PFCM's impact on the results of fixed-bearing UKA. Our objective was to assess the impact of medial patellar and/or medial trochlear PFCM on overall and patellofemoral-specific 2-year outcomes after fixed-bearing medial UKA. Intraoperative notes defined the presence and location of PFCM during fixed bearing medial UKA. Outcome measures included the New Knee Society Score (NKSS), Kneeling Ability Score (KAS) and Forgotten Joint Score (FJS-12). Thirty-one knees with PFCM (PFCM group), and 52 knees without PFCM (N-PFCM group) were included for analysis. Mann-Whitney U tests assessed the statistical significance of observed differences, and a Bonferroni correction was applied, adjusting threshold for significance to P = .005. At minimum follow-up of 2 years, no statistical differences were detected between the N-PFCM and PFCM groups in the postoperative NKSS (159 vs 157, P = .731), preoperative to postoperative NKSS change (P = .447), FJS-12 (70.5 vs 67.6, P = .471), or KAS (71% vs 65%, P = .217). Patients with isolated patellar chondromalacia (n = 13) demonstrated trends toward worse outcomes according to NKSS (147, P = .198), FJS-12 (58, P = .094), and KAS (46%, P = .018), but were statistically insignificant. No failures occurred in either group. Functional outcomes of fixed-bearing medial UKA are not adversely impacted by the presence of PFCM involving the medial patellar facet and/or medial or central trochlea. Further follow-up is needed to determine longer-term implications of fixed-bearing medial UKA in patients with PFCM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in major affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M V; Kessing, L V

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews studies of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activity in patients with affective disorders. It is concluded that, despite methodological drawbacks in most studies, dysregulation of the HPA axis seems to be a consistent finding in a proportion of patients with affective...... disorder. The HPA axis is a complex neuroendocrine network with multiple integrated levels of control, and it is likely that the dysregulation involves abnormalities at several sites within the axis. At present, it is not clear whether the abnormalities are related to the affective episodes only...... or to the disorder itself. There is a need for prospective studies of larger samples of patients to be followed during successive affective episodes with a combination of measurements of the HPA-axis activity and brain imaging....

  15. Medial septum lesions disrupt exploratory trip organization: evidence for septohippocampal involvement in dead reckoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Megan M; Horn, Katharine L; Kusman, Kelly J; Wallace, Douglas G

    2007-02-28

    Rats organize their open field behavior into a series of exploratory trips focused around a central location or home base. In addition, differences in movement kinematics have been used to fractionate the exploratory trip into tour (i.e., sequences of linear movement or progressions punctuated by stops) and homeward (i.e., single progression direct to the home base) segments. The observation of these characteristics independent of environmental familiarity and visual cue availability has suggested a role for self-movement information or dead reckoning in organizing exploratory behavior. Although previous work has implicated a role for the septohippocampal system in dead reckoning based navigation, as of yet, no studies have investigated the contribution of the medial septum to dead reckoning. First, the present study examined the organization of exploratory behavior under dark and light conditions in control rats and rats receiving either electrolytic or sham medial septum lesions. Medial septum lesions produced a significant increase in homeward segment path circuity and variability of temporal pacing of linear speeds. Second, as an independent assessment of the effectiveness of the medial septum lesions, rats were trained to locate a hidden platform in the standard water maze procedure. Consistent with previous research, medial septum lesions attenuated learning the location of the hidden platform. These results demonstrate a role for the medial septum in organizing exploratory behavior and provide further support for the role of the septohippocampal system in dead reckoning based navigation.

  16. Object and spatial mnemonic interference differentially engage lateral and medial entorhinal cortex in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagh, Zachariah M; Yassa, Michael A

    2014-10-07

    Recent models of episodic memory propose a division of labor among medial temporal lobe cortices comprising the parahippocampal gyrus. Specifically, perirhinal and lateral entorhinal cortices are thought to comprise an object/item information pathway, whereas parahippocampal and medial entorhinal cortices are thought to comprise a spatial/contextual information pathway. Although several studies in human subjects have demonstrated a perirhinal/parahippocampal division, such a division among subregions of the human entorhinal cortex has been elusive. Other recent work has implicated pattern separation computations in the dentate gyrus and CA3 subregions of the hippocampus as a mechanism supporting the resolution of mnemonic interference. However, the nature of contributions of medial temporal lobe cortices to downstream hippocampal computations is largely unknown. We used high-resolution fMRI during a task selectively taxing mnemonic discrimination of object identity or spatial location, designed to differentially engage the two information pathways in the medial temporal lobes. Consistent with animal models, we demonstrate novel evidence for a domain-selective dissociation between lateral and medial entorhinal cortex in humans, and between perirhinal and parahippocampal cortex as a function of information content. Conversely, hippocampal dentate gyrus/CA3 demonstrated signals consistent with resolution of mnemonic interference across domains. These results provide insight into the information processing capacities and hierarchical interference resolution throughout the human medial temporal lobe.

  17. Intralaminar and medial thalamic influence on cortical synchrony, information transmission and cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri B Saalmann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The intralaminar and medial thalamic nuclei are part of the higher-order thalamus, which receives little sensory input, and instead forms extensive cortico-thalamo-cortical pathways. The large mediodorsal thalamic nucleus predominantly connects with the prefrontal cortex, the adjacent intralaminar nuclei connect with fronto-parietal cortex, and the midline thalamic nuclei connect with medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe. Taking into account this connectivity pattern, it is not surprising that the intralaminar and medial thalamus has been implicated in a variety of cognitive functions, including memory processing, attention and orienting, as well as reward-based behavior. This review addresses how the intralaminar and medial thalamus may regulate information transmission in cortical circuits. A key neural mechanism may involve intralaminar and medial thalamic neurons modulating the degree of synchrony between different groups of cortical neurons according to behavioral demands. Such a thalamic-mediated synchronization mechanism may give rise to large-scale integration of information across multiple cortical circuits, consequently influencing the level of arousal and consciousness. Overall, the growing evidence supports a general role for the higher-order thalamus in the control of cortical information transmission and cognitive processing.

  18. Electrophysiological evidence during episodic prospection implicates medial prefrontal and bilateral middle temporal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chia-Fen; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S

    2016-08-01

    fMRI studies have implicated the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe, components of the default mode network (DMN), in episodic prospection. This study compared quantitative EEG localized to these DMN regions during prospection and during resting and while waiting for rewards. EEG was recorded in twenty-two adults while they were asked to (i) envision future monetary episodes; (ii) wait for rewards and (iii) rest. Activation sources were localized to core DMN regions. EEG power and phase coherence were compared across conditions. Prospection, compared to resting and waiting, was associated with reduced power in the medial prefrontal gyrus and increased power in the bilateral medial temporal gyrus across frequency bands as well as greater phase synchrony between these regions in the delta band. The current quantitative EEG analysis confirms prior fMRI research suggesting that medial prefrontal and medial temporal gyrus interactions are central to the capacity for episodic prospection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ridge at the medial rectus muscle insertion: A new anatomical landmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Jethani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Rectus muscle insertions are usually linear or slight curved with the anterior convexity. While operating squint surgeries, we found a presence of ridge-like structure at the medial rectus insertion. None of the other rectus muscle insertions had such structure. Materials and Methods: Patients undergoing squint surgery were included in the study. All the patients had negative forced duction test for all the gazes and had comitant strabismus. The patients underwent surgery through the fornix route. All the squint surgeries were primary. None of the patients undergoing resurgery were included in the study. The ridge seen is actually an elevated curved structure and shows discontinuation of the actual medial rectus insertion. The measurements were taken from the superior and inferior end of the medial rectus muscle insertion. Results: In a total of 76 medial rectus surgery (for recession or resection, we found the ridge was present in 68 (89.5% of cases. The ridge was located at an average distance of 6.33 ± 1.5 mm inferior and 3.82 ± 0.9 mm superior to the superior and inferior point of medial rectus insertion, respectively. Conclusion: We describe the presence, morphology, and measurements of a ridge as an anatomical landmark at medial rectus insertion.

  20. The anterior medial amygdala transmits sexual odor information to the posterior medial amygdala and related forebrain nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maras, Pamela M; Petrulis, Aras

    2010-08-01

    In Syrian hamsters, reproductive behavior relies on the perception of chemical signals released from conspecifics. The medial amygdala (MEA) processes sexual odors through functionally distinct, but interconnected, sub-regions; the anterior MEA (MEAa) appears to function as a chemosensory filter to distinguish between opposite-sex and same-sex odors, whereas the posterodorsal MEA (MEApd) is critical for generating attraction specifically to opposite-sex odors. To identify how these sub-regions interact during odor processing, we measured odor-induced Fos expression, an indirect marker of neuronal activation, in the absence of either MEAa or MEApd processing. In Experiment 1, electrolytic lesions of the MEAa decreased Fos expression throughout the posterior MEA in male hamsters exposed to either female or male odors, whereas MEApd lesions had no effect on Fos expression within the MEAa. These results indicate that the MEAa normally enhances processing of sexual odors within the MEApd and that this interaction is primarily unidirectional. Furthermore, lesions of the MEAa, but not the MEApd, decreased Fos expression within several connected forebrain nuclei, suggesting that the MEAa provides the primary excitatory output of the MEA during sexual odor processing. In Experiment 2, we observed a similar pattern of decreased Fos expression, using fiber-sparing, NMDA lesions of the MEAa, suggesting that the decreases in Fos expression were not attributable exclusively to damage to passing fibers. Taken together, these results provide the first direct test of how the different sub-regions within the MEA interact during odor processing, and highlight the role of the MEAa in transmitting sexual odor information to the posterior MEA, as well as to related forebrain nuclei.

  1. Prevalence and comorbidity of Axis I and Axis II disorders among treatment refractory adolescents admitted for specialized psychotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, D.J.; Busschbach, J.J.V.; Verheul, R.; Hutsebaut, J.

    2011-01-01

    Research shows that approximately half of the adolescents in a clinical setting suffer from a personality disorder (PD). This finding has not yet been replicated in Europe. To test whether this finding also applies to Europe, structured diagnostic interviews for both Axis I and Axis II disorders

  2. Correlation of RDC/TMD axis I diagnoses and axis II pain-related disability. A multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manfredini, D.; Ahlberg, J.; Winocur, E.; Guarda-Nardini, L.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2011-01-01

    As part of an ongoing multicenter investigation involving four highly specialized tertiary clinics for temporomandibular disorders (TMD) treatment, retrospective analysis of Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD) axis I and axis II data gathered on clinic and community cases were assessed

  3. The effects of neuromuscular exercise on medial knee joint load post-arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy: 'SCOPEX', a randomised control trial protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Michelle; Hinman, Rana S; Wrigley, Tim V

    2012-01-01

    to reduce the risk of developing or progressing osteoarthritis. The primary purpose of this randomised, assessor-blind controlled trial is to determine the effects of a home-based, physiotherapist-supervised neuromuscular exercise program on medial knee joint load during functional tasks in people who have...

  4. Distinct Regions within Medial Prefrontal Cortex Process Pain and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Andrew; Nee, Derek Evan; Alexander, William H.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) suggest that the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) region is responsive to a wide variety of stimuli and psychological states, such as pain, cognitive control, and prediction error (PE). In contrast, a recent meta-analysis argues that the dACC is selective for pain, whereas the supplementary motor area (SMA) and pre-SMA are specifically associated with higher-level cognitive processes (Lieberman and Eisenberger, 2015). To empirically test this claim, we manipulated effects of pain, conflict, and PE in a single experiment using human subjects. We observed a robust dorsal-ventral dissociation within the mPFC with cognitive effects of PE and conflict overlapping dorsally and pain localized more ventrally. Classification of subjects based on the presence or absence of a paracingulate sulcus showed that PE effects extended across the dorsal area of the dACC and into the pre-SMA. These results begin to resolve recent controversies by showing the following: (1) the mPFC includes dissociable regions for pain and cognitive processing; and (2) meta-analyses are correct in localizing cognitive effects to the dACC, although these effects extend to the pre-SMA as well. These results both provide evidence distinguishing between different theories of mPFC function and highlight the importance of taking individual anatomical variability into account when conducting empirical studies of the mPFC. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Decades of neuroimaging research have shown the mPFC to represent a wide variety of stimulus processing and cognitive states. However, recently it has been argued whether distinct regions of the mPFC separately process pain and cognitive phenomena. To address this controversy, this study directly compared pain and cognitive processes within subjects. We found a double dissociation within the mPFC with pain localized ventral to the cingulate sulcus and cognitive effects localized more dorsally within

  5. The Contingency of Cocaine Administration Accounts for Structural and Functional Medial Prefrontal Deficits and Increased Adrenocortical Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rachel M.; Cosme, Caitlin V.; Glanz, Ryan M.; Miller, Mary C.; Romig-Martin, Sara A.; LaLumiere, Ryan T.

    2015-01-01

    The prelimbic region (PL) of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is implicated in the relapse of drug-seeking behavior. Optimal mPFC functioning relies on synaptic connections involving dendritic spines in pyramidal neurons, whereas prefrontal dysfunction resulting from elevated glucocorticoids, stress, aging, and mental illness are each linked to decreased apical dendritic branching and spine density in pyramidal neurons in these cortical fields. The fact that cocaine use induces activation of the stress-responsive hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis raises the possibility that cocaine-related impairments in mPFC functioning may be manifested by similar changes in neuronal architecture in mPFC. Nevertheless, previous studies have generally identified increases, rather than decreases, in structural plasticity in mPFC after cocaine self-administration. Here, we use 3D imaging and analysis of dendritic spine morphometry to show that chronic cocaine self-administration leads to mild decreases of apical dendritic branching, prominent dendritic spine attrition in PL pyramidal neurons, and working memory deficits. Importantly, these impairments were largely accounted for in groups of rats that self-administered cocaine compared with yoked-cocaine- and saline-matched counterparts. Follow-up experiments failed to demonstrate any effects of either experimenter-administered cocaine or food self-administration on structural alterations in PL neurons. Finally, we verified that the cocaine self-administration group was distinguished by more protracted increases in adrenocortical activity compared with yoked-cocaine- and saline-matched controls. These studies suggest a mechanism whereby increased adrenocortical activity resulting from chronic cocaine self-administration may contribute to regressive prefrontal structural and functional plasticity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Stress, aging, and mental illness are each linked to decreased prefrontal plasticity. Here, we show that chronic

  6. The orientation of the surgical epicondylar axis varies in varus and non-varus knees in the coronal plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunjie; Wang, Xiaofeng; Shao, Yunchao; Xia, Qing

    2016-11-28

    To investigate the orientations of the surgical epicondylar axis (SEA) of varus and non-varus knees in the coronal plane. One-hundred and sixty-two knees from 81 Chinese patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) were retrospectively investigated. The angle between the medial side of the femoral mechanical axis and the SEA (MA-SEA), as well as the physiological valgus angle, was measured in the coronal plane using three-dimensional reconstruction. The joint line angle (JLA) and hip-knee-ankle angle (HKAA) were measured in long-leg weight-bearing radiographs. The mean of each parameter was compared between the varus (HKAA varus knees (HKAA ≥ 177.0°) using an independent t test. Linear regression was used to assess the correlation between MA-SEA with JLA and HKAA. A total of 42 non-varus knees (6 valgus and 36 neutral knees) and 98 varus knees were measured, as 22 knees were abandoned due to unrecognizable bony landmarks. The mean MA-SEA and JLA were significantly larger in non-varus knees (both, p varus knees (p varus and non-varus knees, which was strongly correlated with the orientation of the femoral joint line. These findings will enhance the current knowledge of knee anatomy and should prove useful for coronal alignment in TKA. III.

  7. The effects of neuromuscular exercise on medial knee joint load post-arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy: ‘SCOPEX’ a randomised control trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall Michelle

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meniscectomy is a risk factor for knee osteoarthritis, with increased medial joint loading a likely contributor to the development and progression of knee osteoarthritis in this group. Therefore, post-surgical rehabilitation or interventions that reduce medial knee joint loading have the potential to reduce the risk of developing or progressing osteoarthritis. The primary purpose of this randomised, assessor-blind controlled trial is to determine the effects of a home-based, physiotherapist-supervised neuromuscular exercise program on medial knee joint load during functional tasks in people who have recently undergone a partial medial meniscectomy. Methods/design 62 people aged 30–50 years who have undergone an arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy within the previous 3 to 12 months will be recruited and randomly assigned to a neuromuscular exercise or control group using concealed allocation. The neuromuscular exercise group will attend 8 supervised exercise sessions with a physiotherapist and will perform 6 exercises at home, at least 3 times per week for 12 weeks. The control group will not receive the neuromuscular training program. Blinded assessment will be performed at baseline and immediately following the 12-week intervention. The primary outcomes are change in the peak external knee adduction moment measured by 3-dimensional analysis during normal paced walking and one-leg rise. Secondary outcomes include the change in peak external knee adduction moment during fast pace walking and one-leg hop and change in the knee adduction moment impulse during walking, one-leg rise and one-leg hop, knee and hip muscle strength, electromyographic muscle activation patterns, objective measures of physical function, as well as self-reported measures of physical function and symptoms and additional biomechanical parameters. Discussion The findings from this trial will provide evidence regarding the effect of a home

  8. Celiac axis stenosis: incidence and etiologies in asymptomatic individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang Min; Chung, Jin Wook; Kim, Hyun Beom; Shin, Sang June; Park, Jae Hyung

    2000-01-01

    To determine the incidence and etiologies of celiac axis stenosis in asymptomatic individuals. This prospective study involved 400 consecutive patients (male: 319, female: 81) referred to us for celiac arteriography between April and July 1999. When celiac axis branches were opacified by collateral circulation during superior mesenteric arteriography, the presence of celiac axis stenosis was suspected; lateral projection celiac arteriography was performed and the pressure gradient was measured. The indicators used to determine whether or not celiac axis stenosis was significant were luminal narrowing of more than 50% and a resultant pressure gradient of at least 10 mmHg. Its etiology was determined on the basis of angiographic appearances and CT findings. Twenty-nine patients (7.3%) had celiac axis stenosis. The etiology of the condition was extrinsic compression due to the median arcuate ligament in 16 patients (55%) and atherosclerosis in three (10%), while in ten (35%) it was not determined. The incidence of celiac axis stenosis did not vary significantly according to sex, age and the presence of calcified aortic plaque representing atherosclerosis. The incidence of hemodynamically significant celiac axis stenosis in this asymptomatic Korean population was 7.3% and the most important etiology was extrinsic compression by the median arcuate ligament of the diaphragm. Atherosclerosis was only a minor cause of the condition

  9. Characteristic arthroscopic signs of cartilage injuries indicating concomitant occult medial meniscal peripheral tears of posterior horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xintao; You, Tian; Jiang, Xiaocheng; Zhang, Honglei; Zhang, Wentao

    2016-01-01

    Medial posterior horn meniscal tear is difficult to visualise during arthroscopy and is occasionally undetected by preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Consequently, attention should be paid to performing a thorough examination and to some characteristic signs that indicate occult meniscal tear. The purpose of this study was to assess an indicative correlation between arthroscopic features of cartilage injury and a concomitant occult meniscal tear. We performed a retrospective clinical and radiographic study of a consecutive series of patients between January 2013 and December 2014. Of 1,596 patients, all 78 with wave-like chondral injury of the medial femoral condyle diagnosed at arthroscopy were included in the study. The occurrence, pattern, location and concomitant pathology of medial meniscal injury were analysed. The characteristic wave sign associated with chondral injury in the medial femoral condyle was detected by MRI preoperatively in two cases only; all others were discovered intraoperatively at arthroscopy. Cartilage injury was rated as Outerbridge type II in 53 patients, type III in 24, and type IV in one. Wave sign defects were all characterised by their transverse orientation in the load-bearing femoral condyle. The occult longitudinal peripheral meniscus tear of the posterior horn was seen in all patients with a positive wave sign visualised under arthroscopy. The wave sign was positively correlated with medial peripheral meniscal injury of the posterior horn (P < 0.01). Wave sign chondral injury in the medial femoral condyle seen at arthroscopy is a characteristic indicator for concomitant occult medial longitudinal peripheral meniscus tears of the posterior horn. Case series, Level IV.

  10. Ultrasound of the knee with emphasis on the detailed anatomy of anterior, medial, and lateral structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maeseneer, Michel; Marcelis, Stefaan; Boulet, Cedric; Kichouh, Mimoun; Shahabpour, Maryam; de Mey, Johan; Cattrysse, Erik

    2014-08-01

    To describe the detailed ultrasound anatomy of the anterior, medial, and lateral aspects of the knee and present the ultrasound examination technique used. We present ultrasound using images of patients, volunteer subjects, and cadaveric specimens. We correlate ultrasound images with images of anatomical sections and dissections. The distal quadriceps tendon is made up of different laminas that can be seen with ultrasound. One to five laminas may be observed. The medial retinaculum is made up of three anatomical layers: the fascia, an intermediate layer, and the capsular layer. At the level of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) one to three layers may be observed with ultrasound. The medial supporting structures are made up of the medial collateral ligament and posterior oblique ligament. At the level of the medial collateral ligament (MCL), the superficial band, as well as the deeper meniscofemoral and meniscotibial bands can be discerned with ultrasound. The posterior part, corresponding to the posterior oblique ligament (POL), also can be visualized. Along the posteromedial aspect of the knee the semimembranosus tendon has several insertions including an anterior arm, direct arm, and oblique popliteal arm. These arms can be differentiated with ultrasound. Along the lateral aspect of the knee the iliotibial band and adjacent joint recesses can be assessed. The fibular collateral ligament is encircled by the anterior arms of the distal biceps tendon. Along the posterolateral corner, the fabellofibular, popliteofibular, and arcuate ligaments can be visualized. The anatomy of the anterior, medial, and lateral supporting structures of the knee is more complex than is usually thought. Ultrasound, with its exquisite resolution, allows an accurate assessment of anatomical detail. Knowledge of detailed anatomy and a systematic technique are prerequisites for a successful ultrasound examination of the knee.

