WorldWideScience

Sample records for single-kernel characterization system

  1. Development of nondestructive screening methods for single kernel characterization of wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J.P.; Pedersen, D.K.; Munck, L.

    2003-01-01

    The development of nondestructive screening methods for single seed protein, vitreousness, density, and hardness index has been studied for single kernels of European wheat. A single kernel procedure was applied involving, image analysis, near-infrared transmittance (NIT) spectroscopy, laboratory...... predictability. However, by applying an averaging approach, in which single seed replicate measurements are mathematically simulated, a very good NIT prediction model was achieved. This suggests that the single seed NIT spectra contain hardness information, but that a single seed hardness method with higher...

  2. Analysis of ergosterol in single kernel and ground grain by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yanhong; Steffenson, Brian J; Mirocha, Chester J

    2006-06-14

    A method for analyzing ergosterol in a single kernel and ground barley and wheat was developed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Samples were saponified in methanolic KOH. Ergosterol was extracted by "one step" hexane extraction and subsequently silylated by N-trimethylsilylimidazole/trimethylchlorosilane (TMSI/TMCS) reagent at room temperature. The recoveries of ergosterol from ground barley were 96.6, 97.1, 97.1, 88.5, and 90.3% at the levels of 0.2, 1, 5, 10, and 20 microg/g (ppm), respectively. The recoveries from a single kernel were between 93.0 and 95.9%. The precision (coefficient of variance) of the method was in the range 0.8-12.3%. The method detection limit (MDL) and the method quantification limit (MQL) were 18.5 and 55.6 ng/g (ppb), respectively. The ergosterol analysis method developed can be used to handle 80 samples daily by one person, making it suitable for screening cereal cultivars for resistance to fungal infection. The ability for detecting low levels of ergosterol in a single kernel provides a tool to investigate early fungal invasion and to study mechanisms of resistance to fungal diseases.

  3. Plant Phenotype Characterization System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel W McDonald; Ronald B Michaels

    2005-09-09

    This report is the final scientific report for the DOE Inventions and Innovations Project: Plant Phenotype Characterization System, DE-FG36-04GO14334. The period of performance was September 30, 2004 through July 15, 2005. The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of a new scientific instrument concept for the study of plant root systems. The root systems of plants are thought to be important in plant yield and thus important to DOE goals in renewable energy sources. The scientific study and understanding of plant root systems is hampered by the difficulty in observing root activity and the inadequacy of existing root study instrumentation options. We have demonstrated a high throughput, non-invasive, high resolution technique for visualizing plant root systems in-situ. Our approach is based upon low-energy x-ray radiography and the use of containers and substrates (artificial soil) which are virtually transparent to x-rays. The system allows us to germinate and grow plant specimens in our containers and substrates and to generate x-ray images of the developing root system over time. The same plant can be imaged at different times in its development. The system can be used for root studies in plant physiology, plant morphology, plant breeding, plant functional genomics and plant genotype screening.

  4. Single-Kernel FT-NIR Spectroscopy for Detecting Supersweet Corn (Zea mays L. Saccharata Sturt Seed Viability with Multivariate Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjun Qiu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The viability and vigor of crop seeds are crucial indicators for evaluating seed quality, and high-quality seeds can increase agricultural yield. The conventional methods for assessing seed viability are time consuming, destructive, and labor intensive. Therefore, a rapid and nondestructive technique for testing seed viability has great potential benefits for agriculture. In this study, single-kernel Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR spectroscopy with a wavelength range of 1000–2500 nm was used to distinguish viable and nonviable supersweet corn seeds. Various preprocessing algorithms coupled with partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA were implemented to test the performance of classification models. The FT-NIR spectroscopy technique successfully differentiated viable seeds from seeds that were nonviable due to overheating or artificial aging. Correct classification rates for both heat-damaged kernels and artificially aged kernels reached 98.0%. The comprehensive model could also attain an accuracy of 98.7% when combining heat-damaged samples and artificially aged samples into one category. Overall, the FT-NIR technique with multivariate data analysis methods showed great potential capacity in rapidly and nondestructively detecting seed viability in supersweet corn.

  5. Single-Kernel FT-NIR Spectroscopy for Detecting Supersweet Corn (Zea mays L. Saccharata Sturt) Seed Viability with Multivariate Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Guangjun; Lü, Enli; Lu, Huazhong; Xu, Sai; Zeng, Fanguo; Shui, Qin

    2018-03-28

    The viability and vigor of crop seeds are crucial indicators for evaluating seed quality, and high-quality seeds can increase agricultural yield. The conventional methods for assessing seed viability are time consuming, destructive, and labor intensive. Therefore, a rapid and nondestructive technique for testing seed viability has great potential benefits for agriculture. In this study, single-kernel Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy with a wavelength range of 1000-2500 nm was used to distinguish viable and nonviable supersweet corn seeds. Various preprocessing algorithms coupled with partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were implemented to test the performance of classification models. The FT-NIR spectroscopy technique successfully differentiated viable seeds from seeds that were nonviable due to overheating or artificial aging. Correct classification rates for both heat-damaged kernels and artificially aged kernels reached 98.0%. The comprehensive model could also attain an accuracy of 98.7% when combining heat-damaged samples and artificially aged samples into one category. Overall, the FT-NIR technique with multivariate data analysis methods showed great potential capacity in rapidly and nondestructively detecting seed viability in supersweet corn.

  6. Characterizing Decision Support Telemedicine Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nannings, B.; Abu-Hanna, A.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Decision Support Telemedicine Systems (DSTS) are at the intersection of two disciplines: tele-medicine and clinical decision support systems (CDSS). The objective of this paper is to provide a set of characterizing properties for DSTSs. This characterizing property set (CPS) can be used

  7. Imaging systems and materials characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murr, L.E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a broad background for the historical development and modern applications of light optical metallography, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, field-ion microscopy and several forms of scanning probe microscopes. Numerous case examples illustrating especially synergistic applications of these imaging systems are provided to demonstrate materials characterization especially in the context of structure-property-performance issues which define materials science and engineering

  8. Gas characterization system software acceptance test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, C.V.

    1996-01-01

    This document details the results of software acceptance testing of gas characterization systems. The gas characterization systems will be used to monitor the vapor spaces of waste tanks known to contain measurable concentrations of flammable gases

  9. Portable system to luminaries characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecpoyotl-Torres, M.; Vera-Dimas, J. G.; Koshevaya, S.; Escobedo-Alatorre, J.; Cisneros-Villalobos, L.; Sanchez-Mondragon, J.

    2014-09-01

    For illumination sources designers is important to know the illumination distribution of their products. They can use several viewers of IES files (standard file format determined by Illuminating Engineering Society). This files are necessary not only know the distribution of illumination, but also to plain the construction of buildings by means of specialized softwares, such as Autodesk Revit. In this paper, a complete portable system for luminaries' characterization is given. The components of the systems are: Irradiance profile meter, which can generate photometry of luminaries of small sizes which covers indoor illumination requirements and luminaries for general areas. One of the meteŕs attributes is given by the color sensor implemented, which allows knowing the color temperature of luminary under analysis. The Graphic Unit Interface (GUI) has several characteristics: It can control the meter, acquires the data obtained by the sensor and graphs them in 2D under Cartesian and polar formats or 3D, in Cartesian format. The graph can be exported to png, jpg, or bmp formats, if necessary. These remarkable characteristics differentiate this GUI. This proposal can be considered as a viable option for enterprises of illumination design and manufacturing, due to the relatively low investment level and considering the complete illumination characterization provided.

  10. Characterization system for resonant micro- and nanocantilevers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandberg, Rasmus Kousholt; Boisen, Anja; Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2005-01-01

    We present a system for characterization of the resonant properties of micro- and nanocantilever sensors. The system has been constructed as a vacuum chamber with capabilities for controlling environmental conditions such as pressure, temperature, and chemical constituents. Characterization can...... in resonant frequency determination, and demonstrating the importance of resonance characterization in a controlled environment. ©2005 American Institute of Physics...

  11. Computer systems and software description for gas characterization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, C.V.

    1997-01-01

    The Gas Characterization System Project was commissioned by TWRS management with funding from TWRS Safety, on December 1, 1994. The project objective is to establish an instrumentation system to measure flammable gas concentrations in the vapor space of selected watch list tanks, starting with tank AN-105 and AW-101. Data collected by this system is meant to support first tank characterization, then tank safety. System design is premised upon Characterization rather than mitigation, therefore redundancy is not required

  12. Characterization of gradient control systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cortés, Jorge; van der Schaft, Arjan; Crouch, Peter E.

    2005-01-01

    Given a general nonlinear affine control system with outputs and a torsion-free affine connection defined on its state space, we investigate the gradient realization problem: we give necessary and sufficient conditions under which the control system can be written as a gradient control system

  13. Electric Propulsion System Characterization through Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Hattenberger, Gautier; Drouin, Antoine; Bronz, Murat

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Electrical propulsion system characteristics are very important in UAV design, operation and control. This article presents the characterization of electric propulsion sets through experiments. A motor test bench have been build based on previous experience in order to improve the quality of the measurements. Moreover, the bench fits in a wind tunnel, allowing to perform a complete characterization over the full airspeed range of the considered mini and micro-UAVs. Aft...

  14. Three dimensional characterization and archiving system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, R.L.; Clark, R.; Gallman, P.

    1996-01-01

    The Three Dimensional Characterization and Archiving System (3D-ICAS) is being developed as a remote system to perform rapid in situ analysis of hazardous organics and radionuclide contamination on structural materials. Coleman Research and its subcontractors, Thermedics Detection, Inc. (TD) and the University of Idaho (UI) are in the second phase of a three phase program to develop 3D-ICAS to support Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) operations. Accurate physical characterization of surfaces and the radioactive and organic is a critical D and D task. Surface characterization includes identification of potentially dangerous inorganic materials, such as asbestos and transite. Real-time remotely operable characterization instrumentation will significantly advance the analysis capabilities beyond those currently employed. Chemical analysis is a primary area where the characterization process will be improved. The 3D-ICAS system robotically conveys a multisensor probe near the surfaces to be inspected. The sensor position and orientation are monitored and controlled using coherent laser radar (CLR) tracking. The CLR also provides 3D facility maps which establish a 3D world view within which the robotic sensor system can operate

  15. Characterization of P2P Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzbach, Daniel; Rejaie, Reza

    The combination of large scale and geographically distributed nature of P2P system has led to their significant impact on the Internet. It is essential to characterize deployed P2P system for at least three reasons: (1) Accurately assessing their impact on the Internet, (2) identifying any performance bottleneck as well as any opportunity for performance improvement, (3) understanding user-driven dynamics in P2P systems. To characterize a P2P system, one needs to accurately capture snapshots of the resulting P2P overlay. This is challenging because the overlay is often large and dynamic. While the overlay is discovered by a crawler, it is changing which leads to a distorted view of the system. Capturing unbiased view of the traffic in the overlay is equally challenging because it is difficult to show that the captured behavior represent the observed behavior by all peers. In this chapter, we describe some of the fundamental problems in empirical characterization of widely deployed P2P systems. We present several examples to illustrate the effect of ad-hoc measurement/data collection on the resulting analysis/characterization. We then present two sampling techniques as a powerful approach to capture unbiased view of peer properties in a scalable fashion.

  16. Three dimensional characterization and archiving system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, R.L.; Clark, R.; Gallman, P.

    1995-01-01

    The Three Dimensional Characterization and Archiving System (3D-ICAS) is being developed as a remote system to perform rapid in situ analysis of hazardous organics and radionuclide contamination on structural materials. Coleman Research and its subcontractors, Thermedics Detection, Inc. (TD) and the University of Idaho (UI) are in the second phase of a three phase program to develop 3D-ICAS to support Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) operations. Accurate physical characterization of surfaces and the radioactive and organic is a critical D ampersand D task. Surface characterization includes identification of potentially dangerous inorganic materials, such as asbestos and transite. Real-time remotely operable characterization instrumentation will significantly advance the analysis capabilities beyond those currently employed. Chemical analysis is a primary area where the characterization process will be improved. Chemical analysis plays a vital role throughout the process of decontamination. Before clean-up operations can begin the site must be characterized with respect to the type and concentration of contaminants, and detailed site mapping must clarify areas of both high and low risk. During remediation activities chemical analysis provides a means to measure progress and to adjust clean-up strategy. Once the clean-up process has been completed the results of chemical analysis will verify that the site is in compliance with federal and local regulations

  17. Three dimensional characterization and archiving system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastian, R.L.; Clark, R.; Gallman, P. [and others

    1995-12-01

    The Three Dimensional Characterization and Archiving System (3D-ICAS) is being developed as a remote system to perform rapid in situ analysis of hazardous organics and radionuclide contamination on structural materials. Coleman Research and its subcontractors, Thermedics Detection, Inc. (TD) and the University of Idaho (UI) are in the second phase of a three phase program to develop 3D-ICAS to support Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) operations. Accurate physical characterization of surfaces and the radioactive and organic is a critical D&D task. Surface characterization includes identification of potentially dangerous inorganic materials, such as asbestos and transite. Real-time remotely operable characterization instrumentation will significantly advance the analysis capabilities beyond those currently employed. Chemical analysis is a primary area where the characterization process will be improved. Chemical analysis plays a vital role throughout the process of decontamination. Before clean-up operations can begin the site must be characterized with respect to the type and concentration of contaminants, and detailed site mapping must clarify areas of both high and low risk. During remediation activities chemical analysis provides a means to measure progress and to adjust clean-up strategy. Once the clean-up process has been completed the results of chemical analysis will verify that the site is in compliance with federal and local regulations.

  18. Tank waste remediation system characterization project quality policies. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trimble, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    These Quality Policies (QPs) describe the Quality Management System of the Tank Waste Characterization Project (hereafter referred to as the Characterization Project), Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS), Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The Quality Policies and quality requirements described herein are binding on all Characterization Project organizations. To achieve quality, the Characterization Project management team shall implement this Characterization Project Quality Management System

  19. A fuzzy expert system for soil characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Eva M; García, Miriam; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

    2008-10-01

    As soil is a natural resource not always renewable, the risk characterization of contaminated soils is an issue of great interest. Artificial Intelligence (AI), based on Decision Support Systems (DSSs), has been developed for a wide range of applications in contaminated soil management. Decision trees have already shown to be easy to interpret and able to treat large scale applications. Fuzzy logic gives an improvement in the perturbations and the variance of the training data, due to the elasticity of fuzzy set formalism. In this study, we have developed a classificatory tool applied to characterize contaminated soil in function of human and environmental risks. Knowledge engineering for constructing the Soil Risk Characterization Decision Support System (SRC-DSS) involves three stages: knowledge acquisition, conceptual design and system implementation. A total of 26 parameters were divided into three groups to facilitate the configuration of the expert system: source attributes, transfer vector attributes, and local properties. Sixteen case studies were evaluated with the SRC-DSS. In comparison with other techniques, the results of the current study have shown that SRC-DDS is an excellent tool to classify and characterize soils according to the associated risk.

  20. MICRO AUTO GASIFICATION SYSTEM: EMISSIONS CHARACTERIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A compact, CONEX-housed waste to energy unit, Micro Auto Gasification System (MAGS), was characterized for air emissions from burning of military waste types. The MAGS unit is a dual chamber gasifier with a secondary diesel-fired combustor. Eight tests were conducted with multipl...

  1. Small pipe characterization system (SPCS) conceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M.O.; Ferrante, T.A.; McKay, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex there are many facilities that have been identified for Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D). As processes are terminated or brought off-line, facilities are placed on the inactive list, and facility managers and site contractors are required to assure a safe and reliable decommissioning and transition of these facilities to a clean final state. Decommissioning of facilities requires extensive reliable characterization, decontamination and in some cases dismantlement. Characterization of piping systems throughout the DOE complex is becoming more and more necessary. In addition to decommissioning activities, characterization activities are performed as part of surveillance and maintenance (S&M). Because of the extent of contamination, all inactive facilities require some type of S&M. These S&M activities include visual assessment, equipment and material accounting, and maintenance. The majority of the inactive facilities have piping systems 3 inches or smaller that are inaccessible because they are contaminated, imbedded in concrete, or run through hot cells. Many of these piping systems have been inactive for a number of years and there exists no current system condition information or the historical records are poor and/or missing altogether. Many of these piping systems are placed on the contaminated list, not because of known contamination, but because of the risk of internal contamination. Many of the piping systems placed on the contamination list may not have internal contamination. Because there is a potential however, they are treated as such. The cost of D&D can be greatly reduced by identifying and removing hot spot contamination, leaving clean piping to be removed using conventional methods. Accurate characterization of these piping systems is essential before, during and after all D&D activities.

  2. Small pipe characterization system (SPCS) conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.O.; Ferrante, T.A.; McKay, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex there are many facilities that have been identified for Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D). As processes are terminated or brought off-line, facilities are placed on the inactive list, and facility managers and site contractors are required to assure a safe and reliable decommissioning and transition of these facilities to a clean final state. Decommissioning of facilities requires extensive reliable characterization, decontamination and in some cases dismantlement. Characterization of piping systems throughout the DOE complex is becoming more and more necessary. In addition to decommissioning activities, characterization activities are performed as part of surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M). Because of the extent of contamination, all inactive facilities require some type of S ampersand M. These S ampersand M activities include visual assessment, equipment and material accounting, and maintenance. The majority of the inactive facilities have piping systems 3 inches or smaller that are inaccessible because they are contaminated, imbedded in concrete, or run through hot cells. Many of these piping systems have been inactive for a number of years and there exists no current system condition information or the historical records are poor and/or missing altogether. Many of these piping systems are placed on the contaminated list, not because of known contamination, but because of the risk of internal contamination. Many of the piping systems placed on the contamination list may not have internal contamination. Because there is a potential however, they are treated as such. The cost of D ampersand D can be greatly reduced by identifying and removing hot spot contamination, leaving clean piping to be removed using conventional methods. Accurate characterization of these piping systems is essential before, during and after all D ampersand D activities

  3. Characterization analysis database system (CADS). A system overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The CADS database is a standardized, quality-assured, and configuration-controlled data management system developed to assist in the task of characterizing the DOE surplus HEU material. Characterization of the surplus HEU inventory includes identifying the specific material; gathering existing data about the inventory; defining the processing steps that may be necessary to prepare the material for transfer to a blending site; and, ultimately, developing a range of the preliminary cost estimates for those processing steps. Characterization focuses on producing commercial reactor fuel as the final step in material disposition. Based on the project analysis results, the final determination will be made as to the viability of the disposition path for each particular item of HEU. The purpose of this document is to provide an informational overview of the CADS database, its evolution, and its current capabilities. This document describes the purpose of CADS, the system requirements it fulfills, the database structure, and the operational guidelines of the system

  4. Bioinspired sensory systems for local flow characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvert, Brendan; Chen, Kevin; Kanso, Eva

    2016-11-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that many aquatic organisms sense differential hydrodynamic signals.This sensory information is decoded to extract relevant flow properties. This task is challenging because it relies on local and partial measurements, whereas classical flow characterization methods depend on an external observer to reconstruct global flow fields. Here, we introduce a mathematical model in which a bioinspired sensory array measuring differences in local flow velocities characterizes the flow type and intensity. We linearize the flow field around the sensory array and express the velocity gradient tensor in terms of frame-independent parameters. We develop decoding algorithms that allow the sensory system to characterize the local flow and discuss the conditions under which this is possible. We apply this framework to the canonical problem of a circular cylinder in uniform flow, finding excellent agreement between sensed and actual properties. Our results imply that combining suitable velocity sensors with physics-based methods for decoding sensory measurements leads to a powerful approach for understanding and developing underwater sensory systems.

  5. A teleoperated system for remote site characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandness, G.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Richardson, B.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Pence, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    The detection and characterization of buried objects and materials is an important first step in the restoration of burial sites containing chemical and radioactive waste materials at Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Defense (DOD) facilities. To address the need to minimize the exposure of on-site personnel to the hazards associated with such sites, the DOE Office of Technology Development and the US Army Environmental Center have jointly supported the development of the Remote Characterization System (RCS). One of the main components of the RCS is a small remotely driven survey vehicle that can transport various combinations of geophysical and radiological sensors. Currently implemented sensors include ground-penetrating radar, magnetometers, an electromagnetic induction sensor, and a sodium iodide radiation detector. The survey vehicle was constructed predominantly of non-metallic materials to minimize its effect on the operation of its geophysical sensors. The system operator controls the vehicle from a remote, truck-mounted, base station. Video images are transmitted to the base station by an radio link to give the operator necessary visual information. Vehicle control commands, tracking information, and sensor data are transmitted between the survey vehicle and the base station by means of a radio ethernet link. Precise vehicle tracking coordinates are provided by a differential Global Positioning System (GPS). The sensors are environmentally protected, internally cooled, and interchangeable based on mission requirements. To date, the RCS has been successfully tested at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory.

  6. AeroMACS System Characterization and Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Apaza, Rafael D.; Dimond, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is being developed to provide a new broadband wireless communications capability for safety critical communications in the airport surface domain, providing connectivity to aircraft and other ground vehicles as well as connections between other critical airport fixed assets. AeroMACS development has progressed from requirements definition through technology definition, prototype deployment and testing, and now into national and international standards development. The first prototype AeroMACS system has been deployed at the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (CLE) and the adjacent NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). During the past three years, extensive technical testing has taken place to characterize the performance of the AeroMACS prototype and provide technical support for the standards development process. The testing has characterized AeroMACS link and network performance over a variety of conditions for both fixed and mobile data transmission and has included basic system performance testing and fixed and mobile applications testing. This paper provides a summary of the AeroMACS performance testing and the status of standardization activities that the testing supports.

  7. A teleoperated system for remote site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandness, G.A.; Richardson, B.S.; Pence, J.

    1993-08-01

    The detection and characterization of buried objects and materials is an important first step in the restoration of burial sites containing chemical and radioactive waste materials at Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Defense (DOD) facilities. To address the need to minimize the exposure of on-site personnel to the hazards associated with such sites, the DOE Office of Technology Development and the US Army Environmental Center have jointly supported the development of the Remote Characterization System (RCS). One of the main components of the RCS is a small remotely driven survey vehicle that can transport various combinations of geophysical and radiological sensors. Currently implemented sensors include ground-penetrating radar, magnetometers, an electromagnetic induction sensor, and a sodium iodide radiation detector. The survey vehicle was constructed predominantly of non-metallic materials to minimize its effect on the operation of its geophysical sensors. The system operator controls the vehicle from a remote, truck-mounted, base station. Video images are transmitted to the base station by an radio link to give the operator necessary visual information. Vehicle control commands, tracking information, and sensor data are transmitted between the survey vehicle and the base station by means of a radio ethernet link. Precise vehicle tracking coordinates are provided by a differential Global Positioning System (GPS). The sensors are environmentally protected, internally cooled, and interchangeable based on mission requirements. To date, the RCS has been successfully tested at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

  8. Characterization methods for ultrasonic test systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busse, L.J.; Becker, F.L.; Bowey, R.E.; Doctor, S.R.; Gribble, R.P.; Posakony, G.J.

    1982-07-01

    Methods for the characterization of ultrasonic transducers (search units) and instruments are presented. The instrument system is considered as three separate components consisting of a transducer, a receiver-display, and a pulser. The operation of each component is assessed independently. The methods presented were chosen because they provide the greatest amount of information about component operation and were not chosen based upon such conditions as cost, ease of operation, field implementation, etc. The results of evaluating a number of commercially available ultrasonic test instruments are presented

  9. Pump system characterization and reliability enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staunton, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    Pump characterization studies were performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to review and analyze six years (1990-1995) of data from pump systems at domestic nuclear plants. The studies considered not only pumps and pump motors but also pump-related circuit breakers and turbine drives (i.e., the pump system). One significant finding was that the number of 'significant' failures of the pump circuit breaker exceeds the number of significant failures of the pump itself. The study also shows how regulatory code testing was designed for the pump only and therefore did not lead to the discovery of other significant pump system failures. Potential diagnostic technologies, both experimental and mature, suitable for on-line and off-line pump testing were identified. The study does not select or recommend technologies but proposes diagnostic technologies and monitoring techniques that should be further evaluated/developed for making meaningful and critically-needed improvements in the reliability of the pump system. (author)

  10. Characterization of a thermoluminiscence personnel dosimetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez Lopez, C.; Saez, J.C.; Labarta, T.

    1989-01-01

    Various tests carried out to characterize a Thermoluminiscence Personnel Dosimetry Automatic System, based on the optical heating of a multielement dosemeter are presented. The dosemeter consists of Lithium Borate (Copper) and Calcium Sulphate (Thallium) phosphors. The Dosimetric System shows some outstanding features, such as its simplicity (no aditional annealing procedures are required), its short reading cycle (160 TLD per hour and its data handling capabilities (RS-232C and Parallel Printer digital ports and four analigic outputs for Glow Curve Adquisition). The tests performed have been designed to conform with the different existing international Standards and Recommendations (ANSI: N13.11-1983; IEC:Draft 45B-1987, ISO:DP 8034-1984) The new radiological quantities (I.C.R.U.-19855) have been used for calibration. The results obtained (linearity, repeatibility, detection threshold, residue, stability of stored information, etc) show the optimum performance of this dosimetric system in its aplication to routine personnel dose monitoring. Based on the dosemeter energy discriminating response, an algorithm for dose assesment has been developed. The method allows personal dose calculations within 10% and gives valuable information on the quality and energy of incident radiation, for photons from 30 to 2000 keV and for Beta penetrating radiation (Sr/Y, U). (Author)

  11. Optical Assembly and Characterization System for Nano-Photonics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Integrated device characterization for both in-plane and surface-normal photonic devices. This assembly and characterization system will significantly...Unlimited Final Report: Optical Assembly and Characterization System for Nano- Photonics Research The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this...reviewed journals: Final Report: Optical Assembly and Characterization System for Nano- Photonics Research Report Title With this equipment funding support

  12. Phenotypic characterization of camels and their production system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of the study were to characterize the production system of camel in Yabello and Melka Soda districts and to characterize phenotypically camel based on quantitative and qualitative traits. A total of 192 households were selected for characterization of the production system and 300 camels were sampled ...

  13. Tracers for Characterizing Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karen Wright; George Redden; Carl D. Palmer; Harry Rollins; Mark Stone; Mason Harrup; Laurence C. Hull

    2010-02-01

    Information about the times of thermal breakthrough and subsequent rates of thermal drawdown in enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) is necessary for reservoir management, designing fracture stimulation and well drilling programs, and forecasting economic return. Thermal breakthrough in heterogeneous porous media can be estimated using conservative tracers and assumptions about heat transfer rates; however, tracers that undergo temperature-dependent changes can provide more detailed information about the thermal profile along the flow path through the reservoir. To be effectively applied, the thermal reaction rates of such temperature sensitive traces must be well characterized for the range of conditions that exist in geothermal systems. Reactive tracers proposed in the literature include benzoic and carboxylic acids (Adams) and organic esters and amides (Robinson et al.); however, the practical temperature range over which these tracers can be applied (100-275°C) is somewhat limited. Further, for organic esters and amides, little is known about their sorption to the reservoir matrix and how such reactions impact data interpretation. Another approach involves tracers where the reference condition is internal to the tracer itself. Two examples are: 1) racemization of polymeric amino acids, and 2) mineral thermoluminescence. In these cases internal ratios of states are measured rather than extents of degradation and mass loss. Racemization of poly-L-lactic acid (for example) is temperature sensitive and therefore can be used as a temperature-recording tracer depending on the rates of racemization and stability of the amino acids. Heat-induced quenching of thermoluminescence of pre-irradiated LiF can also be used. To protect the tracers from alterations (extraneous reactions, dissolution) in geothermal environments we are encapsulating the tracers in core-shell colloidal structures that will subsequently be tested for their ability to be transported and to protect the

  14. Electrical and Optical Characterization System for IR Photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-12

    Electrical and Optical Characterization System for IR Photodetectors The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the...published in non peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: Electrical and Optical Characterization System for IR Photodetectors Report Title This DURIP project...Final Report for the ARO DURIP Program Electrical and Optical Characterization System for IR Photodetectors Grant No.: W911NF-14-1-0446   Period 01

  15. Preliminary characterization of abandoned septic tank systems. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This report documents the activities and findings of the Phase I Preliminary Characterization of Abandoned Septic Tank Systems. The purpose of the preliminary characterization activity was to investigate the Tiger Team abandoned septic systems (tanks and associated leachfields) for the purpose of identifying waste streams for closure at a later date. The work performed was not to fully characterize or remediate the sites. The abandoned systems potentially received wastes or effluent from buildings which could have discharged non-domestic, petroleum hydrocarbons, hazardous, radioactive and/or mixed wastes. A total of 20 sites were investigated for the preliminary characterization of identified abandoned septic systems. Of the 20 sites, 19 were located and characterized through samples collected from each tank(s) and, where applicable, associated leachfields. The abandoned septic tank systems are located in Areas 5, 12, 15, 25, and 26 on the Nevada Test Site.

  16. Preliminary characterization of abandoned septic tank systems. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This report documents the activities and findings of the Phase I Preliminary Characterization of Abandoned Septic Tank Systems. The purpose of the preliminary characterization activity was to investigate the Tiger Team abandoned septic systems (tanks and associated leachfields) for the purpose of identifying waste streams for closure at a later date. The work performed was not to fully characterize or remediate the sites. The abandoned systems potentially received wastes or effluent from buildings which could have discharged non-domestic, petroleum hydrocarbons, hazardous, radioactive and/or mixed wastes. A total of 20 sites were investigated for the preliminary characterization of identified abandoned septic systems. Of the 20 sites, 19 were located and characterized through samples collected from each tank(s) and, where applicable, associated leachfields. The abandoned septic tank systems are located in Areas 5, 12, 15, 25, and 26 on the Nevada Test Site

  17. Calibration and characterization of a low level waste assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giesler, G.C.; Henry, S.A.; Johnson, S.L.; Vehar, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    In today's rapidly changing regulatory environment, increasingly detailed information is required about the composition of items intended for disposal. We have examined a system that can be used to measure the radioactivity in a container of waste destined for disposal. In order to better understand the capabilities and limitations of the system, we performed a number of measurements to calibrate and characterize this system. The results of this characterization including detectability limits for 235 U and 239 Pu are presented

  18. Characterization of lens based photoacoustic imaging system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalloor Joseph Francis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Some of the challenges in translating photoacoustic (PA imaging to clinical applications includes limited view of the target tissue, low signal to noise ratio and the high cost of developing real-time systems. Acoustic lens based PA imaging systems, also known as PA cameras are a potential alternative to conventional imaging systems in these scenarios. The 3D focusing action of lens enables real-time C-scan imaging with a 2D transducer array. In this paper, we model the underlying physics in a PA camera in the mathematical framework of an imaging system and derive a closed form expression for the point spread function (PSF. Experimental verification follows including the details on how to design and fabricate the lens inexpensively. The system PSF is evaluated over a 3D volume that can be imaged by this PA camera. Its utility is demonstrated by imaging phantom and an ex vivo human prostate tissue sample.

  19. Intrapixel response test system for multispectral characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Thomas A.; Reich, Robert K.; McGonagle, William H.; Kosicki, Bernard B.

    1999-04-01

    We report on the design of a system used to measure the multispectral intrapixel response of imaging sensor arrays. An Airy disk spot size of approximately 4 micrometers has been achieved for wavelength bands that extend from the visible blue to near IR. The automated system does rapid intrapixel row and/or column spatial mapping of individual pixels as well as rastered 2D spatial scans over multi-pixel girds. Commercially available equipment including a photometric eyepiece, a reflective objects, programmable pushers, and light-emitting diodes are utilized in the system. Scanned results using the system are presented for both front- and back-illuminating charge-coupled device imagers. The intrapixel response of a front-illuminated device shows good correlation with the physical cross section of the devices tested.

  20. Tank waste remediation system characterization project quality policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Board, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    This quality plan describes the system used by Characterization Project management to achieve quality. This plan is comprised of eleven quality policies which, when taken together, form a management system deployed to achieve quality. This quality management system is based on the customer's quality requirements known as the 'RULE', 10 CFR 830.120, Quality Assurance

  1. Characterization of discontinuity systems in gneiss formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jhin Wung; Kang, Byoung Moo; Rhee, Chan Goo

    1990-05-01

    Suitability evaluation for the site of radioactive waste disposal includes the consideration on rock mass stability and groundwater flow condition, which reflects the attitude of discontinuities present in rock. The research work was done to develop the objective descriptive method and analysing techniques for the discontinuity system and to enhance techniques for predicting the extent of the system in subsurface. A descriptive method for evaluating discontinuities in gneissic rock mass was established. The distribution of discontinuities were analysed based on geometric, mechanical, and hydrogeological parameters. The various parameters of discontinuties were collected based on rock type, discontinuites were collection and plunge, trace length, roughness, aperture type. The three dimensional distribution and orientation of the system were synthesized. The results indicate that the discontinuities are composed of 3 major sets. The frequency, concentrations, spacings, trace lengths, and the interconnectivity index were estimated for the three sets. The frequency depends on depth but abnormal high frequency zone also exists. (author)

  2. An Intelligent Systems Approach to Reservoir Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahab D. Mohaghegh; Jaime Toro; Thomas H. Wilson; Emre Artun; Alejandro Sanchez; Sandeep Pyakurel

    2005-08-01

    Today, the major challenge in reservoir characterization is integrating data coming from different sources in varying scales, in order to obtain an accurate and high-resolution reservoir model. The role of seismic data in this integration is often limited to providing a structural model for the reservoir. Its relatively low resolution usually limits its further use. However, its areal coverage and availability suggest that it has the potential of providing valuable data for more detailed reservoir characterization studies through the process of seismic inversion. In this paper, a novel intelligent seismic inversion methodology is presented to achieve a desirable correlation between relatively low-frequency seismic signals, and the much higher frequency wireline-log data. Vertical seismic profile (VSP) is used as an intermediate step between the well logs and the surface seismic. A synthetic seismic model is developed by using real data and seismic interpretation. In the example presented here, the model represents the Atoka and Morrow formations, and the overlying Pennsylvanian sequence of the Buffalo Valley Field in New Mexico. Generalized regression neural network (GRNN) is used to build two independent correlation models between; (1) Surface seismic and VSP, (2) VSP and well logs. After generating virtual VSP's from the surface seismic, well logs are predicted by using the correlation between VSP and well logs. The values of the density log, which is a surrogate for reservoir porosity, are predicted for each seismic trace through the seismic line with a classification approach having a correlation coefficient of 0.81. The same methodology is then applied to real data taken from the Buffalo Valley Field, to predict inter-well gamma ray and neutron porosity logs through the seismic line of interest. The same procedure can be applied to a complete 3D seismic block to obtain 3D distributions of reservoir properties with less uncertainty than the geostatistical

  3. Fuzzy Expert System to Characterize Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, T.

    2011-01-01

    Students wanting to succeed in higher education are required to adopt an adequate learning approach. By analyzing individual learning characteristics, teachers can give personal advice to help students identify their learning success factors. An expert system based on fuzzy logic can provide economically viable solutions to help students identify…

  4. Characterization of SOI monolithic detector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Rengifo, P. L.; Soung Yee, L.; Martin, E.; Cortina, E.; Ferrer, C.

    2013-12-01

    A monolithic active pixel sensor for charged particle tracking was developed. This research is performed within the framework of an R&D project called TRAPPISTe (Tracking Particles for Physics Instrumentation in SOI Technology) whose aim is to evaluate the feasibility of developing a Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) with Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) technology. Two chips were fabricated: TRAPPISTe-1 and TRAPPISTe-2. TRAPPISTe-1 was produced at the WINFAB facility at the Université catholique de Louvain (UCL), Belgium, in a 2 μm fully depleted (FD-SOI) CMOS process. TRAPPISTe-2 was fabricated with the LAPIS 0.2 μm FD-SOI CMOS process. The electrical characterization on single transistor test structures and of the electronic readout for the TRAPPISTe series of monolithic pixel detectors was carried out. The behavior of the prototypes’ electronics as a function of the back voltage was studied. Results showed that both readout circuits exhibited sensitivity to the back voltage. Despite this unwanted secondary effect, the responses of TRAPPISTe-2 amplifiers can be improved by a variation in the circuit parameters.

  5. Thermal Characterization of Molten Salt Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y. Gutknecht; Guy L. Fredrickson

    2011-09-01

    The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner (ER) may be adversely affected by the buildup of sodium, fission products, and transuranics in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided are the following: (1) salt freezing due to an unexpected change in the liquidus temperature, (2) phase separation or non-homogeneity of the molten salt due to the precipitation of solids or formation of immiscible liquids, and (3) any mechanism that can result in the separation and concentration of fissile elements from the molten salt. Any of these situations would result in an off-normal condition outside the established safety basis for electrorefiner (ER) operations. The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can potentially be monitored through the thermal characterization of the salts, which can be a function of impurity concentration. This report describes the experimental results of typical salts compositions, which consist of chlorides of potassium, lithium, strontium, samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, barium, cerium, cesium, neodymium, sodium and gadolinium chlorides as a surrogate for both uranium and plutonium, used for the processing of used nuclear fuels.

  6. Site characterization for hybrid system construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldana, R.; Miranda, U.; Medrano, M. C. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The basic reason to use alternative systems for electricity generation, in most cases, is the lack of electricity services, such as isolated rural communities which are located far away from the electric distribution line, and the cost of its extension is too expensive, while decentralized power systems can be an economic and appropriate solution to providing these services. Up to now there are several technological options for rural electrification using PV modules, wind plants, water-power plants, anaerobic digesters, or a combination of some of them, according to the availability of energetic resources. The applications include centralized or decentralized systems, autonomous or hybrid systems, isolated or interconnected to the electric line, etc. A particular hybrid system design can be done considering two general aspects, first it is necessary to know the electric consumption that will be supplied, taking into account present and future necessities and how local energetic resources are present in a selected site. Finally, also it is necessary to carry out an economic analysis to determine the cost of kilowatt-hour generated using local energetic resources and compare it with the cost of electricity produced by conventional power systems. [Espanol] La razon principal para el uso de sistemas alternativos de generacion de electricidad, en la mayoria de los casos, es la falta de servicios de electricidad, tal como en las comunidades rurales aisladas localizadas lejos de linea de distribucion electrica, donde el costo de su extension es demasiado caro, mientras que los sistemas descentralizados de energia pueden ser una solucion economica y adecuada para proporcionar estos servicios. Hasta ahora existen varias opciones tecnologicas para la electrificacion rural usando modulos fotovoltaicos, aerogeneradores, plantas hidroelectricas, digestores anaerobicos o una combinacion de algunos de ellos, de acuerdo con la disponibilidad de los recursos energeticos. Las

  7. Obstacle Characterization in a Geocrowdsourced Accessibility System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, H.; Aburizaiza, A. O.; Rice, R. M.; Paez, F.; Rice, M. T.

    2015-08-01

    Transitory obstacles - random, short-lived and unpredictable objects - are difficult to capture in any traditional mapping system, yet they have significant negative impacts on the accessibility of mobility- and visually-impaired individuals. These transitory obstacles include sidewalk obstructions, construction detours, and poor surface conditions. To identify these obstacles and assist the navigation of mobility- and visually- impaired individuals, crowdsourced mapping applications have been developed to harvest and analyze the volunteered obstacles reports from local students, faculty, staff, and residents. In this paper, we introduce a training program designed and implemented for recruiting and motivating contributors to participate in our geocrowdsourced accessibility system, and explore the quality of geocrowdsourced data with a comparative analysis methodology.

  8. OBSTACLE CHARACTERIZATION IN A GEOCROWDSOURCED ACCESSIBILITY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Qin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Transitory obstacles – random, short-lived and unpredictable objects – are difficult to capture in any traditional mapping system, yet they have significant negative impacts on the accessibility of mobility- and visually-impaired individuals. These transitory obstacles include sidewalk obstructions, construction detours, and poor surface conditions. To identify these obstacles and assist the navigation of mobility- and visually- impaired individuals, crowdsourced mapping applications have been developed to harvest and analyze the volunteered obstacles reports from local students, faculty, staff, and residents. In this paper, we introduce a training program designed and implemented for recruiting and motivating contributors to participate in our geocrowdsourced accessibility system, and explore the quality of geocrowdsourced data with a comparative analysis methodology.

  9. Generic data acquisition system for robotic waste characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feddema, J.T.; Spletzer, B.L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a generic data acquisition system for robotic characterization of DOE production facilities and waste sites. While the specific suite of characterization sensors on the end of a robotic arm or vehicle will depend on site needs, many of the data acquisition, display, archival and interpretation requirements of the sites are common. Therefore, the objective is to create a generic, reusable computing and data acquisition system which can accept a multitude of sensors. This paper discusses the progress to date and future plans for the system

  10. Proposal of a framework for product-service systems characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Hansch Beuren

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Product-service systems (PSS design raises new issues, among which the need of encompassing a life cycle perspective. The aim of this paper is to propose a conceptual framework for PSS characterization through its life cycle. The purpose is to understand the structure, the sequence, and the main characteristics of PSS life cycle phases, characterizing a PSS process model. A systematic literature review was carried out to identify the PSS life cycle phases and the conceptual elements that characterize each phase. The PSS life cycle was structured based on service life cycle from the customer perspective. Afterwards, the conceptual framework was built for PSS characterization considering business model, engineering and design aspects that may be useful to guide PSS solutions development. The paper aims to make a theoretical contribution by understanding what should be done and how to perform the activities during PSS life cycle at a systemic level.

  11. Characterizing Water Quenching Systems with a Quench Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, B. Lynn; Li, Zhichao; Freborg, Andrew M.

    2014-12-01

    Quench probes have been used effectively to characterize the quality of quenchants for many years. For this purpose, a variety of commercial probes, as well as the necessary data acquisition system for determining the time-temperature data for a set of standardized test conditions, are available for purchase. The type of information obtained from such probes provides a good basis for comparing media, characterizing general cooling capabilities, and checking media condition over time. However, these data do not adequately characterize the actual production quenching process in terms of heat transfer behavior in many cases, especially when high temperature gradients are present. Faced with the need to characterize water quenching practices, including conventional and intensive practices, a quench probe was developed. This paper describes that probe, the data collection system, the data gathered for both intensive quenching and conventional water quenching, and the heat transfer coefficients determined for these processes. Process sensitivities are investigated and highlight some intricacies of quenching.

  12. Tank Waste Remediation System Characterization Project Programmatic Risk Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baide, D.G.; Webster, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    The TWRS Characterization Project has developed a process and plan in order to identify, manage and control the risks associated with tank waste characterization activities. The result of implementing this process is a defined list of programmatic risks (i.e. a risk management list) that are used by the Project as management tool. This concept of risk management process is a commonly used systems engineering approach which is being applied to all TWRS program and project elements. The Characterization Project risk management plan and list are subset of the overall TWRS risk management plan and list

  13. Workload characterization for the space station data communications system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevcik, K. C.

    1986-01-01

    NASA plans to launch a permanent manned space station in the early 1990's. The station will be used to support a wide variety of activities involving Earth and space observation, satellite maintenance, scientific experimentation, and commercial manufacturing. The control and monitoring of many of these activities will require extensive computer and communications system support. In order to identify an appropriate computer and communication system for supporting the space station, an attempt to characterize the space station's data communications subsystem workload is currently underway. Some of the special aspects of the workload characterization problem are discussed in connection with the space station, and some possible approaches are presented.

  14. Remote Underwater Characterization System - Innovative Technology Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, W.D.

    1999-01-01

    Characterization and inspection of water-cooled and moderated nuclear reactors and fuel storage pools requires equipment capable of operating underwater. Similarly, the deactivation and decommissioning of older nuclear facilities often requires the facility owner to accurately characterize underwater structures and equipment which may have been sitting idle for years. The Remote Underwater Characterization System (RUCS) is a small, remotely operated submersible vehicle intended to serve multiple purposes in underwater nuclear operations. It is based on the commercially-available Scallop vehicle 1 , but has been modified by the Department of Energys Robotics Technology Development Program to add auto-depth control, and vehicle orientation and depth monitoring at the operator control panel. The RUCS is designed to provide visual and gamma radiation characterization, even in confined or limited access areas. It was demonstrated in August 1998 at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) as part of the INEEL Large Scale Demonstration and Deployment Project. During the demonstration it was compared in a ''head-to-head fashion with the baseline characterization technology. This paper summarizes the results of the demonstration and lessons learned; comparing and contrasting both technologies in the areas of cost, visual characterization, radiological characterization, and overall operations

  15. Experimental Characterization of Extremely Broadband THz Impulse Radio Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Vidal, Borja; Galili, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally characterize a ultrabroadband terahertz (THz) impulse radio system with up to 10 GHz repetition rate. THz generation and radiation are realized in an antenna-integrated uni-traveling-carrier photodiode (UTC-PD), and THz reception is implemented based on photoconductive sampling...

  16. Design, fabrication, and characterization of a solenoid system to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Design, fabrication, and characterization of a solenoid system to generate magnetic field for an ECR proton source. S K JAIN. ∗. , P A NAIK and P R HANNURKAR. Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013 e-mail: skjain@rrcat.gov.in. MS received 3 March 2010; revised 9 June 2010; accepted 13 ...

  17. System For Characterizing Three-Phase Brushless dc Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David E.; Smith, Dennis A.

    1996-01-01

    System of electronic hardware and software developed to automate measurements and calculations needed to characterize electromechanical performances of three-phase brushless dc motors, associated shaft-angle sensors needed for commutation, and associated brushless tachometers. System quickly takes measurements on all three phases of motor, tachometer, and shaft-angle sensor simultaneously and processes measurements into performance data. Also useful in development and testing of motors with not only three phases but also two, four, or more phases.

  18. Characterization and evaluation studies on some JAERI dosimetry systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, T.; Sunaga, H.; Tachibana, H.; Takizawa, H.; Tanaka, R.

    2000-01-01

    Characterization and evaluation studies were carried out on some JAERI dosimetry systems, mainly alanine-ESR, in terms of the influence on the dose response of parameters such as orientation at ESR analysis, and the temperature during irradiation and analysis. Feasibility study for application of these dosimetry systems to electrons with energies lower than 4 MeV and bremsstrahlung (X rays) was also performed parallel to their reliability check through international dose intercomparison. (author)

  19. Remote Underwater Characterization System - Innovative Technology Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, Walter David

    1999-01-01

    Characterization and inspection of water-cooled and moderated nuclear reactors and fuel storage pools requires equipment capable of operating underwater. Similarly, the deactivation and decommissioning of older nuclear facilities often requires the facility owner to accurately characterize underwater structures and equipment which may have been sitting idle for years. The underwater characterization equipment is often required to operate at depths exceeding 20 ft (6.1 m) and in relatively confined or congested spaces. The typical baseline approach has been the use of radiation detectors and underwater cameras mounted on long poles, or stationary cameras with pan and tilt features mounted on the sides of the underwater facility. There is a perceived need for an inexpensive, more mobile method of performing close-up inspection and radiation measurements in confined spaces underwater. The Remote Underwater Characterization System (RUCS) is a small, remotely operated submersible vehicle intended to serve multiple purposes in underwater nuclear operations. It is based on the commercially-available ''Scallop'' vehicle, but has been modified by Department of Energy's Robotics Technology Development Program to add auto-depth control, and vehicle orientation and depth monitoring at the operator control panel. The RUCS is designed to provide visual and gamma radiation characterization, even in confined or limited access areas. It was demonstrated in August 1998 at Idaho National Engineering and environmental Laboratory (INEEL) as part of the INEEL Large Scale Demonstration and Deployment Project. During the demonstration it was compared in a ''head-to-head'' fashion with the baseline characterization technology. This paper summarizes the results of the demonstration and lessons learned; comparing and contrasting both technologies in the areas of cost, visual characterization, radiological characterization, and overall operations

  20. Characterization, Modeling, and Optimization of Light-Emitting Diode System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorseth, Anders

    An automated setup has been developed for spectral radiometric characterization of LED components with precise control of the settings of forward current and operating temperature. The automated setup has been used to characterize commercial LED components with respect to multiple settings...... limit of human color perception. A method has been developed to optimize multicolored cluster LED systems with respect to light quality, using multi objective optimization. The results are simulated SPDs similar to traditional light sources, and with high light quality. As part of this work...

  1. A system for the characterization of the HAWC PMTs sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langarica, R.; Lara, G.; Martinez, L. A.; Tinoco, S.; Alfaro, R.; Iriarte, A.; Sandoval, A.; Vanegas, P.

    2012-07-01

    The HAWC Project is a very high-energy gamma-ray observatory under construction at the Sierra Negra volcano (4100 meters above sea level) in the Pico de Orizaba National Park located in central Mexico. HAWC will reuse the 900 Hamamatsu R5912 photomultipliers (PMTs) from Milagro Observatory for the 300 Water Cherenkov Detectors. In order to characterize their present performance it is necessary to scan the active area of the photocathode by measuring its efficiency and gain. A characterization system was designed and manufactured to achieve an automated measurement of over 100 points distributed on the PMT active spherical surface. Preliminary results show the variation of QE of PMTs with respect of the position of incoming photons, as well as the changes in the PMTs response due to the Earth's magnetic field and gain vs. high voltage. The system allows automated PMT characterization improving its performance, reliability, precision and repeatability. In this work we present the characterization system and preliminary results on the PMT efficiency.

  2. System for tissue characterization using synchronous detection of diffuse reflectance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Lopez, Orestes M.; Stolik Isakina, Suren; La Rosa Vazquez, Jose Manuel de; Valor Reed, Alma

    2016-01-01

    The development of a system for the characterization of tissues optical properties in-vivo by synchronous detection of diffuse reflectance is presented. The system comprises an exploring probe with a linear spatial arrangement of optical fibers coupled to six lasers of 650 nm wavelength and a photodiode. The system also includes a preamplifier circuit for the photodiode, a driver for the amplitude modulation of the light signal of the lasers with optical power monitoring, a digital phase splitter for reference signal generation, an amplifying circuit with digitally switch able gain, a double phase demodulation circuit, an Arduino, and a control interface developed in LabVIEW. (Author)

  3. Characterization of a 300-GHz Transmission System for Digital Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudlička, Martin; Salhi, Mohammed; Kleine-Ostmann, Thomas; Schrader, Thorsten

    2017-08-01

    The paper presents the characterization of a 300-GHz transmission system for modern digital communications. The quality of the modulated signal at the output of the system (error vector magnitude, EVM) is measured using a vector signal analyzer. A method using a digital real-time oscilloscope and consecutive mathematical processing in a computer is shown for analysis of signals with bandwidths exceeding that of state-of-the-art vector signal analyzers. The uncertainty of EVM measured using the real-time oscilloscope is open to analysis. Behaviour of the 300-GHz transmission system is studied with respect to various modulation schemes and different signal symbol rates.

  4. Characterization system for research on energy storage capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriega, J R; Iyore, O D; Budime, C; Gnade, B; Vasselli, J

    2013-05-01

    In this work a characterization system for high energy-density capacitors is described and demonstrated. Capacitors are being designed using thin-film technology in an attempt to achieve higher energy-density levels by operating the devices at a high voltage. These devices are fabricated from layers of 100 nm aluminum and a layer of polyvinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene on a polyethylene naphthalate plastic substrate. The devices have been designed to store electrical charge at up to 200 V. Characterizations of these devices focus on the measurement of capacitance vs bias voltage and temperature, equivalent series resistance, and charge/discharge cycles. For the purpose of the characterization of these capacitors, an electronic charge/discharge interface was designed and tested.

  5. Characterization, Modeling, and Optimization of Light-Emitting Diode Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorseth, Anders

    This thesis explores, characterization, modeling, and optimization of light-emitting diodes (LED) for general illumination. An automated setup has been developed for spectral radiometric characterization of LED components with precise control of the settings of forward current and operating...... temperature. The automated setup has been used to characterize commercial LED components with respect to multiple settings. It is shown that the droop in quantum efficiency can be approximated by a simple parabolic function. The investigated models of the spectral power distributions (SPD) from LEDs...... comparing the chromaticity of the measured SPD with tted models, the deviation is found to be larger than the lower limit of human color perception. A method has been developed to optimize multicolored cluster LED systems with respect to light quality, using multi objective optimization. The results...

  6. Characterization system for research on energy storage capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriega, J. R.; Iyore, O. D.; Budime, C.; Gnade, B.; Vasselli, J.

    2013-05-01

    In this work a characterization system for high energy-density capacitors is described and demonstrated. Capacitors are being designed using thin-film technology in an attempt to achieve higher energy-density levels by operating the devices at a high voltage. These devices are fabricated from layers of 100 nm aluminum and a layer of polyvinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene on a polyethylene naphthalate plastic substrate. The devices have been designed to store electrical charge at up to 200 V. Characterizations of these devices focus on the measurement of capacitance vs bias voltage and temperature, equivalent series resistance, and charge/discharge cycles. For the purpose of the characterization of these capacitors, an electronic charge/discharge interface was designed and tested.

  7. Innovative technology summary report: mobile automated characterization system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The Mobile Automated Characterization System (MACS) has been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Robotics Technology Development Program as an automated floor surface contamination characterization system. MACS was designed for use by Health Physics (HP) personnel in the performance of floor surveys of known or suspected contaminated areas, to be used during any floor characterization task which has significant open areas requiring radiological surveys. MACS was designed to automate the collection, storage and analysis of large, open floor areas, relieving the HP personnel of this portion of the floor characterization task. MACS does not require a dedicated full time operator and can be setup by the normal HP staff to survey the open areas while other techniques are used on the more constrained areas. The HP personnel performing the other characterization activities can monitor the MACS progress and address any problems encountered by MACS during survey operations. MACS is designed for unattended operation and has safety and operational monitoring functions which will safely shut the system down if any difficulties are encountered. During survey operations, MACS generates a map of surveyed areas with color-coding indicating radiation levels. This map is displayed on the control console monitor during operation and can be printed for survey result documentation. MACS produces data files containing data for all sensors used during a survey, providing a complete record of samples taken and contamination levels found for all areas traversed during a survey. This data can be processed to produce tabular output of the survey results.

  8. An automated test system for terahertz receiver characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenzi, Linda C.; Groppi, Christopher E.; Wheeler, Caleb H.; Mani, Hamdi

    2014-07-01

    An automated test system was developed to characterize detectors for the Kilopixel Array Pathfinder Project (KAPPa), a 16-pixel 2D integrated heterodyne focal plane array. Although primarily designed for KAPPa, the system can be used with other instruments to automate tests that might be tedious and time-consuming by hand. Mechanical components include an adjustable structure of aluminum t-slot framing that supports a rotating chopper. Driven by a stepper motor, the wheel alternates between blackbodies at room temperature and 77 K. The cold load consists of absorbing material submerged in liquid nitrogen in an open Styrofoam cooler. Python scripts control the mechanical system, interface with receiver components, and process data. Test system operation was verified by sweeping the local oscillator frequency with a Virginia Diodes room temperature receiver. The system was then integrated with the KAPPa receiver to allow complete and automated testing of all array pixels with minimal user intervention.

  9. Mechanistic characterization of chloride interferences in electrothermal atomization systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekiro, J.M.; Skogerboe, R.K.; Taylor, Howard E.

    1988-01-01

    A computer-controlled spectrometer with a photodiode array detector has been used for wavelength and temperature resolved characterization of the vapor produced by an electrothermal atomizer. The system has been used to study the chloride matrix interference on the atomic absorption spectrometric determination of manganese and copper. The suppression of manganese and copper atom populations by matrix chlorides such as those of calcium and magnesium is due to the gas-phase formation of an analyte chloride species followed by the diffusion of significant fractions of these species from the atom cell prior to completion of the atomization process. The analyte chloride species cannot be formed when matrix chlorides with metal-chloride bond dissociation energies above those of the analyte chlorides are the principal entitles present. The results indicate that multiple wavelength spectrometry used to obtain temperature-resolved spectra is a viable tool in the mechanistic characterization of interference effects observed with electrothermal atomization systems. ?? 1988 American Chemical Society.

  10. A COMPREHENSIVE CHARACTERIZATION OF THE 70 VIRGINIS PLANETARY SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, Stephen R.; Hinkel, Natalie R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Fischer, Debra A. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Henry, Gregory W. [Center of Excellence in Information Systems, Tennessee State University, 3500 John A. Merritt Blvd., Box 9501, Nashville, TN 37209 (United States); Feng, Y. Katherina; Wright, Jason T. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Braun, Kaspar von [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, Arizona 86001 (United States); Howard, Andrew W., E-mail: skane@sfsu.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2015-06-10

    An on-going effort in the characterization of exoplanetary systems is the accurate determination of host star properties. This effort extends to the relatively bright host stars of planets discovered with the radial velocity method. The Transit Ephemeris Refinement and Monitoring Survey (TERMS) is aiding in these efforts as part of its observational campaign for exoplanet host stars. One of the first known systems is that of 70 Virginis, which harbors a jovian planet in an eccentric orbit. Here we present a complete characterization of this system with a compilation of TERMS photometry, spectroscopy, and interferometry. We provide fundamental properties of the host star through direct interferometric measurements of the radius (1.5% uncertainty) and through spectroscopic analysis. We combined 59 new Keck HIRES radial velocity measurements with the 169 previously published from the ELODIE, Hamilton, and HIRES spectrographs, to calculate a refined orbital solution and construct a transit ephemeris for the planet. These newly determined system characteristics are used to describe the Habitable Zone of the system with a discussion of possible additional planets and related stability simulations. Finally, we present 19 years of precision robotic photometry that constrain stellar activity and rule out central planetary transits for a Jupiter-radius planet at the 5σ level, with reduced significance down to an impact parameter of b = 0.95.

  11. System analysis approach to verification of site characterization parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romine, D.T.

    1987-01-01

    Early in the transition of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) from a preliminary geologic investigation to a part of a major system acquisition program, the following project needs were recognized: (1) site-specific system functional requirements, i.e., the capabilities a deep geologic basalt system must provide to ensure long-term isolation of wastes, (2) complete list of design variables and site characteristics (information and data needs) that could affect system capabilities; and (3) relative importance, availability, and uncertainty of these information and data needs. The first project need was satisfied by a conventional functional analysis. The second was answered by a unique extension of that functional analysis. The results of these two efforts have been released in the BWIP System Functional Analysis (SFA) Document. The third need is presently under study. With the advent of a formalized issue resolution strategy (IRS) process as the basis for the BWIP site characterization program, a subset of the SFA information and data needs was used to verify (a) that no significant variable was omitted from consideration in the IRS process, (b) the necessity of IRS site characterization parameters, and (c) the sufficiency of each issue-related set of IRS parameters to address that issue. An example of a SFA branch is discussed

  12. Inexpensive Measuring System for the Characterization of Organic Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Pérez-Fuster

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A measuring module has been specifically designed for the electrical characterization of organic semiconductor devices such as organic field effect transistors (OFETs and organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs according to the IEEE 1620-2008 standard. This device has been tested with OFETs based on 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethinylpentacene (TIPS-pentacene. The measuring system has been constructed using a NI-PXIe-1073 chassis with integrated controller and two NI-PXI-4132 programmable high-precision source measure units (SMUs that offer a four-quadrant ± 100 V output, with resolution down to 10 pA. LabVIEW™ has been used to develop the appropriate program. Most of the main OFET parameters included in the IEEE 1620 standard can be measured by means of this device. Although nowadays expensive devices for the characterization of Si-based transistors are available, devices for the characterization of organic transistors are not yet widespread in the market. Fabrication of a specific and flexible module that can be used to characterize this type of transistors would provide a powerful tool to researchers.

  13. Tracer Methods for Characterizing Fracture Creation in Engineered Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Peter [Energy & Geoscience Institute at the University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Harris, Joel [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2014-05-08

    The aim of this proposal is to develop, through novel high-temperature-tracing approaches, three technologies for characterizing fracture creation within Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS). The objective of a first task is to identify, develop and demonstrate adsorbing tracers for characterizing interwell reservoir-rock surface areas and fracture spacing. The objective of a second task is to develop and demonstrate a methodology for measuring fracture surface areas adjacent to single wells. The objective of a third task is to design, fabricate and test an instrument that makes use of tracers for measuring fluid flow between newly created fractures and wellbores. In one method of deployment, it will be used to identify qualitatively which fractures were activated during a hydraulic stimulation experiment. In a second method of deployment, it will serve to measure quantitatively the rate of fluid flowing from one or more activated fracture during a production test following a hydraulic stimulation.

  14. Motor/Generator and Inverter Characterization for Flywheel System Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarcus, Jeffries L.

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Electrical Systems Development Branch at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been involved in the research and development of high speed flywheels systems for satellite energy storage and attitude applications. These flywheels will serve as replacement for chemical nickel hydrogen, nickel cadmium batteries and gyroscopic wheels. The advantages of using flywheel systems for energy storage on satellites are high energy density, high power density, long life, deep depth of discharge, and broad operating temperature ranges. A flywheel system for space applications consist of a number of flywheel modules, the motor/generator and magnetic bearing, and an electronics package. The motor/generator electronics package includes a pulse-width modulated inverter that drives the flywheel permanent magnet motor/generator located at one end of the shaft. This summer, I worked under the direct supervision of my mentor, Walter Santiago, and the goal for this summer was to characterize motor generator and inverter attributes in order to increase their viability as a more efficient energy storage source for space applications. To achieve this goal, magnetic field measurements around the motor/generator permanent magnet and the impedance of the motor/generator three phase windings were characterized, and a recreation of the inverter pulse width modulated control system was constructed. The Flywheel modules for space use are designed to maximize energy density and minimize loss, and attaining these values will aid in locating and reducing losses within the flywheel system as a whole, making flywheel technology more attractive for use as energy storage in future space applications.

  15. Characterization of hysteresis in magnetic systems: A Preisach approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchler, Patricia Darlene

    The phenomenon of hysteresis is perhaps the most widely recognized microscopic manifestation of magnetic ordering, and is the principal feature which is responsible for technologically-oriented applications of magnetic materials such as permanent magnets and recording media. Interest in a phenomenological model of hysteresis originally proposed by Preisach in 1935 has been renewed recently, particularly in engineering applications, such as the characterization of magnetic recording media and magnetostrictive materials. Thus, a rigorous assessment of the capabilities and limitations of the Preisach model for characterizing magnetic materials is of considerable importance from both fundamental and technological perspectives. The fundamental characteristics of hysteresis are discussed and a theoretical background for the processes involved in magnetic systems is established. A generalized version of the scalar Preisach model, which includes original contributions, is developed to extend the model's abilities to describe the effects of the structure of the initially demagnetized state, the presence and nature of interactions, the system's coercive field distribution, and especially, the effects of temperature and experimental wart time, on the observed hysteretic properties of a variety of magnetic systems including spin glasses, ferromagnets, ferrimagnets, and superparamagnets. The moment and remanence of magnetic systems are measured as a function of applied field and temperature, using both a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and a SQUID-based magnetometer. A Preisach analysis of the data is used to characterize the irreversible response of six magnetic systems: CrO 2 audio tape; magnetoferritin; a Nd2Fe14B permanent magnet; a floppy disk medium; and longitudinal and perpendicular cobalt-chromium-based hard disk materials. The ambiguous nature of tools presently used to analyze the nature of magnetic systems, such as the application of Henkel plots to the analysis

  16. Characterizing chemical systems with on-line computers and graphics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazer, J.W.; Rigdon, L.P.; Brand, H.R.; Pomernacki, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    Incorporating computers and graphics on-line to chemical experiments and processes opens up new opportunities for the study and control of complex systems. Systems having many variables can be characterized even when the variable interactions are nonlinear, and the system cannot a priori be represented by numerical methods and models. That is, large sets of accurate data can be rapidly acquired, then modeling and graphic techniques can be used to obtain partial interpretation plus design of further experimentation. The experimenter can thus comparatively quickly iterate between experimentation and modeling to obtain a final solution. We have designed and characterized a versatile computer-controlled apparatus for chemical research, which incorporates on-line instrumentation and graphics. It can be used to determine the mechanism of enzyme-induced reactions or to optimize analytical methods. The apparatus can also be operated as a pilot plant to design control strategies. On-line graphics were used to display conventional plots used by biochemists and three-dimensional response-surface plots

  17. Parasitological measures to characterize different livestock production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamsborg, Stig M.; Mejer, H.; Enemark, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    work done on diets, bioactive plants, selective breeding and pasture management. For this purpose we need better tools to overall characterize farms with regard to parasites, to determine the need for interventions, and to evaluate the effectiveness of a range of alternative approaches on-farm....... in the livestock sector but the local farming systems may represent the ‘hidden world of OF’ (Parrott et al., 2005) e.g. as low input sustainable agriculture based on local resources and processes and traditional farming (food grown without chemicals or organic by default). Some of the problems and perhaps also...

