WorldWideScience

Sample records for single-ion detection method

  1. A simple and rapid method for high-resolution visualization of single-ion tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Omichi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Prompt determination of spatial points of single-ion tracks plays a key role in high-energy particle induced-cancer therapy and gene/plant mutations. In this study, a simple method for the high-resolution visualization of single-ion tracks without etching was developed through the use of polyacrylic acid (PAA-N, N’-methylene bisacrylamide (MBAAm blend films. One of the steps of the proposed method includes exposure of the irradiated films to water vapor for several minutes. Water vapor was found to promote the cross-linking reaction of PAA and MBAAm to form a bulky cross-linked structure; the ion-track scars were detectable at a nanometer scale by atomic force microscopy. This study demonstrated that each scar is easily distinguishable, and the amount of generated radicals of the ion tracks can be estimated by measuring the height of the scars, even in highly dense ion tracks. This method is suitable for the visualization of the penumbra region in a single-ion track with a high spatial resolution of 50 nm, which is sufficiently small to confirm that a single ion hits a cell nucleus with a size ranging between 5 and 20 μm.

  2. Single ion impact detection and scanning probe aligned ion implantation for quantum bit formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weis, Christoph D.

    2011-01-01

    Quantum computing and quantum information processing is a promising path to replace classical information processing via conventional computers which are approaching fundamental physical limits. Instead of classical bits, quantum bits (qubits) are utilized for computing operations. Due to quantum mechanical phenomena such as superposition and entanglement, a completely different way of information processing is achieved, enabling enhanced performance for certain problem sets. Various proposals exist on how to realize a quantum bit. Among them are electron or nuclear spins of defect centers in solid state systems. Two such candidates with spin degree of freedom are single donor atoms in silicon and nitrogen vacancy (NV) defect centers in diamond. Both qubit candidates possess extraordinary qualities which makes them promising building blocks. Besides certain advantages, the qubits share the necessity to be placed precisely in their host materials and device structures. A commonly used method is to introduce the donor atoms into the substrate materials via ion implantation. For this, focused ion beam systems can be used, or collimation techniques as in this work. A broad ion beam hits the back of a scanning probe microscope (SPM) cantilever with incorporated apertures. The high resolution imaging capabilities of the SPM allows the non destructive location of device areas and the alignment of the cantilever and thus collimated ion beam spot to the desired implant locations. In this work, this technique is explored, applied and pushed forward to meet necessary precision requirements. The alignment of the ion beam to surface features, which are sensitive to ion impacts and thus act as detectors, is demonstrated. The technique is also used to create NV center arrays in diamond substrates. Further, single ion impacts into silicon device structures are detected which enables deliberate single ion doping.

  3. Single ion impact detection and scanning probe aligned ion implantation for quantum bit formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis, Christoph D.

    2011-10-04

    Quantum computing and quantum information processing is a promising path to replace classical information processing via conventional computers which are approaching fundamental physical limits. Instead of classical bits, quantum bits (qubits) are utilized for computing operations. Due to quantum mechanical phenomena such as superposition and entanglement, a completely different way of information processing is achieved, enabling enhanced performance for certain problem sets. Various proposals exist on how to realize a quantum bit. Among them are electron or nuclear spins of defect centers in solid state systems. Two such candidates with spin degree of freedom are single donor atoms in silicon and nitrogen vacancy (NV) defect centers in diamond. Both qubit candidates possess extraordinary qualities which makes them promising building blocks. Besides certain advantages, the qubits share the necessity to be placed precisely in their host materials and device structures. A commonly used method is to introduce the donor atoms into the substrate materials via ion implantation. For this, focused ion beam systems can be used, or collimation techniques as in this work. A broad ion beam hits the back of a scanning probe microscope (SPM) cantilever with incorporated apertures. The high resolution imaging capabilities of the SPM allows the non destructive location of device areas and the alignment of the cantilever and thus collimated ion beam spot to the desired implant locations. In this work, this technique is explored, applied and pushed forward to meet necessary precision requirements. The alignment of the ion beam to surface features, which are sensitive to ion impacts and thus act as detectors, is demonstrated. The technique is also used to create NV center arrays in diamond substrates. Further, single ion impacts into silicon device structures are detected which enables deliberate single ion doping.

  4. Towards single Ce ion detection in a bulk crystal for the development of a single-ion qubit readout scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Ying

    2013-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis was concerned with investigating the relevant spectroscopic properties of Ce ions randomly doped in an Y2SiO5 crystal at low temperatures (around 4 K), in order to develop a technique and an experimental set-up to detect the fluorescence photons emitted by a single Ce ion. The aim of the work was to determine whether a single Ce ion (referred to as the readout ion) can be used as a local probe to sense the quantum state of a neighbouring single-ion qubit via ...

  5. High-fidelity state detection and tomography of a single-ion Zeeman qubit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keselman, A; Glickman, Y; Akerman, N; Kotler, S; Ozeri, R

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate high-fidelity Zeeman qubit state detection in a single trapped 88 Sr + ion. Qubit readout is performed by shelving one of the qubit states to a metastable level using a narrow linewidth diode laser at 674 nm, followed by state-selective fluorescence detection. The average fidelity reached for the readout of the qubit state is 0.9989(1). We then measure the fidelity of state tomography, averaged over all possible single-qubit states, which is 0.9979(2). We also fully characterize the detection process using quantum process tomography. This readout fidelity is compatible with recent estimates of the detection error threshold required for fault-tolerant computation, whereas high-fidelity state tomography opens the way for high-precision quantum process tomography.

  6. High-fidelity state detection and tomography of a single-ion Zeeman qubit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keselman, A; Glickman, Y; Akerman, N; Kotler, S; Ozeri, R, E-mail: ozeri@weizmann.ac.il [Physics of Complex Systems, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2011-07-15

    We demonstrate high-fidelity Zeeman qubit state detection in a single trapped {sup 88}Sr{sup +} ion. Qubit readout is performed by shelving one of the qubit states to a metastable level using a narrow linewidth diode laser at 674 nm, followed by state-selective fluorescence detection. The average fidelity reached for the readout of the qubit state is 0.9989(1). We then measure the fidelity of state tomography, averaged over all possible single-qubit states, which is 0.9979(2). We also fully characterize the detection process using quantum process tomography. This readout fidelity is compatible with recent estimates of the detection error threshold required for fault-tolerant computation, whereas high-fidelity state tomography opens the way for high-precision quantum process tomography.

  7. Secondary electron emission from boron-doped diamond under ion impact: Applications in single-ion detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, T.; Cholewa, M.; Saint, A.; Prawer, S.; Legge, G.J.; Butler, J.E.; Vestyck, D.J. , Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The secondary electron emission from a 2 μm thick boron-doped diamond film under ion (4.6 endash 7.7 MeV He + )impact is reported. The yield under ions impact is found to be remarkably high, stable over a period of many months, and independent of which side of the film (i.e., growth or substrate side) is exposed to the ion flux. By taking advantage of the high secondary-electron yield, the passage of each ion through the film could be detected with an efficiency of close to 100%, which to the best of our knowledge is the highest efficiency recorded to date for any thin-film window. This finding has an immediate application in single-ion irradiation systems where a thin vacuum window is required to allow extraction of an ion beam from the vacuum into air and at the same time offer 100% efficiency for the detection of the passage of the ion through the window. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  8. Single ion counting with a MCP (microchannel plate) detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawara, Hiroko; Sasaki, Shinichi; Miyajima, Mitsuhiro [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Shibamura, Eido

    1996-07-01

    In this study, a single-ion-counting method using alpha-particle-impact ionization of Ar atoms is demonstrated and the preliminary {epsilon}{sub mcp} for Ar ions with incident energies of 3 to 4.7 keV is determined. The single-ion counting by the MCP is aimed to be performed under experimental conditions as follows: (1) A signal from the MCP is reasonably identified as incidence of single Ar-ion. (2) The counting rate of Ar ions is less than 1 s{sup -1}. (3) The incident Ar ions are not focused on a small part of an active area of the MCP, namely, {epsilon}{sub mcp} is determined with respect to the whole active area of the MCP. So far, any absolute detection efficiency has not been reported under these conditions. (J.P.N.)

  9. Single ion dynamics in molten sodium bromide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz, O.; Trullas, J. [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Demmel, F. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-28

    We present a study on the single ion dynamics in the molten alkali halide NaBr. Quasielastic neutron scattering was employed to extract the self-diffusion coefficient of the sodium ions at three temperatures. Molecular dynamics simulations using rigid and polarizable ion models have been performed in parallel to extract the sodium and bromide single dynamics and ionic conductivities. Two methods have been employed to derive the ion diffusion, calculating the mean squared displacements and the velocity autocorrelation functions, as well as analysing the increase of the line widths of the self-dynamic structure factors. The sodium diffusion coefficients show a remarkable good agreement between experiment and simulation utilising the polarisable potential.

  10. Development of a keV single-ion-implanter for nanofabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.; Jamieson, D.N.; Hopf, T.; Tamanyan, G.; Spizziri, P.; Pakes, C.; Andresen, S.E.; Hudson, F.; Gauja, E.; Dzurak, A.; Clark, R.G.

    2005-01-01

    Traditional methods of doping semiconductors have a difficulty meeting the demand for high precision doping due to large statistical fluctuations in the numbers of dopant atoms introduced in the ever shrinking volume in micro- and nano-electronics devices, especially when the fabrication process approaches the nanometre scale. The statistical fluctuations in doping semiconductors for the fabrication of devices with a very small feature size may lead to inconsistent and unreliable performance. This paper describes the adaptation of a commercial ion implanter into a single-ion-implantation system for the accurate delivery of dopants into a nanometre or micrometre area in a silicon substrate. All the implanted ions can be accurately counted with near 100% certainty through online detection using the silicon substrate itself as an ion detector. A variety of ion species including B + , N + , P + at the energy range of 10-15 keV can be delivered in the single ion implantation system. (author). 6 refs., 6 figs

  11. Toward Molecular 4f Single-Ion Magnet Qubits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Kasper S; Ariciu, Ana-Maria; McAdams, Simon; Weihe, Høgni; Bendix, Jesper; Tuna, Floriana; Piligkos, Stergios

    2016-05-11

    Quantum coherence is detected in the 4f single-ion magnet (SIM) Yb(trensal), by isotope selective pulsed EPR spectroscopy on an oriented single crystal. At X-band, the spin-lattice relaxation (T1) and phase memory (Tm) times are found to be independent of the nuclei bearing, or not, a nuclear spin. The observation of Rabi oscillations of the spin echo demonstrates the possibility to coherently manipulate the system for more than 70 rotations. This renders Yb(trensal), a sublimable and chemically modifiable SIM, an excellent candidate for quantum information processing.

  12. Error detection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Eric J.

    2013-06-11

    An apparatus, program product, and method that run an algorithm on a hardware based processor, generate a hardware error as a result of running the algorithm, generate an algorithm output for the algorithm, compare the algorithm output to another output for the algorithm, and detect the hardware error from the comparison. The algorithm is designed to cause the hardware based processor to heat to a degree that increases the likelihood of hardware errors to manifest, and the hardware error is observable in the algorithm output. As such, electronic components may be sufficiently heated and/or sufficiently stressed to create better conditions for generating hardware errors, and the output of the algorithm may be compared at the end of the run to detect a hardware error that occurred anywhere during the run that may otherwise not be detected by traditional methodologies (e.g., due to cooling, insufficient heat and/or stress, etc.).

  13. Design of a single ion facility and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cholewa, M.; Saint, A.; Legge, G.J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    The use of micro-irradiation techniques in radiobiology is not new; however, the current techniques take advantage of recent developments in particle delivery, focussing detection, image processing, cell recognition and computer control. These developments have generally come from other fields, for example microbeam elemental analysis techniques and single-event upset testing of semiconductor devices. Also in radiation biology there have been important advances in developments of individual cell assays, which allow a wide range of endpoints to be studied with good accuracy at low doses. Many of the studies that are planned involve following the responses of individual cells after a programmed exposure to charged-particle traversals. To probe the radiation sensitivity of a single cell and/or its constituents with a submicron resolution several developments are needed. The essential parameters of the proposed system can be summarised as follows: a focussed beam of ions of 300nm or less at the cell; a reliable (close to 100%) single ion detection; a fast beam switch to prevent second hits; a target holder adapted for the irradiation of wet cells and a fully automated system for cell recognition and single hits. 1 fig.

  14. Waveguide disturbance detection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneev, Valeri A.; Nihei, Kurt T.; Myer, Larry R.

    2000-01-01

    A method for detection of a disturbance in a waveguide comprising transmitting a wavefield having symmetric and antisymmetric components from a horizontally and/or vertically polarized source and/or pressure source disposed symmetrically with respect to the longitudinal central axis of the waveguide at one end of the waveguide, recording the horizontal and/or vertical component or a pressure of the wavefield with a vertical array of receivers disposed at the opposite end of the waveguide, separating the wavenumber transform of the wavefield into the symmetric and antisymmetric components, integrating the symmetric and antisymmetric components over a broad frequency range, and comparing the magnitude of the symmetric components and the antisymmetric components to an expected magnitude for the symmetric components and the antisymmetric components for a waveguide of uniform thickness and properties thereby determining whether or not a disturbance is present inside the waveguide.

  15. Single Ion Trapping for the Enriched Xenon Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldman, Samuel J.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2006-03-28

    In the last decade, a variety of neutrino oscillation experiments have established that there is a mass difference between neutrino flavors, without determining the absolute neutrino mass scale. The Enriched Xenon Observatory for neutrinoless double beta decay (EXO) will search for the rare decays of xenon to determine the absolute value of the neutrino mass. The experiment uses a novel technique to minimize backgrounds, identifying the decay daughter product in real time using single ion spectroscopy. Here, we describe single ion trapping and spectroscopy compatible with the EXO detector. We extend the technique of single ion trapping in ultrahigh vacuum to trapping in xenon gas. With this technique, EXO will achieve a neutrino mass sensitivity of {approx_equal} .010 eV.

  16. Nonlinear Multiantenna Detection Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Sheng

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear detection technique designed for multiple-antenna assisted receivers employed in space-division multiple-access systems is investigated. We derive the optimal solution of the nonlinear spatial-processing assisted receiver for binary phase shift keying signalling, which we refer to as the Bayesian detector. It is shown that this optimal Bayesian receiver significantly outperforms the standard linear beamforming assisted receiver in terms of a reduced bit error rate, at the expense of an increased complexity, while the achievable system capacity is substantially enhanced with the advent of employing nonlinear detection. Specifically, when the spatial separation expressed in terms of the angle of arrival between the desired and interfering signals is below a certain threshold, a linear beamformer would fail to separate them, while a nonlinear detection assisted receiver is still capable of performing adequately. The adaptive implementation of the optimal Bayesian detector can be realized using a radial basis function network. Two techniques are presented for constructing block-data-based adaptive nonlinear multiple-antenna assisted receivers. One of them is based on the relevance vector machine invoked for classification, while the other on the orthogonal forward selection procedure combined with the Fisher ratio class-separability measure. A recursive sample-by-sample adaptation procedure is also proposed for training nonlinear detectors based on an amalgam of enhanced -means clustering techniques and the recursive least squares algorithm.

  17. A Voltage Quality Detection Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Wei, Mu

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a voltage quality detection method based on a phase-locked loop (PLL) technique. The technique can detect the voltage magnitude and phase angle of each individual phase under both normal and fault power system conditions. The proposed method has the potential to evaluate vario...... power quality disturbances, such as interruptions, sags and imbalances. Simulation studies have been performed. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been demonstrated under the simulated typical power disturbances.......This paper presents a voltage quality detection method based on a phase-locked loop (PLL) technique. The technique can detect the voltage magnitude and phase angle of each individual phase under both normal and fault power system conditions. The proposed method has the potential to evaluate various...

  18. Detection methods for irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, M.H.

    1993-01-01

    The plenary lecture gives a brief historical review of the development of methods for the detection of food irradiation and defines the demands on such methods. The methods described in detail are as follows: 1) Physical methods: As examples of luminescence methods, thermoluminescence and chermoluminescence are mentioned; ESR spectroscopy is discussed in detail by means of individual examples (crustaceans, frutis and vegetables, spieces and herbs, nuts). 2) Chemical methods: Examples given for these are methods that make use of alterations in lipids through radiation (formation of long-chain hydrocarbons, formation of 2-alkyl butanones), respectively radiation-induced alterations in the DNA. 3) Microbiological methods. An extensive bibliography is appended. (VHE) [de

  19. Review of leak detection methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choumoff, S.; Le Pavec, M.

    The development of the leak-tightness concept and the industrial sectors mainly concerned are reviewed, after which the various methods of leak detection are outlined briefly. The extent to which gases such as ammonia, freon, sulfur hexafluoride and helium are used, generally involving the use of specific detectors, leads to considerations on the principles of leak detection by tracer gas. Practical applications are discussed with regard to criteria of choice, sensitivity required and cost price. Finally the possibilities of using detection methods for industrial purposes are pointed out. They imply that equipment called on to fulfil tightness criteria can be designed to account for certain factors necessary for successful application of the detection methods chosen [fr

  20. Development of noise-suppressed detector for single ion hit system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Takuro; Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Suda, Tamotsu; Hirao, Toshio; Kamiya, Tomihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    A noise-suppressed detector for single ion detection has been developed, and combined with the heavy ion microbeam apparatus. This detector consists of a pair of micro channel plates (MCP`s) and a very thin carbon foil. The detection signal is formed by the coincidence of the signals from these MCP`s, so that this detector and the coincidence measurement unit can reduce miscounting in the circuit. The detection efficiency for 15 MeV heavy ions was evaluated to be comparable to that of a silicon surface-barrier detector (SSD) and the miscounting rate was 4 orders lower than the noise rate of a single MCP. The rise time of the detection signal was also estimated. (author)

  1. Detection methods for irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyakova, A.; Tsvetkova, E.; Nikolova, R.

    2005-01-01

    In connection with the ongoing world application of irradiation as a technology in Food industry for increasing food safety, it became a need for methods of identification of irradiation. It was required to control international trade of irradiated foods, because of the certain that legally imposed food laws are not violated; supervise correct labeling; avoid multiple irradiation. Physical, chemical and biological methods for detection of irradiated foods as well principle that are based, are introducing in this summary

  2. Adjunct methods for caries detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Axelsson, Susanna Bihari; Dahlén, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To assess the diagnostic accuracy of adjunct methods used to detect and quantify dental caries. Study design. A systematic literature search for relevant papers was conducted with pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Abstracts and full text articles were assessed...

  3. Enriching lanthanide single-ion magnetism through symmetry and axiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sandeep K; Murugavel, Ramaswamy

    2018-04-10

    Rapidly growing modern information technology demands energy and cost efficient tools that can efficiently store and process a large amount of data. However, the miniaturization technology that was being used to boost the performance of the electronic devices, keeping up with the pace as estimated by Moore's law, is reaching its limit. To overcome these challenges, several alternative routes that can eventually mimic the modern electronics fabrication using silicon have been proposed. Single molecule magnets (SMMs), being considered as one of the potential alternatives, have gone through significant progress and the focus has shifted from the use of polynuclear clusters to mononuclear complexes in the last few years. The recent frenzy in the field of SMMs is driven by a better understanding of the effects of crystal field (CF) and molecular symmetry on the magnetic properties, especially in the case of mononuclear paramagnetic complexes, apart from other controlling factors. This has led to the advent of highly anisotropic single-ion magnets (SIMs) with magnetic blocking temperatures as high as 60 K and anisotropic energy barriers over 1800 K. This article overviews our recent research in the light of the emergence of the importance of CF and symmetry in 4f ion based single-ion magnets (SIMs), especially in the context of SIMs with D5h symmetry, apart from commenting on the synthetic efforts adopted to place these metal ions in unusual coordination geometries.

  4. Rational Design of Lanthanoid Single-Ion Magnets: Predictive Power of the Theoretical Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldoví, José J; Duan, Yan; Morales, Roser; Gaita-Ariño, Alejandro; Ruiz, Eliseo; Coronado, Eugenio

    2016-09-12

    We report two new single-ion magnets (SIMs) of a family of oxydiacetate lanthanide complexes with D3 symmetry to test the predictive capabilities of complete active space ab initio methods (CASSCF and CASPT2) and the semiempirical radial effective charge (REC) model. Comparison of the theoretical predictions of the energy levels, wave functions and magnetic properties with detailed spectroscopic and magnetic characterisation is used to critically discuss the limitations of these theoretical approaches. The need for spectroscopic information for a reliable description of the properties of lanthanide SIMs is emphasised. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Method of detecting failed fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaki, Hideaki; Suzumura, Takeshi.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable the settlement of the temperature of an adequate filling high temperature pure water by detecting the outlet temperature of a high temperature pure water filling tube to a fuel assembly to control the heating of the pure water and detecting the failed fuel due to the sampling of the pure water. Method: A temperature sensor is provided at a water tube connected to a sipping cap for filling high temperature pure water to detect the temperature of the high temperature pure water at the outlet of the tube, and the temperature is confirmed by a temperature indicator. A heater is controlled on the basis of this confirmation, an adequate high temperature pure water is filled in the fuel assembly, and the pure water is replaced with coolant. Then, it is sampled to settle the adequate temperature of the high temperature coolant used for detecting the failure of the fuel assembly. As a result, the sipping effect does not decrease, and the failed fuel can be precisely detected. (Yoshihara, H.)

  6. Surface noise analysis using a single-ion sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniilidis, N.; Gerber, S.; Bolloten, G.; Ramm, M.; Ransford, A.; Ulin-Avila, E.; Talukdar, I.; Häffner, H.

    2014-06-01

    We use a single-ion electric-field noise sensor in combination with in situ surface treatment and analysis tools, to investigate the relationship between electric-field noise from metal surfaces in vacuum and the composition of the surface. These experiments are performed in a setup that integrates ion trapping capabilities with surface analysis tools. We find that treatment of an aluminum-copper surface with energetic argon ions significantly reduces the level of room-temperature electric-field noise, but the surface does not need to be atomically clean to show noise levels comparable to those of the best cryogenic traps. The noise levels after treatment are low enough to allow fault-tolerant trapped-ion quantum information processing on a microfabricated surface trap at room temperature.

  7. Photodynamic membrane damage at the level of single ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, L; Stark, G

    1997-07-05

    Illumination of cellular membranes by visible light in the presence of appropriate photosensitizers is known to inactivate specific ionic pathways and to increase the unspecific leak conductance of the membranes. While previous studies have concentrated on the macroscopic ionic currents, the present study separates the two phenomena at the microscopic level. Using opossum kidney (OK) cells as epithelial model system and photofrin II as sensitizer, the patch-clamp technique in inside-out configuration has been applied to show the inactivation of single ion channels immediately after start of illumination and the subsequent strong increase of the leak conductance. Inactivation is shown for two kinds of channels: the large-conductance Ca2+-dependent K+ channel (maxi-K(Ca)) and the stretch-activated nonselective cation channel (SA-cat).

  8. Automated parallel recordings of topologically identified single ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Ryuji; Tsuji, Yutaro; Sato, Koji; Osaki, Toshihisa; Kamiya, Koki; Hirano, Minako; Ide, Toru; Miki, Norihisa; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    Although ion channels are attractive targets for drug discovery, the systematic screening of ion channel-targeted drugs remains challenging. To facilitate automated single ion-channel recordings for the analysis of drug interactions with the intra- and extracellular domain, we have developed a parallel recording methodology using artificial cell membranes. The use of stable lipid bilayer formation in droplet chamber arrays facilitated automated, parallel, single-channel recording from reconstituted native and mutated ion channels. Using this system, several types of ion channels, including mutated forms, were characterised by determining the protein orientation. In addition, we provide evidence that both intra- and extracellular amyloid-beta fragments directly inhibit the channel open probability of the hBK channel. This automated methodology provides a high-throughput drug screening system for the targeting of ion channels and a data-intensive analysis technique for studying ion channel gating mechanisms.

  9. Bacteria detection instrument and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, W.; Fealey, R. D. (Inventor)

    1972-01-01

    A method and apparatus for screening a sample fluid for bacterial presence are disclosed wherein the fluid sample is mixed with culture media of sufficient quantity to permit bacterial growth in order to obtain a test solution. The concentration of oxygen dissolved in the test solution is then monitored using the potential difference between a reference electrode and a noble metal electrode which are in contact with the test solution. The change in oxygen concentration which occurs during a period of time as indicated by the electrode potential difference is compared with a detection criterion which exceeds the change which would occur absent bacteria.

  10. Method for acoustic signal detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blalock, S.E.

    1980-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a method and apparatus for acoustic signal detection, adapted for use in acoustic velocity well logging to measure the difference in transit times of an acoustic signal between a transmitter and two or more receivers. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention two timing measurements of the signal arriving at each of two receivers may be made by activating zero crossing detectors at the arrival of the first negative and first positive half-cycles at each receiver. A transit time is calculated from the zero crossing times following the first negative half-cycle. This first transit time may be checked for accuracy by comparing the first transit time with a second transit time calculated from zero crossing times following the first positive half-cycles, by comparing the first transit time to a previously measured transit time and/or by detecting the order of arrival of the negative and positive half-cycles to determine whether the half-cycles have been detected out of sequence at either receiver. Should the first transit time be determined to be inaccurate, the previously measured transit time or the second transit time may be substituted therefor

  11. Single-ion and single-chain magnetism in triangular spin-chain oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seikh, Md. Motin; Caignaert, Vincent; Perez, Olivier; Raveau, Bernard; Hardy, Vincent

    2017-05-01

    S r4 -xC axM n2Co O9 oxides (x =0 and x =2 ) are found to exhibit magnetic responses typical of single-chain magnets (SCMs) and single-ion magnets (SIMs), two features generally investigated in coordination polymers or complexes. The compound x =0 appears to be a genuine SCM, in that blocking effects associated with slow spin dynamics yield remanence and coercivity in the absence of long-range ordering (LRO). In addition, SIM signatures of nearly identical nature are detected in both compounds, coexisting with SCM in x =0 and with LRO in x =2 . It is also observed that a SCM response can be recovered in x =2 after application of magnetic field. These results suggest that purely inorganic systems could play a valuable role in the topical issue of the interplay among SIM, SCM, and LRO phenomena in low-dimensional magnetism.

  12. Conduction Mechanisms and Structure of Ionomeric Single-Ion Conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colby, Ralph H. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Maranas, Janna K. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Mueller, Karl T. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Runt, James [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Winey, Karen I. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Our team has designed using DFT (Gaussian) and synthesized low glass transition temperature single-ion conductors that are either polyanions that conduct small cations Li+, Na+, Cs+ or polycations that conduct small anions F-, OH-, Br-. We utilize a wide range of complimentary experimental materials characterization tools to understand ion transport; differential scanning calorimetry, dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, linear viscoelasticity, X-ray scattering and molecular dynamics simulations. The glass transition temperature Tg needs to be as low as possible to facilitate ion transport, so the nonionic parts of the polymer need to be polar, flexible and have strong solvation interactions with the ions. The lowest Tg we have managed for polyanions conducting Li+ is -60 °C. In contrast, polysiloxanes with PEO side chains and tetrabutylphosphonium cationic side groups have Tg ≈ -75 °C that barely increases with ion content, as anticipated by DFT. A survey of all polyanions in the literature suggests that Tg < -80 °C is needed to achieve the 10-4 S/cm conductivity needed for battery separators.

  13. Outlier Detection Method Use for the Network Flow Anomaly Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimas Ciplinskas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available New and existing methods of cyber-attack detection are constantly being developed and improved because there is a great number of attacks and the demand to protect from them. In prac-tice, current methods of attack detection operates like antivirus programs, i. e. known attacks signatures are created and attacks are detected by using them. These methods have a drawback – they cannot detect new attacks. As a solution, anomaly detection methods are used. They allow to detect deviations from normal network behaviour that may show a new type of attack. This article introduces a new method that allows to detect network flow anomalies by using local outlier factor algorithm. Accom-plished research allowed to identify groups of features which showed the best results of anomaly flow detection according the highest values of precision, recall and F-measure.

  14. Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Methods - Annual Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early cancer detection is a proven life-saving strategy. Learn about the research opportunities NCI supports, including liquid biopsies and other less-invasive methods, for detecting early cancers and precancerous growths.

  15. Comparison of Methods for Oscillation Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Trangbæk, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    This paper compares a selection of methods for detecting oscillations in control loops. The methods are tested on measurement data from a coal-fired power plant, where some oscillations are occurring. Emphasis is put on being able to detect oscillations without having a system model and without u...

  16. Ion counting method and it's operational characteristics in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Toshihiro

    1976-01-01

    Ion counting method with continuous channel electron multiplier which affords the direct detection of very small ion currents and it's operational characteristics were studied in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Then this method was applied to the single ion detection technique of GC-MS. A detection limit was measured, using various standard samples of low level concentration. (auth.)

  17. Rapid methods for detection of bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Andersen, B.Ø.; Miller, M.

    2006-01-01

    Traditional methods for detection of bacteria in drinking water e.g. Heterotrophic Plate Counts (HPC) or Most Probable Number (MNP) take 48-72 hours to give the result. New rapid methods for detection of bacteria are needed to protect the consumers against contaminations. Two rapid methods: Measu......: Measurements of Adosine Triphosphate and BactiQuantTM have shown promising results as new monitoring tools, which gives the result within minutes/hours....

  18. Improved GLR method to instrument failure detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hak Yeoung; Chang, Soon Heung

    1985-01-01

    The generalized likehood radio(GLR) method performs statistical tests on the innovations sequence of a Kalman-Buchy filter state estimator for system failure detection and its identification. However, the major drawback of the convensional GLR is to hypothesize particular failure type in each case. In this paper, a method to solve this drawback is proposed. The improved GLR method is applied to a PWR pressurizer and gives successful results in detection and identification of any failure. Furthmore, some benefit on the processing time per each cycle of failure detection and its identification can be accompanied. (Author)

  19. GMDD: a database of GMO detection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wei; Yang, Litao; Shen, Kailin; Kim, Banghyun; Kleter, Gijs A; Marvin, Hans J P; Guo, Rong; Liang, Wanqi; Zhang, Dabing

    2008-06-04

    Since more than one hundred events of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been developed and approved for commercialization in global area, the GMO analysis methods are essential for the enforcement of GMO labelling regulations. Protein and nucleic acid-based detection techniques have been developed and utilized for GMOs identification and quantification. However, the information for harmonization and standardization of GMO analysis methods at global level is needed. GMO Detection method Database (GMDD) has collected almost all the previous developed and reported GMOs detection methods, which have been grouped by different strategies (screen-, gene-, construct-, and event-specific), and also provide a user-friendly search service of the detection methods by GMO event name, exogenous gene, or protein information, etc. In this database, users can obtain the sequences of exogenous integration, which will facilitate PCR primers and probes design. Also the information on endogenous genes, certified reference materials, reference molecules, and the validation status of developed methods is included in this database. Furthermore, registered users can also submit new detection methods and sequences to this database, and the newly submitted information will be released soon after being checked. GMDD contains comprehensive information of GMO detection methods. The database will make the GMOs analysis much easier.

  20. Detecting sulphate aerosol geoengineering with different methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Y. T. Eunice; Charlton-Perez, Andrew J.; Lott, Fraser C.; Highwood, Eleanor J.

    2016-12-01

    Sulphate aerosol injection has been widely discussed as a possible way to engineer future climate. Monitoring it would require detecting its effects amidst internal variability and in the presence of other external forcings. We investigate how the use of different detection methods and filtering techniques affects the detectability of sulphate aerosol geoengineering in annual-mean global-mean near-surface air temperature. This is done by assuming a future scenario that injects 5 Tg yr-1 of sulphur dioxide into the stratosphere and cross-comparing simulations from 5 climate models. 64% of the studied comparisons would require 25 years or more for detection when no filter and the multi-variate method that has been extensively used for attributing climate change are used, while 66% of the same comparisons would require fewer than 10 years for detection using a trend-based filter. This highlights the high sensitivity of sulphate aerosol geoengineering detectability to the choice of filter. With the same trend-based filter but a non-stationary method, 80% of the comparisons would require fewer than 10 years for detection. This does not imply sulphate aerosol geoengineering should be deployed, but suggests that both detection methods could be used for monitoring geoengineering in global, annual mean temperature should it be needed.

  1. Single-ion quantum lock-in amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Shlomi; Akerman, Nitzan; Glickman, Yinnon; Keselman, Anna; Ozeri, Roee

    2011-05-05

    Quantum metrology uses tools from quantum information science to improve measurement signal-to-noise ratios. The challenge is to increase sensitivity while reducing susceptibility to noise, tasks that are often in conflict. Lock-in measurement is a detection scheme designed to overcome this difficulty by spectrally separating signal from noise. Here we report on the implementation of a quantum analogue to the classical lock-in amplifier. All the lock-in operations--modulation, detection and mixing--are performed through the application of non-commuting quantum operators to the electronic spin state of a single, trapped Sr(+) ion. We significantly increase its sensitivity to external fields while extending phase coherence by three orders of magnitude, to more than one second. Using this technique, we measure frequency shifts with a sensitivity of 0.42 Hz Hz(-1/2) (corresponding to a magnetic field measurement sensitivity of 15 pT Hz(-1/2)), obtaining an uncertainty of less than 10 mHz (350 fT) after 3,720 seconds of averaging. These sensitivities are limited by quantum projection noise and improve on other single-spin probe technologies by two orders of magnitude. Our reported sensitivity is sufficient for the measurement of parity non-conservation, as well as the detection of the magnetic field of a single electronic spin one micrometre from an ion detector with nanometre resolution. As a first application, we perform light shift spectroscopy of a narrow optical quadrupole transition. Finally, we emphasize that the quantum lock-in technique is generic and can potentially enhance the sensitivity of any quantum sensor. ©2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

  2. Localization Spectroscopy of a Single Ion in an Optical Lattice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legrand, Olivier Philippe Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    The work reported in this thesis primarily focuses on studies of the dynamics of a single laser-cooled ion, simultaneously confined in the harmonic potential of a linear Paul trap and a rapidly varying periodic potential – a so-called optical lattice – generated from an optical standing-wave. Bes......The work reported in this thesis primarily focuses on studies of the dynamics of a single laser-cooled ion, simultaneously confined in the harmonic potential of a linear Paul trap and a rapidly varying periodic potential – a so-called optical lattice – generated from an optical standing...... calibration and analysis of the detection system, several theoretical simulations of the expected dynamics and associated optical response of the ion were undertaken. Finally, a new laser source based on second harmonic generation was developed in order to perform laser-cooling of Ca+ ions, and to serve...

  3. Exchange interaction of strongly anisotropic tripodal erbium single-ion magnets with metallic surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreiser, Jan; Wäckerlin, Christian; Ali, Md. Ehesan

    2014-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of Er(trensal) single-ion magnets deposited in ultrahigh vacuum onto metallic surfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that the molecular structure is preserved after sublimation, and that the molecules are physisorbed on Au(111) while they are chemisorbed....... Furthermore XMCD indicates a weak antiferromagnetic exchange coupling between the single-ion magnets and the ferromagnetic Ni/Cu(100) substrate. For the latter case, spin-Hamiltonian fits to the XMCD M(H) suggest a significant structural distortion of the molecules. Scanning tunneling microscopy reveals...

  4. Network type sp3 boron-based single-ion conducting polymer electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kuirong; Wang, Shuanjin; Ren, Shan; Han, Dongmei; Xiao, Min; Meng, Yuezhong

    2017-08-01

    Electrolytes play a vital role in modulating lithium ion battery performance. An outstanding electrolyte should possess both high ionic conductivity and unity lithium ion transference number. Here, we present a facile method to fabricate a network type sp3 boron-based single-ion conducting polymer electrolyte (SIPE) with high ionic conductivity and lithium ion transference number approaching unity. The SIPE was synthesized by coupling of lithium bis(allylmalonato)borate (LiBAMB) and pentaerythritol tetrakis(2-mercaptoacetate) (PETMP) via one-step photoinitiated in situ thiol-ene click reaction in plasticizers. Influence of kinds and content of plasticizers was investigated and the optimized electrolytes show both outstanding ionic conductivity (1.47 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 25 °C) and high lithium transference number of 0.89. This ionic conductivity is among the highest ionic conductivity exhibited by SIPEs reported to date. Its electrochemical stability window is up to 5.2 V. More importantly, Li/LiFePO4 cells with the prepared single-ion conducting electrolytes as the electrolyte as well as the separator display highly reversible capacity and excellent rate capacity under room temperature. It also demonstrates excellent long-term stability and reliability as it maintains capacity of 124 mA h g-1 at 1 C rate even after 500 cycles without obvious decay.

  5. Potential of electric quadrupole transitions in radium isotopes for single-ion optical frequency standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versolato, O. O.; Wansbeek, L. W.; Jungmann, K.; Timmermans, R. G. E.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W.

    2011-01-01

    We explore the potential of the electric quadrupole transitions 7s (2)S(1/2)-(6)d (2)D(3/2), 6d (2)D(5/2) in radium isotopes as single-ion optical frequency standards. The frequency shifts of the clock transitions due to external fields and the corresponding uncertainties are calculated. Several

  6. Anisotropic Lithium Ion Conductivity in Single-Ion Diblock Copolymer Electrolyte Thin Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aissou, Karim; Mumtaz, Muhammad; Usluer, Özlem; Pécastaings, Gilles; Portale, Giuseppe; Fleury, Guillaume; Cloutet, Eric; Hadziioannou, Georges

    Well-defined single-ion diblock copolymers consisting of a Li-ion conductive poly(styrenesulfonyllithium(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide) (PSLiTFSI) block associated with a glassy polystyrene (PS) block have been synthesized via reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization.

  7. Novel methods for detecting buried explosive devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kercel, S.W.; Burlage, R.S.; Patek, D.R.; Smith, C.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hibbs, A.D.; Rayner, T.J. [Quantum Magnetics, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Quantum Magnetics, Inc. (QM) are exploring novel landmine detection technologies. Technologies considered here include bioreporter bacteria, swept acoustic resonance, nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), and semiotic data fusion. Bioreporter bacteria look promising for third-world humanitarian applications; they are inexpensive, and deployment does not require high-tech methods. Swept acoustic resonance may be a useful adjunct to magnetometers in humanitarian demining. For military demining, NQR is a promising method for detecting explosive substances; of 50,000 substances that have been tested, none has an NQR signature that can be mistaken for RDX or TNT. For both military and commercial demining, sensor fusion entails two daunting tasks, identifying fusible features in both present-day and emerging technologies, and devising a fusion algorithm that runs in real-time on cheap hardware. Preliminary research in these areas is encouraging. A bioreporter bacterium for TNT detection is under development. Investigation has just started in swept acoustic resonance as an approach to a cheap mine detector for humanitarian use. Real-time wavelet processing appears to be a key to extending NQR bomb detection into mine detection, including TNT-based mines. Recent discoveries in semiotics may be the breakthrough that will lead to a robust fused detection scheme.

  8. Quantitative boron detection by neutron transmission method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okka, M.; Genceli, M.; Eren, E.; Bayulken, A.

    2008-01-01

    //Quantitative boron detection is mainly performed by chemical methods like colorimetric titration. High neutron absorption cross section of natural boron makes attractive its detection by absorption measurements. This work is an extension of earlier investigations where neutron radiography technique was used for boron detection. In the present investigation, the neutron absorption rate of boron containing solutions is the way to measure quantitatively the boron content of the solutions. The investigation was carried out in Istanbul TRIGA Mark-II reactor. In the end of the experiments, it was observed that even |ppw| grade boron in aqueous solution can be easily detected. The use of this method is certainly very useful for boron utilizing industries like glass and steel industries.The major disadvantage of the method is the obligation to use always aqueous solutions to be able to detect homogeneously the boron content. Then, steel or glass samples have to be put first in an appropriate solution form. The irradiation of steel samples can give the distribution of boron by the help of a imaging and this suggested method will give its quantitative measurement. The superiority of this method are its quick response time and its accuracy. To test this accuracy, a supposed unknown , solution of boric acid is irradiated and then calculated by the help of the calibration curve. The measured value of boric acid was 0.89 mg and the calculated value was found to be 0.98 mg which gives an accuracy of 10 %. It was also seen that the method is more accurate for low concentration. (authors)

  9. Radioimmunoassay method for detection of gonorrhea antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A novel radioimmunoassay for the detection of gonorrhea antibodies in serum is described. A radionuclide is bound to gonorrhea antigens produced by a growth culture. In the presence of gonorrhea antibodies in the serum, an antigen-antibody conjugate is formed, the concentration of which can be measured with conventional radiometric methods. The radioimmunoassay is highly specific

  10. A method for detecting hydrophobic patches protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijnzaad, P.; Berendsen, H.J.C.; Argos, P.

    1996-01-01

    A method for the detection of hydrophobic patches on the surfaces of protein tertiary structures is presented, it delineates explicit contiguous pieces of surface of arbitrary size and shape that consist solely of carbon and sulphur atoms using a dot representation of the solvent-accessible surface,

  11. GMDD: a database of GMO detection methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, W.; Yang, L.; Shen, K.; Kim, B.; Kleter, G.A.; Marvin, H.J.P.; Guo, R.; Liang, W.; Zhang, D.

    2008-01-01

    Since more than one hundred events of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been developed and approved for commercialization in global area, the GMO analysis methods are essential for the enforcement of GMO labelling regulations. Protein and nucleic acid-based detection techniques have been

  12. Intrusion detection using pattern recognition methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Yu, Li

    2007-09-01

    Today, cyber attacks such as worms, scanning, active attackers are pervasive in Internet. A number of security approaches are proposed to address this problem, among which the intrusion detection system (IDS) appears to be one of the major and most effective solutions for defending against malicious users. Essentially, intrusion detection problem can be generalized as a classification problem, whose goal is to distinguish normal behaviors and anomalies. There are many well-known pattern recognition algorithms for classification purpose. In this paper we describe the details of applying pattern recognition methods to the intrusion detection research field. Experimenting on the KDDCUP 99 data set, we first use information gain metric to reduce the dimensionality of the original feature space. Two supervised methods, the support vector machine as well as the multi-layer neural network have been tested and the results display high detection rate and low false alarm rate, which is promising for real world applications. In addition, three unsupervised methods, Single-Linkage, K-Means, and CLIQUE, are also implemented and evaluated in the paper. The low computational complexity reveals their application in initial data reduction process.

  13. A novel method for detection of apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagariya, Alexander M., E-mail: zagariya@uic.edu

    2012-04-15

    There are two different Angiotensin II (ANG II) peptides in nature: Human type (ANG II) and Bovine type (ANG II*). These eight amino acid peptides differ only at position 5 where Valine is replaced by Isoleucine in the Bovine type. They are present in all species studied so far. These amino acids are different by only one atom of carbon. This difference is so small, that it will allow any of ANG II, Bovine or Human antibodies to interact with all species and create a universal method for apoptosis detection. ANG II concentrations are found at substantially higher levels in apoptotic, compared to non-apoptotic, tissues. ANG II accumulation can lead to DNA damage, mutations, carcinogenesis and cell death. We demonstrate that Bovine antiserum can be used for universal detection of apoptosis. In 2010, the worldwide market for apoptosis detection reached the $20 billion mark and significantly increases each year. Most commercially available methods are related to Annexin V and TUNNEL. Our new method based on ANG II is more widely known to physicians and scientists compared to previously used methods. Our approach offers a novel alternative for assessing apoptosis activity with enhanced sensitivity, at a lower cost and ease of use.

  14. Molecular methods for the detection of mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, C; Marcelino, L A; Conde, A R; Saraiva, C; Giphart-Gassler, M; De Nooij-van Dalen, A G; Van Buuren-van Seggelen, V; Van der Keur, M; May, C A; Cole, J; Lehmann, A R; Steinsgrimsdottir, H; Beare, D; Capulas, E; Armour, J A

    2000-01-01

    We report the results of a collaborative study aimed at developing reliable, direct assays for mutation in human cells. The project used common lymphoblastoid cell lines, both with and without mutagen treatment, as a shared resource to validate the development of new molecular methods for the detection of low-level mutations in the presence of a large excess of normal alleles. As the "gold standard, " hprt mutation frequencies were also measured on the same samples. The methods under development included i) the restriction site mutation (RSM) assay, in which mutations lead to the destruction of a restriction site; ii) minisatellite length-change mutation, in which mutations lead to alleles containing new numbers of tandem repeat units; iii) loss of heterozygosity for HLA epitopes, in which antibodies can be used to direct selection for mutant cells; iv) multiple fluorescence-based long linker arm nucleotides assay (mf-LLA) technology, for the detection of substitutional mutations; v) detection of alterations in the TP53 locus using a (CA) array as the target for the screening; and vi) PCR analysis of lymphocytes for the presence of the BCL2 t(14:18) translocation. The relative merits of these molecular methods are discussed, and a comparison made with more "traditional" methods.

  15. A novel method for detection of apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagariya, Alexander M.

    2012-01-01

    There are two different Angiotensin II (ANG II) peptides in nature: Human type (ANG II) and Bovine type (ANG II*). These eight amino acid peptides differ only at position 5 where Valine is replaced by Isoleucine in the Bovine type. They are present in all species studied so far. These amino acids are different by only one atom of carbon. This difference is so small, that it will allow any of ANG II, Bovine or Human antibodies to interact with all species and create a universal method for apoptosis detection. ANG II concentrations are found at substantially higher levels in apoptotic, compared to non-apoptotic, tissues. ANG II accumulation can lead to DNA damage, mutations, carcinogenesis and cell death. We demonstrate that Bovine antiserum can be used for universal detection of apoptosis. In 2010, the worldwide market for apoptosis detection reached the $20 billion mark and significantly increases each year. Most commercially available methods are related to Annexin V and TUNNEL. Our new method based on ANG II is more widely known to physicians and scientists compared to previously used methods. Our approach offers a novel alternative for assessing apoptosis activity with enhanced sensitivity, at a lower cost and ease of use.

  16. Metagenomic Detection Methods in Biopreparedness Outbreak Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Oskar Erik; Hansen, Trine; Knutsson, Rickard

    2013-01-01

    In the field of diagnostic microbiology, rapid molecular methods are critically important for detecting pathogens. With rapid and accurate detection, preventive measures can be put in place early, thereby preventing loss of life and further spread of a disease. From a preparedness perspective...... of a clinical sample, creating a metagenome, in a single week of laboratory work. As new technologies emerge, their dissemination and capacity building must be facilitated, and criteria for use, as well as guidelines on how to report results, must be established. This article focuses on the use of metagenomics......, from sample collection to data analysis and to some extent NGS, for the detection of pathogens, the integration of the technique in outbreak response systems, and the risk-based evaluation of sample processing in routine diagnostics labs. The article covers recent advances in the field, current debate...

  17. Hough transform methods used for object detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qussay A Salih; Abdul Rahman Ramli; Md Mahmud Hassan Prakash

    2001-01-01

    The Hough transform (HT) is a robust parameter estimator of multi-dimensional features in images. The HT is an established technique which evidences a shape by mapping image edge points into a parameter space. The HT is technique which is used to isolate curves of a give shape in an image. The classical HT requires that the curve be specified in some parametric from and, hence is most commonly used in the detection of regular curves. The HT has been generalized so that it is capable of detecting arbitrary curved shapes. The main advantage of this transform technique is that it is very tolerant of gaps in the actual object boundaries the classical HT for the detection of line , we will indicate how it can be applied to the detection of arbitrary shapes. Sometimes the straight line HT is efficient enough to detect features such as artificial curves. The HT is an established technique for extracting geometric shapes based on the duality definition of the points on a curve and their parameters. This technique has been developed for extracting simple geometric shapes such as lines, circles and ellipses as well as arbitrary shapes. The HT provides robustness against discontinuous or missing features, points or edges are mapped into a partitioned parameter of Hough space as individual votes where peaks denote the feature of interest represented in a non-analytically tabular form. The main drawback of the HT technique is the computational requirement which has an exponential growth of memory space and processing time as the number of parameters used to represent a primitive increases. For this reason most of the research on the HT has focused on reducing the computational burden for extracting of arbitrary shapes under more general transformations include a overview of describing the methods for the detection image processing programs are frequently required to detect and particle classification in an industrial setting, a standard algorithms for this detection lines

  18. Lifting wavelet method of target detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jun; Zhang, Chi; Jiang, Xu; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Jin

    2009-11-01

    Image target recognition plays a very important role in the areas of scientific exploration, aeronautics and space-to-ground observation, photography and topographic mapping. Complex environment of the image noise, fuzzy, all kinds of interference has always been to affect the stability of recognition algorithm. In this paper, the existence of target detection in real-time, accuracy problems, as well as anti-interference ability, using lifting wavelet image target detection methods. First of all, the use of histogram equalization, the goal difference method to obtain the region, on the basis of adaptive threshold and mathematical morphology operations to deal with the elimination of the background error. Secondly, the use of multi-channel wavelet filter wavelet transform of the original image de-noising and enhancement, to overcome the general algorithm of the noise caused by the sensitive issue of reducing the rate of miscarriage of justice will be the multi-resolution characteristics of wavelet and promotion of the framework can be designed directly in the benefits of space-time region used in target detection, feature extraction of targets. The experimental results show that the design of lifting wavelet has solved the movement of the target due to the complexity of the context of the difficulties caused by testing, which can effectively suppress noise, and improve the efficiency and speed of detection.

  19. Research and Design of Rootkit Detection Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Leian; Yin, Zuanxing; Shen, Yuli; Lin, Haitao; Wang, Hongjiang

    Rootkit is one of the most important issues of network communication systems, which is related to the security and privacy of Internet users. Because of the existence of the back door of the operating system, a hacker can use rootkit to attack and invade other people's computers and thus he can capture passwords and message traffic to and from these computers easily. With the development of the rootkit technology, its applications are more and more extensive and it becomes increasingly difficult to detect it. In addition, for various reasons such as trade secrets, being difficult to be developed, and so on, the rootkit detection technology information and effective tools are still relatively scarce. In this paper, based on the in-depth analysis of the rootkit detection technology, a new kind of the rootkit detection structure is designed and a new method (software), X-Anti, is proposed. Test results show that software designed based on structure proposed is much more efficient than any other rootkit detection software.

  20. Detecting data anomalies methods in distributed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosiej, Lukasz

    2009-06-01

    Distributed systems became most popular systems in big companies. Nowadays many telecommunications companies want to hold large volumes of data about all customers. Obviously, those data cannot be stored in single database because of many technical difficulties, such as data access efficiency, security reasons, etc. On the other hand there is no need to hold all data in one place, because companies already have dedicated systems to perform specific tasks. In the distributed systems there is a redundancy of data and each system holds only interesting data in appropriate form. Data updated in one system should be also updated in the rest of systems, which hold that data. There are technical problems to update those data in all systems in transactional way. This article is about data anomalies in distributed systems. Avail data anomalies detection methods are shown. Furthermore, a new initial concept of new data anomalies detection methods is described on the last section.

  1. Chemical detection system and related methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caffrey, Augustine J.; Chichester, David L.; Egger, Ann E.; Krebs, Kenneth M.; Seabury, Edward H.; Van Siclen, Clinton D.; Wharton, C. Jayson; Zabriskie, John M.

    2017-06-27

    A chemical detection system includes a frame, an emitter coupled to the frame, and a detector coupled to the frame proximate the emitter. The system also includes a shielding system coupled to the frame and positioned at least partially between the emitter and the detector, wherein the frame positions a sensing surface of the detector in a direction substantially parallel to a plane extending along a front portion of the frame. A method of analyzing composition of a suspect object includes directing neutrons at the object, detecting gamma rays emitted from the object, and communicating spectrometer information regarding the gamma rays. The method also includes presenting a GUI to a user with a dynamic status of an ongoing neutron spectroscopy process. The dynamic status includes a present confidence for a plurality of compounds being present in the suspect object responsive to changes in the spectrometer information during the ongoing process.