  11. Nonabsorbable versus absorbable sutures in large, hang-back medial rectus muscle recessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadein, Ahmed; Marsh, Justin D; Guyton, David L

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the value of nonabsorbable sutures in reducing the incidence of consecutive exotropia after large, "hang-back" medial rectus recessions. The medical records of patients who underwent medial rectus recession of ≥6.5 mm in individuals ≤2 years of age, or ≥7.0 mm in those >2 years were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups based on suture material used: absorbable, polyglactin 910 sutures (44 patients); nonabsorbable, polyester sutures (50 patients). Preoperative measurements, ductions, strabismus surgery, and postoperative results were analyzed. Inadequate anchoring of the medial rectus muscle was suspected when consecutive exotropia developed 4-7 weeks after surgery after initial satisfactory alignment and was confirmed if during reoperation the medial rectus muscle appeared recessed >2 mm beyond the originally intended recession. Consecutive exotropia due to inadequate anchoring of the medial rectus muscle occurred in 11 of 66 muscles (17%) in the absorbable suture group. The muscle was found 6-10 mm posterior to the intended recession. Limited duction in the field of action of the involved medial rectus muscle occurred in 9 of the 11 muscles (82%). None of the eyes with nonabsorbable sutures showed inadequate anchoring. The incidence of consecutive exotropia was higher in the absorbable suture group (30%) than in the nonabsorbable suture group (6%) (P < 0.005). Using nonabsorbable suture for large, hang-back medial rectus recessions greatly reduces the incidence of consecutive exotropia that can occur when absorbable suture dissolves. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Localization and registration of the hinge axis in black Africans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assi, K D; N'Guessan, K S; N'Dindin, C; Bamba, A

    2003-06-01

    The study of the cinematic method using "SAM" and "Quick Axis of FAG" added to mandibular condyle palpation for the hinge axis limited points, show that the Black Africans mandibular condyle rotation axis position is higher (3.5 mm) and backer (2 mm) than the Caucasians. The axial points are located to between 11 and 12 mm in front of the tragus and between 7 and 8 mm below on the perpendicular line to the furrow defining the tragus superior side to the Ectocanthus.

  13. Thoughts on the so-called radius-capitellum axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schild, H.; Mueller, H.A.; Wagner, H.; Baetz, W.

    1982-02-01

    We have studied 438 patients radiologically in order to observe the so-called 'radius-capitellum axis'. In about a quarter of people with normal elbows the axis passes lateral to the middle portion of the capitellum, so that even when there is marked deviation, there is no certainty that the humero-radial joint is abnormal. Deviation of the axis can be caused by changes in the shape of the capitellum or of the radius, or by distension of the capsule of the elbow joint, or by various changes in muscular pull.

  14. Rates and processes of crystallization in on-axis and off-axis MOR basaltic melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellmer, Georg F.; Dulski, Peter; Iizuka, Yoshiyuki; Perfit, Michael R.

    2012-12-01

    Residence times of olivine and plagioclase phenocrysts and xenocrysts in mid-ocean ridge (MOR) basaltic melts have been studied since the mid 1980s using geospeedometric techniques (i.e. using diffusion of major and trace elements) in order to constrain the processes of melt ascent and differentiation in this important magmatic setting. Residence times range from a few hours to several years, but potential links between these timescales and specific tectonomagmatic variables such as spreading rate and relative locations of eruption site and ridge axis have remained elusive. Here we demonstrate how incomplete chemical diffusion of Sr within plagioclase crystals from MOR basalts erupted in on- and off-axis settings on a number of ridges with variable spreading rates provide geospeedometric constraints. We combine electron probe microanalytical crystal maps with detailed laser ablation profiles of almost 70 plagioclase crystals from the fast spreading East Pacific Rise (EPR) at 9-10°N, the intermediate spreading Gorda and Juan de Fuca (JdF) ridges, and the ultraslow spreading Gakkel ridge to calculate crystal residence times. These range from a few days to several months. The scarcity of residence times exceeding years corroborates previous data indicating that most of the growth of plagioclase phenocrysts occurs within the conduit at the onset of and during eruption on the sea floor, and extends this result to the fast-spreading EPR. Further, statistical analysis is employed to show for the first time that residence times are systematically longer at slower spreading rates, in off-axis samples, and samples sourced from laterally distal axial melt lenses. Plagioclase textures and residence time variations appear to be linked to differences in the dynamics of late-stage, pre-eruptive magma storage and ascent in the different tectonomagmatic settings investigated. In the future, geospeedometric work on MOR samples will be required to assess if the effect of spreading

  15. Design characteristics to reduce inadvertent cross-axis coupling during side stick handling of aircraft pitch and roll axis control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Marie-Eve

    Integrating a manual flight control inceptor with coupled axes such as the side stick within a flight deck creates challenges for the pilot to input a one-axis command without inadvertently inducing inputs in the opposite axis. The present paper studies three design features of the side stick and armrest setup believed to help reduce inadvertent cross-axis coupling occurrences. Design features address the aimed pilot population anthropometry (1.57m woman to 1.9m male) and their variability in upper segment measurements. Seven pilots of varying anthropometric sizes were asked to perform one-axis manoeuvres in pitch and roll for each setup configuration. To compare the setups both the duration and the definite integral of the unintended cross-axis input were processed and analyzed for each manoeuvre. Findings show that a short armrest reduces the occurrences of cross-axis input for the roll manoeuvre, whereas the side stick skew reduces inadvertent cross-axis coupling for the pitch manoeuvres.

  16. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of the Medial Patellar Ligaments: An Anatomic and Radiographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruckeberg, Bradley M; Chahla, Jorge; Moatshe, Gilbert; Cinque, Mark E; Muckenhirn, Kyle J; Godin, Jonathan A; Ridley, Taylor J; Brady, Alex W; Arendt, Elizabeth A; LaPrade, Robert F

    2018-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative anatomy of the medial patellar stabilizers has been reported; however, a quantitative analysis of the anatomic and radiographic attachments of all 4 ligaments relative to anatomic and osseous landmarks, as well as to one another, has yet to be performed. To perform a qualitative and quantitative anatomic and radiographic evaluation of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL), medial patellotibial ligament (MPTL), medial patellomeniscal ligament (MPML), and medial quadriceps tendon femoral ligament (MQTFL) attachment sites, with attention to their relationship to pertinent osseous and soft tissue landmarks. Descriptive laboratory study. Ten nonpaired fresh-frozen human cadaveric knees were dissected, and the MPFL, MPTL, MPML, and MQTFL were identified. A coordinate measuring device quantified the attachment areas of each structure and its relationship to pertinent bony landmarks. Radiographic analysis was performed through ligament attachment sites and relevant anatomic structures to assess their locations relative to pertinent bony landmarks. Four separate medial patellar ligaments were identified in all specimens. The center of the MPFL attachments was 14.3 mm proximal and 2.1 mm posterior to the medial epicondyle and 8.3 mm distal and 2.7 mm anterior to the adductor tubercle on the femur and 8.9 mm distal and 19.9 mm medial to the superior pole on the patella. The MQTFL had a mean insertion length of 29.3 mm on the medial aspect of the distal quadriceps tendon. The MPTL and MPML shared a common patellar insertion and were 9.1 mm proximal and 15.4 mm medial to the inferior pole. The MPTL attachment inserted on a newly identified bony ridge, which was located 5.0 mm distal to the joint line. The orientation angles of the MPTL and MPML with respect to the patellar tendon were 8.3° and 22.7°, respectively. The most important findings of this study were the correlative anatomy of 4 distinct medial patellar ligaments (MPFL, MPTL

  17. Particle orbit analysis for LHD helical axis configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.; Yamazaki, K.; Motojima, O.

    1993-04-01

    Fast ion orbits for helical magnetic axis configurations in LHD (Large Helical Device) are analyzed and compared with the standard circular axis case. Boundaries between passing and helically trapped particle regions show clear differences: in the non-planar axis case the helically trapped region spreads, near the magnetic axis, over a much wider band across the 90deg pitch angle value and shows a very marked asymmetry. The locally trapped particle region is also wider than in the standard case. The differences in the loss cone boundaries of the two cases are rather small, however, the effects of re-entering criteria are very important in both cases. On the contrary, effects of finite coil size are not significant. (author)

  18. Tilted-axis wobbling in odd-mass nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budaca, R.

    2018-02-01

    A triaxial rotor Hamiltonian with a rigidly aligned high-j quasiparticle is treated by a time-dependent variational principle, using angular momentum coherent states. The resulting classical energy function has three unique critical points in a space of generalized conjugate coordinates, which can minimize the energy for specific ordering of the inertial parameters and a fixed angular momentum state. Because of the symmetry of the problem, there are only two unique solutions, corresponding to wobbling motion around a principal axis and, respectively, a tilted axis. The wobbling frequencies are obtained after a quantization procedure and then used to calculate E 2 and M 1 transition probabilities. The analytical results are employed in the study of the wobbling excitations of 135Pr nucleus, which is found to undergo a transition from low angular momentum transverse wobbling around a principal axis toward a tilted-axis wobbling at higher angular momentum.

  19. Off-axis vortex breakdown in a shallow whirlpool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrada, Miguel A; Shtern, Vladimir N; López-Herrera, José María

    2013-06-01

    The off-axis emergence of vortex breakdown (VB) is revealed. The steady axisymmetric flow in a vertical sealed cylinder, which is partially filled with water and the rest is filled with air, is driven by the rotating bottom disk. The numerical simulations show that VB can emerge away from the rotation axis, interface, and walls. As the rotation intensifies, VB first develops in the water region. If the water height is less (larger) than nearly one half of the cylinder radius, VB emerges off (on) the axis. As the rotation further increases, the off-axis VB ring touches the interface and then a thin countercirculation layer develops in the air flow above the water VB domain. This two-fluid VB ring shrinks (it even disappears in a very shallow whirlpool) as the interface approaches the bottom disk.

  20. Space/Flight Operable Miniature Six Axis Transducer, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FUTEK will fully design and manufacture a sensor capable of measuring forces in and about each axis. The unit will measure forces up to 300 Newton's in the principle...

  1. The effects of lateral head tilt on ocular astigmatic axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Fesharaki

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Any minimal angle of head tilt may cause erroneous measurement of astigmatic axis and should be avoided during refraction. One cannot rely on the compensatory function of ocular counter-torsion during the refraction.

  2. Determination of Elastic Twist in Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWTs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoddard, F.; Nelson, V.; Starcher, K.; Andrews, B.

    2006-06-01

    This report presents the results of a project at the Alternative Energy Institute (AEI) which measured and calculated the elastic twist of three representative composite horizontal-axis blades: Carter 300, Gougeon ESI 54, and UTRC 8 kW.

  3. UARS PEM Level 2 AXIS 1 V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The UARS Particle Environment Monitor (PEM) level 2 Atmosphere X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (AXIS) unit 1 daily product contains the X-ray high-resolution spectral...

  4. UARS PEM Level 2 AXIS 2 V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The UARS Particle Environment Monitor (PEM) level 2 Atmosphere X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (AXIS) unit 2 daily product contains the X-ray high-resolution spectral...

  5. Design of a Three-Axis Machine Tool Module

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Childers, Marshal

    2003-01-01

    This report documents the design improvement process of the components in a tool module for a three-axis machine tool, which occurred during the period of March-April 2002 in support of a critical U.S...

  6. Stress and the HPA Axis: Balancing Homeostasis and Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana N. Joseph

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An organism’s reproductive fitness is sensitive to the environment, integrating cues of resource availability, ecological factors, and hazards within its habitat. Events that challenge the environment of an organism activate the central stress response system, which is primarily mediated by the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA axis. The regulatory functions of the HPA axis govern the cardiovascular and metabolic system, immune functions, behavior, and reproduction. Activation of the HPA axis by various stressors primarily inhibits reproductive function and is able to alter fetal development, imparting a biological record of stress experienced in utero. Clinical studies and experimental data indicate that stress signaling can mediate these effects through direct actions in the brain, gonads, and embryonic tissues. This review focuses on the mechanisms by which stress activation of the HPA axis impacts fertility and fetal development.

  7. Stress and the HPA Axis: Balancing Homeostasis and Fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Dana N; Whirledge, Shannon

    2017-10-24

    An organism's reproductive fitness is sensitive to the environment, integrating cues of resource availability, ecological factors, and hazards within its habitat. Events that challenge the environment of an organism activate the central stress response system, which is primarily mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The regulatory functions of the HPA axis govern the cardiovascular and metabolic system, immune functions, behavior, and reproduction. Activation of the HPA axis by various stressors primarily inhibits reproductive function and is able to alter fetal development, imparting a biological record of stress experienced in utero. Clinical studies and experimental data indicate that stress signaling can mediate these effects through direct actions in the brain, gonads, and embryonic tissues. This review focuses on the mechanisms by which stress activation of the HPA axis impacts fertility and fetal development.

  8. Dual Axis Controller for Extreme Environments, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Dual Axis Controller for Extreme Environments (DACEE) addresses a critical need of NASA's future exploration plans to investigate extreme environments within our...

  9. Three-Axis Gasless Sounding Rocket Payload Attitude Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gas released by current sounding rocket payload attitude control systems (ACS) has the potential to interfere with some types of science instruments. A single-axis...

  10. Clinical and radiologic evaluation of medial epicondylar osteotomy for varus total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jae Ang; Na, Young Gon; Go, Jae Yun; Lee, Beom Koo

    2018-01-01

    In varus total knee arthroplasty (TKA), a pathologic contracture of the medial soft tissue should be released for ligament balancing. A medial epicondylar osteotomy has been performed as an alternative method for this. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the clinical and radiologic results of medial epicondylar osteotomy for varus TKA, focusing on the union type of osteotomy site. The study retrospectively evaluated 61 cases with a mean femorotibial angle of 10.4° varus and a mean flexion contracture angle of 8.5±9.8°. Intraoperative medial and lateral gap difference in extension and 90° flexion was accepted at varus-valgus angle on the stress radiographs between the bony union and fibrous union group (1.6±1.2° vs. 1.6±0.8°, P<0.916). The Knee Society Scores (knee, function), range of motion and radiographic alignment did not differ between the two groups. Medial epicondylar osteotomy was a good option for gap balancing during TKA, as it provided satisfactory clinical and radiological results, regardless of union type of the osteotomy site. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Novel approach of medialization thyroplasty with arytenoid adduction performed under general anesthesia with a laryngeal mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stow, Nicholas W; Lee, Jennifer W; Cole, Ian E

    2012-02-01

    To objectively assess the voice outcomes of patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis treated with medialization thyroplasty and arytenoid adduction suture. Case series of patients who underwent medialization thyroplasty and arytenoid adduction suture. Preoperative and postoperative voice testing was performed and the data were compared by statistical analysis. Tertiary referral teaching hospital in Sydney, Australia. All patients had a unilateral vocal fold paralysis, with a large posterior glottic gap and vocal symptoms affecting their quality of life. Thirteen patients with a diagnosis of a unilateral vocal fold paralysis with a large posterior glottic gap, vocal symptoms, and total denervation of the vocal fold underwent medialization thyroplasty and arytenoid adduction suture. The surgery was performed in a novel method under a general anesthetic using a laryngeal mask and with direct intraoperative endoscopic feedback. Preoperative and postoperative measures of voice performance were compared, including acoustic analysis (fundamental frequency, speech intensity against quiet and loud background noise, speech rate) and aerodynamic assessment (airflow, maximum phonation time). Medialization thyroplasty with arytenoid adduction suture significantly improved aerodynamic assessment and phonation duration for both male and female subjects overall. There were 2 of 13 treatment failures. Median follow-up time was 6 months. Preliminary results indicate that in selected patients with vocal fold paralysis, medialization thyroplasty with arytenoid adduction suture leads to significant improvements in objective voice measures. Longer follow-up data are required to further quantify the voice outcomes after this procedure.

  12. Lower-leg Kinesio tape reduces rate of loading in participants with medial tibial stress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebert, Maggie C; Needle, Alan R; McConnell, Jennifer; Kaminski, Thomas W

    2016-03-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is an overuse injury occurring among the physically active. Linked to increased strain on the medial tendons of the ankle, studies emphasize controlling medial foot loading in the management of this condition. Kinesio taping (KT) has gained popularity for treating musculoskeletal pathologies; however, its effect on MTSS remains uninvestigated. This study aimed to determine if healthy participants and patients with current or previous history of MTSS differ in the rate of loading, and if KT affects plantar pressures in these participants. Twenty healthy participants and 20 participants with current or previous history of MTSS were recruited and walked across a plantar pressure mat prior to KT application, immediately after application, and after 24-h of continued use. Time-to-peak force was measured in 6 foot areas and compared across groups and conditions. ANOVA revealed a significant interaction between group, condition, and foot area (F = 1.990, p = 0.033). MTSS participants presented with lower medial midfoot time-to-peak force before tape application (95%CI: 0.014-0.160%, p = 0.021) that significantly increased following tape application (p < 0.05). These results suggest that KT decreases the rate of medial loading in MTSS patients. Future research might assess mechanisms by which this effect is achieved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Corrective eyeglasses and medial canthal basal cell carcinoma: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, M; Hercos, A C; Miot, H A

    2012-07-01

    Corrective eyeglasses are frequently worn by adults, particularly at older ages. Their lenses and frames provide ultraviolet protection. Medial canthal basal cell carcinomas are infrequent (3-8%), and their relation with the use of corrective glasses was not yet investigated. To assess the prevalence of corrective eyeglasses use in individuals with medial canthal basal cell carcinoma. Case-control study using two controls matched by age, gender, and ethnicity for each case. Cases were patients with medial canthal basal cell carcinoma, and controls were patients with basal cell carcinoma elsewhere on the face. The prevalence of major risk variables was estimated and adjusted by conditional multiple logistic regression. Fifty cases and 100 controls were assessed. The mean patient age was 69.7 years, and 54% of the subjects were females. No difference regarding the eyeglasses use or use duration was found between groups. However, when visual defects were separately evaluated, eyeglasses for myopia correction were independently associated with lower risk of medial canthal basal cell carcinoma development (OR=0.26; P=0.03), what can be related to long term local photoprotection. The use of eyeglasses for myopia correction is associated with lower prevalence of medial cantal basal cell carcinoma. Risk-reducing mechanisms should be elucidated. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  14. Displaced Medial and Lateral Bucket Handle Meniscal Tears With Intact ACL and PCL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boody, Barrett S; Omar, Imran M; Hill, James A

    2015-08-01

    Bucket handle lesions are vertical longitudinal tears in the meniscus that may displace centrally into the respective medial or lateral compartment, frequently causing mechanical symptoms, including pain, perceived instability, and mechanical locking. Bucket handle meniscal tears are most commonly from a traumatic etiology and are frequently found with concomitant anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Multiple imaging signs and associations have been described for the diagnosis of bucket handle meniscus tears, including coronal truncation, absent bow tie sign, double posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), double ACL, displacement of the bucket handle fragment, and disproportionate posterior horn signs. Among meniscal pathology encountered on magnetic resonance imaging or during arthroscopy, bucket handle meniscal tears are infrequent occurrences. Furthermore, the occurrence of displaced medial and lateral bucket handle tears found on imaging and during arthroscopy is very uncommon and is only sparsely reported in the literature. When displaced medial and lateral bucket handle meniscal segments are visualized within the intercondylar notch along with the ACL and PCL, the radiologic findings are referred to as the "quadruple cruciate" sign or the "Jack and Jill lesion." Of the few case reports described in the literature, only one noted displaced medial and lateral bucket handle meniscus tears with an intact ACL and PCL. The current case report outlines a similar rare case of the quadruple cruciate sign: displaced medial and lateral bucket handle meniscal tears located within the intercondylar notch and an intact ACL and PCL. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Ultrasound-guided Percutaneous Medial Pinning of Pediatric Supracondylar Humeral Fractures to Avoid Ulnar Nerve Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Soldado

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Medial pinning is one of the most controversial aspects of the surgical treatment of supracondylar fractures (SHF owing to the risk of ulnar nerve injury.  Aim: To evaluate the safety and usefulness of medial pinning for SHF using ultrasound imaging for ulnar nerve visualization.   Methods: Fifteen children, with a mean age of 60 months, with displaced SHF were treated with a crossed-pinning configuration after fracture reduction. Intraoperative ultrasound was used to guide medial pin insertion to avoid ulnar nerve injury. Results:  Cubital tunnel anatomy was easily identified in all children. All children showed a subluxating ulnar nerve that required elbow extension to about 90º before medial pin insertion. None suffered ulnar nerve dysfunction after using the referred technique. Conclusions:  Although technically demanding, ultrasound may be a valuable adjuvant to avoid ulnar nerve injury while performing a medial pinning in pediatric SHF.