  18. Seismic base isolation: Elastomer characterization, bearing modeling and system response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulak, R.F.; Wang, C.Y.; Hughes, T.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses several major aspects of seismic base isolation systems that employ laminated elastomer bearings. Elastomer constitutive models currently being used to represent the nonlinear elastic and hysteretic behavior are discussed. Some aspects of mechanical characterization testing of elastomers is presented along with representative tests results. The development of a finite element based mesh generator for laminated elastomer bearings is presented. Recent advances in the simulation of base isolated structures to earthquake motions are presented along with a sample problem. 13 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab

  19. Seismic base isolation: Elastomer characterization, bearing modeling and system response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulak, R.F.; Wang, C.Y.; Hughes, T.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses several major aspects of seismic base isolation systems that employ laminated elastomer bearings. Elastomer constitutive models currently being used to represent the nonlinear elastic and hysteretic behavior are discussed. Some aspects of mechanical characterization testing of elastomers is presented along with representative tests results. The development of a finite element based mesh generator for laminated elastomer bearings is presented. Recent advances in the simulation of base isolated structures to earthquake motions are presented along with a sample problem. 13 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Pumping systems characterization; Caracterizacion de los sistemas de bombeo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Gutierrez, R. [Eficiencia Energetica, S.A. de C.V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    In this paper the characterization of the pumping systems is discussed, and an explanation is given of the need of evaluating in detail the possibility of implementing the frequency variators as an option for energy conservation, explaining how the simple use of the similarity or affinity laws lead to over-estimate the saving. [Espanol] En este articulo se describe la caracterizacion de los sistemas de bombeo y se explica la necesidad de evaluar en detalle la posibilidad de implementacion de variadores de frecuencia, como una alternativa para el ahorro de energia, explicando como el simple uso de las leyes de semejanza o afinidad llevan a sobre-evaluar los ahorros.

  1. Friction characterization and compensation in electro-mechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjahjowidodo, Tegoeh; Al-Bender, Farid; Van Brussel, Hendrik; Symens, Wim

    2007-12-01

    Friction characterization is a prerequisite for an accurate control of electromechanical systems. This paper considers the identification and control of friction in a high load torque DC motor to the end of achieving accurate tracking. In the first place, model-based feedforward controllers for friction compensation are considered. For this purpose, friction model structures ranging from the classical Coulomb model through the recently developed generalized Maxwell slip (GMS) model are employed. The performance of those models is compared and contrasted in regard both to identification and to compensation. Subsequently, having an accurate model of the system, model-based feedback controllers are also considered, namely the DNPF and the gain scheduling controllers. We show further that the gain scheduling controller yields best performance.

  2. The Cuban National Healthcare System: Characterization of primary healthcare services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keli Regina DAL PRÁ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a report on the experience of healthcare professionals in Florianópolis, who took the course La Atención Primaria de Salud y la Medicina Familiar en Cuba [Primary Healthcare and Family Medicine in Cuba], in 2014. The purpose of the study is to characterize the healthcare units and services provided by the Cuban National Healthcare System (SNS and to reflect on this experience/immersion, particularly on Cuba’s Primary Healthcare Service. The results found that in comparison with Brazil’s Single Healthcare System (SUS Cuba’s SNS Family Healthcare (SF service is the central organizing element of the Primary Healthcare Service. The number of SF teams per inhabitant is different than in Brazil; the programs given priority in the APS are similar to those in Brazil and the intersectorial nature and scope of the services prove to be effective in the resolution of healthcare problems.

  3. Characterization of optical systems for the ALPS II experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spector, Aaron D. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphsik; Pold, Jan H.; Lindner, Axel [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Baehre, Robin; Willke, Benno [Max-Planck-Institute for Gravitational Physics, Hannover (Germany); Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Gravitationsphysik

    2016-09-15

    ALPS II is a light shining through a wall style experiment that will use the principle of resonant enhancement to boost the conversion and reconversion probabilities of photons to relativistic WISPs. This will require the use of long baseline low-loss optical cavities. Very high power build up factors in the cavities must be achieved in order to reach the design sensitivity of ALPS II. This necessitates a number of different sophisticated optical and control systems to maintain the resonance and ensure maximal coupling between the laser and the cavity. In this paper we report on the results of the characterization of these optical systems with a 20m cavity and discuss the results in the context of ALPS II.

  4. Characterization of optical systems for the ALPS II experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spector, Aaron D.; Baehre, Robin; Willke, Benno; Hannover Univ.

    2016-09-01

    ALPS II is a light shining through a wall style experiment that will use the principle of resonant enhancement to boost the conversion and reconversion probabilities of photons to relativistic WISPs. This will require the use of long baseline low-loss optical cavities. Very high power build up factors in the cavities must be achieved in order to reach the design sensitivity of ALPS II. This necessitates a number of different sophisticated optical and control systems to maintain the resonance and ensure maximal coupling between the laser and the cavity. In this paper we report on the results of the characterization of these optical systems with a 20m cavity and discuss the results in the context of ALPS II.

  5. Implementation of an Optical Coherence Tomography system for painting characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashyap, Hannah U. K. S.; Mota, Claudia C. B. O.; Kyotoku, Bernardo B. C.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.; Santos-Filho, Plinio B.

    2009-01-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a new but well established imaging technique for medical diagnosis, which can produce two- or three-dimensional images of bio-tissues with a few μm spatial resolution. Its potential as a non-invasive tool for art conservation of paintings and other objects has been realized recently. In this work, we report the implementation of two OCT systems applied to painting characterization. One system operates in the so-called spectral domain, with a central wavelength of 840 nm and axial resolution of 10 μm. The second system has its central wavelength at 1280 nm, with spatial resolution of 20 μm, and operates in the time domain. Both systems are independently controlled and have imaging software developed in-house using Lab View. Using both systems, a 15 years old acrylic portrait has been analyzed, where the paint layers, light and dark colors, and the cotton treads of the canvas could be identified. (Author)

  6. Monophyletic Origin of the Metazoan Nervous System: Characterizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Russell; Beckenbach, Andrew

    In the absence of additional cases to be studied, our understanding of the likelihood of intelligent life evolving elsewhere in the universe must be framed within the context of the evolution of intelligence on this planet. Towards this end a valid model of the evolution of animal life, and in particular of the nervous system, is key. Models which describe the development of complexity within the nervous system can be positively misleading if they are not grounded in an accurate model of the true relationships of the animal phyla. If fact the evolution of animal life at its earliest stages, from protists to the sponges, Cnidaria, and Ctenophora and onward to the bilateral animal phyla is poorly characterized. Recently numerous phylogenies of the early animal radiation have been published based upon DNA sequence data, with conflicting and poorly supported results. A polyphyletic origin for the animal nervous system has been implied by the results of several studies, which would lead to the conclusion that some characteristics of the nervous systems of higher and lower animals could be convergent. We show that an equally parsimonious interpretation of the molecular sequence data published thus far is that it reflects rapid speciation events early in animal evolution among the classical ``diploblast'' phyla, as well as accelerated DNA sequence divergence among the higher animals. This could be interpreted as support for a classical phylogeny of the animal kingdom, and thus of a strictly monophyletic origin for the nervous system.

  7. Characterization of the ELIMED prototype permanent magnet quadrupole system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, A. D.; Schillaci, F.; Pommarel, L.; Romano, F.; Amato, A.; Amico, A. G.; Calanna, A.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Costa, M.; Cuttone, G.; Amato, C.; De Luca, G.; Flacco, F. A.; Gallo, G.; Giove, D.; Grmek, A.; La Rosa, G.; Leanza, R.; Maggiore, M.; Malka, V.; Milluzzo, G.; Petringa, G.; Pipek, J.; Scuderi, V.; Vauzour, B.; Zappalà, E.

    2017-01-01

    The system described in this work is meant to be a prototype of a more performing one that will be installed at ELI-Beamlines in Prague for the collection of ions produced after the interaction Laser-target, [1]. It has been realized by the researchers of INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud of the Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) and SIGMAPHI, a French company, using a system of Permanent Magnet Quadrupoles (PMQs), [2]. The final system that will be installed in Prague is designed for protons and carbons up to 60 MeV/u, around 10 times more than the energies involved in the present work. The prototype, shown in this work, has been tested in collaboration with the SAPHIR experimental facility group at LOA (Laboratoire d'Optique Appliqueé) in Paris using a 200 TW Ti:Sapphire laser system. The purpose of this work is to validate the design and the performances of this large and compact bore system and to characterize the beam produced after the interaction laser-target and its features. Moreover, the optics simulations have been compared with a real beam shape on a GAFChromic film. The procedure used during the experimental campaign and the most relevant results are reported here demonstrating a good agreement with the simulations and a good control on the beam optics.

  8. Design and Characterization of Microemulsion Systems for Naproxen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroosh Eftekhari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This research was aimed to formulate and characterize a microemolsion systems as a topical delivery system of naproxen for relief of symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and treatment of dysmenorrheal. Methods: ME formulations prepared by mixing of appropriate amount of surfactant including Tween 80 and Span80, co-surfactant such as propylene glycol (PG and oil phase including Labrafac PG –transcutol P (10:1 ratio. The prepared microemolsions were evaluated regarding their particle size, zeta potential, conductivity, stability, viscosity, differential scanningcalorimetry (DSC, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, refractory index (RI and pH. Results: The mean droplets size of microemulsion formulation were in the range of 7.03 to 79.8 nm, and its refractory index (RI and pH were 1.45 and 6.75, respectively. Viscosity range was 253.73- 802.63cps. Drug release profile showed that 26.15% of thedrug released in the first 24 hours of experiment. Also, Hexagonal and bicontinuous structures were seen in the SEM photograph of the microemulsions. Conclusion: characterization, physicochemical properties and in vitro release were dependent upon the contents of S/C ratio, water and, oil phase percentage in formulations. Also, ME-6 may be preferable for topical naproxen formulation.

  9. Novel procedure for characterizing nonlinear systems with memory: 2017 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Albert H.; Katz, Richard A.; Hughes, Derke R.; Koch, Robert M.

    2017-05-01

    The present article discusses novel improvements in nonlinear signal processing made by the prime algorithm developer, Dr. Albert H. Nuttall and co-authors, a consortium of research scientists from the Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division, Newport, RI. The algorithm, called the Nuttall-Wiener-Volterra or 'NWV' algorithm is named for its principal contributors [1], [2],[ 3] . The NWV algorithm significantly reduces the computational workload for characterizing nonlinear systems with memory. Following this formulation, two measurement waveforms are required in order to characterize a specified nonlinear system under consideration: (1) an excitation input waveform, x(t) (the transmitted signal); and, (2) a response output waveform, z(t) (the received signal). Given these two measurement waveforms for a given propagation channel, a 'kernel' or 'channel response', h= [h0,h1,h2,h3] between the two measurement points, is computed via a least squares approach that optimizes modeled kernel values by performing a best fit between measured response z(t) and a modeled response y(t). New techniques significantly diminish the exponential growth of the number of computed kernel coefficients at second and third order and alleviate the Curse of Dimensionality (COD) in order to realize practical nonlinear solutions of scientific and engineering interest.

  10. Geologic characterization of Cuvette Centrale petroleum systems Congo-DRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicentelli, Maria Gabriela C.; Barbosa, Mauro; Rezende, Nelio G.A.M. [HRT Petroleum, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Cuvette Centrale is an almost unexplored basin, which contains some petroleum system elements that indicate the presence of hydrocarbons. In this sense; this paper presents an exploratory alternative for this intracratonic basin. The interpretation of the limited gravimetric, magnetometric, geochemical and seismic available data allowed the identification of many huge structural features and also some areas with hydrocarbon potential for stratigraphic traps. The presence of several oil and gas seeps widespread around the Busira and Lokoro sub-basins indicate that at least one active petroleum system exist in the basin. Despite only four wells have been drilled in the basin, one of them presented oil shows during drilling. Geological correlations between Brazilian Paleozoic basins and Cuvette Centrale sedimentary sequences permitted to conclude that Cambro-Ordovician and Siluro-Devonian source rocks must be present and active in the Cuvette Centrale basin. The tectono-stratigraphic evolution history of the Cuvette Centrale from Neo proterozoic to Recent times shows extensional and compressional/transpressional alternating phases along the geological time. The most confident petroleum system expected in the Cuvette Centrale is characterized by the Cambrian Mamungi shale - source rock - and the Cambro-Ordovician. Upper Arenaceous Sequence - reservoirs, as observed in the MBandaka and Gilson wells and confirmed by surface geology in outcrops. Besides, other potential petroleum systems are expected to occur in the basin. One is characterized by the Neo proterozoic Itury Group source rock and reservoirs in the mature/over mature stage, the others are the Siluro-Devonian and Cretaceous source rocks and reservoirs, expected to occur with better maturity conditions only in the deeper parts of the basin. (author)

  11. Characterization Techniques for Aggregated Nanomaterials in Biological and Environmental Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Seongho

    Nanoparticles, which are defined as objects with characteristic lengths in the 10--9 -- 10--7 m (nanoscale) size range, are used with increasing frequency in a wide of applications, leading to increases in nanomaterial interactions with biological and environmental systems. There is therefore considerable interest in studying the influence nanomaterials can have when inside the human body or dispersed in the ambient environment. However, nanoparticles persist as homo aggregates or heterogeneous mixtures with organic matters, such as proteins, in biological and environmental systems. A large and growing body of research confirm that nanomaterial morphology as well as the degree of aggregation between nanomaterials influences nanomaterial interactions with their surroundings. Specifically, the structures/morphologies of nanoparticles determine their overall surface areas and corresponding surface reactivity (e.g. their catalytic activity). Nanoparticle transport properties (e.g. diffusion coefficient and extent of cellular uptake) are also determined by both their structures and surface properties. Unfortunately, techniques to characterize nanomaterial size and shape quantitatively, when nanomaterials have complex geometries or persist as aggregates, are lacking. Hydrodynamic sizes of nanoparticles and their aggregates can be inferred by dynamic light scattering (DLS) or nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). However, since these techniques are relied on the scattering light intensity properties, sizes of polydisperse sub 30 nm particles cannot be effectively measured in those techniques. For structure inference of aggregated nanomaterials, microscopy images have been used for qualitative visual analysis, but the quantitative morphology analysis technique is yet to be developed. Five studies in this dissertation are hence aimed to develop new techniques to provide improved morphology characterization of aggregated nanomaterials in various biological and environmental

  12. Dynamical characterization of transport barriers in nontwist Hamiltonian systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugnaine, M.; Mathias, A. C.; Santos, M. S.; Batista, A. M.; Szezech, J. D.; Viana, R. L.

    2018-01-01

    The turnstile provides us a useful tool to describe the flux in twist Hamiltonian systems. Thus, its determination allows us to find the areas where the trajectories flux through barriers. We show that the mechanism of the turnstile can increase the flux in nontwist Hamiltonian systems. A model which captures the essence of these systems is the standard nontwist map, introduced by del Castillo-Negrete and Morrison. For selected parameters of this map, we show that chaotic trajectories entering in resonances zones can be explained by turnstiles formed by a set of homoclinic points. We argue that for nontwist systems, if the heteroclinic points are sufficiently close, they can connect twin-islands chains. This provides us a scenario where the trajectories can cross the resonance zones and increase the flux. For these cases the escape basin boundaries are nontrivial, which demands the use of an appropriate characterization. We applied the uncertainty exponent and the entropies of the escape basin boundary in order to quantify the degree of unpredictability of the asymptotic trajectories.

  13. Characterization of steady streaming for a particle manipulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, Roni; Abadi, Avi; Kosa, Gabor

    2016-04-01

    Accurate positioning of biological cells or microscopic particle without directly contacting them is a challenging task in biomedical engineering. Various trapping methods for controlling the position of a particle have been suggested. The common driving methods are based on laser and ultrasonic actuation principles. In this work we suggest a design for a hydrodynamic particle manoeuvring system. The system operates using steady streaming in a viscous fluid media induced by high frequency vibration of piezoelectric cantilevers. A particle within the workspace of the system can be trapped and manipulated to a desired position by the fairly unidirectional flow field created by the beams. In this paper, the flow field in the particle manipulation system is characterized numerically and experimentally. We find that the flow field resembles the analytical solutions of a flow field created by an oscillating sphere. Furthermore, we validate numerically the quadratic relation between the steady streaming velocity and the vibration amplitude of the beam. The calibration of the piezoelectric actuator's oscillation amplitudes enables effective positioning of particles with a diameter of 20 um to 1 mm. We find that a 30X0.8X2 mm(3) piezoelectric beam vibrating at its first resonance frequency, 200 Hz, is able to move a particle at a typical flow velocity ranging between 0.05 mm/sec and 0.13 mm/s in 430 cSt Si oil (Re=0.2).

  14. Multi-Detector Analysis System for Spent Nuclear Fuel Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reber, Edward Lawrence; Aryaeinejad, Rahmat; Cole, Jerald Donald; Drigert, Mark William; Jewell, James Keith; Egger, Ann Elizabeth; Cordes, Gail Adele

    1999-09-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Non-Destructive Analysis (NDA) program at INEEL is developing a system to characterize SNF for fissile mass, radiation source term, and fissile isotopic content. The system is based on the integration of the Fission Assay Tomography System (FATS) and the Gamma-Neutron Analysis Technique (GNAT) developed under programs supported by the DOE Office of Non-proliferation and National Security. Both FATS and GNAT were developed as separate systems to provide information on the location of special nuclear material in weapons configuration (FATS role), and to measure isotopic ratios of fissile material to determine if the material was from a weapon (GNAT role). FATS is capable of not only determining the presence and location of fissile material but also the quantity of fissile material present to within 50%. GNAT determines the ratios of the fissile and fissionable material by coincidence methods that allow the two prompt (immediately) produced fission fragments to be identified. Therefore, from the combination of FATS and GNAT, MDAS is able to measure the fissile material, radiation source term, and fissile isotopics content.

  15. Characterization of Awassi lamb fattening systems: a Syrian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, Birgitte Wiedemann; Iñiguez, Luis; Mueller, Joaquin; Wurzinger, Maria; Knaus, W F

    2010-10-01

    Intensive lamb fattening systems are evolving in developing Middle Eastern countries due to high demand for lambs at favorable prices; however, little is known about their characteristics and constraints. A survey was conducted in Syria involving 241 farmers to characterize the fattening production systems and main constraints, with emphasis on feeding, management, labor, and marketing. Most farmers (90%) considered the income from fattening to be from medium to high, and 57% expressed that lamb fattening along with alternative income sources compose the family's livelihood strategies. Fattening systems offer employment to family members. Market price was the main decision factor to buy and sell lambs, but this was only part of various marketing aspects. Male lambs usually bought at markets at the mean age of 4 months (mean weight of 31 kg) are sold after fattening at a 50-60 kg weight range. The average yearly fattening cycle was 2.7 batches, and the average number of lambs per batch was 232. For 65% (n = 241) of the farmers the major constraint to fattening was feeding cost, and for about a half of farmers (51%, n = 241), disease outbreaks and prices for veterinarian services constituted the second important constraint. Research on least-cost fattening diets and curbing disease problems to increase farmer's income margins is needed. It is expected that due to existing commonalities, the information emerging from this study regarding major constraints to Awassi lamb fattening systems could be useful for an across-synthesis on Awassi fattening production in the region.

  16. Design, characterization and optimization of various β γ measurement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroettner, T.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is based on four peer reviewed publications and reflects the scientific work from 2002 to 2009. These four papers correspond to four main chapters of the thesis. The common sense of the work is the focus on physics and electronics of measurement systems for ionizing radiation. The common aim is to increase measurement performance and sensitivity by increasing the signal to noise ratio (SNR). This has been realized by reduction of the terrestrial and cosmic radiation background and by minimizing of electromagnetic interference (EMI) and noise pick up by electronic measures. Another method, applied to increase the SNR, utilized adaptive integration time to optimize the ratio of recorded signal and background counts. For spectroscopic systems, also the stability of the energy calibration plays a key role for high SNR, as the detection limit depends on the energy resolution and stability of energy calibration. The first paper 'Optimization of an active anti cosmic veto shielding' (Schroettner at al., 2004) deals with optimization of a low level gamma spectroscopy system. Time spectroscopy of the cosmic muons passing the guard detector and the related background signals in the high purity germanium (HPGe) detector has been applied to optimize the veto time window. The fluctuation of the muon flux has been investigated and the possible induced drop and variation of measurement efficiency have been calculated and minimized. To extend the operation of the active veto towards lower γ-energies, the electronic noise and interference has been reduced by systematic location and elimination of the sources. A totally isolated power net employs filtering and regeneration of the power line for the laboratory. The second paper 'Enhancing sensitivity of portal monitoring at varying transit speed' (Schroettner at al., 2009) contains a characterization of a plastic scintillation based portal monitoring system and presents a method to increase the sensitivity of the system

  17. Honey characterization using computer vision system and artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Sahameh; Minaei, Saeid; Moghaddam-Charkari, Nasrollah; Barzegar, Mohsen

    2014-09-15

    This paper reports the development of a computer vision system (CVS) for non-destructive characterization of honey based on colour and its correlated chemical attributes including ash content (AC), antioxidant activity (AA), and total phenolic content (TPC). Artificial neural network (ANN) models were applied to transform RGB values of images to CIE L*a*b* colourimetric measurements and to predict AC, TPC and AA from colour features of images. The developed ANN models were able to convert RGB values to CIE L*a*b* colourimetric parameters with low generalization error of 1.01±0.99. In addition, the developed models for prediction of AC, TPC and AA showed high performance based on colour parameters of honey images, as the R(2) values for prediction were 0.99, 0.98, and 0.87, for AC, AA and TPC, respectively. The experimental results show the effectiveness and possibility of applying CVS for non-destructive honey characterization by the industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Performance characterization of pneumatic single pellet injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuresko, D.D.; Milora, S.L.; Hogan, J.T.; Foster, C.A.; Combs, S.K.

    1982-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory single-shot pellet injector, which has been used in plasma fueling experiments on ISX and PDX, has been upgraded and extensively instrumented in order to study the gas dynamics of pneumatic pellet injection. An improved pellet transport line was developed which utilizes a 0.3-cm-diam by 100-cm-long guide tube. Pellet gun performance was characterized by measurements of breech and muzzle dynamic pressures and by pellet velocity and mass determinations. Velocities up to 1.4 km/s were achieved for intact hydrogen pellets using hydrogen propellant at 5-MPa breech pressure. These data have been compared with new pellet acceleration calculations which include the effects of propellant friction, heat transfer, time-dependent boundary conditions, and finite gun geometry. These results provide a basis for the extrapolation of present-day pneumatic injection system performance to velocities in excess of 2 km/s

  19. A Neuro-Fuzzy System for Characterization of Arm Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbinot, Alexandre; Favieiro, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The myoelectric signal reflects the electrical activity of skeletal muscles and contains information about the structure and function of the muscles which make different parts of the body move. Advances in engineering have extended electromyography beyond the traditional diagnostic applications to also include applications in diverse areas such as rehabilitation, movement analysis and myoelectric control of prosthesis. This paper aims to study and develop a system that uses myoelectric signals, acquired by surface electrodes, to characterize certain movements of the human arm. To recognize certain hand-arm segment movements, was developed an algorithm for pattern recognition technique based on neuro-fuzzy, representing the core of this research. This algorithm has as input the preprocessed myoelectric signal, to disclosed specific characteristics of the signal, and as output the performed movement. The average accuracy obtained was 86% to 7 distinct movements in tests of long duration (about three hours). PMID:23429579

  20. A Neuro-Fuzzy System for Characterization of Arm Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Balbinot

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The myoelectric signal reflects the electrical activity of skeletal muscles and contains information about the structure and function of the muscles which make different parts of the body move. Advances in engineering have extended electromyography beyond the traditional diagnostic applications to also include applications in diverse areas such as rehabilitation, movement analysis and myoelectric control of prosthesis. This paper aims to study and develop a system that uses myoelectric signals, acquired by surface electrodes, to characterize certain movements of the human arm. To recognize certain hand-arm segment movements, was developed an algorithm for pattern recognition technique based on neuro-fuzzy, representing the core of this research. This algorithm has as input the preprocessed myoelectric signal, to disclosed specific characteristics of the signal, and as output the performed movement. The average accuracy obtained was 86% to 7 distinct movements in tests of long duration (about three hours.

  1. Characterization of new sites for news NPPs: Cooling Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copete, M.; Ortega, S.; Vaquero, J. C.; Cervantes, E.

    2010-01-01

    The increase of power consumption because of the lifestyle of the current society has implied the called renaissance of nuclear power. This situation has encouraged utilities to make new investments in studies, analyses and assessments of future new nuclear power plants. As part of these studies, the characterization or process of conveying information about new sites for new nuclear power plants is strongly considered nowadays. This one encompasses diverse analyses (geology, seismology, weather conditions, flooding, population, and so on) being one of the most important, the study about cooling system requirements. This study is based on diverse tasks: studies about the existing technologies of cooling (wet towers, hybrid towers), development of a thermal model for each component involved in the cooling process, availability of site conditions data and, to perform finally operating windows.

  2. Characterization and modeling of nonlinear hydrophobic interaction chromatographic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagrath, Deepak; Xia, Fang; Cramer, Steven M

    2011-03-04

    A general rate model was employed in concert with a preferential interaction quadratic adsorption isotherm for the characterization of HIC resins and the prediction of solute behavior in these separation systems. The results indicate that both pore and surface diffusion play an important role in protein transport in HIC resins. The simulated and experimental solute profiles were compared for two model proteins, lysozyme and lectin, for both displacement and gradient modes of chromatography. Our results indicate that a modeling approach using the generate rate model and preferential interaction isotherm can accurately predict the shock layer response in both gradient and displacement chromatography in HIC systems. While pore and surface diffusion played a major role and were limiting steps for proteins, surface diffusion was seen to play less of a role for the displacer. The results demonstrate that this modeling approach can be employed to describe the behavior of these non-linear HIC systems, which may have implications for the development of more efficient preparative HIC separations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Design, tolerancing, and experimental characterization of dynamic freeform optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Jason Allen

    Although freeform concepts have been considered for many decades, new fabrication capabilities have enabled new classes of optical components and sparked greatly increased interest in freeform optics. Generally defined as surfaces without rotational symmetry, freeform optics enable complex phase variations due to their asymmetry. One approach for freeform optics utilizes multiple freeform surfaces in close proximity. Light transmitted through these surfaces results in a composite wavefront, which is then dynamically changed through controlled relative motions of the freeform surfaces, thereby dynamically changing the overall optical function of the system. These 'dynamic freeform optics' offer advantages such as design miniaturization, decreased manufacturing costs, and optical design flexibility. Examples include the varifocal Alvarez lens and a variable diameter Gaussian to flat-top beam shaper. In these cases the output function is varied through relative lateral shifts. The analytical design procedures for these examples have been well documented in previous work. However, previous cases possess inherent design constraints. For example, the classic Alvarez lens has no optical power when the lateral shift is zero, and both examples are limited to rotationally symmetric output functions and lateral shifts along a single axis. A primary objective of this dissertation is to expand design procedures to overcome these constraints for creation of additional novel dynamic freeform optical systems. The optical performance of several example systems is characterized through experimental testing of diamond-machined freeform elements. Furthermore, as the advantages offered by freeform systems are realized, there remain unknowns regarding performance sensitivity to several potential errors such as opto-mechanical alignment, surface form accuracy, and surface finish quality. To this end, this dissertation also includes individual tolerance analyses on each of these error

  4. Customer System Efficiency Improvement Assessment: Description and examination of system characterization data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, J.W.; DeSteese, J.G.

    1986-12-01

    This report describes three data bases that were developed in the Customer System Efficiency Improvement (CSEI) Assessment project to help characterize transmission and distribution (T and D) system losses experienced by utility customers in the Pacific Northwest. A principal objective of this project is to assess the potential for electric energy conservation in the T and D systems of BPA's utility customers. The three data bases provide essential input on the number and operating characteristics of T and D component stocks that was used in another task of the CSEI Project to estimate the conservation supply functions that result from replacing existing stocks with more efficient components (Tepel et al. 1986). This document describes the three data bases, provides a guide to their use, and presents a summary characterization of the principal loss-generating components (lines and transformers) of the region's T and D systems.

  5. An approach to DNI transients characterization for system evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldhoff, Jan Fabian; Hirsch, Tobias

    2017-06-01

    The direct normal irradiance (DNI) is of utmost importance for concentrated solar power (CSP) plants. For annual yield prediction, a steady-state heat balance is made for each hour of the year or for a smaller time period such as 15 min with the corresponding average DNI value. However, short term DNI variations by clouds are ignored by this approach. In consequence, there is no information on the transient behavior of the plant and the question remains how the plant is influenced by the DNI disturbance. The paper intends to start a discussion on DNI characterization and its application to CSP. An approach to categorize the DNI behavior from a transient system point of view is presented by using purpose-/system-specific filters. Resulting DNI disturbance classes are proposed to directly compare different sites and technologies. They can be useful for better yield analysis and better commercial project selection in the future. An example on a once-through direct steam generation plant is provided.

  6. Dark field imaging system for size characterization of magnetic micromarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malec, A.; Haiden, C.; Kokkinis, G.; Keplinger, F.; Giouroudi, I.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper we demonstrate a dark field video imaging system for the detection and size characterization of individual magnetic micromarkers suspended in liquid and the detection of pathogens utilizing magnetically labelled E.coli. The system follows dynamic processes and interactions of moving micro/nano objects close to or below the optical resolution limit, and is especially suitable for small sample volumes ( 10 μl). The developed detection method can be used to obtain clinical information about liquid contents when an additional biological protocol is provided, i.e., binding of microorganisms (e.g. E.coli) to specific magnetic markers. Some of the major advantages of our method are the increased sizing precision in the micro- and nano-range as well as the setup's simplicity making it a perfect candidate for miniaturized devices. Measurements can thus be carried out in a quick, inexpensive, and compact manner. A minor limitation is that the concentration range of micromarkers in a liquid sample needs to be adjusted in such a manner that the number of individual particles in the microscope's field of view is sufficient.

  7. Combination of evidence in recommendation systems characterized by distance functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, L. M. (Luis Mateus)

    2002-01-01

    Recommendation systems for different Document Networks (DN) such as the World Wide Web (WWW), Digitnl Libarries, or Scientific Databases, often make use of distance functions extracted from relationships among documents and between documents and semantic tags. For instance, documents In the WWW are related via a hyperlink network, while documents in bibliographic databases are related by citation and collaboration networks.Furthermore, documents can be related to semantic tags such as keywords used to describe their content, The distance functions computed from these relations establish associative networks among items of the DN, and allow recommendation systems to identify relevant associations for iudividoal users. The process of recommendation can be improved by integrating associative data from different sources. Thus we are presented with a problem of combining evidence (about assochaons between items) from different sonrces characterized by distance functions. In this paper we summarize our work on (1) inferring associations from semi-metric distance functions and (2) combining evidence from different (distance) associative DN.

  8. Particle synthesis, characterization, and properties of filled polymer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohls, Douglas J.

    This dissertation presents results on the reinforcement of an elastomer system using different types of fillers and comparing the resulting mechanical properties of compounds made with these fillers. The analytic approach uses two classical models with which fillers are thought to reinforce elastomers. The first mechanism being based on filler structure while the second involves the interaction of the filler with an elastomer. Two new types of fillers are investigated: a fumed silica-carbon composite and a layered silicate. These fillers are compounded into elastomers using formulations that are standard in the tire industry for tire tread compounds. This work builds off of previous studies that use techniques such as microscopy and gas adsorption to characterize filler structure by adding the use of small-angle x-ray scattering to characterize fillers based on three structural levels. Classical rubber elasticity principles with recent fractal model analysis are used to describe how the structural levels of the fillers relate to elastomer reinforcement. Analysis of the SAXS data gives information about the size of the primary particle and of the aggregate formed by these primary particles. It is found, through analyzing the SAXS data, that the ratio of these two structural sizes gives the degree of aggregation or the number of particles in an aggregate. The measurement and analysis of the degree of aggregation and how it correlates with measured mechanical properties of compounds is presented in this dissertation. The results from the USAXS and the mechanical testing of elastomers showed that the degree of aggregation, z, helps to identify what is a 'reinforcing' filler. Higher degree of aggregation correlated with better mechanical properties. While other studies have shown the effects of surface modifications, filler concentration, and surface area, the studies in this dissertation conclude that the degree of aggregation is an important parameter that can predict

  9. Characterization of indigenous chicken production systems in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoro, J; Muasya, T K; Mbuza, F; Habimana, R; Kahi, A K

    2017-12-01

    Characterization of indigenous chicken (IC) production systems in Rwanda was conducted from November 2015 to January 2016 with the aim of understanding socio-economic characteristics, management of IC, production parameters, feed resources, and constraints faced by farmers rearing IC. A survey involving 206 households was carried out in 5 districts with the highest populations of IC using structured questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SAS software. The results showed that the majority of respondents (62.4%) were males and 37.6% were females. The majority of respondents (83.6%) had formal education. All family members were involved in the chicken husbandry practices. However, women (78%) were highly responsible for IC management activities. The family size averaged 5 persons (ranging 2 to 13) per household. Land was privately owned by farmers (84%) with a mean holding of 0.87 ha per household. The production system was mainly extensive with minimum provision of supplementary feeds. Chickens were being housed in separate houses at night and mating was uncontrolled. Breeding and replacement stocks were mainly sourced from the hatching of eggs using broody hens (60.68% of respondents). There were no vaccination programs, and ecto- and endo-parasites control was done when need arose. Egg production, income generation, meat production, and production of breeding stock were the main reasons of keeping IC. The first 3 main challenges facing IC production were diseases outbreaks, lack of investment capital, and predators. Others challenges, such as feed shortage, thieves, fluctuation of market price, lack of information on poultry rearing, and lack of chicken houses, also were mentioned. The IC production constraints mentioned need urgent mitigation measures to sustain utilization of IC against the changing climatic and economic conditions. Therefore, individual, public institution, and non-governmental organization efforts are required to develop sustainable breeding

  10. Characterization of solid waste conversion and cogeneration systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    The primary objective of the TASE program is to determine the probable consequences to the environment and to public health and safety resulting from widespread implementation of major solar and renewable resource technologies. The specific principal Phase I objective is to determine the levels of residuals most likely to result throughout the complete energy cycle from the utilization of each of the solar and renewable resource technologies. Three basic technologies for recovering energy from M SW are considered in this study. These are: (1) direct combustion using a waterwall incinerator in which the heat from burning refuse is converted to steam by circulating water in steel tubes jacketing the interior of the incinerator; (2) manufacture of a relatively uniform shredded, pulverized or pelleted refuse-derived fuel (RDF) for supplemental firing in a utility boiler; and (3) pyrolysis or destructive distillation of MSW to extract a low-Btu fuel gas. While resource recovery and energy recovery systems can be installed independently, the processes described here include both energy and resource recovery systems as well as necessary pollution control equipment for gaseous emissions. To meet the Phase I objective, LBL staff have characterized the individual application associated with each general technology; calculated operational residuals generated by each application; determined the input capital requirements and, when possible, annual operating input requirements; and have identified the technical and institutional constraints for the widespread implementation of each application. A description is presented of the energy and material development cycle required for the implementation of each technology. The capital requirements are compiled and presented in a SEAS system format.

  11. Seismic Fracture Characterization Methodologies for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queen, John H. [Hi-Geophysical, Inc., Ponca, OK (United States)

    2016-05-09

    Executive Summary The overall objective of this work was the development of surface and borehole seismic methodologies using both compressional and shear waves for characterizing faults and fractures in Enhanced Geothermal Systems. We used both surface seismic and vertical seismic profile (VSP) methods. We adapted these methods to the unique conditions encountered in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) creation. These conditions include geological environments with volcanic cover, highly altered rocks, severe structure, extreme near surface velocity contrasts and lack of distinct velocity contrasts at depth. One of the objectives was the development of methods for identifying more appropriate seismic acquisition parameters for overcoming problems associated with these geological factors. Because temperatures up to 300º C are often encountered in these systems, another objective was the testing of VSP borehole tools capable of operating at depths in excess of 1,000 m and at temperatures in excess of 200º C. A final objective was the development of new processing and interpretation techniques based on scattering and time-frequency analysis, as well as the application of modern seismic migration imaging algorithms to seismic data acquired over geothermal areas. The use of surface seismic reflection data at Brady's Hot Springs was found useful in building a geological model, but only when combined with other extensive geological and geophysical data. The use of fine source and geophone spacing was critical in producing useful images. The surface seismic reflection data gave no information about the internal structure (extent, thickness and filling) of faults and fractures, and modeling suggests that they are unlikely to do so. Time-frequency analysis was applied to these data, but was not found to be significantly useful in their interpretation. Modeling does indicate that VSP and other seismic methods with sensors located at depth in wells will be the most

  12. Comprehensive characterizations of nanoparticle biodistribution following systemic injection in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wei-Yin; Li, Hui-Jing; Chang, Ming-Yao; Tang, Alan C. L.; Hoffman, Allan S.; Hsieh, Patrick C. H.

    2013-10-01

    Various nanoparticle (NP) properties such as shape and surface charge have been studied in an attempt to enhance the efficacy of NPs in biomedical applications. When trying to undermine the precise biodistribution of NPs within the target organs, the analytical method becomes the determining factor in measuring the precise quantity of distributed NPs. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) represents a more powerful tool in quantifying NP biodistribution compared to conventional analytical methods such as an in vivo imaging system (IVIS). This, in part, is due to better curve linearity offered by HPLC than IVIS. Furthermore, HPLC enables us to fully analyze each gram of NPs present in the organs without compromising the signals and the depth-related sensitivity as is the case in IVIS measurements. In addition, we found that changing physiological conditions improved large NP (200-500 nm) distribution in brain tissue. These results reveal the importance of selecting analytic tools and physiological environment when characterizing NP biodistribution for future nanoscale toxicology, therapeutics and diagnostics.Various nanoparticle (NP) properties such as shape and surface charge have been studied in an attempt to enhance the efficacy of NPs in biomedical applications. When trying to undermine the precise biodistribution of NPs within the target organs, the analytical method becomes the determining factor in measuring the precise quantity of distributed NPs. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) represents a more powerful tool in quantifying NP biodistribution compared to conventional analytical methods such as an in vivo imaging system (IVIS). This, in part, is due to better curve linearity offered by HPLC than IVIS. Furthermore, HPLC enables us to fully analyze each gram of NPs present in the organs without compromising the signals and the depth-related sensitivity as is the case in IVIS measurements. In addition, we found that changing physiological

  13. Statistical characterization of discrete conservative systems: The web map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Guiomar; Tirnakli, Ugur; Borges, Ernesto P.; Tsallis, Constantino

    2017-10-01

    We numerically study the two-dimensional, area preserving, web map. When the map is governed by ergodic behavior, it is, as expected, correctly described by Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics, based on the additive entropic functional SB G[p (x ) ] =-k ∫d x p (x ) lnp (x ) . In contrast, possible ergodicity breakdown and transitory sticky dynamical behavior drag the map into the realm of generalized q statistics, based on the nonadditive entropic functional Sq[p (x ) ] =k 1/-∫d x [p(x ) ] q q -1 (q ∈R ;S1=SB G ). We statistically describe the system (probability distribution of the sum of successive iterates, sensitivity to the initial condition, and entropy production per unit time) for typical values of the parameter that controls the ergodicity of the map. For small (large) values of the external parameter K , we observe q -Gaussian distributions with q =1.935 ⋯ (Gaussian distributions), like for the standard map. In contrast, for intermediate values of K , we observe a different scenario, due to the fractal structure of the trajectories embedded in the chaotic sea. Long-standing non-Gaussian distributions are characterized in terms of the kurtosis and the box-counting dimension of chaotic sea.

  14. Grammar Is a System That Characterizes Talk in Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, Jonathan; Poesio, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Much of contemporary mainstream formal grammar theory is unable to provide analyses for language as it occurs in actual spoken interaction. Its analyses are developed for a cleaned up version of language which omits the disfluencies, non-sentential utterances, gestures, and many other phenomena that are ubiquitous in spoken language. Using evidence from linguistics, conversation analysis, multimodal communication, psychology, language acquisition, and neuroscience, we show these aspects of language use are rule governed in much the same way as phenomena captured by conventional grammars. Furthermore, we argue that over the past few years some of the tools required to provide a precise characterizations of such phenomena have begun to emerge in theoretical and computational linguistics; hence, there is no reason for treating them as "second class citizens" other than pre-theoretical assumptions about what should fall under the purview of grammar. Finally, we suggest that grammar formalisms covering such phenomena would provide a better foundation not just for linguistic analysis of face-to-face interaction, but also for sister disciplines, such as research on spoken dialogue systems and/or psychological work on language acquisition.

  15. Characterization of broiler poultry production system in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbuza, Francis; Manishimwe, Rosine; Mahoro, Janvier; Simbankabo, Thomas; Nishimwe, Kizito

    2017-01-01

    A study was conducted on 37 randomly selected broiler poultry farmers in Rwanda to characterize the production system using pre-tested semi-structured questionnaires. The data were processed in SPSS and presented as means, percentages and ranges in tables and text. All respondents kept Cobb breed and young stock was mainly (73 %) imported from abroad. The majority of respondents were males (68 %) and most farmers had attended only primary level of education (40.5 %). Most of the farms were in the peri-urban (48.6 %) and urban (37.8 %) areas and hired male youth (62.2 %) mainly aged 19-35 years. The majority of respondents (68 %) kept less than 500 birds per batch. Recordkeeping was well practiced (91.9 %) and (62.6 %) had permanent poultry houses and all farmers used deep litter system. Purchased feedstuffs were reportedly (92 %) mixed at farm level as the main feed resource. Maize bran was reported (97.06 %) the main, basal feedstuff. The mortality rates of chick and growers were 12.3 and 9.4 %, respectively. The slaughter age was reportedly 60 days with an average dressing percentage of 75.67 %. The main challenges reported were scarcity and unaffordability of quality feeds (59.5 %), lack of market access (45 %) and lack of credit (21 %). The farmers had various views on improving broiler production in Rwanda ranging from establishing feed processing industries 62.2 %, improving marketing facilities 35.1 %, increasing availability of day-old chick and access credit 27 %, to intensification of farmer training 16.2 %.

  16. Disease characterization of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients in Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, R; Bernatsky, S; Rahme, E

    2017-08-01

    Objective Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by an array of organ manifestations that can appear during flares and disappear during remissions. The objectives of this study were: (i) to examine SLE manifestation groups longitudinally in an SLE cohort; and (ii) to assess the association between early antimalarial treatment and renal manifestations. Methods Seven SLE manifestation groups-cutaneous, hematologic, lung, musculoskeletal, neuropsychiatric, serositis, renal-were tracked using Kaplan-Meier survival curves in an incident SLE cohort from Quebec health administrative data ( n = 2010). A subgroup with provincial drug insurance coverage was followed over time to examine the association between early antimalarial treatment (within three months after SLE diagnosis) and renal manifestations using a Cox proportional hazards survival model. Results Cutaneous manifestations was the most common manifestation at SLE diagnosis (30.0%, 95% CI: 27.7-32.2%). About two-thirds (66.2%, 95% CI: 63.4-68.9%) of patients had evidence of at least one SLE manifestation at diagnosis, which increased to 87.2% (95% CI: 84.2-90.3%) by the end of follow-up. After adjusting for age, sex, early concomitant systemic steroid therapy, Charlson comorbidity index, primary care visits in the year prior and other SLE manifestations at baseline, no statistically significant association was established between antimalarial therapy and renal manifestations. Conclusion This study provides insight regarding organ manifestations within a population-based sample. Most patients identified with SLE had other diagnostic evidence that supports an underlying diagnosis of SLE. No protective effects for antimalarial agents against renal manifestations could be established in this population-based cohort.

  17. Characterizing Groundwater and Contaminant Flux in Fractured Rock Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, M. A.; Cho, J.; Hatfield, K.; Klammler, H.; Annable, M. D.; Parker, B. L.; Cherry, J.; Kroeker, R.; Pedler, W. H.

    2010-12-01

    collaborative standard operating procedure incorporating the most appropriate tools for accurately characterizing both flow and contaminant flux in fractured rock systems. For example, one may first use hydrophysical or temperature logging to indentify distinct flow zones under open- and closed-hole conditions respectively, and then deploy fractured rock passive flux meters to obtain a more detailed indication of fracture location and cumulative measures for groundwater and contaminant fluxes within the identified fractures.

  18. Structural and functional characterization of Delphinus delphis hemoglobin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manconi, Barbara; Messana, Irene; Maggiani, Federica; Olianas, Alessandra; Pellegrini, Mariagiuseppina; Crnjar, Roberto; Castagnola, Massimo; Giardina, Bruno; Sanna, Maria Teresa

    2009-11-01

    Structural analysis of the hemoglobin (Hb) system of Delphinus delphis revealed a high globin multiplicity: HPLC-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analysis evidenced three major beta (beta1 16,022 Da, beta2 16,036 Da, beta3 16,036 Da, labeled according to their progressive elution times) and two major alpha globins (alpha1 15,345 Da, alpha2 15,329 Da). ESI-tandem mass and nucleotide sequence analyses showed that beta2 globin differs from beta1 for the substitution Val126 --> Leu, while beta3 globin differs from beta2 for the isobaric substitution Lys65 --> Gln. The alpha2 globin differs from the alpha1 for the substitution Ser15 --> Ala. Anion-exchange chromatography allowed the separation of two Hb fractions and HPLC-ESI-MS analysis revealed that the fraction with higher pI (HbI) contained beta1, beta2 and both the alpha globins, and the fraction with lower pI (HbII) contained beta3 and both the alpha globins. Both D. delphis Hb fractions displayed a lower intrinsic oxygen affinity, a decreased effect of 2,3-BPG and a reduced cooperativity with respect to human HbA(0), with HbII showing the more pronounced differences. With respect to HbA(0), either the substitution Probeta5 --> Gly or the Probeta5 --> Ala is present in all the cetacean beta globins sequenced so far, and it has been hypothesized that position 5 of beta globins may have a role in the interaction with 2,3-BPG. Regarding the particularly lowered cooperativity of HbII, it is interesting to observe that the variant human HbA, characterized by the substitution Lysbeta65 --> Gln (HbJ-Cairo) has a decreased cooperativity with respect to HbA(0).

  19. Characterizing potential heart agents with an isolated perfused heart system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendleton, D.B.; Sands, H.; Gallagher, B.M.; Camin, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have used an isolated perfused heart system for characterizing potential myocardial perfusion radiopharamaceuticals. Rabbit or guinea pig (GP) hearts are removed and perfused through the aorta with a blood-free buffer. Heart rate and ventricular pressure are monitored as indices of viability. Tc-99m-MAA is 96-100% retained in these hearts, and Tc-99m human serum albumin shows less than 5% extraction. Tl-201 is 30-40% extracted. It is known that in-vivo, Tc-99m(dmpe)/sub 2/Cl/sub 2//sup +/ is taken up by rabbit heart but not by GP or human heart. Analogous results are obtained with the isolated perfused heart model, where the complex is extracted well by the isolated rabbit heart (24%) but not by the GP heart (<5%). Values are unchanged if human, rabbit or GP blood is mixed and co-injected with the complex. Tc-99m)dmpe)/sub 3//sup +/ is also taken up by rabbit but not by GP hearts in-vivo. However, isolated perfused hearts of both species extract this complex well (45-52%). Heart uptake is diminished to <7% if the complex is pre-equilibrated with human blood. GP blood produces a moderate inhibition (in GP hearts only) and rabbit blood has no effect. This suggests that a human or GP blood factor may have a significant effect on heart uptake of this complex. Tc-99m(CN-t-butyl)/sub 6//sup +/ is taken up well by both rabbit and GP hearts in-vivo, and is extracted 100% by both isolated perfused hearts. Heart retention remains high (73-75%) in the presence of human blood

  20. Characterization Test Procedures for Intersection Collision Avoidance Systems Based on Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Characterization test procedures have been developed to quantify the performance of intersection collision avoidance (ICA) systems based on vehicle-to-vehicle communications. These systems warn the driver of an imminent crossing-path collision at a r...

  1. A Remote Characterization System for subsurface mapping of buried waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandness, G.A.; Bennett, D.W.; Martinson, L.

    1992-06-01

    This paper describes a development project that will provide new technology for characterizing hazardous waste burial sites. The project is a collaborative effort by five of the national laboratories, involving the development and demonstration of a remotely controlled site characterization system. The Remote Characterization System (RCS) includes a unique low-signature survey vehicle, a base station, radio telemetry data links, satellite-based vehicle tracking, stereo vision, and sensors for non-invasive inspection of the surface and subsurface

  2. Characterization of peri-urban dairy production system in Ghana. 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of peri-urban dairy production system in Ghana. 1. Social attributes and ... A survey was carried out in five districts on the Accra plains to characterize the peri-urban dairy system. Results of the survey ... Utility services, namely electricity, water and telephone, were non-existent. There were little or no farm ...

  3. X-ray and neutron characterization of multilayer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piecuch, M.; Nevot, L.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we have built up a picture of the structure of the multilayer starting from the more perfect one, the monocrystalline superlattices, and showing some of the imperfections we may encounter. We have then tried to show the usefulness of diffraction experiments to characterize these structure and their various defects. We have shown how the comparison between experimental X-ray spectra and analytical models or computer simulations can give useful information on the structure and the main defects of multilayers. This method is actually one of the best to characterize multilayers. Other techniques of characterization are also useful, but they are either destructive (transmission electron microscopy, various types of profiling ...), or have not the same spatial resolution (Rutherford backscattering). (author) 9 figs., 118 refs

  4. Tri-Service Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS) Validation of the Hydrosparge Volatile Organic Compound Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, William

    2001-01-01

    Site characterization for subsurface contaminants is time consuming and costly. The Hydrosparge VOC sensor was developed for the Tri-Services Site characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS...

  5. Bulk and surface characterization of novel photoresponsive polymeric systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramani, Shivshankar

    This dissertation presents a detailed characterization of two important classes of photoresponsive polymers-polydiacetylenes (PDAs) and azopolymers. Bulk and surface characterization techniques were used to evaluate the structure-property relationships of the PDAs and surface characterization, in particular-atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to characterize the azopolymers. PDAs from bis-alkylurethanes of 5,7 dodecadiyn 1,12-diol (viz.,) ETCD, IPUDO and PUDO are of particular interest in view of reports of reversible thermochromic and photochromic phase transitions in these materials. Thermochromism in the above PDAs is associated with a first order phase transition involving expansion of the crystallographic unit cell, the preservation of the urethane hydrogen bonding and possibly some relief of mechanical strain upon heating. Insights into thermochromism obtained from studies of nonthermochromic forms of PDA-ETCD are discussed. Some of the bulk characterization experiments reported In the literature are repeated. The motivation to investigate the surface morphology of the PDA single crystals using AFM was derived from Raman spectroscopy studies of various PDAs in which dispersion of the Raman spectrum indicating surface heterogeneity was observed. Micron scale as well as molecularly resolved images were obtained The micron scale images indicated a variable surface of the crystals. The molecularly resolved images showed a well defined 2-D lattice and are interpreted in terms of known crystallographic data. The surface parameters obtained from AFM measurements are similar to those determined from X-ray diffraction. During an attempt of AFM imaging of IPUDO crystals exposed to 254 nm ultraviolet light, it was observed that these crystals undergo a "macroscopic shattering". In the interest of rigorously defining conditions for photochromism, this research has undertaken a combined study of the surface morphology of the above mentioned PDA crystals by AFM and the

  6. Monitoring and characterization of radionuclide transport in the hydrogeologic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Raymond, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    Historical records pertaining to the 300 North and Wye Burial Grounds at the Hanford Reservation were reviewed as a prerequisite to determining programs for land reclamation. All available historical documents, agency communications, and engineering drawings related to the study areas were located, reviewed, and analyzed. An inventory of recorded location, type, and quantity of radionuclides and associated materials in each burial ground was completed and distributed to cooperating investigators. A geophysical survey of the 300 North Burial Ground was conducted as a basis for detecting the composition, size, distribution, and depth of buried objects and characterizing the sediments in which they are buried. Acoustic, radar, magnetic, and metal detection surveys were completed and their applicability evaluated; drilling techniques and equipment for recovering and characterizing sediments and radioactive contaminated material were developed. Drilling will also determine the amount and dimensional extent of radionuclide migration; sediment-fluid interaction and fluid migration through the unsaturated zone at the 300 North Burial Ground were characterized. A study to determine biological transport of radionuclides at the Wye Burial Ground was also initiated. This study involved a preliminary survey of present flora and fauna inhabiting the Wye Burial Ground site. Plant tissue was chemically and radiochemically analyzed to determine radionuclide migration and possible dose effects and population dynamics of burrowing animals that could potentially be exposed to buried waste materials were investigated

  7. Characterization of the system MoS2 + C, HAADF vs Tem conventional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reza, C.; Cruz, G.; Santiago, P.; Rendon, L.

    2004-01-01

    A study is presented about the synthesis and characterization of unidimensional nano systems composed of MoS 2 and C with potential use as solid lubricant. The synthesis process was developed for the mold method, via thermal decomposition, which uses a film of nano porous aluminium oxide. Such systems were characterized by two analysis methods that involve Transmission Electron Microscopy, HRTEM (Conventional TEM) and HAADF (Z Contrast). The results obtained in the structural and morphological characterization were supplemented to determine the structure type obtained in the unidimensional systems. (Author)

  8. Methodology for characterizing potential adversaries of Nuclear Material Safeguards Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkwood, C.W.; Pollock, S.M.

    1978-11-01

    The results are described of a study by Woodward--Clyde Consultants to assist the University of California Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in the development of methods to analyze and evaluate Nuclear Material Safeguards (NMS) Systems. The study concentrated on developing a methodology to assist experts in describing, in quantitative form, their judgments about the characteristics of potential adversaries of NMS Systems.

  9. Methodology for characterizing potential adversaries of Nuclear Material Safeguards Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkwood, C.W.; Pollock, S.M.

    1978-11-01

    The results are described of a study by Woodward--Clyde Consultants to assist the University of California Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in the development of methods to analyze and evaluate Nuclear Material Safeguards (NMS) Systems. The study concentrated on developing a methodology to assist experts in describing, in quantitative form, their judgments about the characteristics of potential adversaries of NMS Systems

  10. Microcontroller-based system for analyzing and characterizing solar panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabbar, Muhandis Abdul; Prawito

    2016-01-01

    A solar cell is one of many alternative energy which is still being developed and it works by converting sunlight into electricity. In order to use a solar cell, a deep knowledge about the solar cell’s characteristics is needed. The current and voltage (I-V) produced when the light hits the solar cell surface with a certain value of intensity and at a certain value of temperature becomes the basic study to determine solar cell characteristics. In the past decade, there were so many developments of devices to characterize solar cells and solar panels. One of them used a MOSFET device for varying electronic load to observe solar cell current and voltage responses. However, many devices which have been developed even device on the market using many expensive tools and quite complex. Therefore in this research, a simple low cost electronic controlled device for solar cell characterization is built based on MOSFET method and a microcontroller but still has high reliability and accuracy.

  11. Material characterization of a polyester resin system for the pultrusion process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baran, Ismet; Akkerman, Remko; Hattel, Jesper H.

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, the chemo-rheology of an industrial “orthophthalic” polyester system specifically prepared for a pultrusion process is characterized. The curing behaviour is first characterized using the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Isothermal and dynamic scans are performed to

  12. Metrological characterization of the numerical system Adonis for gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plagnard, J.; Morel, J.; Tran Tuan, A.

    2005-01-01

    In gamma spectrometry, new acquisition systems based on digital processing of the signals are now available on the market. In order to determine their performances at high count rates, The CEA-LNHB (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique - Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel) has tested several of these equipments.. These tests have clearly shown that the performances announced by the manufacturers were generally not met. At this point, it was interesting to include in these tests, the system ADONIS (Atelier de Developpement Numerique pour l'Instrumentation en Spectrometrie), which is the new gamma spectrometry system, developed by the CEA-SIAR (Service d'Instrumentation et d'Application des Rayonnements). (authors)

  13. Characterization and Modeling of a Methanol Reforming Fuel Cell System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahlin, Simon Lennart

    topologies is the Reformed Methanol Fuel Cell (RMFC) system that operates on a mix of methanol and water. The fuel is reformed with a steam reforming to a hydrogen rich gas, however with additional formation of Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide. High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (HT......-PEMFC) has the benefit of being resistant to CO poisoning. The HT-PEM fuel cell operates at elevated temperatures (above 100 oC) and therefore uses phosphoric acid as a proton conductor.  Using a HT-PEMFC in a RMFC system enables the use of exhaust gas from the fuel cell in a catalytic burner which is able...... to heat up the steam reforming process. However, utilizing the excess hydrogen in the system complicates the RMFC system as the amount of hydrogen can vary depending on the fuel methanol supply, fuel cell load and the reformer gas composition. This PhD study has therefore been involved in investigating...

  14. Complete functional characterization of sensory neurons by system identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Michael C-K; David, Stephen V; Gallant, Jack L

    2006-01-01

    System identification is a growing approach to sensory neurophysiology that facilitates the development of quantitative functional models of sensory processing. This approach provides a clear set of guidelines for combining experimental data with other knowledge about sensory function to obtain a description that optimally predicts the way that neurons process sensory information. This prediction paradigm provides an objective method for evaluating and comparing computational models. In this chapter we review many of the system identification algorithms that have been used in sensory neurophysiology, and we show how they can be viewed as variants of a single statistical inference problem. We then review many of the practical issues that arise when applying these methods to neurophysiological experiments: stimulus selection, behavioral control, model visualization, and validation. Finally we discuss several problems to which system identification has been applied recently, including one important long-term goal of sensory neuroscience: developing models of sensory systems that accurately predict neuronal responses under completely natural conditions.

  15. Characterization of a new computer-ready photon counting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andor, Gyorgy

    1998-08-01

    The photon-counting system seems to be the best solution for extremely low optical power measurements. The Hamamatsu HC135 photon counting module has a built-in high-voltage power supply amplifier, discriminator, micro-controller with an RS232 serial output. It requires only a +5V supply voltage and an IBM PC or compatible computer to run. The system is supplied with an application software. This talk is about the testing of the device.

  16. Characterization of lithium batteries for application to photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman Ortiz, S.

    2015-01-01

    This master's thesis addresses the characterization of four different types of Battery technologies; the li-ion, the LiFePO4, the lead crystal and the lead acid. Because these devices are used in electric applications, calculations were made to assess the capacities and energies of the batteries while at different discharges ratios in runs from 5 to 50 hours, which are the most common on the photovoltaic sector. Also, we observed the behavior of the batteries when put through a rise of temperature to measure the fluctuations in the voltage, capacity and energy. Tests were performed at constant power to observe the behavior of the discharge intensity. When making the comparisons of the capacity and the energy, the LiFePO4 battery proved to be the best and better behavior in the tests at constant discharge rates. (Author)

  17. Development and characterization of a solar-hydrogen energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, P.J.; Vejar, S.; Gonzalez, E.; Perez, M.; Gamboa, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text': The details of the development of a PV-hydrogen hybrid energy system are presented. An arrangement of photovoltaic modules (125 W/module) was established to provide 9 kW installed power in a three-phase configuration at 127 Vrms/phase. A 5 kW fuel cell system (hydrogen/oxygen) operates as a dynamic backup of the photovoltaic system. The autonomous operation of the hybrid power system implies the production of hydrogen by electrolysis. The hydrogen is produced by water electrolysis using an electrolyzer of 1 kW of power. The electrical energy used to produce hydrogen is supplied from solar panels by using 1 kW of photovoltaic modules. The photovoltaic modules are installed in a sun-tracker arrangement for increasing the energy conversion efficiency. The hydrogen is stored in solar to electric commercial metal hydride based containers and supplied to the fuel cell. The hybrid system is monitored by internet, and some dynamic characteristics such as demanding power, energy and power factor could be analyzed independently from the system. Some energy saving recommendations have been implemented as a pilot program at CIE-UNAM to improve the efficient use of clean energy in normal operating conditions in offices and laboratories. (author)

  18. Spatial Correlation Characterization of a Full Dimension Massive MIMO System

    KAUST Repository

    Nadeem, Qurrat-Ul-Ain

    2017-02-07

    Elevation beamforming and Full Dimension MIMO (FD-MIMO) are currently active areas of research and standardization in 3GPP LTE-Advanced. FD-MIMO utilizes an active antenna array system (AAS), that provides the ability of adaptive electronic beam control over the elevation dimension, resulting in a better system performance as compared to the conventional 2D MIMO systems. FD-MIMO is more advantageous when amalgamated with massive MIMO systems, in that it exploits the additional degrees of freedom offered by a large number of antennas in the elevation. To facilitate the evaluation of these systems, a large effort in 3D channel modeling is needed. This paper aims at providing a summary of the recent 3GPP activity around 3D channel modeling. The 3GPP proposed approach to model antenna radiation pattern is compared with the ITU approach. A closed-form expression is then worked out for the spatial correlation function (SCF) for channels constituted by individual antenna elements in the array by exploiting results on spherical harmonics and Legendre polynomials. The proposed expression can be used to obtain correlation coefficients for any arbitrary 3D propagation environment. Simulation results corroborate and study the derived spatial correlation expression. The results are directly applicable to the analysis of future 5G 3D massive MIMO systems.