  2. Radon in buildings: a simple detection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumb, N.

    1989-01-01

    Natural background radiation inside buildings can be studied using this simple detection method. Contaminated dust particles adhere readily to a membrane made of soft toilet paper placed across the collection pipe of a vacuum cleaner. Indirect evidence for the abundance of radon in the air can be inferred from measuring the radon daughters on the membrane using a Geiger-Muller tube. Experimental results are presented and discussed. (UK)

  3. Method and device for detecting radiatons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borel, J.; Goascoz, V.

    1979-01-01

    The method consists in fabricating an MOS transistor comprising a drain region and a source region separated from each other by a bulk region of opposite doping type relative to the first two regions, in delivering the radiation to be detected into the carrier-collection region of the MOS transistor, in leaving the bulk region at a floating potential and in collecting the drain-source current of the transistor

  4. DIAGNOSTIC METHODS IN BREAST CANCER DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristijana Hertl

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. In the world as well as in Slovenia, breast cancer is the most frequent female cancer. Due to its high incidence, it appears to be a serious health and economic problem. Content. Among other, tumour size at diagnosis, is an important prognostic factors of the course of the disease. The probability of axillary lymph node involvement as well as distant metastases is greater in larger tumours. This is the reason that encouraged the development of various diagnostic methods for early detection of small, clinically non-palpable breast tumours. Mammography, however, remains the »golden standard« of early breast cancer detection. It is the basic diagnostic method applied in all symptomatic women over 35 years of age and in asymptomatic women over 40 years of age. Ultrasonography (US, additional projections, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and ductography are regarded as complementary diagnostic breast imaging techniques in addition to mammography. The detected changes in the breast can be further confirmed by US-, MR-guided or stereotactic biopsy. If necessary, surgical biopsy and the excision of a tissue sample, after wire or isotope localisation of the nonpalpable lesion, can be performed. Conclusions. Any of the above mentioned diagnostic methods has advantages as well as drawbacks and only detailed knowledge and understanding of each of them may assure the best option.

  5. Detection Method of TOXOPLASMA GONDII Tachyzoites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eassa, Souzan; Bose, Chhanda; Alusta, Pierre; Tarasenko, Olga

    2011-06-01

    Tachyzoites are considered to be the most important stage of Toxoplasma gondii which causes toxoplasmosis. T. gondii is, an obligate intracellular parasite which infects a wide range of cells. The present study was designed to develop a method for an early detection of T. gondii tachyzoites. The method comprised of a binding assay which was analyzed using principal component and cluster analysis. Our data showed that glycoconjugates GC1, GC2, GC3 and GC10 exhibit a significantly higher binding affinity for T. gondii tachyzoites as compared to controls (T. gondii only, PAA only, GC 1, 2, 3, and 10 only).

  6. Analytical detection methods for irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    The present publication is a review of scientific literature on the analytical identification of foods treated with ionizing radiation and the quantitative determination of absorbed dose of radiation. Because of the extremely low level of chemical changes resulting from irradiation or because of the lack of specificity to irradiation of any chemical changes, a few methods of quantitative determination of absorbed dose have shown promise until now. On the other hand, the present review has identified several possible methods, which could be used, following further research and testing, for the identification of irradiated foods. An IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on Analytical Detection Methods for Irradiation Treatment of Food ('ADMIT'), established in 1990, is currently investigating many of the methods cited in the present document. Refs and tab

  7. Magnetic anisotropy of a Co-II single ion magnet with distorted trigonal prismatic coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Yan; Bodenstein, Tilmann; Fink, Karin

    2016-01-01

    (methanylylidene)) bis(2-methoxyphenol) coordinates to Co(II) does indeed lead to enhanced single-ion behaviour as has previously been predicted. Synthesis of the compound, structural information, and static as well as dynamic magnetic data are presented along with an analysis using quantum chemical ab initio......The single ion magnetic properties of Co(II) are affected by the details of the coordination geometry of the ion. Here we show that a geometry close to trigonal prismatic which arises when the ligand 6,6'-((1Z)-((piperazine-1,4-diylbis(propane-3,1-diyl)) bis(azanylylidene)) bis...... calculations. Though the complex shows a slight deviation from an ideal trigonal prismatic coordination, the zero-field splitting as well as the g-tensor are strongly axial with D = -41 cm(-1) and E

  8. The single-ion anisotropy effects in the mixed-spin ternary-alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayrak, Erhan

    2018-04-01

    The effect of single-ion anisotropy on the thermal properties of the ternary-alloy in the form of ABpC1-p is investigated on the Bethe lattice (BL) in terms of exact recursion relations. The simulation on the BL consists of placing A atoms (spin-1/2) on the odd shells and randomly placing B (spin-3/2) or C (spin-5/2) atoms with concentrations p and 1 - p, respectively, on the even shells. The phase diagrams are calculated in possible planes spanned by the system parameters: temperature, single-ion anisotropy, concentration and ratio of the bilinear interaction parameters for z = 3 corresponding to the honeycomb lattice. It is found that the crystal field drives the system to the lowest possible state therefore reducing the temperatures of the critical lines in agreement with the literature.

  9. Modifying the properties of 4f single-ion magnets by peripheral ligand functionalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kasper Steen; Ungur, Liviu; Sigrist, Marc

    2014-01-01

    We study the ligand-field splittings and magnetic properties of three ErIII single-ion magnets which differ in the peripheral ligand sphere but exhibit similar first coordination spheres by inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and SQUID magnetometry. The INS spectra of the three compounds are profo......We study the ligand-field splittings and magnetic properties of three ErIII single-ion magnets which differ in the peripheral ligand sphere but exhibit similar first coordination spheres by inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and SQUID magnetometry. The INS spectra of the three compounds...... allows for the extraction of the sign and magnitude of all symmetry-allowed Stevens parameters. The parameter values and the energy spectrum derived from INS are compared to the results of state-of-the-art ab initio CASSCF calculations. Temperature-dependent alternating current (ac) susceptibility...... measurements suggest that the magnetisation relaxation in the investigated temperature range of 1.9 K

  10. Sea water leak detection method and device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Shigemi; Ogawa, Shozo.

    1997-01-01

    In a method of detecting sea water leakage by detecting it based on electroconductivity or electric resistance of condensates taken out of a condensator of a power plant, the condensates are degassed to remove gaseous carbon dioxide dissolved in the condensate, before the detection for the electroconductivity of the condensates. Alternatively, a degassing means for removing gaseous carbon dioxide dissolved in the condensate is disposed to a prestage of the condensate electroconductivity measuring means. The degassing means comprises a membrane-degassing device, and the membrane-degassing device comprises a hollow thread membrane for passing through the condensate and permeating gaseous carbon dioxide in the condensates and an evacuating device to form a pressure reduced space on the side opposite to the water passing side of the hollow thread membrane, and allows the dissolved gaseous carbon dioxide in the condensates to permeate on the side of the pressure reduced space by way of the hollow thread membrane. Erroneous operation of the condensator due to vacuum breakage is prevented thereby capable of reliably detecting the leakage of sea water, and the power plant can be restarted rapidly with no time loss. (N.H.)

  11. Single-ion and pair-interaction potentials near simple metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, R.N.; Barrera, R.G.; Cleveland, C.L.; Landman, U.

    1983-01-01

    Presented is a model for semi-infinite simple metals which does not require crystalline order or a single species, and thus is applicable to problems of defect energetics near the surface and random-alloy surfaces as well as ideal metal surfaces. The formulation is based on the use of ionic pseudopotentials and linear-response theory. An expression for the total energy is obtained which depends explicitly on ionic species and position. This expression is decomposed into a density-dependent term and single-ion and ionic pair-interaction potential terms. The single-ion potentials oscillate about a constant bulk value, with the magnitude of the oscillation decreasing rapidly away from the surface. The interaction between pairs of ions near the surface is shown to be a noncentral force interaction which differs significantly from the central-force bulk pair potential. The effect of quantum interference in the response of the semi-infinite electron gas to the ions is seen in both the single-ion and the pair-interaction potentials. Results are presented for the simple metals sodium, potassium, and rubidium

  12. Bayesian Methods for Radiation Detection and Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter G. Groer

    2002-01-01

    We performed work in three areas: radiation detection, external and internal radiation dosimetry. In radiation detection we developed Bayesian techniques to estimate the net activity of high and low activity radioactive samples. These techniques have the advantage that the remaining uncertainty about the net activity is described by probability densities. Graphs of the densities show the uncertainty in pictorial form. Figure 1 below demonstrates this point. We applied stochastic processes for a method to obtain Bayesian estimates of 222Rn-daughter products from observed counting rates. In external radiation dosimetry we studied and developed Bayesian methods to estimate radiation doses to an individual with radiation induced chromosome aberrations. We analyzed chromosome aberrations after exposure to gammas and neutrons and developed a method for dose-estimation after criticality accidents. The research in internal radiation dosimetry focused on parameter estimation for compartmental models from observed compartmental activities. From the estimated probability densities of the model parameters we were able to derive the densities for compartmental activities for a two compartment catenary model at different times. We also calculated the average activities and their standard deviation for a simple two compartment model

  13. Apparatus and method for detecting explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, B.

    1976-01-01

    An apparatus is described for use in situations such as airports to detect explosives hidden in containers (for eg. suitcases). The method involves the evaluation of the quantities of oxygen and nitrogen within the container by neutron activation analysis and the determination of whether these quantities exceed predetermined limits. The equipment includes a small sub-critical lower powered reactor for thermal (0.01 to 0.10 eV) neutron production, a radium beryllium primary source, a deuterium-tritium reactor as a high energy (> 1.06 MeV) neutron source and Geiger counter detector arrays. (UK)

  14. Detection of viability: radiopharmacological conditions, methods, indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, T.; Moser, E.

    1996-01-01

    The indication of revascularization in patients with coronary artery disease is mainly based on factors such as coronary anatomy ischemia as well as ventricular function, patient's biological age or accompanying diseases. In general, evidence of vital myocardium plays a secondary role but will be important in patients with hibernating myocardium. Tl-201 scintigraphy with re-injection technique or rest-redistribution-examination is a simple and cost-effective method of the detection or exclusion of hibernation. However, in case of doubt F-18 FDG PET is recommended to guide further therapeutic strategies. (orig.) [de

  15. Methods and Instruments for Fast Neutron Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, David V.; Reeder, Paul L.; Cooper, Matthew W.; McCormick, Kathleen R.; Peurrung, Anthony J.; Warren, Glen A.

    2005-05-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated the performance of a large-area (~0.7 m2) plastic scintillator time-of-flight (TOF) sensor for direct detection of fast neutrons. This type of sensor is a readily area-scalable technology that provides broad-area geometrical coverage at a reasonably low cost. It can yield intrinsic detection efficiencies that compare favorably with moderator-based detection methods. The timing resolution achievable should permit substantially more precise time windowing of return neutron flux than would otherwise be possible with moderated detectors. The energy-deposition threshold imposed on each scintillator contributing to the event-definition trigger in a TOF system can be set to blind the sensor to direct emission from the neutron generator. The primary technical challenge addressed in the project was to understand the capabilities of a neutron TOF sensor in the limit of large scintillator area and small scintillator separation, a size regime in which the neutral particle’s flight path between the two scintillators is not tightly constrained.

  16. Detecting method and device for pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Akihiko; Hirano, Atsuya; Otaka, Masahiro; Kanno, Satoshi; Amano, Kazuo; Miyazaki, Katsumasa; Hattori, Shigeo; Yamamoto, Michiyoshi

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of and a device for diagnosing integrity of pipelines having the surfaces being in a corrosive atmosphere in a nuclear power plant. Namely, through holes are perforated to the pipeline. The predetermined area in the inside of the pipeline is scanned by laser light through the through holes. A luminance distribution of the laser light reflected at the inner circumference of the pipeline is photographed by a CCD camera. The images of the distribution of the luminance is processed to pick out a failed state. The image of the failed state is measured to determine the dimension of the failure. Alternatively, an inspection module having a function of irradiating laser light and detecting the lasers is inserted from a portion which can be removed upon conducting detection among the inside of the pipeline system to a position of the object to be detected. A predetermined area is scanned by laser light. The luminance distribution of the laser light reflected in the pipeline is photographed by the CCD camera. The images of the luminance distribution are processed to pick out the failed state, and the image of the failed state is measured to determine the dimension of the failure. (I.S.)

  17. TLC bioautographic method for detecting lipase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Abdel Moniem Sadek

    2012-01-01

    Bioautographic assays using TLC play an important role in the search for active compounds from plants. A TLC bioautographic assay has previously been established for the detection of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors but not for lipases. Development of a TLC bioautographic method for detecting lipase inhibitors in plant extracts. After migration of the plant extracts, the TLC plate was sprayed with α-naphtyl acetate and enzyme solutions before incubation at 37°C for 20 min. Finally, the solution of Fast Blue B salt was sprayed onto the TLC plate giving a purple background colouration. Lipase inhibitors were visualised as white spots on the TLC plates. Orlistat (a known lipase inhibitor) inhibited lipase down to 0.01 µg. Methanolic extracts of Camellia sinensis (L.) kuntz and Rosmarinus officinalis L after migration on TLC gave enzymatic inhibition when applied in amounts of 82 and 56 µg, respectively. On the other hand the methanolic extract of Morus alba leaves did not exhibit any lipase inhibitory activity. The screening test was able to detect lipase inhibition by pure reference substances and by compounds present in complex matrices, such as plant extracts. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Radiation sensitive area detection device and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor); Hecht, Diana L. (Inventor); Witherow, William K. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A radiation sensitive area detection device for use in conjunction with an X ray, ultraviolet or other radiation source is provided which comprises a phosphor containing film which releases a stored diffraction pattern image in response to incoming light or other electromagnetic wave. A light source such as a helium-neon laser, an optical fiber capable of directing light from the laser source onto the phosphor film and also capable of channelling the fluoresced light from the phosphor film to an integrating sphere which directs the light to a signal processing means including a light receiving means such as a photomultiplier tube. The signal processing means allows translation of the fluoresced light in order to detect the original pattern caused by the diffraction of the radiation by the original sample. The optical fiber is retained directly in front of the phosphor screen by a thin metal holder which moves up and down across the phosphor screen and which features a replaceable pinhole which allows easy adjustment of the resolution of the light projected onto the phosphor film. The device produces near real time images with high spatial resolution and without the distortion that accompanies prior art devices employing photomultiplier tubes. A method is also provided for carrying out radiation area detection using the device of the invention.

  19. Platelet antibody: review of detection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, K.A.

    1988-10-01

    The driving force behind development of in vitro methods for platelet antibodies is identification of plasma factors causing platelet destruction. Early methods relied on measurement of platelet activation. Current methods are more specific and use a purified antibody against immunoglobulin or complement, which is usually labeled with /sup 125/I or tagged with an enzyme or fluorescein. Comparisons of quantitation of platelet-associated IgG show wide variability between different methods. The disparate results can be related both to differences in binding of secondary antibodies to immunoglobulin in solution compared to immunoglobulins attached to platelets and to the improper assumption that the binding ratio between the secondary detecting and primary antiplatelet antibody is one. Most assays can 1) identify neonatal isoimmune thrombocytopenia and posttransfusion purpura, 2) help to differentiate between immune and nonimmune thrombocytopenias, 3) help to sort out the offending drug when drug-induced thrombocytopenia is suspected, and 4) identify platelet alloantibodies and potential platelet donors via a cross match assay for refractory patients. However, the advantages of quantitative assays over qualitative methods with respect to predictions of patients clinical course and response to different treatments remain to be investigated. 61 references.

  20. Method and system for detecting explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reber, Edward L [Idaho Falls, ID; Jewell, James K [Idaho Falls, ID; Rohde, Kenneth W [Idaho Falls, ID; Seabury, Edward H [Idaho Falls, ID; Blackwood, Larry G [Idaho Falls, ID; Edwards, Andrew J [Idaho Falls, ID; Derr, Kurt W [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-03-10

    A method of detecting explosives in a vehicle includes providing a first rack on one side of the vehicle, the rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a second rack on another side of the vehicle, the second rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a control system, remote from the first and second racks, coupled to the neutron generators and gamma ray detectors; using the control system, causing the neutron generators to generate neutrons; and performing gamma ray spectroscopy on spectra read by the gamma ray detectors to look for a signature indicative of presence of an explosive. Various apparatus and other methods are also provided.

  1. Diagnostic methods for detection of bone metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Łukaszewski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal metastases are severe complications in the course of cancer, and they indicate a worse prognosis. The use of modern imaging techniques allows rapid diagnosis of bone metastases. Properly selected diagnostic imaging (scintigraphy, positron emission tomography, whole body MRI allows us to evaluate the number of metastatic foci in the skeletal system. Complementary imaging examinations (X-ray, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging determine the extent of metastasis and its character: osteolytic, osteoblast, mixed. Hypercalcaemia is a symptom of low specificity for metastatic bone disease (a result of osteolysis; nevertheless, it is a significant complication in oncological treatment and worsens the prognosis of the patient. A biopsy is the final stage of the diagnostic process, which allows us to assess cell and tissue changes. Guided biopsies are performed under the control of musculoskeletal imaging methods (CT, MRI and they are the most promising tools in bone metastases diagnosis. The development of guided biopsy techniques has led to the conclusion that they should be standard in diagnosing bone metastases. Liquid biopsy (LB seems to be the most promising diagnostic method for detection of bone metastases. LB based on tumour-specific DNA mutation gives an opportunity for early detection and assessment of the molecular heterogeneity of the overall disease.

  2. Nucleic acid detection system and method for detecting influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Hong; Song, Jian

    2015-03-17

    The invention provides a rapid, sensitive and specific nucleic acid detection system which utilizes isothermal nucleic acid amplification in combination with a lateral flow chromatographic device, or DNA dipstick, for DNA-hybridization detection. The system of the invention requires no complex instrumentation or electronic hardware, and provides a low cost nucleic acid detection system suitable for highly sensitive pathogen detection. Hybridization to single-stranded DNA amplification products using the system of the invention provides a sensitive and specific means by which assays can be multiplexed for the detection of multiple target sequences.

  3. Thermoluminescence method for detection of irradiated food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinnioja, S

    1998-12-31

    A method of thermoluminescence (TL) analysis was developed for the detection of irradiated foods. The TL method is based on the determination of thermoluminescence of adhering or contaminating minerals separated from foods by wet sieving and treatment with high density liquid. Carbon tetrachloride provided a suitable alternative for foods that form gels with water. Thermoluminescence response of minerals in a first TL measurement is normalised with a second TL measurement of the same mineral sample after calibration irradiation to a dose of 5 kGy. The decision about irradiation is made on the basis of a comparison of the two TL spectra: if the two TL glow curves match in shape and intensity the sample has been irradiated, and if they are clearly different it has not been irradiated. An attractive feature of TL analysis is that the mineral material itself is used for calibration; no reference material is required. Foods of interest in the investigation were herbs, spices, berries and seafood. The presence of minerals in samples is a criterion for application of the method, and appropriate minerals were found in all herbs, spices and berries. The most common minerals in terrestrial food were tecto-silicates - quartz and feldspars - which with their intense and stable thermoluminescence were well suited for the analysis. Mica proved to be useless for detection purposes, whereas carbonate in the form of calcite separated from intestines of seafood was acceptable. Fading of the TL signal is considerable in the low temperature part of the glow curve during a storage of several months after irradiation. However, spices and herbs could easily be identified as irradiated even after two years storage. Conditions for seafood, which is stored in a freezer, are different, and only slight fading was observed after one year. The effect of mineral composition and structure on TL was studied for feldspars. Feldspars originating from subtropical and tropical regions exhibit lower TL

  4. Thermoluminescence method for detection of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinnioja, S.

    1998-01-01

    A method of thermoluminescence (TL) analysis was developed for the detection of irradiated foods. The TL method is based on the determination of thermoluminescence of adhering or contaminating minerals separated from foods by wet sieving and treatment with high density liquid. Carbon tetrachloride provided a suitable alternative for foods that form gels with water. Thermoluminescence response of minerals in a first TL measurement is normalised with a second TL measurement of the same mineral sample after calibration irradiation to a dose of 5 kGy. The decision about irradiation is made on the basis of a comparison of the two TL spectra: if the two TL glow curves match in shape and intensity the sample has been irradiated, and if they are clearly different it has not been irradiated. An attractive feature of TL analysis is that the mineral material itself is used for calibration; no reference material is required. Foods of interest in the investigation were herbs, spices, berries and seafood. The presence of minerals in samples is a criterion for application of the method, and appropriate minerals were found in all herbs, spices and berries. The most common minerals in terrestrial food were tecto-silicates - quartz and feldspars - which with their intense and stable thermoluminescence were well suited for the analysis. Mica proved to be useless for detection purposes, whereas carbonate in the form of calcite separated from intestines of seafood was acceptable. Fading of the TL signal is considerable in the low temperature part of the glow curve during a storage of several months after irradiation. However, spices and herbs could easily be identified as irradiated even after two years storage. Conditions for seafood, which is stored in a freezer, are different, and only slight fading was observed after one year. The effect of mineral composition and structure on TL was studied for feldspars. Feldspars originating from subtropical and tropical regions exhibit lower TL

  5. Odour Detection Methods: Olfactometry and Chemical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lovascio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the odours issue arises from the sensory nature of smell. From the evolutionary point of view olfaction is one of the oldest senses, allowing for seeking food, recognizing danger or communication: human olfaction is a protective sense as it allows the detection of potential illnesses or infections by taking into account the odour pleasantness/unpleasantness. Odours are mixtures of light and small molecules that, coming in contact with various human sensory systems, also at very low concentrations in the inhaled air, are able to stimulate an anatomical response: the experienced perception is the odour. Odour assessment is a key point in some industrial production processes (i.e., food, beverages, etc. and it is acquiring steady importance in unusual technological fields (i.e., indoor air quality; this issue mainly concerns the environmental impact of various industrial activities (i.e., tanneries, refineries, slaughterhouses, distilleries, civil and industrial wastewater treatment plants, landfills and composting plants as sources of olfactory nuisances, the top air pollution complaint. Although the human olfactory system is still regarded as the most important and effective “analytical instrument” for odour evaluation, the demand for more objective analytical methods, along with the discovery of materials with chemo-electronic properties, has boosted the development of sensor-based machine olfaction potentially imitating the biological system. This review examines the state of the art of both human and instrumental sensing currently used for the detection of odours. The olfactometric techniques employing a panel of trained experts are discussed and the strong and weak points of odour assessment through human detection are highlighted. The main features and the working principles of modern electronic noses (E-Noses are then described, focusing on their better performances for environmental analysis. Odour emission monitoring

  6. Odour detection methods: olfactometry and chemical sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brattoli, Magda; de Gennaro, Gianluigi; de Pinto, Valentina; Loiotile, Annamaria Demarinis; Lovascio, Sara; Penza, Michele

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of the odours issue arises from the sensory nature of smell. From the evolutionary point of view olfaction is one of the oldest senses, allowing for seeking food, recognizing danger or communication: human olfaction is a protective sense as it allows the detection of potential illnesses or infections by taking into account the odour pleasantness/unpleasantness. Odours are mixtures of light and small molecules that, coming in contact with various human sensory systems, also at very low concentrations in the inhaled air, are able to stimulate an anatomical response: the experienced perception is the odour. Odour assessment is a key point in some industrial production processes (i.e., food, beverages, etc.) and it is acquiring steady importance in unusual technological fields (i.e., indoor air quality); this issue mainly concerns the environmental impact of various industrial activities (i.e., tanneries, refineries, slaughterhouses, distilleries, civil and industrial wastewater treatment plants, landfills and composting plants) as sources of olfactory nuisances, the top air pollution complaint. Although the human olfactory system is still regarded as the most important and effective "analytical instrument" for odour evaluation, the demand for more objective analytical methods, along with the discovery of materials with chemo-electronic properties, has boosted the development of sensor-based machine olfaction potentially imitating the biological system. This review examines the state of the art of both human and instrumental sensing currently used for the detection of odours. The olfactometric techniques employing a panel of trained experts are discussed and the strong and weak points of odour assessment through human detection are highlighted. The main features and the working principles of modern electronic noses (E-Noses) are then described, focusing on their better performances for environmental analysis. Odour emission monitoring carried out through

  7. A Method to Detect AAC Audio Forgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhong Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Advanced Audio Coding (AAC, a standardized lossy compression scheme for digital audio, which was designed to be the successor of the MP3 format, generally achieves better sound quality than MP3 at similar bit rates. While AAC is also the default or standard audio format for many devices and AAC audio files may be presented as important digital evidences, the authentication of the audio files is highly needed but relatively missing. In this paper, we propose a scheme to expose tampered AAC audio streams that are encoded at the same encoding bit-rate. Specifically, we design a shift-recompression based method to retrieve the differential features between the re-encoded audio stream at each shifting and original audio stream, learning classifier is employed to recognize different patterns of differential features of the doctored forgery files and original (untouched audio files. Experimental results show that our approach is very promising and effective to detect the forgery of the same encoding bit-rate on AAC audio streams. Our study also shows that shift recompression-based differential analysis is very effective for detection of the MP3 forgery at the same bit rate.

  8. SCREENING METHODS FOR THE DETECTION OF CARTELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail BUŞU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During their everyday activities, the economic operators conclude a multitude of agreements in tacit or written form, such as: contracts or conventions. Some of these arrangements are absolutely necessary for the development of their current activities. These are agreements which, by respecting the rules of competition, are able to bring benefits to consumers and to the entire economy, as a whole. On the other hand, the economic operators often conclude agreements which are harmful to the economy as well as to the consumers, violating the competition rules. Some examples in this respect are: operators’ agreements on price fixing, on market or customers sharing. Before investigating the violation of competition rules, the relevant authorities should identify the possibility of the existence of such illegalities. The theoretical models for detecting the cartels do represent a proactive tool concerning the antitrust activity of competition authorities. The present paper furnishes a review of the methods for detecting cartels as well as a part of their practical application.

  9. Systems and methods for detecting neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bross, Alan D.; Mellott, Kerry L.; Pla-Dalmau, Anna

    2005-08-09

    Systems and methods for detecting neutrons. One or more neutron-sensitive scintillators can be configured from a plurality of nano-sized particles, dopants and an extruded plastic material, such as polystyrene. The nano-sized particles can be compounded into the extruded plastic material with at least one dopant that permits the plastic material to scintillate. One or more plastic light collectors can be associated with a neutron-sensitive scintillator, such that the plastic light collector includes a central hole thereof. A wavelength-shifting fiber can then be located within the hole. The wavelength shifting (WLS) fiber absorbs scintillation light having a wavelength thereof and re-emits the light at a longer wavelength.

  10. Detection methods for irradiated mites and insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatowicz, S.

    1999-01-01

    Results of the study on the following tests for separation of irradiated pests from untreated ones are reported: (a) test for identification of irradiated mites (Acaridae) based on lack of fecundity of treated females; (b) test for identification of irradiated beetles based on their locomotor activity; (c) test for identification of irradiated pests based on electron spin resonance (ESR) signal derived from treated insects; (d) test for identification of irradiated pests based on changes in the midgut induced by gamma radiation; and (e) test for identification of irradiated pests based on the alterations in total proteins of treated adults. Of these detection methods, only the test based on the pathological changes induced by irradiation in the insect midgut may identify consistently either irradiated larvae or adults. This test is simple and convenient when a rapid processing technique for dehydrating and embedding the midgut is used. (author)

  11. Method of detecting a fuel element failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, P.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described for detecting a fuel element failure in a liquid-sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor consisting of equilibrating a sample of the coolant with a molten salt consisting of a mixture of barium iodide and strontium iodide (or other iodides) whereby a large fraction of any radioactive iodine present in the liquid sodium coolant exchanges with the iodine present in the salt; separating the molten salt and sodium; if necessary, equilibrating the molten salt with nonradioactive sodium and separating the molten salt and sodium; and monitoring the molten salt for the presence of iodine, the presence of iodine indicating that the cladding of a fuel element has failed. (U.S.)

  12. Liquid chromatography detection unit, system, and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenzo, Stephen E.; Moses, William W.

    2015-10-27

    An embodiment of a liquid chromatography detection unit includes a fluid channel and a radiation detector. The radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of a radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along the fluid channel. An embodiment of a liquid chromatography system includes an injector, a separation column, and a radiation detector. The injector is operable to inject a sample that includes a radiolabeled compound into a solvent stream. The position sensitive radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of the radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along a fluid channel. An embodiment of a method of liquid chromatography includes injecting a sample that comprises radiolabeled compounds into a solvent. The radiolabeled compounds are then separated. A position sensitive radiation detector is employed to image distributions of the radiolabeled compounds as the radiolabeled compounds travel along a fluid channel.

  13. The rise of 3-d single-ion magnets in molecular magnetism: towards materials from molecules?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Jamie M; Harriman, Katie L M; Murugesu, Muralee

    2016-04-21

    Single-molecule magnets (SMMs) that contain one spin centre (so-called single-ion magnets) theoretically represent the smallest possible unit for spin-based electronic devices. The realisation of this and related technologies, depends on first being able to design systems with sufficiently large energy barriers to magnetisation reversal, U eff , and secondly, on being able to organise these molecules into addressable arrays. In recent years, significant progress has been made towards the former goal - principally as a result of efforts which have been directed towards studying complexes based on highly anisotropic lanthanide ions, such as Tb(iii) and Dy(iii). Since 2013 however, and the remarkable report by Long and co-workers of a linear Fe(i) system exhibiting U eff = 325 K, single-ion systems of transition metals have undergone something of a renaissance in the literature. Not only do they have important lessons to teach us about anisotropy and relaxation dynamics in the quest to enhance U eff , the ability to create strongly coupled spin systems potentially offers access to a whole of host of 1, 2 and 3-dimensional materials with interesting structural and physical properties. This perspective summarises recent progress in this rapidly expanding sub-genre of molecular magnetism from the viewpoint of the synthetic chemist, with a particular focus on the lessons that have so far been learned from single-ion magnets of the d-block, and, the future research directions which we feel are likely to emerge in the coming years.

  14. Two different hematocrit detection methods: Different methods, different results?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuepbach Reto A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Less is known about the influence of hematocrit detection methodology on transfusion triggers. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare two different hematocrit-assessing methods. In a total of 50 critically ill patients hematocrit was analyzed using (1 blood gas analyzer (ABLflex 800 and (2 the central laboratory method (ADVIA® 2120 and compared. Findings Bland-Altman analysis for repeated measurements showed a good correlation with a bias of +1.39% and 2 SD of ± 3.12%. The 24%-hematocrit-group showed a correlation of r2 = 0.87. With a kappa of 0.56, 22.7% of the cases would have been transfused differently. In the-28%-hematocrit group with a similar correlation (r2 = 0.8 and a kappa of 0.58, 21% of the cases would have been transfused differently. Conclusions Despite a good agreement between the two methods used to determine hematocrit in clinical routine, the calculated difference of 1.4% might substantially influence transfusion triggers depending on the employed method.

  15. Subattoampere current induced by single ions in silicon oxide layers of nonvolatile memory cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cellere, G.; Paccagnella, A.; Larcher, L.; Visconti, A.; Bonanomi, M.

    2006-01-01

    A single ion impinging on a thin silicon dioxide layer generates a number of electron/hole pairs proportional to its linear energy transfer coefficient. Defects generated by recombination can act as a conductive path for electrons that cross the oxide barrier, thanks to a multitrap-assisted mechanism. We present data on the dependence of this phenomenon on the oxide thickness by using floating gate memory arrays. The tiny number of excess electrons stored in these devices allows for extremely high sensitivity, impossible with any direct measurement of oxide leakage current. Results are of particular interest for next generation devices

  16. Recent developments in optical detection methods for microchip separations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Götz, S.; Karst, U.

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes the features and performances of optical detection systems currently applied in order to monitor separations on microchip devices. Fluorescence detection, which delivers very high sensitivity and selectivity, is still the most widely applied method of detection. Instruments

  17. DOM Based XSS Detecting Method Based on Phantomjs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ri-Zhan; Ling, Jie; Liu, Yi

    Because malicious code does not appear in html source code, DOM based XSS cannot be detected by traditional methods. By analyzing the causes of DOM based XSS, this paper proposes a detection method of DOM based XSS based on phantomjs. This paper uses function hijacking to detect dangerous operation and achieves a prototype system. Comparing with existing tools shows that the system improves the detection rate and the method is effective to detect DOM based XSS.

  18. Feasibility of Observing and Characterizing Single Ion Strikes in Microelectronic Components.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dingreville, Remi Philippe Michel [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bufford, Daniel Charles [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The transient degradation of semiconductor device performance under irradiation has long been an issue of concern. A single high-energy charged particle can degrade or permanently destroy the microelectronic component, potentially altering the course or function of the systems. Disruption of the the crystalline structure through the introduction of quasi-stable defect structures can change properties from semiconductor to conductor. Typically, the initial defect formation phase is followed by a recovery phase in which defect-defect or defect-dopant interactions modify the characteristics of the damaged structure. In this LDRD Express, in-situ ion irradiation transmission microscopy (TEM) in-situ TEM experiments combined with atomistic simulations have been conducted to determine the feasibility of imaging and characterizing the defect structure resulting from a single cascade in silicon. In-situ TEM experiments have been conducted to demonstrate that a single ion strike can be observed in Si thin films with nanometer resolution in real time using the in-situ ion irradiation transmission electron microscope (I3TEM). Parallel to this experimental effort, ion implantation has been numerically simulated using Molecular Dynamics (MD). This numerical framework provides detailed predictions of the damage and follow the evolution of the damage during the first nanoseconds. The experimental results demonstrate that single ion strike can be observed in prototypical semiconductors.

  19. Feasibility of Observing and Characterizing Single Ion Strikes in Microelectronic Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingreville, Remi Philippe Michel; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel; Bufford, Daniel Charles

    2015-01-01

    The transient degradation of semiconductor device performance under irradiation has long been an issue of concern. A single high-energy charged particle can degrade or permanently destroy the microelectronic component, potentially altering the course or function of the systems. Disruption of the the crystalline structure through the introduction of quasi-stable defect structures can change properties from semiconductor to conductor. Typically, the initial defect formation phase is followed by a recovery phase in which defect-defect or defect-dopant interactions modify the characteristics of the damaged structure. In this LDRD Express, in-situ ion irradiation transmission microscopy (TEM) in-situ TEM experiments combined with atomistic simulations have been conducted to determine the feasibility of imaging and characterizing the defect structure resulting from a single cascade in silicon. In-situ TEM experiments have been conducted to demonstrate that a single ion strike can be observed in Si thin films with nanometer resolution in real time using the in-situ ion irradiation transmission electron microscope (I 3 TEM). Parallel to this experimental effort, ion implantation has been numerically simulated using Molecular Dynamics (MD). This numerical framework provides detailed predictions of the damage and follow the evolution of the damage during the first nanoseconds. The experimental results demonstrate that single ion strike can be observed in prototypical semiconductors.

  20. Precursor and neutral loss scans in a single ion trap and application to planetary exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Precursor and neutral loss scans are general survey methods in tandem mass spectrometry that allow for the detection of molecules with similar functional groups. For...

  1. Image Processing Methods Usable for Object Detection on the Chessboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beran Ladislav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Image segmentation and object detection is challenging problem in many research. Although many algorithms for image segmentation have been invented, there is no simple algorithm for image segmentation and object detection. Our research is based on combination of several methods for object detection. The first method suitable for image segmentation and object detection is colour detection. This method is very simply, but there is problem with different colours. For this method it is necessary to have precisely determined colour of segmented object before all calculations. In many cases it is necessary to determine this colour manually. Alternative simply method is method based on background removal. This method is based on difference between reference image and detected image. In this paper several methods suitable for object detection are described. Thisresearch is focused on coloured object detection on chessboard. The results from this research with fusion of neural networks for user-computer game checkers will be applied.

  2. Radio frequency detection assembly and method for detecting radio frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cown, Steven H.; Derr, Kurt Warren

    2010-03-16

    A radio frequency detection assembly is described and which includes a radio frequency detector which detects a radio frequency emission produced by a radio frequency emitter from a given location which is remote relative to the radio frequency detector; a location assembly electrically coupled with the radio frequency detector and which is operable to estimate the location of the radio frequency emitter from the radio frequency emission which has been received; and a radio frequency transmitter electrically coupled with the radio frequency detector and the location assembly, and which transmits a radio frequency signal which reports the presence of the radio frequency emitter.

  3. Development of detection methods for irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jae Seung; Nam, Hye Seon; Oh, Kyong Nam; Woo, Si Ho; Kim, Kyeung Eun; Yi, Sang Duk; Park, Jun Young; Kim, Kyong Su; Hwang, Keum Taek

    2000-04-01

    In 1999, we have been studied (1) on the detection of irradiated foods by ESR spectroscopy, by thermoluminescence, and by viscometry for physical measurements, (2) on the detection of hydrocarbons and 2-alkylcyclobutanones derived from fatty foods by GC/MS for chemical measurements, (3) on the screening and detection of irradiated foods by Comet assay and immunochemical (ELISA) technique for biological or biochemical measurements

  4. Development of detection methods for irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae Seung; Nam, Hye Seon; Oh, Kyong Nam; Woo, Si Ho; Kim, Kyeung Eun; Yi, Sang Duk; Park, Jun Young; Kim, Kyong Su; Hwang, Keum Taek

    2000-04-01

    In 1999, we have been studied (1) on the detection of irradiated foods by ESR spectroscopy, by thermoluminescence, and by viscometry for physical measurements, (2) on the detection of hydrocarbons and 2-alkylcyclobutanones derived from fatty foods by GC/MS for chemical measurements, (3) on the screening and detection of irradiated foods by Comet assay and immunochemical (ELISA) technique for biological or biochemical measurements.

  5. Laser-Based Detection Methods for Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Photofragmentation-Fragment Detection (SPF-FD) Cabalo and Sausa introduced a technique for detection of explosives with low vapor pressure called SPF-FD (149...1999, 38, 6447. 149. Cabalo , J.; Sausa, R. Appl. Spectrosc. 2003, 57, 1196. 150. Claspy, P. C.; Pao, Y.-H.; Kwong, S.; Nodov, E. IEEE J. Quant

  6. Enzymatically mediated bioprecipitation of heavy metals from industrial wastes and single ion solutions by mammalian alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Gouri; Shah, Gaurav A; Dey, Pritam; S, Ganesh; Venu-Babu, P; Thilagaraj, W Richard

    2013-01-01

    The study was aimed at investigating the potential use of calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase (CIAP) enzyme in the removal of heavy metals (Cd(2+), Ni(2+), Co(2+) and Cr(3+/6+)) from single ion solutions as well as tannery and electroplating effluents. CIAP mediated bioremediation (white biotechnology) is a novel technique that is eco-friendly and cost effective unlike the conventional chemical technologies. Typical reactions containing the enzyme (CIAP) and p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) as substrate in Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8 and 11) and either single ion metal solutions (250 ppm and 1000 ppm) or effluents from tannery or electroplating industry were incubated at 37°C for 30 min, 60 min and 120 min. The inorganic phosphate (P(i)) generated due to catalytic breakdown of pNPP complexes free metal ions as metal-phosphate and the amount of metal precipitated was derived by estimating the reduction in the free metal ion present in the supernatant of reactions employing atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Better precipitation of metal was obtained at pH 11 than at pH 8 and between the two concentrations of different metals tested, an initial metal concentration of 250 ppm in the reaction gave more precipitation than with 1000 ppm. Experimental data showed that at pH 11, the percentage of removal of metal ions (for an initial concentration of 250 ppm) was in the following order: Cd(2+) (80.99%) > Ni(2+) (64.78%) > Cr(3+) > (46.15%) > Co(2+) (36.47%) > Cr(6+) (32.33%). The overall removal of Cr(3+) and Cr(6+) from tannery effluent was 32.77% and 37.39% respectively in 120 min at pH 11. Likewise, the overall removal of Cd(2+), Co(2+) and Ni(2+) from electroplating effluent was 50.42%, 13.93% and 38.64% respectively in 120 min at pH 11. The study demonstrates that bioprecipitation by CIAP may be a viable and environmental friendly method for clean-up of heavy metals from tannery and electroplating effluents.

  7. Comparison of Unsupervised Anomaly Detection Methods

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Several different unsupervised anomaly detection algorithms have been applied to Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) data to serve the purpose of developing a...

  8. System and method for detecting cells or components thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Marc D [Ames, IA; Lipert, Robert J [Ames, IA; Doyle, Robert T [Ames, IA; Grubisha, Desiree S [Corona, CA; Rahman, Salma [Ames, IA

    2009-01-06

    A system and method for detecting a detectably labeled cell or component thereof in a sample comprising one or more cells or components thereof, at least one cell or component thereof of which is detectably labeled with at least two detectable labels. In one embodiment, the method comprises: (i) introducing the sample into one or more flow cells of a flow cytometer, (ii) irradiating the sample with one or more light sources that are absorbed by the at least two detectable labels, the absorption of which is to be detected, and (iii) detecting simultaneously the absorption of light by the at least two detectable labels on the detectably labeled cell or component thereof with an array of photomultiplier tubes, which are operably linked to two or more filters that selectively transmit detectable emissions from the at least two detectable labels.

  9. Single Ion transient-IBIC analyses of semiconductor devices using a cryogenic temperature stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laird, J.S.; Bardos, R.; Legge, G.J.F.; Jagadish, C.

    1998-01-01

    A new Transient - IBIC data acquisition and analysis system at MARC is described. A discussion on the need for single ion control and temperature control is also given. The recorded signal is used as the trigger for beam pulsing. The new cryostatic temperature control stage is introduced. Data is presented on line profiles across the edge of a Au-Si junction collected over the temperature range of 25-300K using a developed C-V and I-V variable temperature stage incorporating a liquid helium cryostat. It demonstrates the potential improvements in spatial resolution in materials of long lifetime by mapping on timing windows around the prompt charge component in the charge transient

  10. Single Ion transient-IBIC analyses of semiconductor devices using a cryogenic temperature stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, J.S.; Bardos, R.; Legge, G.J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Jagadish, C. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). School of Physics, Electronic Materials Engineering

    1998-06-01

    A new Transient - IBIC data acquisition and analysis system at MARC is described. A discussion on the need for single ion control and temperature control is also given. The recorded signal is used as the trigger for beam pulsing. The new cryostatic temperature control stage is introduced. Data is presented on line profiles across the edge of a Au-Si junction collected over the temperature range of 25-300K using a developed C-V and I-V variable temperature stage incorporating a liquid helium cryostat. It demonstrates the potential improvements in spatial resolution in materials of long lifetime by mapping on timing windows around the prompt charge component in the charge transient. 2 figs.

  11. Dynamics of a single ion in a perturbed Penning trap: Octupolar perturbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, Martin; Salas, J. Pablo

    2004-01-01

    Imperfections in the design or implementation of Penning traps may give rise to electrostatic perturbations that introduce nonlinearities in the dynamics. In this paper we investigate, from the point of view of classical mechanics, the dynamics of a single ion trapped in a Penning trap perturbed by an octupolar perturbation. Because of the axial symmetry of the problem, the system has two degrees of freedom. Hence, this model is ideal to be managed by numerical techniques like continuation of families of periodic orbits and Poincare surfaces of section. We find that, through the variation of the two parameters controlling the dynamics, several periodic orbits emanate from two fundamental periodic orbits. This process produces important changes (bifurcations) in the phase space structure leading to chaotic behavior

  12. Modulational instability and localized modes in Heisenberg ferromagnetic chains with single-ion easy-axis anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Bing, E-mail: bingtangphy@jsu.edu.cn; Li, Guang-Ling; Fu, Mei

    2017-03-15

    A semiclassical theoretical study on the property of the modulational instability of corresponding linear spin-waves and the presence of nonlinear localized excitations in a discrete quantum ferromagnetic spin chain with single-ion easy-axis anisotropy is reported. We consider the Glauber coherent-state representation combined with the Dyson-Maleev transformation for local spin operators as the basic representation of the system, and derive the equation of motion by means of the Ehrenfest theorem. Using a modulational instability analysis of plane waves, we predict the existence regions of bright envelope solitons and intrinsic localized spin-wave modes. Besides, with the help of a semidiscrete multi-scale method, we obtain analytical solutions for the bright envelope soliton and intrinsic localized spin-wave mode. Moreover, we analyze their existence conditions, which agree with the results of modulational instability analysis. - Highlights: • The anisotropy plays significant role in both the property of the modulational instability and the existence conditions for localized modes in ferromagnetic chains. • The analytical solutions of localized modes are obtained. • The appearance conditions for such localized modes agree with the modulational instability analysis.

  13. Radiation detection device and a radiation detection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, A.

    1975-01-01

    A radiation detection device is described including at least one scintillator in the path of radiation emissions from a distributed radiation source; a plurality of photodetectors for viewing each scintillator; a signal processing means, a storage means, and a data processing means that are interconnected with one another and connected to said photodetectors; and display means connected to the data processing means to locate a plurality of radiation sources in said distributed radiation source and to provide an image of the distributed radiation sources. The storage means includes radiation emission response data and location data from a plurality of known locations for use by the data processing means to derive a more accurate image by comparison of radiation responses from known locations with radiation responses from unknown locations. (auth)

  14. Gas tightness detecting method for overpack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harashima, Takeo; Hasegawa, Yasuyuki

    1999-01-01

    High level radioactive wastes and timing gas generation means for jetting out an inert gas after a predetermined period of time are contained together in a steel overpack. A steel lid is welded to the opening of the overpack so as to seal the high level radioactive wastes and the timing gas generation means. Then, the inert gas is jetted out from the timing gas generating device, and the gas tightness is detected by detecting the inert gas at the circumference of the overpack. Alternatively, a corrosion resistant coating layer having a gas generation means for jetting out an inert gas is coated at the circumference of a steel overpack containing high level radioactive wastes, and the overpack is sealed. The inert gas is generated from the gas generating means in the coating layer, and the inert gas at the periphery of the coating layer is detected to determine gas tightness. (N.H.)

  15. Method to detect steam generator tube leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Kiyomi

    1994-01-01

    It is important for plant operation to detect minor leakages from the steam generator tube at an early stage, thus, leakage detection has been performed using a condenser air ejector gas monitor and a steam generator blow down monitor, etc. In this study highly-sensitive main steam line monitors have been developed in order to identify leakages in the steam generator more quickly and accurately. The performance of the monitors was verified and the demonstration test at the actual plant was conducted for their intended application to the plants. (author)

  16. An Entropy-Based Network Anomaly Detection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Bereziński

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Data mining is an interdisciplinary subfield of computer science involving methods at the intersection of artificial intelligence, machine learning and statistics. One of the data mining tasks is anomaly detection which is the analysis of large quantities of data to identify items, events or observations which do not conform to an expected pattern. Anomaly detection is applicable in a variety of domains, e.g., fraud detection, fault detection, system health monitoring but this article focuses on application of anomaly detection in the field of network intrusion detection.The main goal of the article is to prove that an entropy-based approach is suitable to detect modern botnet-like malware based on anomalous patterns in network. This aim is achieved by realization of the following points: (i preparation of a concept of original entropy-based network anomaly detection method, (ii implementation of the method, (iii preparation of original dataset, (iv evaluation of the method.

  17. Molecular Methods for Detection of Antimicrobial Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anjum, Muna F.; Zankari, Ea; Hasman, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    The increase in bacteria harboring antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global problem because there is a paucity of antibiotics available to treat multidrug-resistant bacterial infections in humans and animals. Detection of AMR present in bacteria that may pose a threat to veterinary and public...

  18. Steam generator leak detection using acoustic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goluchko, V.V.; Sokolov, B.M.; Bulanov, A.N.

    1982-05-01

    The main requirements to meet by a device for leak detection in sodium - water steam generators are determined. The potentialities of instrumentation designed based on the developed requirements have been tested using a model of a 550 kw steam generator [fr

  19. Detection methods for centrifugal microfluidic platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burger, Robert; Amato, Letizia; Boisen, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Centrifugal microfluidics has attracted much interest from academia as well as industry, since it potentially offers solutions for affordable, user-friendly and portable biosensing. A wide range of so-called fluidic unit operations, e.g. mixing, metering, liquid routing, and particle separation...... for the centrifugal microfluidics platform and cover optical as well as mechanical and electrical detection principles....

  20. Ultrasound Imaging Methods for Breast Cancer Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozmen, N.

    2014-01-01

    The main focus of this thesis is on modeling acoustic wavefield propagation and implementing imaging algorithms for breast cancer detection using ultrasound. As a starting point, we use an integral equation formulation, which can be used to solve both the forward and inverse problems. This thesis

  1. Method of detecting and counting bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An improved method is provided for determining bacterial levels, especially in samples of aqueous physiological fluids. The method depends on the quantitative determination of bacterial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the presence of nonbacterial ATP. The bacterial ATP is released by cell rupture and is measured by an enzymatic bioluminescent assay. A concentration technique is included to make the method more sensitive. It is particularly useful where the fluid to be measured contains an unknown or low bacteria count.

  2. Anomaly-based Network Intrusion Detection Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Nevlud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with detection of network anomalies. Network anomalies include everything that is quite different from the normal operation. For detection of anomalies were used machine learning systems. Machine learning can be considered as a support or a limited type of artificial intelligence. A machine learning system usually starts with some knowledge and a corresponding knowledge organization so that it can interpret, analyse, and test the knowledge acquired. There are several machine learning techniques available. We tested Decision tree learning and Bayesian networks. The open source data-mining framework WEKA was the tool we used for testing the classify, cluster, association algorithms and for visualization of our results. The WEKA is a collection of machine learning algorithms for data mining tasks.

  3. Development of detection methods for irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae Seung; Kim, Chong Ki; Lee, Hae Jung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Insitiute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyong Su [Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    To identify irradiated foods, studies have been carried out with electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy on bone containing foods, such as chicken, pork, and beef. The intensity of the signal induced in bones increased linearly with irradiation doses in the range of 1.0 kGy to 5.0 kGy, and it was possible to distinguish between samples given low and high doses of irradiation. The signal stability for 6 weeks made them ideal for the quick and easy identification of irradiated meats. The analysis of DNA damage made on single cells by agarose gel electrophoresis (DNA 'comet assay') can be used to detect irradiated food. All the samples irradiated with over 0.3 kGy were identified to detect post-irradiation by the tail length of their comets. Irradiated samples showed comets with long tails, and the tail length of the comets increased with the dose, while unirradiated samples showed no or very short tails. As a result of the above experiment, the DNA 'comet assay' might be applied to the detection of irradiated grains as a simple, low-cost and rapid screening test. When fats are irradiated, hydrocarbons contained one or two fewer carbon atoms are formed from the parent fatty acids. The major hydrocarbons in irradiated beef, pork and chicken were 1,7-hexadecadiene and 8-heptadecene originating from leic acid. 1,7 hexadecadiene was the highest amount in irradiated beef, pork and chicken. Eight kinds of hydrocarbons were identified from irradiated chicken, among which 1,7-hexadecadiene and 8-heptadecen were detected as major compounds. The concentration of radiation-induced hydrocarbons was relatively constant during 16 weeks.

  4. Development of detection methods for irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jae Seung; Kim, Chong Ki; Lee, Hae Jung; Kim, Kyong Su

    1999-04-01

    To identify irradiated foods, studies have been carried out with electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy on bone containing foods, such as chicken, pork, and beef. The intensity of the signal induced in bones increased linearly with irradiation doses in the range of 1.0 kGy to 5.0 kGy, and it was possible to distinguish between samples given low and high doses of irradiation. The signal stability for 6 weeks made them ideal for the quick and easy identification of irradiated meats. The analysis of DNA damage made on single cells by agarose gel electrophoresis (DNA 'comet assay') can be used to detect irradiated food. All the samples irradiated with over 0.3 kGy were identified to detect post-irradiation by the tail length of their comets. Irradiated samples showed comets with long tails, and the tail length of the comets increased with the dose, while unirradiated samples showed no or very short tails. As a result of the above experiment, the DNA 'comet assay' might be applied to the detection of irradiated grains as a simple, low-cost and rapid screening test. When fats are irradiated, hydrocarbons contained one or two fewer carbon atoms are formed from the parent fatty acids. The major hydrocarbons in irradiated beef, pork and chicken were 1,7-hexadecadiene and 8-heptadecene originating from leic acid. 1,7 hexadecadiene was the highest amount in irradiated beef, pork and chicken. Eight kinds of hydrocarbons were identified from irradiated chicken, among which 1,7-hexadecadiene and 8-heptadecen were detected as major compounds. The concentration of radiation-induced hydrocarbons was relatively constant during 16 weeks

  5. Developing methods for detecting radioactive scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellian, J.G.; Johnston, J.G.

    1995-01-01

    During the last 10 years, there have been major developments in radiation detection systems used for catching shielded radioactive sources in scrap metal. The original testing required to determine the extent of the problem and the preliminary designs of the first instruments will be discussed. Present systems available today will be described listing their advantages and disadvantages. In conclusion, the newest developments and state of the art equipment will also be included describing the limits and most appropriate locations for the systems

  6. Blind Methods for Detecting Image Fakery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mahdian, Babak; Saic, Stanislav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 4 (2010), s. 18-24 ISSN 0885-8985 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/0470 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Image forensics * Image Fakery * Forgery detection * Authentication Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 0.179, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/ZOI/saic-0343316.pdf

  7. Conventional versus newer methods for detection of drug resistance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Conventional versus newer methods for detection of drug resistance in tuberculosis. Classical microbiological methods are well established but are cumbersome and time consuming. Newer rapid methods for rapid detection of drug resistance - microbiological, ...