  16. Current Topics Regarding the Function of the Medial Temporal Lobe Memory System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robert E

    2018-01-05

    The first clear insight that the medial temporal lobe of the human brain was in fact a system of anatomically connected structures that were organized into a memory system came in 1957 from the observations by Brenda Milner of the noted amnesic patient H.M. Subsequent work in humans, monkeys, and rodents has identified all of the components of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) that formed the memory system. Currently, work is ongoing to identify the specific contributions each structure in the medial temporal lobe makes towards the formation and storage of long-term declarative memory. The historical background of this work is described including what insights the study of noted neurologic patients H.M. and E.P. provided for understanding the function of the medial temporal lobe. The development of an animal model of medial temporal lobe function is described. Additionally, the insights that lead to the understanding that the brain contains multiple, anatomically discrete, memory systems are described. Finally, three current topics of debate are addressed: First, does the perirhinal cortex exclusively support memory, or does it support both memory and higher order visual perception? Second, is there an anatomical separation between recollection and familiarity ? Third, is the organization of spatial memory different between humans and rats, or perhaps the difference is between the working memory capacities of the two species?

  17. In Vivo Measurement of Rotator Cuff Tear Tension: Medial Versus Lateral Footprint Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierckman, Brian D; Wang, David W; Bahk, Michael S; Burns, Joseph P; Getelman, Mark H

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a study to evaluate in vivo tension applied to the rotator cuff tendon positioned at the medial versus lateral footprint during arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. We evaluated 20 consecutive patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. During repair, a grasper was inserted through a lateral portal, and a digital weigh scale was attached. The tendon was grasped and translated to the medial footprint, and tension recorded. After a relaxation period, the tendon edge was translated to the lateral footprint, and tension recorded. Mean (SD) tension was 0.41 (0.33) pound when tendons were positioned at the medial footprint and 2.21 (1.20) pounds when they were positioned at the lateral footprint, representing a 5.4-fold difference (P footprint. For larger tears, 4.1 times less tension was applied to the tendons when pulled to the medial versus lateral footprint. This study demonstrated a significant, 5.4-fold increase in tension when the tendon edge was reduced to the lateral as opposed to the medial footprint in vivo.

  18. Diverse cellular architecture of atherosclerotic plaque derives from clonal expansion of a few medial SMCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Kevin; Lund, Marie Bek; Shim, Jeong; Gunnersen, Stine; Füchtbauer, Ernst-Martin; Kjolby, Mads; Carramolino, Laura; Bentzon, Jacob Fog

    2017-10-05

    Fibrous cap smooth muscle cells (SMCs) protect atherosclerotic lesions from rupturing and causing thrombosis, while other plaque SMCs may have detrimental roles in plaque development. To gain insight into recruitment of different plaque SMCs, we mapped their clonal architecture in aggregation chimeras of eGFP+Apoe-/- and Apoe-/- mouse embryos and in mice with a mosaic expression of fluorescent proteins in medial SMCs that were rendered atherosclerotic by PCSK9-induced hypercholesterolemia. Fibrous caps in aggregation chimeras were found constructed from large, endothelial-aligned layers of either eGFP+ or nonfluorescent SMCs, indicating substantial clonal expansion of a few cells. Similarly, plaques in mice with SMC-restricted Confetti expression showed oligoclonal SMC populations with little intermixing between the progeny of different medial SMCs. Phenotypes comprised both ACTA2+ SMCs in the cap and heterogeneous ACTA2- SMCs in the plaque interior, including chondrocyte-like cells and cells with intracellular lipid and crystalline material. Fibrous cap SMCs were invariably arranged in endothelium-aligned clonal sheets, confirming results in the aggregation chimeras. Analysis of the clonal structure showed that a low number of local medial SMCs partake in atherosclerosis and that single medial SMCs can produce several different SMC phenotypes in plaque. The combined results show that few medial SMCs proliferate to form the entire phenotypically heterogeneous plaque SMC population in murine atherosclerosis.

  19. Radiographic Relevance of the Distal Medial Cuneiform Angle in Hallux Valgus Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Daniel J; Smith, Abigail; Fowler, Troy

    2016-01-01

    The angle formed by the distal articular facet of the medial cuneiform has been evaluated and discussed by various investigators. However, no consistent method has been available to radiograph and measure this entity. The wide variability of the angle is not conducive to comparative analysis. Additionally, investigators have noted that the angles observed (obliquity) vary greatly because of changes in radiographic angle, foot position, rotation of the first ray, and declination of the first metatarsal. Recognizing that these variables exist, we propose a reproducible assessment using digital radiography and application of deformity of correction principles. Our results have indicated a mean distal medial cuneiform angle of 20.69° in normal feet, 23.51° with moderate hallux valgus, and 20.41° with severe hallux valgus deformity. The radiograph beam was kept at 15° from the coronal plane. An inverse relationship was found between the distal medial cuneiform angle and bunion severity. This was in contrast to our expected hypothesis. The overall angle of the first metatarsal-medial cuneiform did, however, correlate with the severity of the bunion deformity (p hallux valgus. A better indicator appears to be the first metatarsal-medial cuneiform angle. This pathologic entity is a 3-dimensional one that incorporates the joint morphology of the first ray, triplane osseous positioning, and soft tissue imbalances. Perhaps, 3-dimensional computed tomography imaging will provide better insight into this entity. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Incarceration of the medial collateral ligament in the intercondylar notch following proximal avulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, Edward [Fiona Stanley Hospital, Department of Radiology, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Williams, Martin [North Bristol NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Bristol (United Kingdom); Robinson, James R. [Bristol Knee Group, Avon Orthopaedic Centre, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2017-11-15

    Intra-articular entrapment of the medial collateral ligament (MCL) is a rare but recognised complication of traumatic injury to the posteromedial corner (PMC) of the knee. Considering the MCL is the most commonly injured ligament of the knee this complication is extremely rare with only a handful of cases describing MCL entrapment following distal avulsion of the MCL. We present the first known case of MCL entrapment following proximal avulsion of the MCL and posterior oblique ligament (POL) with the mid-substance of the MCL becoming entrapped in the joint, lying on the superior surface of the medial meniscus and extending up into the intercondylar notch. In addition, the medial patellar retinaculum was also entrapped in the medial aspect of the medial patellofemoral joint. MCL entrapment is best treated with expeditious surgical intervention and it is therefore crucial that the MRI findings are not overlooked. Details of the clinical assessment, MRI and operative findings are presented with a literature review of MCL entrapment. (orig.)

  1. The effect of knee orthoses on gait parameters in medial knee compartment osteoarthritis: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Maryam; Arazpour, Mokhtar; Joghtaei, Mahmoud; Hutchins, Stephen W; Aboutorabi, Atefeh; Pouyan, Ali

    2016-04-01

    Knee osteoarthritis is a musculoskeletal condition which is most prevalent in the medial compartment. This injury causes considerable pain, disability, and negative changes in kinetic and kinematic parameters. The efficiency of unloader valgus brace as a conservative treatment for medial knee osteoarthritis is not well documented. The aim of this study was to review the previous research regarding the biomechanical effects of knee valgus braces on walking in medial compartment knee osteoarthritis patients. Literature review According to the population intervention comparison outcome measure methods and based on selected keywords, 12 studies were chosen according to (met) the inclusion criteria. The results indicated that treatment with knee braces was effective in decreasing pain, improving function, ameliorating improvement in range of motion, and increasing speed of walking and step length in conjunction with a reduction in the adduction moment applied to the knee. Osteoarthritis knee braces may be considered for improvement of walking and treatment of medial compartment knee osteoarthritis. Knee braces are an orthotic intervention that could potentially be significant in assisting in improving the walking parameters and treatment of medial compartment knee osteoarthritis. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  2. Diagnosis of radial tear of posterior horn of medial meniscus by MR imaging. Prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motoyama, Tatsuo; Ihara, Hidetoshi; Kawashima, Mahito

    2002-01-01

    It is not easy to detect radial tears of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus (torn posterior horn) under arthroscopy if the surgeon does not notice the tear before arthroscopy. Occasionally the tear goes undetected or is missed during arthroscopy. The sagittal view of MR imaging is very useful for diagnosing torn posterior horns. The normal posterior horn of the medial meniscus appears as an image of low intensity triangle of the sagittal MRI medial slice next to the PCL. On the contrary, the image of the torn posterior horn shows a high intensity triangle, so we refer to the feature as a white meniscus sign. We prospectively examined the accuracy of white meniscus sign of MRI. Forty-two knees in 41 patients were studied. They were over 40 years of age, diagnosed with medial meniscus tear and had undergone MRI before arthroscopy. Before arthroscopy, we predicted the existence of torn posterior horn by the white meniscus sign and examined the accuracy of the MRI after arthroscopy. Total accuracy rate was 90.5%, sensitivity was 94.1%, and specificity was 88.0%. We concluded that the white meniscus sign on MRI is very useful for defecting torn posterior horn of the medial meniscus. (author)

  3. Multiple arterial thromboses due to cystic medial degeneration Erdheim-Gsell: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jud, Philipp; Gary, Thomas; Hafner, Franz; Tiesenhausen, Kurt; Ott, Thomas; Oswald, Wolfgang Kurt; Brodmann, Marianne

    2017-11-01

    Cystic medial degeneration Erdheim-Gsell is a vascular pathology mainly of the large vessels, which is mostly associated with Marfan syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. The clinical findings of this entity are aneurysms of the aorta or large peripheral arteries which usually present in an acute setting due to rupture of an aneurysm. We present a case of a 43-year-old Caucasian male with histologically proven cystic medial degeneration of the lower limb vessels mimicking peripheral artery occlusive disease. Despite antiplatelet and anticoagulant treatment, the patient suffered multiple vascular stenosis and occlusions. Multiple arterial stenoses and thromboses leading to peripheral artery occlusive disease caused by cystic medial degeneration Erdheim-Gsell. Multiple surgical and endovascular interventions including bypass graft and intra-arterial thrombolysis as well as oral antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy. Despite dual antiplatelet therapy, anticoagulant therapy with rivaroxaban and multiple surgical and endovascular interventions, the patient developed recurrent arterial thromboses. The patient did not suffer further thrombotic events since clopidogrel and phenprocoumon were administered. Clinical presentation of cystic medial degeneration Erdheim-Gsell mimicking peripheral artery occlusive disease is very unusual. Due to the fragile vessel wall, patients with cystic medial degeneration might have a higher risk to develop arterial thromboses, even under antiplatelet therapy or anticoagulant treatment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Multiple arterial thromboses due to cystic medial degeneration Erdheim-Gsell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jud, Philipp; Gary, Thomas; Hafner, Franz; Tiesenhausen, Kurt; Ott, Thomas; Oswald, Wolfgang Kurt; Brodmann, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Cystic medial degeneration Erdheim-Gsell is a vascular pathology mainly of the large vessels, which is mostly associated with Marfan syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. The clinical findings of this entity are aneurysms of the aorta or large peripheral arteries which usually present in an acute setting due to rupture of an aneurysm. Patient concerns: We present a case of a 43-year-old Caucasian male with histologically proven cystic medial degeneration of the lower limb vessels mimicking peripheral artery occlusive disease. Despite antiplatelet and anticoagulant treatment, the patient suffered multiple vascular stenosis and occlusions. Diagnoses: Multiple arterial stenoses and thromboses leading to peripheral artery occlusive disease caused by cystic medial degeneration Erdheim-Gsell. Interventions: Multiple surgical and endovascular interventions including bypass graft and intra-arterial thrombolysis as well as oral antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy. Outcome: Despite dual antiplatelet therapy, anticoagulant therapy with rivaroxaban and multiple surgical and endovascular interventions, the patient developed recurrent arterial thromboses. The patient did not suffer further thrombotic events since clopidogrel and phenprocoumon were administered. Lessons: Clinical presentation of cystic medial degeneration Erdheim-Gsell mimicking peripheral artery occlusive disease is very unusual. Due to the fragile vessel wall, patients with cystic medial degeneration might have a higher risk to develop arterial thromboses, even under antiplatelet therapy or anticoagulant treatment. PMID:29381979

  5. Early programming of the IGF-I axis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larnkjær, Anni; Ingstrup, Helga Kristensen; Schack-Nielsen, Lene

    2009-01-01

    -I production. Conversely, studies suggest that later in childhood, those breastfed are taller and have higher IGF-I levels. Therefore, it has been suggested that the IGF-I axis may be programmed by diet during infancy. The association between IGF-I in infancy and later life is not known. OBJECTIVE: To examine......=-0.26, P=0.043, and n=109). CONCLUSION: The results support the hypothesis that the IGF-I axis can be programmed early in life....

  6. Effect of a pelvic wedge and belt on the medial and lateral hamstring muscles during knee flexion

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] This study developed a pelvic wedge and belt and investigated their effects on the selective activation of medial and lateral hamstring muscles during knee flexion. [Subjects and Methods] Nine adults were enrolled. The participants performed exercises without and with the pelvic wedge and belt, and the electromyographic activities of the medial and lateral hamstring muscles were recorded. [Results] The activity of the medial hamstring was increased significantly when using the pelvi...

  7. Contrasting medial moraine development at adjacent temperate, maritime glaciers: Fox and Franz Josef Glaciers, South Westland, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Martin; Hagg, Wilfried; Winkler, Stefan

    2017-08-01

    Medial moraines form important pathways for sediment transportation in valley glaciers. Despite the existence of well-defined medial moraines on several glaciers in the New Zealand Southern Alps, medial moraines there have hitherto escaped attention. The evolving morphology and debris content of medial moraines on Franz Josef Glacier and Fox Glacier on the western flank of the Southern Alps is the focus of this study. These temperate maritime glaciers exhibit accumulation zones of multiple basins that feed narrow tongues flowing down steep valleys and terminate 400 m above sea level. The medial moraines at both glaciers become very prominent in the lower ablation zones, where the medial moraines widen, and develop steeper flanks coeval with an increase in relative relief. Medial moraine growth appears somewhat self-limiting in that relief and slope angle increase eventually lead to transport of debris away from the medial moraine by mass-movement-related processes. Despite similarities in overall morphologies, a key contrast in medial moraine formation exists between the two glaciers. At Fox Glacier, the medial moraine consists of angular rockfall-derived debris, folded to varying degrees along flow-parallel axes throughout the tongue. The debris originates above the ELA, coalesces at flow-unit boundaries, and takes a medium/high level transport pathway before subsequently emerging at point-sources aligned with gently dipping fold hinges near the snout. In contrast at Franz Josef Glacier, the medial moraine emerges farther down-glacier immediately below a prominent rock knob. Clasts show a mix of angular to rounded shapes representing high level transport and subglacially transported materials, the latter facies possibly also elevated by supraglacial routing of subglacial meltwater. Our observations confirm that a variety of different debris sources, transport pathways, and structural glaciological processes can interact to form medial moraines within New Zealand

  8. Familial Discoid Medial Meniscus Tear in Three Members of a Family: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Ali, Raheel; McKay, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Background. A discoid meniscus is a thickened variant of the normal C-shaped meniscus prone to injury. Discoid medial meniscal tears have rarely been reported within families and may suggest familial or developmental origins. Methods. We report the cases of two Caucasian brothers with symptomatic discoid medial meniscus tears. A literature review was conducted addressing discoid medial meniscus and cases of familial meniscus tears. Case Presentation. Physically active brothers presented with ...

  9. Optic axis-driven new horizons for hyperbolic metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boardman Allan D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The broad assertion here is that the current hyperbolic metamaterial world is only partially served by investigations that incorporate only some limited version of anisotropy. Even modest deviations of the optic axis from the main propagation axis lead to new phase shifts, which not only compete with those created by absorption but end up dominating them. Some progress has been attempted in the literature by introducing the terms “asymmetric hyperbolic media”, but it appears that this kind of asymmetry only involves an optic axis at an angle to the interface of a uniaxial crystal. From a device point of view, many new prospects should appear and the outcomes of the investigations presented here yield a new general theory. It is emphasised that the orientation of the optic axis is a significant determinant in the resulting optical properties. Whereas for conventional anisotropic waveguides homogeneous propagating waves occur over a limited range of angular dispositions of the optic axis it is shown that for a hyperbolic guide a critical angular setting exists, above which the guided waves are always homogeneous. This has significant implications for metawaveguide designs. The resulting structures are more tolerant to optic axis misalignment.

  10. Comparison of astigmatic axis in the seated and supine positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E M; Talamo, J H; Assil, K K; Petashnick, D E

    1994-01-01

    Refractive error is assessed in the seated position while keratorefractive procedures are performed in the supine position. Since position-induced ocular torsion could yield suboptimal results from improper axis alignment, this study was undertaken to ascertain whether ocular cyclotorsion occurs when a subject moves from a seated to supine position. Fifty eyes of 29 subjects with refractive cylinder greater than 0.50 diopters were enrolled. Refraction was done with a phoropter and the correction was placed in a trial frame using plus cylinder. Astigmatic axis was determined in the seated and supine positions for 32 eyes by utilizing the "rocking the cylinder" technique and for 32 eyes using the Jackson cross cylinder. Both techniques were used for 14 eyes. No statistically-significant difference for cylinder axis measured in the seated versus supine position was observed using the rocking the cylinder (4.3 degrees standard deviation [SD], 3.5 degrees, range 0 degrees to 13 degrees, p = NS) or the Jackson cross cylinder methods (2.3 degrees, SD, 1.9 degrees, range 0 degrees to 7 degrees, p = NS). Approximately 25% of eyes had a change in axis of 7 degrees to 16 degrees. These data suggest that the cylinder axis does not change significantly or predictably when most subjects move from the seated to supine position. The Jackson cross cylinder method seems more accurate and reproducible than the rocking the cylinder technique in determination of astigmatic axis under these circumstances.

  11. Design and optimize of 3-axis filament winding machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quanjin, Ma; Rejab, M. R. M.; Idris, M. S.; Bachtiar, B.; Siregar, J. P.; Harith, M. N.

    2017-10-01

    Filament winding technique is developed as the primary process for composite cylindrical structures fabrication at low cost. Fibres are wound on a rotating mandrel by a filament winding machine where resin impregnated fibres pass through a pay-out eye. This paper aims to develop and optimize a 3-axis, lightweight, practical, efficient, portable filament winding machine to satisfy the customer demand, which can fabricate pipes and round shape cylinders with resins. There are 3 main units on the 3-axis filament winding machine, which are the rotary unit, the delivery unit and control system unit. Comparison with previous existing filament winding machines in the factory, it has 3 degrees of freedom and can fabricate more complex shape specimens based on the mandrel shape and particular control system. The machine has been designed and fabricated on 3 axes movements with control system. The x-axis is for movement of the carriage, the y-axis is the rotation of mandrel and the z-axis is the movement of the pay-out eye. Cylindrical specimens with different dimensions and winding angles were produced. 3-axis automated filament winding machine has been successfully designed with simple control system.

  12. Self-starting aerodynamics analysis of vertical axis wind turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyang Zhu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vertical axis wind turbine is a special type of wind-force electric generator which is capable of working in the complicated wind environment. The self-starting aerodynamics is one of the most important considerations for this kind of turbine. This article aims at providing a systematic synthesis on the self-starting aerodynamic characteristics of vertical axis wind turbine based on the numerical analysis approach. First, the physical model of vertical axis wind turbine and its parameter definitions are presented. Secondary, the interaction model between the vertical axis wind turbine and fluid is developed by using the weak coupling approach; the numerical data of this model are then compared with the wind tunnel experimental data to show its feasibility. Third, the effects of solidity and fixed pitch angle on the self-starting aerodynamic characteristics of the vertical axis wind turbine are analyzed systematically. Finally, the quantification effects of the solidity and fixed pitch angle on the self-starting performance of the turbine can be obtained. The analysis in this study will provide straightforward physical insight into the self-starting aerodynamic characteristics of vertical axis wind turbine.

  13. Energy Efficient Hybrid Dual Axis Solar Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Ahammed Ferdaus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and implementation of an energy efficient solar tracking system from a normal mechanical single axis to a hybrid dual axis. For optimizing the solar tracking mechanism electromechanical systems were evolved through implementation of different evolutional algorithms and methodologies. To present the tracker, a hybrid dual-axis solar tracking system is designed, built, and tested based on both the solar map and light sensor based continuous tracking mechanism. These light sensors also compare the darkness and cloudy and sunny conditions assisting daily tracking. The designed tracker can track sun’s apparent position at different months and seasons; thereby the electrical controlling device requires a real time clock device for guiding the tracking system in seeking solar position for the seasonal motion. So the combination of both of these tracking mechanisms made the designed tracker a hybrid one. The power gain and system power consumption are compared with a static and continuous dual axis solar tracking system. It is found that power gain of hybrid dual axis solar tracking system is almost equal to continuous dual axis solar tracking system, whereas the power saved in system operation by the hybrid tracker is 44.44% compared to the continuous tracking system.