  19. An Intelligent Systems Approach to Reservoir Characterization. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahab D. Mohaghegh; Jaime Toro; Thomas H. Wilson; Emre Artun; Alejandro Sanchez; Sandeep Pyakurel

    2005-01-01

    Today, the major challenge in reservoir characterization is integrating data coming from different sources in varying scales, in order to obtain an accurate and high-resolution reservoir model. The role of seismic data in this integration is often limited to providing a structural model for the reservoir. Its relatively low resolution usually limits its further use. However, its areal coverage and availability suggest that it has the potential of providing valuable data for more detailed reservoir characterization studies through the process of seismic inversion. In this paper, a novel intelligent seismic inversion methodology is presented to achieve a desirable correlation between relatively low-frequency seismic signals, and the much higher frequency wireline-log data. Vertical seismic profile (VSP) is used as an intermediate step between the well logs and the surface seismic. A synthetic seismic model is developed by using real data and seismic interpretation. In the example presented here, the model represents the Atoka and Morrow formations, and the overlying Pennsylvanian sequence of the Buffalo Valley Field in New Mexico. Generalized regression neural network (GRNN) is used to build two independent correlation models between; (1) Surface seismic and VSP, (2) VSP and well logs. After generating virtual VSP's from the surface seismic, well logs are predicted by using the correlation between VSP and well logs. The values of the density log, which is a surrogate for reservoir porosity, are predicted for each seismic trace through the seismic line with a classification approach having a correlation coefficient of 0.81. The same methodology is then applied to real data taken from the Buffalo Valley Field, to predict inter-well gamma ray and neutron porosity logs through the seismic line of interest. The same procedure can be applied to a complete 3D seismic block to obtain 3D distributions of reservoir properties with less uncertainty than the geostatistical

  20. Characterization of a bifidobacterial system that utilizes galacto-oligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigehisa, Akira; Sotoya, Hidetsugu; Sato, Takashi; Hara, Taeko; Matsumoto, Hoshitaka; Matsuki, Takahiro

    2015-07-01

    The galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) OLIGOMATE 55N (Yakult) is a mixture of oligosaccharides, the main component of which is 4'-galactosyllactose (4'-GL). Numerous reports have shown that GOSs are non-digestible, reach the colon and selectively stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria. The product has been used as a food ingredient and its applications have expanded rapidly. However, the bifidobacterial glycoside hydrolases and transporters responsible for utilizing GOSs have not been characterized sufficiently. In this study, we aimed to identify and characterize genes responsible for metabolizing 4'-GL in Bifidobacterium breve strain Yakult. We attempted to identify B. breve Yakult genes induced by 4'-GL using transcriptional profiling during growth in basal medium containing 4'-GL with a custom microarray. We found that BbrY_0420, which encodes solute-binding protein (SBP), and BbrY_0422, which encodes β-galactosidase, were markedly upregulated relative to that during growth in basal medium containing lactose. Investigation of the substrate specificity of recombinant BbrY_0420 protein using surface plasmon resonance showed that BbrY_0420 protein bound to 4'-GL, but not to 3'-GL and 6'-GL, structural isomers of 4'-GL. Additionally, BbrY_0420 had a strong affinity for 4-galactobiose (4-GB), suggesting that this SBP recognized the non-reducing terminal structure of 4'-GL. Incubation of purified recombinant BbrY_0422 protein with 4'-GL, 3'-GL, 6'-GL and 4-GB revealed that the protein efficiently hydrolysed 4'-GL and 4-GB, but did not digest 3'-GL, 6'-GL or lactose, suggesting that BbrY_0422 digested the bond within Gal1,4-β-Gal. Thus, BbrY_0420 (SBP) and BbrY_0422 (β-galactosidase) had identical, strict substrate specificity, suggesting that they were coupled by co-induction to facilitate the transportation and hydrolysis of 4'-GL.

  1. Information-theoretic characterization of dynamic energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevis, Troy Lawson

    The latter half of the 20th century saw tremendous growth in nearly every aspect of civilization. From the internet to transportation, the various infrastructures relied upon by society has become exponentially more complex. Energy systems are no exception, and today the power grid is one of the largest infrastructures in the history of the world. The growing infrastructure has led to an increase in not only the amount of energy produced, but also an increase in the expectations of the energy systems themselves. The need for a power grid that is reliable, secure, and efficient is apparent, and there have been several initiatives to provide such a system. These increases in expectations have led to a growth in the renewable energy sources that are being integrated into the grid, a change that increases efficiency and disperses the generation throughout the system. Although this change in the grid infrastructure is beneficial, it leads to grand challenges in system level control and operation. As the number of sources increases and becomes geographically distributed, the control systems are no longer local to the system. This means that communication networks must be enhanced to support multiple devices that must communicate reliably. A common solution to these new systems is to use wide area networks for the communication network, as opposed to point-to-point communication. Although the wide area network will support a large number of devices, it generally comes with a compromise in the form of latency in the communication system. Now the device controller has latency injected into the feedback loop of the system. Also, renewable energy sources are largely non-dispatchable generation. That is, they are never guaranteed to be online and supplying the demanded energy. As renewable generation is typically modeled as stochastic process, it would useful to include this behavior in the control system algorithms. The combination of communication latency and stochastic

  2. Multi-Use Non-Intrusive Flow Characterization System (FCS), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a Multi-Use Non-Intrusive Flow Characterization System (FCS) for densified, normal boiling point, and two-phase cryogenic flows, capable of...

  3. Multi-Use Non-Intrusive Flow Characterization System (FCS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The product of the Phase II effort will be a Multi-Use Non-Intrusive Flow Characterization System (FCS) for densified, normal boiling point, and two-phase cryogenic...

  4. Characterization of the peripheral thyroid system of gilthead seabream acclimated to different ambient salinities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Jarabo, I.; Klaren, P.H.M.; Louro, B.; Martos-Sitcha, J.A.; Pinto, P.I.; Vargas-Chacoff, L.; Flik, G.; Martinez-Rodriguez, G.; Power, D.M.; Mancera, J.M.; Arjona, F.J

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are involved in many developmental and physiological processes, including osmoregulation. The regulation of the thyroid system by environmental salinity in the euryhaline gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) is still poorly characterized. To this end seabreams were exposed to four

  5. Characterization of the peripheral thyroid system of gilthead seabream acclimated to different ambient salinities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Jarabo, I.; Klaren, P.H.M.; Louro, B.; Martos-Sitcha, J.A.; Pinto, P.I.; Vargas-Chacoff, L.; Flik, G.; Martinez-Rodriguez, G.; Power, D.M.; Mancera, J.M.; Arjona, F.J.

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are involved in many developmental and physiological processes, including osmoregulation. The regulation of the thyroid system by environmental salinity in the euryhaline gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) is still poorly characterized. To this end seabreams were exposed to four

  6. Advanced Gun System (AGS) Dynamic Characterization: Modal Test and Analysis, High-Frequency Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berman, Morris

    1999-01-01

    Dynamic characterization tests were performed on the Advanced Gun System (AGS) vehicle. The tests were designed to provide modeling information for high-frequency shock prediction codes, as well as finite element codes...

  7. Geographic Information System (GIS) characterizations of benthic habitats near South Florida coast (NODC Accession 0000600)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data collection uses a Geographic Information System (GIS) to organize and characterize information about benthic communities and substrates, which are...

  8. ASPECT (Automated System-level Performance Evaluation and Characterization Tool), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSCI has developed a suite of SAA tools and an analysis capability referred to as ASPECT (Automated System-level Performance Evaluation and Characterization Tool)....

  9. A Review of Analytical Methods for the Identification and Characterization of Nano Delivery Systems in Food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luykx, D.M.A.M.; Peters, R.J.B.; Ruth, van S.M.; Bouwmeester, H.

    2008-01-01

    Detection and characterization of nano delivery systems is an essential part of understanding the benefits as well as the potential toxicity of these systems in food. This review gives a detailed description of food nano delivery systems based on lipids, proteins, and/or polysaccharides and

  10. Geophysical Characterization of the Hilton Creek Fault System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, A. K.; Macy, K. P.; De Cristofaro, J. L.; Polet, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Long Valley Caldera straddles the eastern edge of the Sierra Nevada Batholith and the western edge of the Basin and Range Province, and represents one of the largest caldera complexes on Earth. The caldera is intersected by numerous fault systems, including the Hartley Springs Fault System, the Round Valley Fault System, the Long Valley Ring Fault System, and the Hilton Creek Fault System, which is our main region of interest. The Hilton Creek Fault System appears as a single NW-striking fault, dipping to the NE, from Davis Lake in the south to the southern rim of the Long Valley Caldera. Inside the caldera, it splays into numerous parallel faults that extend toward the resurgent dome. Seismicity in the area increased significantly in May 1980, following a series of large earthquakes in the vicinity of the caldera and a subsequent large earthquake swarm which has been suggested to be the result of magma migration. A large portion of the earthquake swarms in the Long Valley Caldera occurs on or around the Hilton Creek Fault splays. We are conducting an interdisciplinary geophysical study of the Hilton Creek Fault System from just south of the onset of splay faulting, to its extension into the dome of the caldera. Our investigation includes ground-based magnetic field measurements, high-resolution total station elevation profiles, Structure-From-Motion derived topography and an analysis of earthquake focal mechanisms and statistics. Preliminary analysis of topographic profiles, of approximately 1 km in length, reveals the presence of at least three distinct fault splays within the caldera with vertical offsets of 0.5 to 1.0 meters. More detailed topographic mapping is expected to highlight smaller structures. We are also generating maps of the variation in b-value along different portions of the Hilton Creek system to determine whether we can detect any transition to more swarm-like behavior towards the North. We will show maps of magnetic anomalies, topography

  11. Characterizing the human postural control system using detrended fluctuation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresa Blázquez, M.; Anguiano, Marta; de Saavedra, Fernando Arias; Lallena, Antonio M.; Carpena, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Detrended fluctuation analysis is used to study the behaviour of the time series of the position of the center of pressure, output from the activity of a human postural control system. The results suggest that these trajectories present a crossover in their scaling properties from persistent (for high frequencies, short-range time scale) to anti-persistent (for low frequencies, long-range time scale) behaviours. The values of the scaling exponent found for the persistent parts of the trajectories are very similar for all the cases analysed. The similarity of the results obtained for the measurements done with both eyes open and both eyes closed indicate either that the visual system may be disregarded by the postural control system, while maintaining quiet standing, or that the control mechanisms associated with each type of information (visual, vestibular and somatosensory) cannot be disentangled with this technique.

  12. Characterization of liquid scintillation detector (BC-501A) and digital pulse shape discrimination (DPSD) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombigit, L., E-mail: lojius@nm.gov.my; Yussup, N., E-mail: nolida@nm.gov.my; Ibrahim, Maslina Mohd; Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Rawi, M. Z. M. [Instrumentation Group, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    A digital n/γ pulse shape discrimination (PSD) system is currently under development at Instrumentation and Automation Centre, Malaysian Nuclear Agency. This system aims at simultaneous detection of fast neutron and gamma ray in mixed radiations environment. This work reports the system characterization performed on the liquid scintillation detector (BC-501A) and digital pulse shape discrimination (DPSD) system. The characterization involves measurement of electron light output from the BC-501A detector and energy channels calibration of the pulse height spectra acquired with DPSD system using set of photon reference sources. The main goal of this experiment is to calibrate the ADC channel of our DPSD system, characterized the BC-501 detector and find the position of Compton edge which later could be used as threshold for the n/γ PSD experiment. The detector resolution however is worse as compared to other published data but it is expected as our detector has a smaller active volume.

  13. Development and characterization of a reconstituted yeast translation initiation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algire, Mikkel A; Maag, David; Savio, Peter; Acker, Michael G; Tarun, Salvador Z; Sachs, Alan B; Asano, Katsura; Nielsen, Klaus H; Olsen, Deanne S; Phan, Lon; Hinnebusch, Alan G; Lorsch, Jon R

    2002-03-01

    To provide a bridge between in vivo and in vitro studies of eukaryotic translation initiation, we have developed a reconstituted translation initiation system using components from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have purified a minimal set of initiation factors (elFs) that, together with yeast 80S ribosomes, GTP, and initiator methionyl-tRNA, are sufficient to assemble active initiation complexes on a minimal mRNA template. The kinetics of various steps in the pathway of initiation complex assembly and the formation of the first peptide bond in vitro have been explored. The formation of active initiation complexes in this system is dependent on ribosomes, mRNA, Met-tRNAi, GTP hydrolysis, elF1, elF1A, elF2, elF5, and elF5B. Our data indicate that elF1 and elF1A both facilitate the binding of the elF2 x GTP x Met-tRNAi complex to the 40S ribosomal subunit to form the 43S complex. elF5 stimulates a step after 43S complex formation, consistent with its proposed role in activating GTP hydrolysis by elF2 upon initiation codon recognition. The presence of elF5B is required for the joining of the 40S and 60S subunits to form the 80S initiation complex. The step at which each of these factors acts in this reconstituted system is in agreement with previous data from in vivo studies and work using reconstituted mammalian systems, indicating that the system recapitulates fundamental events in translation initiation in eukaryotic cells. This system should allow us to couple powerful yeast genetic and molecular biological experiments with in vitro kinetic and biophysical experiments, yielding a better understanding of the molecular mechanics of this central, complex process.

  14. Characterization of metal/humic acid systems by Capillary Electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staden JJ van; Hoop MAGT van den; Cleven R; LAC

    2000-01-01

    Metal-humic acid systems have been characterised applying Capillary Electrophoresis (CE). Appropriate experimental conditions with respect to carrier electrolyte, pH range, salt concentration, humic acid concentration and the applied potential, have been optimised. The influence of multivalent metal

  15. THE THERMAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MULTICOMPONENT SYSTEMS BY ENTHALPY RELAXATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TENBRINKE, G; OUDHUIS, L; ELLIS, TS

    1994-01-01

    The phenomenon of enthalpy relaxation of amorphous glassy polymers has been developed into an analytical tool which can be applied to elucidate phase behavior and morphologically related phenomena of multi-component systems. We have both reviewed the experimental details concerning its application,

  16. A characterization of saturated fusion systems over abelian 2-groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henke, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Given a saturated fusion system FF over a 2-group S, we prove that S is abelian provided any element of S  is F-conjugate to an element of Z(S). This generalizes a Theorem of Camina–Herzog, leading to a significant simplification of its proof. More importantly, it follows that any 2-block B...

  17. Characterization of modulated integrate-and-fire systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alstroem, P.; Christiansen, B.; Levinsen, M.T.

    1988-01-01

    The phase locking structure in threshold modulated integrate-and-fire systems is explored. The existence of a smooth critical line where the Poincare map has an infinite slope inflection point is emphasized. At and below this line the system is related to circle map systems. Especially, this allows realization of systems with higher order scaling structures, qualitatively distinct from ordinary third order circle map structures. Hourglass patterns develop in parameter space and at small modulation amplitudes the behavior of the phase-locking regions (Arnold tongues) change dramatically. Above the critical line the Arnold tongues complete the parameter space, leaving along any line a zero-dimensional Cantor set of points associated with irrational rotation numbers. The critical line is not associated with a transition to chaos. In particular non-chaotic regions with complete phase-locking exist. In the supercritical region a gap is present in the Poincare map. The features at this gap are examined. Also local hysteresis may occur. We discuss the applicability of the local approximation. (orig.)

  18. Characterization, Modeling, and Optimization of Light-Emitting Diode System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorseth, Anders

    limit of human color perception. A method has been developed to optimize multicolored cluster LED systems with respect to light quality, using multi objective optimization. The results are simulated SPDs similar to traditional light sources, and with high light quality. As part of this work...

  19. Report of safety of the characterizing system of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeles C, A.; Jimenez D, J.; Reyes L, J.

    1998-09-01

    Report of safety of the system of radioactive waste of the ININ: Installation, participant personnel, selection of the place, description of the installation, equipment. Proposed activities: operations with radioactive material, calibration in energy, calibration in efficiency, types of waste. Maintenance: handling of radioactive waste, physical safety. Organization: radiological protection, armor-plating, personal dosemeter, risks and emergency plan, environmental impact, medical exams. (Author)

  20. Update on the NASA Glenn Propulsion Systems Lab Ice Crystal Cloud Characterization (2015, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zante, Judith; Bencic, Timothy; Ratvasky, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    NASA Glenn's Propulsion Systems Lab, an altitude engine test facility, was outfitted with a spray system to generate ice crystals in 2011. Turbine engines and driven rigs can experience ice crystal icing at flight altitudes, temperatures and Mach numbers. To support these tests, four ice crystal characterizations have been conducted in two different facility configurations. In addition, super-cooled liquid and mixed phase clouds have also been generated. This paper represents a work in progress. It will describe some of the 11-parameter calibration space, and how those parameters interact with each other, the instrumentation used to characterize the cloud and present a sample of the cloud characterization results.

  1. Characterization of CoQ 10-lauric acid eutectic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarate, Bapurao; Bansal, Arvind K., E-mail: akbansal@niper.ac.in

    2015-04-10

    Highlights: • Two polymorphic forms of CoQ 10. • CoQ 10 forms eutectic mixture with LA. • Experimental and predicted values of eutectic points are 70% CoQ 10 at 37.93 °C and 87.7% CoQ 10 at 38.98 °C, respectively. • Attraction exists between CoQ 10 and LA molecules. - Abstract: Solid state characterization of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ 10) was carried out using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), variable temperature X-ray diffractometry (VT-XRD) and hot/cold stage microscopy (H/CSM). It revealed that CoQ 10 exists in two polymorphic forms. The recrystallized samples of CoQ 10 melted at different temperatures either due to the wide crystal size variation or change in crystallinity. Further, the binary mixture of CoQ 10 and lauric acid (LA) formed eutectic mixture in the ratio 70:30 melting at 37.93 °C, which was close to the predicted eutectic composition of 87.7:12.3 melting at 38.98 °C. The values of actual liquidus temperatures for CoQ 10 are higher than the predicted liquidus temperatures. The experimental heat of fusion at eutectic point was less than the calculated heat of fusion. Activity coefficient of CoQ 10 in the binary mixture was less than unity, which indicates the attraction between the components of eutectic mixture.

  2. Characterization of the airborne activity confinement system prefilter material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, T.A.; Monson, P.R.

    1992-05-01

    A general concern with assessing the effects of postulated severe accidents is predicting and preventing the release of radioactive isotopes to the environment at the Savannah River Site (SRS) reactor. Unless the confinement systems are breached in an accident the Airborne Activity Confinement System forces all of the internal air through the filter compartments. Proper modeling of the radioactivity released to the environment requires knowledge of the filtering characteristics of the demisters, the HEPA`s, and the charcoal beds. An investigation of the mass loading characteristics for a range of particle sizes was performed under the direction of Vince Novick of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) in connection with the restart of the K reactor. Both solid and liquid aerosols were used to challenge sample prefilter and HEPA filters. The results of the ANL investigation are reported in this document.

  3. Characterization of the airborne activity confinement system prefilter material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, T.A.; Monson, P.R.

    1992-05-01

    A general concern with assessing the effects of postulated severe accidents is predicting and preventing the release of radioactive isotopes to the environment at the Savannah River Site (SRS) reactor. Unless the confinement systems are breached in an accident the Airborne Activity Confinement System forces all of the internal air through the filter compartments. Proper modeling of the radioactivity released to the environment requires knowledge of the filtering characteristics of the demisters, the HEPA's, and the charcoal beds. An investigation of the mass loading characteristics for a range of particle sizes was performed under the direction of Vince Novick of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) in connection with the restart of the K reactor. Both solid and liquid aerosols were used to challenge sample prefilter and HEPA filters. The results of the ANL investigation are reported in this document.

  4. SO2 oxidation catalyst model systems characterized by thermal methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatem, G; Eriksen, Kim Michael; Gaune-Escard, M

    2002-01-01

    The molten salts M2S2O7 and MHSO4, the binary molten salt Systems M2S2O7-MHSO4 and the molten salt-gas systems M2S2O7 V2O5 and M2S2O7-M2SO4 V2O5 (M = Na, K, Rb, Cs) in O-2, SO2 and At atmospheres have been investigated by thermal methods like calorimetry, Differential Enthalpic Analysis (DEA......) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Fundamental thermodynamic data like temperatures and molar heats of solid-solid transition and fusion, phase diagrams, heat capacities of solids and liquids, heat of mixing and heats of complex formation have been obtained and the results are discussed in relation...

  5. Characterization and Evolution of Salmonella CRISPR-Cas Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    aeruginosa and Streptococcus pyogenes (Cady et al., 2011; Deltcheva et al., 2011). In the former, CRISPR-Cas has been linked to the regulation of...By compar- ison, in an active CRISPR-Cas system such as that of Streptococcus thermophilus, 77 % of spacers have viral protospacer matches (Horvath et...Boyaval, P., Romero, D. A., Horvath, P. & Moineau, S. (2008). Phage response to CRISPR-encoded resistance in Streptococcus thermophilus. J Bacteriol 190

  6. Global Earth Observation System of Systems: Characterizing Uncertainties of Space- based Measurements and Earth System Models Informing Decision Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birk, R. J.; Frederick, M.

    2006-05-01

    The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) framework identifies the benefits of systematically and scientifically networking the capacity of organizations and systems into solutions that benefit nine societal benefit areas. The U.S. Integrated Earth Observation System (IEOS), the U.S. contribution to the GEOSS, focuses on near-term, mid-term, and long-term opportunities to establish integrated system solutions based on capacities and capabilities of member agencies and affiliations. Scientists at NASA, NOAA, DOE, NSF and other U.S. agencies are evolving the predictive capacity of models of Earth processes based on space-based, airborne and surface-based instruments and their measurements. NASA research activities include advancing the power and accessibility of computational resources (i.e. Project Columbia) to enable robust science data analysis, modeling, and assimilation techniques to rapidly advance. The integration of the resulting observations and predictions into decision support tools require characterization of the accuracies of a range of input measurements includes temperature and humidity profiles, wind speed, ocean height, sea surface temperature, and atmospheric constituents that are measured globally by U.S. deployed spacecraft. These measurements are stored in many data formats on many different information systems with widely varying accessibility and have processes whose documentation ranges from extremely detailed to very minimal. Integrated and interdisciplinary modeling (enabled by the Earth System Model Framework) enable the types of ensemble analysis that are useful for decision processes associated with energy management, public health risk assessments, and optimizing transportation safety and efficiency. Interdisciplinary approaches challenge systems integrators (both scientists and engineers) to expand beyond the traditional boundaries of particular disciplines to develop, verify and validate, and ultimately benchmark the

  7. Characterization of time resolved photodetector systems for Positron Emission Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Powolny, François

    The main topic of this work is the study of detector systems composed of a scintillator, a photodetector and readout electronics, for Positron Emission Tomography (PET). In particular, the timing properties of such detector systems are studied. The first idea is to take advantage of the good timing properties of the NINO chip, which is a fast preamplifier-discriminator developed for the ALICE Time of flight detector at CERN. This chip uses a time over threshold technique that is to be applied for the first time in medical imaging applications. A unique feature of this technique is that it delivers both timing and energy information with a single digital pulse, the time stamp with the rising edge and the energy from the pulse width. This entails substantial simplification of the entire readout architecture of a tomograph. The scintillator chosen in the detector system is LSO. Crystals of 2x2x10mm3 were used. For the photodetector, APDs were first used, and were then replaced by SiPMs to make use of their highe...

  8. A Remote Characterization System and a fault-tolerant tracking system for subsurface mapping of buried waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandness, G.A.; Bennett, D.W.; Martinson, L.; Bingham, D.N.; Anderson, A.A.

    1992-08-01

    This paper describes two closely related projects that will provide new technology for characterizing hazardous waste burial sites. The first project, a collaborative effort by five of the national laboratories, involves the development and demonstration of a remotely controlled site characterization system. The Remote Characterization System (RCS) includes a unique low-signature survey vehicle, a base station, radio telemetry data links, satellite-based vehicle tracking, stereo vision, and sensors for noninvasive inspection of the surface and subsurface. The second project, conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), involves the development of a position sensing system that can track a survey vehicle or instrument in the field. This system can coordinate updates at a rate of 200/s with an accuracy better than 0.1% of the distance separating the target and the sensor. It can employ acoustic or electromagnetic signals in a wide range of frequencies and can be operated as a passive or active device

  9. Development and Characterization of a Chromotomosynthetic Hyperspectral Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    cm -1 . It has a 320x256 pixel Stirling -cooled InSb FPA that can be windowed to improve temporal resolution with a smaller field-of-view. The...vision prism [33]. Subsequent CTI systems operated in the VNIR/IR and explored stationary scenes, or slow moving motor vehicles [34, 43, 44]. More...scenes, or slow moving motor vehicles [43-44] with analysis of some combustion events but only as point sources [42, 49]. A non-rotating double

  10. Structural characterization of lipidic systems under nonequilibrium conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yaghmur, Anan; Rappolt, Michael

    2012-01-01

    manipulation techniques including, for instance, stop-flow mixing or rapid temperature-jump perturbation is given. Second, our recent synchrotron SAXS findings on the dynamic structural response of gold nanoparticle-loaded vesicles upon exposure to an ultraviolet light source, the impact of rapidly mixing...... and the possible formation of intermediate states in the millisecond to second range. The need for investigating self-assembled systems, mainly stimuli-responsive drug nanocarriers, under nonequilibrium conditions is discussed. For pharmaceutically relevant applications, it is essential to combine...

  11. Nanoparticulated magnetic drug delivery systems: Preparation and magnetic characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, P C

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes how magnetic resonance can be successfully used as a tool to help customize and quantify nanosized magnetic particles while labeling cells and administered in animals for targeting different biological sites. Customization of magnetic nanoparticles is addressed here in terms of production of complex magnetic drug delivery systems whereas quantification of magnetic nanoparticle in different biological compartments emerges as a key experimental information to assess time-dependent magnetic nanoparticle biodistribution profiles. Examples of using magnetic resonance in unfolding information regarding the pharmacokinetics of intravenously-injected surface-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles in animals are included in the paper.

  12. Characterization of antioxidant system parameters in four freshwater fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atli, Gülüzar; Canli, Esin G; Eroglu, Ali; Canli, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    The potential use of antioxidant system parameters has gained considerable interest due to their pivotal role of detoxification mechanisms in environmental studies and culture fish point of view. Fish with different ecological needs may have different antioxidant capacity and response to environmental contaminants. Thus, the optimal working conditions and specific enzyme activities (Vmax and Km) of antioxidant system parameters (Superoxide dismutase, SOD; Catalase, CAT; Glutathione peroxidase, GPX; Glutathione reductase, GR and Glutathione S-transferase, GST) and glutathione (GSH) were determined in four commonly cultured freshwater fish species (tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus, carp; Cyprinus carpio, trout; Onchorhynchus mykiss and catfish; Clarias garipienus). Data showed that optimal concentrations of different buffers, pH and specific chemicals for each enzyme and GSH were similar in most cases for all fish species, except a few differences. The highest Vmax and Km values were found in carp for GPX and GST, though these values were the highest in tilapia, catfish and trout for CAT, SOD and GR, respectively. As a conclusion, optimization assays of these parameters in different bioindicator organisms based on their physiological and ecological differences may be useful for the aquatic ecosystem biomonitoring studies and also present fundamental data for utilization in aquaculture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of solid solutions in ABCO 4 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoselov, A.; Zimina, G.; Komissarova, L.; Pajaczkowska, A.

    2006-01-01

    Formation of continuous solid solutions with a tetragonal structure of K 2NiF 4-type was investigated by direct solid-state synthesis, carbonate precipitations, the freeze-drying method and the Czochralski crystal growth technique. In the systems of SrLaAlO 4-CaLaAlO 4, SrNdAlO 4-CaNdAlO 4, SrPrAlO 4-CaPrAlO 4, SrLaAlO 4-SrLaGaO 4 and SrLaAlO 4-SrLaFeO 4 solid solutions are formed in the whole concentration range (0.0⩽ x⩽1.0) and in the systems of SrLaAlO 4-SrLaMnO 4 and SrLaAlO 4-SrLaCrO 4 in the limited compositional interval of (0.0⩽ x⩽0.20) and (0.0⩽ x⩽0.25), respectively, with composition dependency of lattice constants following Vegard's law.

  14. Characterization and stability studies of emulsion systems containing pumice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Estanqueiro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Emulsions are the most common form of skin care products. However, these systems may exhibit some instability. Therefore, when developing emulsions for topical application it is interesting to verify whether they have suitable physical and mechanical characteristics and further assess their stability. The aim of this work was to study the stability of emulsion systems, which varied in the proportion of the emulsifying agent cetearyl alcohol (and sodium lauryl sulfate (and sodium cetearyl sulfate (LSX, the nature of the oily phase (decyl oleate, cyclomethicone or dimethicone and the presence or absence of pumice (5% w/w. While maintaining the samples at room temperature, rheology studies, texture analysis and microscopic observation of formulations with and without pumice were performed. Samples were also submitted to an accelerated stability study by centrifugation and to a thermal stress test. Through the testing, it was found that the amount of emulsifying agent affects the consistency and textural properties such as firmness and adhesiveness. So, formulations containing LSX (5% w/w and decyl oleate or dimethicone as oily phase had a better consistency and remained stable with time, so exhibited the best features to be used for skin care products.

  15. System for characterizing semiconductor materials and photovoltaic devices through calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopori, B.L.; Allen, L.C.; Marshall, C.; Murphy, R.C.; Marshall, T.

    1998-05-26

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for measuring characteristics of a piece of material, typically semiconductor materials including photovoltaic devices. The characteristics may include dislocation defect density, grain boundaries, reflectance, external LBIC, internal LBIC, and minority carrier diffusion length. The apparatus includes a light source, an integrating sphere, and a detector communicating with a computer. The measurement or calculation of the characteristics is calibrated to provide accurate, absolute values. The calibration is performed by substituting a standard sample for the piece of material, the sample having a known quantity of one or more of the relevant characteristics. The quantity measured by the system of the relevant characteristic is compared to the known quantity and a calibration constant is created thereby. 44 figs.

  16. Characterizing wind turbine system response to lightning activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNiff, B.; LaWhite, N. [McNiff Light Industry, Harborside, ME (United States); Muljadi, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-07-01

    A lightning protection research program was instituted by National Renewable Energy Laboratory to minimize lightning damage to wind turbines and to further the understanding of effective damage mitigation techniques. To that end, a test program is under way to observe lightning activity, protection system response, and damage at a wind power plant in the Department of Energy (DOE) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Turbine Verification Program. The authors installed Lightning activated surveillance cameras along with a special storm tracking device to observe the activity in the wind plant area. They instrumented the turbines with lightning and ground current detection devices to log direct and indirect strike activity at each unit. They installed a surge monitor on the utility interface to track incoming activity from the transmission lines. Maintenance logs are used to verify damage and determine downtime and repair costs. Actual strikes to turbines were recorded on video and ancillary devices. The test setup and some results are discussed in this paper.

  17. Characterization of Alternative Hybrid Solar Thermal Electric Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, T.A.

    1999-01-01

    Hybrid power towers offer a number of advantages over solar-only power tower systems for early commercial deployment of the technology. These advantages include enhanced modularity, reduced financial and technical risks, and lower energy costs. With the changes in the domestic and world markets for bulk power, hybrid power towers are likely to have the best opportunities for power projects. This paper discusses issues that are likely to be important to the deployment of hybrid power towers in the near future. A large number of alternative designs are possible, and it is likely that there is no single approach that can be considered best or optimal for all project opportunities. The preferred design will depend on the application, as well as the unique objectives and perspectives of the person evaluating the design

  18. Characterization of Fluid Flow in Paper-Based Microfluidic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walji, Noosheen; MacDonald, Brendan

    2014-11-01

    Paper-based microfluidic devices have been presented as a viable low-cost alternative with the versatility to accommodate many applications in disease diagnosis and environmental monitoring. Current microfluidic designs focus on the use of silicone and PDMS structures, and several models have been developed to describe these systems; however, the design process for paper-based devices is hindered by a lack of prediction capability. In this work we simplify the complex underlying physics of the capillary-driven flow mechanism in a porous medium and generate a practical numerical model capable of predicting the flow behaviour. We present our key insights regarding the properties that dictate the behaviour of fluid wicking in paper-based microfluidic devices. We compare the results from our model to experiments and discuss the application of our model to design of paper-based microfluidic devices for arsenic detection in drinking water in Bangladesh.

  19. Morphological characterization of the reproductive system of irradiated Anastrepha fraterculus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolucci, Andrea, E-mail: andreabartolucci@iscamen.com.a [Instituto de Sanidad y Calidad Agropecuaria de Mendoza (ISCAMEN), Mendoza (Argentina); Vera, M. Teresa [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), (Argentina); Yusef, Veronica [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina). Centro Atomico Ezeiza; Oviedo, Andrea [Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres (EEAOC), Tucuman (Argentina)

    2006-07-01

    Field identification of released sterile insects is a major issue for eradication and suppression programs. Irradiated flies are normally identified by the presence of a fluorescent dye. When a fly lacks fluorescent dye, determination of gonadal state is necessary to identified between sterile or fertile flies. This is particularly relevant when population levels have decreased. Animal and identification is required to be as unequivocal as possible. Here we describe the reproductive system of irradiated Anastrepha fraterculus of different ages and we compare it with that of fertile flies in order to provide a diagnosis tool. Fertile and irradiated A. fraterculus were dissected from the day of emergence and until 15 days of age. Gross morphology was described and the gonads were measured. Germ cells were visualized in the testis. The reproductive systems of both males and females contained the same structures as other Anastrepha species. From day 1 to day 3, there were no detectable differences between irradiated and fertile males. The growing region encompassed half the testis total length and there was no free sperm in the seminal vesicle. On day 4 the presence of free sperm was seen in the seminal vesicle. At this stage irradiated males started differentiating from fertile ones: the growing region reduced in size and totally disappeared by day 11; sperm bundle zones occupied most of the testis; spermatids lost their triangular shape and sperm remained in the seminal vesicle without moving into the apical region. Testis length and width of irradiated males did not differ from fertile males. In females, the maturation of the ovaries involved a change in size that was more pronounced in the length of the ovary. This became noticeable at day 3. At this stage, the formation of yolk and the basal follicle began in fertile females and the oocyte had the same size as the trophocytes. From this point, the oocyte started growing. After day 8, the maturing oocyte reached

  20. Morphological characterization of the reproductive system of irradiated Anastrepha fraterculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolucci, Andrea; Vera, M. Teresa; Yusef, Veronica

    2006-01-01

    Field identification of released sterile insects is a major issue for eradication and suppression programs. Irradiated flies are normally identified by the presence of a fluorescent dye. When a fly lacks fluorescent dye, determination of gonadal state is necessary to identified between sterile or fertile flies. This is particularly relevant when population levels have decreased. Animal and identification is required to be as unequivocal as possible. Here we describe the reproductive system of irradiated Anastrepha fraterculus of different ages and we compare it with that of fertile flies in order to provide a diagnosis tool. Fertile and irradiated A. fraterculus were dissected from the day of emergence and until 15 days of age. Gross morphology was described and the gonads were measured. Germ cells were visualized in the testis. The reproductive systems of both males and females contained the same structures as other Anastrepha species. From day 1 to day 3, there were no detectable differences between irradiated and fertile males. The growing region encompassed half the testis total length and there was no free sperm in the seminal vesicle. On day 4 the presence of free sperm was seen in the seminal vesicle. At this stage irradiated males started differentiating from fertile ones: the growing region reduced in size and totally disappeared by day 11; sperm bundle zones occupied most of the testis; spermatids lost their triangular shape and sperm remained in the seminal vesicle without moving into the apical region. Testis length and width of irradiated males did not differ from fertile males. In females, the maturation of the ovaries involved a change in size that was more pronounced in the length of the ovary. This became noticeable at day 3. At this stage, the formation of yolk and the basal follicle began in fertile females and the oocyte had the same size as the trophocytes. From this point, the oocyte started growing. After day 8, the maturing oocyte reached

  1. Using Genetic Algorithm and MODFLOW to Characterize Aquifer System of Northwest Florida (Published Proceedings)

    Science.gov (United States)

    By integrating Genetic Algorithm and MODFLOW2005, an optimizing tool is developed to characterize the aquifer system of Region II, Northwest Florida. The history and the newest available observation data of the aquifer system is fitted automatically by using the numerical model c...

  2. Using Genetic Algorithm and MODFLOW to Characterize Aquifer System of Northwest Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    By integrating Genetic Algorithm and MODFLOW2005, an optimizing tool is developed to characterize the aquifer system of Region II, Northwest Florida. The history and the newest available observation data of the aquifer system is fitted automatically by using the numerical model c...

  3. Quantitative characterization of magnetic separators: Comparison of systems with and without integrated microfluidic mixers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Olesen, Torsten; Bruus, Henrik; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2006-01-01

    We present two new types of microfluidic passive magnetic bead separator systems as well as methods for performing quantitative characterizations of them. Both systems consist of a microfluidic channel with long rectangular magnetic elements of permalloy that are placed by the sides of the channe...

  4. Optimization of analytical techniques to characterize antibiotics in aquatic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Mokh, S.

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotics are considered as pollutants when they are present in aquatic ecosystems, ultimate receptacles of anthropogenic substances. These compounds are studied as their persistence in the environment or their effects on natural organisms. Numerous efforts have been made worldwide to assess the environmental quality of different water resources for the survival of aquatic species, but also for human consumption and health risk related. Towards goal, the optimization of analytical techniques for these compounds in aquatic systems remains a necessity. Our objective is to develop extraction and detection methods for 12 molecules of aminoglycosides and colistin in sewage treatment plants and hospitals waters. The lack of analytical methods for analysis of these compounds and the deficiency of studies for their detection in water is the reason for their study. Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) in classic mode (offline) or online followed by Liquid Chromatography analysis coupled with Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) is the most method commonly used for this type of analysis. The parameters are optimized and validated to ensure the best conditions for the environmental analysis. This technique was applied to real samples of wastewater treatment plants in Bordeaux and Lebanon. (author)

  5. Course of operation of the characterizing system of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeles C, A.

    1998-09-01

    The technique of the spectrometry gamma is an analytic method that is used to determine radioactive isotopes. It identify and it measures gamma transmitters directly of the prepared samples. The geometry is the physical form as the sample it is presented to the detector for its mensuration; it depends on their type, the composition of the radionuclide and the activity level that it is wanted to measure. The aspects important most that should be considered are: the used system, the time of mensuration that varies according to the sample type, the limits of required detection, the detection efficiency, the volume or weight of the sample and the radionuclide of interest. Other additional considerations are: for a certain detector, the geometry of the samples should be selected according to its type, for example filter of air, soil or foods. For the calibration it is necessary to use certified sources by a grateful organization, for with the analyzed samples have the same density. The method should be subject to a program of control of quality. It is good to be in a comparative program with other qualified laboratories, nationals and foreigners. (Author)

  6. Characterization of a submitochondrial system of DNA replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    A soluble submitochondrial system capable of DNA synthesis was derived from a high salt (1.0M NaCl)-Nonidet-mitoplast lysate and used to study various aspects of mitochondrial DNA synthesis. Incorporation of [ 3 H]dTMP into nacent mitochondrial DNA by the soluble extract requires mitochondrial DNA, the four deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, magnesium and ATP. The optimal conditions for the incorporation of [ 3 H]dTMP by the soluble extract were, 7.5 μg of mitochrondrial DNA/mg extract protein, 48 μM each of the four deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, 8 mM magnesium acetate and 3 mM ATP. The maintenance of the ATP level was shown to be essential for the proper replication of mitochondrial DNA and it is postulated that ATP depletion results in reduced DNA ligase activity and/or reduced DNA topoisomerase type 11 activity. Inhibition of mitochondrial DNA synthesis is seen in the presence of 2',3'-dideoxythymidine triphosphate, an inhibitor of DNA polymerase-γ. Aphidicolin, a specific inhibitor of DNA polymerase α, had no inhibitory effect on [ 3 H]dTMP incorporation into mitochondrial DNA. Incorporation of radiolabel is inhibited by pancreatic DNase I, ethidium bromide and novobiocin

  7. Fabrication and Characterization of Copper System Compound Semiconductor Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Motoyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper system compound semiconductor solar cells were produced by a spin-coating method, and their cell performance and structures were investigated. Copper indium disulfide- (CIS- based solar cells with titanium dioxide (TiO2 were produced on F-doped SnO2 (FTO. A device based on an FTO/CIS/TiO2 structure provided better cell performance compared to that based on FTO/TiO2/CIS structure. Cupric oxide- (CuO- and cuprous oxide- (Cu2O- based solar cells with fullerene (C60 were also fabricated on FTO and indium tin oxide (ITO. The microstructure and cell performance of the CuO/C60 heterojunction and the Cu2O:C60 bulk heterojunction structure were investigated. The photovoltaic devices based on FTO/CuO/C60 and ITO/Cu2O:C60 structures provided short-circuit current density of 0.015 mAcm−2 and 0.11 mAcm−2, and open-circuit voltage of 0.045 V and 0.17 V under an Air Mass 1.5 illumination, respectively. The microstructures of the active layers were examined by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy.

  8. Measurement System Characterization in the Presence of Measurement Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commo, Sean A.

    2012-01-01

    In the calibration of a measurement system, data are collected in order to estimate a mathematical model between one or more factors of interest and a response. Ordinary least squares is a method employed to estimate the regression coefficients in the model. The method assumes that the factors are known without error; yet, it is implicitly known that the factors contain some uncertainty. In the literature, this uncertainty is known as measurement error. The measurement error affects both the estimates of the model coefficients and the prediction, or residual, errors. There are some methods, such as orthogonal least squares, that are employed in situations where measurement errors exist, but these methods do not directly incorporate the magnitude of the measurement errors. This research proposes a new method, known as modified least squares, that combines the principles of least squares with knowledge about the measurement errors. This knowledge is expressed in terms of the variance ratio - the ratio of response error variance to measurement error variance.

  9. An integrated system for wastewater COD characterization and a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, P; Zhang, X; Zhang, D

    2010-01-01

    The guidelines of Activated Sludge Model (ASM) can make the use of modeling more straightforward and systematical. Therefore, this paper aims to develop a guideline for wastewater COD characterization. Four physical-chemical methods were compared experimentally for wastewater characterization in this paper and flocculation + 0.45 μm membrane filtration combining respirometry was selected to determine soluble inert COD. Simultaneous determination of readily and slowly biodegradable COD through respirometric measurement of raw wastewater was proved feasible. In addition, two methods were evaluated to determine heterotrophic biomass. In light of these investigations, an integrated system for characterizing wastewater COD fractions defined in ASM1 was proposed and then applied to characterize influent COD of a treatment plant. By following this guideline, a detailed and practical COD characterization can be obtained. Moreover, this study could also provide an example for the development of more widely accepted guidelines.

  10. Update on the NASA Glenn Propulsion Systems Lab Ice Crystal Cloud Characterization (2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zante, Judith F.; Bencic, Timothy J.; Ratvasky, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    NASA Glenn's Propulsion Systems Lab (PSL), an altitude engine test facility, was outfitted with a spray system to generate ice crystals. The first ice crystal characterization test occurred in 2012. At PSL, turbine engines and driven rigs can experience ice crystal icing at flight altitudes, temperatures and Mach numbers. To support these tests, four ice crystal characterizations have been conducted in two different facility configurations. In addition, super-cooled liquid and mixed phase clouds have also been generated. This paper will discuss the recent learning from the previous two calibrations. It will describe some of the 12-parameter calibration space, and how those parameters interact with each other, the instrumentation used to characterize the cloud and present a sample of the cloud characterization results.

  11. Characterization of a managed aquifer recharge system using multiple tracers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeck, Christian; Radny, Dirk; Popp, Andrea; Brennwald, Matthias; Stoll, Sebastian; Auckenthaler, Adrian; Berg, Michael; Schirmer, Mario

    2017-12-31

    Knowledge about the residence times of artificially infiltrated water into an aquifer and the resulting flow paths is essential to developing groundwater-management schemes. To obtain this knowledge, a variety of tracers can be used to study residence times and gain information about subsurface processes. Although a variety of tracers exists, their interpretation can differ considerably due to subsurface heterogeneity, underlying assumptions, and sampling and analysis limitations. The current study systematically assesses information gained from seven different tracers during a pumping experiment at a site where drinking water is extracted from an aquifer close to contaminated areas and where groundwater is artificially recharged by infiltrating surface water. We demonstrate that the groundwater residence times estimated using dye and heat tracers are comparable when the thermal retardation for the heat tracer is considered. Furthermore, major ions, acesulfame, and stable isotopes (δ 2 H and δ 18 O) show that mixing of infiltrated water and groundwater coming from the regional flow path occurred and a vertical stratification of the flow system exist. Based on the concentration patterns of dissolved gases (He, Ar, Kr, N 2 , and O 2 ) and chlorinated solvents (e.g., tetrachloroethene), three temporal phases are observed in the ratio between infiltrated water and regional groundwater during the pumping experiment. Variability in this ratio is significantly related to changes in the pumping and infiltration rates. During constant pumping rates, more infiltrated water was extracted, which led to a higher dilution of the regional groundwater. An infiltration interruption caused however, the ratio to change and more regional groundwater is extracted, which led to an increase in all concentrations. The obtained results are discussed for each tracer considered and its strengths and limitations are illustrated. Overall, it is demonstrated that aquifer heterogeneity and

  12. Transactive control: a framework for operating power systems characterized by high penetration of distributed energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Yang, Guangya; Kok, Koen

    2016-01-01

    The increasing number of distributed energy resources connected to power systems raises operational challenges for the network operator, such as introducing grid congestion and voltage deviations in the distribution network level, as well as increasing balancing needs at the whole system level......, followed by a literature review and demonstration projects that apply to transactive control. Cases are then presented to illustrate the transactive control framework. At the end, discussions and research directions are presented, for applying transactive control to operating power systems, characterized...

  13. Design, Microfabrication and Characterization of a Power Delivery System for new Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARUSO Massimo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design, microfabrication and characterization of a wireless power delivery system capable of driving a surface acoustic wave sensor (SAW for biomedical applications. The system consists of two planar, spiral-square microcoils, which have been geometrically optimized in order to maximize the quality factor Q. The integration of the SAW - microcoil system into artificial implant sites will allow a real-time biofilm growth monitoring and treatment, providing countless advantages to the related medical applications.

  14. PV led engine characterization lab for standalone light to light systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Sune; Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Lindén, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    PV-powered lighting systems, light-to-light systems (L2L), offer outdoor lighting where it is else where cumbersome to enable lighting. Application of these systems at high latitudes, where the difference in day length between summer and winter is large and the solar energy is low requires smart...... dimming functions for reliable lighting. In this work we have built a laboratory to characterize these systems up to 200 Wp from “nose to tail” in great details to support improvement of the systems and to make accurate field performance predictions....

  15. Plan for the Characterization of HIRF Effects on a Fault-Tolerant Computer Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo; Malekpour, Mahyar R.; Miner, Paul S.; Koppen, Sandra V.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the plan for the characterization of the effects of high intensity radiated fields on a prototype implementation of a fault-tolerant data communication system. Various configurations of the communication system will be tested. The prototype system is implemented using off-the-shelf devices. The system will be tested in a closed-loop configuration with extensive real-time monitoring. This test is intended to generate data suitable for the design of avionics health management systems, as well as redundancy management mechanisms and policies for robust distributed processing architectures.

  16. Design and development of a data acquisition system for photovoltaic modules characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belmili, Hocine [Unite de Developpement des Equipements Solaires (UDES), Route Nationale No11, Bou-Isamil BP 365, Tipaza 42415, Algerie; Ait Cheikh, Salah Med; Haddadi, Mourad; Larbes, Cherif [Ecole Nationale Polytechnique, Laboratoire de Dispositifs de Communication et de Conversion Photovoltaique (LDCCP), 10 Avenue Hassen Badi, El Harrach 16200 Alger (Algeria)

    2010-07-15

    Testing photovoltaic generators performance is complicated. This is due to the influence of a variety of interactive parameters related to the environment such as solar irradiation and temperature in addition to solar cell material (mono-crystalline, poly-crystalline, amorphous and thin films). This paper presents a computer-based instrumentation system for the characterization of the photovoltaic (PV) conversion. It based on a design of a data acquisition system (DAQS) allowing the acquisition and the drawing of the characterization measure of PV modules in real meteorological test conditions. (author)

  17. Systemic characterization and evaluation of particle packings as initial sets for discrete element simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfa, Carlos Recarey; Cortés, Lucía Argüelles; Farias, Márcio Muniz de; Morales, Irvin Pablo Pérez; Valera, Roberto Roselló; Oñate, Eugenio

    2017-10-01

    A methodology that comprises several characterization properties for particle packings is proposed in this paper. The methodology takes into account factors such as dimension and shape of particles, space occupation, homogeneity, connectivity and isotropy, among others. This classification and integration of several properties allows to carry out a characterization process to systemically evaluate the particle packings in order to guarantee the quality of the initial meshes in discrete element simulations, in both the micro- and the macroscales. Several new properties were created, and improvements in existing ones are presented. Properties from other disciplines were adapted to be used in the evaluation of particle systems. The methodology allows to easily characterize media at the level of the microscale (continuous geometries—steels, rocks microstructures, etc., and discrete geometries) and the macroscale. A global, systemic and integral system for characterizing and evaluating particle sets, based on fuzzy logic, is presented. Such system allows researchers to have a unique evaluation criterion based on the aim of their research. Examples of applications are shown.

  18. Characterization of radioactive contamination inside pipes with the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, C.D.; Kendrick, D.T.; Lowry, W.; Cramer, E.

    1997-09-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is currently in the process of decommissioning and dismantling many of its nuclear materials processing facilities that have been in use for several decades. Site managers throughout the DOE complex must employ the safest and most cost effective means to characterize, remediate and recycle or dispose of hundreds of miles of potentially contaminated piping and duct work. The DOE discovered that standard characterization methods were inadequate for its pipes, drains, and ducts because many of the systems are buried or encased. In response to the DOE`s need for a more specialized characterization technique, Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA) developed the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system through a DOE Office of Science and Technology (OST) contract administered through the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC). The purpose of this report is to serve as a comprehensive overview of all phases of the Pipe Explorer{trademark} development project. The report is divided into 6 sections. Section 2 of the report provides an overview of the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system, including the operating principles of using an inverting membrane to tow sensors into pipes. The basic components of the characterization system are also described. Descriptions of the various deployment systems are given in Section 3 along with descriptions of the capabilities of the deployment systems. During the course of the development project 7 types of survey instruments were demonstrated with the Pipe Explorer{trademark} and are a part of the basic toolbox of instruments available for use with the system. These survey tools are described in Section 4 along with their typical performance specifications. The 4 demonstrations of the system are described chronologically in Section 5. The report concludes with a summary of the history, status, and future of the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system in Section 6.

  19. Characterization of radioactive contamination inside pipes with the Pipe Explorer trademark system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremer, C.D.; Kendrick, D.T.; Lowry, W.; Cramer, E.

    1997-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is currently in the process of decommissioning and dismantling many of its nuclear materials processing facilities that have been in use for several decades. Site managers throughout the DOE complex must employ the safest and most cost effective means to characterize, remediate and recycle or dispose of hundreds of miles of potentially contaminated piping and duct work. The DOE discovered that standard characterization methods were inadequate for its pipes, drains, and ducts because many of the systems are buried or encased. In response to the DOE's need for a more specialized characterization technique, Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA) developed the Pipe Explorer trademark system through a DOE Office of Science and Technology (OST) contract administered through the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC). The purpose of this report is to serve as a comprehensive overview of all phases of the Pipe Explorer trademark development project. The report is divided into 6 sections. Section 2 of the report provides an overview of the Pipe Explorer trademark system, including the operating principles of using an inverting membrane to tow sensors into pipes. The basic components of the characterization system are also described. Descriptions of the various deployment systems are given in Section 3 along with descriptions of the capabilities of the deployment systems. During the course of the development project 7 types of survey instruments were demonstrated with the Pipe Explorer trademark and are a part of the basic toolbox of instruments available for use with the system. These survey tools are described in Section 4 along with their typical performance specifications. The 4 demonstrations of the system are described chronologically in Section 5. The report concludes with a summary of the history, status, and future of the Pipe Explorer trademark system in Section 6

  20. Molecular Characterization of a Functional Type VI Secretion System from a Clinical Isolate of Aeromonas hydrophilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our laboratory recently molecularly characterized the type II secretion system (T2SS)-associated cytotoxic enterotoxin (Act) and the T3SS-secreted AexU effector from a diarrheal isolate SSU of Aeromonas hydrophila. The role of these toxin proteins in the pathogenesis of A. hydrop...

  1. Molecular characterization of a functional type VI secretion system from a clinical isolate of Aeromonas hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our laboratory recently molecularly characterized the type II secretion system (T2SS)-associated cytotoxic enterotoxin (Act) and the T3SS-secreted AexU effector from a diarrheal isolate SSU of Aeromonas hydrophila. The role of these toxin proteins in the pathogenesis of A. hydrop...

  2. Morpho-functional characterization of the systemic venous pole of the reptile heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, Bjarke; Vesterskov, Signe; Boukens, Bastiaan J.; Nielsen, Jan M.; Moorman, Antoon F. M.; Christoffels, Vincent M.; Wang, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Mammals evolved from reptile-like ancestors, and while the mammalian heart is driven by a distinct sinus node, a sinus node is not apparent in reptiles. We characterized the myocardial systemic venous pole, the sinus venosus, in reptiles to identify the dominant pacemaker and to assess whether the

  3. TEM characterization of La/B4C multilayer systems by the geometric phase method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Häussler, D.; Spiecker, E.; Yang, S.; Jäger, W.; Störmer, M.; Bormann, R.; Zwicker, G.

    2005-01-01

    New La/B4C multilayer systems with layer thicknesses in the nanometer range have been deposited onto structured silicon (001) surfaces by magnetron sputtering and have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). By applying a geometric phase method which has been originally

  4. Synthesis, Characterization and Gold Loading of Polystyrene-Poly(pyridyl methacrylate) Core-Shell Latex Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oláh, A.; Hempenius, Mark A.; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2004-01-01

    In this research, novel 3-(2-pyridyl)propyl methacrylate and 3-(3-pyridyloxy)propyl methacrylate monomers were synthesized and emulsion polymerized on colloidal polystyrene seeds, resulting in core–shell latex systems. The cores and the core–shell particles were characterized by static light

  5. Design, Implementation, and Characterization of a Dedicated Breast Computed Mammotomography System for Enhanced Lesion Imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McKinley, Randolph L

    2006-01-01

    .... Half cone-beam orbits have been implemented and investigated and have indicated they are feasible for a wide range of breast sizes. Future studies will focus on characterizing the system in terms of dose efficiency, contrast sensitivity, and evaluation for a range of breast sizes and compositions. Patient bed optimization will also be investigated.

  6. Dosimetric study for characterization of a postal system of quality control in brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Victor Gabriel Leandro; Queiroz Filho, Pedro Pacheco de; Santos, Denison de Souza; Begalli, Marcia

    2009-01-01

    This work presents a dosimetric study of a postal system, to be developed for measurements of brachytherapy. It was projected a PMMA phantom with orifices for insertion of the high dose 192 Ir source and the T L dosemeters. The system was characterized with using of Monte Carlo simulations, using the dosimetric magnitudes defined at the T G-43 of AAPM, as function of radial dose g(f)

  7. Characterization of inflammatory markers associated with systemic lupus erythematosus patients undergoing treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Timóteo, Rodolfo Pessato; Micheli, Douglas Cobo; Teodoro, Reginaldo Botelho; Freire, Marlene; Bertoncello, Dernival; Murta, Eddie Fernando Candido; Tavares-Murta, Beatriz Martins

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To characterize the inflammatory profiles of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus receiving standard treatment compared to healthy controls. Patients and methods: Peripheral venous blood was collected from systemic lupus erythematosus patients (n = 14) and controls (n = 18) at enrollment. Blood samples were used for quantification, by flow cytometry, of CD11b (integrin) and Chemokine receptor CXCR2 expression surface antigen in neutrophils and lymphocytes, while cy...

  8. Characterization and quantification of preferential flow in fractured rock systems, using resistivity tomography

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    May, F

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Mountain Group (TMG) aquifer system. WRC Report No. 1327/1/08. Water Research Commission. LOKE, M., 2001. A practical guide to RES2DINV ver. 3.4; Rapid 2-D Resistivity & IP inversion using the least squares method. Geoelectrical Imaging 2-D & 3D..., N Jovanovic2 and A Rozanov1 University of Stellenbosch1 and Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)2 Characterization and quantification of preferential flow in fractured rock systems, using resistivity tomography Introduction...

  9. FE-I4 pixel chip characterization with USBpix3 test system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filimonov, Viacheslav; Gonella, Laura; Hemperek, Tomasz; Huegging, Fabian; Janssen, Jens; Krueger, Hans; Pohl, David-Leon; Wermes, Norbert [University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The USBpix readout system is a small and light weighting test system for the ATLAS pixel readout chips. It is widely used to operate and characterize FE-I4 pixel modules in lab and test beam environments. For multi-chip modules the resources on the Multi-IO board, that is the central control unit of the readout system, are coming to their limits, which makes the simultaneous readout of more than one chip at a time challenging. Therefore an upgrade of the current USBpix system has been developed. The upgraded system is called USBpix3 - the main focus of the talk. Characterization of single chip FE-I4 modules was performed with USBpix3 prototype (digital, analog, threshold and source scans; tuning). PyBAR (Bonn ATLAS Readout in Python scripting language) was used as readout software. PyBAR consists of FEI4 DAQ and Data Analysis Libraries in Python. The presentation describes the USBpix3 system, results of FE-I4 modules characterization and preparation for the multi-chip module and multi-module readout with USBpix3.

  10. Characterization of Dutch dairy farms using sensor systems for cow management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeneveld, W; Hogeveen, H

    2015-01-01

    To improve cow management in large dairy herds, sensors have been developed that can measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators on individual cows. Recently, the number of dairy farms using sensor systems has increased. It is not known, however, to what extent sensor systems are used on dairy farms, and the reasons why farmers invest or not in sensor systems are unclear. The first objective of this study was to give an overview of the sensor systems currently used in the Netherlands. The second objective was to investigate the reasons for investing or not investing in sensor systems. The third objective was to characterize farms with and without sensor systems. A survey was developed to investigate first, the reasons for investing or not in sensor systems and, then, how the sensor systems are used in daily cow management. The survey was sent to 1,672 Dutch dairy farmers. The final data set consisted of 512 dairy farms (response rate of 30.6%); 202 farms indicated that they had sensor systems and 310 farms indicated that they did not have sensor systems. A wide variety of sensor systems was used on Dutch dairy farms; those for mastitis detection and estrus detection were the most-used sensor systems. The use of sensor systems was different for farms using an automatic milking system (AMS) and a conventional milking system (CMS). Reasons for investing were different for different sensor systems. For sensor systems attached to the AMS, the farmers made no conscious decision to invest: they answered that the sensors were standard in the AMS or were bought for reduced cost with the AMS. The main reasons for investing in estrus detection sensor systems were improving detection rates, gaining insights into the fertility level of the herd, improving profitability of the farm, and reducing labor. Main reasons for not investing in sensor systems were economically related. It was very difficult to characterize farms with and without sensor systems. Farms

  11. Logic analysis of complex systems by characterizing failure phenomena to achieve diagnosis and fault-isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J. T.; Andre, W. L.

    1981-01-01

    A recent result shows that, for a certain class of systems, the interdependency among the elements of such a system together with the elements constitutes a mathematical structure a partially ordered set. It is called a loop free logic model of the system. On the basis of an intrinsic property of the mathematical structure, a characterization of system component failure in terms of maximal subsets of bad test signals of the system was obtained. Also, as a consequence, information concerning the total number of failure components in the system was deduced. Detailed examples are given to show how to restructure real systems containing loops into loop free models for which the result is applicable.

  12. Numerical characterization of nonlinear dynamical systems using parallel computing: The role of GPUS approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazanaro, Filipe I.; Soriano, Diogo C.; Suyama, Ricardo; Madrid, Marconi K.; Oliveira, José Raimundo de; Muñoz, Ignacio Bravo; Attux, Romis

    2016-08-01

    The characterization of nonlinear dynamical systems and their attractors in terms of invariant measures, basins of attractions and the structure of their vector fields usually outlines a task strongly related to the underlying computational cost. In this work, the practical aspects related to the use of parallel computing - specially the use of Graphics Processing Units (GPUS) and of the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) - are reviewed and discussed in the context of nonlinear dynamical systems characterization. In this work such characterization is performed by obtaining both local and global Lyapunov exponents for the classical forced Duffing oscillator. The local divergence measure was employed by the computation of the Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSS), revealing the general organization of the flow according to the obtained separatrices, while the global Lyapunov exponents were used to characterize the attractors obtained under one or more bifurcation parameters. These simulation sets also illustrate the required computation time and speedup gains provided by different parallel computing strategies, justifying the employment and the relevance of GPUS and CUDA in such extensive numerical approach. Finally, more than simply providing an overview supported by a representative set of simulations, this work also aims to be a unified introduction to the use of the mentioned parallel computing tools in the context of nonlinear dynamical systems, providing codes and examples to be executed in MATLAB and using the CUDA environment, something that is usually fragmented in different scientific communities and restricted to specialists on parallel computing strategies.

  13. Characterization of system theoretic properties for a class of spatially invariant systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fatmawati, F.; Zwart, Heiko J.; El Jai, A.; Afifi, L.; Zerrik, E.

    This paper considers the analysis of the system properties stability and stabilizability for a class of spatially distributed systems on a two-dimensional spatial domain. Using the Fourier transform on the spatial variables, we obtain a mathematically simpler infinite dimensional system. The

  14. Characterization of radioactive contamination inside pipes with the Pipe Explorer trademark system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendrick, D.T.; Cremer, C.D.; Lowry, W.; Cramer, E.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's nuclear facility decommissioning program needs to characterize radiological contamination inside piping systems before the pipe can be recycled, remediated, or disposed. Science and Engineering associates, Inc. under contract with the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center has developed and demonstrated the Pipe Explorer trademark system, which uses an inverting membrane to transport various characterization sensors into pipes. The basic process involves inverting (turning inside out) a tubular impermeable membrane under air pressure. A characterization sensor is towed down the interior of the pipe by the membrane. Advantages of this approach include the capability of deploying through constrictions in the pipe, around 90 degrees bends, vertically up and down, and in slippery conditions. Because the detector is transported inside the membrane (which is inexpensive and disposable), it is protected from contamination, which eliminates cross-contamination. Characterization sensors that have been demonstrated with the system thus far include: gamma detectors, beta detectors, video cameras, and pipe locators. Alpha measurement capability is currently under development. A remotely operable Pipe Explorer trademark system has been developed and demonstrated for use in DOE facilities in the decommissioning stage. The system is capable of deployment in pipes as small as 2-inch-diameter and up to 250 feet long. This paper describes the technology and presents measurement results of a field demonstration conducted with the Pipe Explorer trademark system at a DOE site. These measurements identify surface activity levels of U-238 contamination as a function of location in drain lines. Cost savings to the DOE of approximately $1.5 million dollars were realized from this one demonstration

  15. Oral controlled release drug delivery system and Characterization of oral tablets; A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zaman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral route of drug administration is considered as the safest and easiest route of drug administration. Control release drug delivery system is the emerging trend in the pharmaceuticals and the oral route is most suitable for such kind of drug delivery system. Oral route is more convenient for It all age group including both pediatric and geriatrics. There are various systems which are adopted to deliver drug in a controlled manner to different target sites through oral route. It includes diffusion controlled drug delivery systems; dissolution controlled drug delivery systems, osmotically controlled drug delivery systems, ion-exchange controlled drug delivery systems, hydrodynamically balanced systems, multi-Particulate drug delivery systems and microencapsulated drug delivery system. The systems are formulated using different natural, semi-synthetic and synthetic polymers. The purpose of the review is to provide information about the orally controlled drug delivery system, polymers which are used to formulate these systems and characterizations of one of the most convenient dosage form which is the tablets. 

  16. Particle and particle systems characterization small-angle scattering (sas) applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gille, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    Small-angle scattering (SAS) is the premier technique for the characterization of disordered nanoscale particle ensembles. SAS is produced by the particle as a whole and does not depend in any way on the internal crystal structure of the particle. Since the first applications of X-ray scattering in the 1930s, SAS has developed into a standard method in the field of materials science. SAS is a non-destructive method and can be directly applied for solid and liquid samples. Particle and Particle Systems Characterization: Small-Angle Scattering (SAS) Applications is geared to any scientist who might want to apply SAS to study tightly packed particle ensembles using elements of stochastic geometry. After completing the book, the reader should be able to demonstrate detailed knowledge of the application of SAS for the characterization of physical and chemical materials.

  17. Particle and particle systems characterization small-angle scattering (SAS) applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gille, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    Small-angle scattering (SAS) is the premier technique for the characterization of disordered nanoscale particle ensembles. SAS is produced by the particle as a whole and does not depend in any way on the internal crystal structure of the particle. Since the first applications of X-ray scattering in the 1930s, SAS has developed into a standard method in the field of materials science. SAS is a non-destructive method and can be directly applied for solid and liquid samples. Particle and Particle Systems Characterization: Small-Angle Scattering (SAS) Applications is geared to any scientist who might want to apply SAS to study tightly packed particle ensembles using elements of stochastic geometry. After completing the book, the reader should be able to demonstrate detailed knowledge of the application of SAS for the characterization of physical and chemical materials.