  8. Distance Measurement Methods for Improved Insider Threat Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen Lo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Insider threats are a considerable problem within cyber security and it is often difficult to detect these threats using signature detection. Increasing machine learning can provide a solution, but these methods often fail to take into account changes of behaviour of users. This work builds on a published method of detecting insider threats and applies Hidden Markov method on a CERT data set (CERT r4.2 and analyses a number of distance vector methods (Damerau–Levenshtein Distance, Cosine Distance, and Jaccard Distance in order to detect changes of behaviour, which are shown to have success in determining different insider threats.

  9. Gold Cleaning Methods for Electrochemical Detection Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Lee MacKenzie; Tenje, Maria; Heiskanen, Arto

    2009-01-01

    This work investigates methods for obtaining reliably clean gold film surfaces. Nine gold cleaning methods are investigated here: UV ozone photoreactor; potassium hydroxide-hydrogen peroxide; potassium hydroxide potential sweep; sulfuric acid hydrogen peroxide; sulfuric acid potential cycling......-ray photo-electron spectroscopy are used to characterize surface cleanliness. A low peak-current potential-difference and charge transfer resistance indicates a cleaner surface, as does a higher percentage of elemental gold on the electrode surface. The potassium hydroxide potential sweep method is found...... to leave the gold surface the cleanest overall....

  10. System and method for detecting gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Oscar Ken; Moulthrop, Lawrence Clinton; Dreier, Ken Wayne; Miller, Jacob Andrew

    2010-03-16

    A system to detect a presence of a specific gas in a mixture of gaseous byproducts comprising moisture vapor is disclosed. The system includes an electrochemical cell, a transport to deliver the mixture of gaseous byproducts from the electrochemical cell, a gas sensor in fluid communication with the transport, the sensor responsive to a presence of the specific gas to generate a signal corresponding to a concentration of the specific gas, and a membrane to prevent transmission of liquid moisture, the membrane disposed between the transport and the gas sensor.

  11. Abnormality degree detection method using negative potential field group detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongli; Liu, Shulin; Li, Dong; Shi, Kunju; Wang, Bo; Cui, Jiqiang

    2015-09-01

    Online monitoring methods have been widely used in many major devices, however the normal and abnormal states of equipment are estimated mainly based on the monitoring results whether monitored parameters exceed the setting thresholds. Using these monitoring methods may cause serious false positive or false negative results. In order to precisely monitor the state of equipment, the problem of abnormality degree detection without fault sample is studied with a new detection method called negative potential field group detectors(NPFG-detectors). This method achieves the quantitative expression of abnormality degree and provides the better detection results compared with other methods. In the process of Iris data set simulation, the new algorithm obtains the successful results in abnormal detection. The detection rates for 3 types of Iris data set respectively reach 100%, 91.6%, and 95.24% with 50% training samples. The problem of Bearing abnormality degree detection via an abnormality degree curve is successfully solved.

  12. Experimental methods of heavy quark detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himel, T.

    1984-11-01

    By comparing how b and c were observed we saw that the heavier quark was more difficult to detect. For various reasons the signal was smaller and the signal-to-noise worse. This trend is expected to continue when searching for the still heavier top quark. In fact many detection techniques which worked well for bottom and charm are not viable for top. For masses less than about 60 GeV/c 2 top should be visible at the CERN S anti ppS. For larger masses the higher energy of the Fermilab Tevatron will be necessary. At both machines semileptonic decays are the most promising tag. There are background rejection techniques which should result in a fairly clean signal. As there are many possible background sources it is important to carefully estimate the residual background from the data itself. At e + e - machines top will be copiously produced in Z 0 decays if M/sub t/ 0 //2. In this case it is possible to estimate its mass and study its decay modes. 40 references, 40 figures

  13. Experimental methods of heavy quark detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himel, T.

    1984-11-01

    By comparing how b and c were observed we saw that the heavier quark was more difficult to detect. For various reasons the signal was smaller and the signal-to-noise worse. This trend is expected to continue when searching for the still heavier top quark. In fact many detection techniques which worked well for bottom and charm are not viable for top. For masses less than about 60 GeV/c/sup 2/ top should be visible at the CERN S anti ppS. For larger masses the higher energy of the Fermilab Tevatron will be necessary. At both machines semileptonic decays are the most promising tag. There are background rejection techniques which should result in a fairly clean signal. As there are many possible background sources it is important to carefully estimate the residual background from the data itself. At e/sup +/e/sup -/ machines top will be copiously produced in Z/sup 0/ decays if M/sub t/ < M/sub Z/sup 0///2. In this case it is possible to estimate its mass and study its decay modes. 40 references, 40 figures.

  14. Marine Biotoxins: Occurrence, Toxicity, and Detection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, M.

    2017-04-01

    This review summarizes the role of marine organisms as vectors of marine biotoxins, and discusses the need for surveillance to protect public health and ensure the quality of seafood. I Paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) and PSP-bearing organisms-PSP is produced by toxic dinoflagellates species belonging to the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodinium, and Pyrodinium. Traditionally, PSP monitoring programs have only considered filter-feeding molluscs that concentrate these toxic algae, however, increasing attention is now being paid to higher-order predators that carry PSP, such as carnivorous gastropods and crustaceans. II. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) and TTX-bearing organisms - TTX is the most common natural marine toxin that causes food poisonings in Japan, and poses a serious public health risk. TTX was long believed to be present only in pufferfish. However, TTX was detected in the eggs of California newt Taricha torosa in 1964, and since then it has been detected in a wide variety of species belonging to several different phyla. In this study, the main toxic components in the highly toxic ribbon worm Cephalothrix simula and the greater blue-ringed octopus Hapalochlaena lunulata from Japan were purified and analysed.

  15. Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography detection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colston, B W; DaSilva, L B; Everett, M J; Featherstone, J D B; Fried, D; Ragadio, J N; Sathyam, U S.

    1999-01-01

    This study demonstrates the potential of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) for non-invasive in vivo detection and characterization of early, incipient caries lesions. PS-OCT generates cross-sectional images of biological tissue while measuring the effect of the tissue on the polarization state of incident light. Clear discrimination between regions of normal and demineralized enamel is first shown in PS-OCT images of bovine enamel blocks containing well-characterized artificial lesions. High-resolution, cross-sectional images of extracted human teeth are then generated that clearly discriminate between the normal and carious regions on both the smooth and occlusal surfaces. Regions of the teeth that appeared to be demineralized in the PS-OCT images were verified using histological thin sections examined under polarized light microscopy. The PS-OCT system discriminates between normal and carious regions by measuring the polarization state of the back-scattered 1310 nm light, which is affected by the state of demineralization of the enamel. Demineralization of enamel increases the scattering coefficient, thus depolarizing the incident light. This study shows that PS-OCT has great potential for the detection, characterization, and monitoring of incipient caries lesions

  16. Knowledge representation methods for early failure detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherer, K.P.; Stiller, P.

    1990-01-01

    To supervise technical processes like nuclear power plants, it is very important to detect failure modes in an early stage. In the nuclear research center at Karlsruhe an expert system is developed, embedded in a computer network of autonomous computers, which are used for intelligent prepocessing. Events, process data and actual parameter values are stored in slots of special frames in the knowledge base of the expert system. Both rule based and fact based knowledge representations are employed to generate cause consequence chains of failure states. By on-line surveillance of the reactor process, the slots of the frames are dynamically actualized. Immediately after the evaluation, the inference engine starts in the special domain experts (triggered by metarules from a manager) and detects the correspondend failures or anomaly state. Matching the members of the chain and regarding a catalogue of instructions and messages, what is to do by the operator, future failure states can be estimated and propagation can be prohibited. That means qualitative failure prediction based on cause consequence in the static part of the knowledge base. Also, a time series of physical data can be used to predict on analytical way future process state and to continue such a theoretical propagation with matching the cause consuquence chain

  17. Detection methods and performance criteria for genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertheau, Yves; Diolez, Annick; Kobilinsky, André; Magin, Kimberly

    2002-01-01

    Detection methods for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are necessary for many applications, from seed purity assessment to compliance of food labeling in several countries. Numerous analytical methods are currently used or under development to support these needs. The currently used methods are bioassays and protein- and DNA-based detection protocols. To avoid discrepancy of results between such largely different methods and, for instance, the potential resulting legal actions, compatibility of the methods is urgently needed. Performance criteria of methods allow evaluation against a common standard. The more-common performance criteria for detection methods are precision, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, which together specifically address other terms used to describe the performance of a method, such as applicability, selectivity, calibration, trueness, precision, recovery, operating range, limit of quantitation, limit of detection, and ruggedness. Performance criteria should provide objective tools to accept or reject specific methods, to validate them, to ensure compatibility between validated methods, and be used on a routine basis to reject data outside an acceptable range of variability. When selecting a method of detection, it is also important to consider its applicability, its field of applications, and its limitations, by including factors such as its ability to detect the target analyte in a given matrix, the duration of the analyses, its cost effectiveness, and the necessary sample sizes for testing. Thus, the current GMO detection methods should be evaluated against a common set of performance criteria.

  18. Development and Establishment of Detection Method of Irradiated Foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Dong Ho; Jo, Cheo Run; Kim, Jang Ho; Kim, Kyong Su

    2004-12-15

    The present project was related to the development and establishment of the detection techniques for the safety management of gamma-irradiated food and particularly conducted for the establishment of standard detection method for gamma-irradiated dried spices and raw materials, dried meat and fish powder for processed foods, bean paste powder, red pepper paste powder, soy sauce powder, and starch for flavoring ingredients described in 3, 6, 7 section of Korean Food Standard. Since the approvement of gamma-irradiated food items will be enlarged due to the international tendency for gamma-irradiated food, it was concluded that the establishment of detailed detection methods for each food group is not efficient for the enactment and enforcement of related regulations. For this reason, in order to establish the standard detection method, a detection system for gamma-irradiated food suitable for domestic operation was studied using comparative analysis of domestic and foreign research data classified by items and methods and European Standard as a reference. According to the comparative analyses of domestic and foreign research data and regulations of detection for gamma-irradiated food, it was concluded to be desirable that the optimal detection method should be decided after principal detection tests such as physical, chemical, and biological detection methods are established as standard methods and that the specific descriptions such as pre-treatment of raw materials, test methods, and the evaluation of results should be separately prescribed.

  19. Development and Establishment of Detection Method of Irradiated Foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Dong Ho; Jo, Cheo Run; Kim, Jang Ho; Kim, Kyong Su

    2004-12-01

    The present project was related to the development and establishment of the detection techniques for the safety management of gamma-irradiated food and particularly conducted for the establishment of standard detection method for gamma-irradiated dried spices and raw materials, dried meat and fish powder for processed foods, bean paste powder, red pepper paste powder, soy sauce powder, and starch for flavoring ingredients described in 3, 6, 7 section of Korean Food Standard. Since the approvement of gamma-irradiated food items will be enlarged due to the international tendency for gamma-irradiated food, it was concluded that the establishment of detailed detection methods for each food group is not efficient for the enactment and enforcement of related regulations. For this reason, in order to establish the standard detection method, a detection system for gamma-irradiated food suitable for domestic operation was studied using comparative analysis of domestic and foreign research data classified by items and methods and European Standard as a reference. According to the comparative analyses of domestic and foreign research data and regulations of detection for gamma-irradiated food, it was concluded to be desirable that the optimal detection method should be decided after principal detection tests such as physical, chemical, and biological detection methods are established as standard methods and that the specific descriptions such as pre-treatment of raw materials, test methods, and the evaluation of results should be separately prescribed

  20. Thermal History Devices, Systems For Thermal History Detection, And Methods For Thermal History Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Caraveo Frescas, Jesus Alfonso

    2015-05-28

    Embodiments of the present disclosure include nanowire field-effect transistors, systems for temperature history detection, methods for thermal history detection, a matrix of field effect transistors, and the like.

  1. Distributed gas detection system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challener, William Albert; Palit, Sabarni; Karp, Jason Harris; Kasten, Ansas Matthias; Choudhury, Niloy

    2017-11-21

    A distributed gas detection system includes one or more hollow core fibers disposed in different locations, one or more solid core fibers optically coupled with the one or more hollow core fibers and configured to receive light of one or more wavelengths from a light source, and an interrogator device configured to receive at least some of the light propagating through the one or more solid core fibers and the one or more hollow core fibers. The interrogator device is configured to identify a location of a presence of a gas-of-interest by examining absorption of at least one of the wavelengths of the light at least one of the hollow core fibers.

  2. METHODS FOR DETECTING BACTERIA USING POLYMER MATERIALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Grinsven Bart Robert, Nicolaas; Cleij, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    A method for characterizing bacteria includes passing a liquid containing an analyte comprising a first bacteria and a second bacteria over and in contact with a polymer material on a substrate. The polymer material is formulated to bind to the first bacteria, and the first bacteria binds to the

  3. Method of Pentest Synthesis and Vulnerability Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Hahanova Irina Vitalyevna

    2012-01-01

    The structural method for penetration test generation and vulnerability simulation for infrastructure of telecommunication hardwaresoftware information cybernetic systems (CS), focused to protect against unauthorized access the services defined in the system specification by means of penetrating through legal interfaces of component interaction, which have vulnerabilities, is proposed. A protection service infrastructure is created with cybersystem and maintains it during the life cycle, serv...

  4. Method of Detecting Coliform Bacteria from Reflected Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of detecting coliform bacteria in water from reflected light, and also includes devices for the measurement, calculation and transmission of data relating to that method.

  5. Islanding detection scheme based on adaptive identifier signal estimation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshi, M; Noroozian, R; Gharehpetian, G B

    2017-11-01

    This paper proposes a novel, passive-based anti-islanding method for both inverter and synchronous machine-based distributed generation (DG) units. Unfortunately, when the active/reactive power mismatches are near to zero, majority of the passive anti-islanding methods cannot detect the islanding situation, correctly. This study introduces a new islanding detection method based on exponentially damped signal estimation method. The proposed method uses adaptive identifier method for estimating of the frequency deviation of the point of common coupling (PCC) link as a target signal that can detect the islanding condition with near-zero active power imbalance. Main advantage of the adaptive identifier method over other signal estimation methods is its small sampling window. In this paper, the adaptive identifier based islanding detection method introduces a new detection index entitled decision signal by estimating of oscillation frequency of the PCC frequency and can detect islanding conditions, properly. In islanding conditions, oscillations frequency of PCC frequency reach to zero, thus threshold setting for decision signal is not a tedious job. The non-islanding transient events, which can cause a significant deviation in the PCC frequency are considered in simulations. These events include different types of faults, load changes, capacitor bank switching, and motor starting. Further, for islanding events, the capability of the proposed islanding detection method is verified by near-to-zero active power mismatches. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Laser pulse detection method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Willis C. (Inventor); Janesick, James R. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A sensor is described for detecting the difference in phase of a pair of returned light pulse components, such as the two components of a light pulse of an optical gyro. In an optic gyro, the two light components have passed in opposite directions through a coil of optical fiber, with the difference in phase of the returned light components determining the intensity of light shining on the sensor. The sensor includes a CCD (charge coupled device) that receives the pair of returned light components to generate a charge proportional to the number of photons in the received light. The amount of the charge represents the phase difference between the two light components. At a time after the transmission of the light pulse and before the expected time of arrival of the interfering light components, charge accumulating in the CCD as a result of reflections from optical components in the system, are repeatedly removed from the CCD, by transferring out charges in the CCD and dumping these charges.

  7. Recent developments in analytical detection methods for radiation processed foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jilan

    1993-01-01

    A short summary of the programmes of 'ADMIT' (FAO/IAEA) and the developments in analytical detection methods for radiation processed foods has been given. It is suggested that for promoting the commercialization of radiation processed foods and controlling its quality, one must pay more attention to the study of analytical detection methods of irradiated food

  8. High Speed Iris Detection Method for Man-Machine Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Hideki; Hongo, Hitoshi; Kato, Kunihito; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko

    We propose a high speed iris detection method for man-machine interface. In order to communicate between humans and computers comfortably, it is required that high speed processing and adapting the changes of the face direction and the individual variation of the face. Our iris detection method consists of a face detection function, a facial parts extraction function and an iris detection function. The face detection function adapts to individual variation or a light condition by using standard skin color method which decides the standard skin color by a color histogram every frame. The facial parts extraction function adapts to changes of face direction and the individual variation in order to by using the hybrid template matching which consists the four directional features field and the color different features. The iris detection function performs high speed and stable detection by segmentation of iris region using color information and the Hough transform. We conducted the comparison experiment with our past method which uses the least approximation method. By this result, processing time of our method realized equivalent to our past method. In addition, accuracy rate of iris detection with our method improved.

  9. A review on automated pavement distress detection methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Tom B.J.; Golroo, Amir

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, extensive research has been conducted on pavement distress detection. A large part of these studies applied automated methods to capture different distresses. In this paper, a literature review on the distresses and related detection methods are presented. This review also includes

  10. Validated method for the detection and quantitation of synthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Validated method for the detection and quantitation of synthetic cannabinoids in whole blood and urine, and its application to postmortem cases in Johannesburg, South ... A LC-HRMS (liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry) method for the detection and quantitation of several synthetic ...

  11. Localized surface plasmon resonance mercury detection system and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jay; Lucas, Donald; Crosby, Jeffrey Scott; Koshland, Catherine P.

    2016-03-22

    A mercury detection system that includes a flow cell having a mercury sensor, a light source and a light detector is provided. The mercury sensor includes a transparent substrate and a submonolayer of mercury absorbing nanoparticles, e.g., gold nanoparticles, on a surface of the substrate. Methods of determining whether mercury is present in a sample using the mercury sensors are also provided. The subject mercury detection systems and methods find use in a variety of different applications, including mercury detecting applications.

  12. Diode-like single-ion track membrane prepared by electro-stopping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apel, P.Yu.; Korchev, Yu.E.; Siwy, Z.; Spohr, R.; Yoshida, M.

    2001-01-01

    The preparation of an asymmetric membrane in poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is described, using a combination of chemical and electro-stopping. For this purpose, a single-ion-irradiated PET film is inserted into an electrolytic cell and etched from one side in 9 M sodium hydroxide while bathing the other side in a mixture of 2 M KCl and 2 M HCOOH (1:1 by volume), electrically retracting the OH - ions from the tip of the etch pit during pore break-through. When a preset current has been reached, the etch process is interrupted by replacing the etching solution with acidic 1 M potassium chloride solution. After etching, the current-voltage (I-V) characteristic is determined under symmetric bathing conditions, immersing both sides of the membrane in KCl solutions of identical concentration (0.01-1 M) and pH (3-8). The I-V characteristic is strongly non-linear, comparable to that of an electrical diode. If the polarity during etching is reversed, pushing the OH - ions into the tip of the etch pit, the resulting pores are larger and the degree of asymmetry smaller. The importance of electro-stopping is compared with chemical stopping

  13. Development of the IFJ single ion hit facility for cells irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veselov, O.; Polak, W.; Ugenskiene, R.; Hajduk, R.; Lebed, K.; Lekki, J.; Horwacik, T.; Dutkiewicz, E.M.; Maranda, S.; Pieprzyca, T.; Sarnecki, C.; Stachura, Z.; Szklarz, Z.; Styczen, J.

    2005-12-01

    In recent years a single ion hit facility (SIHF) has been constructed at the IFJ ion microprobe. The setup is used for the precise irradiations of living cells by a controlled number of ions. The facility allows investigations in various aspects of biomedical research, such as adaptive response, bystander effect, inverse dose-rate effect, low-dose hypersensitivity, etc. Those investigations have two very important requirements: (i) cells must be examined in their natural state and environment, i.e. without previously being killed, and preferentially, neither fixed nor stained, and (ii) a possibility of automatic irradiation of large number of cells with a computer recognition of their positions must be provided. This work presents some of the crucial features of the off-line and on-line optical systems, including self-developed software responsible for the automatic cell recognition. We also show several tests carried out to determine the efficiency of the whole setup and some segments. In conclusion, the results of our first irradiation measurements performed with living cells are demonstrated. (author)

  14. Luminescent single-ion magnets from Lanthanoid(III) complexes with monodentate ketone ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanetomo, Takuya; Ishida, Takayuki, E-mail: takayuki.ishida@uec.ac.jp [Department of Engineering Science, The University of Electro-Communications, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    We synthesized [Ln{sup III}(hfac){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O)(L)] (abbreviated as Ln-L; Ln = Gd, Tb, Eu; L = DTBK (di-t-butyl ketone), BP (benzophenone)), in which the carbonyl oxygen atom was coordinated to the Ln ion center, despite of such bulky substituents. Their crystal structures were determined by means of X-ray diffraction study. Gd-DTBK is completely isomorphous to the di-t-butyl nitroxide derivative and accordingly can be regarded as a model with the ligand spin masked. The ac magnetic susceptibility measurements on Tb-DTBK and -BP showed frequency dependence, characteristic of single-ion magnets. They also displayed photoluminescence in the solid state at room temperature. The quantum yields of the luminescence of Tb-DTBK and -BP (λ{sub ex} = 360 nm) were improved to 57 and 35%, respectively, from that of the starting material [TbI{sup III}(hfac){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] (28% at λ{sub ex} = 370 nm). Similarly, the quantum yields for Eu-DTBK and -BP were 8 and 15%, respectively, with λ{sub ex} = 400 nm, while that of the starting material [EuI{sup III}(hfac){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] was 4% at λ{sub ex}=400 nm.

  15. Luminescent single-ion magnets from Lanthanoid(III) complexes with monodentate ketone ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanetomo, Takuya; Ishida, Takayuki

    2016-02-01

    We synthesized [LnIII(hfac)3(H2O)(L)] (abbreviated as Ln-L; Ln = Gd, Tb, Eu; L = DTBK (di-t-butyl ketone), BP (benzophenone)), in which the carbonyl oxygen atom was coordinated to the Ln ion center, despite of such bulky substituents. Their crystal structures were determined by means of X-ray diffraction study. Gd-DTBK is completely isomorphous to the di-t-butyl nitroxide derivative and accordingly can be regarded as a model with the ligand spin masked. The ac magnetic susceptibility measurements on Tb-DTBK and -BP showed frequency dependence, characteristic of single-ion magnets. They also displayed photoluminescence in the solid state at room temperature. The quantum yields of the luminescence of Tb-DTBK and -BP (λex = 360 nm) were improved to 57 and 35%, respectively, from that of the starting material [TbIIII(hfac)3(H2O)2] (28% at λex = 370 nm). Similarly, the quantum yields for Eu-DTBK and -BP were 8 and 15%, respectively, with λex = 400 nm, while that of the starting material [EuIIII(hfac)3(H2O)2] was 4% at λex=400 nm.

  16. An Overview of Islanding Detection Methods in Photovoltaic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Yee Teoh; Chee Wei Tan

    2011-01-01

    The issue of unintentional islanding in PV grid interconnection still remains as a challenge in grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems. This paper discusses the overview of popularly used anti-islanding detection methods, practically applied in PV grid-connected systems. Anti-islanding methods generally can be classified into four major groups, which include passive methods, active methods, hybrid methods and communication base methods. Active methods have been the pref...

  17. Track detection methods of radium measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, G.

    1986-06-01

    The principles of tack formation and processing including the description of etching and etch-track evaluation for the preferably used plastic track detectors are discussed. Measuring methods to determine 226 Ra activity based either on the mapping of alpha-decaying elements in the complete U-Ra series by alpha-radiography, or on the measurement of uranium alone by neutron induced fissionography, or on the alpha-decay measurement of 222 Rn, the first daughter element of radium, and finally on the measurement of alpha-tracks originating from radium itself, which is separated from its parent nuclides are described in detail. (V.N.)

  18. Method for detecting trace impurities in gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, S.M.; Maier, W.B. II; Holland, R.F.; Beattie, W.H.

    A technique for considerably improving the sensitivity and specificity of infrared spectrometry as applied to quantitative determination of trace impurities in various carrier or solvent gases is presented. A gas to be examined for impurities is liquefied and infrared absorption spectra of the liquid are obtained. Spectral simplification and number densities of impurities in the optical path are substantially higher than are obtainable in similar gas-phase analyses. Carbon dioxide impurity (approx. 2 ppM) present in commercial Xe and ppM levels of Freon 12 and vinyl chloride added to liquefied air are used to illustrate the method.

  19. Imaging methods for detection of infectious foci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couret, I.; Rossi, M.; Weinemann, P.; Moretti, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    Several tracers can be used for imaging infection. None is a worthwhile agent for all infectious foci, but each one has preferential applications, depending on its uptake mechanism by the infectious and/or inflammatory focus. Autologous leucocytes labeled in vitro with indium-111 (In-111) or with technetium-99-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (Tc-99m HMPAO) were applied with success in the detection of peripheral bone infection, focal vascular graft infection and inflammatory bowel disease. Labeling with In-111 is of interest in chronic bone infection, while labeling with Tc-99m HMPAO gets the advantage of a better dosimetry and imaging. The interest of in vivo labeled leucocytes with a Tc-99m labeled monoclonal antigranulocyte antibody anti-NCA 95 (BW 250/183) was proved in the same principal type of infectious foci than in vitro labeled leucocytes. Sites of chronic infection in the spine and the pelvis, whether active or healed, appear as photopenic defects on both in vitro labeled leucocytes and Tc-99m monoclonal antigranulocyte antibody (BW 250/183) scintigraphies. With gallium-67 results showed a high sensitivity with a low specificity. This tracer demonstrated good performance to delineate foci of infectious spondylitis. In-111 and Tc-99m labeled polyclonal human immunoglobulin (HIG) was applied with success in the assessment of various infectious foci, particularly in chronic sepsis. As labeled leucocytes, labeled HIG showed cold defects in infectious sepsis of the spine. Research in nuclear medicine is very active in the development of more specific tracers of infection, mainly involved in Tc-99m or In-111 labeled chemotactic peptides, antigranulocyte antibody fragments, antibiotic derivatives and interleukins. (authors). 70 refs

  20. Delamination detection using methods of computational intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihesiulor, Obinna K.; Shankar, Krishna; Zhang, Zhifang; Ray, Tapabrata

    2012-11-01

    Abstract Reliable delamination prediction scheme is indispensable in order to prevent potential risks of catastrophic failures in composite structures. The existence of delaminations changes the vibration characteristics of composite laminates and hence such indicators can be used to quantify the health characteristics of laminates. An approach for online health monitoring of in-service composite laminates is presented in this paper that relies on methods based on computational intelligence. Typical changes in the observed vibration characteristics (i.e. change in natural frequencies) are considered as inputs to identify the existence, location and magnitude of delaminations. The performance of the proposed approach is demonstrated using numerical models of composite laminates. Since this identification problem essentially involves the solution of an optimization problem, the use of finite element (FE) methods as the underlying tool for analysis turns out to be computationally expensive. A surrogate assisted optimization approach is hence introduced to contain the computational time within affordable limits. An artificial neural network (ANN) model with Bayesian regularization is used as the underlying approximation scheme while an improved rate of convergence is achieved using a memetic algorithm. However, building of ANN surrogate models usually requires large training datasets. K-means clustering is effectively employed to reduce the size of datasets. ANN is also used via inverse modeling to determine the position, size and location of delaminations using changes in measured natural frequencies. The results clearly highlight the efficiency and the robustness of the approach.

  1. Vapor generation methods for explosives detection research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grate, Jay W.; Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.

    2012-12-01

    The generation of calibrated vapor samples of explosives compounds remains a challenge due to the low vapor pressures of the explosives, adsorption of explosives on container and tubing walls, and the requirement to manage (typically) multiple temperature zones as the vapor is generated, diluted, and delivered. Methods that have been described to generate vapors can be classified as continuous or pulsed flow vapor generators. Vapor sources for continuous flow generators are typically explosives compounds supported on a solid support, or compounds contained in a permeation or diffusion device. Sources are held at elevated isothermal temperatures. Similar sources can be used for pulsed vapor generators; however, pulsed systems may also use injection of solutions onto heated surfaces with generation of both solvent and explosives vapors, transient peaks from a gas chromatograph, or vapors generated by s programmed thermal desorption. This article reviews vapor generator approaches with emphasis on the method of generating the vapors and on practical aspects of vapor dilution and handling. In addition, a gas chromatographic system with two ovens that is configurable with up to four heating ropes is proposed that could serve as a single integrated platform for explosives vapor generation and device testing. Issues related to standards, calibration, and safety are also discussed.

  2. Change Detection by Fusing Advantages of Threshold and Clustering Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, M.; Hao, M.

    2017-09-01

    In change detection (CD) of medium-resolution remote sensing images, the threshold and clustering methods are two kinds of the most popular ones. It is found that the threshold method of the expectation maximum (EM) algorithm usually generates a CD map including many false alarms but almost detecting all changes, and the fuzzy local information c-means algorithm (FLICM) obtains a homogeneous CD map but with some missed detections. Therefore, we aim to design a framework to improve CD results by fusing the advantages of threshold and clustering methods. Experimental results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. CHANGE DETECTION BY FUSING ADVANTAGES OF THRESHOLD AND CLUSTERING METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In change detection (CD of medium-resolution remote sensing images, the threshold and clustering methods are two kinds of the most popular ones. It is found that the threshold method of the expectation maximum (EM algorithm usually generates a CD map including many false alarms but almost detecting all changes, and the fuzzy local information c-means algorithm (FLICM obtains a homogeneous CD map but with some missed detections. Therefore, we aim to design a framework to improve CD results by fusing the advantages of threshold and clustering methods. Experimental results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Detection method for nuclear reactor material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobe, Yusuke; Hashimoto, Motoyuki.

    1995-01-01

    A fine state of a test piece taken out of a reactor core is analyzed upon periodical inspection, and a new test piece previously reproducing the state described above at the outside of the reactor is disposed to the reactor core upon completion of the periodical inspection. Further, a fine state of the material at a time preceding to the operation time at a certain periodical inspection is forecast, and a test piece reproducing the state at the outside of the reactor is disposed to the reactor core upon the completion of the periodical inspection. Since a test piece previously reproducing the change of the state up to a certain periodical inspection by a method other than irradiation of neutrons is newly disposed, radiation of the test piece is not extremely increased even after an extremely long period of summed up reactor operation time, to provide substantially constant radiation level on every test piece. (T.M.)

  5. Rotors fault detection using vibration methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej GRZADZIELA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ships’ propulsion plant usually works in a hard environment caused by static forces and permanent dynamic loads. Basic elements of propulsion systems are rotation machines like gas turbine engines, gear boxes, propulsion shafts etc. Another loads coming from technological faults of rotation machines like misalignment, unbalancing or resonance. Exciding of tolerated values of shaft alignments or unbalancing can cause a damage of radial and thrust bearings in relative short time. Similar situation is occurred when the mode or modes of rotors natural resonances are in the range of operational speed. The paper compares three methods of calculating and recognizing modes of rotors’ natural frequencies using laboratory model of rotational machine. Results of FEM modeling, modal hammers measurements and synchronous vibration measurement show that free stop-down process is an interesting area for the vibration diagnosing of rotational machines.

  6. Comparison of Two Detection Methods in Thin Layer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    silver nitrate method, photosynthesis inhibition method and fungi spore inhibition method (Lowor, 2000). Of these detection methods, o-tolidine plus potassium iodide and ... The cartridge and its contents were dried for 15 min by a vacuum pump. The herbicide was then eluted with 10 μl of acetone to give the clean extracts.

  7. Steam leak detection method in pipeline using histogram analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Se Oh; Jeon, Hyeong Seop; Son, Ki Sung; Chae, Gyung Sun; Park, Jong Won

    2015-01-01

    Leak detection in a pipeline usually involves acoustic emission sensors such as contact type sensors. These contact type sensors pose difficulties for installation and cannot operate in areas having high temperature and radiation. Therefore, recently, many researchers have studied the leak detection phenomenon by using a camera. Leak detection by using a camera has the advantages of long distance monitoring and wide area surveillance. However, the conventional leak detection method by using difference images often mistakes the vibration of a structure for a leak. In this paper, we propose a method for steam leakage detection by using the moving average of difference images and histogram analysis. The proposed method can separate the leakage and the vibration of a structure. The working performance of the proposed method is verified by comparing with experimental results

  8. Real-Time Pore Pressure Detection: Indicators and Improved Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Jincai Zhang; Shangxian Yin

    2017-01-01

    High uncertainties may exist in the predrill pore pressure prediction in new prospects and deepwater subsalt wells; therefore, real-time pore pressure detection is highly needed to reduce drilling risks. The methods for pore pressure detection (the resistivity, sonic, and corrected d-exponent methods) are improved using the depth-dependent normal compaction equations to adapt to the requirements of the real-time monitoring. A new method is proposed to calculate pore pressure from the connecti...

  9. Systems and Methods for Automated Water Detection Using Visible Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Arturo L. (Inventor); Matthies, Larry H. (Inventor); Bellutta, Paolo (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods are disclosed that include automated machine vision that can utilize images of scenes captured by a 3D imaging system configured to image light within the visible light spectrum to detect water. One embodiment includes autonomously detecting water bodies within a scene including capturing at least one 3D image of a scene using a sensor system configured to detect visible light and to measure distance from points within the scene to the sensor system, and detecting water within the scene using a processor configured to detect regions within each of the at least one 3D images that possess at least one characteristic indicative of the presence of water.

  10. Rapid radiometric method for detection of Salmonella in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, B.J.; Eyles, M.J.; Murrell, W.G.

    1980-01-01

    A radiometric method for the detection of Salmonella in foods has been developed which is based on Salmonella poly H agglutinating serum preventing Salmonella from producing 14CO2 from [14C] dulcitol. The method will detect the presence or absence of Salmonella in a product within 30 h compared to 4 to 5 days by routine culture methods. The method has been evaluated against a routine culture method using 58 samples of food. The overall agreement was 91%. Five samples negative for Salmonella by the routine method were positive by the radiometric method. These may have been false positives. However, the routine method may have failed to detect Salmonella due to the presence of large numbers of lactose-fermenting bacteria which hindered isolation of Salmonella colonies on the selective agar plates

  11. 25 Years of Self-organized Criticality: Numerical Detection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAteer, R. T. James; Aschwanden, Markus J.; Dimitropoulou, Michaila; Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Pruessner, Gunnar; Morales, Laura; Ireland, Jack; Abramenko, Valentyna

    2016-01-01

    The detection and characterization of self-organized criticality (SOC), in both real and simulated data, has undergone many significant revisions over the past 25 years. The explosive advances in the many numerical methods available for detecting, discriminating, and ultimately testing, SOC have played a critical role in developing our understanding of how systems experience and exhibit SOC. In this article, methods of detecting SOC are reviewed; from correlations to complexity to critical quantities. A description of the basic autocorrelation method leads into a detailed analysis of application-oriented methods developed in the last 25 years. In the second half of this manuscript space-based, time-based and spatial-temporal methods are reviewed and the prevalence of power laws in nature is described, with an emphasis on event detection and characterization. The search for numerical methods to clearly and unambiguously detect SOC in data often leads us outside the comfort zone of our own disciplines—the answers to these questions are often obtained by studying the advances made in other fields of study. In addition, numerical detection methods often provide the optimum link between simulations and experiments in scientific research. We seek to explore this boundary where the rubber meets the road, to review this expanding field of research of numerical detection of SOC systems over the past 25 years, and to iterate forwards so as to provide some foresight and guidance into developing breakthroughs in this subject over the next quarter of a century.

  12. A Method of Detections' Fusion for GNSS Anti-Spoofing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Huiqi; Li, Hong; Lu, Mingquan

    2016-12-19

    The spoofing attack is one of the security threats of systems depending on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). There have been many GNSS spoofing detection methods, and each of them focuses on a characteristic of the GNSS signal or a measurement that the receiver has obtained. The method based on a single detector is insufficient against spoofing attacks in some scenarios. How to fuse multiple detections together is a problem that concerns the performance of GNSS anti-spoofing. Scholars have put forward a model to fuse different detection results based on the Dempster-Shafer theory (DST) of evidence combination. However, there are some problems in the application. The main challenge is the valuation of the belief function, which is a key issue in DST. This paper proposes a practical method of detections' fusion based on an approach to assign the belief function for spoofing detections. The frame of discernment is simplified, and the hard decision of hypothesis testing is replaced by the soft decision; then, the belief functions for some detections can be evaluated. The method is discussed in detail, and a performance evaluation is provided, as well. Detections' fusion reduces false alarms of detection and makes the result more reliable. Experimental results based on public test datasets demonstrate the performance of the proposed method.

  13. Rubella virus detection by ELISA method in exposed radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jianmei; Zhu Bo; Zhu Youming; Shao Jinhui; Wu Weiping; Han Jinxiang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: A rapid diagnosis method was developed to detect Rubella virus infection in radiation workers. Methods: Modified ELISA method was used to detect the level of lgG and lgM antibodies in 514 in Jinan district. Results: 90.47% of 514 cases was shown to be resistant against Rubella virus; 6.42% were sensitive type; 0.78% belonged to be reinfected. Conclusion: Detection of Rubella virus in exposed radiation workers was imperative, and vaccine against Rubella virus was also needed to eliminate the infection risk. (authors)

  14. Comb-shaped single ion conductors based on polyacrylate ethers and lithium alkyl sulfonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xiaoguang; Hou Jun; Kerr, John B.

    2005-01-01

    Comb-shaped single ion conductors have been synthesized by (1) sulfonation of small molecule chloroethyleneglycols, which, after ion exchange to the Li + salt were then converted to the acrylate by reaction with acryloyl chloride and copolymerized with polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether acrylate (Mn = 454, n = 8) (PAE 8 -co-E 3 SO 3 Li); (2) sulfonation of chloride end groups grafted on to prepolymers of polyacrylate ethers (PAE 8 -g-E n SO 3 Li, n = 2, 3). The highest conductivity at 25 deg. C of 2.0 x 10 -7 S cm -1 was obtained for the PAE 8 -co-E 3 SO 3 Li with a salt concentration of EO/Li = 40. The conductivity of PAE 8 -g-E 3 SO 3 Li is lower than that of PAE 8 -co-E 3 SO 3 Li at similar salt concentrations, which is related to the incomplete sulfonation of the grafted polymer that leads to a lower concentration of Li + . The addition of 50 wt.% of plasticizer, PC/EMC (1/1, v/v), to PAE 8 -g-E 2 SO 3 Li increases the ambient conductivity by three orders of magnitude, which is due to the increased ion mobility in a micro-liquid environment and an increase concentration of free ions as a result of the higher dielectric constant of the solvent. A symmetrical Li/Li cell with an electrolyte membrane consisting of 75 wt.% PC/EMC (1/1, v/v) was cycled at a current density of 100 μA cm -2 at 85 deg. C. The cycling profile showed no concentration polarization after a break-in period during the first few cycles, which was apparently due to reaction of the solvent at the lithium metal surface that reacted with lithium metal to form a stable SEI layer

  15. An Automatic Shadow Detection Method for VHR Remote Sensing Orthoimagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiongjie Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The application potential of very high resolution (VHR remote sensing imagery has been boosted by recent developments in the data acquisition and processing ability of aerial photogrammetry. However, shadows in images contribute to problems such as incomplete spectral information, lower intensity brightness, and fuzzy boundaries, which seriously affect the efficiency of the image interpretation. In this paper, to address these issues, a simple and automatic method of shadow detection is presented. The proposed method combines the advantages of the property-based and geometric-based methods to automatically detect the shadowed areas in VHR imagery. A geometric model of the scene and the solar position are used to delineate the shadowed and non-shadowed areas in the VHR image. A matting method is then applied to the image to refine the shadow mask. Different types of shadowed aerial orthoimages were used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed shadow detection method, and the results were compared with the results obtained by two state-of-the-art methods. The overall accuracy of the proposed method on the three tests was around 90%, confirming the effectiveness and robustness of the new method for detecting fine shadows, without any human input. The proposed method also performs better in detecting shadows in areas with water than the other two methods.

  16. Dim target detection method based on salient graph fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ruo-lan; Shen, Yi-yan; Jiang, Jun

    2018-02-01

    Dim target detection is one key problem in digital image processing field. With development of multi-spectrum imaging sensor, it becomes a trend to improve the performance of dim target detection by fusing the information from different spectral images. In this paper, one dim target detection method based on salient graph fusion was proposed. In the method, Gabor filter with multi-direction and contrast filter with multi-scale were combined to construct salient graph from digital image. And then, the maximum salience fusion strategy was designed to fuse the salient graph from different spectral images. Top-hat filter was used to detect dim target from the fusion salient graph. Experimental results show that proposal method improved the probability of target detection and reduced the probability of false alarm on clutter background images.

  17. A Novel Unscheduled Islanding Detection Method for Microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hui

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Microgrid with its intelligent and flexible control characteristics conform to the trend of sustainable development of electricity, and when the microgrid in the unplanned island state, the successful detection of the island is a prerequisite, energy storage inverter as the key equipment in the microgrid system, island protection is one of the necessary functions. In this paper, an improved islanding detection method based on active frequency drift and q-axis reactive power perturbation is proposed. The method has the advantages of faster detection speed and minor influence on power quality, which makes the energy storage inverter with better output power quality when it works on grid-connected state, and can be detected the islanding state quickly from grid-connected mode to islanded mode. Finally, the validity and superiority of the improved island detection method are verified by simulation experiments.

  18. A method for detecting microcalcifications in Digital Mammograms

    OpenAIRE

    Wallet, Bradley C.; Solka, Jeffrey L.; Priebe, Carey E.

    1997-01-01

    Microcalcification clusters are often an important indicator for the detection of malignancy in mammograms. In many cases, microcalcifications are the only indication of a malignancy. However, the detection of microcalcifications can be a difficult process. They are small and can be embedded in dense tissue. This paper presents a method for automatically detecting microcalcifications. We utilize a high-boost filter to suppress background clutter enabling segmentation even in very dense breast...

  19. Current status of the EPR method to detect irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desrosiers, M.F.

    1996-01-01

    This review gives a brief outline of the principles of the EPR detection method for irradiated foods by food type. For each food type, the scope, limitations and status of the method are given. The extensive reference list aims to include all which define the method, as well as some rarely cited works of historical importance. (author)

  20. DNA based methods used for characterization and detection of food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Detection of food borne pathogen is of outmost importance in the food industries and related agencies. For the last few decades conventional methods were used to detect food borne pathogens based on phenotypic characters. At the advent of complementary base pairing and amplification of DNA, the diagnosis of food ...

  1. Molecular techniques: An overview of methods for the detection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several DNA molecular markers are now available for use in surveillance and investigation of food-borne outbreaks that were previously difficult to detect. The results from several sources of literature indicate substantially different degrees of sensitivities between conventional detection methods and molecular-based ...

  2. Method for the detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agron, Peter G. (Castro Valley, CA); Andersen, Gary L. (Berkeley, CA); Walker, Richard L. (Davis, CA)

    2008-10-28

    Described herein is the identification of a novel Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis locus that serves as a marker for DNA-based identification of this bacterium. In addition, three primer pairs derived from this locus that may be used in a nucleotide detection method to detect the presence of the bacterium are also disclosed herein.

  3. Karst topography : noninvasive geophysical detection methods and construction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this project was to investigate the current state of the practice with regards to karst detection : methods and current karst construction practices and to recommend the best practices for use by the Virginia : Department of Transpor...

  4. Research advancement of detection methods of Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Yunxia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen of both human beings and animals,which has been widely recognized over the world.L.monocytogenes can be found in dairy products,vegetables,meat and other food,so it has caused great threat to human health.How to detect the trace of L.monocytogenes is a key link in the process of food-borne disease prevention and control.A wide variety of culture and alternative methods have been developed in order to detect this pathogen in food.The current articl introduces the traditional detection method and all kinds of rapid methods such as immunoassay,biosensors,Bacteriophage-based detection methods and molecular biological assay.

  5. Application of Trend Detection Methods in Monitoring Physiological Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. Melek

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study of various trend detection methods developed using fuzzy logic, statistical, and regression techniques. A new method that uses noise rejection fuzzy clustering is also proposed in the paper to enhance the performance of trend detection methodologies. The comparative investigation has produced systematic guidelines for the selection of a proper trend detection method for different application requirements. This paper has resulted from work on military applications of on-line trend analysis, such as monitoring of wounded soldiers by first-response medical staff at the battlefield and high-acceleration protection of fighter jet pilots. Efficient trend detection methods can provide early warnings, severity assessments of a subject's physiological state, and decision support for firstresponse medical attendants. Representative physiological variables such as blood pressure, heartbeat rate, and ear opacity are considered in this paper.

  6. An improved PCA method with application to boiler leak detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xi; Marquez, Horacio J; Chen, Tongwen; Riaz, Muhammad

    2005-07-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is a popular fault detection technique. It has been widely used in process industries, especially in the chemical industry. In industrial applications, achieving a sensitive system capable of detecting incipient faults, which maintains the false alarm rate to a minimum, is a crucial issue. Although a lot of research has been focused on these issues for PCA-based fault detection and diagnosis methods, sensitivity of the fault detection scheme versus false alarm rate continues to be an important issue. In this paper, an improved PCA method is proposed to address this problem. In this method, a new data preprocessing scheme and a new fault detection scheme designed for Hotelling's T2 as well as the squared prediction error are developed. A dynamic PCA model is also developed for boiler leak detection. This new method is applied to boiler water/steam leak detection with real data from Syncrude Canada's utility plant in Fort McMurray, Canada. Our results demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively reduce false alarm rate, provide effective and correct leak alarms, and give early warning to operators.

  7. On the calculation of single ion activity coefficients in homogeneous ionic systems by application of the grand canonical ensemble

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Peter

    1993-01-01

    The grand canonical ensemble has been used to study the evaluation of single ion activity coefficients in homogeneous ionic fluids. In this work, the Coulombic interactions are truncated according to the minimum image approximation, and the ions are assumed to be placed in a structureless...... of the individual ionic activity coefficients with respect to the total ionic concentration. This formula has previously been proposed on the basis of somewhat different considerations....

  8. Some methods for the detection of fissionable matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guery, M.

    1967-03-01

    A number of equipments or processes allowing to detect uranium or plutonium in industrial plants, and in particular to measure solution concentrations, are studied here. Each method has its own field of applications and has its own performances, which we have tried to define by calculations and by experiments. The following topics have been treated: γ absorptiometer with an Am source, detection test by neutron multiplication, apparatus for the measurement of the α activity of a solution, fissionable matter detection by γ emission, fissionable matter detection by neutron emission. (author) [fr

  9. Dynamic baseline detection method for power data network service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposes a dynamic baseline Traffic detection Method which is based on the historical traffic data for the Power data network. The method uses Cisco's NetFlow acquisition tool to collect the original historical traffic data from network element at fixed intervals. This method uses three dimensions information including the communication port, time, traffic (number of bytes or number of packets) t. By filtering, removing the deviation value, calculating the dynamic baseline value, comparing the actual value with the baseline value, the method can detect whether the current network traffic is abnormal.

  10. Evaluation of primary coolant leaks and assessment of detection methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassette, P.; Giroux, C.; Roche, H.; Seveon, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    A review of the French PWR situation concerning primary coolant leaks is presented, including a description of operating technical specifications, of the collecting system of primary coolant leakage into the containment and of the detection methods. It is mainly based on a compilation over three years, 1981 to 1983, of almost all actual leaks, their natures, causes, consequences and methods used for their detection. By analysing these data it is possible to evaluate the efficiency of the primary coolant leak detection system and the problems raised by compliance with the criteria defined in the operating technical specifications. (orig.)

  11. Evaluation of primary coolant leaks and assessment of detection methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassette, P.; Giroux, C.; Roche, H.; Seveon, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    A review of the French PWR situation concerning primary coolant leaks is presented, including a description of operating technical specifications, of the collecting system of primary coolant leakage into the containment and of the detection methods. It is mainly based on a compilation over three years, 1981 to 1983, of almost all actual leaks, their natures, causes, consequences and methods used for their detection. By analysing these data it is possible to evaluate the efficiency of the primary coolant leak detection system and the problems raised by compliance with the criteria defined in the operating technical specifications

  12. Defects detecting method of lamp cap of single soldering lug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jihe; Lv, Jidong

    2017-07-01

    In order to resolve the problems of low efficiency and large separating difference in fault detection of lamp holders with single soldering lug, an image-detection-based defect detection method is presented in this paper. The selected image is first preprocessed, where the possible area of soldering lug is cut in this preprocessing to narrow the scope for subsequent partition with the consideration that the smooth surface of metal at lamp holder and black insulation glass may reflect the light. Then, the soldering lug is extracted by a series of processing including clustering partition. Based on this, the defects are detected by regional marking, area comparison, circularity and coordinate deviation. The experiment results show that the designed method is simple and practical to detect main quality defects of lamp holder with single soldering lug correctly and efficiently.

  13. Designing Artificial Solid-Electrolyte Interphases for Single-Ion and High-Efficiency Transport in Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Tu, Zhengyuan

    2017-09-21

    Substrates able to rectify transport of ions based on charge and/or size are ubiquitous in biological systems. Electrolytes and interphases that selectively transport electrochemically active ions are likewise of broad interest in all electrical energy storage technologies. In lithium-ion batteries, electrolytes with single- or near-single-ion conductivity reduce losses caused by ion polarization. In emergent lithium or sodium metal batteries, they maintain high conductivity at the anode and stabilize metal deposition by fundamental mechanisms. We report that 20- to 300-nm-thick, single-ion-conducting membranes deposited at the anode enable electrolytes with the highest combination of cation transference number, ionic conductivity, and electrochemical stability reported. By means of direct visualization we find that single-ion membranes also reduce dendritic deposition of Li in liquids. Galvanostatic measurements further show that the electrolytes facilitate long (3 mAh) recharge of full Li/LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) cells with high cathode loadings (3 mAh cm−2/19.9 mg cm−2) and at high current densities (3 mA cm−2).

  14. Musical Tone Law Method for the Structural Damage Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weisong Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage detection tests of inclined cables, steel pipes, spherical shells, and an actual cable-stayed bridge were conducted based on the proposed musical tone law method. The results show that the musical tone law method could be used in the damage detection of isotropic material structures with simple shape, like cables, pipes, plates, and shells. Having distinct spectral lines like a comb with a certain interval distribution rule is the main characteristic of the music tone law. Damage detection baseline could be established by quantizing the fitting relationship between modal orders and the corresponding frequency values. The main advantage of this method is that it could be used in the structural damage detection without vibration information of an intact structure as a reference.

  15. Detection method for genetically modified papaya using duplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Akihiro; Shimizu, Kaori; Mishima, Takashi; Aoki, Nobutaro; Hattori, Hideki; Sato, Hidetaka; Ueda, Nobuo; Watanabe, Takahiro; Hino, Akihiro; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Maitani, Tamio

    2006-08-01

    A simple and rapid method for the identification of genetically modified (GM) papaya, derived from Line 55-1, was developed by modifying the Japanese official PCR method. Genomic DNA was directly extracted from the fresh fruit without the lyophilization step, using a commercial silica-based kit. To develop a duplex PCR method which simultaneously detects the GM papaya-specific gene and the intrinsic papain gene, the papain 2-5'/3' (amplicon size; 184 bp) primer pair for the detection of the papain gene was newly designed within the region of the products (211 bp) amplified using the papain 1-5'/-3' primer pair adopted in the Japanese official PCR method. To detect the GM papaya-specific gene, the primer pair Nos C-5'/CaM N-3' described in the Japanese official method was used. The DNA sequences of the GM papaya gene and the intrinsic papain gene were co-amplified using the PCR method in a single tube. The developed duplex PCR method allows the simultaneous detection of the products by means of agarose gel electrophoresis or microchip electrophoresis. The proposed method for GM papaya identification is simple and rapid.

  16. Soybean allergen detection methods--a comparison study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, M. Højgaard; Holzhauser, T.; Bisson, C.

    2008-01-01

    Soybean containing products are widely consumed, thus reliable methods for detection of soy in foods are needed in order to make appropriate risk assessment studies to adequately protect soy allergic patients. Six methods were compared using eight food products with a declared content of soy...

  17. The harmonics detection method based on neural network applied ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The harmonics detection method based on neural network applied to harmonics compensation. R Dehini, A Bassou, B Ferdi. Abstract. Several different methods have been used to sense load currents and extract its harmonic component in order to produce a reference current in shunt active power filters (SAPF), and to ...

  18. Comprehensive methods for earlier detection and monitoring of forest decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Pontius; Richard Hallett

    2014-01-01

    Forested ecosystems are threatened by invasive pests, pathogens, and unusual climatic events brought about by climate change. Earlier detection of incipient forest health problems and a quantitatively rigorous assessment method is increasingly important. Here, we describe a method that is adaptable across tree species and stress agents and practical for use in the...

  19. Comparison of detection methods for antibodies to boar spermatozoa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The different methods varied in their sensitivity to determination of sperm antibody titers. The ELISA was the most sensitive of the methods. The ELISA and Protein A agglutination were the most suitable in terms of specificity and repeatability for sperm antibody detection in swine. (Tropical Veterinarian: 2003 21(1): 1-13) ...