  14. Laminar and dorsoventral molecular organization of the medial entorhinal cortex revealed by large-scale anatomical analysis of gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen L Ramsden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural circuits in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC encode an animal's position and orientation in space. Within the MEC spatial representations, including grid and directional firing fields, have a laminar and dorsoventral organization that corresponds to a similar topography of neuronal connectivity and cellular properties. Yet, in part due to the challenges of integrating anatomical data at the resolution of cortical layers and borders, we know little about the molecular components underlying this organization. To address this we develop a new computational pipeline for high-throughput analysis and comparison of in situ hybridization (ISH images at laminar resolution. We apply this pipeline to ISH data for over 16,000 genes in the Allen Brain Atlas and validate our analysis with RNA sequencing of MEC tissue from adult mice. We find that differential gene expression delineates the borders of the MEC with neighboring brain structures and reveals its laminar and dorsoventral organization. We propose a new molecular basis for distinguishing the deep layers of the MEC and show that their similarity to corresponding layers of neocortex is greater than that of superficial layers. Our analysis identifies ion channel-, cell adhesion- and synapse-related genes as candidates for functional differentiation of MEC layers and for encoding of spatial information at different scales along the dorsoventral axis of the MEC. We also reveal laminar organization of genes related to disease pathology and suggest that a high metabolic demand predisposes layer II to neurodegenerative pathology. In principle, our computational pipeline can be applied to high-throughput analysis of many forms of neuroanatomical data. Our results support the hypothesis that differences in gene expression contribute to functional specialization of superficial layers of the MEC and dorsoventral organization of the scale of spatial representations.

  15. Medial depression with bony dehiscence of lamina papyracea as an anatomic variation: CT evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Sun Young; Lee, Young Uk; Youn, Eun Kyung; Suh, Sang Gyung; Kim, Dong Hyun

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence and CT findings of the medial depression and bony dehiscence of lamina papyracea as an anatomic variation. 1472 PNS CTs of the patients with symptoms of chronic sinusitis were retrospectively evaluated. The total incidence of depressed lamina papyracea as an anatomic variation was 3.5%(52/1472) on PNS CT. There was a statistically significant correlation between the increasing age and the incidence of depressed lamina papyracea. Depression of lamina papyracea anterior to the basal lamella were more common than those of the posterior depression. Associated findings were herniation of adjacent fatty tissue in all cases and the medial bowing and hypertrophied configuration of the medial rectus muscle without significant herniation in 19 cases(34%). Nontraumatic, asymptomatic depression with bony dehiscence of lamina papyracea as an anatomic variation is not uncommon with the incidence of 3.5%. Recognition of its existence and degree may be helpful in avoiding various ocular complication during ethmoid surgery

  16. Competitive swimmers with hypermobility have strength and fatigue deficits in shoulder medial rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liaghat, Behnam; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Frydendal, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Generalised Joint Hypermobility including shoulder hypermobility (GJHS) in swimmers is considered an intrinsic risk factor for shoulder injuries. The aim was to investigate the association of GJHS with shoulder strength, fatigue development and muscle activity during swimming-related shoulder...... rotation (60°/s). Swimmers with GJHS showed significantly larger isokinetic fatigue at 180°/s (0.321 J/repetition; p = .010), and tendencies to lower levels of muscle activity in infraspinatus (20%, p = .066) and pectoralis major (34%, p = .092) at 60°/s during medial rotation. Young competitive swimmers...... with GJHS, despite no formal diagnosis, displayed strength and fatigue deficits in medial rotation, potentially inherent with greater risk of shoulder injury. Whether GJHS swimmers benefit from medial rotation strengthening is an important topic for future studies....

  17. Case reports: a Stener-like lesion of the medial collateral ligament of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corten, Kristoff; Hoser, Christian; Fink, Christian; Bellemans, Johan

    2010-01-01

    When the superficial fibers of the medial collateral ligament of the knee are torn without tearing of the deep fibers, the anterior superficial fibers may displace over the pes anserinus tendons, so that healing back to the tibial insertion site may be jeopardized. As only the anterior superficial and not the posterior superficial or deep fibers are disrupted, the knee will not have increased valgus laxity in extension whereas there is not a firm end point in 30 degrees flexion. The clinical findings could be confused with those of a Grade 2 medial collateral ligament sprain that generally is not associated with displacement of the anterior fibers over the pes anserinus tendons. We describe the diagnostic findings confirmed with surgical exploration of two Stener-like disruptions of the medial collateral ligament of the knee.

  18. Early mobilization of rabbit medial collateral ligament repairs: biomechanic and histologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, W M; Barmada, R

    1984-05-01

    The postoperative management of repaired medial collateral ligaments is controversial. There are proponents for either early mobilization or immobilization. To contribute to an understanding of the issues, 24 adult Dutch rabbits were divided into four groups and a comparative study was made of their incised medial collateral ligaments, contrasting early immobilization with mobilization at three and six weeks. The ligaments were studied histologically and biomechanically. At three weeks, the immobilized ligaments were twice as strong as mobilized ligaments. Histologically, the immobilized ligaments demonstrated more fibroblastic reaction while the mobilized ligaments showed more mature tissue development at the repair site. There were no statistically significant differences between knees mobilized for six weeks and knees immobilized for three weeks and then subsequently mobilized for three weeks. In view of these results, the authors conclude that the deleterious effects of immobilization should be considered when planning postoperative or postinjury treatment of torn medial collateral ligaments.

  19. Medial malleolar insufficiency fracture of the ankle in an elderly patient with osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gang Deuk; Chae, Soo Uk; Cha, Myoung Soo

    2013-11-01

    Insufficiency fracture is a type of stress fracture, which is the result of normal stresses on abnormal bone. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is the most common cause of insufficiency fractures. An early diagnosis is best made with a bone scan or magnetic resonance imaging, as radiographs may initially appear normal. Insufficiency fractures of the lower leg and ankle are less common. Furthermore, reports of medial malleolar insufficiency fracture without any history of trauma in elderly patients are extremely rare. Thus, we report a case with a medial malleolar insufficiency fracture of the ankle in an elderly patient with osteoporosis. This case shows that we should be aware of the possibility of encountering an uncommon medial malleolar insufficiency fracture as a cause of pain in the ankle region of an elderly patient with osteoporosis.

  20. Supermicrosurgical reconstruction of knee defect using superior medial genicular perforator as a recipient vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoon Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old male presented after being involved in a motorcycle accident and was found to have soft tissue defects of the knee with exposure of patella. Due to the severe injury from the popliteal fossa to the posterior aspects of the lower leg, repair with a free flap from anterolateral thigh perforator was planned instead of local calf muscle flap. Preoperative angiography was performed, and it showed that superior medial genicular perforator was patent compared with unreliable filling of the superior lateral genicular perforator. The soft tissue defect was repaired using the superior medial genicular perforator as the recipient vessel. This was performed by creating perforator to perforator anastomosis (supermicrosurgery. The flap survived successfully, and the patient was able to ambulate in a few weeks without serious complications. This case indicates that superior medial genicular perforator can be used as the recipient vessel for covering the soft tissue defects of the knee caused by blunt injury.

  1. Psychosocial Factors Related to Lateral and Medial Epicondylitis: Results from Pooled Study Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiese, Matthew S.; Hegmann, Kurt T.; Kapellusch, Jay; Merryweather, Andrew; Bao, Stephen; Silverstein, Barbara; Tang, Ruoliang; Garg, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal is to assess the relationships between psychosocial factors and both medial and lateral epicondylitis after adjustment for personal and job physical exposures. Methods 1824 participants were included in pooled analyses. 10 psychosocial factors were assessed. Results 121 (6.6%) and 34 (1.9%) participants have lateral and medial epicondylitis respectively. Nine psychosocial factors assessed had significant trends or associations with lateral epicondylitis, the largest of which was between physical exhaustion after work and lateral epicondylitis with and odds ratio of 7.04 (95% CI=2.02-24.51). Eight psychosocial factors had significant trends or relationships with medial epicondylitis, with the largest being between mental exhaustion after work with an odds ratio of 6.51 (95% CI=1.57-27.04). Conclusion The breadth and strength of these associations after adjustment for confounding factors demonstrate meaningful relationships that need to be further investigated in prospective analyses. PMID:27206118

  2. The use of MRI in the investigation of lateral meniscal tear post medial unicompartmental knee replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanil H. Ajwani, MBChB, BSc (Hons, MRCS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of lateral knee pain in patients with a medial unicompartmental knee replacement (UKR is complex. The native lateral compartment structures are prone to the same injuries as patients with normal knees. Historical reports of lateral meniscal injury post medial UKR have argued MRI evaluation is obsolete due to artefact caused by the prosthesis. We report a case of lateral meniscal injury in a patient two years after successful medial UKR. We identified the offending pathology via utilization of MRI scanners adopting metal artefact reduction sequences (MARS. The MARS MRI protocol helps clinicians accurately and non-invasively evaluate soft tissue structures in knees with metal prostheses. It also allows surgeons to accurately counsel patients and provides a higher degree of certainty in treating the pathology.

  3. Panmedullary edema with inferior olivary hypertrophy in bilateral medial medullary infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yasuteru; Miyashita, Fumio; Koga, Masatoshi; Yamada, Naoaki; Toyoda, Kazunori; Minematsu, Kazuo

    2014-03-01

    Bilateral medial medullary infarction (MMI) is a rare type of stroke with poor outcomes. Inferior olivary nucleus hypertrophy results from a pathologic lesion in the Guillain-Mollaret triangle. The relationship between inferior olivary nucleus hypertrophy and the medullary lesion is obscure. To the best of our knowledge, only 1 autopsy case with unilateral medial medullary infarction that was associated with ipsilateral inferior olivary nucleus hypertrophy has been reported. We describe a rare case with acute infarction in the bilateral medial medulla oblongata accompanied by subacute bilateral inferior olivary nucleus hypertrophy and panmedullary edema. The hypertrophy appeared to have been caused by local ischemic damage to the termination of the central tegmental tract at the bilateral inferior olivary nucleus. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fornix and medial temporal lobe lesions lead to comparable deficits in complex visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Robert K; Koch, Benno; Schwarz, Michael; Suchan, Boris

    2016-05-04

    Recent research dealing with the structures of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) has shifted away from exclusively investigating memory-related processes and has repeatedly incorporated the investigation of complex visual perception. Several studies have demonstrated that higher level visual tasks can recruit structures like the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex in order to successfully perform complex visual discriminations, leading to a perceptual-mnemonic or representational view of the medial temporal lobe. The current study employed a complex visual discrimination paradigm in two patients suffering from brain lesions with differing locations and origin. Both patients, one with extensive medial temporal lobe lesions (VG) and one with a small lesion of the anterior fornix (HJK), were impaired in complex discriminations while showing otherwise mostly intact cognitive functions. The current data confirmed previous results while also extending the perceptual-mnemonic theory of the MTL to the main output structure of the hippocampus, the fornix. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bilateral superior rectus transposition and medial rectus recession for bilateral sixth nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shuan; Bhambhwani, Vishaal; Raoof, Naz

    2018-03-01

    To present the results of bilateral superior rectus transposition with medial rectus recession in a case of chronic bilateral sixth nerve palsy. Bilateral superior rectus transposition with medial rectus recession resulted in full correction of esotropia with resolution of horizontal diplopia, improvement in abduction, and regain of stereoacuity in our case. There was minimal limitation of adduction, with no abnormal vertical or torsional changes. Bilateral superior rectus transposition with medial rectus recession appears to be a useful procedure for surgical treatment of bilateral sixth nerve palsy with minimal side effects. Given its potential for reduced risk of anterior segment ischemia (ASI), it may have especially good value in the select group of patients at risk for ASI. Studies with larger sample size and longer follow up are needed to further evaluate this procedure and elucidate the variables in surgical technique for superior rectus transposition.

  6. Anchor proximal migration in the medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction in skeletally immature patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Kupczik

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL injury has been considered instrumental in lateral patellar instability after patellar dislocation. Consequently, the focus on the study of this ligament reconstruction has increased in recent years. The MPFL femoral anatomical origin point has great importance at the moment of reconstruction surgery, because a graft fixation in a non anatomical position may result in medial overload, medial subluxation of the patella or excessive tensioning of the graft with subsequent failure. In the pediatric population, the location of this point is highlighted by the presence of femoral physis. The literature is still controversial regarding the best placement of the graft. We describe two cases of skeletally immature patients in whom LPFM reconstruction was performed. The femoral fixation was through anchors that were placed above the physis. With the growth and development of the patients, the femoral origin point of the graft moved proximally, resulting in failure in these two cases.

  7. The relationship between patellofemoral and tibiofemoral morphology and gait biomechanics following arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dempsey, Alasdair R.; Wang, Yuanyuan; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch

    2013-01-01

    osteoarthritis at arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy, underwent gait analysis and MRI on the operated knee once for each sub-cohort of 3 months, 2 years, or 4 years post-surgery. Cartilage volume, cartilage defects, and bone size were assessed from the MRI using validated methods. The 1st peak in the knee......Purpose To examine the relationship between tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joint articular cartilage and subchondral bone in the medial and gait biomechanics following partial medial meniscectomy. Methods For this cross-sectional study, 122 patients aged 30–55 years, without evidence of knee...... adduction moment, knee adduction moment impulse, 1st peak in the knee flexion moment, knee extension range of motion, and the heel strike transient from the vertical ground reaction force trace were identified from the gait data. Results Increased knee stance phase range of motion was associated...

  8. Avaliação artroscópica e macroscópica da faceta medial do semilunar Arthroscopic and macroscopic evaluation of the lunate medial facet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard de Novaes França Bisneto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a correlação entre a presença de uma faceta medial do semilunar e a incidência de lesões ligamentares e artrose do pólo proximal do hamato. MÉTODOS: Avaliação artroscópica e dissecação dos punhos foram efetuados em cadáveres. RESULTADOS: Houve uma correlação clara, estatisticamente significativa entre artrose do pólo proximal do hamato e a presença da faceta medial do semilunar. CONCLUSÃO: Artrose do pólo proximal do hamato está correlacionada com a presença do tipo II semilunar. Nível de Evidência III, Estudo de pacientes nãoconsecutivos; sem padrão de referência "ouro" aplicado uniformementeOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation between the presence of a lunate medial facet and the incidence of ligament lesions of the wrist and arthrosis of the proximal pole of the hamate. This study was carried out on cadavers. METHODS: Arthroscopic evaluation and dissection were performed on cadaver wrists. RESULTS: There was a clear, statistically significant correlation between arthrosis of the proximal pole of the hamate and the presence of a medial facet on the lunate. CONCLUSION: Arthrosis of the proximal pole of the hamate is correlated with the presence of a type II lunate. Level of Evidence III, Study of nonconsecutive patients; without consistently applied reference ''gold'' standard.

  9. A giraffe neck sign of the medial meniscus: A characteristic finding of the medial meniscus posterior root tear on magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furumatsu, Takayuki; Fujii, Masataka; Kodama, Yuya; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2017-07-01

    The posterior root ligament of the medial meniscus (MM) has a critical role in regulating the MM movement. An accurate diagnosis of the MM posterior root tear (MMPRT) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is important for preventing sequential osteoarthritis following the MMPRT. However, diagnosis of the MMPRT is relatively difficult even after using several characteristic MRI findings. The aim of this study was to identify a useful meniscal body sign of the MMPRT for improving diagnostic MRI reading. Eighty-five patients who underwent surgical treatments for the MMPRT (39 knees) and other types of MM tears (49 knees) were included. The presence of characteristic MRI findings such as cleft sign, ghost sign, radial tear sign, medial extrusion sign, and new meniscal body shape-oriented "giraffe neck sign" was evaluated in 120 MRI examinations. Giraffe neck signs were observed in 81.7% of the MMPRTs and in 3.3% of other MM tears. Cleft, ghost, and radial tear signs were highly positive in the MMPRTs compared with other MM tears. Medial extrusion signs were frequently observed in both groups. Coexistence rates of any 2 MRI signs, except for medial extrusion sign, were 91.7% in the MMPRT group and 5% in other MM tears. This study demonstrated that a new characteristic MRI finding "giraffe neck sign" was observed in 81.7% of the MMPRT. Our results suggest that the combination of giraffe neck, cleft, ghost, and radial tear signs may be important for an accurate diagnostic MRI reading of the MMPRT. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Diagnosis and Follow-up US Evaluation of Ruptures of the Medial Head of the Gastrocnemius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Hyo-Sung; Han, Young-Min; Lee, Sang-Yong; Kim, Ki-Nam; Chung, Gyung Ho

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the ultrasonographic (US) findings of rupture and the healing process of the medial head of the gastrocnemius ('Tennis Leg'). Twenty-two patients (age range: 30 to 45 years) with clinically suspected ruptures of the medial head of the gastrocnemius were referred to us for US examination. All the patients underwent US of the affected limb and the contralateral asymptomatic limb. Follow-up clinical evaluation and US imaging of all patients were performed at two-week intervals during the month after injury and at one-month intervals during the following six months. Of the 22 patients who had an initial US examination after their injury, partial rupture of the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle was identified in seven patients (31.8%); the remaining 15 patients were diagnosed with complete rupture. Fluid collection between the medial head of the gastrocnemius and the soleus muscle was identified in 20 patients (90.9%). The thickness of the fluid collection, including the hematoma in the patients with complete rupture (mean: 9.7 mm), was significantly greater than that seen in the patients with partial tear (mean: 6.8 mm) (p < 0.01). The primary union of the medial head of the gastrocnemius with the soleus muscle in all the patients with muscle rupture and fluid collection was recognized via the hypoechoic tissue after four weeks. Ultrasonography is a useful imaging modality for the diagnosis and follow-up examination for the patients suffering with rupture of the medial head of the gastrocnemius

  11. Representation of Behavioral Tactics and Tactics-Action Transformation in the Primate Medial Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaka, Yoshiya; Tanji, Jun; Mushiake, Hajime

    2016-06-01

    To expedite the selection of action under a structured behavioral context, we develop an expedient to promote its efficiency: tactics for action selection. Setting up a behavioral condition for subhuman primates (Macaca fuscata) that induced the development of a behavioral tactics, we explored neuronal representation of tactics in the medial frontal cortex. Here we show that neurons in the posterior medial prefrontal cortex, but not much in the medial premotor cortex, exhibit activity representing the behavioral tactics, in advance of action-selective activity. Such activity appeared during behavioral epochs of its retrieval from instruction cues, maintenance in short-term memory, and its implementation for the achievement of action selection. At a population level, posterior medial prefrontal cortex neurons take part in transforming the tactics information into the information representing action selection. The tactics representation revealed an aspect of neural mechanisms for an adaptive behavioral control, taking place in the medial prefrontal cortex. We studied behavioral significance of neuronal activity in the posterior medial prefrontal cortex (pmPFC) and found the representation of behavioral tactics defined as specific and efficient ways to achieve objectives of actions. Neuronal activity appeared during behavioral epochs of its retrieval from instruction cues, maintenance in short-term memory, and its use preceding the achievement of action selection. We found further that pmPFC neurons take part in transforming the tactics information into the information representing action selection. A majority of individual neurons was recruited during a limited period in each behavioral epoch, constituting, as a whole, a temporal cascade of activity. Such dynamics found in behavioral-tactics specific activity characterize the participation of pmPFC neurons in executive control of purposeful behavior. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/365974-14$15.00/0.

  12. Differential efferent projections of the anterior, posteroventral and posterodorsal subdivisions of the medial amygdala in mice

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    Cecília ePardo-Bellver

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The medial amygdaloid nucleus (Me is a key structure in the control of sociosexual behaviour in mice. It receives direct projections from the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, as well as an important hormonal input. To better understand its behavioural role, in this work we investigate the structures receiving information from the Me, by analysing the efferent projections from its anterior (MeA, posterodorsal (MePD and posteroventral (MePV subdivisions, using anterograde neuronal tracing with biotinylated and tetrametylrhodamine-conjugated dextranamines.The Me is strongly interconnected with the rest of the chemosensory amygdala, but shows only moderate projections to the central nucleus and light projections to the associative nuclei of the basolateral amygdaloid complex. In addition, the MeA originates a strong feedback projection to the deep mitral cell layer of the accessory olfactory bulb, whereas the MePV projects to its granule cell layer. The medial amygdaloid nucleus (especially the MeA has also moderate projections to different olfactory structures, including the piriform cortex. The densest outputs of the Me target the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST and the hypothalamus. The MeA and MePV project to key structures of the circuit involved in the defensive response against predators (medial posterointermediate BST, anterior hypothalamic area, dorsomedial aspect of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, although less dense projections also innervate reproductive-related nuclei. In contrast, the MePD projects mainly to structures that control reproductive behaviours (medial posteromedial BST, medial preoptic nucleus, and ventrolateral aspect of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, although less dense projections to defensive-related nuclei also exist. These results confirm and extend previous results in other rodents and suggest that the medial amygdala is anatomically and functionally compartmentalized.

  13. Diagnosis and Follow-up US Evaluation of Ruptures of the Medial Head of the Gastrocnemius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Hyo-Sung; Han, Young-Min; Lee, Sang-Yong; Kim, Ki-Nam; Chung, Gyung Ho [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the ultrasonographic (US) findings of rupture and the healing process of the medial head of the gastrocnemius ('Tennis Leg'). Twenty-two patients (age range: 30 to 45 years) with clinically suspected ruptures of the medial head of the gastrocnemius were referred to us for US examination. All the patients underwent US of the affected limb and the contralateral asymptomatic limb. Follow-up clinical evaluation and US imaging of all patients were performed at two-week intervals during the month after injury and at one-month intervals during the following six months. Of the 22 patients who had an initial US examination after their injury, partial rupture of the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle was identified in seven patients (31.8%); the remaining 15 patients were diagnosed with complete rupture. Fluid collection between the medial head of the gastrocnemius and the soleus muscle was identified in 20 patients (90.9%). The thickness of the fluid collection, including the hematoma in the patients with complete rupture (mean: 9.7 mm), was significantly greater than that seen in the patients with partial tear (mean: 6.8 mm) (p < 0.01). The primary union of the medial head of the gastrocnemius with the soleus muscle in all the patients with muscle rupture and fluid collection was recognized via the hypoechoic tissue after four weeks. Ultrasonography is a useful imaging modality for the diagnosis and follow-up examination for the patients suffering with rupture of the medial head of the gastrocnemius.