  18. An Enhanced Platform for Bioelectrochemical Systems: A Novel Approach to Characterize Lipid Structure on Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farell, Megan; Wetherington, Maxwell; Robinson, Joshua; Kumar, Manish

    Graphene is a two-dimensional material composed of a single carbon layer that offers several appealing properties including high conductivity, large surface area, and flexibility. Its unique properties make graphene an ideal substrate for several applications, including energy storage, optical electronics, and medical devices. Functionalizing graphene with a lipid bilayer both increases its biocompatibility and provides a platform for diverse bioelectrochemical systems. However, characterization of lipids on graphene is challenging since traditional fluorescent methods for characterization of supported lipid structures are ineffective on graphene due to its highly quenching nature. Furthermore, there are multiple conflicting models published for the structure of lipids on graphene. We demonstrate that a novel technique using Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) allows for characterization of lipids on graphene while providing additional benefits over conventional setups. We use Raman-PL in conjunction with liquid-AFM and QCM-D to determine the structure, fluidity, and homogeneity of lipids on graphene. MRI-PSIEE Grant.

  19. The deployment of an innovative real-time radiological soil characterization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, David; Danahy, Raymond; Laird, Gregory; Seiller, Dale; White, Joan; Janke, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Fluor Fernald Inc., in conjunction with partners from Argonne National Laboratory, the Department of Energy's Environmental Measurements Laboratory, and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, has developed a program for characterizing radiological contaminants in soil in real time. The soil characterization system in use at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) for over three years combines gamma ray spectrometry equipment with other technologies to produce a system that can scan large areas of ground and produce color coded maps which display quantitative information regarding isotopic contamination patterns. Software running on a battery powered lap-top computer, is used to control acquisition of gamma spectral data to link the spectral Information with precise detector position measurements from Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites, and to control transmission of data to a central station or van via a wireless Ethernet link where Surfer6 mapping software is used to produce maps showing the position and amount of each target analyte. Either sodium iodide (NaI) gamma ray detectors mounted on three different vehicles for mobile measurements or stationary tripod-mounted hyper-pure germanium (HPGe) detectors can be used in this system to radiologically characterize soil. The operational and performance characteristics, as well as the strengths and limitations of each of these units, will be described. The isotopic information generated by this system can be made available to remediation project mangers within an hour after the completion of a scan to aid in determination of excavation footprints, segregation of contaminated soil and verification of contamination removal. The immediate availability of radiological characterization data made possible by this real-time scanning system has allowed Fluor Fernald to accelerate remediation schedules and reduce costs by avoiding excavation delays and expensive and time consuming

  20. Synthesis and characterization of the Cu2ZnSnS4 system for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Pinzón, D. L.; Soracá Perez, G. Y.; Gómez Cuaspud, J. A.; López, E. Vera

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the synthesis and characterization of a ceramic material based on the Cu2ZnSnS4 system, through the implementation of a hydrothermal route. For this purpose, we started from nitrate dissolutions in a 1.0mol L-1 concentration, which were mixed and treated in a teflon lined vessel steel at 280°C for 48h. The Physicochemical characterization of the solid was evaluated by means of ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM-TEM) and solid state impedance spectroscopy (IS). The initial characterization through UV measurements confirms a Band-gap around 1.46eV obtained by the Kubelka-Munk method, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the synthesis method in the obtaining of a semiconductor material. The XRD results confirm the obtaining of a crystalline material of pure phase with tetragonal geometry and I-42m space group. The preferential crystalline orientation was achieved along (2 2 0) facet, with crystallite sizes of nanometric order (6.0nm). The morphological aspects evaluated by means electron microscopy, confirmed the homogeneity of the material, showing specifically a series of textural and surface properties of relevant importance. Finally, the electrical characterizations allow to validate the semiconductor behaviour of CZTS system for development of photovoltaic technologies.

  1. Experimental characterization of a concentrating photovoltaic system varying the light concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renno, C.; Petito, F.; Landi, G.; Neitzert, H.C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental characterization of a concentrating photovoltaic system. • Analysis of the point-focus concentrating system performances. • Photovoltaic system parameters as function of the concentration factor. - Abstract: The concentrating photovoltaic system represents one of the most promising solar technologies because it allows a more efficient energy conversion. When a CPV system is designed, the main parameter which has to be considered is the concentration factor that affects both the system energy performances and its configuration. An experimental characterization of a CPV system previously realized at the University of Salerno, is presented in this paper considering several aspects related to the optical configuration, the concentration factor and the solar cell used. In particular, the parameters of an Indium Gallium Phosphide/Gallium Arsenide/Germanium triple-junction solar cell are investigated as function of the concentration factor determined by means of an experimental procedure that uses different optical configurations. The maximum concentration factor reached by the CPV system is 310 suns. The cell parameters dependence on the concentration is reported together with an electroluminescence analysis of the Indium Gallium Phosphide/Gallium Arsenide/Germanium cell. A monitoring of the electrical power provided by the system during its working is also presented corresponding to different direct irradiance values. A mean power of 2.95 W with an average efficiency of 32.8% is obtained referring to a mean irradiance of 930 W/m 2 ; lower values are obtained when the irradiance is highly fluctuating. The concentrating photovoltaic system electric energy output is estimated considering different concentration levels; the maximal obtained value is 23.5 W h on a sunny day at 310×. Finally, the temperature of the triple-junction solar cell is evaluated for different months in order to evaluate the potential annual thermal energy production

  2. Geomechanical characterization of volcanic rocks using empirical systems and data mining techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Miranda

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to characterize volcanic rocks through the development and application of an empirical geomechanical system. Geotechnical information was collected from the samples from several Atlantic Ocean islands including Madeira, Azores and Canarias archipelagos. An empirical rock classification system termed as the volcanic rock system (VRS is developed and presented in detail. Results using the VRS are compared with those obtained using the traditional rock mass rating (RMR system. Data mining (DM techniques are applied to a database of volcanic rock geomechanical information from the islands. Different algorithms were developed and consequently approaches were followed for predicting rock mass classes using the VRS and RMR classification systems. Finally, some conclusions are drawn with emphasis on the fact that a better performance was achieved using attributes from VRS.

  3. The characterization of the antibacterial efficacy of an electrically activated silver ion-based surface system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirwaiker, Rohan A.

    There have been growing concerns in the global healthcare system about the eradication of pathogens in hospitals and other health-critical environments. The problem has been aggravated by the overuse of antibiotics and antimicrobial agents leading to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant superbugs such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) which are difficult to kill. Lower immunity of sick patients coupled with the escalating concurrent problem of antibiotic-resistant pathogens has resulted in increasing incidences of hospital acquired (nosocomial) infections. There is an immediate need to control the transmission of such infections, primarily in healthcare environments, by creating touch-contact and work surfaces (e.g., door knobs, push plates, countertops) that utilize alternative antibacterial materials like the heavy metal, silver. Recent research has shown that it is silver in its ionic (Ag+ ) and not elemental form that is antibacterial. Thus, silver-based antibacterial surfaces have to release silver ions directly into the pathogenic environment (generally, an aqueous media) in order to be effective. This dissertation presents the study and analysis of a new silver-based surface system that utilizes low intensity direct electric current (LIDC) for generation of silver ions to primarily inhibit indirect contact transmission of infections. The broader objective of this research is to understand the design, and characterization of the electrically activated silver ion-based antibacterial surface system. The specific objectives of this dissertation include: (1) Developing a comprehensive system design, and identifying and studying its critical design parameters and functional mechanisms. (2) Evaluating effects of the critical design parameters on the antibacterial efficacy of the proposed surface system. (3) Developing a response surface model for the surface system performance. These objectives are

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of System In(O,OHS/i-ZnO/n+-ZnO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Vallejo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we fabricated system In(O,OHS/i-ZnO/n+-ZnO to be used as potential optical window in thin films solar cells. i-ZnO/n+-ZnO thin films were synthesized by reactive evaporation (RE method and In(O,OHS thin films were synthesized by chemical bath deposition (CBD method; all thin films were deposited on soda lime glass substrates. Thin films were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and spectral transmittance measurements. Structural results indicated that both thin films were polycrystalline; furthermore, morphological results indicated that both thin films coated uniformly soda lime glass substrate; besides, optical characterization indicated that system had more than 80% of visible radiation transmittance.

  5. A measurement system for the photoelectric and electrical characterization of modern semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskorski, K.; Niemiec, M.; Borowicz, L.; Przewlocki, H. M.

    2017-05-01

    In this article a universal system for photoelectric measurements (USPM) is described, with several subsystems allowing comprehensive characterization of various semiconductor devices, primarily MOS (metal-oxide-semiconductor) structures. MOS structures are fundamental components of all modern integrated circuits and the key parameters of these structures can be determined by several electrical and photoelectric techniques. In particular, photoelectric investigations are very important and useful in the characterization of micro- and nanoelectronic semiconductor devices since they offer very accurate and reproducible measurements of important electric parameters, e.g. barrier heights on interfaces of multilayered structures. In the case of integrated circuits with structures of nm aerial dimensions, photoelectric measurements have to be made on test structures with larger aerial dimensions, accompanying the integrated circuits, since the minimum diameter of the light beam used is in the range of micrometers. The USPM system has been designed and built in our laboratory and allows very precise and sensitive measurements to be taken.

  6. Characterization of counting system of the high resolution neutron powder diffractometer (HRPD-DN3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herry Mugirahardjo; Andon Insani; Bharoto; Rifai Muslih; Edi Santoso

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of counting system of the HRPD including the counting modules, amplifier and detector has been done by examining the counting performance using the portable neutron source of americium berylium and pulser as well as examination of the operating voltage of the main detector, measurement of the detector efficiency and standard sample. The characterization was carried out due to the replacement of the defective modules of the HRPD with the new counting system TEDIA P CT-713c. The result show that the performance of the TEDIA PCT-7424C is reliable with the margin error of 0.64 %. In general, it is indicated that the performance of the HRPD has been restored and ready to be used for measurement of sample. (author)

  7. Tree Root System Characterization and Volume Estimation by Terrestrial Laser Scanning and Quantitative Structure Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Smith

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The accurate characterization of three-dimensional (3D root architecture, volume, and biomass is important for a wide variety of applications in forest ecology and to better understand tree and soil stability. Technological advancements have led to increasingly more digitized and automated procedures, which have been used to more accurately and quickly describe the 3D structure of root systems. Terrestrial laser scanners (TLS have successfully been used to describe aboveground structures of individual trees and stand structure, but have only recently been applied to the 3D characterization of whole root systems. In this study, 13 recently harvested Norway spruce root systems were mechanically pulled from the soil, cleaned, and their volumes were measured by displacement. The root systems were suspended, scanned with TLS from three different angles, and the root surfaces from the co-registered point clouds were modeled with the 3D Quantitative Structure Model to determine root architecture and volume. The modeling procedure facilitated the rapid derivation of root volume, diameters, break point diameters, linear root length, cumulative percentages, and root fraction counts. The modeled root systems underestimated root system volume by 4.4%. The modeling procedure is widely applicable and easily adapted to derive other important topological and volumetric root variables.

  8. Formulation and characterization of liquid crystal systems containing azelaic acid for topical delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytekin, Merve; Gursoy, R Neslihan; Ide, Semra; Soylu, Elif H; Hekimoglu, Sueda

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study is to prepare and characterize azelaic acid (AzA) containing liquid crystal (LC) drug delivery systems for topical use. Two ternary phase diagrams, containing liquid paraffin as the oil component and a mixture of two nonionic surfactants (Brij 721P and Brij 72), were constructed. Formulations chosen from the phase diagrams were characterized by polarized light microscopy, rheological analyses, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and small angle x-ray scattering spectroscopy. Polarized light microscopy proved that except the oil/water emulsion (O/W E), other formulations showed lamellar LC structure. In vitro release studies indicated that the fastest release was achieved by the Lamellar LC (LLC) and O/W E systems, whereas slower release was obtained from the emulsion containing lamellar LC (E-LLC) and distorted lamellar LC (D-LLC) systems. Results of rheological measurements both supported the results of in vitro release studies and showed that the emulsion containing the LC (E-LLC) system had the most stable structure. The formulations and their effect on stratum corneum (SC) were evaluated by DSC studies. The lamellar LC (LLC), emulsion containing lamellar liquid crystal (E-LLC), and O/W E formulations had an effect on both lipid and protein components of SC, whereas distorted lamellar liquid crystal (D-LLC) system had an effect on only the lipid components of SC. LLC systems could be considered promising for the topical delivery of AzA.

  9. Applying system engineering methods to site characterization research for nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, T.W.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear research and engineering projects can benefit from the use of system engineering methods. This paper is brief overview illustrating how system engineering methods could be applied in structuring a site characterization effort for a candidate nuclear waste repository. System engineering is simply an orderly process that has been widely used to transform a recognized need into a fully defined system. Such a system may be physical or abstract, natural or man-made, hardware or procedural, as is appropriate to the system's need or objective. It is a way of mentally visualizing all the constituent elements and their relationships necessary to fulfill a need, and doing so compliant with all constraining requirements attendant to that need. Such a system approach provides completeness, order, clarity, and direction. Admittedly, system engineering can be burdensome and inappropriate for those project objectives having simple and familiar solutions that are easily held and controlled mentally. However, some type of documented and structured approach is needed for those objectives that dictate extensive, unique, or complex programs, and/or creation of state-of-the-art machines and facilities. System engineering methods have been used extensively and successfully in these cases. The scientific methods has served well in ordering countless technical undertakings that address a specific question. Similarly, conventional construction and engineering job methods will continue to be quite adequate to organize routine building projects. Nuclear waste repository site characterization projects involve multiple complex research questions and regulatory requirements that interface with each other and with advanced engineering and subsurface construction techniques. There is little doubt that system engineering is an appropriate orchestrating process to structure such diverse elements into a cohesive, well defied project

  10. Development of Microfluidic Systems Enabling High-Throughput Single-Cell Protein Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Beiyuan; Li, Xiufeng; Chen, Deyong; Peng, Hongshang; Wang, Junbo; Chen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews recent developments in microfluidic systems enabling high-throughput characterization of single-cell proteins. Four key perspectives of microfluidic platforms are included in this review: (1) microfluidic fluorescent flow cytometry; (2) droplet based microfluidic flow cytometry; (3) large-array micro wells (microengraving); and (4) large-array micro chambers (barcode microchips). We examine the advantages and limitations of each technique and discuss future research oppor...

  11. Characterization of toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics with linear systems theory: application to lead-associated cognitive decline.

    OpenAIRE

    Links, J M; Schwartz, B S; Simon, D; Bandeen-Roche, K; Stewart, W F

    2001-01-01

    We present a theoretical approach to analysis of toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics using linear systems theory. In our approach, we define two impulse response functions that characterize the kinetic behavior of an environmental agent in the body and the dynamic time-course behavior of its effect on the body. This approach provides a formalism for understanding the relation among exposure, dose, and cumulative biologically effective dose and for understanding the implications of an effect tim...

  12. Thermodynamic analysis and characterization of alloys in Bi-Cu-Sb system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of thermodynamic analysis and characterization of some alloys in Bi-Cu-Sb lead-free solder system are presented in this paper. Thermodynamic analysis was done using general solution model, while optic microscopy, hardness and electroconductivity measurements were used in order to determine structural, mechanic and electric characteristics of selected samples in section from bismuth corner with molar ratio Cu:Sb=3:7.

  13. Molecular biophysics: detection and characterization of damage in molecular, cellular, and physiological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danyluk, S.S.

    1979-01-01

    This section contains summaries of research on the detection and characterization of damage in molecular, cellular, and physiological systems. Projects under investigation in this section include: chemical synthesis of nucleic acid derivatives; structural and conformational properties of biological molecules in solution; crystallographic and chemical studies of immunoglobulin structure; instrument design and development for x-ray and neutron scattering studies of biological molecules; and chromobiology and circadian regulation

  14. Mechanical Systems Characterization of Boeing 747 Aging Systems Test Bed Aircraft

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    As part of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Aging Aircraft Program, the FAA purchased a Boeing 747 to be used as a test bed aircraft for investigating aging mechanical and electrical systems...

  15. Preparation, characterization and evaluation of drug-delivery systems: Pectin and mefenamic acid films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, R.B. [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Rodovia MT-100, Km 3,5, Barra do Garças, MT CEP 78600-000 (Brazil); Teixeira, J.A. [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, MT CEP 78060-900 (Brazil); Furuyama-Lima, A.M. [Universidade Estadual Paulista, IBILCE, São José do Rio Preto, SP CEP 15054-000 (Brazil); Souza, N.C. de [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Rodovia MT-100, Km 3,5, Barra do Garças, MT CEP 78600-000 (Brazil); Siqueira, A.B., E-mail: buzutti@cpd.ufmt.br [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Rodovia MT-100, Km 3,5, Barra do Garças, MT CEP 78600-000 (Brazil)

    2014-08-20

    Highlights: • The films were prepared and characterized by FTIR, TG–DSC/FTIR and AFM microscopy. • The results provided information on the composition, dehydration, thermal stability, thermal decomposition. • DSC results of CaHCl shows two overlapping endothermic peaks. • The AFM image shows great similarity for A5 and A6 films. • A5 and A6 films functioned well as a topical delivery system. - Abstract: Mefenamic acid (H-Mef) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Various adhesive dosage forms of NSAIDs have been developed, which include adhesive tablets, gels, ointments, patches and more recently, polymeric films. The objective of this study was the development of H-Mef adhesive films to be used as a drug-delivery system with different ratios of pectin and calcium chloride dihydrate by the casting technique. The materials were characterized by TG–DSC coupled FTIR, AFM (atomic force microscopy) and spectroscopic techniques. The results provided information about the dehydration, film roughness, surface morphology, thermal decomposition, as well as identification of gaseous products evolved during thermal decomposition. The characterizations indicated the A5 and A6 films functioned well, with 99% H-Mef released within 15 min at pH 5, suggesting these degradable films could be used as a topical delivery system.

  16. The development of an expert system for the characterization of waste assay data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridges, S.; Hodges, J.; Sparrow, C.

    1997-01-01

    Containers of transuranic and low-level alpha contaminated waste generated as a byproduct of Department of Energy defense-related programs must be characterized before their proper disposition can be determined. Nondestructive assay methods are the most desirable means for assessing the mass and activity of the entrained transuranic radionuclides. However, there are other sources of information that may be useful in the characterization of the entrained waste (e.g., container manifests, information about the generation process, and destructive assay techniques performed on representative samples). This paper describes initial work on an expert system being developed to analyze and characterize containerized radiological waste. This system is being developed by scientists at the Mississippi State University Diagnostic and Instrumentation Laboratory (DIAL) in collaboration with scientists at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The DIAL scientists are responsible for (1) the development of techniques to represent and reason with evidence from a variety of sources, and (2) the development of appropriate method(s) to represent and reason with confidence levels associated with that evidence. This paper describes exploratory versions of the expert system developed to evaluate four techniques for representing and reasoning with the confidence in the evidence: MYCIN-style certainty factors, Dempster-Shafer Theory, Bayesian networks, and fuzzy logic. 16 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Geo-Hydro Statistical Characterization of Preferential Flow and Transport Processes in Karst Groundwater Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya, A. A.; Padilla, I. Y.; Macchiavelli, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    Karst groundwater systems are highly productive and provide an important fresh water resource for human development and ecological integrity. Their high productivity is often associated with conduit flow and high matrix permeability. The same characteristics that make these aquifers productive also make them highly vulnerable to contamination and a likely for contaminant exposure. Of particular interest are chlorinated organic contaminants and phthalates derived from industrial solvents and plastic by-products. These chemicals have been identified as potential precursors of pre-term birth, a leading cause of neonatal complications with a significant health and societal cost. The general objectives of this work are to: (1) develop fundamental knowledge and determine the processes controlling the release, mobility, persistence, and possible pathways of contaminants in karst groundwater systems, and (2) characterize transport processes in conduit and diffusion-dominated flow under base flow and storm flow conditions. The work presented herein focuses on the development of geo-hydro statistical tools to characterize flow and transport processes under different flow regimes. Multidimensional, laboratory-scale Geo-Hydrobed models were developed and tested for this purpose. The models consist of stainless-steel tanks containing karstified limestone blocks collected from the karst aquifer formation of northern Puerto Rico. The models a network of sampling wells to monitor flow, pressure, and solute concentrations temporally and spatially. Experimental work entailed making a series of point injections in wells while monitoring the hydraulic response in other wells. Statistical mixed models were applied to spatial probabilities of hydraulic response and weighted injected volume data, and were used to determinate the best spatial correlation structure to represent paths of preferential flow in the limestone units under different groundwater flow regimes. Preliminary testing

  18. Cost and Performance Report for the Tri-Service Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS) Hydrosparge Volatile Organic Compound Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Costanza, Jed

    2001-01-01

    Site characterization for subsurface contaminants is time consuming and costly. The Hydrosparge VOC sensor was developed for the Tri-Services Site characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS...

  19. Audio-magnetotelluric survey to characterize the Sunnyside porphyry copper system in the Patagonia Mountains, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Jay A.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2010-01-01

    The Sunnyside porphyry copper system is part of the concealed San Rafael Valley porphyry system located in the Patagonia Mountains of Arizona. The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies as part of the Assessment Techniques for Concealed Mineral Resources project. To help characterize the size, resistivity, and skin depth of the polarizable mineral deposit concealed beneath thick overburden, a regional east-west audio-magnetotelluric sounding profile was acquired. The purpose of this report is to release the audio-magnetotelluric sounding data collected along that east-west profile. No interpretation of the data is included.

  20. Magnetotelluric survey to characterize the Sunnyside porphyry copper system in the Patagonia Mountains, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Brian D.; Sampson, Jay A.

    2010-01-01

    The Sunnyside porphyry copper system is part of the concealed San Rafael Valley porphyry system located in the Patagonia Mountains of Arizona. The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies as part of the Assessment Techniques for Concealed Mineral Resources project. To help characterize the size and resistivity of the mineralized area beneath overburden, a regional east-west magnetotelluric sounding profile was acquired. This is a data release report of the magnetotelluric sounding data collected along the east-west profile; no interpretation of the data is included.

  1. Characterization of natural circulation looping of emergency cooling systems in naval and advanced reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo, Luiz Alberto; Baptista Filho, Benedito Dias

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the natural circuit looping, resumes the main project characteristics, presents results of the hydraulic characterization, consisting of pressure loss measurements, and presents results from calibration tests of the power and flow measurements and the first experiments in natural circulation. Those experiments comprised transients in natural circulation with application of application of power steps. The results shown a non linear behaviour of the magnetic flow meter and a dependence on the fluid temperature as well. The assembly circuit/instrumentation/data acquisition system is suitable for the research on emergency cooling passive systems

  2. PC-Based systems for experiments in optical characterization of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Mora, C C; Trejo-Duran, M; Alvarado-Mendez, E; Rojas-Laguna, R; Vargas-Rodriguez, E; Estudillo-Ayala, J M; Mata-Chavez, R; Sukhoivanov, I; Garcia-Perez, A; Ibarra-Manzano, O G; Andrade-Lucio, J A

    2011-01-01

    An automatic control for applications of optical characterization of materials using the optical Z-Scan technique is presented in this work. The emphasis is placed in the design of the graphical user interface (GUI) and the automation process. For this purpose, we use a USB data acquisition module with programmable I/O ports for control and signals acquisition for the complete system. The control software was developed using the graphical programming language LabVIEW (registered) and compiled in order to obtain a portable system with the hardware used in this work.

  3. Cathode characterization system: preliminary results with (Ba,Sr,Ca) O coated cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nono, M.C.A.; Goncalves, J.A.N.; Barroso, J.J.; Dallaqua, R.S.; Spassovsky, I.

    1993-01-01

    The performance of a cathode characterization system for studying the emission parameters of thermal electron emitters is reported. The system consists of vacuum chamber, power supplies and equipment for measuring and control. Measurements have been taken of the emission current as function of cathode temperature and anode voltage. Several (Ba, Sr) O coated cathodes were tested and the results have shown good agreement with Child's and Richardson's laws. The experimental work function is between 1.0 and 2.0 e V. All emission parameters measured are consistent with international literature data. (author)

  4. New approaches to characterizing and understanding biofouling of spiral wound membrane systems

    KAUST Repository

    van Loosdrecht, Mark C.M.

    2012-06-01

    Historically, biofouling research on spiral wound membrane systems is typically problem solving oriented. Membrane modules are studied as black box systems, investigated by autopsies. Biofouling is not a simple process. Many factors influence each other in a non-linear fashion. These features make biofouling a subject which is not easy to study using a fundamental scientific approach. Nevertheless to solve or minimize the negative impacts of biofouling, a clear understanding of the interacting basic principles is needed. Recent research into microbiological characterizing of biofouling, small scale test units, application of in situ visualization methods, and model approaches allow such an integrated study of biofouling. © IWA Publishing 2012.

  5. Electro-optical characterization system develped for ATLIDCAS AIV: flat field and collimated beam injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, G.; Laguna, H.; Torres, J.; Belenguer, T.

    2017-11-01

    In the framework of the ESA EarthCare Mission, an atmospheric LIDAR (ATLID) was included as a payload. CAS is the co-alignment system of such a LIDAR instrument, the system responsible of guaranteeing the proper alignment of the projected laser beam and the reflected light collected. Within CAS, in which a consortium leaded by ASTRIUM France is working in, as well as CRISA (electronics) and LIDAX (mechanical engineering), INTA is in charge of the development of the instrumentation to be used on ground (on ground support equipments, OGSEs) needed for the proper electro-optical characterization.

  6. Development and characterization of two-component albedo based neutron individual monitoring system using thermoluminescent detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Marcelo Marques

    2008-01-01

    A TLD-albedo based two-component neutron individual monitoring system was developed and characterized in this work. The monitor consists of a black plastic holder, an incident neutron boron loaded shield, a moderator polyethylene body (to increase its response), two pairs of TLD-600 and TLD-700 (one pair to each component) and an adjustable belt. This monitoring system was calibrated in thermal neutron fields and in 70 keV, 144 keV, 565 keV, 1.2 MeV and 5 MeV monoenergetic neutron fields. In addition, it was calibrated in 252C f(D 2 O), 252 Cf, 241 Am-B, 241 Am-Be and 238 Pu-Be source fields. For the latter, the lower detection levels are, respectively, 0.009 mSv, 0.06 mSv, 0.12 mSv, 0.09 mSv and 0.08 mSv. The participation in an international intercomparison sponsored by IAEA with simulated workplace fields validated the system. The monitoring system was successfully characterized in the ISO 21909 standard and in an IRD - the Brazilian Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry - technical regulation draft. Nowadays, the neutron individual system is in use by IRD for whole body individual monitoring of five institutions, which comprehend several activities. (author)

  7. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE CHARACTERIZATIONS PROJECT TUNNEL BORING MACHINE (TBM) SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1997-02-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the tunnel boring machine (TBM) used in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. Since the TBM is an ''as built'' system, the M&O is conducting the System Safety Analysis during the construction or assembly phase of the TBM. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety Analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the TBM in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the system/subsystem/component design, (2) add safety features and capabilities to existing designs, and (3) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions. The scope of this analysis is limited to the TBM during normal operations, excluding hazards occurring during assembly and test of the TBM or maintenance of the TBM equipment.

  8. Characterization of radioactive contamination inside pipes with the Pipe Explorer trademark system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, W.

    1994-01-01

    The objective for the development of the Pipe Explorer trademark radiological characterization system is to achieve a cost effective, low risk means of characterizing gamma radioactivity on the inside surface of pipes. The unique feature of this inspection system is the use of a pneumatically inflated impermeable membrane which transports the detector into the pipe as it inverts. The membrane's internal air pressure tows the detector and tether through the pipe. This mechanism isolates the detector and its cabling from the contaminated surface, yet allows measurement of radioactive emissions which can readily penetrate the thin plastic membrane material (such as gamma and high energy beta emissions). In Phase 1, an initial survey of DOE facilities was conducted to determine the physical and radiological characteristics of piping systems. The inverting membrane deployment system was designed and extensively tested in the laboratory. A range of membrane materials was tested to evaluate their ruggedness and deployment characteristics. Two different sizes of gamma scintillation detectors were procured and tested with calibrated sources. Radiation transport modeling evaluated the measurement system's sensitivity to detector position relative to the contaminated surface, the distribution of the contamination, background gamma levels, and gamma source energy levels. In the culmination of Phase 1, a field demonstration was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The project is currently in transition from Phase 1 to Phase 2, where more extensive demonstrations will occur at several sites. Results to date are discussed

  9. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE CHARACTERIZATIONS PROJECT TUNNEL BORING MACHINE (TBM) SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the tunnel boring machine (TBM) used in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. Since the TBM is an ''as built'' system, the MandO is conducting the System Safety Analysis during the construction or assembly phase of the TBM. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety Analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the TBM in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the system/subsystem/component design, (2) add safety features and capabilities to existing designs, and (3) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions. The scope of this analysis is limited to the TBM during normal operations, excluding hazards occurring during assembly and test of the TBM or maintenance of the TBM equipment

  10. Characterization of a thermoelectric cooler based thermal management system under different operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russel, M.K.; Ewing, D.; Ching, C.Y.

    2013-01-01

    The performance of a thermoelectric cooler (TEC) based thermal management system for an electronic packaging design that operates under a range of ambient conditions and system loads is examined using a standard model for the TEC and a thermal resistance network for the other components. Experiments were performed and it was found that the model predictions were in good agreement with the experimental results. An operating envelope is developed to characterize the TEC based thermal management system for peak and off peak operating conditions. Parametric studies were performed to analyze the effect of the number of TEC module(s) in the system, geometric factor of the thermo-elements and the cold to hot side thermal resistances on the system performance. The results showed that there is a tradeoff between the extent of off peak heat fluxes and ambient temperatures when the system can be operated at a low power penalty region and the maximum capacity of the system. - Highlights: ► A model was developed for thermal management systems using thermoelectric coolers. ► Model predictions were in good agreement with experimental results. ► An operating envelope was developed for peak and off peak conditions. ► The effect of the number of thermoelectric coolers on the system was determined.

  11. Vibration-based Energy Harvesting Systems Characterization Using Automated Electronic Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis KOSMADAKIS

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A measurement bench has been developed to fully automate the procedure for the characterization of a vibration-based energy scavenging system. The measurement system is capable of monitoring all important characteristics of a vibration harvesting system (input and output voltage, current, and other parameters, frequency and acceleration values, etc.. It is composed of a PC, typical digital measuring instruments (oscilloscope, waveform generator, etc., certain sensors and actuators, along with a microcontroller based automation module. The automation of the procedure and the manipulation of the acquired data are performed by LabVIEW software. Typical measurements of a system consisting of a vibrating source, a vibration transducer and an active rectifier are presented.

  12. Stability characterization and modeling of robust distributed benthic microbial fuel cell (DBMFC) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karra, Udayarka; Huang, Guoxian; Umaz, Ridvan; Tenaglier, Christopher; Wang, Lei; Li, Baikun

    2013-09-01

    A novel and robust distributed benthic microbial fuel cell (DBMFC) was developed to address the energy supply issues for oceanographic sensor network applications, especially under scouring and bioturbation by aquatic life. Multi-anode/cathode configuration was employed in the DBMFC system for enhanced robustness and stability in the harsh ocean environment. The results showed that the DBMFC system achieved peak power and current densities of 190mW/m(2) and 125mA/m(2) respectively. Stability characterization tests indicated the DBMFC with multiple anodes achieved higher power generation over the systems with single anode. A computational model that integrated physical, electrochemical and biological factors of MFCs was developed to validate the overall performance of the DBMFC system. The model simulation well corresponded with the experimental results, and confirmed the hypothesis that using a multi anode/cathode MFC configuration results in reliable and robust power generation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Preliminary results of steady state characterization of near term electric vehicle breadboard propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, N. B.

    1980-01-01

    The steady state test results on a breadboard version of the General Electric Near Term Electric Vehicle (ETV-1) are discussed. The breadboard was built using exact duplicate vehicle propulsion system components with few exceptions. Full instrumentation was provided to measure individual component efficiencies. Tests were conducted on a 50 hp dynamometer in a road load simulator facility. Characterization of the propulsion system over the lower half of the speed-torque operating range has shown the system efficiency to be composed of a predominant motor loss plus a speed dependent transaxle loss. At the lower speeds with normal road loads the armature chopper loss is also a significant factor. At the conditions corresponding to a cycle for which the vehicle system was specifically designed, the efficiencies are near optimum.

  14. Characterizing volumetric discontinuities present in NPP heat exchangers with EASY: an eddy current data analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alencar, Donizete A.; Silva Junior, Silverio F.

    2011-01-01

    Eddy current is a very important NDT inspection method widely used to perform integrity evaluation of tubes installed in heat exchangers. For nuclear power plants, a classical example is the remote inspection of steam generators and condensers, as well as other ordinary auxiliary equipment. Data evaluation can be performed by means of precise phase and amplitude measurements of complex impedance signals, represented as Lissajous figures plotted on the screen of the inspection systems. This paper presents the software EASY, a computer assisted analysis system developed at CDTN to help the characterization of volumetric discontinuities present in heat exchangers tubes. Data to be analyzed are obtained from commercial eddy current equipment data file, such as ECT MAD8D. Main advantage of that system is its portability and easy use, since it can be executed in ordinary PC, under Microsoft Windows operating system. (author)

  15. Characterization of a FBG sensor interrogation system based on a mode-locked laser scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal, Javier; Fraile-Peláez, Francisco Javier; Zheng, Di; Barrera, David; Sales, Salvador

    2017-10-02

    This paper is focused on the characterization of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor interrogation system based on a fiber ring laser with a semiconductor optical amplifier as the gain medium, and an in-loop electro-optical modulator. This system operates as a switchable active (pulsed) mode-locked laser. The operation principle of the system is explained theoretically and validated experimentally. The ability of the system to interrogate an array of different FBGs in wavelength and spatial domain is demonstrated. Simultaneously, the influence of several important parameters on the performance of the interrogation technique has been investigated. Specifically, the effects of the bandwidth and the reflectivity of the FBGs, the SOA gain, and the depth of the intensity modulation have been addressed.

  16. Graphical user interface for input output characterization of single variable and multivariable highly nonlinear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrukh Adnan Khan M. D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Graphical User Interface (GUI software utility for the input/output characterization of single variable and multivariable nonlinear systems by obtaining the sinusoidal input describing function (SIDF of the plant. The software utility is developed on MATLAB R2011a environment. The developed GUI holds no restriction on the nonlinearity type, arrangement and system order; provided that output(s of the system is obtainable either though simulation or experiments. An insight to the GUI and its features are presented in this paper and example problems from both single variable and multivariable cases are demonstrated. The formulation of input/output behavior of the system is discussed and the nucleus of the MATLAB command underlying the user interface has been outlined. Some of the industries that would benefit from this software utility includes but not limited to aerospace, defense technology, robotics and automotive.

  17. Development of Models to Simulate Tracer Tests for Characterization of Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Mark D.; Reimus, Paul; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Rose, Peter; Dean, Cynthia A.; Watson, Tom B.; Newell, D.; Leecaster, Kevin; Brauser, Eric

    2013-05-01

    A recent report found that power and heat produced from enhanced (or engineered) geothermal systems (EGSs) could have a major impact on the U.S energy production capability while having a minimal impact on the environment. EGS resources differ from high-grade hydrothermal resources in that they lack sufficient temperature distribution, permeability/porosity, fluid saturation, or recharge of reservoir fluids. Therefore, quantitative characterization of temperature distributions and the surface area available for heat transfer in EGS is necessary for the design and commercial development of the geothermal energy of a potential EGS site. The goal of this project is to provide integrated tracer and tracer interpretation tools to facilitate this characterization. This project was initially focused on tracer development with the application of perfluorinated tracer (PFT) compounds, non-reactive tracers used in numerous applications from atmospheric transport to underground leak detection, to geothermal systems, and evaluation of encapsulated PFTs that would release tracers at targeted reservoir temperatures. After the 2011 midyear review and subsequent discussions with the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technology Program (GTP), emphasis was shifted to interpretive tool development, testing, and validation. Subsurface modeling capabilities are an important component of this project for both the design of suitable tracers and the interpretation of data from in situ tracer tests, be they single- or multi-well tests. The purpose of this report is to describe the results of the tracer and model development for simulating and conducting tracer tests for characterizing EGS parameters.

  18. Characterization of a mini-channel heat exchanger for a heat pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteconi, A.; Giuliani, G.; Tartuferi, M.; Polonara, F.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper a mini-channel aluminum heat exchanger used in a reversible heat pump is presented. Mini-channel finned heat exchangers are getting more and more interest for refrigeration systems, especially when compactness and low refrigerant charge are desired. Purpose of this paper was to characterize the mini-channel heat exchanger used as evaporator in terms of heat transfer performance and to study the refrigerant distribution in the manifold. The heat exchanger characterization was performed experimentally by means of a test rig built up for this purpose. It is composed of an air-to-air heat pump, air channels for the external and internal air circulation arranged in a closed loop, measurement sensors and an acquisition system. The overall heat transfer capacity was assessed. Moreover, in order to characterize the flow field of the refrigerant in the manifold of the heat exchanger, a numerical investigation of the fluid flow by means of CFD was performed. It was meant to evaluate the goodness of the present design and to identify possible solutions for the future improvement of the manifold design.

  19. Improved aquifer characterization and the optimization of the design of brackish groundwater desalination systems

    KAUST Repository

    Malivaa, Robert G.

    2011-07-01

    Many water scarce regions possess brackish-water resources that can be desalted to provide alternative water supplies. Brackish groundwater desalination by reverse osmosis (RO) is less expensive than seawater systems because of reduced energy and pretreatment requirements and lesser volumes of concentrate that require disposal. Development of brackish groundwater wellfields include the same hydraulic issues that affect conventional freshwater wellfields. Managing well interference and prevention of adverse impacts such as land subsidence are important concerns. RO systems are designed to treat water whose composition falls within a system-specific envelope of salinities and ion concentrations. A fundamental requirement for the design of brackish groundwater RO systems is prediction of the produced water chemistry at both the start of pumping and after 10-20 years of operation. Density-dependent solute-transport modeling is thus an integral component of the design of brackish groundwater RO systems. The accuracy of groundwater models is dependent upon the quality of the hydrogeological data upon which they are based. Key elements of the aquifer characterization are the determination of the three-dimensional distribution of salinity within the aquifer and the evaluation of aquifer heterogeneity with respect to hydraulic conductivity. It is necessary to know from where in a pumped aquifer (or aquifer zone) water is being produced and the contribution of vertical flow to the produced water. Unexpected, excessive vertical migration (up-coning) of waters that are more saline has adversely impacted some RO systems because the salinity of the water delivered to the system exceeded the system design parameters. Improved aquifer characterization is possible using advanced geophysical techniques, which can, in turn, lead to more accurate solute-transport models. Advanced borehole geophysical logs, such as nuclear magnetic resonance, were run as part of the exploratory test

  20. Development and characterization of a CCD camera system for use on six-inch manipulator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logory, L.M.; Bell, P.M.; Conder, A.D.; Lee, F.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has designed, constructed, and fielded a compact CCD camera system for use on the Six Inch Manipulator (SIM) at the Nova laser facility. The camera system has been designed to directly replace the 35 mm film packages on all active SIM-based diagnostics. The unit's electronic package is constructed for small size and high thermal conductivity using proprietary printed circuit board technology, thus reducing the size of the overall camera and improving its performance when operated within the vacuum environment of the Nova laser target chamber. The camera has been calibrated and found to yield a linear response, with superior dynamic range and signal-to-noise levels as compared to T-Max 3200 optic film, while providing real-time access to the data. Limiting factors related to fielding such devices on Nova will be discussed, in addition to planned improvements of the current design

  1. Characterization of Hybrid Systems for Rural Electrification with Renewable Energies Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borda Angel, J. P.; Dominguez, J.; Amador, J.; Arribas, L.; Pinedo Pascua, I.

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this project is to redefine the algorithm of wind-diesel hybrid system implemented in IntiGIS. This methodology was developed by CIEMAT for the evaluation of rural electrification projects, comparing different renewable and conventional technologies based on their LEC or equivalent electrification cost. The analysis considers the social and geographical particularities of the study area. The core of the new model is the definition of renewable fraction in the wind-diesel hybrid system. To this end, it was assumed that the fraction of renewable will depend, first of all, of the wind speed. In this case, the objectives were to find a relationship between the renewable fraction and wind speed, expressed as a function, and also trying to demonstrate the influence of other parameters such as fuel price and consumption. The methodology used to achieve these objectives was to use HOMER to simulate technology and size of system components in order to obtain the optimal fraction renewable scenarios. Next, we examined how it varied with wind speed; we assessed the influence of other parameters and, finally, it is represented as a function of wind speed. After the redefinition of the algorithm, the changes were planned for inclusion in IntiGIS and tests were performed to validate the new model. (Author)

  2. Synthesizing the Dynamics of Cyberspace Visual Renderings for Distributive Systems to Characterize Cyber Attack, Performance, and Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    77-89. [30] M. Ulieru and M. Cobzaru, ―Building Holonic Supply Chain Management Systems : An e-Logistics Application for the Telephone Manufacturing...AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2011-0065 SYNTHESIZING THE DYNAMICS OF CYBERSPACE VISUAL RENDERINGS FOR DISBTRIBUTIVE SYSTEMS TO CHARACTERIZE CYBER ATTACK...Distributive Systems to Characterize Cyber Attack, Performance and Vulnerability 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA 8650-08-C-6926 5b. GRANT

  3. Characterization of seven United States coal regions. The development of optimal terrace pit coal mining systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimer, R.L.; Adams, M.A.; Jurich, D.M.

    1981-02-01

    This report characterizes seven United State coal regions in the Northern Great Plains, Rocky Mountain, Interior, and Gulf Coast coal provinces. Descriptions include those of the Fort Union, Powder River, Green River, Four Corners, Lower Missouri, Illinois Basin, and Texas Gulf coal resource regions. The resource characterizations describe geologic, geographic, hydrologic, environmental and climatological conditions of each region, coal ranks and qualities, extent of reserves, reclamation requirements, and current mining activities. The report was compiled as a basis for the development of hypothetical coal mining situations for comparison of conventional and terrace pit surface mining methods, under contract to the Department of Energy, Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023, entitled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  4. Studies for an upgrade of ALICE Inner Tracking System: Pixel chip characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Jonghan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inner Tracking System (ITS of ALICE is used for vertex determination and tracking. Future heavy-ion program at the LHC aims to run with high luminosity. To address this challenge, upgrade program of ITS is underway, which aims at better position resolution (factor of 3, high detection efficiency (>99%, high-rate readout capabilities (100 kHz for Pb-Pb and moderate radiation hardness (> 700 krad. The new ITS will be composed with 7 layers of silicon pixel chip based on Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS technology. The characterization test of various version of prototype chips at different phases of development has been performed. This contribution will provide the main characterization results obtained from the measurements performed at laboratories and using test beam for finalizing the pixel chip specification.

  5. Characterization and calibration of gas sensor systems at ppb level—a versatile test gas generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidinger, Martin; Schultealbert, Caroline; Neu, Julian; Schütze, Andreas; Sauerwald, Tilman

    2018-01-01

    This article presents a test gas generation system designed to generate ppb level gas concentrations from gas cylinders. The focus is on permanent gases and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for applications like indoor and outdoor air quality monitoring or breath analysis. In the design and the setup of the system, several issues regarding handling of trace gas concentrations have been considered, addressed and tested. This concerns not only the active fluidic components (flow controllers, valves), which have been chosen specifically for the task, but also the design of the fluidic tubing regarding dead volumes and delay times, which have been simulated for the chosen setup. Different tubing materials have been tested for their adsorption/desorption characteristics regarding naphthalene, a highly relevant gas for indoor air quality monitoring, which has generated high gas exchange times in a previous gas mixing system due to long time adsorption/desorption effects. Residual gas contaminations of the system and the selected carrier air supply have been detected and quantified using both an analytical method (GC-MS analysis according to ISO 16000-6) and a metal oxide semiconductor gas sensor, which detected a maximum contamination equivalent to 28 ppb of carbon monoxide. A measurement strategy for suppressing even this contamination has been devised, which allows the system to be used for gas sensor and gas sensor system characterization and calibration in the low ppb concentration range.

  6. Novel textile systems for the continuous monitoring of vital signals: design and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Isabel G; Martins, Frederico; Dias, Rúben; Oliveira, Cristina; Machado da Silva, José

    2015-08-01

    In this article we present a smart textile system for the continuous monitoring of cardiorespiratory signals, produced and integrated with an industrial embroidery unit. The design of a T-shirt system, having embedded textile sensors and interconnects and custom designed circuit for data collection and Bluetooth transmission is presented. The performance of skin-contact textile electrodes, having distinctive electrical characteristics and surface morphologies, was characterized by measurements of signal to noise ratio, under dry and moisture conditions. The influence of the electrodes size and the wear resistance were addressed. Results of an electrocardiogram acquisition with a subject wearing the T-shirt and display on a smartphone are also shown. The presented smart textile systems exhibit good performance and versatility for custom demand production.

  7. Matrix type transdermal therapeutic system containing captopril: formulation optimization, in vitro and ex vivo characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerimoğlu, Oya; Keskin, Ebru; Dortunç, Betül; Anah, Sela

    2013-01-01

    Transdermal therapeutic systems (TTS) containing captopril were developed by using synthetic and pH independent polymers, Eudragit RL 100 and RS 100. The formulations were characterized in terms of their appearance, thickness, captopril content, in vitro release rate and diffusion profiles. In vitro release studies demonstrated controlled release for each formulation developed. In viro and ex vivo diffusion rate studies were performed through various synthetic membranes with different thickness, pore size and type (hydrophilic and hydrophobic) and through human skin by using Franz diffusion cells. Type of membrane and composition of the formulation affected the diffusion profiles of captopril from the transdermal therapeutic systems. Transdermal therapeutic systems containing captopril were successfully prepared and especially two of the formulations (F15 and F16) are considered to be suitable to administer captopril via skin.

  8. Aging evaluation of electrical circuits using the ECCAD [Electrical Circuit Characterization and Diagnostic] system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edson, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    As a part of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program, an aging assessment of electrical circuits was conducted at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station Decommissioning Project. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Electrical Circuit Characterization and Diagnostic (ECCAD) system in identifying circuit conditions, to determine the present condition of selected electrical circuits, and correlate the results with aging effects. To accomplish this task, a series of electrical tests was performed on each circuit using the ECCAD system, which is composed of commercially available electronic test equipment under computer control. Test results indicate that the ECCAD system is effective in detecting and identifying aging and service wear in selected electrical circuits. The major area of degradation in the circuits tested was at the termination/connection points, whereas the cables were in generally good condition

  9. Straddle packer system design and operation for vertical characterization of open bore holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, J.K.

    1994-01-01

    Bore holes open to large intervals provide groundwater samples and test results which represent an unknown integration of properties throughout the depth of the hole. The State of Idaho's INEL Oversight Program is utilizing a custom straddle-packer system to develop a vertical characterization of water chemistry and hydrology in selected open bore holes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This report describes the design and operation for bore hole zone isolation, water sampling, and hydrologic testing. To reduce potential influences on in situ water chemistry, the system utilizes chemically inert components to the extent possible. Straddle packer systems are effective in producing representative water samples from isolated formations. Hydrologic testing is limited by the ability to produce a measurable stress on the aquifer in individual formations, and head measurement sensitivity. 4 figs

  10. Characterization of individual layers in a bilayer electron system produced in a wide quantum well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorozhkin, S. I.; Kapustin, A. A.; Fedorov, I. B.; Umansky, V.; von Klitzing, K.; Smet, J. H.

    2018-02-01

    Here, we report on a transparent method to characterize individual layers in a double-layer electron system, which forms in a wide quantum well, and to determine their electron densities. The technique relies on the simultaneous measurement of the capacitances between the electron system and gates located on either side of the well. Modifications to the electron wave function due to the population of the second subband and the appearance of an additional electron layer can be detected. The magnetic field dependence of these capacitances is dominated by quantum corrections caused by the occupation of Landau levels in the nearest electron layer. The technique should be equally applicable to other implementations of a double layer electron system.

  11. Demonstrating Hybrid Heat Transport and Energy Conversion System Performance Characterization Using Intelligent Control Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrum, Lee; Manic, Milos

    2017-01-01

    The debate continues on the magnitude and validity of climate change caused by human activities. However, there is no debate about the need to make buildings, modes of transportation, factories, and homes as energy efficient as possible. Given that climate change could occur with the wasteful use of fossil fuel and the fact that fossil energy costs could and will swing wildly, it is imperative that every effort be made to utilize energy sources to their fullest. Hybrid energy systems (HES) are two or more separate energy producers used together to produce energy commodities. The HES this report focuses on is the use of nuclear reactor waste heat as a source of further energy utilization. Nuclear reactors use a fluid to cool the core and produce the steam needed for the production of electricity. Traditionally this steam, or coolant, is used to convert the energy then cooled elsewhere. The heat is released into the environment without being used further. By adding technologies to nuclear reactors to use the wasted heat, a system can be developed to make more than just electricity and allow for loading following capabilities.

  12. Demonstrating Hybrid Heat Transport and Energy Conversion System Performance Characterization Using Intelligent Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrum, Lee [Univ. of Idaho and Idaho Falls Center, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Manic, Milos [Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond, VA (United States)

    2017-09-28

    The debate continues on the magnitude and validity of climate change caused by human activities. However, there is no debate about the need to make buildings, modes of transportation, factories, and homes as energy efficient as possible. Given that climate change could occur with the wasteful use of fossil fuel and the fact that fossil energy costs could and will swing wildly, it is imperative that every effort be made to utilize energy sources to their fullest. Hybrid energy systems (HES) are two or more separate energy producers used together to produce energy commodities. The HES this report focuses on is the use of nuclear reactor waste heat as a source of further energy utilization. Nuclear reactors use a fluid to cool the core and produce the steam needed for the production of electricity. Traditionally this steam, or coolant, is used to convert the energy then cooled elsewhere. The heat is released into the environment without being used further. By adding technologies to nuclear reactors to use the wasted heat, a system can be developed to make more than just electricity and allow for loading following capabilities.

  13. Topological characterization and early detection of bifurcations and chaos in complex systems using persistent homology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Khushboo; Gupta, Shalabh

    2017-05-01

    Early detection of bifurcations and chaos and understanding their topological characteristics are essential for safe and reliable operation of various electrical, chemical, physical, and industrial processes. However, the presence of non-linearity and high-dimensionality in system behavior makes this analysis a challenging task. The existing methods for dynamical system analysis provide useful tools for anomaly detection (e.g., Bendixson-Dulac and Poincare-Bendixson criteria can detect the presence of limit cycles); however, they do not provide a detailed topological understanding about system evolution during bifurcations and chaos, such as the changes in the number of subcycles and their positions, lifetimes, and sizes. This paper addresses this research gap by using topological data analysis as a tool to study system evolution and develop a mathematical framework for detecting the topological changes in the underlying system using persistent homology. Using the proposed technique, topological features (e.g., number of relevant k-dimensional holes, etc.) are extracted from nonlinear time series data which are useful for deeper analysis of the system behavior and early detection of bifurcations and chaos. When applied to a Logistic map, a Duffing oscillator, and a real life Op-amp based Jerk circuit, these features are shown to accurately characterize the system dynamics and detect the onset of chaos.

  14. Brayton-cycle heat recovery-system characterization program. Subatmospheric-system test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgmeier, L.; Leung, S.

    1981-07-31

    The turbine tests and results for the Brayton cycle subatmospheric system (SAS) are summarized. A scaled model turbine was operated in the same environment as that which a full-scale SAS machine would experience from the hot effluent flue gas from a glass container furnace. The objective of the testing was to evaluate the effects of a simulated furnace flue gas stream on the turbine nozzles and blades. The following specific areas were evaluated: erosion of the turbine nozzles and blades from the dust in the flue gas, hot corrosion from alkali metal salts in the dust and acid vapor (sulfur trioxide and hydrogen chloride) in the flue gas, and fouling and flow blockage due to deposition and/or condensation from the flue gas constituents.

  15. From experiment to design -- Fault characterization and detection in parallel computer systems using computational accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Keun Soo

    This dissertation summarizes experimental validation and co-design studies conducted to optimize the fault detection capabilities and overheads in hybrid computer systems (e.g., using CPUs and Graphics Processing Units, or GPUs), and consequently to improve the scalability of parallel computer systems using computational accelerators. The experimental validation studies were conducted to help us understand the failure characteristics of CPU-GPU hybrid computer systems under various types of hardware faults. The main characterization targets were faults that are difficult to detect and/or recover from, e.g., faults that cause long latency failures (Ch. 3), faults in dynamically allocated resources (Ch. 4), faults in GPUs (Ch. 5), faults in MPI programs (Ch. 6), and microarchitecture-level faults with specific timing features (Ch. 7). The co-design studies were based on the characterization results. One of the co-designed systems has a set of source-to-source translators that customize and strategically place error detectors in the source code of target GPU programs (Ch. 5). Another co-designed system uses an extension card to learn the normal behavioral and semantic execution patterns of message-passing processes executing on CPUs, and to detect abnormal behaviors of those parallel processes (Ch. 6). The third co-designed system is a co-processor that has a set of new instructions in order to support software-implemented fault detection techniques (Ch. 7). The work described in this dissertation gains more importance because heterogeneous processors have become an essential component of state-of-the-art supercomputers. GPUs were used in three of the five fastest supercomputers that were operating in 2011. Our work included comprehensive fault characterization studies in CPU-GPU hybrid computers. In CPUs, we monitored the target systems for a long period of time after injecting faults (a temporally comprehensive experiment), and injected faults into various types of

  16. Chitosan-based delivery systems for diclofenac delivery: preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreve, Simina; Kacso, Irina; Bratu, Ioan; Indrea, Emil, E-mail: simina.dreve@itim-cj.r [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2009-08-01

    The preparation and characterization of novel materials for drug delivery has rapidly gained importance in development of innovative medicine. The paper concerns the uses of chitosan as an excipient in oral formulations and as a drug delivery vehicle for burnt painful injuries. The use of chitosan (CTS) as base in polyelectrolyte complex systems, to prepare liquid release systems as hydrogels and solid release systems as sponges is presented. In this paper the preparation of CTS hydrogels and sponges carrying diclofenac (DCF), as anti-inflammatory drug is reported. The immobilization of DCF in CTS is done by mixing the CTS hydrogel with the anti-inflammatory drug solutions. The concentration of anti-inflammatory drug in the CTS hydrogel generating the sponges was of 57 mg/l, 72 mg/l and 114 mg/l. The CTS sponges with anti-inflammatory drugs were prepared by freeze-drying at -610{sup 0}C and 0,09 atm. The characterization of the hydrogels and sponges was done by infrared spectra (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS). The results indicated the formation of CTS-DCF intermediates. The DCF molecules are forming temporary chelates in CTS hydrogels and sponges and they are compatible with skin or some of biological fluids with satisfactory results.

  17. Chitosan-based delivery systems for diclofenac delivery: preparation and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreve, Simina; Kacso, Irina; Bratu, Ioan; Indrea, Emil

    2009-01-01

    The preparation and characterization of novel materials for drug delivery has rapidly gained importance in development of innovative medicine. The paper concerns the uses of chitosan as an excipient in oral formulations and as a drug delivery vehicle for burnt painful injuries. The use of chitosan (CTS) as base in polyelectrolyte complex systems, to prepare liquid release systems as hydrogels and solid release systems as sponges is presented. In this paper the preparation of CTS hydrogels and sponges carrying diclofenac (DCF), as anti-inflammatory drug is reported. The immobilization of DCF in CTS is done by mixing the CTS hydrogel with the anti-inflammatory drug solutions. The concentration of anti-inflammatory drug in the CTS hydrogel generating the sponges was of 57 mg/l, 72 mg/l and 114 mg/l. The CTS sponges with anti-inflammatory drugs were prepared by freeze-drying at -610 0 C and 0,09 atm. The characterization of the hydrogels and sponges was done by infrared spectra (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS). The results indicated the formation of CTS-DCF intermediates. The DCF molecules are forming temporary chelates in CTS hydrogels and sponges and they are compatible with skin or some of biological fluids with satisfactory results.

  18. Characterization of pipes, drain lines, and ducts using the pipe explorer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, C.D.; Kendrick, D.T.; Cramer, E.

    1997-05-01

    As DOE dismantles its nuclear processing facilities, site managers must employ the best means of disposing or remediating hundreds of miles of potentially contaminated piping and duct work. Their interiors are difficult to access, and in many cases even the exteriors are inaccessible. Without adequate characterization, it must be assumed that the piping is contaminated, and the disposal cost of buried drain lines can be on the order of $1,200/ft and is often unnecessary as residual contamination levels often are below free release criteria. This paper describes the program to develop a solution to the problem of characterizing radioactive contamination in pipes. The technical approach and results of using the Pipe Explorer {trademark} system are presented. The heart of the system is SEA`s pressurized inverting membrane adapted to transport radiation detectors and other tools into pipes. It offers many benefits over other pipe inspection approaches. It has video and beta/gamma detection capabilities, and the need for alpha detection has been addressed through the development of the Alpha Explorer{trademark}. These systems have been used during various stages of decontamination and decommissioning of DOE sites, including the ANL CP-5 reactor D&D. Future improvements and extensions of their capabilities are discussed.

  19. Characterization of Fine Metal Particles Derived from Shredded WEEE Using a Hyperspectral Image System: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candiani, Gabriele; Picone, Nicoletta; Pompilio, Loredana; Pepe, Monica; Colledani, Marcello

    2017-01-01

    Waste of electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) is the fastest-growing waste stream in Europe. The large amount of electric and electronic products introduced every year in the market makes WEEE disposal a relevant problem. On the other hand, the high abundance of key metals included in WEEE has increased the industrial interest in WEEE recycling. However, the high variability of materials used to produce electric and electronic equipment makes key metals’ recovery a complex task: the separation process requires flexible systems, which are not currently implemented in recycling plants. In this context, hyperspectral sensors and imaging systems represent a suitable technology to improve WEEE recycling rates and the quality of the output products. This work introduces the preliminary tests using a hyperspectral system, integrated in an automatic WEEE recycling pilot plant, for the characterization of mixtures of fine particles derived from WEEE shredding. Several combinations of classification algorithms and techniques for signal enhancement of reflectance spectra were implemented and compared. The methodology introduced in this study has shown characterization accuracies greater than 95%. PMID:28505070

  20. A Land Product Characterization System for Comparative Analysis of Satellite Data and Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Gallo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A Land Product Characterization System (LPCS has been developed to provide land data and products to the community of individuals interested in validating space-based land products by comparing them with similar products available from other sensors or surface-based observations. The LPCS facilitates the application of global multi-satellite and in situ data for characterization and validation of higher-level, satellite-derived, land surface products (e.g., surface reflectance, normalized difference vegetation index, and land surface temperature. The LPCS includes data search, inventory, access, and analysis functions that will permit data to be easily identified, retrieved, co-registered, and compared statistically through a single interface. The system currently includes data and products available from Landsat 4 through 8, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Terra and Aqua, Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP/Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS, and simulated data for the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-16 Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI. In addition to the future inclusion of in situ data, higher-level land products from the European Space Agency (ESA Sentinel-2 and -3 series of satellites, and other high and medium resolution spatial sensors, will be included as available. When fully implemented, any of the sensor data or products included in the LPCS would be available for comparative analysis.

  1. An expert system to characterize the surface morphological properties according to their functionalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigerelle, M; Mathia, T; Iost, A; Correvits, T; Anselme, K

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new methodology to characterize the morphological properties of a surface in relation with its functionality (tribological properties, surface coating adhesion, brightness, wettability...). We create a software based on experimental design and surface profile recording. Using an appropriate database structure, the roughness parameters are automatically computed at different scales. The surface files are saved in a hard disk directory and roughness parameters are computed at different scales. Finally, a statistical analysis system proposes the roughness parameter (or the pair of roughness parameters) that better describe(s) the functionality of the surface and the spatial scales at which the parameter(s) is (are) the more relevant.

  2. Characterization of toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics with linear systems theory: application to lead-associated cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links, J M; Schwartz, B S; Simon, D; Bandeen-Roche, K; Stewart, W F

    2001-04-01

    We present a theoretical approach to analysis of toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics using linear systems theory. In our approach, we define two impulse response functions that characterize the kinetic behavior of an environmental agent in the body and the dynamic time-course behavior of its effect on the body. This approach provides a formalism for understanding the relation among exposure, dose, and cumulative biologically effective dose and for understanding the implications of an effect time-course on cross-sectional and longitudinal data analyses. We use lead-associated cognitive decline as a specific example where the approach may be applied.

  3. An expert system to characterize the surface morphological properties according to their functionalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigerelle, M [Laboratoire Roberval, UMR 6253, UTC/CNRS, UTC Centre de Recherches de Royallieu BP 20529, 60205 Compiegne France stol BS1 6BE (United Kingdom); Mathia, T [Laboratoire de Tribologie et Dynamique des Systemes, UMR 5513, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 36 Av Guy de Collongue, 69134 Ecully Cedex (France); Iost, A [Laboratoire de Mecanique de Lille, UMR CNRS 8107, Arts et Metiers ParisTech - Lille, 8, boulevard Louis XIV 59046 Lille (France); Correvits, T [Laboratoire de Metrologie. Arts et Metiers ParisTech, ENSAM, 8 boulevard Louis XIV, 59046 LILLE Cedex (France); Anselme, K, E-mail: maxence.bigerelle@utc.fr [Institut De Sciences Des Materiaux De Mulhouse, CNRS LRC 7228, 15, rue Jean Starcky, Universite De Haute-Alsace, BP 2488, 68057 Mulhouse (France)

    2011-08-19

    In this paper we propose a new methodology to characterize the morphological properties of a surface in relation with its functionality (tribological properties, surface coating adhesion, brightness, wettability...). We create a software based on experimental design and surface profile recording. Using an appropriate database structure, the roughness parameters are automatically computed at different scales. The surface files are saved in a hard disk directory and roughness parameters are computed at different scales. Finally, a statistical analysis system proposes the roughness parameter (or the pair of roughness parameters) that better describe(s) the functionality of the surface and the spatial scales at which the parameter(s) is (are) the more relevant.

  4. Characterization and adaptive fuzzy model reference control for a magnetic levitation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Hernández-Casañas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the implementation of a fuzzy controller applied for magnetic levitation, to make this, the characterization of the magnetic actuator was computed by using ANSYS® analysis. The control law was a Mamdani PD implemented with two microcontrollers, to get a smooth control signal, it was used a model reference. A learning scheme was used to update the consequents of the fuzzy rules. Different reference signals and disturbances were applied to the system to show the robustness of the controller. Finally, LabVIEW® was used to plot the results.

  5. Three-Dimensional Geologic Characterization of Geothermal Systems: Astor Pass, Nevada, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siler, Drew L [Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, University of Nevada, Reno; Mayhew, Brett [Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, University of Nevada, Reno; Faulds, James E [Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, University of Nevada, Reno

    2012-09-30

    Geothermal systems in the Great Basin, USA, are controlled by a variety of fault intersection and fault interaction areas. Understanding the specific geometry of the structures most conducive to geothermal circulation is crucial in order to both mitigate the costs of geothermal exploration (especially drilling) and to identify blind geothermal systems (no surface expression). Astor Pass, Nevada, one such blind geothermal system, lies near the boundary between two distinct structural domains, the Walker Lane and the Basin and Range, and exhibits characteristics of each setting. Both northwest-striking, left-stepping dextral faults of the Walker Lane and kinematically linked northerly striking normal faults associated with the Basin and Range are present at Astor Pass. Previous studies identified a blind geothermal system controlled by the intersection of northwest-striking dextral and north-northwest-striking normal faults. Wells drilled into the southwestern quadrant of the fault intersection yielded 94°C fluids, with geothermometers suggesting significantly higher maximum temperatures. Additional data, including reprocessed 2D seismic data and petrologic analysis of well cuttings, were integrated with existing and reinterpreted geologic maps and cross-sections to aid construction of a 3D geologic model. This comprehensive 3D integration of multiple data sets allows characterization of the structural setting of the Astor Pass blind geothermal system at a level of detail beyond what independent data interpretation can provide. Our analysis indicates that the blind geothermal system is controlled by two north- to northwest-plunging fault intersections.