  20. A Double Polymerase Chain Reaction Method for Detecting African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To establish a double polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for the simultaneous detection of African swine fever virus (ASFV) and swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV). Methods: By using reference sequences of ASFV and SVDV, this study synthesized parts of the genes connected to the 19-T vector which ...

  1. Method of detecting genetic deletions identified with chromosomal abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Joe W; Pinkel, Daniel; Tkachuk, Douglas

    2013-11-26

    Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyzes. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acids probes are typically of a complexity greater tha 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods and reagents are provided for the detection of genetic rearrangements. Probes and test kits are provided for use in detecting genetic rearrangements, particlularly for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, specifically cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and for biological dosimetry. Methods and reagents are described for cytogenetic research, for the differentiation of cytogenetically similar ut genetically different diseases, and for many prognostic and diagnostic applications.

  2. A review on detection methods used for foodborne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Priyanka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne pathogens have been a cause of a large number of diseases worldwide and more so in developing countries. This has a major economic impact. It is important to contain them, and to do so, early detection is very crucial. Detection and diagnostics relied on culture-based methods to begin with and have developed in the recent past parallel to the developments towards immunological methods such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA and molecular biology-based methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The aim has always been to find a rapid, sensitive, specific and cost-effective method. Ranging from culturing of microbes to the futuristic biosensor technology, the methods have had this common goal. This review summarizes the recent trends and brings together methods that have been developed over the years.

  3. A New Outlier Detection Method for Multidimensional Datasets

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel Messih, Mario A.

    2012-07-01

    This study develops a novel hybrid method for outlier detection (HMOD) that combines the idea of distance based and density based methods. The proposed method has two main advantages over most of the other outlier detection methods. The first advantage is that it works well on both dense and sparse datasets. The second advantage is that, unlike most other outlier detection methods that require careful parameter setting and prior knowledge of the data, HMOD is not very sensitive to small changes in parameter values within certain parameter ranges. The only required parameter to set is the number of nearest neighbors. In addition, we made a fully parallelized implementation of HMOD that made it very efficient in applications. Moreover, we proposed a new way of using the outlier detection for redundancy reduction in datasets where the confidence level that evaluates how accurate the less redundant dataset can be used to represent the original dataset can be specified by users. HMOD is evaluated on synthetic datasets (dense and mixed “dense and sparse”) and a bioinformatics problem of redundancy reduction of dataset of position weight matrices (PWMs) of transcription factor binding sites. In addition, in the process of assessing the performance of our redundancy reduction method, we developed a simple tool that can be used to evaluate the confidence level of reduced dataset representing the original dataset. The evaluation of the results shows that our method can be used in a wide range of problems.

  4. Detection of forced oscillations in power systems with multichannel methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follum, James D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The increasing availability of high fidelity, geographically dispersed measurements in power systems improves the ability of researchers and engineers to study dynamic behaviors in the grid. One such behavior that is garnering increased attention is the presence of forced oscillations. Power system engineers are interested in forced oscillations because they are often symptomatic of the malfunction or misoperation of equipment. Though the resulting oscillation is not always large in amplitude, the root cause may be serious. In this report, multi-channel forced oscillation detection methods are developed. These methods leverage previously developed detection approaches based on the periodogram and spectral-coherence. Making use of geographically distributed channels of data is shown to improved detection performance and shorten the delay before an oscillation can be detected in the online environment. Results from simulated and measured power system data are presented.

  5. A high-throughput multiplex method adapted for GMO detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Maher; Chupeau, Gaëlle; Berard, Aurélie; McKhann, Heather; Romaniuk, Marcel; Giancola, Sandra; Laval, Valérie; Bertheau, Yves; Brunel, Dominique

    2008-12-24

    A high-throughput multiplex assay for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMO) was developed on the basis of the existing SNPlex method designed for SNP genotyping. This SNPlex assay allows the simultaneous detection of up to 48 short DNA sequences (approximately 70 bp; "signature sequences") from taxa endogenous reference genes, from GMO constructions, screening targets, construct-specific, and event-specific targets, and finally from donor organisms. This assay avoids certain shortcomings of multiplex PCR-based methods already in widespread use for GMO detection. The assay demonstrated high specificity and sensitivity. The results suggest that this assay is reliable, flexible, and cost- and time-effective for high-throughput GMO detection.

  6. Transistor-based particle detection systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ankit; Nair, Pradeep R.; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful

    2015-06-09

    Transistor-based particle detection systems and methods may be configured to detect charged and non-charged particles. Such systems may include a supporting structure contacting a gate of a transistor and separating the gate from a dielectric of the transistor, and the transistor may have a near pull-in bias and a sub-threshold region bias to facilitate particle detection. The transistor may be configured to change current flow through the transistor in response to a change in stiffness of the gate caused by securing of a particle to the gate, and the transistor-based particle detection system may configured to detect the non-charged particle at least from the change in current flow.

  7. A new detection method of oil rigs in SAR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Yang, Jingsong; Ren, Lin

    2013-10-01

    It's difficult for simple space-borne SAR to identify oil rigs effectively in single pass SAR image. One method of oil rig detection is using multi-temporal SAR images. Some papers had do some research on it. In this paper, we use interferometry SAR image to detect the oil rigs. We get the correlation coefficient image from the In-SAR data, and using the histogram of correlation coefficient image, A Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) algorithm is imported to detect the oil rigs. The Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) is used to get the threshold of detection. The test result shows that sea coherent target detection in the coherent coefficient image is efficacious.

  8. MoveSteg: A Method of Network Steganography Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Szczypiorski, Krzysztof; Tyl, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a new method for detecting a source point of time based network steganography - MoveSteg. A steganography carrier could be an example of multimedia stream made with packets. These packets are then delayed intentionally to send hidden information using time based steganography methods. The presented analysis describes a method that allows finding the source of steganography stream in network that is under our management.

  9. Effects of Feature Extraction and Classification Methods on Cyberbully Detection

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZEL, Selma Ayşe; SARAÇ, Esra

    2016-01-01

    Cyberbullying is defined as an aggressive, intentional action against a defenseless person by using the Internet, or other electronic contents. Researchers have found that many of the bullying cases have tragically ended in suicides; hence automatic detection of cyberbullying has become important. In this study we show the effects of feature extraction, feature selection, and classification methods that are used, on the performance of automatic detection of cyberbullying. To perform the exper...

  10. Tumor specific glycoproteins and method for detecting tumorigenic cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, E.A.; Bolmer, S.D.

    1981-01-01

    The detection of tumour specific glycoproteins (TSGP) in human sera often indicates the presence of a malignant tumour in a patient. The distinguishing characteristics of TSGP isolated from the blood sera of cancer patients are described in detail together with methods of TSGP isolation and purification. Details are also given of radioimmunoassay techniques capable of detecting very low levels of serum TSGP with high specificity. (U.K.)

  11. Detecting Pipe Bursts Using Heuristic and CUSUM Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, M.; Jung, D.; Vreeburg, J.; van de Roer, M.; Lansey, K.; Rietveld, L.

    2014-01-01

    Pipe bursts in a drinking water distribution system lead to water losses, interruption of supply, and damage to streets and houses due to the uncontrolled water flow. To minimize the negative consequences of pipe bursts, an early detection is necessary. This paper describes a heuristic burst detection method, which continuously compares forecasted and measured values of the water demand. The forecasts of the water demand were generated by an adaptive water demand forecasting model. To test th...

  12. Steam leak detection in advance reactors via acoustics method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Raj Kumar; Rao, A. Rama

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Steam leak detection system is developed to detect any leak inside the reactor vault. → The technique uses leak noise frequency spectrum for leak detection. → Testing of system and method to locate the leak is also developed and discussed in present paper. - Abstract: Prediction of LOCA (loss of coolant activity) plays very important role in safety of nuclear reactor. Coolant is responsible for heat transfer from fuel bundles. Loss of coolant is an accidental situation which requires immediate shut down of reactor. Fall in system pressure during LOCA is the trip parameter used for initiating automatic reactor shut down. However, in primary heat transport system operating in two phase regimes, detection of small break LOCA is not simple. Due to very slow leak rates, time for the fall of pressure is significantly slow. From reactor safety point of view, it is extremely important to find reliable and effective alternative for detecting slow pressure drop in case of small break LOCA. One such technique is the acoustic signal caused by LOCA in small breaks. In boiling water reactors whose primary heat transport is to be driven by natural circulation, small break LOCA detection is important. For prompt action on post small break LOCA, steam leak detection system is developed to detect any leak inside the reactor vault. The detection technique is reliable and plays a very important role in ensuring safety of the reactor. Methodology developed for steam leak detection is discussed in present paper. The methods to locate the leak is also developed and discussed in present paper which is based on analysis of the signal.

  13. Safety assessment and detection methods of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rong; Zheng, Zhe; Jiao, Guanglian

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs), are gaining importance in agriculture as well as the production of food and feed. Along with the development of GMOs, health and food safety concerns have been raised. These concerns for these new GMOs make it necessary to set up strict system on food safety assessment of GMOs. The food safety assessment of GMOs, current development status of safety and precise transgenic technologies and GMOs detection have been discussed in this review. The recent patents about GMOs and their detection methods are also reviewed. This review can provide elementary introduction on how to assess and detect GMOs.

  14. Recent and innovative methods for detection of bacteremia and fungemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reller, L.B.

    1983-01-01

    Advances continue to be made in methods for more reliable or more rapid means of detecting bacteremia and fungemia. The importance of blood sample volume and broth dilution has been established in controlled studies. New technology includes the use of resins that remove antimicrobials from blood samples, detection of radioactivity from organisms given radiolabeled substrate, use of dyes that stain microbial DNA and RNA, use of slides coated with growth media, and lysis-centrifugation for trapping microorganisms. Technology now being considered includes counterimmunoelectrophoresis, head-space gas chromatography, electrical impedance, microcalorimetry, and the use of lasers to detect pH changes and turbidity

  15. Methods and Algorithms for Detecting Objects in Video Files

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen The Cuong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Video files are files that store motion pictures and sounds like in real life. In today's world, the need for automated processing of information in video files is increasing. Automated processing of information has a wide range of application including office/home surveillance cameras, traffic control, sports applications, remote object detection, and others. In particular, detection and tracking of object movement in video file plays an important role. This article describes the methods of detecting objects in video files. Today, this problem in the field of computer vision is being studied worldwide.

  16. Radiometric method for the rapid detection of Leptospira organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manca, N.; Verardi, R.; Colombrita, D.; Ravizzola, G.; Savoldi, E.; Turano, A.

    1986-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive radiometric method for detection of Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona and Leptospira interrogans serovar copenhageni is described. Stuart's medium and Middlebrook TB (12A) medium supplemented with bovine serum albumin, catalase, and casein hydrolysate and labeled with 14 C-fatty acids were used. The radioactivity was measured in a BACTEC 460. With this system, Leptospira organisms were detected in human blood in 2 to 5 days, a notably shorter time period than that required for the majority of detection techniques

  17. Radiometric method for the rapid detection of Leptospira organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manca, N.; Verardi, R.; Colombrita, D.; Ravizzola, G.; Savoldi, E.; Turano, A.

    1986-02-01

    A rapid and sensitive radiometric method for detection of Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona and Leptospira interrogans serovar copenhageni is described. Stuart's medium and Middlebrook TB (12A) medium supplemented with bovine serum albumin, catalase, and casein hydrolysate and labeled with /sup 14/C-fatty acids were used. The radioactivity was measured in a BACTEC 460. With this system, Leptospira organisms were detected in human blood in 2 to 5 days, a notably shorter time period than that required for the majority of detection techniques.

  18. Radiation detection and measurement concepts, methods and devices

    CERN Document Server

    McGregor, Douglas

    2018-01-01

    This text on radiation detection and measurement is a response to numerous requests expressed by students at various universities, in which the most popularly used books do not provide adequate background material, nor explain matters in understandable terms. This work provides a modern overview of radiation detection devices and radiation measurement methods. The topics selected in the book have been selected on the basis of the author’s many years of experience designing radiation detectors and teaching radiation detection and measurement in a classroom environment.

  19. Microlensing of unresolved stars as a brown dwarf detection method

    CERN Document Server

    Bouquet, A; Melchior, A L; Giraud-Héraud, Yannick; Baillon, Paul

    1993-01-01

    We describe a project of brown dwarf detection in the dark halo of a galaxy using the microlensing effect. We argue that monitoring pixels instead of stars could provide an enhancement in the number of detectable events. We estimate the detection efficiency with a Monte-Carlo simulation. We expect a ten-fold increase with respect to current experiments. To assess the feasibility of this method we have determined the photometric precision of a pixel by comparing several pictures of a same field in the LMC. To be published in the Proceeding of the workshop 'The dark side of the universe...', Roma, Juin 1993,

  20. Machine Learning Methods for Attack Detection in the Smart Grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozay, Mete; Esnaola, Inaki; Yarman Vural, Fatos Tunay; Kulkarni, Sanjeev R; Poor, H Vincent

    2016-08-01

    Attack detection problems in the smart grid are posed as statistical learning problems for different attack scenarios in which the measurements are observed in batch or online settings. In this approach, machine learning algorithms are used to classify measurements as being either secure or attacked. An attack detection framework is provided to exploit any available prior knowledge about the system and surmount constraints arising from the sparse structure of the problem in the proposed approach. Well-known batch and online learning algorithms (supervised and semisupervised) are employed with decision- and feature-level fusion to model the attack detection problem. The relationships between statistical and geometric properties of attack vectors employed in the attack scenarios and learning algorithms are analyzed to detect unobservable attacks using statistical learning methods. The proposed algorithms are examined on various IEEE test systems. Experimental analyses show that machine learning algorithms can detect attacks with performances higher than attack detection algorithms that employ state vector estimation methods in the proposed attack detection framework.

  1. Comparison of Different Methods of Detection of Enteric Pathogenic Protozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N H Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The study was conducted to compare different methods of detection of pathogenic protozoan parasites in stool specimens of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA. Materials and Methods: Stool specimens of 242 HIV sero-positive patients were examined using the wet mount technique, modified Ziehl-Neelsen′s (ZN staining, auto-fluorescence and auramine fluorescence staining. Patient specimens, 94 and 40 out of 242, were also subjected to Giardia antigen detection using an enzyme immunoassay and Cryptosporidium antigen detection by immuno-chromatography, respectively. For calculation of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, light microscopy of wet mounts and modified ZN stained smears for Giardia and Coccidia, respectively, were considered as gold standards. Results: Sensitivity of auto-fluorescence, auramine-O staining and antigen detection techniques was found to be 100% as compared to the routine standards. The specificity of auto-fluorescence was 90.6% and 100% for Cyclospora and Isospora, respectively; that of auramine-O staining was 98.9% for Cryptosporidium, 99.30% for Cyclospora and 100% for Isospora; and that of antigen detection was 90.6% and 97.7% for Cryptosporidium and Giardia, respectively. Conclusion: In laboratories requiring screening of large number of stool specimens for detection of protozoan parasites, fluorescence microscopy and antigen detection can be useful techniques. Confirmation of positive results, however, needs to be done with the standard techniques.

  2. Fuel failure detection and location methods in CAGRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, A.M.

    1982-06-01

    The release of fission products from AGR fuel failures and the way in which the signals from such failures must be detected against the background signal from uranium contamination of the fuel is considered. Theoretical assessments of failure detection are used to show the limitations of the existing Electrostatic Wire Precipitator Burst Can Detection system (BCD) and how its operating parameters can be optimised. Two promising alternative methods, the 'split count' technique and the use of iodine measurements, are described. The results of a detailed study of the mechanical and electronic performance of the present BCD trolleys are given. The limited experience of detection and location of two fuel failures in CAGR using conventional and alternative methods is reviewed. The larger failure was detected and located using the conventional BCD equipment with a high confidence level. It is shown that smaller failures may not be easy to detect and locate using the current BCD equipment, and the second smaller failure probably remained in the reactor for about a year before it was discharged. The split count technique used with modified BCD equipment was able to detect the smaller failure after careful inspection of the data. (author)

  3. Heart beat detection using a multimodal data coupling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollakazemi, M Javad; Atyabi, S Abbas; Ghaffari, Ali

    2015-08-01

    The most straightforward method for heart beat estimation is R-peak detection based on an electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. Current R-peak detection methods do not work properly when the ECG signal is contaminated or missing, which leads to the incorrect estimation of the heart rate. This raises the need for reliable algorithms which can locate heart beats in continuous long-term multimodal data, allowing robust analysis.In this paper, three peak detectors are evaluated for heart beat detection using various cardiovascular signals. One of the peak detectors is a new general peak detector (GPD) algorithm which is applicable on ECG and other pulsatile signals to compensate for the limitation of QRS detection. This peak detector algorithm is adaptive and independently finds amplitude characteristics for every recording, while not tuned for ECG or other pulsatile signals. Three strategies, which are different disciplines of detectors, are then proposed while the fusion method remains the same in all strategies. In the first strategy, the ECG and the lowest-indexed signal of general blood pressure (BP), arterial blood pressure (ART) and pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) are processed through gqrs and wabp (from the PhysioNet library), respectively. In the second strategy, all beats in different signals are detected by GPD. In the third strategy, ECG and other signals are processed by gqrs and GPD, respectively. In all three strategies two criteria are used in order to fuse the detections. The first criterion is based on the number of candidate detections in a specific time period, based on which signals of interest are selected. The second fusion criterion is based on the regularity of the derived intervals between subsequent candidate detections. If the number of detections in ECG and one of BP, ART and PAP signals have reasonable physiological range, a new signal is generated in which they are coupled with each other. Heart beats can more easily be detected in noisy

  4. Efficient method for events detection in phonocardiographic signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Alajarin, Juan; Ruiz-Merino, Ramon

    2005-06-01

    The auscultation of the heart is still the first basic analysis tool used to evaluate the functional state of the heart, as well as the first indicator used to submit the patient to a cardiologist. In order to improve the diagnosis capabilities of auscultation, signal processing algorithms are currently being developed to assist the physician at primary care centers for adult and pediatric population. A basic task for the diagnosis from the phonocardiogram is to detect the events (main and additional sounds, murmurs and clicks) present in the cardiac cycle. This is usually made by applying a threshold and detecting the events that are bigger than the threshold. However, this method usually does not allow the detection of the main sounds when additional sounds and murmurs exist, or it may join several events into a unique one. In this paper we present a reliable method to detect the events present in the phonocardiogram, even in the presence of heart murmurs or additional sounds. The method detects relative maxima peaks in the amplitude envelope of the phonocardiogram, and computes a set of parameters associated with each event. Finally, a set of characteristics is extracted from each event to aid in the identification of the events. Besides, the morphology of the murmurs is also detected, which aids in the differentiation of different diseases that can occur in the same temporal localization. The algorithms have been applied to real normal heart sounds and murmurs, achieving satisfactory results.

  5. Simulation study of neutronic and acoustic methods of boiling detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazaki, J.; Fujii, Y.; Shinohara, Y.; Araki, H.

    1981-01-01

    As a part of the work on the development of a diagnostic system for detecting anomalies in the core of a fast breeder reactor, a study is being made on the methods of detecting abnormal reactivity and coolant boiling on the basis computer simulation. The objective of the present simulation study is to obtain some basic information useful for developing sensitive method of signal processing suitable for boiling detection. Neutronic, acoustic and measurement noises as well as reactor kinetics and reactivity estimator are simulated on a hybrid computer and analyzed for various noise conditions using correlation, spectral and coherence analyses. It has been confirmed that the cross-spectral and coherence analyses between neutronic and acoustic signals are effective method for boiling detection provided that the void coefficient of reactivity is sufficiently large and that detection capability is slightly improved by using a discriminator of signal level before making spectral analysis. A simulated boiling detection experiment using a zero power thermal reactor is also planned in order to check the validity of computer simulation. (author)

  6. Detection of oral HPV infection - Comparison of two different specimen collection methods and two HPV detection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Marjorie M A; Hartel, Gunter; Whiteman, David C; Antonsson, Annika

    2018-04-01

    Very little is known about the natural history of oral HPV infection. Several different methods exist to collect oral specimens and detect HPV, but their respective performance characteristics are unknown. We compared two different methods for oral specimen collection (oral saline rinse and commercial saliva kit) from 96 individuals and then analyzed the samples for HPV by two different PCR detection methods (single GP5+/6+ PCR and nested MY09/11 and GP5+/6+ PCR). For the oral rinse samples, the oral HPV prevalence was 10.4% (GP+ PCR; 10% repeatability) vs 11.5% (nested PCR method; 100% repeatability). For the commercial saliva kit samples, the prevalences were 3.1% vs 16.7% with the GP+ PCR vs the nested PCR method (repeatability 100% for both detection methods). Overall the agreement was fair or poor between samples and methods (kappa 0.06-0.36). Standardizing methods of oral sample collection and HPV detection would ensure comparability between future oral HPV studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Detection methods for legionellae. Possibilities and limitations of detection methods; Niet alle detectiemethoden geschikt voor legionellagroei. Mogelijkheden en beperkingen detectiemethoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffer, W.

    2011-06-15

    This article provides an overview of existing and new methods for detecting legionella in water. It offers insight in the characteristics and applications of existing and new detection methods. However, it is impossible to assess the value of alternative methods at the moment. That will require additional research. [Dutch] Een overzicht is gemaakt van bestaande en nieuwe methoden om legionella in water aan te tonen. Daarmee wordt inzicht verkregen in de kenmerken en toepassingsmogelijkheden van bestaande en nieuwe detectiemethoden. De waarde van alternatieve methoden in een installatie kan echter nog niet worden beoordeeld. Daarvoor is nader onderzoek nodig.

  8. Method for predicting peptide detection in mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Lars [West Richland, WA; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA; Petritis, Konstantinos [Richland, WA

    2010-07-13

    A method of predicting whether a peptide present in a biological sample will be detected by analysis with a mass spectrometer. The method uses at least one mass spectrometer to perform repeated analysis of a sample containing peptides from proteins with known amino acids. The method then generates a data set of peptides identified as contained within the sample by the repeated analysis. The method then calculates the probability that a specific peptide in the data set was detected in the repeated analysis. The method then creates a plurality of vectors, where each vector has a plurality of dimensions, and each dimension represents a property of one or more of the amino acids present in each peptide and adjacent peptides in the data set. Using these vectors, the method then generates an algorithm from the plurality of vectors and the calculated probabilities that specific peptides in the data set were detected in the repeated analysis. The algorithm is thus capable of calculating the probability that a hypothetical peptide represented as a vector will be detected by a mass spectrometry based proteomic platform, given that the peptide is present in a sample introduced into a mass spectrometer.

  9. Fault detection of gearbox using time-frequency method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo, A.; Satrijo, Dj.; Prahasto, T.; Haryanto, I.

    2017-04-01

    This research deals with fault detection and diagnosis of gearbox by using vibration signature. In this work, fault detection and diagnosis are approached by employing time-frequency method, and then the results are compared with cepstrum analysis. Experimental work has been conducted for data acquisition of vibration signal thru self-designed gearbox test rig. This test-rig is able to demonstrate normal and faulty gearbox i.e., wears and tooth breakage. Three accelerometers were used for vibration signal acquisition from gearbox, and optical tachometer was used for shaft rotation speed measurement. The results show that frequency domain analysis using fast-fourier transform was less sensitive to wears and tooth breakage condition. However, the method of short-time fourier transform was able to monitor the faults in gearbox. Wavelet Transform (WT) method also showed good performance in gearbox fault detection using vibration signal after employing time synchronous averaging (TSA).

  10. Effects of Feature Extraction and Classification Methods on Cyberbully Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra SARAÇ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyberbullying is defined as an aggressive, intentional action against a defenseless person by using the Internet, or other electronic contents. Researchers have found that many of the bullying cases have tragically ended in suicides; hence automatic detection of cyberbullying has become important. In this study we show the effects of feature extraction, feature selection, and classification methods that are used, on the performance of automatic detection of cyberbullying. To perform the experiments FormSpring.me dataset is used and the effects of preprocessing methods; several classifiers like C4.5, Naïve Bayes, kNN, and SVM; and information gain and chi square feature selection methods are investigated. Experimental results indicate that the best classification results are obtained when alphabetic tokenization, no stemming, and no stopwords removal are applied. Using feature selection also improves cyberbully detection performance. When classifiers are compared, C4.5 performs the best for the used dataset.

  11. Compositions and methods for detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Hsin-Chih; Werner, James; Martinez, Jennifer S.

    2016-11-22

    Described herein are nucleic acid based probes and methods for discriminating and detecting single nucleotide variants in nucleic acid molecules (e.g., DNA). The methods include use of a pair of probes can be used to detect and identify polymorphisms, for example single nucleotide polymorphism in DNA. The pair of probes emit a different fluorescent wavelength of light depending on the association and alignment of the probes when hybridized to a target nucleic acid molecule. Each pair of probes is capable of discriminating at least two different nucleic acid molecules that differ by at least a single nucleotide difference. The methods can probes can be used, for example, for detection of DNA polymorphisms that are indicative of a particular disease or condition.

  12. A divisive spectral method for network community detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Jianjun; Li, Longjie; Yao, Yukai; Chen, Xiaoyun; Leng, Mingwei; Lu, Weiguo

    2016-01-01

    Community detection is a fundamental problem in the domain of complex network analysis. It has received great attention, and many community detection methods have been proposed in the last decade. In this paper, we propose a divisive spectral method for identifying community structures from networks which utilizes a sparsification operation to pre-process the networks first, and then uses a repeated bisection spectral algorithm to partition the networks into communities. The sparsification operation makes the community boundaries clearer and sharper, so that the repeated spectral bisection algorithm extract high-quality community structures accurately from the sparsified networks. Experiments show that the combination of network sparsification and a spectral bisection algorithm is highly successful, the proposed method is more effective in detecting community structures from networks than the others. (paper: interdisciplinary statistical mechanics)

  13. Environmental risk comparisons with internal methods of UST leak detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durgin, P.B.

    1993-01-01

    The past five years have seen a variety of advances in how leaks can be detected from within underground storage tanks. Any leak-detection approach employed within a storage tanks must be conducted at specific time intervals and meet certain leak-rate criteria according to federal and state regulations. Nevertheless, the potential environmental consequences of leak detection approaches differ widely. Internal, volumetric UST monitoring techniques have developed over time including: (1) inventory control with stick measurements, (2) precision tank testing, (3) automatic tank gauging (ATG), (4) statistical inventory reconciliation (SIR), and (5) statistical techniques with automatic tank gauging. An ATG focuses on the advantage of precise data but measured for only a brief period. On the other hand, stick data has less precision but when combined with SIR over extended periods it too can detect low leak rates. Graphs demonstrate the comparable amounts of fuel than can leak out of a tank before being detected by these techniques. The results indicate that annual tank testing has the greatest potential for large volumes of fuel leaking without detection while new statistical approaches with an ATG have the least potential. The environmental implications of the volumes of fuel leaked prior to detection are site specific. For example, if storage tank is surrounded by a high water table and in a sole-source aquifer even small leaks may cause problems. The user must also consider regulatory risks. The level of environmental and regulatory risk should influence selection of the UST leak detection method

  14. An infrared spectroscopy method to detect ammonia in gastric juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannozzi, Andrea M; Pennecchi, Francesca; Muller, Paul; Balma Tivola, Paolo; Roncari, Silvia; Rossi, Andrea M

    2015-11-01

    Ammonia in gastric juice is considered a potential biomarker for Helicobacter pylori infection and as a factor contributing to gastric mucosal injury. High ammonia concentrations are also found in patients with chronic renal failure, peptic ulcer disease, and chronic gastritis. Rapid and specific methods for ammonia detection are urgently required by the medical community. Here we present a method to detect ammonia directly in gastric juice based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The ammonia dissolved in biological liquid samples as ammonium ion was released in air as a gas by the shifting of the pH equilibrium of the ammonium/ammonia reaction and was detected in line by a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy system equipped with a gas cell for the quantification. The method developed provided high sensitivity and selectivity in ammonia detection both in pure standard solutions and in a simulated gastric juice matrix over the range of diagnostic concentrations tested. Preliminary analyses were also performed on real gastric juice samples from patients with gastric mucosal injury and with symptoms of H. pylori infection, and the results were in agreement with the clinicopathology information. The whole analysis, performed in less than 10 min, can be directly applied on the sample without extraction procedures and it ensures high specificity of detection because of the ammonia fingerprint absorption bands in the infrared spectrum. This method could be easily used with endoscopy instrumentation to provide information in real time and would enable the endoscopist to improve and integrate gastroscopic examinations.

  15. A novel visual saliency detection method for infrared video sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yuzhen; Ning, Chen

    2017-12-01

    Infrared video applications such as target detection and recognition, moving target tracking, and so forth can benefit a lot from visual saliency detection, which is essentially a method to automatically localize the ;important; content in videos. In this paper, a novel visual saliency detection method for infrared video sequences is proposed. Specifically, for infrared video saliency detection, both the spatial saliency and temporal saliency are considered. For spatial saliency, we adopt a mutual consistency-guided spatial cues combination-based method to capture the regions with obvious luminance contrast and contour features. For temporal saliency, a multi-frame symmetric difference approach is proposed to discriminate salient moving regions of interest from background motions. Then, the spatial saliency and temporal saliency are combined to compute the spatiotemporal saliency using an adaptive fusion strategy. Besides, to highlight the spatiotemporal salient regions uniformly, a multi-scale fusion approach is embedded into the spatiotemporal saliency model. Finally, a Gestalt theory-inspired optimization algorithm is designed to further improve the reliability of the final saliency map. Experimental results demonstrate that our method outperforms many state-of-the-art saliency detection approaches for infrared videos under various backgrounds.

  16. Study on UPF Harmonic Current Detection Method Based on DSP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, H J; Pang, Y F; Qiu, Z M; Chen, M

    2006-01-01

    Unity power factor (UPF) harmonic current detection method applied to active power filter (APF) is presented in this paper. The intention of this method is to make nonlinear loads and active power filter in parallel to be an equivalent resistance. So after compensation, source current is sinusoidal, and has the same shape of source voltage. Meanwhile, there is no harmonic in source current, and the power factor becomes one. The mathematic model of proposed method and the optimum project for equivalent low pass filter in measurement are presented. Finally, the proposed detection method applied to a shunt active power filter experimental prototype based on DSP TMS320F2812 is developed. Simulation and experiment results indicate the method is simple and easy to implement, and can obtain the real-time calculation of harmonic current exactly

  17. A Review of the Detection Methods for Climate Regime Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunqun Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An abrupt climate change means that the climate system shifts from a steady state to another steady state. Study on the phenomenon and theory of the abrupt climate change is a new research field of modern climatology, and it is of great significance for the prediction of future climate change. The climate regime shift is one of the most common forms of abrupt climate change, which mainly refers to the statistical significant changes on the variable of climate system at one time scale. These detection methods can be roughly divided into five categories based on different types of abrupt changes, namely, abrupt mean value change, abrupt variance change, abrupt frequency change, abrupt probability density change, and the multivariable analysis. The main research progress of abrupt climate change detection methods is reviewed. What is more, some actual applications of those methods in observational data are provided. With the development of nonlinear science, many new methods have been presented for detecting an abrupt dynamic change in recent years, which is useful supplement for the abrupt change detection methods.

  18. An Effective Conversation-Based Botnet Detection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruidong Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A botnet is one of the most grievous threats to network security since it can evolve into many attacks, such as Denial-of-Service (DoS, spam, and phishing. However, current detection methods are inefficient to identify unknown botnet. The high-speed network environment makes botnet detection more difficult. To solve these problems, we improve the progress of packet processing technologies such as New Application Programming Interface (NAPI and zero copy and propose an efficient quasi-real-time intrusion detection system. Our work detects botnet using supervised machine learning approach under the high-speed network environment. Our contributions are summarized as follows: (1 Build a detection framework using PF_RING for sniffing and processing network traces to extract flow features dynamically. (2 Use random forest model to extract promising conversation features. (3 Analyze the performance of different classification algorithms. The proposed method is demonstrated by well-known CTU13 dataset and nonmalicious applications. The experimental results show our conversation-based detection approach can identify botnet with higher accuracy and lower false positive rate than flow-based approach.

  19. A new ultrasonic signal amplification method for detection of bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Shiva Kant; López, Pablo Resa; Sánchez, Carlos Sierra; Segura, Luis Elvira; Urréjola, José

    2012-01-01

    A new method is presented that increases the sensitivity of ultrasound-based techniques for detection of bacteria. The technique was developed for the detection of catalase-positive microorganisms. It uses a bubble trapping medium containing hydrogen peroxide that is mixed with the sample for microbiological evaluation. The enzyme catalase is present in catalase-positive bacteria, which induces a rapid hydrolysis of hydrogen peroxide, forming bubbles which remain in the medium. This reaction results in the amplification of the mechanical changes that the microorganisms produce in the medium. The effect can be detected by means of ultrasonic wave amplitude continuous measurement since the bubbles increase the ultrasonic attenuation significantly. It is shown that microorganism concentrations of the order of 10 5 cells ml −1 can be detected using this method. This allows an improvement of three orders of magnitude in the ultrasonic detection threshold of microorganisms in conventional culture media, and is competitive with modern rapid microbiological methods. It can also be used for the characterization of the enzymatic activity. (paper)

  20. A new ultrasonic signal amplification method for detection of bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant Shukla, Shiva; Resa López, Pablo; Sierra Sánchez, Carlos; Urréjola, José; Segura, Luis Elvira

    2012-10-01

    A new method is presented that increases the sensitivity of ultrasound-based techniques for detection of bacteria. The technique was developed for the detection of catalase-positive microorganisms. It uses a bubble trapping medium containing hydrogen peroxide that is mixed with the sample for microbiological evaluation. The enzyme catalase is present in catalase-positive bacteria, which induces a rapid hydrolysis of hydrogen peroxide, forming bubbles which remain in the medium. This reaction results in the amplification of the mechanical changes that the microorganisms produce in the medium. The effect can be detected by means of ultrasonic wave amplitude continuous measurement since the bubbles increase the ultrasonic attenuation significantly. It is shown that microorganism concentrations of the order of 105 cells ml-1 can be detected using this method. This allows an improvement of three orders of magnitude in the ultrasonic detection threshold of microorganisms in conventional culture media, and is competitive with modern rapid microbiological methods. It can also be used for the characterization of the enzymatic activity.

  1. An Automata Based Intrusion Detection Method for Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Fu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet of Things (IoT transforms network communication to Machine-to-Machine (M2M basis and provides open access and new services to citizens and companies. It extends the border of Internet and will be developed as one part of the future 5G networks. However, as the resources of IoT’s front devices are constrained, many security mechanisms are hard to be implemented to protect the IoT networks. Intrusion detection system (IDS is an efficient technique that can be used to detect the attackers when cryptography is broken, and it can be used to enforce the security of IoT networks. In this article, we analyzed the intrusion detection requirements of IoT networks and then proposed a uniform intrusion detection method for the vast heterogeneous IoT networks based on an automata model. The proposed method can detect and report the possible IoT attacks with three types: jam-attack, false-attack, and reply-attack automatically. We also design an experiment to verify the proposed IDS method and examine the attack of RADIUS application.

  2. Nonlinear preprocessing method for detecting peaks from gas chromatograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Hyeyoung

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The problem of locating valid peaks from data corrupted by noise frequently arises while analyzing experimental data. In various biological and chemical data analysis tasks, peak detection thus constitutes a critical preprocessing step that greatly affects downstream analysis and eventual quality of experiments. Many existing techniques require the users to adjust parameters by trial and error, which is error-prone, time-consuming and often leads to incorrect analysis results. Worse, conventional approaches tend to report an excessive number of false alarms by finding fictitious peaks generated by mere noise. Results We have designed a novel peak detection method that can significantly reduce parameter sensitivity, yet providing excellent peak detection performance and negligible false alarm rates from gas chromatographic data. The key feature of our new algorithm is the successive use of peak enhancement algorithms that are deliberately designed for a gradual improvement of peak detection quality. We tested our approach with real gas chromatograms as well as intentionally contaminated spectra that contain Gaussian or speckle-type noise. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve near perfect peak detection performance while maintaining very small false alarm probabilities in case of gas chromatograms. Given the fact that biological signals appear in the form of peaks in various experimental data and that the propose method can easily be extended to such data, our approach will be a useful and robust tool that can help researchers highlight valid signals in their noisy measurements.

  3. Sunglass detection method for automation of video surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikandar, Tasriva; Samsudin, Wan Nur Azhani W.; Hawari Ghazali, Kamarul; Mohd, Izzeldin I.; Fazle Rabbi, Mohammad

    2018-04-01

    Wearing sunglass to hide face from surveillance camera is a common activity in criminal incidences. Therefore, sunglass detection from surveillance video has become a demanding issue in automation of security systems. In this paper we propose an image processing method to detect sunglass from surveillance images. Specifically, a unique feature using facial height and width has been employed to identify the covered region of the face. The presence of covered area by sunglass is evaluated using facial height-width ratio. Threshold value of covered area percentage is used to classify the glass wearing face. Two different types of glasses have been considered i.e. eye glass and sunglass. The results of this study demonstrate that the proposed method is able to detect sunglasses in two different illumination conditions such as, room illumination as well as in the presence of sunlight. In addition, due to the multi-level checking in facial region, this method has 100% accuracy of detecting sunglass. However, in an exceptional case where fabric surrounding the face has similar color as skin, the correct detection rate was found 93.33% for eye glass.

  4. A method for the detection of shallow buried objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. McGee

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous geophysical techniques have successfully contributed to geotechnical engineering and environmental problems of the shallow subsurface. Geophysical surveys are used to: delineate geologic features, measure in-situ engineering properties, and detect hidden cultural features. Most technologies for the detection of shallow buried objects are electromagnetic methods which measure the contrast in ferrous content, electrical conductivity, or dielectric constant between the object and surrounding soil. Seismic technologies measure the contrast in mechanical properties of the subsurface, however, scaled down versions of conventional seismic methods are not suitable for the detection shallow buried objects. In this paper, we discuss the development of a method based on acoustic to seismic coupling for the detection of shallow buried object. Surface vibrations induced by an impinging acoustic wave from a loudspeaker is referred to as acoustic to seismic coupling. These vibrations can be remotely detected using a laser-Doppler vibrometer (LDV. If an object is present below the surface of the insonified patch, the transmitted wave is back scattered by the target towards the surface. For targets very close to the surface, the scattered field produces anomalous ground vibrational velocities that are indicative of the shape and size of the target.

  5. Apparatus and method for noninvasive particle detection using doppler spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Dipen N.

    2016-05-31

    An apparatus and method for noninvasively detecting the presence of solid particulate matter suspended in a fluid flowing through a pipe or an oil and gas wellbore are described. Fluid flowing through a conduit containing the particulate solids is exposed to a fixed frequency (>1 MHz) of ultrasonic vibrations from a transducer attached to the outside of the pipe. The returning Doppler frequency shifted signal derived from the scattering of sound from the moving solid particles is detected by an adjacent transducer. The transmitted signal and the Doppler signal are combined to provide sensitive particulate detection. The magnitude of the signal and the Doppler frequency shift are used to determine the particle size distribution and the velocity of the particles. Measurement of the phase shift between the applied frequency and the detected Doppler shifted may be used to determine the direction of motion of the particles.

  6. Ultrasonic defect detection method for socket welding joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominaga, Masaaki; Matsuo, Toshiyuki; Ueno, Akihiro; Watanabe, Kunimichi; Kawamata, Kunio.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of detecting defects over a wide range of a socket weld portion of various kinds of pipelines used, for example, in a nuclear power plant. Namely, an inclined probe is disposed to a jig for detecting defects by ultrasonic waves. This is rotated at least by one turn along the peripheral surface of the material to be detected such as weld tube joints. Defects of weld portion of the material can be detected automatically by using ultrasonic waves during the rotation. The inclined probe for detecting defects by ultrasonic waves comprises a transmission portion having a planar transmittance oscillator disposed to a wedge on the transmission side and a receiving portion comprising a planar receiving oscillator disposed to a wedge on the receiving side. With such a constitution, ultrasonic waves are emitted from the transmission portion to the defect detection portion in the welded portion. If a defect is present, defective echo is reflected to the receiving portion disposed ahead of the probe. Since the defective echo changes depending on the height of the detective portion, the estimation of the height of the defect can be facilitated. (I.S.)

  7. Emergency First Responders' Experience with Colorimetric Detection Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandra L. Fox; Keith A. Daum; Carla J. Miller; Marnie M. Cortez

    2007-10-01

    Nationwide, first responders from state and federal support teams respond to hazardous materials incidents, industrial chemical spills, and potential weapons of mass destruction (WMD) attacks. Although first responders have sophisticated chemical, biological, radiological, and explosive detectors available for assessment of the incident scene, simple colorimetric detectors have a role in response actions. The large number of colorimetric chemical detection methods available on the market can make the selection of the proper methods difficult. Although each detector has unique aspects to provide qualitative or quantitative data about the unknown chemicals present, not all detectors provide consistent, accurate, and reliable results. Included here, in a consumer-report-style format, we provide “boots on the ground” information directly from first responders about how well colorimetric chemical detection methods meet their needs in the field and how they procure these methods.

  8. Methods for gas detection using stationary hyperspectral imaging sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, James L [San Ramon, CA; Henderson, John R [Castro Valley, CA

    2012-04-24

    According to one embodiment, a method comprises producing a first hyperspectral imaging (HSI) data cube of a location at a first time using data from a HSI sensor; producing a second HSI data cube of the same location at a second time using data from the HSI sensor; subtracting on a pixel-by-pixel basis the second HSI data cube from the first HSI data cube to produce a raw difference cube; calibrating the raw difference cube to produce a calibrated raw difference cube; selecting at least one desired spectral band based on a gas of interest; producing a detection image based on the at least one selected spectral band and the calibrated raw difference cube; examining the detection image to determine presence of the gas of interest; and outputting a result of the examination. Other methods, systems, and computer program products for detecting the presence of a gas are also described.

  9. COMPARISON OF TWO METHODS FOR THE DETECTION OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Tantillo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the performance of the conventional methods for detection of Listeria monocytogenes in food using media Oxford and ALOA (Agar Listeria acc. to Ottaviani & Agosti in according to the ISO 11290-1 to a new chromogenic medium “CHROMagar Listeria” standardized in 2005 AFNOR ( CHR – 21/1-12/01. A total of 40 pre-packed ready-to-eat food samples were examined. Using two methods six samples were found positive for Listeria monocytogenes but the medium “CHROMagar Listeria” was more selective in comparison with the others. In conclusion this study has demonstrated that isolation medium able to target specifically the detection of L. monocytogenes such as “CHROMagar Listeria” is highly recommendable because of that detection time is significantly reduced and the analysis cost is less expensive.

  10. A hybrid approach for efficient anomaly detection using metaheuristic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Tamer F; Elkilani, Wail S; Abdul-Kader, Hatem M

    2015-07-01

    Network intrusion detection based on anomaly detection techniques has a significant role in protecting networks and systems against harmful activities. Different metaheuristic techniques have been used for anomaly detector generation. Yet, reported literature has not studied the use of the multi-start metaheuristic method for detector generation. This paper proposes a hybrid approach for anomaly detection in large scale datasets using detectors generated based on multi-start metaheuristic method and genetic algorithms. The proposed approach has taken some inspiration of negative selection-based detector generation. The evaluation of this approach is performed using NSL-KDD dataset which is a modified version of the widely used KDD CUP 99 dataset. The results show its effectiveness in generating a suitable number of detectors with an accuracy of 96.1% compared to other competitors of machine learning algorithms.

  11. A hybrid approach for efficient anomaly detection using metaheuristic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer F. Ghanem

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Network intrusion detection based on anomaly detection techniques has a significant role in protecting networks and systems against harmful activities. Different metaheuristic techniques have been used for anomaly detector generation. Yet, reported literature has not studied the use of the multi-start metaheuristic method for detector generation. This paper proposes a hybrid approach for anomaly detection in large scale datasets using detectors generated based on multi-start metaheuristic method and genetic algorithms. The proposed approach has taken some inspiration of negative selection-based detector generation. The evaluation of this approach is performed using NSL-KDD dataset which is a modified version of the widely used KDD CUP 99 dataset. The results show its effectiveness in generating a suitable number of detectors with an accuracy of 96.1% compared to other competitors of machine learning algorithms.

  12. Photostimulated luminescence, fast method of detection of irradiated foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzik, G.P.; Stachowicz, W.

    2005-01-01

    The principle of pulsed photostimulated luminescence (PPSL) method, description of instrumentation and methodology of measurements are presented. The pathway of operational procedure and testing of the PPSL instrument in the Laboratory for Detection of Irradiated Food of the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology are described. Attention has been paid to the positives of the new method while some limitation of its application have been also discussed. (author)

  13. Clinical value of different detection methods in blunt ocular trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Blunt ocular can cause persistent change of eye structure and function, the method of detection which is closely related to eye injury including B-can ultrasonography, UBM, OCT, FFA, scanning laser polarimetry, fundus autofluorescence, each examination with particular emphasis. This paper aims to review the advantages and disadvantages of different inspection methods in order to provide reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment of blunt ocular trauma.

  14. Phase diagrams of the ternary alloy with a single-ion anisotropy in the mean-field approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dely, J.; Bobak, A.

    2006-01-01

    The phase diagram of the AB p C 1-p ternary alloy consisting of Ising spins S A =32, S B =2, and S C =52 is investigated by the use of a mean-field theory based on the Bogoliubov inequality for the Gibbs free energy. The effect of the single-ion anisotropy on the phase diagrams is discussed by changing values of the parameters in the model Hamiltonian and comparison is made with the recently reported finite-temperature phase diagrams for the ternary alloy having spin S B =1

  15. The influence of elastic subsystem on phase transitions in ferromagnets with competitive exchange and single-ion anisotropies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, Yu.A.; Klevets, F.N.; Matunin, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of planar and bulk elastic interactions on the phase states of an ultrathin ferromagnetic film with anisotropic exchange interaction is investigated for different relationships among the material constants. It is shown that when the elastic interactions, with competing exchange and single-ion anisotropies, and the magnetic dipole interaction are taken into account, a cascade of phase transitions appears. Furthermore, taking the 'planar' elastic interaction into account leads to realization of an additional phase, with an easy axis in the film plane. This state is absent in the case of a bulk elastic subsystem

  16. Some methods for solution of quantum detection and measurement problems

    OpenAIRE

    Grishanin, Boris A.

    2003-01-01

    Representation of the quantum measurement with the help of non-orthogonal decomposition of unit is presented in the paper for the first time. Methods for solution of the quantum detection and measurement problems based on the suggested representation are proposed, as well.

  17. A Double Polymerase Chain Reaction Method for Detecting African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Double Polymerase Chain Reaction Method for Detecting African Swine Fever and Swine Vesicular Disease Virus. ... specificity as only the recombinant plasmids of ASFV and SVDV were amplified and control plasmids for three other diseases - porcine circovirus (PCV), pseudorabies virus (PRV), and porcine parvovirus ...

  18. Laboratory methods for diagnosis and detection of drug resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data source: Published series of peer reviewed journals and manuals written on laboratory methods that are currently used for diagnosis and detection of drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex were reviewed using the index medicus, pubmed and medline search. Conventional bacteriological microscopy ...

  19. Comparison of two detection methods in thin layer chromatographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    o-tolidine plus potassium iodide and photosynthesis inhibition detection methods were investigated for the analysis of three triazine herbicides (atrazine, ametryne, simazine) and two urea herbicides (diuron, metobromuron) in a coastal savanna soil using thin layer chromatography to compare the suitability of the two ...

  20. Application of Bayesian Methods for Detecting Fraudulent Behavior on Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinharay, Sandip

    2018-01-01

    Producers and consumers of test scores are increasingly concerned about fraudulent behavior before and during the test. There exist several statistical or psychometric methods for detecting fraudulent behavior on tests. This paper provides a review of the Bayesian approaches among them. Four hitherto-unpublished real data examples are provided to…

  1. A novel duplicate images detection method based on PLSA model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yongji; Ding, Liping; Gu, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Web image search results usually contain duplicate copies. This paper considers the problem of detecting and clustering duplicate images contained in web image search results. Detecting and clustering the duplicate images together facilitates users' viewing. A novel method is presented in this paper to detect and cluster duplicate images by measuring similarity between their topics. More specifically, images are viewed as documents consisting of visual words formed by vector quantizing the affine invariant visual features. Then a statistical model widely used in text domain, the PLSA(Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis) model, is utilized to map images into a probabilistic latent semantic space. Because the main content remains unchanged despite small digital alteration, duplicate images will be close to each other in the derived semantic space. Based on this, a simple clustering process can successfully detect duplicate images and cluster them together. Comparing to those methods based on comparison between hash value of visual words, this method is more robust to the visual feature level alteration posed on the images. Experiments demonstrates the effectiveness of this method.

  2. USE OF METHOD DETECTION LIMITS IN ENVIRONMENTAL MEASUREMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental measurements often produce values below the method detection limit (MDL). Because low or zero values may be used in determining compliance with regulatory limits, in determining emission factors (typical concentrations emitted by a given type of source), or in model...

  3. Photo-fission Methods to detect Fissile Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Micah S.; Glenn, A.; Hartouni, E. P.; Sheets, S. A.; Soltz, R. A.; Danagoulian, A.; Korbly, S. E.; Ledoux, R. J.

    2014-09-01

    A mission objective of various national security agencies is to develop systems that can detect fissile material. There are a myriad of researchers at national laboratories, academic institutions, and industry who are investigating various methods to detect fissile materials. These methods are broken down into active or passive detection systems. Examples of active systems include neutron or photon sources to stimulate and/or scatter from materials. Our focus has been to use photons near the fission barrier of various actinides to excite fission modes and measure the correlated and uncorrelated neutrons. We will present and discuss results from recent measurements. We will present the overall results of our effort and discuss some of the open questions. A mission objective of various national security agencies is to develop systems that can detect fissile material. There are a myriad of researchers at national laboratories, academic institutions, and industry who are investigating various methods to detect fissile materials. These methods are broken down into active or passive detection systems. Examples of active systems include neutron or photon sources to stimulate and/or scatter from materials. Our focus has been to use photons near the fission barrier of various actinides to excite fission modes and measure the correlated and uncorrelated neutrons. We will present and discuss results from recent measurements. We will present the overall results of our effort and discuss some of the open questions. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  4. Edge detection methods based on generalized type-2 fuzzy logic

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, Claudia I; Castro, Juan R; Castillo, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    In this book four new methods are proposed. In the first method the generalized type-2 fuzzy logic is combined with the morphological gra-dient technique. The second method combines the general type-2 fuzzy systems (GT2 FSs) and the Sobel operator; in the third approach the me-thodology based on Sobel operator and GT2 FSs is improved to be applied on color images. In the fourth approach, we proposed a novel edge detec-tion method where, a digital image is converted a generalized type-2 fuzzy image. In this book it is also included a comparative study of type-1, inter-val type-2 and generalized type-2 fuzzy systems as tools to enhance edge detection in digital images when used in conjunction with the morphologi-cal gradient and the Sobel operator. The proposed generalized type-2 fuzzy edge detection methods were tested with benchmark images and synthetic images, in a grayscale and color format. Another contribution in this book is that the generalized type-2 fuzzy edge detector method is applied in the preproc...

  5. Methods for parasitic protozoans detection in the environmental samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skotarczak B.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The environmental route of transmission of many parasitic protozoa and their potential for producing large numbers of transmissive stages constitute persistent threats to public and veterinary health. Conventional and new immunological and molecular methods enable to assess the occurrence, prevalence, levels and sources of waterborne protozoa. Concentration, purification, and detection are the three key steps in all methods that have been approved for routine monitoring of waterborne cysts and oocysts. These steps have been optimized to such an extent that low levels of naturally occurring (oocysts of protozoan can be efficiently recovered from water. Ten years have passed since the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA introduced the 1622 and 1623 methods and used them to concentrate and detect the oocysts of Cryptosporidium and cysts of Giardia in water samples. Nevertheless, the methods still need studies and improvements. Pre-PCR processing procedures have been developed and they are still improved to remove or reduce the effects of PCR inhibitors. The progress in molecular methods allows to more precise distinction of species or simultaneous detection of several parasites, however, they are still not routinely used and need standardization. Standardized methods are required to maximize public health surveillance.