  14. Impact of medialization laryngoplasty on dynamic nanomechanical vocal fold structure properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Gregory R; Benedict, Peter A; Coelho, Paulo G; Amin, Milan R; Branski, Ryan C

    2017-10-09

    Although the primary goal of medialization laryngoplasty is to improve glottic closure, implant placement is also likely to alter the biomechanical properties of the vocal fold (VF). We sought to employ novel, nanoscale technology to quantify these properties following medialization based on the hypothesis that different medialization materials will likely yield differential biomechanical effects. Ex vivo. Nine pig larynges were divided into three groups: control, Silastic (Dow Corning, Midland, Michigan, U.S.A.) block medialization, or Gore-Tex (W.L. Gore & Associates, Newark, Delaware) medialization. Laryngoplasty was performed on excised, intact larynges. The larynges were then bisected in the sagittal plane and each subjected to dynamic nanomechanical analysis (nano-DMA) at nine locations using a 250-μm flat-tip punch and frequency sweep-load profile across the free edge of the VF and inferiorly along the conus elasticus. Silastic block and Gore-Tex implant introduced increased storage and loss moduli. Overall, storage moduli mean (maximum) increased from 38 kilopascals (kPa) (119) to 72 kPa (422) and 129 kPa (978) in control, Gore-Tex, and Silastic implants, respectively. Similarly, loss moduli increased from 13 kPa (43) to 22 kPa (201) and 31 kPa (165), respectively. Moduli values varied widely by location in the Silastic block and Gore-Tex groups. At the free VF edge, mean (maximum) storage moduli were lowest in the Gore-Tex group, 20 kPa (44); compared to control, 34.5 kPa (86); and Silastic, 157.9 kPa (978), with similar loss and complex moduli trends. Medialization laryngoplasty altered VF structure biomechanical properties; Silastic and Gore-Tex implants differentially impact these properties. NA. Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Safety and esthetic outcomes of therapeutic mammoplasty using medial pedicle for early breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshdy, Sameh; Hussein, Osama; Khater, Ashraf; Zuhdy, Mohammad; El-Hadaad, Hend A; Farouk, Omar; Senbel, Ahmad; Fathi, Adel; Hamed, Emadeldeen; Denewer, Adel

    2015-01-01

    Background Although therapeutic mammoplasty (TM) was introduced for treatment of localized ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive breast carcinoma (stages I and II) in females with large breast size, the suitability of medial pedicle TM for treatment of breast tumors at different locations has not been established. The objective of this study was to assess the safety and esthetic outcome of medial pedicle TM for breast tumors at different locations. Methods The study was conducted from February 2012 to July 2014. Consecutive patients with early breast carcinoma with medium- and large-sized breasts, with or without ptosis, who were offered medial pedicle TM were included in the study. Patients who were not candidates for breast-conserving surgery or those with tumors located along the medial pedicle were excluded. All patients received immediate postoperative adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Results Thirty patients with a mean age of 48.5 years received medial pedicle TM in the breast harboring the tumor or, additionally, the other breast (N=14). The tumors were in the upper (60.0%), lower (26.7%), and lateral (13.3%) quadrants. Minor complications occurred in five cases (5/30, 16.7%) in the ipsilateral and in two (2/14, 14.3%) contralateral breasts. No wound dehiscence or areolar necrosis was recorded. A total of 22 (73.3%) patients were scored as excellent cosmesis. After a median follow-up of 20 months, no locoregional recurrence or distant metastases were observed. Conclusion TM using a medial pedicle is a safe and appealing technique among women with tumors at different locations. PMID:26185469

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging evidence of meniscal extrusion in medial meniscus posterior root tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chul-Jun; Choi, Yun-Jin; Lee, Jae-Jeong; Choi, Chong-Hyuk

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relation between meniscal extrusion on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and tearing of the posterior root of the medial meniscus, as well as to understand the relation between meniscal extrusion and chondral lesions. From January 2007 to December 2008, 387 consecutive cases of medial meniscal tears were treated arthroscopically. Of these cases, 248 (64.1%) with MRI were reviewed. Arthroscopic findings were reviewed for the type of tear and medial compartment cartilage lesion. Root tear was defined as a radial tear in the posterior horn of the medial meniscus near the tibial spine (i.e., within 5 mm of the root attachment). An MRI scan of the knee was used to evaluate the presence and extent of meniscal extrusion. Meniscal extrusion of 3 mm or greater was considered pathologic. Arthroscopic findings were compared with respect to the extent of meniscal extrusion. There were 98 male patients and 150 female patients. The mean age was 53.5 years (range, 15 to 81 years). The results showed 127 cases (51.2%) in which the medial meniscus had meniscal extrusion of 3 mm or greater. Posterior root tears were found in 66 (26.6%) of the 248 knees. The mean meniscal extrusion in patients with root tear was 3.8 ± 1.4 mm, whereas the mean extrusion of those who had no root tear was 2.7 ± 1.3 mm. We found an association between pathologic meniscal extrusion and root tear (P Meniscal extrusion showed a low positive predictive value (39%) and specificity (58%) with regard to the meniscal root tear. Meniscal extrusion was also significantly correlated with severity of chondral lesions (P lesion of the medial femoral condyle. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2010 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Anatomic study on perforating branch flap of medial vastus muscle and its clinical application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yongqiang; Liang, Xiaoqin; Wang, Jianli; Wang, Chenqi; Guo, Deliang; Wang, Changde; Cui, Lei

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the anatomic features of the perforating branch flap of the medial vastus muscle, so as to provide a new perforating branch flap for repairing the soft tissue defect. Six fresh donated lower limb specimens underwent an intra-arterial injection of a lead oxide and lactoprene preparation. The integument of the thigh was dissected to observe the origin, course, size, and location of the perforating branch of the medial vastus muscle by angiography and photography. Based on the anatomic study, the free perforating branch flaps of the medial vastus muscle (14 cm x 6 cm to 20 cm x 5 cm) were used to repair skin and soft tissue defects (8 cm x 6 cm to 12 cm x 8 cm) of the feet in 4 patients between June 2009 and August 2011. The artery of the medial vastus was sent out constantly from the femoral artery, and then descended in the vastus muscle to lateral patella where it anastomosed with the terminal branches of lateral femoral circumflex artery to form prepatellar vascular network. The artery of the medial vastus sent out 3-5 musculocutaneous perforating branches into the deep fascia and then extended superficially to the overlying skin. Four flaps survived after surgery; wounds at the donor site and recipient site healed by first intention. After follow-up of 6-12 months, the flaps had good appearance and texture. All ankles had normal movement range of plantarflexion and dorsiflexion. The free perforating branch flaps of the medial vastus muscle can be harvested easily, and have the advantage of good texture and abundant donor site.

  18. Comparison of medial and posterior surgical approaches in pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, E; Zehir, S; Sipahioglu, S

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to compare the clinical results of pediatric supracondylar humerus fracture cases requiring open reduction through medial approach with posterior approach. Retrospective cohort of 67 cases of pediatric supracondylar fractures was reviewed. Thirty-three patients (20 males, 13 female, average age: 8.3 ± 3.131) were treated with medial approach were compared with 34 patients (19 males, 15 females, average age: 7.5 ± 3.146) treated with posterior exposure. Median follow-up period of the first group was 35.04 months (range: 17-76 months) and of the second group was 36.04 (range: 16-65 months). Radiological evaluation included Baumann angle, carrying angles, and lateral humero-capitellar angles. Functional and cosmetic evaluation was assessed with range-of-motion measurements and the criteria defined by Flynn et al. No differences between groups were noted regarding gender, age, and follow-up periods. Operative time was significantly shorter in medial approach group [60.0 ± 14.5 vs. 75.8 ± 17.6 min (P = 0.002)]. Radiological measurements (Baumann, humero-capitellar, and carrying angles) were also similar between groups. When evaluated patients according to Flynn's criteria, for medial group, 31 cases (93.9%) had good-perfect result regarding ROM loss, whereas for posterior group 33 cases (97%) had good-perfect result. Regarding carrying angle change and posterior group were slightly better than medial group (perfect result observed in 91.1% vs 81.8%, respectively). The differences did not show statistical significance. In the treatment of supracondylar humerus fractures in children, both surgical approaches revealed similar functional and radiological outcomes with shorter operative time when medial approach was utilized.

  19. Localization of the medial branches of the cervical dorsal rami during cervical laminoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seichi, Atsushi; Kimura, Atsushi; Higashi, Takahiro; Endo, Teruaki; Kojima, Masahiro; Inoue, Hirokazu; Hoshino, Yuichi

    2012-12-15

    Observational anatomic study. To give precise information on the surgical anatomy of the medial branches of the cervical dorsal rami. The anatomy of the medial branches has not been sufficiently described. We recorded the location of the medial branches in 94 consecutive patients who underwent laminoplasty for cervical compression myelopathy. A posterior cervical approach was made along the edge of the nuchal ligament, and, after carefully detaching the trapezius muscle from the nuchal ligament; we identified the right-side branches around the semispinalis capitis muscle. We recorded the location of the branches with reference to the spinous processes and the semispinalis capitis and trapezius muscles. In 52 patients, we electrically stimulated the branches and observed the contraction of these muscles. Branches were identified between C3 and C6 spinous process levels in 92 patients. A single branch was identified in 56 patients, 2 branches were identified in 35 patients, and 3 branches were identified in the remaining 1 patient. Branches were located between C3 and C4 (n = 12), between C4 and C5 (n = 80), between C5 and C6 (n = 2), and at C6 (n = 35). There were 4 patterns of final course: 52 branches passed through the medial side of the semispinalis capitis and trapezius muscles and terminated in a subcutaneous area; 50 branches penetrated the semispinalis capitis and trapezius muscles and terminated in a subcutaneous area; 12 branches terminated in the semispinalis capitis muscle; and 15 branches penetrated the semispinalis capitis and terminated at the nuchal ligament. In 19 of 52 patients tested, the semispinalis capitis muscle contracted after electrical stimulation. Medial branches of the cervical dorsal rami were discernible in cervical posterior approach laminoplasty and were frequently found adjacent to C4 and C5 spinous processes. The medial branches sometimes supplied motor fibers to the semispinalis capitis muscle. Knowledge of the course of these

  20. Sensitivity of medial and lateral knee contact force predictions to frontal plane alignment and contact locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, Christopher M; Brandon, Scott C E; Deluzio, Kevin J

    2017-05-24

    Musculoskeletal models are increasingly used to estimate medial and lateral knee contact forces, which are difficult to measure in vivo. The sensitivity of contact force predictions to modeling parameters is important to the interpretation and implication of results generated by the model. The purpose of this study was to quantify the sensitivity of knee contact force predictions to simultaneous errors in frontal plane knee alignment and contact locations under different dynamic conditions. We scaled a generic musculoskeletal model for N=23 subjects' stature and radiographic knee alignment, then perturbed frontal plane alignment and mediolateral contact locations within experimentally-possible ranges of 10° to -10° and 10 to -10mm, respectively. The sensitivity of first peak, second peak, and mean medial and lateral knee contact forces to knee adduction angle and contact locations was modeled using linear regression. Medial loads increased, and lateral loads decreased, by between 3% and 6% bodyweight for each degree of varus perturbation. Shifting the medial contact point medially increased medial loads and decreased lateral loads by between 1% and 4% bodyweight per millimeter. This study demonstrates that realistic measurement errors of 5mm (contact distance) or 5° (frontal plane alignment) could result in a combined 50% BW error in subject specific contact force estimates. We also show that model sensitivity varies between subjects as a result of differences in gait dynamics. These results demonstrate that predicted knee joint contact forces should be considered as a range of possible values determined by model uncertainty. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Design Of Single-Axis And Dual-Axis Solar Tracking Systems Protected Against High Wind Speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Salaheldin Elsherbiny

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is rapidly gaining ground as an important mean of expanding renewable energy use. Solar tracking is employed in order to maximize collected solar radiation by a photovoltaic panel. In this paper we present a prototype for Automatic solar tracker that is designed using Arduino UNO with Wind sensor to Cease Wind effect on panels if wind speed exceeds certain threshold. The Proposed solar tracker tracks the location of the sun anywhere in any time by calculating the position of the sun. For producing the maximum amount of solar energy a solar panel must always be perpendicular to the source of light. Because the sun motion plane varies daily and during the day it moves from east to west one needs two axis tracking to follow the suns position. Maximum possible power is collected when two axis tracking is done. However two axis tracking is relatively costly and complex. A compromise between maximum power collection and system simplicity is obtained by single axis tracking where the plane North south axis is fixed while the east west motion is accomplished. This work deals with the design of both single and two axis tracking systems. Automatic trackers is also compared to Fixed one in terms of Energy generated Efficiency Cost and System reliability.

  2. Mechanism of the Rapid Effect of 17β -Estradiol on Medial Amygdala Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabekura, Junichi; Oomura, Yutaka; Minami, Taketsugu; Mizuno, Yuji; Fukuda, Atsuo

    1986-07-01

    The mechanism by which sex steroids rapidly modulate the excitability of neurons was investigated by intracellular recording of neurons in rat medial amygdala brain slices. Brief hyperpolarization and increased potassium conductance were produced by 17β - estradiol. This effect persisted after elimination of synaptic input and after suppression of protein synthesis. Thus, 17β -estradiol directly changes the ionic conductance of the postsynaptic membrane of medial amygdala neurons. In addition, a greater proportion of the neurons from females than from males responded to 17β -estradiol.

  3. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension and medial temporal lobe atrophy: the LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korf, E S C; van Straaten, E C W; de Leeuw, F-E

    2007-01-01

    was visually scored for the left and right medial temporal lobe (score 0-4), and meaned. RESULTS: Mean age was 73.5 years (sd 5.1), 54% was female. Of the subjects, 15% had DM, and 70% had a history of hypertension. The likelihood of having MTA score 3 was significantly higher in subjects with DM (OR 2.9; 95......HYPOTHESIS: Based on recent findings on the association between vascular risk factors and hippocampal atrophy, we hypothesized that hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM) are associated with medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) in subjects without disability, independent of the severity of white...

  4. Ankle inversion taping using kinesiology tape for treating medial ankle sprain in an amateur soccer player

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sun-Min; Lee, Jung-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to report the effects of ankle inversion taping using kinesiology tape in a patient with a medial ankle sprain. [Subject] A 28-year-old amateur soccer player suffered a Grade 2 medial ankle sprain during a match. [Methods] Ankle inversion taping was applied to the sprained ankle every day for 2 months. [Results] His symptoms were reduced after ankle inversion taping application for 2 months. The self-reported function score, the reach distances in the S...

  5. Subcutaneous rupture of the Achilles tendon and ipsilateral fracture of the medial malleolus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richards Paula J

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although ankle fractures and an Achilles tendon rupture are relatively frequent in isolation, their association in the same injury is uncommon. Case presentation A 38 year old male tree surgeon fell six meters from a tree, sustaining a subcutaneous rupture of the Achilles tendon and an ipsilateral closed fracture of the medial malleolus. The injuries were diagnosed following clinical examination and imaging. Conclusion This injury combination is infrequent, and management of the Achilles tendon rupture should take into account the necessity not to secondarily displace the fracture of the medial malleollus.

  6. Biomechanical Effects of a Horizontal Medial Meniscal Tear and Subsequent Leaflet Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Matthew J; Farrell, James P; Kluczynski, Melissa A; Marzo, John M

    2016-04-01

    Horizontal, degenerative tears of the medial meniscus and subsequent meniscectomy can compromise the biomechanical function of the meniscus in load transmission and weightbearing, leading to the development of radiographic and symptomatic tibiofemoral arthritis. Resection of both leaflets of a horizontal medial meniscal tear will increase peak contact pressures and decrease contact areas in comparison with resection of only the inferior leaflet. Controlled laboratory study. Twelve fresh-frozen human cadaveric knees had tibiofemoral peak contact pressures and contact areas under an 1800-N axial load measured by Tekscan in the control state. A horizontal tear was created in the posterior horn of the medial meniscus, and the knees were retested. The knees were tested a third time after resection of the inferior leaflet (single leaflet) and a final time after resection of the superior leaflet (both leaflets). The Friedman test was used to test for group differences in peak pressure (psi) and contact area (mm(2)) between test conditions (native, tear, inferior leaflet resection, and resection of both leaflets). For the medial compartment, there was a statistically significant difference in peak pressure (P = .03) but not in contact area (P = .70) between testing conditions. Median peak pressure in the medial compartment was significantly greater for resection of both leaflets compared with the tear (406.5 vs 294.7 psi, respectively; P = .002). Median contact area in the medial compartment was greatest for resection of both leaflets (602.7 mm(2)), but there were no statistically significant differences between test conditions (P = .70). For the lateral compartment, there were no statistically significant differences in peak pressure (P = .99) or contact area (P = .77) between test conditions. Resection of a single inferior leaflet after a horizontal medial meniscal tear preserves much of the original biomechanical function of the meniscus. Resection of both leaflets

  7. Angle at the Medial Border: The Spinovertebra Angle and Its Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Oladipo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The evolution from quadrupedalism to bipedalism has adjusted the balance of the upper limb to extensive movement at the shoulder. The scapular angles provide the point of attachment and control to various muscles and have been associated with the different movements of the shoulder girdle and joint. This has made the morphometric and anthropometric study of scapula a subject of extensive investigation. Aim. In the present study, the angle at the medial border was measured in the South-Southern Nigerian population and an anatomical name was ascribed to the angle. Method. The study was conducted on 173 scapulae (75 right and 98 left obtained from various Anatomy Department of South-Sothern Nigerian Universities. The angle at medial border was obtained by pinning the edge of the superior and inferior angles, the lined traced out, and the angle measured using a protractor. SPSS version 20 was used to analyse the data. t-test was used to determine mean angular difference in the sides. Result. The mean ± SD of the medial angle was observed to be 136.88 ± 7.70° (R = 138.13 ± 7.06° : L = 135.92 ± 8.05°. Statistical analysis using the Z-test for mean difference showed the medial angle was found to be higher in the right side of the scapula (mean difference of 2.214 ± 1.152°, but the observed difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05. The above findings have adjusted the scapula from three to four angles (lateral, superior, inferior, and medial formed from four borders (lateral, superior, inferior, and superomedial and inferomedial. The medial angle because of its anatomical location was named “spinovertebral” angle, owing to its position at the scapulae spine, and located in medial proximity to the vertebra column. Conclusion. The medial angle (now referred to as the spinovertebral angle of the right side of the scapula is wider than the left. The representation of the spinovertebral angle is very important, as

  8. Medial Condyle Fracture (Kilfoyle Type III of the Distal Humerus with Transient Fishtail Deformity after Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoki Sonohata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A “Fishtail deformity” is one of the well-known complications following pediatric lateral condyle or supracondylar fractures of the humerus. We herein report a case of medial condyle fracture (Kilfoyle type III in an 11-year-old boy. He had a transient “fishtail deformity” of the trochlear groove after open reduction and internal fixation. As occurred in the current case, the bone remodeling and the improvement of ischemia of the trochlea after medial condyle fracture may be associated with the likelihood of recovery from transient “fishtail deformity.”

  9. Microsurgical medial plantar flap banking: a method of choice for digital tip injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagase, T; Ohmori, K

    1998-11-01

    A tip injury of the left thumb was repaired via microsurgical medial plantar flap banking. The medial plantar flap was transferred temporarily to the lower abdominal wall and was anastomosed microsurgically to the deep inferior epigastric artery and vein as a banked flap. It was later grafted to the thumb in a manner similar to a pedicled flap. The flap was transferred successfully, and the tissue texture and bulk was sufficient, with considerable sensory recovery and minimal donor site deformity. This method may be worthwhile to consider as one of the options of digital tip reconstruction, and the concept of microsurgical flap banking may be promising in the field of reconstructive microsurgery.