  6. Design and characterization of an ultrasonic lamb-wave power delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kural, Aleksander; Pullin, Rhys; Holford, Karen; Lees, Jonathan; Naylon, Jack; Paget, Christophe; Featherston, Carol

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, a novel design for an ultrasonic power transmission system designed for use in aircraft structural monitoring systems is described. The prototype system uses ultrasonic Lamb waves to carry energy along plates, such as those used in aircraft structures, and commercially available piezoelectric patch transducers as the transmitter and receiver. This sets it apart from other acoustic power transmission systems reported to date. The optimum configuration transmitted 12.7 mW of power across a distance of 54 cm in a 1.5-mm-thick aluminum plate, while being driven by a 20-Vpp, 35-kHz sinusoidal electric signal. This is in the same order of magnitude as the power required by the wireless sensors nodes of a structural health monitoring system currently being developed by Cardiff University and its partners. Thus, the power transmission system can be considered a viable component of the power source combination considered for the sensor nodes, which will also include vibration and thermal energy harvesting. The paper describes the design and optimization of the transmission and reception circuits with the use of inductive compensation. The use of laser vibrometry to characterize the transducers and to understand the signal propagation between them is also reported.

  7. Brazil Fire Characterization and Burn Area Estimation Using the Airborne Infrared Disaster Assessment (AIRDAS) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brass, J. A.; Riggan, P. J.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Lockwood, R. N.; Pereira, J. A.; Higgins, R. G.; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Remotely sensed estimations of regional and global emissions from biomass combustion have been used to characterize fire behavior, determine fire intensity, and estimate burn area. Highly temporal, low resolution satellite data have been used to calculate estimates of fire numbers and area burned. These estimates of fire activity and burned area have differed dramatically, resulting in a wide range of predictions on the ecological and environmental impacts of fires. As part of the Brazil/United States Fire Initiative, an aircraft campaign was initiated in 1992 and continued in 1994. This multi-aircraft campaign was designed to assist in the characterization of fire activity, document fire intensity and determine area burned over prescribed, agricultural and wildland fires in the savanna and forests of central Brazil. Using a unique, multispectral scanner (AIRDAS), designed specifically for fire characterization, a variety of fires and burned areas were flown with a high spatial and high thermal resolution scanner. The system was used to measure flame front size, rate of spread, ratio of smoldering to flaming fronts and fire intensity. In addition, long transects were flown to determine the size of burned areas within the cerrado and transitional ecosystems. The authors anticipate that the fire activity and burned area estimates reported here will lead to enhanced information for precise regional trace gas prediction.

  8. Molecular characterization of circulating plasma cells in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L Lugar

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a generalized autoimmune disease characterized by abnormal B cell activation and the occurrence of increased frequencies of circulating plasma cells (PC. The molecular characteristics and nature of circulating PC and B cells in SLE have not been completely characterized. Microarray analysis of gene expression was used to characterize circulating PC in subjects with active SLE. Flow cytometry was used to sort PC and comparator B cell populations from active SLE blood, normal blood and normal tonsil. The gene expression profiles of the sorted B cell populations were then compared. SLE PC exhibited a similar gene expression signature as tonsil PC. The differences in gene expression between SLE PC and normal tonsil PC and tonsil plasmablasts (PB suggest a mature Ig secreting cell phenotype in the former population. Despite this, SLE PC differed in expression of about half the genes from previously published gene expression profiles of normal bone marrow PC, indicating that these cells had not achieved a fully mature status. Abnormal expression of several genes, including CXCR4 and S1P(1, suggests a mechanism for the persistence of SLE PC in the circulation. All SLE B cell populations revealed an interferon (IFN gene signature previously only reported in unseparated SLE peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These data indicate that SLE PC are a unique population of Ig secreting cells with a gene expression profile indicative of a mature, but not fully differentiated phenotype.

  9. Highlighting the Need for Systems-level Experimental Characterization of Plant Metabolic Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Karl Magnus Engqvist

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The biology of living organisms is determined by the action and interaction of a large number of individual gene products, each with specific functions. Discovering and annotating the function of gene products is key to our understanding of these organisms. Controlled experiments and bioinformatic predictions both contribute to functional gene annotation. For most species it is difficult to gain an overview of what portion of gene annotations are based on experiments and what portion represent predictions. Here, I survey the current state of experimental knowledge of enzymes and metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana as well as eleven economically important crops and forestry trees – with a particular focus on reactions involving organic acids in central metabolism. I illustrate the limited availability of experimental data for functional annotation of enzymes in most of these species. Many enzymes involved in metabolism of citrate, malate, fumarate, lactate, and glycolate in crops and forestry trees have not been characterized. Furthermore, enzymes involved in key biosynthetic pathways which shape important traits in crops and forestry trees have not been characterized. I argue for the development of novel high-throughput platforms with which limited functional characterization of gene products can be performed quickly and relatively cheaply. I refer to this approach as systems-level experimental characterization. The data collected from such platforms would form a layer intermediate between bioinformatic gene function predictions and in-depth experimental studies of these functions. Such a data layer would greatly aid in the pursuit of understanding a multiplicity of biological processes in living organisms.

  10. Characterization of a dose verification system dedicated to radiotherapy treatments based on a silicon detector multi-strips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocca, A.; Cortes Giraldo, M. A.; Gallardo, M. I.; Espino, J. M.; Aranas, R.; Abou Haidar, Z.; Alvarez, M. A. G.; Quesada, J. M.; Vega-Leal, A. P.; Perez Neto, F. J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present the characterization of a silicon detector multi-strips (SSSSD: Single Sided Silicon Strip Detector), developed by the company Micron Semiconductors Ltd. for use as a verification system for radiotherapy treatments.

  11. A FPGA-based Measurement System for Nonvolatile Semiconductor Memory Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Jiankang; White, Marvin

    2002-03-01

    Low voltage, long retention, high density SONOS nonvolatile semiconductor memory (NVSM) devices are ideally suited for PCMCIA, FLASH and 'smart' cards. The SONOS memory transistor requires characterization with an accurate, rapid measurement system with minimum disturbance to the device. The FPGA-based measurement system includes three parts: 1) a pattern generator implemented with XILINX FPGAs and corresponding software, 2) a high-speed, constant-current, threshold voltage detection circuit, 3) and a data evaluation program, implemented with a LABVIEW program. Fig. 1 shows the general block diagram of the FPGA-based measurement system. The function generator is designed and simulated with XILINX Foundation Software. Under the control of the specific erase/write/read pulses, the analog detect circuit applies operational modes to the SONOS device under test (DUT) and determines the change of the memory-state of the SONOS nonvolatile memory transistor. The TEK460 digitizes the analog threshold voltage output and sends to the PC computer. The data is filtered and averaged with a LABVIEWTM program running on the PC computer and displayed on the monitor in real time. We have implemented the pattern generator with XILINX FPGAs. Fig. 2 shows the block diagram of the pattern generator. We realized the logic control by a method of state machine design. Fig. 3 shows a small part of the state machine. The flexibility of the FPGAs enhances the capabilities of this system and allows measurement variations without hardware changes. The characterization of the nonvolatile memory transistor device under test (DUT), as function of programming voltage and time, is achieved by a high-speed, constant-current threshold voltage detection circuit. The analog detection circuit incorporating fast analog switches controlled digitally with the FPGAs. The schematic circuit diagram is shown in Fig. 4. The various operational modes for the DUT are realized with control signals applied to the

  12. A Fiber-Optic Borehole Seismic Vector Sensor System for Geothermal Site Characterization and Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsson, Bjorn N.P. [Paulsson, Inc., Van Nuys, CA (United States); Thornburg, Jon A. [Paulsson, Inc., Van Nuys, CA (United States); He, Ruiqing [Paulsson, Inc., Van Nuys, CA (United States)

    2015-04-21

    Seismic techniques are the dominant geophysical techniques for the characterization of subsurface structures and stratigraphy. The seismic techniques also dominate the monitoring and mapping of reservoir injection and production processes. Borehole seismology, of all the seismic techniques, despite its current shortcomings, has been shown to provide the highest resolution characterization and most precise monitoring results because it generates higher signal to noise ratio and higher frequency data than surface seismic techniques. The operational environments for borehole seismic instruments are however much more demanding than for surface seismic instruments making both the instruments and the installation much more expensive. The current state-of-the-art borehole seismic instruments have not been robust enough for long term monitoring compounding the problems with expensive instruments and installations. Furthermore, they have also not been able to record the large bandwidth data available in boreholes or having the sensitivity allowing them to record small high frequency micro seismic events with high vector fidelity. To reliably achieve high resolution characterization and long term monitoring of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) sites a new generation of borehole seismic instruments must therefore be developed and deployed. To address the critical site characterization and monitoring needs for EGS programs, US Department of Energy (DOE) funded Paulsson, Inc. in 2010 to develop a fiber optic based ultra-large bandwidth clamped borehole seismic vector array capable of deploying up to one thousand 3C sensor pods suitable for deployment into ultra-high temperature and high pressure boreholes. Tests of the fiber optic seismic vector sensors developed on the DOE funding have shown that the new borehole seismic sensor technology is capable of generating outstanding high vector fidelity data with extremely large bandwidth: 0.01 – 6,000 Hz. Field tests have shown

  13. Mechanical characterization of soft materials using transparent indenter testing system and finite element simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Yue

    Background. Soft materials such as polymers and soft tissues have diverse applications in bioengineering, medical care, and industry. Quantitative mechanical characterization of soft materials at multiscales is required to assure that appropriate mechanical properties are presented to support the normal material function. Indentation test has been widely used to characterize soft material. However, the measurement of in situ contact area is always difficult. Method of Approach. A transparent indenter method was introduced to characterize the nonlinear behaviors of soft materials under large deformation. This approach made the direct measurement of contact area and local deformation possible. A microscope was used to capture the contact area evolution as well as the surface deformation. Based on this transparent indenter method, a novel transparent indentation measurement systems has been built and multiple soft materials including polymers and pericardial tissue have been characterized. Seven different indenters have been used to study the strain distribution on the contact surface, inner layer and vertical layer. Finite element models have been built to simulate the hyperelastic and anisotropic material behaviors. Proper material constants were obtained by fitting the experimental results. Results.Homogeneous and anisotropic silicone rubber and porcine pericardial tissue have been examined. Contact area and local deformation were measured by real time imaging the contact interface. The experimental results were compared with the predictions from the Hertzian equations. The accurate measurement of contact area results in more reliable Young's modulus, which is critical for soft materials. For the fiber reinforced anisotropic silicone rubber, the projected contact area under a hemispherical indenter exhibited elliptical shape. The local surface deformation under indenter was mapped using digital image correlation program. Punch test has been applied to thin films of

  14. Development and characterization of a DEPFET pixel prototype system for the ILC vertex detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohrs, Robert

    2008-09-15

    For the future TeV-scale linear collider ILC (International Linear Collider) a vertex detector of unprecedented performance is needed to fully exploit its physics potential. By incorporating a field effect transistor into a fully depleted sensor substrate the DEPFET (Depleted Field Effect Transistor) sensor combines radiation detection and in-pixel amplification. For the operation at a linear collider the excellent noise performance of DEPFET pixels allows building very thin detectors with a high spatial resolution and a low power consumption. With this thesis a prototype system consisting of a 64 x 128 pixels sensor, dedicated steering and readout ASICs and a data acquisition board has been developed and successfully operated in the laboratory and under realistic conditions in beam test environments at DESY and CERN. A DEPFET matrix has been successfully read out using the on-chip zero-suppression of the readout chip CURO 2. The results of the system characterization and beam test results are presented. (orig.)

  15. Characterization of ceramic powders used in the inCeram systems to fixed dental Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Almeida Diego

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available InCeram (Vita Zahnfabrik- Germany is known as a high strength ceramic being used for core crowns and for fixed partial denture frameworks. InCeram system consists of slip-casting technique which is used for to build the framework, which is then pre-sintered obtaining an open-pore microstructure. The material gains its strength by infiltration of the lanthanum glass into the porous microstructure. In this work, commercial alumina (Al2O3, alumina-zirconia (Al2O3-ZrO2 and glasses lanthanum oxide-rich powders, used in InCeram system, were characterized, using x ray diffraction, dilatometry and scanning electron microscopy. The characteristics of these powders were related aiming to consider their substitution for new ceramic materials.

  16. Novel procedure for characterizing nonlinear systems with memory and combating the curse of dimensionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, A. H.; Katz, R. A.; Hughes, D. R.; Koch, R. M.

    2015-10-01

    A well-known mathematical model for characterizing nonlinear systems was originally proposed by Vito Volterra (1860-1940) and later developed by Norbert Wiener (1894-1964). More recently, Albert Nuttall, working with coauthors, has made substantial improvements to Wiener's approach, in which kernel estimates are modeled directly rather than computed from Wiener functionals. Other enhancements made include kernel estimation using a least-square approach for obtaining a best fit to the measured system response, and procedural methods to obtain uncorrelated column-wise basis vectors in the design matrix. These techniques, among others, include: maximally-sparse sampling of the kernels (for first-, second- and third-order), combatting ill-conditioning on its own terms, and realizing an exponential decrease of the growth of the number of kernel coefficients.

  17. Development and characterization of a DEPFET pixel prototype system for the ILC vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohrs, Robert

    2008-09-01

    For the future TeV-scale linear collider ILC (International Linear Collider) a vertex detector of unprecedented performance is needed to fully exploit its physics potential. By incorporating a field effect transistor into a fully depleted sensor substrate the DEPFET (Depleted Field Effect Transistor) sensor combines radiation detection and in-pixel amplification. For the operation at a linear collider the excellent noise performance of DEPFET pixels allows building very thin detectors with a high spatial resolution and a low power consumption. With this thesis a prototype system consisting of a 64 x 128 pixels sensor, dedicated steering and readout ASICs and a data acquisition board has been developed and successfully operated in the laboratory and under realistic conditions in beam test environments at DESY and CERN. A DEPFET matrix has been successfully read out using the on-chip zero-suppression of the readout chip CURO 2. The results of the system characterization and beam test results are presented. (orig.)

  18. Characterization of the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR Neutron Radiography System Imaging Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiser Krista

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL is an epithermal pool-type research reactor licensed up to a thermal power of 2.4 MW. The ACRR facility has a neutron radiography facility that is used for imaging a wide range of items including reactor fuel and neutron generators. The ACRR neutron radiography system has four apertures (65:1, 125:1, 250:1, and 500:1 available to experimenters. The neutron flux and spectrum as well as the gamma dose rate were characterized at the imaging plane for the ACRR's neutron radiography system for the 65:1, 125:1 and 250:1 apertures.

  19. Design and characterization of a real time particle radiography system based on scintillating optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhitano, F.; Lo Presti, D.; Bonanno, D. L.; Bongiovanni, D. G.; Leonora, E.; Randazzo, N.; Reito, S.; Sipala, V.; Gallo, G.

    2017-02-01

    The fabrication and characterization of a charged particle imaging system composed of a tracker and a residual range detector (RRD) is described. The tracker is composed of four layers of scintillating fibers (SciFi), 500 μm side square section, arranged to form two planes orthogonal to each other. The fibers are coupled to two Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC) arrays by means of a channel reduction system patented by the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) (Presti, 2015) [1]. Sixty parallel layers of the same fibers used in the tracker compose the RRD. The various layers are optically coupled to a MPPC array by means of wavelength shifting (WLS) fibers. The sensitive area of the two detectors is 9×9 cm2. The results of the measurements, acquired by the prototypes with CATANA (Cirrone, 2008) [2] proton beam, and a comparison with the simulations of the detectors are presented.

  20. Beyond CCT: The spectral index system as a tool for the objective, quantitative characterization of lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galadí-Enríquez, D.

    2018-02-01

    Correlated color temperature (CCT) is a semi-quantitative system that roughly describes the spectra of lamps. This parameter gives the temperature (measured in kelvins) of the black body that would show the hue more similar to that of the light emitted by the lamp. Modern lamps for indoor and outdoor lighting display many spectral energy distributions, most of them extremely different to those of black bodies, what makes CCT to be far from a perfect descriptor from the physical point of view. The spectral index system presented in this work provides an accurate, objective, quantitative procedure to characterize the spectral properties of lamps, with just a few numbers. The system is an adaptation to lighting technology of the classical procedures of multi-band astronomical photometry with wide and intermediate-band filters. We describe the basic concepts and we apply the system to a representative set of lamps of many kinds. The results lead to interesting, sometimes surprising conclusions. The spectral index system is extremely easy to implement from the spectral data that are routinely measured at laboratories. Thus, including this kind of computations in the standard protocols for the certification of lamps will be really straightforward, and will enrich the technical description of lighting devices.

  1. Noble gas signatures in the Island of Maui, Hawaii: Characterizing groundwater sources in fractured systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yi; Castro, M. Clara; Hall, Chris M.; Gingerich, Stephen B.; Scholl, Martha A.; Warrier, Rohit B.

    2017-05-01

    Uneven distribution of rainfall and freshwater scarcity in populated areas in the Island of Maui, Hawaii, renders water resources management a challenge in this complex and ill-defined hydrological system. A previous study in the Galapagos Islands suggests that noble gas temperatures (NGTs) record seasonality in that fractured, rapid infiltration groundwater system rather than the commonly observed mean annual air temperature (MAAT) in sedimentary systems where infiltration is slower thus, providing information on recharge sources and potential flow paths. Here we report noble gas results from the basal aquifer, springs, and rainwater in Maui to explore the potential for noble gases in characterizing this type of complex fractured hydrologic systems. Most samples display a mass-dependent depletion pattern with respect to surface conditions consistent with previous observations both in the Galapagos Islands and Michigan rainwater. Basal aquifer and rainwater noble gas patterns are similar and suggest direct, fast recharge from precipitation to the basal aquifer. In contrast, multiple springs, representative of perched aquifers, display highly variable noble gas concentrations suggesting recharge from a variety of sources. The distinct noble gas patterns for the basal aquifer and springs suggest that basal and perched aquifers are separate entities. Maui rainwater displays high apparent NGTs, incompatible with surface conditions, pointing either to an origin at high altitudes with the presence of ice or an ice-like source of undetermined origin. Overall, noble gas signatures in Maui reflect the source of recharge rather than the expected altitude/temperature relationship commonly observed in sedimentary systems.

  2. Noble gas signatures in the Island of Maui, Hawaii: Characterizing groundwater sources in fractured systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yi; Castro, M. Clara; Hall, Chris M.; Gingerich, Stephen B.; Scholl, Martha A.; Warrier, Rohit B.

    2017-01-01

    Uneven distribution of rainfall and freshwater scarcity in populated areas in the Island of Maui, Hawaii, renders water resources management a challenge in this complex and ill-defined hydrological system. A previous study in the Galapagos Islands suggests that noble gas temperatures (NGTs) record seasonality in that fractured, rapid infiltration groundwater system rather than the commonly observed mean annual air temperature (MAAT) in sedimentary systems where infiltration is slower thus, providing information on recharge sources and potential flow paths. Here we report noble gas results from the basal aquifer, springs, and rainwater in Maui to explore the potential for noble gases in characterizing this type of complex fractured hydrologic systems. Most samples display a mass-dependent depletion pattern with respect to surface conditions consistent with previous observations both in the Galapagos Islands and Michigan rainwater. Basal aquifer and rainwater noble gas patterns are similar and suggest direct, fast recharge from precipitation to the basal aquifer. In contrast, multiple springs, representative of perched aquifers, display highly variable noble gas concentrations suggesting recharge from a variety of sources. The distinct noble gas patterns for the basal aquifer and springs suggest that basal and perched aquifers are separate entities. Maui rainwater displays high apparent NGTs, incompatible with surface conditions, pointing either to an origin at high altitudes with the presence of ice or an ice-like source of undetermined origin. Overall, noble gas signatures in Maui reflect the source of recharge rather than the expected altitude/temperature relationship commonly observed in sedimentary systems.

  3. Pipe Crawler internal piping characterization system. Deactivation and decommissioning focus area. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    Pipe Crawler reg-sign is a pipe surveying system for performing radiological characterization and/or free release surveys of piping systems. The technology employs a family of manually advanced, wheeled platforms, or crawlers, fitted with one or more arrays of thin Geiger Mueller (GM) detectors operated from an external power supply and data processing unit. Survey readings are taken in a step-wise fashion. A video camera and tape recording system are used for video surveys of pipe interiors prior to and during radiological surveys. Pipe Crawler reg-sign has potential advantages over the baseline and other technologies in areas of cost, durability, waste minimization, and intrusiveness. Advantages include potentially reduced cost, potential reuse of the pipe system, reduced waste volume, and the ability to manage pipes in place with minimal disturbance to facility operations. Advantages over competing technologies include potentially reduced costs and the ability to perform beta-gamma surveys that are capable of passing regulatory scrutiny for free release of piping systems

  4. [Micro-droplet characterization and its application for amino acid detection in droplet microfluidic system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Huiling; Dong, Libing; Tu, Ran; Du, Wenbin; Ji, Shiru; Wang, Qinhong

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the droplet microfluidic system attracts interests due to its high throughput and low cost to detect and screen. The picoliter micro-droplets from droplet microfluidics are uniform with respect to the size and shape, and could be used as monodispensed micro-reactors for encapsulation and detection of single cell or its metabolites. Therefore, it is indispensable to characterize micro-droplet and its application from droplet microfluidic system. We first constructed the custom-designed droplet microfluidic system for generating micro-droplets, and then used the micro-droplets to encapsulate important amino acids such as glutamic acid, phenylalanine, tryptophan or tyrosine to test the droplets' properties, including the stability, diffusivity and bio-compatibility for investigating its application for amino acid detection and sorting. The custom-designed droplet microfluidic system could generate the uniformed micro-droplets with a controllable size between 20 to 50 microm. The micro-droplets could be stable for more than 20 h without cross-contamination or fusion each other. The throughput of detection and sorting of the system is about 600 micro-droplets per minute. This study provides a high-throughput platform for the analysis and screening of amino acid-producing microorganisms.

  5. Characterization and distinction of two flagellar systems in extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli PCN033.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Fu, Jiyang; Liu, Canying; Chen, Jing; Sun, Minhua; Chen, Huanchun; Tan, Chen; Wang, Xiangru

    2017-03-01

    Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) can invade and colonize multiple extraintestinal tissues and can cause a wide range of infections; however the mechanisms of its pathogenicity are not well understood. Flagella contribute to the infection of E. coli strains by mediating adhesion and invasion. Our previous bioinformatic analysis revealed two flagella gene clusters in the genome of an ExPEC isolate, PCN033. One encodes the conventional flagellum system (Flag-1) and the other encodes the Flag-2 system, whose function is uncharacterized. Here we aimed to characterize these two flagellum systems and determine their contributions to the flagellum formation and certain pathogenicity-associated phenotypes. Our observations support the involvement of Flag-1 system, but not Flag-2 system, in the synthesis and maturation of the flagellum structure, and in mediating bacterial swimming and swarming. Moreover, flgD, which encodes a flagellar-hook scaffolding protein in the Flag-1 system, is required for flagellum assembly by influencing the production of FliC (flagellin). Deletion of flgD attenuated ExPEC strain PCN033 invasion and colonization in vivo, probably by affecting bacterial adhesion and invasion, and by reducing resistance to phagocytosis by circulating monocytes. In contrast, these phenotypes were not observed in the strain with deletion of lfgD, encoding the FlgD-like protein in the Flag-2 system. Taken together, these findings indicate that Flag-1 flagellum system is the determinative component of bacterial flagella that contributes to the infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. A Model for Astrometric Detection and Characterization of Multi-Exoplanet Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    April Thompson, Maggie; Spergel, David N.

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, we develop an approximate linear model of stellar motion in multi- planet systems as an aid to observers using the astrometric method to detect and characterize exoplanets. Recent and near-term advances in satellite and ground-based instruments are on the threshold of achieving sufficient (~10 micro-arcsecond) angular accuracies to allow astronomers to measure and analyze the transverse mo- tion of stars about the common barycenter in single- and multi-planet systems due to the gravitational influence of companion planets. Given the emerging statistics of extrasolar planetary systems and the long observation periods required to assess exoplanet influences, astronomers should find an approximate technique for preliminary estimates of multiple planet numbers, masses and orbital parameters useful in determining the most likely stellar systems for follow-up studies. In this paper, we briefly review the history of astrometry and discuss its advantages and limitations in exoplanet research. In addition, we define the principal astrometric signature and describe the main variables affecting it, highlighting astrometry’s complementary role to radial velocity and photometric transit exoplanet detection techniques. We develop and test a Python computer code using actual data and projections of the Sun’s motion due to the influence of the four gas giants in the solar system. We then apply this model to over 50 hypothetical massive two- and three-exoplanet systems to discover useful general patterns by employing a heuristic examination of key aspects of the host star’s motion over long observation intervals. Finally, we modify the code by incorporating an inverse least-squares fit program to assess its efficiency in identifying the main characteristics of multi-planet systems based on observational records over 5-, 10- and 20-year periods for a variety of actual and hypothetical exoplanetary systems. We also explore the method’s sensitivity to

  7. New Ultrasonic Controller and Characterization System for Low Temperature Drying Process Intensification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, R. R.; Blanco, A.; Acosta, V. M.; Riera, E.; Martínez, I.; Pinto, A.

    Process intensification constitutes a high interesting and promising industrial area. It aims to modify conventional processes or develop new technologies in order to reduce energy needs, increase yields and improve product quality. It has been demonstrated by this research group (CSIC) that power ultrasound have a great potential in food drying processes. The effects associated with the application of power ultrasound can enhance heat and mass transfer and may constitute a way for process intensification. The objective of this work has been the design and development of a new ultrasonic system for the power characterization of piezoelectric plate-transducers, as excitation, monitoring, analysis, control and characterization of their nonlinear response. For this purpose, the system proposes a new, efficient and economic approach that separates the effect of different parameters of the process like excitation, medium and transducer parameters and variables (voltage, current, frequency, impedance, vibration velocity, acoustic pressure and temperature) by observing the electrical, mechanical, acoustical and thermal behavior, and controlling the vibrational state.

  8. Experimental Characterization of Close-Emitter Interference in an Optical Camera Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez-Burbano, Patricia; Rabadan, Jose; Perez-Jimenez, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Due to the massive insertion of embedded cameras in a wide variety of devices and the generalized use of LED lamps, Optical Camera Communication (OCC) has been proposed as a practical solution for future Internet of Things (IoT) and smart cities applications. Influence of mobility, weather conditions, solar radiation interference, and external light sources over Visible Light Communication (VLC) schemes have been addressed in previous works. Some authors have studied the spatial intersymbol interference from close emitters within an OCC system; however, it has not been characterized or measured in function of the different transmitted wavelengths. In this work, this interference has been experimentally characterized and the Normalized Power Signal to Interference Ratio (NPSIR) for easily determining the interference in other implementations, independently of the selected system devices, has been also proposed. A set of experiments in a darkroom, working with RGB multi-LED transmitters and a general purpose camera, were performed in order to obtain the NPSIR values and to validate the deduced equations for 2D pixel representation of real distances. These parameters were used in the simulation of a wireless sensor network scenario in a small office, where the Bit Error Rate (BER) of the communication link was calculated. The experiments show that the interference of other close emitters in terms of the distance and the used wavelength can be easily determined with the NPSIR. Finally, the simulation validates the applicability of the deduced equations for scaling the initial results into real scenarios. PMID:28677613

  9. Vesicular lipidic systems, liposomes, PLO, and liposomes-PLO: characterization by electronic transmission microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, M Adolfina; Clares, Beatriz; Morales, M Encarnacion; Gallardo, Visitacion

    2008-12-01

    Situations exist in which rapid administration of treatment, as well as maintenance of efficient concentrations for the longest possible time, turns out to be essential. In view of the previous treatment, the elaboration of liposomes, PLO (pluronic lecithin organogel), and the mixture of both is described, as well as their characterizations by electronic transmission microscopy, with the aim of finding out precisely the type of structure for both controlled release systems, its composition, size, homogeneity, and integrity. The period of study has been 90 days. Multilaminar and unilaminar vesicles smaller than 1 microm in diameter were seen in the liposomes, PLO, and liposomes-PLO formulations on transmission electron microscopic (TEM) observation. The technique of characterization reveals the progressive aggregation of the liposomas along the period of study. However, all the vesicles of PLO maintain a defined structure and only a light aggregation 60 days after the elaboration. Changes of morphology and aggregation of liposomas decreased after the incorporation of cholesterol (CH) to the liposomal matrix. The best results were obtained with the formulas liposomes-PLO, which maintain their individuality and integrity during the whole period of study. The combined formulation of liposomas and PLO showed an increase of stability of both lipid systems.

  10. Experimental Characterization of Close-Emitter Interference in an Optical Camera Communication System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez-Burbano, Patricia; Guerra, Victor; Rabadan, Jose; Rodríguez-Esparragón, Dionisio; Perez-Jimenez, Rafael

    2017-07-04

    Due to the massive insertion of embedded cameras in a wide variety of devices and the generalized use of LED lamps, Optical Camera Communication (OCC) has been proposed as a practical solution for future Internet of Things (IoT) and smart cities applications. Influence of mobility, weather conditions, solar radiation interference, and external light sources over Visible Light Communication (VLC) schemes have been addressed in previous works. Some authors have studied the spatial intersymbol interference from close emitters within an OCC system; however, it has not been characterized or measured in function of the different transmitted wavelengths. In this work, this interference has been experimentally characterized and the Normalized Power Signal to Interference Ratio (NPSIR) for easily determining the interference in other implementations, independently of the selected system devices, has been also proposed. A set of experiments in a darkroom, working with RGB multi-LED transmitters and a general purpose camera, were performed in order to obtain the NPSIR values and to validate the deduced equations for 2D pixel representation of real distances. These parameters were used in the simulation of a wireless sensor network scenario in a small office, where the Bit Error Rate (BER) of the communication link was calculated. The experiments show that the interference of other close emitters in terms of the distance and the used wavelength can be easily determined with the NPSIR. Finally, the simulation validates the applicability of the deduced equations for scaling the initial results into real scenarios.

  11. Finite element analysis of thermal laser skin stimulation for a finer characterization of the nociceptive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchandise, E; Mouraux, A; Plaghki, L; Henrotte, F

    2014-02-15

    Thermal laser stimulation of the skin is an efficient exploratory tool to characterize the nociceptive system. In the present study, finite element simulations are done to calculate the intra-cutaneous spatio-temporal temperature profiles following the delivery of such laser stimuli. The proposed computer-aided modeling considers a number of important parameters that have been disregarded in previous approaches: (i) variability of water content across the skin in both hairy and glabrous skin, (ii) temperature dependency of optical and thermal skin parameters, (iii) laser wavelength and corresponding absorption coefficient, (iv) beam shape (Gaussian vs. flat top) and (v) power emission (closed vs. open loop). Numerical simulations allow determining at each instant of time the volume and area of skin tissue whose temperature exceeds a given nociceptor activation threshold. This knowledge allows a finer characterization of the subpopulations of primary afferents that encode and convey nociceptive signals to the central nervous system. As an example, the approach is used to obtain an estimate of intraepidermal nerve fiber density in both physiological and pathological conditions. Moreover, a better knowledge of the heat distribution also reduces the risk of injury to the skin. Finally, in order to make the finite element simulations accessible to investigators with no prior background in numerical analysis, a specific open-source user-interface has been developed with the ONELAB software. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of a DAQ system for the readout of a SiPM based shashlik calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berra, A.; Bonvicini, V.; Bosisio, L.; Lietti, D.; Penzo, A.; Prest, M.; Rabaioli, S.; Rashevskaya, I.; Vallazza, E.

    2014-01-01

    Silicon PhotoMultipliers (SiPMs) are a recently developed type of silicon photodetector characterized by high gain and insensitivity to magnetic fields, which make them a suitable detector for the next generation high energy and space physics experiments. This paper presents the performance of a readout system for SiPMs based on the MAROC3 ASIC. The ASIC consists of 64 channels working in parallel, each one with a variable gain pre-amplifier, a tunable slow shaper with a sample and hold circuit for the analog readout and a tunable fast shaper for the digital one. In the tests described in this paper, only the analog part of the ASIC has been used. A frontend board based on the MAROC3 ASIC has been tested at CERN coupled to a scintillator-lead shashlik calorimeter, readout with 36 large area SiPMs. The performance of the system has been characterized in terms of linearity and energy resolution on the CERN PS-T9 and SPS-H2 beamlines, using different configurations of the ASIC parameters

  13. Thermo-characterization of power systems components: a tool to diagnose their malfunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaleta-Aguilar, Alejandro; Royo, Javier; Rangel, Victor H.; Torres-Reyes, Ernestina

    2004-01-01

    Concepts on thermodynamic characterization of power system components are presented in this paper. The aim of this work is to evaluate and diagnose the actual operating condition for existing power plant components. What is more, a Reference Performance State (RPS) for power system components which uses the parameters defined as the enthalpy change, ω, the entropy change, σ and the Mass Flow Ratio design, MFR is put forward. Design information and simulation will help to determine the RPS for each component operating without any malfunction. The RPS can be used to compare, to evaluate and to diagnose the actual operating condition of the plant components so as to detect its possible malfunction. A simulated example of a 105 MW power plant is presented herein so that thermo-characterization of steam turbines, a condenser, a heat exchanger, and a pump is illustrated. The induced and intrinsic component malfunction effects on the RPS are also presented. Their effects are related to the RPS, thereby opening the possibility to apply methodologies to any internal decay and/or induced malfunctions that could appear in an operating component, in terms of the heat rate impact

  14. Toward disaster-resilient cities: characterizing resilience of infrastructure systems with expert judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Stephanie E; McDaniels, Timothy; Fox, Jana; Dhariwal, Rajan; Longstaff, Holly

    2014-03-01

    Resilient infrastructure systems are essential for cities to withstand and rapidly recover from natural and human-induced disasters, yet electric power, transportation, and other infrastructures are highly vulnerable and interdependent. New approaches for characterizing the resilience of sets of infrastructure systems are urgently needed, at community and regional scales. This article develops a practical approach for analysts to characterize a community's infrastructure vulnerability and resilience in disasters. It addresses key challenges of incomplete incentives, partial information, and few opportunities for learning. The approach is demonstrated for Metro Vancouver, Canada, in the context of earthquake and flood risk. The methodological approach is practical and focuses on potential disruptions to infrastructure services. In spirit, it resembles probability elicitation with multiple experts; however, it elicits disruption and recovery over time, rather than uncertainties regarding system function at a given point in time. It develops information on regional infrastructure risk and engages infrastructure organizations in the process. Information sharing, iteration, and learning among the participants provide the basis for more informed estimates of infrastructure system robustness and recovery that incorporate the potential for interdependent failures after an extreme event. Results demonstrate the vital importance of cross-sectoral communication to develop shared understanding of regional infrastructure disruption in disasters. For Vancouver, specific results indicate that in a hypothetical M7.3 earthquake, virtually all infrastructures would suffer severe disruption of service in the immediate aftermath, with many experiencing moderate disruption two weeks afterward. Electric power, land transportation, and telecommunications are identified as core infrastructure sectors. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Mini-review: novel non-destructivein situbiofilm characterization techniques in membrane systems

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, R.

    2016-05-12

    Membrane systems are commonly used in the water industry to produce potable water and for advanced wastewater treatment. One of the major drawbacks of membrane systems is biofilm formation (biofouling), which results in an unacceptable decline in membrane performance. Three novel in situ biofouling characterization techniques were assessed: (i) optical coherence tomography (OCT), (ii) planar optodes, and (iii) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The first two techniques were assessed using a biofilm grown on the surface of nanofiltration (NF) membranes using a transparent membrane fouling simulator that accurately simulates spiral wound modules, modified for in situ biofilm imaging. For the NMR study, a spiral wound reverse osmosis membrane module was used. Results show that these techniques can provide information to reconstruct the biofilm accurately, either with 2-D (OCT, planar optodes and NMR), or 3-D (OCT and NMR) scans. These non-destructive tools can elucidate the interaction of hydrodynamics and mass transport on biofilm accumulation in membrane systems. Oxygen distribution in the biofilm can be mapped and linked to water flow and substrate characteristics; insights on the effect of crossflow velocity, flow stagnation, and feed spacer presence can be obtained, and in situ information on biofilm structure, thickness, and spatial distribution can be quantitatively assessed. The combination of these novel non-destructive in situ biofilm characterization techniques can provide real-time observation of biofilm formation at the mesoscale. The information obtained with these tools could potentially be used for further improvement in the design of membrane systems and operational parameters to reduce impact of biofouling on membrane performance. © 2016 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of a solar photovoltaic/loop-heat-pipe heat pump water heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xingxing; Zhao, Xudong; Xu, Jihuan; Yu, Xiaotong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Describing concept and operating principle of the PV/LHP heat pump water heating system. ► Developing a numerical model to evaluate the performance of the system. ► Experimental testing of the prototype system. ► Characterizing the system performance using parallel comparison between the modelling and experimental results. ► Investigating the impact of the operating conditions to the system’s performance. -- Abstract: This paper introduced the concept, potential application and benefits relating to a novel solar photovoltaic/loop-heat-pipe (PV/LHP) heat pump system for hot water generation. On this basis, the paper reported the process and results of characterizing the performance of such a system, which was undertaken through dedicated thermo-fluid and energy balance analyses, computer model development and operation, and experimental verification and modification. The fundamental heat transfer, fluid flow and photovoltaic governing equations were applied to characterize the energy conversion and transfer processes occurring in each part and whole system layout; while the energy balance approach was utilized to enable inter-connection and resolution of the grouped equations. As a result, a dedicated computer model was developed and used to calculate the operational parameters, optimise the geometrical configurations and sizes, and recommend the appropriate operational condition relating to the system. Further, an experimental rig was constructed and utilized to acquire the relevant measurement data that thus enabled the parallel comparison between the simulation and experiment. It is concluded that the testing and modelling results are in good agreement, indicating that the model has the reasonable accuracy in predicting the system’s performance. Under the given experimental conditions, the electrical, thermal and overall efficiency of the PV/LHP module were around 10%, 40% and 50% respectively; whilst the system’s overall performance

  17. Note: An advanced in situ diagnostic system for characterization of electric propulsion thrusters and ion beam sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundesmann, C; Tartz, M; Scholze, F; Leiter, H J; Scortecci, F; Gnizdor, R Y; Neumann, H

    2010-04-01

    We present an advanced diagnostic system for in situ characterization of electric propulsion thrusters and ion beam sources. The system uses a high-precision five-axis positioning system with a modular setup and the following diagnostic tools: a telemicroscopy head for optical imaging, a triangular laser head for surface profile scanning, a pyrometer for temperature scanning, a Faraday probe for current density mapping, and an energy-selective mass spectrometer for beam characterization (energy and mass distribution, composition). The capabilities of our diagnostic system are demonstrated with a Hall effect thruster SPT-100D EM1.

  18. A Quantitative System-Scale Characterization of the Metabolism of Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Minyeong; Bestel-Corre, Gwenaelle; Croux, Christian; Riviere, Antoine; Meynial-Salles, Isabelle; Soucaille, Philippe

    2015-11-24

    Engineering industrial microorganisms for ambitious applications, for example, the production of second-generation biofuels such as butanol, is impeded by a lack of knowledge of primary metabolism and its regulation. A quantitative system-scale analysis was applied to the biofuel-producing bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum, a microorganism used for the industrial production of solvent. An improved genome-scale model, iCac967, was first developed based on thorough biochemical characterizations of 15 key metabolic enzymes and on extensive literature analysis to acquire accurate fluxomic data. In parallel, quantitative transcriptomic and proteomic analyses were performed to assess the number of mRNA molecules per cell for all genes under acidogenic, solventogenic, and alcohologenic steady-state conditions as well as the number of cytosolic protein molecules per cell for approximately 700 genes under at least one of the three steady-state conditions. A complete fluxomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analysis applied to different metabolic states allowed us to better understand the regulation of primary metabolism. Moreover, this analysis enabled the functional characterization of numerous enzymes involved in primary metabolism, including (i) the enzymes involved in the two different butanol pathways and their cofactor specificities, (ii) the primary hydrogenase and its redox partner, (iii) the major butyryl coenzyme A (butyryl-CoA) dehydrogenase, and (iv) the major glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. This study provides important information for further metabolic engineering of C. acetobutylicum to develop a commercial process for the production of n-butanol. Currently, there is a resurgence of interest in Clostridium acetobutylicum, the biocatalyst of the historical Weizmann process, to produce n-butanol for use both as a bulk chemical and as a renewable alternative transportation fuel. To develop a commercial process for the production of n-butanol via a

  19. Characterization of Pump-Induced Acoustics in Space Launch System Main Propulsion System Liquid Hydrogen Feedline Using Airflow Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhart, C. J.; Snellgrove, L. M.; Zoladz, T. F.

    2015-01-01

    High intensity acoustic edgetones located upstream of the RS-25 Low Pressure Fuel Turbo Pump (LPFTP) were previously observed during Space Launch System (STS) airflow testing of a model Main Propulsion System (MPS) liquid hydrogen (LH2) feedline mated to a modified LPFTP. MPS hardware has been adapted to mitigate the problematic edgetones as part of the Space Launch System (SLS) program. A follow-on airflow test campaign has subjected the adapted hardware to tests mimicking STS-era airflow conditions, and this manuscript describes acoustic environment identification and characterization born from the latest test results. Fluid dynamics responsible for driving discrete excitations were well reproduced using legacy hardware. The modified design was found insensitive to high intensity edgetone-like discretes over the bandwidth of interest to SLS MPS unsteady environments. Rather, the natural acoustics of the test article were observed to respond in a narrowband-random/mixed discrete manner to broadband noise thought generated by the flow field. The intensity of these responses were several orders of magnitude reduced from those driven by edgetones.

  20. The hemoglobin system of the serpent eel Ophisurus serpens: structural and functional characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manconi, Barbara; Pellegrini, Mariagiuseppina; Messana, Irene; Sanna, Maria Teresa; Castagnola, Massimo; Iavarone, Federica; Coluccia, Elisabetta; Giardina, Bruno; Olianas, Alessandra

    2013-10-01

    The hemoglobin system of the serpent eel Ophisurus serpens was structurally and functionally characterized with the aim of comparing it to the hemoglobin system of other fish species, as oxygen loading under the severe habitat conditions experienced by O. serpens could have necessitated specific adaptation mechanisms during evolution. The hemoglobin system of O. serpens includes one cathodic and four anodic components. The molecular mass of the α and β chains of the cathodic component as well as the 2 α and 4 β of the anodic components were determined. Analysis of the intact α and β chains from cathodic hemoglobin and their proteolytic digestion products by high-resolution MS and MS/MS experiments resulted in 92 and 95 % sequence coverage of the α and β globins, respectively. The oxygen binding properties of both hemoglobin components were analyzed with respect to their interactions with their physiological effectors. Stripped cathodic hemoglobin displayed the highest oxygen affinity among Anguilliformes with no significant effect of pH on O2-affinity. In the presence of both chloride and organic phosphates, O2-affinity was strongly reduced, and cooperativity was enhanced; moreover, cathodic hemoglobin contains two indistinguishable GTP-binding sites. Stripped anodic hemoglobins exhibited both low O2-affinity and low cooperativity and a larger Bohr effect than cathodic hemoglobin. The cathodic hemoglobin of O. serpens and the corresponding component of Conger conger share the greatest structural and functional similarity among hemoglobin systems of Anguilliformes studied to date, consistent with their phylogenetic relationship.

  1. A Characterization of the Utility of Using Artificial Intelligence to Test Two Artificial Intelligence Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Straub

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An artificial intelligence system, designed for operations in a real-world environment faces a nearly infinite set of possible performance scenarios. Designers and developers, thus, face the challenge of validating proper performance across both foreseen and unforeseen conditions, particularly when the artificial intelligence is controlling a robot that will be operating in close proximity, or may represent a danger, to humans. While the manual creation of test cases allows limited testing (perhaps ensuring that a set of foreseeable conditions trigger an appropriate response, this may be insufficient to fully characterize and validate safe system performance. An approach to validating the performance of an artificial intelligence system using a simple artificial intelligence test case producer (AITCP is presented. The AITCP allows the creation and simulation of prospective operating scenarios at a rate far exceeding that possible by human testers. Four scenarios for testing an autonomous navigation control system are presented: single actor in two-dimensional space, multiple actors in two-dimensional space, single actor in three-dimensional space, and multiple actors in three-dimensional space. The utility of using the AITCP is compared to that of human testers in each of these scenarios.

  2. Characterization of HDR Ir-192 source for 3D planning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Gabriel P.; Yoriyaz, Helio; Antunes, Paula C.G.; Siqueira, Paulo T.D., E-mail: gabriel.fonseca@usp.b, E-mail: hyoriyaz@ipen.b, E-mail: ptsiquei@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rubo, Rodrigo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HC/FMUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radioterapia; Minamisawa, Renato A., E-mail: renato.minamisawa@psi.c [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Ferreira, Louise A. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina

    2011-07-01

    Brachytherapy treatment involves surgical or cavitary insertion of radioactive sources for diseases treatments, such as: lung, gynecologic or prostate cancer. This technique has great ability to administer high doses to the tumor, with adjacent normal tissue preservation equal or better than external beam radiation therapy. Several innovations have been incorporated in this treatment technique, such as, 3D treatment planning system and computer guided sources. In detriment to scientific advances there are no protocols that relate dose with tumor volume, organs or A point, established by ICRU38 and used to prescribe dose in treatment planning system. Several international studies, like as EMBRACE, the multicentre international study, has been trying to correlate the dose volume using 3D planning systems and medical images, as those obtained by CT or MRI, to establish treatment protocols. With the objective of analyzing the 3D dose distribution, a micro Selectron-HDR remote afterloading device for high dose-rate (HDR) was characterized in the present work. Through the data provided by the manufacturer the source was simulated, using the MCNP5 code to calculate American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group No. 43 report (AAPM TG43) specified parameters. The simulations have shown great agreement when compared to the ONCENTRA planning system results and those provided by literature. The micro Selectron-HDR remote afterloading device will be utilized to simulate 3D dose distribution through CT images processed by an auxiliary software which process DICOM images. (author)

  3. Electrodeposition and characterization of manganese-bismuth system from chloride based acidic bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benfedda, B., E-mail: baya_pg@yahoo.f [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie des Materiaux (LPCM), Universite M. Mammeri de Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Benbrahim, N.; Kadri, A. [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie des Materiaux (LPCM), Universite M. Mammeri de Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Chainet, E. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physico-chimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces (LEPMI), ENSEEG, 1130 rue de la piscine, B.P. 75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres, Grenoble (France); Charlot, F.; Coindeau, S. [C.M.T.C., Grenoble I.N.P. Bat Phelma Campus, Domaine Universitaire, B.P. 75, 1260 rue de la piscine, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres (France)

    2011-01-01

    In this work, Mn-Bi system has been successfully electrodeposited on Cu/Si substrates from aqueous ammonium chloride containing electrolyte. A thermodynamic study of the electrolysis bath highlights the possible formation of manganese complexes (MnCl{sup +}, MnCl{sub 2},MnCl{sub 3}{sup -}) and bismuth complexes (BiCl{sup 2+},BiCl{sub 2}{sup +}, BiCl{sub 3},BiCl{sub 4}{sup -},BiCl{sub 5}{sup 2-},BiCl{sub 6}{sup 3-}). The mechanism process involving Mn and Bi electrodeposition is investigated by cyclic voltammetry. Mn-Bi films can be grown under potentiostatic control. The physico-chemical, morphological and structural characterizations of the deposits were carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-rays analysis (XRD). The results reveal a granular surface quality and a heterogeneous chemical composition of the films. The energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis reveals the presence of manganese and bismuth peaks whose relative intensities vary according to the imposed potential and the position on the sample. The X-rays diffraction analysis showed three different crystalline phases: {alpha}-manganese (body centred cubic system), {gamma}-manganese (body centred tetragonal system) and bismuth (rhombohedral system).

  4. Two health information systems to characterize poisoning in Brazil-a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Andrea Franco Amoras; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2018-03-02

    Poisoning is a worldwide public health problem that involves individuals of all ages and a wide range of chemicals. This study investigated the data from two health information systems to characterize poisoning events in the Federal District (DF), Brazil. Data related to the period from 2009 to 2013 were obtained from the poison information center (Centro de Informação Toxicológica, CIT) and the Notifiable Diseases Information System (Sistema Nacional de Agravos de Notificação, SINAN) of the DF. A total of 3622 cases were reported to CIT-DF and 5702 cases to SINAN-DF. Most of the cases in CIT-DF (53%) occurred with children up to 9 years old, while this corresponded to 33.9% in SINAN-DF. Unintentional poisoning was the main circumstance involved in the cases. Pharmaceuticals were the main agent (44.3-47.1% of the cases), mainly clonazepan and paracetamol, and pesticides the most fatal (2.4% fatality rate). Out of the 47 fatal cases reported to the systems, only four were reported to both; six cases occurred with children up to 6 years. Under-reporting and missing information were identified in both systems, but the data were complementary to describe the epidemiology of poisoning cases in the DF.

  5. Development and characterization of a modular acquisition system for a 4D PET block detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcatili, Sara; Belcari, Nicola; Bisogni, Maria G.; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Ambrosi, Giovanni; Corsi, Francesco; Foresta, Maurizio; Marzocca, Cristoforo; Matarrese, Gianvito; Sportelli, Giancarlo; Guerra, Pedro; Santos, Andres; Del Guerra, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Next generation PET scanners should fulfill very high requirements in terms of spatial, energy and timing resolution. Modern scanner performances are inherently limited by the use of standard photomultiplier tubes. The use of Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) matrices is proposed for the construction of a 4D PET module based on LSO continuous crystals, which is envisaged to replace the standard PET block detector. The expected spatial resolution of the module for the photon hit position is below 1 mm, and it will perform at the same time, the Depth Of Interaction (DOI) calculation and the Time Of Flight (TOF) measurement. The use of large area multi-pixel Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) detectors requires the development of a multichannel Digital Acquisition system (DAQ) as well as of a dedicated front-end in order not to degrade the intrinsic detector performances. We have developed a flexible and modular DAQ system for the read-out of two modules in time coincidence for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) applications. The DAQ system is based on a previously developed custom front-end ASIC chip (BASIC) which allows to read-out SiPM matrices preserving their spectroscopy and timing capabilities. Here we describe the acquisition system architecture and its characterization measurements.

  6. A system for online beam emittance measurements and proton beam characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesteruk, K. P.; Auger, M.; Braccini, S.; Carzaniga, T. S.; Ereditato, A.; Scampoli, P.

    2018-01-01

    A system for online measurement of the transverse beam emittance was developed. It is named 4PrOBεaM (4-Profiler Online Beam Emittance Measurement) and was conceived to measure the emittance in a fast and efficient way using the multiple beam profiler method. The core of the system is constituted by four consecutive UniBEaM profilers, which are based on silica fibers passing across the beam. The 4PrOBεaM system was deployed for characterization studies of the 18 MeV proton beam produced by the IBA Cyclone 18 MeV cyclotron at Bern University Hospital (Inselspital). The machine serves daily radioisotope production and multi-disciplinary research, which is carried out with a specifically conceived Beam Transport Line (BTL). The transverse RMS beam emittance of the cyclotron was measured as a function of several machine parameters, such as the magnetic field, RF peak voltage, and azimuthal angle of the stripper. The beam emittance was also measured using the method based on the quadrupole strength variation. The results obtained with both techniques were compared and a good agreement was found. In order to characterize the longitudinal dynamics, the proton energy distribution was measured. For this purpose, a method was developed based on aluminum absorbers of different thicknesses, a UniBEaM detector, and a Faraday cup. The results were an input for a simulation of the BTL developed in the MAD-X software. This tool allows machine parameters to be tuned online and the beam characteristics to be optimized for specific applications.

  7. Tissue Equivalent Phantom Design for Characterization of a Coherent Scatter X-ray Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Kathryn Elizabeth

    testing. Our imaging system has been able to define the location and composition of the various materials in the phantom. These phantoms were used to characterize the CACSSI system in terms of beam width and imaging technique. The result of this work showed accurate modeling and characterization of the phantoms through comparison of the tissue-equivalent form factors to those from literature. The physical construction of the phantoms, based on actual patient anatomy, was validated using mammography and computed tomography to visually compare the clinical images to those of actual patient anatomy.

  8. Limitations of fluorescence spectroscopy to characterize organic matter in engineered systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korak, J.

    2017-12-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy has been widely used to characterize dissolved organic matter (DOM) in engineered systems, such as drinking water, municipal wastewater and industrial water treatment. While fluorescence data collected in water treatment applications has led to the development of strong empirical relationships between fluorescence responses and process performance, the use of fluorescence to infer changes in the underlying organic matter chemistry is often oversimplified and applied out of context. Fluorescence only measures a small fraction of DOM as fluorescence quantum yields are less than 5% for many DOM sources. Relying on fluorescence as a surrogate for DOM presence, character or reactivity may not be appropriate for systems where small molecular weight, hydrophilic constituents unlikely to fluoresce are important. In addition, some methods rely on interpreting fluorescence signals at different excitation wavelengths as a surrogate for operationally-defined humic- and fulvic-acids in lieu of traditional XAD fractionation techniques, but these approaches cannot be supported by other lines of evidence considering natural abundance and fluorescence quantum yields of these fractions. These approaches also conflict with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), a statistical approach that routinely identifies fluorescence components with dual excitation behavior. Lastly, methods developed for natural systems are often applied out of context to engineered systems. Fluorescence signals characteristic of phenols or indoles are often interpreted as indicators for biological activity in natural systems due to fluorescent amino acids and peptides, but this interpretation is may not be appropriate in engineering applications where non-biological sources of phenolic functional groups may be present. This presentation explores common fluorescence interpretation approaches, discusses the limitations and provides recommendations related to engineered systems.

  9. Characterization of the bacterial metagenome in an industrial algae bioenergy production system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Shi [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Fulbright, Scott P [Colorado State University; Zeng, Xiaowei [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Yates, Tracy [Solix Biofuels; Wardle, Greg [Solix Biofuels; Chisholm, Stephen T [Colorado State University; Xu, Jian [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Lammers, Peter [New Mexico State University

    2011-03-16

    Cultivation of oleaginous microalgae for fuel generally requires growth of the intended species to the maximum extent supported by available light. The presence of undesired competitors, pathogens and grazers in cultivation systems will create competition for nitrate, phosphate, sulfate, iron and other micronutrients in the growth medium and potentially decrease microalgal triglyceride production by limiting microalgal health or cell density. Pathogenic bacteria may also directly impact the metabolism or survival of individual microalgal cells. Conversely, symbiotic bacteria that enhance microalgal growth may also be present in the system. Finally, the use of agricultural and municipal wastes as nutrient inputs for microalgal production systems may lead to the introduction and proliferation of human pathogens or interfere with the growth of bacteria with beneficial effects on system performance. These considerations underscore the need to understand bacterial community dynamics in microalgal production systems in order to assess microbiome effects on microalgal productivity and pathogen risks. Here we focus on the bacterial component of microalgal production systems and describe a pipeline for metagenomic characterization of bacterial diversity in industrial cultures of an oleaginous alga, Nannochloropsis salina. Environmental DNA was isolated from 12 marine algal cultures grown at Solix Biofuels, a region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR, and 16S amplicons were sequenced using a 454 automated pyrosequencer. The approximately 70,000 sequences that passed quality control clustered into 53,950 unique sequences. The majority of sequences belonged to thirteen phyla. At the genus level, sequences from all samples represented 169 different genera. About 52.94% of all sequences could not be identified at the genus level and were classified at the next highest possible resolution level. Of all sequences, 79.92% corresponded to 169 genera and 70 other taxa. We

  10. Characterization of Lunar Soils Using a Thermal Infrared Microscopic Spectral Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crites, S. T.; Lucey, P. G.

    2010-12-01

    Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's Diviner radiometer has provided the planetary science community with a large amount of thermal infrared spectral data. This data set offers rich opportunities for lunar science, but interpretation of the data is complicated by the limited data on lunar materials. While spectra of pure terrestrial minerals have been used effectively for Mars applications, lunar minerals and glasses have been affected by space weathering processes that may alter their spectral properties in important ways. For example, mineral grains acquire vapor deposited coatings, and agglutinate glass contains abundant nanophase iron as a result of exposure to the space environment. Producing mineral separates in sufficient quantities (at least tens of mg) for spectral characterization is painstaking, time consuming and labor intensive; as an alternative we have altered an infrared hyperspectral imaging system developed for remote sensing under funding from the Planetary Instrument Definition and Development program (PIDDP) to enable resolved microscopic spectral imaging. The concept is to characterize the spectral properties of individual grains in lunar soils, enabling a wide range of spectral behaviors of components to be measured rapidly. The instrument, sensitive from 8 to 15 microns at 15 wavenumber resolution, images a field of view of 8 millimeters at 30 micron resolution and scans at a rate of about 1 mm/second enabling relatively large areas to be scanned rapidly. Our experiments thus far use a wet-sieved 90-150 um size fraction with the samples arrayed on a heated substrate in a single layer in order to prevent spectral interactions between grains. We have begun with pure mineral separates, and unsurprisingly we find that the individual mineral grain emission spectra of a wide range of silicates are very similar to spectra of coarse grained powders. We have begun to obtain preliminary data on lunar soils as well. We plan to continue imaging of lunar soils

  11. Fracture Characterization in Enhanced Geothermal Systems by Wellbore and Reservoir Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horne, Roland N.; Li, Kewen; Alaskar, Mohammed; Ames, Morgan; Co, Carla; Juliusson, Egill; Magnusdottir, Lilja

    2012-06-30

    This report highlights the work that was done to characterize fractured geothermal reservoirs using production data. That includes methods that were developed to infer characteristic functions from production data and models that were designed to optimize reinjection scheduling into geothermal reservoirs, based on these characteristic functions. The characterization method provides a robust way of interpreting tracer and flow rate data from fractured reservoirs. The flow-rate data are used to infer the interwell connectivity, which describes how injected fluids are divided between producers in the reservoir. The tracer data are used to find the tracer kernel for each injector-producer connection. The tracer kernel describes the volume and dispersive properties of the interwell flow path. A combination of parametric and nonparametric regression methods were developed to estimate the tracer kernels for situations where data is collected at variable flow-rate or variable injected concentration conditions. The characteristic functions can be used to calibrate thermal transport models, which can in turn be used to predict the productivity of geothermal systems. This predictive model can be used to optimize injection scheduling in a geothermal reservoir, as is illustrated in this report.

  12. Microstructure Characterization of Composite from ZrO2 – Ti System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łada P.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work the microstructure analysis of composite from ZrO2 – Ti system were presented. For the preparation of the composite samples nanometric ZrO2 powder stabilized by 3 mol% of Y2O3 and micrometric titanium powder were used. The composites with 10 vol.% addition of titanium particles were prepared by slip casting method. The sintering process was conducted at 1450°C with 2 hours’ dwell time, in the inert atmosphere of argon. The microstructure observations were carried out with the use of SEM and STEM microscopes. The quantitative analysis and stereological characterization were performed. The SEM and STEM observations allowed characterizing the microstructure of composite samples. Especially, the interface between titanium particles and zirconia matrix was described. The growth of the zirconia grains around the Ti rich areas was observed. The increase of the zirconia grains size results from the reaction on the interface between titanium particle and zirconia matrix during the sintering process.

  13. Human-factors-based implementation of the remote characterization system high-level control station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noakes, M.W.; Richardson, B.S.; Rowe, J.C.; Draper, J.V.; Sandness, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    The detection and characterization of buried objects and materials is an important first step in the restoration of the numerous US Department of Energy (DOE) and US Department of Defense waste disposal sites. DOE, through its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Robotics and Technology Development Program, has developed the Remote Characterization System (RCS) to address the needs of remote subsurfacecharacterization. The RCS consists of a low-metal-content (low-metallic-signature) remotely piloted vehicle, a high-level control station (HLCS) where operators can remotely control the vehicle and analyze real-time data from sensors, and an array of sensors that can be chosen to meet the survey task at hand. Communication between the vehicle and the base station is handled by a radio link. Site mapping is made possible through the use of geopositioning satellite data. The primary mode of vehicle operation is teleoperation, but provision has been made for semiautonomous or supervisory control that allows for automated sitesurvey on simple sites. Data analysis and display is supported for both real-time observation and postprocessing of data. The particular emphasis of this paper documents the human-factors-based design influences on the HLCS and describes the design in detail

  14. Design, construction and characterization of pneumatic system for measurement of roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán A. Bacca-Bastidas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present the results obtained from the design, construction and characterization of a pneumatic flapper-nozzle amplifier, employed in the measurement of average surface roughness. In the construction of the sensor, low cost materials were used and most pieces were obtained by machining. The data acquisition was performed through PC, using an Arduino interface board. The nonlinear mathematical model of the sensor is based on equations of perfect gas flow through an orifice and the continuity law for a control volume. The characterization of physical parameters obtained through laboratory techniques based on the transient response of the gas pressure in the pressurization and depressurization processes of constant volume chambers, using computational tools for adjusting experimental curves. The validation of the model was based on the specifications of transient response that presents a dynamic system for a step input. For the measurement of the roughness, the mathematical model of average roughness, Ra, was used, and the measured data by the sensor were obtained in sandpapers from P1000 to P2000 size, with reference for validation values of average roughness indicated by the FEPA standard.

  15. THERMOPHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ADVANCED MATERIALS FOR THE LHC COLLIMATION SYSTEM

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to describe the methods employed for the thermo-physical and mechanical characterization and to show the results of the campaign conducted over two ceramic matrix composites, CFC FS140® and MG-6403-Fc, which are candidates as jaws materials in the LHC collimation system. The work was conducted at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN, Geneva), in the framework of the R&D activities done by the EN department. The goal of this project is to develop and characterize materials able to withstand highly energetic particles interactions to protect the accelerator’s components and to clean the beam. In the first part of the thesis, the instruments employed for the thermal and mechanical analysis are studied, from the mathematical models to the standard test methods. These instruments are: horizontal push-rod dilatometer, differential scanning calorimeter, laser flash apparatus and universal testing machine. The results of the analysis show lower thermal and electrical co...

  16. Thermophysical and mechanical characterization of advanced materials for the LHC collimation system

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2129177; Guinchard, Michael

    The aim of the thesis is to describe the methods employed for the thermo-physical and mechanical characterization and to show the results of the campaign conducted over two ceramic matrix composites, CFC FS140® and MG-6403-Fc, which are candidates as jaws materials in the LHC collimation system. The work was conducted at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN, Geneva), in the framework of the R&D activities done by the EN department. The goal of this project is to develop and characterize materials able to withstand highly energetic particles interactions to protect the accelerator’s components and to clean the beam. In the first part of the thesis, the instruments employed for the thermal and mechanical analysis are studied, from the mathematical models to the standard test methods. These instruments are: horizontal push-rod dilatometer, differential scanning calorimeter, laser flash apparatus and universal testing machine. The results of the analysis show lower thermal and electrical co...

  17. SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND ANALYSIS PENETROMETER SYSTEM(SCAPS) LAZER-INDUCED FLUORESCENCE (LIF) SENSOR AND SUPPORT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Consortium for Site Characterization Technology (CSCT) has established a formal program to accelerate acceptance and application of innovative monitoring and site characterization technologies that improve the way the nation manages its environmental problems. In 1995 the CS...