  6. Study of New Method Combined Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) Method and Ultrasonic Method on PD Detection for GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanran; Chen, Duo; Zhang, Jiwei; Chen, Ning; Li, Xiaoqi; Gong, Xiaojing

    2017-09-01

    GIS (gas insulated switchgear), is an important equipment in power system. Partial discharge plays an important role in detecting the insulation performance of GIS. UHF method and ultrasonic method frequently used in partial discharge (PD) detection for GIS. It is necessary to investigate UHF method and ultrasonic method for partial discharge in GIS. However, very few studies have been conducted on the method combined this two methods. From the view point of safety, a new method based on UHF method and ultrasonic method of PD detection for GIS is proposed in order to greatly enhance the ability of anti-interference of signal detection and the accuracy of fault localization. This paper presents study aimed at clarifying the effect of the new method combined UHF method and ultrasonic method. Partial discharge tests were performed in laboratory simulated environment. Obtained results show the ability of anti-interference of signal detection and the accuracy of fault localization for this new method combined UHF method and ultrasonic method.

  7. Comparison of methods to detect Pasteurella multocida in carrier waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, M.D.; Shadduck, D.J.; Goldberg, Diana R.; Johnson, W.P.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted laboratory challenge trials using mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) to compare methods for detecting carriers of Pasteurella multocida, the bacterium that causes avian cholera, in wild birds. Birds that survived the initial infection were euthanized at 2-4 wk intervals up to 14 wk post challenge. Isolates of P. multocida were obtained at necropsy from 23% of the birds that survived initial infection. We found that swab samples (oral, cloacal, nasal, eye, and leg joint) were most effective for detecting carrier birds up to 14 wk post infection. No detectable differences in isolation were observed for samples stored in either 10% dimethysulfoxide or brain heart infusion broth. The frequency of detecting carriers in our challenge trials appeared to be related to mortality rates observed during the trial, but was not related to a number of other factors including time after challenge, time delays in collecting tissues postmortem, and route of infection. In our trials, there was little association between antibody levels and carrier status. We concluded that swabs samples collected from recently dead birds, stored in liquid nitrogen, and processed using selective broth provide a feasible field method for detecting P. multocida carriers in wild waterfowl.

  8. Methods and tools to detect thermal noise in fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motta, M.; Giovannini, R.

    1985-07-01

    The Specialists' Meeting on ''Methods and Tools to Detect Thermal Noise in Fast Reactors'' was held in Bologna on 8-10 October 1984. The meeting was hosted by the ENEA and was sponsored by the IAEA on the recommendation of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors. 17 participants attended the meeting from France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, Joint Research Centre of CEC and from IAEA. The meeting was presided over by Prof. Mario Motta of Italy. The purpose of the meeting was to review and discuss methods and tools for temperature noise detection and related analysis as a potential means for detecting local blockages in fuel and blanket subassemblies and other faults in LMFBR. The meeting was divided into four technical sessions as follows: 1. National review presentations on application purposes and research activities for thermal noise detection. (5 papers); 2. Detection instruments and electronic equipment for temperature measurements in fast reactors. (5 papers); 3. Physical models. (2 papers); 4. Signal processing techniques. (3 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers

  9. Potential new methods of detection of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffi, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    The irradiation of food by X- and gamma-rays and by electron beams is a technological process which may be used for food preservation in addition to heat or chemical treatment. The role of the Community Bureau of Reference - the BCR programme - in this area is to support the development and the improvement of analytical methods required for the preparation and implementation of the European legislation. In this context, after consultation of specialists in the Member States and the EFTA countries, it was decided that the BCR should undertake a collaborative project for the identification of irradiated food. The aim of the Cadarache workshop was to examine the development of new methods of detection and to set up a concerted research action covering four areas: DNA based methods; microbiological and biological methods; physical methods; chemical methods

  10. Comparison of ultraviolet detection and charged aerosol detection methods for liquid-chromatographic determination of protoescigenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, Katarzyna; Grynkiewicz, Grzegorz; Gruza, Mariusz; Jatczak, Kamil; Zagrodzki, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    Escin, a complex mixture of pentacyclic triterpene saponins obtained from horse chestnut seeds extract (HCSE; Aesculus hippocastanum L.), constitutes a traditional herbal active substance of preparations (drugs) used for a treatment of chronic venous insufficiency and capillary blood vessel leakage. A new approach to exploitation of pharmacological potential of this saponin complex has been recently proposed, in which the β-escin mixture is perceived as a source of a hitherto unavailable raw material, pentacyclic triterpene aglycone-protoescigenin. Although many liquid chromatography methods are described in the literature for saponins determination, analysis of protoescigenin is barely mentioned. In this work, a new ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method developed for protoescigenin quantification has been described. CAD (charged aerosol detection), as a relatively new detection method based on aerosol charging, has been applied in this method as an alternative to ultraviolet (UV) detection. The influence of individual parameters on CAD response and sensitivity was studied. The detection was performed using CAD and UV (200 nm) simultaneously and the results were compared with reference to linearity, accuracy, precision and limit of detection.

  11. Molecular methods for detecting and typing of Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Deirdre A; Elliott, Briony; Riley, Thomas V

    2015-04-01

    Since the early 2000s, Clostridium difficile has emerged as a major international pathogen. Recently, strains of C. difficile in circulation appear to be changing, with greater diversity, leading to challenges for diagnostics and surveillance. Currently molecular diagnostic methods are favoured for their high sensitivity and rapid processing times; however, a number of issues still exist with molecular tests, in particular high cost, low clinical specificity and failure to detect some variant C. difficile strains. Molecular typing methods are used to determine the continually evolving epidemiology of C. difficile infection. Typing methods including PCR ribotyping and pulsed field gel electrophoresis are currently popular in Europe and North America, respectively, while high-throughput next-generation sequencing is likely to become more widely used in years to come. This review discusses current molecular detection and typing techniques for C. difficile.

  12. Fast and sensitive methods for on-line anomaly detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogenboom, J.E.; Hagen van der, T.H.J.J.; Ciftcioglu, O.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses methods for anomaly detection based on comparison of signal values in time domain with predictions from an autoregressive model of the signal. As the calculation of the signal prediction value needs only a small number of operations, these methods are suitable for on-line applications. Three different methods for tests on anomalies are introduced and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Their performance is demonstrated on an artificially generated signal containing two different types of anomalies and on signals of an actual nuclear reactor under different operating conditions. Anomalies resulting a 10-20% change in standard deviation of the residual noise signal could be detected within 10 seconds with a negligibly low probability of false alarms

  13. Earth analysis methods, subsurface feature detection methods, earth analysis devices, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Phillip B [Idaho Falls, ID; Novascone, Stephen R [Idaho Falls, ID; Wright, Jerry P [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-09-27

    Earth analysis methods, subsurface feature detection methods, earth analysis devices, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one embodiment, an earth analysis method includes engaging a device with the earth, analyzing the earth in a single substantially lineal direction using the device during the engaging, and providing information regarding a subsurface feature of the earth using the analysis.

  14. Establishment of analysis method for methane detection by gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyuan; Yang, Jie; Ye, Tianyi; Han, Zeyu

    2018-02-01

    The study focused on the establishment of analysis method for methane determination by gas chromatography. Methane was detected by hydrogen flame ionization detector, and the quantitative relationship was determined by working curve of y=2041.2x+2187 with correlation coefficient of 0.9979. The relative standard deviation of 2.60-6.33% and the recovery rate of 96.36%∼105.89% were obtained during the parallel determination of standard gas. This method was not quite suitable for biogas content analysis because methane content in biogas would be over the measurement range in this method.

  15. Image change detection systems, methods, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James L.; Lassahn, Gordon D.; Lancaster, Gregory D.

    2010-01-05

    Aspects of the invention relate to image change detection systems, methods, and articles of manufacture. According to one aspect, a method of identifying differences between a plurality of images is described. The method includes loading a source image and a target image into memory of a computer, constructing source and target edge images from the source and target images to enable processing of multiband images, displaying the source and target images on a display device of the computer, aligning the source and target edge images, switching displaying of the source image and the target image on the display device, to enable identification of differences between the source image and the target image.

  16. Quench detection method for 2G HTS wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchevsky, M; Xie, Y-Y; Selvamanickam, V

    2010-01-01

    2G HTS conductors are increasingly used in various commercial applications and their thermal and electrical stability is an important reliability factor. Detection and prevention of quenches in 2G wire-based cables and solenoids has proven to be a difficult engineering task. This is largely due to a very slow normal zone propagation in coated conductors that leads to formation of localized hotspots while the rest of the conductor remains in the superconducting state. We propose an original method of quench and hotspot detection for 2G wires and coils that is based upon local magnetic sensing and takes advantage of 2G wire planar geometry. We demonstrate our technique experimentally and show that its sensitivity is superior to the known voltage detection scheme. A unique feature of the method is its capability to remotely detect instant degradation of the wire critical current even before a normal zone is developed within the conductor. Various modifications of the method applicable to practical device configurations are discussed.

  17. Quench detection method for 2G HTS wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchevsky, M; Xie, Y-Y; Selvamanickam, V, E-mail: maxmarche@gmail.co, E-mail: yxie@superpower-inc.co [SuperPower, Inc., 450 Duane Avenue, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    2G HTS conductors are increasingly used in various commercial applications and their thermal and electrical stability is an important reliability factor. Detection and prevention of quenches in 2G wire-based cables and solenoids has proven to be a difficult engineering task. This is largely due to a very slow normal zone propagation in coated conductors that leads to formation of localized hotspots while the rest of the conductor remains in the superconducting state. We propose an original method of quench and hotspot detection for 2G wires and coils that is based upon local magnetic sensing and takes advantage of 2G wire planar geometry. We demonstrate our technique experimentally and show that its sensitivity is superior to the known voltage detection scheme. A unique feature of the method is its capability to remotely detect instant degradation of the wire critical current even before a normal zone is developed within the conductor. Various modifications of the method applicable to practical device configurations are discussed.

  18. Methods for detecting the environmental coccoid form of Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz eMazaheri Assadi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is recognized as the most common pathogen to cause gastritis, peptic and duodenal ulcers, and gastric cancer. The organisms are found in two forms: 1 spiral-shaped bacillus and 2 coccoid. H. pylori coccoid form, generally found in the environment, is the transformed form of the normal spiral-shaped bacillus after exposed to water or adverse environmental conditions such as exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobial agents. The putative infectious capability and the viability of H. pylori under environmental conditions are controversial. This disagreement is partially due to the fact of lack in detecting the coccoid form of H. pylori in the environment. Accurate and effective detection methods of H. pylori will lead to rapid treatment and disinfection, and less human health damages and reduction in health care costs. In this review, we provide a brief introduction to H. pylori environmental coccoid forms, their transmission and detection methods. We further discuss the use of these detection methods including their accuracy and efficiency.

  19. Methods of detecting and controlling mucoid Pseudomonas biofilm production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongwei D. (Inventor); Qiu, Dongru (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Compositions and methods for detecting and controlling the conversion to mucoidy in Pseudomonas aeruginosa are disclosed. The present invention provides for detecting the switch from nonmucoid to mucoid state of P. aeruginosa by measuring mucE expression or MucE protein levels. The interaction between MucE and AlgW controls the switch to mucoidy in wild type P. aeruginosa. Also disclosed is an alginate biosynthesis heterologous expression system for use in screening candidate substances that inhibit conversion to mucoidy.

  20. Statistical methods for anomaly detection in the complex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Mouhamed, Mayez

    1977-09-01

    In a number of complex physical systems the accessible signals are often characterized by random fluctuations about a mean value. The fluctuations (signature) often transmit information about the state of the system that the mean value cannot predict. This study is undertaken to elaborate statistical methods of anomaly detection on the basis of signature analysis of the noise inherent in the process. The algorithm presented first learns the characteristics of normal operation of a complex process. Then it detects small deviations from the normal behavior. The algorithm can be implemented in a medium-sized computer for on line application. (author) [fr

  1. Solid state nuclear track detection principles, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Durrani, S A; ter Haar, D

    1987-01-01

    Solid State Nuclear Track Detection: Principles, Methods and Applications is the second book written by the authors after Nuclear Tracks in Solids: Principles and Applications. The book is meant as an introduction to the subject solid state of nuclear track detection. The text covers the interactions of charged particles with matter; the nature of the charged-particle track; the methodology and geometry of track etching; thermal fading of latent damage trails on tracks; the use of dielectric track recorders in particle identification; radiation dossimetry; and solid state nuclear track detecti

  2. Single-ion triblock copolymer electrolytes based on poly(ethylene oxide) and methacrylic sulfonamide blocks for lithium metal batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcarelli, Luca; Aboudzadeh, M. Ali; Rubatat, Laurent; Nair, Jijeesh R.; Shaplov, Alexander S.; Gerbaldi, Claudio; Mecerreyes, David

    2017-10-01

    Single-ion conducting polymer electrolytes represent the ideal solution to reduce concentration polarization in lithium metal batteries (LMBs). This paper reports on the synthesis and characterization of single-ion ABA triblock copolymer electrolytes comprising PEO and poly(lithium 1-[3-(methacryloyloxy)propylsulfonyl]-1-(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide) blocks, poly(LiMTFSI). Block copolymers are prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization, showing low glass transition temperature (-55 to 7 °C) and degree of crystallinity (51-0%). Comparatively high values of ionic conductivity are obtained (up to ≈ 10-4 S cm-1 at 70 °C), combined with a lithium-ion transference number close to unity (tLi+ ≈ 0.91) and a 4 V electrochemical stability window. In addition to these promising features, solid polymer electrolytes are successfully tested in lithium metal cells at 70 °C providing long lifetime up to 300 cycles, and stable charge/discharge cycling at C/2 (≈100 mAh g-1).

  3. A Nanophase-Separated, Quasi-Solid-State Polymeric Single-Ion Conductor: Polysulfide Exclusion for Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jinhong; Song, Jongchan; Lee, Hongkyung; Noh, Hyungjun; Kim, Yun-Jung; Kwon, Sung Hyun; Lee, Seung Geol; Kim, Hee-Tak

    2017-04-19

    Formation of soluble polysulfide (PS), which is a key feature of lithium sulfur (Li–S) batteries, provides a fast redox kinetic based on a liquid–solid mechanism; however, it imposes the critical problem of PS shuttle. Here, we address the dilemma by exploiting a solvent-swollen polymeric single-ion conductor (SPSIC) as the electrolyte medium of the Li–S battery. The SPSIC consisting of a polymeric single-ion conductor and lithium salt-free organic solvents provides Li ion hopping by forming a nanoscale conducting channel and suppresses PS shuttle according to the Donnan exclusion principle when being employed for Li–S batteries. The organic solvents at the interface of the sulfur/carbon composite and SPSIC eliminate the poor interfacial contact and function as a soluble PS reservoir for maintaining the liquid–solid mechanism. Furthermore, the quasi-solid-state SPSIC allows the fabrication of a bipolar-type stack, which promises the realization of a high-voltage and energy-dense Li–S battery.

  4. Automated Detection of Salt Marsh Platforms : a Topographic Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, G.; Mudd, S. M.; Clubb, F. J.

    2017-12-01

    Monitoring the topographic evolution of coastal marshes is a crucial step toward improving the management of these valuable landscapes under the pressure of relative sea level rise and anthropogenic modification. However, determining their geometrically complex boundaries currently relies on spectral vegetation detection methods or requires labour-intensive field surveys and digitisation.We propose a novel method to reproducibly isolate saltmarsh scarps and platforms from a DEM. Field observations and numerical models show that saltmarshes mature into sub-horizontal platforms delineated by sub-vertical scarps: based on this premise, we identify scarps as lines of local maxima on a slope*relief raster, then fill landmasses from the scarps upward, thus isolating mature marsh platforms. Non-dimensional search parameters allow batch-processing of data without recalibration. We test our method using lidar-derived DEMs of six saltmarshes in England with varying tidal ranges and geometries, for which topographic platforms were manually isolated from tidal flats. Agreement between manual and automatic segregation exceeds 90% for resolutions of 1m, with all but one sites maintaining this performance for resolutions up to 3.5m. For resolutions of 1m, automatically detected platforms are comparable in surface area and elevation distribution to digitised platforms. We also find that our method allows the accurate detection of local bloc failures 3 times larger than the DEM resolution.Detailed inspection reveals that although tidal creeks were digitised as part of the marsh platform, automatic detection classifies them as part of the tidal flat, causing an increase in false negatives and overall platform perimeter. This suggests our method would benefit from a combination with existing creek detection algorithms. Fallen blocs and pioneer zones are inconsistently identified, particularly in macro-tidal marshes, leading to differences between digitisation and the automated method

  5. Application of a thermoluminescence method for detection of irradiated spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastelum, S.; Osuna, I.; Melendrez, R.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Chernov, V.; Calderon, T.; Barboza-Flores, M

    2002-07-01

    Food irradiation is extremely effective at reducing food-borne illness as well as losses caused by infestation and contamination. Despite the well-established regulations that permit irradiation to control pathogens in spices, there are no widespread methods to detect previously irradiated food. Therefore, it has become necessary to develop new detection and dose determination methods for food subjected previously to irradiation. The present work deals with the application of the thermoluminescence (TL) phenomenon to detect irradiated spices. The process is based upon the thermoluminescence properties exhibited by the polymineral content of the irradiated specimen. After separating the organic material, it is possible to extract some polymineral substances that are suitable for thermoluminescence analysis due to interaction of the spice to ionising radiation. The method was successfully applied to examine irradiated and non-irradiated paprika of Mexican origin. The spice was irradiated with gamma rays at doses of 5, 10 and 15 kGy. The separated thermoluminescent polymineral was found to be composed mainly of quartz and feldspar. The thermoluminescence glow curve of the irradiated specimen shows a side band peaked 228, 268 and 336 deg. C, resembling pretty much the combined TL of quartz and feldspars. The method allows for the determination of the retrospective dose exposure. (author)

  6. Railway clearance intrusion detection method with binocular stereo vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xingfang; Guo, Baoqing; Wei, Wei

    2018-03-01

    In the stage of railway construction and operation, objects intruding railway clearance greatly threaten the safety of railway operation. Real-time intrusion detection is of great importance. For the shortcomings of depth insensitive and shadow interference of single image method, an intrusion detection method with binocular stereo vision is proposed to reconstruct the 3D scene for locating the objects and judging clearance intrusion. The binocular cameras are calibrated with Zhang Zhengyou's method. In order to improve the 3D reconstruction speed, a suspicious region is firstly determined by background difference method of a single camera's image sequences. The image rectification, stereo matching and 3D reconstruction process are only executed when there is a suspicious region. A transformation matrix from Camera Coordinate System(CCS) to Track Coordinate System(TCS) is computed with gauge constant and used to transfer the 3D point clouds into the TCS, then the 3D point clouds are used to calculate the object position and intrusion in TCS. The experiments in railway scene show that the position precision is better than 10mm. It is an effective way for clearance intrusion detection and can satisfy the requirement of railway application.

  7. Development of a microbiological irradiation detection method for spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshikawa, T.; Takekawa, T.; Miyahara, M.

    2009-01-01

    In order to judge whether certain spices had been irradiated or not, we examined the possibility of developing a method based on the microbiological examination of spices. We used the total bacteria count in conjunction with the ratio of B. megaterium and B. cereus to the total bacteria count. The examination results of 6 kinds of spices with or without irradiation (black pepper, white pepper, coriander, paprika, ginger and turmeric), were as follows. Total bacteria counts over 10E5 CFU/g indicated that the samples were 'unirradiated'. When the total bacteria count was less than 10E5 CFU/g, and the ratio of B. megaterium and B. cereus to the total count was more than 30%, a history of irradiation of the samples was indicated. When ratios of B. megaterium and B. cereus were less than 30% and the total bacteria count was also less than 10E5 CFU/g, 'uncertainty' of irradiation was indicated. In this case, it would be possible to confirm whether spices were 'unirradiated' or 'irradiated' by using another detection method. This detection method was applicable to other spices except for paprika. The samples judged as 'irradiated' by using this detection method, surely proved to have a history of irradiation treatment

  8. A Hybrid Vision-Map Method for Urban Road Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernández

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid vision-map system is presented to solve the road detection problem in urban scenarios. The standardized use of machine learning techniques in classification problems has been merged with digital navigation map information to increase system robustness. The objective of this paper is to create a new environment perception method to detect the road in urban environments, fusing stereo vision with digital maps by detecting road appearance and road limits such as lane markings or curbs. Deep learning approaches make the system hard-coupled to the training set. Even though our approach is based on machine learning techniques, the features are calculated from different sources (GPS, map, curbs, etc., making our system less dependent on the training set.

  9. PCA method for automated detection of mispronounced words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhenhao; Sharma, Sudhendu R.; Smith, Mark J. T.

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a method for detecting mispronunciations with the aim of improving Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) tools used by foreign language learners. The algorithm is based on Principle Component Analysis (PCA). It is hierarchical with each successive step refining the estimate to classify the test word as being either mispronounced or correct. Preprocessing before detection, like normalization and time-scale modification, is implemented to guarantee uniformity of the feature vectors input to the detection system. The performance using various features including spectrograms and Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs) are compared and evaluated. Best results were obtained using MFCCs, achieving up to 99% accuracy in word verification and 93% in native/non-native classification. Compared with Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) which are used pervasively in recognition application, this particular approach is computational efficient and effective when training data is limited.

  10. Method for detecting a mass density image of an object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernick, Miles N [Chicago, IL; Yang, Yongyi [Westmont, IL

    2008-12-23

    A method for detecting a mass density image of an object. An x-ray beam is transmitted through the object and a transmitted beam is emitted from the object. The transmitted beam is directed at an angle of incidence upon a crystal analyzer. A diffracted beam is emitted from the crystal analyzer onto a detector and digitized. A first image of the object is detected from the diffracted beam emitted from the crystal analyzer when positioned at a first angular position. A second image of the object is detected from the diffracted beam emitted from the crystal analyzer when positioned at a second angular position. A refraction image is obtained and a regularized mathematical inversion algorithm is applied to the refraction image to obtain a mass density image.

  11. Spatial and Spectral Methods for Weed Detection and Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truchetet Frédéric

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns the detection and localization of weed patches in order to improve the knowledge on weed-crop competition. A remote control aircraft provided with a camera allowed to obtain low cost and repetitive information. Different processings were involved to detect weed patches using spatial then spectral methods. First, a shift of colorimetric base allowed to separate the soil and plant pixels. Then, a specific algorithm including Gabor filter was applied to detect crop rows on the vegetation image. Weed patches were then deduced from the comparison of vegetation and crop images. Finally, the development of a multispectral acquisition device is introduced. First results for the discrimination of weeds and crops using the spectral properties are shown from laboratory tests. Application of neural networks were mostly studied.

  12. Spatial and Spectral Methods for Weed Detection and Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vioix, Jean-Baptiste; Douzals, Jean-Paul; Truchetet, Frédéric; Assémat, Louis; Guillemin, Jean-Philippe

    2002-12-01

    This study concerns the detection and localization of weed patches in order to improve the knowledge on weed-crop competition. A remote control aircraft provided with a camera allowed to obtain low cost and repetitive information. Different processings were involved to detect weed patches using spatial then spectral methods. First, a shift of colorimetric base allowed to separate the soil and plant pixels. Then, a specific algorithm including Gabor filter was applied to detect crop rows on the vegetation image. Weed patches were then deduced from the comparison of vegetation and crop images. Finally, the development of a multispectral acquisition device is introduced. First results for the discrimination of weeds and crops using the spectral properties are shown from laboratory tests. Application of neural networks were mostly studied.

  13. Method of detecting leakage from sealing attached to pressure tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomomatsu, Ken-ichi; Hayashi, Ken-ichi.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention provides a detection method for measuring the amount of water leaked from sealings attached to the lower end of a pressure tube. That is, the lower end of the pressure tube is sealed only by a metal sealing. A capturing vessel is placed under the pressure tube for capturing the leaked water dropping from the lower end of the pressure tube and the weight of the leaked water is measured on every capturing vessels to determine the amount of the leaked water. The leakage detection method based on the weight measurement has higher accuracy compared with a conventional volume measuring method using a water level gauge as described below. For example, if the volume of the captured water is 10cc, an error of about 0.1cc is caused by the volume measuring method using the water level gauge, whereas if 10g (10cc) weight of water is measured by using an accurate balance, error is only about 10 -4 g (10 -4 cc). Accordingly, the method of the present invention can measure at an accuracy about 1000 times as high as the conventional method. (I.S.)

  14. Conventional and molecular methods to detect bacterial pathogens in mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugliandolo, C; Lentini, V; Spanò, A; Maugeri, T L

    2011-01-01

    To detect Aeromonas spp., Salmonella spp., Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in mussels and water samples from a farming area, conventional and molecular methods were applied to enrichment cultures. The aerolysin gene (aero) of Aeromonas spp., the invasion plasmid antigen B (ipaB) gene of Salmonella spp., the enterotoxin secretion protein (epsM) gene of V. cholerae, the species-specific region of 16S rRNA gene of V. vulnificus, the 16S-23S rDNA (IGS) gene of V. parahaemolyticus and the pR72H fragment of V. parahaemolyticus were amplified by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays on DNA extracted from enrichment cultures. The haemolysin gene (tdh) of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus was also amplified. Conventional culture method allowed the isolation of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus from water and mussels. The genes aero, epsM and 16S rRNA of V. vulnificus were occasionally detected in the enrichment cultures. In mussels, the ipaB and IGS genes were detected from June to September and from April to November, respectively. All genes, except aero, were amplified from mussels collected in September, when pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus (tdh+) strains were also isolated. Multiplex-PCR assays were more sensitive and faster than conventional procedures. The results emphasize the need of an accurate and rapid detection of bacterial pathogens in mussels to protect human health. © 2010 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Alcohol Detection in Exhaled Air by NDIR Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujitsuka, Norio; Yonemura, Masatoshi; Sakakibara, Kiyomi; Taguchi, Toshiyuki; Wakita, Toshihiro

    In recent years, the increase in traffic accidents associated with drunk driving has become a serious social issue. Therefore, there is a need for an in-vehicle system that can detect the fact that the driver is under the influence of alcohol. We thought a method for alcohol detection in the breath of the driver, based on a nondispersive infrared (NDIR) method, is suitable for this system. Since alcohol content in the driver's breath is significantly diluted at the sensor device, it is necessary that the sensor is highly sensitive to detect diluted alcohol. A quantum cascade laser was used to produce highly intense infrared light source. An infrared hollow fiber used in medical treatment was utilized as a gas absorption cell. Since the core of the fiber is hollow, gas is introduced for analyzer. The flexibility of the fiber allowed it to be looped so that 2 m fiber in length could be formed into a compact coil of 29 cm in diameter. It was clarified that the light intensity change of light output from the hollow fiber with ethanol density, and rarefied ethanol as small as 1 ppm in density was detected.

  16. Detection method of malignant tumors in DR images -Iris Filter-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Kazuo; Jin, Hua-Rong; Kobatake, Hidefumi

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a study on detecting malignant tumors in DR (digital radiography) images. Tumors can be recognized as lower density areas than their neighborhood in DR image and contrast enhancement method such as difference filters have been widely used to detect them. This paper presents a new filter named Iris Filter to detect tumors. It evaluates distribution pattern of gradient vectors in a relatively wide neighborhood area. It is designed so that its output does not depend on the contrast substantially. The proposed filter is robust against disturbances of long and slender patterns such as blood vessels and/or rib edges. The region of support of the proposed filter is adapted optimally to the local pattern of the processed image. The name 'iris' filter originates from this adaptivity. Experiments to test the performance of the proposed filter have been performed. Chest X-ray images and mammograms were used whether the proposed filter is effective to detect lung cancer and breast cancer. Experimental results show that the proposed filter is very effective in detecting tumors with weak contrast. (author)

  17. Evaluation of methods for leak detection in reactor primary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupperman, D.S.; Claytor, T.N.

    1985-01-01

    No currently available, single leak-detection method combines optimal leakage detection sensitivity, leak-locating ability, and leakage measurement accuracy. Technology is available to improve leak detection capability at specific sites by use of acoustic monitoring. However, current acoustic monitoring techniques provide no source discrimination (e.g., to distinguish between leaks from pipe cracks and valves) and no leak-rate information (a small leak may saturate the system). Seven cracks, including three field-induced IGSCC specimens and two thermal-fatigue cracks, have been installed in a laboratory acoustic leak detection facility. The IGSCC specimens produce stronger acoustic signals than the thermal-fatigue cracks at equivalent leak rates. Despite significant differences in crack geometry, the acoustic signals from the three IGSCC specimens, tested at the same leak rate, are virtually identical in the frequency range from 300 to 400 kHz. Thus, the quantitative correlations between the acoustic signals and leak rate in the 300-400 kHz band are very similar for the IGSCC specimens. Also, acoustic background data have been acquired during a hot functional test at the Watts Bar PWR. With these data, it is now possible to estimate the sensitivity of acoustic leak detection techniques. (orig.)

  18. A cascade method for TFT-LCD defect detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Songsong; Wu, Xiaojun; Yu, Zhiyang; Mo, Zhuoya

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel cascade detection algorithm which focuses on point and line defects on TFT-LCD. At the first step of the algorithm, we use the gray level difference of su-bimage to segment the abnormal area. The second step is based on phase only transform (POT) which corresponds to the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), normalized by the magnitude. It can remove regularities like texture and noise. After that, we improve the method of setting regions of interest (ROI) with the method of edge segmentation and polar transformation. The algorithm has outstanding performance in both computation speed and accuracy. It can solve most of the defect detections including dark point, light point, dark line, etc.

  19. [Detection of antibodies to mycoplasmas using an immunoenzyme method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hájková, M; Jurmanová, K

    1986-08-01

    Detection of the antibodies to the species Mycoplasma bovis in the serum and milk of dairy cows coming from a mastitis-infected herd is a good example of utilization of the ELISA immunoenzymologic method in the mycoplasmology. Examining the samples from 75 dairy cows and applying the indirect hemagglutination test, good correlation of the results of the two tests was determined. The antibodies to the species Ureaplasma diversum were demonstrated by the ELISA method both in the bovine serum and in the milk of dairy cows infected slightly with mastitis. We chosen that strain which detected the maximum titres in the selected samples of the sera out of four antigens prepared from various strains of U. diversum. Rabbit sera hyperimmune to 26 strains of the mycoplasmas of various species were used to identify two antigens (after removing the antibodies to the components of the media). Specific reaction was obtained with the antisera to M. hyorhinis and M. arginini.

  20. Devices and methods to detect and quantify trace gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Robinson, Alex

    2016-05-03

    Sensing devices based on a surface acoustic wave ("SAW") device coated with an absorbent crystalline or amorphous layer for detecting at least one chemical analyte in a gaseous carrier. Methods for detecting the presence of a chemical analyte in a gaseous carrier using such devices are also disclosed. The sensing devices and methods for their use may be configured for sensing chemical analytes selected from the group consisting of water vapor, carbon dioxide, methanol, ethanol, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrous oxide, organic amines, organic compounds containing NO.sub.2 groups, halogenated hydrocarbons, acetone, hexane, toluene, isopropanol, alcohols, alkanes, alkenes, benzene, functionalized aromatics, ammonia (NH.sub.3), phosgene (COCl.sub.2), sulfur mustard, nerve agents, sulfur dioxide, tetrahydrofuran (THF) and methyltertbutyl ether (MTBE) and combinations thereof.

  1. Drop weight impact measurements of HE sensitivity: modified detection methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, D N; Brown, G W; Tappan, B C; Oshwald, D M; Koby, J R; Schoonover, M L

    2014-01-01

    High explosives small-scale sensitivity testing has been a hallmark of safety screening since WWII. Sensitivity testing was once crude and simple; broom sticks were used to scrape explosives on the floor while experimenters would look, listen, and smell for signs of a reaction. Since then, a wide variety of testing apparatus have been developed to explore the effects of different stimuli on explosives. In concert with the development of the machines themselves, the reaction detection methods have also evolved. This paper's focus is on the Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) drop weight impact machine and reaction detection methods. A critical evaluation of results is presented with cautionary examples of false positives that can occur with non-explosive materials.

  2. Neutron imaging integrated circuit and method for detecting neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagarkar, Vivek V.; More, Mitali J.

    2017-12-05

    The present disclosure provides a neutron imaging detector and a method for detecting neutrons. In one example, a method includes providing a neutron imaging detector including plurality of memory cells and a conversion layer on the memory cells, setting one or more of the memory cells to a first charge state, positioning the neutron imaging detector in a neutron environment for a predetermined time period, and reading a state change at one of the memory cells, and measuring a charge state change at one of the plurality of memory cells from the first charge state to a second charge state less than the first charge state, where the charge state change indicates detection of neutrons at said one of the memory cells.

  3. Method for fuel element leak detection in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunze, U.

    1983-01-01

    The method is aimed at detecting fuel element leaks during reactor operation. It is based on neutron flux measurements at many points in the core, using at least two detectors at a time. The detectors must be arranged in the direction of the coolant flow. Values obtained from periodic measurements are compared with threshold values. The location of fuel element leaks is determined from those values exceeding the threshold of individual detectors

  4. The interpolation damage detection method for frames under seismic excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limongelli, M. P.

    2011-10-01

    In this paper a new procedure, addressed as Interpolation Damage Detecting Method (IDDM), is investigated as a possible mean for early detection and location of light damage in a structure struck by an earthquake. Damage is defined in terms of the accuracy of a spline function in interpolating the operational mode shapes (ODS) of the structure. At a certain location a decrease (statistically meaningful) of accuracy, with respect to a reference configuration, points out a localized variation of the operational shapes thus revealing the existence of damage. In this paper, the proposed method is applied to a numerical model of a multistory frame, simulating a damaged condition through a reduction of the story stiffness. Several damage scenarios have been considered and the results indicate the effectiveness of the method to assess and localize damage for the case of concentrated damage and for low to medium levels of noise in the recorded signals. The main advantage of the proposed algorithm is that it does not require a numerical model of the structure as well as an intense data post-processing or user interaction. The ODS are calculated from Frequency Response Functions hence responses recorded on the structure can be directly used without the need of modal identification. Furthermore, the local character of the feature chosen to detect damage makes the IDDM less sensitive to noise and to environmental changes with respect to other damage detection methods. For these reasons the IDDM appears as a valid option for automated post-earthquake damage assessment, able to provide after an earthquake, reliable information about the location of damage.

  5. Rapid method for Detection of Irradiation Mango Fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Salhy, F.T.

    2011-01-01

    To detect mango fruits which have been exposed to low doses of gamma rays (0.5-3.0 kGy), three recommended methods by European Committee for Standardization (EN 1784:1996, EN 1785:1996 and EN 1787:2000) were used to study the possibility for identification of irradiated mango fruits (Ewais variety). Fresh mangoes were irradiated to different doses (0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 3.0 kGy). The first method for determining the volatile hydrocarbons (VHC) was carried out by using florisil column then identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The major VHCs were C14:1, C15:0 and C17:1 at different doses which increased linearly with increasing doses either at low or high doses. The second one for determining the 2-alkyl cyclobutanone (2-DCB) was carried out using florisil chromatography method activated with 20% for separation and identified by GC-MS. 2-DCB bio marker specific for irradiated food proved its presence at the applied doses from 0.75-3.0 kGy but not at 0.5 kGy. All the mentioned compounds could not detected in non-irradiated samples, which mean that these radiolytic products (VHC and 2-DCB) can be used as a detection markers for irradiated mangoes even at low doses. The third one (EN 1787:2000) was conducted by electron spin resonance (ESR) on dried petioles of mangoes. The results proved that ESR was more sensitive for all applied doses.It could be concluded that using the three methods can be succeeded for detection of irradiated mangoes but the rapid one even at low doses with high accuracy was ESR.

  6. A Comparison of Different Methods for Fissure Caries Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Peycheva K.; Boteva E.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to compare the diagnostic capabilities of three different diagnostic methods: Quantitative Laser Fluorescence (QLF) − DIAGNOdent Classic (DD), Light-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) − SoproLife daylight and blue fluorescence, and their relevance to ICDAS II system in detection of fissure caries lesions in permanent molars. Permanent molars (n = 45) are divided in two groups: 1) third molars, n = 35; 2) first and second molars, n = 10. They are examined by 2 examiners with an...

  7. Aspects of physicochemical methods for the detection of latent fingerprints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    This paper reviews physicochemical methods of detecting latent finger-prints on a wide range of materials commonly found at the scene of a crime, with particular emphasis placed on the newer autoradiographic techniques. This is set against a description of studies on the fundamental nature of the latent fingerprint and its host substrate, with a brief review of the history of reagents used in latent fingerprint examination. (author)

  8. Visual method for detecting critical damage in railway contact strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judek, S.; Skibicki, J.

    2018-05-01

    Ensuring an uninterrupted supply of power in the electric traction is vital for the safety of this important transport system. For this purpose, monitoring and diagnostics of the technical condition of the vehicle’s power supply elements are becoming increasingly common. This paper presents a new visual method for detecting contact strip damage, based on measurement and analysis of the movement of the overhead contact line (OCL) wire. A measurement system configuration with a 2D camera was proposed. The experimental method has shown that contact strips damage can be detected by transverse displacement signal analysis. It has been proven that the velocity signal numerically established on that basis has a comparable level in the case of identical damage, regardless of its location on the surface of the contact strip. The proposed method belongs to the group of contact-less measurements, so it does not require interference with the structure of the catenary network nor the mounting of sensors in its vicinity. Measurement of displacements of the contact wire in 2D space makes it possible to combine the functions of existing diagnostic stands assessing the correctness of the mean contact force control adjustment of the current collector with the elements of the contact strip diagnostics, which involves detecting their damage which may result in overhead contact line rupture.

  9. Small RNA Detection by in Situ Hybridization Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna O. Urbanek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Small noncoding RNAs perform multiple regulatory functions in cells, and their exogenous mimics are widely used in research and experimental therapies to interfere with target gene expression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are the most thoroughly investigated representatives of the small RNA family, which includes short interfering RNAs (siRNAs, PIWI-associated RNA (piRNAs, and others. Numerous methods have been adopted for the detection and characterization of small RNAs, which is challenging due to their short length and low level of expression. These include molecular biology methods such as real-time RT-PCR, northern blotting, hybridization to microarrays, cloning and sequencing, as well as single cell miRNA detection by microscopy with in situ hybridization (ISH. In this review, we focus on the ISH method, including its fluorescent version (FISH, and we present recent methodological advances that facilitated its successful adaptation for small RNA detection. We discuss relevant technical aspects as well as the advantages and limitations of ISH. We also refer to numerous applications of small RNA ISH in basic research and molecular diagnostics.

  10. A review of methods for detect human Papillomavirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abreu André L P

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human Papillomavirus (HPV is the most common sexually transmitted virus. Worldwide, the most common high-risk (HR-HPV are -16/18, and approximately 70% of cervical cancers (CC are due to infection by these genotypes. Persistent infection by HR-HPV is a necessary but not sufficient cause of this cancer, which develops over a long period through precursor lesions, which can be detected by cytological screening. Although this screening has decreased the incidence of CC, HPV-related cervical disease, including premalignant and malignant lesions, continues to be a major burden on health-care systems. Although not completely elucidated, the HPV-driven molecular mechanisms underlying the development of cervical lesions have provided a number of potential biomarkers for both diagnostic and prognostic use in the clinical management of women with HPV-related cervical disease, and these biomarkers can also be used to increase the positive predictive value of current screening methods. In addition, they can provide insights into the biology of HPV-induced cancer and thus lead to the development of nonsurgical therapies. Considering the importance of detecting HPV and related biomarkers, a variety of methods are being developed for these purposes. This review summarizes current knowledge of detection methods for HPV, and related biomarkers that can be used to discriminate lesions with a high risk of progression to CC.

  11. DNS Tunneling Detection Method Based on Multilabel Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Almusawi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available DNS tunneling is a method used by malicious users who intend to bypass the firewall to send or receive commands and data. This has a significant impact on revealing or releasing classified information. Several researchers have examined the use of machine learning in terms of detecting DNS tunneling. However, these studies have treated the problem of DNS tunneling as a binary classification where the class label is either legitimate or tunnel. In fact, there are different types of DNS tunneling such as FTP-DNS tunneling, HTTP-DNS tunneling, HTTPS-DNS tunneling, and POP3-DNS tunneling. Therefore, there is a vital demand to not only detect the DNS tunneling but rather classify such tunnel. This study aims to propose a multilabel support vector machine in order to detect and classify the DNS tunneling. The proposed method has been evaluated using a benchmark dataset that contains numerous DNS queries and is compared with a multilabel Bayesian classifier based on the number of corrected classified DNS tunneling instances. Experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed SVM classification method by obtaining an f-measure of 0.80.

  12. General survey of detection methods for irradiation foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J. S.

    1997-01-01

    The development of detection techniques is needed, in order for regulating authorities to determine whether or not a particular food sample has been irradiated, and label it accordingly so that a consumer's free choice can be exercised. The chemical and physical changes brought about in foods by practical doses of irradiation are very small, and therefore very sensitive methods are required. A number of promising approaches have been developed and evaluated. These include chemical, physical and biological methods ranging from the very simple to highly sophisticated techniques. (author)

  13. Unsupervised detection of salt marsh platforms: a topographic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. H. Goodwin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Salt marshes filter pollutants, protect coastlines against storm surges, and sequester carbon, yet are under threat from sea level rise and anthropogenic modification. The sustained existence of the salt marsh ecosystem depends on the topographic evolution of marsh platforms. Quantifying marsh platform topography is vital for improving the management of these valuable landscapes. The determination of platform boundaries currently relies on supervised classification methods requiring near-infrared data to detect vegetation, or demands labour-intensive field surveys and digitisation. We propose a novel, unsupervised method to reproducibly isolate salt marsh scarps and platforms from a digital elevation model (DEM, referred to as Topographic Identification of Platforms (TIP. Field observations and numerical models show that salt marshes mature into subhorizontal platforms delineated by subvertical scarps. Based on this premise, we identify scarps as lines of local maxima on a slope raster, then fill landmasses from the scarps upward, thus isolating mature marsh platforms. We test the TIP method using lidar-derived DEMs from six salt marshes in England with varying tidal ranges and geometries, for which topographic platforms were manually isolated from tidal flats. Agreement between manual and unsupervised classification exceeds 94 % for DEM resolutions of 1 m, with all but one site maintaining an accuracy superior to 90 % for resolutions up to 3 m. For resolutions of 1 m, platforms detected with the TIP method are comparable in surface area to digitised platforms and have similar elevation distributions. We also find that our method allows for the accurate detection of local block failures as small as 3 times the DEM resolution. Detailed inspection reveals that although tidal creeks were digitised as part of the marsh platform, unsupervised classification categorises them as part of the tidal flat, causing an increase in false negatives

  14. Unsupervised detection of salt marsh platforms: a topographic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Guillaume C. H.; Mudd, Simon M.; Clubb, Fiona J.

    2018-03-01

    Salt marshes filter pollutants, protect coastlines against storm surges, and sequester carbon, yet are under threat from sea level rise and anthropogenic modification. The sustained existence of the salt marsh ecosystem depends on the topographic evolution of marsh platforms. Quantifying marsh platform topography is vital for improving the management of these valuable landscapes. The determination of platform boundaries currently relies on supervised classification methods requiring near-infrared data to detect vegetation, or demands labour-intensive field surveys and digitisation. We propose a novel, unsupervised method to reproducibly isolate salt marsh scarps and platforms from a digital elevation model (DEM), referred to as Topographic Identification of Platforms (TIP). Field observations and numerical models show that salt marshes mature into subhorizontal platforms delineated by subvertical scarps. Based on this premise, we identify scarps as lines of local maxima on a slope raster, then fill landmasses from the scarps upward, thus isolating mature marsh platforms. We test the TIP method using lidar-derived DEMs from six salt marshes in England with varying tidal ranges and geometries, for which topographic platforms were manually isolated from tidal flats. Agreement between manual and unsupervised classification exceeds 94 % for DEM resolutions of 1 m, with all but one site maintaining an accuracy superior to 90 % for resolutions up to 3 m. For resolutions of 1 m, platforms detected with the TIP method are comparable in surface area to digitised platforms and have similar elevation distributions. We also find that our method allows for the accurate detection of local block failures as small as 3 times the DEM resolution. Detailed inspection reveals that although tidal creeks were digitised as part of the marsh platform, unsupervised classification categorises them as part of the tidal flat, causing an increase in false negatives and overall platform

  15. Method for early detection of cooling-loss events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Sergio A.; Hamann, Hendrik; Marianno, Fernando J.

    2015-06-30

    A method of detecting cooling-loss event early is provided. The method includes defining a relative humidity limit and change threshold for a given space, measuring relative humidity in the given space, determining, with a processing unit, whether the measured relative humidity is within the defined relative humidity limit, generating a warning in an event the measured relative humidity is outside the defined relative humidity limit and determining whether a change in the measured relative humidity is less than the defined change threshold for the given space and generating an alarm in an event the change is greater than the defined change threshold.

  16. A graph clustering method for community detection in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, HongFang; Li, Jin; Li, JunHuai; Zhang, FaCun; Cui, YingAn

    2017-03-01

    Information mining from complex networks by identifying communities is an important problem in a number of research fields, including the social sciences, biology, physics and medicine. First, two concepts are introduced, Attracting Degree and Recommending Degree. Second, a graph clustering method, referred to as AR-Cluster, is presented for detecting community structures in complex networks. Third, a novel collaborative similarity measure is adopted to calculate node similarities. In the AR-Cluster method, vertices are grouped together based on calculated similarity under a K-Medoids framework. Extensive experimental results on two real datasets show the effectiveness of AR-Cluster.

  17. ASR damage detection in concrete from ultrasonic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Peng; Patton, Mark E.; Greve, David W.; Harley, Joel B.; Junker, Warren R.; Liu, Chang; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    2014-03-01

    Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) is a chemical reaction that can occur between alkaline components in cement paste and reactive forms of silica in susceptible aggregates when sufficient moisture is present. The ASR product, known as ASR gel, can cause expansion and cracking that damages the structure. We pass ultrasonic signals through concrete laboratory specimens and use three different ultrasonic methods to detect the onset of ASR damage, or the presence of ASR damage while still at the microscale. Our test specimens are fabricated with aggregate known to be reactive and are then exposed to an aggressive environment to accelerate ASR development. We use swept-sine excitations and obtain pitch-catch records from specimens that have been exposed to the accelerated environment. From this data, we demonstrate an ultrasonic passband method shows high frequency components diminish faster than low frequency components, and therefore the ultrasonic passband shifts to the low frequency side due to ASR damage. The test results also show that the ultrasonic passband is logically related to specimen size. We also demonstrate a stretching factor method is able to track the progress of ASR damage in concrete very well. These methods are shown to be more reliable than attenuation spectrum or attenuation methods that do not detect the ASR damage in concrete at early stages.

  18. Vortex flows in the solar chromosphere. I. Automatic detection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Y.; Wedemeyer, S.

    2017-05-01

    Solar "magnetic tornadoes" are produced by rotating magnetic field structures that extend from the upper convection zone and the photosphere to the corona of the Sun. Recent studies show that these kinds of rotating features are an integral part of atmospheric dynamics and occur on a large range of spatial scales. A systematic statistical study of magnetic tornadoes is a necessary next step towards understanding their formation and their role in mass and energy transport in the solar atmosphere. For this purpose, we develop a new automatic detection method for chromospheric swirls, meaning the observable signature of solar tornadoes or, more generally, chromospheric vortex flows and rotating motions. Unlike existing studies that rely on visual inspections, our new method combines a line integral convolution (LIC) imaging technique and a scalar quantity that represents a vortex flow on a two-dimensional plane. We have tested two detection algorithms, based on the enhanced vorticity and vorticity strength quantities, by applying them to three-dimensional numerical simulations of the solar atmosphere with CO5BOLD. We conclude that the vorticity strength method is superior compared to the enhanced vorticity method in all aspects. Applying the method to a numerical simulation of the solar atmosphere reveals very abundant small-scale, short-lived chromospheric vortex flows that have not been found previously by visual inspection.

  19. Steganography forensics method for detecting least significant bit replacement attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Wei, Chengcheng; Han, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    We present an image forensics method to detect least significant bit replacement steganography attack. The proposed method provides fine-grained forensics features by using the hierarchical structure that combines pixels correlation and bit-planes correlation. This is achieved via bit-plane decomposition and difference matrices between the least significant bit-plane and each one of the others. Generated forensics features provide the susceptibility (changeability) that will be drastically altered when the cover image is embedded with data to form a stego image. We developed a statistical model based on the forensics features and used least square support vector machine as a classifier to distinguish stego images from cover images. Experimental results show that the proposed method provides the following advantages. (1) The detection rate is noticeably higher than that of some existing methods. (2) It has the expected stability. (3) It is robust for content-preserving manipulations, such as JPEG compression, adding noise, filtering, etc. (4) The proposed method provides satisfactory generalization capability.

  20. A Method of Insulator Detection from Aerial Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjie Zhai

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With increased image processing and sensor technologies, it is possible for photogrammetrists to monitor the status of electrical power infrastructures. Identifying and extracting insulators from complex background have great potential in automatic power grid surveillance on board unmanned aerial vehicles. This paper proposes an improved method to automatically extract the insulators from aerial images. A 3D model is introduced into the existing algorithms to obtain samples of insulators, which are Haar features and AdaBoost. Finally, in order to evaluate the performances, we compare our 3D model-based method with the existing methods that does not use 3D model to show the performance improvement. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is able to successfully extract the insulators from aerial images with an increased average detection ratio to 83 %.

  1. Study on visual detection method for wind turbine blade failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianping; Shen, Zhenteng

    2018-02-01

    Start your abstract here…At present, the non-destructive testing methods of the wind turbine blades has fiber bragg grating, sound emission and vibration detection, but there are all kinds of defects, and the engineering application is difficult. In this regard, three-point slope deviation method, which is a kind of visual inspection method, is proposed for monitoring the running status of wind turbine blade based on the image processing technology. A better blade image can be got through calibration, image splicing, pretreatment and threshold segmentation algorithm. Design of the early warning system to monitor wind turbine blade running condition, recognition rate, stability and impact factors of the method were statistically analysed. The experimental results shown showed that it has highly accurate and good monitoring effect.

  2. Method for detecting clusters of possible uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conover, W.J.; Bement, T.R.; Iman, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    When a two-dimensional map contains points that appear to be scattered somewhat at random, a question that often arises is whether groups of points that appear to cluster are merely exhibiting ordinary behavior, which one can expect with any random distribution of points, or whether the clusters are too pronounced to be attributable to chance alone. A method for detecting clusters along a straight line is applied to the two-dimensional map of 214 Bi anomalies observed as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program in the Lubbock, Texas, region. Some exact probabilities associated with this method are computed and compared with two approximate methods. The two methods for approximating probabilities work well in the cases examined and can be used when it is not feasible to obtain the exact probabilities

  3. Optimization and modification of the method for detection of rhamnolipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Tabuchi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Use of biosurfactants in bioremediation, facilitates and accelerates microbial degradation of hydrocarbons. CTAB/MB agar method created by Siegmund & Wagner for screening of rhamnolipids (RL producing strains, has been widely used but has not improved significantly for more than 20 years. To optimize the technique as a quantitative method, CTAB/MB agar plates were made and different variables were tested, like incubation time, cooling, CTAB concentration, methylene blue presence, wells diameter and inocula volume. Furthermore, a new method for RL detection within halos was developed: precipitation of RL with HCl, allows the formation a new halos pattern, easier to observe and to measure. This research reaffirm that this method is not totally suitable for a fine quantitative analysis, because of the difficulty to accurately correlate RL concentration and the area of the halos. RL diffusion does not seem to have a simple behavior and there are a lot of factors that affect RL migration rate.

  4. Current perspectives on genetically modified crops and detection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamle, Madhu; Kumar, Pradeep; Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Bajpai, Vivek K

    2017-07-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops are the fastest adopted commodities in the agribiotech industry. This market penetration should provide a sustainable basis for ensuring food supply for growing global populations. The successful completion of two decades of commercial GM crop production (1996-2015) is underscored by the increasing rate of adoption of genetic engineering technology by farmers worldwide. With the advent of introduction of multiple traits stacked together in GM crops for combined herbicide tolerance, insect resistance, drought tolerance or disease resistance, the requirement of reliable and sensitive detection methods for tracing and labeling genetically modified organisms in the food/feed chain has become increasingly important. In addition, several countries have established threshold levels for GM content which trigger legally binding labeling schemes. The labeling of GM crops is mandatory in many countries (such as China, EU, Russia, Australia, New Zealand, Brazil, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Korea, Chile, Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand), whereas in Canada, Hong Kong, USA, South Africa, and Argentina voluntary labeling schemes operate. The rapid adoption of GM crops has increased controversies, and mitigating these issues pertaining to the implementation of effective regulatory measures for the detection of GM crops is essential. DNA-based detection methods have been successfully employed, while the whole genome sequencing using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies provides an advanced means for detecting genetically modified organisms and foods/feeds in GM crops. This review article describes the current status of GM crop commercialization and discusses the benefits and shortcomings of common and advanced detection systems for GMs in foods and animal feeds.