  10. Radiosurgery for Medial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Resulting from Mesial Temporal Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianaris, Thomas; Witt, Thomas; Barbaro, Nicholas M

    2016-01-01

    Medial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) is perhaps the most well-defined epilepsy syndrome that is responsive to structural interventions such as surgery. Several minimally invasive techniques have arisen that provide additional options for the treatment of MTS while potentially avoiding many of open surgery's associated risks. By evading these risks, they also open up treatment options to patients who otherwise are poor surgical candidates. Radiosurgery is one of the most intensively studied of these alternatives and has found a growing role in the treatment of medial temporal lobe epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein access: Comparison between short axis and long axis techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek F Tammam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of real-time ultrasound (US is advantageous in the insertion of central venous catheters (CVCs in adults, especially in whom difficulties are anticipated for various reasons. The aim of the present study was to compare two different real-time 2-dimensional US-guided techniques [short axis view/out-of-plane approach (SAX OOP approach versus long axis view/in-plane approach (LAX IP approach] for internal jugular vein (IJV cannulation. In this prospective study, 90 critical care and hemodialysis patients were assigned for insertion of CVCs using either the real-time US-guided (SAX OOP approach or LAX IP approach or landmark technique (control group. Failed catheter placement, risk of complications from placement, failure on first attempt at placement, number of attempts until successful catheterization, time to successful catheterization, incidence of central line-associated blood stream infection (CLA-BSI and demographics of each patient were recorded. There were no significant differences in patient′s demographic characteristics, side of cannulation (right or left or presence of risk factors for difficult venous cannulation between the three groups of patients. Cannulation of the IJV was achieved in all patients by using US (SAX OOP and LAX IP approaches and in 27 of the patients (90% by using the landmark technique (P = 0.045. Average access time (skin to vein and number of attempts were comparable between the SAX OOP and the LAX IP approaches while significantly reduced in both US groups of patients compared with the landmark group (P <0.001. In the landmark group, puncture of the carotid artery occurred in 16.7% of the patients, hematoma in 23.3% of the patients, pneumothorax in 3.3% of the patients and CLA-BSI in 20% of the patients, which were all significantly increased compared with the US group (P <0.05. The findings of this study suggest that the SAX OOP and LAX IP approaches were comparable for cannulation of IJV in critical

  12. Postnatal development of the atlas and axis: CT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Sung Su; Kim, Hyung Jin; Lim, Myung Kwan; Kim, Won Hong; Jeon, Yong Sun; Kim, Jeong Ho; Kim, Sung Tae

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate normal postnatal development of the atlas and axis by means of CT scanning. We prospectively analyzed CT scans of the developing atlas and axis of 200 normal children aged less than 14, investigating the CT appearance of these regions with particular attenuation to two synchondroses related to the atlas and four synchondroses and one ossification center related to the axis. Fusion varying was categorized as either low (grade1-5) or high (grade4-5), according to the varying degrees of fusion at each synchondrosis of ossification center. Neurocentral synchondrosis of the atlas was low grade in all children less than five, and high grade in all aged nine or more, while posterior synchondrosis of the atlas was low grade in 97% of children less than three and high grade in 99% aged three or more. As for the axis, neurocentral synchondrosis was low grade in all children less than three, and high grade in 97% of children aged five or more. PS of the axis was low grade in both children less than 6 months, and high grade in all aged two years or more. Dentocentral synchondrosis of the axis was low grade in 93% of children less than three and high grade in 96% of those aged at least five. Intradental axial synchondrosis was high grade in all children. Fusion of the terminal ossicle with the remainder of the dens was low in all children less than five and high in 97% of those aged nine of more. CT can help determine the parameters of normal postnatal development of the atlas and axis. A knowledge of normal ossification patterns of these regions may help provide an understanding of developmental anomalies and also help prevent confusion with fractures

  13. Medial joint line bone bruising at MRI complicating acute ankle inversion injury: What is its clinical significance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, V.O.; Moran, D.E.; Shine, S.; Eustace, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To assess the incidence and clinical significance of medial joint line bone bruising following acute ankle inversion injury. Materials and methods: Forty-five patients who underwent ankle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) within 2 weeks of acute ankle inversion injury were included in this prospective study. Integrity of the lateral collateral ligament complex, presence of medial joint line bone bruising, tibio-talar joint effusion, and soft-tissue swelling were documented. Clinical follow-up at 6 months was carried out to determine the impact of injury on length of time out of work, delay in return to normal walking, delay in return to sports activity, and persistence of medial joint line pain. Results: Thirty-seven patients had tears of the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL). Twenty-six patients had medial joint line bone bruising with altered marrow signal at the medial aspect of the talus and congruent surface of the medial malleolus. A complete ATFL tear was seen in 92% of the patients with medial joint line bone bruising (p = 0.05). Patients with an ATFL tear and medial joint line bone bruising had a longer delay in return to normal walking (p = 0.0002), longer delay in return to sports activity (p = 0.0001), and persistent medial joint line pain (p = 0.0003). There was no statistically significant difference in outcome for the eight patients without ATFL tears. Conclusion: Medial joint line bone bruising following an acute ankle inversion injury was significantly associated with a complete ATFL tear, longer delay in the return to normal walking and sports activity, as well as persistent medial joint line pain. Its presence should prompt detailed assessment of the lateral collateral ligament complex, particularly the ATFL

  14. Mechanical impedance of the sitting human body in single-axis compared to multi-axis whole-body vibration exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmlund, P; Lundström, R

    2001-01-01

    The study was aimed to investigate the mechanical impedance of the sitting human body and to compare data obtained in laboratory single-axis investigations with multi-axis data from in vehicle measurements. The experiments were performed in a laboratory for single-axis measurements. The multi-axis exposure was generated with an eight-seat minibus where the rear seats had been replaced with a rigid one. The subjects in the multi-axis experiment all participated in the single-axis experiments. There are quite a few investigations in the literature describing the human response to single-axis exposure. The response from the human body can be expected to be affected by multi-axis input in a different way than from a single-axis exposure. The present knowledge of the effect of multiple axis exposure is very limited. The measurements were performed using a specially designed force and accelerometer plate. This plate was placed between the subject and the hard seat. Outcome shows a clear difference between mechanical impedance for multi-axis exposure compared to single-axis. This is especially clear in the x-direction where the difference is very large. The conclusion is that it seems unlikely that single-axis mechanical impedance data can be directly transferred to a multi-axis environment. This is due to the force cross-talk between different directions.

  15. Craniospinal axis irradiation: an improved electron technique for irradiation of the spinal axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun Li; Vijayakumar, S.; Myrianthopoulos, L.C.; Kuchnir, F.T.; Muller-Runkel, R.

    1994-01-01

    The authors review dosimetric features of craniospinal axis irradiation in the areas of matching cranial and spinal fields, with reference to normal structures within the spinal field. The implications of the use of photon or electron modalities for the spinal port were evaluated. A novel method of matching the cranial photon and the spinal electron fields involving a computer-aided junction design is presented, involving moving the photon beam in three steps to degrade its penumbra to match that of the electron field. Thermoluminescent dosimetry in a Rando phantom and computed tomography-based dose-volume histogram study for an illustrative paediatric case were used to compare dose to normal structures within the spinal field. Results show that the use of electrons for the spinal field leads to better sparing of deep seated normal structures. For bone marrow, the use of a customized bolus for the spinal field results in an improved dose distribution, making electrons potentially superior to photons for radiobiological reasons. (author)

  16. Diamond Machining of an Off-Axis Biconic Aspherical Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, Raymond G.; Preuss, Werner; Sohn, Alex; MacKenty, John

    2009-01-01

    Two diamond-machining methods have been developed as part of an effort to design and fabricate an off-axis, biconic ellipsoidal, concave aluminum mirror for an infrared spectrometer at the Kitt Peak National Observatory. Beyond this initial application, the methods can be expected to enable satisfaction of requirements for future instrument mirrors having increasingly complex (including asymmetrical), precise shapes that, heretofore, could not readily be fabricated by diamond machining or, in some cases, could not be fabricated at all. In the initial application, the mirror is prescribed, in terms of Cartesian coordinates x and y, by aperture dimensions of 94 by 76 mm, placements of -2 mm off axis in x and 227 mm off axis in y, an x radius of curvature of 377 mm, a y radius of curvature of 407 mm, an x conic constant of 0.078, and a y conic constant of 0.127. The aspect ratio of the mirror blank is about 6. One common, "diamond machining" process uses single-point diamond turning (SPDT). However, it is impossible to generate the required off-axis, biconic ellipsoidal shape by conventional SPDT because (1) rotational symmetry is an essential element of conventional SPDT and (2) the present off-axis biconic mirror shape lacks rotational symmetry. Following conventional practice, it would be necessary to make this mirror from a glass blank by computer-controlled polishing, which costs more than diamond machining and yields a mirror that is more difficult to mount to a metal bench. One of the two present diamond machining methods involves the use of an SPDT machine equipped with a fast tool servo (FTS). The SPDT machine is programmed to follow the rotationally symmetric asphere that best fits the desired off-axis, biconic ellipsoidal surface. The FTS is actuated in synchronism with the rotation of the SPDT machine to generate the difference between the desired surface and the best-fit rotationally symmetric asphere. In order to minimize the required stroke of the FTS

  17. PDGF-BB/KLF4/VEGF Signaling Axis in Pulmonary Artery Endothelial Cell Angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Songhe; Yu, Hao; Chen, Xinxin; Shen, Tingting; Cui, Zhongqi; Si, Genle; Zhang, JunTing; Cheng, Yue; Jia, Shiwei; Song, Shasha; Zhang, Xiang; Yu, Xiufeng

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) and vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) play a role in the progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH).Since chronic hypoxia is responsible for intimal hyperplasia and disordered angiogenesis of pulmonary arteries, which are histological hallmarks of PAH, we explored the role of the PDGF-BB/KLF4/VEGF signaling axis in the angiogenesis of pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs). Adult male Wistar rats were used to study hypoxia-induced or monocrotaline (MCT)-induced right ventricular (RV) remodeling as well as systolic function and hemodynamics using echocardiography and a pressure-volume admittance catheter. Morphometric analyses of lung vasculature and RV vessels were performed. The results revealed that both the PDGF receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib and the multi-targeted VEGF and PDGF receptor inhibit or sunitinib malate reversed hypoxia-induced increases in right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), right ventricular function and thickening of the medial walls. Mechanistically VEGF/VEGFR and PDGF/PDGFR formed a biological complex. We also showed that PDGF-BBincreasedKLF4 promoter activity transcriptionally activating VEGF expression, which regulates PAEC proliferation; migration; and the cell-cycle transition from G0/G1phase to S phase and G2/M-phase and eventually leads to PAEC angiogenesis Conclusion: Our study indicates that hypoxia-induced angiogenesis of PAECs is associated with increased levels of PDGF-BB/KLF4/VEGF, which contribute to pulmonary vascular remodeling. Overall, our study contributes to a better understanding of PAH pathogenesis. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Measurement Axis Searching Model for Terrestrial Laser Scans Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoxing Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, terrestrial Lidar scans can cover rather a large area; the point densities are strongly varied because of the line-of-sight measurement principle in potential overlaps with scans taken from different viewpoints. Most of the traditional methods focus on registration algorithm and ignore searching model. Sometimes the traditional methods are directly used to align two point clouds; a large critically unsolved problem of the large biases will be created in areas distant from the overlaps while the local overlaps are often aligned well. So a novel measurement axis searching model (MASM has been proposed in this paper. The method includes four steps: (1 the principal axis fitting, (2 the measurement axis generation, (3 low-high-precision search, and (4 result generation. The principal axis gives an orientation to the point cloud; the search scope is limited by the measurement axis. The point cloud orientation can be adjusted gradually until the achievement of the global optimum using low- and high-precision search. We perform some experiments with simulated point clouds and real terrestrial laser scans. The results of simulated point clouds have shown the processing steps of our method, and the results of real terrestrial laser scans have shown the sensitivity of the approach with respect to the indoor and outdoor scenes.

  19. Activation of 5-HT1Areceptors in the rat dorsomedial hypothalamus inhibits stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamper, Christopher E; Hassell, James E; Kapitz, Adam J; Renner, Kenneth J; Orchinik, Miles; Lowry, Christopher A

    2017-03-01

    Acute activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, leading to the release of corticosteroid hormones into the circulation, is an adaptive response to perceived threats. Persistent activation of the HPA axis can lead to impaired physiological or behavioral function with maladaptive consequences. Thus, efficient control and termination of stress responses is essential for well-being. However, inhibitory control mechanisms governing the HPA axis are poorly understood. Previous studies suggest that serotonergic systems, acting within the medial hypothalamus, play an important role in inhibitory control of stress-induced HPA axis activity. To test this hypothesis, we surgically implanted chronic jugular cannulae in adult male rats and conducted bilateral microinjection of vehicle or the 5-HT 1A receptor agonist, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT; 8 nmol, 0.2 μL, 0.1 μL/min, per side) into the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) immediately prior to a 40 min period of restraint stress. Repeated blood sampling was conducted using an automated blood sampling system and plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Bilateral intra-DMH microinjections of 8-OH-DPAT suppressed stress-induced increases in plasma corticosterone within 10 min of the onset of handling prior to restraint and, as measured by area-under-the-curve analysis of plasma corticosterone concentrations, during the 40 min period of restraint. These data support an inhibitory role for serotonergic systems, acting within the DMH, on stress-induced activation of the HPA axis. Lay summary: Inhibitory control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress hormone response is important for well-being. One neurochemical implicated in inhibitory control of the HPA axis is serotonin. In this study we show that activation of serotonin receptors, specifically inhibitory 5-HT 1A receptors in the dorsomedial

  20. Gender moderates the association between dorsal medial prefrontal cortex volume and depressive symptoms in a subclinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Joshua M; Depetro, Emily; Maxwell, Joshua; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Hajcak, Greg

    2015-08-30

    Major depressive disorder is associated with lower medial prefrontal cortex volumes. The role that gender might play in moderating this relationship and what particular medial prefrontal cortex subregion(s) might be implicated is unclear. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess dorsal, ventral, and anterior cingulate regions of the medial prefrontal cortex in a normative sample of male and female adults. The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS) was used to measure these three variables. Voxel-based morphometry was used to test for correlations between medial prefrontal gray matter volume and depressive traits. The dorsal medial frontal cortex was correlated with greater levels of depression, but not anxiety and stress. Gender moderates this effect: in males greater levels of depression were associated with lower dorsal medial prefrontal volumes, but in females no relationship was observed. The results indicate that even within a non-clinical sample, male participants with higher levels of depressive traits tend to have lower levels of gray matter volume in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex. Our finding is consistent with low dorsal medial prefrontal volume contributing to the development of depression in males. Future longitudinal work is needed to substantiate this possibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Inverse relationship between the complexity of midfoot kinematics and muscle activation in patients with medial tibial stress syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Samani, Afshin; Olesen, Christian Gammelgaard

    2011-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome is a common overuse injury characterized by pain located on the medial side of the lower leg during weight bearing activities such as gait. The purpose of this study was to apply linear and nonlinear methods to compare the structure of variability of midfoot kinemati...

  2. [Primary recurrent medial subdislocation of both patellae. Long-term review of an exceptional case of miserably malalignment syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mata, S; Hidalgo-Ovejero, A

    2007-01-01

    We present a long-term review of a girl aged 11 years and 4 months with medial primary recurrent subluxation of both patellae of several months evolution associated with miserably malalignment syndrome. Not one case of medial recurrent dislocation of the patellae has been described previously. Three years previously following a jump she had suffered a right patellar luxation - self-reduced and not immobilised - followed by 10 subsequent episodes of subluxation and three more medial luxations. She could hardly walk autonomously due to persistent or habitual subluxation and patellofemoral pain, mainly in the right knee. Physical examination revealed habitual medial subluxation of both patellae, with clear medial patellar displacement, quadriceps amyotrophy and medial instability. The medial subluxation suppression test was positive. She showed excessive femoral anteversion of the hips (IR: 90 degrees, ER: 30 degrees), genu varum, neutral tibial torsion, patella alta, dysplastic trochlear grooves with medial condyle hipoplasia and both patellae were dysplastic (Wiberg type III). We performed a derotation subtrochanteric femoral osteotomy and bilateral proximal patellar realignment. Following surgery, bilateral stability of both sides permitted normal walking and running, as well as apprehension and the Smillie test (-), with a hip mobility of 65 degrees ER and 50 degrees IR. Fifteen years after the surgery the patient complains of antero-external knee pain in the right knee during prolonged walking, in getting up and down stairs and when in a prolonged sitting position, diagnosed as excessive lateral pressure syndrome.

  3. A rare type of ankle fracture : Syndesmotic rupture combined with a high fibular fracture without medial injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wessem, K. J P; Leenen, L. P H

    High fibular spiral fractures are usually caused by pronation-external rotation mechanism. The foot is in pronation and the talus externally rotates, causing a rupture of the medial ligaments or a fracture of the medial malleolus. With continued rotation the anterior and posterior tibiofibular

  4. The cortico-medial amygdala in the central nervous system organization of agonistic behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, P G; Koolhaas, J M; de Boer, Sietse; Koopmans, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that the corticomedial amygdala is involved in agonistic behavior by affecting social learning processes. The present study shows that deficits in the avoidance of a dominant male rat conditioned by defeat were only observed after bilateral lesions restricted to the medial

  5. Estrogen receptor-a in medial amygdala neurons regulates body weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrogen receptor–a (ERa) activity in the brain prevents obesity in both males and females. However, the ERa-expressing neural populations that regulate body weight remain to be fully elucidated. Here we showed that single-minded–1 (SIM1) neurons in the medial amygdala (MeA) express abundant levels ...

  6. Advanced atherosclerosis is associated with increased medial degeneration in sporadic ascending aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albini, Paul T; Segura, Ana Maria; Liu, Guanghui; Minard, Charles G; Coselli, Joseph S; Milewicz, Dianna M; Shen, Ying H; LeMaire, Scott A

    2014-02-01

    The pathogenesis of non-familial, sporadic ascending aortic aneurysms (SAAA) is poorly understood, and the relationship between ascending aortic atherosclerosis and medial degeneration is unclear. We evaluated the prevalence and severity of aortic atherosclerosis and its association with medial degeneration in SAAA. Atherosclerosis was characterized in ascending aortic tissues collected from 68 SAAA patients (mean age, 62.9 ± 12.0 years) and 15 controls (mean age, 56.6 ± 11.4 years [P = 0.07]) by using a modified American Heart Association classification system. Upon histologic examination, 97% of SAAA patients and 73% of controls showed atherosclerotic changes. Most SAAA samples had intermediate (types 2 and 3, 35%) or advanced atherosclerosis (types ≥ 4; 40%), whereas most control samples showed minimal atherosclerosis (none or type 1, 80%; P atherosclerosis grade. Advanced atherosclerosis was associated with higher grades of smooth muscle cell depletion (P atherosclerosis than in patients with minimal (P = 0.04) or intermediate atherosclerosis (P = 0.04). Immunostaining showed marked CD3+ T-cell and CD68+ macrophage infiltration, MMP-2 and MMP-9 production, and cryopyrin expression in the medial layer adjacent to atherosclerotic plaque. SAAA tissues exhibited advanced atherosclerosis that was associated with severe medial degeneration and increased aortic diameter. Our findings suggest a role for atherosclerosis in the progression of sporadic ascending aortic aneurysms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Biomechanical Effects of Different Varus and Valgus Alignments in Medial Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenti, Bernardo; Pianigiani, Silvia; Ramundo, Gaetano; Thienpont, Emmanuel

    2016-12-01

    Medial unicompartmental tibial components are not always positioned following neutral mechanical alignment and a tibial varus alignment of 3° has been suggested based on several clinical follow-up studies. However, no biomechanical justification is currently available to confirm the suitability of different alignment positions. This study aims at quantifying the effects on bone stresses, load distribution, ligament strains, and polyethylene insert stress distribution induced by a possible varus/valgus alignment in medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty, ranging from 6° of varus to 6° of valgus, developing and using a validated patient-specific finite element model. Results demonstrate that both neutral mechanical and 3° of varus alignment induce lower stress distributions than valgus or a higher varus alignment for which higher values, up to 40%, are achieved for the polyethylene stress. When a unicompartmental knee arthroplasty is implanted, a mismatch in the stiffness of the joint is introduced, changing the load distribution from medial to lateral for all configurations with respect to the native configuration. However, slight differences are noticeable among the different configurations with a maximum of 190 N and 90 N for the lateral and the medial side, respectively. Neutral mechanical or 3° of varus alignment present similar biomechanical outputs in the bone, collateral ligament strain, and on the polyethylene insert. A 6° varus alignment or changes in valgus alignment were always associated with more detrimental effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Medial Prefrontal Cortex Is Selectively Involved in Response Selection Using Visual Context in the Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Inah; Shin, Ji Yun

    2012-01-01

    The exact roles of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in conditional choice behavior are unknown and a visual contextual response selection task was used for examining the issue. Inactivation of the mPFC severely disrupted performance in the task. mPFC inactivations, however, did not disrupt the capability of perceptual discrimination for visual…

  9. Attention, Emotion, and Deactivation of Default Activity in Inferior Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geday, Jacob; Gjedde, Albert

    2009-01-01

    Attention deactivates the inferior medial prefrontal cortex (IMPC), but it is uncertain if emotions can attenuate this deactivation. To test the extent to which common emotions interfere with attention, we measured changes of a blood flow index of brain activity in key areas of the IMPC with positron emission tomography (PET) of labeled water…

  10. Hippocampus and Medial Prefrontal Cortex Contributions to Trace and Contextual Fear Memory Expression over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, Christopher L.; Bauer, Philip S.; Pierson, Jamie L.; Quinn, Jennifer J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous work has shown that damage to the dorsal hippocampus (DH) occurring at recent, but not remote, timepoints following acquisition produces a deficit in trace conditioned fear memory expression. The opposite pattern has been observed with lesions to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The present studies address: (1) whether these lesion…

  11. Thoracic aortic aneurysm in a child due to cystic medial necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuribayashi, Sachio; Watabe, Tsuneya; Ohtaki, Makoto; Matsuyama, Shoya; Ogawa, Junichi

    1983-01-01

    The valuable role of computed tomography (CT) was stressed in the diagnosis of thoracic aortic aneurysm in an asymptomatic 12-year-old child. She initially presented mediastinal mass on plain chest film. A saccular thoracic aortic aneurysm was highly suspected from the CT findings, and it was confirmed on angiography. Pathological examination of the aneurysmal wall revealed cystic medial necrosis. (author)

  12. Content-Specific Source Encoding in the Human Medial Temporal Lobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awipi, T.; Davachi, L.