  18. Characterization of a double-sided silicon strip detector autoradiography system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Örbom, Anders, E-mail: anders.orbom@med.lu.se; Ahlstedt, Jonas; Östlund, Karl; Strand, Sven-Erik [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Lund University, Lund SE-22185 (Sweden); Serén, Tom; Auterinen, Iiro; Kotiluoto, Petri [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo FI-02044 (Finland); Hauge, Håvard [Biomolex AS, Oslo NO-0319 (Norway); Olafsen, Tove; Wu, Anna M.; Dahlbom, Magnus [Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: The most commonly used technology currently used for autoradiography is storage phosphor screens, which has many benefits such as a large field of view but lacks particle-counting detection of the time and energy of each detected radionuclide decay. A number of alternative designs, using either solid state or scintillator detectors, have been developed to address these issues. The aim of this study is to characterize the imaging performance of one such instrument, a double-sided silicon strip detector (DSSD) system for digital autoradiography. A novel aspect of this work is that the instrument, in contrast to previous prototype systems using the same detector type, provides the ability for user accessible imaging with higher throughput. Studies were performed to compare its spatial resolution to that of storage phosphor screens and test the implementation of multiradionuclide ex vivo imaging in a mouse preclinical animal study. Methods: Detector background counts were determined by measuring a nonradioactive sample slide for 52 h. Energy spectra and detection efficiency were measured for seven commonly used radionuclides under representative conditions for tissue imaging. System dead time was measured by imaging {sup 18}F samples of at least 5 kBq and studying the changes in count rate over time. A line source of {sup 58}Co was manufactured by irradiating a 10 μm nickel wire with fast neutrons in a research reactor. Samples of this wire were imaged in both the DSSD and storage phosphor screen systems and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) measured for the line profiles. Multiradionuclide imaging was employed in a two animal study to examine the intratumoral distribution of a {sup 125}I-labeled monoclonal antibody and a {sup 131}I-labeled engineered fragment (diabody) injected in the same mouse, both targeting carcinoembryonic antigen. Results: Detector background was 1.81 × 10{sup −6} counts per second per 50 × 50 μm pixel. Energy spectra and

  19. Characterization of topical film-forming systems using atomic force microscopy and Raman microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvie-Cook, Hazel; Frederiksen, Kit; Petersson, Karsten; Guy, Richard H; Gordeev, Sergey

    2015-03-02

    Polymeric film-forming systems for dermal drug delivery represent an advantageous alternative to more conventional topically applied formulations. Their mechanical properties and homogeneity can be characterized with atomic force microscopy (AFM), using both imaging and nanoindentation modes, and Raman microspectroscopy mapping. Film-forming polymers, with and without a plasticizer and/or betamethasone 17-valerate (a representative topical drug), were dissolved in absolute ethanol. Polymeric films were then cast on glass slides and examined in ambient air using AFM imaging and Raman microspectroscopy. Using nanoindentation, the elastic moduli of various films were determined and found to decrease with increasing plasticizer content. Films with 20% w/w plasticizer had elastic moduli close to that of skin. AFM images showed little difference in the topography of the films on incorporation of plasticizer. Raman microspectroscopy maps of the surface of the polymeric films, with a spatial resolution of approximately 1 μm, revealed homogeneous distributions of plasticizer and drug within the films.

  20. Photovoltaic module and array performance characterization methods for all system operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, D.L.

    1996-12-31

    This paper provides new test methods and analytical procedures for characterizing the electrical performance of photovoltaic modules and arrays. The methods use outdoor measurements to provide performance parameters both at standard reporting conditions and for all operating conditions encountered by typical photovoltaic systems. Improvements over previously used test methods are identified, and examples of the successful application of the methodology are provided for crystalline- and amorphous-silicon modules and arrays. This work provides an improved understanding of module and array performance characteristics, and perhaps most importantly, a straight- forward yet rigorous model for predicting array performance at all operating conditions. For the first time, the influences of solar irradiance, operating temperature, solar spectrum, solar angle-of- incidence, and temperature coefficients are all addressed in a practical way that will benefit both designers and users of photovoltaics.

  1. Analytical Electron Microscopy for Characterization of Fluid or Semi-Solid Multiphase Systems Containing Nanoparticulate Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadejda B. Matsko

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of nanomaterials in pharmaceutical or cosmetic preparations is an important aspect both in formulation development and quality control of marketed products. Despite the increased popularity of nanoparticulate compounds especially in dermal preparations such as emulsions, methods and protocols of analysis for the characterization of such systems are scarce. This work combines an original sample preparation procedure along with different methods of analytical electron microscopy for the comprehensive analysis of fluid or semi-solid dermal preparations containing nanoparticulate material. Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy and high resolution imaging were performed on model emulsions and a marketed product to reveal different structural aspects of both the emulsion bulk phase and incorporated nanosized material. An innovative analytical approach for the determination of the physical stability of the emulsion under investigation is presented. Advantages and limitations of the employed analytical imaging techniques are highlighted.

  2. Toward the Experimental Characterization of an Unmanned Air System Flow Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velarde, John-Michael; Connors, Jacob; Glauser, Mark

    2017-11-01

    The velocity flow field around a small unmanned air system (sUAS) is investigated in a series of experiments at Syracuse University. Experiments are conducted in the 2'x2' sub-sonic wind tunnel at Syracuse University and the Indoor Flow Lab. The goal of these experiments is to gain a better understanding of the rich, turbulent flow field that a sUAS creates. Comparison to large, multi-rotor manned vehicles is done to gain a better understanding of the flow physics that could be occurring with the sUAS. Regions of investigation include the downwash, above the vehicle, and far downstream. Characterization of the flow is performed using hotwire anemometry. Investigation of several locations around the sUAS show that dominant frequencies exist within the flow field. Analysis of the flow field using power spectral density will be presented as well as looking at which parameters have an effect on these dominant frequencies.

  3. Superconductivity in the Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O System:. Synthesis, Characterization and Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, A. K.; Swamy, K. S. Nanjunda; Subbanna, G. N.; Rajumon, M. K.; Sarma, D. D.; Rao, C. N. R.

    Synthesis and characterization of some of the members of the Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O system are presented. Tc in both the TlCan-1Ba2CunO2n+3 and Tl2Can-1Ba2CunO2n+4 series increase with the number of Cu-O layers, n; Tc in the latter series with two Tl-O layers are generally higher than in the former with a single Tl-O layer. Tl in the cuprates is in the 3+ state while Cu is in the 1+ and 2+ states, showing the importance of oxygen holes. The concentration of these holes seems to increase with the number of Tl-O layers.

  4. Characterization of the malignity of tumors in the central nervous system utilizing the correlation dimension analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, D.; Zambrano, C.; Martin L, M.

    1998-01-01

    In the present work it is proposed a method for the characterization of the irregularities present in the edges of malignant leisure of central nervous system over axial images generated through Nuclear magnetic Resonance by images. Through the use of techniques of digital images processing was possible to locate, extract and generate temporal series. These temporal series were utilized using the correlation dimension concept for producing a parameter which takes different values depending of the leisure type. It is demonstrated that this type of analysis suffers in a very acceptable form independently of the errors which can be generate by the fact that in the practice of temporal series obtained they are composed by a reduced number of points. (Author)

  5. Walker Branch Throughfall Displacement Experiment Data Report: Site Characterization, System Performance, Weather, Species Composition, and Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, P.J.

    2001-09-04

    This numeric data package provides data sets, and accompanying documentation, on site characterization, system performance, weather, species composition, and growth for the Throughfall Displacement Experiment, which was established in the Walker Branch Watershed of East Tennessee to provide data on the responses of forests to altered precipitation regimes. The specific data sets include soil water content and potential, coarse fraction of the soil profile, litter layer temperature, soil temperature, monthly weather, daily weather, hourly weather, species composition of trees and saplings, mature tree and sapling annual growth, and relative leaf area index. Fortran and SAS{trademark} access codes are provided to read the ASCII data files. The data files and this documentation are available without charge on a variety of media and via the Internet from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC).

  6. Aerosols from metal cutting techniques typical of decommissioning nuclear facilities - experimental system for collection and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, G.J.; Hoover, M.D.; Barr, E.B.; Wong, B.A.; Ritter, P.D.

    1982-01-01

    Decommissioning of radioactively contaminated sites has the potential for creating radioactive and other potentially toxic aerosols. We describe an experimental system to collect and characterize aerosols from metal cutting activities typical of those used in decommissioning of nuclear facilities. A special enclosure was designed for the experiment and consisted of a 5.1 cm x 10.2 cm stud frame with double walls of flame retardant polyethylene film. Large plexiglass windows allowed the cutting operations to be directed and filmed. Ventilation was 8500 liters/minute (300 CFM) exhausted through HEPA filters. Seven cutting techniques were evaluated: pipe cutter, reciprocating saw, band saw, chop saw, oxy-acetylene torch, electric arc cut rod and plasma torch. Two grinding tools were also evaluated. Materials cut were 5.1 cm, 7.6 cm and 10.2 cm diameter schedule 40, 80 and 180 type 304L stainless steel pipe

  7. Characterization of potassium channel modulators with QPatch automated patch-clamp technology: system characteristics and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutchinsky, Jonatan; Friis, Søren; Asmild, Margit

    2003-01-01

    developed using this technology. A single-channel prototype of the QPatch system was used for validation of the patch-clamp chip technology. We present here data on the quality of patch-clamp recordings and from actual drug screening studies of human potassium channels expressed in cultured cell lines....... Using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK), gigaseals of 4.1 +/- 0.4 GOmega (n = 146) and high-quality whole-cell current recordings were obtained from hERG and KCNQ4 potassium channels. Success rates for gigaseal recordings varied from 40 to 95%, and 67% of the whole......-response relationship characterizations of verapamil and rBeKm-1 blockage of hERG currents provided IC(50) values similar to values reported in the literature....

  8. Development, Characterization, and Pharmacodynamic Evaluation of Hydrochlorothiazide Loaded Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankajkumar S. Yadav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current work was to develop optimized self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS and evaluate their in vitro and in vivo performance. The research comprised various studies which includes solubility studies in various vehicles, pseudoternary phase diagram construction, and preparation and characterization of SNEDDS along with in vitro dissolution and in vivo pharmacodynamic profiling. Based on dissolution profile, a remarkable increase in rate of dissolution was observed in comparison with plain drug and marketed formulation. Optimized SNEDDS formulation was composed of Capmul MCM (19.17% w/w, Tween 80 (57.5% w/w, Transcutol P (12.7% w/w, and HCT (4.17% w/w. In vivo pharmacodynamic evaluation in Wistar rats showed considerable increase in pharmacological effect of HCT by SNEDDS formulation as compared with plain HCT.

  9. Algae for controlled ecological life support system diet characterization of cyanobacteria 'spirulina' in batch cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadros, M. G.

    1990-01-01

    Spirulina sp. is a bioregenerative photosynthetic and edible alga for space craft crews in a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CLESS). It was characterized for growth rate and biomass yield in batch cultures, under various environmental conditions. The cell characteristics were identified for one strain of Spirulina: S. maxima. Fast growth rate and high yield were obtained. The partitioning of the assimulatory products (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids) were manipulated by varying the environmental conditions. Experiments with Spirulina demonstrated that under stress conditions carbohydrate increased at the expense of protein. In other experiments, where the growth media were sufficient in nutrients and incubated under optimum growth conditions, the total proteins were increased up to almost 70 percent of the organic weight. In other words, the nutritional quality of the alga could be manipulated by growth conditions. These results support the feasibility of considering Spirulina as a subsystem in CELSS because of the ease with which its nutrient content can be manipulated.

  10. Note: Fixture for characterizing electrochemical devices in-operando in traditional vacuum systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Josh A; McDaniel, Anthony H; El Gabaly, Farid; Farrow, Roger L; Grass, Michael E; Hussain, Zahid; Liu, Zhi; Linne, Mark A; Bluhm, Hendrik; McCarty, Kevin F

    2010-08-01

    We describe a fixture that allows electrochemical devices to be studied under electrical bias in the type of vacuum systems commonly used in surface science. Three spring-loaded probes provide independent contacts for device operation and the characterization in vacuum or under in situ conditions with reactive gases. We document the robustness of the electrical contacts over large temperature changes and their reliability for conventional electrochemical measurements such as impedance spectroscopy. The optical access provided to the device enables the analysis by many techniques, as we demonstrate using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to measure local electrical potentials on a solid-oxide electrolyte device operating at high temperature in near-ambient pressure.

  11. Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of stable colloidal suspension of graphene using two-electrode cell system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danial, Wan Hazman, E-mail: hazmandanial@gmail.com; Majid, Zaiton Abdul, E-mail: zaiton@kimia.fs.utm.my; Aziz, Madzlan [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Chutia, Arunabhiram [Institute of Fluid Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Sahnoun, Riadh [Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    The present work reports the synthesis and characterization of graphene via electrochemical exfoliation of graphite rod using two-electrode system assisted by Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS) as a surfactant. The electrochemical process was carried out with sequence of intercalation of SDS onto the graphite anode followed by exfoliation of the SDS-intercalated graphite electrode when the anode was treated as cathode. The effect of intercalation potential from 5 V to 9 V and concentration of the SDS surfactant of 0.1 M and 0.01 M were investigated. UV-vis Spectroscopic analysis indicated an increase in the graphene production with higher intercalation potential. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analysis showed a well-ordered hexagonal lattice of graphene image and indicated an angle of 60° between two zigzag directions within the honeycomb crystal lattice. Raman spectroscopy analysis shows the graphitic information effects after the exfoliation process.

  12. Characterization of particulate drug delivery systems for oral delivery of Peptide and protein drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Philip Carsten; Fano, Mathias; Saaby, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    Oral drug delivery is a preferred route because of good patient compliance. However, most peptide/ protein drugs are delivered via parenteral routes because of the absorption barriers in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract such as enzymatic degradation by proteases and low permeability acrossthe...... biological membranes. To overcome these barriers, different formulation strategies for oral delivery of biomacromolecules have been proposed, including lipid based formulations and polymer-based particulate drug delivery systems (DDS). The aim of this review is to summarize the existing knowledge about oral...... delivery of peptide/protein drugs and to provide an overview of formulationand characterization strategies. For a better understanding of the challenges in oral delivery of peptide/protein drugs, the composition of GI fluids and the digestion processes of different kinds of excipients in the GI tract...

  13. Characterization of systems with amino-acids and oligosaccharides as modifiers of biopharmaceutical properties of furosemide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Julieta Abraham; Garnero, Claudia; Zoppi, Ariana; Sterren, Vanesa; Ayala, Alejandro P; Longhi, Marcela R

    2018-02-05

    Furosemide is the most commonly prescribed diuretic drug in spite of its suboptimal biopharmaceutical properties. In this work, the addition of different amino-acids was studied with the aim of selecting an enhancer of the furosemide solubility. The best results were obtained with arginine. Also, binary (furosemide:arginine) and ternary (furosemide:arginine:β-cyclodextrin and furosemide:arginine:maltodextrin) systems were prepared by the kneading method and they were compared with their corresponding physical mixtures. These new systems were characterized by Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry. In addition, dissolution studies were performed in simulated gastric fluid. The best results in relation to improving biopharmaceutical properties were obtained with a binary combination of furosemide and arginine, demonstrating that this system could result in a suitable candidate for the development of a promising pharmaceutical formulation of the drug. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Simulation, Characterization, and Optimization of Metabolic Models with the High Performance Systems Biology Toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunacek, M.; Nag, A.; Alber, D. M.; Gruchalla, K.; Chang, C. H.; Graf, P. A.

    2011-01-01

    The High Performance Systems Biology Toolkit (HiPer SBTK) is a collection of simulation and optimization components for metabolic modeling and the means to assemble these components into large parallel processing hierarchies suiting a particular simulation and optimization need. The components come in a variety of different categories: model translation, model simulation, parameter sampling, sensitivity analysis, parameter estimation, and optimization. They can be configured at runtime into hierarchically parallel arrangements to perform nested combinations of simulation characterization tasks with excellent parallel scaling to thousands of processors. We describe the observations that led to the system, the components, and how one can arrange them. We show nearly 90% efficient scaling to over 13,000 processors, and we demonstrate three complex yet typical examples that have run on {approx}1000 processors and accomplished billions of stiff ordinary differential equation simulations. This work opens the door for the systems biology metabolic modeling community to take effective advantage of large scale high performance computing resources for the first time.

  15. Design, Characterization, and Optimization of Controlled Drug Delivery System Containing Antibiotic Drug/s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Apurv; Dodiya, Hitesh; Shelate, Pragna; Shastri, Divyesh; Dave, Divyang

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was design, characterization, and optimization of controlled drug delivery system containing antibiotic drug/s. Osmotic drug delivery system was chosen as controlled drug delivery system. The porous osmotic pump tablets were designed using Plackett-Burman and Box-Behnken factorial design to find out the best formulation. For screening of three categories of polymers, six independent variables were chosen for Plackett-Burman design. Osmotic agent sodium chloride and microcrystalline cellulose, pore forming agent sodium lauryl sulphate and sucrose, and coating agent ethyl cellulose and cellulose acetate were chosen as independent variables. Optimization of osmotic tablets was done by Box-Behnken design by selecting three independent variables. Osmotic agent sodium chloride, pore forming agent sodium lauryl sulphate, and coating agent cellulose acetate were chosen as independent variables. The result of Plackett-Burman and Box-Behnken design and ANOVA studies revealed that osmotic agent and pore former had significant effect on the drug release up to 12 hr. The observed independent variables were found to be very close to predicted values of most satisfactory formulation which demonstrates the feasibility of the optimization procedure in successful development of porous osmotic pump tablets containing antibiotic drug/s by using sodium chloride, sodium lauryl sulphate, and cellulose acetate as key excipients.

  16. Independent bottlenecks characterize colonization of systemic compartments and gut lymphoid tissue by salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chee Han; Voedisch, Sabrina; Wahl, Benjamin; Rouf, Syed Fazle; Geffers, Robert; Rhen, Mikael; Pabst, Oliver

    2014-07-01

    Vaccination represents an important instrument to control typhoid fever in humans and protects mice from lethal infection with mouse pathogenic serovars of Salmonella species. Mixed infections with tagged Salmonella can be used in combination with probabilistic models to describe the dynamics of the infection process. Here we used mixed oral infections with tagged Salmonella strains to identify bottlenecks in the infection process in naïve and vaccinated mice. We established a next generation sequencing based method to characterize the composition of tagged Salmonella strains which offers a fast and reliable method to characterise the composition of genome-tagged Salmonella strains. We show that initial colonization of Salmonella was distinguished by a non-Darwinian selection of few bacteria setting up the infection independently in gut associated lymphoid tissue and systemic compartments. Colonization of Peyer's patches fuels the sustained spread of bacteria into mesenteric lymph nodes via dendritic cells. In contrast, infection of liver and spleen originated from an independent pool of bacteria. Vaccination only moderately reduced invasion of Peyer's patches but potently uncoupled bacterial populations present in different systemic compartments. Our data indicate that vaccination differentially skews the capacity of Salmonella to colonize systemic and gut immune compartments and provide a framework for the further dissection of infection dynamics.

  17. Independent bottlenecks characterize colonization of systemic compartments and gut lymphoid tissue by salmonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Han Lim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination represents an important instrument to control typhoid fever in humans and protects mice from lethal infection with mouse pathogenic serovars of Salmonella species. Mixed infections with tagged Salmonella can be used in combination with probabilistic models to describe the dynamics of the infection process. Here we used mixed oral infections with tagged Salmonella strains to identify bottlenecks in the infection process in naïve and vaccinated mice. We established a next generation sequencing based method to characterize the composition of tagged Salmonella strains which offers a fast and reliable method to characterise the composition of genome-tagged Salmonella strains. We show that initial colonization of Salmonella was distinguished by a non-Darwinian selection of few bacteria setting up the infection independently in gut associated lymphoid tissue and systemic compartments. Colonization of Peyer's patches fuels the sustained spread of bacteria into mesenteric lymph nodes via dendritic cells. In contrast, infection of liver and spleen originated from an independent pool of bacteria. Vaccination only moderately reduced invasion of Peyer's patches but potently uncoupled bacterial populations present in different systemic compartments. Our data indicate that vaccination differentially skews the capacity of Salmonella to colonize systemic and gut immune compartments and provide a framework for the further dissection of infection dynamics.

  18. Design, development and characterization of tetrode type electron gun system for generation of low energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deore, A.V.; Bhoraskar, V.N.; Dhole, S.D.

    2011-01-01

    A tetrode type electron gun system for the generation of low energy electrons was designed, developed and characterized. An electron gun having four electrodes namely cathode, focusing electrode, control electrode and anode has been designed for the irradiation experiments. This electron gun is capable to provide electrons of energy over the range of 1 keV to 20 keV, with current maximum upto 100 μA. The electron gun and a faraday cup are mounted in the evacuated cylindrical chamber. The samples are fixed on the faraday cup and irradiated with low energy electrons at a pressure around 10 -6 mbar. In this electron gun system, at any electron energy over the entire range, the electron beam diameter can be varied from 5 to 120 mm on the Faraday cup mounted at a distance of 200 mm from the anode in the chamber. Also, the circular shape of the beam spot was maintained, even though the beam current and beam diameter are varied. The uniformity of the electron beam over the entire beam area was measured with a multi electrode assembly and found to be well within 15%. This system is being used for the synthesis and diffusion of metal and semiconductor nanoparticles in polymeric materials. (author)

  19. Characterization of the opossum immune genome provides insights into the evolution of the mammalian immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, Katherine; Sanderson, Claire E; Deakin, Janine E; Wong, Emily S W; Assange, Daniel; McColl, Kaighin A; Gout, Alex; de Bono, Bernard; Barrow, Alexander D; Speed, Terence P; Trowsdale, John; Papenfuss, Anthony T

    2007-07-01

    The availability of the first marsupial genome sequence has allowed us to characterize the immunome of the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica). Here we report the identification of key immune genes, including the highly divergent chemokines, defensins, cathelicidins, and Natural Killer cell receptors. It appears that the increase in complexity of the mammalian immune system occurred prior to the divergence of the marsupial and eutherian lineages approximately 180 million years ago. Genomes of ancestral mammals most likely contained all of the key mammalian immune gene families, with evolution on different continents, in the presence of different pathogens leading to lineage specific expansions and contractions, resulting in some minor differences in gene number and composition between different mammalian lineages. Gene expansion and extensive heterogeneity in opossum antimicrobial peptide genes may have evolved as a consequence of the newborn young needing to survive without an adaptive immune system in a pathogen laden environment. Given the similarities in the genomic architecture of the marsupial and eutherian immune systems, we propose that marsupials are ideal model organisms for the study of developmental immunology.

  20. Design, Characterization, and Optimization of Controlled Drug Delivery System Containing Antibiotic Drug/s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurv Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was design, characterization, and optimization of controlled drug delivery system containing antibiotic drug/s. Osmotic drug delivery system was chosen as controlled drug delivery system. The porous osmotic pump tablets were designed using Plackett-Burman and Box-Behnken factorial design to find out the best formulation. For screening of three categories of polymers, six independent variables were chosen for Plackett-Burman design. Osmotic agent sodium chloride and microcrystalline cellulose, pore forming agent sodium lauryl sulphate and sucrose, and coating agent ethyl cellulose and cellulose acetate were chosen as independent variables. Optimization of osmotic tablets was done by Box-Behnken design by selecting three independent variables. Osmotic agent sodium chloride, pore forming agent sodium lauryl sulphate, and coating agent cellulose acetate were chosen as independent variables. The result of Plackett-Burman and Box-Behnken design and ANOVA studies revealed that osmotic agent and pore former had significant effect on the drug release up to 12 hr. The observed independent variables were found to be very close to predicted values of most satisfactory formulation which demonstrates the feasibility of the optimization procedure in successful development of porous osmotic pump tablets containing antibiotic drug/s by using sodium chloride, sodium lauryl sulphate, and cellulose acetate as key excipients.

  1. Complexity characterization in a probabilistic approach to dynamical systems through information geometry and inductive inference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S A; Kim, D-H; Cafaro, C; Giffin, A

    2012-01-01

    Information geometric techniques and inductive inference methods hold great promise for solving computational problems of interest in classical and quantum physics, especially with regard to complexity characterization of dynamical systems in terms of their probabilistic description on curved statistical manifolds. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of describing the macroscopic behavior of complex systems in terms of the underlying statistical structure of their microscopic degrees of freedom by the use of statistical inductive inference and information geometry. We review the maximum relative entropy formalism and the theoretical structure of the information geometrodynamical approach to chaos on statistical manifolds M S . Special focus is devoted to a description of the roles played by the sectional curvature K M S , the Jacobi field intensity J M S and the information geometrodynamical entropy S M S . These quantities serve as powerful information-geometric complexity measures of information-constrained dynamics associated with arbitrary chaotic and regular systems defined on M S . Finally, the application of such information-geometric techniques to several theoretical models is presented.

  2. Design, fabrication and characterization of drug delivery systems based on lab-on-a-chip technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Shaegh, Seyed Ali Mousavi; Kashaninejad, Navid; Phan, Dinh-Tuan

    2013-11-01

    Lab-on-a-chip technology is an emerging field evolving from the recent advances of micro- and nanotechnologies. The technology allows the integration of various components into a single microdevice. Microfluidics, the science and engineering of fluid flow in microscale, is the enabling underlying concept for lab-on-a-chip technology. The present paper reviews the design, fabrication and characterization of drug delivery systems based on this amazing technology. The systems are categorized and discussed according to the scales at which the drug is administered. Starting with the fundamentals on scaling laws of mass transfer and basic fabrication techniques, the paper reviews and discusses drug delivery devices for cellular, tissue and organism levels. At the cellular level, a concentration gradient generator integrated with a cell culture platform is the main drug delivery scheme of interest. At the tissue level, the synthesis of smart particles as drug carriers using lab-on-a-chip technology is the main focus of recent developments. At the organism level, microneedles and implantable devices with fluid-handling components are the main drug delivery systems. For drug delivery to a small organism that can fit into a microchip, devices similar to those of cellular level can be used. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of the Flexcell Uniflex cyclic strain culture system with U937 macrophage-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Loren A; Fairbank, N Jack; Maksym, Geoffrey N; Paul Santerre, J; Labow, Rosalind S

    2006-01-01

    Mechanical forces alter many cell functions in a variety of cell types. It has been recognized that stimulation of cells in culture may be more representative of some physiologic conditions. Although there are commercially available systems for the study of cells cultured in a mechanical environment, very little has been documented on the validation techniques for these devices. In this study, Flexcell's recently introduced Uniflex cyclic strain system was programmed to apply 10% longitudinal sinusoidal strain (0.25 Hz) for 48 h to U937 cells cultured on Uniflex plates. Image analysis was employed to characterize the actual strain field. For a chosen amplitude of 10% the applied strain was highly reproducible and relatively uniform (10.6+/-0.2%) in a central rectangular region of the membrane (dimensions of 9.2+/-2 x 13.6+/-0.8 mm2). The strain increased the release of IL-6, esterase and acid phosphatase activity (p<0.05) from adherent U937 cells. Cells also displayed altered morphology, aligning and lengthening with the direction of strain, whereas static cells maintained a round appearance showing no preferred orientation. These data indicate that cyclic mechanical strain applied by the Uniflex strain system modulates U937 cell function leading to selective increases in enzymatic activities as well as orientation in a favored direction.

  4. Characterization and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in emissions from different heating systems in Damascus, Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkurdi, Farouk; Karabet, François; Dimashki, Marwan

    2014-04-01

    Traffic has long been recognized as the major contributor to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions to the urban atmosphere. Stationary combustion sources, including residential space heating systems, are also a major contributor to PAH emissions. The aim of this study was to determine the profile and concentration of PAHs in stack flue gas emissions from different kinds of space heaters in order to increase the understanding of the scale of the PAH pollution problem caused by this source. This study set out to first assess the characteristics of PAHs and their corresponding benzo[a]pyrene equivalent emissions from a few types of domestic heaters and central heating systems to the urban atmosphere. The study, enabled for the first time, the characterization of PAHs in stationary combustion sources in the city of Damascus, Syria. Nine different types of heating systems were selected with respect to age, design, and type of fuel burned. The concentrations of 15 individual PAH compounds in the stack flue gas were determined in the extracts of the collected samples using high-performance liquid chromatography system (HPLC) equipped with ultraviolet-visible and fluorescence detectors. In general, older domestic wood stoves caused considerably higher PAH emissions than modern domestic heaters burning diesel oil. The average concentration of ΣPAH (sum of 15 compounds) in emissions from all types of studied heating systems ranged between 43 ± 0.4 and 316 ± 1.4 μg/m(3). Values of total benzo[a]pyrene equivalent ranged between 0.61 and 15.41 μg/m(3).

  5. Synthesis and characterization of {sup 159}Gd-doped hydroxyapatite nanorods for bioapplications as theranostic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cipreste, Marcelo F.; Peres, Anderson M.; Cotta, Alexandre A.C.; Aragón, Fermin H.; Antunes, Alan de M.; Leal, Alexandre S.; Macedo, Waldemar A.A.; Sousa, Edésia M.B. de, E-mail: sousaem@cdtn.br

    2016-09-15

    Gadolinium-doped hydroxyapatite (HA-Gd) nanorods have become promisor theranostic nanoparticles for early stage cancers as radioisotope carriers able to act in the treatment and multi-imaging diagnosis by single photon emission computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging systems. In this work, gadolinium-doped HA nanorods were synthesized aiming the use as theranostic system for osteosarcomas. The as-prepared HA-Gd nanorods were characterized by XRD with Rietveld refinement method, FTIR, XPS, ICP-AES, TEM, SEM, BET and VSM in order to investigate the physical-chemical, morphology, pore size distribution and magnetic properties. Moreover, phosphorous and gadolinium in the HA-Gd sample were activated by neutron capture, in a nuclear reactor, producing {sup 32}P and {sup 159}Gd radioisotopes, and the surfaces of these nanorods were functionalized with folic acid. The results indicate that Gd{sup 3+} are trapped in the HA nanorods crystal net showing great stability of the HA-Gd interaction. Gadolinium provide paramagnetic properties on HA nanorods and structural phosphorous and gadolinium can be activated to induced gamma and beta activity. The well succeeded production of {sup 159}Gd-{sup 32}P-HA makes this material a promisor agent to act as a theranostic system. - Highlights: • Gd- HA nanorods were synthesized aiming their use as theranostic system. • Gd{sup 3+} ions are trapped in the HA nanorods crystal net showing great stability. • Gd- HA presents paramagnetic behavior indicating their use as contrast agents. • HA-{sup 159}Gd-{sup 32}P were successful produced by neutron activation to act as a theranostic system.

  6. Characterization of inflammatory markers associated with systemic lupus erythematosus patients undergoing treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Pessato Timóteo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To characterize the inflammatory profiles of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus receiving standard treatment compared to healthy controls. Patients and methods: Peripheral venous blood was collected from systemic lupus erythematosus patients (n = 14 and controls (n = 18 at enrollment. Blood samples were used for quantification, by flow cytometry, of CD11b (integrin and Chemokine receptor CXCR2 expression surface antigen in neutrophils and lymphocytes, while cytokines were assayed in serum samples. Purified neutrophils were assayed by their ability to phagocytize human plasma-opsonized zymosan. Results: Patients had a median (interquartile range disease activity index of 1.0 (0-2.0 characteristic of patients in remission. Interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 serum concentrations were significantly higher in the patient group compared to controls and the phagocytic index of circulating neutrophils was significantly reduced in patients compared to controls. The levels of interleukin-2, interleukin-5, interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor alpha did not significantly differ between patients and controls. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the integrin expression levels were reduced in lymphocytes (but not in neutrophils obtained from systemic lupus erythematosus patients, while surface expression of the chemokine receptor 2 was similar in both neutrophils and lymphocytes. Conclusion: Systemic lupus erythematosus patients receiving standard treatment presented with elevated systemic levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin-10, reduced neutrophil phagocytic capacity, and reduced lymphocyte expression of integrin even when symptoms were in remission. These alterations to innate immune components may put these individuals at a greater risk for acquiring infections.

  7. Development of an ADC radiation tolerance characterization system for the upgrade of the ATLAS LAr calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Bin; Chen, Hu-Cheng; Chen, Kai; Kierstead, James; Lanni, Francesco; Takai, Helio; Jin, Ge

    2017-02-01

    ATLAS LAr calorimeter will undergo its Phase-I upgrade during the long shutdown (LS2) in 2018, and a new LAr Trigger Digitizer Board (LTDB) will be designed and installed. Several commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) multi-channel high-speed ADCs have been selected as possible backups of the radiation tolerant ADC ASICs for the LTDB. To evaluate the radiation tolerance of these backup commercial ADCs, we developed an ADC radiation tolerance characterization system, which includes the ADC boards, data acquisition (DAQ) board, signal generator, external power supplies and a host computer. The ADC board is custom designed for different ADCs, with ADC drivers and clock distribution circuits integrated on board. The Xilinx ZC706 FPGA development board is used as a DAQ board. The data from the ADC are routed to the FPGA through the FMC (FPGA Mezzanine Card) connector, de-serialized and monitored by the FPGA, and then transmitted to the host computer through the Gigabit Ethernet. A software program has been developed with Python, and all the commands are sent to the DAQ board through Gigabit Ethernet by this program. Two ADC boards have been designed for the ADC, ADS52J90 from Texas Instruments and AD9249 from Analog Devices respectively. TID tests for both ADCs have been performed at BNL, and an SEE test for the ADS52J90 has been performed at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). Test results have been analyzed and presented. The test results demonstrate that this test system is very versatile, and works well for the radiation tolerance characterization of commercial multi-channel high-speed ADCs for the upgrade of the ATLAS LAr calorimeter. It is applicable to other collider physics experiments where radiation tolerance is required as well. Supported by the U. S. Department of Energy (DE-SC001270)

  8. Characterization of NiTi Shape Memory Damping Elements designed for Automotive Safety Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strittmatter, Joachim; Clipa, Victor; Gheorghita, Viorel; Gümpel, Paul

    2014-07-01

    Actuator elements made of NiTi shape memory material are more and more known in industry because of their unique properties. Due to the martensitic phase change, they can revert to their original shape by heating when subjected to an appropriate treatment. This thermal shape memory effect (SME) can show a significant shape change combined with a considerable force. Therefore such elements can be used to solve many technical tasks in the field of actuating elements and mechatronics and will play an increasing role in the next years, especially within the automotive technology, energy management, power, and mechanical engineering as well as medical technology. Beside this thermal SME, these materials also show a mechanical SME, characterized by a superelastic plateau with reversible elongations in the range of 8%. This behavior is based on the building of stress-induced martensite of loaded austenite material at constant temperature and facilitates a lot of applications especially in the medical field. Both SMEs are attended by energy dissipation during the martensitic phase change. This paper describes the first results obtained on different actuator and superelastic NiTi wires concerning their use as damping elements in automotive safety systems. In a first step, the damping behavior of small NiTi wires up to 0.5 mm diameter was examined at testing speeds varying between 0.1 and 50 mm/s upon an adapted tensile testing machine. In order to realize higher testing speeds, a drop impact testing machine was designed, which allows testing speeds up to 4000 mm/s. After introducing this new type of testing machine, the first results of vertical-shock tests of superelastic and electrically activated actuator wires are presented. The characterization of these high dynamic phase change parameters represents the basis for new applications for shape memory damping elements, especially in automotive safety systems.

  9. Efficient characterization of high-dimensional parameter spaces for systems biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background A biological system's robustness to mutations and its evolution are influenced by the structure of its viable space, the region of its space of biochemical parameters where it can exert its function. In systems with a large number of biochemical parameters, viable regions with potentially complex geometries fill a tiny fraction of the whole parameter space. This hampers explorations of the viable space based on "brute force" or Gaussian sampling. Results We here propose a novel algorithm to characterize viable spaces efficiently. The algorithm combines global and local explorations of a parameter space. The global exploration involves an out-of-equilibrium adaptive Metropolis Monte Carlo method aimed at identifying poorly connected viable regions. The local exploration then samples these regions in detail by a method we call multiple ellipsoid-based sampling. Our algorithm explores efficiently nonconvex and poorly connected viable regions of different test-problems. Most importantly, its computational effort scales linearly with the number of dimensions, in contrast to "brute force" sampling that shows an exponential dependence on the number of dimensions. We also apply this algorithm to a simplified model of a biochemical oscillator with positive and negative feedback loops. A detailed characterization of the model's viable space captures well known structural properties of circadian oscillators. Concretely, we find that model topologies with an essential negative feedback loop and a nonessential positive feedback loop provide the most robust fixed period oscillations. Moreover, the connectedness of the model's viable space suggests that biochemical oscillators with varying topologies can evolve from one another. Conclusions Our algorithm permits an efficient analysis of high-dimensional, nonconvex, and poorly connected viable spaces characteristic of complex biological circuitry. It allows a systematic use of robustness as a tool for model

  10. Characterizing a Proton Beam Scanning System for Monte Carlo Dose Calculation in Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassberger, C; Lomax, Tony; Paganetti, H

    2015-01-01

    The presented work has two goals. First, to demonstrate the feasibility of accurately characterizing a proton radiation field at treatment head exit for Monte Carlo dose calculation of active scanning patient treatments. Second, to show that this characterization can be done based on measured depth dose curves and spot size alone, without consideration of the exact treatment head delivery system. This is demonstrated through calibration of a Monte Carlo code to the specific beam lines of two institutions, Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). Comparison of simulations modeling the full treatment head at MGH to ones employing a parameterized phase space of protons at treatment head exit reveals the adequacy of the method for patient simulations. The secondary particle production in the treatment head is typically below 0.2% of primary fluence, except for low–energy electrons (protons), whose contribution to skin dose is negligible. However, there is significant difference between the two methods in the low-dose penumbra, making full treatment head simulations necessary to study out-of field effects such as secondary cancer induction. To calibrate the Monte Carlo code to measurements in a water phantom, we use an analytical Bragg peak model to extract the range-dependent energy spread at the two institutions, as this quantity is usually not available through measurements. Comparison of the measured with the simulated depth dose curves demonstrates agreement within 0.5mm over the entire energy range. Subsequently, we simulate three patient treatments with varying anatomical complexity (liver, head and neck and lung) to give an example how this approach can be employed to investigate site-specific discrepancies between treatment planning system and Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:25549079

  11. Sub 2 nm Particle Characterization in Systems with Aerosol Formation and Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang

    Aerosol science and technology enable continual advances in material synthesis and atmospheric pollutant control. Among these advances, one important frontier is characterizing the initial stages of particle formation by real time measurement of particles below 2 nm in size. Sub 2 nm particles play important roles by acting as seeds for particle growth, ultimately determining the final properties of the generated particles. Tailoring nanoparticle properties requires a thorough understanding and precise control of the particle formation processes, which in turn requires characterizing nanoparticle formation from the initial stages. The knowledge on particle formation in early stages can also be applied in quantum dot synthesis and material doping. This dissertation pursued two approaches in investigating incipient particle characterization in systems with aerosol formation and growth: (1) using a high-resolution differential mobility analyzer (DMA) to measure the size distributions of sub 2 nm particles generated from high-temperature aerosol reactors, and (2) analyzing the physical and chemical pathways of aerosol formation during combustion. Part. 1. Particle size distributions reveal important information about particle formation dynamics. DMAs are widely utilized to measure particle size distributions. However, our knowledge of the initial stages of particle formation is incomplete, due to the Brownian broadening effects in conventional DMAs. The first part of this dissertation studied the applicability of high-resolution DMAs in characterizing sub 2 nm particles generated from high-temperature aerosol reactors, including a flame aerosol reactor (FLAR) and a furnace aerosol reactor (FUAR). Comparison against a conventional DMA (Nano DMA, Model 3085, TSI Inc.) demonstrated that the increased sheath flow rates and shortened residence time indeed greatly suppressed the diffusion broadening effect in a high-resolution DMA (half mini type). The incipient particle

  12. Integrated DNA walking system to characterize a broad spectrum of GMOs in food/feed matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraiture, Marie-Alice; Herman, Philippe; Lefèvre, Loic; Taverniers, Isabel; De Loose, Marc; Deforce, Dieter; Roosens, Nancy H

    2015-08-14

    In order to provide a system fully integrated with qPCR screening, usually used in GMO routine analysis, as well as being able to detect, characterize and identify a broad spectrum of GMOs in food/feed matrices, two bidirectional DNA walking methods targeting p35S or tNOS, the most common transgenic elements found in GM crops, were developed. These newly developed DNA walking methods are completing the previously implemented DNA walking method targeting the t35S pCAMBIA element. Food/feed matrices containing transgenic crops (Bt rice or MON863 maize) were analysed using the integrated DNA walking system. First, the newly developed DNA walking methods, anchored on the sequences used for the p35S or tNOS qPCR screening, were tested on Bt rice that contains these two transgenic elements. Second, the methods were assessed on a maize sample containing a low amount of the GM MON863 event, representing a more complex matrix in terms of genome size and sensitivity. Finally, to illustrate its applicability in GMO routine analysis by enforcement laboratories, the entire workflow of the integrated strategy, including qPCR screening to detect the potential presence of GMOs and the subsequent DNA walking methods to characterize and identify the detected GMOs, was applied on a GeMMA Scheme Proficiency Test matrix. Via the characterization of the transgene flanking region between the transgenic cassette and the plant genome as well as of a part of the transgenic cassette, the presence of GMOs was properly confirmed or infirmed in all tested samples. Due to their simple procedure and their short time-frame to get results, the developed DNA walking methods proposed here can be easily implemented in GMO routine analysis by the enforcement laboratories. In providing crucial information about the transgene flanking regions and/or the transgenic cassettes, this DNA walking strategy is a key molecular tool to prove the presence of GMOs in any given food/feed matrix.

  13. Novel Methodology for Functional Modeling and Simulation of Wireless Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sosa Morales Emma

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A novel methodology is presented for the modeling and the simulation of wireless embedded systems. Tight interaction between the analog and the digital functionality makes the design and verification of such systems a real challenge. The applied methodology brings together the functional models of the baseband algorithms written in C language with the circuit descriptions at behavioral level in Verilog or Verilog-AMS for the system simulations in a single kernel environment. The physical layer of an ultrawideband system has been successfully modeled and simulated. The results confirm that this methodology provides a standardized framework in order to efficiently and accurately simulate complex mixed signal applications for embedded systems.

  14. The cryogenic photon detection system for the ALPS II experiment. Characterization, optimization and background rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastidon, Noemi Alice Chloe

    2017-01-01

    The search for new fundamental bosons at very low mass is the central objective of the ALPS II experiment which is currently set up at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY, Hamburg). This experiment follows the light-shining-through-the-wall concept where photons could oscillate into weakly interacting light bosons in front of a wall and back into photons behind the wall, giving the impression that light can shine through a light tight barrier. In this concept, the background-free detection of near-infrared photons is required to fully exploit the sensitivity of the apparatus. The high efficiency single-photon detection in the near-infrared is challenging and requires a cryogenic detector. In this project, a Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) operated below 100mK will be used to detect single photons. This thesis focuses on the characterization and optimization of the ALPS II detector system including an Adiabatic Demagnetisation Refrigerator (ADR) with its two-stage pulse-tube cooler, two TES detectors and their Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) read-out system. Stability of the detection system over time is a priority in the ALPS II experiment. It is in this context that the cooling system has been subjected to many upgrades. In the framework of this thesis, the cooling setup has been studied in detail in order to optimize its cooling performances. Furthermore, the stability of the detector has been studied according to various criteria. Other essential parameters of the ALPS II experiment are its detection efficiency and its background rate. Indeed, the sensitivity of the experiment directly depends on these two characteristics. Both elements have been studied in depth in order to define if the chosen TES detector will meet ALPS IIc specifications.

  15. Quantifying the Metrics That Characterize Safety Culture of Three Engineered Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, Julie; Ernesti, Mary; Tokuhiro, Akira

    2002-01-01

    With potential energy shortages and increasing electricity demand, the nuclear energy option is being reconsidered in the United States. Public opinion will have a considerable voice in policy decisions that will 'road-map' the future of nuclear energy in this country. This report is an extension of the last author's work on the 'safety culture' associated with three engineered systems (automobiles, commercial airplanes, and nuclear power plants) in Japan and the United States. Safety culture, in brief is defined as a specifically developed culture based on societal and individual interpretations of the balance of real, perceived, and imagined risks versus the benefits drawn from utilizing a given engineered systems. The method of analysis is a modified scale analysis, with two fundamental Eigen-metrics, time- (t) and number-scales (N) that describe both engineered systems and human factors. The scale analysis approach is appropriate because human perception of risk, perception of benefit and level of (technological) acceptance are inherently subjective, therefore 'fuzzy' and rarely quantifiable in exact magnitude. Perception of risk, expressed in terms of the psychometric factors 'dread risk' and 'unknown risk', contains both time- and number-scale elements. Various engineering system accidents with fatalities, reported by mass media are characterized by t and N, and are presented in this work using the scale analysis method. We contend that level of acceptance infers a perception of benefit at least two orders larger magnitude than perception of risk. The 'amplification' influence of mass media is also deduced as being 100- to 1000-fold the actual number of fatalities/serious injuries in a nuclear-related accident. (authors)

  16. Meteorological Integration for the Biological Warning and Incident Characterization (BWIC) System: General Guidance for BWIC Cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, William J.; Wang, Weiguo; Rutz, Frederick C.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Xie, YuLong; Seiple, Timothy E.; Allwine, K Jerry

    2007-02-16

    The U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is responsible for developing systems to detect the release of aerosolized bioagents in urban environments. The system that accomplishes this, known as BioWatch, is a robust first-generation monitoring system. In conjunction with the BioWatch detection network, DHS has also developed a software tool for cities to use to assist in their response when a bioagent is detected. This tool, the Biological Warning and Incident Characterization (BWIC) System, will eventually be deployed to all BioWatch cities to aid in the interpretation of the public health significance of indicators from the BioWatch networks. BWIC consists of a set of integrated modules, including meteorological models, that estimate the effect of a biological agent on a city’s population once it has been detected. For the meteorological models in BWIC to successfully calculate the distribution of biological material, they must have as input accurate meteorological data, and wind fields in particular. The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for cities to use in identifying sources of good-quality local meteorological data that BWIC needs to function properly. This process of finding sources of local meteorological data, evaluating the data quality and gaps in coverage, and getting the data into BWIC, referred to as meteorological integration, is described. The good news for many cities is that meteorological measurement networks are becoming increasingly common. Most of these networks allow their data to be distributed in real time via the internet. Thus, cities will often only need to evaluate the quality of available measurements and perhaps add a modest number of stations where coverage is poor.

  17. Characterization of traditional production systems of sugarcane for panela and some prospects for improving their sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Guillermo Ramírez Gil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane used for the production of “panela” (unrefined cane sugar is a crop of great importance for Colombia’s rural economy. Additionally, it serves a fundamental role in the food security and sovereignty of the Colombian population and daily consumption. However, the small production system presents problems of sustainability, as a direct consequence of its technological arrears and loss of interest in this crop. In this study, a characterization of 30 small productive units located in three municipalities in Antioquia was performed with the objective of identifying the problems associated with this production system and stablish the causes associated with loss of area dedicated to this crop in the study area. The results demonstrate that in the region of study, this production system and its associated agro-industry have problems associated with low technological level, poor infrastructure, deficient agro-industry processing and low levels of associativity and marketing. This situation has generated a low economic solvency for the farmers, leading many to abandon this activity and migrate towards other economic sectors. The findings of this study indicate the need to reengineer this production system, for which they could make technological adaptations that improve productivity and product quality and generate added value. On the other hand, must the rural countryside attractive to avoid the loss of labor and make young people become interested in this economic activity. As strategies to improve productivity, we suggest the effective use of information technologies, improve rural living conditions, increase associativity and value added, involve the consumer in the production chain and design development policies for the entire chain of value.

  18. The cryogenic photon detection system for the ALPS II experiment. Characterization, optimization and background rejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastidon, Noemi Alice Chloe

    2017-01-12

    The search for new fundamental bosons at very low mass is the central objective of the ALPS II experiment which is currently set up at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY, Hamburg). This experiment follows the light-shining-through-the-wall concept where photons could oscillate into weakly interacting light bosons in front of a wall and back into photons behind the wall, giving the impression that light can shine through a light tight barrier. In this concept, the background-free detection of near-infrared photons is required to fully exploit the sensitivity of the apparatus. The high efficiency single-photon detection in the near-infrared is challenging and requires a cryogenic detector. In this project, a Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) operated below 100mK will be used to detect single photons. This thesis focuses on the characterization and optimization of the ALPS II detector system including an Adiabatic Demagnetisation Refrigerator (ADR) with its two-stage pulse-tube cooler, two TES detectors and their Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) read-out system. Stability of the detection system over time is a priority in the ALPS II experiment. It is in this context that the cooling system has been subjected to many upgrades. In the framework of this thesis, the cooling setup has been studied in detail in order to optimize its cooling performances. Furthermore, the stability of the detector has been studied according to various criteria. Other essential parameters of the ALPS II experiment are its detection efficiency and its background rate. Indeed, the sensitivity of the experiment directly depends on these two characteristics. Both elements have been studied in depth in order to define if the chosen TES detector will meet ALPS IIc specifications.

  19. Synthesis, Characterization and Functionalization of Polymeric Nanoparticles and Investigation of the Interaction with Biological Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleul, Regina

    2015-01-01

    One of the main goals of nanomedicine is to improve the treatment of hazardous diseases whose conventional therapy often has serious side effects. The vision is to create a theranostic drug delivery system which is capable of safely transporting therapeutic cargo through the body to a targeted site of disease at which point the drug is released. Furthermore, it is desirable to track the carrier in real time which would allow for a personal adjustment of the therapy. Studies on the behavior of nanoparticulate substances in a physiological environment form the basis for the possibility to successfully develop a drug carrier system. In the present work, polymeric nanoparticles with different morphologies were prepared by the controlled self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers. The nanoparticles were subsequently characterized and their interactions with human cells and serum proteins investigated. A cytotoxicity study with spherical and cylindrical micelles as well as vesicular structures was carried out and showed a dependency of cytotoxic effects on the geometry and size of the nanoparticles. The agglomeration behavior of various polymeric nanoparticles in the presence of serum proteins was also studied. Highly uniform polymeric vesicles were continuously manufactured in a micromixer based device and in situ loading with different components was performed. In this way, dual loaded vesicles with the anticancer drug camptothecin and a high amount of hydrophobic iron oxide nanoparticles were produced. When tested in vitro, these drug-loaded vesicles showed an increased cytotoxic activity against the cancer cell line PC-3 when compared to the free drug. Specific cellular uptake in PC-3 cancer cells was demonstrated with flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy after functionalization with a cancer cell specific targeting peptide and an additional fluorescent label. Magnetic characterization of the iron oxide-loaded vesicles also confirmed the potential

  20. Development and characterization of 3D-printed feed spacers for spiral wound membrane systems

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiqui, Amber

    2016-01-02

    Feed spacers are important for the impact of biofouling on the performance of spiral-wound reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane systems. The objective of this study was to propose a strategy for developing, characterizing, and testing of feed spacers by numerical modeling, three-dimensional (3D) printing of feed spacers and experimental membrane fouling simulator (MFS) studies. The results of numerical modeling on the hydraulic behavior of various feed spacer geometries suggested that the impact of spacers on hydraulics and biofouling can be improved. A good agreement was found for the modeled and measured relationship between linear flow velocity and pressure drop for feed spacers with the same geometry, indicating that modeling can serve as first step in spacer characterization. An experimental comparison study of a feed spacer currently applied in practice and a 3D printed feed spacer with the same geometry showed (i) similar hydraulic behavior, (ii) similar pressure drop development with time and (iii) similar biomass accumulation during MFS biofouling studies, indicating that 3D printing technology is an alternative strategy for development of thin feed spacers with a complex geometry. Based on the numerical modeling results, a modified feed spacer with low pressure drop was selected for 3D printing. The comparison study of the feed spacer from practice and the modified geometry 3D printed feed spacer established that the 3D printed spacer had (i) a lower pressure drop during hydraulic testing, (ii) a lower pressure drop increase in time with the same accumulated biomass amount, indicating that modifying feed spacer geometries can reduce the impact of accumulated biomass on membrane performance. The combination of numerical modeling of feed spacers and experimental testing of 3D printed feed spacers is a promising strategy (rapid, low cost and representative) to develop advanced feed spacers aiming to reduce the impact of biofilm formation on

  1. Optical and structural characterization of the Co/Mo{sub 2}C/Y system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Yanyan, E-mail: yanyan.yuan@upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France); CNRS UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France); Le Guen, Karine; André, Jean-Michel [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France); CNRS UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France); Wang, Zhanshan; Zhu, Jingtao [Institute of Precision Optical Engineering, Department of Physics, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Mény, Christian [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg, UMR 7504 CNRS-Université De Strasbourg, 23 rue du Loess, 67034 Strasbourg (France); Jonnard, Philippe [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France); CNRS UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France)

    2014-10-01

    Highlights: • Co/Mo{sub 2}C/Y and Co/Y/Mo{sub 2}C multilayers are deposited by dc magnetic sputtering. • We characterize the optical properties of both multilayers upon annealing. • Co layers are strong mixed with others layer in all the samples. • Tri-layer and four-layer models are proposed to fit the EUV reflectivity data. - Abstract: We study the thermal behaviour of a tri-layer multilayer, designed by inserting a third material, yttrium, into the previously studied Co/Mo{sub 2}C system. The system is designed to work at near-normal incidence at the wavelength of 14.1 nm. The theoretical reflectivity of Co-based multilayer (Co/Mo{sub 2}C/Y system) is improved up to 54% after the addition of yttrium. Two types of multilayers with different orders of yttrium layer are deposited: Co/Mo{sub 2}C/Y and Co/Y/Mo{sub 2}C. The samples are annealed up to 600 °C. The multilayers were characterized using hard x-ray and extreme ultraviolet reflectivity, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that the reflectivity of the Co/Mo{sub 2}C/Y multilayer is 27.5% at near normal incidence around 14.6 nm for as-deposited sample, and then it decreases gradually after annealing up to 600 °C. A significant period compression is observed from 300 °C annealing and above. The Co/Y/Mo{sub 2}C multilayer shows low reflectivity, less than 2.5%. NMR spectra reveal that the pure Co layers are completely mixed with other elements since there is no signal from ferromagnetic Co in the annealing samples of the Co/Mo{sub 2}C/Y multilayer and all Co/Y/Mo{sub 2}C samples. Based on the NMR and XRD results, we fit the EUV data for both multilayers with two different models in one period taking into account the formation of the interfacial compounds.

  2. DNA Nanocarriers for Systemic Administration: Characterization and In Vivo Bioimaging in Healthy Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie David

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We hereby present different DNA nanocarriers consisting of new multimodular systems (MMS, containing the cationic lipid dioleylaminesuccinylparomomycin (DNA MMS DOSP, or bis (guanidinium-tren-cholesterol (DNA MMS BGTC, and DNA lipid nanocapsules (DNA LNCs. Active targeting of the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R using galactose as a ligand for DNA MMS (GAL DNA MMS and passive targeting using a polyethylene glycol coating for DNA LNCs (PEG DNA LNCs should improve the properties of these DNA nanocarriers. All systems were characterized via physicochemical methods and the DNA payload of DNA LNCs was quantified for the first time. Afterwards, their biodistribution in healthy mice was analyzed after encapsulation of a fluorescent dye via in vivo biofluorescence imaging (BFI, revealing various distribution profiles depending on the cationic lipid used and their surface characteristics. Furthermore, the two vectors with the best prolonged circulation profile were administered twice in healthy mice revealing that the new DNA MMS DOSP vectors showed no toxicity and the same distribution profile for both injections, contrary to PEG DNA LNCs which showed a rapid clearance after the second injection, certainly due to the accelerated blood clearance phenomenon.

  3. Towards improved characterization of high-risk releases using heterogeneous indoor sensor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreedharan, Priya; Sohn, Michael D.; Nazaroff, William W.; J. Gadgil, Ashok

    2010-06-30

    The sudden release of toxic contaminants that reach indoor spaces can be hazardous to building occupants. For an acutely toxic contaminant, the speed of the emergency response strongly influences the consequences to occupants. The design of a real time sensor system is made challenging both by the urgency and complex nature of the event, and by the imperfect sensors and models available to describe it. In this research, we use Bayesian modeling to combine information from multiple types of sensors to improve the characterization of a release. We discuss conceptual and algorithmic considerations for selecting and fusing information from disparate sensors. To explore system performance, we use both real tracer gas data from experiments in a three story building, along with synthetic data, including information from door position sensors. The added information from door position sensors is found to be useful for many scenarios, but not always. We discuss the physical conditions and design factors that affect these results, such as the influence of the door positions on contaminant transport. We highlight potential benefits of multisensor data fusion, challenges in realizing those benefits, and opportunities for further improvement.

  4. Scleroglucan/borax: characterization of a novel hydrogel system suitable for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coviello, T; Grassi, M; Lapasin, R; Marino, A; Alhaique, F

    2003-07-01

    A new hydrogel, with scleroglucan using borax as a crosslinker, has been prepared. The physical gel has been loaded with a model molecule (theophylline) and the release of the drug from the gel was evaluated. The same system was used to prepare tablets and the delivery of theophylline in different environmental conditions (HCl and SIF) was determined. A recent theoretical approach has been applied to the dissolution profiles obtained from the tablets and a satisfactory agreement has been found with the experimental data. Furthermore, the diffusion coefficient of the model molecule was evaluated according to a suitable strategy that was tested on two set of data obtained with different set-ups (permeation and diffusion experiments). A simplified mathematical approach allows to reduce the two-dimensional problem of the Fick's second law in a one-dimensional system leading to a much easier handling of the data without loosing the accuracy of the original problem in two dimensions. The characterization of the gel has been also carried out following the kinetics of swelling in terms of water uptake.

  5. Characterization Of An EBL System: The Influence Of Process Parameters On Thickness Resist And Engraving Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Urso, G.; Longo, M.; Ravasio, C.; Maccarini, G.

    2011-01-01

    In LIGA process, the low flexibility due to the use of masks might be overcome using the electron beam of a scansion electron microscope (SEM) instead of the synchrotron radiation. In this way, through the vector control of the beam, it is possible to irradiate a specific path on the resist without using any mask. Anyway, it is important to remark that the Electron Beam Lithography (EBL) can not include all the applications of the X-ray LIGA technique but it could be a valid alternative only for some specific uses. In particular, some limits concerning the impression of high thickness resists are expected. An EBL system based on a SEM was recently implemented by the authors and some tests were carried out to characterize the device performances. Aim of this work is to asses the system performances in terms of maximum impressible thickness resist and shape of the engraved entities. Several tests were carried out by varying the resist thickness and the process parameters.

  6. Preparation and characterization of liposomal systems entrapping the boronated compound o-carboranylpropylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, A M; Santana, M H; Carbonell, R G

    1999-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on the nuclear reaction that occurs when the stable isotope, Boron-10, is irradiated with low-energy thermal neutrons to yield ionizing Helium and Lithium ions that are highly damaging and usually lethal to cells. The successful treatment of cancer by BNCT requires the selective concentration of Boron-10 within malignant tumours. Liposomes have been used as therapeutic compound delivery vehicles for in vivo application, including several anticancer agents. The ability of the boron-containing compound, o-carboranylpropylamine chloride, to accumulate within unilamellar liposomes in response to a transmembrane pH gradient is evaluated. Characterization of the systems obtained is performed for conventional and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified (stealth) liposomes, in terms of lipid and CPA contents, vesicle size and stability in detergent solutions. Results demonstrate that CPA loading and vesicle stability can be controlled by the experimental procedure. The loading of CPA into liposomes with average diameters of 100 nm is estimated at 13000 molecules per vesicle for the most stable systems. CPA toxicity to normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes and to adherent glioblastoma multiforme SK-MG-1 cells in vitro is observed to decrease as a result of the entrapment of CPA in liposomes.

  7. Characterization of the phosphate-specific transport system in Cronobacter sakazakii BAA-894.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, X; Hu, X; Wang, X; Wang, J; Fang, Y; Li, Y

    2017-09-01

    Characterize the phosphate-specific transport system in Cronobacter sakazakii BAA-894. The genes relevant to phosphate transfer in C. sakazakii BAA-894 were determined by using sequence alignment to the corresponding genes in Escherichia coli. Then, the determined pst operon in C. sakazakii BAA-894 was deleted using the lambda Red recombination system. Using the wild type C. sakazakii BAA-894 as a control, the membrane permeability, auto-aggregation, exopolysaccharide biosynthesis, biofilm formation, and adhesion ability of the mutant ▵pst grown in media containing high or low concentrations of phosphate were investigated; stronger auto-aggregation, less biofilm formation and higher adhesion ability were observed in ▵pst cells grown in low phosphate media. Transcriptome analysis showed that phosphate availability has a global influence to C. sakazakii BAA-894 and ▵pst cells. Phosphorus availability is important for C. sakazakii in many ways including biofilm formation and adhesion ability. This study demonstrates that phosphate availability has a global influence to C. sakazakii, expends our understanding to the phosphate transfer in C. sakazakii, and is helpful for revealing the survival mechanism of C. sakazakii under stress conditions. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Removal of Copper by Eichhornia crassipes and the Characterization of Associated Bacteria of the Rhizosphere System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisa Kabeer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Excess doses of trace element contamination make conventional water treatment methods less effective and more expensive, where in alternative biotechnological applications open up new opportunities with their reduced cost and lesser impacts to the environment. In the present investigation, effectiveness of aquatic macrophyte Eichhornia crassipes was tested for the removal of copper in laboratory conditions. Water samples were collected from macrophytes natural habitat and water tubs used for growing E. crassipes and analysed along with plant tissues for Cu content. The work also characterized the associated microbiota of the rhizosphere system of the E. crassipes as well as the wetland system of its occurrence. Copper concentration of the wetland water samples ranged from 0.009 to 0.03ppm. Six bacterial genera (Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Bacillus, Kurthia, Listeria and Chromobacterium were represented in rhizosphere of E.crassipes and 4 bacterial genera (Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Listeria and Chromobacterium were recorded in wetland water samples. Copper resistance studies of the bacterial isolates showed that out of 26 isolates from rhizosphere and 19 strains from water samples,12 of them showed low resistance (80% of copper during 15 days experiment. Copper accumulation was found to be high in the root followed by leaf and petiole. Results of the present study concluded that E. crassipes is an efficient plant for the removal of copper.

  9. Microbial community characterization of ozone-biofiltration systems in drinking water and potable reuse applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrity, Daniel; Arnold, Mayara; Dickenson, Eric; Moser, Duane; Sackett, Joshua D; Wert, Eric C

    2018-05-15

    Microbial community structure in the ozone-biofiltration systems of two drinking water and two wastewater treatment facilities was characterized using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Collectively, these datasets enabled comparisons by facility, water type (drinking water, wastewater), pre-oxidation (ozonation, chlorination), media type (anthracite, activated carbon), media depth, and backwash dynamics. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum in drinking water filters, whereas Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, and Planctomycetes were differentially abundant in wastewater filters. A positive correlation was observed between media depth and relative abundance of Cyanobacteria in drinking water filters, but there was only a slight increase in one alpha diversity metric with depth in the wastewater filters. Media type had a significant effect on beta but not alpha diversity in drinking water and wastewater filters. Pre-ozonation caused a significant decrease in alpha diversity in the wastewater filters, but the effect on beta diversity was not statistically significant. An evaluation of backwash dynamics resulted in two notable observations: (1) endosymbionts such as Neochlamydia and Legionella increased in relative abundance following backwashing and (2) nitrogen-fixing Bradyrhizobium dominated the microbial community in wastewater filters operated with infrequent backwashing. Bradyrhizobium is known to generate extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which may adversely impact biofilter performance and effluent water quality. These findings have important implications for public health and the operation and resiliency of biofiltration systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Statistical Characterization of School Bus Drive Cycles Collected via Onboard Logging Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, A.; Walkowicz, K.