  5. Early detection of mycobacteria using a novel hydrogel culture method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Mi Hee; Kim, Shine Young; Kim, Chang-Ki; Hwang, Sang-Hyun; Park, Byung Kyu; Kim, Sung Soo; Lee, Eun Yup; Chang, Chulhun L

    2014-01-01

    Early laboratory detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is crucial for controlling tuberculosis. We developed a hydrogel mycobacterial culture method that retains the advantages of both solid and liquid methods in terms of speed, cost, and efficiency. Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) suspensions and 200 acid-fast bacilli (AFB)-positive clinical specimens were inoculated in Middlebrook 7H9 liquid media (Becton-Dickinson and Company, USA) and mixed with 75 µL of 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc)-Phe-Phe-OH hydrogel stock solution in an Eppendorf tube just before culture incubation. The mixtures were cultured at 37℃ for as long as 14 days to monitor culture status. The number of M. bovis BCG increased with time. For 200 AFB smear-positive specimens, 155 of 158 conventional culture-positive specimens and 4 culture-negative or contaminated specimens yielded positive cultures within 14 days. For 128 specimens positive with the liquid culture method, the time to positive culture using the hydrogel method (mean, 12.6 days; range, 7 to 14 days) was significantly shorter than that for conventional liquid culture (mean, 16.2 days; range, 6 to 31 days; Pculture system is useful for timely, economical, and efficient detection of mycobacteria in clinical specimens.

  6. Novel plasma telomerase detection method to improve cancer diagnostic assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Hilal

    Full Text Available The activity levels of telomerase and its mRNA have been found to be more diagnostically sensitive than cytological results in many cancerous tissues and correlate well with the clinical disease stage. Currently, there are several methods of detecting telomerase in tissues and in blood. The most commonly used method is a conventional quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR which is time and labor exhausting.We have developed a simple and innovative blood test method that allows us to diagnose cancer and relapsed cancer in a cost- and time -effective manner. We had evaluated our novel method in two populations: 1 in vivo in three mice with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC versus one control mouse and 2 clinically in 30 cancer patients versus 10 individuals without cancer. We compared our novel method with the old conventional method. At least one sample was obtained from each patient included in the study.The novel method substantially increased the sensitivity (from 37% to 77%, p<0.001 and negative predictive value (from 32% to 56%, p = 0.005 of the telomerase test for all cancer patients (those who were substantially treated and those who were not. There was no significant difference in telomerase activity between cancer patients and healthy volunteers using the conventional method (p = 0.13, whereas there was a significant difference using the novel method (p = 0.001.Conventional method shows no significant difference in telomerase activity between cancer patients and healthy volunteers (p = 0.13, whereas there was a significant difference using the novel method (p = 0.001.

  7. Rapid and robust detection methods for poison and microbial contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehl, Melanie M; Lu, Peter J; Sims, Peter A; Slocum, Alexander H

    2012-06-27

    Real-time on-site monitoring of analytes is currently in high demand for food contamination, water, medicines, and ingestible household products that were never tested appropriately. Here we introduce chemical methods for the rapid quantification of a wide range of chemical and microbial contaminations using a simple instrument. Within the testing procedure, we used a multichannel, multisample, UV-vis spectrophotometer/fluorometer that employs two frequencies of light simultaneously to interrogate the sample. We present new enzyme- and dye-based methods to detect (di)ethylene glycol in consumables above 0.1 wt % without interference and alcohols above 1 ppb. Using DNA intercalating dyes, we can detect a range of pathogens ( E. coli , Salmonella , V. Cholera, and a model for Malaria) in water, foods, and blood without background signal. We achieved universal scaling independent of pathogen size above 10(4) CFU/mL by taking advantage of the simultaneous measurement at multiple wavelengths. We can detect contaminants directly, without separation, purification, concentration, or incubation. Our chemistry is stable to ± 1% for >3 weeks without refrigeration, and measurements require <5 min.

  8. Methods of detecting and counting raptors: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, M.R.; Mosher, J.A.; Ralph, C. John; Scott, J. Michael

    1981-01-01

    Most raptors are wide-ranging, secretive, and occur at relatively low densities. These factors, in conjunction with the nocturnal activity of owls, cause the counting of raptors by most standard census and survey efforts to be very time consuming and expensive. This paper reviews the most common methods of detecting and counting raptors. It is hoped that it will be of use to the ever-increasing number of biologists, land-use planners, and managers that must determine the occurrence, density, or population dynamics of raptors. Road counts of fixed station or continuous transect design are often used to sample large areas. Detection of spontaneous or elicited vocalizations, especially those of owls, provides a means of detecting and estimating raptor numbers. Searches for nests are accomplished from foot surveys, observations from automobiles and boats, or from aircraft when nest structures are conspicuous (e.g., Osprey). Knowledge of nest habitat, historic records, and inquiries of local residents are useful for locating nests. Often several of these techniques are combined to help find nest sites. Aerial searches have also been used to locate or count large raptors (e.g., eagles), or those that may be conspicuous in open habitats (e.g., tundra). Counts of birds entering or leaving nest colonies or colonial roosts have been attempted on a limited basis. Results from Christmas Bird Counts have provided an index of the abundance of some species. Trapping and banding generally has proven to be an inefficient method of detecting raptors or estimating their populations. Concentrations of migrants at strategically located points around the world afford the best opportunity to count many rap tors in a relatively short period of time, but the influence of many unquantified variables has inhibited extensive interpretation of these counts. Few data exist to demonstrate the effectiveness of these methods. We believe more research on sampling techniques, rather than complete

  9. Obstacle detection method, obstacle removing method, device and production line for practicing the methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneyama, Takao; Ishimatsu, Tsuneo; Komata, Hisashi; Suzuki, Keisaburo.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides techniques for detecting and removing obstacles, which can be applied to pipelines and vessels to be used in structures such as nuclear power structures and electric power generation facilities. Namely, when the pipelines or vessels are in any of the stages, namely, production, installation, before the use after installation and before the reuse after inspection, obstacles remaining in the pipelines and vessels are blown off by using a fluid jetting mechanism (air compressor). Elastic waves generated when the blown off obstacles abut against the pipelines and vessels are detected by using a sensor. As a result, the remaining obstacles can be detected during any one of the stages described above. The blowing is repeated till the absence of the obstacles is confirmed by elastic wave signals detected by the sensor. As a result, the remaining obstacles can be removed. (I.S.)

  10. Neutron-detecting apparatuses and methods of fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Rajendra P.; Huang, Jacky Kuan-Chih; Lu, James J. Q.; Danon, Yaron; Bhat, Ishwara B.

    2015-10-06

    Neutron-detecting structures and methods of fabrication are provided which include: a substrate with a plurality of cavities extending into the substrate from a surface; a p-n junction within the substrate and extending, at least in part, in spaced opposing relation to inner cavity walls of the substrate defining the plurality of cavities; and a neutron-responsive material disposed within the plurality of cavities. The neutron-responsive material is responsive to neutrons absorbed for releasing ionization radiation products, and the p-n junction within the substrate spaced in opposing relation to and extending, at least in part, along the inner cavity walls of the substrate reduces leakage current of the neutron-detecting structure.

  11. Hyperfine-Interaction-Driven Suppression of Quantum Tunneling at Zero Field in a Holmium(III) Single-Ion Magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan-Cong; Liu, Jun-Liang; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Liu, Dan; Chibotaru, Liviu F; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Tong, Ming-Liang

    2017-04-24

    An extremely rare non-Kramers holmium(III) single-ion magnet (SIM) is reported to be stabilized in the pentagonal-bipyramidal geometry by a phosphine oxide with a high energy barrier of 237(4) cm -1 . The suppression of the quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM) at zero field and the hyperfine structures originating from field-induced QTMs can be observed even from the field-dependent alternating-current magnetic susceptibility in addition to single-crystal hysteresis loops. These dramatic dynamics were attributed to the combination of the favorable crystal-field environment and the hyperfine interactions arising from 165 Ho (I=7/2) with a natural abundance of 100 %. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Hyperfine-interaction-driven suppression of quantum tunneling at zero field in a holmium(III) single-ion magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yan-Cong; Liu, Jun-Liang; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Tong, Ming-Liang [Key Lab. of Bioinorganic and Synthetic Chemistry of Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry, Sun Yat-Sen Univ., Guangzhou (China); Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang [Institut Neel, CNRS and Universite Joseph Fournier, Grenoble (France); Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Physikalisches Institut, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Liu, Dan; Chibotaru, Liviu F. [Theory of Nanomaterials Group and INPAC-Institute of Nanoscale Physics and Chemistry, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium)

    2017-04-24

    An extremely rare non-Kramers holmium(III) single-ion magnet (SIM) is reported to be stabilized in the pentagonal-bipyramidal geometry by a phosphine oxide with a high energy barrier of 237(4) cm{sup -1}. The suppression of the quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM) at zero field and the hyperfine structures originating from field-induced QTMs can be observed even from the field-dependent alternating-current magnetic susceptibility in addition to single-crystal hysteresis loops. These dramatic dynamics were attributed to the combination of the favorable crystal-field environment and the hyperfine interactions arising from {sup 165}Ho (I=7/2) with a natural abundance of 100 %. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. A novel blink detection method based on pupillometry noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershman, Ronen; Henik, Avishai; Cohen, Noga

    2018-02-01

    Pupillometry (or the measurement of pupil size) is commonly used as an index of cognitive load and arousal. Pupil size data are recorded using eyetracking devices that provide an output containing pupil size at various points in time. During blinks the eyetracking device loses track of the pupil, resulting in missing values in the output file. The missing-sample time window is preceded and followed by a sharp change in the recorded pupil size, due to the opening and closing of the eyelids. This eyelid signal can create artificial effects if it is not removed from the data. Thus, accurate detection of the onset and the offset of blinks is necessary for pupil size analysis. Although there are several approaches to detecting and removing blinks from the data, most of these approaches do not remove the eyelid signal or can result in a relatively large amount of data loss. The present work suggests a novel blink detection algorithm based on the fluctuations that characterize pupil data. These fluctuations ("noise") result from measurement error produced by the eyetracker device. Our algorithm finds the onset and offset of the blinks on the basis of this fluctuation pattern and its distinctiveness from the eyelid signal. By comparing our algorithm to three other common blink detection methods and to results from two independent human raters, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm in detecting blink onset and offset. The algorithm's code and example files for processing multiple eye blinks are freely available for download ( https://osf.io/jyz43 ).

  14. Conventional, molecular methods and biomarkers molecules in detection of septicemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Arabestani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients worldwide and based on studies, 30-40% of all cases of severe sepsis and septic shock results from the blood stream infections (BSIs. Identifying of the disease, performing laboratory tests, and consequently treatment are factors that required for optimum management of BSIs. In addition, applying precise and immediate identification of the etiologic agent is a prerequisite for specific antibiotic therapy of pathogen and thereby decreasing mortality rates. The diagnosis of sepsis is difficult because clinical signs of sepsis often overlap with other noninfectious cases of systemic inflammation. BSIs are usually diagnosed by performing a series of techniques such as blood cultures, polymerase chain reaction-based methods, and biomarkers of sepsis. Extremely time-consuming even to take up to several days is a major limitation of conventional methods. In addition, yielding false-negative results due to fastidious and slow-growing microorganisms and also in case of antibiotic pretreated samples are other limitations. In comparison, molecular methods are capable of examining a blood sample obtained from suspicious patient with BSI and gave the all required information to prescribing antimicrobial therapy for detected bacterial or fungal infections immediately. Because of an emergency of sepsis, new methods are being developed. In this review, we discussed about the most important sepsis diagnostic methods and numbered the advantage and disadvantage of the methods in detail.

  15. [Detection of ciguatoxins: advantages and drawbacks of different biological methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydron-Le Garrec, Raphaële; Benoit, Evelyne; Sauviat, Martin-Pierre; Laurent, Dominique

    2005-01-01

    Ciguatera is a seafood intoxication that results from ingestion of reef fish contaminated with ciguatoxins at levels orally toxic for humans. Precursors of those toxins, gambiertoxins, are produced by benthic dinoflagellates (genus Gambierdiscus), and then accumulated and biotransformed by herbivorous and carnivorous fishes into ciguatoxins, more toxic for humans. In the absence of specific treatment, that disease remains a health problem with otherwise adverse socio-economic impacts. Thus a cost-effective means of detecting ciguatoxins in fish has long been searched for. Many assays have been developed, including in vivo, in vitro, chemical or immunochemical approaches. This review focuses on some biological methods, from the well-standardised mouse assay to the specific radio-labelled ligand binding assay that is performed on rat brain synaptosomes. In addition to the mouse, the chick and the mongoose were still recently used, in particular for preliminary tests before ciguatoxin extraction from fish, since assays in these animals can directly assay the whole flesh. In contrast, various other in vivo methods, such as the kitten, mosquito and diptera larvae assays, were abandoned despite their interesting results. Finally, the mouse neuroblastoma and rat brain synaptosome assays, carried out in vitro as alternative approaches to animal-using assays, are highly sensitive and much more specific than the in vivo methods to detect ciguatoxins.

  16. Current and Prospective Methods for Plant Disease Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Fang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Food losses due to crop infections from pathogens such as bacteria, viruses and fungi are persistent issues in agriculture for centuries across the globe. In order to minimize the disease induced damage in crops during growth, harvest and postharvest processing, as well as to maximize productivity and ensure agricultural sustainability, advanced disease detection and prevention in crops are imperative. This paper reviews the direct and indirect disease identification methods currently used in agriculture. Laboratory-based techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR, immunofluorescence (IF, fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, flow cytometry (FCM and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS are some of the direct detection methods. Indirect methods include thermography, fluorescence imaging and hyperspectral techniques. Finally, the review also provides a comprehensive overview of biosensors based on highly selective bio-recognition elements such as enzyme, antibody, DNA/RNA and bacteriophage as a new tool for the early identification of crop diseases.

  17. A PROBABILISTIC EMBEDDING CLUSTERING METHOD FOR URBAN STRUCTURE DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Lin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Urban structure detection is a basic task in urban geography. Clustering is a core technology to detect the patterns of urban spatial structure, urban functional region, and so on. In big data era, diverse urban sensing datasets recording information like human behaviour and human social activity, suffer from complexity in high dimension and high noise. And unfortunately, the state-of-the-art clustering methods does not handle the problem with high dimension and high noise issues concurrently. In this paper, a probabilistic embedding clustering method is proposed. Firstly, we come up with a Probabilistic Embedding Model (PEM to find latent features from high dimensional urban sensing data by “learning” via probabilistic model. By latent features, we could catch essential features hidden in high dimensional data known as patterns; with the probabilistic model, we can also reduce uncertainty caused by high noise. Secondly, through tuning the parameters, our model could discover two kinds of urban structure, the homophily and structural equivalence, which means communities with intensive interaction or in the same roles in urban structure. We evaluated the performance of our model by conducting experiments on real-world data and experiments with real data in Shanghai (China proved that our method could discover two kinds of urban structure, the homophily and structural equivalence, which means clustering community with intensive interaction or under the same roles in urban space.

  18. Method of automatic detection of tumors in mammogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Mei; Ma, Zheng

    2001-09-01

    Prevention and early diagnosis of tumors in mammogram are foremost. Unfortunately, these images are often corrupted by the noise due to the film noise and the background texture of the images, which did not allow isolation of the target information from the background noise, and often results in the suspicious area to be analyzed inaccurately. In order to achieve more accurate detection and segmentation tumors, the quality of the images need to improve, (including to suppressing noise and enhancing the contrast of the image). This paper presents a new adaptive histogram threshold method approach for segmentation of suspicious mass regions in digitized images. The method use multi-scale wavelet decomposition and a threshold selection criterion based on a transformed imageís histogram. This separation can help eliminate background noise and discriminates against objects of different size and shape. The tumors are extracted by used an adaptively bayesian classifier. We demonstrate that the method proposed can greatly improve the accuracy of detection in tumors.

  19. Polyvinylidene fluoride sensor-based method for unconstrained snoring detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Su Hwan; Han, Chung Min; Yoon, Hee Nam; Jung, Da Woon; Lee, Yu Jin; Jeong, Do-Un; Park, Kwang Suk

    2015-07-01

    We established and tested a snoring detection method using a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) sensor for accurate, fast, and motion-artifact-robust monitoring of snoring events during sleep. Twenty patients with obstructive sleep apnea participated in this study. The PVDF sensor was located between a mattress cover and mattress, and the patients' snoring signals were unconstrainedly measured with the sensor during polysomnography. The power ratio and peak frequency from the short-time Fourier transform were used to extract spectral features from the PVDF data. A support vector machine was applied to the spectral features to classify the data into either the snore or non-snore class. The performance of the method was assessed using manual labelling by three human observers as a reference. For event-by-event snoring detection, PVDF data that contained 'snoring' (SN), 'snoring with movement' (SM), and 'normal breathing' epochs were selected for each subject. As a result, the overall sensitivity and the positive predictive values were 94.6% and 97.5%, respectively, and there was no significant difference between the SN and SM results. The proposed method can be applied in both residential and ambulatory snoring monitoring systems.

  20. Current and Prospective Methods for Plant Disease Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yi; Ramasamy, Ramaraja P.

    2015-01-01

    Food losses due to crop infections from pathogens such as bacteria, viruses and fungi are persistent issues in agriculture for centuries across the globe. In order to minimize the disease induced damage in crops during growth, harvest and postharvest processing, as well as to maximize productivity and ensure agricultural sustainability, advanced disease detection and prevention in crops are imperative. This paper reviews the direct and indirect disease identification methods currently used in agriculture. Laboratory-based techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunofluorescence (IF), fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), flow cytometry (FCM) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) are some of the direct detection methods. Indirect methods include thermography, fluorescence imaging and hyperspectral techniques. Finally, the review also provides a comprehensive overview of biosensors based on highly selective bio-recognition elements such as enzyme, antibody, DNA/RNA and bacteriophage as a new tool for the early identification of crop diseases. PMID:26287253

  1. New methods for leaks detection and localisation using acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, P.

    1993-01-01

    Real time monitoring of Pressurized Water nuclear Reactor secondary coolant system tends to integrate digital processing machines. In this context, the method of acoustic emission seems to exhibit good performances. Its principle is based on passive listening of noises emitted by local micro-displacements inside a material under stress which propagate as elastic waves. The lack of a priori knowledge on leak signals leads us to go deeper into understanding flow induced noise generation. Our studies are conducted using a simple leak model depending on the geometry and the king of flow inside the slit. Detection and localization problems are formulated according to the maximum likelihood principle. For detection, the methods using a indicator of similarity (correlation, higher order correlation) seems to give better results than classical ones (rms value, envelope, filter banks). For leaks location, a large panel of classical (generalized inter-correlation) and innovative (convolution, adaptative, higher order statistics) methods of time delay estimation are presented. The last part deals with the applications of higher order statistics. The analysis of higher order estimators of a non linear non Gaussian stochastic process family, the improvement of non linear prediction performances and the optimal-order choice problem are addressed in simple analytic cases. At last, possible applications to leak signals analysis are pointed out. (authors).264 refs., 7 annexes

  2. Detection and characterisation of anthropogenic pieces by magnetic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodot, Emilie; Munschy, Marc; Benevent, Pierre

    2013-04-01

    Human activities have let many anthropogenic objects buried under our feet. Some of these like explosive devices left after the World Wars turn out to be a threat to safety or environment. Others must be perfectly localised in case of construction work, for example gas pipe. Geophysics and more specifically magnetic cartography (many of these items are magnetic) can obviously help to locate them. We already use this method on daily basis to detect UXO (unexploded ordnance) but less than 10% of the unearthed objects are actually bombs or shells. Detection and mostly characterisation methods must be improved in order to reduce this proportion. On the field there are a few things we can do to increase data qualities. Characterisation may be improved by multiple scale prospections. We search a large area with our usual and rather fast method then we achieve high definition cartographies of small interesting areas (upon the object to characterise). In the case of measurements in an urban environment for example, data are distorted. The traffic (train, tramway, cars…) produces temporal variations of the magnetic field. This effect can be lessened, sometimes even removed by the use of a fixed scalar magnetic sensor. Data treatment is another key as regards the characterisation. Tools such as analytic signal or derivative are frequently used at the first degree. We will see that in a synthetic case the second and third degree bring even more information. A new issue appeared recently about pipes. Can we localise very precisely (less than 10 cm uncertainty) a gas pipe? Horizontally we can but due to our inversion method we still have troubles with the depth accuracy. Our final concern is about the amplitude of some anomalies. Potential methods equations are based on the fact that the anomaly norm must be minor to magnetic field norm. Sometimes this is not the case but vector magnetometry is a lead to solve this problem.

  3. Vehicle target detection method based on the average optical flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J. Y.; Jie, F. R.; Hu, Y. J.

    2017-07-01

    Moving target detection in image sequence for dynamic scene is an important research topic in the field of computer vision. Block projection and matching are utilized for global motion estimation. Then, the background image is compensated applying the estimated motion parameters so as to stabilize the image sequence. Consequently, background subtraction is employed in the stabilized image sequence to extract moving targets. Finally, divide the difference image into uniform grids and average optical flow is employed for motion analysis. Experiment tests show that the proposed average optical flow method can efficiently extract the vehicle targets from dynamic scene meanwhile decreasing the false alarm.

  4. Detection of residues antibiotics in food using a microbiological method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Ali, Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    Antibiotics are effective therapeutic agents because of their property of selective bacterial toxicity which helps controlling infections. Animals, just like humans, can be treated with antibiotics. This use of antibiotics can lead to the development of resistance. Resistant strains may cause severe infections in humans and animals. In addition, antibiotic residues might represent a problem for human health. Our objective is to develop a microbiological method for the detection of antibiotic residues in poultry(muscle, liver,...). For this purpose, antibiotic sensitive bacteria and selective agar media were used. An inhibition growth zone surrounds each of the food samples containing antibiotic residues after a prescribed incubation time. (Author). 23 refs

  5. Systems and methods for detecting x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bross, Alan D.; Mellott, Kerry L.; Pla-Dalmau, Anna

    2006-05-02

    Systems and methods for detecting x-rays are disclosed herein. One or more x-ray-sensitive scintillators can be configured from a plurality of heavy element nano-sized particles and a plastic material, such as polystyrene. As will be explained in greater detail herein, the heavy element nano-sized particles (e.g., PbWO4) can be compounded into the plastic material with at least one dopant that permits the plastic material to scintillate. X-rays interact with the heavy element nano-sized particles to produce electrons that can deposit energy in the x-ray sensitive scintillator, which in turn can produce light.

  6. Bacterial contamination of platelet concentrates: pathogen detection and inactivation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Védy

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Whereas the reduction of transfusion related viral transmission has been a priority during the last decade, bacterial infection transmitted by transfusion still remains associated to a high morbidity and mortality, and constitutes the most frequent infectious risk of transfusion. This problem especially concerns platelet concentrates because of their favorable bacterial growth conditions. This review gives an overview of platelet transfusion-related bacterial contamination as well as on the different strategies to reduce this problem by using either bacterial detection or inactivation methods.

  7. Automatic ultrasonic image analysis method for defect detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnin, I.; Perdrix, M.; Corneloup, G.; Cornu, B.

    1987-01-01

    Ultrasonic examination of austenitic steel weld seams raises well known problems of interpreting signals perturbed by this type of material. The JUKEBOX ultrasonic imaging system developed at the Cadarache Nuclear Research Center provides a major improvement in the general area of defect localization and characterization, based on processing overall images obtained by (X, Y) scanning. (X, time) images are formed by juxtaposing input signals. A series of parallel images shifted on the Y-axis is also available. The authors present a novel defect detection method based on analysing the timeline positions of the maxima and minima recorded on (X, time) images. This position is statistically stable when a defect is encountered, and is random enough under spurious noise conditions to constitute a discriminating parameter. The investigation involves calculating the trace variance: this parameters is then taken into account for detection purposes. Correlation with parallel images enhances detection reliability. A significant increase in the signal-to-noise ratio during tests on artificial defects is shown

  8. Experimental method research on neutron equal dose-equivalent detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong

    1995-10-01

    The design principles of neutron dose-equivalent meter for neutron biological equi-effect detection are studied. Two traditional principles 'absorption net principle' and 'multi-detector principle' are discussed, and on the basis of which a new theoretical principle for neutron biological equi-effect detection--'absorption stick principle' has been put forward to place high hope on both increasing neutron sensitivity of this type of meters and overcoming the shortages of the two traditional methods. In accordance with this new principle a brand-new model of neutron dose-equivalent meter BH3105 has been developed. Its neutron sensitivity reaches 10 cps/(μSv·h -1 ), 18∼40 times higher than that of all the same kinds of meters 0.23∼0.56 cps/(μSv·h -1 ), available today at home and abroad and the specifications of the newly developed meter reach or surpass the levels of the same kind of meters. Therefore the new theoretical principle of neutron biological equi-effect detection--'absorption stick principle' is proved to be scientific, advanced and useful by experiments. (3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.)

  9. Optimization of Quantitative PCR Methods for Enteropathogen Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Gratz, Jean; Amour, Caroline; Nshama, Rosemary; Walongo, Thomas; Maro, Athanasia; Mduma, Esto; Platts-Mills, James; Boisen, Nadia; Nataro, James; Haverstick, Doris M.; Kabir, Furqan; Lertsethtakarn, Paphavee; Silapong, Sasikorn; Jeamwattanalert, Pimmada; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Mason, Carl; Begum, Sharmin; Haque, Rashidul; Praharaj, Ira; Kang, Gagandeep; Houpt, Eric R.

    2016-01-01

    Detection and quantification of enteropathogens in stool specimens is useful for diagnosing the cause of diarrhea but is technically challenging. Here we evaluate several important determinants of quantification: specimen collection, nucleic acid extraction, and extraction and amplification efficiency. First, we evaluate the molecular detection and quantification of pathogens in rectal swabs versus stool, using paired flocked rectal swabs and whole stool collected from 129 children hospitalized with diarrhea in Tanzania. Swabs generally yielded a higher quantification cycle (Cq) (average 29.7, standard deviation 3.5 vs. 25.3 ± 2.9 from stool, P<0.001) but were still able to detect 80% of pathogens with a Cq < 30 in stool. Second, a simplified total nucleic acid (TNA) extraction procedure was compared to separate DNA and RNA extractions and showed 92% (318/344) sensitivity and 98% (951/968) specificity, with no difference in Cq value for the positive results (ΔCq(DNA+RNA-TNA) = -0.01 ± 1.17, P = 0.972, N = 318). Third, we devised a quantification scheme that adjusts pathogen quantity to the specimen’s extraction and amplification efficiency, and show that this better estimates the quantity of spiked specimens than the raw target Cq. In sum, these methods for enteropathogen quantification, stool sample collection, and nucleic acid extraction will be useful for laboratories studying enteric disease. PMID:27336160

  10. SPRi-based adenovirus detection using a surrogate antibody method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadian, Pegah N; Yildirim, Nimet; Gu, April Z; Goluch, Edgar D

    2015-12-15

    Adenovirus infection, which is a waterborne viral disease, is one of the most prevelant causes of human morbidity in the world. Thus, methods for rapid detection of this infectious virus in the environment are urgently needed for public health protection. In this study, we developed a rapid, real-time, sensitive, and label-free SPRi-based biosensor for rapid, sensitive and highly selective detection of adenoviruses. The sensing protocol consists of mixing the sample containing adenovirus with a predetermined concentration of adenovirus antibody. The mixture was filtered to remove the free antibodies from the sample. A secondary antibody, which was specific to the adenovirus antibody, was immobilized onto the SPRi chip surface covalently and the filtrate was flowed over the sensor surface. When the free adenovirus antibodies bound to the surface-immobilized secondary antibodies, we observed this binding via changes in reflectivity. In this approach, a higher amount of adenoviruses resulted in fewer free adenovirus antibodies and thus smaller reflectivity changes. A dose-response curve was generated, and the linear detection range was determined to be from 10 PFU/mL to 5000 PFU/mL with an R(2) value greater than 0.9. The results also showed that the developed biosensing system had a high specificity towards adenovirus (less than 20% signal change when tested in a sample matrix containing rotavirus and lentivirus). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Analytical Methods for Mycotoxin Detection in Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chee Wei; Chung, Gerald; Chan, Sheot Harn

    2017-10-03

    Aflatoxins B 1 (AFB 1 ) and B₂ (AFB₂) and G 1 and G₂ remain the top mycotoxins routinely analyzed and monitored by Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) national laboratories primarily for food safety regulation in the major food commodities, nuts and spices. LC tandem fluorescence detection (LC–fluorescence) represents a current mainstream analytical method, with a progressive migration to a primary method by LC tandem MS (MS/MS) for the next half decade. Annual proficiency testing (PT) is conducted by ASEAN Food Reference Laboratories (AFRLs) for mycotoxin testing as part of capability building in national laboratories, with the scope of PT materials spanning from naturally mycotoxin-contaminated spices and nuts in the early 2010s to the recent contamination of corn flour in 2017 for total aflatoxin assay development. The merits of the mainstream LC–fluorescence method are witnessed by a significant improvement ( P < 0.05) in PT z -score passing rates (≤2) from 11.8 to 79.2% for AFB 1 , 23.5 to 83.3% for AFB₂, and 23.5 to 79.2% for total aflatoxins in the last 5 years. This paper discusses the journey of ASEAN national laboratories in analytical testing through AFRLs, and the progressive collective adoption of a multimycotoxin LC-MS/MS method aided by an isotopic dilution assay as a future primary method for safer food commodities.

  12. Some methods of detection of atmospheric contamination by iodine 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billard, Francois; Chevalier, Gerard; Gaillard, Pierre; Pradel, Jacques

    1964-01-01

    Due to the extensive use of iodine, risks of contamination by iodine 131 are increasing. Moreover, the increase of reactor power requires venting installations equipped with efficient safety filters which must be tested. The authors thus report the study of iodine trapping in filters, and its atmospheric detection and measurement. They report studies and achievements in the field of measurement of atmospheric pollution, and tests performed on iodine trapping by activated coals. After having outlined key qualities of an apparatus for atmospheric control, the authors indicate the various sampling methods. They discuss the method and calibration for the measurement of radioactivity of filters and coal which have trapped iodine 131. They discuss measurement sensitivity. They report how the efficiency of coals has been checked. They describe the experimental installation, and report the tests of some detectors of atmospheric contamination: sampling cartridges full of activated coal, gas mask cartridge, continuous control apparatus ('coffee machine' type), and detector of gaseous iodine. Appendices indicate the calculation of error on a cartridge counting rate, iodine generation methods (discontinuous method, continuous method) [fr

  13. Monte Carlo prediction of crater formation by single ion impact on solid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Martin, A.M.C.; Dominguez-Vazquez, J.; Jimenez-Rodriguez, J.J.; Collins, R.; Gras-Marti, A.

    1994-01-01

    A method is presented for predicting the topography changes following the impact of one energetic ion on the plane surface of a monatomic amorphous solid. This is done in two stages. The first is a Monte Carlo calculation of the sputter yield and interior distribution relocated atoms, with no compensation for local departures from equilibrium density. In the second stage there is a systematic relaxation of the solid, in which the density returns to its previous constant value and a crater develops in the surface. Two alternative methods of carrying out stage two are compared. In the first the solid is subdivided into cells within which relaxation is carried out normal to the surface, as in previous one-dimensional studies. The second method treats the solid as a 3-dimensional incompressible medium. Both seem to reproduce quite well the main features found experimentally. (orig.)

  14. Devices, systems, and methods for detecting nucleic acids using sedimentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Chung-Yan; Schaff, Ulrich Y.; Sommer, Gregory J.

    2017-10-24

    Embodiments of the present invention are directed toward devices, systems, and method for conducting nucleic acid purification and quantification using sedimentation. In one example, a method includes generating complexes which bind to a plurality of beads in a fluid sample, individual ones of the complexes comprising a nucleic acid molecule such as DNA or RNA and a labeling agent. The plurality of beads including the complexes may be transported through a density media, wherein the density media has a density lower than a density of the beads and higher than a density of the fluid sample, and wherein the transporting occurs, at least in part, by sedimentation. Signal may be detected from the labeling agents of the complexes.

  15. Detection of pasteurized milk adulteration through official methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Mareze

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality of milk consumed is a constant concern of dairy industry and healthcare-related authorities, technicians as well as consumers. The most serious problems are the various frauds which cause economic losses, risks to consumer health and, sometimes, problems for industries, such as the decrease in industrial output. Many foods are subject to fraud, but milk is one of the most commonly spoofed. The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of fraudulent substances and assess the physico-chemical properties of pasteurized milk produced in dairies from the North region of Paraná. Eighty samples were evaluated in the period from March to June 2014 and carried out specific methods for detection of restoratives: starch, alcohol, chloride and sucrose; neutralizers: bicarbonate and sodium hydroxide; preservatives: chlorine, sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide and formaldehyde. The evaluation of physico-chemical characteristics was carried out through the following analyses: density at 15° C, cryoscopic index, Dornic titratable acidity, 72 alizarol stability, pH, alkaline phosphatase, peroxidase, fat, total solids, non-fat solids, urea, protein and lactose. Non-standard samples were observed for the following analyses: fat (12.5%, non-fat solids (5%, density (1.25%, cryoscopy (3.75%, pH (48.75%, urea (1.25%. Frauds were observed by addition of water and sucrose (3.75%, presence of hypochlorite (5% and occurrence of skim milk (12.5%. The evidence together can assist in detecting fraud most commonly performed in pasteurized milk, but does not show in which thread might have occurred. However, if not detected, the quality of the product cannot be assured since many frauds have been carried out in a balanced way hindering its detection.

  16. Artificial Intelligence Methods Applied to Parameter Detection of Atrial Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arotaritei, D.; Rotariu, C.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we present a novel method to develop an atrial fibrillation (AF) based on statistical descriptors and hybrid neuro-fuzzy and crisp system. The inference of system produce rules of type if-then-else that care extracted to construct a binary decision system: normal of atrial fibrillation. We use TPR (Turning Point Ratio), SE (Shannon Entropy) and RMSSD (Root Mean Square of Successive Differences) along with a new descriptor, Teager- Kaiser energy, in order to improve the accuracy of detection. The descriptors are calculated over a sliding window that produce very large number of vectors (massive dataset) used by classifier. The length of window is a crisp descriptor meanwhile the rest of descriptors are interval-valued type. The parameters of hybrid system are adapted using Genetic Algorithm (GA) algorithm with fitness single objective target: highest values for sensibility and sensitivity. The rules are extracted and they are part of the decision system. The proposed method was tested using the Physionet MIT-BIH Atrial Fibrillation Database and the experimental results revealed a good accuracy of AF detection in terms of sensitivity and specificity (above 90%).

  17. A Review on Detection and Treatment Methods of Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraj, Rajeswari; Mohan, Jagannath; Kanagasabai, Adalarasu

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a review on detection and treatment methods of sleep apnea. Sleep apnea is the most common type of breathing-related sleep disorder. It manifests in a variety of behaviours from teeth grinding to night terrors as involuntary night-time events. The most common sleep disorders are narcolepsy, hypersomnia, sleep talking, sleep walking, and bedwetting. Sleep apnea (somnipathy) is a serious sleep disorder that pauses breathing while sleeping. Breathing pauses occur 30 times or more during sleep and it lasts for few seconds to minutes, when normal breathing starts after this pause. Untreated sleep apnea patients stop breathing, which happens up to hundreds of times during sleep that ultimately results in atrial fibrillation, cardiac arousal, stroke, brain tumor and other vascular diseases at the age of 65 that causes death. Smokers are at a greater threat for sleep apnea. Several studies have suggested that a person who smokes more than two packs a day has 40 times the risk of sleep apnea then nonsmokers. This review includes the discussion about detection of sleep apnea from heart rate and respiratory events. The published literature of sleep apnea and methods of treatment are also discussed.

  18. Detection methods for mycotoxins in cereal grains and cereal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Michelangelo N.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Analytical methods for mycotoxins in cereals and cereal-based products require three major steps, including extraction, clean-up (to eliminate interferences from the extract and concentrate the analyte, and detection/determination of the toxin (by using suitable analytical instruments/technologies. Clean-up is essential for the analysis of mycotoxins at trace levels, and involves the use of solid phase extraction and multifunctional (e.g. MycoSep® or immunoaffinity columns. Different chromatographic methods are commonly used for quantitative determination of mycotoxins, including gas-chromatography (GC coupled with electron capture, flame ionization or mass spectrometry (MS detectors (mainly for type-A trichothecenes, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC coupled with ultraviolet, diode array, fluorescence or MS detectors. The choice of method depends on the matrix and the mycotoxin to be analyzed. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS is spreading rapidly as a promising technique for simultaneous screening, identification and quantitative determination of a large number of mycotoxins. In addition, commercial immunometric assays, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA, are frequently used for screening purposes as well. Recently, a variety of emerging methods have been proposed for the analysis of mycotoxins in cereals based on novel technologies, including immunochromatography (i.e. lateral flow devices, fluorescence polarization immunoassays (FPIA, infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs and optical biosensors.

  19. Ranking-based Method for News Stance Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qiang

    2018-04-18

    A valuable step towards news veracity assessment is to understand stance from different information sources, and the process is known as the stance detection. Specifically, the stance detection is to detect four kinds of stances (

  20. Cluster expansion of the solvation free energy difference: Systematic improvements in the solvation of single ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliego, Josefredo R.

    2017-07-01

    The cluster expansion method has been used in the imperfect gas theory for several decades. This paper proposes a cluster expansion of the solvation free energy difference. This difference, which results from a change in the solute-solvent potential energy, can be written as the logarithm of a finite series. Similar to the Mayer function, the terms in the series are related to configurational integrals, which makes the integrand relevant only for configurations of the solvent molecules close to the solute. In addition, the terms involve interaction of solute with one, two, and so on solvent molecules. The approach could be used for hybrid quantum mechanical and molecular mechanics methods or mixed cluster-continuum approximation. A simple form of the theory was applied for prediction of pKa in methanol; the results indicated that three explicit methanol molecules and the dielectric continuum lead to a root of mean squared error (RMSE) of only 1.3 pKa units, whereas the pure continuum solvation model based on density method leads to a RMSE of 6.6 pKa units.

  1. Development of detection methods for irradiated foods - Development of detection method for radiolytic products of irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyong Su; Lee, Eun Ryong; Hong, Hae Jung [Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea)

    2000-07-01

    Meats, nuts, legumes and cereals were irradiated with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray. The detection methods included the fat extraction from samples, isolation of hydrocarbons and 2-alkylcyclobutanones by florisil column chromatography and analyses of GC-FID and GC/MS analyzers. Concentrations of hydrocarbons and 2-clobutanones increased with the irradiation dose in meat, nuts, legumes and cereals. In nuts (sesame seeds, black sesame seeds, perilla seeds, pine nuts and peanuts), legumes (white beans, black soybeans, yellow bean sprout soybeans, mouse-eyed soybeans, mung beans, kidney beans and small red beans) and cereals (brown rice, corns and wheat), 8-heptadecene and 1,7-hexadecadiene originated from oleic acid and 6,9-heptadecadiene and 1,7,10-hexadecatriene induced from linoleic acids were the major hydrocarbons due to the composition of fatty acids. Concentrations of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in nuts were slightly reduced and hydrocarbons were still significantly detectable, during 6 months at -18 deg. C. In meats and nuts, 2-(5'-tetradecenyl)cyclobutanone formed from oleic acid was found in most. 2-Dodecylcyclobutanone was detected in a large amount. The concentrations of radiation-induced 2-alkylcyclobutanones in meats slightly decreased, but relatively constant during 6 months at -18 deg. C. 62 refs., 45 figs., 25 tabs. (Author)

  2. A Distributed Signature Detection Method for Detecting Intrusions in Sensor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Woo Ro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks are easily exposed to open and unprotected regions. A security solution is strongly recommended to prevent networks against malicious attacks. Although many intrusion detection systems have been developed, most systems are difficult to implement for the sensor nodes owing to limited computation resources. To address this problem, we develop a novel distributed network intrusion detection system based on theWu–Manber algorithm. In the proposed system, the algorithm is divided into two steps; the first step is dedicated to a sensor node, and the second step is assigned to a base station. In addition, the first step is modified to achieve efficient performance under limited computation resources. We conduct evaluations with random string sets and actual intrusion signatures to show the performance improvement of the proposed method. The proposed method achieves a speedup factor of 25.96 and reduces 43.94% of packet transmissions to the base station compared with the previously proposed method. The system achieves efficient utilization of the sensor nodes and provides a structural basis of cooperative systems among the sensors.

  3. A distributed signature detection method for detecting intrusions in sensor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ilkyu; Oh, Doohwan; Yoon, Myung Kuk; Yi, Kyueun; Ro, Won Woo

    2013-03-25

    Sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks are easily exposed to open and unprotected regions. A security solution is strongly recommended to prevent networks against malicious attacks. Although many intrusion detection systems have been developed, most systems are difficult to implement for the sensor nodes owing to limited computation resources. To address this problem, we develop a novel distributed network intrusion detection system based on the Wu-Manber algorithm. In the proposed system, the algorithm is divided into two steps; the first step is dedicated to a sensor node, and the second step is assigned to a base station. In addition, the first step is modified to achieve efficient performance under limited computation resources. We conduct evaluations with random string sets and actual intrusion signatures to show the performance improvement of the proposed method. The proposed method achieves a speedup factor of 25.96 and reduces 43.94% of packet transmissions to the base station compared with the previously proposed method. The system achieves efficient utilization of the sensor nodes and provides a structural basis of cooperative systems among the sensors.

  4. Multitemporal spectroscopy for crop stress detection using band selection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewes, Thorsten; Franke, Jonas; Menz, Gunter

    2008-08-01

    A fast and precise sensor-based identification of pathogen infestations in wheat stands is essential for the implementation of site-specific fungicide applications. Several works have shown possibilities and limitations for the detection of plant stress using spectral sensor data. Hyperspectral data provide the opportunity to collect spectral reflectance in contiguous bands over a broad range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Individual phenomena like the light absorption of leaf pigments can be examined in detail. The precise knowledge of stress-dependent shifting in certain spectral wavelengths provides great advantages in detecting fungal infections. This study focuses on band selection techniques for hyperspectral data to identify relevant and redundant information in spectra regarding a detection of plant stress caused by pathogens. In a laboratory experiment, five 1 sqm boxes with wheat were multitemporarily measured by a ASD Fieldspec® 3 FR spectroradiometer. Two stands were inoculated with Blumeria graminis - the pathogen causing powdery mildew - and one stand was used to simulate the effect of water deficiency. Two stands were kept healthy as control stands. Daily measurements of the spectral reflectance were taken over a 14-day period. Three ASD Pro Lamps were used to illuminate the plots with constant light. By applying band selection techniques, the three types of different wheat vitality could be accurately differentiated at certain stages. Hyperspectral data can provide precise information about pathogen infestations. The reduction of the spectral dimension of sensor data by means of band selection procedures is an appropriate method to speed up the data supply for precision agriculture.

  5. Detection of Acute Gastroenteritis Agents By Molecular Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şafak Göktaş

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Gastroenteritis is the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in all age groups all over the world. Multiplex PCR tests give sensitive and specific results in the investigation of bacterial, viral, parasitic agents. In this study, it was aimed to determine the agents of the stool specimens of patients with acute diarrhea by multiplex PCR. Materials and Methods: Stool sample taken from 471 patients sent to Istanbul Gelişim Laboratories between January 1, 2015 and September 30, 2016 was included in the study. All stool samples were processed according to manufacturer’s instructions with GastroFinder SMART 18 FAST multiplex PCR test (Pathofinder, Holland. 18 different gastrointestinal pathogens were diagnosed in one study. Results: Of the 471 patients stool sample included in the study. The agent was negative in 241 (51.2%, while the agent was isolated in 230 (48.8%. 190 (82% had a single pathogen, 40 had two or more pathogens. Of the 190 samples detected with single agent, 149 (31.6% were bacterial, 26 (5.5% were parasitic and 15 (3.1% were viral agents. Of the 149 bacterial agents, 108 (23% was detected as Salmonella spp, 14 (6% as EHEC, 8 (3.5% as Clostridium difficile toxin A / B, 8 (3.5% as Campylobacter spp., 7 (3% Aeromonas spp., 2 (0.8% Yersinia enterocolitica, 2 (0.8% Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC. Of 26 parasitic agents, 18 (7.8% was detected as Giardia lamblia, 6 (2.6% as Dientamoeba fragilis and 2 (0.8% as Cryptosporidium spp. Conclusion: Identification of enteric pathogens by multiplex PCR will avoids the use of unnecessary antibiotic treatments

  6. Angoff's delta method revisited: improving DIF detection under small samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magis, David; Facon, Bruno

    2012-05-01

    Most methods for detecting differential item functioning (DIF) are suitable when the sample sizes are sufficiently large to validate the null statistical distributions. There is no guarantee, however, that they will still perform adequately when there are few respondents in the focal group or in both the reference and the focal group. Angoff's delta plot is a potentially useful alternative for small-sample DIF investigation, but it suffers from an improper DIF flagging criterion. The purpose of this paper is to improve this classification rule under mild statistical assumptions. This improvement yields a modified delta plot with an adjusted DIF flagging criterion for small samples. A simulation study was conducted to compare the modified delta plot with both the classical delta plot approach and the Mantel-Haenszel method. It is concluded that the modified delta plot is consistently less conservative and more powerful than the usual delta plot, and is also less conservative and more powerful than the Mantel-Haenszel method as long as at least one group of respondents is small. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  7. A novel community detection method in bipartite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cangqi; Feng, Liang; Zhao, Qianchuan

    2018-02-01

    Community structure is a common and important feature in many complex networks, including bipartite networks, which are used as a standard model for many empirical networks comprised of two types of nodes. In this paper, we propose a two-stage method for detecting community structure in bipartite networks. Firstly, we extend the widely-used Louvain algorithm to bipartite networks. The effectiveness and efficiency of the Louvain algorithm have been proved by many applications. However, there lacks a Louvain-like algorithm specially modified for bipartite networks. Based on bipartite modularity, a measure that extends unipartite modularity and that quantifies the strength of partitions in bipartite networks, we fill the gap by developing the Bi-Louvain algorithm that iteratively groups the nodes in each part by turns. This algorithm in bipartite networks often produces a balanced network structure with equal numbers of two types of nodes. Secondly, for the balanced network yielded by the first algorithm, we use an agglomerative clustering method to further cluster the network. We demonstrate that the calculation of the gain of modularity of each aggregation, and the operation of joining two communities can be compactly calculated by matrix operations for all pairs of communities simultaneously. At last, a complete hierarchical community structure is unfolded. We apply our method to two benchmark data sets and a large-scale data set from an e-commerce company, showing that it effectively identifies community structure in bipartite networks.

  8. Theoretical and experimental investigation of multispectral photoacoustic osteoporosis detection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Idan; Hershkovich, Hadas Sara; Gannot, Israel; Eyal, Avishay

    2014-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a widespread disorder, which has a catastrophic impact on patients lives and overwhelming related to healthcare costs. Recently, we proposed a multispectral photoacoustic technique for early detection of osteoporosis. Such technique has great advantages over pure ultrasonic or optical methods as it allows the deduction of both bone functionality from the bone absorption spectrum and bone resistance to fracture from the characteristics of the ultrasound propagation. We demonstrated the propagation of multiple acoustic modes in animal bones in-vitro. To further investigate the effects of multiple wavelength excitations and of induced osteoporosis on the PA signal a multispectral photoacoustic system is presented. The experimental investigation is based on measuring the interference of multiple acoustic modes. The performance of the system is evaluated and a simple two mode theoretical model is fitted to the measured phase signals. The results show that such PA technique is accurate and repeatable. Then a multiple wavelength excitation is tested. It is shown that the PA response due to different excitation wavelengths revels that absorption by the different bone constitutes has a profound effect on the mode generation. The PA response is measured in single wavelength before and after induced osteoporosis. Results show that induced osteoporosis alters the measured amplitude and phase in a consistent manner which allows the detection of the onset of osteoporosis. These results suggest that a complete characterization of the bone over a region of both acoustic and optical frequencies might be used as a powerful tool for in-vivo bone evaluation.

  9. A survey about methods dedicated to epistasis detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément eNiel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade, findings of genome-wide association studies (GWAS improved our knowledge and understanding of disease genetics. To date, thousands of SNPs have been associated to diseases and other complex traits. Statistical analysis typically looks for association between a phenotype and a SNP taken individually via single-locus tests. However, geneticists admit this is an oversimplified approach to tackle the complexity of underlying biological mechanisms. Interaction between SNPs, namely epistasis, must be considered. Unfortunately, epistasis detection gives rise to analytic challenges since analyzing every SNP combination is at present impractical at a genome-wide scale. In this review, we will present the main strategies recently proposed to detect epistatic interactions, along with their operating principle. Some of these methods are exhaustive, such as multifactor dimensionality reduction, likelihood ratio-based tests or receiver operating characteristic curve analysis; some are non-exhaustive, such as machine learning techniques (random forests, Bayesian networks or combinatorial optimization approaches (ant colony optimization, computational evolution system.

  10. Moving object detection by using GPS assisted image registration method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış Gökçe

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a Global Positioning System (GPS assistance based system has been developed for unmanned ground vehicles (UGV to detect moving objects along their route using a computer vision system. Before the real time application of the UGV, image models were created that represents a default background in specified horizontal positions of the specified coordinates on the route. This model is a type of feature matrix which is much smaller than the pure image matrices. The model matrices were recorded in the system database and a database relation was created between the model and its coordinate. The feature matrices of the images captured when the moment UGV arrived to the determined coordinates are compared with the models belong to present coordinate. As a result of the evaluation image frames are aligned with 2D image registration methods. The silhouettes of the objects are obtained by subtracting aligned frames. Thus, using this developed approach, there is no need for costly solutions to compensate for the noise generated by the moving camera. It was observed from the experiments that the system was able to detect the objects with 90% accuracy and it was able to run with 8% CPU loading and 0.057 s processing time per frame.

  11. System and Method for Detecting Cracks and their Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Stanley E. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A system and method are provided for detecting cracks and their location in a structure. A circuit coupled to a structure has capacitive strain sensors coupled sequentially and in parallel to one another. When excited by a variable magnetic field, the circuit has a resonant frequency that is different for unstrained and strained states. In terms of strained states, the resonant frequency is indicative of a region of the circuit that is experiencing strain induced by strain in a region of the structure in proximity to the region of the circuit. An inductor is electrically coupled to one end of each circuit. A magnetic field response recorder wirelessly transmits the variable magnetic field to the inductor and senses the resonant frequency of the circuit so-excited by the variable magnetic field.

  12. System and method of detecting cavitation in pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bin; Sharma, Santosh Kumar; Yan, Ting; Dimino, Steven A.

    2017-10-03

    A system and method for detecting cavitation in pumps for fixed and variable supply frequency applications is disclosed. The system includes a controller having a processor programmed to repeatedly receive real-time operating current data from a motor driving a pump, generate a current frequency spectrum from the current data, and analyze current data within a pair of signature frequency bands of the current frequency spectrum. The processor is further programmed to repeatedly determine fault signatures as a function of the current data within the pair of signature frequency bands, repeatedly determine fault indices based on the fault signatures and a dynamic reference signature, compare the fault indices to a reference index, and identify a cavitation condition in a pump based on a comparison between the reference index and a current fault index.

  13. Gas sensitive materials for gas detection and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakhtenberg, Leonid Israilevich; Gerasimov, Genrikh Nikolaevich; Gromov, Vladimir Fedorovich; Rozenberg, Valeriya Isaakovna

    2012-12-25

    A gas sensitive material comprising SnO2 nanocrystals doped with In2O3 and an oxide of a platinum group metal, and a method of making the same. The platinum group metal is preferably Pd, but also may include Pt, Ru, Ir, and combinations thereof. The SnO2 nanocrystals have a specific surface of 7 or greater, preferably about 20 m2/g, and a mean particle size of between about 10 nm and about 100 nm, preferably about 40 nm. A gas detection device made from the gas sensitive material deposited on a substrate, the gas sensitive material configured as a part of a current measuring circuit in communication with a heat source.

  14. Gas sensitive materials for gas detection and methods of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakhtenberg, Leonid Israilevich; Gerasimov, Genrikh Nikolaevich; Gromov, Vladimir Fedorovich; Rozenberg, Valeriya Isaakovna

    2014-07-15

    A gas sensitive material comprising SnO.sub.2 nanocrystals doped with In.sub.2O.sub.3 and an oxide of a platinum group metal, and a method of making the same. The platinum group metal is preferably Pd, but also may include Pt, Ru, Ir, and combinations thereof. The SnO.sub.2 nanocrystals have a specific surface of 7 or greater, preferably about 20 m2/g, and a mean particle size of between about 10 nm and about 100 nm, preferably about 40 nm. A gas detection device made from the gas sensitive material deposited on a substrate, the gas sensitive material configured as a part of a current measuring circuit in communication with a heat source.