    2008-01-01

    Although the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is known to be essential for episodic encoding, the contributions of individual MTL subregions remain unclear. Data from recognition memory studies have provided evidence that the hippocampus supports relational encoding important for later episodic recollection, whereas the perirhinal cortex has been linked…

  13. Distinct medial temporal networks encode surprise during motivation by reward versus punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu P; LaBar, Kevin S; Adcock, R Alison

    2016-10-01

    Adaptive motivated behavior requires predictive internal representations of the environment, and surprising events are indications for encoding new representations of the environment. The medial temporal lobe memory system, including the hippocampus and surrounding cortex, encodes surprising events and is influenced by motivational state. Because behavior reflects the goals of an individual, we investigated whether motivational valence (i.e., pursuing rewards versus avoiding punishments) also impacts neural and mnemonic encoding of surprising events. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants encountered perceptually unexpected events either during the pursuit of rewards or avoidance of punishments. Despite similar levels of motivation across groups, reward and punishment facilitated the processing of surprising events in different medial temporal lobe regions. Whereas during reward motivation, perceptual surprises enhanced activation in the hippocampus, during punishment motivation surprises instead enhanced activation in parahippocampal cortex. Further, we found that reward motivation facilitated hippocampal coupling with ventromedial PFC, whereas punishment motivation facilitated parahippocampal cortical coupling with orbitofrontal cortex. Behaviorally, post-scan testing revealed that reward, but not punishment, motivation resulted in greater memory selectivity for surprising events encountered during goal pursuit. Together these findings demonstrate that neuromodulatory systems engaged by anticipation of reward and punishment target separate components of the medial temporal lobe, modulating medial temporal lobe sensitivity and connectivity. Thus, reward and punishment motivation yield distinct neural contexts for learning, with distinct consequences for how surprises are incorporated into predictive mnemonic models of the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Medial Temporal Lobe Activity during Source Retrieval Reflects Information Type, Not Memory Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, Rachel A.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.; Ranganath, Charan

    2010-01-01

    The medial temporal lobes (MTLs) are critical for episodic memory but the functions of MTL subregions are controversial. According to memory strength theory, MTL subregions collectively support declarative memory in a graded manner. In contrast, other theories assert that MTL subregions support functionally distinct processes. For instance, one…

  15. Role of Medial Prefrontal Cortex Narp in the Extinction of Morphine Conditioned Place Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Ashley M.; Han, Sungho; Pearce, Anne M.; Cheng, KaiLun; Lee, JongAh J.; Johnson, Alexander W.; Wang, Chuansong; During, Matthew J.; Holland, Peter C.; Shaham, Yavin; Baraban, Jay M.; Reti, Irving M.

    2013-01-01

    Narp knockout (KO) mice demonstrate an impaired extinction of morphine conditioned place preference (CPP). Because the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been implicated in extinction learning, we tested whether Narp cells in this region play a role in the extinction of morphine CPP. We found that intracranial injections of adenoassociated virus…

  16. Cognitive Functioning after Medial Frontal Lobe Damage Including the Anterior Cingulate Cortex: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Amee; Dewar, Bonnie-Kate; Critchley, Hugo; Gilbert, Sam J.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    Two patients with medial frontal lobe damage involving the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) performed a range of cognitive tasks, including tests of executive function and anterior attention. Both patients lesions extended beyond the ACC, therefore caution needs to be exerted in ascribing observed deficits to the ACC alone. Patient performance was…

  17. Working Memory, Long-Term Memory, and Medial Temporal Lobe Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeneson, Annette; Squire, Larry R.

    2012-01-01

    Early studies of memory-impaired patients with medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage led to the view that the hippocampus and related MTL structures are involved in the formation of long-term memory and that immediate memory and working memory are independent of these structures. This traditional idea has recently been revisited. Impaired performance…

  18. Regional activation of the human medial temporal lobe during intentional encoding of objects and positions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsøy, T.Z.; Liptrot, Matthew George; Skimminge, A.

    2009-01-01

    The medial temporal lobe (MTL) consists of several regions thought to be involved in learning and memory. However, the degree of functional specialization among these regions remains unclear. Previous studies have demonstrated effects of both content and processing stage, but findings have been...

  19. The relationship of medial temporal lobe epilepsy with the declarative memory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halász Péter

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Medial temporal lobe of epilepsy (MTLE is considered as local/regional epilepsy. However, as was discussed in Part I of this review (Halász, 2016a there is more evidence regarding the involvement of both temporal lobes so as to consider MTLE as one of the typical bilateral system epilepsies.

  20. Aplicaciones del colgajo sural medial en cirugía reconstructiva de cavidad oral y orofaringe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Zubillaga

    2017-01-01

    Conclusiones: El colgajo de perforantes de la arteria sural medial es una excelente opción en la reconstrucción de defectos de la cavidad oral y la orofaringe, proporcionándonos una adecuada adaptabilidad a la zona receptora y una mínima morbilidad de la zona donante.

  1. Diagnosis of hyperostosis of the medial calcaneal tubercle similar to a heel spur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan, Egemen; Senaran, Hakan; Can, Nuray; Aydin, Bahattin Kerem; Erkocak, Omer Faruk

    2013-01-01

    Calcaneal osteochondromas are rare conditions. To our knowledge, we present the first report of a calcaneal osteochondroma in an adolescent patient that was surprisingly similar to a heel spur, and, in addition, symptoms due to compression of the medial plantar nerve were present.

  2. Arthroscopic medial meniscus trimming or repair under nerve blocks: Which nerves should be blocked?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, AM; Abd-Elmaksoud, AM

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to determine the role of the sciatic and obturator nerve blocks (in addition to femoral block) in providing painless arthroscopic medial meniscus trimming/repair. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty patients with medial meniscus tear, who had been scheduled to knee arthroscopy, were planned to be included in this controlled prospective double-blind study. The patients were randomly allocated into three equal groups; FSO, FS, and FO. The femoral, sciatic, and obturator nerves were blocked in FSO groups. The femoral and sciatic nerves were blocked in FS group, while the femoral and obturator nerves were blocked in FO group. Intraoperative pain and its causative surgical maneuver were recorded. Results: All the patients (n = 7, 100%) in FO group had intraoperative pain. The research was terminated in this group but completed in FS and FSO groups (40 patients each). During valgus positioning of the knee for surgical management of the medial meniscus tear, the patients in FS group experienced pain more frequently than those in FSO group (P = 0.005). Conclusion: Adding a sciatic nerve block to the femoral nerve block is important for painless knee arthroscopy. Further adding of an obturator nerve block may be needed when a valgus knee position is required to manage the medial meniscus tear. PMID:27375382

  3. Outcome of medial hamstring lengthening in children with spastic paresis: A biomechanical and morphological observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haberfehlner, Helga; Jaspers, Richard T.; Rutz, Erich; Harlaar, J.; Harlaar, Jaap; Van Der Sluijs, Johannes A.; Witbreuk, Melinda; van Hutten, Kim; Romkes, Jacqueline; Freslier, Marie; Brunner, Reinald; Becher, Jules G.; Maas, H.; Buizer, Annemieke I.

    2018-01-01

    To improve gait in children with spastic paresis due to cerebral palsy or hereditary spastic paresis, the semitendinosus muscle is frequently lengthened amongst other medial hamstring muscles by orthopaedic surgery. Side effects on gait due to weakening of the hamstring muscles and overcorrections

  4. Outcome of medial hamstring lengthening in children with spastic paresis : A biomechanical and morphological observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haberfehlner, Helga; Jaspers, Richard T.; Rutz, Erich; Harlaar, Jaap; Van Der Sluijs, Johannes A.; Witbreuk, Melinda M.; van Hutten, Kim; Romkes, Jacqueline; Freslier, Marie; Brunner, Reinald; Becher, Jules G.; Maas, Huub; Buizer, Annemieke I.

    2018-01-01

    To improve gait in children with spastic paresis due to cerebral palsy or hereditary spastic paresis, the semitendinosus muscle is frequently lengthened amongst other medial hamstring muscles by orthopaedic surgery. Side effects on gait due to weakening of the hamstring muscles and overcorrections

  5. Neuroanatomical dysmorphology of the medial superior olivary nucleus in sudden fetal and infant death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Lavezzi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study expands our understanding of the organization of the human caudal pons, providing a morphologic characterization of the medial superior olivary nucleus, component of the superior olivary complex, that plays an important role in the processing of acoustic information.We examined victims of sudden unexplained fetal and infant death and controls (n=75, from 25 gestational weeks to 8 months of postnatal age, by complete autopsy and in-depth autonomic nervous system histological examination, particularly of the medial superior olivary nucleus, the focus of this study. Peculiar cytoarchitectural features of the medial superior olivary nucleus were found in sudden death cases, such as hypoplasia/agenesis and immature hypercellularity, frequently related to dysgenesis of contiguous structures involved in respiratory rhythm-generating circuit, in particular to hypoplasia of the retrotrapezoid and the facial nuclei. We propose the involvement of this nucleus in more important functions than those related to hearing, as breathing and, more extensively, all the vital activities. Besides, we highlight the fundamental role of the maternal smoking in pregnancy as etiological factor in the dysmorphic neuroanatomical development of the medial superior olivary nucleus.

  6. Medial parabrachial nucleus neurons modulate d-fenfluramine-induced anorexia through 5HT2C receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifunovic, Radmila; Reilly, Steve

    2006-01-05

    We previously reported that lesions of the medial parabrachial nucleus (PBN) enhanced d-fenfluramine (DFEN)-induced anorexia; a finding that suggests these lesions may potentiate the release of serotonin (5HT) or increase the postsynaptic action of 5HT. In the present study, we used SB 206553 (a 5HT2B/2C receptor antagonist) or m-CPP (a 5HT2C/1B receptor agonist) in a standard behavioral procedure (deprivation-induced feeding) to further explore the role of the medial PBN in drug-induced anorexia. In Experiment 1, DFEN (0 or 1.0 mg/kg) was given alone or in combination with SB 206553 (2.0 or 5.0 mg/kg). In Experiment 2, we investigated the food-suppressive effects of m-CPP (0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg). The results of Experiment 1 show that SB 206553, while having no influence on the performance of control subjects, attenuated (2.0 mg/kg) or abolished (5 mg/kg) the potentiating effect of the lesions on DFEN-induced anorexia. In Experiment 2, m-CPP induced a suppression of food intake in nonlesioned animals that was significantly potentiated in rats with medial PBN lesions. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that medial PBN neurons mediate anorexia through 5HT2C receptors.

  7. Dissociated Roles for the Lateral and Medial Septum in Elemental and Contextual Fear Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandreau, Ludovic; Jaffard, Robert; Desmedt, Aline

    2007-01-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that the septum plays a predominant role in fear learning, yet the direction of this control is still a matter of debate. Increasing data suggest that the medial (MS) and lateral septum (LS) would be differentially required in fear conditioning depending on whether a discrete conditional stimulus (CS) predicts, or not,…

  8. Disruption of the Perineuronal Net in the Hippocampus or Medial Prefrontal Cortex Impairs Fear Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylin, Michael J.; Orsi, Sara A.; Moore, Anthony N.; Dash, Pramod K.

    2013-01-01

    The perineuronal net (PNN) surrounds neurons in the central nervous system and is thought to regulate developmental plasticity. A few studies have shown an involvement of the PNN in hippocampal plasticity and memory storage in adult animals. In addition to the hippocampus, plasticity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been demonstrated to…

  9. Behavioral detectability of single-cell stimulation in the ventral posterior medial nucleus of the thalamus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.C. Voigt (Birgit); M. Brecht (Michael); A.R. Houweling (Arthur)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn mammals, most sensory information passes through the thalamus before reaching cortex. In the rat whisker system, each macrovibrissa is represented by ∼250 neurons in the ventral posterior medial nucleus (VPM) of the thalamus and ∼10,000 neurons in a cortical barrel column. Here we

  10. Distinct medial temporal networks encode surprise during motivation by reward versus punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu P.; LaBar, Kevin S.; Adcock, R. Alison

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive motivated behavior requires predictive internal representations of the environment, and surprising events are indications for encoding new representations of the environment. The medial temporal lobe memory system, including the hippocampus and surrounding cortex, encodes surprising events and is influenced by motivational state. Because behavior reflects the goals of an individual, we investigated whether motivational valence (i.e., pursuing rewards versus avoiding punishments) also impacts neural and mnemonic encoding of surprising events. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants encountered perceptually unexpected events either during the pursuit of rewards or avoidance of punishments. Despite similar levels of motivation across groups, reward and punishment facilitated the processing of surprising events in different medial temporal lobe regions. Whereas during reward motivation, perceptual surprises enhanced activation in the hippocampus, during punishment motivation surprises instead enhanced activation in parahippocampal cortex. Further, we found that reward motivation facilitated hippocampal coupling with ventromedial PFC, whereas punishment motivation facilitated parahippocampal cortical coupling with orbitofrontal cortex. Behaviorally, post-scan testing revealed that reward, but not punishment, motivation resulted in greater memory selectivity for surprising events encountered during goal pursuit. Together these findings demonstrate that neuromodulatory systems engaged by anticipation of reward and punishment target separate components of the medial temporal lobe, modulating medial temporal lobe sensitivity and connectivity. Thus, reward and punishment motivation yield distinct neural contexts for learning, with distinct consequences for how surprises are incorporated into predictive mnemonic models of the environment. PMID:26854903

  11. Lateral and medial ventral occipitotemporal regions interact during the recognition of images revealed from noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eNordhjem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies suggest different functional roles for the medial and the lateral ventral sections in object recognition. Texture and surface information is processed in medial regions, while shape information is processed in lateral sections. This begs the question whether and how these functionally specialized sections interact with each other and with early visual cortex to facilitate object recognition. In the current research, we set out to answer this question. In an fMRI study, thirteen subjects viewed and recognized images of objects and animals that were gradually revealed from noise while their brains were being scanned. We applied dynamic causal modeling (DCM – a method to characterize network interactions – to determine the modulatory effect of object recognition on a network comprising the primary visual cortex (V1, the lingual gyrus (LG in medial ventral cortex and the lateral occipital cortex (LO. We found that object recognition modulated the bilateral connectivity between LG and LO. Moreover, the feed-forward connectivity from V1 to LG and LO was modulated, while there was no evidence for feedback from these regions to V1 during object recognition. In particular, the interaction between medial and lateral areas supports a framework in which visual recognition of objects is achieved by networked regions that integrate information on image statistics, scene content and shape – rather than by a single categorically specialized region – within the ventral visual cortex.

  12. Medial knee osteoarthritis treated by insoles or braces: a randomized trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.M. van Raaij (Tom); M. Reijman (Max); R.W. Brouwer (Reinoud); S.M. Bierma-Zeinstra (Sita); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: There is controversial evidence regarding whether foot orthoses or knee braces improve pain and function or correct malalignment in selected patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the medial knee compartment. However, insoles are safe and less costly than knee bracing if they

  13. Spontaneous Relocation of a Posterior Dislocation of Mobile Bearing in a Medial Unicompartmental Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noureddine, Hussein; Aird, Jaimes; Latimer, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We describe a case of spontaneous relocation of a posterior dislocation of the mobile bearing in a medial unicompartmental knee replacement, prior to surgical intervention. We are unaware of any similar cases in the published literature. This paper highlights some clinical issues around this type of dislocation. PMID:23259116

  14. Spontaneous Relocation of a Posterior Dislocation of Mobile Bearing in a Medial Unicompartmental Knee Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Noureddine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of spontaneous relocation of a posterior dislocation of the mobile bearing in a medial unicompartmental knee replacement, prior to surgical intervention. We are unaware of any similar cases in the published literature. This paper highlights some clinical issues around this type of dislocation.

  15. Hypoactive medial prefrontal cortex functioning in adults reporting childhood emotional maltreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Harmelen, Anne-Laura; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Dalgleish, Tim; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Veltman, Dick J.; Aleman, André; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Elzinga, Bernet M.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM) has adverse effects on medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) morphology, a structure that is crucial for cognitive functioning and (emotional) memory and which modulates the limbic system. In addition, CEM has been linked to amygdala hyperactivity during emotional

  16. White matter lesions are associated with progression of medial temporal lobe atrophy in Alzheimer disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, F.E. de; Korf, E.; Barkhof, F.; Scheltens, P.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) is a hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD). Its progression is often seen during the course of AD, but its frequency and risk factors remain unclear. METHODS: We investigated MTA in 35 patients with AD from whom sequential magnetic resonance

  17. MR imaging of the anatomy of the anterior horn of the medial meniscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Coninck, Tineke; Vanrietvelde, Frederik; Seynaeve, Patrick; Verdonk, Peter; Verstraete, Koenraad

    2017-04-01

    Background In cadaveric and arthroscopic studies different insertion locations of the anterior horn of the medial meniscus (AHMM) have been described. Purpose To investigate if the different insertion locations of the AHMM, as described in cadaveric studies, can be determined on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Material and Methods MR images of 100 patients without meniscal tears on MRI were retrospectively evaluated. Two observers classified the AHMM insertion based on its position relative to the anterior tibial edge and the medial tibial spine. The association between AHMM insertion and tibial plateau slope, meniscal radial displacement, and anterior intermeniscal ligament (AIL) presence was investigated. Results The AHMM inserted posterior to the anterior tibial edge in 93 knees and anterior to the tibial edge in seven knees (= type III). Of the 93 knees with AHMM insertion posterior to the anterior tibial edge, 63 inserted lateral to the medial tibial spine (= type I) and 30 medial (= type II). The AHMMs inserting anterior to the tibial edge had a significantly ( P  0.05). A strong inter- and intra-observer agreement was observed. Conclusion Three different bony insertion locations of the AHMM, as described in cadaveric studies, could be identified on MRI. All AHMMs inserting anterior to the tibial edge displayed an AIL. Whether there is a clinical correlation with these insertion patterns remains unclear.

  18. Rare case of pure medial subtalar dislocation in a basketball player ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 22 year old male was admitted to the emergency department with pain and ankle deformity following an inversion injury during a basketball game. In his physical examination, the left foot was displaced medially and talus was prominent dorso laterally (A). However, there was not any neurovascular compromise. The X-ray ...

  19. Medial tibial stress syndrome can be diagnosed reliably using history and physical examination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winters, M.; Bakker, E. W. P.; Moen, M. H.; Barten, C. C.; Teeuwen, R.; Weir, A.

    2017-01-01

    The majority of sporting injuries are clinically diagnosed using history and physical examination as the cornerstone. There are no studies supporting the reliability of making a clinical diagnosis of medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS). Our aim was to assess if MTSS can be diagnosed reliably, using

  20. Considering healthiness promotes healthier choices but modulates medial prefrontal cortex differently in children compared with adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van Floor; Laan, van der Laura N.; Viergever, Max A.; Adan, Roger A.H.; Smeets, Paul A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a rising problem worldwide mainly caused by overconsumption, which is driven by food choices. In adults, food choices are based on a value signal encoded in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). This signal is modulated by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), which is

  1. Dual axis operation of a micromachined rate gyroscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juneau, T. [BSAC, Berkeley, CA (United States); Pisano, A.P. [Univ. California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Smith, J. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Since micromachining technology has raised the prospect of fabricating high performance sensors without the associated high cost and large size, many researchers have investigated micromachined rate gyroscopes. The vast majority of research has focused on single input axis rate gyroscopes, but this paper presents work on a dual input axis micromachined rate gyroscope. The key to successful simultaneous dual axis operation is the quad symmetry of the circular oscillating rotor design. Untuned gyroscopes with mismatched modes yielded random walk as low as 10{degrees}/{radical}hour with cross sensitivity ranging from 6% to 16%. Mode frequency matching via electrostatic tuning allowed performance better than 2{degrees}/{radical}hour, but at the expense of excessive cross sensitivity.

  2. Spin axis offset calibration on THEMIS using mirror modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Frühauff

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A newly developed method for determining spin axis offsets of magnetic field instruments on spacecraft is applied to THEMIS. The formerly used determination method, relying on solar wind Alfvénic fluctuations, was rarely applicable due to the orbital restrictions of the mission. With the new procedure, based on magnetic field observation of mirror modes in the magnetosheath, updated spin axis offsets can be estimated approximately once per year. Retrospective calibration of all THEMIS magnetic field measurements is thereby made possible. Since, up to this point, spin axis offsets could hardly ever be calculated due to the mission's orbits, this update represents a substantial improvement to the data. The approximate offset stability is estimated to be < 0.75 nT year−1 for the complete course of the mission.

  3. Method of making a modular off-axis solar concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesniak, Adam P.; Hall, John C.