    2013-10-01

    In an effort to characterize the dynamics typical of school bus operation, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers set out to gather in-use duty cycle data from school bus fleets operating across the country. Employing a combination of Isaac Instruments GPS/CAN data loggers in conjunction with existing onboard telemetric systems resulted in the capture of operating information for more than 200 individual vehicles in three geographically unique domestic locations. In total, over 1,500 individual operational route shifts from Washington, New York, and Colorado were collected. Upon completing the collection of in-use field data using either NREL-installed data acquisition devices or existing onboard telemetry systems, large-scale duty-cycle statistical analyses were performed to examine underlying vehicle dynamics trends within the data and to explore vehicle operation variations between fleet locations. Based on the results of these analyses, high, low, and average vehicle dynamics requirements were determined, resulting in the selection of representative standard chassis dynamometer test cycles for each condition. In this paper, the methodology and accompanying results of the large-scale duty-cycle statistical analysis are presented, including graphical and tabular representations of a number of relationships between key duty-cycle metrics observed within the larger data set. In addition to presenting the results of this analysis, conclusions are drawn and presented regarding potential applications of advanced vehicle technology as it relates specifically to school buses.

  11. OPTICAL ILLUSION DESIGN BASED ON FOUR CONVEX LENSES SYSTEM AND CLOAKING AREA CHARACTERIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. T. Sugiarto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A set up of optical illusion based on 4f system and characterization of cloaking area have been carried out. The cloaking area is an area where the object is placed on the area as if it disappears from view; the set-up of cloaking area is located at the top of the third lens. The distance between the lens and the cloaking, which is generated from 4f system, depends on the size of the focal point and the size of the lens used. The larger the focal point of the lens used the wider the distance between the lenses and the larger the size of the diameter of the lens, the cloaking range will be increasingly wide, and vice versa. From the experimental results that we obtained that the cloaking area for set up using FL (focusing lens 100, 50, 50 and 100 mm with a diameter of 3.6 cm lens is ± 2 cm, whereas for the set up using lens FL 150, 100, 100 and 150 mm with lens diameter 2.54 cm is ± 1 cm.

  12. Towards improved characterization of high-risk releases using heterogeneous indoor sensor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreedharan, Priya [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1740 (United States); Indoor Environment Department, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Sohn, Michael D. [Indoor Environment Department, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Nazaroff, William W.; Gadgil, Ashok J. [Indoor Environment Department, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1710 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    The sudden release of toxic contaminants that reach indoor spaces can be hazardous to building occupants. For an acutely toxic contaminant, the speed of the emergency response strongly influences the consequences to occupants. The design of a real-time sensor system is made challenging both by the urgency and complex nature of the event, and by the imperfect sensors and models available to describe it. In this research, we use Bayesian modeling to combine information from multiple types of sensors to improve the characterization of a release. We discuss conceptual and algorithmic considerations for selecting and fusing information from disparate sensors. To explore system performance, we use both real tracer gas data from experiments in a three-story building, along with synthetic data, including information from door-position sensors. The added information from door-position sensors is found to be useful for many scenarios, but not always. We discuss the physical conditions and design factors that affect these results, such as the influence of the door positions on contaminant transport. We highlight potential benefits of multisensor data fusion, challenges in realizing those benefits, and opportunities for further improvement. (author)

  13. Characterization of stochastic resonance in a bistable system with Poisson white noise using statistical complexity measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meijuan; Xu, Wei; Sun, Zhongkui; Du, Lin

    2015-11-01

    This paper mainly investigates the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR) in a bistable system subjected to Poisson white noise. Statistical complexity measures, as new tools, are first employed to quantify SR phenomenon of given system with Poisson white noise. To begin with, the effect of Poisson white noise on SR phenomenon is studied. The results demonstrate that the curves of statistical complexity measures as a function of Poisson white noise intensity exhibit non-monotonous structure, revealing the existence of SR phenomenon. Besides, it should be noted that small mean arrival rate of Poisson white noise can promote the occurrence of SR. In order to verify the effectiveness of statistical complexity measures, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is also calculated. A good agreement among these results obtained by statistical complexity measures and SNR is achieved, which reveals that statistical complexity measures are suitable tools for characterizing SR phenomenon in the presence of Poisson white noise. Then, the effects of amplitude and frequency of different periodic signals, including cosine, rectangular and triangular signal, on SR behavior are investigated, respectively. One can observe that, in the case of same amplitude or frequency of signal, the influence of rectangular signal on SR phenomenon is the most significant among these three signals.

  14. A remote characterization system for subsurface mapping of buried waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandness, G.A.; Bennett, D.W.

    1992-10-01

    Mapping of buried objects and regions of chemical and radiological contamination is required at US Department of Energy (DOE) buried waste sites. The DOE Office of Technology Development Robotics Integrated Program has initiated a project to develop and demonstrate a remotely controlled subsurface sensing system, called the Remote Characterization System (RCS). This project, a collaborative effort by five of the National Laboratories, involves the development of a unique low-signature survey vehicle, a base station, radio telemetry data links, satellite-based vehicle tracking, stereo vision, and sensors for non-invasive inspection of the surface and subsurface. To minimize interference with on-board sensors, the survey vehicle has been constructed predominatantly of non-metallic materials. The vehicle is self-propelled and will be guided by an operator located at a remote base station. The RCS sensors will be environmentally sealed and internally cooled to preclude contamination during use. Ground-penetrating radar, magnetometers, and conductivity devices are planned for geophysical surveys. Chemical and radiological sensors will be provided to locate hot spots and to provide isotopic concentration data

  15. Characterizing heterogeneity in children with and without ADHD based on reward system connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taciana G. Costa Dias

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One potential obstacle limiting our ability to clarify ADHD etiology is the heterogeneity within the disorder, as well as in typical samples. In this study, we utilized a community detection approach on 106 children with and without ADHD (aged 7–12 years, in order to identify potential subgroups of participants based on the connectivity of the reward system. Children with ADHD were compared to typically developing children within each identified community, aiming to find the community-specific ADHD characteristics. Furthermore, to assess how the organization in subgroups relates to behavior, we evaluated delay-discounting gradient and impulsivity-related temperament traits within each community. We found that discrete subgroups were identified that characterized distinct connectivity profiles in the reward system. Importantly, which connections were atypical in ADHD relative to the control children were specific to the community membership. Our findings showed that children with ADHD and typically developing children could be classified into distinct subgroups according to brain functional connectivity. Results also suggested that the differentiation in “functional” subgroups is related to specific behavioral characteristics, in this case impulsivity. Thus, combining neuroimaging data and community detection might be a valuable approach to elucidate heterogeneity in ADHD etiology and examine ADHD neurobiology.

  16. Characterization and release profile of (Mn, Al)-bearing deposits in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guiwei; Ding, Yuanxun; Xu, Hongfu; Jin, Junwei; Shi, Baoyou

    2018-04-01

    Inorganic contaminants accumulation in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) is a great threat to water quality and safety. This work assessed the main risk factors for different water pipes and discovered the release profile of accumulated materials in a full scale distribution system frequently suffered from water discoloration problem. Physicochemical characterization of pipe deposits were performed using X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The metal release profile was obtained through continuous monitoring of a full-scale DWDS area. The results showed that aluminum and manganese were the main metals of deposits in nonmetallic pipes, while iron was dominant in iron-based pipe corrosion scales. Manganese primarily existed as MnO 2 without well crystalline form. The relative abundance of Mn and Fe in deposits changed with their distance from the water treatment plant. Compared with iron in corrosion scales, Mn and Al were more labile to be released back into bulk water during unidirectional flushing process. A main finding of this work is the co-release behavior of Mn and Al in particulate form and significant correlation exists between these two metals. Dual control of manganese and aluminum in treated water is proposed to be essential to cope with discoloration and trace metal contamination in DWDS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Recognizing rural territorial heritage: characterization of Andean tuber production systems in Boyacá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clavijo Ponce Neidy Lorena

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available

    In the municipalities Ventaquemada and Turmequé (Boyacá- Colombia, we identified 20 small agricultures by their production systems including the following Andean tubers: Ullucus tuberosus Caldas (ulluco, Oxalis tuberosa Molina (oca, and Tropaeolum tuberosum R. & P. (Mashua, which were important in their family meals and culture, however, their use has declined and the area has not seen research and development processes that provide alternatives for handling, conservation, use and marketing, and now are at the risk of disappearing. This research conducted participatory assessment processes for the characterization of production systems and initiated reassessment processes of territorial heritage, identifying common sub-farm agrobiodiversity and projects for these traditional Andean tuber crops in order to enhance the special and knowhow knowledge surrounding the production.

  18. Characterization of inflammatory markers associated with systemic lupus erythematosus patients undergoing treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timóteo, Rodolfo Pessato; Micheli, Douglas Cobo; Teodoro, Reginaldo Botelho; Freire, Marlene; Bertoncello, Dernival; Candido Murta, Eddie Fernando; Tavares-Murta, Beatriz Martins

    2016-02-17

    To characterize the inflammatory profiles of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) receiving standard treatment compared to healthy controls. Peripheral venous blood was collected from SLE patients (n = 14) and controls (n = 18) at enrollment. Blood samples were used for quantification, by flow cytometry, of CD11b (integrin) and CXCR2 expression surface antigen in neutrophils and lymphocytes, while cytokines were assayed in serum samples. Purified neutrophils were assayed by their ability to phagocytize human plasma-opsonized zymosan. Patients had a median (interquartile range) SLEDAI score of 1.0 (0 - 2.0) characteristic of patients in remission. IL-6 and IL-10 serum concentrations were significantly higher in the patient group compared to controls and the phagocytic index of circulating neutrophils was significantly reduced in patients compared to controls. The levels of IL-2, IL-5, IL-8 and TNF- α did not significantly differ between patients and controls. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the CD11b expression levels were reduced in lymphocytes (but not in neutrophils) obtained from SLE patients, while surface expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR2 was similar in both neutrophils and lymphocytes. SLE patients receiving standard treatment presented with elevated systemic levels of IL-6 and IL-10, reduced neutrophil phagocytic capacity, and reduced lymphocyte expression of CD11b even when symptoms were in remission. These alterations to innate immune components may put these individuals at a greater risk for acquiring infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. A Wide-Band Electromagnetic Impedance Profiling System forNon-Invasive Subsurface Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, Hung-Wen; Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex

    2004-12-17

    A non-invasive, wide-band electromagnetic (EM) impedance difference system for shallow subsurface electrical structure characterization in environmental and engineering problems has been developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Electrical parameters of interest are electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity that are deduced from the impedance difference data. The prototype system includes a magnetic loop transmitter, which operates between 0.1 MHz and 100 MHz, an electrical dipole antenna for observing the electric field, and a loop antenna for measuring the magnetic field.All antennas are mounted on a cart made of non-metallic material for easy movement of the whole array for profiling. Surface EM impedance difference is obtained by taking the difference of the ratios of the electric fields to the magnetic fields at selected frequencies at two different levels. Numerical simulations will be presented to verify this new approach. A set of the impedance difference data acquired at the University of California's Richmond Field Station compares reasonably well with simulation results based on a model obtained with the resistivity method and in situ TDR (time domain reflectometry)measurements.

  20. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Brachyspira spp. isolated from laying hens in different housing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, D S; Fellström, C; Råsbäck, T; Vågsholm, I; Gunnarsson, A; Ingermaa, F; Johansson, K-E

    2008-08-25

    Several species of intestinal spirochaetes, Brachyspira (B.) alvinipulli, B. intermedia and B. pilosicoli, may cause reduced egg production and faecal staining of eggshells in chickens. The aim of this study was to characterize potentially pathogenic and presumably non-pathogenic Brachyspira spp. from commercial laying hens. Selective culture, phenotyping, PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing were used and clinical data were collected. Phenotypic profiles were obtained for 489 isolates and 351 isolates obtained after subculture, and 30 isolates were selected for molecular characterization. Seven isolates were positive by a B. intermedia-specific PCR based on the nox gene, and two were positive in a B. hyodysenteriae-specific 23S rRNA gene based PCR. By comparative phylogenetic analysis in combination with PCR and phenotyping, seven isolates were identified as B. intermedia, eight isolates as B. innocens, five as B. murdochii, and three isolates each as B. alvinipulli and "B. pulli". The remaining four isolates could not be assigned to any presently recognized species. Co-infection with several species or genetic variants of Brachyspira spp. were detected in some flocks and samples, suggesting a high level of diversity. Organic flocks with access to outdoor areas were at higher risk (RR=2.3; 95% CI 1.5-3.6) for being colonized than chickens in other housing systems. No significant differences between colonized and non-colonized flocks were found regarding clinical parameters, i.e. mortality, egg production, faecally contaminated eggshells, and wet litter. Our results show that a combination of traditional laboratory diagnostics, molecular tests and phylogeny is needed for identification of Brachyspira sp. from chickens.

  1. Characterization of X-ray detection system and its application in the search of contaminations in nuclear astrophysics targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Arkabrata; Saha, Gourav; Sarkar, S.; Bisoi, Abhijit

    2017-01-01

    We have already prepared two implanted targets ( 14 N and 22 Ne) and characterized them (both surface and bulk) using X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Rutherford backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) and nuclear resonance reaction. It can also be possible to characterize the target surface by detecting the characteristic X-ray emitted from the excited target atom. These atoms can be excited by bombarding charge particles, X-rays or gamma rays. In our laboratory we have procured an X-ray source and a X-ray detection system from Moxtek, USA. Our primary motivation is to use this set up to characterize our targets to be used in nuclear astrophysics experiments. In this present work, we have tested the performance of the detector for different shaping time, system dead time. We have also performed some elemental analysis using known sample to validate our system

  2. All-optical photoacoustic microscopy (AOPAM) system for remote characterization of biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Chitnis, Parag V.; Silverman, Ronald H.

    2014-03-01

    Conventional photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) employs light pulses to produce a photoacoustic (PA) effect and detects the resulting acoustic waves using an ultrasound transducer acoustically coupled to the target. The resolution of conventional PAM is limited by the sensitivity and bandwidth of the ultrasound transducer. We investigated a versatile, all-optical PAM (AOPAM) system for characterizing in vivo as well as ex vivo biological specimens. The system employs non-contact interferometric detection of PA signals that overcomes limitations of conventional PAM. A 532-nm pump laser with a pulse duration of 5 ns excites the PA effect in tissue. Resulting acoustic waves produce surface displacements that are sensed using a 532-nm continuous-wave (CW) probe laser in a Michelson interferometer with a 1- GHz bandwidth. The pump and probe beams are coaxially focused using a 50X objective giving a diffraction-limited spot size of 0.48 μm. The phase-encoded probe beam is demodulated using homodyne methods. The detected timedomain signal is time reversed using k-space wave-propagation methods to produce a spatial distribution of PA sources in the target tissue. A minimum surface-displacement sensitivity of 0.19 pm was measured. PA-induced surface displacements are very small; therefore, they impose stringent detection requirements and determine the feasibility of implementing an all-optical PAM in biomedical applications. 3D PA images of ex vivo porcine retina specimens were generated successfully. We believe the AOPAM system potentially is well suited for assessing retinal diseases and other near-surface biomedical applications such as sectionless histology and evaluation of skin burns and pressure or friction ulcers.

  3. Reference and counter electrode positions affect electrochemical characterization of bioanodes in different bioelectrochemical systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang

    2014-06-16

    The placement of the reference electrode (RE) in various bioelectrochemical systems is often varied to accommodate different reactor configurations. While the effect of the RE placement is well understood from a strictly electrochemistry perspective, there are impacts on exoelectrogenic biofilms in engineered systems that have not been adequately addressed. Varying distances between the working electrode (WE) and the RE, or the RE and the counter electrode (CE) in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can alter bioanode characteristics. With well-spaced anode and cathode distances in an MFC, increasing the distance between the RE and anode (WE) altered bioanode cyclic voltammograms (CVs) due to the uncompensated ohmic drop. Electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) also changed with RE distances, resulting in a calculated increase in anode resistance that varied between 17 and 31Ω (-0.2V). While WE potentials could be corrected with ohmic drop compensation during the CV tests, they could not be automatically corrected by the potentiostat in the EIS tests. The electrochemical characteristics of bioanodes were altered by their acclimation to different anode potentials that resulted from varying the distance between the RE and the CE (cathode). These differences were true changes in biofilm characteristics because the CVs were electrochemically independent of conditions resulting from changing CE to RE distances. Placing the RE outside of the current path enabled accurate bioanode characterization using CVs and EIS due to negligible ohmic resistances (0.4Ω). It is therefore concluded for bioelectrochemical systems that when possible, the RE should be placed outside the current path and near the WE, as this will result in more accurate representation of bioanode characteristics. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Characterizing the Evolution of Circumstellar Systems with the Hubble Space Telescope and the Gemini Planet Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Schuyler; Schuyler G. Wolff

    2018-01-01

    The study of circumstellar disks at a variety of evolutionary stages is essential to understand the physical processes leading to planet formation. The recent development of high contrast instruments designed to directly image the structures surrounding nearby stars, such as the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) and coronagraphic data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have made detailed studies of circumstellar systems possible. In my thesis work I detail the observation and characterization of three systems. GPI polarization data for the transition disk, PDS 66 shows a double ring and gap structure with a temporally variable azimuthal asymmetry. This evolved morphology could indicate shadowing from some feature in the innermost regions of the disk, a gap-clearing planet, or a localized change in the dust properties of the disk. Millimeter continuum data of the DH Tau system places limits on the dust mass that is contributing to the strong accretion signature on the wide-separation planetary mass companion, DH Tau b. The lower than expected dust mass constrains the possible formation mechanism, with core accretion followed by dynamical scattering being the most likely. Finally, I present HST scattered light observations of the flared, edge-on protoplanetary disk ESO H$\\alpha$ 569. I combine these data with a spectral energy distribution to model the key structural parameters such as the geometry (disk outer radius, vertical scale height, radial flaring profile), total mass, and dust grain properties in the disk using the radiative transfer code MCFOST. In order to conduct this work, I developed a new tool set to optimize the fitting of disk parameters using the MCMC code \\texttt{emcee} to efficiently explore the high dimensional parameter space. This approach allows us to self-consistently and simultaneously fit a wide variety of observables in order to place constraints on the physical properties of a given disk, while also rigorously assessing the uncertainties in

  5. Mathematical approach to the characterization of daily energy balance in autonomous photovoltaic solar systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casares, F.J.; Lopez-Luque, R.; Posadillo, R.; Varo-Martinez, M.

    2014-01-01

    Sizing SAPV techniques try to assess the reliability of the system from the stochastic simulation of the energy balance. This stochastic simulation implies the generation, for an extended period of time, of the main state variables of the physical equations describing the energy balance of the system, that is, the energy delivered to the load and the energy stored in the batteries. Most of these methods consider the daily load as a constant over the year and control the variables indicating the reliability associated with the supply of power to the load. Furthermore, these methods rely on previous random models for generating solar radiation data and, since the approximations of the simulation methods are asymptotic, when more precise reliability indicators are required, the simulation period needs to be extended. This paper presents a mathematical methodology to address the daily energy balance without resorting to simulation methods. This method is directly based on daily solar radiation series modelled according to Markov stochastic processes and Aguiar matrices. The characterization presented is the base of a rational method in which reliability does not depend on the number of iterations but on the precision of the conditional probabilities included in Aguiar matrices. - Highlights: • A new SAPV sizing method is presented and validated. • This model relates the PV sizing methods to the autocorrelative Aguiar model. • This statistical approach is only limited by Markov matrixes. • It permits the study of PV systems with variable daily demands or solar tracking. • LLP for a SAPV can be estimated quickly and in an analytic and precise way

  6. Source to sink characterization of dissolved organic matter in a tropical karst system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechleitner, Franziska; Lang, Susan Q.; McIntyre, Cameron; Baldini, James U. L.; Dittmar, Thorsten; Eglinton, Timothy I.

    2016-04-01

    Karst systems are widespread surface features present on all continents. They are characterized by complex hydrology with a multitude of possible flow regimes, from diffuse seepage through the host rock to fracture flow in larger conduits. As stalagmite proxy records are important indicators of past terrestrial climate conditions, detailed understanding of the biogeochemistry of cave systems and their relationships to the overlying karst network is crucial. Microbial communities that drive the carbon cycle in caves are nourished by dissolved organic matter (DOM) carried with water into the cave system. Water samples from the Yok Balum cave in Belize were collected for DOM analysis, including soil waters, drip waters and pool waters from inside the cave. Additionally, DOM extracts from a stalagmite from the same cave were analysed to examine DOM signatures and test their applicability for reconstruction of environmental conditions. Ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry (via the ESI-FT-ICR-MS technique) yielded detailed molecular fingerprints on DOM from these samples. Several thousand molecular formulae of DOM compounds were identified. In addition, radiocarbon analyses were performed on the DOM samples to gain information on karst turnover times. A principal component analysis of the molecular data revealed a clear gradient between soil waters and cave waters, as soil waters were enriched in highly unsaturated oxygen-rich compounds (typical for vascular plants), which were much less abundant in drip waters. Conversely, peptides, which can originate from bacterial processes, were present only in the drip waters. Our data clearly show connectivity between the cave and overlaying soils, and reworking of DOM by the cave bacterial community. Furthermore, we found molecular evidence for the selective removal of vascular plant-derived DOM in the caves, possibly due to abiotic interactions with minerals.

  7. Characterization of Mesoscale Convective Systems by Means of Composite Radar Reflectivity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerts, Bart

    1998-01-01

    A mesoscale convective system (MCS) is broadly defined as a cloud and precipitation system of mesoscale dimensions (often too large for most aircraft to circumnavigate) with deep-convective activity concentrated in at least part of the MCS, or present during part of its evolution. A large areal fraction of MCSs is stratiform in nature, yet estimates from MCSs over the Great Plains, the Southeast, and tropical waters indicate that at least half of the precipitation is of convective origin. The presence of localized convection is important, because within convective towers cloud particles and hydrometeors are carried upward towards the cloud top. Ice crystals then move over more stratiform regions, either laterally, or through in situ settling over decaying and spreading convection. These ice crystals then grow to precipitation-size particles in mid- to upper tropospheric mesoscale updrafts. The convective portion of a MCS is often a more or less continuous line of thunderstorms, and may be either short-lived or long-lived. Geerts (1997) presents a preliminary climatology of MCSs in the southeastern USA, using just one year of composite digital radar reflectivity data. In this study MCSs are identified and characterized by means of visual inspection of animated images. A total of 398 MCSs were identified. In the warm season MCSs were found to be about twice as frequent as in the cold season. The average lifetime and maximum length of MCSs are 9 hours, and 350 km, respectively, but some MCSs are much larger and more persistent. In the summer months small and short-lived MCSs are relatively more common, whereas in winter larger and longer-lived systems occur more frequently. MCSs occur more commonly in the afternoon, in phase with thunderstorm activity, but the amplitude of the diurnal cycle is small compared to that of observed thunderstorms. It is estimated that in the Southeast more than half of all precipitation and severe weather results from MCSs.

  8. A quantitative framework for the 3D characterization of the osteocyte lacunar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Kevin Scott; Schneider, Philipp; Müller, Ralph; Stampanoni, Marco

    2013-11-01

    Assessing the role of osteocyte lacunae and the ways in which they communicate with one another is important for determining the function and viability of bone tissue. Osteocytes are able to play a significant role in bone development and remodeling because they can receive nourishment from, interact with, and communicate with other cells. In this sense the immediate environment of an osteocyte is crucial for understanding its function. Modern imaging techniques, ranging from synchrotron radiation-based computed tomography (SR CT) to confocal laser scanning microscopy, produce large volumes of high-quality imaging data of bone tissue on the micrometer scale in rapidly shortening times. These images often contain tens of thousands of osteocytes and their lacunae, void spaces which enclose the osteocytes. While theoretically possible, quantitative analysis of the osteocyte lacunar system is too time consuming to be practical without highly automated tools. Moreover, quantitative morphometry of the osteocyte lacunar system necessitates clearly defined, robust, and three-dimensional (3D) measures. Here, we introduce a framework for the quantitative characterization of millions of osteocyte lacunae and their spatial relationships in 3D. The metrics complement and expand previous works looking at shape and number density while providing novel measures for quantifying spatial distribution and alignment. We developed model, in silico systems to visualize and validate the metrics and provide a concrete example of the attribute being classified with each metric. We then illustrate the applicability to biological samples in a first study comparing two strains of mice and the effect of growth hormone. We found significant differences in shape and distribution between strains for alignment. The proposed quantitative framework can be used in future studies examining differences and treatment effects in bone microstructure at the cell scale. Furthermore, the proposed strategy for

  9. Characterization of a plant leaf cuticle model wax, phase behaviour of model wax–water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagerström, Anton; Kocherbitov, Vitaly; Westbye, Peter; Bergström, Karin; Mamontova, Varvara; Engblom, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Four individual crystalline phases were discovered in the model wax–water system. • Eutectic melting occurred in both dry and hydrated model wax. • The total transition enthalpy is smaller for the cuticle wax than for the model wax. • Water has a large plasticizing effect on cuticle wax. • The thermotropic transitions of model wax fit in the window of extracted leaf waxes. - Abstract: We investigated the thermotropic phase behaviour of plant leaf intracuticular wax and two representatives of its main components, 1-docosanol (C 22 H 45 OH) and dotriacontane (C 32 H 66 ), in dry and hydrated state. One objective was to obtain a model wax, which can be used to estimate formulations effects on cuticle diffusivity in vitro. The two wax components were chosen based on results from Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry analysis of cuticular wax. The wax was extracted from Clivia Miniata Regel leaves and contained 68% primary alcohols (C 16 –C 32 ) and 16% n-alkanes (C 21 –C 33 ). Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Polarized Light Microscopy and Small- and Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction were used to characterize the cuticular extract and the phase behaviour of the C 22 H 45 OH/C 32 H 66 /H 2 O model system. Four individual crystalline phases were discovered in the model wax–water system and eutectic melting occurred in both dry and hydrated state. The thermotropic transitions of the model wax occur within the broader transition region of the extracted leaf wax

  10. Development and characterization of self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) of atorvastatin calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantri, Shiva Kumar; Pashikanti, Shailaja; Murthy, K V Ramana

    2012-03-01

    The main aim of the present investigation is to develop and characterize the self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) of atorvastatin calcium (ATV) for improving the dissolution thereby oral bioavailability and to minimize the gastric degradation. Naturally occurring different vegetable oils, various surfactants and co-surfactants were studied for ATV solubility to identify the components of SNEDDS. Ternary phase diagrams comprising surfactant, cosurfactant and oil were plotted. In the ternary phase diagrams the area of self-nanoemulsifying region was marked for the compositions that are giving dispersion with a globule size ≤ 200 nm. Effect of drug loading on the phase behavior of selected system was studied. A series of SNEDDS were prepared by selecting from the nanoemulsifying area of 2.5% ATV system. Prepared SNEDDS were evaluated for visual observations, turbidity, effect of pH of the dispersion media on globule size and zeta potential, robustness to dilution and in vitro dissolution study and optimized. FT-IR and DSC were studied for interaction between drug and excipients if any. Forced degradation and accelerated stability studies were conducted for optimized SNEDDS. ATVF 04 and 11 were selected as optimized SNEDDS due to their smaller mean globule size (75.2 and 85.8 nm respectively), lower turbidity values, faster drug release and higher DE values among the other SNEDDS. The optimized ATV SNEDDS were not affected by the pH of dissolution medium. FT-IR study revealed no interaction between drug and excipients used. Forced degradation studies indicated the stability of ATV in the gastric environment. Accelerated stability studies showed no significant changes in the mean globule size, zeta potential, drug content and drug release before and after storage of optimized SNEDDS.

  11. Geochemical and isotopic characterization of groundwater origins in a Mediterranean karst system (southern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, J. L.; Ladouche, B.; Batiot-Guilhe, C.

    2013-12-01

    Geochemical and isotopic ratio (11B/10B and 87Sr/86Sr) results are reported for better determining the groundwater origins in the Lez Karst system (southern France). The Lez spring is the main perennial outlet of the system and supplies with drinking water the metropolitan area of Montpellier. According to the hydrodynamic conditions, five water-types discharge at the Lez spring with important mineralization fluctuations (Caetano Bicalho et al., 2012). This geochemical response suggests that hydrodynamics targets groundwater circulation, resulting from different water end-member solicitation and mixing. Previous studies using conventional natural tracers do not succeed to identify all the water compartments supporting the flow during the hydrologic cycle (Marjolet & Salado, 1977; Joseph et al., 1988) and to explain the mineralization variation of the Lez spring. The present study combines a basic geochemical survey data with boron and strontium isotope ratio data for a better characterization of the Lez spring geochemical functioning. Groundwater samples were collected at the Lez spring and surrounding springs and wells under different hydrologic conditions from 2009 to 2011. Major, trace and rare earth elements were determined at AETE analytical platform (OREME, Univ. Montpellier 2) by ionic chromatography and Q-ICP-MS respectively. d11B and 87Sr/86Sr were determined at BRGM/MMA Orleans by TIMS. The geochemical survey has been extended at a larger scale by sampling the main geochemical end- members already identified to replace the Lez spring waters in the regional geochemical context. From this geochemical study, valuable informations have been provided on the reservoir types and water origins flowing in high and low stage periods. For the highly mineralized waters occurring in the fall first rainy events or severe low stages, a deep contribution is highlighted but B and Sr isotopic data do not ascertain the two Triassic end-members (halite or gypsum) as possible

  12. Physical characterization and performance evaluation of an x-ray micro-computed tomography system for dimensional metrology applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiller, Jochen; Maisl, Michael; Reindl, Leonard M

    2012-01-01

    components of a CT scanner, i.e. the x-ray tube and the flat-panel detector, are characterized. The contrast and noise transfer property of the scanner is obtained using image-processing methods based on linear systems theory. A long-term temperature measurement in the scanner cabinet has been carried out......This paper presents physical and metrological characterization measurements conducted for an industrial x-ray micro-computed tomography (CT) system. As is well known in CT metrology, many factors, e.g., in the scanning and reconstruction process, the image processing, and the 3D data evaluation...

  13. System and method for characterizing, synthesizing, and/or canceling out acoustic signals from inanimate sound sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzrichter, John F; Burnett, Greg C; Ng, Lawrence C

    2013-05-21

    A system and method for characterizing, synthesizing, and/or canceling out acoustic signals from inanimate sound sources is disclosed. Propagating wave electromagnetic sensors monitor excitation sources in sound producing systems, such as machines, musical instruments, and various other structures. Acoustical output from these sound producing systems is also monitored. From such information, a transfer function characterizing the sound producing system is generated. From the transfer function, acoustical output from the sound producing system may be synthesized or canceled. The methods disclosed enable accurate calculation of matched transfer functions relating specific excitations to specific acoustical outputs. Knowledge of such signals and functions can be used to effect various sound replication, sound source identification, and sound cancellation applications.

  14. System and method for characterizing synthesizing and/or canceling out acoustic signals from inanimate sound sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzrichter, John F.; Burnett, Greg C.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2003-01-01

    A system and method for characterizing, synthesizing, and/or canceling out acoustic signals from inanimate sound sources is disclosed. Propagating wave electromagnetic sensors monitor excitation sources in sound producing systems, such as machines, musical instruments, and various other structures. Acoustical output from these sound producing systems is also monitored. From such information, a transfer function characterizing the sound producing system is generated. From the transfer function, acoustical output from the sound producing system may be synthesized or canceled. The methods disclosed enable accurate calculation of matched transfer functions relating specific excitations to specific acoustical outputs. Knowledge of such signals and functions can be used to effect various sound replication, sound source identification, and sound cancellation applications.

  15. Characterizing tissue microstructure using an ultrasound system-independent spatial autocorrelation function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fang

    1999-09-01

    The research described in this dissertation is related to characterization of tissue microstructure using a system- independent spatial autocorrelation function (SAF). The function was determined using a reference phantom method, which employed a well-defined ``point- scatterer'' reference phantom to account for instrumental factors. The SAF's were estimated for several tissue-mimicking (TM) phantoms and fresh dog livers. Both phantom tests and in vitro dog liver measurements showed that the reference phantom method is relatively simple and fairly accurate, providing the bandwidth of the measurement system is sufficient for the size of the scatterer being involved in the scattering process. Implementation of this method in clinical scanner requires that distortions from patient's body wall be properly accounted for. The SAF's were estimated for two phantoms with body-wall-like distortions. The experimental results demonstrated that body wall distortions have little effect if echo data are acquired from a large scattering volume. One interesting application of the SAF is to form a ``scatterer size image''. The scatterer size image may help providing diagnostic tools for those diseases in which the tissue microstructure is different from the normal. Another method, the BSC method, utilizes information contained in the frequency dependence of the backscatter coefficient to estimate the scatterer size. The SAF technique produced accurate scatterer size images of homogeneous TM phantoms and the BSC method was capable of generating accurate size images for heterogeneous phantoms. In the scatterer size image of dog kidneys, the contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR) between renal cortex and medulla was improved dramatically compared to the gray- scale image. The effect of nonlinear propagation was investigated by using a custom-designed phantom with overlaying TM fat layer. The results showed that the correlation length decreased when the transmitting power increased. The

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF TOMATO (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. CROPPING SYSTEM IN THE STATE OF JALISCO, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imelda Rosana Cih Dzul

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Cropping systems of tomatoes in the State of Jalisco, Mexico, were characterized variables useful to explain the technical and economic problems of these systems were prioritized. Five producing regions were identified: Sayula, La Cienega, Sierra de Amula, Costa Sur, and Zapotlan El Grande. A stratified random sampling was performed and face to face structured interviews with tomato producers were applied. The questionnaire included sections to record the sociodemographic characteristics, production performance, technology, food safety and production marketing system. The characterization of production systems was performed using the technological variables: Type of protection, cultivated surface, type of irrigation system, wadding (mulch, input use, yield, production costs, market and food safety. Systems were classified in three groups: open field, greenhouse and mesh shade production system, whit two subsystem organic production with mesh shade and greenhouse without mulch. 84% of producers use an open field system, 8% produce in greenhouse, 4% use the mesh shade system and the remaining 4% produce with any combination of the above systems. The main cultivated variety is Saladette. Productivity of each system is determined by the level and type of technology. All producers use drip irrigation systems and 96% use plastic mulching (wadding. 90% of producers allocate its production through a broker and 10% sell directly to wholesale markets; the main broker usually is the person who owns the warehouse. Weather conditions, pests and diseases are the main factors affecting negatively the productivity and yield of the crop, with negative economic impact on farmers.Â

  17. The development and characterization of stimuli-responsive systems for performance materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Melissa B.

    In nature, living organisms adjust to their surroundings by responding to environmental cues, such as light, temperature or force. Stimuli-triggered processes, such as the contraction of eyes in response to bright light or wound healing in skin after a cut, motivate the design of "smart" materials which are designed to respond to environmental stimuli. Responsive materials are used as self-healing materials, shape memory polymers and responsive coatings; moreover, responsive materials may also be employed as model systems, which enhance understanding of complex behavior. The overall goal of this work is to design a material that offers self-healing functionality, which will allow for self-repair following material fatigue or failure, and increased strength in response to ballistic or puncture threats through the incorporation of colloidal particles. The target application for this material is as a protective barrier in extreme environments, such as outer space. Towards this end, the dissertation is focused on the development and characterization of each component of the protective material by (1) designing and testing novel light- and force-sensitive polymers for self-healing applications and (2) examining and characterizing long-time behavior (i.e., aging) in model thermoreversible colloidal gels and glasses. Towards the development of novel stimuli-responsive materials, a photo-responsive polymer network is developed in which a dynamic bond is incorporated into the network architecture to enable a light-triggered, secondary polymerization, which increases the modulus by two orders of magnitude while strengthening the network by over 100%. Unlike traditional two-stage polymerization systems, in which the secondary polymerization is triggered by a leachable photoinitiator, the dynamic nature is imparted by the material itself via the dissociation of its own crosslinks to become stronger in response to light. Several attributes of the photo-responsive network are

  18. Characterization of Radiation Induced Current in RF coils of Linac-MR Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Benjamin Lester

    Real-time MR imaging of the cancer patients undergoing external beam radiation treatment represents the next generation in image guided radiotherapy. However, the radio frequency (RF) coil of the MRI is exposed to the pulsed radiation of the linear accelerator in the systems where a medical linear accelerator is integrated with the MRI. This thesis is primarily concerned with the instantaneous effect of pulsed radiation on the RF coils, in particular the Radiation Induced Current (RIC). The RIC results from the charge imbalance created by the ejection of Compton electrons from the thin conductors of the RF coils during the pulsed irradiation. This work spans the initial observations of the RIC in real coils, a detailed characterization of the RIC and finally its impact on the MR image. The first part presented the measurements of the instantaneous RIC in two different MRI RF coils. Some basic characterization of the RIC included the isolation of the RF coil component responsible for RIC, the dependence of RIC on linear accelerator dose rate, and the effect of placing wax buildup on the coil to reduce RIC. The copper windings of the RF coils were isolated as the main source of RIC. A linear dependence of the RIC amplitude on dose rate was observed. The RIC was decreased with wax buildup, suggesting an electronic disequilibrium as the cause of RIC. In the second part, a buildup method of RIC removal in planar conductors is tested, a Monte Carlo method of RIC calculation in metal conductors is presented and validated, and the Monte Carlo method is used to examine the effects of magnetic fields on both planar conductor and practical cylindrical coil geometries. The buildup method of RIC removal is effective in planar geometries and in cylindrical coil geometries when the coil conductor is in direct contact with the patient. The presence of air gap between the coil and patient makes this method of RIC removal less effective although placing buildup still reduces the RIC

  19. Quantitative Digital Autoradiography for Environmental Swipe Sample Prioritization: System design, Characterization, and Initial Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Benjamin S.; Zalavadia, Mital A.; Miller, Brian W.; Bliss, Mary; Olsen, Khris B.; Kasparek, Dustin M.; Clarke, Ardelia M.

    2017-07-17

    Environmental sampling and sample analyses by the International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA) Network of Analytical Laboratories (NWAL) is a critical technical tool used to detect facility misuse under a Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement and to verify the absence of undeclared nuclear material activities under an Additional Protocol. Currently all environmental swipe samples (ESS) are screened using gamma spectrometry and x-ray fluorescence to estimate the amount of U and/or Pu in the ESS, to guide further analysis, and to assist in the shipment of ESS to the NWAL. Quantitative Digital Autoradiography for Environmental Samples (QDARES) is being developed to complement existing techniques through the use of a portable, real-time, high-spatial-resolution camera called the Ionizing-radiation Quantum Imaging Detector (iQID). The iQID constructs a spatial map of radionuclides within a sample or surface in real-time as charged particles (betas) and photons (gamma/x-rays) are detected and localized on an event-by-event basis. Knowledge of the location and nature of radioactive hot spots on the ESS could provide information for subsequent laboratory analysis. As a nondestructive technique, QDARES does not compromise the ESS chain of custody or subsequent laboratory analysis. In this paper we will present the system design and construction, characterization measurements with calibration sources, and initial measurements of ESS.

  20. Characterization of Immune System Cell Subsets in Fixed Tissues from Alpine Chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadori, C; Finlayson, J; Trogu, T; Formenti, N; Lanfranchi, P; Citterio, C; Palarea-Albaladejo, J; Poli, A; Chianini, F

    2016-01-01

    Immune system cell subsets in lymph nodes and spleen from alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra subspecies rupicapra) living in the Italian Alps were characterized immunohistochemically. Seven primary antibodies (against human CD3, CD79αcy, CD68, or ovine CD4, CD8, CD21 and γδ T-cell receptor [TCR] epitopes) were tested on tissues fixed either in formalin or in zinc salts (ZS) and cross-reactivity with chamois immune cell epitopes was shown. ZS fixation allowed wider identification of immune cells, without the need for antigen retrieval. CD4(+) and CD21(+) cells were labelled only in ZS-fixed tissues. Reagents specific for human CD3, CD79 and CD68 antigens successfully detected chamois immune cells, both in ZS-fixed and formalin-fixed tissues. The reactivity and distribution of immune cells in lymph nodes and spleen were similar to those described in other domestic and wild ruminants. Results from this study may allow future investigation of the immune response and pathogenesis of diseases in the chamois. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization, pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of chlorogenic acid-loaded self-microemulsifying drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Liu, Chang-Shun; Chen, Qing-Zhen; Wang, Sen; Xiong, Yong-Ai; Jing, Jing; Lv, Jia-Jia

    2017-03-30

    The purpose of this study was to develop a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) to improve the oral bioavailability of Chlorogenic acid (CA), an important bioactive compound from Lonicerae Japonicae Flos with poor permeability. SMEDDS was prepared and characterized by self-emulsifying rate, morphological observation, droplet size determination, stability, in vitro release, in vivo bioavailability and tissue distribution experiments. Results shown that the SMEDDS of CA has a high self-emulsifying rate (>98%) in the dissolution media, and its microemulsion exhibits small droplet size (16.37nm) and good stability. In vitro release test showed a complete release of CA from SMEDDS in 480min. After oral administration in mice, significantly enhanced bioavailability of CA was achieved through SMEDDS (249.4% relative to the CA suspension). Interestingly, SMEDDS significantly changed the tissue distribution of CA and showed a better targeting property to the kidney (2.79 of the relative intake efficiency). It is suggested that SMEDDS improves the oral bioavailability of CA may mainly through increasing its absorption and slowing the metabolism of absorbed CA via changing its distribution from the liver to the kidney. In conclusion, it is indicated that SMEDDS is a promising carrier for the oral delivery of CA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A High-Frequency Eddy Current Inspection System and Its Application to the Residual Stress Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, N.; Lee, C.; Shen, Y.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on an on-going project toward developing electromagnetic residual-stress characterization method. Specifically, we present recent work on an eddy current technique and model-based inversion method, specific to nickel-based superalloys. In our approach, we treat residual stress measurements essentially as a 'layer-substrate' problem (a shot-peened layer on an alloy substrate), to which the swept-frequency EC technique is applicable. To this end, a high-sensitivity eddy current system with operating frequency up to 50MHz has been recently developed and validated. We present a description of our instrumentation that includes proprietary probes fabricated by the PCB technology, and laboratory-grade instruments under software control. The paper also describes the experimental procedure for performance studies, supported by preliminary data that distinguish clearly between surfaces before and after shot-peening for nickel-based alloys. In addition, we present forward and inverse model validations which will determine their reliability in the subsequent use in model-based residual stress profile inversion

  3. Development of an ADC Radiation Tolerance Characterization System for the Upgrade of the ATLAS LAr Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00445642; Chen, Kai; Kierstead, James; Lanni, Francesco; Takai, Helio; Jin, Ge

    2016-01-01

    ATLAS LAr calorimeter will perform its Phase-I upgrade during the long shut down (LS2) in 2018, a new LAr Trigger Digitizer Board (LTDB) will be designed and installed. Several commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) multichannel high-speed ADCs have been selected as possible backups of the radiation tolerant ADC ASICs for LTDB. In order to evaluate the radiation tolerance of these back up commercial ADCs, we developed an ADC radiation tolerance characterization system, which includes the ADC boards, data acquisition (DAQ) board, signal generator, external power supplies and a host computer. The ADC board is custom designed for different ADCs, which has ADC driver and clock distribution circuits integrated on board. The Xilinx ZC706 FPGA development board is used as DAQ board. The data from ADC are routed to the FPGA through the FMC (FPGA Mezzanine Card) connector, de-serialized and monitored by the FPGA, and then transmitted to the host computer through the Gigabit Ethernet. A software program has been developed wit...

  4. Gravity-driven membrane system for secondary wastewater effluent treatment: Filtration performance and fouling characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yiran

    2017-04-21

    Gravity-driven membrane (GDM) filtration is one of the promising membrane bioreactor (MBR) configurations. It operates at an ultra-low pressure by gravity, requiring a minimal energy. The objective of this study was to understand the performance of GDM filtration system and characterize the biofouling formation on a flat sheet membrane. This submerged GDM reactor was operated at constant gravitational pressure in treating of two different concentrations of secondary wastewater effluent. Morphology of biofilm layer was acquired by an in-situ and on-line optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanning in a fixed position at regular intervals. The thickness and roughness calculated from OCT images were related to the variation of flux, fouling resistance and permeate quality. At the end of experiment, fouling was quantified by total organic carbon (TOC) and adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) method. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was also applied for biofouling morphology observation. The biofouling formed on membrane surface was mostly removed by physical cleaning confirmed by contact angle measurement before and after cleaning. This demonstrated that fouling on the membrane under ultra-low pressure operation was highly reversible. The superiority and sustainability of GDM in both flux maintaining and long-term operation with production of high quality effluent was demonstrated.

  5. Potassium channels in the central nervous system of the snail, Helix pomatia: localization and functional characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battonyai, I; Krajcs, N; Serfőző, Z; Kiss, T; Elekes, K

    2014-05-30

    The distribution and functional presence of three voltage-dependent potassium channels, Kv2.1, Kv3.4, Kv4.3, respectively, were studied in the central nervous system of the snail Helix pomatia by immunohistochemical and electrophysiological methods. Cell clusters displaying immunoreactivity for the different channels were observed in all parts of the CNS, although their localization and number partly varied. Differences were also found in their intracellular, perikaryonal and axonal localization, as well as in their presence in non-neuronal tissues nearby the CNS, such as the perineurium and the aorta wall. At ultrastructural level Kv4.3 channel immunolabeling was observed in axon profiles containing large 80-100nm granular vesicles. Blotting analyses revealed specific signals for the Kv2.1, Kv3.4 and Kv4.3 channels, confirming the presence of the channels in the Helix CNS. Voltage-clamp recordings proved that outward currents obtained from neurons displaying Kv3.4 or Kv4.3 immunoreactivity contained transient components while Kv2.1 immunoreactive cells were characterized by delayed currents. The distribution of the K(+)-channels containing neurons suggests specific roles in intercellular signaling processes in the Helix CNS, most probably related to well-defined, partly local events. The cellular localization of the K(+)-channels studied supports their involvement in both pre- and postsynaptic events at perikaryonal and axonal levels. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Detection and characterization of spacer integration intermediates in type I-E CRISPR-Cas system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Zihni; Hermanns, Veronica; Wurm, Reinhild; Wagner, Rolf; Pul, Ümit

    2014-07-01

    The adaptation against foreign nucleic acids by the CRISPR-Cas system (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats and CRISPR-associated proteins) depends on the insertion of foreign nucleic acid-derived sequences into the CRISPR array as novel spacers by still unknown mechanism. We identified and characterized in Escherichia coli intermediate states of spacer integration and mapped the integration site at the chromosomal CRISPR array in vivo. The results show that the insertion of new spacers occurs by site-specific nicking at both strands of the leader proximal repeat in a staggered way and is accompanied by joining of the resulting 5'-ends of the repeat strands with the 3'-ends of the incoming spacer. This concerted cleavage-ligation reaction depends on the metal-binding center of Cas1 protein and requires the presence of Cas2. By acquisition assays using plasmid-located CRISPR array with mutated repeat sequences, we demonstrate that the primary sequence of the first repeat is crucial for cleavage of the CRISPR array and the ligation of new spacer DNA. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. Man/machine interface algorithm for advanced delayed-neutron signal characterization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, K.C.

    1985-01-01

    The present failed-element rupture detector (FERD) at Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) consists of a single bank of delayed-neutron (DN) detectors at a fixed transit time from the core. Plans are currently under way to upgrade the FERD in 1986 and provide advanced DN signal characterization capability that is embodied in an equivalent-recoil-area (ERA) meter. The new configuration will make available to the operator a wealth of quantitative diagnostic information related to the condition and dynamic evolution of a fuel breach. The diagnostic parameters will include a continuous reading of the ERA value for the breach; the transit time, T/sub tr/, for DN emitters traveling from the core to the FERD; and the isotopic holdup time, T/sub h/, for the source. To enhance the processing, interpretation, and display of these parameters to the reactor operator, a man/machine interface (MMI) algorithm has been developed to run in the background on EBR-II's data acquisition system (DAS). The purpose of this paper is to describe the features and implementation of this newly developed MMI algorithm

  8. Ovarian tumor characterization and classification: a class of GyneScan™ systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, U Rajendra; Sree, Vinitha S; Saba, Luca; Molinari, Filippo; Guerriero, Stefano; Suri, Jasjit S

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we have developed an adjunct Computer Aided Diagnostic (CAD) technique that uses 3D acquired ultrasound images of the ovary and data mining algorithms to accurately characterize and classify benign and malignant ovarian tumors. In this technique, we extracted image-texture based and Higher Order Spectra (HOS) based features from the images. The significant features were then selected and used to train and test the Decision Tree (DT) classifier. The proposed technique was validated using 1000 benign and 1000 malignant images, obtained from 10 patients with benign and 10 with malignant disease, respectively. On evaluating the classifier with 10-fold stratified cross validation, we observed that the DT classifier presented a high accuracy of 95.1%, sensitivity of 92.5% and specificity of 97.7%. Thus, the four significant features could adequately quantify the subtle changes and nonlinearities in the pixel intensities. The preliminary results presented in this paper indicate that the proposed technique can be reliably used as an adjunct tool for ovarian tumor classification since the system is accurate, completely automated, cost-effective, and can be easily written as a software application for use in any computer.

  9. Miniaturized robotically deployed sensor systems for in-situ characterization of hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, G.J.

    1996-01-01

    A series of ''MiniLab'' end effectors are currently being designed for robotic deployment in hazardous areas such as waste storage tanks at Idaho National Engineering Laboratories (INEL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These MiniLabs will be the first ever multichannel hazardous waste characterization end effectors deployed in underground high level waste storage tanks. They consist of a suite of chemical, radiological, and physical properties sensors integrated into a compact package mounted on the end of a robotic arm and/or vehicle. Most of the sensors are commercially available thus reducing the overall cost of design and maintenance. Sensor configurations can be customized depending on site/customer needs. This paper will address issues regarding the cost of field sampling verses MiniLab in-situ measurements and a brief background of the Light Duty utility Arm (LDUA) program. Topics receiving in depth attention will include package size parameters/constraints, design specifications, and investigations of currently available sensor technology. Sensors include radiological, gas, chemical, electrolytic, visual, temperature, and ranging. The effects of radiation on the life of the systems/sensors will also be discussed. Signal processing, control, display, and data acquisition methods will be described. The paper will conclude with an examination of possible applications for MiniLabs

  10. Characterization of Brazilian artists' palette from the XIX century using EDXRF portable system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calza, Cristiane; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Pedreira, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    The palette of some of the most representative Brazilian painters from the XIX century was characterized using EDXRF technique. In this work were analyzed paintings of: Eliseu Visconti, Almeida Junior, Rodolfo Amoedo, Henrique Bernardelli, Rafael Frederico, Modesto Brocos, Augusto Rodrigues Duarte and Pedro Peres - all of them belonging to the National Museum of Fine Arts Collection. EDXRF measurements were carried out with a portable system developed by the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, consisting of an X-ray tube Oxford TF3005 with tungsten (W) anode, operating at 25 kV and 100 μA, and a Si-PIN XR-100CR detector from Amptek. In each color and distinct hue of the paint layer were obtained several spectra, with an acquisition time of 300 s and a beam collimation of 2 mm. The spectra were processed and analyzed using the software QXAS-AXIL from IAEA. Some pigments used by the artists were: zinc white, lead white, ochre, umbra, vermilion, Prussian blue, cobalt blue, cadmium yellow, black iron oxide, manganese violet, etc. These results - together with the Computed Radiography analyses - have been used to create a database about the XIX century collection of the National Museum of Fine Arts, in order to assist restorators, conservators, art students and researchers in the field of archaeometry

  11. Characterization of the planetary system Kepler-101 with HARPS-N

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonomo, A. S.; Sozzetti, A.; Lovis, C.

    2014-01-01

    -101b, and an Earth-sized planet, Kepler-101c. These two planets orbit the slightly evolved and metal-rich G-type star in 3.49 and 6.03 days, respectively. With mass Mp = 51.1-4.7+ 5.1 M⊕, radius Rp = 5.77-0.79+ 0.85 R⊕, and density ρp = 1.45-0.48+ 0.83 g cm-3, Kepler-101b is the first fully...... characterized super-Neptune, and its density suggests that heavy elements make up a significant fraction of its interior; more than 60% of its total mass. Kepler-101c has a radius of 1.25-0.17+ 0.19 R⊕, which implies the absence of any H/He envelope, but its mass could not be determined because of the relative......-in giant planet and an outer Earth-sized planet with a period ratio slightly larger than the 3:2 resonance − is certainly of interest for scenarios of planet formation and evolution. This system does not follow thepreviously reported trend that the larger planet has the longer period in the majority...

  12. Flow-system analysis of exfoliated pulmonary cells: results of initial characterization studies in hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinkamp, J.A.; Hansen, K.M.; Wilson, J.S.; Salzman, G.C.

    1976-01-01

    This paper summarizes results of preliminary experiments to develop cytological and biochemical indicators for estimating damage to respiratory cells in test animals exposed by inhalation to toxic agents associated with nonnuclear energy production, the specific goal being the application of advanced multiparameter flow-systems technologies to the detection of early atypical cellular changes in lung epithelium. Normal Syrian hamster lung cell samples composed of histiocytes, leukocytes, macrophages, ciliated columnar cells, and epithelial cells were stained with fluorescent dyes specific for different biochemical parameters and were analyzed in liquid suspension as they flowed through a chamber intersecting a laser beam of exciting light. Multiple sensors measured the total or two-color fluorescence and light scatter on a cell-by-cell basis. Cellular parameters proportional to optical measurements (i.e., cell size, DNA content, total protein, nonspecific esterase activity, nuclear and cytoplasmic diameters) were displayed as frequency distribution histograms. Lung cell samples were also separated according to various cytological parameters and identified microscopically. The basic operating features of the methodology are discussed briefly, along with specific examples of preliminary results illustrating the initial characterization of exfoliated pulmonary cells from normal hamsters. As the flow technology is adapted further to the analysis of respiratory cells, measurements of changes in physical and biochemical properties as a function of exposure to toxic agents will be performed.

  13. BEAM: A computational workflow system for managing and modeling material characterization data in HPC environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingerfelt, Eric J [ORNL; Endeve, Eirik [ORNL; Ovchinnikov, Oleg S [ORNL; Borreguero Calvo, Jose M [ORNL; Park, Byung H [ORNL; Archibald, Richard K [ORNL; Symons, Christopher T [ORNL; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Messer, Bronson [ORNL; Shankar, Mallikarjun [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Improvements in scientific instrumentation allow imaging at mesoscopic to atomic length scales, many spectroscopic modes, and now with the rise of multimodal acquisition systems and the associated processing capability the era of multidimensional, informationally dense data sets has arrived. Technical issues in these combinatorial scientific fields are exacerbated by computational challenges best summarized as a necessity for drastic improvement in the capability to transfer, store, and analyze large volumes of data. The Bellerophon Environment for Analysis of Materials (BEAM) platform provides material scientists the capability to directly leverage the integrated computational and analytical power of High Performance Computing (HPC) to perform scalable data analysis and simulation via an intuitive, cross-platform client user interface. This framework delivers authenticated, push-button execution of complex user workflows that deploy data analysis algorithms and computational simulations utilizing the converged compute-and-data infrastructure at Oak Ridge National Laboratory s (ORNL) Compute and Data Environment for Science (CADES) and HPC environments like Titan at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). In this work we address the underlying HPC needs for characterization in the material science community, elaborate how BEAM s design and infrastructure tackle those needs, and present a small sub-set of user cases where scientists utilized BEAM across a broad range of analytical techniques and analysis modes.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of biocompatible multicomponent polymer systems as supports for cell cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porjazoska, Aleksandra; Cvetkovska, Maja; Yylmaz, Oksan Karal; Baysal, Kemal; Apohan, Nilhan Kayaman; Baysal, Bahattin M.

    2004-01-01

    Engineering living tissue for reconstructive surgery requires an appropriate cell source and optimal culture conditions, but also a suitable biodegradable scaffold as the basic elements. On the basis of the well known facts that scaffold chemistry and architecture can influence the fate and function of engrafted cells, a large number of polymers, as cell cultures supports, have been proposed. In this study, we report a synthesis, characterization and cell interactions with the following polymer systems: I. Poly[L- lactic acid / glycolic acid / poly(dimethylsiloxane)], copolymers; II. Poly(DL - lactic acid) / triblock PCL - PDMS - PCL copolymers; III. Blends of poly(DL - lactic - co - glycolic acid) and triblock PCL - PDMS - PCL copolymers. For the cell seeding experiments, Swiss 3T3 and/or L929 mouse fibroblasts were grown in RPMI 1640 and/or DMEM / F12 medium, and placed onto the bio polymer non porous or porous films, prepared using a particulate leaching technique. The amount of cells present on the surfaces of the scaffolds was quantified using a neutral red uptake assay. (Author)

  15. Fungal succession in an in-vessel composting system characterized using 454 pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langarica-Fuentes, Adrian; Zafar, Urooj; Heyworth, Alan; Brown, Thomas; Fox, Graeme; Robson, Geoffrey D

    2014-05-01

    Fungi are known to have an important role in the composting process as degraders of recalcitrant materials such as cellulose and lignin. Previous attempts to study the diversity and succession of fungi in compost systems have relied on the use of culture-dependent analyses and low-resolution DNA-fingerprinting techniques, lacking the necessary depth to analyse such a rich ecosystem. In this study, 454 pyrosequencing was used to characterize the fungal community composition at the different stages of an in-vessel composting process. A complex succession of fungi was revealed, with 251 fungal OTUs identified throughout the monitoring period. The Ascomycota were the dominant phylum (82.5% of all sequences recovered), followed by the Basidiomycota (10.4%) and the subphylum Mucoromycotina (4.9%). In the starting materials and early stages of the process, yeast species from the Saccharomycetales were abundant, while in latter stages and in the high temperature regions of the pile, fungi from the orders Eurotiales, Sordariales, Mucorales, Agaricales and Microascales were the most prominent. This study provides an improved understanding of the fungal diversity occurring during the composting of municipal solid waste, and this knowledge can lead to the development of more efficient composting practices and a better evaluation of the end-product quality. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification and molecular characterization of an efflux system involved in Pseudomonas putida S12 multidrug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieboom, J; de Bont, J

    2001-01-01

    The authors previously described srpABC, an operon involved in proton-dependent solvent efflux in the solvent-tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12. Recently, it was shown that organic solvents and not antibiotics induce this operon. In the present study, the authors characterize a new efflux pump, designated ArpABC, on the basis of two isolated chloramphenicol-sensitive transposon mutants. The arpABC operon is involved in the active efflux of multiple antibiotics, such as tetracycline, chloramphenicol, carbenicillin, streptomycin, erythromycin and novobiocin. The deduced amino acid sequences encoded by the three genes involved show a striking resemblance to proteins of the resistance/nodulation/cell division family, which are involved in both organic solvent and multiple drug efflux. These findings demonstrate that ArpABC is highly homologous to the MepABC and TtgABC efflux systems for organic solvents and multiple antibiotics. However, ArpABC does not contribute to organic solvent tolerance in P. putida S12 but is solely involved in multidrug resistance.

  17. Characterization of biological aerosol exposure risks from automobile air conditioning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Li, Mingzhen; Shen, Fangxia; Zou, Zhuanglei; Yao, Maosheng; Wu, Chang-yu

    2013-09-17

    Although use of automobile air conditioning (AC) was shown to reduce in-vehicle particle levels, the characterization of its microbial aerosol exposure risks is lacking. Here, both AC and engine filter dust samples were collected from 30 automobiles in four different geographical locations in China. Biological contents (bacteria, fungi, and endotoxin) were studied using culturing, high-throughput gene sequence, and Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) methods. In-vehicle viable bioaerosol concentrations were directly monitored using an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS) before and after use of AC for 5, 10, and 15 min. Regardless of locations, the vehicle AC filter dusts were found to be laden with high levels of bacteria (up to 26,150 CFU/mg), fungi (up to 1287 CFU/mg), and endotoxin (up to 5527 EU/mg). More than 400 unique bacterial species, including human opportunistic pathogens, were detected in the filter dusts. In addition, allergenic fungal species were also found abundant. Surprisingly, unexpected fluorescent peaks around 2.5 μm were observed during the first 5 min use of AC, which was attributed to the reaerosolization of those filter-borne microbial agents. The information obtained here can assist in minimizing or preventing the respiratory allergy or infection risk from the use of automobile AC system.

  18. Can mussels be used as sentinel organisms for characterization of pollution in urban water systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichwaldt, Elke S.; Ghadouani, Anas

    2016-07-01

    Urbanization strongly impacts aquatic ecosystems by decreasing water quality and altering water cycles. Today, much effort is put towards the restoration and conservation of urban waterbodies to enhance ecosystem service provision, leading to liveable and sustainable cities. To enable a sustainable management of waterbodies, the quantification of the temporal and spatial variability of pollution levels and biogeochemical processes is essential. Stable isotopes have widely been used to identify sources of pollution in ecosystems. For example, increased nitrogen levels in waterbodies are often accompanied with a higher nitrogen stable isotope signature (δ15N), which can then be detected in higher trophic levels such as mussels. The main aim of this study was to assess the suitability of nitrogen stable isotopes as measured in mussels (Mytilus edulis), as an indicator able to resolve spatial and temporal variability of nitrogen pollution in an urban, tidally influenced estuary (Swan River estuary in Western Australia). Nitrogen concentrations were generally low and nitrogen stable isotope values of nitrate throughout the estuary were well within natural values of uncontaminated groundwater, organic nitrate from soils, or marine-derived sources, indicating groundwater inflow rather than pollution by human activity was responsible for differences between sites. The δ15N signature in mussels was very stable over time within each site which indicated that mussels can be used as time-integrated sentinel organisms in urban systems. In addition, our study shows that the nature of the relationship between δ15N in the mussels and the nitrate in the water can provide insights into site-specific biogeochemical transformation of nutrients. We suggest that mussels and other sentinel organisms can become a robust tool for the detection and characterization of the dynamics of a number of emerging anthropogenic pollutants of concern in urban water systems.

  19. Using the system maintenance datastore to characterize lifetime maintenance for PLiM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, P.; Dam, R.; Nickerson, J.