  15. Improved method for the detection of TATP after explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, D; Levy, A; Shelef, R; Abramovich-Bar, S; Sonenfeld, D; Tamiri, T

    2004-09-01

    TATP in post explosion exhibits was reported earlier to be best recovered from vapor phase. A typical procedure includes its adsorption on Amberlite XAD-7, elution with acetonitrile and analysis by GC/MS. In this work, improved recovery of TATP from the vapor phase was achieved by SPME using PDMS/DVB fiber and immediate sampling to GC/MS. The recovery of TATP by SPME was compared with headspace and with adsorption on Amberlite XAD-7 by spiking onto filter paper put in a 100 mL beaker. The limit of detection of TATP was 6.4 ng in these conditions, few orders magnitude more than in the other tested methods. Recovery of TATP in the presence of various solvents was also studied. Acetone, water, and mixtures of water:alcohols (1:1) were found to reduce the recovery of TATP. Using SPME, TATP has been identified in dozens of post-explosion cases.

  16. Novel inversion method for land mine imaging and detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindoni, Orazio I.; Cohoon, David K.

    2000-08-01

    We have developed, using both partial differential equation approaches and integral equation formulations, a precise method to invert acoustic or electromagnetic scattering data from macroscopic concealed objects. Our approach makes use of the ideas associated with our exact solution of partial differential equations as described in our paper where we were able to collapse the number of equations by elimination of transcendentals therefore preserving the absolute mathematical precision inherent in the partial differential equation formulation. Our mathematical method, as a consequence, has not encountered the traditional loss of precision when inverting the scattered data. The unrestricted wavelength range allows us to penetrate any material which may surround the object and differentiate between the object and the media. For this reason we have applied our inversion scheme to landmine detection as we can penetrate and differentiate under both wet and dry conditions. Also, we are able to account, under certain conditions, for dielectric nonlinearities of material in the concealed object. Therefore, we are able to build in density dependent false colors a 3D grid representative of both the media and of the embedded object including the internal structure of the object. We have surveyed the literature on the subject of recovery of physical location of concealed objects and we have found that most of the present applications such as land mine detection, and we have found that most of the present applications have shortcomings due to the physical changes that are present in the surrounding media or the discontinuities of physical properties of the media. For all the above reasons we believe that we may have the most versatile and mathematically precise approach to the solution of this problem.

  17. Designing Single-Ion Magnets and Phosphorescent Materials with 1-Methylimidazole-5-carboxylate and Transition-Metal Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Valdivia, Antonio A; Seco, Jose M; Cepeda, Javier; Rodríguez-Diéguez, Antonio

    2017-11-20

    Detailed structural, magnetic, and photoluminescence (PL) characterization of four new compounds based on 1-methylimidazole-5-carboxylate (mimc) ligand and transition metal ions, namely [Ni(mimc) 2 (H 2 O) 4 ] (1), [Co(μ-mimc) 2 ] n (2), {[Cu 2 (μ-mimc) 4 (H 2 O)]·2H 2 O} n (3), and [Cd(μ-mimc) 2 (H 2 O)] n (4) is reported. The structural diversity found in the family of compounds derives from the coordination versatility of the ligand, which coordinates as a terminal ligand to give a supramolecular network of monomeric entities in 1 or acts as a bridging linker to build isoreticular 2D coordination polymers (CPs) in 2-4. Magnetic direct-current (dc) susceptibility data have been measured for compounds 1-3 to analyze the exchange interactions among paramagnetic centers, which have been indeed supported by calculations based on broken symmetry (BS) and density functional theory (DFT) methodology. The temperature dependence of susceptibility and magnetization data of 2 are indicative of easy-plane anisotropy (D = +12.9 cm -1 , E = +0.5 cm -1 ) that involves a bistable M s = ±1/2 ground state. Alternating-current (ac) susceptibility curves exhibit field-induced single-ion magnet (SIM) behavior that occurs below 14 K, which is characterized by two spin relaxation processes of distinct nature: fast relaxation of single ions proceeding through multiple mechanisms (U eff = 26 K) and a slow relaxation attributed to interactions along the polymeric crystal building. Exhaustive PL analysis of compound 4 in the solid state confirms low-temperature phosphorescent green emission consisting of radiative lifetimes in the range of 0.25-0.43 s, which explains the afterglow observed during about 1 s after the removal of the UV source. Time-dependent DFT and computational calculations to estimate phosphorescent vertical transitions have been also employed to provide an accurate description of the PL performance of this long-lasting phosphor.

  18. MeV single-ion beam irradiation of mammalian cells using the Surrey vertical nanobeam, compared with broad proton beam and X-ray irradiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakrajang, K.; Jeynes, J. C. G.; Merchant, M. J.; Kirkby, K.; Kirkby, N.; Thopan, P.; Yu, L. D.

    2013-07-01

    As a part of a systematic study on mechanisms involved in physical cancer therapies, this work investigated response of mammalian cells to ultra-low-dose ion beam irradiation. The ion beam irradiation was performed using the recently completed nanobeam facility at the Surrey Ion Beam Centre. A scanning focused vertical ion nano-beam was applied to irradiate Chinese hamster V79 cells. The V79 cells were irradiated in two different beam modes, namely, focused single ion beam and defocused scanning broad ion beam of 3.8-MeV protons. The single ion beam was capable of irradiating a single cell with a precisely controlled number of the ions to extremely low doses. After irradiation and cell incubation, the number of surviving colonies as a function of the number of the irradiating ions was measured for the cell survival fraction curve. A lower survival for the single ion beam irradiation than that of the broad beam case implied the hypersensitivity and bystander effect. The ion-beam-induced cell survival curves were compared with that from 300-kV X-ray irradiation. Theoretical studies indicated that the cell death in single ion irradiation mainly occurred in the cell cycle phases of cell division and intervals between the cell division and the DNA replication. The success in the experiment demonstrated the Surrey vertical nanobeam successfully completed.

  19. Erratum : Critical Properties of Spin-1 Antiferromagnetic Heisenberg Chains with Bond Alternation and Uniaxial Single-Ion-Type Anisotropy (vol 69, pg 237, 2000)

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wei; 飛田, 和男; Sanctuary, Bryan C.

    2008-01-01

    Original Paper :Critical Properties of Spin-1 Antiferromagnetic Heisenberg Chains with Bond Alternation and Uniaxial Single-Ion-Type AnisotropyWei Chen, Kazuo Hida and Bryan Clifford Sanctuary Journal of the Physical Society of Japan 69 (2000) pp.237-241

  20. Review of islanding detection methods for distributed generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Mahat, Pukar; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of power system islanding and islanding detection techniques. Islanding detection techniques, for a distribution system with distributed generation (DG), can broadly be divided into remote and local techniques. A remote islanding detection technique is associated...... with islanding detection on the utility side, whereas a local technique is associated with islanding detection on the DG side. Local techniques can further be divided into passive techniques, active techniques and hybrid techniques. These islanding detection techniques for DG are described and analyzed....

  1. A Comparison of Different Methods for Fissure Caries Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peycheva K.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to compare the diagnostic capabilities of three different diagnostic methods: Quantitative Laser Fluorescence (QLF − DIAGNOdent Classic (DD, Light-Induced Fluorescence (LIF − SoproLife daylight and blue fluorescence, and their relevance to ICDAS II system in detection of fissure caries lesions in permanent molars. Permanent molars (n = 45 are divided in two groups: 1 third molars, n = 35; 2 first and second molars, n = 10. They are examined by 2 examiners with and without magnification x5 using ICDAS II, SoproLife “day light” and “blue light” (405nm, LIF, DIAGNOdent Classic − emitting laser light on 655nm, QLF. The results are proven with histological bucco-lingual or mesio-distal sections through the body of the lesion with diamond blade rinsed with water. Photos of all occlusal surfaces of the molars are taken before and after the sections. The lowest overdiagnosis rate is found with SoproLife camera. When visual examination is applied overdiagnoses are fewer than with DD. DD is not capable to differentiate white and brown spots from a caries lesion. Soprolife is not capable to differentiate brown spots from a caries lesion. The most accurate method in this in vitro study for diagnosis of fissure caries is LIF (SoproLife − 75.6% of the teeth are correctly diagnosed, followed by ICDAS (57.8% and QLF (DIAGNOdent (40%.

  2. Detecting abbreviations in discharge summaries using machine learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yonghui; Rosenbloom, S Trent; Denny, Joshua C; Miller, Randolph A; Mani, Subramani; Giuse, Dario A; Xu, Hua

    2011-01-01

    Recognition and identification of abbreviations is an important, challenging task in clinical natural language processing (NLP). A comprehensive lexical resource comprised of all common, useful clinical abbreviations would have great applicability. The authors present a corpus-based method to create a lexical resource of clinical abbreviations using machine-learning (ML) methods, and tested its ability to automatically detect abbreviations from hospital discharge summaries. Domain experts manually annotated abbreviations in seventy discharge summaries, which were randomly broken into a training set (40 documents) and a test set (30 documents). We implemented and evaluated several ML algorithms using the training set and a list of pre-defined features. The subsequent evaluation using the test set showed that the Random Forest classifier had the highest F-measure of 94.8% (precision 98.8% and recall of 91.2%). When a voting scheme was used to combine output from various ML classifiers, the system achieved the highest F-measure of 95.7%.

  3. Rapid surface enhanced Raman scattering detection method for chloramphenicol residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wei; Yao, Weirong

    2015-06-01

    Chloramphenicol (CAP) is a widely used amide alcohol antibiotics, which has been banned from using in food producing animals in many countries. In this study, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) coupled with gold colloidal nanoparticles was used for the rapid analysis of CAP. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were conducted with Gaussian 03 at the B3LYP level using the 3-21G(d) and 6-31G(d) basis sets to analyze the assignment of vibrations. Affirmatively, the theoretical Raman spectrum of CAP was in complete agreement with the experimental spectrum. They both exhibited three strong peaks characteristic of CAP at 1104 cm-1, 1344 cm-1, 1596 cm-1, which were used for rapid qualitative analysis of CAP residues in food samples. The use of SERS as a method for the measurements of CAP was explored by comparing use of different solvents, gold colloidal nanoparticles concentration and absorption time. The method of the detection limit was determined as 0.1 μg/mL using optimum conditions. The Raman peak at 1344 cm-1 was used as the index for quantitative analysis of CAP in food samples, with a linear correlation of R2 = 0.9802. Quantitative analysis of CAP residues in foods revealed that the SERS technique with gold colloidal nanoparticles was sensitive and of a good stability and linear correlation, and suited for rapid analysis of CAP residue in a variety of food samples.

  4. Onset of nuclear boiling in forced convection (Method of detection)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachedi, M.

    1986-01-01

    Local onset of boiling in any pressure water cooling systems, as a PWR for instance, can mean a possible dangerous mismatch between the produced heat and the cooling capabilities. Its consequences can lead to serious accidental conditions and a reliable technique to detect such a phenomenon is therefore of particular need. Most techniques used up to now rely basically on local measurements and assume therefore usually the previous knowledge of the actual hot or boiling spot. The method proposed here based on externally located accelerometers appears to be sensitive to the global behaviour of the mechanical structure and is therefore not particularly bound to any exact localization of the sensors. The vibrations produced in the mechanical structure of the heated assembly are measured by accelerometers placed on the external surfaces that are easily accessible. The onset of the boiling, the growth and condensation of the bubbles on the heated wall, induces a resonance in the structure and an excitation at its particular eigen frequencies. Distinctive peaks are clearly observed in the spectral density function calculated from the accelerometer signal as soon as bubbles are produced. The technique is shown to be very sensitive even at the earliest phase of boiling and quite independent on sensor position. A complete hydrodynamic analysis of the experimental channels have been performed in order to assess the validity of the method both in steady conditions and during rapid power transients

  5. Development and validation of a supercritical fluid chromatography method for the direct determination of enantiomeric purity of provitamin B5 in cosmetic formulations with mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, Syame; West, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    A rapid and efficient chiral supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) method has been developed for the quantitative determination of panthenol enantiomers in cosmetic formulations (cream, lotion, wipe, and exfoliant). Indeed, the pharmacological effect only depends on the D form (Dexpanthenol) thus accurate measurement of its enantiomeric purity in formulated cosmetic products is of interest. The samples were prepared with liquid-liquid extraction followed by solid-phase extraction on Adsorbex amino cartridges. After testing several enantioselective columns in an attempt at reversing the elution order to have the minor enantiomer eluted first, the best separation of enantiomers and internal standard (N-acetyl-L-alanine) was achieved on a 3 μm-amylose-type immobilized polysaccharide chiral stationary phase (Chiralpak IA) in less than 6 min with a simple mobile phase comprising carbon dioxide and 11% methanol pumped at 2.3 mL/min, 25°C and 150 bar backpressure. Supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to both an optical diode-array detector and a user-friendly single-quadrupole mass spectrometer (Waters QDa) equipped with electrospray ionization source has been used. The on-line coupling ensures the technique to be more informative and improves detection sensitivity, as underivatized panthenol has a poor UV absorption. The limit of quantification (LOQ) achieved with single-ion recording was 0.5 μg/mL. The method was validated in terms of linearity, precision and accuracy and satisfactory results were obtained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Charge transport and glassy dynamics of poly(ethylene oxide)-based single-ion conductors under geometrical confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runt, James; Iacob, Ciprian

    2015-03-01

    Segmental and local dynamics as well as charge transport are investigated in a series of poly(ethylene oxide)-based single-ion conductors (ionomers) with varying counterions (Li +, Na +) confined in uni-directional nanoporous silica membranes. The dynamics are explored over a wide frequency and temperature range by broadband dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. Slowing of segmental dynamics and a decrease in dc conductivity (strongly coupled with segmental relaxation) of the confined ionomers are associated with surface effects - resulting from interfacial hydrogen bonding between the host nanoporous silica membrane and the guest ionomers. These effects are significantly reduced or eliminated upon pore surface modification through silanization. The primary transport properties for the confined ionomers decrease by about one decade compared to the bulk ionomer. A model assuming reduced mobility of an adsorbed layer at the pore wall/ionomer interface is shown to provide a quantitative explanation for the decrease in effective transport quantities in non-silanized porous silica membranes. Additionally, the effect of confinement on ion aggregation in ionomers by using X-ray scattering will also be discussed. Supported by the National Science Foundation, Polymers Program.

  7. Fine-tuning the local symmetry to attain record blocking temperature and magnetic remanence in a single-ion magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungur, Liviu; Le Roy, Jennifer J; Korobkov, Ilia; Murugesu, Muralee; Chibotaru, Liviu F

    2014-04-22

    Remanence and coercivity are the basic characteristics of permanent magnets. They are also tightly correlated with the existence of long relaxation times of magnetization in a number of molecular complexes, called accordingly single-molecule magnets (SMMs). Up to now, hysteresis loops with large coercive fields have only been observed in polynuclear metal complexes and metal-radical SMMs. On the contrary, mononuclear complexes, called single-ion magnets (SIM), have shown hysteresis loops of butterfly/phonon bottleneck type, with negligible coercivity, and therefore with much shorter relaxation times of magnetization. A mononuclear Er(III) complex is presented with hysteresis loops having large coercive fields, achieving 7000 Oe at T=1.8 K and field variation as slow as 1 h for the entire cycle. The coercivity persists up to about 5 K, while the hysteresis loops persist to 12 K. Our finding shows that SIMs can be as efficient as polynuclear SMMs, thus opening new perspectives for their applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Standard Test Procedures for Evaluating Various Leak Detection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about protocols that testers could use to demonstrate that an individual release detection equipment type could meet the performance requirements noted in the federal UST requirements for detecting leaks.

  9. MeV single-ion beam irradiation of mammalian cells using the Surrey vertical nanobeam, compared with broad proton beam and X-ray irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakrajang, K. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Faculty of Science, Maejo University, Chiang Mai 50290 (Thailand); Jeynes, J.C.G.; Merchant, M.J.; Kirkby, K.; Kirkby, N. [Surrey Ion Beam Center, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Science, University of Surrey, Guildford Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Thopan, P. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@fnrf.science.cmu.ac.th [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: •Recently completed nanobeam at the Surrey Ion Beam Centre was used. •3.8-MeV single and broad proton beams irradiated Chinese hamster cells. •Cell survival curves were measured and compared with 300-kV X-ray irradiation. •Single ion irradiation had a lower survival part at ultra-low dose. •It implies hypersensitivity, bystander effect and cell cycle phase of cell death. -- Abstract: As a part of a systematic study on mechanisms involved in physical cancer therapies, this work investigated response of mammalian cells to ultra-low-dose ion beam irradiation. The ion beam irradiation was performed using the recently completed nanobeam facility at the Surrey Ion Beam Centre. A scanning focused vertical ion nano-beam was applied to irradiate Chinese hamster V79 cells. The V79 cells were irradiated in two different beam modes, namely, focused single ion beam and defocused scanning broad ion beam of 3.8-MeV protons. The single ion beam was capable of irradiating a single cell with a precisely controlled number of the ions to extremely low doses. After irradiation and cell incubation, the number of surviving colonies as a function of the number of the irradiating ions was measured for the cell survival fraction curve. A lower survival for the single ion beam irradiation than that of the broad beam case implied the hypersensitivity and bystander effect. The ion-beam-induced cell survival curves were compared with that from 300-kV X-ray irradiation. Theoretical studies indicated that the cell death in single ion irradiation mainly occurred in the cell cycle phases of cell division and intervals between the cell division and the DNA replication. The success in the experiment demonstrated the Surrey vertical nanobeam successfully completed.

  10. A novel method to detect bacterial resistance to disinfectants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Feng He

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In clinical practice, the important hygienic prevention of bacterial pathogen spread is disinfection of potentially contaminated area. Benzalkonium bromide and chlorhexidine acetate are commonly used disinfectants with a broad spectrum of anti-microbial effect. It is vital to inhibit the spread of pathogen in hospital. However, a large number of pathogens with the decreased antiseptic susceptibility have been isolated from clinical samples which showed an increased minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC against those antiseptics. These resistant pathogens are the major causes for nosocomial cross-infections in hospital. The present study demonstrated the utility of Oxford plate assay system in determining the potential disinfectant resistance of bacteria. The microbiological assay is based on the inhibitory effect of tested disinfectants upon the strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Statistical analysis of the bioassay results indicated the linear correlation (r = 0.87–0.99, P < 0.01 between the diameter of growth inhibition zone and the log dosage of the tested disinfectants. Moreover, comparison of inhibitory efficacy of benzalkonium bromide upon 29 S. aureus strains isolated from clinical samples by both Oxford plate method and broth dilution method showed that the diameter of growth inhibition zone has significantly negative correlation with the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC (r = −0.574, P < 0.001. These results suggest that the Oxford plate is a simple and time-saving method in detecting potential clinical disinfectant resistance and its usefulness for routine surveillance of pathogenic resistance to disinfectants warrants further investigation.

  11. Novel method for detection of glycogen in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurat, Alexander V; Segvich, Dyann M; DePaoli-Roach, Anna A; Roach, Peter J

    2017-05-01

    Glycogen, a branched polymer of glucose, functions as an energy reserve in many living organisms. Abnormalities in glycogen metabolism, usually excessive accumulation, can be caused genetically, most often through mutation of the enzymes directly involved in synthesis and degradation of the polymer leading to a variety of glycogen storage diseases (GSDs). Microscopic visualization of glycogen deposits in cells and tissues is important for the study of normal glycogen metabolism as well as diagnosis of GSDs. Here, we describe a method for the detection of glycogen using a renewable, recombinant protein which contains the carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) from starch-binding domain containing protein 1 (Stbd1). We generated a fusion protein containing g lutathione S-transferase, a cM c eptitope and the tbd1 BM (GYSC) for use as a glycogen-binding probe, which can be detected with secondary antibodies against glutathione S-transferase or cMyc. By enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we demonstrate that GYSC binds glycogen and two other polymers of glucose, amylopectin and amylose. Immunofluorescence staining of cultured cells indicate a GYSC-specific signal that is co-localized with signals obtained with anti-glycogen or anti-glycogen synthase antibodies. GYSC-positive staining inside of lysosomes is observed in individual muscle fibers isolated from mice deficient in lysosomal enzyme acid alpha-glucosidase, a well-characterized model of GSD II (Pompe disease). Co-localized GYSC and glycogen signals are also found in muscle fibers isolated from mice deficient in malin, a model for Lafora disease. These data indicate that GYSC is a novel probe that can be used to study glycogen metabolism under normal and pathological conditions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. [Studies on detection methods for Legionella species from environmental water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuga, O; Takagi, K; Tani, K; Kinumaki, A

    1999-01-01

    We investigated selective cultivation media and previous treatments of samples suitable for detection of Legionella species from environmental water and for elimination of co-existing microbes which gave rise to an interference with the evaluation of Legionella sp. growth. Twenty thousand U of polymyxin B (PL-B)/ml and 100 micrograms of oxytetracycline (OTC)/ml seem to be useful as additives to MWY selective agar medium. Both antibiotics markedly inhibited the growth of co-existing microbes with almost no influence on the growth of Legionella sp. In the studies on the resistance of 8 strains of Legionella sp., 24 strains of co-existing microbes and 2 standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli to acid treatment (0.2 M HCl-KCl, pH 2.2, 25 degrees C, 4 minutes) and heating (50 degrees C, 20 minutes), acid treatment or heating alone showed no inhibition on the growth of almost all strains examined. However, combination with acid treatment after heating resulted in an apparent extinction of almost all microbes except for Legionella sp., Seven strains from co-existing microbes showed an apparent growth inhibition against 8 strains of Legionella sp. with different serotypes and were all identified as Pseudomonas aeurginosa, which were all eliminated by means of the combination with acid treatment after heating. From these results, it was concluded that the combined pre-treatment of water samples with acid after heating and the addition of PL-B and OTC into the selective cultivation medium is an useful method for detection of Legionella sp. from environmental water.

  13. Cluster-continuum quasichemical theory calculation of the lithium ion solvation in water, acetonitrile and dimethyl sulfoxide: an absolute single-ion solvation free energy scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Nathalia F; Pliego, Josefredo R

    2015-10-28

    Absolute single-ion solvation free energy is a very useful property for understanding solution phase chemistry. The real solvation free energy of an ion depends on its interaction with the solvent molecules and on the net potential inside the solute cavity. The tetraphenyl arsonium-tetraphenyl borate (TATB) assumption as well as the cluster-continuum quasichemical theory (CC-QCT) approach for Li(+) solvation allows access to a solvation scale excluding the net potential. We have determined this free energy scale investigating the solvation of the lithium ion in water (H2O), acetonitrile (CH3CN) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvents via the CC-QCT approach. Our calculations at the MP2 and MP4 levels with basis sets up to the QZVPP+diff quality, and including solvation of the clusters and solvent molecules by the dielectric continuum SMD method, predict the solvation free energy of Li(+) as -116.1, -120.6 and -123.6 kcal mol(-1) in H2O, CH3CN and DMSO solvents, respectively (1 mol L(-1) standard state). These values are compatible with the solvation free energy of the proton of -253.4, -253.2 and -261.1 kcal mol(-1) in H2O, CH3CN and DMSO solvents, respectively. Deviations from the experimental TATB scale are only 1.3 kcal mol(-1) in H2O and 1.8 kcal mol(-1) in DMSO solvents. However, in the case of CH3CN, the deviation reaches a value of 9.2 kcal mol(-1). The present study suggests that the experimental TATB scale is inconsistent for CH3CN. A total of 125 values of the solvation free energy of ions in these three solvents were obtained. These new data should be useful for the development of theoretical solvation models.

  14. Rapid Methods for detection of Veterinary Drug residues in Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of substances having hormonal or thyreostatic action as well as b-agonists is banned in many countries. However, sometimes forbidden drugs may be added to feeds for illegal administration to farm animals for promoting increased muscle development or increased water retention and thus obtain an economical benefit. The result is a fraudulent overweight of meat but, what is worse, residues of these substances may remain in meat and may pose a real threat to the consumer either through exposure to the residues, transfer of antibiotic resistance or allergy risk. This has exerted a great concern among the meat consumers. The control of the absence of these forbidden substances in animal foods and feeds is regulated in the European Union by Directive 96/23/EC on measures to monitor certain substances and residues in live animals and animal products. Analytical methodology, including criteria for identification and confirmation, for the monitoring of compliance was also given in Decisions 93/256/EEC and 93/257/EEC. More recently, Decision 2002/657/EC provided rules for the analytical methods to be used in testing of official samples. New substances with anabolic properties are being detected year by year increasing the list of forbidden compounds to be tested. Furthermore, the extended practice consisting in the use of “cocktails” (mixtures of low amounts of several substances that exert a synergistic effect to have a similar growth promotion, reduces the margin for an effective analytical detection. Thus, the evolution of the “black market” is making really difficult to have an effective analytical control of the residues of these substances in foods of animal origin. Control laboratories must face an increasing demand of analysis like the growing number of residues to be analysed in different types of samples, the strict guidelines for analytical methodologies according to the latest Directives, the increased costs of such new

  15. Detection of graves using the micro-resistivity method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Luzio

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a case history of the application of resistivity methods on the detection of a tomb tentatively associated with Damião de Goes, a prominent Portuguese humanist who lived in the XVI century. The survey carried out inside Varzea Church comprised dipole-dipole, gradient and pole-pole arrays. The results obtained from the 2D inversion of dipole-dipole data and 3D inversion of the gradient array have shown high resistivity anomalies that were assigned to the walls of the tomb. The low resistivity anomalies observed in between were interpreted as due to the presence of water enriched by ions from the decomposition of human bodies. This result is corroborated by the imaging obtained using the 3D probability tomography of the gradient and pole-pole data. Excavation works, carried out in accordance with the results of the geoelectrical investigation, successfully found a 2.7×0.8×1.7 m tomb, where several human bones have been collected. A 3D resistivity model incorporating the main features of the tomb was built after the excavation. The pole-pole model responses calculated from this model reproduce the main features observed in the data.

  16. Method and apparatus for detecting micro-organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsky, J.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for determining the presence and quantity of microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi and yeast, in a given sample. The apparatus includes two sealed containers, a portion of which may be penetrated by a sharp instrument, as for example, glass vials with flexible septum tops. One container includes a radioactive nutrient medium which is capable of supporting the life process of the microorganism whose presence is being tested. The second container includes a liquid scintillation solution which absorbs the product of metabolism of the organisms. The sample is introduced into the first sealed container, for example, by means of a standard syringe. Any microorganisms present will consume the radioactive nutrient and as a result produce radioactive waste. Means are then applied to penetrate the containers and allow the flow of the radioactive metabolic product from the first container to the second container while preventing any contamination from the ambient. The liquid scintillation solution will emit light in proportion to the amount of the product of metabolism collected from the first container. This light may be detected by standard liquid scintillation counters, thus providing a qualitative and quantitative measure of the microorganism in the tested sample

  17. A New Method for Intrusion Detection using Manifold Learning Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Guoping Hou; Xuan Ma; Yuelei Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Computer and network security has received and will still receive much attention. Any unexpected intrusion will damage the network. It is therefore imperative to detect the network intrusion to ensure the normal operation of the internet. There are many studies in the intrusion detection and intrusion patter recognition. The artificial neural network (ANN) has proven to be powerful for the intrusion detection. However, very little work has discussed the optimization of the input intrusion fea...

  18. Method for detecting fractures in formations surroundingearth boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fertl, W.H.

    1979-01-01

    A well is first logged with gamma ray detection system to provide a base log. Fluid containing salt of potassium, uranium or thorium is then injected into the well opposite the interval of interest. When the well head pressure is increased, some of the injected fluid will move into the fracture or other highly permeable localized zones. The gamma ray detection system is then run again one or more times through the well to provide a log which is compared with the base log. The fracture is detected by localized drastically higher readings observed on the repeat run of the gamma ray detection logging system

  19. A new approach to detect small peptides clearly and sensitively by Western blotting using a vacuum-assisted detection method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomisawa, Satoshi; Abe, Chiharu; Kamiya, Masakatsu; Kikukawa, Takashi; Demura, Makoto; Kawano, Keiichi; Aizawa, Tomoyasu

    2013-01-01

    Western blotting is a widely used technique for the detection and quantification of proteins and peptides. However, it is challenging to detect small peptides efficiently by the conventional Western blotting method with shaking, in part because the peptides readily detach from the blotted membrane. Although some modified Western blotting protocols have been developed to overcome this problem, it remains difficult to prevent peptide detachment from the membrane. In this study, we show that the previously developed vacuum-assisted detection method greatly improves the detection of small peptides without additional protocol modification. The vacuum-assisted method was developed to shorten the time required for all immunodetection steps, and all the Western blotting solutions penetrated the membrane quickly and efficiently by this method. By using this vacuum method, we succeeded in detecting small peptides that were completely undetectable by the conventional Western blotting method. We also confirmed that peptide detachment was induced even by gentle shaking in the case of the conventional method, and the detachment was accelerated when detergent was present in the buffer. Unlike in the conventional method, there is no need to shake the membrane in solution in the vacuum method. Therefore, it is thought that the small peptides could be detected sensitively only by the vacuum method.

  20. A New Moving Object Detection Method Based on Frame-difference and Background Subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiajia; Wang, Junping; Bai, Ruixue; Zhang, Yao; Li, Yong

    2017-09-01

    Although many methods of moving object detection have been proposed, moving object extraction is still the core in video surveillance. However, with the complex scene in real world, false detection, missed detection and deficiencies resulting from cavities inside the body still exist. In order to solve the problem of incomplete detection for moving objects, a new moving object detection method combined an improved frame-difference and Gaussian mixture background subtraction is proposed in this paper. To make the moving object detection more complete and accurate, the image repair and morphological processing techniques which are spatial compensations are applied in the proposed method. Experimental results show that our method can effectively eliminate ghosts and noise and fill the cavities of the moving object. Compared to other four moving object detection methods which are GMM, VIBE, frame-difference and a literature's method, the proposed method improve the efficiency and accuracy of the detection.

  1. The design method and research status of vehicle detection system based on geomagnetic detection principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y. H.; Bai, R.; Qian, Z. H.

    2018-03-01

    Vehicle detection systems are applied to obtain real-time information of vehicles, realize traffic control and reduce traffic pressure. This paper reviews geomagnetic sensors as well as the research status of the vehicle detection system. Presented in the paper are also our work on the vehicle detection system, including detection algorithms and experimental results. It is found that the GMR based vehicle detection system has a detection accuracy up to 98% with a high potential for application in the road traffic control area.

  2. Doppler method leak detection for LMFBR steam generators. Pt. 1. Experimental results of bubble detection using small models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Hiromichi

    1999-01-01

    To prevent the expansion of the tube damage and to maintain structural integrity in the steam generators (SGs) of fast breeder reactors (FBRs), it is necessary to detect precisely and immediately the leakage of water from heat transfer tubes. Therefore, an active acoustic method was developed. Previous studies have revealed that in practical steam generators the active acoustic method can detect bubbles of 10 l/s within 10 seconds. To prevent the expansion of damage to neighboring tubes, it is necessary to detect smaller leakages of water from the heat transfer tubes. The Doppler method is designed to detect small leakages and to find the source of the leak before damage spreads to neighboring tubes. To evaluate the relationship between the detection sensitivity of the Doppler method and the bubble volume and bubble size, the structural shapes and bubble flow conditions were investigated experimentally, using a small structural model. The results show that the Doppler method can detect the bubbles under bubble flow conditions, and it is sensitive enough to detect small leakages within a short time. The doppler method thus has strong potential for the detection of water leakage in SGs. (author)

  3. Statistical methods for damage detection applied to civil structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gres, Szymon; Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard; Döhler, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Damage detection consists of monitoring the deviations of a current system from its reference state, characterized by some nominal property repeatable for every healthy state. Preferably, the damage detection is performed directly on vibration data, hereby avoiding modal identification of the str...

  4. Enhanced detection method for corneal protein identification using shotgun proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlager John J

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cornea is a specialized transparent connective tissue responsible for the majority of light refraction and image focus for the retina. There are three main layers of the cornea: the epithelium that is exposed and acts as a protective barrier for the eye, the center stroma consisting of parallel collagen fibrils that refract light, and the endothelium that is responsible for hydration of the cornea from the aqueous humor. Normal cornea is an immunologically privileged tissue devoid of blood vessels, but injury can produce a loss of these conditions causing invasion of other processes that degrade the homeostatic properties resulting in a decrease in the amount of light refracted onto the retina. Determining a measure and drift of phenotypic cornea state from normal to an injured or diseased state requires knowledge of the existing protein signature within the tissue. In the study of corneal proteins, proteomics procedures have typically involved the pulverization of the entire cornea prior to analysis. Separation of the epithelium and endothelium from the core stroma and performing separate shotgun proteomics using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry results in identification of many more proteins than previously employed methods using complete pulverized cornea. Results Rabbit corneas were purchased, the epithelium and endothelium regions were removed, proteins processed and separately analyzed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Proteins identified from separate layers were compared against results from complete corneal samples. Protein digests were separated using a six hour liquid chromatographic gradient and ion-trap mass spectrometry used for detection of eluted peptide fractions. The SEQUEST database search results were filtered to allow only proteins with match probabilities of equal or better than 10-3 and peptides with a probability of 10-2 or less with at least two unique peptides isolated within

  5. Detection of genetically modified organisms by electrochemiluminescence PCR method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinfeng; Xing, Da; Shen, Xingyan; Zhu, Debin

    2004-10-15

    With the development of biotechnology, more and more genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have entered commercial market. Because of the safety concerns, detection and characterization of GMOs have attracted much attention recently. In this study, electrochemiluminescence polymerase chain reaction (ECL-PCR) combined with hybridization technique was applied to detect the GMOs in genetically modified (GM) soybeans and papayas for the first time. Whether the soybeans and the papayas contain GM components was discriminated by detecting the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) promoter. The experiment results show that the detection limit for CaMV35S promoter is 100 fmol, and the GM components can be clearly identified in GM soybeans and papayas. The technique may provide a new means in GMOs detection due to its simplicity and high efficiency.

  6. Comparative Analysis of Data-Driven Anomaly Detection Methods

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper provides a review of three different advanced machine learning algorithms for anomaly detection in continuous data streams from a ground-test firing of a...

  7. Colour based fire detection method with temporal intensity variation filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trambitckii, K; Musalimov, V; Anding, K; Linß, G

    2015-01-01

    Development of video, computing technologies and computer vision gives a possibility of automatic fire detection on video information. Under that project different algorithms was implemented to find more efficient way of fire detection. In that article colour based fire detection algorithm is described. But it is not enough to use only colour information to detect fire properly. The main reason of this is that in the shooting conditions may be a lot of things having colour similar to fire. A temporary intensity variation of pixels is used to separate them from the fire. These variations are averaged over the series of several frames. This algorithm shows robust work and was realised as a computer program by using of the OpenCV library

  8. TMTI Task 1.6 Genetic Engineering Methods and Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slezak, T; Lenhoff, R; Allen, J; Borucki, M; Vitalis, E; Gardner, S

    2009-12-04

    A large number of GE techniques can be adapted from other microorganisms to biothreat bacteria and viruses. Detection of GE in a microorganism increases in difficulty as the size of the genetic change decreases. In addition to the size of the engineered change, the consensus genomic sequence of the microorganism can impact the difficulty of detecting an engineered change in genomes that are highly variable from strain to strain. This problem will require comprehensive databases of whole genome sequences for more genetically variable biothreat bacteria and viruses. Preliminary work with microarrays for detecting synthetic elements or virulence genes and analytic bioinformatic approaches for whole genome sequence comparison to detect genetic engineering show promise for attacking this difficult problem but a large amount of future work remains.

  9. Literature Search for New Physical Methods of Biological Aerosol Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    their lifetimes and even their 25 limits of detection, many of them of biological interest ( Becker , 1969. Rhys, 1981). Detection at nanogram levels is...terms of selectivity, speed, simplicity, accuracy, precision, interferences, etc.] 1969 Becker R.S., Theory and Interpretation of Fluorescence and...Neuer Gesichtspunkte Zur Analytischen Anwendung des Raman Effektes . is?8 Raman C.V. and Krishnan K.S.. Nature, v.121, p5 01: A New Type of Secondary

  10. Development and validation of methods for GMO detection

    OpenAIRE

    Hodek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The present work is focused on the issue of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) detection in the plants and derived products. Existing legislation in the European Union regulates monitoring of GMO and lays down rules for their labeling and traceability. The aim was to contribute to solving certain issues of critical points in GMO detection. The first point was DNA extraction. The problem was adressed to the example of DNA extraction from the fruit of papaya and candied papaya. For both food...

  11. Detection of telomerase activity in gastric lavage fluid: a novel method to detect gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stephen Ching-ho; Yu, Hanry; So, Jimmy B Y

    2006-04-01

    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein polymerase that is essential for cell immortality. Recent studies have demonstrated that a high percentage of gastric cancer tissue expressed telomerase. This study describes the presence of telomerase activity in gastric lavage fluid in patients with gastric cancer. Gastric lavage fluid was collected during esophageogastroduodenoscopy in 70 patients: 25 with gastric cancer, 25 with peptic ulcer disease, and 20 with normal stomach. The fluid and biopsy samples were analyzed for telomerase activity by a polymerase chain reaction-based telomerase repeat amplification protocol. The findings were related to the histological results. Telomerase activity was present in 24 of the 25 (96%) gastric cancer tissue and in 7 of the 25 tissue specimens from peptic ulcer or gastritis. In the gastric lavage fluid, telomerase was detected in 20 patients (80%) with gastric cancer, 7 patients (28%) with peptic ulcer, and none in normal subjects (P < 0.001). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of gastric fluid telomerase expression in gastric cancer patients was 80%, 84%, 74%, and 88%, respectively. The presence of telomerase activity is present in gastric lavage fluid of patients with gastric cancer as compared to those without, may represent a novel method for diagnosis of gastric cancer.

  12. Methods for the selective detection of alkyne-presenting molecules and related compositions and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Carlos A.; Vu, Alexander K.

    2017-10-17

    Provided herein are methods for selectively detecting an alkyne-presenting molecule in a sample and related detection reagents, compositions, methods and systems. The methods include contacting a detection reagent with the sample for a time and under a condition to allow binding of the detection reagent to the one or more alkyne-presenting molecules possibly present in the matrix to the detection reagent. The detection reagent includes an organic label moiety presenting an azide group. The binding of the azide group to the alkyne-presenting molecules results in emission of a signal from the organic label moiety.

  13. The Use of Highly Sensitive Detection Methods for Eradication of Plasmodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Marianne Smedegaard; Knudsen, Birgitta R.

    2017-01-01

    The key to a successful malaria eradication program is highly efficient detection of Plasmodium infected people followed by appropriate treatment to avoid spreading of the parasite. We will discuss some of the demands that such a detection method needs to fulfill and review some of the advantages...... and disadvantages of currently available detection methods...

  14. Detection of wood failure by image processing method: influence of algorithm, adhesive and wood species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanying Lin; Sheng He; Feng Fu; Xiping Wang

    2015-01-01

    Wood failure percentage (WFP) is an important index for evaluating the bond strength of plywood. Currently, the method used for detecting WFP is visual inspection, which lacks efficiency. In order to improve it, image processing methods are applied to wood failure detection. The present study used thresholding and K-means clustering algorithms in wood failure detection...

  15. Effect of Multi-condition Training and Speech Enhancement Methods on Spoofing Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Hong; Sarkar, Achintya Kumar; Thomsen, Dennis Alexander Lehmann

    2016-01-01

    at different signal-to-noise ratios, and two mainstream speech enhancement methods, Wiener filtering and minimum mean-square error. The experimental results show that enhancement methods are not suitable for the spoofing detection task, as the spoofing detection accuracy will be reduced after speech...... enhancement. Multi-conditional training, however, shows potential at reducing error rates for spoofing detection....

  16. Reentrant behaviors in the phase diagram of spin-1 planar ferromagnets with easy-axis single-ion anisotropy via the Devlin two-time Green function framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercaldo, M. T.; Rabuffo, I.; De Cesare, L.; Caramico D'Auria, A.

    2017-10-01

    The Devlin two-time Green function framework is used to investigate the role played by the easy-axis single-ion anisotropy on the phase diagram of (d > 2) -dimensional spin-1 planar ferromagnets which exhibit a magnetic-field-induced quantum phase transition (QPT). In this scheme, the exchange anisotropy terms in the equations of motion are treated at the Tyablikov decoupling level while the crystal field anisotropy contribution is handled exactly. The emerging key result is a reentrant structure of the phase diagram close to the quantum critical point for a well defined window of values of the single-ion anisotropy parameter. This experimentally interesting feature was recently recovered by employing the Anderson-Callen decoupling (ACD) which is considered to provide meaningful results only for small values of the single-ion anisotropy parameter. In this context, our findings suggest that the simplest ACD treatment offers the possibility to have, at least qualitatively, a correct physical scenario of quantum criticality close to a field-induced QPT avoiding the limiting mathematical difficulties involved in the Devlin scheme.

  17. Eddy current probe and method for flaw detection in metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watjen, John P.

    1987-06-23

    A flaw detecting system is shown which includes a probe having a pair of ferrite cores with in-line gaps in close proximity to each other. An insulating, non-magnetic, non-conducting holder fills the gaps and supports the ferrite cores in a manner such that the cores form a generally V-shape. Each core is provided with an excitation winding and a detection winding. The excitation windings are connected in series or parallel with an rf port for connection thereof to a radio frequency source. The detection windings, which are differentially wound, are connected in series circuit to a detector port for connection to a voltage measuring instrument. The ferrite cores at the in-line gaps directly engage the metal surface of a test piece, and the probe is scanned along the test piece. In the presence of a flaw in the metal surface the detection winding voltages are unbalanced, and the unbalance is detected by the voltage measuring instrument. The insulating holder is provided with a profile which conforms to that of a prominent feature of the test piece to facilitate movement of the probe along the feature, typically an edge or a corner.

  18. Eddy current probe and method for flaw detection in metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watjen, J.P.

    1987-06-23

    A flaw detecting system is shown which includes a probe having a pair of ferrite cores with in-line gaps in close proximity to each other. An insulating, non-magnetic, non-conducting holder fills the gaps and supports the ferrite cores in a manner such that the cores form a generally V-shape. Each core is provided with an excitation winding and a detection winding. The excitation windings are connected in series or parallel with an rf port for connection thereof to a radio frequency source. The detection windings, which are differentially wound, are connected in series circuit to a detector port for connection to a voltage measuring instrument. The ferrite cores at the in-line gaps directly engage the metal surface of a test piece, and the probe is scanned along the test piece. In the presence of a flaw in the metal surface the detection winding voltages are unbalanced, and the unbalance is detected by the voltage measuring instrument. The insulating holder is provided with a profile which conforms to that of a prominent feature of the test piece to facilitate movement of the probe along the feature, typically an edge or a corner. 9 figs.

  19. Anti-dynamic-crosstalk method for single photon LIDAR detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Liu, Qiang; Gong, Mali; Fu, Xing

    2017-11-01

    With increasing number of vehicles equipped with light detection and ranging (LIDAR), crosstalk is identified as a critical and urgent issue in the range detection for active collision avoidance. Chaotic pulse position modulation (CPPM) applied in the transmitting pulse train has been shown to prevent crosstalk as well as range ambiguity. However, static and unified strategy on discrimination threshold and the number of accumulated pulse is not valid against crosstalk with varying number of sources and varying intensity of each source. This paper presents an adaptive algorithm to distinguish the target echo from crosstalk with dynamic and unknown level of intensity in the context of intelligent vehicles. New strategy is given based on receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves that consider the detection requirements of the probability of detection and false alarm for the scenario with varying crosstalk. In the adaptive algorithm, the detected results are compared by the new strategy with both the number of accumulated pulses and the threshold being raised step by step, so that the target echo can be exactly identified from crosstalk with the dynamic and unknown level of intensity. The validity of the algorithm has been verified through the experiments with a single photon detector and the time correlated single photo counting (TCSPC) technique, demonstrating a marked drop in required shots for identifying the target compared with static and unified strategy

  20. Study of comparison between Ultra-high Frequency (UHF) method and ultrasonic method on PD detection for GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanran; Chen, Duo; Li, Li; Zhang, Jiwei; Li, Guang; Liu, Hongxia

    2017-11-01

    GIS (gas insulated switchgear), is an important equipment in power system. Partial discharge plays an important role in detecting the insulation performance of GIS. UHF method and ultrasonic method frequently used in partial discharge (PD) detection for GIS. However, few studies have been conducted on comparison of this two methods. From the view point of safety, it is necessary to investigate UHF method and ultrasonic method for partial discharge in GIS. This paper presents study aimed at clarifying the effect of UHF method and ultrasonic method for partial discharge caused by free metal particles in GIS. Partial discharge tests were performed in laboratory simulated environment. Obtained results show the ability of anti-interference of signal detection and the accuracy of fault localization for UHF method and ultrasonic method. A new method based on UHF method and ultrasonic method of PD detection for GIS is proposed in order to greatly enhance the ability of anti-interference of signal detection and the accuracy of detection localization.

  1. A Hybrid Vehicle Detection Method Based on Viola-Jones and HOG + SVM from UAV Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongzheng; Yu, Guizhen; Wang, Yunpeng; Wu, Xinkai; Ma, Yalong

    2016-08-19

    A new hybrid vehicle detection scheme which integrates the Viola-Jones (V-J) and linear SVM classifier with HOG feature (HOG + SVM) methods is proposed for vehicle detection from low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images. As both V-J and HOG + SVM are sensitive to on-road vehicles' in-plane rotation, the proposed scheme first adopts a roadway orientation adjustment method, which rotates each UAV image to align the roads with the horizontal direction so the original V-J or HOG + SVM method can be directly applied to achieve fast detection and high accuracy. To address the issue of descending detection speed for V-J and HOG + SVM, the proposed scheme further develops an adaptive switching strategy which sophistically integrates V-J and HOG + SVM methods based on their different descending trends of detection speed to improve detection efficiency. A comprehensive evaluation shows that the switching strategy, combined with the road orientation adjustment method, can significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the vehicle detection from UAV images. The results also show that the proposed vehicle detection method is competitive compared with other existing vehicle detection methods. Furthermore, since the proposed vehicle detection method can be performed on videos captured from moving UAV platforms without the need of image registration or additional road database, it has great potentials of field applications. Future research will be focusing on expanding the current method for detecting other transportation modes such as buses, trucks, motors, bicycles, and pedestrians.

  2. Chemical mutagens: principles and methods for their detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Serres, F.J.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses the development and validation of short-term assays designed to detect the mutagenic effects of environmental chemicals. Topics considered include the grasshopper neuroblast short-term assay for evaluating the effects of environmental chemicals on chromosomes and cell kinetics, a comparison of the mutagenic responses of lung-derived and skin-derived human diploid fibroblast populations, the L-arabinose resistance test with Salmonella typhimurium, the Bacillus subtilis multigene sporulation test for the detection of environmental mutagens, the L5178Y/TK gene mutation assay system, the induction of bacteriophage lambda by DNA-interacting chemicals, the granuloma pouch assay, the use of multiply marked Escherichia coli K12 strains in the host-mediated assay, and the detection of mutagens in human feces as an approach to the discovery of causes of colon cancer.

  3. Ultrafast laser based coherent control methods for explosives detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-06

    The detection of explosives is a notoriously difficult problem, especially at stand-off, due to their (generally) low vapor pressure, environmental and matrix interferences, and packaging. We are exploring Optimal Dynamic Detection of Explosives (ODD-Ex), which exploits the best capabilities of recent advances in laser technology and recent discoveries in optimal shaping of laser pulses for control of molecular processes to significantly enhance the standoff detection of explosives. The core of the ODD-Ex technique is the introduction of optimally shaped laser pulses to simultaneously enhance sensitivity to explosives signatures while dramatically improving specificity, particularly against matrix materials and background interferences. These goals are being addressed by operating in an optimal non-linear fashion, typically with a single shaped laser pulse inherently containing within it coherently locked control and probe subpulses. Recent results will be presented.

  4. Failed fuel rod detection method by ultrasonic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamatsu, Masatoshi; Muraoka, Shoichi; Ono, Yukio; Yasojima, Yujiro.

    1990-01-01

    Ultrasonic wave signals sent from an ultrasonic receiving element are supplied to an evaluation circuit by way of a gate. A table for gate opening and closing timings at the detecting position in each of the fuel rods in a fuel assembly is stored in a memory. A fuel rod is placed between an ultrasonic transmitting element and the receiving element to determine the positions of the transmitting element and the receiving element by positional sensors. The opening and closing timings at the positions corresponding to the result of the detection are read out from the table, and the gates are opened and closed by the timing. This can introduce the ultrasonic wave signals transmitted through a control rod always to the evaluation circuit passing through the gate. Accordingly, the state of failure of the fuel rod can be detected accurately. (I.N.)

  5. Field-Induced Co(II) Single-Ion Magnets with mer-Directing Ligands but Ambiguous Coordination Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yan; Mereacre, Valeriu; Anson, Christopher E; Zhang, Yiquan; Bodenstein, Tilmann; Fink, Karin; Powell, Annie K

    2017-06-05

    Three air-stable Co(II) mononuclear complexes with different aromatic substituents have been prepared and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The mononuclear complexes [Co(H 2 L1) 2 ]·2THF (1), [Co(HL2) 2 ] (2), and [Co(H 2 L3) 2 ]·CH 2 Cl 2 (3) (where H 3 L1, H 2 L2, and H 3 L3 represent 3-hydroxy-naphthalene-2-carboxylic acid (6-hydroxymethyl-pyridin-2-ylmethylene) hydrazide, nicotinic acid (6-hydroxymethyl-pyridin-2-ylmethylene) hydrazide, and 2-hydroxy-benzoic acid (6-hydroxymethyl-pyridin-2-ylmethylene) hydrazide, respectively) feature a distorted mer octahedral coordination geometry. Detailed magnetic studies of 1-3 have been conducted using direct and alternating current magnetic susceptibility data. Field-induced slow magnetic relaxation was observed for these three complexes. There are few examples of such behavior in (distorted) octahedral coordination geometry (OC) Co(II) mononuclear complexes with uniaxial anisotropy. Analysis of the six-coordinate Co(II) mononuclear single-ion magnets (SIMs) in the literature using the SHAPE program revealed that they all show what is best described as distorted trigonal prismatic (TRP) coordination geometry, and in general, these show negative D zero-field splitting (ZFS) values. On the other hand, all the Co(II) mononuclear complexes displaying what is best approximated as distorted octahedral (OC) coordination geometry show positive D values. In the new Co(II) mononuclear complexes we describe here, there is an ambiguity, since the rigid tridentate ligands confer what is best described for an octahedral complex as a mer coordination geometry, but the actual shape of the first coordination sphere is between octahedral and trigonal prismatic. The negative D values observed experimentally and supported by high-level electronic structure calculations are thus in line with a trigonal prismatic geometry. However, a consideration of the rhombicity as indicated by the E value of the ZFS in

  6. Method and means for detecting magnetic deposits in tubular plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lord, W.

    1981-01-01

    Deposits of magnetite on tubes in a heat exchanger, e.g. a steam generator, are detected by measuring the magnetic reluctance within the tubes. A probe for measuring the reluctance includes a permanent magnet (or a magnetic core and an excitation coil wound on the core) and a magnetic flux detector such as a Hall generator mounted for example on one of the non-magnetic rings. Changes in flux density as the probe is pushed through the tubes are detected by the Hall generator, thus indicating the presence of magnetite deposits. The probe includes a non-magnetic tube for pushing it through the heat exchanger tubes. (author)

  7. Pipeline leak detection method and control device therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    Leaks may be located in a pipeline by introducing into the pipeline an assembly that includes a pipe-sealing packer unit, a control unit, and a radioactive source shielded from the control unit. The control unit includes a gamma ray detector that controls the sealing and unsealing of the pipe by the packer in response to the detection of radiation exceeding a preset threshold - a detection event. The assembly is pushed through the pipeline by a relatively low fluid pressure behind it. The progress of the assembly through the pipeline may be monitored externally by a gamma ray detector

  8. System and method for automated object detection in an image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenyon, Garrett T.; Brumby, Steven P.; George, John S.; Paiton, Dylan M.; Schultz, Peter F.

    2015-10-06

    A contour/shape detection model may use relatively simple and efficient kernels to detect target edges in an object within an image or video. A co-occurrence probability may be calculated for two or more edge features in an image or video using an object definition. Edge features may be differentiated between in response to measured contextual support, and prominent edge features may be extracted based on the measured contextual support. The object may then be identified based on the extracted prominent edge features.

  9. The regularized monotonicity method: detecting irregular indefinite inclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Henrik; Staboulis, Stratos

    2018-01-01

    inclusions, where the conductivity distribution has both more and less conductive parts relative to the background conductivity; one such method is the monotonicity method of Harrach, Seo, and Ullrich. We formulate the method for irregular indefinite inclusions, meaning that we make no regularity assumptions...