    2017-05-23

    A method of making a solar concentrator may include forming a receiving wall having an elongated wall, a first side wall and a second side wall; attaching the first side wall and the second side wall to a reflecting wall to form a housing having an internal volume with an opening; forming a lip on the receiving wall and the reflecting wall; attaching a cover to the receiving wall and the reflecting wall at the lip to seal the opening into the internal volume, thereby creating a rigid structure; and mounting at least one receiver having at least one photovoltaic cell on the elongated wall to receive solar radiation entering the housing and reflected by the receiving wall, the receiver having an axis parallel with a surface normal of the photovoltaic cell, such that the axis is disposed at a non-zero angle relative to the vertical axis of the opening.

  4. Role of Met Axis in Head and Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yiru, E-mail: xuyiru@umich.edu; Fisher, Gary J., E-mail: xuyiru@umich.edu [Department of Dermatology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2013-11-26

    Head and neck cancer is the sixth most common type of cancer worldwide. Despite advances in aggressive multidisciplinary treatments, the 5-year survival rate for this dreadful disease is only 50%, mostly due to high rate of recurrence and early involvement of regional lymph nodes and subsequent metastasis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for invasion and metastasis is one of the most pressing goals in the field of head and neck cancer. Met, also known as hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR), is a member of the receptor protein tyrosine kinase (RPTK) family. There is compelling evidence that Met axis is dysregulated and plays important roles in tumorigenesis, progression, metastasis, angiogenesis, and drug resistance in head and neck cancer. We describe in this review current understanding of Met axis in head and neck cancer biology and development of therapeutic inhibitors targeting Met axis.

  5. The microbiota-gut-brain axis in functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palma, Giada; Collins, Stephen M; Bercik, Premysl

    2014-01-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are highly prevalent and pose a significant burden on health care and society, and impact patients' quality of life. FGIDs comprise a heterogeneous group of disorders, with unclear underlying pathophysiology. They are considered to result from the interaction of altered gut physiology and psychological factors via the gut-brain axis, where brain and gut symptoms are reciprocally influencing each other's expression. Intestinal microbiota, as a part of the gut-brain axis, plays a central role in FGIDs. Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome, a prototype of FGIDs, display altered composition of the gut microbiota compared with healthy controls and benefit, at the gastrointestinal and psychological levels, from the use of probiotics and antibiotics. This review aims to recapitulate the available literature on FGIDs and microbiota-gut-brain axis.

  6. Steroids, stress and the gut microbiome-brain axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetel, M J; de Vries, G J; Melcangi, R C; Panzica, G; O'Mahony, S M

    2018-02-01

    It is becoming well established that the gut microbiome has a profound impact on human health and disease. In this review, we explore how steroids can influence the gut microbiota and, in turn, how the gut microbiota can influence hormone levels. Within the context of the gut microbiome-brain axis, we discuss how perturbations in the gut microbiota can alter the stress axis and behaviour. In addition, human studies on the possible role of gut microbiota in depression and anxiety are examined. Finally, we present some of the challenges and important questions that need to be addressed by future research in this exciting new area at the intersection of steroids, stress, gut-brain axis and human health. © 2017 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  7. Off-axis and inline electron holography: Experimental comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latychevskaia, Tatiana; Formanek, Petr; Koch, C.T.; Lubk, Axel

    2010-01-01

    Electron holography is a very powerful technique for mapping static electric and magnetic potentials down to atomic resolution. While electron holography is commonly considered synonymous with its off-axis variant in the high energy electron microscopy community, inline electron holography is widely applied in low-energy electron microscopy, where the realization of the off-axis setup is still an experimental challenge. This paper demonstrates that both inline and off-axis holography may be used to recover amplitude and phase shift of the very same object, in our example latex spheres of 90 and 200 nm in diameter, producing very similar results, provided the object does not charge under the electron beam.

  8. Role of pathophysiology of patellofemoral instability in the treatment of spontaneous medial patellofemoral subluxation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğruyol Dağhan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Medial patellar subluxation is usually seen after lateral retinacular release. Spontaneous medial subluxation of the patella is a very rare condition. There are few reports in the literature on the pathophysiology of iatrogenic medial patellar subluxation. To our knowledge, there are no reports of the pathophysiology of non-iatrogenic medial patellar subluxation in the English literature. In this study we present a case of spontaneous medial patellar instability that is more prominent in extension during weight bearing. We also try to define the treatment protocol based on pathophsiology. Case presentation We report the case of a 21-year-old Turkish man with spontaneous medial patellar instability. He had suffered right knee pain, clicking and popping sensation in the affected knee for three months prior to presentation. Clinical examination demonstrated medial patellar subluxation that is more prominent in extension during the weight bearing phase of gait and while standing. Increased medial tilt was observed when the patella was stressed medially. Conventional anterior to posterior, lateral and Merchant radiographs did not reveal any abnormalities. After three months of physical therapy, our patient was still suffering from right knee pain which disturbed his gait pattern. Throughout the surgery, medial patellar translation was tested following the imbrication of lateral structures. He still had a medial patellar translation that was more than 50% of his patellar width. Patellotibial ligament augmentation using an iliotibial band flap was added. When examined after surgery, the alignment of the patella was effectively corrected. Conclusions Chronic imbalance between the strengths of vastus lateralis and vastus medialis results in secondary changes in passive ligamentous structures and causes additional instability. Physical therapy modalities that aim to strengthen the vastus lateralis might be sufficient for the

  9. [Influence of patellofemoral joint degeneration on outcome of medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, B Y; Ji, B C; Guo, W T; Mu, W B; Cao, L

    2017-06-01

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of patellofemoral joint degeneration and pre-operative pain location on the outcome of medial Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). Methods: A total of 58 patients (58 knees) with medial Oxford UKA had been performed for medial osteoarthritis from March 2013 to July 2014 in Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at First Teaching Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University were retrospective reviewed. There were 24 males and 34 females, the age from 43 to 87 years with the mean age was 68.5 years. The mean body mass index was 25.2 kg/m(2) ranging from 19.7 to 31.5 kg/m(2). Patients were divided into anterior-medial pain group (35 knees), anterior knee pain group (17 knees) and general knee pain group (6 knees) according to pre-operative pain location. Pre-operative radiological statuses of the patellefemoral joint were defined by Ahlback system and divided into patellofemoral joint degeneration group (16 knees) and normal group (42 knees). Patients were also divided into medial patellofemoral degeneration group (20 knees), lateral patellofemoral degeneration group (12 knees) and normal group (26 knees) according to Altman scoring system. Outerbridge system was used intraoperatively and the patients were divided into patellofemoral joint degeneration group (21 knees) and normal group (37 knees). Pre- and post-operative outcomes were evaluated with Oxford Knee Score (OKS), Western Ontario and MacMaster (WOMAC) and patellofemoral score system of Lonner. T test and ANOVA were used to analyze the data. Results: The average duration of follow-up was 33 months (from 26 to 42 months). There were no patients had complications of infection, deep vein thrombosis, dislocation or loosing at the last follow-up. Compared to pre-operation, OKS (18.9±3.5 vs . 38.9±4.7, 19.3±4.2 vs . 39.6±4.6, 18.1±3.2 vs . 38.1±3.7)( t =5.64 to 7.08, all P anterior-medial pain group, anterior knee pain group and general knee pain group. According to

  10. [Diagnostic value of MRI for posterior root tear of medial and lateral meniscus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yue-Nan; Liu, Fang; Dong, Yi-Long; Cai, Chun-Yuan

    2018-03-25

    To explore diagnostic value of MRI on posterior root tear of medial and lateral meniscus. From January 2012 to January 2016, clinical data of 43 patients with meniscal posterior root tear confirmed by arthroscopy were retrospective analyzed, including 25 males and 18 females, aged from 27 to 69 years old with an average age of(42.5±8.3)years old;27 cases on the right side and 16 cases on the left side. MRI examinations of 43 patients with tear of posterior meniscus root confirmed by knee arthroscopies were retrospectively reviewed. MRI images were double-blinded, independently, retrospectively scored by two imaging physicians. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MRI diagnosis of lateral and medial meniscus posterior root tear were calculated, and knee ligament injury and meniscal dislocation were calculated. Forty-three of 143 patients were diagnosed with meniscus posterior root tears by arthroscopy, including 19 patients with lateral tears and 24 patients with medial tears. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in diagnosis of posterior medial meniscus root tears for doctor A were 91.67%, 86.6% and 83.9% respectively, and for doctor B were 87.5%, 87.4% and 87.4%, 19 patients with medial meniscal protrusion and 2 patients with anterior cruciate ligament tear. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in diagnosis of posterior lateral meniscus root tears for doctor A were 73.7%, 79.9% and 79% respectively, and for doctor B were 78.9%, 82.3% and 82.5%, 4 patients with lateral meniscus herniation and 16 patients with cruciate ligament tear. Kappa statistics for posterior medial meniscus root tears and posterior lateral meniscus root tears were 0.84 and 0.72. MRI could effectively demonstrate imaging features of medial and lateral meniscal root tear and its accompanying signs. It could provide the basis for preoperative diagnosis of clinicians, and be worthy to be popularized. Copyright© 2018 by the China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology Press.

  11. Safety and esthetic outcomes of therapeutic mammoplasty using medial pedicle for early breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshdy S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sameh Roshdy,1 Osama Hussein,1 Ashraf Khater,1 Mohammad Zuhdy,1 Hend A El-Hadaad,2 Omar Farouk,1 Ahmad Senbel,1 Adel Fathi,1 Emadeldeen Hamed,1 Adel Denewer1 1Department of Surgical Oncology, Mansoura Oncology Center, 2Department of Clinical Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Background: Although therapeutic mammoplasty (TM was introduced for treatment of localized ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive breast carcinoma (stages I and II in females with large breast size, the suitability of medial pedicle TM for treatment of breast tumors at different locations has not been established. The objective of this study was to assess the safety and esthetic outcome of medial pedicle TM for breast tumors at different locations. Methods: The study was conducted from February 2012 to July 2014. Consecutive patients with early breast carcinoma with medium- and large-sized breasts, with or without ptosis, who were offered medial pedicle TM were included in the study. Patients who were not candidates for breast-conserving surgery or those with tumors located along the medial pedicle were excluded. All patients received immediate postoperative adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Results: Thirty patients with a mean age of 48.5 years received medial pedicle TM in the breast harboring the tumor or, additionally, the other breast (N=14. The tumors were in the upper (60.0%, lower (26.7%, and lateral (13.3% quadrants. Minor complications occurred in five cases (5/30, 16.7% in the ipsilateral and in two (2/14, 14.3% contralateral breasts. No wound dehiscence or areolar necrosis was recorded. A total of 22 (73.3% patients were scored as excellent cosmesis. After a median follow-up of 20 months, no locoregional recurrence or distant metastases were observed. Conclusion: TM using a medial pedicle is a safe and appealing technique among women with tumors at different locations. Keywords: therapeutic mammoplasty, medial

  12. Relationship Between Preoperative Extrusion of the Medial Meniscus and Surgical Outcomes After Partial Meniscectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Jae; Choi, Chong Hyuk; Chun, Yong-Min; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Su-Keon; Jang, Jinyoung; Jeong, Howon; Jung, Min

    2017-07-01

    No previous study has examined arthritic change after meniscectomy with regard to extrusion of the medial meniscus. (1) To determine the factors related to preoperative meniscal extrusion; (2) to investigate the relationship between medial meniscal extrusion and postoperative outcomes of partial meniscectomy, and to identify a cutoff point of meniscal extrusion that contributes to arthritic change after partial meniscectomy in nonosteoarthritic knees. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 208 patients who underwent partial meniscectomy of the medial meniscus between January 2000 and September 2006 were retrospectively reviewed. The extent of extrusion and severity of degeneration of the medial meniscus as shown on preoperative MRI were evaluated. The minimum follow-up duration was 7 years. Clinical function was assessed with the Lysholm knee scoring scale, the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective knee evaluation form, and the Tapper and Hoover grading system. Radiological evaluation was conducted by use of the IKDC radiographic assessment scale. Regression analysis was performed to identify factors affecting preoperative extrusion of the medial meniscus and factors influencing follow-up results after partial meniscectomy. Receiver operating characteristic curve was used to identify a cutoff point for the extent of meniscal extrusion that was associated with arthritic change. The mean ± SD preoperative Lysholm knee score was 65.0 ± 6.3 and the mean IKDC subjective score was 60.1 ± 7.5. The mean follow-up functional scores were 93.2 ± 5.1 ( P meniscus showed a tendency to increase as the extent of intrameniscal degeneration increased, and the medial meniscus was extruded more in patients with horizontal, horizontal flap, and complex tears. The preoperative extent of meniscal extrusion had a statistically significant correlation with follow-up Lysholm knee score (coefficient = -0.10, P = .002), IKDC subjective score (coefficient

  13. The structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for syndromal and subsyndromal common DSM-IV axis I and all axis II disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Aggen, Steven H; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Røysamb, Espen; Neale, Michael C; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted

    2011-01-01

    The authors sought to clarify the structure of the genetic and environmental risk factors for 22 DSM-IV disorders: 12 common axis I disorders and all 10 axis II disorders. The authors examined syndromal and subsyndromal axis I diagnoses and five categories reflecting number of endorsed criteria for axis II disorders in 2,111 personally interviewed young adult members of the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel. Four correlated genetic factors were identified: axis I internalizing, axis II internalizing, axis I externalizing, and axis II externalizing. Factors 1 and 2 and factors 3 and 4 were moderately correlated, supporting the importance of the internalizing-externalizing distinction. Five disorders had substantial loadings on two factors: borderline personality disorder (factors 3 and 4), somatoform disorder (factors 1 and 2), paranoid and dependent personality disorders (factors 2 and 4), and eating disorders (factors 1 and 4). Three correlated environmental factors were identified: axis II disorders, axis I internalizing disorders, and externalizing disorders versus anxiety disorders. Common axis I and II psychiatric disorders have a coherent underlying genetic structure that reflects two major dimensions: internalizing versus externalizing, and axis I versus axis II. The underlying structure of environmental influences is quite different. The organization of common psychiatric disorders into coherent groups results largely from genetic, not environmental, factors. These results should be interpreted in the context of unavoidable limitations of current statistical methods applied to this number of diagnostic categories.

  14. Calibration of three-axis magnetometers with differential evolution algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Hongfeng, E-mail: panghongfeng@126.com [College of Mechatronics Engineering and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Zhang, Qi [College of Mechatronics Engineering and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Wang, Wei [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xian 710024 (China); Wang, Junya; Li, Ji; Luo, Shitu; Wan, Chengbiao; Chen, Dixiang; Pan, Mengchun; Luo, Feilu [College of Mechatronics Engineering and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2013-11-15

    The accuracy of three-axis magnetometers is influenced by different scale and bias of each axis and nonorthogonality between axes. One limitation of traditional iteration methods is that initial parameters influence the calibration, thus leading to the local optimal or wrong results. In this paper, a new method is proposed to calibrate three-axis magnetometers. To employ this method, a nonmagnetic rotation platform, a proton magnetometer, a DM-050 three-axis magnetometer and the differential evolution (DE) algorithm are used. The performance of this calibration method is analyzed with simulation and experiment. In simulation, the calibration results of DE, unscented Kalman filter (UKF), recursive least squares (RLS) and genetic algorithm (GA) are compared. RMS error using DE is least, which is reduced from 81.233 nT to 1.567 nT. Experimental results show that comparing with UKF, RLS and GA, the DE algorithm has not only the least calibration error but also the best robustness. After calibration, RMS error is reduced from 68.914 nT to 2.919 nT. In addition, the DE algorithm is not sensitive to initial parameters, which is an important advantage compared with traditional iteration algorithms. The proposed algorithm can avoid the troublesome procedure to select suitable initial parameters, thus it can improve the calibration performance of three-axis magnetometers. - Highlights: • The calibration results and robustness of UKF, GA, RLS and DE algorithm are analyzed. • Calibration error of DE is the least in simulation and experiment. • Comparing with traditional calibration algorithms, DE is not sensitive to initial parameters. • It can improve the calibration performance of three-axis magnetometers.

  15. Calibration of three-axis magnetometers with differential evolution algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Hongfeng; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Wei; Wang, Junya; Li, Ji; Luo, Shitu; Wan, Chengbiao; Chen, Dixiang; Pan, Mengchun; Luo, Feilu

    2013-01-01

    The accuracy of three-axis magnetometers is influenced by different scale and bias of each axis and nonorthogonality between axes. One limitation of traditional iteration methods is that initial parameters influence the calibration, thus leading to the local optimal or wrong results. In this paper, a new method is proposed to calibrate three-axis magnetometers. To employ this method, a nonmagnetic rotation platform, a proton magnetometer, a DM-050 three-axis magnetometer and the differential evolution (DE) algorithm are used. The performance of this calibration method is analyzed with simulation and experiment. In simulation, the calibration results of DE, unscented Kalman filter (UKF), recursive least squares (RLS) and genetic algorithm (GA) are compared. RMS error using DE is least, which is reduced from 81.233 nT to 1.567 nT. Experimental results show that comparing with UKF, RLS and GA, the DE algorithm has not only the least calibration error but also the best robustness. After calibration, RMS error is reduced from 68.914 nT to 2.919 nT. In addition, the DE algorithm is not sensitive to initial parameters, which is an important advantage compared with traditional iteration algorithms. The proposed algorithm can avoid the troublesome procedure to select suitable initial parameters, thus it can improve the calibration performance of three-axis magnetometers. - Highlights: • The calibration results and robustness of UKF, GA, RLS and DE algorithm are analyzed. • Calibration error of DE is the least in simulation and experiment. • Comparing with traditional calibration algorithms, DE is not sensitive to initial parameters. • It can improve the calibration performance of three-axis magnetometers

  16. Comminuted supracondylar femoral fractures: a biomechanical analysis comparing the stability of medial versus lateral plating in axial loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Briffa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical properties of medial and lateral plating of a medially comminuted supracondylar femoral fracture. A supracondylar femoral fracture model comparing two fixation methods was tested cyclically in axial loading. One-centimetre supracondylar gap osteotomies were created in six synthetic femurs approximately 6 cm proximal to the knee joint. There were two constructs investigated: group 1 and group 2 were stabilized with an 8-hole LC-DCP, medially and laterally, respectively. Both construct groups were axially loaded. Global displacement (total length, wedge displacement, bending moment and strain were measured. Medial plating showed a significantly decreased displacement, bending moment and strain at the fracture site in axial loading. Medial plating of a comminuted supracondylar femur fracture is more stable than lateral plating.

  17. Arthroscopic one-piece reshaping for symptomatic discoid medial meniscus with anomalous amalgamating into anterior cruciate ligament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyung Suk

    2015-01-01

    Discoid shapes of lateral menisci are relatively common finding, whereas discoid medial menisci are less common. Discoid medial meniscus with associated anomalous variants has been reported. However, symptomatic complex tear of complete type discoid medial meniscus with anomalous blending with anterior cruciate ligament is an extremely rare pathology. A 35-year-old male was admitted to our hospital with left knee pain and loss of terminal extension for 2 years. On physical examination, the patient presented with clicking and restriction during the extension motion of the knee joint. Magnetic resonance imaging and arthroscopy indicated complex tear of complete discoid medial meniscus in association with anomalous connection between entire apical portion of discoid medial meniscus and tibial insertion portion of the anterior cruciate ligament. We obtained a successful outcome with arthroscopic resection and shaping in one-piece method using no. 11 scalpel blade. PMID:26015618

  18. ATX-LPA receptor axis in inflammation and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuying; Murph, Mandi; Panupinthu, Nattapon; Mills, Gordon B

    2009-11-15

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, 1- or 2-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate) mediates a plethora of physiological and pathological activities via interactions with a series of high affinity G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). Both LPA receptor family members and autotaxin (ATX/LysoPLD), the primary LPA-producing enzyme, are aberrantly expressed in many human breast cancers and several other cancer lineages. Using transgenic mice expressing either an LPA receptor or ATX, we recently demonstrated that the ATX-LPA receptor axis plays a causal role in breast tumorigenesis and cancer-related inflammation, further validating the ATX-LPA receptor axis as a rich therapeutic target in cancer.

  19. Nearly-off-axis transmissivity of Solc birefringent filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Liu, Liren; Zhang, Juan; Liu, De'an; Luan, Zhu

    2003-04-01

    The characteristics of light propagating near the axis of a birefringent filter are studied. A generalized formulation to describe the nearly-off-axis transmissivity of a Solc birefringent filter is derived. On this basis, the polarization conoscopic figures of Solc filters with different numbers of birefringent plates are simulated. Furthermore the variation of spectral transmission with angle of incidence is analyzed, and the field-of-view transmissivity and the spectral transmissivity averaged with respect to the spread of incident light are given. Primary experiments for verification are also demonstrated.

  20. The properties of on-axis coupled structure RF gun

    CERN Document Server

    Oda, F; Nakayama, A; Koike, H; Tanabe, E

    2000-01-01

    Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. (KHI) has developed the compact IR FEL device, which adopts a combination of a newly designed RF gun with a thermionic cathode and an alpha-magnet as an injector. The accelerating mode of the S-band RF gun is a pi/2 standing wave mode. The coupling cell is located on the beam axis, the so-called on-axis coupled structure (OCS). The cavity shape was designed by using electromagnetic field analytical codes. The OCS RF gun was manufactured and the electromagnetic properties were measured. The results show good agreement with the simulations.