    2004-01-01

    A comprehensive Plant Life Management (PLiM) program involves evaluating a large amount of information. For any plant, there are numerous maintenance, surveillance and inspection programs for the important systems, structures and components. There is extensive industry experience on component failure modes, degradation mechanisms and recommended maintenance practices. This information forms the basis of the aging assessment work, through which improvements to these plant programs are identified. AECL has developed several tools to manage the quantities of information required in aging assessment studies, such as the SYSTMS (SYtematic approach for the development of STrategy for Maintenance and Surveillance) tool and the System Maintenance Datastore (SMD). The SMD has been developed to serve as a hub to a Systematic based Adaptive Maintenance Program (SAMP), by storing maintenance resource requirements for recommended maintenance tasks for use by the other processes in a SAMP. The SMD can be used to (a) quantify the savings or cost of optimising a maintenance program, (b) characterize and understand long term trends in condition-based maintenance due to component aging, (c) quantify the resource savings due to optimum timing of component replacement or general plant refurbishment, and (d) provide aging assessment cost information for input to plant asset evaluation. The SMD contains data for regular maintenance program tasks, plant condition assessment recommendations, and equipment refurbishment costs. A prototype SMD has been developed with data tables populated with information from operating CANDU stations. The SMD is now available to be used either with a SYSTMS evaluation or with a plant's database of maintenance tasks. (author)

  20. Characterization of antigen-presenting cells from the porcine respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Robles, Guadalupe; Silva-Campa, Erika; Burgara-Estrella, Alexel; Hernández, Jesús

    2015-06-01

    Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are strategically placed in all anatomic sites with high antigen exposure such as the respiratory system. The aim of this study was to evaluate phenotypic and functional properties of APCs from the lung (L-Cs), mediastinal lymph node (LN-Cs) and bronchoalveolar lavage cells (BAL-Cs). The APCs were first analyzed based on forward scatter and side scatter profiles and the selection of MHC-II(high)CD172a(+) cells (referred to as APCs); then the expression of CD1a, CD163, CD206, CD16 and CD11R3 was evaluated in the APCs. The results showed that CD1a, CD163 and CD206 were differentially expressed among L-Cs, LN-Cs and BAL-Cs, suggesting the phenotype MHC-II(high)CD172a(+)CD1a(low/-)CD163(low)CD206(-) for L-Cs and MHC-II(high)CD172a(+)CD1a(+)CD163(low/-)CD206(+) for LN-Cs. BAL-Cs were MHC-II(high)CD172a(+)CD1a(-)CD163(high)CD206(+/-). The functional characteristics of L-Cs and LN-Cs were different from those of BAL-Cs, confirming that L-Cs and LN-Cs resemble specialized APCs. In conclusion, we present the characterization of APCs from L-Cs, LN-Cs and BAL-Cs of the porcine respiratory system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Deep Learning of Quasar Spectra to Discover and Characterize Damped Lyα Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, David; Xavier Prochaska, J.; Dong, Shawfeng; Cai, Zheng

    2018-01-01

    We have designed, developed, and applied a convolutional neural network (CNN) architecture using multi-task learning to search for and characterize strong HI Lyα absorption in quasar spectra. Without any explicit modeling of the quasar continuum nor application of the predicted line-profile for Lyα from quantum mechanics, our algorithm predicts the presence of strong HI absorption and estimates the corresponding redshift zabs and HI column density NHI, with emphasis on damped Lyα systems (DLAs, absorbers with NHI ≥ 2 × 1020 cm-2). We tuned the CNN model using a custom training set of DLAs injected into DLA-free quasar spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), data release 5 (DR5). Testing on a held-back validation set demonstrates a high incidence of DLAs recovered by the algorithm (97.4% as DLAs and 99% as an HI absorber with NHI > 1019.5 cm-2) and excellent estimates for zabs and NHI. Similar results are obtained against a human-generated survey of the SDSS DR5 dataset. The algorithm yields a low incidence of false positives and negatives but is challenged by overlapping DLAs and/or very high NHI systems. We have applied this CNN model to the quasar spectra of SDSS-DR7 and the Baryonic Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS, data release 12) and provide catalogs of 4,913 and 50,969 DLAs respectively (including 1,659 and 9,230 high-confidence DLAs that were previously unpublished). This work validates the application of deep learning techniques to astronomical spectra for both classification and quantitative measurements.

  2. Characterization of aquifer heterogeneity in a complex fluvial hydrogeologic system to evaluate migration in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, F.G.; Pavlik, H.F.

    1990-01-01

    The hydrogeology and extent of ground water contamination were characterized at a site in northern California. Wood preserving compounds, primarily pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote, have been detected in the soil and ground water. A plume of dissolved PCP up to 1.5 miles long has been identified south of the plant. The aquifer consists of a complex multizonal system of permeable gravels and sands composed of units from four geologic formations deposited by the ancestral Feather River. Fluvial channel gravels form the principal aquifer zones and contain overbank clay and silt deposits which locally form clay lenses or more continuous aquitards. The geometric mean horizontal hydraulic conductivities for channel gravels range between 120 to 530 feet/day. Mean vertical aquitard hydraulic conductivity is 0.07 feet/day. Ground water flow is generally southward with a velocity ranging from 470 to 1000 feet/year. The spatial distribution of dissolved PCP in the aquifer documents the interactions between major permeable zones. Hydrostratigraphic evidence pointing to the separation of aquifer zones is supported by the major ion chemistry of ground water. The sodium and calcium-magnesium bicarbonate-rich water present in the upper aquifer zones is significantly different in chemical composition from the predominantly sodium chloride-rich water present in the deeper permeable zone. This indicates that hydrodynamic separation exists between the upper and lower zones of the aquifer, limiting the vertical movement of the PCP plume. A numerical ground water model, based on this conceptual hydrogeologic model, was developed to evaluate groundwater transport pathways and for use in the design of a ground water extraction and treatment system. (9 refs., 7 figs., tab.)

  3. A Novel Physical Sensing Principle for Liquid Characterization Using Paper-Based Hygro-Mechanical Systems (PB-HMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Cruz, Angel; Stiharu, Ion; Dominguez-Gonzalez, Aurelio

    2017-07-20

    In recent years paper-based microfluidic systems have emerged as versatile tools for developing sensors in different areas. In this work; we report a novel physical sensing principle for the characterization of liquids using a paper-based hygro-mechanical system (PB-HMS). The PB-HMS is formed by the interaction of liquid droplets and paper-based mini-structures such as cantilever beams. The proposed principle takes advantage of the hygroscopic properties of paper to produce hygro-mechanical motion. The dynamic response of the PB-HMS reveals information about the tested liquid that can be applied to characterize certain properties of liquids. A suggested method to characterize liquids by means of the proposed principle is introduced. The experimental results show the feasibility of such a method. It is expected that the proposed principle may be applied to sense properties of liquids in different applications where both disposability and portability are of extreme importance.

  4. Fabrication and Characterization of Device Pressure Regulation System Orifice of Manufacturing Process Gel Uranium Column Gelation External

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triyono; Sutarni; Indra Suryawan

    2009-01-01

    The device pressure regulation orifice system of manufacturing process gel uranium on external column gelation has been made and characterized. The device consists : compressor 5.75-6.75 kg / cm 2 , air container tank, power supply 24 volts dc, solenoid valve 24 volts dc, pressure indicator 0-100 mbar, pressure indicator 0-250 mbar, mechanical valve and power electric 380 volts 50 Hz. The activity includes: installation device system and characterization with pressure variation orifice 5-75 mbar on the compressor 5.75-6.5 kg/cm 2 continuously for 1 minute. The method of installation i.e: wiring and piping to first component and support component (compressor and pressure air indicator, air container tank and pressure air indicator, solenoid valve, power supply 220 volts / 24 volts dc and orifice). After apparatus installed has been tested by the characterization without feed under air pressure varied to orifice of 5-75 mbar and device characterization with variation diameter orifice of 0.5-1 mm and orifice pressure of 5-75 mbar. The result in the characterization an every component good function, can be operation by input pressure range of 15-185 mbar orifice pressure range of 5-75 mbar. The characterization result device pressure regulation orifice system showed that: the system can be good operation of air pressure regulation orifice between 5-75 mbar with diameter orifice 0.5 mm to result gelation range of 10-25 piece / minute with variation air pressure input between 15-185 mbar of air pressure compressor 5.75-6.5 kg cm 2 . (author)

  5. Characterization of the formaldehyde-H2O system using combined spectroscopic and mass spectrometry approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oancea, A.; Hanoune, B.; Facq, S.; Focsa, C.; Chazallon, B.

    2009-04-01

    The atmosphere is a multiphase reactor in which physical exchange processes, heterogeneous reactions and photochemical reactions take place. The oxygenated organics (formaldehyde, ethanol, acetone etc.) present at trace concentrations into the atmosphere are known to play an important role in atmospheric chemistry due for example to their contribution in the production of HOx radicals, which largely determine the lifetime of pollutants [1]. Further, it has been shown that the interaction of oxygenated organics with ice particles in the atmosphere has the potential to promote heterogeneous chemistry [2]. In the polar lower troposphere, formaldehyde (H2CO) was measured in concentrations that are much higher that those predicted by chemistry models [3]. The mechanism at the origin of the formaldehyde production remains however controversial as the incorporation / partitioning of H2CO in ice crystal has to be determined first. Incorporation of formaldehyde into ice can take place according to several different physical mechanisms like co-condensation, riming, adsorption/desorption. The partitioning of formaldehyde between the gas phase, the liquid and the solid phases is an important parameter that leads to a better understanding of the incorporation mechanisms. In our work, different experimental approaches are used to characterize the partitioning between the different phases in which the H2O-H2CO system exists. Recently, we investigated by mass spectrometry and infrared diode laser spectroscopy the vapor liquid equilibrium (VLE) of formaldehyde aqueous solutions of different concentrations at room temperature. From the data collected on the vapor pressures at atmospherically relevant formaldehyde concentrations, we derived the Henry's coefficients at 295 K [4]. In this study we present first results on the solubility of formaldehyde in ice. This allows a better characterization of the partitioning of formaldehyde vapors above supercooled droplets and/or ice at low

  6. Organic compounds as indicators for transport in an urban characterized complex karst system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reh, R.; Licha, T.; Nödler, K.; Geyer, T.; Sauter, M.

    2012-04-01

    In northern Hesse (Germany), sediments of the Upper Permian (Zechstein-Formations) are outcropping in a coastal facies along the western rim of the Rhenish Massif. The geologic section is characterized by a sequence of carbonate rocks (carbonates of the Werra-, Staßfurt- and Leine-Formations) and predominantly fine clastic sediments. The carbonate aquifers of the Werra-Formation and the Leine-Formation are used for drinking water abstraction of a provincial town and surrounding communities. Concurrently, the urban area is characterized by industrial and commercial uses. The groundwater flow system is composed of three potential karst aquifers, aquitards and aquicludes within a complex tectonically faulted area. The study area is divided into three spring catchment areas. However, the locations of the subsurface water divides are unknown. Traditional methods to determine the catchment areas (e.g. artificial tracer tests) are difficult to apply, due to a lack of adequate injection points. The presented work deals with the use of organic compounds as indicators for subsurface flow paths. Medical drugs, pesticides, corrosion inhibitors and such typical waste water compounds as caffeine (NÖDLER ET AL. 2010) are observed in approximately fifty groundwater observation points by regular sampling. The seasonal variability of the distribution pattern of organic compounds is low. The most common compounds are atrazine and its metabolites desethylatrazine and desisopropylatrazine, as well as the corrosion inhibitor 1H-benzotriazole. Since these substances are applied in different regions different input functions can be assumed. However, the highest concentrations are detected along a North-orientated axis, which also exhibits the greatest compound variety. This distribution pattern indicates preferential flow and transport pathways in the subsurface. The absence of organic compounds in other parts of the investigation area implies the existence of a water divide between

  7. The Development and Validation of the Behavior and Emotion Expression Observation System to Characterize Preschoolers' Social and Emotional Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stacy R.; Finlon, Kristy J.; Izard, Carroll E.

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: This article describes the development and evaluation of the Behavior and Emotion Expression Observation System (BEEOS), a direct observation tool to characterize preschoolers' social and emotion behaviors during semistructured activities in the classroom. The BEEOS was used to observe 148 Head Start preschoolers, and…

  8. Proposed NRC portable target case for short-range triangulation-based 3D imaging systems characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Benjamin; MacKinnon, David; Cournoyer, Luc; Beraldin, J.-Angelo

    2011-03-01

    The National Research Council of Canada (NRC) is currently evaluating and designing artifacts and methods to completely characterize 3-D imaging systems. We have gathered a set of artifacts to form a low-cost portable case and provide a clearly-defined set of procedures for generating characteristic values using these artifacts. In its current version, this case is specifically designed for the characterization of short-range (standoff distance of 1 centimeter to 3 meters) triangulation-based 3-D imaging systems. The case is known as the "NRC Portable Target Case for Short-Range Triangulation-based 3-D Imaging Systems" (NRC-PTC). The artifacts in the case have been carefully chosen for their geometric, thermal, and optical properties. A set of characterization procedures are provided with these artifacts based on procedures either already in use or are based on knowledge acquired from various tests carried out by the NRC. Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T), a well-known terminology in the industrial field, was used to define the set of tests. The following parameters of a system are characterized: dimensional properties, form properties, orientation properties, localization properties, profile properties, repeatability, intermediate precision, and reproducibility. A number of tests were performed in a special dimensional metrology laboratory to validate the capability of the NRC-PTC. The NRC-PTC will soon be subjected to reproducibility testing using an intercomparison evaluation to validate its use in different laboratories.

  9. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modeling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2006-12-31

    The principal research effort for Year 1 of Phase 2 (Concept Demonstration) of the project is Smackover petroleum system characterization and modeling. The necessary software applications have been acquired to accomplish this work. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule.

  10. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modeling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2007-06-30

    The principal research effort for Year 2 of Phase 2 (Concept Demonstration) of the project is Mesozoic (Bossier) petroleum system characterization and modeling and refined resource assessment. The necessary software applications have been acquired to accomplish this work. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule.

  11. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modelling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2006-09-30

    The principal research effort for Year 1 of Phase 2 (Concept Demonstration) of the project is Smackover petroleum system characterization and modeling. The necessary software applications have been acquired to accomplish this work. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule.

  12. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modeling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2006-07-31

    The principal research effort for Year 1 of Phase 2 (Concept Demonstration) of the project is Smackover petroleum system characterization and modeling. The necessary software applications are in the process of being acquired to accomplish this work. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule.

  13. Phase 1 Integrated Systems Test and Characterization Report for the 5-Megawatt Dynamometer and Controllable Grid Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallen, Robert B [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lambert, Scott R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gevorgian, Vahan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dana, Scott [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-03-13

    This report details the commissioning of the 5-megawatt dynamometer at the National Wind Technology Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The purpose of these characterization tests were to verify the dynamometer's performance over the widest possible range of operating conditions, gain insight into system-level behavior, and establish confidence in measurement data.

  14. Adaption of the Magnetometer Towed Array geophysical system to meet Department of Energy needs for hazardous waste site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, J.R.; McDonald, J.R.; Russell, R.J.; Robertson, R.; Hensel, E.

    1995-10-01

    This report documents US Department of Energy (DOE)-funded activities that have adapted the US Navy's Surface Towed Ordnance Locator System (STOLS) to meet DOE needs for a ''... better, faster, safer and cheaper ...'' system for characterizing inactive hazardous waste sites. These activities were undertaken by Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia), the Naval Research Laboratory, Geo-Centers Inc., New Mexico State University and others under the title of the Magnetometer Towed Array (MTA)

  15. LabVIEW-based control and acquisition system for the dosimetric characterization of a silicon strip detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovejero, M. C.; Pérez Vega-Leal, A.; Gallardo, M. I.; Espino, J. M.; Selva, A.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Arráns, R.

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work is to present a new data acquisition, control, and analysis software system written in LabVIEW. This system has been designed to obtain the dosimetry of a silicon strip detector in polyethylene. It allows the full automation of the experiments and data analysis required for the dosimetric characterization of silicon detectors. It becomes a useful tool that can be applied in the daily routine check of a beam accelerator.

  16. Optimization and characterization of biodiesel production from microalgae Botryococcus grown at semi-continuous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashokkumar, Veeramuthu; Agila, Elango; Sivakumar, Pandian; Salam, Zainal; Rengasamy, Ramasamy; Ani, Farid Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Bioprospecting for Botryococcus in upstream and downstream process for bioenergy production. • Large scale cultivation of B. braunii at semi-continuous system under open raceway system. • The biomass was harvested 99.5% successfully by Poly-(D)glucosamine and ferric iron. • Botryococcus biodiesel was characterized and found within ASTM standards. • Under semi-continuous mode, the alga B. braunii produces 101 tons ha −1 year −1 . - Abstract: The indigenous strain Botryococcus braunii TN101 was isolated and acclimatized under laboratory condition. Upstream and downstream process was thoroughly explored for biofuel production. During semi-continuous cultivation, the alga was grown under batch mode for 6 days; thereafter 40% of algal culture was harvested at every three days interval. At semi-continuous system, the indigenous strain grows well and produces high biomass productivity of 33.8 g m −3 day −1 . A two step combined harvesting process was designed using ferric iron and organic polymer Poly-(D)glucosamine and harvested 99.5% of biomass. Lipid extraction was optimized using different solvents, cyclohexane and methanol at 3:1 ratio supported for maximum extraction of lipids in Botryococcus up to 26.3%. Physicochemical properties of lipid was analyzed and found, saponification values 184, ester values 164, iodine values 92 and the average molecular weight of the lipids are 920 g mol −1 . The lipid contains 9.7% of FFA level, therefore, a simultaneous esterification and transesterification of free fatty acids and triacylglycerides were optimized for biodiesel production and the methyl ester yield was recorded up to 84%. In addition, an optimization study was carried out for the removal of pigments present in the biodiesel; the result revealed that 99% of pigments were removed from the biodiesel using activated charcoal. The biodiesel profile was analyzed by 1 H and 13 C NMR and GC–MS analyzer, methyl palmitate and methyl oleate

  17. Degenerative suspensory ligament desmitis as a systemic disorder characterized by proteoglycan accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Jung

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Degenerative suspensory ligament desmitis (DSLD is a debilitating disorder thought to be limited to suspensory ligaments of Peruvian Pasos, Peruvian Paso crosses, Arabians, American Saddlebreds, American Quarter Horses, Thoroughbreds, and some European breeds. It frequently leads to persistent, incurable lameness and need to euthanize affected horses. The pathogenesis remains unclear, though the disease appears to run in families. Treatment and prevention are empirical and supportive, and not effective in halting the progression of the disease. Presently, the presumptive diagnosis of DSLD is obtained from patient signalment and history, clinical examination, and ultrasonographic examination of clinically affected horses, and is confirmed at post mortem examination. Presently, there are no reliable methods of diagnosing DSLD in asymptomatic horses. The goal of this study was to characterize and define the disorder in terms of tissue involvement at the macroscopic and microscopic levels. Results We examined tissues and organs from 28 affected horses (22 Peruvian Pasos, 6 horses of other breeds and from 8 control horses. Histopathological examination revealed the presence of excessive amounts of proteoglycans in the following tissues removed from DSLD-affected horses: suspensory ligaments, superficial and deep digital flexor tendons, patellar and nuchal ligaments, cardiovascular system, and sclerae. Electron microscopy demonstrated changes in diameters of collagen fibrils in the tendon, and in smooth muscle cells of the media of the aorta compatible with increased cell permeability in DSLD-affected cells. Separation of tendon extracts by gel chromatography revealed the presence of additional proteoglycan(s in extracts from affected, but not control extracts. Conclusion This study demonstrates for the first time that DSLD, a disease process previously thought to be limited to the suspensory ligaments of the distal limbs of

  18. Genetic characterization of the inducible SOS-like system of Bacillus subtilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, P.E.; Yasbin, R.E.

    1984-12-01

    The SOS-like system of Bacillus subtilis consists of several coordinately induced phenomena which are expressed after cellular insult such as DNA damage of inhibition of DNA replication. Mutagenesis of the bacterial chromosomes and the development of maintenance of competence also appear to be involved in the SOS-like response in this bacterium. The genetic characterization of the SOS-like system has involved an analysis of (i) the effects of various DNA repair mutations on the expression of inducible phenomena and (ii) the tsi-23 mutation, which renders host strains thermally inducible for each of the SOS-like functions. Bacterial filamentation was unaffected by any of the DNA repair mutations studied. In contrast, the induction of prophage after thermal or UV pretreatment was abolished in strains carrying the recE4, recA1, recB2, or recG13 mutation. The Weigle reactivation of UV-damaged bacteriophage was also inhibited by the recE4, recA1, recB2, or recG13 mutation, whereas levels of Weigle reactivation were lower in strains which carried the uvrA42, polA5, or rec-961 mutation than in the DNA repair-proficient strain. Strains which carried the recE4 mutation were incapable of chromosomal DNA-mediated transformation, and the frequency of this event was decreased in strains carrying recA1, recB2, or tsi-23 mutation. Plasmid DNA transformation efficiency was decreased only in strains carrying the tsi-23 mutation in addition to the recE4, recA1, or recB2 mutation. The results indicate that the SOS-like system of B. subtilis is regulated at different levels by two or more gene products. In this report, the current data regarding the genetic regulation of inducible phenomena are summarized, and a model is proposed to explain the mechanism of SOS-like induction in B. subtillis. 50 references, 3 figures, 6 tables.

  19. Optical pump-and-probe test system for thermal characterization of thin metal and phase-change films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Kazuo; Polynkin, Pavel; Mansuripur, Masud

    2005-01-01

    A single-shot optical pump-and-probe test system is reported. The system is designed for thermal characterization of thin-film samples that can change their phase state under the influence of a short and intense laser pulse on a subnanosecond time scale. In combination with numerical analysis, the system can be used to estimate thermal constants of thin films, such as specific heat and thermal conductivity. In-plane and out-of plane thermal conductivity can be estimated independently. The system is intended for use in research on optical data storage and material processing with pulsed laser light. The system design issues are discussed. As application examples, we report on using the system to study thermal dynamics in two different thin-film samples: a gold film on a glass substrate (a single-phase system) and the quadrilayer phase-change stack typical in optical data-storage applications

  20. Multi-TID detection and characterization in a dense Global Navigation Satellite System receiver network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Heng; Monte-Moreno, Enrique; Hernández-Pajares, Manuel

    2017-09-01

    The medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) constitute the most frequent ionospheric wave signatures. We propose a method for detecting the number of simultaneous MSTIDs from a time series of high-pass-filtered Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC) maps and their parameters. The method is tested on the VTEC map corresponding to a simulated realistic scenario and on actual data from dual-frequency Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements gathered by +1200 GPS receivers of the GPS Earth Observation Network (GEONET) in Japan. The contribution consists of the detection of the number of independent MSTIDs from a nonuniform sampling of the ionospheric pierce points. The problem is set as a sparse decomposition on elements of a dictionary of atoms that span a linear space of possible MSTIDs. These atoms consist of plane waves characterized by a wavelength, direction, and phase on a surface defined, the part of the ionosphere sounded by the GEONET (i.e., 25°N to 50°N of latitude and 125°E to 155°E of longitude). The technique is related to the atomic decomposition and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator. The geophysical contribution of this paper is showing (a) the detection of several simultaneous MSTIDs of different characteristics, with a continuous change in the velocity; (b) detection of circular MSTID waves compatible by time and center with a specific earthquake; (c) simultaneous superposition of two distinct MSTIDs, with almost the same azimuth; and (d) the presence at nighttime of MSTIDs with velocities in the range 400-600 m/s.

  1. Design and Characterization of Mesalamine Loaded Nanoparticles for Controlled Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Seifirad

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Nanoparticles (NPs are known for their specific accumulation in the inflamed tissues of the colon and thus allow a selective delivery to the site of inflammation with minimum adverse effects. The main objective of this work is to attain mesalamine loaded chitosan nanoparticles as a carrier for oral delivery. Methods: In this study, mesalamine loaded chitosan nanoparticles were prepared using an ionic gelation method. Experimental design Box-Behnken response surface methodology was used for the optimization of the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles size and gelation process of the polymeric nano-drug controlled release system depends on several variables including the concentration ratio of chitosan-TPP, concentration of mesalamine, concentration of chitosan solution and pH of the solution with optimum conditions of 2.3, 0.02 mg/ml, 0.1 mg/ml and 4.5, respectively. Results: The mean particle size of the synthesized nanoparticles was ranging from 53.9 to 322.8 nm using a dynamic light scattering (DLS technique. Moreover, the morphology of the prepared nanoparticles was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Also, characterization of the chitosan-mesalamine nanoparticles was performed by FT-IR spectrophotometer for specifying the chemical structure of nanoparticles molecules and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC for studying thermal behavior. Drug release profile and the amount of the loaded drug were also monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Conclusions: Drug released showed that the release profile of mesalamine loaded nanoparticles was in a slow manner and no initial rapid release (burst effect was illustrated.

  2. SiPMs characterization and selection for the DUNE far detector photon detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y.; Maricic, J.

    2016-01-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) together with the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) hosted at the Fermilab will provide a unique, world-leading program for the exploration of key questions at the forefront of neutrino physics and astrophysics. CP violation in neutrino flavor mixing is one of its most important potential discoveries. Additionally, the experiment will determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and precisely measure the neutrino mixing parameters which may potentially reveal new fundamental symmetries of nature. Moreover, the DUNE is also designed for the observation of nucleon decay and supernova burst neutrinos. The photon detection (PD) system in the DUNE far detector provides trigger for cosmic backgrounds, enhances supernova burst trigger efficiency and improves the energy resolution of the detector. The DUNE adopts the technology of liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) that requires the PD sensors, silicon photomultipliers (SiPM), to be carefully chosen to not only work properly in LAr temperature, but also meet certain specifications for the life of the experiment. A comprehensive testing of SiPMs in cryostat is necessary since the datasheet provided by the manufactures in the market does not cover this temperature regime. This paper gives the detailed characterization results of SenSL C-Series 60035 SiPMs, including gain, dark count rate (DCR), cross-talk and after-pulse rate. Characteristic studies on SiPMs from other vendors are also discussed in order to avoid any potential problems associated with using a single source. Moreover, the results of the ongoing mechanical durability tests are shown for the current candidate, SenSL B/C-Series 60035 SiPMs.

  3. Distinct inflammatory mediator patterns characterize infectious and sterile systemic inflammation in febrile neutropenic hematology patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Wennerås

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Invasive infections and sterile tissue damage can both give rise to systemic inflammation with fever and production of inflammatory mediators. This makes it difficult to diagnose infections in patients who are already inflamed, e.g. due to cell and tissue damage. For example, fever in patients with hematological malignancies may depend on infection, lysis of malignant cells, and/or chemotherapy-induced mucosal damage. We hypothesized that it would be possible to distinguish patterns of inflammatory mediators characterizing infectious and non-infectious causes of inflammation, respectively. Analysis of a broad range of parameters using a multivariate method of pattern recognition was done for this purpose. METHODS: In this prospective study, febrile (>38°C neutropenic patients (n = 42 with hematologic malignancies were classified as having or not having a microbiologically defined infection by an infectious disease specialist. In parallel, blood was analyzed for 116 biomarkers, and 23 clinical variables were recorded for each patient. Using O-PLS (orthogonal projection to latent structures, a model was constructed based on these 139 variables that could separate the infected from the non-infected patients. Non-discriminatory variables were discarded until a final model was reached. Finally, the capacity of this model to accurately classify a validation set of febrile neutropenic patients (n = 10 as infected or non-infected was tested. RESULTS: A model that could segregate infected from non-infected patients was achieved based on discrete differences in the levels of 40 variables. These variables included acute phase proteins, cytokines, measures of coagulation, metabolism, organ stress and iron turn-over. The model correctly identified the infectious status of nine out of ten subsequently recruited febrile neutropenic hematology patients. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to separate patients with infectious inflammation from those

  4. Characterization of the diamond detector for commissioning the Eclipse Planning System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavan, Guilherme A.; Cardoso, Domingos de O.; Fontes, Gladson S.; Instituto Militar de Engenharia

    2017-01-01

    Diamond detectors are an option in the commissioning of linear accelerators, especially in small field measurements due to characteristics such as: small sensitive volume (0.004mm 3 ) and low energy dependence, desirable attributes for PDP measurements, output factors and profiles. The purpose of this study was to characterize PTW microDiamond 60019 diamond detector in relation to linearity, dependencies: energy, directional and with dose rate; Besides comparing measurements of PDP, output factors and profiles with some ionization and diode chambers. We also analyzed two models of the Eclipse planning system, performed with data from the commissioning of a TrueBeam accelerator obtained with the CC13 camera and with the diamond. Linearity deviations less than 0.5% were obtained in the range of 50cGy to 20Gy for energies of 6,10 and 15MV. Variations smaller than 0.5% for energy dependence and dose rate and angular dependence less than 0.5% in the axial and polar directions were observed. In the small-field output factors the diamond presented higher relative readings to the chambers: CC13, PintPoint3D and CC01 and similar to the diode. In the PDP it showed superiority in the definition of the buildup and surface regions. In the small field profiles it was shown a better definition of the penumbra in relation to the ionization chambers and in relation to the diode was equivalent, being superior in the tail region of large fields. In both models of Eclipse there were no significant differences for 1%3mm gamma analysis for PDP and profiles, although the diamond presented smaller mean gamma errors. The Collimator Backscatter Factors (CBSF) analysis for the two sets of measures showed differences mainly for small fields. The results of this study indicate that the diamond detector is one of the most versatile on the market in different commissioning situations, especially for small field measurements. (author)

  5. Development of Nutraceutical Emulsions as Risperidone Delivery Systems: Characterization and Toxicological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igartúa, Daniela Edith; Calienni, María Natalia; Feas, Daniela Agustina; Chiaramoni, Nadia Silvia; Del Valle Alonso, Silvia; Prieto, María Jimena

    2015-12-01

    Emulsions are gaining increasing interest to be applied as drug delivery systems. The main goal of this work was the formulation of an oil/water nutraceutical emulsion (NE) for oral administration, enriched in omega 3 (ω3) and omega 6 (ω6), and able to encapsulate risperidone (RISP), an antipsychotic drug widely used in the treatment of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). RISP has low solubility in aqueous medium and poor bioavailability because of its metabolism and high protein binding. Coadministration of ω3, ω3, and vitamin E complexed with RISP might increase its bioavailability and induce a synergistic effect on the treatment of ASD. Here, we developed an easy and quick method to obtain NEs and then optimized them. The best formulation was chosen after characterization by particle size, defects of the oil-in-water interface, zeta potential (ZP), and in vitro drug release. The formulation selected was stable over time, with a particle size of around 3 μm, a ZP lower than -20 mV and controlled drug release. To better understand the biochemical properties of the formulation obtained, we studied in vitro toxicity in the Caco-2 cell line. After 4 h of treatment, an increase in cellular metabolism was observed for all RISP concentrations, but emulsions did not change their metabolic rate, except at the highest concentration without drug (25 μg/mL), which showed a significant reduction in metabolism respect to the control. Additionally, locomotor activity and heart rate in zebrafish were measured as parameters of in vivo toxicity. Only the highest concentration (0.625 μg/mL) showed a cardiotoxic effect, which corresponds to the decrease in spontaneous movement observed previously. As all the materials contained in the formulations were US FDA approved, the NE selected would be good candidate for clinical trials. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  6. Characterization of nano oxaliplatin prepared by novel Fat Employing Supercritical Nano System, the FESNS®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Jae; Kim, Young-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Heon; Hahn, Mikyoung

    2012-01-01

    Oxaliplatin has long been used for the treatment of colorectal cancer via intra-venous infusion. In order to improve patient compliance, a solid dosage form for oral administration of oxaliplatin was prepared as nano-sized particles. Nano oxaliplatin was prepared employing Fat Employing Supercritical Nano System (FESNS(®)) with Supercritical Fluid (SCF) apparatus by using myristyl alcohol as solvent. Morphology of nano oxaliplatin was examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and the particle size and zeta potential were confirmed with Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). To characterize the nano oxaliplatin particles, solubility rate and in vitro efficacy study (MTS growth inhibition assay) were investigated compared to crude oxaliplatin as reference. FESNS(®) provided reproducible nano oxaliplatin with high manufacturing yield (> 95%). SEM images showed that the particle size distribution of nano oxaliplatin ranged between 20 and 400 nm with the medium particle sizes (d(50)) of about 164 nm determined by DLS. Pertaining to the long-term stability, no recrystallization of the nano oxaliplatin was observed with negative zeta potential in the state of solution. Nano oxaliplatin was completely dissolved within a couple of minutes in pH 4.0 and pH 6.8 buffer solutions while crude oxaliplatin took a couple of hours to go into solution. In case of MTS growth inhibition assay, the average concentration required to inhibit 50% of cell growth (GI(50)) of nano oxaliplatin was decreased by about 45% in comparison to the crude oxaliplatin. These results lead us to conclude that nano oxaliplatin would have a great potential for the improvement of efficacy and toxicity in human colorectal cancer treatment compared to the crude oxaliplatin. © 2012 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

  7. Characterization of HPGe gamma spectrometric detectors systems for Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) at the Colombian Geological Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, O., E-mail: osierra@sgc.gov.co; Parrado, G., E-mail: gparrado@sgc.gov.co; Cañón, Y.; Porras, A.; Alonso, D.; Herrera, D. C.; Peña, M., E-mail: mlpena@sgc.gov.co; Orozco, J. [Colombian Geological Survey, Nuclear Affairs Technical Division, Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory, Bogota D. C. (Colombia)

    2016-07-07

    This paper presents the progress made by the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) laboratory at the Colombian Geological Survey (SGC in its Spanish acronym), towards the characterization of its gamma spectrometric systems for Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), with the aim of introducing corrections to the measurements by variations in sample geometry. Characterization includes the empirical determination of the interaction point of gamma radiation inside the Germanium crystal, through the application of a linear model and the use of a fast Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) software to estimate correction factors for differences in counting efficiency that arise from variations in sample density between samples and standards.

  8. Development, Characterization and Evaluation of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles as a potential Anticancer Drug Delivery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Meghavi

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) consist of spherical solid lipid particles in the nanometer size range, which are dispersed in water or in an aqueous surfactant solution. SLN technology represents a promising new approach to deliver hydrophilic as well as lipophilic drugs. The commercialization of SLN technology remains limited despite numerous efforts from researchers. The purpose of this research was to advance SLN preparation methodology by investigating the feasibility of preparing glyceryl monostearate (GMS) nanoparticles by using three preparation methods namely microemulsion technique, magnetic stirring technique and temperature modulated solidification technique of which the latter two were developed in our laboratory. An anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil was incorporated in the SLNs prepared via the temperature modulated solidification process. Optimization of the magnetic stirring process was performed to evaluate how the physicochemical properties of the SLN was influenced by systematically varying process parameters including concentration of the lipid, concentration of the surfactant, type of surfactant, time of stirring and temperature of storage. The results demonstrated 1:2 GMS to tween 80 ratio, 150 ml dispersion medium and 45 min stirring at 4000 RPM speed provided an optimum formulation via the temperature modulated solidification process. SLN dispersions were lyophilized to stabilize the solid lipid nanoparticles and the lyophilizates exhibited good redispersibility. The SLNs were characterized by particle size analysis via dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), drug encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release studies. Particle size of SLN dispersion prepared via the three preparation techniques was approximately 66 nm and that of redispersed lyophilizates was below 500 nm. TEM images showed spherical to oval particles that were less dense in the core

  9. Characterization of cooling systems based on heat pipe principle to control operation temperature of high-tech electronic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobre, Tanase; Parvulescu, Oana Cristina; Stoica, Anicuta; Iavorschi, Gustav

    2010-01-01

    The use of cooling systems based on heat pipe principle to control operation temperature of electronic components is very efficient. They have an excellent miniaturizing capacity and this fact creates adaptability for more practical situations. Starting from the observation that these cooling systems are not precisely characterized from the thermal efficiency point of view, the present paper proposes a methodology of data acquisition for their thermal characterization. An experimental set-up and a data processing algorithm are shown to describe the cooling of a heat generating electronic device using heat pipes. A Thermalright SI-97 PC cooling system is employed as a case-study to determine the heat transfer characteristics of a fins cooler.

  10. Characterization and modeling of nutrient-deficient tomato-processing wastewater treatment using an anaerobic/aerobic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhongda; Nakhla, George; Patel, Jignesh

    2006-11-01

    Tomato-processing wastewaters are typical of slowly biodegradable high strength wastewaters generated from the food canning industry. Three different samples of influent and three samples of anaerobic effluents corresponding to the three influents collected from an on-site pilot-scale anaerobic/aerobic system were characterized using respirometric methods. Respirometric studies demonstrated that the pretreatment in the anaerobic reactor of the pilot-scale system increased the readily biodegradable fraction from an average of 40% of the SCOD in the influent to 50% of the SCOD in the anaerobic effluent, improved kinetics from an average micro(max) of 1.5d(-1) in the influent to 3.5d(-1) in the anaerobic effluent, and eliminated nutrient deficiency. Furthermore, the system was calibrated and simulated by application of wastewater characterization and biokinetic data derived form respirometric tests of influent and anaerobic effluent in Activated Sludge Model no.1 (ASM1).

  11. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE CHARACTERIZATION PROJECT EAST-WEST DRIFT SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    1999-06-08

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the design of the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) East-West Cross Drift. This analysis builds upon prior ESF System Safety Analyses and incorporates TS Main Drift scenarios, where applicable, into the East-West Drift scenarios. This System Safety Analysis (SSA) focuses on the personnel safety and health hazards associated with the engineered design of the East-West Drift. The analysis also evaluates other aspects of the East-West Drift, including purchased equipment (e.g., scientific mapping platform) or Systems/Structures/Components (SSCs) and out-of-tolerance conditions. In addition to recommending design mitigation features, the analysis identifies the potential need for procedures, training, or Job Safety Analyses (JSAs). The inclusion of this information in the SSA is intended to assist the organization(s) (e.g., constructor, Safety and Health, design) responsible for these aspects of the East-West Drift in evaluating personnel hazards and augment the information developed by these organizations. The SSA is an integral part of the systems engineering process, whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach is used which incorporates operating experiences and recommendations from vendors, the constructor and the operating contractor. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the scenarios associated with East-West Drift SSCs in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified hazards. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into SSC designs. (2) Add safety features and capabilities to existing designs. (3) Develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, reduce exposure to hazards, and inform personnel of the

  12. Dynamics of the Josephson multi-junction system with junctions characterized by non-sinusoidal current - phase relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abal'osheva, I.; Lewandowski, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that the inclusion of junctions characterized by non-sinusoidal current - phase relationship in the systems composed of multiple Josephson junctions - results in the appearance of additional system phase states. Numerical simulations and stability considerations confirm that those phase states can be realized in practice. Moreover, spontaneous formation of the grain boundary junctions in high-T c superconductors with non-trivial current-phase relations due to the d-wave symmetry of the order parameter is probable. Switching between the phase states of multiple grain boundary junction systems can lead to additional 1/f noise in high-T c superconductors. (author)

  13. Characterization of the neutron irradiation system for use in the Low-Dose-Rate Irradiation Facility at Sandia National Laboratories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Manuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this work was to characterize the neutron irradiation system consisting of americium-241 beryllium (241AmBe) neutron sources placed in a polyethylene shielding for use at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Low Dose Rate Irradiation Facility (LDRIF). With a total activity of 0.3 TBq (9 Ci), the source consisted of three recycled 241AmBe sources of different activities that had been combined into a single source. The source in its polyethylene shielding will be used in neutron irradiation testing of components. The characterization of the source-shielding system was necessary to evaluate the radiation environment for future experiments. Characterization of the source was also necessary because the documentation for the three component sources and their relative alignment within the Special Form Capsule (SFC) was inadequate. The system consisting of the source and shielding was modeled using Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code (MCNP). The model was validated by benchmarking it against measurements using multiple techniques. To characterize the radiation fields over the full spatial geometry of the irradiation system, it was necessary to use a number of instruments of varying sensitivities. First, the computed photon radiography assisted in determining orientation of the component sources. With the capsule properly oriented inside the shielding, the neutron spectra were measured using a variety of techniques. A N-probe Microspec and a neutron Bubble Dosimeter Spectrometer (BDS) set were used to characterize the neutron spectra/field in several locations. In the third technique, neutron foil activation was used to ascertain the neutron spectra. A high purity germanium (HPGe) detector was used to characterize the photon spectrum. The experimentally measured spectra and the MCNP results compared well. Once the MCNP model was validated to an adequate level of confidence, parametric analyses was performed on the model to optimize for potential

  14. Enhanced oral bioavailability of fenofibrate using polymeric nanoparticulated systems: physicochemical characterization and in vivo investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousaf AM

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abid Mehmood Yousaf,1 Dong Wuk Kim,1 Yu-Kyoung Oh,2 Chul Soon Yong,3 Jong Oh Kim,3 Han-Gon Choi11College of Pharmacy and Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Hanyang University, Ansan, 2College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul, 3College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyongsan, South KoreaBackground: The intention of this research was to prepare and compare various solubility-enhancing nanoparticulated systems in order to select a nanoparticulated formulation with the most improved oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble fenofibrate.Methods: The most appropriate excipients for different nanoparticulated preparations were selected by determining the drug solubility in 1% (w/v aqueous solutions of each carrier. The polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP nanospheres, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD nanocorpuscles, and gelatin nanocapsules were formulated as fenofibrate/PVP/sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS, fenofibrate/HP-β-CD, and fenofibrate/gelatin at the optimized weight ratios of 2.5:4.5:1, 1:4, and 1:8, respectively. The three solid-state products were achieved using the solvent-evaporation method through the spray-drying technique. The physicochemical characterization of these nanoparticles was accomplished by powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Their physicochemical properties, aqueous solubility, dissolution rate, and pharmacokinetics in rats were investigated in comparison with the drug powder.Results: Among the tested carriers, PVP, HP-β-CD, gelatin, and SLS showed better solubility and were selected as the most appropriate constituents for various nanoparticulated systems. All of the formulations significantly improved the aqueous solubility, dissolution rate, and oral bioavailability of fenofibrate compared to the drug powder. The drug was present in the amorphous form in HP-β-CD nanocorpuscles; however, in

  15. Reliable underwater dipole source characterization in 3D space by an optimally designed artificial lateral line system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrari, Ali; Lei, Hong; Sharif, Montassar Aidi; Deb, Kalyanmoy; Tan, Xiaobo

    2017-04-19

    Inspired by the lateral line of aquatic vertebrates, an artificial lateral line (ALL) system can localize and track an underwater moving object by analyzing the ambient flow caused by its motion. There are several studies on object detection, localization and tracking by ALL systems, but only a few have investigated the optimal design of the ALL system, the one that on average provides the highest characterization accuracy. Design optimization is particularly important because the uncertainties in the employed flow model and in sensor measurements deteriorate the reliability of sensing. This study investigates the optimal design of the ALL system in three-dimensional (3D) space for dipole source characterization. It highlights some challenges specific to the 3D setting and demonstrates the shortcomings of the designs in which all sensors and their sensing directions are in the same plane. As an alternative, it proposes two design concepts, called 'Offset Strategy' and 'Angle Strategy' to overcome these shortcomings. It investigates potentials of having a swarm of cooperative ALLs as well. It performs design optimization in the presence of sensor and model uncertainties and analyzes the trade-off between the number of sensors and characterization accuracy. The obtained solutions are analyzed to reveal their strategies in solving the problem efficiently. The dependency of the optimized solutions on the uncertainties is also demonstrated.

  16. Characterization of a smartphone size haptic rendering system based on thin-film AlN actuators on glass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, F; Basrour, S; Casset, F; Danel, J S; Chappaz, C

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents for the first time the characterization of a smartphone-size haptic rendering system based on the friction modulation effect. According to previous work and finite element modeling, the homogeneous flexural modes are needed to get the haptic feedback effect. The device studied consists of a thin film AlN transducers deposited on an 110  ×  65 mm 2 glass substrate. The transducer’s localization on the glass plate allows a transparent central area of 90  ×  49 mm 2 . Electrical and mechanical parameters of the system are extracted from measurement. From this extraction, the electrical impedance matching reduced the applied voltage to 17.5 V AC and the power consumption to 1.53 W at the resonance frequency of the vibrating system to reach the haptic rendering specification. Transient characterizations of the actuation highlight a delay under the dynamic tactile detection. The characterization of the AlN transducers used as sensors, including the noise rejection, the delay or the output charge amplitude allows detections with high accuracy of any variation due to external influences. Those specifications are the first step to a low-power-consumption feedback-looped system. (paper)

  17. In vivo characterization of a reporter gene system for imaging hypoxia-induced gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlin, Sean; Pugachev, Andrei; Sun Xiaorong; Burke, Sean; Claus, Filip; O'Donoghue, Joseph; Ling, C. Clifton; Humm, John L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize a tumor model containing a hypoxia-inducible reporter gene and to demonstrate utility by comparison of reporter gene expression to the uptake and distribution of the hypoxia tracer 18 F-fluoromisonidazole ( 18 F-FMISO). Methods: Three tumors derived from the rat prostate cancer cell line R3327-AT were grown in each of two rats as follows: (1) parental R3327-AT, (2) positive control R3327-AT/PC in which the HSV1-tkeGFP fusion reporter gene was expressed constitutively, (3) R3327-AT/HRE in which the reporter gene was placed under the control of a hypoxia-inducible factor-responsive promoter sequence (HRE). Animals were coadministered a hypoxia-specific marker (pimonidazole) and the reporter gene probe 124 I-2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-1-β-D-arabinofuranosyl-5-iodouracil ( 124 I-FIAU) 3 h prior to sacrifice. Statistical analysis of the spatial association between 124 I-FIAU uptake and pimonidazole fluorescent staining intensity was then performed on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Utility of this system was demonstrated by assessment of reporter gene expression versus the exogenous hypoxia probe 18 F-FMISO. Two rats, each bearing a single R3327-AT/HRE tumor, were injected with 124 I-FIAU (3 h before sacrifice) and 18 F-FMISO (2 h before sacrifice). Statistical analysis of the spatial association between 18 F-FMISO and 124 I-FIAU on a pixel-by-pixel basis was performed. Results: Correlation coefficients between 124 I-FIAU uptake and pimonidazole staining intensity were: 0.11 in R3327-AT tumors, -0.66 in R3327-AT/PC and 0.76 in R3327-AT/HRE, confirming that only in the R3327-AT/HRE tumor was HSV1-tkeGFP gene expression associated with hypoxia. Correlation coefficients between 18 F-FMISO and 124 I-FIAU uptakes in R3327-AT/HRE tumors were r=0.56, demonstrating good spatial correspondence between the two tracers. Conclusions: We have confirmed hypoxia-specific expression of the HSV1-tkeGFP fusion gene in the R3327-AT/HRE tumor model and demonstrated the utility of

  18. Characterizing the effects of feature salience and top-down attention in the early visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltoratski, Sonia; Ling, Sam; McCormack, Devin; Tong, Frank

    2017-07-01

    The visual system employs a sophisticated balance of attentional mechanisms: salient stimuli are prioritized for visual processing, yet observers can also ignore such stimuli when their goals require directing attention elsewhere. A powerful determinant of visual salience is local feature contrast: if a local region differs from its immediate surround along one or more feature dimensions, it will appear more salient. We used high-resolution functional MRI (fMRI) at 7T to characterize the modulatory effects of bottom-up salience and top-down voluntary attention within multiple sites along the early visual pathway, including visual areas V1-V4 and the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). Observers viewed arrays of spatially distributed gratings, where one of the gratings immediately to the left or right of fixation differed from all other items in orientation or motion direction, making it salient. To investigate the effects of directed attention, observers were cued to attend to the grating to the left or right of fixation, which was either salient or nonsalient. Results revealed reliable additive effects of top-down attention and stimulus-driven salience throughout visual areas V1-hV4. In comparison, the LGN exhibited significant attentional enhancement but was not reliably modulated by orientation- or motion-defined salience. Our findings indicate that top-down effects of spatial attention can influence visual processing at the earliest possible site along the visual pathway, including the LGN, whereas the processing of orientation- and motion-driven salience primarily involves feature-selective interactions that take place in early cortical visual areas. NEW & NOTEWORTHY While spatial attention allows for specific, goal-driven enhancement of stimuli, salient items outside of the current focus of attention must also be prioritized. We used 7T fMRI to compare salience and spatial attentional enhancement along the early visual hierarchy. We report additive effects of

  19. Preparation and characterization of 6-mercaptopurine-coated magnetite nanoparticles as a drug delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorniani D

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dena Dorniani,1 Mohd Zobir bin Hussein,1 Aminu Umar Kura,2 Sharida Fakurazi,2 Abdul Halim Shaari,3 Zalinah Ahmad4 1Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology, 2Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics Laboratory, 3Physics Department, Faculty of Science, 4Chemical Pathology Unit, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia Background: Iron oxide nanoparticles are of considerable interest because of their use in magnetic recording tape, ferrofluid, magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery, and treatment of cancer. The specific morphology of nanoparticles confers an ability to load, carry, and release different types of drugs. Methods and results: We synthesized superparamagnetic nanoparticles containing pure iron oxide with a cubic inverse spinal structure. Fourier transform infrared spectra confirmed that these Fe3O4 nanoparticles could be successfully coated with active drug, and thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analyses showed that the thermal stability of iron oxide nanoparticles coated with chitosan and 6-mercaptopurine (FCMP was markedly enhanced. The synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles and the FCMP nanocomposite were generally spherical, with an average diameter of 9 nm and 19 nm, respectively. The release of 6-mercaptopurine from the FCMP nanocomposite was found to be sustained and governed by pseudo-second order kinetics. In order to improve drug loading and release behavior, we prepared a novel nanocomposite (FCMP-D, ie, Fe3O4 nanoparticles containing the same amounts of chitosan and 6-mercaptopurine but using a different solvent for the drug. The results for FCMP-D did not demonstrate “burst release” and the maximum percentage release of 6-mercaptopurine from the FCMP-D nanocomposite reached about 97.7% and 55.4% within approximately 2,500 and 6,300 minutes when exposed to pH 4.8 and pH 7.4 solutions, respectively

  20. Preliminary plan for disposal-system characterization and long-term performance evaluation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertram-Howery, S.G.; Hunter, R.L.

    1989-04-01

    The US Department of Energy is planning to dispose of transuranic wastes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. Sandia National Laboratories is responsible for evaluating the compliance of the WIPP with the Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). This plan has been developed to present the issues that will be addressed before compliance can be evaluated. These issues examine the procedural nature of the Standard, and the technical requirements for further characterizing the behavior of the disposal system, including uncertainties, to support the compliance assessment. The plan briefly describes the activities that will be conducted prior to 1993 by Sandia to characterize the WIPP disposal system's behavior and predict its performance. 41 refs., 35 figs., 21 tabs

  1. Conceptual characterization of the system of fractures of the rock mass known as Sierra del Medio (Chubut)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventura, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    This work characterizes conceptually the system of fractures of the rock mass known as Sierra del Medio and its surroundings. The purpose of this characterization is to define the spectra of flow regimes which must be covered in computational models to be used in the prediction of the thermohydraulic effects of the eventual emplacement of a high-level radioactive waste repository. The analysis of the available data from previous studies was performed in order to determine qualitative data to be used in the stage of feasibility studied. The flow of water roughly N-S is defined by two systems of vertical, almost orthogonal fractures and surrounded by large faults. A set of hypotheses were considered which allow, supposing a given distribution of surface fractures, to establish the variations according to depth. The usual ways of obtaining the permeability and the hydraulic conductivity in fractured porous media are summarized in an appendix. (Author) [es

  2. Characterization of radiation-induced apoptosis in developing central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M.R.; Gisone, P.; Dubner, D.; Michelin, S.; Sanjurjo, J.

    2000-01-01

    Prenatal exposures to ionizing radiation may cause a variety of effects on Central Nervous System (CNS) including microcephaly, severe mental retardation and lower intelligence tests score. The highest risks occur between 8 and 15 week of gestational age, simultaneously with the greatest neuroblastic proliferation and migration to cerebral cortex. It has been shown that radiation induce apoptosis in CNS, primarily in neonatal or early postnatal brain. At the same time, programmed cell death plays an important role in normal development of embrionic tissues, especially in the neuronal system. The purpose of the present study was the characterization and quantification of the apoptosis, the effectivity of different neuroprotectors, and the involvement of the caspase-3 in the programmed cellular death in our model. Evidence for apoptotic like features included: apoptotic nuclei observed by conventional and fluorescent staining, analysis of DNA fragmentation in agarosa gels and flow cytometric quantification. To gain an insight about the neuroprotective effect of different modulators of neuroprotection, it has been tested: Protein synthesis inhibitor, Compounds capable of reducing the effect of oxidative stress, Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors and glutamate receptor antagonists. Cerebrocortical micromass cultures were prepared from fetuses of Wistar rats removed between 15 and 19 embronic day (ED) and 5 postnatal day (PN). Irradiation was performed two hours after seeding, with a Co60 source and a fast beam of the research reactor RA1 with a neutron-gamma field. Conventional staining was performed with May Grunwald Giemsa. Fluorescent staining consisted in a mixture of Propidium iodide (IP), fluorescein diacetate (FDA) and Hoescht 33342. Analysis of DNA fragmentation was carried out on 1,8% agarosa gel stained with ethidium bromide, visualized and photographed by UV illumination. Caspase-3 activation was performed using ApoAlert TM Kit. The quantification of

  3. An enhanced Enterovirus surveillance system allows identification and characterization of rare and emerging respiratory enteroviruses in Denmark, 2015-16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnadas, Céline; Midgley, Sofie E; Skov, Marianne N; Jensen, Lotte; Poulsen, Mille W; Fischer, Thea Kølsen

    2017-08-01

    The potential for outbreaks due to Enteroviruses (EV) with respiratory tropism, such as EV-D68, and the detection of new and rare EV species C is a concern. These EVs are typically not detected in stool specimens and may therefore be missed by standard EV surveillance systems. Following the North American outbreak of EV-D68 in 2014, Denmark piloted an enhanced EV surveillance system that included the screening of respiratory samples. We aim to report clinical manifestations and phylogenetic descriptions from the rare and emerging EVs identified thereby demonstrating the usefulness of this system. Positive EV samples received through the enhanced non-polio EV pilot surveillance system were characterized by sequencing fragments of VP1, VP2 and VP4 capsid proteins and clinical observations were compiled. Between January 2015 and October 2016, six cases of rare genotypes EV-C104, C105 and C109 and nine cases of EV-D68 were identified. Patients presented with mild to moderately severe respiratory illness; no paralysis occurred. Distinct EV-C104, EV-C109 and EV-D68 sequences argue against a common source of introduction of these genotypes in the Danish population. The enhanced EV surveillance system enabled detection and characterization of rare EVs in Denmark. In order to improve our knowledge of and our preparedness against emerging EVs, public health laboratories should consider expanding their EV surveillance system to include respiratory specimens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A new ground-penetrating radar system for remote site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, K.C.; Sandness, G.A.

    1994-08-01

    The cleanup of waste burial sites and military bombing ranges involves the risk of exposing field personnel to toxic chemicals, radioactive materials, or unexploded munitions. Time-consuming and costly measures are required to provide protection from those hazards. Therefore, there is a growing interest in developing remotely controlled sensors and sensor platforms that can be employed in site characterization surveys. A specialized ground-penetrating radar has been developed to operate on a remotely controlled vehicle for the non-intrusive subsurface characterization of buried waste sites. Improved radar circuits provide enhanced performance, and an embedded microprocessor dynamically optimizes operation. The radar unit is packaged to survive chemical contamination and decontamination

  5. Characterization of Novel Gel Casting System to Make Complex Shaped Aluminum Oxide (Al2O3) Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    bodies will Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 6 dissolve in water) and on sintered bodies using Archimedes principle ...robustly characterize the ISOBAM gel-casting system so that it is better understood and can be tailored to specific applications . This report describes...enhance properties for intended application as a laser host media), and magnesium (sintering aid, 250 ppm) were dissolved in water and added drop-wise

  6. Characterization and in vitro permeation study of microemulsions and liquid crystalline systems containing the anticholinesterase alkaloidal extract from Tabernaemontana divaricata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiyana, Wantida; Rades, Thomas; Okonogi, Siriporn

    2013-01-01

    and water with the oil:surfactant ratios of 1:5 and 2:5. The formulations were characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy, polarizing light microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and viscosity measurement. A reverse micellar phase, w/o microemulsions, liquid crystalline systems, liquid crystal...... oil/Triton X-114/ethanol/water may act as an alternative percutanous formulations for enhancing the acetylcholine level in Alzheimer's patients....

  7. Characterization of a quantum phase transition in Dirac systems by means of the wave-packet dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Romera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We study the signatures of phase transitions in the time evolution of wave-packets by analyzing two simple model systems: a graphene quantum dot model in a magnetic field and a Dirac oscillator in a magnetic field. We have characterized the phase transitions using the autocorrelation function. Our work also reveals that the description in terms of Shannon entropy of the autocorrelation function is a clear phase transition indicator.

  8. Extractables characterization for five materials of construction representative of packaging systems used for parenteral and ophthalmic drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenke, Dennis; Castner, James; Egert, Thomas; Feinberg, Tom; Hendricker, Alan; Houston, Christopher; Hunt, Desmond G; Lynch, Michael; Shaw, Arthur; Nicholas, Kumudini; Norwood, Daniel L; Paskiet, Diane; Ruberto, Michael; Smith, Edward J; Holcomb, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Polymeric and elastomeric materials are commonly encountered in medical devices and packaging systems used to manufacture, store, deliver, and/or administer drug products. Characterizing extractables from such materials is a necessary step in establishing their suitability for use in these applications. In this study, five individual materials representative of polymers and elastomers commonly used in packaging systems and devices were extracted under conditions and with solvents that are relevant to parenteral and ophthalmic drug products (PODPs). Extraction methods included elevated temperature sealed vessel extraction, sonication, refluxing, and Soxhlet extraction. Extraction solvents included a low-pH (pH = 2.5) salt mixture, a high-pH (pH = 9.5) phosphate buffer, a 1/1 isopropanol/water mixture, isopropanol, and hexane. The resulting extracts were chemically characterized via spectroscopic and chromatographic means to establish the metal/trace element and organic extractables profiles. Additionally, the test articles themselves were tested for volatile organic substances. The results of this testing established the extractables profiles of the test articles, which are reported herein. Trends in the extractables, and their estimated concentrations, as a function of the extraction and testing methodologies are considered in the context of the use of the test article in medical applications and with respect to establishing best demonstrated practices for extractables profiling of materials used in PODP-related packaging systems and devices. Plastic and rubber materials are commonly encountered in medical devices and packaging/delivery systems for drug products. Characterizing the extractables from these materials is an important part of determining that they are suitable for use. In this study, five materials representative of plastics and rubbers used in packaging and medical devices were extracted by several means, and the extracts were analytically

  9. Project, construction and characterization of ionization chambers for use as standard systems in X and gamma radiation beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perini, Ana Paula

    2013-01-01

    Ionization chambers present some advantages in relation to other dosimeters: easiness of handling, low energy dependence and high precision. The advantages associated to ionization chambers and the large number of diagnostic radiology exams and therapeutic treatments motivated the development of this PhD program. In this project ionization chambers were developed and characterized to be applied in diagnostic radiology and therapy beam dosimetry, with high precision and performance, in compliance with international recommendations. They were assembled in a simple way, utilizing low-cost national materials, so they can be reproduced and applied at calibration laboratories. The project of these ionization chambers presents some differences in relation to commercial ionization chambers, as the materials utilized and geometrical arrangements. Besides the development of the ionization chambers to be utilized in standard X-ray beam dosimetry as work standard systems, two graphite parallel-plate ionization chambers were developed and characterized to be applied as reference standard systems for determining the air kerma rates of gamma radiation sources. Comparing the air kerma rates determined with the reference standard of the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN, a Farmer ionization chamber, with the values of the air kerma rates obtained with the graphite ionization chambers, the maximum differences obtained were only 1.7% and 1.2% for the G1 and G2 graphite ionization chambers, respectively. Moreover, these ionization chambers presented correction factors close to 1.000, which is ideal for an ionization chamber be characterized as a reference standard system. (author)

  10. First occurrence of the Salvador Formation in the Jatobá Basin (Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil): Facies characterization and depositional systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Bruno Ludovico Dihl; Melo Ferrer de Morais, Débora

    2016-12-01

    Fan deltas, constituting proximal depositional systems adjacent to boundary faults, are common features associated with rift basins. The Cretaceous fan delta systems of the Salvador Formation, deposited during the rift phase of the Recôncavo-Tucano-Jatobá Basin, were first reported in the Recôncavo Basin and later discovered in the Tucano Basin. Because of the absence of any outcrops in the Jatobá Basin until now, these alluvial fans were interpreted solely through seismic analysis. We report the first revealed outcrops of the Salvador Formation in that basin and characterize their depositional systems as interlayered with the lacustrine Candeias Formation. Based on facies and architecture, the alluvial system can be subdivided into three associations: (1) proximal fan delta, characterized by meter-scale conglomerate bodies with a predominance of boulders and cobbles with thin sandstone layers; (2) distal fan delta, characterized by sheet-like pebble conglomerate and sandstone layers with flame and load structures; and (3) lacustrine, further subdivided into shallow lake facies reddish shales and mudstones with oolitic limestones and deep lake facies grey to green shales with pyrite. Paleocurrent measurements for the proximal fan association show paleoflow direction varying from SW to SE, which is expected for the rift phase alluvial system. The Recôncavo-Tucano-Jatobá rift system has two conglomeratic units, namely the Salvador and Marizal Formations, the former a syn-rift and the latter a post-rift unit. The absence of sedimentary clasts in the conglomerates, very low maturity, the presence of giant clasts, and a visible relationship between boundary faults in the outcrop, define the syn-rift Salvador Formation characteristics. Based on the facies and paleocurrent analyses, the Salvador Formation deposits in Jatobá Basin were interpreted as a deposition of a debris flow-dominated fan delta, indicating the lacustrine setting represented by the Candeias

  11. A 1 kA-class cryogen-free critical current characterization system for superconducting coated conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, N M; Hoffmann, C; Wimbush, S C

    2014-11-01

    A cryogenic electrical transport measurement system is described that is particularly designed to meet the requirements for routine and effective characterization of commercial second generation high-temperature superconducting (HTS) wires in the form of coated conductors based on YBa2Cu3O7. Specific design parameters include a base temperature of 20 K, an applied magnetic field capability of 8 T (provided by a HTS split-coil magnet), and a measurement current capacity approaching 1 kA. The system accommodates samples up to 12 mm in width (the widest conductor size presently commercially available) and 40 mm long, although this is not a limiting size. The sample is able to be rotated freely with respect to the magnetic field direction about an axis parallel to the current flow, producing field angle variations in the standard maximum Lorentz force configuration. The system is completely free of liquid cryogens for both sample cooling and magnet cool-down and operation. Software enables the system to conduct a full characterization of the temperature, magnetic field, and field angle dependence of the critical current of a sample without any user interaction. The system has successfully been used to measure a wide range of experimental and commercially-available superconducting wire samples sourced from different manufacturers across the full range of operating conditions. The system encapsulates significant advances in HTS magnet design and efficient cryogen-free cooling technologies together with the capability for routine and automated high-current electrical transport measurements at cryogenic temperatures. It will be of interest to both research scientists investigating superconductor behavior and commercial wire manufacturers seeking to accurately characterize the performance of their product under all desired operating conditions.

  12. Design, characterization and modelling of high efficient solar powered lighting systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Frederik; Nymann, Peter; Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the major challenges in the development of L2L (Light-2-Light) products. It’s the lack of efficient converter electronics, modelling tools for dimensioning and furthermore, characterization facilities to support the successful development of the products. We report th...

  13. Characterization of small intestinal pressure waves in ambulant subjects recorded with a novel portable manometric system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samsom, M.; Fraser, R.; Smout, A. J.; Verhagen, M. A.; Adachi, K.; Horowitz, M.; Dent, J.

    1999-01-01

    The organization of lumen-occlusive pressure waves is believed to be an important determinant of luminal flow. At present, little is known about the organization of small intestinal pressure waves in humans. The aim of the present study was to characterize the spatiotemporal organization of small

  14. Contribution to the characterization of the anelastic properties of multi-phase systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzolai, F.M.

    1981-01-01

    A characterization of the various kinds of acoustical effects associated with phase transformations is presented. Some previous theoretical approaches and experimental results concerning diffusion - assisted processes are briefly outlined, mainly for the purpose of illustrating the contributions given to this subject by the present conference

  15. Equational characterization for two-valued states in orthomodular quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenech, G.; Freytes, H.; de Ronde, C.

    In this paper we develop an algebraic framework in which several classes of two-valued states over orthomodular lattices may be equationally characterized. The class of two-valued states and the subclass of Jauch-Piron two-valued states are among the classes which we study.

  16. Identification and molecular characterization of an efflux system involved in Pseudomonas putida 12 multidrug resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kieboom, J.; Bont, de J.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The authors previously described srpABC, an operon involved in proton-dependent solvent efflux in the solvent-tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12. Recently, it was shown that organic solvents and not antibiotics induce this operon. In the present study, the authors characterize a new efflux pump,