  10. An Automatic Cloud Detection Method for ZY-3 Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Zhenwei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Automatic cloud detection for optical satellite remote sensing images is a significant step in the production system of satellite products. For the browse images cataloged by ZY-3 satellite, the tree discriminate structure is adopted to carry out cloud detection. The image was divided into sub-images and their features were extracted to perform classification between clouds and grounds. However, due to the high complexity of clouds and surfaces and the low resolution of browse images, the traditional classification algorithms based on image features are of great limitations. In view of the problem, a prior enhancement processing to original sub-images before classification was put forward in this paper to widen the texture difference between clouds and surfaces. Afterwards, with the secondary moment and first difference of the images, the feature vectors were extended in multi-scale space, and then the cloud proportion in the image was estimated through comprehensive analysis. The presented cloud detection algorithm has already been applied to the ZY-3 application system project, and the practical experiment results indicate that this algorithm is capable of promoting the accuracy of cloud detection significantly.

  11. Detecting Pipe Bursts Using Heuristic and CUSUM Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Jung, D.; Vreeburg, J.; Van de Roer, M.; Lansey, K.; Rierveld, L.

    2014-01-01

    Pipe bursts in a drinking water distribution system lead to water losses, interruption of supply, and damage to streets and houses due to the uncontrolled water flow. To minimize the negative consequences of pipe bursts, an early detection is necessary. This paper describes a heuristic burst

  12. DNA based methods used for characterization and detection of food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-04

    May 4, 2009 ... and a DNA ligase enzyme to drive the reaction. Like. PCR, LCR requires a thermal circler to drive the reaction and each cycle results in a doubling of the target nucleic acid molecule. ..... Electric detection of DNA hybridization by nanoparticle nanoswitch. Curr. Appl. Phys. 6S1: e157-e160. Chinowsky TM ...

  13. A New Method for Early Anomaly Detection of BWR Instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, K.N.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the performed research is to develop an early anomaly detection methodology so as to enhance safety, availability, and operational flexibility of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) nuclear power plants. The technical approach relies on suppression of potential power oscillations in BWRs by detecting small anomalies at an early stage and taking appropriate prognostic actions based on an anticipated operation schedule. The research utilizes a model of coupled (two-phase) thermal-hydraulic and neutron flux dynamics, which is used as a generator of time series data for anomaly detection at an early stage. The model captures critical nonlinear features of coupled thermal-hydraulic and nuclear reactor dynamics and (slow time-scale) evolution of the anomalies as non-stationary parameters. The time series data derived from this nonlinear non-stationary model serves as the source of information for generating the symbolic dynamics for characterization of model parameter changes that quantitatively represent small anomalies. The major focus of the presented research activity was on developing and qualifying algorithms of pattern recognition for power instability based on anomaly detection from time series data, which later can be used to formulate real-time decision and control algorithms for suppression of power oscillations for a variety of anticipated operating conditions. The research being performed in the framework of this project is essential to make significant improvement in the capability of thermal instability analyses for enhancing safety, availability, and operational flexibility of currently operating and next generation BWRs.

  14. Exploring new methods to detect person misfit in CAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.R.; van Krimpen-Stoop, Edith

    Item scores that do not fit an assumed item response theory model may cause the latent trait value to be inaccurately estimated. Several person-fit statistics for detecting nonfitting response behavior for paper-and-pencil tests have been proposed. In the context of computerized adaptive testing,

  15. Some new methods to detect person fit in CAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.R.; van Krimpen-Stoop, Edith

    Person fit is concerned with detecting nonfitting item-score patterns. Most person-fit statistics have been proposed in the context of conventionally administered tests or paper-and-pencil (P&P) tests. In this study, we will first review some existing person-fit studies in a computerized adaptive

  16. Rapid detection of Salmonella in pet food: design and evaluation of integrated methods based on real-time PCR detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Priya; Friberg, Maria; Vanlandingham, V; Kozak, K; Manolis, Amanda; Brevnov, Maxim; Crowley, Erin; Bird, Patrick; Goins, David; Furtado, Manohar R; Petrauskene, Olga V; Tebbs, Robert S; Charbonneau, Duane

    2012-02-01

    Reducing the risk of Salmonella contamination in pet food is critical for both companion animals and humans, and its importance is reflected by the substantial increase in the demand for pathogen testing. Accurate and rapid detection of foodborne pathogens improves food safety, protects the public health, and benefits food producers by assuring product quality while facilitating product release in a timely manner. Traditional culture-based methods for Salmonella screening are laborious and can take 5 to 7 days to obtain definitive results. In this study, we developed two methods for the detection of low levels of Salmonella in pet food using real-time PCR: (i) detection of Salmonella in 25 g of dried pet food in less than 14 h with an automated magnetic bead-based nucleic acid extraction method and (ii) detection of Salmonella in 375 g of composite dry pet food matrix in less than 24 h with a manual centrifugation-based nucleic acid preparation method. Both methods included a preclarification step using a novel protocol that removes food matrix-associated debris and PCR inhibitors and improves the sensitivity of detection. Validation studies revealed no significant differences between the two real-time PCR methods and the standard U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual (chapter 5) culture confirmation method.

  17. Evaluation of Traditional and Contemporary Methods for Detecting Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera in Laboratory Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Gerwin, Philip M; Arbona, Rodolfo J Ricart; Riedel, Elyn R; Lepherd, Michelle L; Henderson, Ken S; Lipman, Neil S

    2017-01-01

    There is no consensus regarding the best practice for detecting murine pinworm infections. Initially, we evaluated 7 fecal concentration methods by using feces containing Aspiculuris tetraptera (AT) eggs (n = 20 samples per method). Sodium nitrate flotation, sodium nitrate centrifugation, Sheather sugar centrifugation, and zinc sulfate centrifugation detected eggs in 100% of samples; zinc sulfate flotation and water sedimentation detected eggs in 90%. All had better detection rates than Sheat...

  18. A method of using γ-ray spectrum of 40K to detect firecrackers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Nangai; Liu Lanhua; Hu Zhihong; Wang Deming

    1991-02-01

    A non-destructive method using 40 K and bismuth germanite scintillator to detect black gunpowder in firecrackers is introduced. The block diagram and performance of detecting time is 10 seconds. The minimum detectable weight of firecracker is 1kg and detecting instrument are also presented. The false discrimination rate is less than 15%. This method is simple and easy to manipulate. It can be used in railway stations, bus terminals and docks

  19. [Detection of norovirus RNA in bivalve molluscs by using bacteria-culture-employed method (A3T method)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiba, Tetsuya; Tanaka, Tatsuya; Nagano, Miyuki; Mori, Kohji; Hayashi, Yukinao; Obata, Hiromi; Chiba, Takashi; Ikuta, Yasuhisa; Kamiya, Yoriko; Nakama, Akiko; Hosaka, Mitsugu; Kai, Akemi

    2010-01-01

    Norovirus (NV) RNA has rarely been detected in foods despite the use of highly sensitive methods such as RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR. In the modified method (A3T method) reported previously, a bacterial culture process was introduced into the standard protocol for NV detection to remove some inhibitor(s) present in food ingredients. To confirm the efficiency of the A3T method and to examine NV contamination in bivalve molluscs, we tried to detect NV RNA in bivalve molluscs on the market and in oyster samples associated with foodborne outbreaks by using the standard method and the A3T method. NV RNAs were detected in 20 samples (18.0%) of 111 bivalve molluscs, including oysters, on the market by use of the A3T method, while only one sample (0.9%) was positive according to the standard method. NV RNA was also detected in 10 of 35 oyster samples related to foodborne outbreaks by the A3T method. Those results show that the A3T method is suitable for the detection of NV in bivalve molluscs in general laboratories.

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Network Single Ion Conductors(NSIC) Based On Comb-Branched Polyepoxide Ethers and LithiumBis(allylmalonato)borate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xiao-Guang; Kerr, John B.

    2004-07-11

    Network single ion conductors (NSICs) based on comb-branch polyepoxide ethers and lithium bis(allylmalonato) borate have been synthesized and thoroughly characterized by means of ionic conductivity measurements, electrochemical impedance and by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The materials have been tested as battery electrolytes by cycling in symmetrical Li/Li half cells and in Li/V{sub 6}O{sub 13} full cells in which the NSIC was used as both binder and electrolyte in the cathode electrode and as the electrolyte separator membrane,. The substitution of the trimethylene oxide (TMO) unit into the side chains in place of ethylene oxide (EO) units increased the polymerion mobility (lower glass transition temperature). However, the ionic conductivity was nearly one and half orders of magnitude lower than the corresponding pure EO based single ion conductor at the same salt concentration. This effect may be ascribed to the lower dielectric constant of the TMO side chains that result in a lower concentration of free conducting lithium cations. For a highly cross-linked system (EO/Li=20), only 47 wt% plasticizing solvent (ethylene carbonate (EC)/ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), 1/1 by wt) could be taken up and the ionic conductivity was only increased by one order of magnitude over the dry polyelectrolyte while for a less densely crosslinked system (EO/Li=80), up to 75 wt% plasticizer could be taken up and the ionic conductivity was increased by nearly two orders of magnitude. A Li/Li symmetric cell that was cycled at 85 C at a current density of 25{micro}Acm{sup -2} showed no concentration polarization or diffusional relaxation, consistent with a lithium ion transference number of one. However, both the bulk and interfacial impedances increased after 20 cycles, apparently due to continued cross-linking reactions within the membrane and on the surface of the lithium electrodes. A Li/V{sub 6}O{sub 13} full cell constructed using a single ion conductor gel (propylene

  1. Neutron detection methods based on fission fragment track counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posta, S.

    2004-12-01

    The report deals with the development and application of a simple computer-controlled videomicroscope for fission fragment track counting. The principle of the SSFTD (Solid State Fission Track Detector) method, development of image processing methods, and track counting principles are outlined. Focus is on the application of the method to neutron flux density and fluence determination in reactor dosimetry. The procedures developed were applied to neutron parameter measurements in a VVER-1000 mockup in the LR-0 research reactor. (author)

  2. New method to detect organic nanoparticles in live tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fixler, Dror; Yariv, Inbar

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, infiltrating materials into the human body has become a great challenge many researches are facing. In medicine and cosmetics today, there are materials which are administrated to patients by injection only. The main challenge with topical medication is penetrating the skin barrier. The skin is an effective barrier between the body and the outside environment, which prevents foreign materials entering the body easily. However, reducing the size of the desired materials might help their skin penetration ability. Recently nanoparticles (NPs) are being evaluated for use in many fields like chemistry, biology, medicine, physics and optics. The technique used in this work for forming organic NPs (ONPs) is the application of sonic waves to an aqueous solution, known as sonochemistry. To investigate the physical penetration depth of ONPs into the human body, we first developed a novel optical technique for detecting NPs within tissues. The detection of NPs is done by the extraction and investigation of the reemitted light phase.

  3. A Review of Imaging Methods for Prostate Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saradwata Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging is playing an increasingly important role in the detection of prostate cancer (PCa. This review summarizes the key imaging modalities–multiparametric ultrasound (US, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, MRI-US fusion imaging, and positron emission tomography (PET imaging–-used in the diagnosis and localization of PCa. Emphasis is laid on the biological and functional characteristics of tumors that rationalize the use of a specific imaging technique. Changes to anatomical architecture of tissue can be detected by anatomical grayscale US and T2-weighted MRI. Tumors are known to progress through angiogenesis–-a fact exploited by Doppler and contrast-enhanced US and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. The increased cellular density of tumors is targeted by elastography and diffusion-weighted MRI. PET imaging employs several different radionuclides to target the metabolic and cellular activities during tumor growth. Results from studies using these various imaging techniques are discussed and compared.

  4. Linear and kernel methods for multi- and hypervariate change detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Canty, Morton J.

    2010-01-01

    The iteratively re-weighted multivariate alteration detection (IR-MAD) algorithm may be used both for unsuper- vised change detection in multi- and hyperspectral remote sensing imagery as well as for automatic radiometric normalization of multi- or hypervariate multitemporal image sequences...... code exists which allows for fast data exploration and experimentation with smaller datasets. Computationally demanding kernelization of test data with training data and kernel image projections have been programmed to run on massively parallel CUDA-enabled graphics processors, when available, giving....... Principal component analysis (PCA) as well as maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) and minimum noise fraction (MNF) analyses of IR-MAD images, both linear and kernel-based (which are nonlinear), may further enhance change signals relative to no-change background. The kernel versions are based on a dual...

  5. Linear and kernel methods for multivariate change detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canty, Morton J.; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2012-01-01

    The iteratively reweighted multivariate alteration detection (IR-MAD) algorithm may be used both for unsupervised change detection in multi- and hyperspectral remote sensing imagery and for automatic radiometric normalization of multitemporal image sequences. Principal components analysis (PCA......), as well as maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) and minimum noise fraction (MNF) analyses of IR-MAD images, both linear and kernel-based (nonlinear), may further enhance change signals relative to no-change background. IDL (Interactive Data Language) implementations of IR-MAD, automatic radiometric...... normalization, and kernel PCA/MAF/MNF transformations are presented that function as transparent and fully integrated extensions of the ENVI remote sensing image analysis environment. The train/test approach to kernel PCA is evaluated against a Hebbian learning procedure. Matlab code is also available...

  6. chromswitch: A flexible method to detect chromatin state switches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessa, Selin; Kleinman, Claudia L

    2018-02-09

    Chromatin state plays a major role in controlling gene expression, and comparative analysis of ChIP-seq data is key to understanding epigenetic regulation. We present chromswitch, an R/Bioconductor package to integrate epigenomic data in a defined window of interest to detect an overall switch in chromatin state. Chromswitch accurately classifies a benchmarking dataset, and when applied genome-wide, the tool successfully detects chromatin changes that result in brain-specific expression. Chromswitch is implemented as an R package available from Bioconductor at https://bioconductor.org/packages/chromswitch. claudia.kleinman@mcgill.ca. Supplementary material are available online. All data and code for the analysis presented in this paper are available at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1101260.

  7. A Study of Rootkit Stealth Techniques and Associated Detection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    AVG AntiRootkit(Grisoft), Avira Rootkit Detection(Avira), Dark Spy(CardMagic and Wowocock), Helios( MIEL e-Security), HiddenFinder(Wenpoint...o m p le x it y a n d d if fi c u lt y t o c re a te /m o d if y Figure 4.2: Rootkit Hierarchy 53 4.3 Rootkit Defense Tree A defense tree is the

  8. 4. German conference on food irradiation. Assessment - methods - detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brockmann, A.; Erning, D.; Helle, N.; Schreiber, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    The fourth German Conference on Food Irradiation was held from 6th through 7th April 1994. Some seventy participants from the industry, scientific research, consumer organizations and supervising authorities discussed the pros and cons of the procedure and updated themselves on the latest governmental regulations, irradiation techniques, possibilities of detecting irradiated food and the results of official supervisory measures. The papers read at the meeting are summarized in this volume. (orig./vhe) [de

  9. Method of Detecting Coliform Bacteria and Escherichia Coli Bacteria from Reflected Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Robert (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of detecting coliform bacteria in water from reflected light and a method of detecting Eschericha Coli bacteria in water from reflected light, and also includes devices for the measurement, calculation and transmission of data relating to that method.

  10. An efficient and rapid method for protein detection with an example ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The CMW method has similar detection capabilities as the conventional CBB method. However, compared with the CBB protocol, it did not produce pungent odors, and was more efficient and rapid, which saved more than 4 to 10 h. This method is an acceptable alternative for the preliminary detection of protein expression.

  11. A Soft Shadow Detection Method Based on MRF for Remote Sensing Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengwei Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shadows limit many remote sensing applications such as classification, target detection, and change detection. Most current shadow detection methods utilize the histogram threshold of spectral characteristics to distinguish the shadows and nonshadows directly, called “hard binary shadow.” Obviously, the performance of threshold-based methods heavily rely on the selected threshold. Simultaneously, these threshold-based methods do not take any spatial information into account. To overcome these shortcomings, a soft shadow description method is developed by introducing the concept of opacity into shadow detection, and MRF-based shadow detection method is proposed in order to make use of neighborhood information. Experiments on remote sensing images have shown that the proposed method can obtain more accurate detection results.

  12. Objective Methods for Reliable Detection of Concealed Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia eSolomon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has shown that it is possible to automatically detect clinical depression from audio-visual recordings. Before considering integration in a clinical pathway, a key question that must be asked is whether such systems can be easily fooled. This work explores the potential of acoustic features to detect clinical depression in adults both when acting normally and when asked to conceal their depression. Nine adults diagnosed with mild to moderate depression as per the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 were asked a series of questions and to read a excerpt from a novel aloud under two different experimental conditions. In one, participants were asked to act naturally and in the other, to suppress anything that they felt would be indicative of their depression. Acoustic features were then extracted from this data and analysed using paired t-tests to determine any statistically significant differences between healthy and depressed participants. Most features that were found to be significantly different during normal behaviour remained so during concealed behaviour. In leave-one-subject-out automatic classification studies of the 9 depressed subjects and 8 matched healthy controls, an 88% classification accuracy and 89% sensitivity was achieved. Results remained relatively robust during concealed behaviour, with classifiers trained on only non-concealed data achieving 81% detection accuracy and 75% sensitivity when tested on concealed data. These results indicate there is good potential to build deception-proof automatic depression monitoring systems.

  13. Detecting anthropogenic climate change with an optimal fingerprint method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegerl, G.C.; Storch, H. von; Hasselmann, K.; Santer, B.D.; Jones, P.D.

    1994-01-01

    We propose a general fingerprint strategy to detect anthropogenic climate change and present application to near surface temperature trends. An expected time-space-variable pattern of anthropogenic climate change (the 'signal') is identified through application of an appropriate optimally matched space-time filter (the 'fingerprint') to the observations. The signal and the fingerprint are represented in a space with sufficient observed and simulated data. The signal pattern is derived from a model-generated prediction of anthropogenic climate change. Application of the fingerprint filter to the data yields a scalar detection variable. The statistically optimal fingerprint is obtained by weighting the model-predicted pattern towards low-noise directions. A combination of model output and observations is used to estimate the noise characteristics of the detection variable, arising from the natural variability of climate in the absence of external forcing. We test then the null hypothesis that the observed climate change is part of natural climate variability. We conclude that a statistically significant externally induced warming has been observed, with the caveat of a possibly inadequate estimate of the internal climate variability. In order to attribute this warming uniquely to anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing, more information on the climate's response to other forcing mechanisms (e.g. changes in solar radiation, volcanic or anthropogenic aerosols) and their interaction is needed. (orig./KW)

  14. A Comparison of Methods for Detecting Differential Distractor Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koon, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of the odds-ratio method (Penfield, 2008) and the multinomial logistic regression method (Kato, Moen, & Thurlow, 2009) for measuring differential distractor functioning (DDF) effects in comparison to the standardized distractor analysis approach (Schmitt & Bleistein, 1987). Students classified as participating…

  15. Gel Electrophoresis and Fluorescamine Methods for the Detection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For the fluorescamine method, clarification was achieved by isoelectric precipitation and precipitation with acid to obtain pH 4.6 and 6% TCA soluble extracts respectively. Non-clarified samples were used for gel electrophoresis. Both methods confirmed that raw milk and milk processed at 85/15s were the most proteolysed, ...

  16. Method of detecting and counting bacteria in body fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelle, E. W.; Picciolo, G. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A novel method is reported for determining bacterial levels in urine samples, which method depends on the quantitative determination of bacterial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the presence of non-bacterial ATP. After the removal of non-bacterial ATP, the bacterial ATP is released by cell rupture and is measured by an enzymatic bioluminescent assay using an enzyme obtained from the firefly.

  17. Immunological and molecular diagnostic methods for detection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The immuno-diagnostic and moleculardiagnostic methods have shown great potential as far as specificity and sensitivity are concerned and can generate accurate results rapidly. The aim of this overview is to discuss the various immunodiagnostic and molecular diagnostic methods such as enzymes linked immunosorbent ...

  18. A method for the detection of proteolytic enzymes in electropherograms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venrooij, W.J.W. van

    As has been described earlier, it is possible to localize amylase on agar electropherograms exactly and with great sensitivity with the help of a "sandwich method". This method is generally applicable to enzymes, the substrates of which can be differentiated from their degradation products by

  19. Comparative study on 4 quantitative detection methods of apoptosis induced by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yepeng; Chen Guanying; Zhou Mei; Shen Qinjian; Shen Lei; Zhu Yingbao

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To reveal the capability of 4 apoptosis-detecting methods to discriminate between apoptosis and necrosis and show their respective advantages and shortcomings through comparison of detected results and analysis of detection mechanism. Methods: Four methods, PI staining-flow cytometric detection (P-F method), TUNEL labeling-flow cytometric detection (T-F method), annexing V-FITC/PI vital staining-flow cytometric detection (A-F method) and Hoechst/PI vital staining-fluorescence microscopic observation (H-O method), were used to determine apoptosis and necrosis in human breast cancer MCF-7 cell line induced by γ-rays. Hydroxycamptothecine and sodium azide were used to induce positive controls of apoptosis and necrosis respectively. Results: All 4 methods showed good time-dependent and dose dependent respondence to apoptosis induced by γ-rays and hydroxycamptothecine. Apoptotic cell ratios and curve slopes obtained from P-F method were minimum and, on the contrary, those from T-F method were maximum among these 4 methods. With A-F method and H-O method, two sets of data, apoptosis and necrosis, could be gained respectively and the data gained from these two methods were close to equal. A-F method and H-O method could distinguish necrosis induced by sodium azide from apoptosis while P-F method and T-F method presented false increase of apoptosis. Conclusions: P-F method and T-F method can not discriminate between apoptosis and necrosis. P-F method is less sensitive but more simple, convenient and economical than T-F method. A-F method and H-O method can distinguish necrosis from apoptosis. A-F method is more costly but more quick and reliable than H-O method. H-O method is economical, practical and morphological changes of cells and nucleus can be observed simultaneously with it. (authors)

  20. Determination of detection limits for a VPD ICPMS method of analysis; Determination des limites de detection d'une methode d'analyse VPD ICPMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badard, M.; Veillerot, M

    2007-07-01

    This training course report presents the different methods of detection and quantifying of metallic impurities in semiconductors. One of the most precise technique is the collection of metal impurities by vapor phase decomposition (VPD) followed by their analysis by ICPMS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry). The study shows the importance of detection limits in the domain of chemical analysis and the way to determine them for the ICPMS analysis. The results found on detection limits are excellent. Even if the detection limits reached with ICPMS performed after manual or automatic VPD are much higher than detection limits of ICPMS alone, this method remains one of the most sensible for ultra-traces analysis. (J.S.)

  1. Improved method and apparatus for chromatographic quantitative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, J.S.; Gjerde, D.T.; Schmuckler, G.

    An improved apparatus and method are described for the quantitative analysis of a solution containing a plurality of anion species by ion exchange chromatography which utilizes a single element and a single ion exchange bed which does not require periodic regeneration. The solution containing the anions is added to an anion exchange resin bed which is a low capacity macroreticular polystyrene-divinylbenzene resin containing quarternary ammonium functional groups, and is eluted therefrom with a dilute solution of a low electrical conductance organic acid salt. As each anion species is eluted from the bed, it is quantitatively sensed by conventional detection means such as a conductivity cell.

  2. Rapid methods for the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens: principles, applications, advantages and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Jodi Woan-Fei; Ab Mutalib, Nurul-Syakima; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of foodborne diseases has increased over the years and resulted in major public health problem globally. Foodborne pathogens can be found in various foods and it is important to detect foodborne pathogens to provide safe food supply and to prevent foodborne diseases. The conventional methods used to detect foodborne pathogen are time consuming and laborious. Hence, a variety of methods have been developed for rapid detection of foodborne pathogens as it is required in many food analyses. Rapid detection methods can be categorized into nucleic acid-based, biosensor-based and immunological-based methods. This review emphasizes on the principles and application of recent rapid methods for the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens. Detection methods included are simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR), multiplex PCR, real-time PCR, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and oligonucleotide DNA microarray which classified as nucleic acid-based methods; optical, electrochemical and mass-based biosensors which classified as biosensor-based methods; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and lateral flow immunoassay which classified as immunological-based methods. In general, rapid detection methods are generally time-efficient, sensitive, specific and labor-saving. The developments of rapid detection methods are vital in prevention and treatment of foodborne diseases. PMID:25628612

  3. Rapid Methods for the Detection of Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens: Principles, Applications, Advantages and Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Law eJodi Woan-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of foodborne diseases has increased over the years and resulted in major public health problem globally. Foodborne pathogens can be found in various foods and it is important to detect foodborne pathogens to provide safe food supply and to prevent foodborne diseases. The conventional methods used to detect foodborne pathogen are time consuming and laborious. Hence, a variety of methods have been developed for rapid detection of foodborne pathogens as it is required in many food analyses. Rapid detection methods can be categorized into nucleic acid-based, biosensor-based and immunological-based methods. This review emphasizes on the principles and application of recent rapid methods for the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens. Detection methods included are simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR, multiplex PCR, real-time PCR, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP and oligonucleotide DNA microarray which classified as nucleic acid-based methods; optical, electrochemical and mass-based biosensors which classified as biosensor-based methods; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and lateral flow immunoassay which classified as immunological-based methods. In general, rapid detection methods are generally time-efficient, sensitive, specific and labor-saving. The developments of rapid detection methods are vital in prevention and treatment of foodborne diseases.

  4. Dynamic analysis methods for detecting anomalies in asynchronously interacting systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Akshat; Solis, John Hector; Matschke, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Detecting modifications to digital system designs, whether malicious or benign, is problematic due to the complexity of the systems being analyzed. Moreover, static analysis techniques and tools can only be used during the initial design and implementation phases to verify safety and liveness properties. It is computationally intractable to guarantee that any previously verified properties still hold after a system, or even a single component, has been produced by a third-party manufacturer. In this paper we explore new approaches for creating a robust system design by investigating highly-structured computational models that simplify verification and analysis. Our approach avoids the need to fully reconstruct the implemented system by incorporating a small verification component that dynamically detects for deviations from the design specification at run-time. The first approach encodes information extracted from the original system design algebraically into a verification component. During run-time this component randomly queries the implementation for trace information and verifies that no design-level properties have been violated. If any deviation is detected then a pre-specified fail-safe or notification behavior is triggered. Our second approach utilizes a partitioning methodology to view liveness and safety properties as a distributed decision task and the implementation as a proposed protocol that solves this task. Thus the problem of verifying safety and liveness properties is translated to that of verifying that the implementation solves the associated decision task. We develop upon results from distributed systems and algebraic topology to construct a learning mechanism for verifying safety and liveness properties from samples of run-time executions.

  5. Radionuclide methods and instrumentation for breast cancer detection and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surti, Suleman

    2013-07-01

    Breast cancer mammography is a well-acknowledged technique for patient screening due to its high sensitivity. However, in addition to its low specificity the sensitivity of mammography is limited when imaging patients with dense breasts. Radionuclide imaging techniques, such as coincidence photon-based positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography or scintimammography, can play a role in assisting screening of such patients. Radionuclide techniques can also be useful in assessing treatment response of patients with breast cancer to therapy, and staging of patients to diagnose the disease extent. However, the performance of these imaging modalities is generally limited because of the poor spatial resolution and sensitivity of the commercially available multipurpose imaging systems. Here, we describe some of the dedicated imaging systems (positron emission mammography [PEM] and breast-specific gamma imaging [BSGI]) that have been developed both commercially and in research laboratories for radionuclide imaging of breast cancer. Clinical studies with dedicated PEM scanners show improved sensitivity to detecting cancer in patients when using PEM in conjunction with additional imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging or mammography or both, as well as improved disease staging that can have an effect on surgical planning. High-resolution BSGI systems are more widely available commercially and several clinical studies have shown very high sensitivity and specificity in detecting cancer in high-risk patients. Further development of dedicated PEM and BSGI systems is ongoing, promising further expansion of radionuclide imaging techniques in the realm of breast cancer detection and treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Aflatoxin detection in whole corn kernels using hyperspectral methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, David; Chen, Xue-Wen

    2004-03-01

    Hyperspectral (HS) data for the inspection of whole corn kernels for aflatoxin is considered. The high-dimensionality of HS data requires feature extraction or selection for good classifier generalization. For fast and inexpensive data collection, only several features (λ responses) can be used. These are obtained by feature selection from the full HS response. A new high dimensionality branch and bound (HDBB) feature selection algorithm is used; it is found to be optimum, fast and very efficient. Initial results indicate that HS data is very promising for aflatoxin detection in whole kernel corn.

  7. Methods of Profile Cloning Detection in Online Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabielski Michał

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the arrival of online social networks, the importance of privacy on the Internet has increased dramatically. Thus, it is important to develop mechanisms that will prevent our hidden personal data from unauthorized access and use. In this paper an attempt was made to present a concept of profile cloning detection in Online Social Networks (OSN using Graph and Networks Theory. By analysing structural similarity of network and value of attributes of user personal profile, we will be able to search for attackers which steal our identity.

  8. Method for detecting cement voids or borehole washouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.P.

    1980-01-01

    This invention, rather than relying on a measure of the thermal neutron population, uses a measurement of the epithermal neutron population by means of two spaced neutron detectors longitudinally spaced from a neutron source with a relatively high intensity neutron flux. Special detectors discriminate against the detection of thermal neutrons. By comparing the compensated porosity measurement using the dual speed detectors with an uncompensated porosity measured by using only one detector the location of borehole washouts or cement voids can be found. Full details are given. (U.K.)

  9. Dark matter candidates and methods for detecting them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffelt, G. G.

    1992-01-01

    A number of experiments employing Ge and Si ionization detectors have excluded large regions in the plane of masses and scattering cross-sections for weakly-interacting dark matter (DM) candidates. It is judged that, before a realistic detection experiment for supersymmetric DM candidates can be conducted, significant development efforts will have to be completed for suitable cryogenic or ionization detectors. Pilot experiments have demonstrated the feasibility of axion searches with microwave cavities, but these are at least two orders of magnitude too low in sensitivity.

  10. Experiences with phytoplasma detection and identification by different methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fránová, Jana; Petrzik, Karel; Paprštein, F.; Kučerová, J.; Navrátil, M.; Válová, P.; Nebesářová, Jana; Jakešová, H.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2007), s. 247-248 ISSN 1721-8861 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500510558; GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS5051014; GA MZe(CZ) QH71145 Grant - others:MZe(CZ) QG60123 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513; CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : plant virology * phytoplasma detection Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.381, year: 2007

  11. Methods for detection of electromagnetic signals of lithospheric origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uvarov Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers physical conditions of generation and distribution of electromagnetic radiation of lithospheric origin and the peculiarities of registration based on them. Methods for measurements of seismoelectromagnetic activity, parameters and procedures, are suggested.

  12. Occupant Motion Sensors : Methods of Detection and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-07-01

    A STUDY HAS BEEN MADE OF METHODS FOR MEASURING OCCUPANT MOTION WITHIN A VEHICLE DURING CRASH OR IMPACT CONDITIONS. THE PURPOSE OF THE MEASUREMENTS IS TO EVALUATE RESTRAINT SYSTEMS, USING ANTHROPOMETRIC DUMMY, ANIMAL, OR HUMAN OCCUPANTS. A LIST OF GEN...

  13. Method of detecting construction faults in concrete pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, S.A.; Duhoux, M.; Dawance, G.; Carrie, C.; Morel, D.

    1976-01-01

    A major problem in the design and construction of concrete pressure vessels for nuclear power stations is the risk of excessive air leaks through the concrete itself, due to faulty construction. The 'sonic coring' method of non-destructive concrete testing has been used successfully in pile and diaphragm wall construction control for several years, and the potential use of this method to control the presence of faults in concrete pressure vessels is here described. (author)

  14. A Novel Fusion-Based Ship Detection Method from Pol-SAR Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenguang; Ji, Yu; Lin, Xiaoxia

    2015-09-29

    A novel fusion-based ship detection method from polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (Pol-SAR) images is proposed in this paper. After feature extraction and constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detection, the detection results of HH channel, diplane scattering by Pauli decomposition and helical factor by Barnes decomposition are fused together. The confirmed targets and potential target pixels can be obtained after the fusion process. Using the difference degree of the target, potential target pixels can be classified. The fusion-based ship detection method works accurately by utilizing three different features comprehensively. The result of applying the technique to measured Airborne Synthetic Radar (AIRSAR) data shows that the novel detection method can achieve better performance in both ship's detection and ship's shape preservation compared to the result of K-means clustering method and the Notch Filter method.

  15. A Novel Fusion-Based Ship Detection Method from Pol-SAR Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenguang Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel fusion-based ship detection method from polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (Pol-SAR images is proposed in this paper. After feature extraction and constant false alarm rate (CFAR detection, the detection results of HH channel, diplane scattering by Pauli decomposition and helical factor by Barnes decomposition are fused together. The confirmed targets and potential target pixels can be obtained after the fusion process. Using the difference degree of the target, potential target pixels can be classified. The fusion-based ship detection method works accurately by utilizing three different features comprehensively. The result of applying the technique to measured Airborne Synthetic Radar (AIRSAR data shows that the novel detection method can achieve better performance in both ship’s detection and ship’s shape preservation compared to the result of K-means clustering method and the Notch Filter method.

  16. An Alternative Method for Tilecal Signal Detection and Amplitude Estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Sotto-Maior Peralva, B; The ATLAS collaboration; Manhães de Andrade Filho, L; Manoel de Seixas, J

    2011-01-01

    The Barrel Hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS (Tilecal) is a detector used in the reconstruction of hadrons, jets, muons and missing transverse energy from the proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It comprises 10,000 channels in four readout partitions and each calorimeter cell is made of two readout channels for redundancy. The energy deposited by the particles produced in the collisions is read out by the several readout channels and its value is estimated by an optimal filtering algorithm, which reconstructs the amplitude and the time of the digitized signal pulse sampled every 25 ns. This work deals with signal detection and amplitude estimation for the Tilecal under low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions. It explores the applicability (at the cell level) of a Matched Filter (MF), which is known to be the optimal signal detector in terms of the SNR. Moreover, it investigates the impact of signal detection when summing both signals from the same cell before estimating the amplitude, ...

  17. Evaluation of different detection methods of biofilm formation in the clinical isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afreenish Hassan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microorganisms growing in a biofilm are associated with chronic and recurrent human infections and are highly resistant to antimicrobial agents. There are various methods to detect biofilm production like Tissue Culture Plate (TCP, Tube method (TM, Congo Red Agar method (CRA, bioluminescent assay, piezoelectric sensors, and fluorescent microscopic examination. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to compare three methods for the detection of biofilms. METHOD: The study was carried out at the Department of Microbiology, Army Medical College, National University of Sciences and Technology, Pakistan, from January 2010 to June 2010. A total of 110 clinical isolates were subjected to biofilm detection methods. Isolates were identified by standard microbiological procedures. Biofilm detection was tested by TCP, TM and CRA. Antibiotic susceptibility test of biofilm producing bacteria was performed by using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique according to CLSI guidelines. RESULTS: The TCP method was considered to be superior to TM and CRA. From the total of 110 clinical isolates, TCP method detected 22.7% as high, 41% moderate and 36.3% as weak or non-biofilm producers. We have observed higher antibiotic resistance in biofilm producing bacteria than non-biofilm producers. CONCLUSION: We can conclude from our study that the TCP method is a more quantitative and reliable method for the detection of biofilm forming microorganisms as compared to TM and CRA methods, and it can be recommended as a general screening method for detection of biofilm producing bacteria in laboratories.

  18. DETECTION OF BACTERIA IN FOODSTUFF BY MACHINE LEARNING METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Saenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with an actual problem of ensuring the control of foodstuff quality by means of machine learning methods. Existing analysis methods require special laboratory environment, significant time and depend on the qualification and some physiological characteristics of an expert while the suggested method gives the possibility to decrease significantly the costs due to automatization. The mobile analysis platform performing this method is based on the fluorescence microscopy. The problem of the object classification as either “bacterium” or “third-party artifact” was solved for the test data with some classification algorithms as support vector machine, random forest, decision tree C4.5, k-nearest neighbors, Bayes method. The analysis showed that the most effective algorithms are support vector machine and random forest. This research is performed on the Mechatronics Department of Saint Petersburg National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics and the Quality Assurance and Industrial Image Processing Department of Ilmenau University of Technology with the support of the program “Mikhail Lomonosov” of the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia and the German Academic Exchange Service.

  19. Can currently available non-animal methods detect pre and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predictive testing to identify and characterise substances for their skin sensitisation potential has historically been based on animal tests such as the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA). In recent years, regulations in the cosmetics and chemicals sectors has provided a strong impetus to develop and evaluate non-animal alternative methods. The AOP for skin sensitisation provides a framework to anchor non-animal test methods to key events in the pathway to help identify what tests can be combined together to generate the potency information required for risk assessment. The 3 test methods that have undergone extensive development and validation are the direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA), the KeratinoSensTM and the human Cell Line Activation Test (h-CLAT). Whilst these methods have been shown to perform relatively well in predicting LLNA results (accuracy ~ 80%), a particular concern that has been raised is their ability to predict chemicals that need to be activated to act as sensitisers (either abiotically on the skin (pre-hapten) or metabolically in the skin (pro-hapten)). The DPRA is a cell free system whereas the other two methods make use of cells that do not fully represent the in vivo metabolic situation. Based on previously published datasets of LLNA data, it has been found that approximately 25% of sensitisers are pre- and/or pro-haptens. This study reviewed an EURL ECVAM dataset of 127 substances for which information was available in the LLNA and the

  20. A Survey On Various Web Template Detection And Extraction Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neethu Mary Varghese

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In todays digital world reliance on the World Wide Web as a source of information is extensive. Users increasingly rely on web based search engines to provide accurate search results on a wide range of topics that interest them. The search engines in turn parse the vast repository of web pages searching for relevant information. However majority of web portals are designed using web templates which are designed to provide consistent look and feel to end users. The presence of these templates however can influence search results leading to inaccurate results being delivered to the users. Therefore to improve the accuracy and reliability of search results identification and removal of web templates from the actual content is essential. A wide range of approaches are commonly employed to achieve this and this paper focuses on the study of the various approaches of template detection and extraction that can be applied across homogenous as well as heterogeneous web pages.

  1. Detecting Violations of Unidimensionality by Order-Restricted Inference Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz eHeene

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The assumption of unidimensionality and quantitative measurement represents one of the key concepts underlying most of the commonly applied of item response models. The assumption of unidimensionality is frequently tested although most commonly applied methods have been shown having low power against violations of unidimensionality whereas the assumption of quantitative measurement remains in most of the cases only an (implicit assumption. On the basis of a simulation study it is shown that order restricted inference methods within a Markov Chain Monte Carlo framework can successfully be used to test both assumptions.

  2. A Template Matching Method of Wideband Sonar Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J Y; Zhong, X P; Feng, X Z [College of Mechatronics Engineering and Automation National University of Defense Technology ChangSha, HuNan (China)

    2006-10-15

    Advances in computer memory, computation speed, and transducer bandwidth have made possible higher Time-Bandwidth product (TB) transmit signals and will bring out higher resolutions. In this paper a new method is proposed to estimation Doppler velocity base on correlation analysis and mode matching in wideband condition instead of wideband matched filter. Paper use mode-matching principle to search appropriate scaled factor matrix. Simulation showing this method has well restrains noise capability and perfect calculation stability; the amount of compute can be decreased greatly by scaled factor matrix computed in advance.

  3. A Template Matching Method of Wideband Sonar Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J Y; Zhong, X P; Feng, X Z

    2006-01-01

    Advances in computer memory, computation speed, and transducer bandwidth have made possible higher Time-Bandwidth product (TB) transmit signals and will bring out higher resolutions. In this paper a new method is proposed to estimation Doppler velocity base on correlation analysis and mode matching in wideband condition instead of wideband matched filter. Paper use mode-matching principle to search appropriate scaled factor matrix. Simulation showing this method has well restrains noise capability and perfect calculation stability; the amount of compute can be decreased greatly by scaled factor matrix computed in advance

  4. Comparison of enclosed space detection system with conventional methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kercel, S.W.; Baylor, V.M.; Labaj, L.E.

    1997-01-01

    Enclosed Space Detection System (ESDS) is a fast, inexpensive, and reliable device for detecting human occupants hidden in vehicles. Operation requires less than two minutes. ESDS is used to foil attempts at smuggling illegal aliens, terrorists, and escaping prisoners. It is being tested at nuclear weapons facilities and has been operated at several prisons and international border crossings. ESDS is the first practical electronic alternative to physical searches of vehicles for hidden passengers. At critical checkpoints, a thorough physical search of a single fully loaded truck requires a team of from two to six people, and may take as long as eight hours. Despite this level of security, experience has shown that the search can occasionally be foiled. Due to the enormous time and expense of thorough physical searches of vehicles, they are seldom conducted at any but the most critical of locations, simply leaving many sites vulnerable to crime and terrorism. Prior to the development of the ESDS, the only other effective alternative to physical search was the use of specially-trained canines, which can be vastly superior to the physical search in both time and accuracy. However, as discussed in this paper, canine inspection is not really a competitive substitute for ESDS because canine reliability (80% at most) is not as high as that of the ESDS (99%+), while the costs, training requirements, and operator skill needed are significantly higher with canines than with the ESDS. In addition, the ESDS has straightforward self-diagnostic tests to ensure the system is operating correctly; such tests are not currently available with either canine or human inspectors. ESDS offers an attractive supplement or alternative to meet current security requirements for vehicle searches at portals at government, nuclear, industrial, and other facilities where concealed persons may pose a threat either by entering or leaving

  5. Comparison of enclosed space detection system with conventional methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kercel, S.W.; Baylor, V.M.; Labaj, L.E.

    1997-09-01

    Enclosed Space Detection System (ESDS) is a fast, inexpensive, and reliable device for detecting human occupants hidden in vehicles. Operation requires less than two minutes. ESDS is used to foil attempts at smuggling illegal aliens, terrorists, and escaping prisoners. It is being tested at nuclear weapons facilities and has been operated at several prisons and international border crossings. ESDS is the first practical electronic alternative to physical searches of vehicles for hidden passengers. At critical checkpoints, a thorough physical search of a single fully loaded truck requires a team of from two to six people, and may take as long as eight hours. Despite this level of security, experience has shown that the search can occasionally be foiled. Due to the enormous time and expense of thorough physical searches of vehicles, they are seldom conducted at any but the most critical of locations, simply leaving many sites vulnerable to crime and terrorism. Prior to the development of the ESDS, the only other effective alternative to physical search was the use of specially-trained canines, which can be vastly superior to the physical search in both time and accuracy. However, as discussed in this paper, canine inspection is not really a competitive substitute for ESDS because canine reliability (80% at most) is not as high as that of the ESDS (99%+), while the costs, training requirements, and operator skill needed are significantly higher with canines than with the ESDS. In addition, the ESDS has straightforward self-diagnostic tests to ensure the system is operating correctly; such tests are not currently available with either canine or human inspectors. ESDS offers an attractive supplement or alternative to meet current security requirements for vehicle searches at portals at government, nuclear, industrial, and other facilities where concealed persons may pose a threat either by entering or leaving.

  6. Methods for Detection of Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi on Raspberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Koprivica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi (Wilcox & Duncan, a causal agent of raspberry root rot, is a serious soil-borne pathogen listed by EPPO as an A2 quarantine pest. Root samples were collected from badly diseased raspberry plants showing a variety of characteristic and often dramatic symptoms during surveys carried out in western Serbia in 2002. Identification of the causal agent was performed in collaboration work with the Scottish Crop Research Institute (S.C.R.I., Dundee, UK. Necrotic roots were plated on selective French bean agar (incorporating ampicilin, ryfamicin, bavistin and hymexasol. Detection of isolates was based on cultural and morphological features compared with referent cultures. DNA was extracted directly from the sampled roots using extraction buffer (200 mM Tris- HCl pH 8.5, 250 mM NaCl, 25 mM EDTA, 0.5% SDS, purified by multi spin separation columns [Thistle Scientific (Axygen] or in 24:1 mixture of chlorophorm- iso-amyl alcohol and amplified by nested PCR (ITS4 and DC6 for first round, DC1and DC5 for second round. Diluted DNA extracts were also amplified by conventional PCR with modified ”universal” Phytophthora primers (ITS 6, ITS 7 and ITS 8, Cooke et al., 2000 and digested with Msp1. Digestion patterns of the universal primers PCR product from infected roots matched those of Scottish strains. P. fragariae var. rubi occured on 8 out of 14 sites. Our results indicate that nested PCR (ITS4 and DC6 for first round, DC1 and DC5 for second round or digestion of the ”universal” Phytophthora primers PCR product for detection of P. fragariae var. rubi are more sensitive and less time-consuming and therefore recommended for use.

  7. Method for detecting an open-switch fault in a grid-connected NPC inverter system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Ui-Min; Jeong, Hae-Gwang; Lee, Kyo-Beum

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a fault-detection method for an open-switch fault in the switches of grid-connected neutral-point-clamped inverter systems. The proposed method can not only detect the fault condition but also identify the location of the faulty switch. In the proposed method, which is designed...... by incorporating a simple switching control in the conventional method, the fault condition is detected on the basis of the radius of the Concordia current pattern, and the location of the faulty switch can be identified. By using the proposed method, it is possible to detect the open-switch fault and identify...... the faulty switch within two fundamental periods, without using additional sensors or performing complex calculations. Simulations and experiments are carried out to confirm the reliability of the proposed fault-detection method....

  8. The harmonics detection method based on neural network applied ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    with MATLAB Simulink Power System Toolbox. The simulation study results of this novel technique compared to other similar methods are found quite satisfactory by assuring good filtering characteristics and high system stability. Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), p-q theory, (SAPF), Harmonics, Total Harmonic ...

  9. Reliability of bedside blood glucose estimating methods in detecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hypoglycaemia occurs in many disease states common in the tropics. Facilities and skilled manpower required for laboratory blood glucose measurement are not always available in health facilities in developing countries. Objective: The study was carried out to determine the validity of bedside methods of ...

  10. Method and apparatus for detecting phycocyanin-pigmented algae and bacteria from reflected light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Robert (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of detecting phycocyanin algae or bacteria in water from reflected light, and also includes devices for the measurement, calculation and transmission of data relating to that method.

  11. Automatic detecting method of LED signal lamps on fascia based on color image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaoling; Hou, Wenguang; Ding, Mingyue

    2009-10-01

    Instrument display panel is one of the most important parts of automobiles. Automatic detection of LED signal lamps is critical to ensure the reliability of automobile systems. In this paper, an automatic detection method was developed which is composed of three parts in the automatic detection: the shape of LED lamps, the color of LED lamps, and defect spots inside the lamps. More than hundreds of fascias were detected with the automatic detection algorithm. The speed of the algorithm is quite fast and satisfied with the real-time request of the system. Further, the detection result was demonstrated to be stable and accurate.

  12. Microscopy outperformed in a comparison of five methods for detecting Trichomonas vaginalis in symptomatic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, B; Appiah, J; Saunders, P; Heron, D; Nichols, T; Brum, R; Alexander, S; Baraitser, P; Ison, C

    2015-03-01

    In the UK, despite its low sensitivity, wet mount microscopy is often the only method of detecting Trichomonas vaginalis infection. A study was conducted in symptomatic women to compare the performance of five methods for detecting T. vaginalis: an in-house polymerase chain reaction (PCR); Aptima T. vaginalis kit; OSOM ®Trichomonas Rapid Test; culture and microscopy. Symptomatic women underwent routine testing; microscopy and further swabs were taken for molecular testing, OSOM and culture. A true positive was defined as a sample that was positive for T. vaginalis by two or more different methods. Two hundred and forty-six women were recruited: 24 patients were positive for T. vaginalis by two or more different methods. Of these 24 patients, 21 patients were detected by real-time PCR (sensitivity 88%); 22 patients were detected by the Aptima T. vaginalis kit (sensitivity 92%); 22 patients were detected by OSOM (sensitivity 92%); nine were detected by wet mount microscopy (sensitivity 38%); and 21 were detected by culture (sensitivity 88%). Two patients were positive by just one method and were not considered true positives. All the other detection methods had a sensitivity to detect T. vaginalis that was significantly greater than wet mount microscopy, highlighting the number of cases that are routinely missed even in symptomatic women if microscopy is the only diagnostic method available. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  13. Method and apparatus for continuous fluid leak monitoring and detection in analytical instruments and instrument systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, Karl K [Pasco, WA; Moore, Ronald J [West Richland, WA

    2010-07-13

    A method and device are disclosed that provide for detection of fluid leaks in analytical instruments and instrument systems. The leak detection device includes a collection tube, a fluid absorbing material, and a circuit that electrically couples to an indicator device. When assembled, the leak detection device detects and monitors for fluid leaks, providing a preselected response in conjunction with the indicator device when contacted by a fluid.

  14. Mobile/android application for QRS detection using zero cross method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizqyawan, M. I.; Simbolon, A. I.; Suhendra, M. A.; Amri, M. F.; Kusumandari, D. E.

    2018-03-01

    In automatic ECG signal processing, one of the main topics of research is QRS complex detection. Detecting correct QRS complex or R peak is important since it is used to measure several other ECG metrics. One of the robust methods for QRS detection is Zero Cross method. This method uses an addition of high-frequency signal and zero crossing count to detect QRS complex which has a low-frequency oscillation. This paper presents an application of QRS detection using Zero Cross algorithm in the Android-based system. The performance of the algorithm in the mobile environment is measured. The result shows that this method is suitable for real-time QRS detection in a mobile application.

  15. Damage detection methods in bridges through vibration monitoring : evaluation and application

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada, Rolando Salgado

    2008-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento In this thesis, a detailed analysis of the most important vibration-based damage detection methods applied to bridge structures is addressed. Special attention is focused on those methods capable to detect damage only with information provided from a damage stage of the structure. For that purpose, methods based on wavelet analysis, curvature of the mode shapes and changes in the flexibility and stiffness matrices of the structure methods are selected...

  16. Evaluation of harmonic detection methods for active power filter applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asiminoaei, Lucian; Blaabjerg, Frede; Hansen, Steffan

    2005-01-01

    In the attempt to minimize the harmonic disturbances created by the non-linear loads the choice of the active power filters comes out to improve the filtering efficiency and to solve many issues existing with classical passive filters. One of the key points for a proper implementation of an active...... filter is to use a good method for current/voltage reference generation. There exist many implementations supported by different theories (either in time- or frequency-domain), which continuously debate their performances proposing ever better solutions. This paper gives a survey of the common used...... theories. Then, the work here proposes a simulation setup that decouples the harmonic reference generator from the active filter model and its controller. In this way the selected methods can be equally analyzed and compared with respect to their performance, which helps anticipating possible...

  17. Fault Detection and Localization Method for Modular Multilevel Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Fujin; Chen, Zhe; Khan, Mohammad Rezwan

    2015-01-01

    The modular multilevel converter (MMC) is attractive for medium- or high-power applications because of the advantages of its high modularity, availability, and high power quality. However, reliability is one of the most important issues for MMCs those are made of large number of power electronic...... prototype controlled by a real-time digital signal controller in the laboratory. The results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method....

  18. Methods of Fire Debris Preparation for Detection of Accelerants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caddy, B; Smith, F P; Macy, J

    1991-06-01

    Forensic scientists use various techniques to separate accelerants from fire debris samples before instrumental identification of added fuels. Among the choices available, traditional micro-distillation, steam distillation, vacuum distillation, headspace, heated headspace, and several vapor adsorption/desorption methods provide various advantages and disadvantages. This communication reviews the development of these techniques from the 1950s and comparison studies performed. Copyright © 1991 Central Police University.

  19. Nucleotide sequence composition and method for detection of neisseria gonorrhoeae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, A.; Yang, H.L.

    1990-02-13

    This patent describes a composition of matter that is specific for {ital Neisseria gonorrhoeae}. It comprises: at least one nucleotide sequence for which the ratio of the amount of the sequence which hybridizes to chromosomal DNA of {ital Neisseria gonorrhoeae} to the amount of the sequence which hybridizes to chromosomal DNA of {ital Neisseria meningitidis} is greater than about five. The ratio being obtained by a method described.

  20. Analytical Method and Detection Limit Studies for Detection of GB in GB Hydrolysate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    8217 names in this report does not constitute an official endorsement of any commercial products . This report may not be cited for purposes of advertisement...performed at pH 8 and room temperature with a J 50:2 hydrolysate:solvent ratio. Extraction recoveries are listed in Table 13. Hexane and isooctane were...22 Solvent Extraction Efficiency Chloroform 50% Methylene Chloride 49 % Hexane 5 % Isooctane None detected Previous studies have indicated that GB